How to Improve Land from 10l. per Annum, to 50l. with small charge by Planting. Making Cyder as good as Canary, for 5d a Quart or less; To Improve Land by draining, and by Hemp, Saffron, Liquorice; To Brew Ale and Beer, make Cyder, Meed, Mum, Metheglin, and other Li­quors, to order Bees and Silk­worms; Destroy Vermin &c, To which are added, the Arts of Ang­ling, Hawking, Fowling