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Vera Effigies. Roberti Iohnson

Praxis Medicinae Reformata: OR, THE Practice of Physick REFORMED. BEING AN Epitome of the whole Art: Wherein is briefly shewed, The true Causes, Signs, Prognosticks, and Cure, of most Diseases.

Published for the Benefit of all Persons.

By Robert Johnson, Med. Professor.

Medicina Experientiâ & Ratione fun­dari debet.

LONDON: Printed for Brabazon Aylmer, at the Three Pigeons, in Cornhil. 1700.

TO THE READER.

IN this little Tract, I have bestowed some Pains, in searching out, and proposing the true Causes and Cure of Diseases: Which, I hope, will in­duce other Ingenious-spirited Artists to a farther Enquiry, that so the Art of Physick may be the better illustrated, and many things in it that are yet ob­scure, may be made known.

The Chief End of Physick, is to maintain and recover Health; where­fore I think it would be more for the Honour of all Learned Physicians, to employ themselves in the Improvement of the Materia Medica, (which have been hitherto too much neglected) than to content themselves with a formal Way of Practice: For Diseases can­not be cured by Scholastick Twattle, or Fine Words, but by good Remedies.

[Page] The great Platerus, Helmont, and the famous Franciscus de la Boe Sylvius, &c. did endeavour to re­form the Practice of Physick, and ex­celled many others (their Contempora­ries) in the most difficult Cures; yet because they had recourse to Chymical Remedies, in the Cure of many Disea­ses, the more lazy Tribe of Physicians made it their Business to traduce them.

Truly there are too many such car­ping Zolius's at this Day (who envy Glory to all, except themselves) from whom I must expect the same Fate: I can do no more but pray for them; Lord, forgive them; for they know not what they do.

THE INTRODUCTION: Containing the CAUSES and CURE OF DISEASES In GENERAL: AS ALSO, Some Choice SPECIFICKS for the Cure of DISEASES.

THE Causes of Diseases depend on Lympha any way vitiated, be­cause it will (in time) corrupt the whole Mass of Blood.

Quicquid enim, sive Bilis sit, sive Pitui­ta, sive succus Pancreaticus, sanguisve men­struus, Lympham reddere potens acriorem, dolorem & morbos facile causat, parte affecta male sese habente.

[Page ii] This is the Hypothesis of most eminent Physicians, both Ancient and Modern.

Spittle being continually swallowed down, and adhering to the Gut, the more fluid part of it is dissolved by the continual Conflux of Choler, and the Juice of the Pancreas, or Sweet-bread, in the small Guts.

If Choler (which abounds with a bit­ter volatile Lixivial Salt) be mixt with the Juice of the Pancreas, which is naturally sourish, (as hath been sufficiently evinced by the indefatigable Industry of the most ingenious Anatomist, Regnerus de Graaf) they must of necessity stir up an Efferve­scency in their Concourse there. As long as the aforesaid Humours are well temper­ed, the Effervescency will be mild, and friendly to Nature, and therefore cannot be perceived in healthy People.

The Humours rising from this mild Ef­fervescency, pierceth into the Lacteal Veins, and circulates with the Lympha to the Heart, and seems to give the natural Con­sistency to the Bloud.

The more viscous part of these Humors, passeth by degrees to the thick Guts; and being there mixed with the Excrements, makes them more viscous and yellow, and helps the Excretion of them.

[Page iii] But if there be an Obstruction of the La­cteal Ducts, or Branches of the Panereas, or Sweet-bread, by reason of viscous Flegm, which being separated from the Bloud by the Glandules of the Pancreas, is there collected by degrees; it is sent from thence (in too large a quantity) to the main Duct, or Pipe thereof, which de­taineth the Juice of the Pancreas contrary to Nature, which ought continually to flow into the small Guts.

The Juice of the Pancreas being compel­led to stagnate, or stand still in its passage, quickly grows acrimonious, because the volatile Spirit (which is naturally conjoin'd to it to temper it) doth gradually fly away, by which it becometh more acrid, and ac­quires a putrefactive Ferment, whence at length it makes way through the obstruct­ing Flegm, and is effused into the small Gut, called Duodenum; where meeting with Choler (peccant, in a Lixivial Salt Acrimony) it stirs up a vitious Efferve­scency, or preternatural Ferment, which raiseth acrimonious Humors, and halituous or flatulent Vapours, which are carried through the Lacteal Veins, and Thoracick Passage, and so through the Vena Cava, a­scendens to the right Ventricle of the Heart; from whence it circulates with the spirituous Blood and Lympha, vitiating, [Page iv] and corrupting the whole Mass of it with its fermental Acrimony: Which is the Cause of most Chronical Diseases, as the famous Franciscus de le Boe Sylvius, hath accurately observed.

If the acrid Humours do affect the Head, it may cause most Distempers incident to it, as Head-ach, Convulsions, Epilepsie, Palsie, Apoplexy, &c.

If it invades the Lungs, it causeth Diffi­culty of Breathing, Inflamations, Ulcers, and Phthisis, or Consumption.

If it penetrates the Membrane Pleura, it causeth the Pleurisie.

If it possesseth the Joints, it causeth Ar­thritick Pains, or the Gout; which hath its Name from the Part affected.

If there be a Defluxion of acrid Humors on the Reins, Bladder, or Womb, it may cause Inflammations, Ulcers, or Cancers in them.

If it be conveyed to the obscene Parts, (especially after too much impure Coition) it may cause malign Eruptions, &c.

If the Lympha becomes very acrid in the conglobated, and conglomerated Glan­dules, and if Nature be over-burthened by its plentifulness, it may be the Cause of Catarrhs, Rheumatisms, Scrophula, &c.

If acrid Humors be luxuriant in the Blood, and Lympha, it may be the [Page v] Cause of all Eruptions, as Itch, Scabs, Eri­sipela's, Leprosie, &c.

Acrimonious and flatulent Vapours, may be the Cause of all Ague-Fits, with all their Symptoms, as in the beginning, Hor­ror, Chilness, Cold, Shaking, &c. then follows Reaching, Yawning, and Vomit­ing, &c.

At length these sharp halituous Vapors are carried to the right Ventricle of the Heart, and by their Acrimony alters and troubles its Vital Effervescency; and by over-stirring the Heart, causeth a more frequent Pulse, and many times pro­duceth grievous Symptoms, as great Heat and Thirst, Difficulty of Breathing, Ra­ving, Heart-ach, Swooning, and all other Symptoms that happen in all Intermitting Fevers.

If Choler become peccant, not only in a Lixivial salt Acrimony, but also an in­flamable Oyliness; the Humours (that are produced from its vitious Effervescency, with the too tart Pancreat Juice, and over­viscous Flegm in the small Guts) will be the more acrid and fervid; and circulating (with the spirituous Blood and Lympha) to the Heart, will cause an Effervescency in the right Ventricle of it, which will stimulate and incite it to a more forcible Motion, whence the Pulse is continually [Page vi] produced more frequent against Nature; after which follows great Heat and Burn­ing, &c. and therefore may be called a Fe­ver; so that this may be the Cause of all continual Fevers not putrid.

If the Stomach by Dietetick Errors, as in Eating, or Drinking too much sour Fruit, or Juices, be over-charg'd with A­cids, it may prove hostile, injurious, and a morbisick Cause of that which we call the Heart-burning, &c. with sour Belch­ings, and sometimes a Nauseousness even to Vomiting.

In this Case, after the Operation of a gentle Emetick, you may administer half a Dram of the Pouder of Pearl Crabs-Eyes, or any of the Testaceous Pouders, (twice or thrice in a Day) to absorb the peccant Acidity; Chalybeates may be also safely administred.

Likewise in all Chronical Diseases, cau­sed by the over-sourness of the Juice of the Pancreas, &c. as aforesaid; after general Evacuations, the finest Filings of Iron turn'd to Rust, may be given to half a Dram at a time, in a stued Prune, or any other Vehicle, twice in a Day; because the Sto­mach by its incisive Acidity, (together with other accidental, or concomitant A­cids) doth penetrate the Particles of the Iron, and rarifie its Vitriolick Salt, which [Page vii] will not only help Digestion, but kill Worms, and circulates with the Blood and Lympha, and will in time purifie the whole Mass of it.

But if Choler be peccant as aforesaid, causing Fevers, and other Acute Diseases; then after Evacuation, by Vomiting, or Purging, I commend acid Liquors, and Juices, as Lemons, &c. Also purified Niter may be given in all Fevers.

But here we may note, That it is the Na­ture of all Acids, to coagulate and thic­ken the Blood and its Serum; wherefore we must be cautious, that we do not let Blood, nor give too many. Acids in the Small-Pox, and malignant Fevers, because in these Distempers, the Blood is preterna­turally viscid, and therefore it abounds with too much Acidity; of which you may read more at large in the ensuing Treatise.

I come now to mention some choice Specificks for the Cure of Diseases, for the Sake and Benefit of the Poor, who have not Money to pay a Doctor for his long Receipts, nor the Apothecary for Medicines.

SAlt Niter purified, is an efficacious Me­dicine in the Cure of most Diseases; it may be poudred with an equal Quantity of white Sugar, and given to half a Dram at a time every six Hours, in all Fevers, the whole time of Sickness, and also before and after; because it is an acid Salt, and contains in it a volatile incorruptible Sul­phur; and by reason of its Acidity, it re­frigerates the inflamed Blood, and power­fully checks the preternatural Fermentati­on of it, and preserves its natural Consi­stency: For (by the subtilty of its Spirit) it insinuates it self into the whole Mass of Bloud, and penetrates into all Parts, and so strengthens and recreates the Heart, as to make it resist and overcome all Putrefa­ction, and therefore it is a great Antidote against the Plague, and all contagious Fe­vers.

If it be dissolved in any liquid Vehicle, and drank a little often, it will dilute. the Lixivial Salt of Choler, and being mixed with proper Catharticks, and Balsamick [Page ix] Medicines, it will conduce much to the Cure of most Chronical Distempers also; for it discusseth Wind, opens all Obstru­ctions, and causes the vitious Humours to precipitate, and to be evacuated both by Urine and Stool.

Quicksilver boil'd in Water, with a few Raisons of the Sun to sweeteen it, and the Liquor drank freely, killeth Worms. The Quicksilver may be boiled a thousand times, and always have the same weight; so that the Water partakes of Mercurial Ir­radiation, by which it becomes destructive to Worms.

A strong Decoction of Ground-Ivy, or Alehoof, sweetned with Sugar-Candy, and a quarter of a Pint of it taken twice or thrice in a Day, helps Distempers of the Breast and Lungs; and a strong Infusion of it in Aqua Vitae, or Brandy, cureth the Co­lick.

The Decoction of Herb-Robert, and Patronichia, or Whitlow-Grass, with Leaves like Rue, (given inwardly every Day, 'till the Mass of Blood, and Juices of the Body be impregnated with the Vertues of the Herbs) cureth the King's-Evil.

The Juice of Penny-royal clarified; and a little sweetned with Sugar-Candy, and given the quantity of a Spoonful, three or Four times in a Day, cureth all sorts of Coughs.

[Page x] Cows and Goats-milk boiled in an equal quantity of Water, (wherein unslak'd Lime hath been quenched, and a little Cinamon, and the young Bark of the Oak bruised and boiled in it, 'till a third part be consumed) cureth all kinds of Fluxes.

Glauber's Sal Mirabile, is an excellent Lenitive Cathartick: It may be safely gi­ven to Men, Women, or Children, in all Diseases where purging is necessary.

The Dose is from half a Dram to an Ounce, dissolved in warm Whey, or Milk and Water.

A few Drops of rectified Oyl of Vitriol, mixed with a quarter of a Pint of fair Wa­ter, to a light Acidity, a little sweetned with white Sugar, and drank every Day for some time, killeth Worms, and quencheth Thirst in Fevers.

If you mix an Ounce of rectified Oyl of Vitriol, with two Ounces of Oyl of Ben, or pure Oyl of Olives, stirring it 'till it be well incorporated, you have a good Bal­sam to ease Pain, and cure an Inflammation in any part, by anointing once in a Day or two, you may apply a Colwort-leaf, (or a Plaister of Diachilon, or a Poultis of White-Bread and Milk, with a little Butter in it) to the grieved part, after anointing; but you must have a care that it does not touch your Linnen.

[Page xi] A strong Tincture of Catechu, or Japonian Earth, (with half its weight of Jesuits Bark, both in fine Pouder) in small Cinamon-Water, cureth Catarrhs, and all sorts of Fluxes.

Take a quarter of a Spoonful thrice a Day, in any Vehicle.

Sweating is good in most Diseases, if Strength permits.

Virginia Snake-Root, and the Root of Contra Yerva, bruised and boiled in fair Water, and sweetned with a little Sugar; and given a quarter of a Pint every four Hours, to any that are bitten with an en­raged Viper, soon cureth the Patient, espe­cially if you bathe the part bitten with the same Decoction, (without Sugar) so hot as can be endured.

Gambogia finely poudred, and mixed with an equal quantity of pure Niter, and given to half a Dram at a time, twice or thrice in a Week, soon cureth the Yellow-Jaundice, and Dropsies.

The best Gum Arabick, given at least a Dram, twice or thrice in a Day, either in Pouder, or dissolved in small Ale, or any other convenient Vehicle, doth wonder­fully mitigate the Sharpness of Urine.

A strong Decoction of woody Night­shade, a little sweetned with Sugar, and given to a quarter of a Pint every Morn­ing, [Page xii] will purge gently, and open all Ob­structions, and cure the Yellow-Jaundice, Dropsies, &c.

The Decoction of Hearts-Ease, sweet­ned with Sugar-Candy, cureth the Pleuri­sie, and other Inflammations. It is an ex­cellent Antivenerian, &c. and therefore it may be a chief Ingredient in Decoctions to cure the French-Pox.

A Decoction of Groundsel is an univer­sal Medicine for all Diseases coming of Heat: It purgeth gently; and if the Sto­mach be nauseous, it may cause Vomiting: It is very safe, and may be given in all Di­stempers, where Purging is necessary.

The fresh Herb, boiled in Milk 'till it be tender, and then strained out, and the Herb bruised and boiled in the same Milk, with Crumbs of White-Bread, or fine Oat­meal, into the Consistence of a Poultis, and a litle Oyl, or Hog's-fat put to it, and ap­plied to any Inflamation, or Swelling, it will soon give Ease, and either dissolve the Tumor, or bring it to Suppuration.

Native Cinnaber, finely powdred and washed, (from its volatile malignant Salt) often in warm Water, and rectified Spirit of Wine burnt over it two or three times, doth Wonders in curing most Chronical Diseases. The Dose is from ten Grains to twenty, in any Vehicle.

[Page xiii] Missleto dried, and finely poudred with double its weight of white Sugar, and a few Drops of Oyl of Amber mixed with it; half a Dram of this Pouder given twice or thrice in a Day, cureth Convulsions, and the Epilepsie.

Crude Antimony flux'd (at least an Hour) with decrepitated Sea Salt, in a strong Fire, and afterwards washed from the Salt in warm Water, is friendly to Nature, and cureth Fevers. The Dose is from five Grains to ten, in any Vehicle.

The Jesuit's Bark finely poudred, and given from half a Dram to two Drams, or more at a time, infused in Wine, and drank at the going off of the Fit, and afterwards every four Hours, is such a Specifick for the curing of all Intermitting Fevers, or Agues, that it seldom fails, especially if the Patient be well purged before he take it.

You must continue the use of it for at least ten Days, that the Particles of the Pouder may be continually conveyed into the Bloud, by which the Febritick Fer­ment may be destroyed.

Give the Sick a little Broth of Mutton, or Chicken, with a few Crumbs of White-Bread, (or any other Food easie of Dige­stion) within half an Hour after the ta­king of each Dose, which will mix with the Chile, and the Bloud will be impregna­ted [Page xiv] with the Vertue of it. It also cureth all kinds of Fluxes.

Three or four Drops of the Juice of Ivy, or of Asarabacca clarified, and dropt into each Ear warm, every other Night, (and the Ear gently stopt afterwards with Cot­ton, or Wool) will soon cure Deafness; snuff up the Juices into each Nostril also, to purge the Head.

Two Grains of each of the aforesaid Herbs dried, and finely poudred, and snuf­fed up each Nostril, at Night going to Bed, twice in a Week, will purge the Head of Rheum, and cure an inveterate Head-ach, Tooth-ach, and Inflammation of the Eyes, &c.

The Syrup of the Juice of Buckthorn-Berries, or of wild Cucumbers, taken an Ounce at a time, with two Drams of pure Nitre, dissolved in Ale or Whey, twice or thrice in a Week, cureth the Dropsie.

The Pouder of Olibanum, or Mastick, or equal parts of both, mixed with old Conserves of Roses, and taken the quan­tity of a Nutmeg, twice or thrice in a Day, cureth a Catarrh, especially if you blow some of the Pouder into the Throat every Night going to Bed, to strengthen the Sa­lival Glands.

Lapis Haematites, or the Bloud-stone, being applied to the bleeding part, will stop the Hemorrhage.

[Page xv] It is likewise an excellent Medicine ta­ken inwardly, being repleted with the Pri­mum ens Auri; from which (being finely poudred) may be drawn a Gold-like Tin­cture, with a strong Aqua Regis, made of the rectified Spirit of Nitre, and Sal Armo­niack; to which you may add four times the quantity of rectified Spirit of Wine.

Take twenty Drops of it in a Glass of Ale or Wine, two or three times in a Day: It cureth most Chronical Diseases.

The true Lapis Nephriticus, cureth the Stone, being prepared and taken after the same manner.

Ens Veneris is good to cure the Rickets; three or four Grains of it may be given to a Child twice a Day, in any Vehicle.

Half a Dram of the fine Pouder of Gum of Guiacum, mixed with an equal quanti­ty of factitious Cinnaber in fine Pouder, gi­ven every other Morning, (in a Spoonful of Milk or Whey) for thirty or forty days, cureth the Venereal Pox, and most other Chronical Diseases.

Oyl of Walnuts, or Linseed-Oyl, (by expression) (either exhibited inwardly, or given in Clysters to four Ounces at a time) giveth Ease in the Stone and Collick, &c.

[Page xvi] A Dram of Oyl of Amber unrectified, (mixed with an Ounce of Populion) cu­reth the Piles.

Purified Honey is a universal Balsam: It cureth Sore-Eyes, being spread on a fine Rag, and applied; mix it with Gar­garisms for sore Mouths, and with Injecti­ons for hollow Ulcers, &c.

The gross Pouder of Mastick is excellent (to smoke in a Pipe) for a Defluxion of Rheum on the Lungs, &c.

Saccharum Saturni, (dissolved in Water) mortifies sharp Humors in the Eyes, and all other Inflammations; it is a great Anodine, cures Burnings, and Scaldings in a short time, stops Bleeding, and prevents Acci­dents in Amputations, for it resisteth Pu­trefaction.

If you give half a Dram of it twice a day, in any Vehicle, it will soon quench the Flame of Lust.

Half an Ounce of burnt Alum, mixed with two Ounces of White-wine-Vinegar, cureth an Inflammation in any part, being spread on a Rag, and applied.

Sulphur of Copper, or Vitriol (called Sulphur of Venus) is an incomparable A­nodine, far exceeding any Opiate.

Roman Vitriol calcin'd to redness, stop­peth all Fluxes of Blood in a moment, and cures Wounds by the first intention.

[Page xvii] You may dissolve half a Dram of it in three or four Spoonfuls of warm Water, and dip a Pledget of Lint in it, and apply it to the Wound, keeping the Lips of it close: But if the Wound be deep, it must be injected with a Syringe.

Any other Vitriol is of the same Virtue; but not so potent.

Half an Ounce of Quicksilver, mixed with an Ounce of Pomatum, (spread on a long Linnen Rag, two Inches broad, and covered with another Linnen Rag for a Girdle) worn for some time, cureth the Itch.

But you must purge once or twice in a Week, to prevent Salivation.

The small Bone in a black Snail's-head, used as an Amulet, to hang about the Neck; and Rings made of an Elk's-hoof, or of the Teeth of a true Sea-Horse, and worn continually, are all of the same Vir­tue, and cureth the Cramp.

The Hand of a dead Man or Woman, being laid upon a Scrophulous Tumor, and there kept 'till the Patient do feel the Coldness of it penetrate to the innermost parts of the Swelling, it will dispel and cure it by often doing.

It likewise cureth a Dropsie of the Belly.

[Page xviii] The Roots of Contra yerva, or Counter­paison, Virginia Snake-root, and Zedoary, all, or either of them, is good against the Plague, and all contagious Fevers, any way used.

Here followeth some Receipts of choice Medi­cines, which I use in my own Practice.

Pulvis Balsamicus noster, Our Balsamick Pouder.

TAke of Sarsaparilla grosly poudred four Ounces; let it be infused in two Quarts of rectified Spirit of Wine, for two or three Days, then press it out very hard, and add the same quantity of Sar­saparilla as before; do this for eight or ten times, the ostner the better; add to the Spirit, of the best Gum of Guiacum, in fine Pouder half a Pound; the Balsam of Peru and Tolu, of each two Cunces, mix them all together in a Glass Resort, lute a Receiver to it, and digest it for ten days, then draw off all the Spirit with a gentle heat in Balneo Mariae when it is cold, break the Retort, and take out the Pouder, and keep it for use.

[Page xix] It is an efficacious Medicine against the Rheumatism, Gout, Venereal Pox, and all Chronical Diseases.

The Dose is half a Dram in a Spoonful of Whey or Milk, or any other Vehicle, every Morning fasting; or mix it with an equal quantity of factitious Cinnaber in fine Pouder, and give it every Morning and Evening for some time.

Electuarium Antiscorbuticum nostrum, Our Electuary against the Scurvy, &c.

Take of the Berries of Bays, Ivy and Ju­niper, of each four Ounces; the Seeds of Dwarf-Elder, Burdock, Ash, Broom, Peo­ny, Gromwel, the Bark of Elder, of each two Ounces.

Let them be all bruised, and boiled in the Juices of Elder-Berries, and wild Cu­cumbers, of each one Pound; the Juice of Buckthorn-Berries, four Pound, 'till half of it be boiled away; then press it out very hard, and boil it to the Consi­stence of a Pulp; to every Pound of it, add an equal quantity of white Sugar, and boil it again, 'till it be almost as thick as an Electuary; then dissolve in it (whilst it is very hot) the same weight of pure Nitre, as there is of Sugar.

[Page xx] To every Pound of the Electuary, add four Ounces of Balm of Gilead, two Oun­ces of our Balsamick Pouder before men­tion'd, one Ounce of factitious Cinnaber, in fine Pouder; and two Drams of Oyl of Juniper; mix all together, according to Art.

It is an excellent Cathartick in all Di­seases which requires Purging, for it po­tently evacuates all vitious Humours pro­miscuously out of the Body; it cureth the King's-Evil, Rheumatism, Gout, Dropsie, Scurvy, dry Belly-ach, and all curable Diseases.

The Dose is from two Drams to an Ounce. It may be given in the form of a Bolus, or dissolved in Ale, Whey, or any other liquid Vehicle, and taken in the Mor­ning fasting.

Sal Chalybis noster, Our Salt of Steel, or Iron.

Take the finest Filings of Iron, or Steel, rectified Oyl of Vitriol, of each one Pound, mix them together in a large Earthen-Pan, well glazed; let it stand for two or three Hours, then pour into it two or three Quarts of fair Water, and it will presently effervesce, and the Salt will stick about the Pan; take it out, and keep it for use.

Tinctura Chalybis, The Tincture of Iron, or Steel.

Take the finest Filings of Iron, or Steel, four Ounces; rectified Spirit of Nitre half a Pound; mix them together in an Ear­then-Pan, well glazed, when the Efferve­scency is over, let it cool, and add to it Spirit of Wine rectified, five Pound, mix it well together, then filter it through brown Paper, and keep it for use.

Both of these Medicines are great Aperi­tives, opens all Obstructions, cures the Rickets, Green-sickness, Stoppage of the Terms, Yellow-Jaundice, &c. they streng­then the Stomach, kills Worms, and puri­fies the whole Mass of Blood.

You may give from half a Scruple, to half a Dram of the Salt, in any Vehicle, every Morning.

The Tincture may be taken from ten to forty Drops at a time, in Beer, Ale, or Wine.

Aqua Styptica nostra, Our Stiptick Water.

Take of pure white Vitriol, Roch-Alum, of each four Ounces, let them be poudred, and calcined in a Crucible, 'till it be red-hot, then quench it with Wine-Vinegar, and calcine it again.

[Page xxii] Take it out of the Crucible, and dissolve it in a Gallon of Spring-water; add to it two Ounces of Saccharum Saturni; then strain it, and keep it for use.

It cures the Itch, and all other Eruptions, the grieved Parts being wash'd with it three or four times in a day. It likewise cureth hollow Ulcers, and Fistula's, the Gonor­rhaea in Men, and the Whites in Women.

You may inject it with a Syringe warm, twice in a day.

AN INDEX OF THE CHAPTERS, Comprehending all the Diseases of this BOOK.

The Contents of the First Book.
  • Chap. Page
  • I. OF the Head-ach. 1
  • II. Of the Palsie, and Apoplexy. 13
  • III. Of Convulsions, and the Epilepsie. 22
  • IV. Of the Night-mare, and Vertigo. 35
  • V. Of the Lethargy, Coma, Carus, and Ca­talepsie, or Catochus. 38
  • VI. Of the Phrensie, and Madness 44
  • VII. Of Catarrhs. 55
The Contents of the Second Book.
  • [Page]Chap. Page
  • I. OF Shortness of Breathing. 69
  • II. Of the Pleurisie, and other In­stammations. 72
  • III. Of the Consumption, or Phtisick and He­ctick-Fever. 83
  • IV. Of the Palpitation of the Heart. 92
  • V. Of an universal Languishing, as also of Swouning, and Syncope. 96
  • VI. Of Fevers in General. 103
  • VII. Of Intermitting Fevers. 116
  • VIII. Of Malignant Fevers, and the Calen­ture. 124
  • IX. Of the Plague, or Pestilence. 129
  • X. Of the Small-pox, and Measles. 136
The Contents of the Third Book.
  • Chap. Page
  • I. OF the thirsty Disease. 141
  • II. Of Hunger vitiated, or of a de­praved Appetite. 144
  • [Page] III. Of want of Appetite, or loathing of Vi­ctuals. 148
  • IV. Of the Hiccet, or Hiccough. 152
  • V. Of Belching. 156
  • VI. Of Vomiting, and of the Cholerick, and Iliack Passion. 158
  • VII. Of Pain in the Stomach, and of various Pains of the Guts, as Colick, &c. 168
  • VIII. Of Worms. 179
  • IX. Of Loosenesses, or Fluxes of the Belly. 185
  • X. Of the dry Belly-ach. 196
  • XI. Of the Yellow-Iaundice. 202
  • XII. Of a Cachexy, or ill Habit of Body. 207
  • XIII. Of Dropsies. 211
  • XIV. Of the Scurvy, and Hypochondriack Suffocation, commonly called Fits of the Mother. 222
  • XV. Of the Green-sickness, and Suppression of the Courses. 231
  • XVI. Of the immoderate menstrual Flux, and the Whites in Women. 237
  • XVII. Of the Falling down of the Womb, and Fundament. 242
  • XVIII. Of Barrenness. 245
  • XIX. Of Abortion, or Miscarriage. 249
  • XX. Of hard Travel in Child-birth. 252
  • XXI. Of Nephritick Pains, and of the Stone in the Reins and Bladder. 257
  • XXII. Of extraordinary Pissing. 269
  • XXIII. Of involuntary Pissing, commonly called Pissing in Bed. 272
  • [Page] XXIV. Of the Stoppage of Urine, and the Strangury. 274
  • XXV. Of the scalding or sharpness of Urine. 277
  • XXVI. Of Venereal Affects. 279
  • XXVII. Of the Rachites, or Rickets. 288
  • XXVIII. Of the Gout and Rheumatism. 303

Praxis Medicinae Reformata: OR, THE Practice of Physick REFORMED. BEING AN Epitome of the whole Art: Wherein is briefly shewed, The true Causes, Signs, Prognosticks, and Cure, of most Diseases. BOOK I.

CHAP. I. Of the Head-ach.

THE Head-ach may be divided into three Kinds.

The first is the momentany Head-ach, it Cephalal­gia. is called in Greek [...], from [...], Ca­put, and [...], Dolor.

The second is an inveterate Head-ach, and [Page 2] is called in Greek [...], quod tegit Calva­rium.

The third is a Pain on one Part of the Head, before, behind, or on one side; this is called in Greek [...], from [...], Hemicra­nia. cranium, and [...], dimidium.

There is little difference between Cepha­laea and Cephalalgia; only per Cephalaeam affectae partes multo redduntur quam in Ce­phalalgia debiliores.

These Distempers are caused by Halitu­ous Vapours, and Humours, fuming up (from the Stomach and other Parts) to the Head.

1. If the Pain be external, so that the Signs. combing of the Head be troublesome, then the Pericranium is affected: But if the Pain be internal, reaching to the Eye-roots, then the Dura mater is invaded with the peccant Humours.

2. If there be pricking, distending Pain with great Pulsation, it is from sharp bili­ous Humours, or Halitus; but if the Pain be heavy, it is caused from viscous Phlegm or Melancholy.

1. If a violent Head-ach come suddenly Progn. on a healthy Person, and the Party become dumb, and snort, 'tis a mortal sign, unless a great Fever do immediately happen.

2. If corrupt waterish Matter or Bloud do issue out of the Nostrils, Mouth, Ears or Eyes, (especially on the fourth Day) the sick will [Page 3] suddenly recover; but if the Pain be very violent, and do suddenly vanish without a Crisis, 'tis doubtfull.

3. If the Pain be without a Fever, accom­panied with noise in the ears, deafness, or me­grim, with numbness of the extreme parts, an Apoplexy or Epilepsy, is at hand.

4. Those that have Cholerick stomachs, are most subject to a Hemicrania; and if it continue long, it causeth weakness of the Eyes, and sometimes blindness.

If the Head-ach proceed from Phlegma­tick Cure. Viscous humours abounding, first give this Clyster.

Take of Vervain, Betony, Mallows, Mer­cury Clyster. of each one handfull: Let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in a Quart of Posset-drink, 'till half of it be boiled away, then strain it and dissolve in it one ounce of the Electuary Caryocostinum, Oil of Chamo­mel two ounces; mix it for a Clyster.

Sour things, and all that have a Lixivial salt, either fixt, or volatile, and all Aroma­ticks do correct and amend the viscous Phleg­matick humours.

Let these forms serve for example.

Take the Waters of Baum, and Mint, of Iulep. each three ounces; Cinamon-water, and aqua Coelestis, of each half an ounce; Syrup of Fennel, and Mint, of each six drachms; Spirit of Salt, as much as will make it of a [Page 4] gratefull taste, mix it, and give three spoon­fulls of it often.

Take salt of Tartar vitriolated half a drachm; Cream of Tartar one drachm; Powder. white Sugar-candy two drachms; make it into a fine Powder for four Doses, which may be taken every morning and evening in white or Rhenish wine.

For the Rich you may prepare a medici­nal Wine.

This may serve for example.

Take the Roots of Elicampane, Calamus aromaticus, of each one ounce; of Rue, Sage, A medici­nal Wine. Vervain, sweet Marjoram, of each three handfulls; Anise-seed, sweet Fennel-seed, of each an ounce and half; Orange-peel half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused in two quarts of White-wine.

It may be given to three or four ounces in the morning fasting, with twenty drops of Elixir proprietatis, you may also give it by it self, at dinner and supper.

When the Wine is used, fresh Wine may be put to the Ingredients, for a second infu­sion.

But farther to correct, and gently evacu­ate the viscous Phlegmatick humours.

This opening Apozeme is effectual.

Take of the five opening Roots of each two ounces, Liquorish an ounce and half; Apozeme. Guiacum half a Pound, Anise-seed, sweet Fen­nel-seed, [Page 5] the Berries of Bays, and Juniper, of each half an ounce; Vervain, Betony, of each one handfull; let them be cleansed, bruised, and infused in two quarts of Rain-water very hot, for twenty four hours; then strain it out very strongly, and add the best Manna, Syrup of Roses solutive with Senna, of each four ounces; tincture of Cinamon three ounces; salt of Tartar vitriolated half an ounce; mix it, and give three ounces every morning fasting.

If there be need of stronger Physick you Purging Pills. may administer these purging Pills.

Take of Extract. Rudii, pil. foetidoe, Cochioe, of each half a drachm; Mercurius dulcis twen­ty grains; mix it for three Doses.

If the pain be old and stubborn, apply Vesiccatories to the Neck, also Leeches to the Temples, and Haemorrhoids; or open the jugular, or frontal Vein, which hath often prov'd effectual.

Errhines, Sternutatories and Apophleg­matisms may also be used, and Ventoses with Scarification if need require.

Baths of Sulphur (whether natural or arti­ficial with Cephalick Herbs) are good to bathe the Head and whole Body.

Some approve of the fume of Amber, ta­ken into the Mouth and Nostrils.

Also spirit of cranium humanum, or spirit of salt Armoniack, held to the Nose in a nar­row-mouth'd [Page 6] Vial, giveth present ease in all cold Pains of the Head.

Also you may touch the Nostrils and Tem­ples with Oil of Amber, or Nutmegs, or ap­ply this Epitheme to the Temples and Fore­head with Linnen-rags.

Take the Waters of Vervain and Betony, of each one ounce; Vineger of Roses, Oint­ment Epitheme. of Alabaster, of each half an ounce; Laudanum opiatum one scruple; mix it.

Cold distempers of the head, may also be corrected by hot Cephalicks quilted in a Cap for the Head.

Take of sweet Marjoram, Stoechas, Ver­vain, For a'quil­ted Cap. Betony, Sage, Flowers of Chamomel, of each one handfull; Nutmegs, Cloves, Wood of Alloes, the Roots of Galangal, Cy­perus, Calamus aromat. of each half an ounce; let them be all beaten into Powder for a quil­ted Cap.

Before you put it on, let the Hair be shaved close, and the Head gently rub'd for some time, the better to open the pores.

Let the Sick abstain from fat and viscous Food, and let the mind be compos'd to chear­fulness.

If the Juice of the Pancreas abounding in the Body, be over sour, it causeth a vitious Effervescency, being oppos'd by Choler and Phlegm in the small guts; from whence sour [Page 7] and ungratefull vapours may be sent to the Stomach, and thence to the Head.

If the humours be over sour, the sense of Signs. hunger will be encreased, notwithstanding the Pain of the Head.

This distemper is to be cur'd by giving Cure. those things which temper, and amend the acid Juice in the Body, and do prevent its encrease.

Those things abounding with either a lixivial or volatile salt, do powerfully destroy this acid Juice; as Pearl, Crabs-eyes, Coral, Chalk, Amber, Bloud-stone, Filings of steel, &c.

Take this as a form of a Powder.

Take of Crabs-eyes, Pearl, red Coral pre­par'd, Powder. of each half a drachm; white Sugar half an ounce; let it be made into fine Pow­der for six Doses; which may be taken mor­ning and evening in two or three spoonfulls of the following Cordial Julep.

Take Waters of Baum and Mint, of each Cordial Iulep. three ounces; Scurvigrass-water two oun­ces; Cinamon-water, Syrup of Worm-wood, of each one ounce and half; Oil of Juni­per one drachm; mix them together for a Julep, of which you may also give two or three spoonfulls every fourth hour.

I prescribe no Purgers in this Distemper, because I am taught by large Experience, that the sour Humours in the Body may be [Page 8] stirr'd up indeed, but not purg'd, unless with very great gripes, which will doe more hurt, [...]an good.

The encre [...]e of the acid Juice, may be pr [...]nted by abstaining from the use of a­c [...]

Let the Patient's diet be moist, and fatty, as fat Broths, Jellies aromatiz'd, &c.

When the Head-ach proceedeth from a hot cause, if the Patient be costive, first give this Clyster.

Take of Mercury, Violets, Lettice, Mal­lows, Dandelion, of each one handfull; Da­mask Clyster. Prunes twenty; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two pints of Fountain­water, till half of it be boiled away; then strain it, and add Electuary lenitive, one ounce and half; Oil of Lillies two ounces; mix them for a Clyster.

After its operation, you may open a Vein and draw eight or nine ounces of bloud.

Some Authours will not consent to Phle­botomy in any Head-ach, except the Pain be intollerable; but I have had sufficient Expe­rience, that it may be done safely in any Pain of the Head.

Elixir proprietatis, taken in Wormwood­wine, to the quantity of half a drachm at a time, a little before meat, doth wonderfully conduce to amend the vitious quality of Cho­ler.

[Page 9] Choler may be evacuated by vomit, most commodiously by Antimonial preparations.

Take of the infusion of Crocus Metallorum one ounce; Oximel of Squills half an ounce. Give it in the morning. Vomit.

But if the Patient be averse to vomiting, the Choler may be evacuated by stool, by this or the like Cathartick.

Take of Baum-water one ounce, Cinamon­water two drachms, Syrup of Roses solu­tive, Purging Potion. the best Manna, of each half an ounce; Powder of Cream of Tartar twenty grains, Diagredium ten grains; mix it for a Potion, which may be given in the morning fasting.

Also these most gratefull Tablets of Scam­mony may be prepared, and kept for use.

Take Cristals of Tartar two ounces; Scammony one ounce; white Sugar four Troches. ounces; with Gum Dragon dissolv'd in Rose­water as much as is sufficient; let it be made into Troches according to Art.

Half a drachm of these Troches may be given to a Child with carefull governing; a Man or Woman may take two drachms of them.

They who are fearfull of Scammoniats, though safe and potent, let them take the fol­lowing infusion.

Take of choice Rhubarb two drachms; Cream of Tartar one drachm; infuse them Purging Infusion. in four ounces of Endive-water for a night; [Page 10] then strain it and add Syrup of Roses solutive, Syrup of Cicory with Rhubarb, of each half an ounce, Cinamon-water two drachms; give it in the morning fasting: This Electuary is also an excellent Cholagogue.

Take the Pulp of Damask-prunes ten oun­ces; Powder of Scammony, Cream of Tar­tar, Electuary. of each two ounces, Rhubarb ten drachms, Cinamon half an ounce; yellow Sanders two drachms; the best Manna, Syrup of Cico­ry with Rhubarb, of each eight ounces; mix all together into an Electuary according to Art.

The Dose is from two drachms, to half an ounce, taken either in a Bolus, or dissol­ved in a sufficient quantity of Endive-water, or any other convenient vehicle.

These excellent Medicines do not onely purge Choler abounding, but purify the Bloud and other Humours; and here we may note, that if a purging Medicine do not ope­rate according to Expectation, it may safe­ly Observa­tion. be repeated the same day without any danger.

If the Head-ach be accompanied with a great Fever, and Thirst be augmented; the following Medicines will much conduce to asswage it.

Take of Barley-water two pints; Cina­mon-water two ounces; Syrup of Violets four Iulep. ounces; salt Prunella half an ounce; mix it, [Page 11] and give the sick three or four spoonfulls of it often.

This Tincture is also very effectual

Take of Barley-water two pints; Red-rose­buds Tincture. one ounce; spirit of Vitriol twenty drops, or as much as is sufficient to make it of a good Tincture, let it infuse all Night, then strain it, and add Syrup of Jujubes four ounces; mix it, and give three or four spoon­fulls every three hours.

If an Emulsion may please better, take this following form.

Take of sweet Almonds one ounce; the Emulsion. four greater Cold-seeds of each half an ounce; white Poppy-seeds two ounces; let the Al­monds be blanched, and all well beaten in a stone Mortar; then with four pints of Bar­ley-water, make an Emulsion; strain it, and add Syrup of the Juice of Limmons, Diaco­dium, of each three ounces; Cinamon-water two ounces; of which let the sick drink of­ten, four spoonfulls at a time.

You may also have a little fine Sugar, and salt Prunella equally mixt, which may be kept in the Mouth, to deceive the Thirst.

But where rest is hindred by the Choler abounding, and cannot be obtain'd by the Emulsion, which gently procureth sleep; you may dissolve two grains of Laudanum opiat. in two or three spoonfulls of it, and give it [Page 12] at night; or you may order this or the like Julep.

Take the Waters of Lettice, Water-lillies of each two ounces; Syrup of red Poppies Iulep. one ounce; Cinamon-water half an ounce; Laudanum opiatum four grains; Oil of Vi­triol six drops; mix it, and give four spoon­fulls of it to cause sleep.

This Epitheme may be applied to the Tem­ples, and Fore-head with Linnen-rags.

Take the Oils of Violets, and Water-lillies of each half an ounce; the waters of red Roses, Epitheme. Lettice, and Houseleek, of each two ounces; Vineger of Roses half an ounce; mix it.

You may also anoint the Temples and Fore-head with this Ointment.

Take the Ointment of Alabaster, Populi­on, Ointment. Oil of Mandrakes, of each half an ounce; mix it.

Let the Patient's diet be Mutton or Veal-broth without salt.

When a salt Catarrh, or the like spittle is the cause of Thirst augmented, you may ad­minister a Pill of Styrax, or Cynoglosson, which will temperate the saltness of the humours; and if salt serous matter abound in the Bloud, you may purge it by Stool and Urine, for which there are variety of Medicines pre­scrib'd in the Chapter of Catarrhs.

CHAP. II. Of the Palsie, and Apoplexy.

THE Palsie is called in Greek [...], quod a [...], i. e. a solvendo, eo quod nervorum genus resolutum, facultate ani­mi Paralysis. defluere prohibita sensu motuque destituatur.

It may be also called [...], i. e. di­midia Apoplexia.

In Latin it is called nervorum resolutio vel relaxatio.

It is a Privation of sense and motion of one side of the Body, or of some particular part.

The Apoplexy is called in Greek [...], Apoplexia. ex [...], percutior, attonitum reddo.

In Latin 'tis called stupor corporis, it being an Abolition of sense and motion through the whole Body.

The parts affected are the Brain, Spinalis medulla and Nerves; the motion of the Ani­mal spirits through them being deprav'd.

The causes are either external, or internal.

The external is much cold and moisture, Cause. which doth chill and over moisten the Head, and extreme parts; and this seems to prove Cause in­ternal. that phlegmatick and watry Humours abi­ding about the Ventricles of the Brain, and [Page 14] Nerves, may over moisten, and perhaps so far loosen the Tunicles or Membranes of them, that it may render them unfit to let the Animal spirits pass through them; hence it is that sometimes one particular Member hath been Paralytick by too much Cold and Moisture; and sometimes more parts have more or less lost sense and motion.

It is the opinion of most eminent Physici­ans both ancient and modern; that the Ani­mal spirits being severed from the Bloud in the Brain, &c. are from thence carried through all the Nerves to exercise the external senses and Animal motion; which is continual and equal in healthy persons, but changeable and unequal, according to the divers diseases of the Body or Mind.

Wherefore when no Animal spirits are car­ried to the Organs of the external Senses, or Animal motion; the functions of seeing, smelling, tasting, hearing and touching: and the sense of heat, as also of motion in the Palsie and Apoplexy, cease all that time.

The Signs of the Palsie are manifest; to wit, deprivation of sense and motion of the Signs. Paralytick parts; the Eye, and half the Tongue, (viz. of that side affected) is much weakned, and deprav'd.

The signs of the Apoplexy approaching are these, a sudden crying out for help, with an abolition of sense and motion.

[Page 15] 1. If the Palsie, or Apoplexy do invade the sick in the decrease of the Moon, and the Pa­tient Progn. be old, 'tis an ill sign.

2. If the sick do snort, and is droughty, and cast spume or froth out of the Mouth, and have great sweat with difficult breathing, 'tis mortal. But if the Person be young, and a strong Fever immediately happen, 'tis a good sign; for the Fever consumes the superfluous moisture, and makes a Dissipation of the gross and phlegmatick Matter.

3. A Palsie coming after the Apoplexy is ill, and many times turns to the Apoplexy again.

When any of the extreme parts be Paraly­tical, Cure. or when the Head is ill affected by the external coldness of Air, Water or Snow; or a stoppage of the Head be also bred there­by, or the defect of the Animal spirits chiefly urge; then the sick may be cur'd by driving out whatsoever cold has pierc'd into the Head, or any other parts of the Body, which may be done by spirituous and volatile Sudo­rificks; for they do not onely alter and correct the cause of Cold, and other Evils accompa­nying it, but do also amend the harm entring into the Body, containing, and contained.

To this end I commend this following Form.

Take of Treacle-water one ounce; Fennel­water, Cordial to cause sweat. and Epidemical-water, of each two ounces; Syrup of red Poppies, and Syrup [Page 16] of the Juice of Scurvigrass, of each half an ounce; Bezoar-mineral, Antimony Diapho­retick, of each ten grains; Laudanum opiat. three grains; Spirit of salt Armoniack twen­ty drops; Oil of Cloves four drops; mix it, give the sick three or four spoonfulls of it, and expect to sweat, being meanly covered; and a spoonfull every half hour afterward, till the sweat break forth; then give them some pure Broth, with a little Wine in it, whereby strength may be recreated, and the Patient enabled to bear a Sweat longer; for nothing so much helps the sick as a sweat continued mildly a while, which experience hath often taught me.

For by the help of this spirituous, and vo­latile, and also Aromatick medicine, or one like it, the troublesome Cold, and dulness of motion are discust.

They who let bloud in this Distemper cau­sed Observa­tion. by external Cold; or think they can car­ry out the Cause of this Evil either by vomit or siege, put the sick into danger of death, or at least of most grievous Evils.

But when phlegmatick and watry Hu­mours stick about the Nerves, &c. And too much moistening and loosening their Mem­branes and Marrow, be the cause of the Palsie and Apoplexy, and if the same humours much abound in the Body; then Phlegma­gogues, and Hydragogues may conduce to [Page 17] the Cure, after Clysters, and internal Aro­matick Sudorificks.

Wherefore to begin the Cure of this; you may first give this or the like Clyster, which must be made strong.

Take of sweet Marjoram, Betony, Sage, Pen­ny-royal, Clyster. Hyssop, Rue, Mercury, Marsh-mal­lows, the lesser Centaury, the Flowers of Chamomel, and Stoechas, of each half a hand­full; Anise-seed, sweet Fennel-seed, Juniper-ber­ries, of each half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in a quart of Fountain-wa­ter, till half of it be boiled away; then strain it, and dissolve in it the Electuary Diaphoenicon, benedicta laxativa, of each half an ounce; pil. Co­chioe twenty grains; common Salt one drachm; Oil of Rue two ounces; mix it for a Clyster.

The next day (if the sick have a Pletho­rick body) you may draw bloud from either arm, to eight or nine ounces.

If Phlebotomy cannot be done, apply Ven­toses with Scarification to the shoulders; af­terward sweat the Patient with the aforesaid Sudorifick.

Sometimes Suppositories may be used in stead of Clysters.

This may serve for Example.

Take the Powders of Coloquintida, Salt­niter, Supposi­tory. Hiera-picra simple, of each one drachm; Euphorbium half a drachm, Honey boiled as much as will make it into a Suppository. [Page 18] But if it appear that phlegmatick and viscous Humours do abound in the Body, Purgers may be prescrib'd most conveniently in the form of a Pill, because the Gums are most apt (above all other Medicines) to loosen and cut viscous Phlegm; neither can they be easily dissolv'd in any liquour.

Let this, or such a like form of Pills serve.

Take the Gums Amoniacum, and Galbanum, of each two drachms; dissolve them in Vine­ger Purging Pills. of Squills, strain it, and boil it, to a due consistence; then add Powders of Troches, Alhandal, Scammony, Mastick, of each one drachm; Oil of Anise-seed eight drops; make it into a Mass of Pills according to Art.

Let the sick take five or six small Pills of this in the morning fasting, and an hour af­ter drink some thin broth.

If the humours be more serous, I commend this Electuary.

Take Juniper-berries one pound; boil them in six pints of Fennel-water, till Purging Electuary. half of it be boiled away; then add the Fruit of Tamarind eight ounces, and pulp them both through a Sieve: To which add Pow­der of Jalap, and Scammony prepar'd, of each three ounces; Cinamon, sweet Fennel-seed, of each half an ounce; white Sugar one pound, make it into an Electuary according to Art.

The dose of this effectual Medicine, is to half an ounce, to people of age; a Child may [Page 19] take from half a drachm, to a drachm, either by it self, or dissolv'd in Whey, or Parsley­water, or in any other convenient Vehicle.

After universal evacuation hath been made, and the Patient's stomach be still nauseous, this vomit may safely be given.

Take the Infusion of Crocus metallor. Vi­negar Vomit. of Squills of each one ounce, give it in the morning with Care: After the ope­ration of it, give some of this Cordial Julep.

Take the Waters of Sage, Couslips, Lil­lies Cordial Iulep. of the Valley, of each two ounces; Ci­namon-water one ounce; Syrup of Peony­flowers, Stoechas, of each six drachms; Spi­rit of Castor two drachms; Spirit of Salt as much as will make it of a gratefull taste, of which you may give the sick three or four spoonfulls every fourth hour.

To correct a slow ferment, and also to a­mend Phlegmatick viscous humours, a Me­dicinal Wine may be prepared for the rich, in this form.

Take the Roots of Galangal, Elecampane, Medici­nal Wine. of each half an ounce; the tops of Worm­wood, Mint and Calamint, of each one hand­full; Powder of Cinamon, Anise-seed, of each half an ounce; Nutmegs two drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and insused in six pints of White-wine.

The sick may drink of this Physick-wine at dinner and supper, adding to every [Page 20] draught, five or six drops of Elixir pro­prietatis.

When the wine is almost consum'd, more may be poured on, till it cease to be Aro­matical.

External means for the Palsie, and Apo­plexy are also to be used.

Bathing is much commended, both natu­ral and artificial; and how excellent it is daily experience doth manifest.

This artificial Bath, or one like it, may be prescrib'd, where a natural sulphureous or nitrous Bath cannot be had.

Take Sage, Penny-royal, Betony, Organ, Bath. sweet Marjoram, Hyssop, Rue, Time, Ground­pine, of each six handfulls; Flowers of Cha­momel, Melilot, of each four handfulls; Roots of Briony, Pellitory, of Spain, of each four ounces; Bay-berries, Juniper-berries of each three ounces; Brimstone six pound; Salt­niter two pound; let all be bruised and boiled in twenty Gallons of Spring-water, till the third part be consumed.

Let the sick be well bathed with this as often as strength will permit.

After bathing, anoint the hinder part of the Head and Neck, and down the Vertebra of the Back with this Oil; upon which let a Fox-skin drest be worn.

Take Chymical-oils, of Juniper-berries, Oil. Turpentine, Spike, of each half an ounce; [Page 21] Oils of Chamomel, Earth-worms, Rue, Foxes, of each one ounce; Spirit of Castor two drachms; mix it.

This plaister may be applyed to the Head.

Take Galbanum, Opopanax, of each half an ounce; Mustard-seed, white Pepper, Euphor­bium, Plaister. Castor, of each two drachms; Chymical Oil of Sage and Rue, of each twenty drops; Oil of Spike and Turpentine, of each a drachm; make it into a Plaister which you may spread on leather, and apply it warm to the Head.

Or you may make the quilted Cap as is prescrib'd in page 6. to wear constantly; Oil of Nutmegs is good to embrocate the Ears and Nostrils; also Errhines, Sternutato­ries, and Apophlegmatisms may be used with good success.

Take Castor, sweet Marjoram, Betony, Sneezing Powder. Root of white Hellebor, of each a drachm; beat them all into a fine Powder. Blow up some of this Powder (with a quill) into the Nostrils, to cause sneezing.

Let the Patient's diet be such as may not breed Phlegm, and let it be thin and spare, as Water-gruel, in which boil some Mace; or you may make Broth of Mutton, &c. in which boil Sage, Rosemary, Time, sweet Marjoram, Couslips, &c.

Of this broth you may make Panado's [Page 22] with the Crums of white Bread, and the Yelk of an Egg.

Let Anise-seed, or sweet Fennel-seed be baked with the bread.

Abstain from all clammy Diet, as Fish and Milk, &c. and eat little or no supper.

CHAP. III. Of Convulsions, and the Epilepsie.

THE Cramp or Convulsion is called in Greek [...], in Latin Convulsio. Spasmus.

It is a very painfull, involuntary Contrac­tion of the Nerves and Muscles towards their Original.

There are generally two sorts of Convul­sions. viz. A true Convulsion, and a Con­vulsive motion.

A true Convulsion is either universal or particular.

Of the universal there are three Kinds.

The first is called in Greek [...], in Latin tentio ad anteriora; when the Body and Head is drawn forward.

The second is called [...], and in Latin tentio ad posteriora when the Head and Body is drawn backward

[Page 23] The third is called [...] in Greek, and distentio in Latin, in this the whole Body is inflexible.

The particular convulsions are various.

If it be in the Eye, it is called strabismus.

That of the Mouth, is call tortura oris, &c.

The Falling-sickness or Epilepsie, is called Epilepsia. in Greek [...], ab [...], invado, quod sensum atque mentem pariter apprehendat.

It is called also in Latin Epilepsia vel invasio; item morbus hominem ita invadens, ut retineat & sistat sensuum actiones, because the mind and senses in this disease are suddenly surprized.

It may be called morbus caducus, a caden­do, or morbus puerilis because it is most sub­ject to Children; or more properly noverca puerorum, quod eos male tractat.

It is also called Herculeus, & Elephantiasis a magnitudine, because it is difficult to cure.

Some call it morbus lunaticus, because the sick are most subject to the fits at the change of the moon; but enough of the Names.

The Epilepsie is an universal Cramp or Convulsion of the whole Body, with depri­vation of sense and motion in the time of the fit.

The parts affected are not onely the Brain, Cerebellum and Spinalis medulla, but all the Partes af­fecte. Nerves and Museles.

The causes are either external or internal. Causes.

[Page 24] The external, may be by the biting of some venemous Creature; or by a wound or puncture of a Nerve or Tendon.

Sometimes it may be caused by surfeiting or drunkenness; and also by the taking of Hellebor, &c.

It may be also caused by a mineral Gas fuming from the Mines of Lead, or Anti­mony, &c. which infecteth the Air with noxious metalline exhalations of a vene­mous malignity; which is many times the cause of Convulsions, as they can tell by ex­perience, that live near those Mines.

The internal causes are acrimonious and flatuous Vapours, rising from the small guts, because of over viscous Phlegm, and the o­ver acidity and tartness of the Juice of the Pancreas, which causeth a vitious efferves­cency of the humours, by which the Lym­pha is also rendred very sharp.

These sour flatuous Vapours continually ascending to the Head, together with the spirituous substance of the Bloud, and going forward into the Ventricles of the Brain, and Cerebellum, and so to the first spreading of the Nerves; and corroding them, causeth an inordinate agitation, and very fierce motion of the Animal spirits; and by a continual and grievous Irritation, urging about the be­ginning of the Spinalis medulla, is the cause of an universal Convulsion, or Epileptick-fit, [Page 25] in which all the Muscles of the Body are most vehemently contracted.

The Irritation in a particular Convulsive motion or the Cramp, which may be oft observ'd in the thigh or leg, and other ex­treme parts, may be also ascrib'd to the same sharp and sour flatuous Vapours, carried to the beginning of the Nerves and Tendons of the said Members, fretting and gnawing them sometimes with great pain.

The signs of Convulsions are manifest. Signs.

The preceding signs of the Epilepsie, are trembling, sadness, fearfulness, vertigo, num­ness, debility of the senses, troublesome sleep, with great pain of the Head.

The signs of the Epilepsie presently ap­proaching, are a vehement shaking of the whole Body, foming at the Mouth, and a sud­den deprivation of all the Animal functions.

1. A Convulsion or Epilepsie, being here­ditary, is incurable. Progn.

2. If a pregnant Woman be taken with either of them, it is very dangerous; and al­so after Abortion.

3. Children are most subject to these di­seases, because they abound with abun­dance of moisture, and flatulent Vapours in the Brain; and because they have Nervorum poros angustos, whereby the Brain is easily filled with such vapours; and therefore we see that Children are often troubled with [Page 26] them, young People more rarely, and old Folks but seldom; and we find that Children better suffer them than either of the other, who frequently die of these fits, especially of the Epilepsie, when in their falling there follows snorting, gnashing of the teeth, a ghastly countenance, much some at the Mouth, involuntaria seminis effusio, and great cryings out.

4. Of all the kind of Convulsions, Tetanos is the most difficult to cure; because it is (as it were) composed of the other two kinds; but if a fever happen in this or any other Con­vulsion, the sick will suddenly recover, be­cause a fever dissolveth it; but if a Convulsi­on should succeed a fever, it is very dange­rous, especially from a wound, or procee­ding from venemous matter.

So likewise it is very dangerous if it be cau­sed by taking of Hellebor.

When a particular Convulsion is caused Cure. from a prick of a Nerve or Tendon; as it may happen sometimes by the unskilfulness, or precipitancy of the Chyrurgeon in open­ing a vein, then most speedily pour into the wound or puncture, the Oil of Turpentine, with rectifi'd Spirit of Wine, both actually hot; as that famous Chyrurgeon Mr. Am­brose Parey adviseth in his ninth Book, Chap. 11. of which I have had large experience with good success.

[Page 27] The like course may be taken with all other wounds of the nervous parts.

But if the wound of the Nerve or Tendon yield not to this medicine, the same is to be cut asunder cross-ways, seeing it is safer to lose the action of one part, than that the sick should be exposed to the danger of a deadly Convulsion.

When the Nerves or Tendons of the Mus­cles are prickt by sharp splinters of bones, the grievous pains succeeding, soon cause a particular Convulsion of that part, and at length an universal Convulsion will attend the Patient, if there be not speedy help.

Wherefore if possible, the sharp fragments of the bone must be cut away; or if this have been neglected, or could not be done, and an universal Convulsion be feared, you must hasten to amputation of the member; For, Necessitas non habet legem.

If a particular Convulsion be occasion'd by a hot Tumour or any other sharp pain, which hath rais'd an inflammation; let the pain be diminisht as well by internal, as external Ano­dines and Narcoticks, to allay the over en­creas'd motion of the Animal spirits.

To this end you may give the sick two or three grains of Laudanum opiat. at a time, either in a Pill, or dissolve it in a little Wine or other convenient Vehicle.

And if the ingenious and judicious Physi­cian, [Page 28] or Chyrurgeon, do add a little volatile Salt, either of Animals or Vegetables, to his topical Medicaments, whether fomentati­ons, Cataplasms, or Ointments, he will won­der at the incredible benefit; for by the help thereof the Tumour will be mollified and dissolved, the internal obstruction loosned, and the pain eased.

If a Convulsion be caused by the taking of Hellebor, or any other venemous matter; ad­minister an Antimonial vomit with all speed.

But if it be a Child, give it ten grains of Salt of Vitriol, or half an ounce of Oxymel of Squills, with a drachm of Oil of Almonds.

After the operation of the Emetick, (and also at other times) you may give some of this Julep.

Take of Black-cherry-water, the Water of Iulep. Line-flowers of each two ounces; Briony-wa­ter compound, Syrup of Peony, of each one ounce; Tincture of Castor half an ounce; Con­fection of Alkermes one drachm, Spirit of Salt Armoniack twenty drops; mix it, and give three or four spoonfulls every fourth Hour.

Having briefly hinted at the Cure of par­ticular Convulsions; I come now to those more universal, as likewise Convulsive mo­tions, and the Epilepsie.

And seeing there is little difference, in the remote causes of them in the Body; these diseases may (for the most part) be cured with the same Remedies.

[Page 29] 1. First then the peccant humours are to be temper'd, and diminisht.

2. The rising of vapours is to be hindred, and their expulsion procur'd by sweat, or insensible transpiration: By which the over motion of the Animal spirits will be restrain'd and brought to tranquillity, that is a more quiet motion.

All Aromaticks, and all things abounding with either a fixt or volatile Salt, do not one­ly correct, and by cutting amend the viscous phlegmatick humours; but do powerfully temper and destroy the over acidity and tart­ness of the juice of the Pancreas.

To temper and diminish these humours, I commend these medicines.

Take the Roots of Male-peony, Valerian, Infusion. Missletoe of the Oak, and Peony-seeds, of each two ounces; Castor half an ounce; let them be all bruised, and infus'd in Peony-water compound, the Water of Line-tree-flowers, of each one pint, for the space of twenty four hours; then strain it out very strongly, and add Syrup of Peony and Stoechas, of each three ounces; Spirit of Castor half an ounce; mix it, and give three spoonfulls at a time every fourth hour, with which you may mix Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Elixir propri­etatis, of each six drops.

Also you may give the Patient half a drachm of the following powder in three or [Page 30] four spoonfulls of this Infusion, with the a­foresaid Spirit and Elixir.

Take of Crabs-eyes, Salt of Tartar vitri­olated, Salt prunella, of each half an ounce; volatile Salt of Harts-horn, Salt of Amber, of Man's skull prepar'd, of each two drachms; make it into a fine powder, which may be taken half a drachm at a time, morning and evening.

The peccant humours being temper'd and diminisht, by the frequent use of the above­said medicines; the inordinate, involuntary and impetuous motion of the Animal spirits, (in Convulsive and Epileptick fits) will be the better reduc'd to a calm and vo­luntary motion, by the help of volatile and spirituous Sudorificks, mixt with Anodines, and Narcotick medicines us'd in a small quan­tity, and at times; which two will be ex­pedient to be given together, because then they will the better circulate to the Animal spirits, and temper and educe the hurtfull flatuous Vapours.

For which I commend the following form.

Take of Treacle-water, Fennel-water, of each one ounce; Syrup of Peony, Syrup of Cordial to cause Sweat. the Juice of Scurvigrass, of each half an ounce; Antimony Diaphoretick, Bezoar mineral, Crabs-eyes in powder, of each ten grains; Laudanum opiat. four grains; Tincture of Castor one drachm; Oil of Cloves three drops; [Page 31] Spirit of Salt Armoniack ten drops; mix it, and let the sick take it, being well cover'd with cloths, whereby the sweat will the easi­er come forth.

If the Body be costive, let it be made so­luble by a Clyster, or Suppository; such as is prescrib'd in the cure of the Apoplexy.

As often as the Stomach is naufeous, or the sick inclines to vomiting; let the Eme­ticks before mention'd be carefully admi­nistred; and likewise three or four days be­fore the full of the moon.

But if the sick be averse to vomiting, and Pills or Potions are more acceptable, take the following as Examples.

Take of Extract. Rudij, pil. foetidoe ex duo­bus, Purging Pills. of each a drachm and half; Castor, black Hellebor prepar'd, of each half a drachm; Salt of Amber twenty grains; Oil of Rose­mary twenty drops, with Syrup of Stoechas; make it into a Mass for pills; of which you may give half a drachm twice a week.

Also this purging Infusion is very effec­tual.

Take of the best Senna, Rhubarb, and Cream of Tartar, of each an ounce and half; Infusion. Liquorish, and the five opening Roots, of each one ounce; Guiacum, China-roots, of each six ounces; Missletoe of the Oak, Anise-seed, sweet Fennel-seed, Bay-berries, and Juniper­berries, of each half an ounce; let them be [Page 32] all bruised, and infused in Black-cherry-water, and the Water of Line-tree-flowers, of each a quart, very hot for the space of a Night; then strain it very hard, and add Syrup of Roses so­lutive with Senna, Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, of each three ounces; Cinamon-water two ounces; Salt of Tartar vitriolated half an ounce; mix it.

Let the sick take four ounces of this pur­ging Infusion every morning, whereby the viscous humours and flatuous Vapours may be both corrected, and also evacuated gent­ly by degrees.

If bloud abound, let a Vein be opened; in Women open the Saphoena in either Foot, but in Men you may apply Leeches to the He­morrhoidal Veins. &c.

Bathing hath been often us'd (with good success) in these diseases.

A natural sulphureous Bath, such as is in the City of Bath, is excellent; but when it is not to be had, an artificial Bath may serve.

That which is set down in the Cure of the Palsie and Apoplexy, is of excellent Virtue, and very effectual in these distempers.

After bathing, let the Spina Dorsi, and o­ther affected parts be anointed with the fol­lowing Ointment.

Take the Oils of Euphorbium, Rue, Castor, Ointment. Petre, Spike, Turpentine, Bricks, Dil, Chamo­mel, of each half an ounce; Oils of Amber [Page 33] and Juniper, of each two drachms; the Oint­ments Martiatum and Aregon of each one ounce; mix them for an Ointment.

Issues are approved of, either in the Neck, or Arm; also Ventoses with Scarification, Sternutatories, Errhines and Masticatories are all commended.

This Masticatory may serve for Example. Mastica­tory.

Take the Roots of Pellitory of Spain, Gin­ger, Calamus aromaticus, of each one ounce; Mustard-seed; all sorts of Pepper, Nutmegs, Castor, Mastick, of each half an ounce; beat them all into fine Powder, and with fine Honey boild into a Syrup, make them into Troches according to Art.

When they are drie you may chew them one after another, when you please to draw the Rheum out of the Mouth.

When the fit is coming, or upon the party, blow up some Sneezing-powder into the Nostrils, or the Smoak of Tobacco into the Mouth.

Embrocate the Temples, Fore-head and Nostrils with Oil of Amber; and hold the Spirit of Salt Armoniack to the Nose, in a Narrow-mouth'd viol.

Make a noise in the Ears; and let the sick be kept in a light Room, with the Head up­right.

Let the teeth be kept open with a stick, or rather with a little viscus quercinus, if it may be had.

[Page 34] Let the soles of the feet be well rub'd with Salt and Vineger; also Frictions and Liga­tures may be used in the parts affected.

Some commend a Pigeon cut asunder, and applied hot to the Navel; for hereby the ve­nemous halituous Vapours are partly drawn away.

I might add variety of medicines for the cure of these diseases; but those before men­tioned are sufficient to give light to the inge­nious Artist, who knows how to prepare diversity of them, as well milder for Infants and Children, as stronger for Adults.

I will therefore prescribe a powder to pre­serve Children from Convulsive and Epilep­tick-fits, and so conclude this Chapter.

Take the Roots of Peony, Valerian, of Epileptick Powder. each half an ounce; the Moss that groweth upon a Man's skull, the triangular Bone of a Man's skull prepar'd, Missletoe of the Oak, Elks-hoof, the Seeds of Peony, sweet Fennel and Annise, of each two drachms; red Coral, whitest Amber, and Emerald prepar'd, of each one drachm; white Sugar the weight of them all, let them be reduc'd into a fine powder.

You may give a Child twenty grains of this powder with a little Oil of sweet Al­monds, so soon as it is born, which may happi­ly preserve it from Convulsions, and Epilep­tick fits.

And because obstructions of the Belly in [Page 35] Children, exposeth them to flatuous Vapours, and Gripings, and so consequently to Con­vulsive and Epileptick-fits; I advise you to keep the Belly open, either with a little Man­na, or a Carminative Clyster, so often as you see convenient.

Let the sick live in a serene Air, and ab­stain from all food that breeds bad nourish­ment, and flatulent Vapours.

CHAP. IV. Of the Night-mare, and Vertigo.

I Shall treat of these two distempers in one Chapter, because if either of them conti­nue long; they are Forerunners of the Palsie, or Apoplexy, and sometimes Convulsions, or Epilepsie.

The Night-mare is called in Greek [...], Incubus. in Latin 'tis called Incubus ab incubando, quod externa vis quoedam aut moles incubare videtur.

It is called the Night-mare, because it op­presseth the sick in the Night, at which time they think that some great weight lieth up­on them, by which they seem to be almost suffocated.

It happens most commonly after the first [Page 36] sleep, whereby the party oppressed, is depri­ved of speech and motion, and sometime breathing for a time.

When the fit is upon the sick, they do imagine that some Witch or Hag lieth hard on their Breast or Stomach, (from whence it hath also acquired that Name) in which they cannot stir, nor call for help, though they have a great desire, and do strive very much to cry out, but are possessed with a panick fear.

The cause of this distemper, is most com­monly Cause. intemperance in eating and drinking, especially in the Night; whereby crude hali­tuous Vapours are bred in such plenty, that nature cannot disperse nor dissolve them be­fore sleep; and therefore they are raised up to the Ventricles of the Brain, by which ima­gination, sense and motion are all depraved.

The giddy motion is called in Greek [...], i. e. obscuritas oculorum.

In Latin 'tis called Vertigo, ex vertendo quod Caput vertere videtur. Vertigo.

In this disease the Animal spirits are wrong mov'd, which makes the sick believe that not onely all things they look on, go in a Circuit about, but their Head and other parts, seem to turn round; which many times causeth them to be in danger of falling, or tumbling headlong.

[Page 37] The cause of the giddy motion, is either Cause. external, or internal.

The external are either an intent looking at any object that turns round, or about, espe­cially if very remote; or a frequent turning about of the Body it self.

The internal cause, is the ascent of flatu­ous Vapours to the Head, together with the spirituous part of the Bloud, and carried with the Animal spirits, into the passages of the Brain, and Cerebellum; by which the motion of wheeling about is communicated to the Animal spirits, and anon carried to the Cristalline humour of the Eyes, by the Op­tick nerves; and so a Giddiness seems to be produc'd.

For the Cure of these diseases; seeing they are the Forerunners of the Apoplexy, and Epilepsie; I refer you to those excellent Me­dicines prescrib'd for the Cure of them.

Let such as are subject to these distempers, be very sparing in their diet; let them avoid all Herbs, Roots and Fruits, that are windy; and all viscous and gross diet, such as is of hard Concoction.

Let the external Causes be remov'd, and the internal causes corrected. Sublata causa tollitur effectus.

CHAP. V. Of the Lethargy Coma, Carus, and Cata­lepsie or Catocus.

THE Lethargy is called in Greek [...], id est, ab obli­vione Lethargus. & inertia. Because in this disease, the sick is very forgetfull and slothfull.

In this distemper, there is a very great Signs. propensity to sleep, accompanied with a Symptomatical Fever, and sometimes with the Hiccough, with difficulty of breathing, dulness of the Head, and many times a de­privation of the Senses.

[...], sopor altus, is an insatiable inclina­tion to sleep; the sick being called unto, Coma. they open their Eyes, and answer, but pre­sently fall a sleep again.

[...], is called in Latin crapularis redundantia; because it is sometimes caused Carus. by surfeiting, end drunkenness.

It is deep and profound sleep, whereby imagination, sense and motion are all de­praved.

In these there is no Fever, in which they differ from the Lethargy.

Catalepsis, vel Detentio, is called in Greek [...], which signifies a with-holding, or [Page 39] restraining, because in this distemper, the mind, with the senses, and motion are all suddenly surprized, so that the sick remain stiff, and immoveable, in the very same pos­ture in which they were taken, with their Eyes open.

The causes of these diseases are either Causes. external, or internal.

The external causes are gross food, idle­ness, spirituous wine, or any other inebriating liquour taken in excess; and sometimes by the Air inspir'd, which is defil'd by the Smoak of Coals, or other mineral Fumes, by which the Air may be infested.

The internal cause, is a Narcotick force mix'd with the Animal spirits, bred by de­grees in the Body, by the frequent use of opiats, not well corrected, which not onely dulls the mind, but causeth a sluggishness of the whole Body; for the Animal motion being deprav'd, the external, as well as in­ternal senses, will be thence soon infected, and defil'd.

These diseases are all very dangerous, and except they are speedily cur'd, they will soon Progn. hurry the sick into the Boats of Acheron, or devouring Jaws of Death.

But if a Phrensie cometh immediately af­ter any of them, it cureth the Patient with little help of medicine.

To cure these diseases, let the drowsie Ani­mal Cure. [Page 40] spirits be stir'd up, and rais'd from sleepi­ness, and stupidness, by potent external Ob­jects, which may sharply move the external senses; let the sick be kept in a light room, and be often called upon very strongly, and let sharp smells be applied to the Nostrils, such as Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Harts-horn, &c.

Also sharp spices or salts should be put in­to the mouth, and gentle frications us'd (with warm Cloaths) to those parts that are affected with Numness.

The Animal spirits may be freed from the Narcotick force mingled with them, (and likewise slothfulness, and sleepiness may be (by little and little) diminished,) by the frequent use of sharp volatile Salts, and all Medicines endued with an Aromatick biting; such as Pepper, Cloves, Castor, Garlick, Horse-radish, Mustard, Scurvigrass, &c. Of which you may make diversity of Medi­cines, for example.

Take the Waters of Hedge-mustard, Scur­vigrass, of each two ounces, Syrup of the Iulep. Juice of Scurvigrass one ounce; Tincture of Castor two drachms; Oil of Cloves four drops; mix it, and give the sick two or three spoonfulls every two hours.

This decoction is also very effectual.

Take the Roots of Horse-radish, the best Decoction. China, of each two ounces; Roots of Galan­gal [Page 41] half an ounce; Scurvigrass, Hedge-mustard, of each one handfull; Cloves one drachm; let them be all cleansed, bruised and infused in White-wine, and Fountain-water, of each a quart, for the space of a Night very hot; the next morning boil it gently for half an hour, then strain it, and add Syrup of Hedge-mustard, Scurvigrass, of each three ounces; Cinamon-water two ounces; mix it.

Let the sick lying in bed, meanly cove­red take often in a day five or six spoonfulls of this decoction, whereby a light sweat may break forth to ease them.

By the frequent use of these medicines, the Animal spirits will not onely be freed from their drowsiness, but even the Narcotick force bred in the Body (either in the length of time, or received in from without) may be corrected, and by degrees gently educ'd by insensible transpiration: So that at length, these dangerous distempers may happily be overcome.

Let Clysters, and Suppositories be often administred, as need requires.

Those prescrib'd in page 17, 18. in the Cure of the Palsie and Apoplexy, are very effectual here.

If strength and age permit, let a vein be opened in either Arm or Foot, as you shall see cause; for generally Authours consent to it, besides Experientia docet.

[Page 42] Let Ventoses with (or without) Scarifi­cation be applied to the shoulders and hin­der part of the Neck.

And let Sternutatories be often snuft up in­to the Nostrils, to provoke sneezing.

Take the Roots of Pellitory of Spain, white Sneezing Powder. Hellebor, of each half a drachm; Castor, Nutmegs, white Pepper, of each twenty grains; Flowers of Lillies of the Valley one drachm; beat them into a fine Powder.

If the Stomach be foul, and the sick in­cline to vomit, give this or the like.

Take the decoction of Horse-radish, two Vomit. ounces; the infusion of crocus metallorum, Oxymel of Squills, of each half an ounce; Oil of sweet Almonds newly drawn, two drachms; mix it, and give it in the Mor­ning.

But if the sick had rather take Pills or Po­tions, let the following serve.

Take Extract. Rudii, pil. foetidoe, ex duo­bus Purging Pills. of each half a drachm; Powder of Castor twenty grains; Oil of Cloves six drops, with Syrup of Stoechas, make it into Pills, for three doses.

You may give them twice a week in the Morning fasting.

This purging Infusion is also very ef­fectual. Purging Infusion.

Take of the best Senna, Rhubarb, Po­lypodium, of each half an ounce; Mechoacan, [Page 43] Agarick, Turkey-Turbith, of each three drachms; Ginger, Anise-seed, of each two drachms; let them be bruised and infused in eight ounces of Ale very hot, for the space of a Night, then strain it, and add the best Manna; Syrup of Roses solutive of each one ounce; Spirit of Castor twenty drops; mix it for two doses.

Let the affected parts, as the Head, &c. be bathed with this or the like fomentation.

Take the Roots of Master-wort, Angelica, Fomenta­tion. Zedoary, of each three ounces; Bay-berries, Juniper-berries, of each four ounces; Sage, Marjoram, Rue, Rose-mary, Betony, Flow­ers of Lavender, Melilot, Chamomel, of each two handfulls; let them be all cleansed, brui­sed and boiled in White-wine-vineger, and Fountain-water, of each three quarts, till half of it be boiled away.

After bathing anoint the hinder part of the Head with this Oil.

Take of Oil of Rue, Marjoram, of each Oil. half an ounce; Oil of Amber, Rose-mary and Bricks, of each two drachms; Oil of Bays, Euphorbium, Castor, of each six drachms; mix them.

For Revulsion, let the soles of the feet be washed with Salt and Acet. Scillitic. Vesic­catories may also be applied to the Coronal Suture, and behind the Ears; or upon the Shoulders, Neck, Arms, Thighs, &c.

[Page 44] Avoid all vaporous and phlegmatick Nourishment.

CHAP. VI. Of the Phrensie, and Madness.

THE Phrensie is called in Greek [...], Phrenitis. & [...], ex [...] mens; quia mentis morbus.

The Phrensie is an inflammation of the Brain and Meninges, both the dura and pia mater; causing an acute continual Fever, which remains from the first moment of its invasion, to the last of its duration, thence a delirium, and raving Madness, to­gether with great trouble of mind, afflicts the sick in a superlative manner.

Madness is called in Greek [...], a [...], insanio, 'tis called in Latin amentia, furor, in­sania. Mania.

It is a furious alienation of the mind, or a vehement delirium without a Fever; in which it differs from the Phrensie.

I know there are not wanting the works of great Physicians, who have written very learnedly of these diseases; but omitting the opinion of others; I shall in a few words, [Page 45] relate that which seems true to me, to be the cause of these furious distempers.

None who are ingenious Searchers of Truth; and have weighed accurately (with an attentive mind) both the fabrick and ways, or Vessels of the containing Body, and the natural motion of the Bloud, and other humours; will deny, that almost in­numerable diseases do arise from the vitious effervescency of over fat Choler, the too tart Pancreat juice, and over viscous Phlegm, flowing together in the small guts; for by this vitiated mingling not onely hurtfull humours are produc'd, but often wind, and halituous Vapours, causing much harm to humane Bodies.

Wherefore I judge, when Phlegm is very viscous, or otherwise vitious, and the juice Cause. of the Pancreas too tart and harsh; sharp halituous Vapours are thence produc'd, ele­vated from the small guts, because of a viti­ous effervescency there rais'd; and thence continually ascending to the Head; and with the spirituous Bloud, circulate into the Ventricles of the Brain, by which the Ani­mal spirits are vitiated, and troublesomely mov'd, and hindred of natural rest and tran­quillity; therefore 'tis no wonder that the Empty mind of the sick is thereby disturb'd, and at length the sick become distracted and mad.

[Page 46] But if Choler be predominant, these va­pours become very cholerick and acrimoni­ous; which rarifies the Bloud by degrees more and more; so that at length the heat and bur­ning Fever in the Heart, (and thence through the whole Body) is encreased by Choler successively over-ruling, which causeth the Phrensie.

No marvel then if heat, pain, and inflam­mation, and pulsation of the Head do chiefly vex the sick in this grievous distemper; see­ing no part of the Body hath so many Ar­teries, and receives so much Bloud as the Head; wherefore the pulsation of the Tem­ples is felt more troublesome than elsewhere, because of the remarkable windings of the Brain, through which great Arteries are carried; from whence great watchings, and at length raving Madness do molest the sick.

But there still remains something requisite to be set down, as the chief cause of these, and most other distempers, which ought not to be despis'd (either by Jew or Gentile) seeing we have the word of God for it; and that is the crying sins of Mankind continually drawing God's Judgments on them.

You may reade the 28th. Chapter of Deu­teronomie, where the Prophet Moses enume­rates the many diseases, with which God [Page 47] would smite the Children of Israel, for the wickedness of their doings, whereby they had forsaken him.

And not onely they, but we also shall be subject to these grievous distempers, and eter­nal destruction also, if we do not turn to the Lord by unfeigned repentance, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish, saith our blessed Saviour Jesus Christ in Luke 13. 3. Verse.

Those poor creatures who have been miserably afflicted with these furious di­seases, and happily recovered; can tell by sad experience, that they have been many times hurried almost to desperation, by the cunning wiles and temptations of Satan; which hath prevail'd on many to lay vio­lent hands on themselves; from which let us pray, libera nos Domine.

1. The Phrensie is a most acute and dange­rous Progn. disease, insomuch that it ends most com­monly in seven days; for in that time it ei­ther terminates by the recovery of the sick, or else they go over the threshold of the o­ther world.

2. If the Phrenetical party hath a Crisis ei­ther by sweating, bleeding at the nose, or Hae­morrhoids, &c. or a tumour appear behind the Ears, there is hopes of recovery: but if the sick gnash with his teeth, and his Excrement and Urine be whitish, and no Crisis appear, [Page 48] 'tis mortal; so likewise is it very pernicious, if it turn either to the Lethargy, or Convulsion.

In the Mania or Madness, if the stomach or appetite decay, and the sick be very fear­full, and hath continued long, it is most dif­ficult to cure: but if the party be merrily conceited, it is not so dangerous.

3. If the swelling of the Veins in the Legs, called Varices, or the Haemorrhoids, or Men­ses, or any other flux of bloud should happen to them that are mad or frantick, there may be hopes of recovery.

And that we may pass on to the cure of Cure. these lamentable diseases: let the following Golden precept be speedily observ'd.

Principiis obsta, sero medicina paratur: Cum mala per longas invaluere moras. For unless speedy help be procur'd for the Phrensie, it killeth the party in a short time: and like­wise Mania or Madness becomes oft (by de­grees) so stubborn, and rebellious, that it can be cur'd onely late or never.

Ttherefore the friends of the sick are to be admonish'd to consult with the honest Physi­cian, so soon as the signs begin to be mani­fest; for when it hath taken deep root, it is hard to be eradicated, or overcome, unless by an Herculean labour.

First therefore let a Clyster be administered.

Take of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Vio­lets, Clyster. Lettice, Beets, Pellitory of the wall, [Page 49] Mercury, Centaury, Water-lillies, of each one handfull. Damask Prunes twenty. Boil them in a quart of Barley-water till half be consu­med, then strain it, and add Electuary Leni­tive, Syrup of Violets, Roses Solutive, of each one ounce; Oil of Violets two ounces; Com­mon Salt one drachm. Mix it for a Clyster.

After the Operation of it, you may open a Vein in the Arm.

But if Menses, or the Haemorrhoids be sup­pressed, then open the Saphena, in either Foot; and let the orifice be made pretty large, be­cause thereby sharp and fatty vapours may more plenteously be effus'd together with the bloud: whereby the troublesome heat will be the better temper'd, and not a little diminisht.

Neither will it suffice to let bloud once, but this evacuation is oft to be iterated, till (by the diminisht feverish heat) it appears that the cause is remov'd or overcome.

But let Phlebotomy be warily done, where choler abounds, because sanguis est fraenum Bilis: wherefore I advise the young Practi­tioner to take away but little bloud at a time, which may be done so often as need re­quires, either by an instrument, or leeches to the Haemorrhoids.

Ventoses with scarification, may be applied to the shoulders, also Vesiccatories to the armes, thighs, & inter scapulas, in extremis morbis, extrema sunt adhibenda remedia.

[Page 50] Choler over plenteous in the body, may be safely diminisht by a mild chologogue; for example.

Take of Dandelion, Succory, Sorrel, of Iulep. each two handfulls; Tamarind-fruit two oun­ces. Boil them in a quart of Barley-water till half be consumed; Strain it, and add the waters of Cinamon, and Fennel of each one ounce; The best Manna, Syrup of Succo­ry with Rhubarb, of each three ounces; Spi­rit of Niter twenty drops. Let the sick take oft a draught of this Julep, till the body be made soluble; but if there be a strong con­stitution of body, I refer you to those excel­lent Medicines prescribed in page 8. 9. of this book, which evacuates choler more power­fully by stool.

But where the Stomach is full and nauseous, let a vomit be administred without delay; and here I prefer Antimonials before all o-thers, both because they do most happily empty a­ny humours promiscuously, and because they are most friendly to humane nature, bringing all the humours by degrees (after a peculiar manner) to a most laudable state.

And because in this distemper, the sick is always attended with a greivous and furious raging; let those things be given which will not onely promote sleep, but powerfully tem­per the sharp cholerick humours.

To this end I commend any fixt Mineral, [Page 51] Sulphur of Vitriol or Antimony, which will temper the Acrimony of choler, and free the bloud from such matter perhaps before all o­thers. But where these choice Medicines are not to be had, Opium well prepared will conduce beyond any commonly known Medicine; which may be used both Inter­nally and Externally.

This Cordial Opiat is of great virtue.

Take the Waters of Sorrel, Lettice, Pen­ny-royal, Opiat. Fennel, of each two ounces; Ci­namon water, Syrups of red and white Pop­pies, of each one ounce; Laudanum ten grains; Tartar vitriolated half a drachm; Oil of Vitriol ten drops; mixit, and give two spoon­fulls of it often, whereby the body may the sooner be reduc'd to sleep, and the mind to tranquillity.

The following Epitheme, and Linament may be used outwardly to give ease, and pro­mote sleep.

Take the Waters of Betony, red Roses, of Epitheme. each two ounces; Vinegars of Roses, and Marygolds, of each half an ounce; Opium twenty grains. Mix it.

Let Linen cloaths be dipt in it being warm, and applied to the Forehead, and regi­on of the Temples; and as often as the cloaths are dry, moisten them with the same, till pain be diminisht, and sleep follow.

Take Populion half an ounce; Opium dis­solv'd Linament. [Page 52] in Oil of Poppies half a drachm; mix it for a Linament; wherewith anoint each region of the Temples, and spread some of it on brown Paper and apply it.

Let the diet be very thin and cooling: A­void hot spices, Wine, and other strong Li­qours, Dieta. and let the common drink be Barley­water with Syrup of Limmons.

Pigeons cut asunder, and applied to the Soles of the Feet, do many times avail, by drawing down hot Vapours and Fumes from the Head.

By this you may know how to cure not onely Phrensies, but all ravings and watchings, which are ingendred by Fevers; for it will not be very hard from what is aforesaid, to frame or join such helps as may conduce to the same.

In mania or madness; when Phlegm is over viscous, and the Juice of the Pancreas too tart and harsh, exceeding, and over­ruling the other humours in the Body; whereby sharp halituous Vapours are conti­nually rais'd, disturbing the sick both in Bo­dy and Mind: Speedy care must be taken to correct and educe the vitiated humours, to amend and discuss the hurtfull flatuous Vapours, and also to compose the immode­rate passions of the mind.

Volatile Salts and Aromatick Oils do not onely correct viscous and acid Phlegm, but [Page 53] sour and tart Vapours also; for they have power to cut and dissolve that which is vis­cous, to temper and correct that which is sour and tart, and to discuss and dissipate what is vaporous and windy.

The following Julep, whose power is sin­gular and stupendious, may be deservedly preferr'd before many others.

Take the Waters of Parsley, Fennel, Mint, Iulep. Penny-royal, Scurvigrass, of each two oun­ces; the Waters of Treacle and Cinamon, of each half an ounce; Syrups of Fennel, Pop­pies, and the five opening Roots, of each one ounce; Laudanum opiat. twenty grains; Spi­rits of Salt Armoniack and Niter, of each twenty drops; Oils of Annise-seed and Cloves, of each ten drops; mix them.

By the frequent use of this Julep or such like; the hurtfull humours and vapours will not onely be corrected, and amended; but a new Production of them will be hindred, and both Body and Mind reduc'd to a more quiet frame.

These Pills will be also usefull to correct more, and mildly educe, or expell the viti­ous humours.

Take of Galbanum prepar'd with Vinegar Purging Pills. of Squills; Powders of Mastick, Troches Alhandal, Rozin of Scammony, and Jallop, of each one drachm; Powders of Castor, Mirrh and Saffron, of each twenty grains; [Page 54] Oils of Cloves, Harts-horn, Balsom of Sul­phur with Oil of Anise-seed, Spirit of Salt Armoniack, of each ten drops; beat them all into a Mass for Pills, of which you may give half a drachm at a time, in the Morning fasting.

It will be convenient to take these Pills twice a week, for the better vanquishing the rebellious and redoubl'd humours.

Also let Antimonial vomits (rightly pre­par'd) be sometimes administred, they be­ing endued with an universal force of clean­sing Man's body from all harm and impu­rity.

By these forms any judicious Practitio­ner, may easily invent other prescriptions in some things to be varied, as the disease requires.

Thus having premis'd a rational, and dogmatical cure of these grievous diseases, confirm'd by experience; I think it my duty (once for all) to admonish the honest Phy­sician, and others who attend the sick; to be often seeking the Lord for a Blessing on the means.

And if all refuge fails, to take the Advice of the Apostle James in the 5th. Chapter and 14, and 15. verses.

This was the Custome of the Primitive Christians without doubt, and I wish it were more in use amongst us at this day; for God [Page 55] is as able to heal the sick now, as he was then, for he is the same yesterday, and to day and for ever.

I thank God, I have had some experience of his great goodness and mercy, extended towards some of his poor Creatures, by means of this ordinance, when all other help of medicine, &c. have prov'd unsuccessfull, for which uni Deo & trino Gloria.

CHAP. VII. Of CATARRHS.

THE Catarrh is called in Greek [...] a [...], fluo.

It is called in Latin distillatio, because it is a defluxion of excrementitious and sharp Rheumatick humours from the Head, into most parts of the Body; invading not one­ly all the conglobated, and conglomerated Glandules; by which the Circulation of Lympha and Spittle are deprav'd: But also the Nerves, which causeth intense or vehe­ment pains, and inflammations in the parts ill affected, which is most commonly at­tended with a Symptomatical Fever, especi­ally if the Rheum be thin and sharp, and do flow very violently.

[Page 56] And seeing this distemper is not enough explain'd in Authours, either ancient or modern; I therefore (God prospering my in­deavours) will bestow some pains in search­ing out, and proposing the true causes and effects of it; which I hope will induce other liberal and ingenious spirited Artists to a farther inquiry after the occult causes, not onely of these, but other obscure diseases daily occurring in practice; that so by lit­tle and little, many things in the Art of Physick, as yet most obscure and confus'd, may be illustrated, and most commodiously explain'd.

Experience confirms, that there are many kinds of Catarrhs; some are more thick, o­thers more thin; some acid and salt, others more sweet; some Rheums are hot and sharp, flowing more violently, other cold and pituitous, flowing but slowly; hence it is, that some Catarrhs are attended with Fevers, and some without.

The causes of Catarrhs are either external, Cause. or internal.

The external cause is from external sud­den Cold, shutting the pores of the skin, hin­dring the discharge of sweaty Vapours by insensible Transpiration; for if the usual ports of the skin do deny passage to the sweat, it will in a little time condense, and thence become sour, by which the extreme [Page 57] parts are chilled, which doth manifest it self by a shivering; as any one may experimen­tally observe after taking Cold.

These humours having not vent through the porous skin (which is absolutely necessa­ry) by the habit of the Body; they are conveyed to the Head (together with the Lympha) through the Lymphatick Vessels.

The internal cause arises from pituitous humours, gradually collected (besides Na­ture) in the conglobated Glandules, ob­serveable about the Plexus Choroides in the side Ventricles of the Brain, and elsewhere; perhaps in the Tonsils, and all the rest of the small Glandules about the trachoea Arte­ria; hence the Lympha becomes sourish salt, as is tasted in a Coryza.

Whence also we may probably conclude, what way soever the conglobated Glan­dules are hurt, that the Lympha declines from its natural State and Quality: And as its depravation is milder or sharper, more grievous, or lighter pains are thence bred; of which we have many times an ocular demonstration in the flowing down of the Rheum through the Nostrils, which is oft so sharp, that it doth corrode the skin, and superficies of the face where it comes.

If it be in quantity moderate, it is con­veighed to the infinite little salivary Ducts or Chanels, in the conglomerated Glan­dules, [Page 58] which open into the palate of the mouth, and there pour out the salival Li­quour which they contain; which is either swallowed down into the Stomach, or else it is evacuated by spitting; and if Nature be overburthened by its plentifulness, it is also sent forth by the Nostrils.

But if the Lympha becomes more sharp, acid and salt in the Glandules before men­tion'd, it produceth first a stoppage, and burthensome Pain of the Head, which over­comes the retentive, and provokes the ex­pulsive faculties; so that Nature being driven to most violent motions, doth extravasate, and intravasate the Rheumatick humours, hic & ubique, a Capite ad Calcem, through the most abstruse and inconspicuous passages of nature; so that it is the opinion of many learned Physicians, that a Catarrh is the ori­ginal of many diseases incident to humane Bodies.

1. Catarrhs happening to Children, are dangerous, especially if there appear plenty of Progn. humours, because they abound with moisture, and are full of excrements: Wherefore if a sudden defluxion happens to any of a tender age, desperate accidents may follow.

2. If the Rheum flow through the Nostrils, it is but gentle; if to the Throat 'tis worse, but if to the Lungs, worst of all; and if it becomes inveterate, it is very hardly cured.

[Page 59] In the Cure of Catarrhs, the Head is Cure. chiefly to be taken care of, because the Rheum doth continually flow from it; there­fore the Head ought to be corroborated, and the superfluous moisture thereof to be dri­ed up: And likewise the part or parts (to which the Rheum flows) must be strength­ned; the vitious quality of Lympha, and the other humours is to be corrected, and their plenty diminisht.

As Catarrhs consist of a different matter, and afflict divers parts, so they require di­versity of medicines to cure them; for if the matter be thick and viscous, it must be attenuated and cut with Aromaticks, and afterward evacuated with Phlegmagogues: So likewise serous and salt Catarrhs are to be temper'd with Oily things and Opiats, and the plenty of humours to be diminisht with Hydragogues; by which means the cure will be the sooner performed.

For viscous Catarrhs, accompanied with a Cough, I commend these following medi­cines.

Take the Waters of Hyssop, Mint, of each Iulep. three ounces; Cinamon-water, Syrups of Fennel and red Poppies, of each one ounce and half; Laudanum opiatum six grains; Spi­rit of Salt Armoniack twenty drops; mix it, of which you may give three or four spoonfulls, every three hours.

[Page 60] By the frequent use of this Aromatick Julep, the viscous Phlegm will not onely be attenuated, but the over sharp Vapours will be discust, and the other humours temper'd.

After the Phlegmatick humours, &c. are thus prepared; it will be convenient to eva­cuate them downwards, by gentle purgati­on, with powerfull and effectual Phlegma­gogues; and such are all mercurials, Colo­cynthis, Hermodactils, &c. to be taken chiefly in the form of Pills.

Take Extract. Rudii, pil. ex duobus, of each one drachm; Mercury dulcis half a drachm; Purging Pills. Oil of Cloves four drops; mix them for three Doses.

If the sick be averse to Pills, give this Potion.

Take of Rhubarb, Agarick, Hermodactils, Polypodium, of each two drachms; Cina­mon, Purging Potion. Cloves, of each one drachm; Sage, Rosemary, of each one handfull; sweet Fennel­seed, Juniper-berries, of each three drachms; bruise them and insuse them in Hyssop-water very hot, for the space of a Night, then strain it, and dissolve in it Syrup of Roses solutive, Electuary Diaphaenicon, of each one ounce; mix it for a Potion.

Every night give the Patient a Pill of Sty­rax, or Hounds-tongue, to stay the Rheum, and to give ease and rest.

If the Catarrh be serous and hot, accom­panied [Page 61] with a Fever, and the sick have a costive Body, this Clyster will be effectual.

Take the common decoction for Clysters Clyster. twelve ounces; Diacatholicon, Electuary of the Juice of Roses, of each six drachms; Oil of Chamomel two ounces; common Salt one drachm; mix it for a Clyster.

After the operation of it, you may open a Vein in either Arm, and take away eight or nine ounces of Bloud.

Then give this purging decoction.

Take Borage, Lettice, Purslain, Endive, Purging Decoction. Violets, of each one handfull; the four grea­ter coldeeds, of each one drachm; Da­mask-prunes ten, Anise-seed, sweet Fennel­seed, of each two drachms; let them be bruised, and boiled in eight ounces of the pectoral decoction till half be consum'd; then strain it, and dissolve in it Syrup of Roses solutive, Electuary of the Juice of Roses, of each half an ounce; Spirit of Ni­ter six drops; mix it for a Potion.

You may give this Potion twice in a week; which will both temper and gently evacuate the serous and acid humours; and flatuous Vapours will also thereby be discust, and gently educ'd.

To cause rest, and thicken the Rheum, let one of these Pills be given every Night to bed-ward.

Take of Laudanum three grains; Powder Pills opi­at. [Page 62] of Olibanum, Extract of Saffron, of each four grains, with a little pectoral Syrup, make it into four Pills.

Or you may give a Pill of Styrax every Night going to bed.

When the Rheum flows down from the Head, into the Trachoea arteria, it stirs up a Coughing more or less, according to the Tussis. sharpness and plenty of the humours, which are many ways vitiated; wherefore a Cough may be diversly cur'd, according to the di­versity of its cause.

If the humours be over sour, they may be corrected with Pearl, Coral, Crabs­eyes, &c.

If the Rheum be too serous and salt; the aforesaid pil. Estyrace & Cynaglos. &c. is ex­cellent to temper it.

Becchical Troches, both white and black are not onely effectual, but gratefull to the sick in this coughing distemper.

If the humours be thick and viscous, they require sourish sweet things, and Aromaticks to attenuate and cut them.

The fore-mention'd Julep may be pre­scrib'd in this Case.

When the salt, sharp and serous humours abounding, are corrected and temper'd; they may be diminisht by Hydragogues.

The Hydragogue Electuary prescrib'd in page 18 is an effectual and gratefull medi­cine, [Page 63] which may be often us'd to the profit of the sick.

Children may take from one drachm to two, and Adults to half an ounce; of this ex­cellent medicine once or twice a week.

As in other distempers always, so let me here admonish you in general, to be very diligent to attend to the medicines that most conduce to every particular Body, whereby they may be prefer'd before the rest; and as long as they profit, continue in the use thereof, that so the health of the sick may be every way promoted.

When much bloud is voided by cough­ing, Sputum Sanguinis. there is great danger; wherefore we must hasten the more to its cure; left the opportunity here (if any where urgent) be lost by delay; for the singular substance of the Lungs is easily infected and corrupted, but difficultly restor'd and repair'd; where­fore bloud carried down from the Head into the Lungs, and raising a Cough, is to be stopt in its efflux.

To this end let a Vein be opened, espe­cially if a Plethora concur, or there be a no­table heat of Bloud, or a suppression of its wonted emptying.

After bleeding, let the over great heat be allay'd with sour and tart medicines; for example take the following Decoction.

[Page 64] Take of Plantane, Housleek, Wood-sorrel, of each two handfulls; boil them in Barley­water Decoction. one quart till half of it be boiled a­way, then strain it, and add Syrup of Juju­bes three ounces; Salt prunella one drachm; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it, and give four spoonfulls every three hours.

The flux of bloud may be stopt by con­glutinating medicines, which have power to close the Vessels, either broken by vio­lent coughing, or corroded by the sharpness of the descending Rheum.

Take the Waters of Comfry, Plantane, of each two ounces; Cinamon-water, distil'd Astrin­gent Ju­lep. Vinegar, of each one ounce; Syrup of Mir­tles, Comfry, of each six drachms; Powder of Dragons-bloud, red Coral prepar'd, of each one drachm; Laudanum opiat. six grains; Oil of Sulphur per Campanam twenty drops; mix it, and give three or four spoonfulls e­very two hours.

This choice medicine often taken, will cure the most ruptions of vessels, and will soon stop the flux of bloud, beyond expecta­tion; but I advise, that a sparing use of it should be continued for some time, after the disease is cur'd to sense, whereby the affected parts may be strengthned against the access of a new evil.

The bloud distilling into the sharp Artery of the Lungs, will soon corrupt and turn in­to [Page 65] purulent matter, if not prevented by con­venient medicines, which hath power to dissolve the coagulated bloud, that it may be the easier expectorated.

The following form may be prefer'd.

Take the Waters of Hyssop, Fennel, of Pectoral Iulep. each two ounces; Cinamon-water, distill'd Vineger, of each half an ounce; Syrup of Hore-houud one ounce; Powder of Crabs­eyes, Antimony Diaphoretick, of each half a drachm; mix it, and give two or three spoonfulls every two hours.

If the Lungs be ulcerated, the Cure there­of will be promoted, if you add two or three drops of Balsam of Sulphur, with Oil of An­nise-seed, to every spoonfull that you give of the aforefaid medicine, or in any pectoral Decoction; it must be given oft in a day; the better to finish the Cure.

In all Catarrhs if the Rheum have been long, you may use a Decoction of China, which will wonderfully temper the hu­mours; or you may add lign. sanctum, sassa­phras, sarsaparilla, &c. which will dry up the Rheum by degrees.

The sharp humours being temper'd, and the matter of Rheum partly evacuated by Phlegmagogues, and Hydragogues, &c. out­ward means that dry up Rheum are like­wise [Page 66] to be used; as Caps for the Head, Per­fumes, Errhines, Sternutatories, Masticato­ries, Apophlegmatisms, &c.

Ventoses with Scarification, may be also applied to the Neck and Shoulders; and Fon­tinels may be made in the Neck and Arm, for they have been often profitable in Ca­tarrhs.

Also Vesiccatories applied to the Coronal future, and inter scapulas will avail much.

Let the Temples and parts adjacent be anointed with Oil of Amber, Oil of Nut­megs, &c. and let the Fume of Amber or Mas­tick be often drawn up into the Nostrils.

Also a Sternutatory (such as is prescrib'd in page 21. in the Cure of the Palsie) is ve­ry effectual to cause sneezing, twice or thrice in a day.

A Cap may be also quilted for the Head (of the following things) with Cotton­wool and red Sarcenet.

Take of sweet Marjoram, Betony, Baum, For a quilted Cap. Bazil, Red-rose buds, of each half a hand­full; the Berries of Mirtle and Juniper, the Seeds of Peony and white Poppy, of each one drachm; Calamus aromaticus, Nutmegs, Cloves, Frankincense, Mastick, Styrax cala­mitis, Laudanum, of each two drachms; let them be all beaten into a gross Powder, for a quilted Cap.

[Page 67] Also this following Powder may be pre­par'd, to fumigate the Head and Cloaths; morning and evening.

Take of Olibanum, Styrax calamitis, Am­ber, Powder to fume the Head, &c. of each two drachms; red Roses, Cori­ander-seeds prepar'd, Mastick, Gum of Ivy, Cloves, Mirtle-berries, white Poppy-seeds, of each one drachm; let them be all beaten into a gross Powder.

Also this Masticatory may be often used.

Take of Mustard-seed, Roots of Pellitory Mastica­tory. of Spain, Master-wort, Capers, Mastick, Amber, of each one drachm; let them be all beaten into a gross Powder, and tye up some of it in a Linen-rag, and chew it in the mouth every day before Dinner and Supper.

Or you may chew either Mastick, Amber, or the Root of Pellitory of Spain by it self, which will draw the serous humours away by spitting.

Errhines may also be used; they are ei­ther moist or dry, the dry are made with Pepper, Betony, Rosemary, Stavesacre, &c.

The liquid are made with the Juices of Rosemary, Ivy, Beets, Mercury, sweet Mar­joram, &c.

And it may here be noted, that when Rheum doth flow down to the Throat, Lungs, &c. then Errhines may be used; but when the humours flow to the Eyes, Nose, &c. then use Masticatories, for a Revulsion; Re­vulsio [Page 68] enim est humoris fluentis attractio in partem contrariam.

The Spirit of Salt Armoniack, held to Note. the Nose in a narrow mouth'd Glass, doth wonderfully conduce above all others, not onely to dissolve the viscous phlegmatick humours, obstructing the Glandules: But al­so temperates the acid Saltness of Catarrhs.

Plaisters may be also applied to the Head being first shaved, to dry up the Rheum, and strengthen the Brain.

This may serve for Example.

Take of the Plaisters ad Herniam, and Plaster for the Head. Cephalick, Taccamahac, of each half an ounce; mix it, and spread it on leather, and apply it to the Head.

Let the Rheumatick live in a warm and dry Air, and use a drying Diet with mode­ration in eating, drinking, sleeping, and all other things.

Jejunet, vigilet, sitiat: qui Rheumata curat.

BOOK II.

CHAP. I. Of Shortness of Breathing.

SHortness or Difficulty of Breathing, is cal­led in Greek [...], ex [...] spiro, vel [...], i. e. afflo calidum ori. Asthma.

It is a disease in which the Bronchia of the Lungs are so stuffed with viscous Phlegm, that the sick can hardly breathe, but with wheasing, blowing or puffing, and do make a great noise with snorting; in which the Diaphragma, and intercostal Muscles are violently moved.

If the Lungs onely are stuffed, it is with­out snorting, and is then called in Greek [...] aegre, & [...] spiro.

In this the conduits of the Lights are much stopped, causing hardness, or straitness of breath, and pursiness.

But if the Patient fetcheth breath with much difficulty, with the Neck stretched up­right; it may then be called [...], ab [...], rectus, & [...], spiro, i. e. erecta cervice spirare.

The cause of this disease, is the Juice of Cause. the Pancreas growing more sour by its ob­struction, joined to viscous Phlegm in the small gut, by which it becomes more flatu­lent; and being stir'd up in its effervescency [Page 70] with Choler, it riseth to the Thoracick pas­sage, by the Lacteal Veins, and so to the Heart and Lungs, and filling the airy conduits thereof, and sticking there, it causeth a brea­thing with snorting.

The same humour is also carried to the Stomach, which causeth many sour Belchings in this distemper; and if these flatuous hu­mours become more sharp than viscous; so often as they come to the Lungs, they pierce into the sharp Artery, and do so provoke and molest it, that thereby the Lungs are compelled to cough, by which the Expira­tion of Air is deprav'd.

If there be much moisture contain'd in Progn. the sharp Artery, it will be the easier ex­pelled by the help of coughing, but if the Tra­chea Arteria be affected with driness, then no­thing is spit out, though with great and much labour, but the universal Body is wearied in vain with indeavouring to cough; whence there is sometimes raised a vehement Pain both of the Head and Hypochondries, and other parts; yea sometimes a Rupture is bred by it, and the Urine and Excrements are thereby often involuntarily extruded.

2. If this disease be not speedily removed, it will prove chronical and hard to be cur'd, unless the Patient be young and of a strong constitution, for otherwise it will end in a Cachexie or Dropsie.

[Page 71] An Asthma, or wheasing Anxiety may Cure.. happily be cured (in the beginning) by an Antimonial vomit, especially in those who do vomit easily, because the Phlegmatick humours (which are contained in the sharp Artery, &c.) are thereby immediately brought up; but if vomiting hurts the sick, the humours may be evacuated downwards by gentle purgation, with powerfull and ef­fectual Phlegmagogues, and Hydragogues, such as is prescrib'd in the Chapter of Ca­tarrhs. page 56. 57.

If the Patient hath a costive Body, let carminative Clysters be often administred; and if the Body be plethorick, let a vein be opened, either in the Foot, or apply Leeches to the Haemorrhoid veins, which will much conduce to free the respiration.

Such medicines as have an expectorating quality, and have power to temper and dis­cuss the over sharp vapours, may be often us'd in a little quantity.

The following Julep may be commended in this case.

Take of the pectoral Decoction half a pint, Pectoral Iulep. Cinamon-water, Syrups of Hore-hound, Fennel, of each one ounce and half; Spirits of Salt Armoniack, Niter, of each twenty drops; Laudanum opiatum ten grains; Oil of Sulphur per Campanam ten drops, mix it.

[Page 72] Quercetanus his Syrup of Tobacco, is com­mended in this distemper.

Also Tobacco taken in a Pipe, or chew­ed in the mouth, draweth abundance of viscous Phlegm out of the Stomach and Lungs.

Many more medicines might be inserted, but I refer you to the Chapter of Catarrhs, where you may be throughly furnished.

CHAP. II. Of the Pleurisie, and other Inflammations.

THE Pleurisie is called in Greek [...], ex [...] latus, quod tunicoe costos suc­cingentis Pleuritis. lateris dolor.

It is also called in Latin Pleuritis, & In­flammatio; it being an Inflammation of the Pleura, and also of the intercostal Muscles, and other adjacent parts, as the mediasti­num, pericardium, diaphragma, &c.

It is attended with many Symptomes, as difficulty of breathing, shooting and prick­ing pain of the sides, which is the more Signs. exasperated by coughing, and is common in this distemper; the Patient hath also a con­tinual acute Fever, which is most common­ly symptomatical.

[Page 73] The Inflammation of the Lungs is called in Greek [...], ex [...] circum & [...] Peripn­monia. pulmo, quod a [...] spiro.

It is also called in Latin Peripneumonia, & Peripneumonicus morbus.

It is not different in the causes or signs from a Pleurisie.

The cause of the Pleurisie, and Peripneu­mony, Caus and all other inflammations, is an obstruction of the Capillary vessels, (in the inflamed part) by glutenous Phlegm, car­ried together with the bloud through them, and if a Plethora concur, the bloud and hu­mours will soon be stagnated, and become acrid and fervid, which preternaturally dis­tends the vessels, by which circulation of the Bloud is hindred, so that at length the vessels break, and the Bloud is poured into the part affected; which there corrupts and increaseth the pain and inflammation, and consequently produceth a tumour, whee the putrid bloud and humours, (being [...]y degrees corrupted,) are converted into [...]u­rulent matter; for the bloud being stagna­ted, or standing still in any part, the s [...]iri­tuous, and more volatile and s [...]btle parts, that are wont to temper both the acid and salt parts, do afterward begin to vanish, whence both being made sharper, do more fiercely rise up one against ano­ther, and stir up an hot Effervescency, be­cause [Page 74] of the Oily parts of the bloud present; yea by degrees do so corrupt the bloud, as it turns it into matter, which is different according to the variousness of the bloud corrupted.

1. The sooner the inflammation and Tu­mour Progn comes to suppuration, the more easie will be the Cure.

2. If a Pleurisie follow an Inflammation of the Lungs, there may be hopes of recove­ry; but if a Peripneumony follow a Pleuri­sie, or Quinzy, 'tis dangerous, and (for the most part) mortal.

3. If much matter be expectorated by coughing, and there still remain difficulty of breathing, 'tis an ill sign; so likewise is it, if in coughing nothing be spit up.

4. If the Pleurisie, or Peripneumony re­main above twelve days, an Empiema will inevitably ensue; for the bloud standing still, is by little and little collected in its vessels, and be [...]ng peccant in a great excess, it distends them more and more, till at length they burst; whence there happens an effusion of blo [...]d into the Cavity of the Breast, and be­ing there collected, and corrupted into matter, it constitutes a suppuration called Empien [...]a. Empiena. Cure.

To [...]ure a Pleurisie, and any Inflammation, and Aposteme following, it is required, that

1. The obstruction of the vessels be opened, [Page 75] that the Circulation of the Bloud stopt, and standing still may be restor'd.

2. That the Bloud effus'd out of its ves­sels (if possible) may be discuss'd, before it turns to matter.

3. That if the Suppuration cannot be hin­dred, it must be promoted with all expediti­on, that the purulent matter collected, might be evacuated.

4. That the cleansing and consolidation of the Ulcer be speedily performed.

An obstruction of the vessels by viscous Cure. Phlegm, or bloud coagulated in them, may be cur'd by volatile Salts, prepar'd not one­ly of several parts of Animals, but also of Scor­butick plants, viz. Dandelion, Hedge-mustard, Scurvigrass, Garden and Water-cresses, &c.

To these may be referred Crabs-eyes, the Jaws of a Pike, the Bone of a Harts-heart, Mummy, Sperma coeti, Antimony Diapho­retick, Opium prepar'd, &c. as also all fixt metallick and mineral Sulphurs.

These volatile medicines have an egregi­ous Power of dissolving all things coagula­ted, and conglutinated in Man's body, and of reducing the same to their wonted flui­dity, and do mildly promote sweat; hence it is that often by one such Diaphoretick given in season, both a Pleurisie, and Pirip­neumony, and also Inflammations of other [Page 76] parts have been most happily and safely cu­red without Phlebotomy.

But where a Plethora concurs; after a stool hath been procur'd by a carminative Clyster, let a vein be opened, for thereby the bloud standing still will be restor'd to its wonted Circulation; for some of the bloud being let out, there will be a larger space made in the veins, for a more brisk and swift motion of the universal Mass of it.

After a sufficient quantity of bloud is ta­ken away, it will be profitable to give a Sudorifick.

This may serve for example.

Take the pectoral Decoction four ounces; Sudorifick. the Waters of Hyssop, Fennel, Parsley, Juice of Horse-dung clarified, distilled Vineger, of each three ounces; Treacle-water, Cinamon­water, Syrups of the five opening Roots, and of red and white Poppies, of each one ounce; Powder of Crabs-eyes, two drachms; Mum­my, Sperma coeti, of each half a drachm; Laudanum opiatum ten grains; volatile Salt of Harts-horn half a drachm; Spirit of Salt Armoniack twenty drops; mix it.

Let the sick take often a spoonfull of this Julep, which is rich in volatile Salt, and powerfully corrects the acidity of the bloud; by the help whereof the clottering of it will not onely be hindred, but its over thick parts incided, and by degrees attenuated; [Page 77] and its over thin parts will be discust, and evacuated together with Sweat or insensible Transpiration: Its over sharp parts will be also temper'd, and the Pain asswaged, and at length wholly taken away; as also the obstruction it self will be loosened and dissolved; for when the volatile Salt of the Sudorifick comes to the place of obstructi­on, it attempts the matter obstructing be it what it will, and cuts, attenuates, loosens, and makes it fluid; whence it is farther dri­ven forward together with it more easily.

The bloud is also thereby more and more rarified, and becomes more fluid, and mo­veable; wherefore there needs no farther care for elaborated medicaments, and Me­thods.

Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora.

As for Topical medicaments, or external applications, the following are excellent.

Take the roots of Briony, Smallage, Fen­nel, Fomenta­tion. of each four ounces; the tops of Elder, Dwarf-elder, Hedge-mustard, Agrimony, Wormwood, Mint, Vervain, Flowers of Me­lilot, Chamomel, of each two handfuls; Cum­min-seed, the Berries of Bays and Juniper, of each two ounces. Let them be all clean­sed, bruised and boiled in two gallons of Rain­water till half of it be boiled away, then strain it for a Fomentation.

[Page 78] Let the Inflammation or Tumor be well bathed with it, as hot as may be suffered, either with woollen cloaths, or soft spunges, fit to co­ver the part affected; after which let it be a­nointed with the following ointment.

Take Ointments of Marsh-mallows, Mar­tiatum, Ointment. of each one ounce; Oils of Dill, Bays, Lillies, Poppies, Henbane, of each half an ounce; Oils of Amber, Turpentine, Bricks, of each one drachm; Camphire two drachms; mix it. Then let this plaister be spread on lea­ther, or linen cloath, and applied.

Take Yellow Wax four ounces, Sper­ma Plaster. caeti, two ounces; Galbanum prepar'd with Vinegar, one ounce. Make it into a plaster according to art.

This egregious Plaster doth not onely pre­serve the bloud from coagulation in any part where it is applied; but Milk also from curd­ling in the Paps. But if it be not to be had, the following dissolving, and mollifying Ca­taplasm may be substituted.

Take of Onions rosted under the ashes two Pultis. ounces; Dwarf-elder, Hedge-mustard, Ver­vain, Elder, Chervil, Water-cresses, of each one handfull; Powders of Album Graecum, Lu­pines, a Swallows nest, Barley-meal, of each one ounce; Butter-milk as much as will make it into a Pultis.

Apply it meanly warm to the inflam'd part, for thereby the internal obstruction will be [Page 79] the better opened; but it must be renewed as often as it begins to dry.

When the bloud is effus'd into such places, out of which it cannot be well remov'd, or discust; suppuration or the generation of matter, must be promoted, and hastned; which may be done by emollient and ripen­ing Medicines, as the roots and leaves of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, white Lillies, O­nions, Squills, the powder of Fenugreek, and Flax-seed, the meal of Barley and Beans, the Marrow of all bones, and all kind of fats, and almost any Oil that is exprest of seeds, or kernels; as also divers sorts of Gums, as Galbanum, Liquid Styrax, Bdellium, Amonia­cum, and also Wax and Turpentine, &c.

Of these you may prepare Cataplasms, Oils, Unguents, Emplasters, &c. Which Judicious Physicians and Chyrurgions may doe as they see occasion.

But when there is much heat in the part inflam'd, beware of all unctuous things, and let your Fomentations and Cataplasms be made with Butter-milk, which doth egregi­ously temper heat, and hinder St. Anthonie's fire from being easily join'd with the In­flammation.

The generation of matter being promoted, and the Tumor come to suppuration, let it be opened either with an Instrument or po­tential Cauterie, in the softest and lowest [Page 80] part of it; and let the matter be evacuated by little and little, because otherwise the strength of the sick will not be a little pro­strated, especially when there is much mat­ter contained in the Aposteme; wherefore let not the Tumor be pressed hard, which is familiar with many Chyrurgions, but of­ten proves prejudicial to the Patient.

If the Orifice be too small, you may di­late it with a tent made of spunge dipt in Melilot plaster, and afterward pressed; but it is better to lay it open by incision, if it may conveniently be done; after which you must forth-with proceed to cleanse and consolidate the Ulcer; to which end several Medicines are wont to be applied, all which I neither blame nor carp at.

I have often considered (with admiration) the laudable effect of Balsam of Sulphur with Balsam Sulphur. Oil of Turpentine, &c. In this case incre­dible to many, if a little of it be mixt with a milder Balsam, and dropt in or applied to the Ulcer; for shortly after, the generation of new Phlegm is so diminisht, that oft by the help of this one Balsam, I have in a few days perfectly cur'd notable Apostemes after Inflammations, bred both in the Breasts and elsewhere.

By this experiment not a little to be esteem'd I judge the cleansing and consolida­tion of Ulcers following Apostemes, to con­sist [Page 81] in the correction of acid and corroding matter, adhering to the Ulcer, and corrupt­ing the bloud, (at least in part that is apt to nourish it) and turning it into new matter; which may be corrected by the mention'd Balsam of Sulphur which is not onely Aro­matical, but abounds with a volatile oily Salt; by which the acid Spirit (which cor­rupts the bloud into matter) is not onely dull'd, but so amended, that the bloud flow­ing to it soon repairs the parts before con­sum'd, and finisheth the last consolidation.

What farther may be deduc'd from this experiment, to perfect Physick and Chyrur­gery also in other cures, let both ingeni­ous Physicians, and Chyrurgeons, weigh and judge.

If a Pleurisie, or Peripneumonie, be [...] not carefully cured, and Empiema (which is a collection of purulent matter in the ca­vity of the Breast) will unavoidably follow.

Wherefore if these Humors cannot be e­vacuated by expectoration, nor by sweating, pissing, or purging; the matter may be drawn out by a Compun­ctio. Paracenthesis made in the Breast.

The Apertion may be made four or five in­ches Caution. from the Sternon; not so near the up­per as the lower rib, because under each rib there is an Intercostal Vein, Arterie and Nerve.

[Page 82] I do not approve of the old way of per­forming this operation, viz. After the Ori­fice is made, to put in a Perforated Pipe of Gold, Silver, or Lead, and there to remain till the matter be all discharged.

There is now a safer and surer way where­in is not onely avoided many difficulties and dangers, but 'tis also done with less trouble and pain to the Patient.

The Instrument must be made of Steel, sharp at the point like a Lancet, and hollow like a quill, with holes in several places to­wards the point, the better to evacuate the matter.

When the quantity (which you intend) is discharged, draw out the Instrument, and put a little pledget of dry lint on the Orifice, and upon it a sticking plaster; the next day (according to the strength of the sick) repeat it, either in the first place, or make a new Apertion. Thus you may doe every day, till the matter be all discharged.

By this Instrument may a Hydrocele be also discharged, and likewise the Dropsie of the Breast and Abdomen.

They that desire more directions in this Operation, may peruse Hieronymus Fabricius ab aqua pendente, in Libro de Operationibus Chirurgicis.

CHAP. III. Of the consumption or Phthisick, and an Hec­tick Fever.

THE Consumption is called in Greek [...], ex [...], Tabesco, because in this disease the sick doth consume or waste away.

It is called in Latin Tabes, which is a ge­neral Tabes. name for all Consumptions, whether it be Atrophia, Cachexia, or Phthisis; but it may most properly be taken for an Extenua­tion of the whole body, caused by an Ulcer of the Lungs.

The purulent matter of the Ulcer circula­ting with the bloud, doth infect, and by de­grees corrupt the whole mass of it, which makes it unfit for nourishment; hence it is that all the parts of the body do waste and consume.

The causes are many, sometimes purulent Causes. matter may be communicated to the Lungs, from the Plurisie or Empiema, inflaming and corrupting them, which causeth an Ulcer.

Sometimes a salt and sharp Rheum flowing down from the Head to the Trachea Arteria, which doth not onely cause a vehement Coughing, but doth corrode the Lungs being naturally tender; Hence an Ulcer will be caused.

[Page 84] Also many times Pustules, or Tubercles, are generated in the Lungs, and coming to suppuration, they break; and the matter flowing to the Bronchia, it may be spit up, if the Patient have strength; but oft times an Ulcer remaineth, which causeth a Con­sumption.

These causes depend sometimes on Choler, sometimes on the juice of the Pancreas, some­times on Spittle, sometimes on Chyle, some­times on Lympha any way Vitiated, by which the mass of bloud (in time) becomes also corrupted.

When the Lungs decline from their Natu­ral consistency, they Will soon become hard and tumorous, and so by degrees they will be corrupted, and ulcerated; and the mat­ter of the Ulcer corrupting, and makeing the mass of bloud glutinous, in circulating with it, doth so weaken and corrupt all the parts of the body, that they become unfit to perfect natural nourishment; and there­fore of necessity the universal body must con­sume and pine away; sometimes it is caused by an obstruction of the lacteal veins, which hindreth the natural passage of the Chylus.

Authours mention many more causes of Consumptions; as Gonorrhoea, Nocturnal Pol­lutions, want of Nourishment, &c.

The signs of a Consumption begun, are a Signs. great defluxion of Rheum into the sharp Ar­tery, [Page 85] causing a violent Cough, by which the Lungs are exasperated, and there follows a Hectick Fever, sometimes putrid, from the purulent matter flowing into the Veins.

To know whether the Lungs be ulcerated, let the Patient spit into water; if it sinks it is matter, which is an infallible sign of an Ulcer; for Phlegm always swims in water.

When the Ulcer is confirm'd, there is dif­ficult breathing, and wasting of the whole body; the spittle is thick, and of various colours.

If the Ulcer of the Lungs, and Consump­tion Progn. hath not been long, and the strength of the sick remains, there may be hopes of recovery; & e contra.

The Hectick Fever is called in Greek Febris Hectica. [...], i. e. ab habitu; quod in habitu corporis, vel in partibus solidis consistat.

It is an unnatural heat which hath seized upon the solid parts, and wasteth the moi­sture of them.

The heat in an Hectick Fever is but little, and therefore rarely troublesome to the sick, except one or two hours after meat; at which time the heat is a little sharpned and increased, which may be known by an over frequent though weak Pulse; but it soon re­turns again to its former equality.

But here it will not be amiss to shew you that there is a threefold moisture in the body, [Page 86] viz. bloud in the Veins and Arteries, a dewy substance in every part, and also a glutinous moisture; which doth not onely nourish, but moistneth it, and keepeth the substance of each part together.

In the beginning when the moisture begins Signs. to fail, the Hectick Fever is not easily discer­ned because there is still sufficient moisture to entertain the natural heat; but if (by the long continuance of the Hectick Fever) the radical moisture of the solid parts begins to consume, it may then be easily known, for there follows a continual and lingring lean­ness of the whole body; which being re­duc'd to its extremity, may be call'd in Greek [...], and in English an extenuating Fever.

The Latin Authours call it Marcor, which signifies Corruption or Rottenness. It is an immoderate dryness, and Consumption of the whole body, by reason of the defect of the substantial humidity.

There are two degrees of it according to Liber 12. de marc. cap. 4. Galen, the one is, when this extenuation of the body is in fieri, in consuming; the other is when it is in facto esse, or consummate; in which the body is reduc'd to such lean­ness, that it seemeth to be nothing else but a walking Sceleton.

The causes of an Hectick Fever, are Ex­ternal Causes. or Internal.

[Page 87] The External causes are all that may occa­sion any of the other Fevers, for oft times Hectick Fevers are observ'd to follow other diseases, and especially Fevers of one day, proceeding from a great errour in Diet, and also from continual, and intermitting Fevers, when they are very vehement; but most frequently from Inflammations of the Bowels, especially of the Lungs, for when an Ulcer follows, then the whole mass of bloud is in­fected by matter, and gets a singular gluti­nousness; which being communicated to the other humours, spoils them with the same fault, and renders them unfit to perform the natural Functions rightly.

Sometimes Hectick Fevers are observ'd to arise immediately from excess of the nonna­tural things, as most vehement anger, too much watchings, immoderate sorrow, con­tinued labour, want of food, &c.

The Internal cause is, the over viscousness of the bloud and humours, because of which not onely the appetite of all food is dimini­shed, and at length dejected, but the nou­rishment of all the parts of the body is dayly decreas'd; for when there is loathing of food, then fermentation, separation of usefull from unusefull parts, sanguification, generation of the Animal Spirits, &c. is hindred and de­stroyed; whence the toughness, and slug­gishness of Choler, Spittle, the juice of the [Page 88] Pancreas, and Lympha, is dayly augmented, and the evil becomes by degrees greater, and at length incurable.

If you perceive that there is so much of Progn. the radical moisture remaining, as is able to cherish the natural heat, which you may discern, if the colour of the body be fresh, if the figure be decent, if the proportion of the parts be according to nature, and the sick can (in some good measure) perform all ac­tions, you may conceive some hopes of re­covery.

But if the Body be extenuated, almost like a Sceleton, viz. when the body seemeth to be nothing else but Skin and Bone, (as the vulgar proverb is) acquaint the sick with the danger, least Death seize upon them un­prepared.

Nevertheless, if the sick implore your aid of Christian Charity, withdraw not what comfort you are able to procure unto them.

The Cure of a Consumption, and Hectick Cure. Fever, will differ not a little, according to the diversity of causes producing them.

When an Hectick Fever comes with, or succeeds Fevers with or without fits, then upon their account, the cure may be varied according to the divers harm of the hu­mours, differently peccant.

If a Consumption, or Hectick Fever, be caused by purulent matter from an Ulcer of [Page 89] the Lungs, &c. then you must endeavour to free the bloud and humours from matter, which may be done by any Antimonial me­dicines rightly prepared, perhaps before all o­thers; whether they be Diaphoreticks, Pur­gers, or Vomiters, as experience doth ma­nifest; for it hath been observ'd, (even in a Phthisick, and an inveterate great Ulcer of the Lungs) to bring away a good quantity of matter, by Stool and Urine, so that then for many days, no matter was cast forth by a Cough.

Among common things, all Vulnerary plants are good used in Decoctions. Let this or one like it, be a form of a Decoction in this case.

Take the Roots of Plantain, Comfry, Round-birthwort, Liquorish, of each two ounces; Fennel, Scabious, Plantain, of each two handfulls; Figs, Raisons of the sun sto­ned, of each four ounces; let them be all cleansed, bruised and boiled in three quarts of Barley-water till a third part be boiled a­way; then strain it, and add Syrups of Hore-hound, and Hyssop, of each two oun­ces; Laudanum opiatum ten grains. Mix it. Let the sick drink two ounces of this Decoc­tion oft in a day; and if you add one or two drops of Balsam of Sulphur with Oil of An­nise-seed to every draught, it will be the more effectual. The Balsam prepared of the truly [Page 90] Sulphureous and inflameable Flowers of Anti­mony, is most excellent in this distemper, if it may be had, which may be taken as the Bal­sam of Sulphur.

Also those medicines may be used which mildly amend and correct the viscousness, and glutinousness of all the humours; for which I commend all mild Aromaticks, and Oily Volatile Salts, as that cut and alter every viscous humour, and reduce it into its natural state.

Those medicines are to be selected as do most conduce to, and agree with the con­stitution of every sick person.

Vitriolated Tartar is an excellent medicine, which will agree with all constitutions, and may be taken from ten to twenty grains (e­very other morning) in a little warm Broth.

Also the following medicine is very ef­fectual.

Take the Powder of Cream of Tartar, Powder. and Tartar Vitriolated, of each half a drachm; Volatile Salt of Harts-horn, Salt of Amber, of each ten grains. Mix it for two doses, which may be taken in Chicken Broth, in the morning.

These choice medicines will conduce much to cleanse the bloud and humours from all purulent matter, if there be any hopes of the Patient's recovery.

All Effusions of Bloud, Seed and Milk, [Page 91] are to be shun'd, except the wonted empty­ings, which are natural and serve the indi­vidual.

Let the motions of the Mind be moderate, and the exercise of the Body be gentle, and let sleep and watchings keep a mediocrity.

Appoint a moistning and nourishing Diet, which is of easie fermentation, as Broth, and Jellies of young Creatures, and Milk of Goats, Sheep and Cows, and chiefly of wholsome Women.

A Panado made with the Broth of a Chicken, the Crums of White-bread, and the Yelk of a new laid Egg, may sometimes be given the sick for a change.

Let cooling Herbs be boiled in the Broth, and Jellies; adding other ingredients that are cooling, moistning and cordial, both to strengthen Nature, and revive the Spirits.

Let the sick drink Barley-water, made pleasant with some Pectoral Syrup; and if they have been accustomed to drink Wine, let it be well diluted with water.

As for Fruit, Apples are much commended, especially Pippins, and Permains, which will much refresh the sick. If the Patient be cos­tive, you may sometimes administer a Clyster of Milk and the yelk of an Egg.

The worst symptome that can attend these diseases, is a Loosness; if it so happen, give Goats or Cows milk, wherein steel hath been [Page 92] quenched, and Rice boiled in it, adding a little Powder of Cinamon, and let the sick eat commonly of it.

CHAP. IV. Of the Palpitation of the Heart.

THIS Disease is called in Greek [...], and in Latin, palpitatio Cordis, [...], quod leviter ac frequenter com­movet; because there is an over frequent Pulsation or leaping of Bloud in the Heart, &c.

It is a Convulsive motion of the Heart, with a vehement Systole, and Diastole of it; which sometimes hath been so inordinate, that the Pulsation hath not been onely seen, but heard at a notable distance; yea some­times it hath been so great, that the adjacent Ribs in young and tender people (who have been afflicted with this distemper) hath been dislocated, and the Aorta or great Artery, hath been much dilated. See Fernelius lib. 5. cap. 12. pag. 292.

This deprav'd motion, or Palpitation of Cause. the Heart, is for the most part caused from sharp, viscous and flatuous humours, fre­quently arising out of the small Guts, and [Page 93] transmitted to the ventricles of the Heart, and adhereth to them, by which the Heart is provoked to a vehement and unequal con­traction of it self, without intermission.

These humours are mov'd and driven for­ward, either by their vitious effervescency; or else they are stirr'd up by violent motion or exercise of the Body, especially in the quick ascending of a steep hill; and some­times they are constrain'd, or urg'd by grie­vous Passions of the mind.

Sometimes there have been observ'd fleshy Tumours, and Cartilaginous excrescencies in the Substance of the Heart, when dis­sected; and those poor Creatures when li­ving were never free from a vehement Pal­pitation.

Also Worms have been found in the Pericardium, of some that have been dissec­ted after death; which without doubt cau­sed a deprav'd motion, or pulsation of the Heart when living.

That which is caused by fleshy Tumours, Progn. Cartilaginous excrescencies, Worms, or any other extraneous thing in the Pericardium, or substance of the Heart, is incurable.

But the Palpitation of the Heart which is caused by acrimonious, flatuous and viscous humours may be cured.

Those medicines must be administred, Cure. [Page 94] that cut, and discuss, and temper an acid Acrimony.

The following Julep may serve for an ex­ample.

Take the Waters of Parsley, Fennel, of Iulep. each three ounces; Tincture of Cinamon, Syrup of Mint, of each two ounces; Chy­mical Oil of Mace ten drops; Spirit of Salt Armoniack twenty drops; Laudanum opiat. ten grains; mix it, let the sick take a spoon­full of it every quarter of an hour, till they get some ease.

If the distemper hath persever'd long; the peccant humours must be emptied out by purging; and to educe them, I prefer before all others, Pills to be made of Gums, seeing they loosen the glutinous humours, and dis­pose them to be easier carried out.

For example.

Take of Galbanum prepar'd with Vinegar Purging Pills. half an ounce; Powder of Scammony pre­par'd, Troches Alhandal, of each two drachms; Oil of Carraway twenty drops; make it into a Mass for Pills.

Take five or six of these Pills in the Mor­ning fasting, twice a week.

They who abhor Pills, may use an Aro­matick and purging Decoction.

The following though bitter is very effi­cacious.

[Page 95] Take the five opening Roots, of each one Purging Decoction. ounce; Roots of Angelica, Berries of Bay and Juniper, of each half an ounce; the best Senna, Orange-peel, Carraway-seed, Coloquintida, of each one drachm; Guiacum four ounces; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain-water till half of it be boiled away, then strain it, and add Syrup of Roses with Senna four ounces, Cinamon-water two ounces; mix it.

Let the sick take four ounces of this bit­ter Decoction, every other Morning; which will by degrees diminish, and mildly educe the hurtfull humours by purging.

But seeing not onely the cause ought to be removed, but also the Symptomes asswag'd, by refreshing the Heart; you must admi­nister cordial Medicines which have power to corroborate the Heart, and to cherish and strengthen nature.

The following Cordial may be preferred in this Case.

Take the Waters of Baum, Mint, Borage, Cordial Iulep. Cinamon, of each three ounces; Syrups of Baum, red Poppies, of each two ounces; Laudanum opiat. Amber-greese, of each ten grains, mix it.

Let the sick take two spoonfulls of this rich Cordial every three hours, which will wonderfully refresh, and delight the sensi­ble Stomach, from whence the perfumed [Page 96] impressions will soon be communicated to the whole Body; by which all the vital and animal Functions will be refreshingly cherished, and strengthned, and the Palpita­tion of the Heart eased and abated.

If the Patient hath a costive Body, let a carminative Clyster be sometimes admi­nistred, and if a Plethora concur, let a vein be opened, either with an Instrument in the Arm, or by Leeches applied to the Haemor­rhoids.

CHAP. V. Of an universal Languishing, as also of Swoun­ing and Syncope.

AN universal Languishing of the strength of all the parts and functions, is some­times observ'd to remain after some disease preceding, not rightly cured; especially when the Infirmity hath been grievous, for then a weariness or defect of the Animal motion doth usually concur, together with a weak or little pulse, and dulness and debility of the internal and external senses; whereby the sick continues weak and more languishing (by certain intervalls) than is natural.

[Page 97] All the kinds of Swounings, may be divi­ded (for methods sake) into two, viz. the lighter kind, and the most grievous.

The lighter kind of Swouning or fainting is called in Greek [...], vel [...] in Latin animae defectio, ex [...] anima, & [...] deficere, because it is an Imbecility or Fee­bleness of the Heart and Courage.

The most grievous and singular kind of swouning, is called in Greek [...], ex [...] Syncope. concido, to cut away; quod praeceps viri­um omnium lapsus.

It is also called [...], i. e. pulsus privatio, because there is no pulse; neither indeed (presently in the fit) is there any Animal or voluntary motion or respiration to be observ'd, so that they are more like dead than living Creatures.

The signs of these fits approaching are Signs. yawnings, a Cardialgy, Anxiety of Com­pression of the Heart, griping and distensi­on of the Belly, tinkling in the Ears, dim­ness before the Eyes, and a Giddiness; and at the approach of a Syncope, there are of­ten Convulsive motions, with a cold and glutinous sweat, and paleness of all the parts of the Body.

The causes of these distempers are either Causes. external, or internal.

The external are many, as extreme wea­riness of the Body, exceeding passions of the [Page 98] mind, prolong'd hunger or thirst, ungrate­full smells, the sight of any Person or thing that is envied, too great effusion of Bloud, Seed or Milk, over great evacuation of the humours, by Vomit, Stool, Sweat, Urine, &c.

It may also be caused by the biting or stinging of any venemous Creature, and by any other vehement pain.

Sometimes it is produc'd by a great heat, either of the Sun, Fire, Bath or Fever.

Any of these Causes mention'd (being ex­treme) may so change, and diminish the natu­ral effervescency, and rarefaction of the bloud, that the Heart it self is not thereby enough expanded, and contracted: So that the vital bloud cannot be sufficiently effus'd into the Arteries; and therefore the Pulse is felt less and more languishing, yea sometimes none.

The internal Cause is glutinousness encrea­sed in the bloud, and the other humours; and sometimes an encreased Acidity in the Juice of the Pancreas, Lympha and Spittle; by which the Circulation of the Bloud and Humours becomes too slow; hence the Ventricles of the Heart are not enough dila­ted, which causeth the Pulse to be weaker than is natural, for the effervescency of the bloud and humours being not potent enough, cannot provoke the Heart to contract it self, and therefore a Swouning or Syncope will inevitably ensue.

[Page 99] They who are much subject to a Swouning Progn. or Syncope, dye suddenly.

Those fits which are produc'd from some evident cause, as vehement passions of the mind, immoderate evacuations, &c. are less dangerous than those which come from an internal cause, as glutinousness of the bloud and humours, &c. Which in a great measure hindreth its free Circulation through the Ventricles of the Heart, whereby there is a sudden and swift sailing of the vital Spirits, and consequently of all strength.

To cure an universal languishing, as also a Cure. Swouning and Syncope; the phlegmatick, glutinous, and acid Humours must not one­ly be corrected, but when they abound, must be diminish'd and educ'd out of the Body.

Therefore to correct and amend the said humours abounding, both in the universal Body, and Bloud; I will here set down some forms of select medicines, for the sake of young Physicians.

The following Decoction, is an efficacious Medicine.

Take the Roots of Elicampane, Galan­gal, Decoction. Angelica, Calamus Aromaticus, the sive opening Roots, of each one ounce; Sage, Baum, Betony, sweet Marjoram, the Tops of Hore-hound, Centaury, Wormwood, the Flowers of Rosemary, Staechas, Chamomel, Clove-gilliflowers, of each one handfull; [Page 100] the Seeds of Anise, Sweet-fennel, Parsley, Cardamoms, Berries of Bays and Juniper, of each two drachms; Orange-peel, Cinamon, of each half an ounce; Nutmegs one drachm; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused in two quarts of Fountain-water for a night; then boil it gently till a third part be consu­med; strain it, and add Syrup of Mugwort, Staechas, tincture of Cinamon, of each two ounces; mix all together.

Two or three ounces of this Decoction may be taken at any time, twice in a day, either before or after meat, that so the pow­er of the medicine may mildly mix and in­corporate it self, not onely with the food, but with Spittle in the Stomach, and also with the threefold humour flowing together in the small Guts; and thence with the uni­versal bloud and humours in all the Veins and Arteries; whereby the desired amendment, and correcting of them will be performed, sooner, easier and more happily.

If any like a medicinal Wine better, they may infuse the aforesaid Ingredients in a suf­ficient quantity of White-wine, and drink it daily both at dinner and supper time.

These choice Medicines may be continued for some time; but when the sick is weary of them, you may use the same Ingredients in the form of a Powder, or Electuary, or make them into Troches, with Syrup of Stae­chas, Mugwort, &c.

[Page 101] Or you may make use of those compound Powders which are to be sold at the shops, viz. Spec. Diambr. Diagalangae, Dianthos, &c. all or either of which may be used as aforesaid.

If any will be better pleas'd with Pills than other Forms, you may prescribe these, or some like them.

Take of Galbanum prepar'd with Vinegar Purging Pills. two scruples; Powder of Amber, Mastick, of each one scruple; Frankincense, Mirrh, Castor, of each ten grains; Vitriol of Mars prepar'd to whiteness, half a drachm; Chy­mical Oil of Mace, eight drops; beat them into a mass for Pills.

Let the Patient take four or five of there Pills in the morning fasting, or at night an hour after supper; whereby the viscous phlegmatick and acid humours will be po­tently corrected, and temper'd; which be­ing done, the peccant humours may be ef­fectually educ'd with these hydragogue Pills.

Take Gum, Sagapenum prepar'd with Vi­negar Purging Pills. half a drachm, Rosin of Jallap, Gam­bogia, of each one scruple; Oil of Juniper four drops; mix them into Pills.

Four or five of these Pills may be admini­stred at a time; or more or sewer, as the sick is more difficult or easie to be purg'd.

When a swouning Fit or Syncope is near ap­proaching, give those things that will power­fully [Page 102] concentrate the sour flatuous vapours, and discuss the glutinous Phlegm.

The following Volatile, and Aromatick Cordial will conduce much to this purpose.

Take the Waters of Mint, Fennel, Betony, Cordial Iulep. Scurvigrass, Cinamon, of each one ounce; Syrups of Borage, Mint, of each six drachms; Tincture of Castor, Confection of Alkermes, of each two drachms; Salt of Amber one drachm; Spirit of Salt Armoniack twen­ty drops; Laudanum opiat. Amber-greese, of each six grains; mix it.

The sick may take two or three spoon­fulls of this Cordial in time of the fit, and likewise both before and after, which will much repair both the Vital and Animal strength, which is wont not a little to lan­guish in these fits.

None but they who have try'd, will be easily perswaded of the wonderfull efficacy of the aforesaid medicines; not onely in preventing, but in diminishing and soon cu­ring Swounings and the Syncope.

When either of these fits urgeth, or is upon the party, you must use those outward things, which may stir up the external sen­ses; as frictions of the external parts, shout­ings in the Ears; also make a smoak with Am­ber, or Partridg Feathers at the nose, or hold the Spirit of Salt Armoniack, (in a narrow mouth'd glass) to the Nostrils. You may [Page 103] also wring the Fingers, and pull the Hair, &c.

If you have not a Cordial ready, give Cinamon, or Treacle water, or the Apoplec­tick or Antepileptick waters, or for want of them, Brandy, Aqua vitae or strong Wine may serve.

CHAP VI. Of Fevers in General.

A Fever is called in Greek [...], vel a feritate morbi, that is from the fierceness of the disease.

It is called febris in latin a fervore, quasi fervens, because it is a hot distemper.

A Fever is a nonnatural heat, which may be so termed, because it is more than nature requires, for the continual management of her vital functions; for when nature is grie­ved, or over-burthned by any distemper, there is a strugling endeavour of nature her self to remove it, which causeth this non­natural heat.

It may be called the Prince of diseases, be­cause it is the general door, through which most of humane mortals take their exit of this world.

[Page 104] The cause of the preternatural frequen­cy of the pulse, is either a permanent and over rarefaction of the bloud, or any sharp, sour, or salt vapour carried to the Heart, corroding the internal substance of it; by which the Archaeus or vital Airy spirit of the Heart is provoked to allarm all the faculties, and powers both vital and natural, that it may the more couragiously resist its inva­ding Enemy, so that the spirits are thereby much stirred up and inflamed; from whence proceedeth a Conflagration, or vitious Effer­vescency of the Bloud and Humours through­out the whole Body.

Fevers are either continual, or intermit­ting.

A continual Fever is that which remains from the first moment of its invasion, to the last of its duration.

When a continual Fever is very mild, and remains but one day; it is called in Greek [...], ex [...] dies, quod diem durans.

It is called in Latin Diaria, & Ephemera febris.

This Fever is often excited by sudden passi­ons of the mind, as vehement anger, &c. and also by our abode too long in the Sun, or by vitiously using any other of the six nonnatural things so called; for which there is no great need to prescribe Medicines for a Cure, it being not difficult, the very nature [Page 105] of such a Fever terminating it self, most com­monly by a breathing sweat, especially if you substract the Patient from the inflammatory Cause.

If the Fever continues longer, it may be called in Greek [...], ex [...], continuo. From whence it is called in Latin febris con­tinua, quae nullas hujusmodi mutationes habet, quae accessiones videri possint, sed unicam modo accessionem a principio usque ad finem nullis exa­cerbationibus distinctam.

The continual Fever is also called Homo­tona, quae fimilem calorem ad finem usque ser­vat.

It is also called Acmastica, quae continuo cres­cit & intenditur.

A Synochus, or continual Fever, may be divided into two sorts, viz. that which is not Diffe­rence. putrid, called in Latin Synochus non putrida, and that which is putrid, called Synochus putrida.

In a Synochus non putrida, the bloud, and other humours is a little sharper than is na­tural, and the heat somewhat great and va­porous, declining a little to the nature and manner of those called putrid.

Continual Fevers are oft times mixt or compounded with those intermitting, having some fits, and again remissions, so that they are not intermitting, but still remain conti­nual.

[Page 106] These fits come sometimes every day, sometimes the third, and sometimes the fourth day; whence it may deservedly be nam'd, either a Quotidian, Tertian, or Quar­tan continual Fever.

These Fevers upon the account of their divers causes, may not unfitly be distinguish'd into Cholerick and Lymphatick Fevers.

And because under the general name of Lympha, we do not onely comprehend, that Lympha which goes from the conglobated Glandules, and other parts to the Heart; but also the Juice of the Pancreas, and Spittle it self, proceeding from the conglomerated Glan­dules, and also the Liquour that ariseth from the three-fold sway of the Guts, all mixt toge­ther with Lympha, and the bloud in circula­ting with it.

Hence may Lymphatick fevers be subdivi­ded into glandular, pancreatick and salivary Fevers.

All these Fevers may differ something accor­ding to the divers Constitution of other hu­mours together being in the Body.

But I shall wave the nice descriptions and differences of Fevers, and let the dextrous, and judicious Physician put a difference be­tween them, as their Symptoms shall direct and indicate, for though there are many sorts of continual Fevers not putrid, yet the Cure is almost the same in all; I shall there­fore [Page 107] (in a few words) mention some of their differences, taken from the more grievous Symptoms oft accompanying them; after the example of famous Practioners, and chiefly great Platerus, and the most famous Hel­mont, and judicious Sylvius, &c.

1. First, let us take notice of the excee­ding heat, and most urgent burning, which Symp­tomes. attend some Fevers.

It is called in Greek [...], which doth sig­nifie Causes. burning; in which the sick is very dry and thirsty, which is hard to be quenched.

This heat is not of the essense of the di­sease, but proceedeth from the inflamed spi­rits, as is before mention'd in page 98.

Neither doth the great thirst in Fevers, pro­ceed from heat and driness, as in a true and natural thirst, but from some excrementitious matter, which adhereth to the sensitive fa­culty of the internal membrane of the Sto­mach, which is common to the Throat, Mouth and Lips, as that famous Physician, and ingenious Anatomist Doctour Alexander Read, did well observe; which is also the cause, that those parts are always afflicted in this dry and thirsty distemper.

In this Symptome, Choler is peccant, not onely in a salt Acrimony, but also an infla­mable oiliness; hence the Pulse is very great, and over frequent, &c.

[Page 108] 2. Raving may be oft observ'd in many Fevers, which is grievous to the sick for some time, chiefly when the Fever is malign, or epidemical.

The cause of this is Choler peccant as a­foresaid, which so diminisheth the viscousness of the Juice of the Pancreas, that it causeth a vitious Effervescency with it, and being made sharper, it produceth a humour not much unlike black Choler, which causeth the Head-ach, and Watchings, and hence Ravings, and at length sometimes Convulsi­ons, and Death it self.

There are many more Symptoms belong­ing to continual or synochal Fevers.

1. As first, a speedy wasting of several parts of the body, caused by Choler, the Cure whereof may be referred to the Cure of a Hectick Fever.

2. A malignity, which suddenly dejecteth the vital strength, without manifest cause; which for the most part is Epidemical. But of this I intend to treat particularly in Chap. 8. of this Book.

3. The last Symptome which I shall here mention, is seldom observ'd; in which (all the time of the disease) the external parts are cold, while the internal parts burn; and therefore 'tis called by the Latins Lipyria fe­bris, and in Greek [...], quia destitu­itur Lipiria febris. ardore externo.

[Page 109] Some think this distemper consists of a double Fever, Cholerick, and Pancreatical; and not without reason, because such like va­pours may be continually rais'd in the small guts, by the Juices of the Pancreas universal­ly over-sour; which may be confus'd onely with the Mass of Bloud, and breed a sense of cold in the habit of the Body, whilst a burning heat is stir'd up in the internal parts by a Fever, caused by Choler more oily than sharp.

The cause of every continual Fever not Cause. putrid, is sometimes Choler vitiated, some­times Lympha together with the Juice of the Pancreas and Spittle, and many times all these together are ill affected.

These vitiated humours flowing always to the Heart, cause a continual Effervescency in the right Ventricle of it; whence the Pulse is continually produc'd more frequent against nature.

Fevers in Children are caused either by the Food abounding in quantity, or by some vi­tious quality of it, or from an ill disposition of the digestive ferment.

Milk is the general Food of Children, and there is such a propensity in its own nature to curdle, that if it be not quickly digested, it obeyeth the acid Ferment of the Stomach, and is soon coagulated like new tough Cheese, and if it be not speedily vomited up, it be­gets [Page 110] a putrefactive Ferment, which pro­duceth terrible Symptoms, as griping, scou­ring, vomiting, &c.

I know a Woman, that had a young Child Hystory. about a Month old, which was taken very ill with Convulsions, after which followed a thorough Thrush, with a Fever, accompanied with the aforesaid Symptoms, as griping, &c. which continu'd many days, till the whole body was so maciated, that it was in a total Atrophia; and when there was no hopes of recovery, the Nurse gave the Child a little of the infusion of the Antimonial Cup, which caused it to vomit up a Curd, three or four inches long, very green, and as tough as new Cheese: After which the Child did won­derfully recover and grow fat.

Continual acute Fevers are oft times ac­companied Progn. with a secret malignity, and there­fore dangerous; parvoe febres quandoque valde malignoe.

The Stomach (in continual Fevers) is Pars af­fecta. most commonly primarily affected through undigestion, or else from Excrements, not being separated and orderly evacuated; which causeth an irregular Ferment, or nonnatural heat in the Stomach; which (though begun else where) is much aggravated by vitiating Juices, found in this first Elaboratory of de­cocting Nature.

[Page 111] For as in humane frame, the first heat of Nature (preparatory to all her depending motions) is the digestive heat for Chylifica­tion in the Stomach; so likewise the cor­rupting or exasperating of the same, either by the sour Ferments, or too much of the overflowing Gall, is the Cause of most Fevers.

Therefore in the beginning of the Cure, Cure. evacuation by vomiting never ought to be neglected by the carefull Physician (provided it be duely timed) because then most com­monly it removeth the sole cause of the fe­verish Intemperature, without the help of any other means.

And here I commend Antimonials well prepared, before all others, seeing that An­timony as well rightly prepar'd, as admi­nistred, serves no less to purifie Man's bo­dy than Gold.

But if the Patient's body be costive, and there be eminent signs of a Plethora, or great fulness of Bloud; then let a carminative Clys­ter be first administred, and after its operati­on let a Vein be opened, and draw seven or eight ounces of bloud at a time, and if there be occasion let it be reiterated; for I always prefer its repeated less diminution, (as need requires) sometimes instituted in the same day, before great evacuations made suddenly, which hath brought many Evils to the sick.

[Page 112] It matters little what vein be opened, un­less in Women, because of the monthly Terms either at hand, or hindred.

And seeing it is the duty of every honest Physician to be Natures helper, he ought to endeavour to remove all impediments, where­by the sick may be cured more quickly, safely and pleasantly, without demurs, to magnifie the Cure, and inflame the recko­nings.

Wherefore since the first curative intenti­on of most Fevers, is the discharge of the first turgent Monitor from the Stomach, and adjacent parts by vomiting, as is before said.

Let the Patient (upon the discovery of the assaulting Enemy) take an Antimonial Emetick, and if one doth not suffice, let it be reiterated; by which the Morbifick matter will be evacuated, nature calmed, and the contemperating of the incited, or enraged nonnatural heat, will be the easier performed.

But here the Sex is to be consider'd, the Female not so well enduring this evacuati­on; Cautio. because Emeticks cause great Com­motions, and flatuous Vapours in them; which may also prevent or corrupt natures own intentions in her great discharge of turgent humours.

[Page 113] Wherefore administer no Emetick to them, except they vomit very easily; but rather let the peccant humours be diminisht, or emptied out gradually by the following de­coction to be taken twice a day to three or four ounces.

Take the Roots of Parsly, Fennel, Plan­tain, Purging Decoction. Peony, Dandelion, Succory, of each two ounces; the Leaves of Endive, House­leek, Fumitory, Damask-roses, of each one handfull. Let them be cleansed, bruised and infused (for a Night) in one quart of Foun­tain-water very hot, then boil it gently till a third part be consumed, strain it and add Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, the best Man­na, of each two ounces; Powder of Cream of Tartar, and Tartar vitriolated, of each two drachms; Oil of Sulphur twenty drops; mix it all together.

This pleasant Medicine will conduce much to correct the salt sharpness of Choler, and will also amend its Oily inflameableness, and separate it from the Bloud, and mildly dispose it, and the rest of the abounding hu­mours to be voided out by stool.

After these Evacuations, give the sick the following Medicine twice a day in a little thin broth, or Water-gruel.

Take Salt of Amber, volatile Salt of Harts­horn, Volatile Powder. Tartar vitriolated, of each six grains; mix it.

[Page 114] This excellent volatile Medicine is both abstersive, and Diuretick, and will cleanse the Stomach and Intestines of the remaining Sordes, and expell them by Urine.

In the Declination of the Fever, if sleep be wanting; this following Julep will much avail, both to cause rest, and refresh the spirits.

Take the Waters of Carduus benedict. Fen­nel, Cordial Iulep. of each two ounces; Treacle-water, Sy­rup of red Poppies, of each one ounce; Lau­danum opiatum six grains; Salt of Worm­wood half a drachm; Spirit of Salt twenty drops; mix it, and give the sick three or four spoonfulls every three hours.

By the frequent use of this Cordial Julep, (or one like it) all pains will be eased, na­ture quieted and relieved, and the importu­nate thirst allayed.

But if thirst still urgeth, give the dulcifi­ed Spirit of Salt, or of Niter, in Posset-drink, and all the Liquids they take, from six, to ten or twelve drops at a time.

If you fear there be any Malignancy in the Fever; give the sick eight or ten grains of Bezoardic. mineral. every fourth hour, in a spoonfull or two of the aforesaid Julep, or good sound Canary-wine, to keep the Pati­ent in a breathing sweat.

As for the Cure of Fevers attended with grievous and furious raging, and watch­ings, [Page 115] &c. I refer you to the Chapter of Phren­sies, which is full to this purpose.

I shall now give some directions to young Physicians and Nurses, and so conclude this Chapter of Fevers in general.

1. First, give no Opiats in the beginning of a Fever, because they tye up the Archaeus of the Stomach, and first passages, thereby hin­dring it from expelling, the occasional cause of the Disease.

2. Give the sick neither Mithridate, nor Diascordium (as is the common custome) nor apply it to the Wrists, nor Stomach, (nor any thing else that is nauseous) whilst Na­ture and the Disease are strugling; but if the Patient tends to coldness, you may moisten a piece of Rose-cake, or a tost of stale Bread in Sylvius's Spirit, or for want thereof in Brandy dulcified, and apply it to the Sto­mach twice a day, which will revive nature, and fortifie it against the invading Enemy.

3. Give no meat whilst the disease is on them, for the Stomach is not fit to receive it, neither hath it strength to digest it; and therefore it will become a recruit or supply to the Disease, except it be speedily vomited up again.

4. If it be a Child, give it not any Milk, and if it Suck, wean it; for Milk is the first matter, and foundation of this disease in them; neither give it Beer, nor water, nor [Page 116] any cooling things to correct the heat, be­cause it will weaken nature, and strengthen the Disease.

But hot Posset-drink turn'd with White­wine, or sound Beer with a little Vinegar, may be drank liberally, after the Cause is removed.

5. If the sick be Adult, you may give two parts of Water, and one of good Wine, ei­ther French Wine or Sherry; but Malaga, or any other sweet Wine is not so good.

6. When the Patient begins to recover, the plainest broths, and gruels, are the best; till then a little is too much; and if you did use Salt and Vinegar, instead of Spice and Sugar, it would agree better with them.

CHAP. VII. Of intermitting Fevers.

AN intermitting Fever is that which re­turns after intervalls, sometimes longer, sometimes shorter in divers Fits; whence accor­ding to the divers space of every access or fit; the same gets also divers Names, for if a new Fit return daily, answering the precedent in proportion, it is called a Quotidian.

[Page 117] If it comes every other day, it is called a Tertian.

If the fit return after two days intermissi­on, it is called a Quartan, and so forward, although Quintans, Sextans, &c. are seldom observ'd.

And here you may note, that intermit­ting Fevers do but seldom return in the ex­act Observa­tion. intervall of natural days of twenty four hours; but return quicker or slower, for the most part; wherefore then they are said to anticipate the expected time for some hours, which is disliked, or to come later, which is commended by some.

Although it matters not, whether the fits anticipate, or come later; if so be that their continuance, and the grievousness of Symptoms (daily accompanying) be di­minish'd.

There is great diversity among Authours concerning the Causes of intermitting Fe­vers, which I shall not insist on; but in a few words will set down the true Causes of them.

The causes then, are either external, or Causes. internal.

The external Cause of Agues is a stop of the usual necessary discharge of fermenting humours; the porous skin (being shut by external sudden cold) denies passage to the constant discharge of the sweatty humours, [Page 118] which happens most commonly about Au­tumn; and likewise when any comes sud­denly out of a hot Climate, into a cold Re­gion; for the sweatty Vapours being detain'd by the Constipation of the skin, or shutting of the Pores, the same condense, and thence become sour, which chills the external parts, and causeth the shaking, or shivering cold fit, at the first invasion of this disturbing Foreigner; after which the inflaming Fer­ment of Choler (being exasperated) doth act its part, and (having gain'd Dominion) it doth rarefie the Bloud by degrees; whence the Pulse becomes greater and stronger) which is increas'd by an irritation of the Acrimony of Choler, and the rarefaction of the Bloud at the Heart; for the heat and burning in the Heart, and thence in the whole Body, is increas'd by Choler succes­sively over-ruling.

The internal Cause of Agues or intermit­ting Fevers, is an obstruction of one or more of the lateral ducts or branches of the Pancreas or Sweet-bread, by reason of viscous Phlegm; which being separated from the Bloud by the Glandules of the Pancreas, is there collected by degrees; whence it is sent (in too large a quantity) to the main duct or pipe thereof, which detaineth the Juice of the Pancreas contrary to nature, which [Page 119] ought continually to flow into the small Gut called Duodenum.

The Juice of the Pancreas, which is natu­rally sourish, being compelled to stand still in its passage, quickly grows more acrimo­nious, or acid; because the Volatile Spirit (which is naturally conjoin'd to it, to temper it) doth gradually fly away; by which this Juice (becoming more sharp and acid) ac­quires a putrefactive Ferment; whence at length it makes way through the obstructing Phlegm, and is effused into the Duodenum, where meeting with Choler, it stirs up a vitious effervescency, or preternatural Fer­ment, from whence comes the Ague fit, with all its Symptoms; as in the beginning Horrour, Chilness, Cold, Shaking, &c. then presently follows Reachings, Yawning, and Vomiting, &c.

At length acrimonious and flatulent Va­pours (raised by the aforesaid vitious Effer­vescency) are carried through the Lacteal veins, and Thoracick passage, and so through the Vena cava ascendens, (in what form soever) to the right Ventricle of the Heart; and by its Acrimony, alters and troubles the vital Effervescency, and by over stirring the Heart, causeth a more frequent Pulse; and many times produceth grievous Symptoms, as great Heat and Thirst, difficulty of brea­thing, Heart-ach, Raving, Swouning, and [Page 120] all other Symptoms, that happen in all in­termitting Fevers.

The nature of viscous Phlegm is such, The cause of the Re­turn of the fit. that though it be pierced through by the Juice of the Pancreas too acid and acrimoni­ous, yet it doth presently run together and unite again, and so repairs and renues the obstruction that was in part opened; and the Juice of the Pancreas being stopped as be­fore, grows sour by standing still as afore­said, so that it forceth through the Phlegm that stopped its natural passage, and so pro­duceth, a new fit; sooner or later, as the Phlegm (obstructing the lateral passage of the Pancreas) is pierced through by the fore­mention'd Juice.

For if the obstructing Phlegm be not very glutinous, and the Juice of the Pancreas be plentifull and acid, a new fit of an in­termitting Fever will return in the space of twenty four hours, and therefore 'tis called a Quotidian Quotidian.

But if the Phlegm be very viscous and plen­tifull, and the Juice of the Pancreas be little in quantity, and also tart and obtuse; so much the slower will the new fit of the intermitting Fever be produced; so that it is sometimes three, sometimes four days, be­fore the returning of the fit; from whence it is called a Quartan, or Quintan, &c.

So likewise as oft as the obstructing [Page 121] Phlegm, and the Juice of the Pancreas are in a medium, viz. The Phlegm more glutinous and plentifull, than in the Quo­tidian, but not so much as the Quartan; as likewise the Juice of the Pancreas is more in quantity, and more acid than in the Qutartan, but not so plentifull and acid, as in a Quoti­dian) so oft new fits of intermitting Fevers will return almost every other day, from whence they may be called Tertians, which much differ in their Symptoms beyond what other intermitting Fevers do, although none of them return in the exact intervall of the Days or Hours before mention'd, but return quicker or slower for the most part.

The Cure of all intermitting Fevers will Cure. be perform'd.

1. First, if the glutinous coagulated Phlegm, (which is the cause of the obstruction) be cut and dissolv'd, and wholly carried out of the Body.

2. If the increas'd Acidity, and Acrimony of the Juice of the Pancreas, be temper'd and corrected.

3. If its vitious Effervescency with Choler, &c. In the small Gut, behindred and amended.

Phlegm obstructing will be cut most com­modiously with Aromaticks, and any Vola­tile Salt.

This Volatile Aromatick Julep may serve for Example.

[Page 122] Take the Waters of Carduus, Parsley, Fen­nel, Fumitery, Succory, Treacle, Cinamon, Cordial Iulep. of each one ounce; Syrup of Carduus, the five opening Roots, of each an ounce and half; Powder of Crabs-eyes, Tartar vitrio­lated, of each one drachm; Salt of Amber, Antimony Diaphoretick, of each half a drachm; Laudanum opiat. ten grains; Oil of Cloves six drops; mix it.

Take a spoonfull of this Volatile Medi­cine, often in a day throughout the whole Cure, using some exercise, that thereby the whole Body may grow warm, and the force of the medicine being disperst over all the Body, may come at last to the lateral passages of the Pancreas, and dissolve the obstruction.

Three or four hours before the coming of the fit, you may give three or four spoon­fulls of the aforesaid Cordial, which will not onely cause a breathing sweat, but will temper and correct the increas'd Acidity and Acrimony of the Juice of the Pancreas, and hinder, and amend its vitious Effervescency with Choler, &c. in the small gut, which will conduce much to a Cure.

Three hours before the return of the next fit, administer an antimonial Emetick, which is in this case proper before all others; for by the help thereof, not onely Choler aboun­ding, but also phlegm obstructing, will be [Page 123] expell'd to the small gut, and thence to the Stomach, and at length by the mouth; and the straining to vomit doth many times pro­cure a stool or two, which is very beneficial.

But if the sick be a Female, or vomiting be prejudicial, or not approv'd of; then such things as cut and purge phlegm downwards, may be administred, for example.

Take of pil. faetidae one drachm; Mercur. Purging Pills. dulcis, Powders of Troches Alhandal, Scam­mony prepar'd, Tartar vitriolated, of each half a Scruple, Salts of Amber and Worm-wood, of each one Scruple; Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Oil of Amber, of each ten drops, with Syrup of Buckthorn; make it into a Mass for Pills.

Take four or five of these Pills, four hours before the coming of the fit; which will both cut, and purge the viscous Phlegm out of the Body, and also educe other peccant humours.

After purging or vomiting, let the sick often take the following Powder in a glass of generous Wine, or in two or three spoon­fulls of the Cordial Diaphoretick before men­tion'd, to provoke sweat as is there directed.

Take Volatile Salt of Harts-horn, Salts of Powder. Amber, Worm-wood and Carduus, Tartar vitriolated, of each ten grains; Sugar of Pearls the weight of them all, mix them for two doses.

[Page 124] You may take a dose of it two or three hours before the access of the fit; which will wonderfully conduce to dissolve the ob­struction, and cause a breathing sweat.

Let these evacuations be as often reiterated as occasion requires.

If the intermitting Fever hath continu'd long, or the sick hath a Plethorick body, let a vein be opened.

By these few forms the young Practitioner may easily invent other effectual Medicines, in some things to be varied as the distemper requires.

CHAP. VIII. Of Malignant Fevers.

IN the Chapter of Fevers in general I told you, that Synochal, or continual Fevers, were without any fit, to their last and com­plete ceasing; and likewise I did distinguish them into putrid, and not putrid.

Those that are not putrid, have little or no malignity in them, but the putrid are al­ways accompanied with malignity.

A malignant Fever differs from others in Diffe­rence. this, that it draws its putrefaction immedi­ately [Page 125] from its own matter, putrefaction be­ing joined with it; from whence the vital strength is suddenly, and unexpectedly de­jected; or far more grievous Symptoms oc­cur, than are wont to be observ'd in such a like disease.

Malign Fevers are either more acute, en­ding in few days; or longer, continuing more days.

And they are either contagious, and epi­demical raging among many in the same time, having a common cause, as the Air or Food vitiated, &c. Infecting others, or else they are not contagious.

Among contagious Fevers, we may not Calenture. neglect to speak something of a Calenture, because it is a contagious distemper, assaul­ting not onely those which use the Sea; but also many that live near the Sea-shore, in Sea-port Towns, &c. are subject to it.

The signs of this disease are a great pain Signs. of the Head, sometimes with violent raging fits, and delirium, the rest of the Body being in good temper; the sick do fancy the Wa­ter to be a green Meadow, and will indea­vour to get into it.

The cause of a Calenture is the intempe­rature of the Climate, together with ill diet, causing strong obstructions, and an ill habit of body, by which flatuous vapours are en­creas'd in the body, and in time ascend to the Head.

[Page 126] The cause of the malignity (in this, and all other putrid fevers) is a sharp volatile salt Cause of Maligni­ty. in the Air, which is drawn into tbe Lungs by degrees, and weakens the liquor of the glandules (which is naturally sourish) and makes it sluggish, and of little force, whence the natural consistency of the bloud is diminish'd, and the separation of the Ani­mal spirits often hindred.

The sharp volatile salt aforesaid, may be also swallowed down with food or spittle in­to the Stomach, or it may enter the pores of the body; by which not onely the liquor of the glandules, but the bloud also may be infected; hence depends the variety of symp­toms which may be observ'd in these Dis­eases.

In Malign fevers, there oft precedes a light Signs. shivering, after which a gentle heat soon fol­lows; the pulse is frequent and unequal, though little and weak, and sometimes de­ficient, the sick is often drowsie, and possest with a kind of Lethargy; and when they sleep, they are often vex'd with turbulent dreams; they are often grip'd in the Sto­mach, and troubled with loathing and vo­miting, accompanied with the Head-each, raving, giddiness, &c. also there is great thirst, weariness, and unquietness of the whole body; sometimes there happens cho­lerick and fetid loosnesses; and also a hae­morrhage [Page 127] at the nose or womb doth often concur.

1. If tumors in the glandules, and spots and Prog [...] little pimples, divers both in colour and greatness, do break forth in many parts of the body, they are signs of great maligni­ty.

2. If the sick get no ease after sweating promoted by Art, there is little hopes of re­covery; also if the extreme parts soon wax hot, and again are presently cold, 'tis an ill sign.

First to preserve and defend the body from Cure. all malignity, and infection in time of con­tagion.

I commend the frequent, and moderate use of sour and tart things mixt with all things potable, for the Patient's drink, or food; as Barberries, Quinces, Oranges, Pom­granates, Limmons, Wood-sorrel, Verjuice, Vinegar, &c.

In the beginning of malign Fevers, and also the Calenture, if a loathing urgeth, part of the acrimonious volatile salt adheres to the tunicles of the Stomach; wherefore in this Case, first administer an Antimonial Emetick, which is well prepared, mild and fixt, be­cause it hath an admirable sulphur in it, whereby any sharpness is wonderfully tem­per'd, and the Malign Poison is thereby in part sent out by Vomit and Stool.

[Page 128] After the Operation of the Emetick, let a Cordial Sudorifick be presently admini­stred, that the remaining part of the Malign Poison may be driven forward, and expelled most safely, and commodiously out of the Body.

The following Cordial may serve for ex­ample. Cordial Sudorifick.

Take of Epidemical water, Spirit of Vine­gar, of each one ounce; The Waters of Treacle, and Cinamon, of each half an ounce; the Waters of Carduus, Scabious, of each two ounces; Syrups of the Juice of Carduus, Clove-gilliflowers, of each one ounce and half; Antimonie Diaphoretick, Bezoar-mineral, of each one drachm; Ve­nice-treacle, two drachms; mix it.

Let the sick take a quarter of this Dia­phoretick Julep, and dispose the Body to sweat, and after half an hour, take one or two spoonfulls more, and so go on, till a profitable Sweat follow.

In the interim if the sick be thirsty, let them drink a little warm Broth temper'd to a gratefulness, with juice of Oranges, Ci­trons, or Verjuice, &c. whereby the break­ing forth of the sweat will not onely be pro­moted, but also the hurtfull Acrimony of the peccant Salt will be corrected, and as­swaged.

After this excellent medicine hath been [Page 129] sufficiently and rightly us'd, so that you per­ceive the Malign Poison to be carried out of the Body; yet you must persist in the moderate use of it, as likewise in the use of four things, a little Harsh, mixt with drink, or Broth as beforesaid; because they much conduce to restore (by degrees) the former consistency to the Bloud.

In Calentures, Phlebotomy may be safe­ly used.

CHAP. IX. Of the Plague or Pestilence.

THE Plague or Pestilence is called in Greek [...], solvo, quod vitam solvat.

It is called in Latin Pestilentia, & Pestis, ex depascendo, quod veluti incendium depascat.

It is also called [...], percutio hinc Angl. the Plague.

Pestis significat omne malum; quod tam ina­nimis quam animatis mortem & exitium repen­tino adfert.

The Plague is a contagious disease, sud­denly afflicting the Heart, and all the vital, animal and natural faculties with many grie­vous Symptoms.

[Page 130] The Cause is chiefly the sins of Mankind, Cause. provoking the great God to send this Pesti­ferous distemper as a judgment on them for their Impiety.

The Cause (next to God's judgment) is a sharp venemous and contagious volatile Salt in the Air, very much heightned (inspi­red with the Air into the Lungs, or is swal­lowed down with the food or spittle into the Stomach; it may also get in through the pores into the Body) by which the acid li­quor in all the conglobated glandules is weak­ned and made sluggish, that it doth not cir­culate with its wonted force: whence the natural consistency and rarefaction of the Bloud is diminsht, and the separation of the Animal Spirits hindred; and the vital strength is much opprest, by which the Pulse becomes not onely little, but also languishing; till at length the Spirits are extinguisht, and Death (unexpected to many) carries them speedily (torrenti similis) in fiery Chariots, God knows where.

All the signs in Malign Fevers are com­mon (and much heightned) in the Pest; be­sides Signs. many other grievous symptoms, as Di­arrhaea, Hemorrhage at the Nose, Ears, Eyes, Mouth and Secrets; sometimes yellowness of the Eyes, Buboes in the Groins, Armpits, and behind the Ears, and in some white Blad­ders, [Page 131] and Carbuncles, also spots called the Tokens, with raving, &c.

1. The Pest is deceitfull above all other dis­eases, Progn. therefore no certain prognostick can be drawn of it; for many have died when there hath been great hopes of recovery, and on the contrary, many have escaped with mortal signs.

2. A Bubo is less dangerous than a Car­buncle, and it than the spots, (vulgarly the Tokens) which most commonly portend Death wheresoever they are.

3. Buboes incompassed with a blue or livid circle, are most commonly a mortal sign, especially if they suddenly disappear, unless the Malign humour be sent to some other part; and if with a Bubo behind the Ears, there be pain of the Throat without inflammation 'tis mortal.

4. If a Carbuncle rise after a Bubo, and look white, with a litle push or tail at the end of it, 'tis dangerous, except the Fever do very much abate; and if after cauterizing, or cupping, the Carbuncle abate not in twenty four hours, 'tis a sign of Death ap­proaching, except matter appear; and if Carbuncles seize the Stomach, Guts, Blad­der, or other Intrails, it portends Death.

5. Deliriums, Drowsiness, Heart-ach, Trembling, Convulsions, great driness of Tongue, are all bad signs; also a Dysentery [Page 132] is most commonly mortal; but a Hemor­rhage at the Nose, or Menses are not so dan­gerous.

To preserve from this Pestiferous distem­per, although transmigration in the fear of God may be lawfull, yet let none think to escape by flying, and so neglect their duties to God, for 'tis impossible to run out of his reach, for he filleth Heaven and Earth with his presence; wherefore let servent prayers be put up to God, whose com­passions fail not; and then make use of an honest Physician.

1. You must endeavour to purifie the infect­ed Air, with great fires, wash the house daily, and after sprinkle it with Vinegar; and Fume either with Pitch, Frankincense, Mirrh, Amber, Benjamin, Wood, and Berries of Juniper, &c.

2. Avoid all passions, watchings, and im­moderate exercise and venery.

3. Eat nothing that is hard of concoction, and use a moderate diet though easie of digestion, and drink good sound Wine, &c.

4. Go not forth with an empty Stomach, but always take some preservative against infection. For example,

Take Spirit of Vinegar, Julep of Roses, of each one ounce; mix it.

Vinegar, Verjuice, Oranges, Limmons, Citrons, Pomgranats, Barberries, Quinces, Wood-sorrel, &c. are all very good, used [Page 133] as before directed in Malign Fevers.

This Poison must not be sent out by vo­miting Cure. or purging; neither is phlebotomy allowed.

For it is known by manifold experience, that the cure of the Pest is most happily instituted by Cordial Sudorificks, rightly prepar'd of Antimony, because it hath an admirable Sulphur in it, whereby not onely sharpness is wonderfully temper'd, but the Malign poisonous volatile Salt is thereby most safely driven forward, and expelled by sweating out of the Body; to which may be added other Cordials, as followeth.

Take the Powders of Crabs-eyes, Tartar Cordial Electuary. vitriolated, Antimony Diaphoretick, Be­zoar-mineral, of each one scruple; Bezoar-stone of the East, red Coral prepar'd, Salts of Rhue, Scordium, of each half a scruple; Ve­nice-treacle, two drachms; Spirit of Salt ten drops; mix it into an Electuary with confectio de Hyacintho.

Let the sick take half a drachm of this Cordial Electuary every three hours, and drink three or four spoonfulls of this Cordi­al Julep after it.

Take of Epidemical-water, the Waters of Cordial Iulep. Carduus, Borage, Scordium compound, of each three ounces; the Waters of Treacle, Cinamon, Syrups of the juice of Carduus, and Limmons, Syrup of Saffron, of each one [Page 134] ounce; Salt Prunella, and Salt of Worm­wood, of each one drachm; Laudanum o­piat. ten grains; mix it for a Cordial.

Let the sick person take the aforesaid medicines, till sweat is plentifully provoked; then let the sweat be gently wiped off with warm linen cloaths.

In the mean while give the sick a little hot Chicken-broth, or other Broth of fresh Meat, temper'd to a gratefulness with some sour thing, as was directed in Malign Fevers, as Barberries, Wood-sorrel, Limmons, &c.

You must persist in this course till the danger be over, and some time after, (though the sick think themselves well) lest the disease deceive you by a sudden surprize a­gain.

There are many Cordial Confections al­ways to be had ready at Apothecaries Shops, as Mithridate, Diascordium, Venice-trea­cle, London-treacle, Treacle-water, &c. any of which may be used by the Rich or Poor, for they will not onely cause sweat­ing, but also will temper and moderate the hurtfull acrimony of the volatile Salt before mentioned.

You may dip a hot Toast in aq. prophy­lactica, and apply it to the region of the Stomach, and also tye some of it in a rag, and smell to it.

If there be great drowsiness, avoid Opiates, [Page 135] and take the Cordial Julep without the Lau­danum; but if there be great Watching, Vomiting, Flux of the Belly, or Hicket, you may give it with the Laudanum pre­scrib'd, for it will much conduce to ease the sick of all these symptoms.

If there be a Bubo, apply a strong Vesic­catory, and when the Blister is well raised, open it, and dress it with Mustard, and Ba­silicon, of each equal parts; after cure it ac­cording to Art.

If there be a Carbuncle, apply Leeches, or Ventoses, with scarification, or the Ac­tual or Potential Cautery, after which of­ten apply Mithridate, 'till the Eschar be se­parated; then dress it with Unguent. Basili­con, and Aegyptiacum, or else you may use Butter of Antimony 'till the Ulcer be well cleansed and fitted for the last consolidati­on which may be performed by any desicca­tive Medicine.

CHAP. X. Of the Small-pox, and Measles.

THE Small-pox, and Measles are cal­led in Greek [...], and in Latin Morbilli, quasi parvi morbi, vel parvorum morbi.

They are also called Variolae, & Pustulae, ex vario, vel varium facio, quod cutis fit varia. Because the skin is of various forms.

These distempers are most commonly at­tended with a Malign Fever, which oft proves Epidemical, Contagious and Mortal, and therefore may justly be termed Pestilen­tial.

The Small-pox is a cutaneous Eruption, or large Pustules, something like to Warts on the Skin, with Inflammation, which in few days comes to suppuration, if the sick recover.

The Measles are little Pustules in the Skin, with a deep redness, and may be best per­ceived by feeling; they are usually discussed in five or six days without suppuration.

There is an other sort of Pustules, or Tu­bercles, like little Bladders, incident to Men, Women and Children; which are with­out Inflammation or redness; and also with­out a Fever.

[Page 137] Some call them Cristals, others Blisters, but Country people call them Swine-pox, Hen or Chicken-pox, &c.

To these also may be referred, those red fiery spots which break out about the fourth or fifth day (in Malign Fevers) all over the Body; and if the sick recover, they vanish about the eighth day, after which the Cuti­cula cometh away in flakes; this is common­ly called the Scarlet Fever.

The signs of the Small-pox approaching, Signs. are pains of the Head, shining before the Eyes, with redness and swelling of the Face, and sometimes bleeding at the Nose; also a grievous pain of the Back, which reacheth to the Neck, with great heat and pricking all over the Body; there is often loathing of the Stomach, and vomiting, with trembling of the Heart, great terrour in sleep, difficulty of breathing, and sometimes raving and con­vulsion.

The cause of the Small-pox and Measles, Causes. is an ill quality or impurity of the Mothers bloud, with which the Child was nourish'd in the Womb, which doth communicate pollution, and defile the mass of Bloud; and after the Child is born, when there is an ill disposition of the Air proportionable to the disease, there followeth a peculiar efferves­cency or ebullition of the Bloud and other humours, by which nature is inraged and [Page 138] provoked to cast forth the impurity.

The excrementitious matter is either thin or thick; if it be thin, the Measles fol­low, if thick, the Small-pox are produced.

And if there be a Malignant constitution of the Air, it causeth not onely a purging forth of the corrupt matter of the Bloud, &c. but corrupteth the whole mass of Bloud, and so produceth a dangerous and Epidemi­cal Small-pox.

If they come out red, and soon ripen or Progn. turn white, being round pointed, and out­ward in the skin; if the voice and breathing be free, without any grievous symptoms, there is no danger, but if there be a great Fever (which is not abated after their erup­tion) with great thirst, and difficulty of breathing, also black or bloudy Urine, or Stool, Hemorrhage at the Nose, Mouth, &c. doth signifie a great acrimony, and malig­nancy of the bloud, that nature is compel­led to evacuate it by such preposterous ways; and are most commonly mortal signs.

So likewise if it be long e'er they come out, and they be green, blewish, or black, and sink in again, the sick is in great dan­ger of Death.

As for the Cure of these distempers, if they be Malignant, or Epidemical, let the same Cure. means be used as is prescrib'd in Malignant Fevers, but if there be little or no sign of [Page 139] Malignancy, you may first administer an Antimonial Emetick, and after its operation, give this or the like Cordial.

Take the Waters of Carduus, Dragons, Cordial Iulep. Treacle, Scordium compound, of each two ounces; Venice-treacle two drachms; Sy­rups of the Juice of Limmons, Carduus, Saffron, of each one ounce; Confection of Hyacinth one drachm; mix it for a Cor­dial.

Let the sick take two or three spoonfulls of this every half hour till a sweat be pro­moted; after sweating, keep the Pati­ent in a warm Room, till the danger be over.

Before the Eruption, (if there be eminent signs of a Plethora, and the sick be adult) Phlebotomy may be used with good suc­cess. Phleboto­my.

Bezoar and Gascoign's Powder, and Diascor­dium are commonly used in these Diseases.

You must endeavour to defend the in­ward parts with the pectoral decoction, to which you may add a little Saffron.

Also a Saffron Stay, in which is put a few Sows (called Millepedes) bruised, is excel­lent to defend the Throat.

For the Eyes, this water is good.

Take the Waters of Plantain, white Roses, Water for the Eyes. of each three ounces; of Camphire, Saffron, of each ten grains; mix it.

[Page 140] Or you may use Womens milk, and Saf­fron.

If the Throat and Mouth are inflamed, make a Gargarism with Plantain-water and Gargaris. Syrup of Mulberries.

To defend the Nose, put up this with a rag or feather.

Take of red Rose-water, Vinegar of red Roses, of each one ounce; Powder of red Nodulas. Saunders, Camphire, of each one drachm; mix it.

When the Small-pox begins to dry, anoint them often with Oil of sweet Almonds, and Oil of the Yelks of Eggs, which will pre­vent their pitting.

OF DISEASES OF THE BELLY. BOOK III.

CHAP. I. Of the Thirsty disease.

THIS is called in Greek [...], a [...], sitio, to be thirsty. In Latin 'tis cal­led sitis morbosa.

Thirst is the first natural Passion of Man­kind, and also of Beasts; as is manifest by their first sucking milk out of the Breast to asswage it.

The causes of thirst augmented, are either Cause. external or internal.

The external are the Air over heated by [Page 142] the Sun, over salt Food, too much exercise of body, vehement passions of the mind, as much anger, &c. prolong'd watches, the Bo­dy either too costive, or too loose, much sweating, Urine voided too plentifully, a­ny notable Evacuation of Bloud, Milk or Seed, &c.

The internal Cause is deduced (for the most part) from too sharp Choler, carried down into the small Gut; where it raiseth such an Effervescency with the Juice of the Pancreas flowing thither, that thence are elevated salt Vapours to the Stomach and Gullet, and there produceth a sense of drought.

It may also pierce through the lacteal Vessels, and so to the Heart, and infect the Bloud too much with its Saltness, whence the Spittle, and the other Humours also be­come too salt, by which a great Thirst is stirred up and augmented.

The signs are manifest, for the Patient's Signs. complaint for want of drink, will inform you.

This distemper may be cured by such acid Cure. Liquours, and oily Emulsions, which will dilute the Lixivial Salt of Choler, and po­tently change its Acrimony, and asswage its sharpness, and deduce it to the Bladder.

The following Julep may serve for Ex­ample.

[Page 143] Take Tincture of Red-roses, Barley-water, Iulep. of each twelve ounces; Cinamon-water two ounces, Syrup of Violets three ounces, Salt Prunella two drachms; mix it, and give the sick three spoonfulls every two hours.

This Emulsion is also of great Virtue, not onely to restrain Thirst, but mildly to pro­cure rest also.

Take of French-barly boiled four ounces; Emulsion. sweet Almonds blanched; white Poppy-seeds, of each two ounces; let them be well beaten in a stone Mortar; then with two Quarts of Barley-water, the Waters of Cinamon and Fennel, of each two ounces; make an Emul­sion; to which add Julep of Roses four oun­ces, Syrups of Violets, and the Juice of Lim­mons, of each two ounces; mix it.

Let the party thirsting, drink a moderate draught of this Emulsion, often in a day, which will be very acceptable.

You may also make gratefull Troches, or Pellets of Sugar, and Salt Prunella, to be kept in the Mouth, to deceive the Thirst.

If salt serous matter abound in the Body, purge it by Stool or Urine.

This gratefull Medicine may serve for both intentions.

Take the Roots of Flower-de-luce, Parsley, Purging Infusion. China, of each two ounces; Dandelion, Agri­mony, of each one handfull; Senna one ounce; Rhubarb half an ounce; Agarick, Turky, [Page 144] Turbith, Jallap, of each three drachms; Cinamon, Cloves, of each two drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused in two quarts of White-wine, for the space of twenty four hours, then strain it, and add Syrup of the five opening. Roots four ounces; of which you may give the sick four ounces every third day in the morning fasting.

If there be a salt Catarrh, it may be tem­per'd with Pills of Styrax, you may admi­nister a Pill every Night going to bed.

Let the Patient's diet be Mutton or Veal­broth, without Salt.

CHAP. II. Of Hunger vitiated.

HUnger may be called the Appetite of Meats, as Thirst is of Drinks.

It may be many ways deprav'd, viz. when it is augmented, diminish'd, or abolish'd.

Hunger augmented may be deprav'd two ways, either in quantity or quality; if it be in quantity, there is more Nourishment de­sired than the Stomach can digest.

This distemper is called in Greek [...], ex [...] fames; quod affatim edatur.

[Page 145] It is called by the Latines fames canina, and in English Dog's appetite; because in this distemper the sick do feed insatiably; after which some do purge and vomit like Dogs; and are presently hungry again, and sick if they do not eat.

If hunger be deprav'd in quality, then vi­tious things, which are not Food, (as Coals, Ashes, Clay, Turfs, Leather, and I know not what) are desired.

This is called in Greek [...], and Pica also Pica. in Latin; ab ave Pica, vel quod varia appetant, ut Pica varii est Coloris, vel ex eo quod & Pi­ca terram mandet.

If this distemper be in Women with Child, Malacia. it is called in Greek [...], and in Latin also Gravidarum malacia, which is an inordinate longing in them, of which I shall treat more at large in the Chapter of the Hypochondri­ack suffocation.

Hunger diminish'd is caused of too fat and Cause. viscous Spittle, swallowed down (by little and little) into the Stomach; and being un­fit to promote the fermentation of Food, it passeth into the small guts, and there gene­rates viscous Phlegm like to it self, which doth not onely dull the moderate acidity of the Juice of the Pancreas, but thereby at length all the acidity in the Body becomes less sharp and dull.

[Page 146] Choler also being too fat, arising from the small Gut, to the Stomach, doth there cor­rupt both the remainders of Food and Spit­tle, and prostrates their gratefull acidity by which means the Appetite becomes dull.

These causes being complicated, if they be most grievous; will at length quite take away and abolish Hunger.

The cause of Hunger augmented is some­times Cause. worms in the Stomach, which devour the Chylus; but most commonly it is caused by the over-sourness of the Juice of the Pan­creas abounding in the Body, and chiefly in the small Gut; whence it sendeth sour Va­pours to the Stomach, which do potently urge and increase the sense of hunger.

The cause of hunger deprav'd in quality, Cause. (as Pica, &c. in Women) is the suppressi­on of their monthly Courses, which is more or less corrupted about the Womb, and ha­ving not its natural Evacuation, it returneth, and (in circulation) is mixed with the whole Mass of Bloud, by which it is all vitiated, and deprav'd; and so produceth a Cachexy, or ill habit of Body, which in time corrupteth all the other humours; from whence not onely hunger, but all the functions are de­prav'd.

Hunger augmented needs no other sign, Signs. than the devouring of Food.

[Page 147] The signs of Hunger deprav'd in quality are also manifest, as the longing desire for those things which are not food, as Coals, &c. before mention'd.

If these distempers continue long, they Progn. are difficult of Curation, because the sick will easily fall into a Cachexy, Dropsie, Con­sumption, Vomiting, Fluxes, &c.

Hunger increas'd, may be cur'd by giving those things which destroy, and do tempe­rate and amend the over acidity of the Juice of the Pancreas, and do prevent its increase.

There are variety of Medicines (proper for these intentions) prescrib'd in the 6th. and 7th. pages of the first Book.

If hunger be diminish'd, or abolish'd, it may be cur'd by Medicines that correct and educe the viscous Phlegmatick humours, of which you may be throughly furnish'd in the 3d. and 4th. pages.

If hunger be suddenly diminish'd by Cho­ler, either over fat, or abounding in plenty; Cure. it may commodiously be evacuated by an Antimonial Emetick. Many other proper Medicines are set down in the 8th. and 9th. pages.

CHAP. III. Of want of Appetite, or loathing of Vic­tuals.

WAnt of Appetite is called in Greek [...], ex [...], sine, & [...] appetitus.

In Latin 'tis called inappetentia, because in this distemper the sick hath no desire af­ter food, but their minds are averse to, yea they loath most kind of meat and drink, which sometimes riseth to that height, that it takes away their strength.

This differs from vomiting onely in de­grees, it being a desire to vomit up whatso­ever troubles the Stomach, but cannot, ei­ther by reason of weakness, or toughness of the matter. Nausea.

Loathing is called in Greek [...], ex [...] Navis, quod navigantibus proecipue contingit.

All loathing is either natural, or adven­titious.

The natural (for the most part) is common to Women with Child; wherein 'tis thought by some, that the mind of the Child in the Womb is affected, as well in this distemper, as in the disease called Malacia, or longing; wherein if the Woman have not presently what the longs for, wheresoever she first puts [Page 149] her hand on any part of her body, in that part the Child is mark'd, as we may see often by experience.

The adventitious loathing, or that which cometh by accident, is stir'd up in healthy People by prejudice, they esteeming some sorts of food ungratefull, or prejudicial to their Health, and therefore their Stomachs loath them.

Sometimes nauseousness, and loathing e­ven to vomiting, immediately follows In­temperance in eating and drinking, which is dangerous.

That we may the better judge of the causes of this distemper, let us first consider what is the natural Cause of Hunger, by which we may the easier discover it.

I judge the chief Cause of natural hunger to be the remainders of food fermented in the Stomach, and the longer it stays there, it is still more and more fermented by the Spit­tle; which is continually swallowed down, and intermix'd with it; and at length it raiseth a somewhat sour and gratefull Vapour, which pleasingly affects the upper Orifice of the Stomach, and so natural hunger seems to be produc'd.

And if food be with-held somewhat longer than ordinary, then this hunger is increas'd even in healthy People; which I think is promoted and augmented by the Juice of the [Page 150] Pancreas, having a friendly Effervescency with Choler and Phlegm in the small Guts, from whence sour and gratefull Vapours are sent to the Stomach, which increaseth hun­ger; and if food be seldom taken, it may proceed to fainting fits.

Hence we may gather, that if there be a Cause. vitious Effervescency of the aforesaid hu­mours in the small Guts, then vitious Va­pours are thence produc'd, which rising up to the Stomach, and other parts adjacent, not onely diminish hunger, but more or less deprave Thirst, as also the senses of tasting and smelling; hence it is that the sick do loath all sorts of food, as soon as they smell, taste or see it.

1. Want of Appetite or Loathing is a di­gression Progn. from the natural State, and is there­fore dangerous; and is worse in Children than Adults, because they require more Nourishment.

2. In all diseases this is an evil Symptome, and if the sick recover and want Appetite, or loath their Food, there is danger of a re­lapse.

This distemper (either in healthy People, or those that are sick) may be cur'd, Cure.

  • 1. First by freeing the mind from every prejudice.
  • 2. By correcting or purging out the vi­tious and peccant humours.

[Page 151] If the Humours incline upward, they may be safely carried out by an Antimonial vomit; and after the operation, at night go­ing to bed, let the sick take this Cordial Opiate.

Take the Waters of Damask-roses, Baum Cordial Opiat. and Cinamon, of each one ounce; Syrup of Clove-gilliflowers, red Poppies, of each half an ounce; Confectio Alkermes half a drachm; Laudanum opiat. four grains; Oil of Vitriol six drops; mix it.

But if the humours be very viscous, (and the Stomach be not nauseous) let them be purged out by stool, with such Medicines as have power to alter, amend and evacuate the vitious humours.

For example.

Take of the Decoction of Senna Gereonis Purging Decoction. four ounces; the best Manna, Syrups of Epi­thymum, Roses Solutive with Senna, of each half an ounce; mix it for two Doses, to be taken in the Morning fasting.

After purging, the Stomach must be strengthned; which may be done by this excellent Diet-drink.

Take the Roots of China, Sarzeparilla, of Diet­drink. each eight ounces; Guiacum two pound; Ci­namon, Mace, Nutmegs, of each one ounce; Raisins of the Sun stoned one pound; Anise­seed, [Page 152] Liquorish, of each one ounce and half; let them be bruised and infused in two Gal­lons of Fountain-water very hot, for the space of twenty four hours, then boil it to the consumption of the third part; strain it, and add Syrups of Cinamon, and of the Juice of Rasberries, of each four ounces; mix it, and let it be put into Bottles.

The sick may drink four ounces of it three times in a day.

Also candied Ginger, and Nutmegs pre­serv'd are good to corroborate the Stomach; a little of either of them may be eaten before the taking of the Diet-drink.

You may anoint the Stomach with Oil of Mace by expression; after which apply a Plaster Stomachicum magistr. to the Region of the Stomach.

CHAP. IV. Of the Hicket, or Hiccough.

THE Hicket is called in Greek [...], and in Latin singultus, ex [...] cum, & gula, quod fere gula fiat; vel a sono gulae.

It is called in English a Sobbing or Yexing, being something like the Clocking of Hens with Chickens.

[Page 153] This disease was thought by the Ancients to be a deprav'd motion of the Stomach onely, by which it striveth to expell something which is hurtfull; but experience doth ma­nifest, that it is a convulsive Motion of the Midriff, and not of the Stomach, because in this distemper, expiration is deprav'd; and this is chiefly perfected by the Muscles of the Belly, both by drawing down the Breast, and compressing all that is contain'd in the Belly, and driving them forward towards the Midriff, and so compelling it upward (its proper motion together concurring) by which a greater straitness is made in the Breast, which causeth the Lungs also to be straitned, and consequently the Air contain'd in them to be suddenly expir'd.

'Tis true, in this distemper, the Stomach is primarily affected by sharp Vapours, Wind, or humours whencesoever proceeding, which piercing to the membranous Centre of the Midriff, provoke it by pricking, or corro­ding, to perform that convulsive motion; in which the Diaphragma is contracted with a great force towards the Region of the Sto­mach, which suddenly and violently driveth it forward and outward, the convulsive Mo­tion soon ceasing, and again often repea­ting.

The causes of the Hicket are either exter­nal, Cause. or internal.

[Page 154] The external are hurtfull, sharp and poi­sonous food, or medicines, taken into the Stomach, by which the Midriff is soon af­fected, and compelled to this violent, and presently interrupted convulsive Motion.

The internal cause riseth up out of the small Gut, by the vitious Effervescency of the humours there meeting; from whence sharp, halituous or windy Vapours are rais'd to the upper Orifice of the Stomach, by which it is soon corroded; and thence the sharp flatuous Humours, or Vapours, are presently carried through the Vessels of the Diaphragma, and sticking in its substance, do corrode its sensible parts, and compell it to that Convulsive repeating contraction of it self.

When the Hicket is the Symptome of any other grievous disease, as an acute Fever, In­flammation, Progn. &c. it is dangerous, and some­times mortal.

In most ordinary Hickets, the party is easi­ly Cure. restor'd, either by stopping the Breath, or by suddenly surprising them with fear.

But as often as sharp poisonous Food or Medicines, or any flatuous humours be in the Stomach; &c. causing the Hicket; they must be presently expelled by an Antimoni­al Emetick, which will not onely empty the peccant humours upward and downward, [Page 155] but will correct and amend the hurtfull hu­mours in the Body.

After the Operation of the Emetick, the following Cordial Opiate will conduce to dis­sipate the molesting Vapours, which remain about the Mouth of the Stomach; and will stay the Hicket, and mildly procure sleep.

Take the Waters of Treacle, Cinamon, Cordial Opiat. Syrup of Mint, of each one ounce; the Wa­ters of Baum and Mint, of each two ounces; Coufectio Alkermes two drachms; Laudanum opiatum six grains; Spirits of Harts-horn, Niter dulcified, of each twenty drops; mix it.

Let the sick often take two spoonfulls of this Opiate, till they be dispos'd to rest.

If this distemper be obstinate, and yields not to the aforesaid Medicine, it shews that over-viscous Humours are conjoin'd to its Cause.

Therefore in an obstinate Hicket, it is better that the peccant humours be empti­ed downwards, with such Medicines as will both cut, and educe them. For which I com­mend these Pills.

Take pil. foetidae, ex duobus, of each fif­teen Purging Pills. grains; Oil of Harts-horn four drops; make it into Pills; take them in the Mor­ning fasting.

Let these or the like Aromatick Pills with gums be taken at least twice a week; which [Page 156] will not onely educe the hurtfull humours, but discuss Vapours, and Wind.

In the interim, let not the frequent use of the aforesaid Cordial Opiate be neglected, for it will wonderfully conduce to the Cure.

Sometimes it is good for the Patient to sneez, for it hath often prov'd succesfull.

Drinking of warm Milk from the Cow is also much commended, because it will as­swage the hurtfull humours which remain about the Stomach, &c.

CHAP. V. Of Belching.

BElching is called in Latin ructatio & ruc­tuatio esculenta, quae fit ab homine saturo, because it comes most commonly after a full Stomach.

Any thing which breaks up from the Sto­mach in the kind of a rift, or windy Vapour, and is expell'd by the Mouth with noise, may properly be called belching.

The cause of this distemper, is either out­ward, Cause. or inward.

The outward is from windy food, or other flatuous things taken, as Beans, Pease, Radishes, &c.

[Page 157] The internal cause is either from a phleg­matick viscous humour adhering to the Sto­mach, where it is rarefied into wind by Aro­maticks taken; or from the same viscous hu­mour in the small Guts, turned into wind by Choler over fat, and volatile; and thence it is driven forward to the Stomach, where­by the Fermentation of Food is deprav'd in­to a noisome Crudity; whence Belches like rotten Eggs, &c. are rais'd, which doth dis­tend and gnaw the Stomach.

If the Phlegmatick matter, which cleaveth Progn. to the Ventricle, or small Guts, be very tough, the belching is more hardly excluded; whence often a swelling, and troublesome Distensi­on of the Stomach follows; & e contra.

The Cure may be safely and happily per­form'd, Cure. onely by correcting, and educing the Phlegmatick viscous humours aboun­ding; for which there are variety of Medi­cines prescrib'd in the third and fourth Pages in the Cure of the Head-ach.

CHAP. VI. Of Vomiting, and of the Cholerick and Iliack Passion.

VOmiting is called in Greek [...], ab [...] vomo.

It is a deprav'd motion of the Stomach, and a certain sign of health weakned; for in perfect health nothing is wont to be ex­pell'd out of the Stomach by the Mouth.

In vomiting, sometimes food, (either crude, or more or less fermented) is cast out by the Gullet and Mouth; sometimes Bloud, some­times Choler, and other times manifold hu­mours and matter of divers Colours, Taste and Consistency; and sometimes the Excre­ments returning to the Stomach (as in Iliaca passio) is expell'd by that preposterous way of vomiting, wherein, omnia naturae praepostera legibus ibant.

All the differences occurring in several sick People, are very difficult to be numbred, or reduc'd into a certain order; and much more to make an exact Examination of all the Symptoms, and thence to give a solid Judg­ment of every one.

In this distemper the Stomach is either primarily, or secondarily affected.

[Page 159] The Stomach is primarily affected to vo­mit, when the cause is in it self.

As by taking a Vomit, or when there is an Inflammation, or Exulceration of it; for then it is easily stir'd up (by food, or any other thing swallowed) to a violent and preter­natural Contraction, and turning of its mo­tion, whereby it is compell'd to cast out whatsoever is contain'd in it.

The Stomach is secondarily affected, when it is drawn by consent of other parts first distemper'd; as by the contracting motion of the Guts, either in part or wholly, in that most grievous disease called Ileos, or Iliaca Ileos. passio; or by the vehement shaking of the Midriff, together with a potent Contraction of the Muscles of the Belly, caused sometimes in a grievous Cough: By which all the Bowels contain'd in the Belly are compres­sed upward, toward the Breast, and urge the Stomach to change its natural motion.

As often as Cholerick humours are plenti­fully voided out, as well upward, as down­ward with great force, accompanied with troublesome Anxieties of the Midriff; it is Choler. Cholerica passio. called in Greek [...] bilis. And in Latin cholerica passio.

When there is a forcible pouring out of Bloud by vomiting, it is called in Greek [...], and in Latin vomitio sanguinis. Hoemopty­sis.

[Page 160] The Cause of Ileos, or Iliaca passio, is an Cause of Ileos. excrementitious viscous matter that doth adhere unto the Gut called Ileo; which in time is coagulated into a very hard substance, almost in the form of Bullets; (of which I have had large experience) whence all pas­sage through for the excrements by siege is stopt, and anon their regress and ascent to the Stomach follows, with a miserable vo­miting of them.

The Rupture of the Peritonaeum may be also the cause of this grievous disease, espe­cially if it be so great, that not onely the small Guts, but the great ones also fall through the lacerated hole, either by reason of their weight, or else by the perpetual ap­proaching of what is contain'd in them, which renders them uncapable to be reduc'd, or put back through the same hole; whence the excrements, (having not passage down­wards) are more and more hardned to that degree, that they can hardly be dissolv'd, so that a hard and unsupperable Tumour doth soon follow, which hinders the reflux of bloud, and causeth an inflammation, and consequently a gangrene of the Guts, atten­ded with a violent vomiting of the excre­ments, 'till death do put a period to the Patient's misery.

These evils are often encreas'd by fo­mentations too hot apply'd, as also by a pre­posterous [Page 161] and strong rubbing of the swell'd part, and violence us'd to repell the Guts.

The immediate causes of the cholerick Causes of the chole­rick passi­on. passion, are sharp, putrid, cholerick hu­mours collected in the Stomach and Bowels, because of external errours commited in diet, or by the taking of poison uncorrected, which doth immediately disturb and corrupt all the humours.

The cause of vomiting bloud, is to be de­duced Causes of vomiting Bloud. (most commonly) from the Pancreas, by reason of some vessel open'd by its over sharp juice, caused by a vitious effervescency with Choler, from whence most of it is dri­ven up to the Stomach to be vomited out; whilst some of it may descend downward to be voided by stool.

This distemper may also be caused by bloud flowing out of the vessels of the Stomach or Guts, either broken by vehement Cough­ing, or corroded by sharp humours.

1. If vomiting be from repletion, or be cri­tical, Progn. 'tis a good benefit of nature, and there­fore must not be stopped: but if it be sympto­matical, 'tis an ill sign, especially if it be caused by inflammation of the Stomach, or adjacent parts, or by poison taken.

2. If the cause of Ileos, be from excre­ments indurated in the Gut Ileon, it may be cur'd, if taken in time; but if it be from a Rupture of the Peritonaeum, 'tis dangerous, [Page 162] and for the most part mortal, especially if there be inflammation and Tumour of the Guts, &c.

3. If the sick vomit bloud, 'tis dangerous: neither is the cholerick passion without dan­ger.

The Cure of this manifold vomiting, may Cure. be performed diversly, according to the variety of each cause.

If vomiting be rais'd too much by an E­metick, or any other nauseous thing taken, it may be represt by this aromatick Opiate, or one like it.

Take of Mint-water, four ounces; Tinc­ture Cordial Opiate. of Cinamon, half an ounce; Syrups of Mint, Erratick Poppies, of each six drachms: Laudanum opiatum six grains; Spirit of Ni­tre twenty drops; mix it.

Let the sick take a spoonfull of this e­very quarter of an hour, till the vomiting ceaseth.

If a Catarrh be the cause of vomiting look for the cure in its proper Chapter.

If the cholerick passion be caused by Cure of Cholerick Passion. poison, or plentifulness of cholerick hu­mours in the Stomach, &c. then nothing hinders but that a gentle Antimonial Eme­tick may be given, to which may be added those things which will temper the too great effervescency of the aforesaid hu­mours. For example.

[Page 163] Take of the infusion of Crocus Metallorum, Vomit. Mint-water, of each six drachms; Cinamon­water, two drachms; Syrup of Erratick Poppies, half an ounce; Laudanum opiatum, two grains; mix it.

After the evacuation of the peccant hu­mours upward, and downward, an Opiate may be profitably used; because it will not onely temper the Acrimony of Choler, but asswage the acid juice, and stupefie the outward sense, and procure rest, which will be very gratefull to the sick.

Take the waters of Fennel, Plantain, Mint, Cordial Opiate. Purslain, of each two ounces; Cinamon­water, Syrups of Myrtles, Purslain, white Poppies, of each one ounce; Confect. de Hya­cintho, Diascordium, Venice-treacle, of each two drachms; Laudanum opiat. eight grains; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it.

Let the sick take two Spoonfulls of it of­ten, which will conduce to amend the faul­tiness of any humours, whether acrimonious, salt or sour; for in the disease of Cholera, it will powerfully asswage the too much effer­vescency that is raised in the small Gut, staying the fierce motion of the troubled hu­mours.

A bloudy vomiting requireth speedy help, Cure of bloudy vo­miting. whence soever the bloud cometh.

The following Astringent medicine will wonderfully conduce to the cure.

[Page 164] Take the waters of Plantain, Comfrey, Astrin­gent Iu­lep. of each three ounces; Cinamon-water, dis­till'd Vinegar, of each an ounce and half; Syrups of Mirtles, Quinces, of each one ounce; Powder of Dragons-bloud half a drachm; Laudanum opiatum six grains; mix it.

The sick may take two or three Spoon­fulls of this Astringent Julep every hour, with good success, for it will cure the most ruptions of Vessels, and stop the flux of bloud beyond expectation.

After Vomiting is supprest, if the Patient be troubled with belching of wind, &c. in this case, the following exemplary mixture may bear the praise; for it doth not onely conduce to curb and discuss wind, remain­ing as well in the Stomach, as Guts; but it doth temper and correct both Phlegm and Choler, and hinder wind in its rise, and will dissipate it, when it is bred.

Take the waters of Mint, Fennel, of each Carmina­tive Iulep. four ounces; the Carminative water of Syl­vius, Syrup of Mint, of each two ounces; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; Chymical Oil of Mace ten drops; Laudanum opiatum ten grains; mix it.

Let this be taken by Spoonfulls, often or more slowly, as pains or stretchings do more or less urge.

If bloud be thought or feared to be clot­ter'd in the cavity of the Guts; to dissolve [Page 165] it, you may add to the above mentioned Carminative Julep, pul. ocul. Cancror. Antimon. Diaphoret. Sperma Coeti, of each one drachm.

The voiding of matter by vomiting and stool, is not to be staid, but mildly promo­ted, seeing it is wholly unnatural, and hurt­full to the Body: but its new rise is to be hindred as much as may be, seeing it is bred of bloud, which is the fuel of our vital fire, and the sustenance of all parts of the Bo­dy.

Among all the medicines that move or promote the voiding of matter, and hinder the continual breeding of it, out of corrupt bloud; I prefer and commend Antimonials, rightly prepar'd; as well Emeticks, as other preparations of it, as Antimonium Diaphore­tic. and above all, a Balsam made artificially of its flowers, which will powerfully conduce to alter and correct the harms befalling the Body by matter, and hinder the new produ­cing of it.

Also Balsam of Sulphur with Oil of Anise­seed is excellent to cleanse and consolidate any inward Ulcer; if two or three drops of it be taken often in a day in any pleasant healing vehicle.

In all preternatural vomitings keep the Belly open, so that the sick may have (at least) every day a stool, either by Nature or Art; and let the peccant humours remai­ning [Page 166] be emptied out by siege, with these or the like Pills.

Take Extract. Rudii half a drachm; Re­sin Purging Pills. of Jallop, Salt of Wormwood, Tartar vitriolated, of each ten grains; Oil of Ci­namon three drops; mix it for two doses, to be taken in the morning.

The cure of Ileos, or Iliaca passio, may Cure of Iliaca passio. (for the most part) be performed by the a­foresaid medicines.

But for the sake of young Practitioners, I shall add some few directions for the cure of this lamentable contracted motion.

Wherefore to appease the troublesome ir­ritation of the Guts, let fat Broths be often taken in at the Mouth, and also injected in­to the Fundament as a Clyster; but if an emollient Clyster can conveniently be made, let the following be prepared and often used, the Decoction of which may be also taken at the Mouth, with a few drops of Oil of A­nise-seed.

Take the Roots of Marsh-mallows two ounces; of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Mul­lein, Clyster. of each two handfulls; the Seeds of Anise, Sweet-fennel, Coriander, Flax, Fae­nugreek, of each two ounces; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in a quart of Spring-water till half be consumed, then strain it, and add oil of white Lillies, the Fat of a Hen, of each one ounce; mix it for a Clyster.

[Page 167] Of which ingredients you may also make Fomentations and Cataplasms to be applied to the region of the Navel, moderately hot, adding Swines or Goats dung to the Pul­tess.

The following Emulsion will conduce not onely to allay the irritation, and temper the sharp humours, but will make the passages slippery, and (by degrees) moisten the hard Excrements contained in the small Gut, and in the mean time, will mildly procure rest, and stop vomiting.

Take of sweet Almonds blanched, white Poppy-seeds, of each two ounces; French­barley Emulsion. boiled four ounces; the waters of Fennel, Plantain, Roses, of each half a pint; Barley-water a pint, let it be made an Emul­sion; to which add Syrup of Violets three ounces; confectio Alkermes de Hyacintho, of each two drachms; Laudanum twenty grains; Spirit of Niter forty drops; mix it.

Let the sick take three Spoonfulls of it of­ten.

In this grievous Disease, nothing is to be neglected, either outward, or inward, that may procure ease to the Patient.

The intrails of Animals, as sheep, &c. ap­plied very warm in hot cloaths, and often repeated, are very effectual.

Also Ventoses applied to the Navel have prov'd succesfull; after which let a little Ci­vet [Page 168] wrapt in Cotten be put to the Navel, and upon it apply a Plaster e Cymino, or Sylvius's Carminative Plaster; or else let the aforemention'd Pultess be applied warm.

Golden bullets swallowed are excellent, but for want of them, leaden bullets may serve.

Some give great Pills of Antimony; and crude Mercury or Quick-silver well depura­ted is also highly commended, to be given to three pound at a time, and walk or ride after it, to agitate the Body; but before you give either of them let the sick take an ounce of oil of sweet Almonds or Sallet oil, and likewise after it: and be sure that no a­cid thing be given after the Quick-silver till it be evacuated, lest it coagulate the Mer­cury, and hurry the Patient to the grave.

CHAP. VII. Of pain in the Stomach, and of various pains of the Guts, as Cholick, &c.

THE pains of the Stomach may be distinguish'd or divided into two sorts, viz. of the upper and lower orifice.

[Page 169] If the upper orifice of the Stomach, (which is of exquisite sense, by reason of the inter­texture of Nerves with which it is wonder­fully furnish'd from the vaga sexta, where­of branches are also communicated to the Heart) be affected, it is called in Greek [...], vel [...], ex [...], Cor.

It is also called in Latin Cardiacus dolor, cui os Ventriculi dolet, & per consensum cordis, ergo vocatur affectio Cordis, seu oris ventriculi. For the Mouth, or upper orifice of the Sto­mach being primarily affected, the Heart suffers by consent.

If the lower orifice, called Pilorus, be affected, it is called dolor seu colica ventriculi; especially if it come of wind.

The pains of the Guts may also be distin­guish'd, because one while the small guts, and other whiles the thick guts are griev'd.

As often as the upper part of the small gut, (nearest the Stomach,) is pain'd, because that part of the gut is over the right Region of the Lions, it maketh the Patient (and some­times the Physician) think that the pain is in them.

But if that part of the small gut which riseth up from the Loins and Mesenterie, (Towards the left Hypochondrium) be afflicted with ren­dings and distensions, with a notable hardness, this is attributed to the Spleen, even by some Physicians, although without any solid rea­son; [Page 170] when indeed this distending pain is altogether Hypochondriacal.

If the pain be in the Gut Ileon, it is thence called Iliaca Passio, which hath been already treated of.

Whatsoever pain is rais'd in the Gut Co­lon, may be called Colica Passio.

These may be distinguish'd from one an­other, chiefly from the situation of either Gut.

For the Gut Ileon is for the most part con­torted hither and thither, up and down about the region of the Navel, and from thence a little upward; but the Colon from the Na­vel downward, the pain of the Cholick gene­rally pressing to the bottom of the Belly, as well as to each side, and the Back, &c. ac­cording as the Gut is writhed which is almost in the manner of a Roman S. being roll'd to the Navel, and from thence with a re­markable winding through the middle of the Belly, it is writh'd to the left kidney, and groin, and so down to the Os sacrum, and bladder, and ends in the right Gut, whence the pain rising in the circuit and circumfe­rence of the Belly below the Navel may truly be called Cholical.

Sometimes there is a hot distending pain Cholica Passio. with pulsation and inflammation in the latter part of the thick Guts called Rectum; and this is either with a troublesome rending, [Page 171] as in the internal or blind Hemorrhoids; or else it is a corroding pain, accompani'd with more or less itching, perpetually provoking to siege as in the Tenesmus, which oft times Tenesmus follow a Dysentery or bloudy flux.

In these various pains of the Guts, there Signs. is one while a hot burning with pulsation, and other whiles a cold chilness seemeth to be fixt; pricking, and (as it were) boring the bowels; sometimes there is a distension of the bowels, pressing them with a sense of weight, wonderfully writhing and contort­ing them with such a tearing corroding pain, that the sick cannot give an explanation of the grief, and misery which they endure.

The causes are either external, or inter­nal. Causes.

The external are wounds or contusions, caused by external violence.

The internal causes are divers; some­times Worms may be the cause.

But a burning pain is produced either by an obstruction of the Capillary veins of the Stomach or Guts, by which the bloud is forc'd to stand still in the vessels till at length (after a great distension) the vessels burst, and the bloud is effus'd, which breedeth an in­flammation, and a manifest pulsation about the part affected, by which it may be dis­tinguish'd from any other Kind.

[Page 172] But for the most part, a burning and cor­roding pain riseth from Choler too fat, pow­erfully and vitiously raising an effervescency with the juice of the Pancreas too acid; as experience teacheth in outward things; for if you pour Spirit of Vitriol to oil of Turpen­tine, it will presently raise an effervescency join'd with a notable heat and burning.

This burning pain is chiefly felt in the re­gion of the Loins, because there is the con­flux of Choler, and the juice of the Pancreas; and from thence ariseth vitious sharp va­pours, which produce griping pains of the Stomach, and pricking pains in the Guts, as also other wandring pains therein.

If the pain be chill and cold, it is caus'd from the juice of the Pancreas very acid and sharp; which raiseth a vitious effervescency with Choler (not oily) and phlegm together, as we may observe, if we mix Spirit of Vitri­ol with any volatile Salt not oily, how it will raise an effervescency, coupled with a no­table Chilness, and Coldness onely sensible; hence we may conclude, that the operation of the acid Spirit in producing cold, is much promoted by phlegm.

The cause of the Colick is over viscous Cause of the Co­lick. phlegm, mixed with Choler, peccant both in its Saltish acrimony, and volatile oiliness; by which the viscous phlegm is rarifi'd into Wind; and if the excrements are contain'd [Page 173] beyond their course, they harden, and adhere to the Gut, whereby the natural ferment is vitiated, and the windy blasts are more and more rarifi'd, and being shut up and remain­ing in the Cavity of the Gut Colon, it cau­seth a violent distension and contraction of it.

But if the aforesaid humours be mixt with the juice of the Pancreas over sharp, acid and harsh; then there is a wonderfull sense of contortion in the part affected, urging and writhing from place to place, according to the winding or rolling of the Gut.

If this wind pierceth through the Guts, Observa­tion. into the Cavity of the Belly, it expan­deth the Peritonoeum, and so inflateth the whole Abdomen, and causeth a Tympa­ny. Tympany.

These Distempers are all dangerous, and Progn. sometimes mortal, especially if a violent Fe­ver be complicated with them.

We must vary the cure according to the diversity of the causes. Cure.

A burning corroding pain may be cur'd, by tempering too fat Choler with Acids, as Spirit of Niter, &c. being mixt with Opiates. For example.

Take the Waters of Fennel, Fumitory, Iulep. Sorrel, Succory, of each three ounces; Cinamon-water, distill'd Vinegar, Syrups of Violets and white Poppies, of each two oun­ces; [Page 174] Laudanum opiatum ten grains; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it.

Let the sick often take a Spoonfull of this Julep, till the heat and pain be diminished, and sleep be procured.

The following Emulsion is also profitable, and therefore may sometimes be given for a change.

Take the four greater cold Seeds, white Emulsion. Poppy-seeds, of each one ounce; French Barley boiled four ounces; with two quarts of Barley water; let it be made an Emulsion; and add to it Syrups of Violets, and white Poppies, of each two ounces; Salt prunella half an ounce, Spirit of Niter thirty drops; mix it, and give four Spoonfulls every two or three hours.

If Choler be two plentifull, let it be educ'd with this or the like mild Cholagogue.

Take Damask-rose water two ounces; Purging Potion. Manna, Diaphaenicon, Electuary of the juice of Roses, of each two drachms; Tartar Vitri­olated ten grains; mix it, and take it in the morning.

The Cholagogue Electuary of Sylvius is also excellent, of which you shall have the re­ceipt at the latter end of the Book.

Chilness and cold pains may be cur'd by tempering the over sharp acidity of the juice of the Pancreas.

[Page 175] Lixivial Salts both fixt and volatile are ex­cellent in this Case, as also any Aromatick Spirit of wine, Treacle water, &c. with which may be mix'd Coral, Pearl, Crabs-eyes, An­timon. Diaphoret. &c. and let the body be compos'd to sweat.

The following forms may serve for ex­ample.

Take the waters of Treacle, Fennel, Syrup Cordial Diaphore­tick. of the juice of Carduus, of each half an ounce; powder of Crabs-eyes, Antimony Diaphore­tick, Salt of Wormwood, of each ten grains; mix it, and give it the sick to cause sweat.

You may also give some of this Cordial Julep, to uphold the Spirits when they sweat.

Take of Tincture of Cinamon, the Car­minative Cordial Iulep. Spirit of Sylvius, of each half an ounce; the waters of Mint, Baum, of each two ounces; Syrups of the juice of Oranges, Clove-gilliflowers of each one ounce; Lau­danum opiat. four grains; Oil of Cloves six drops; mix it, and give two or three spoon­fulls of it often.

Let Sylvius's Carminative Plaster be spread on Leather, and applied to the region of the Stomach and Navel.

As for the cure of the Cholick, let an E­mollient Cure of the Cho­lick. Clyster (which discusseth wind) be given often, at least twice in a day.

[Page 176] Take the roots of Marsh-mallows one Clyster. ounce; Pellitory of the Wall, Mallows, Marsh-mallows, the Flowers of Melilot; Chamomel, of each two handfulls; the Seeds of Anise, sweet Fennel, Dill, the Berries of Bays and Juniper, of each one ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Whey till half of it be consumed; then strain it, and add Elec­tuary Diaprunum, Cariocostinum, Benedicta laxativa, of each half an ounce; Oils of Dill, Chamomel, Roses, of each six drachms; Oil of Harts-horn ten drops; mix it for two Clysters.

The smoak of Tobacco may be blown into the Clyster-bladder, and given with it, with good success.

Besides, a Clyster may be made of Canary wine, or warm Cows Milk, and a little Honey, or Malossus, and given sometimes to soften the hard excrements, and to dissolve those that are too viscous, whereby they may be the easier evacuated, and also Wind invited to an easie outlet.

To drink the Decoction before prescrib'd, will much conduce to ease the sick; also of the same ingredients, you may make fo­mentations and Cataplasms,

But if the Patient do not care for the trouble of such medicines; you may anoint the Belly with this ointment.

[Page 177] Take Ointments of Marsh-mallows, Mar­tiatum, Ointment. Oils of Capers, white Lillies, of each one ounce; Oil of Bricks half an ounce; mix it.

After which apply a large Plaster of Sylvi­us's Empl. Carminative Empl. to the Belly.

The following Julep taken often by spoon­fulls will much conduce to ease the pain, and discuss the wind.

Take the Waters of Mint, Scurvigrass, Fen­nel, Carmina­tive Iulep. Lovage, Penny-royal, of each one ounce; the carminative Spirit of Sylvius, Tinctures of Cinamon and Castor, of each half an ounce; Syrups of Mint, Fennel and Mirtles, of each six drachms; Oil of Mace distill'd ten drops; Spirits of Harts-horn and Niter, of each twenty drops; Laudanum opiatum ten grains; mix it for a Julep.

The Oil of Harts-horn is a very Potent, though ungratefull remedy in this disease.

Also the Balsam of Sulphur made with Oil of Anise-seed, Amber, or Juniper is ex­cellent in vanquishing this rebellious dis­temper.

After the violence of pain is abated, you may purge the Body with this following Decoction.

Take of Guiacum four ounces; Roots of Purging Decoction. China, Sassafras, Lovage, of each one ounce; Seeds of Anise, sweet Fennel, Berries of Bays and Juniper, of each two drachms; let [Page 178] them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain-water till half be consu­med, strain it, and add of the best Manna, Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, of each four ounces; Cinamon-water two ounces; Spi­rit of Niter two drachms; mix it, and take two ounces of it every Morning and Even­ing.

The following Pills with Gums will be also very usefull, and potent to educe the vis­cous Phlegm, &c.

Take Galbanum prepar'd with Vinegar of Purging Pills. Squills two drachms; Resins of Jallop and Scammony, Powders of Castor, Mastick, Mirrh, Vitriol of Mars calcin'd to whiteness, of each half a drachm; Saffron ten grains; Powder of Troches, Alhandal two Scruples; Oils of Harts-horn, Cloves, of each ten drops; beat them all into a Mass for Pills.

Let the sick take three or four of these Pills in the morning fasting, which will kind­ly expell the vitious humours.

After which let them take some of the aforesaid Julep to procure rest and ease. Oily volatile Salts, and Spirit of Niter are excellent, not onely to correct Choler, and other peccant humours, but do potently discuss wind.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Worms.

WOrms may be generated in all parts of the Body; those which are bred in Ulcers, may more fitly be called Mag­gots, in Latin termetes; but I shall onely treat of those which are bred in the internal parts of the Body.

Every man living in all places, and climes, doth more or less suffer by the frequent gene­ration of these little intestine Enemies; espe­cially the weaker state of Man, as Infants and the female Sex; whose ferment, or digestive heat being not sufficiently master of their great moisture; part of it is turned into pu­trefaction, which corrupteth the humours.

Wherefore it is no wonder that active Na­ture (being never at rest) by the quickning animating heat, which causeth Concoction, doth frequently generate Worms either in the Stomach or Guts, according to the va­rious occurrences of matter, and seminal dispositions.

There are three or four kinds of these in­bred disturbers, which we may take no­tice of.

[Page 180] The first are called in Latin Teretes, a te­rendo, quod quasi terendo rotundum sit, vel ex Teretes. [...], i. e. terebrando.

They are long and round like Earth­worms but whiter; they are more common than the rest, and are bred in the Guts, but do sometimes get up into the Stomach.

The second are called lumbrici Lati & lon­gi, because they are broad and long.

They are also called [...], & [...], ex Taenia. [...], tendo. i. e. fascia extensa. Because they are something like a womans Head-band.

This worm is full of joints, and is a native of the Jejunum, which is a fit place to nou­rish these Milk-suckers, or craving Vermine; there being the most supply of milky Juice, by reason of the numerous lacteal Vessels.

Some of these worms have been of an in­credible length. Pliny lib 11. nat. hist. cap. 33. affirmeth that some have been thirty foot in length.

If you peruse Schenckiu's his observations, lib. 3. pag. 411. you may reade variety of such Histories.

The third are called in Greek [...], à Ascarides. [...], salio.

In Latin they are called Vermes exigui in­testinorum, quod ex [...], è sordibus nas­cantur.

They are little and slender; some call them Arse-worms, because they commonly [Page 181] lye in the Intestinum rectum, near the Sphincter Muscle.

There is another kind of worms (though seldom seen) in the Colon, like the Botts in Horses; they may be called in Latin Vermi­na, Vermina. ex vertendo, quod rependo torqueant sese, & vertant cum quodam minuto motu. Ex [...] serpo.

The material cause of all worms is (most commonly) the inconcocted part of the Chylus which is produc'd of such nourishment as easily putrifieth in the Stomach; as green fruit, &c. which gives sufficient matter to these intruding Vermine.

This part of the Chylus being crude, and unfit for sanguification, is left (undrawn by the lacteal Veins) in the intestines, where it is mixed with pituitous humours, and elabo­rated by the temperate heat of the guts, which is the efficient cause of such like generations.

The form which lay hid in this matter be­fore, is afterward generated by the tempe­rate heat of the Bowels, and according to the diversity of the latent forms, sundry sorts of worms are bred.

In the aforemention'd title of Schenckius, you may reade of the stupendious Figures of Worms, set down by learned and famous Men in their Monuments.

The signs of worms are many.

If they be round, there is a pinching or Signs of Teretes. [Page 182] gnawing pain in the Belly, especially being hungry; also a stinking Breath, a frequent dry Cough, Loathing, and sometimes Vo­miting and Looseness, with distention of the Belly, and a symptomatical Fever; the sleep is often disturb'd with horrible Dreams, and starting and gnashing of the Teeth; the Face is pale the Nose itcheth; wherefore Children that have them, do often rub and pick their Nose.

If the long broad worm be in the small Signs of Taenia. guts, the party hath an insatiable Appetite, the Body consumeth, having quick stools after eating, in which there is often a sub­stance like to the Seeds of Cucumbers.

If the small worms called Ascarides, be Signs of Ascarides. bred in the intestinum rectum, there is a pain­full itching in Anus with provocation to stool, in which they often come away.

If the short thick worms like Botts be bred Signs of Vermina. in the Colon, there is a wringing troublesome pain, and they often come from the Patient night and day, without any Excrements, or motion to stool.

These last mention'd, are of all others the worst, and most difficult to destroy, especi­ally Progn. if they continue long, and grow nume­rous, because they enclose themselves in a Cystis or Bladder for shelter, which they run out and in to, as a Coney into her Burrough, whereby they defend themselves from the [Page 183] power of those things which are given to kill them.

The broad long worms are also hard to destroy; and if the round ones continue long, and are many, they cause Convulsions, and sometime Epilepsie; and if they come out alive in acute Fevers, it betokeneth great Malignity of the morbifick matter, which they labour to shun.

The Ascarides are not dangerous, for they may be easily killed with Clysters.

As for the Curation, it is perform'd by two Cure. indications; the first is by killing of them, the second by expelling of them when killed

And here the place or residence of the of­fending Vermine is to be considered, viz. whether it be the Stomach or Bowels; if the Bowels, whether the most external, as the Rectum, or more internal, as the Colon, Ileon, or Jejunum; and according to the different seat of such internal offensives of life, we must differently level our remedies, and manner of Cure.

If the Stomach be the residence of these notorious offenders; they may then be kil­led, and pumped upwards by an Antimonial vomit.

But large worms, which are not natives of the Stomach, but (as is said before) of the Jejunum, or other next productive guts, [Page 184] may be most properly conveyed downwards by the force of Aloetick and Mercurial Medicaments.

And for as much as the passage is tedious for such slow marchers as worms are; which being but sick it may be with one dose, and loath to be dislodged; therefore they must be often stimulated to their exit (at least five or six days together) by protruding Medicaments, till they be all destroy'd, and evacuated.

The following Pill is excellent.

Take Extract. Rudii, pil. Ruffi, of each one Scruple; Mercur. dulcis sixteen grains; Purging Pills. Oil of Juniper three drops; make them in­to eight Pills.

A young Child may take a small Pill of this every day, and those that are adult, three or four of them, for five or six days, till all the Vermine are kill'd and ejected.

And to render the whole Region of the Bowels an uneasie residence to such unwel­come guests, an Aloetick Plaster applied to the Navel is never to be omitted; and far­ther to specificate the same, and all other Medicines, either internally exhibited, or ex­ternally applied; I advise you to mix some of the Powder of the ejected worms (of what kind soever) with them, which you will find most effectual to destroy the living Ver­mine.

[Page 185] Also all medicaments which partake of mercurial irradiation are destructive to Worms where-e'er they are.

Our common Quicksilver, if boiled an hour or two in fair Water, renders the whole (without communication of taste or scent, and also without any loss of weight) a cer­tain destroyer of Worms in humane Bodies; which may be either given at the Mouth, or sweetned with Sugar, and given as a Clyster; after which give two or three do­ses of the aforesaid Pills to expell the dead Vermine, and verminous matter.

CHAP. IX. Of a Looseness, or flux of the Belly.

AS often as the expulsion of what is con­tain'd in the Guts, happens quicker, oftener, and more plentifully than is natu­ral, it may be called a Looseness; of which there are divers sorts, which may be distin­guisht according to the different things voi­ded.

1. If Food be evacuated crude and undiges­ted, Lienteria. it is called in Greek [...], and in Latin also Lienteria, i. e. levitas intestino­rum.

[Page 186] 2. If the Food be fermented in the Stomach, and the Chyle passeth into the Guts, and the nutriment of the Chyle be not there se­parated from the Excrement, but is voided whitish like a Pultess, much like the Excre­ments of those that have the Jaundice, it may be called in Greek [...], and in Latin Coeliaca, i. e. alvinus, vel ventralis dispositio; Coeliaca. of which there is another kind, which for distinction sake may be named the Chyle-like Looseness; wherein the Food is both fermen­ted, and severed into Chyle and Excrements, and yet are voided confusedly together.

3. If not onely Food, but waterish and cholerick humours are often and plentifully voided, it is called in Greek [...] Diarrhoea. fluo.

It may be called in English a Cholerick Looseness.

There are divers other kinds of Looseness, which may be called Diarrhoea; for if thick and viscous Phlegmatick humours are fre­quently and plentifully voided, it may thence be call'd a Phlegmatick Diarrhoea; if the humours be serous, it is a serous Diar­rhoea; if fat and oily Excrements are fre­quently evacuated, it may thence be nam'd an unctuous Diarrhoea, &c.

4. If the dejection be purulent, corrupted, excrementitious matter, together with pure Bloud, it may then be called in Greek [...], Dysentery. [Page 187] [...], quod hic non tam difficultatem quam detrimentum notat, & [...] intestinum, ab [...] intus.

It may be called in Latin Tormina quod dolore torquentur intestina; In English 'tis vulgarly called the Bloudy-flux.

If there be a perpetual endeavour to go to stool, and nothing but a little mucous purulent matter voided with great pain and straining, it may be called in Greek [...], vel [...], ex [...] tendo. Tenas­mus.

In English it may be called a neediness, there being a continual need and desire to go to stool.

This Distemper properly belongeth to a Dysentery, because it doth most commonly follow it, and sometimes with a procidentia Ani.

To a Bloudy-flux may also be referred the Hemor­rhoids. immoderate flux of the Hemorrhoids, which may be known from a Dysentery, both from the place affected, and the great quantity of the bloudy purging.

It is called in Greek [...], ex [...], san­guis, & [...], profluvium.

Also the flux of the Liver (if there be any such Disease) may be referred hither, in which the excrementitious liquour ejected, is like the washing of bloudy flesh.

This Distemper is called in Greek [...], qui ex hepate laborant.

[Page 188] In Latin 'tis called Hepaticus affectus, vel fluxus est serosi et sanguinei humoris per alvum excretio, propter Hepatis imbecilitatem.

The causes of all fluxes of the Belly, are Causes. either external, or internal.

The external, are any of the six non-na­tural things immoderately used, which wea­kens the Stomach, also the taking of any ve­nemous thing, as Arsnick, Mercury subli­mate, &c. which presently destroys the fer­ment of the Stomach and Guts.

The internal cause of the Lientery, is weak­ness Causes of Lientery. of the Stomach, that it cannot retain any food received into it, but striveth to ex­pell it.

The Jaundice-like flux is caused by the slug­gishness Cause of the Iaun­dice-like flux. of Choler, so that it is not carri'd down to the Guts, to promote the separation of the usefull, from the unusefull parts of the Chyle.

The Chyle-like flux is also caused by the Cause of the Chyle­like flux. same, so that the straining of Chyle through the spongy crust of the Guts into the Lacteal veins is hindred; the orifices or pores tending to the Lacteal veins, being obstructed by over thick and viscous phlegmatick hu­mours.

A Cholerick Diarrhoea is caused by over­salt, Causes of the divers kinds of Diarrhoea. sharp and serous Choler; together with phlegm, and the juice of the Pancreas too watry and fluid.

[Page 189] A phlegmatick Diarrhoea is caused by such things as do breed much viscous phlegm.

A serous Diarrhoea ariseth most frequent­ly from Spittle, and the juice of the Pancreas too Serous.

A fat, oily, or unctuous looseness, doth follow the over much use of too fat food.

A Dysentery doth proceed either from the Cause of a Dysentery. thickness of the bloud, by reason of over viscous phlegm, being mixed with Lympha, or the juice of the Pancreas too acid, ac­compani'd with sorrow of mind; whereby the bloud doth become too gross for its won­ted circulation through the Capillary Vessels of the Guts; wherefore it causeth a great distension of them, till at length they burst, and pour out the bloud into the cavity of the Guts.

Or else it may be caused from Choler too salt, sharp and plenteous in the bloud, whereby it doth become extravagantly se­rous, and eager, through extraordinary fer­mentation, extremely agitating the humours to a Colliquation, especially where fierceness of anger or great heat of mind do concur; by which the bloud is the more rarifi'd to pierce through the tender restraint of the vessels, and doth flow out by indirect ways, some­times by great loss, to the endangering of life.

[Page 190] A Tenasmus is caused by a phlegmatick vis­cous Cause of Tenas­mus. humour, joyned with a sharp acid hu­mour, which doth fret the Gut about the siege, stirring up a troublesome Ulcer there.

The flux of the Hemorrhoids, and of the Cause of Hemor­rhoids, &c. Liver, is to be deduc'd from much serous matter mixt with the bloud, and also relax­ing the vessels.

The Hemorrhoids are either critical, which useth to ease the sick; or symptoma­tical, and much weakneth them.

The signs of Fluxes are manifest, from Signs. what hath been said.

1. If any looseness continue long, with loa­thing, Progn. 'tis an ill sign, especially if it be with a Fever.

2. If the small Guts are affected, the pain is sharper than when it is in the thick Guts.

3. In the Dysentery, if the dejections be very bloudy, or black and fetid, with great Thirst, Hicket, &c. for the most part they are mortal signs; but if the erosion be onely in the internal membrane of the Gut, and there be no great pain, nor other bad sym­ptome, there is great hopes of recovery.

If the bloud and humours be too thin and Cure. serous, they must be corrected, and eva­cuated.

Chalk, and Harts-horn, (or any other burnt bone) reduc'd to powder, and given [Page 191] often in a small quantity, doth imbibe and correct watry moisture, and also over much fatness, which may be the cause of a loose­ness.

After which the peccant humours may be evacuated by stool with Hydragogues, and by sweat and urine, with Sudorificks and Diureticks.

Toasted Rhubarb will satisfie to many in­dications, seeing that it doth not onely eva­cuate water together with Choler abounding, but will soon correct the over-loose body, by its mild tartness.

Wherefore when the Bloud doth abound with much serous liquour, let the sick take this Powder in a little Broth.

Take the Powder of Jallop, Cinamon, of each fifteen grains; Powder of Rhubarb Purging Powder. tosted half a drachm; mix it

After the operation of it, you may give the following Cordial by spoonfulls.

Take the Waters of Plantain, Comfry, Cordial Iulep. of each two ounces; Cinamon-water half an ounce; Syrup of Mirtles one ounce; Confectio de Hyacintho, Diascordium, of each one drachm; Laudanum opiat. four grains; mix it.

It will be also convenient sometimes to e­duce the humours by urine and sweat; for which I commend the following Decoction of China, &c.

[Page 192] Take the Roots of Burdock, the five o­pening Decoction. Roots, Sarzeparilla, Contra yerva, of each one ounce; China four ounces; Grom­well-seeds, Juniper-berries, of each half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of fountain water, 'till half of it be boiled away; then strain it, and add Syrup of the five opening Roots six ounces; Spirit of Niter one drachm; mix it.

L [...]t the sick take a quarter of a pint of this warm, twice or thrice a day, and especially in the morning fasting, which will the ea­sier procure a breathing sweat, or else urine more plentifull, by which the serosity of the bloud will be consum'd by little and little, so that the bloud and humours will thereby become more pure.

If a Dysentery, or Bloudy-flux arise from a sharp humour corroding the Vessels; it may be cur'd by correcting, and tempering the sharp acid humours, and consolidating the Vessels fretted.

The following Powder is excellent to cor­rect and amend the aforesaid acid humours, and stop all fluxes of bloud.

Take the Powders of red Coral, Pearles Powder. prepared, white Chalk, Dragons bloud, of each half a drachm; mix it for six doses, which may be taken in three spoonfulls of the fol­lowing Julep, every two or three hours.

[Page 193] Take the Waters of Plantain, Comfry, of Astrin­gent Iulep. each two ounces; Tincture of Cinamon, Sy­rups of Quinces, Mirtles, of each one ounce; Laudanum opiat. ten grains; Oil of Juniper ten drops; mix it.

If there be an Ulcer in the thick Guts, and Clysters can come to the part affected, let the following be often injected, and instruct the sick to retain them so long as they can.

Take new Milk wherein Steel hath been Clyster. quenched one pint; Honey of Roses one ounce; Venice Turpentine half an ounce; the Yelk of one Egg; Balsam of Sulphur four drops; mix it.

The following Bolus may be sometimes given in the Morning fasting.

Take the Powder of Rhubarb tosted two Purging Bolus. Scruples; Nutmeg one scruple; make it in­to a Bolus with Conserves of red Roses.

And this Bolus may be given at Night going to bed.

Take Diascordium, Conserves of red Roses, Bolus. Opiat. of each half a drachm; Laudanum opiat. three grains; mix it.

By the frequent use of these choice Me­dicines, the Ulcer will be cleans'd, the Gripes asswag'd, and the Consolidation of the ulce­rated Gut (both in the Tenasmus and Dysen­tery, &c.) will be wonderfully promoted.

[Page 194] But if the Ulcer be in the small Guts, the following vulnerary Decoction will more conduce to the Cure.

Take the Roots of Comfry, Plantain, Knot­grass, Decoction. of each two ounces; the Tops of Saint John's wort, Sanicle, Germander, red Roses, of each one handfull; Shavings of Harts­horn, Cinamon, of each half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in three quarts of Fountain-water wherein steel hath been quenched, till half of it be boiled away, then strain it, and add Syrup of dried Roses, Tincture of Cinamon, dis­till'd Vinegar, Syrup of Marsh-mallows, of each two ounces; mix it, and give the sick four spoonfulls every two or three hours.

If you add two or three drops of Balsam of Sulphur, made with Oil of Anise-seed to eve­ry dose of the Decoction, &c. it will be the more effectual both to cleanse and consoli­date the Ulcer.

The flux of the Hemorrhoids, if it be symptomatical, and weaken the sick, is then to be hindred, which may be effectually done by the afore-mention'd Medicines.

If much serous Liquour can so dilute the Bloud, and relax the Vessels, that part of it may be carried out of them into the Guts, and produce a Flux like the washing of Flesh, commonly called a Flux of the Liver; it may be cur'd by driving forward the serous Li­quour [Page 195] out of the Body, by Sudorificks, and Diureticks; and also by tart strengthning things that repair the hurt of the loosened Vessels.

The Diuretick decoction of China, before mention'd, is excellent in this case, to be ta­ken as is there directed.

Also the following Diaphoretick may be sometimes used with good success.

Take the Waters of Treacle, Cinamon, of Sudori­fick. each half an ounce; Plantain-water two oun­ces; distill'd Vinegar three drachms; Con­fectio de Hyacintho, Diascordium, of each one drachm; Powder of Crabs-eyes, Antimony Diaphoretick, of each half a drachm; Syrups of Mirtles, dried Roses, of each six drachms; mix it for two doses.

Also the Powder and astringent Julep pre­scrib'd in page 192, 193. is excellent to corro­borate the loosened Vessels, &c.

Anoint the Belly with the Oil of Quinces, Mirtles, Roses, Wormwood, &c. mixed with unguent. Comitissae; which is also good in all Fluxes of the Belly.

CHAP. X. Of the dry Belly-ach.

THIS cruciating disease may be called in Greek [...], and in Latin Spasmus Abdominis, quod sub umbelico est ad Pubem; and because of the additional Tor­ments, it may be also named Tormen Abdomi­nis, quod dolore torquetur Abdomen.

This disease doth also need as well the Name, as the invocation of Miserere mei Deus; the sick being in such extreme misery, that 'tis incredible to all but them that have endur'd it.

The most urgent and exquisite pain under this affect, being in that most tender and sen­sible part, viz. the Belly, may seem to have some Alliance with the Iliack or Colick pas­sion; and indeed they are sometimes its Con­comitants, but much different from it.

The causes of this lamentable Distemper, Causes. are either external, or internal.

The external general occasional cause is contracting Cold in the Region of the Belly, &c. which doth cramp not onely the Muscles of the Abdomen, but also the tender Fibres of the Intestines, cruciating all the affected parts with obdurate Contractions; which is [Page 197] more aggravated when the Moon doth come to opposition with the Sun. Which may be al­so observ'd in all Spasms and convulsive mo­tions, that about the full of the Moon, the tide of such nervous diseases doth rise highest: Espe­cially in those places where the direct aspects of the nocturnal luminary have the most power; which demonstration will evince to be between the Tropicks, which many of our Mariners, (who have sailed that way) can tell by wofull experience.

Another external procuring cause of this grievous disease is a mineral Gas ascending from the Caverns of the Earth, infesting the Air with its poisonous Fumes, whereby not onely the tender fibrous, and nervous parts of the Belly are oft times crampt with Con­vulsive spasms; but the mineral Fumes be­ing inspired with the Air into the Body, pro­duce most eminent apparent evils, as the Corruption of the Chyle into porraceous and adust Choler, from whence followeth irrita­ting Vomitings, and the Constipation of the Belly, with obdurateness of the excre­ments, which inflames the Bowels, and en­tails Signs. a Symptomatical fever, with a heavy and slow pulse; and as the pain doth aggravate more and more, there is want of sleep and rest, with other uneasiness, and commotions of Body and Mind; as the Operatours in Chymistry have sometimes experience of [Page 198] (to their cost and trouble) in mineral pre­parations; for if a Vessel chance to break, the sharp and acid Vapours, or Gas of the mine­ral, immediately seiseth the Animal spirits of all that are in the Elaboratory; by which they are mov'd unequally (against the will) through the Nerves to the Musculous parts, which causeth Convulsive motions, with trembling and shaking of the Limbs, and other accumulated evils.

The like grievous Symptoms (though not so violent) happen to many People that inhabit near the mineral Mines in Hungaria, and also in some Places of England as Derby­shire, &c. Where there are Lead-works, from whence mineral Fumes continually ascend from the separating Oar, which infesteth the Air, and is a great producer of such Convul­sive effects.

At the first seisure of this evil, the Muscles of the Abdomen, and sometimes those of the Breast and Back, (through contractions) prove hard and painfull, as in our ordinary Cramps; which Symptoms will evince, that these Vapours are peccant in an acid Acri­mony.

The internal Cause, is also sour Vapours ari­sing most commonly out of the small Guts; which the concurring symptoms (consider'd and weighed with an attentive mind) will confirm; for these Vapours being sharp, are [Page 199] driven forward into the Nerves, and gnaw­ing them with great pain, aggravate and produce this Convulsive spasm.

1. If this miserable and afflictive Distem­per Progn. hath continu'd to a long durance, it causeth such obstructions in the fibrous and nervous Passages of the Muscles, that there­by Lameness and an Atrophy soon succeeds, increasing the Weakness of all the Members of the Body, till at length it ends in a Para­litical resolution of them.

2. If a pregnant Woman, or a Woman af­ter Abortion, be afflicted with this grievous evil; it is very dangerous, and many times mortal.

As for the Cure, we must endeavour to Cure. ease the pain, and strengthen the weak parts with all expedition,

The pain may be eased, and diminish'd as well by internal, as external Anodynes and Narcoticks; to allay the violent Motion of the Animal spirits, and abate the grievous Spasms succeeding.

The following Cordial Diaphoretick opiate is excellent in this Case.

Take the Waters of Fennel, Peony, Treacle, Diaphore­tick. Opiate. of each one ounce; Syrups of Stoechas, Peony, Scurvigrass, of each half an ounce; Powder of Crabs-eyes, Antimony Diaphoretick, Be­zoar-mineral, Salt of Tartar vitriolated, Salt of Amber, volatile Salt of Harts-horn, of [Page 200] each one scruple; Tincture of Castor two drachms, Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Oil of Cloves, of each four drops; Laudanum opiat. six grains; mix it, and give four spoonfulls every three hours.

By the frequent taking of this Volatile and Anodyne Sudorifick, the peccant humours will be temper'd and diminisht, and the in­ordinate, involuntary, and impetuous mo­tion of the Animal spirits will be reduc'd, and brought to tranquillity, by which the binding Constrictions of the Belly-ach will be the easier remov'd.

Bathing in this distemper, hath been of­ten us'd with admirable success; for by the frequent use thereof, the cutaneous and mus­cular Fibres will not onely be relax'd from contracted Spasms; but the pores will be al­so kept open for the constant discharge of transpiring Particles.

A natural Bath, such as is in the City of Bathe, is excellent; but when it is not to be had, an artificial Bath may be very usefull for the ends propos'd.

For example.

Take of Elder, Dwarf-elder, Vervain, Be­tony, Chamomel, Bays, Rhue, Time, Hys­sop, Bath. Ground-pine, Organ, Penny-royal, Sage, sweet Marjoram, of each six handfulls; [Page 201] Flowers of Stoechas, Chamomel, Melilot, of each four handfulls; Roots of Pellitory of Spain, Briony, Master-wort, Virginia Snake­root, of each four ounces; Spicknard, Ber­ries of Juniper and Bays, of each two oun­ces; Brimstone six pound; Salt Niter two pound; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in twenty Gallons of Fountain-water, till a third part be boiled away.

Let the sick be well bathed in it, as often as strength will permit; and let them sit there­in, as long as they may well bear the same.

Then let them be rub'd dry, and remov'd into a Bed; and let the affected parts be well anointed with this (or the like) fragrant Ointment.

Take Oil of Earth-worms, Ointment of Ointment. Orange-flowers, Jessamy, of each three oun­ces; Oil of Mace by expression one ounce; Oil of Juniper, Bricks, of each two drachms; mix it.

As often as the Body is costive, let a Sup­pository, or carminative Clyster be admi­nistred to make it soluble.

Let the weakned parts be fortifi'd with the aforesaid unguent; upon which apply a Plaster of Sylvius's carminative Emplaster spread on Leather, which you may remove once in twenty four hours, using warm frictions to the pained parts, and apply the Plaster a­gain; and over it you may apply a Fox-skin [Page 202] drest, which will keep the parts warm, and conduce to the cure, which course may be continu'd 'till strength be restor'd to the grie­ved Limbs.

CHAP. XI. Of the Yellow Iaundice.

THE Yellow Jaundice is called in Greek [...], ab avicula quoe [...] dicitur, Icterus. quod ea oculos flavi vel aurei coloris habet.

It is also called Icterus in Latin; it being a spreading of a yellowish Colour over the whole body.

It was the common received opinion of the Ancients, that the chief cause of this Disease, is an obstruction of the Cystick pas­sage to the small Gut, so that Choler is there­by wholly hindred in its natural descent; wherefore it doth ascend to the Liver, and so to the Bloud, with which it is transfer'd to the habit and superficies of the body, where it doth shew it self in its colours.

But it may be manifested from many ob­servations, and experiments, both Anatomi­cal, and Practical; that the Jaundice may be produc'd without an obstruction of the pas­sage of Choler.

[Page 203] Although I suppose that the Jaundice may probably be raised by an obstruction of the Meatus Hepaticus: for if there should be a great stoppage in this Vessel, by any gluti­nous or lapidescent matter, the Choler that is generated in it may possibly regurgitate (there being no Valves to hinder it) and thereby become mixed with the Blood, by which means it may (in a short time) be conveyed over the whole Body.

But if the Meatus Cisticus should be stop­ped by a small stone, &c. as I have sometimes seen in dissecting Icterical Patients, where I observed that the Excrements were not dyed so yellow as usual: yet it is impossible that there should be any regurgitation of Choler to the Liver out of the Gall, by reason of the three Valves looking from without inwards, which do potently hinder the recourse of it: and although the Meatus Hepaticus is with­out Valves, yet seldom in a Jaundice, is ei­ther that passage, or the Ductus Communis obstructed, but many times wider, as the most ingenious Salmon hath accurately ob­served.

Wherefore that we may the better judge Cause. I. of the true Cause of this Disease, let us first consider that Man's Body abounds with an Animal salt, which doth circulate with the Blood through the whole Body, so that not onely the internal, but superficial parts are replenished therewith.

[Page] 2. Secondly, it is the Nature of Volatile and Animal salts to sublime, and upon their mixture with other fit Bodies to excite or stir up new appearances of Colours accor­ding to the Nature of the Salt; for if a soluti­on of Salt of Tartar be mixt with a solution of sublimate in fair Water, it gives in a mo­ment a reddish, yellowish or orange taw­ny Colour, although both the solutions be as clear as Cristal, and with Armoniack salts in proper liquors, may be made many Colours to appear.

From whence we may judge, that if the Animal salt of Man's Body become too vola­tile, or be too much sublimed: which may be done, either by the biting of an enraged Viper, or by the power of poyson, or from the over heating of the Body by violent ex­ercise, or by exceeding sorrow of mind, or great passion, or by excessive drinking of hot liquors, or from burning Feavers; where­by the universal Body comes to be inflamed, the Spirits vehemently agitated, and there­by the Volatile saline Principle to be vio­lently moved out of its Place or Domicil, to the Circumference of the Body; but mee­ting with the viscous Juice of the Cutis is there hindred from flying away; and being dissolved and mixt with the Cutaneous Hu­midity it excites the Jaundice, whether yel­low, black or greenish, according to the Co­lour [Page 204] of the Poyson which the Patient hath casually taken, or predisposition of the Bo­dy to so notable a mutation. Hence it is that many (who have been in perfect health) have been suddenly invaded with this Di­sease: some by the biting of an enraged Vi­per, others by running a race, &c. who im­mediately after were all over as yellow as if they were dipt into the Juice of Saffron; and yet notwithstanding it could not be judg­ed that the Gall-juice was either affected or disaffected in the least measure: for it cannot in reason be supposed, that the Venome or Poyson of the Viper should be so particularly directed to the Gall, to work such an effect in so short a time, as to distribute that vis­cous heavy Juice so universally over the whole Body: much less can any one ima­gine, that either the drinking of strong li­quours, or any violent exercise, &c. should any ways so operate upon the cholerick Hu­mour, as to volatize it, and so immediately disperse it universally over the whole humane Frame; for it is impossible that the gluti­nous Substance of Choler should be disper­sed in so short a time to all the superficial Parts of the Body.

Therefore it is more probable, that the volatile Animal salt of the Body, being mo­ved, and carried out of its Domicil, by the extream heat of the internal Parts, and vio­lent [Page] Motion of the Spirits, and being mixt and dissolved with the cutaneous Juice (as is before mentioned) doth not onely excite the Jaundice, but may possibly be the Cause of Purple Spots in the Spotted Feaver: as also of many other sudden and great Changes in the Bodies of humane kind.

The Jaundice invading a Patient in a Fe­ver (before the seventh, viz. the Critical Progn. day) is dangerous: if it comes upon an In­flamation of the Liver, or a Schirrus and the Cure be not hastned, a Dropsie, Cachexy, or deadly pining will in a short time suc­ceed.

If it be critical upon acute Feavers nature Cure. effects the Cure: if it be symptomatical, the Cure depends upon the Cure of the Disease by which it comes.

If it be essential from the obstruction of the Meatus Hepaticus, the obstruction must be opened.

If sorrow of mind or great passion be the Cause, it ought to be prevented as much as may be, both by Philosophical and Theolo­gical reasons about any troublesome matters, and by confirming the mind, whereby the sick may be the better enabled to bear and suffer stoutly any adversity.

This ought to be observed also in all other Diseases.

[Page 205] If Ebriety be the cause I commend Sobrie­ty to cure it. Sublata causa tollitur effec­tus.

If the humours be over viscous or gluti­nous, the following Decoction will not one­ly alter and correct, but mildly educe the peccant humours, by which the Jaundice may in a short time be cured.

Take of Rhubarb, the Roots of Madder, Smallage, the greater Celandine, of each Decoction. one ounce; the Flowers of Broom one hand­full; Hemp-seed two ounces; the Seeds of Anise, Parsley and Columbines, of each half an ounce; Saffron two drachms; white Tartar three drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in White-wine, and Foun­tain water, of each three pints, till the third part be boiled away, then strain it, and add the best Manna, Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, of each three ounces; mix it.

Let the sick take four spoonfulls of this three times a day, till the viscous phlegm and Choler be sufficiently evacuated, and the na­tural colour of the body restored.

As oft as the Jaundice is caused by the poi­son of a Viper, or any other venemous thing whatsoever, you must administer (as soon as possible) a volatile sudorifick to correct and expell the venome.

The following will serve to both indica­tions.

[Page 206] Take the waters of Carduus, Fennel, Fu­mitory, Sudorifick of each two ounces; Treacle-water, Syrups of the juice of Carduus, red Poppies, of each one ounce; tincture of Saffron two drachms; Venice-treacle half a drachm; Be­zoar-mineral, Antimony diaphoretick, Salt of Harts-horn, of each one scruple; Spirit of Salt-Armoniack six drops; Laudanum opi­atum six grains; mix it, and give three or four spoonfulls to provoke sweat, and after it breaks forth, give a spoonfull or two, now and then, to promote it.

Also this Decoction, or one like it may be prescrib'd for the Icterick patient, it being both Sudorifick, and Diuretick.

Take the Roots of Scorzonera, Juniper, of Diuretick Decoction. each two ounces; Roots of Master-wort, Sassaphras, of each half an ounce; Berries of Juniper and Bays, of each one ounce and half; Seeds of Nettles, Hemp and Colum­bines of each one ounce; shavings of Harts-horn three drachms; the tops of Carduus, Scordium, Scabious, the lesser Centaury, of each one handfull; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain­water, till half of it be boiled away; then strain it, and add Syrup of the juice of Car­duus four ounces; Treacle-water two ounces; Salt of Tartar vitriolated two drachms; mix it, and give four spoonfulls every two or three hours.

[Page 207] Soap of any sort, conduceth to the cure of the Jaundice, upon a twofold account, both by reason of its fixt lixivial Salt, and al­so by reason of its fatness or oil; for the Lixi­vial Salt doth correct and diminish the over volatileness and spirituousness of the vitiated Choler, and the oil doth blunt the sharpness of the volatile and spirituous Salt ruling in Choler.

The following mixture is very effectual.

Take of Hemp-seed two ounces; Soap two Opiate. drachms; bruise the seed, and boil it in half a pint of new Milk, till half of it be con­sumed; then strain it, and add Syrup of Saf­fron half an ounce; tincture of Saffron two drachms; Laudanum opiatum four grains; mix it, and give half of it in the morning fasting, and the remainder at night, going to bed.

CHAP. XII. Of a Cachexy.

AN ill Habit of Body is called in Greek Cachexia. [...], ex [...], malus, & [...], habitus.

It may be called in Latin mala corporis ha­bitudo.

[Page 208] There are many causes of this Distemper, which may be distinguisht according to the diversity of the conjoin'd Symptoms.

It doth accompany all Chronical Diseases, as Dropsies of all kinds, Hypochondriack suffocation, Scurvy, Pox and Gout, &c. for it doth spare none, neither Peer nor Peasant, of any age or sex; but it most frequently sei­zeth on Women when their monthly terms are supprest.

The cause is either external or internal.

The external cause is either bad Diet, a long time receiv'd, or for want of good re­freshing Food after sickness, for the Stomach being weak cannot digest course Diet, by which the nutriment of the Body doth by degrees become peccant in quality, vitiating the humours, and Bloud it self, so that an ill nourishment of the Body doth follow.

The internal cause may be the suppression of the Terms in Women, which is more or less corrupted about the Womb, having not its natural evacuation, from whence the whole mass of Bloud is indued with a vitious quality, by which the nourishment of all parts of the Body is deprav'd.

Also Choler, and the juice of the Pancreas (which are always confus'd with the Bloud) being alike vitious or peccant in quality, do not onely corrupt the separation of use­full and unusefull parts, but by the vitious [Page 209] effervescency of these humours manifold fla­tuous vapours are rais'd, which do not onely increase anxieties about the Midriff, but be­ing carried to the Heart, there follows a pressing pain and palpitation thereof; and in circulating through the Lungs, it causeth a Dyspnoea, or difficult breathing; and being thence transferr'd every way throughout the Body, it doth breed a general weariness in all parts.

But when the vitious humours abound to­gether in plenty, then several kinds of the Dropsie at length succeed; if not the univer­sal Body groweth lean by degrees.

From what hath been said, the production of every Cachexie may easily be deduced by a judicious Physician.

The signs are paleness of the Face, short­ness Signs. of breath, palpitation of the Heart, and often apressing pain of it, accompanied (for the most part) with a lingring Fever, either continual, or intermitting, or com­pounded of both, in which the Urine is crude or watry; at length there is a wea­riness of the universal Body, which in some doth pine and become lean, but in others the Body doth swell, and is turgid.

If this Disease be not helpt in time, it will become by degrees so stubborn and rebellious, Progn. that it will puzzle the wisest and most expe­rienced Physicians to cure it; for by the [Page 210] long continuance thereof, phlegm becometh very tough and glutinous, on which all Chronical, or prolong'd Diseases depend; besides, all the other humours are by de­grees vitiated, which incorporate with the Bloud, and diminish its effervescency, so that the separation and excretion of the ex­crementitious parts (to be voided together with Urine) do not follow, from whence many grievous symptoms succeed, which oft proves mortal.

The cure of every Cachexie will consist in Cure. the correction and amendment of the Bloud any way vitiated.

If flegm be tough and glutinous, it must be corrected and evacuated, for which there are variety of choice medicines prescrib'd in the fourth page, of the cure of diseases of the Head; in the use whereof you must perse­vere for some time, or else the laudable suc­cess, and happy wisht for cure will be ex­pected in vain.

Any other humours that are peccant in quality (by which the bloud is vitiated) must be alter'd and reduc'd to their natural Constitution by selected Medicines, which will amend and empty them out by degrees.

In the interim good Food (which is easie of digestion, and wholsome nourishment) must not be neglected, whereby nature may be cherished, and health by degrees procured.

[Page 211] Those Medicines which are prescrib'd for the Cure of the Dropsie and Scurvy, are proper for this Disease, wherefore I shall for­bear prescriptions here.

CHAP. XIII. Of Dropsies.

THE Dropsie is called in Greek [...], Hydrops. ab [...] aqua, quod nomen sumpsit ab a­quoso humore Cutis.

The Ancients have assigned three sorts of Dropsies.

1. The first is called in Greek [...] Ascites. uter, pellis.

'Tis called in Latin aqua intercus, ex inter & cutis, because the Water is between the Skin and the Flesh.

This is the most proper Dropsie, in which the Abdomen, Secrets, Thighs and Legs are affected.

2. The second is called in Greek [...], quod tumor est ad similitudinem tympani, vel tympani sonum referens.

As this is the most rare, so 'tis the most cruel and afflictive.

[Page 212] 3. The third is called in Greek [...], ab [...] per, & [...] caro, quod hydrops toto corpore diffusus; It is also called in Greek [...], ex [...] album, & [...], phlegma vel pit uita; because it is caused of white Phlegm gathered in all parts of the Body.

Some Authours make a difference between Anasarca, and Leucophlegmatia; that Anasarca is caused by a serous humour, and Leucophleg­matia by a phlegmatick and more viscous humour; but all Dropsies except Tympanies seem to me, to be little less than a distinction of degrees of one and the same Disease. Cause.

The Ancients did take the Liver to be the chief part male-affected in these distempers; but Helmont (who was happy in a remedy to cure it) doth severely reprove them, and is so bold to tax the whole Schools with the ignorance of Anatomical dissections; he ha­ving inspected many Carcases of dropsical Persons (of whom he makes distinct men­tion) doth assert the Livers of them all no­way vitiated, and therefore he concludes the Liver faultless in dropsical affects; and he derives the Cause of Dropsie to be an ob­struction of the Kidneys with the Stone or Gravel; and so the water which should be transferr'd through the Kidneys, to the Blad­der, (to be evacuated by pissing) is forced into the Cavity of the Abdomen.

But experience teacheth that Dropsies may [Page 213] be caused many ways; wherefore I shall betake my self to a more evident description thereof.

The causes of Dropsies are either external, Cause. or internal.

The external Cause is the Constipation of the porous Skin, impeding transpiration, whereby the discharge of sweaty Vapours through the Habit of the Body is lessned and interrupted; hence what moisture is usually carried off by sweating, doth rebound in­wards, and condense into an Ichorous water, and is there (by degrees) aggravated and increased, through the hindrance of the ne­cessary transpiration; till at length a great quantity of water is accumulated, and stagna­ting in the affected parts, in time may work farther alterations on the subjected Bowels.

Matter of fact hath evinced this to me, having cured several Hydropical patients onely by sweating, and external applications.

The internal Cause of the Dropsie, may be over viscous Chyle, or Phlegm of the Guts, coagulated in the lacteal Veins, and causing an obstruction in more or fewer of their Branches, so that the Liquour rising ei­ther from the continual Conflux of Choler, the Juice of the Pancreas, and the Phlegm of Spittle; or else from Chyle, or from drink plentifully drunk, being stopt and intercep­ted in its motion, it doth by degrees more [Page 214] and more distend the Vessels, that at length they burst; and the moisture receiv'd into them, is poured out between the Membranes of the Mesentery, and presently after into the Cavity of the Abdomen.

This disease is sometimes suddenly pro­duc'd by much drinking in a burning Fever, join'd with an urgent and permanent Thirst.

After the same manner (though difficult to be known) may a Dropsie of the Breast be caused, viz. by an obstruction of the la­teral Lymphatick Vessels, by glutinous Phlegm carried together with Lympha into the said Vessels, and there coagulated, by which the motion of Lympha is hindred, so that the Lymphatick vessels being much distended, by the great quantity of Lympha gathered in them, at length they burst, and the Lympha piercing (through the Pleura) into the Cavity of the Breast, procureth a Dropsie in it.

The cause of a Tympany is wind, together Cause of a Tympany. with a serous humour piercing through the Guts into the Cavity of the Belly, and being there detained, it is more and more rarified, by which the Peritonoeum is not onely expan­ded, but the whole Abdomen inflated, and violently distended.

[Page 215] The signs of Ascites, are swelling and Signs of Ascites. fluctuation of the Belly, difficult breathing, a dry Cough accompanied sometimes with a symptomatical Fever, and great Thirst.

The signs of Anasarca are weakness, faint­ness, Signs of Anasarca. and swelling of the whole Body, which being pressed with the Finger, it doth pit, and leave an impression, breathing is also diffi­cult, with a continual Fever.

In a Tympany the Belly is distended, and Signs of a Tympany. being struck upon, there is a noise like a lit­tle Drum.

1. Every Dropsie is difficult of Curation, Progn. especially if it hath been of long continu­ance.

2. If the Hydropical persons have a good digestion, and void more moisture both by stool and urine, than they either eat or drink, it is a hopefull sign of recovery, & e con­tra.

Dropsies may be cured by strong Hydra­gogues, Cure. Sudorificks, and Bathing, and some­times by a Paracenthesis or boring the Belly.

The Best Hydragogues are prepared of Elder, Dwarf-elder, Jallop-roots, Elaterium, Gum-gutty, Crystals of Silver, &c. of which you may prepare purging Infusions, Pills, &c. for example.

Take the Roots of Flower-de-luce, Dwarf-Elder, Purging Infusion. Madder, Liquorish, the five opening [Page 216] Roots, of each one ounce. the tops of Saint John's wort, Centaury the less, Agrimony, the best Senna, of each one handfull; the Barks of Capers, Ash, Tamarisk, Cinamon, of each six drachms; Flowers of Beans, Elder, Dwarf­elder, Broom, of each half a handfull; seeds of sweet Fennel, Parsley, Gromwell, Juniper-Berries, of each one ounce and half; Cloves, Salt of Tartar, of each half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused in two quarts of White-wine, for two or three days; then strain it, and add Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, six ounces; mix it, and give four ounces of it in the morning fasting.

If any like Pills better, I commend the following.

Take the Resins of Jallop, and Scammony, Purging Pills. Tartar vitriolated, Mercur. dulcis, of each half a drachm; Oil of Juniper one scruple; make it into Pills with Venice-Turpentine, of which you may give twenty grains at a time, in the morning fasting.

The following Pills are also very effectual.

Take of Elaterium, Gambogia, Resin of Jallop, Pills. of each ten grains; Oil of Nutmegs six drops; make it into Pills with Venice-Turpentine for two doses.

The obstructions in the Lacteal veins, or Lymphatick vessels, may be cur'd by Me­dicines that do powerfully cut, and happily open the said obstructions.

[Page 217] This Aromatick Sudorifick may be com­mended for these intentions.

Take the waters of Treacle, Scurvigrass, Sudorifick. Fennel, of each one ounce; waters of Par­sley, Fumitory, of each two ounces; dis­till'd Vinegar half an ounce; Syrups of the juice of Carduus, and the five opening Roots, of each six drachms; Powder of Crabs-eyes, Antimony Diaphoretick, Salt of Amber, Beans, Worm-wood, of each one scruple; Spirits of Salt Armoniack, Niter, of each twenty drops; mix it, and give four spoon­fulls of it every two or three hours.

After the Vessels are freed from the noted obstruction by the medicines before-men­tion'd, or such like; they will be easily con­solidated again by conglutinating food, in which you may boyle the Roots of Comfry, Plantain, and Solomon's Seal, for the more quick and easie cure.

In a Tympany, the dulcifi'd Spirit of Niter is excellent, being taken in Broth or Sack, three or four times in a day, from six to twelve drops at a time, for it doth cor­rect both Phlegm and Choler, and hinder Wind in its rise, and dissipate it when it is bred.

Also the following exemplary Julep doth curb and discuss Wind, remaining as well in the Stomach as Guts.

Take the Waters of Mint, Fennel, of Carmina­tive Iulep. [Page 218] each four ounces; the Carminative Spirit of Sylvius, Syrup of the juice of Mints, of each two ounces; Laudanum opiat. eight grains; Spirit of Niter one drachm; Salt of Amber half a drachm; Chymical Oil of Mace ten drops; mix it, and take three or four spoonfulls every three hours.

You may prepare a Medicinal Wine for the rich, very beneficial in Dropsies.

Take the Seeds of Anise, Fennel, Cara­way. Medicinal Wine. Coriander, Berries of Bays, and Juni­per, of each two ounces: Salt of Tartar half an ounce; let them be bruised, and infu­sed in three pints of White-wine, for three days, then strain it, and add Spirit of Niter half an ounce; Salt of Amber two drachms; Syrup of Mint three ounces; mix it, and take four or five spoonfulls of it often.

Sweating is very profitable in all Dropsies, either in Bed, with the forementioned Sudo­rifick, or in a Bagnio, or Hot-house, by which the water standing beside nature in any part of the Body, will (by degrees) be emptied through the pores of the Skin.

Also it may be necessary, especially in persons more elderly, to use warm Baths. That which is prescrib'd for the cure of the Belly-ach in page 201, 202. is also very profi­table in Dropsies; into the which it may be agreeable to descend at evening, before Bed­time, and there to continue so long as the [Page 219] Patient can well endure without fainting; after which Frications may have their pro­per use, and great benefit.

And to strengthen the cutaneous Fibres, and restore their true tone, for their better service of the offices of Nature: let the af­fected parts be anointed with the following fragrant Balsamick Ointment.

Take of Flanders Oil of Bays, Nerve-oil, Ointment. Oil of Earth-worms, of each two ounces; Oil of Mace by expression, half an ounce; mix it.

Galen commendeth a Cataplasm of Snails bruised with their shells, and laid upon the Navel.

But a Pultess prepar'd of the ingredients of the Bath, and applied to the affected parts, will be more effectual to discharge the Ichorous water.

Or you may make a Cataplasm after this manner.

Take the tops of Elder, Dwarf-elder, Ver­vain, Pulcess. Worm-wood, Chamomel, of each two handfulls; Horse-radish-roots four ounces; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of the juice of Wild­cucumbers, till they are very tender, then strain it, and beat them very well, and add Barley-meal, one pound; and with the same liquor boil it into the consistence of a Pultess.

Let the Patients diet be drying, and let [Page 220] them drink moderately; you may infuse Juniper-berries, Tamarisk and Elicampane­roots in their ordinary drink.

And for the benefit of those Physicians and Chirurgeons, that live in the West-Indies; there groweth (almost every where in moist places) a large Cane, much like the Sugar-cane; the Planters generally call it the dumb Cane, because they that taste it, are presently dumb, and unable to speak for two or three hours; after which the Tongue returns to its former use and volubility with­out any prejudice.

The reason why this remarkeable Plant doth so affect the Tongue upon the touch of it, is its power of attracting such plen­ty of moisture into it, as doth distend all the Vessels thereof, and render it immovea­ble, till the crouded moisture be gradually discharged.

Hence we may conjecture, and indeed ex­perience teacheth, that of this Plant may be prepared diversity of medicines as Cata­plasms, Oils, Ointments, &c. Which will be effectual to attract, and easily and kindly discharge the swollen part of the Ichorous water; which may be used for some time after the evacuation of it, the better to pre­vent a farther accumulation, or return of the Disease.

[Page 221] Likewise may medicines be prepared, (by a skilfull Artist) of this Plant, very effectu­al to be taken inwardly, not onely against Dropsies, but the Scurvy, Gout, &c.

If these choice medicines are not to be had, and nothing be effected by other means; A harmless Paracenthesis may be instituted in the Dropsie of the Breast, or Abdomen; provided the Apertion be made by such a little hollow instrument as is describ'd in page 81, 82. of the Cure of the Pleurisie, for by such a small wound, there is no danger to the sick.

But this operation must not be delay'd, lest the humour collected, get an hurtfull Acrimony, and by degrees corrode and corrupt the Membrane, and hence the sub­stance of all the parts contain'd, and so make the Disease incurable.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Scurvy, and Hypochondriack Suffoca­tion, commonly called the Fits of the Mother.

THE Scurvy being a Hypochondriack disease, it will not be amiss to treat of them together.

The Scurvy is called in Latin Scorbutus; it is a Complication, or Concatenation of Diseases, generated by the Conjunction of divers Causes contributing to a scorbutick Deformity.

The Scurvy is generated, or planted essen­tially in the vital Principles, or digestive Offices, and therefore it is not discerned by sense, but the effects are distributed through­out the Body, and are augmented more or less, according to the strength and debility of parts, to resist or consent and be de­praved.

The Hypochondriack suffocation is called in Greek [...], vel quod Hypo­chondri­acus. ad Hypochondria pertinet, vel sub cartilagine fita fit.

It is called by the Latins Hypochondriaca melancholia.

The Ancients thought that this was an uterine disease, in quibus mulieres uteri fuffo­catione [Page 223] laborant; and therefore it was called [...], and in Latin morbus Hystericus, vel Hysterica passio; and in English 'tis called Fits of the Mother; it being most subject to Women, from the suppression of their month­ly Courses.

But because men are also molested with longing, and suffer often both the Sense and Disease of Suffocation, especially when they become Cachectick, or of ill habit of Body: and also they are cured with the same medi­cines, that Women are cured with, when they are vexed with this distemper, there­fore I think this suffocation may be more properly called Hypochondriacal.

It may be called the Mother of the Scurvy, because the vital Principles (in this disease) are seduced to declension and deviation from their rectitude, the digestive offices being all depraved.

The causes of these diseases are either ex­ternal, Causes. or internal.

The external, are sometimes a sedentary studious, and melancholy life, by which the vital Principles do receive much prejudice, decay and fall off from their functions, and become languid and feeble; also the Air be­ing infested with noxious Vapours, is a pro­curing cause of these distempers; for such Air being drawn into the Body by inspirati­on, doth commix with the spirits, and de­bilitate [Page 224] and deprave the faculties, from whence Scorbutick and Hypochondriack effects do ensue; and as the Body is per­spirable or impervious, these diseases are more or less varied, and remitted in their Symp­toms; and therefore the constipation of the pores, prohibiting transpiration, is a parti­al organical cause of preternatural Spots in the Scurvy, which appear chiefly upon the Thighs and Legs; not from the gra­vity of the material cause, and ponde­rous propension of gross matter downwards; but because those parts are more weak in their assimilation, being remote from sup­ply of vital Spirits, therefore they have the first tokens of defection.

The internal Cause is a vitious quality of all the humours, and also of the Animal spirits, which are confus'd with the bloud, and communicate their faultiness to it, by which the bloud is also vitiated, so that the nourishment of the Body is deprav'd several ways, according to the variety of the quality peccant; in which the colour of the native Skin, and especially of the face languisheth, and is changed pale.

In these diseases, not onely the appetite of food, but its fermentation is also deprav'd; wherefore Anxieties about the Midriff and Hypochondries, and a pressing pain of the Heart will soon follow.

[Page 225] For when the food is ill fermented, and driven forward through the small Gut, it is confus'd with the Juice of the Pancreas and Choler, which are a like vitious, the Pan­creatick juice being too sharp and acrid, and the Bile over thick and salt; from whence the separation of usefull and unusefull parts, is not onely corrupted, but also by the vitious Effervescency of these humours, are rais'd manifold halituous Vapours, which do not onely increase the fore describ'd Anxiety, but being carried to the Heart do breed a Palpitation of it, whence it circu­lates through the Lungs, and causeth a dif­ficulty of breathing, and thence being dri­ven every way, it causeth a weariness in all parts of the Body; and if an Acrimony of the humours do concur, then it is manifested internally with pain.

The cause of the inordinate effervescency of Bloud, in the Hypochondriack suffocation, is not onely the unequal flowing of Lympha, but also of the Liquour rising out of the threefold humours, vitiously effervescing in the small Gut, from whence vitious Va­pours are sent to the right Ventricle of the Heart, and procure a great Confusion, and disturbance in it; hence followeth a notable Palpitation of the Heart, by which some­times the Effervescency of Bloud seemeth to cease in the right Ventricle for a time, with [Page 226] its motion and pulse, and also respiration is taken away to outward sense.

The symptoms and signs of these diseases are very many, yet are never seen to con­cur in one and the same Body.

The usual signs are pain of the Head, pal­pitation of the Heart, puffing up of the Sto­mach, Loathing, Vomiting, Belching, Hic­ket, Cough, Tumour and Putrefaction of the Gums, with much spitting; looseness and blackness of the Teeth, and sometimes great pain in them; the breath stinketh, and is sometimes fetched with much difficulty; also Convulsions, Palsie, Gout, Dropsies, and all other obstructions; sometimes the Co­lick, and trembling and looseness of the Lims, with red purple spots dispersed; also the Pleurisie, pain of the Hypochondries, and also of many of the external parts, as the Neck, Arms, Hands, Thighs, Legs, Feet and Anckles, with laziness, and often faint sweats; there is also sometimes malign Ul­cers, dry hard Tubercles, Erisipelas and Ede­matous tumours with many others, which to enumerate, were to comprehend an uni­versal Genus of Atomes, within a very nar­row Limitation.

1. These diseases (for the most part) are of long continuance, and are seldom cured, Progn. and therefore may be called the disgrace of Physicians.

[Page 227] 2. If the Patient hath a continual pain and giddiness of the Head, it doth threaten an Epilepsie, or Apoplexy.

3. The more aged the sick are, the more grievous are the Symptoms, and the more dangerous and difficult to be cured.

4. Vomiting, Flux of the Belly, and He­morrhoids, if they are moderate, are hope­full signs of recovery.

In some Regions, these diseases are com­plicated with most other distempers, or at least do easily degenerate into them, by which they are rendred the more difficult of curation.

As for the Cure of these stubborn and re­bellious Cure. diseases, the sick must observe a good diet, without which Physical means will profit but little; and here we may also ob­serve, that no Aliments, or Medicines (whe­ther altering or purging) will be very profi­table, unless specifick Antiscorbuticks be mixed with them.

The best Antiscorbutick simples, are the Roots of Horse-radish, Butter-bur, Liquo­rish, Dandelion, Scorzonera, China, Zedoary, Angelica, Elicampane, Polypodium, the five opening Roots; the Wood and Bark of Gui­acum and Sassaphras, the Herbs Scordium, Scurvigrass, Brook-lime, Water-cresses, Sor­rel, Rue, Fennel, Golden-rod and Penny­royal; Fruits of Oranges, Limmons, Pom­citrons, [Page 228] Pomgranates, Apples, &c. Seeds of Mustard, Angelica, Radish and Juniper-berries, cum multis aliis; of which may be prepared diversity of good medicines both Chymical and Galenical.

The volatile Salts both of Animals, and Vegetables, are excellent to open all obstruc­tions, and temper the humours; Also Elix­ir proprietatis, the Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Horse-radish and Scurvigrass, the Spirit of Niter and of Salt dulcified, Salt of Steel, Wormwood, and Tartar, Oil of Juniper, Cloves, and Cinamon, are all Specifick Antiscorbuticks.

The Hypochondriack suffocation having great affinity with the Scurvy, the same medicines are proper for both.

The following Julep is both Diaphoretick, and Diuretick, and very profitable for the sick in these diseases, to be taken two or three days in a week.

Take the Waters of Penny-royal, Scurvi­grass, Iulep. Treacle, Syrup of the juice of Fennel, of each two ounces; Tincture of Castor, half an ounce; Oils of Amber, Mace, and Cloves, of each six drops; Spirit of Salt Ar­moniack, twenty drops; mix it, and give three spoonfulls every two or three hours.

This Electuary may also be prefer'd.

Take of Conserves of Scurvigrass, three Electuary. ounces; Confectio Alkermes, half an ounce; [Page 229] Powder of Crabs-eyes, two drachms; Flow­ers of Salt Armoniack, Tarter vitriolated, of each half a drachm; Spirit of Castor one drachm; Oil of Cloves twenty drops; mix it, and give two drachms morning and evening.

After the frequent use of this Electuary, you may purge with this Powder.

Take Powder of Cream of Tartar, half a drachm; Salts of Wormwood, Amber, Purging Powder. Scurvigrass, Resin of Scammony, of each ten grains; mix it for two doses.

If the Patient like Pills better, these may serve. For Example.

Take Extract. Catholicon, Rudii, of each ten grains; Resin of Jallop, Agarick, Salt Armoniack, of each six grains; Oils of Am­ber, Cloves, of each two drops; make it in­to eight Pills, for two doses.

A Medicinal Wine may be prepar'd very effectual in these distempers.

Take of Water-cresses, Brook-lime, Scur­vigrass, Medicinal Wine. Rue, of each one handfull; Roots of Polypodium, Jallop, Horse-radish, Angeli­ca, Cream of Tartar, of each half an ounce; white Nettle-seed, one ounce; Orange-peel, Cinamon, Salt of Tartar, of each two drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused, in three quarts of White-wine, for two or three days, then strain it, and give four spoonfulls in the morning fasting.

In the Hypochondriack suffocation, you [Page 230] may often hold to the Nostrils, a glass with a narrow mouth, containing the Spirit of Salt Armoniack; for by its sharp smell, the sick for the most part are wont to be rais'd, both from that suffocation, and from the Epilepsie.

If the Gums are putrified, let the mouth be washed with the following Tincture, mix­ed with some Plantain water, and Syrup of Mulberries.

Take Powder of Gum Lacca, one ounce; Tincture. burnt Alome half an ounce; the small Spi­rit of Salt Armoniack, one quart; let them digest together 'till it be of a red colour, then filtrate it through brown paper, and keep it for use.

If the sick hath a costive Body, you may administer a Carminative Clyster once or twice a week.

In pains of the Belly and Hypochondries, this linament is effectual.

Take Oils of Earth-worms, Scurvigrass, Linament Chamomel, of each one ounce; Oil of Mace by expression half an ounce; mix it, with which anoint the parts affected.

This Antiscorbutick water will be very profitable, to be taken two or three spoon­fulls at a time, morning and evening.

Take the Barks of Ash, and Capers, the Roots of Tamarisk, Polypodium, Horse-radish, Water a­gainst the Scurvy. of each three ounces; Water-cresses, Scurvi­grass, [Page 231] Brook-lime, Sorrel, Centaury the less, Harts tongue, of each four handfulls; Ber­ries of Bays and Juniper, Goose-dung, of each one ounce; the Seeds of Citrons, Mus­tard, Carduus benedictus, Cloves, Cinamon, Nutmegs, Ginger, of each half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and digested, in one Gallon of White-wine, and two quarts of Spirit of wine, being close covered for three days; then distill them with a glass Still according to art, and keep it for your use.

Frictions, Ligatures, Ventoses, Sternuta­tories, &c. are all profitable to stir up the sick in the Hypochondriack suffocation.

CHAP. XV. Of the Green-sickness, and Suppression of the Courses.

THE Green-sickness is called in Latin Icteris, & Febris alba; In English the Virgin's Disease, the White Fever, and the White Jaundice; because in this disease the native colour of the Face is pale.

This disease is caused either from defect of Bloud, or it proceedeth from plenty of Cause. [Page 232] crude, viscous, phlegmatick humours, ob­structing the veins about the Womb, by which the courses are supprest; the veins of the Ma­trix being obstructed, that superfluous Bloud which nature hath ordained to be evacuated that way, having not passage, doth return to the greater Vessels, and is circulated with the whole mass of Bloud and humours, by which they are in time vitiated, and a Ca­chexie or ill habit of body is thence caused; for the Bloud and natural humours, being indued with a vitious quality, the nourish­ment of all the parts of the body will be deprav'd several ways, according to the va­riety of the quality peccant; whence like­wise not onely the fermentation of Food, but also the Appetite of it is deprav'd; where­fore Anxieties and Palpitation of the Heart, &c. troubleth the sick, as well before as after Food taken in.

This distemper may be also caused by ex­ternal coldness of the air, &c. and sometimes great fear, and sudden shame may be the cause of the suppression; also aliments, and medi­caments that are too astringent taken in­wardly.

In these diseases the Urine cometh away Signs. crude, thick and less colour'd, because the phlegmatick, watry humours abounding, incorporating with the Bloud, do dimi­nish the desired effervescency; so that the [Page 233] separation, much less excretion of the ex­crementitious parts, to be voided together with Urine, doth not follow.

If the Hypochondries be afflicted, and the veins of the Womb obstructed, there will be great loathing of wholsome Food, and a desire after those things which ought not to be eaten, as Ashes, Salt, Coals, &c. which is called Pica, and in Women with Child Malacia, of which we have hinted in the Chapter of Hungar Vitiated, page 145, 146.

1. These distempers are sometimes of long Progn. continuance, causing much weakness, and oft times barrenness in them that have been so afflicted: and if they do conceive, they bring forth weak and sickly Children, and those that are very melancholy, are in dan­ger of falling into madness, or other grie­vous affects, as Palpitation of the Heart, Swouning, Vertigo, Epilepsie, Apoplexy, &c.

2. If the obstruction be onely of the ves­sels of the Womb, and have not been of long continuance, it may be easily cur'd.

3. Bleeding at the Nose, is sometimes beneficial, but if the Bloud doth disburthen it self by the Eyes, Ears, Mouth, or Bladder, it is preposterous, from whence may arise other bad Symptoms.

In the cure of these distempers such medi­cines Cure. are to be selected, which will mildly [Page 234] (and by degrees) alter, correct and evacu­ate, tough and glutinous Phlegm, seeing that all prolong'd diseases depend on it, ei­ther wholly, or at least in part; for by the frequent use of such medicines, the Bloud and peccant humours will be the easier re­duc'd to their natural constitution; especial­ly by the help of good Food, easy of diges­tion: in the mean while, not neglecting the moderate use of the rest of the nannatural things.

An obstruction of the Vessels by viscous Phlegm, may be cur'd by the frequent use of such medicines as have power to loosen the peccant humours, and again make them fluid.

All fixt metallick and mineral Sulphurs, and also volatile Salts, prepar'd not onely of several parts of Animals, but also of scorbu­tick Plants, (such as are the juice of Hedge­mustard, Scurvigrass, Garden and Water­cresses, Dandelion, &c.) conduce before all others, to loosen and dissolve Phlegm coa­gulated, or Bloud clotter'd, as having an e­gregious power of dissolving all things coa­gulated, and conglutinated in humane bodies, and of reducing the same to their wonted fluidity, and moreover to move sweat, which together being mildly promoted, the desi­red dissolution of the aforesaid viscous hu­mours, &c. will be obtained much easier, and sooner.

[Page 235] An example of such a Sudorifick I have here set down for the sake of young Practi­tioners.

Take the Waters of Treacle, Dandelion, Cordial to cause Sweat. Parsley, Scurvigrass, Fennel, Syrups of Hedge-mustard, white Poppies, of each half an ounce; Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Harts­horn, of each ten drops; Laudanum opiatum, four grains; mix it.

The following is also very effectual.

Take the Waters of Fennel, Hyssop, of each two ounces; distill'd Vinegar six drachms; the Carminative-water of Sylvius half an ounce; Syrup of the five opening Roots one ounce and half; Powder of Crabs-eyes one drachm; Sperma Coeti, Mummy, Anti­mony Diaphoretick, of each one scruple; Laudanum opiat. four grains; mix it.

Let the sick often take two spoonfulls of either of these mixtures, especially in bed, to promote the power of the medicine, and to facilitate a sweat; by the help whereof the mention'd power of the Sudorifick will the better come to the place of obstruction, and will attenuate, loosen, and make fluid the mat­ter obstructing; the whole Mass of Bloud will also become more fluid and moveable, being rarefi'd by the volatile Salt of the medicine.

If the Patient be plethorick, let the Sa­phoena vein be opened, for by opening and breathing a Vein, the motion and circulation [Page 236] of the Bloud will be the better restor'd; for a larger space being made for the universal Bloud, it will circulate more swiftly and po­tently.

The phlegmatick viscous humours must be corrected, and evacuated by Phlegma­gogues.

The following medicines are of great efficacy.

Take of Salts of Mugwort, Ash, Amber, Tartar vitriolated, of each ten grains; Pow­der Powder. of Cream of Tartar, white Sugar-candy, of each half a drachm; mix it, and give it in white Wine in the morning fasting.

The next day you may administer the fol­lowing Pills.

Take of pil. foetidoe, ex duobus, of each half a drachm; Amber, prepar'd Steel, Borax, Purging Pills. Mercur. Dulcis, of each one scruple; Mirrh, Castor, Saffron, of each twelve grains; Oil of Cloves, Spirit of Salt Armoniack, of each six drops; make it into ten Pills for two do­ses, which may be taken in the Morning fasting.

If a medicinal Wine be acceptable to the sick, the following or one like it may be used.

Take the Roots of Horse-radish, the five opening Roots, of each one ounce; Savin, Medici­nal wine. Vervain, Penny-royal, Hyssop, Calamint, Mugwort, of each one handfull; Senna, [Page 237] Cinamon, sweet Fennel-seeds, Juniper-berries, Orange-peel, Liquorish, of each half an ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused in one Gallon of White-wine for three days, then strain it, and keep it for use.

You may add more wine to the ingredi­ents so long as there is any Aromatick taste.

Four or five spoonfulls of this Wine may be taken two or three times a day, with which you may mix Salt of Tartar vitriola­ted ten grains; Elixir proprietatis six drops.

If you expect a laudable success, you must persevere awhile in the use of these, or such like medicines.

CHAP. XVI. Of the immoderate menstrual Flux, and the Whites in Women.

THE monthly terms being immode­rate, may be called in Latin mensium fluxus immodicus.

And the Whites in Women Alboe mulie­rum fluxiones.

The causes of too many Courses are either Cause. external, or internal.

[Page 238] The external Causes may be by an Ulcer in the Matrix, or some outward Violence, and sometimes by too much Coition.

The internal Causes are either a sharp se­rous humour abounding in the Bloud, in­creasing its fluidity, or else an over great heat in the Womb, stirring up a more potent, and therefore a swifter rarefaction of Bloud, provoking an expulsion of it, either by brea­king, (or some other preternatural opening) of the vessels of the Womb.

The white Flux of the Womb, is an excre­mentitious humour flowing from it.

This distemper is subject not onely to Wo­men, but sometimes to Maids also.

These humours may be bred in the Cause of Whites. Womb, either by a cold or hot distemper therein.

The cold doth render it unable to digest its nourishment.

A hot Distemper corrupteth it, hence cometh this excrementitious humour.

Also Abortion, Contusion, Inflammation, Imposthume or Ulcer in the Womb, may weaken and dispose it to breed such hu­mours.

The signs that distinguish between this Signs. Distemper, and an Ulcer in the Womb, and Gonorrhoea, are these.

1. If there be an Ulcer there, the Womb will not admit of Coition, without pain, and [Page 239] the matter which floweth from her is strin­gy, and more digested, and sometimes bloudy.

2. In the Gonorrhoea, the seminal matter cometh in a small quantity, and seldom, ex­cept it be gotten by acting with an unclean Person, then the Urine is sharp, with many other malignant Symptoms.

All long Hemorrhagies of Bloud are dan­gerous, Progn. especially those of the Womb; If it be caused by exulceration, and be in elder­ly Women, 'tis incurable.

The white Flux is not very dangerous, but is often difficult of curation, especially in old Women, because they abound with Phlegm; and 'tis hard to divert the humours from this Chanel, it being the sink of the body, through which the superfluous hu­mours of a healthy Woman are every month evacuated.

If this distemper continue long, it may breed great evils, as Barrenness, Falling out of the Womb, &c.

These diseases may be both cured by the Cure. same medicines.

If the courses have continued too long, the following mixture will soon stop the flux of Bloud, and will cure most rup­tions of vessels.

Take the Waters of Plantain, Comfry, of Astrin­gent Iulep. each three ounces; Cinamon-water, Syrups [Page 240] of Mirtles, Quinces, of each one ounce and half; distill'd Vinegar one ounce; red Coral prepar'd one drachm; Dragons Bloud one scruple; Laudanum opiat. six grains; mix it, and give three spoonfulls every four hours.

When the flux of Bloud is stopt, you may purge with the following.

Take of Manna one ounce; Powder of Purge. Rhubarb tosted, Cream of Tartar, of each half a drachm; Resin of Jallop four grains; mix it, and take it in broth.

If the Patient like Pills, I commend the following.

Take Resins of Jallop and Scammony, ex­tract of Rhubarb, Agarick, Salt of Amber, Purging Pills. Powder of Dragons-bloud, of each ten grains; Oil of Mints six drops; with Syrup of Rhubarb, let it be made into twelve Pills for three doses.

After purging, these Astringents will be profitable.

Take of Cinamon, the Roots of Bistort, Tor­mentile, Astrin­gent Elec­tuary. Rhubarb, Seeds of Plantain, Dill, Flowers of red Roses, Balaustins, red Coral, sea­led Earth, whitest Amber, Harts-horn, Gum­dragon and Arabick, of each two drachms; Saccharum Saturni, Dragons-bloud, Salt Pru­nella, of each two scruples; Laudanum opiat. Camphire, of each ten grains; let them be all finely powder'd and searced, and with Honey of red Roses, Syrups of Quinces and [Page 241] Comfry, of each equal parts; let it be made into an Electuary according to Art.

Let the sick take the quantity of a Nut­meg of this Electuary, every morning and evening, either upon the point of a knife, or dissolve it in two or three ounces of red Wine, to which you may add a few drops of Tincture of red Coral, and drink it.

This Julep is also of great virtue.

Take the Waters of Comfry, Plantain, Astrin­gent Iulep. Oak-buds, Knot-grass, red Wine, of each four ounces; in which infuse red Rose-buds, Balaustins, Flowers of Comfry, Bugloss, of each one handfull, for the space of twenty four hours, then boil it gently for half an hour; strain it, and add Tincture of red Coral, Syrups of dried Roses, Comfry and Mirtles, of each two ounces; Oil of Vitriol twenty drops; mix it, and take six spoon­fulls every three hours.

Let the Region of the Womb be anointed with this Linament.

Take Unguent. Comitissoe, Oil of Mirtles, Linament of each one ounce; Saccharum Saturni one drachm; Camphire ten grains; mix it.

After the part is anointed, let this Plaster be applied.

Take the Plaster against Ruptures, Dia­palma, Plaster. of each one ounce; the carminative Plaster of Sylvius half an ounce; mix it, and spread it on leather, and apply to the region of the Womb.

[Page 242] In the Whites, let this be used for a Fume.

Take of Olibanum, Amber, Cloves, of Fume. each half a drachm; red Rose-buds, Balaus­tins, of each two drachms; beat them all to­gether into a gross powder; put a little of it at a time upon a pan of coles, and let the Woman sit over it.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Falling Down of the Womb and Fun­dament.

IF the Womb falleth down, it may be called in Latin Procidentia Matricis. So likewise if the Fundament cometh down, it is called Procidentia Ani.

The Causes of these distempers are either Cause. External or Internal.

The External Causes may be any violent exercise, with much striving, also falls or blows, on those parts; also bathing in cold water, &c.

The Internal Causes are serous and phleg­matick humours, a Dysentery with a Tenas­mus, the Whites continuing long, a violent drawing the Child, or After-birth out of the Womb; also much Sneezing or Coughing, especially in Child-bed; to conclude, all [Page 243] things that may cause a Rupture or relaxa­tion of the Ligaments of the Womb, or sphincter Muscle of the Anus, may be the cause of these griefs.

In a Procidentia Ani, there is always a Signs. mucous and purulent dejection, from a phleg­matick, viscous, and sometimes also a sharp acid humour adjoining about the seige, which often causeth a troublesome Ulcer by fretting.

In young people these distempers may be Progn. easily cur'd, if they have not continued long, and do not come very far out, and be not ulcerated.

But if there be a Rupture of the Liga­ments of the Womb, it is incurable; like­wise great pain and inflammation are very difficult; and if either the Matrix or Anus be Gangrenated it is mortal, without speedy amputation.

You must begin the Cure with removing Cure. the symptoms and discharging the Guts of their Excrements, either with Clysters or Lenitives.

Then anoint the part with some astrin­gent Oils, and endeavour to reduce it gent­ly by degrees.

The manner of the reduction every inge­nious Artist knows, and therefore needs not any directions.

When the Womb is reduc'd it may be [Page 244] kept with a Pessary fram'd of Cork as thick as necessary, and cover'd with Wax mixed with a little Castor, and Assafoetida, which may there continue.

If there be pain and inflammation, let the part be bathed with this.

Take the Flowers of Chamomel, Elder, of Bath. each one handfull; Marsh-mallow-roots one ounce; Seeds of Flax and Foenugreek, of each half an ounce; boil it in two quarts of Milk till half be consumed, then strain it, and add Malaga Wine one pint; mix it.

Let Stuphs be moistned in this and wrung out and applied hot; after which apply a Plaster of ad herniam to the lower part of the Belly.

Before you reduce the Anus, anoint it with Oil of Mirtles and bestrew it with Powder of Album Groecum, or the following.

Take of red Roses, Pomgranat-rinds, Cy­press-nuts, Powder. Mastick, Crocus Martis, burnt Lead, of each half an ounce; beat them all into a fine powder.

A Bag quilted with the following astrin­gents, and applied hot to either griev'd part three times a day, will conduce much to keep it up.

Take of Plantain, Sanicle, Buds of Oak For a quilted Bag. and Medlar, red Rose-buds, Balaustins, of each one handfull; Roots of Comfry, Tor­mentil, Bistort, Cypress-nuts, Seeds of A­nise, [Page 245] sweet Fennel, of each one ounce; beat them all into a gross powder.

Inwardly may be given Astringents and Strengthners, but not in time of the courses; those prescrib'd against the immoderate flow­ing of the Terms are good.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Barrenness.

BArrenness is called in Latin Sterilitas. It may be called in English Unfruitfull­ness, it being an impotency of Conception.

We reade in the Scripture that the Wo­men of old did think it a reproach to be Child­less; and therefore when Elizabeth had con­ceived who before was Barren, she said the Lord hath taken away my reproach among Men; as you may reade at large in the first Chap­ter of Luke's Gospel.

Very few Women in a Marriage state but desire Children, yea some would give all they have in the world for a Child, and are very impatient if they do not Conceive.

Rachel said to Jacob in Gen. 30 ver. 1. give me Children, or else I dye.

I will now briefly shew you, what may be the cause of Sterility.

[Page 246] 1. First, want of Love between a Man and his Wife, way hinder Conception.

2. Any malignant distemper in the womb, may corrupt the Seed, and be the cause of Barrenness.

Some are of opinion that Witch-craft may be the cause.

But to conclude, the Whites or any moist distemper of the Matrix, may be the cause of Barrenness.

Sometimes the cause is in the Man, for if he doth want Sperm, or is unable to erect his Genital by reason of any weakness or distem­per in his Secrets; or if he be effeminate and taketh little or no delight in the act of Venery, he is not fit for Venus School.

There are some Rules left by the Ancients to try whether a Woman be naturally Bar­ren or no.

Hippocrates adviseth to put a Clove of Garlick or a little Galbanum into her Womb, and if her Breath do smell of it, be sure she is fruitfull.

If Barrenness be caused by any Disease af­flicting either the man or the woman, then Progn. there may be hopes of Conception when health is procured; but if it be evil shape of of the members in the woman, or the man not fit for Venus-School, patientia est optima virtus.

In the cure, you must endeavour to remove Cure. [Page 247] whatsoever hindreth Conception.

Many things are antipathetical to fecun­dity, as Jet, Glow-worms, Saphires, Sma­ragds, the Matrix of a Goat or Mule, like­wise Vinegar, Mints, Watercresses, Beans, &c. all which I advise you to avoid, and make use of those things which have a peculiar virtue to help or cause Conception, and remove Barrenness.

The After-birth of a Woman dried and powdred, and taken often a drachm at a time; also the Stones and Liver of a Bore­pig, the Juice of Sage, the Roots of Satirion and Eringo candied, are all good.

There are many medicines prescrib'd in Authours to help Conception.

Quercetanus doth commend this infusion.

Take the Matrix of a Hare and the Stones of a Ram prepar'd with Whitewine, of Ci­namon, Infusion. Ginger, Mace, Cloves, Seeds of Bishops-weed, of each half an ounce; Saf­fron two drachms; Kernels of Fistick-nuts one ounce; let them be all bruised and in­fused in a quart of Muskadel-wine for two or three days; then strain it, and add more Wine to the ingredients for a second in­fusion.

The following Electuary is also excellent.

Take the Roots of Satirion and Eringo Electuary. candied, of each one ounce; candied Ginger and preserv'd Nutmegs, of each two drachms; [Page 248] Kernels of Hazle-nuts and Fistick-nuts, of each half an ounce; Powder of a Bull's-pizle, of Ivory, Seeds of Rocket, Bishops-weed, of each one drachm; Species Diambroe, Dia­mosc. dulcis, of each six drachms; Confectio Alkermes one ounce and half; with Syrup of the juice of Citrons; make it into an E­lectuary according to Art.

Let the Woman take the quantity of a Nutmeg of it every night going to bed, and drink a glass of Sack or Muskadel, or of the aforementioned Infusion after it.

If a cold and moist distemper of the Body and Womb, accompanied with the Whites be the cause, look for the cure in its proper Chapter.

If it be caused by Witchcraft, there are some things commended by Authours to be worn about the party against Fascination, viz. the Pizle of a Wolf, a Diamond, a Ja­cinth-stone, Rue, Squills, Sea-holly, Saga­penum, Amara dulcis, Hypericon, &c.

But above all, let fervent and devout Prayers be put up to the Throne of grace for help; and reject and despise Incantations or Charms, and all other Diabolical means.

CHAP. XIX. Of Abortion or Miscarriage.

ABortion is called in Latin Abortus, vel intempestivus foetus. Because it is an un­timely Birth; the Child being brought forth, either dead or alive before its fit time of deli­verance.

This is the worst Symptom, that attends breeding Women.

It may happen from the first Moment of Conception, to the end of the sixth Month; but it is most usual in the end of the third, or the beginning of the fourth Month.

The causes are either external, or internal. Causes.

The external Causes are a great excess in things nonnatural, as too great Anger, Fear, and other Passions, or else it may be through defect; for if the Mother undergo Penury or Famine, or lose much Bloud, the Child wan­teth Nourishment.

Many times things longed for, and not obtained, kill the Child.

Also strong purging Medicines, that pro­voke the terms, and all fetid smells, falls, blows, lifting, carrying, dancing, running, riding or any other outward violence, may be the Cause of Abortion.

[Page 250] The internal Causes may be the depraved­ness of the humours, by which the Mass of Bloud becometh vitious; also Acute or Chro­nick diseases, especially of the Womb; and also violent Coughing, Sneezing, Vomiting, Convulsions and Fluxes of the Belly, may loosen the Ligaments of the Womb, and so cause miscarriage.

The signs of Abortion at hand, are great Signs. pain about the Loins, and Share-bones, some­times with shivering; the Breasts growing little and flaggy, the Situation of the Child changed towards the Bottom of the Belly, with a bearing down, and evacuation of Bloud, &c.

1. Women who have moist and slippery Progn. Wombs are most subject to miscarry, but with little danger, except it be the first Child, and that very big.

2. Much bleeding, with fainting, raving, or Convulsions is for the most part mortal.

To prevent Abortion; if there be an evil Cure. disposition of the Body, or Womb, you must endeavour to remove it; if the Woman hath a plethorick Body, let a Vein be opened in the Arme, especially in the first six months.

If ill humours abound, purge often with gentle means.

This purging Infusion may serve.

Take of Cinamon, Rhubarb, Anise-seed, of each two drachms; let them be bruised, Purging Infusion. [Page 251] and infused in four ounces of Plantain-water very hot, for the space of a Night, then strain it, and add Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, the best Manna, of each half an ounce; mix it, and give it in the Morning fasting.

Also the Pills prescrib'd in page 240. may be used in this case.

If the Woman be troubled with a Rheu­matick distemper, accompanied with Wind; and if she be pretty strong, you may sweat her gently sometimes with this or such like Cordial Diaphoretick.

Take the Waters of Treacle, Carduus, Fen­nel, Cordial to cause sweat. of each one ounce; Cinamon-water two drachms; Syrups of the Juice of Carduus, Coral, of each half an ounce; Confectio de Hyacintho half a drachm; Spirit of Niter six drops; Oil of Cinamon two drops; Lauda­num opiatum three grains; mix it, and give to provoke sweat.

Let the Womb be strengthned with Cor­dial Astringents: Those prescrib'd in page 239. 240. are excellent.

CHAP. XX. Of hard Travel in Child-birth.

HArd labour may be called in Latin partus, vel enixus laboriosus; quod ipse nitendi & pariendi actus.

The time of a natural Birth ought to be accomplished in the space of twenty four hours; if the Womans travel continue lon­ger time with vehement pains and dangerous Symptoms, it may be called hard labour, or difficult Travel in Child-birth.

There are various Causes of hard Labour, sometimes tender Women by reason of pain, Causes. are very fearfull, and do endeavour to hin­der pains, and consequently the Birth also.

Sometimes the Child being weak or dead, and not following the Water in Due-time, before the passage be too dry may be the Cause; especially if the Mother be weak, by reason of any Disease afflicting her, or by too much Evacuation of Bloud, or there be not sufficient Motion of the Womb, and Mus­cles of the Belly.

Sometimes the Child's head may be too big, or the passage too strait.

Also the Child may be turned in the Womb, and the Hands, Shoulders, Back, [Page 253] Belly, or Buttocks, &c. may come forward to the Birth, and then the endeavour to bring forth will be painfull and difficult.

The signs of hard Labour are easily known; Signs. if the Child do stir, and there be strong pains, and no water appear, the Secundine is strong.

If pains be weak, and long before they return, and more in the Back than Belly, the Infant is weak.

If the Woman be little, and her Husband big and full shouldred, then there is a great Child, which will cause tough work.

1. Hard travel in Child-birth is very dan­gerous, Progn. for sometimes the Mother, some­times the Child, and many times both do lose their Lives.

2. If the Woman be in Travel above four days, the Child can hardly be alive; and therefore must be drawn away before it be too late; for if it be neglected, it will cause Fevers, Faintings, Convulsions, Sleepiness, &c. which are the Forerunners of Death.

3. If sneezing cometh of its own accord, it is a good sign of deliverance.

First give this Cordial to strengthen both the Mother and Child. Indicati­ons.

Take Waters of Baum, Vervain, Cina­mon, Cordial Iulep. of each two ounces; Syrup of Clove­gilliflowers, Saffron, of each six drachms; [Page 254] Spirit of Saffron, Confectio Alkermes, of each one drachm; mix it.

If the Child be situated on Os pubis, it must be removed, and all other unfit Postures must be rectified.

Then such things as hasten the Birth may be safely administred.

To encrease the Pains, and further the Womans Labour, I commend sneezing, and also the following Medicines.

Take the Livers of Eels prepar'd with Ci­namon-water, Powder. and dried, one drachm; Pow­der of Borax, whitest Amber, Mirrh, Saf­fron, Dittany of Crete, round Birth-wort, of each half a drachm; mix it, and give a Scruple of it at a time, in three spoonfulls of this Julep.

Take the Waters of Vervain, Mugwort, Iulep. of each two ounces; Syrup of Saffron one ounce; Confectio Alkermes one drachm; Ex­tract of Saffron six grains; Oils of Cinamon, Amber, of each three drops; mix it.

Some things have a peculiar property to help the Birth; as the stone Aetites, Load­stone, Storax, the Eyes of a Hare, &c. held near the privities.

The time being come, the Woman must be put into a posture, (which every Mid­wife doth understand) and let her not labour too much, till strong pains come; and then [Page 255] let her resolve on patience, and not be dis­orderly in the time of her Travel.

If she be faint, you may give her some of the formention'd Cordial Julep to comfort her.

Let your hands be anointed with some Anodine Ointment.

After the water is broke, if the Head cometh with the Face towards Anus receive it; if not endeavour to place it right: Then turn your Finger round about the Child's head gently, to make way for the Birth.

If the Child cometh any other way, you must endeavour to gain the Feet, and bring it away with the Face towards Anus, as before mention'd.

The Child being born, you must bring away the Secundine gently by degrees, af­ter which put a Closure to the Woman to prevent Cold from entring the Womb.

Then prepare her for the bed, and give her some Sperma Coeti, or Irish-slate in a little burnt White-wine with Cinamon.

If the Woman doth flood much, or be trou­bled with after-pains, give her some of the following Cordial Opiate.

Take of small Cinamon-water, the waters Cordial Opiate. of red Poppies, Baum, of each two ounces; Syrups of Clove-gilliflowers, white Poppies, of each one ounce; Laudanum opiat. three grains; Oil of Cinamon two drops; mix it, and give three spoonfulls of it often.

[Page 256] If the Child be born alive, after the Na­vel string is secured, give the Child ten grains of prepar'd Coral in a little Breast milk, or black Cherry-water dulcifi'd with Syrup of Peony, to which you may add a little Oil of sweet Almonds new drawn.

If the Child be troubled with gripes, you may give it a little Powder of Anise-seed in the Pap.

But if the Child be dead, and the Labour gone; or if the Child's head be very big, and the passage too strait; so that the Midwife cannot doe her Office; you must then speedily implore the help of the Man-midwife, as we are called.

If a Woman in Child-bed hath a costive Body, give her a Suppository of Castile-soap, or Honey boiled; and after three or four days, you may administer, an emollient, carminative Clyster. Clyster.

If a Woman (after hard Travel) cannot hold her Urine, bathe her secret Parts and Region of the Womb with this or the like Decoction.

Take of Plantain, Comfry, Shepherds-purse, Tops of Brambles, Penny-royal, Rosemary, Fomenta­tion. Sage, Stoechas, of each one handfull; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in a Gal­lon of Smiths-water, till half of it be boi­led away, then strain it, and bathe the parts affected very warm with woollen Stuphs.

[Page 257] Afterward anoint the grieved parts with this Linament.

Take the Ointment Comitissoe, Oil of Mace by expression, of each one ounce; Oils of Earth-worms, Foxes, Lillies, Goose-grease, of each half an ounce; mix it.

CHAP. XXI. Of Nephritick pains, and of the Stone in the Reins and Bladder.

DIseases of the Reins are called in Greek [...] Ren.

In Latin they are called morbus Renum, which comprehends not onely any Ach in the Kidneys, but also the Stone and Gravel in the Reins.

Nephritick pains may be caused divers Cause. ways.

1. First by a sharp salt matter, or a sharp and serous Lympha in the Kidneys, which doth easily concrete into a Stone, especially when the Ferment of the Reins is much vi­tiated; which may be known by those cruel torturing Fits, that come by intervals.

[Page 258] 2. Worms in the Kidneys, which for the most part arise from Bloud there corrupted, may be the cause of pain.

3. An Abcess or Tumour in the Kidneys, following an Inflammation, doth hinder the passage of Urine, and is always accompani­ed with great pain.

4. It may also be caused by glutinous Phlegm, obstructing the fleshy parts of the Kidneys, and hindring the separation of U­rine; so that it is not strein'd into the Fun­nels of the Reins as usual, but is deprav'd and vitiated: Whence the natural descent of the Urine, through the Ureters into the urinal Bladder is also hindred.

The same also may happen sometimes by Observa­cion. a stone sticking in the Funnel, and stopping the entrance of the Ureters.

Although I think that Stones sticking in the Ureters themselves, cannot long hinder the passage of Urine; because it hath been found by experience, (in dissecting of dead Bodies) that Stones near the bigness of a Doves-egg; have been sticking in the Ure­ters; by the sides of which Stones, Urine descended freely, which was evident, be­cause the Ureter was no were distended, unless where the Stone did stick: Neither was there any Urine contain'd in the Ure­ter, above the obstruction; besides when the Party was living, there was no stoppage of Urine.

[Page 259] Those fits which come by intervals, are caused by a debility or vitiousness of the Fer­ment of the Kidneys, which generates crude, salt and sharp matter, which causeth those cruel Tortures; and should all the Gravel and Stone come away, the pain would not be the less, untill the Kidneys themselves be reduc'd to their right temper: For many in perfect health have voided much Gravel at a time without the least pain, and there­fore it is evident that Gravel is onely the pro­duct, and not the producer or primitive cause of this pain.

The Symptoms of Nephritick pains are Signs. so much like that caused by the Stone, that they cannot be easily distinguished; for the signs of both are great pain of the Loins, loathing or vomiting, there being a great consent between the Reins and Stomach.

The Patient often pisseth bloudy water, and when the Reins are ulcerated, the mat­ter is often evacuated with the Urine.

Wherein the force of concreting or grow­ing Cause of the Stone. together of Stones (in divers parts of the Body) consists, is not enough known; I will freely declare what I conjecture in this obscure matter, whereby I may (according to my power) the more help others (that are ingenious) to search out this hidden truth.

All the Stones that are generated in the [Page 260] Body, may be dissolved in the sour Spirit of Salt Peter or Niter; whence I conclude that the Coagulation of Stones cannot be expected from an acid Spirit as such, there­fore from another somewhat contrary to it in part at least.

If any consider the several things, that promote the growing together of natural things, they will find that such force is in tart things; whence the Glutinousness, and Toughness of fluid things is wont to be pro­duc'd; to which if earthy, and volatile salt parts be join'd, something will be produc'd not much unlike Stones.

I incline therefore to this opinion, that an earthy and salt matter, join'd to that which is glutinous, groweth together into Stones by help of a tart humour.

Also Gravel of all kinds (that is usually seen in the bottom of Urine) testifieth that the conglobated Glandules are all affected, by a frequent external Cold, or else by sour things taken in, and when the Gravel is great it is then near to the Nature of Stones, yea sometimes groweth together into Stones, especially in cold phlegmatick Bodies, where (for the most part) it giveth Stones their first rising, and daily cherisheth their production, and increaseth them; and the more especi­ally where a glutinous, stone-making faculty doth concur in the Body.

[Page 261] Many Histories mention, that Stones are produced from a stone-making Spirit, or Histories. Breath out of the Earth, which hath turned the Bodies of Men, Beasts and other things into Stone.

Riverius, (in his last edition) quoteth Aventius Annal. Bavar. lib. 7. Anno 1343. who saith, that above fifty Men, with many Cattle were turned into Stone.

Ortelius telleth the like story, that whole Herds in Russia have been turned into Stone.

And Camerarius reporteth, that in the Pro­vince of Chilo in Armenia, at the blast of a South-wind (which happeneth four times in a Year) whole Troops of Horse have been turned into Statues of Stone, standing in the same warlike Posture, in which they were marching.

Children are most inclinable to this Mon­ster in Nature, because they have much moisture, and weak digestions, which gene­rate Crudities.

Stones are generated in many parts of the Body, as the Gall, Reins, Bladder, &c.

I once opened a Woman that had sixty History. four Stones in her Gall.

I also dissected another whose Ureters were stony; and out of her Gall I took out a large Stone, and a small one (about the bigness of a Hazle-nut) out of the Neck of the Gall.

[Page 262] 1. These distempers are very dangerous, Progn. and bring many sad Symptoms to the afflicted Patient; as great pain, inflamma­tions, exulcerations, long watchings, weak­ness, fevers, suppression of Urine, and Death it self.

2. Pain from acrid Lympha, &c. may be cured in those that are young, if the strength be not too much dejected, nor the Disease hereditary.

That we may now address our selves to Cure. the Cure of these grievous Diseases; I would advise those who are not very skilfull in the Art of Physick, to forbear giving of any thing in these Distempers, without the Ad­vice of an experienc'd Physician; for I believe many Stones have been bred in those Bo­dies (who before were free from it, and were onely troubled with Nephritick pains) by the frequent taking of ill Medicines; for many Remedies have been invented to dis­solve the Stone; but experience teacheth that they are most of them inimical to the Reins and Bladder, and debilitate their Ferment.

The solvent of the Stone ought to be ho­mogenious, and so singular, that it submit not to any digestions, or fermental Powers, through which it passeth in its way to the parts affected; for the Virtue of all common Remedies taken at the Mouth, are alter'd and transmuted in passing three digestions: For [Page 263] acid things, (from which much hath been hoped) as soon as they are past the Stomach, lose their acidity, and are converted into a saline Nature, so that the dissolving Pow­er of the acid is wholly transmuted before it gets either to the Reins or Bladder.

Likewise those Medicines which are injec­ted into the Bladder with a Syringe, ought to be agreeable to its Ferment, that it may not be painfull thereto; for if but a small quan­tity of any sharp Medicine be injected, it stirreth up an intolerable Strangury, it being wholly foreign to the Ferment of the part.

And seeing the Stone, and all other Dis­tempers of the Reins and Bladder, are wont to be bred, and increased in length of time; the Remedies which you administer must be long us'd, before you may have experience of their effects.

I will here set down some choice Medi­cines, not onely to hinder the increase, but to dissolve small Stones in humane Bodies, if they be long enough us'd.

Amongst which we may deservedly at­tribute the first place to Spirit of Niter (see­ing Stones of any kind are so easily and manifestly broken and dissolved by it) which may commodiously be mixt in any ordinary Drink, or Wine and Broths, &c. to a light acidity; whose excellent effects all may ad­mire.

[Page 264] If the Patient have a costive Body, you may give the following Lenitive three or four times in a week.

Take of Cassia newly drawn one ounce; Venice Turpentine half an ounce; Crystal Purging Bolus. prepar'd, Salt of Tartar vitriolated, of each one drachm; Oil of Juniper, Spirit of salt Armoniack, of each four drops; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it for two doses.

The following is also very effectual.

Take of Cio-turpentine half an ounce; Powder of Rhubarb one drachm; the Yelk of one egg, mix it for two doses; give it in the morning fasting, and drink four ounces of this Julep after it.

Take the Decoction for Syrup of Marsh-mallows Iulep. one quart; the waters of Horse­radish, Pellitory of the Wall, Speedwell, Winter-cherries, Syrups of Marsh-mallows and the five opening Roots, of each two ounces; Crystal prepar'd, Salt Prunella, of each half an ounce; tincture of Salt of Tar­tar two drachms; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; Laudanum ten grains; mix it and give four or five spoonfulls of it often.

This Powder is also excellent.

Take Salt of Tartar vitriolated two drachms; Powder of Crabs-eyes, Salts of Powder. Pigeons-dung, Broom, Beanstalks, Worm­wood, of each half a drachm; mix it, and [Page 265] give twenty grains of it every morning and evening in the foremention'd Julep.

If the Patient be plethorick, Phlebotomy may be used with good success.

If a Stone chance to stick in the Ureter, which causeth numbness, by its pressing up­on the Muscle Psoas, and the Nerves,

In this Case, apply a Ventose on os Ilium, which may bring the Stone by degrees in­to the Bladder; afterward anoint the parts grieved with Rabbets fat.

If the Stone in the Bladder be very big, there is little hopes of dissolving of it, where­fore if the Patient (being in continual pain) be willing to submit to Lithotomy; I ad­vise them to make choice of an experienc'd Artist; lest by Precipitancy the Ope­ratour neglect to cleanse the Bladder, after the Extraction of the Stone; by the neglect of which, many have generated the Stone again, and have been forced to endure that dreadfull operation the second, and sometimes the third time, under which ma­ny have died, and others who recovered, have never held their Urine.

In other Nephritick pains, if the fleshy parts of the Kidneys be obstructed, they may be opened by Diureticks, that cut, at­tenuate, and make glutinous Phlegm fluid. For example,

[Page 266] Take of Eringo-roots, the five opening Roots, of each one ounce; the Tops of A­grimony, Decoction. the greater Celandine, of each two handfulls; the Berries of Juniper and Win­ter-cherries, of each two drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain-water, till half be confumed; then strain it, and add Syrups of Marsh-mallows, and the five opening Roots, of each two ounces; Tincture of Salt of Tartar two drachms; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it, and give four spoonfulls of it every morning and evening.

They who like Juleps better, may use this or the like.

Take the Waters of Fennel, Parsley, Pel­litory Iulep. of the Wall, of each two ounces; the carminative Spirit of Sylvius, Syrups of Marsh-mallows, the five opening Roots, of each one ounce; Oil of Juniper, Spirit of Salt Armoniack, of each ten drops; Spirit of Niter twenty drops, Laudanum opiat. four grains; mix it, and give three spoonfulls every three or four hours.

The Patient may also drink freely of the mineral Diuretick-waters of Tunbridge, &c. which will conduce much to the Cure; espe­cially if some old Diuretick-wine, and a lit­tle oily Volatile Salt (made of Diuretick, Vegetables) be mixed with the water.

[Page 267] When the glutinous Phlegm is prepar'd, and loosned, it may be educ'd with some convenient Phlegmagogue, either in the form of Pills or Potion, of which there are variety mention'd in page 3. and four, &c.

The fixt Sulphurs of Minerals and Metalls, exalted to their highest perfection, do (be­fore all others) mildly temper all the hu­mours; next to which oily Volatile Salts come, and Aromaticks next to these: By the force of which (prudently us'd) not onely an effervescency of somewhat contrary Hu­mours (most agreeable to Man's nature) is bred in the small Gut, and afterward in the Heart; but the preternatural growing to­gether, and uniting of the more sharp hu­mours (being first moderated by them) is again dissolv'd in the Bloud.

I speak these things by experience, and because it is of great moment in practice, I commend them to the truly Studious of Physick.

If the Urine be bloudy, it testifieth the opening of some Vessel of Bloud in the Kid­neys, Ureters, Bladder, or its Neck.

To heal and consolidate this harm the following is excellent.

Take the Waters of Parsley, Plantain, of Cordial Astrin­gent. each two ounces; Cinamon-water, Syrups of Mirtles, Comfry, Marsh-mallows, of each half an ounce; Powder of Dragons-bloud, [Page 268] red Coral prepar'd, of each ten grains; Lau­danum opiat. three grains; Spirit of Niter ten drops; mix it, and give three or four spoonfulls every two hours.

If there be an Ulcer in any of these parts, it may perhaps be more happily cur'd by the daily taking of Balsam of Sulphur (made with the Oil of Amber, Juniper, Anise­seed, or Turpentine) in any convenient Vehicle, than by any other Medicine hi­therto known.

In all suppression of Urine, the following is very effectual.

Take the Waters of Chamomel, Golden­rod, Iulep. Winter-cherries, of each four ounces; Syrups of Marsh-mallows, the five opening Roots, of each two ounces; Powder of Egg­shells calcin'd one ounce; Tincture of Salt of Tartar two drachms; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it, and give four spoon­fulls every three hours.

CHAP. XXII. Of Extraordinary Pissing, &c.

THIS Distemper is called in Greek [...] i. e. pertransire, quod urina ureteres, & urethram subito pertransit.

It being a quick or plentifull pissing or making of water.

The cause is either external, or internal.

The external, or primary efficient Cause, Cause. is an immoderate drinking of stale Beer, Sider, or acid Wines, either French or Rhe­nish; by which an incurable Diabetes hath been ofttimes suddenly contracted.

The internal Cause of this Disease, is sharp, serous humours abounding in the Bloud, by which not onely the whole Mass of it doth in time become too thin, but the nervous Juice is also thereby ill affected, and consequent­ly the Reins inflam'd, by the continual flow­ing of the over acid serous humours: Whence the attractive faculty of the Kidneys is in­creas'd, drawing the serosity of the Bloud more potently from the emulgent Vessels into the Funnels, and provoking the expul­sive faculty, it is soon sent (through the Ureters) to the Bladder, from whence it is often evacuated by pissing.

[Page 270] The signs are a continual pissing, so that much more moisture is voided, than is ta­ken Signs. into the Body, by eating and drink­ing.

It is always accompanied with an extra­ordinary Thirst; the sick is also feverish, something like a Hectick.

If it continue long, it will decay all the Progn. radical moisture of the Body, which will render it incurable, but if it be taken in the beginning, and the Patient be young, it may be easily cured.

All things which have power to incrassate Cure. the thinness of the Bloud, and temper the over acidity of the humours, may be admi­nistred in this Distemper.

In the beginning of the Cure, after a stool hath been procured by an emollient Clyster, you may open a Vein in the Arm.

The next day a gentle Purge of Rhubarb may be administred; but if the Stomach be foul, and the sick can vomit easily, you may give an Antimonial Emetick with good success, because it will potently draw the sharp peccant humours from the emulgent Vessels and Reins, and evacuate some of them both by Vomit and Stool.

After the Operation of the Emetick, let the sick take two spoonfulls of this Cordial Opiate often, which will ease pain, and thicken the humours.

[Page 271] Take the Waters of Barley, red Poppies, Cordial Opiate. of each four ounces; Cinamon-water, Sy­rups of Coral, and Comfry, Penidies, of each one ounce; Gums Arabick and Dragon, of each half an ounce; Powder of Dragons­bloud, red Coral prepar'd, of each one drachm; Laudanum opiatum six grains; let the Gums be dissolved in the distill'd wa­ters, and strained, then mix all together ac­cording to Art.

You may prescribe this, or such a like De­coction, for the Patient's ordinary drink.

Take the Roots of China, Sarseparilla, Decoction. Comfry, Plantain, red Sanders, of each two ounces; Liquorish, red Roses, Hemp-seed, of each one ounce; Raisins of the Sun sto­ned four ounces; let them be cleansed, brui­sed and boiled in a Gallon of Fountain-water, till half of it be boiled away, then strain it, and keep it for use.

Let the Diet be cooling, and thickning Broths and Jellies made of Knuckles of Veal, with the Roots of China and Comfry boiled in it, is excellent.

You may also make Panado's of the a­foresaid Broth, with a few Crums of White­bread, and the Yelk of an Egg.

Also milk (wherein the aforesaid Roots are boiled) will be very effectual.

CHAP. XXIII. Of involuntary Pissing, commonly called pis­sing in Bed.

WHEN the Urine floweth involuntarily (which in Children is vulgarly cal­led Pissing in Bed. pissing in Bed) it may be called in La­tin urinae incontinentia, pro impotentia sive imbecilitate retinendi.

The causes are either external, or internal. Causes.

The external Cause is a large Wound in the sphincter Muscle of the Bladder, which sometimes happens in Lithotomy; for by extracting a great Stone, the sphincter Mus­cle may be so much lacerated, that it ceaseth to be contracted, and the Orifice of the Bladder to be shut, wherefore the Urine dis­tilleth of its own accord.

It may be caused internally by the Palsie, Apoplexy, Epilepsie, Syncope, &c. Some­times Ebriety may be the Cause of the Reso­lution of the Nerves, which from the Loins are inserted into the Neck of the Bladder, and so render the sphincter Muscle incapable of Contraction; hence the Urine is involun­tarily voided.

In Children, this Distemper is curable, if Progn. taken in time; but if it happen to old Folks, [Page 273] or if it be caused by a Wound in the sphinc­ter Muscle of the Bladder, it is incurable.

That which is caused by the Palsie, Epi­lepsie, Syncope, &c. look for the Cure in Cure. their proper Chapters.

If it be caused by Ebriety, Sobriety may be commended to cure it, especially by the help of inward means to strengthen the parts affected.

Many things have been given to Children, that have been troubled with this Distemper; the most effectual are these.

Fried Mice, the inner Skins of Hens-giz­zards, Cocks-weasands, Pudenda suilla, Stones of a Hare, Snails with the shells, all or any of these dried and poudred; also the Pow­der of Agrimony, Egg-shells, the burnt Ash­es of an Hedge-hog, &c.

Any of these may be given in red Wine, or in Lime-water chalibeated, which may be dulcifi'd with Syrup of Comfry.

If Phlegm do abound in the Body, you may purge it with Phlegmagogues.

Also sweating with gentle Diaphoreticks, is very effectual.

Those already mention'd are proper, one­ly consider the Age and Strength of the Pa­tient.

CHAP. XXIV. Of the Stoppage of Urine, and the Stran­gury.

THE Stoppage of Urine is called in Greek [...], ab [...] comprimo, & [...] Urina.

'Tis called in Latin Urinoe suppressio.

The Strangury is called in Greek [...], i. e. urinoe difficultas, vel urinoe per guttas excretionem. Ex [...] stilla, & [...] urina.

These differ onely in degree, for when the Urine is totally obstructed, it may be called Ischuria, but when little is voided, and by drops, it may be called Stranguria.

These distempers may be caused by vis­cous Cause. Phlegm, or coagulated Bloud in the Ureters, or Urethra, especially if a Stone, or some Gravel do also stick in the Passage, by which the obstruction will be more strengthned.

Sometimes it is caused by a schirrous Tu­mour, or other excrescency of Flesh, as a Carbuncle, &c. growing in the Urethra, or Chanel of Urine.

Sometimes it is caused by a preposterous holding in of the Urine, either, for shame or [Page 275] want of opportunity to evacuate it; so that the Bladder being extremely fill'd and dis­tended, it hath not power to contract it self, hence the voiding of Urine is supprest.

It may also be caused by sharp humours, fretting and ulcerating the internal Superfi­cies of the Bladder, by which it is continu­ally stirred up to contract it self, and expell the Urine which is in it; so that the Bladder is empty, having little or no Urine in it, as I have known by experience.

This may be called a Bastard Ischuria, which may be also caused by some hurt in the at­tractive or expulsive faculty of the Reins.

If the aforesaid Causes be violent, it cau­seth an Ischuria, but if remiss, then a Stran­gury is stirred up, in which there is a per­petual Irritation to extrude the Urine, al­though slowly; and by drops, with exceeding pain and trouble.

Suppression of Urine is dangerous, and if Progn. it continue long, it is mortal; especially if the Patient's Breath stinck of Piss, or hath a Hiccough, or Tenasmus.

If the Cause be in the Neck of the Blad­der Cure. or Urethra stopt, you may clear it, and draw away the Urine with a Catheter, as I have often done both from Men and Women with good success.

If the Cause be from the Reins or Ureters, [Page 276] seek the Cure in the Chapter of Nephritick pains, &c.

Glutinous Phlegm, and coagulated Bloud, may be cut and attenuated with Aromaticks boild in Water or Wine, and mixed with oily volatile Salts, Spirit of Niter, &c.

Stone-Horse dung is rich in Volatile Salt, wherefore if you mix the Juice of it with Rhenish-wine, and drink it often, you will admire its wonderfull effects, in curing not onely Stoppage of Urine, but most other obstructions.

Those Diureticks prescrib'd in page 266, 267. are also very effectual here.

Let the Belly and parts affected be anoin­ted with Dears-suet, which will conduce much to give ease.

When the Urethra is obstructed by a Ca­runcle, &c. You must gently thrust in a hol­low Instrument made of Lead or Silver, be­ing first anointed with some consolidating Ointment.

You may leave the Instrument in, till the fear of a new Closing of the Passage be re­mov'd.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Scalding or Sharpness of Urine.

THIS Distemper is called in Greek [...], & [...] Urina.

The causes are either external, or inter­nal. Causes.

The external Cause may be by the Appli­cation of Cantharides, or some other stronger Poison.

The internal Causes are sharp, salt and acid humours mixed with the Urine, which do corrode, and ulcerate the internal Su­perficies of the Bladder, and sphincter Mus­cle.

Sometimes it is caused by sharp Stones, occasioning an Ulcer.

If the Bladder, or sphincter Muscle, or the Progn. Urethra be ulcerated, it is hard to be cured; especially if the Patient be old, and the Distemper hath continu'd long, & e contra.

If the Bladder or urinal Passage be ulce­rated, Cure. it may be effectually cured by the Bal­sam of Sulphur, made with the Oil of Anise­seed, Amber, or Juniper, taken to two or three drops, twice or thrice daily in any convenient Vehicle, especially a vulnerary Decoction, which is most effectual.

[Page 278] The salt, acid, corroding humours may be corrected with Crabs-eyes, Perle, &c. and also all volatile oily Salts, taken often (in a small quantity) in any refrigerating Diu­retick.

This Decoction is effectual.

Take the Roots of Mallows, Marsh-mal­lows, Decoction. of each two ounces; Lettice, Endive, Purslain, Violets, of each one handfull; Jujubes, Sebestins, of each one ounce; Winter-cherries half an ounce; the four greater Cold-seeds, of each two drachms; red Roses, Water­lillies, of each half a handfull, let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain-water, till half of it be boiled a­way; then strain it, and add Syrups of red Poppies, Violets, of each two ounces; Lau­danum opiat. ten grains; Oil of Vitriol ten drops; mix it, and give three spoonfulls every two hours.

An Emulsion of the Cold-seeds, or Cha­momel-flowers boiled in Milk, is also very effectual.

If the Patient be costive, give emollient Clysters, or gentle Cholagogues, and Hy­dragogues, to evacuate the peccant hu­mours.

Or else you may give a gentle Emetick for Revulsion.

If the pain be very great, you may inject an Emulsion (made of the Cold-seeds) into [Page 279] the urinal Passage, and anoint the Privities with unguentum Populion, &c.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Venereal Affects.

THIS Scourge of transgressing Huma­nity, being as it were a Murrain, or common Destruction to venereous Persons, may be called in Latin Lues venerea, a [...] solvo, vel quod Corpus omnino dissolvit, vel quasi luens usque ad nihil. Lues enim ista, pestis est species, vel qualiscunque contagio, quoe homines Lues ve­nerea. inficit, debito supplicio scelus luere.

The first Knowledge of this pocky intes­tine Enemy (at least in the European parts of the World) was at the Siege of Naples, by the French; being brought thither (as some Authours affirm) by the Spaniards, that came with Christopher Columbus from the West Indies, and they like plaguy Persons that croud to infect others (contrary to their reserved temper) being inflam'd with a ve­nereal Itching, and being also free of their flesh, they communicated (as a great rarity) this new found foul Distemper, to the Italian Women, which among others they had en­grost [Page 280] to themselves from the Animal Indians, in their American Tyrannical Conquests.

Many of those poor Creatures being deep­ly infected with the monstrous Yaws (so called by the Indians) from whence this foul Distemper had its first original.

Hence it was first called the Neapolitan, and afterward the French disease; since which time, many of the precipitant youth­full Europeans (to their great Costs and Pain) have been punished with this impure vene­real Affect.

This Itch in spite of Mortals will be catch­ing, (where there is no fear of God to re­strain) but the beginning natural momen­tany Pleasure, will often urge a smartfull end; so that this is the product of that sin of uncleanness, for which God hath pronoun­ced, Hebrews 13. 4. Whore-mongers and Adulterers God will judge.

To describe this virulent contagious Di­sease, It is an universal sour taint of the sper­matick parts; the seed in the spermatick Vessels being first corrupted with a cold in­digested Putridness, is sometimes conveyed outward to the groins, infecting the obscene parts with a filthy eating Crusty scab.

But if the poisonous malign quality (got­ten by impure Coition) be transfer'd to the Liver, which is the chief Subject of its more easie invasion, and its special residence; it [Page 281] must necessarily suffer egregious corruption, from whence the afflicting taint is dispersed into the whole habit of the Body, vitiating and corrupting the Nutrition of every part; by which the sick becomes wholly cachec­tick, and the filthy Pox (without speedy help) tyrannizing with many malign Symp­toms, and afflicting both the body and mind, doth at length hurry the Patient into the pit of silence.

The cause is chiefly, the carnal use of Cause. venereous Persons.

Also Children sucking of those Nurses that are infected, may receive the pollution from the poisonous malignity of the milk.

It may also be Hereditary, the seed of venereous Parents being polluted.

The most apparent signs, are a dulness of Signs. the whole Body, white face, intolerable pain between the joints, especially in the Night, which hindreth sleep; sometimes Buboes in the Groins, &c. As is before mention'd, also Ulcers, and hard Pustules in many parts of the Body, as Head, Chin, &c. there is sometimes a relaxation of the Uvula, with Hoarsness and Corruption of the Palate, and Tumours of the adjacent Glandulous parts, there is also sometimes a Cariosity of the Skull, and other Bones. Cum multis aliis.

[Page 282] 1. It is difficult of Curation, if it hath Progn. continu'd long, or the Patient be consump­tive; or if it be in a sucking Infant.

2. If it be Hereditary, 'tis incurable; but if the Patient be young, and newly infected, it may be easily cured.

As for the Cure of this filthy Disease, first Cure. I advise the Patient to repent from the bottom of the Heart, for this great sin of uncleanness, &c.

Then make choice of an honest Physi­cian.

The Cure is easiest effected in the Spring, or Fall of the Leaf; but if necessity urge, you may begin the Cure at any time.

First let the Body be prepared,

The following Apozeme may serve for Example in most constitutions.

Take the five opening Roots, Liquorish, Apozeme. China, of each one ounce; Cinamon, Anise­seed, Senna, of each half an ounce; Agarick, Rhubarb, Cream of Tartar, of each two drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain-water, till half be consumed; then strain it, and add Syrup of Roses solutive four ounces; Salt of Tartar vitriolated two drachms; Spirit of Niter twenty drops; mix it, and give six spoonfulls every two hours.

If the Patient be Plethorick open a Vein; after which you may purge with these or the like Pills.

[Page 283] Take of Extractum Rudii, one scruple; Purging Pills. Mercur. dulcis, Salt Armoniack, of each half a scruple; make it into four Pills, and take them in the Morning.

If you perceive by the Excrements, that the Patient's body be very foul, you may administer another Dose of Pills after two days intermission.

Then you may prepare the following De­coction, or one like it, to cause sweat, &c.

Take of Guiacum, the Roots of China, Sar­separilla, Decoction. of each one pound; Raisins of the Sun stoned, Hermodactils, Polypodium, Barks of Guiacum and Sassaphras, of each four ounces; Juniper-berries, Anise-seed, Liquo­rish, Elicampane-roots, of each one ounce; let them be cleansed, bruised and infused in four Gallons of Rain-water, very hot for the space of a Night; then boil it gently till a third part be boiled away; strain it, and keep it for use.

Let the sick take four spoonfulls of it, with ten grains of Antimonium diaphoret. every Morning and Evening, for four or five days following, and sweat after it in Bed, or in a Hot-house, or Bagnio, so long as can be well endured.

Then omitting a day or two, you may take another Dose of Pills; then sweat seven days more, after which purge as before; this doe for forty days, or till the Cure be per­fected.

[...]
[...]

[Page 284] You may make a second Decoction of the Ingredients, for ordinary drink.

But if the sick have extreme Pains in the Night, ten grains of the following Pills may be given to bed-ward instead of the Decoc­tion.

Take Gum of Guiacum two drachms; Antimony Diaphoretick, Bezoar-mineral, Purging Pills. Flower of Brimstone, Diagredium, Mercur. dulcis, humane Bones calcin'd, of each one drachm; Saffron, Laudanum opiatum, of each half a drachm; with Syrup of Saffron, make it into a Mass for Pills.

If there be a Defluxion of Rheum on the Lungs, you may give ten or twelve drops of Balsam of Sulphur, in a little of the Decoc­tion every Morning, and the like quantity with half a drachm of Venice-treacle every Night; after which drink four ounces of the aforesaid Decoction, to promote a gentle sweat.

You may also make Fontinels in the Arm and Leg with good success.

But if the sick be of a hot Constitution, and the Disease be inveterate, and stubborn; the shortest and best way of Cure will be by salivation.

I do not approve of unction with mer­curial Ointments, to raise the Flux, nor Turbith-mineral to be given inwardly; but the safest way is to administer Mercur. dulcis, but [Page 285] let it be well prepared. Then you may give twenty grains of it with a little Diascordium, or Conserves of Roses: give it three or four Mornings successively, and drink a draught of the Diet-drink after it.

Also the second Decoction may be some­times made use of for ordinary Drink, all the time of the Cure; and warm Posset­drink at other times, when desired.

When the Salivation is rais'd, let the sick have a piece of Gold between the teeth; and keep warm, and continue spitting till the Spittle become insipid, which is com­monly in twenty days.

In the mean time, wash the Mouth with Plantain-water, and Syrup of Mulberries.

When you would abate the spitting, ad­minister a Carminative Clyster, or a Clyster of Milk and Sugar every Night; and after its operation, give the following Bolus.

Take of Diascordium half a drachm; Gas­coigns Bolus. powder fifteen grains; Oil of Vitriol two drops; with Syrup of Poppies make it into a Bolus; give it at Night going to bed.

Pustules, Tumours and Ulcers of the Mouth, Tongue, Gums, or any other Place, will be all easily cured, when the Salivation is over.

You may dress the sores with the follow­ing Ointment, which is very effectual to cure all Pocky ulcers.

[Page 286] Take of Verdigreece, and common Salt, of each two ounces; powder them, and Ointment. calcine them together; then mix it with eight ounces of Unguentum Enulatum.

When the filthy Enemy, or Neapolitan disease, is cast out by Salivation, you may sweat the Patient with the Decoction of China, &c. before mention'd, for sometime, as is there directed.

Let the Diet be drying; rost Meat is better than boil'd.

Mutton, Chickens, Partridges, Rabbets, &c. are all good Food.

When strength doth begin to increase, Bread and Raisins may be eaten.

The greater Symptoms of this Disease, are the Running of the Reins, Nodes, Ca­runcles, &c.

The Running of the Reins is called in Greek [...], ex [...] semen, & [...] fluo, it being a Flux of natural Seed of Man or Woman unwittingly.

If the Gonorrhoea be virulent, it is a praelu­dium to the Pox, and must be cur'd the same way; but if it be newly contracted, it may wholly and most safely be absolved by purgation.

The same Apozeme, and purging Pills, before mention'd, are very proper, which must be continu'd till the Running of the Reins cease.

[Page 287] If the Patient be plethorick, let a Vein be opened.

To strengthen the spermatick parts, the following Balsamick Pills are effectual.

Take of Mummy, Bole Armenick, Gums Balsa­mick Pills. Dragon and Arabick, of each one ounce; Bal­sam of Sulphur two drachms; with Syrup of dried Roses, make it into a Mass for Pills, of which you may give half a drachm every Morning and Evening.

If there be Nodes, Caruncles or Ulcers in the urinary Passage,

The following Medicine may be daily in­jected.

Take the Water of the Spawn of Frogs Injection. four ounces; Honey of red Roses one ounce; white Troches of Rhasis one drachm; pow­der the Troches, and mix all together for an Injection.

After injection, put in an hollow Instru­ment made of Silver or Lead, being first anointed with some consolidating Ointment, as was directed in the Stoppage of Urine.

I do not approve of Astringents in the Beginning of the Cure of a Gonorrhoea, till the Patient be well purged, and the running begin to cease; because all Astringent means conduce to prolong the Distemper; but af­ter the Cause is eradicated by purging, then they may be safely administred, if the Cure be not effected without it.

[Page 288] To prevent the Return of the Distem­per, I advise the Patient to purge, and bleed every Spring and Fall.

Also keep a good Diet, be moderate in Exercise, and all other of the nonnatural things.

When thou art recovered, give God the Praise; and have a care of committing the like sin again, lest a worse thing befall thee; for it is a fearfull thing to fall into the Hands of the Living God. Hebr. 10. 31.

CHAP. XXVII. Of the Rachites, or Rickets.

THIS Disease may be called in Greek [...].

It may be called in Latin morbus spinalis, it being a Disease of the Spine of the Back.

This spinal Disease is commonly called in English Rickets.

It is peculiar to Children, because they abound with a crude phlegmatick matter; for if they labour under a cold moist Distem­per, there is presently a Penury and Paucity of the Animal Spirits; for the Brain, cere­bellum, and spinalis medulla, being more com­pact [Page 289] than is wont, is unfit for percolation, so that the most spirituous part of the Bloud cannot pierce, or be strein'd through it: Hence the separation of the Animal Spirits is diminisht.

For the aforesaid cold, moist, phlegmatick Humours, compacting the soft substance of the Brain, &c. it is thereby too much thick­ned and straitned in its porous passages.

The coldness of Air, Water, or Snow, ve­hemently affecting the Head, seems to con­firm and prove this opinion; because when the Glandules of the Brain are affected and thickned by a stuffing of the Head with Coldness, then a more sparing production of the Animal Spirits useth to follow.

The essence of this Disease consists not onely in the Animal, and vital, but natural Constitution also, all the Functions being (in time) vitiated: For the spinalis medulla being primarily affected, all the Nerves which proceed from it (in its passage through the spina Dorsi) must of necessity be stupifi'd, and vitiated with a loose Feebleness; hence also all the nervous, membranous, and fi­brous parts, through which those Nerves are carried, or inserted into, must conse­quently be vitiated with an inward weak Slipperiness; so that the very ends of the bones, as well as all the Faculties of the Bo­dy, bear a share in this Distemper.

[Page 290] When the Rickets is confirm'd in Infants, it seems to have some affinity with divers other Diseases, viz. a Chronical fever, an extenuation or leanness of the Body, and an Hydrocephalus, and many more, which are frequently complicated with this affect.

And indeed not onely this, but most o­ther Observa­tio. Diseases (in process of time) do unite unto themselves other affects of a different kind, and therefore (for the most part) there is a complication of Chronical diseases before Death.

The Causes are either external, or in­ternal. Causes

The external may be any of the Non­naturals exceeding, either in excess or de­fect.

All things cold and moist do powerfully contribute to this Disease, especially an over cold and moist Air, which is most frequent in the Spring; the Air being then cloudy, thick, rainy, and full of vaporous Exha­lations.

Hereupon the Children of those which inhabit near the Banks of the Sea, or great Rivers, Ponds or Marshes; (that are ob­noxious to too much Rain, or are fed with a great Number of Springs) are more or less subject to this affect; for by the Con­tinuance of such cold and moisture, the Bloud and Humours becomes too slippery, and [Page 291] therefore (in their Circulation) they must unavoidably cause a softness and looseness in all the parts.

Also experience testifieth that those Chil­dren which are born, and nursed near the Lead-mines in Derby-shire, &c. are generally affected more or less with a languidness of the Limbs.

For the Air being infected with noxiousme­talline Exhalations, which (for the most part) fight against the inherent Spirits of the parts, by a kind of venemous malignity; by which the spirituous pulsificative Force of the external parts is extinguished, and the strength of the Limbs, and whole Body much weak­ned and diminish'd.

Hither we may also refer fine soft Linen, applied actually cold and moist, (being not well dried by reason of the moistness of the weather) to the Spine of the Back, which is near the Original of the Nerves; the use thereof being too long continu'd, it cherish­eth the Roots of this Disease in that tender Age.

Likewise Aliments of any kind, which are too moist and cold; or too thick, viscous and obstructive, do manifestly cherish this Distemper.

And I am induced to believe that Ebriety in English people, especially the Gentry; and eating of much Flesh; and not using frequent [Page 292] labour, or exercise, may be a reason why this Disease is more common and natural to Children in England, than in other Regions, perhaps far exceeding it both in cold and moisture; as Scotland, Holland, &c. wherein this affect hath not been observ'd to be very common.

And therefore ebriety and eating of much Flesh, and defect of motion, and want of exercise doth most frequently, and most effectually concur to the production of it; because the inherent heat (in stupid and sluggish People) is not sufficient to resist and expell the superfluous moisture by a due transpiration: By which means the Circula­tion of the Bloud is become slow and lesned, and the production of the vital heat very feeble, and weak; so that nature is thereby forced to permit all the parts of the Body to be affected with a certain softness, looseness, and internal lubricity, more than is meet; which do sufficiently evince, that this is an efficacious cause, and a part of the essence of this Disease.

Hence we may easily infer that the Chil­dren of such Parents are more inclined to this distemper, than others who drink mo­derately, and eat less Flesh, and are more active and lively.

The internal Causes, are excrementitious Humours luxuriant in the Body, especially [Page 293] Phlegm and serous humours retained, and vitiated, being naturally cold and moist, and little spirituous, and affected with an internal slipperiness, wherefore upon a su­perfluous accumulation of these humours, the production of this affect succeedeth; because thereby a Colliquation of the parts, and a dissipation of the inherent Spirits will be easily introduced; whereby all the parts will afterwards be rendred obnoxious to this cold and moist Distemper.

Many diseases preceding this affect, may be the cause of it; especially those which do extenuate, and much weaken the Body, as all Fevers, &c. And also all cold and moist, phlegmatick, and cachochymick Distempers, which will induce a stupour and dulness in the affected parts, and cause obstructions.

Also any great Pain, Inflammation, Tu­mour, Fracture, Luxation, or any other pre­ternatural affect, that hinders the standing and playing of the Child, may be some cause of this Disease.

Presently after the beginning of the Di­sease, Signs. a kind of slothfulness and numbness doth invade the Joints, and by little and little is increased, so that daily they are more and more averse from motion; besides in the beginning of this affect, there is usu­ally observ'd, a certain laxity, softness, and flaccidity of all the first affected parts; af­ter [Page 294] which followeth a great debility, lan­guidness, and enervation of all the parts subservient to motion; so that (for the most part) they speak before they walk, which is vulgarly held to be a bad Omen; and if it vehemently increase, they do not onely to­tally lose the use of their Feet, but can scarce sit with an erected posture, and their weak and feeble Neck can hardly sustain the Bur­then of the Head.

In the progress of the Disease, the Head and Face increaseth in bigness, but the fleshy parts below the Head, are daily more and more worn away.

There is also observ'd in this affect, cer­tain swellings, and knotty excrescencies about some of the Joints; these are chiefly con­spicuous in the Wrists, and somewhat less in the Ancles, and in the tops of the ribs; the Bones in the Armes and Legs, and sometimes the Thighs, and Shoulder-bones wax crook­ed; the Teeth come forth slowly, and with greater trouble than usual, and at length the Breast becomes narrow, and the Abdomen swollen, with an extension of the Hypochondriacal parts, which hindreth the free motion of the Diaphragma downwards; and by consequence doth somewhat inter­rupt the breathing, so that respiration be­comes difficult, accompanied with cough­ing, the Pulse being also weak and small; [Page 295] and in the increase of the Disease, all these signs become more intense and evident, and many, and more grievous, are daily accu­mulated.

1. If this Disease be light and gentle, the Progn. Children affected therewith may be easily restored to health; sometimes by the sole benefit of Age, the vital heat being increa­sed, and summoned forth to the external parts by the force of frequent exercises.

But if it so vehemently prevaileth, that the increase thereof cannot be prevented by the best internal means, and also most prudent applications, then there is immi­nent danger.

2. If it proceed from other Diseases, or be complicated with them, it will be the more difficult of curation; especially if the Bones of the Armes, and Legs be crooked, and there be great bending and tumour of the Joints of the Wrists, Ancles and Ribs.

But if the Symptoms decline, and the Child do easily endure agitation, and have often eruptions in the Skin, as Wheals, Pim­ples, or Itch, then there is great hopes of recovery.

3. If they be not cured in five years, they will grow deformed and crooked, and (for the most part) will become dwarfs, and live sickly, being either Cachectick, or Phthi­sical, till death do put a Period to their mi­serable Life.

[Page 296] As for the Cure of this disease, both the Child and Nurse must keep a good diet Cure. which is easie of Concoction.

In the mean time you must not neglect the best Chyrurgical and Pharmaceutical means which will most conduce to the spee­dy recovery of the weakly Infant.

Universals being premised, the most effec­tual and approved Chyrurgical means in this affect, are Incision or Scarification of the Ears, and little Fountains or Issues; al­though many more may be used, viz. Frixi­ons, Blisters, Ligatures, &c.

Incision or Scarification in the Ears, is to be performed on the Ridge, in the inside of the Ear above the hole; which must be stopt to hinder the Bloud passing into it.

This Operation must be often repeated, at least once or twice in a month; which hath proved successull when many other remedies have been ineffectual.

And here it may be noted, that Scarifica­tion being made in that place, must needs be of greater efficacy than if it were instituted in any other part of the Ear, or elsewhere.

1. First, Because the beginning of the fifth pair of Nerves is near that place, many of their Branches being distributed through the hollow of the Ear, and are thence convey­ed into the Spinalis medulla, from whence it shooteth out little Branches which accompa­ny [Page 297] the Nerves of the marrow of the Back, to the ends of the very Legs and Feet; as ma­ny ingenious Anatomists have accurately ob­serv'd.

Wherefore Scarification being there made, it is probable, that the matter (which com­monly oppresseth the very beginning of that Nerve) is immediately evacuated, by which it is freed from obstruction; and having al­so gotten vigour (being excited by the pain and Inflammation) it driveth out all stupid­ness from within it; by which means the Branches of the Nerves from thence arising, which are communicated to the Spinalis me­dulla, and many other parts may be in some measure excited also.

2. Because by this means, there is a par­ticular evacuation of the Head, which is wont to be oppressed with fullness in this affect.

Besides, the Bloud being somewhat lesned, the thickness and toughness thereof must thereby be corrected; and (by consequence) an equal distribution of it promoved to a more regular nourishment of the parts.

Issues in the Neck are also much approved in this disease, because they very much con­duce to lessen the unusual magnitude of the Head, and to evacuate the superfluous watriness thereof, and repress the inordi­nate increase of the bones; also it manifestly [Page 298] drieth up the too much humidity of the spi­nal Marrow, exciteth heat, strengthens the Nerves, and expelleth the astonishment.

As for the Pharmaceutical or Physical means, you must be sure to cleanse the first passages either by Clysters, Vomits or Leni­tive purgations.

When the Belly is Costive and the excre­ments are hardned, or some flatuous hu­mours afflict the Bowels with vehement pain, then Clysters are chiefly required; and they may also be injected before any preparation, Vomit or Lenitive purgation.

I need not prescribe any forms, because a little Milk and Sugar, with a few Anise­seeds boiled in it may serve.

Also an Emollient or Carminative Clyster (that is gentle) may be injectrd when there is occasion.

Emeticks if well prepared, and prudently administred are very efficacious, and will conduce much to the Cure.

And here I again commend Antimonial Vomits before all others.

1. First, because they not onely power­fully evacuate Crude or corrupt humours, and all manner of impurities contained in the Stomach by Vomit; but by an agita­tion and commotion, raised in all the parts, especially in the Bowels, they loosen the gross and viscous humours adhering to the [Page 299] Guts, and convey them through their many involutions and labyrinths, by which they are expelled by Stool; in which respect they are also profitable against torments of the Colick, and very conducible to unlock obstructions.

2. They most effectually irritate the ex­pulsive faculty of all the parts of the Body, by which they compell forth the hidden and unappearing causes of diseases, especi­ally of intermitting Fevers; for by the very straining to Vomit, the Guts are also in­stimulated to cast out by siege; the Liver poureth away the Choler by the Biliar pore; the juice of the Pancreas is voided into the small Guts; the Spleen perhaps doth unbur­then its excrement into the Stomach; the Kidneys exern through the Ureters; the Lungs by a strong Cough eject their Phlegm through the Wind-pipe; the Head emptieth it self of salt waterish Rheums by the Palate, Nostrils and Eyes; finally the whole Body (for the most part) is rendred more prone to a Diaphoresis, either by a manifest sweat­ing, or else by insensible transpiration.

If any are afraid of Antimonial prepara­tions (though most safe and potent) they may administer Salt of Vitriol, from five to ten grains, either in Posset-drink or any o­ther convenient Vehicle.

Also the following may be safely admi­nistred.

[Page 300] Take the clarified Juice of Asarabacca half a drachm; Syrup of the Juice of Sorrel Vomit. two drachms; mix it, and give it in the morning fasting.

But here we may note, that vomiting is Observa­tio. not to be provoked in very weak Children, unless they are naturally apt to Vomit, and the humours tend upwards of their own ac­cord, and they easily indure it; and then they ought to be gentle and given in a small dose.

Those that are averse to vomiting may take lenitive Catharticks, which must be made pleasant and potable, that the young Patient may not loath the taking of them.

Manna, Syrup of Cichory with Rhubarb, Syrup of Violets and Syrup of Roses solutive are all good pleasant medicines; which you may mix according to your discretion, in any proper distill'd water, or in the decoc­tion of sennoe Gereonis.

The following drink is of excellent virtue, and will conduce much to the Cure of this disease.

Take of Anise-seed, the Barks of Ash, Ivie, Infusion. Tamarisk, Shavings of Harts-horn and Ivo­ry, the Roots of Sassaphras, Liquorish, Chi­na, Sarseparilla, Butterbur, of each half an ounce; Mace one drachm; let them be clean­sed, bruised and infused in two quarts of small Ale for two or three days; then strain [Page 301] it out very strongly, and bottle it up for the Child's ordinary drink.

In the Cure you must endeavour to re­sist all symptoms, as Fluxes, Worms, Venereal affects, breeding Teeth with great pain, &c.

In any Flux, Gripes or urgent pain, you may give half a grain of Laudanum opiat. dis­solved in any convenient Vehicle, so often as necessity urgeth.

If Worms or venereal affects be fear'd, you may sometimes adminster this gentle purging Bolus.

Take of Mercur. dulcis six grains; Diagre­dium, Purging Bolus. Rezin of Jallop, of each three grains; with Syrup of Roses solutive, make it into a Bolus; give it in the morning fasting.

In your Broths and Panadoes, you may boil Harts-tongue, Ceterach, Liver-wort, Maiden-hair, Sage, the Bark of Tamarisk, red Sanders, Saffron, the Roots of China, and Sarseparilla, &c. but let all things be made acceptable to the Palate.

All kinds of exercise unto which Children are accustomed, may be usefull in their time and season; as Rocking, Going, Swinging, Playing, &c.

Also Frixions are excellent, in which be­gin at the Spina dorsi, and rub with a course warm linen Cloth, and also under the Short-ribs, and afterwards all other parts; let it be done gently, to cherish and incite [Page 302] the natural and vital heat, and attract the Nourishment to the affected parts.

External Medicines may be also applied, to strengthen the weak parts, as Emplasters, Ointments, &c.

These forms may serve for Example.

Take Ointments of the opening Juices, Linament Tobacco, Marsh-mallows; Oils of Capers, Wormwood, Elder, Earth-worms, Bricks, Balsam of Peru, of each half an ounce; mix it.

With which let the weak parts be anointed with a warm hand, before a Fire.

Take the Plasters Nervinum, De minio, ad Plaster. Herniam, of each one ounce; the Carmina­tive Plaster of Sylvius, Balsam of Peru, of each two drachms; mix it, and spread it on thin Leather.

It may be applied to the Back, or any o­ther weak part after anointing.

If the Lungs be affected, anoint the Breast with the following Ointment.

Take the pectoral Ointment two ounces; Pectoral Ointment. Oil of Mace by expression, Oil of Violets, of each half an ounce; mix it.

After which apply a Plaster.

They that desire more variety of Medi­cines, &c. let them peruse that excellent and learned tract of the Rachites written by the famous Doctours and Fellows of the College of Physicians at LONDON.

Ornari res ipsa negat, contenta doceri.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Gout, and Rheumatism.

THE Gout is called in Greek [...] ab Arthritis. [...] Articulus, quod Articulos infestet; hence it is called in Latin Articularis morbus, it being a Disease of the Joints.

This is a general Name for all Gouts, or when all or most of the Joints are affected.

But when any particular Joint is infested with a Gouty distemper, it doth from thence take its denomination.

For if it invadeth the Jaw-bones, it may be called in Greek [...], ex [...] maxilla, & [...] soevio, quod maxillarum usum im­pediat. It being (for the most part) ac­companied with a fierce and cruel Pain.

And so likewise if it invade any of the rest of the Joints.

If the Vertebroe of the Neck, &c. be affected, it may be termed [...], ex [...] collum, vel cervix, &c.

That which molests the Shoulders, may be fitly called [...], ex [...] humerus. &c.

If it affects the Collar-bones, you may call it [...], ex [...] clavis, vel clavicula, &c.

That in the Elbow may be termed [...], ex [...] cubitus, &c.

[Page 304] The Gout in the Hand is called [...], ex [...] manus, &c.

That in the Hip may be called in Greek [...], ab [...] coxa, &c. quod ab [...] lumbus.

In Latin Coxendicum dolor, quod coxendices proecipue infestat.

If it be in the Knee [...], ex [...] genu, &c. If in the Foot [...], ex [...] pes, & [...] soevio, Quod pedum usum impediat, which may be added to every particular.

This and all other Gouts are most com­monly accompanied with a fierce, cruel, tor­menting pain; and thus much, if not too much of the Names of the Gout.

The Causes are either external, or inter­nal. Causes.

The external Causes are Gluttony, Drun­kenness, immoderate Venery, Idleness, ex­ternal Cold, and excess or defect of any of the non-naturals.

The internal Cause of all Arthritick pains, is the Juice of the Pancreas too acid and sharp, which raiseth a vitious Effervescency with Choler, &c. whereby a Fermental sharp­ness is increased; and when it is exorbi­tant, it is sent forth into the extreme parts, and meeting with that seedy Glue, which is between the Joints, doth not onely affect it with its fermental Acrimony, but is also the grand Cause of the virulent tormenting pain and inflammation in the part affected.

[Page 305] But seeing the pains are different, not one­ly in divers People sick of this Distemper, but also the Pains of the Gout are divers in the same sick party, we must therefore, as well by reason as experience, search in­to the true Cause thereof.

Therefore in as much as the present mo­lesting pains, are not always freed with the same medicines, no not in the same fit; much less all that are Gouty.

We may hence consider that divers hu­mours, as Choler, Phlegm, &c. are diversly mixt and fermented with the Juice of the Pancreas, which is peccant in a sour Acri­mony, being the primary Cause of all Gouts.

And here we may note, that this over acid Observa­tio. humour doth molest the sick (chiefly in the beginning of the fit) with a corroding pain; but after a while, when Choler (by its ex­ceeding heat) hath gotten the Predominan­cy, it causeth a divers burning pain, accor­ding to the diversity of its faultiness.

But if viscous Phlegm be predominant, the pain is much dull'd, and the motion of the part hinder'd with a phlegmatick Tumour, rather than an acute pain; which ought to be accurately observ'd by every ingenious Artist.

When the Gouty humour hath invaded Signs. any joint, there is presently an unusual heat, and more exquisite sense in it, than formerly, [Page 306] so that the least touch of any hard thing doth hurt the part; and the longer it continues, the more the Pain increaseth, with redness and swelling of the part affected, and most commonly attended with a Symptomatical Fever.

1. The Gout is a Chronical disease, atten­ded Progn. with violent Pain, but is seldom mor­tal, except in very weak Bodies that are much decay'd by Sickness, or old Age.

2. If it continue long, till the Joints are knotty, it is incurable, according to Ovid,

Tollere nodosam nescit medicina Podagram.

But if there be no Knots in the Joints, and the Patient is laborious, and the Body is (for the most part) soluble, and there be swelling of the Veins called Varices, then it may be happily cured.

3. If it becomes habitual to the sick, the morbifick Idea is implanted in the vital Spi­rit, and transfer'd through the seed, which makes it Hereditary.

The Cure of the Gout will consist, Cure.

  • 1. First in defending the afflicted Joints, as well against future Pain, as freeing them from that which doth molest at present.
  • 2. In the universal amendment of the juice of the Pancreas.
  • [Page 307] 3. In the correcting and evacuation of the vitious Choler.
  • 4. In the altering and diminishing of Phlegm any way peccant.

To asswage the present Pain I commend the following Medicaments, which will conduce much to mitigate the sharpness of the acrimonious humours in all Gouty peo­ple, and ease the part affected.

When there is excessive heat, you may bathe the Gouty part with this Fomentation very hot, with wollen Stuphs, which must be often renewed.

Take the Waters of the Spawn of Frogs, Fomenta­tion. Fumitory, Elder, of each one quart; Vine­gar of Mary-golds one pint; Opium, Cam­phire, of each half an ounce; mix it accor­ding to Art.

But when the Pain is more corroding than burning, I commend the following to be used as the former.

Take of Treacle-water half a pint; the Waters of the Spawn of Frogs, Parsley, of each one quart; Opium, Camphire, of each half an ounce; mix it.

After Bathing with either of these; apply this Cataplasm.

Take Powders of the Roots of Marsh­mallows, Pultess. Flax-seed, Barley-meal, of each four ounces; new Milk three pints; boil it to the Consistence of a Pultess, and add Oils [Page 308] of Flax-seed, Earthworms, the Ointment Martiatum, of each three ounces: Camphire half an ounce; mix it according to Art.

Where exceeding heat doth concur, and the Body abounds with sharp Choler; instead of sweet Milk, you may substitute Butter­milk.

Also a Pultess made of the Crums of White-bread, new Goats or Cows milk and Saffron, with Oil of Lin-seed, and Earth-worms, may be deservedly commended, to asswage any Pain.

If the sick be very phlegmatick, and im­potency of motion doth afflict, more than pain; then Opiats may be omitted, and things more Aromatical may be used in all external Applications.

The following Pultess, or one like it, may serve for Example.

Take the Powders of Orris-roots; the Cata­plasm. Flowers of Chamomel, and Elder, Cum­min-seeds, Barley-meal, of each four ounces; the Tops of Wormwood, Mints, of each four handfulls; boil them in two quarts of water of the Spawn of Frogs, to the Consistence of a Pultess; when it is almost cold, add Treacle-water, Oils of Chamomel, Earth-worms, of each three ounces; mix it.

Also the Root of Briony, and Cuckow­pintle bruised, and made into a Pultess with Cow-dung is excellent.

[Page 309] If you add Volatile Salts of Animals, or Vegetables to your Medicines, whether Fomentations, Cataplasms, or Ointments, they will be the more effectual.

You may prepare an excellent Volatile Salt of Earth-worms (of great Virtue) for the Gout, which may be resolved into Li­quour by fermentation, and putrefaction.

If the Gouty Patient do abound with Phlegm, or the Juice of the Pancreas exceed in an acid Acrimony causing a corroding Pain; it may happily be mitigated and re­mov'd with Balsam of Sulphur made with Oil of Amber, with which let the grieved part be embrocated, and it will forthwith raise a very hot Effervescency, which will presently cease again, and remove the great Pain in a moment, even to admiration.

After the pain is over, you may apply one of the former Cataplasms, or some Anodyne Ointment, to comfort, and (by degrees) restore again the membranous parts.

The following Linament may serve for Example.

Take Oils of Earth-worms, Scurvigrass, Linament. Saint John's-wort, of each one ounce; Chy­mical Oils of Rosemary, Rue, of each twenty drops; mix it.

Afterwards, you may apply a Plaster of De minio cum sapona.

[Page 310] In the mean time, inward means (to take away the Cause, and ease the pain) must not be neglected.

If the Patient have a plethorick Body, after a Stool hath been procured, by a Car­minative Clyster, with Electuar. Caryocosti­num, &c. Let a Vein be opened.

Bloud drawn from the Vena poplitis, or sciatica Vein, hath been succesfull in the sciatica.

But Leeches applied to the Hemorrhoidal veins, are effectual in all Gouts.

Two or three days after bleeding, you may administer the following Pills.

Take of Pills Hermodactils, faetidae, ex Purging Pills. duobus, Mercur. dulcis, of each one scruple; mix it for two doses, and give them in the Morning fasting.

Or you may give half a drachm or two scruples of pul. Arthriticus in any convenient Vehicle.

But if the sick be inclining to vomit, ad­minister an Antimonial Emetick.

You may purge and bleed so often as you see occasion.

Issues near the part affected, and also to raise Blisters upon the part, have been found by experience to be very effectual.

Also bathing and sweating in nitrous or sulphurous Baths, either natural or artifici­al, are much approv'd of.

[Page 311] That which is prescrib'd in the Chapter of the Belly-ach, is very effectual, which may be used, as is there directed.

I might fill a Volume with receipts against the Gout, but I shall onely commend the following water or spirit to be often taken inwardly in any fit Vehicle, the quantity of half a spoonfull at a time.

Take the Roots of Orris, Angelica, Saffa­phras, Water a­gainst the Gout. of each two ounces; the Tops of Ground-pine, Penny-royal, Sage, Mother of Time; the Flowers of Saint Johns-wort, Chamomel, Prim-roses, Rosemary, Laven­der, of each three handfulls; the Berries of Bays and Juniper, of each one ounce; Castor two drachms; let them be all cleansed, brui­sed and infused in six quarts of Spirit of Earth-worms compound for the space of twenty four hours, then distill it in an Alem­bick according to Art.

The Rheumatism is called in Greek [...], Rheuma­tismus. ex [...] fluo; it being a distillation of Rheumatick humours, not onely affecting the Joints, but the adjacent parts, yea some­times the whole Body; especially the Mus­cles, Membranes, and Periostium of the Thighs, Legs, and Hip-bones.

The humour is of a very malign Nature, and soon causeth a Cariosity of the Bones, if it be not prevented.

[Page 312] The Cause is the same with the Gout, but sharper. Cause.

'Tis seldom mortal, but may be of long Progn. continuance, with great Pain, so that the Sick cannot endure to be touched.

In the Cure of this Distemper, Phleboto­my Cure. must be often repeated, and carmina­tive Clysters often administred.

Foment the pained parts with stale Urine (made very hot) wherein Castle-sope is dissolved; after which anoint with this fol­lowing.

Take Spirit of Salt Armoniack, Oils of Linament. Guiacum, Bricks, of each two ounces; in which dissolve Opium one ounce; Spanish Sope four ounces; then add Oil of Roses six ounces, and make it a Linament according to Art.

If you would have it for a Plaster, you may add so much Empl. de minio to it, as will give it a sufficient Consistency.

The Medicines and Directions prescrib'd in the Cure of the Gout, are also proper here.

From these few observations, it will not be very difficult to select other choice Me­dicines out of the writings of Practitioners, to cure both the Gout and Rheumatism.

To prevent a Relapse, purge and bleed Spring and Fall, and keep a good Diet, and use moderation in all things.

[Page 313] I have now finisht this little Tract, or Ma­nual of Physick, which I have written for the common good; not onely to serve young Beginners of the Art of Physick, but also for the sake of the sick themselves.

GOD grant that it may prove succesfull, and tend to the good of them both.

Now unto the onely wise God and our Saviour Jesus Christ with the Holy Ghost our Comfor­ter; three Persons, and one God, be ascribed, and given all Laud, Honour, Glory and Domi­nion, from this time forth, and for evermore.

Amen.

POSTSCRIPT.

HAving often prescrib'd the Carminative Spirit of Sylvius, and also his preser­vative water against the Plague, and his Carminative Plaster, &c. I will here give you the Receipts of them in English, that you may make them for your own use, as you see occasion.

The Carminative Spirit of Sylvius.

Take Angelica-root two drachms; the Roots of Masterwort, and Galangal, of each three drachms; the Tops of Rosemary, sweet Marjoram, Garden-rue, Centaury the less, Basil, of each one handfull; Bay-berries six drachms; the Seed of Angelica, Lovage, and Anise-seed, of each an ounce; Ginger, Nut­megs, Mace, of each half an ounce; Cina­mon one ounce and half; Cloves, Orange­peel, of each two drachms. All these things being grosly bruised, pour thereon Spirit of Malaga or Spanish-wine six pints.

Digest them two days in Balneo Marioe, and draw off all the Spirit.

You may pour upon what remains the same quantity of Spirit of Wine; and after two days digestion, draw it off as before, [Page 315] which may be kept apart, as weaker than the former, but of much virtue to discuss Wind.

Aq. Prophylactica, or the Preservative­water against the Plague.

Take the Roots of Angelica, and Zedoary, of each one ounce; Roots of Butter-bur two ounces; the Leaves of Garden-rue four ounces; of Baum, Scabious, Marigold-flowers, of each two ounces; unripe Wall-nuts cut two pound; new Pome-citrons cut one pound; bruise them all together, then pour on twelve pints of the best Wine-vinegar, distill'd by it self to three fourth parts in Sand in a Glass cucurbit, then digest them all Night, in the Morning distill the water with a slow Fire.

This gratefull Medicine may be mixt with ordinary drink, broth or any decoction or Cordial Julep, &c. to a gratefull acidity, for any that are sick, to take away thirst, and to promote a mild Sweat.

The Plaster of Sylvius discussing Wind.

Take gum Galbanum, Bdellium and Amo­niacum, of each half an ounce; Male-fran­kincense, red Mirrh, of each two drachms; Opium of Thebes one drachm; dissolve them in Vinegar of Squills, and when they are [Page 316] again thickned, add yellow Wax, Coloph [...] ­ny, of each three drachms; natural Balsam, Oil of Bricks, of each one drachm; Oil of Earth-worms half a drachm; distill'd Oil of Caraway a scruple; Venice Turpentine what sufficeth to make it into a Plaster according to Art.

This egregious Plaster may be spread up­on soft Leather, first form'd according to the shape and greatness of the Tumour to be dissolv'd.

The Cholagogue, Electuary, or Diaprunum of Sylvius.

Take the Pulp of Prunes sourish-sweet, ten ounces; Powder of Cream of Tartar, best Scammony, of each two ounces; Pow­der of Rhubarb ten drachms; Cinamon half an ounce; yellow Sanders two drachms; refin'd Sugar a pound; make it into an E­lectuary according to Art.

The Hydragogue Electuary of Sylvius.

Take of Juniper-berries boild in water exprest, and reduc'd to the Consistency of a Pulp; the Pulp of Tamarinds, of each four ounces; Powder of Jallop-root one ounce and half; Diagredium one ounce; sharp Cinamon, sweet Fennel-seeds, of each two [Page 317] drachms; clarifi'd Sugar ten ounces; make it into an Electuary according to Art.

The Dose of either of these Electuaries, is from two drachms to half an ounce; they are gently effectual, and no ungratefull Me­dicines; they may be dissolv'd in any con­venient distill'd water, as Parsley, Fennel, &c. or it may be taken by it self in the manner of a Bolus.

FINIS.

ADVERTISEMENTS.

THIS is to give notice to all Persons, chiefly country Physici­ans and Chyrurgeons, that all the Me­dicines prescrib'd in this Book, are faithfully prepared by the Authour hereof, and may be always had of him at reasonable rates, without Adultera­tion, or any other Deceits.

ALL sorts of Chymical preparations, are faithfully prepared without the least So­phistication or Adulteration, and to be sold at reasonable rates, by Christopher Pack Chy­mist, at the Globe and Furnaces in the Postern, by More-gate, where a Catalogue may be had Gratis.

An Interpretation of certain hard Words, which you shall meet with unexplained in this Treatise.

A.
  • ABdomen, All that part of the Belly, which is between the Ribs and the Privy members, consisting of Skin, Fat and Mus­cles.
  • Abcess, an Impostume, or gather­ing of ill Humours to one part of the Body, and there drawn to a Head.
  • Abstersive, a cleansing Medicine.
  • Acerbity, Sourness.
  • Acid, eager, sour, or sharp.
  • Acrimony, Sharpness.
  • An acute Disease is a sharp Sick­ness, which doth quickly either dispatch or deliver the Sick.
  • Aetites, the Stone with Child, found in an Eagles-nest.
  • Affected part, the part grieved, or distempered.
  • Alchimy, the Art of melting or dissolving Metals, &c. and se­parating the pure from the im­pure.
  • Alexiterion, Alexipharmacum, a preservative Medicine against Poison, and Infection.
  • Amputation, the cutting off of a Member.
  • Amulet, any thing hanged about the Neck.
  • Anatomy, the Trunk of a dead Bo­dy, from whence all the Flesh, Sinews, &c. is cut off, and no­thing remaining but the bare Bones.
  • Anodyne, appeasing Pain.
  • Antidote, a Preservative against Poison and Infection.
  • Antimonial, made of Antimony.
  • Anus, the Fundament.
  • Apertion, an Opening.
  • Apophlegmatism, a Medicine which chewed, draweth Phlegm and other Humours out of the Head, and voideth them at the Mouth.
  • Apoplexy, a general Palsie of the whole Body.
  • Apozeme, a thin Decoction of Herbs.
  • Aromaticks, Medicines made of Spice.
  • Arteries, hollow Vessels, wherein the vital Bloud, and Spirits are contained, which causeth the Pulse, as you may feel at the Wrists, &c.
  • Arthritick pains, the Gout or any other Pain of the Ioints.
  • Aspera Arteria, the Wind-pipe.
  • Astrictive, Astringent, which hath Power to bind.
B.
  • [Page]BAlneo, Bath.
  • Balsamick, Healing, of the Nature of Balsam.
  • Bechical, easing the Cough.
  • Bile, Choler.
  • Bolus, a Lump, a Morsel.
  • Bronchia, the Gristles of the Wind­pipe.
  • Bubo, a Sore about the Groin.
C.
  • CAchexy, ill habit of Body.
  • Cacochymy, ill Iuice in the Body.
  • Calcinate, to burn into Ashes.
  • Capillary, as small as a Hair.
  • Carbuncle. a Plague-sore.
  • Cardiack, Cordials.
  • Cariosity, Rottenness.
  • Carminative, that cleanseth the Body of Wind.
  • Cartilage, a Gristle.
  • Caruncle, a little Piece of Flesh.
  • Catagmatical, Medicines to cure broken Bones.
  • Cataplasm, a Pultess.
  • Cataract, a Disease of the Eyes.
  • Catarrh, a Rheum.
  • Cathartick, a purging Medicine.
  • Catheretick, a Medicine to con­sume supersluous Flesh.
  • Cauterize, to burn or sear.
  • Cephalicks, Med. for the Head.
  • Cerebellum, the little Brain.
  • Chalybeate, red-hot Steel in any thing.
  • Chylus, a white Iuice coming of the Meat digested in the Stomach.
  • Cholagogue, a Medicine that pur­geth Choler.
  • Chronical, staying long.
  • Coliries, Medicines for sore Eyes.
  • Colliquation, a Dissolving.
  • Coriza, a snottish Rheum.
  • Crisis, Iudgment.
  • Cuticula, the Scarf-skin.
  • Cystick passage, the Passage of the Choler from the Gall.
D.
  • DEfluction, a flowing down of Humours,
  • Delirium, Dotage, Light-headed.
  • Desiccative, a drying Medicine.
  • Diaphragma, the Midriff.
  • Diaphoretick, a sweating Cordial.
  • Diaphoresis, Evaporation by sweat.
  • Diarrhea, a Flux or Lask.
  • Diastole, Dilatation of the Heart, &c.
  • Diuretical, causing Urine.
  • Dormative, to cause sleep.
  • Ducts, little Pipes for Water, &c.
  • Dura mater, the strongest Skin en­compassing the Brain.
  • Dysentery, the Bloudy-flux.
  • Disuria, scalding of Urine.
E.
  • EFfervescency, a working, a fer­menting.
  • Elixir, a Quintessence.
  • Embrocate, to bedew.
  • Embryon, an imperfect Child in the Womb, without shape.
  • Emetick, a Vomit.
  • Emplastick, a clammy Medicine.
  • Emulsion, a Medicine like milk.
  • Epilepsie, the Falling-sickness.
  • Epidemical, Ill, the Plague.
  • [Page] Epispatick, a Medicine to raise Blisters.
  • Epithems, are certain Powders, put in little Bags, and wet in Wine, &c. and applied to the Regions of the Heart, Liver, &c.
  • Errhines, liquid Medicines to snuff up the Nose.
  • Escharotick, a potential Cautery.
  • Exulcerate, to blister.
F.
  • FAscinate, to bewitch.
  • Fibers, small hairy strings.
  • Fistula, a hollow Ulcer with Cal­locity.
  • Filtration, a straining fire.
  • Foetus, the young.
  • Fomentation, an asswaging Bath.
G.
  • GArgarism, a Liquour to wash the Mouth.
  • Gargarise, to wash the Mouth.
  • Gangrene, an Inflammation ten­ding to Mortification.
  • Gonorrhaea, the Running of the Reins.
H.
  • HAemorrhage, an excessive or continual Flux of Bloud.
  • Haemorrhoids, the Piles, also the Veins in the Fundament.
  • Hepaticks, of or belonging to the Liver.
  • Hernius, broken Bellied.
  • Homogeneous, Homogeneal of one Kind.
  • Hydromel, Water and Honey.
  • Hydrocele, a waterish Rupture.
  • Hydrocephalos, a Dropsie in the Head.
  • Hydragogue, a Medicine to purge water.
  • Hydropical, that have the Dropsie.
  • Hypochondries, the fore-part of the Belly about the short Ribs.
  • Hypochondriacal, a windy Melan­choly.
  • Hysterical, of or belonging to the Womb.
I.
  • ICterical, having the Iaundice.
  • Icchorous, waterish, mattery.
  • Jejunum, the hungry Gut.
  • Ileon, the third small Gut.
  • Iliack passion, a grievous Disease in the Gut Ileon.
  • Impostume, vide Abcess.
  • Inflammation, an hot angry Swel­ling.
  • Ingredients, that which goeth into the making of a thing.
  • Intercostal, between the Ribs.
  • Ischuria, Stoppage of Urine.
  • Jugular vein, in the Throat.
L.
  • LActeal veins, milkie Veins.
  • Lethargy, a slothfull sleepy Disease of the Head.
  • Lientery, a Looseness, caused by undigestion.
  • Ligament, a bond or binding.
  • Linament, a kind of hard Oint­ment.
  • Lipothimy, fainting, sounding.
  • Lithotomy, cutting out of the Stone.
  • [Page] Lixivial, made of Lye.
  • Lixivium, a Lye made of Ashes.
  • Lympha, a waterish Humour.
M.
  • MAsticatory, a Medicine to chew in the Mouth.
  • Medicinal, of or belonging to Phy­sick.
  • Membrane, a thin Skin.
  • Menstruous, a Woman having her Menses, or monthly Terms.
  • Mercurial, made of Quick-silver.
  • Mesentery, the thick fat Mem­brane, that fasteneth the Guts, &c.
  • Muscle, an Instrument of volunta­ry motion in the Body.
N.
  • NArcotical, stupefactive, that hath power to stupefie, or make the Body insensible.
  • Neopolitan disease, the Pox.
  • Nephritick, of the Reins.
  • Nitrous, made of Salt Petre.
O.
  • OPiate, made of Opium, to cause sleep, and give ease.
  • Ophthalmy, Inflammation of the Eye.
  • Optick nerve, the Sinew which bringeth sight to the Eye.
P.
  • PAlate, the hollow of the Mouth above.
  • Panchymagogon, a Medicine which purgeth all Humours.
  • Pancreas, the Sweet-bread.
  • Paracenthesis, a tapping for the Dropsie, &c.
  • Pralitical, that have the Dropsie.
  • Pectoral, of or belonging to the Breast.
  • Pericardium, the Membrane in­volving the Heart.
  • Periosteum, a thin Skin enwrap­ping the Bones.
  • Peripneumony, an Impostume of the Lungs.
  • Peritonaeum, the inner Rim of the Belly.
  • Pest, the Plague.
  • Pharmacy, Medicine.
  • Phlegmagogues, Medicines that purgeth Phlegm.
  • Phlebotomy, Bloud-letting.
  • Phrenetical, that hath the Phrensie.
  • Pia mater the tender Skin enwrap­ping the Brain.
  • Pituitous, Phlegmatick.
  • Pleuretical, that hath the Pleurisie.
  • Plethorick, fullness of Bloud.
  • Prohylactick, a Preservative a­gainst the Plague, &c.
  • P [...]isan, Barley-water.
  • Pulsation, a beating.
  • Pulverize, pulverate, to beat into Powder.
  • Puncture, a Pricking.
  • Purgative, which hath virtue to purge.
  • Purulent, full of matter.
  • Pustule, a Wheal or Blister.
Q.
  • QUartan ague, that cometh eve­ry fourth Day.
  • [Page] Quintan ague, that cometh every fifth day, but seldom observ'd.
  • Quotidian, that cometh every day.
R.
  • RAdical, of or belonging to the Root.
  • Rarefaction, a making thin of what was thick.
  • Rectum, the Arse-gut.
  • Respiration, fetching of breath.
  • Rupture, a breaking.
S.
  • SAline, saltish.
  • Salivation, spitting, or fluxing at the Mouth.
  • Sanguification, the changing of the Nourishment into Bloud.
  • Saphena, the Vein by the inner Ancle.
  • Scamoniats, Medicines made of Scammony.
  • Scarifie, to cut or lance.
  • Sceleton, a dry Carcass, of Bones onely.
  • Sciatica, the Hip-gout.
  • Scorbutick, that have the Scurvy.
  • Scrofulae, the Kings-evil.
  • Secundine, the After-birth.
  • Seminal, of the Seed.
  • Serosity, the wheyish, or waterish part of the Bloud.
  • Sphincter muscle, the round com­passing Muscle of the Funda­ment, &c. ordained to prevent untimely excretion.
  • Soluble, Loose.
  • Solvent, that hath Power to melt or dissolve.
  • Soporiferous, causing sleep.
  • Spasm, the Cramp, or Convulsion.
  • Spermatical, of or belonging to the Seed.
  • Spina dorsi, the Back-bone.
  • Spinalis medulla, the Marrow of the Back.
  • Spirituous, full of Spirit.
  • Spissitude, thickness.
  • Sternutatory, to cause sneezing.
  • Sternon, the Breast-bone, where the Ribs meet.
  • Sterillity, Barrenness.
  • Strangury, a pissing by drops.
  • Sudorifick, that causeth Sweat.
  • Suffocate, to choak.
  • Suffumigate, to smoak underneath.
  • Sulphur, Brimstone.
  • Superfetation, a conceiving the second time.
  • Suppuration, a gathering to mat­ter.
  • Symptom, any grief following a Disease, or sensibly joyned with it, as Head-ach with an Ague, &c.
  • Systole, contraction of the Heart, &c.
T.
  • TEnasmus, a Neediness to go to stool.
  • Tenuity, Smallness.
  • Thoracick, of or belonging to the Breast.
  • Torsions, gripings of the Guts.
  • Trachea, or Aspera arteria, the Wind-pipe.
  • Transfer, to carry from one place to another.
  • Transmute, to change.
  • Transpiration, sweaty Vapours com­ing forth of the Pores of the Skin.
  • [Page] Tubercles, Pimples, Wheals.
  • Tumour, a swelling.
  • Turgid, after a swelling manner.
  • Tympany, the windy Dropsie.
V.
  • VAperous, full of Vopours.
  • Varices, swelling of the Veins in the Legs.
  • Vegetables, Roots or Plants.
  • Vehicle, any thing that carrieth, &c.
  • Ventoses, Cupping-glasses.
  • Verntricle, the Stomach, &c.
  • Verminous, full of Worms.
  • Vertebra, the Back-bone.
  • Vertigo, Giddiness.
  • Vesiccatory, a Medicine to draw Blisters.
  • Virulent, deadly, poisonous.
  • Viscous, clammy like Bird-lime.
  • Vitiate, to corrupt.
  • Volatile, that flieth.
U.
  • ULcerate, to blister, to break out into Sores.
  • Unguent, an Ointment.
  • Ureters, the Vessels by which the Urine passeth from the Reins to the Bladder.
  • Urethra, the passage of Urine from the Bladder, through the Yard, &c.
  • Uvula, a fleshy substance, hanging down, like a Grape, from the Roof of the Mouth, towards the Root of the Tongue.

ADVERTISEMENT.

A New Idea of the Practice of Physick; written by that famous Franciscus De-le-boe Sylvius; late chief Professour of Physick in the University of Leiden. The first Book; of the Diseases either constituting, producing, or following the Natural functions of Man not in Health. Wherein is contain'd, beside a new Method in General, a Vindication of the Spleen and Mother from fits attributed to them. As also a new Discovery of intermitting Fevers, the Yellow-jaundice, and other Diseases, never before discover'd. All clear'd by Anatomi­cal experiments, and Chymical demonstrations; as also by their Cures. Faithfully translated by Richard Gower, formerly Student under the Authour. Printed for Brabazon Aylmer, at the three Pigeons against the Royal Exchange in Cornhill. in Octavo.

THE END

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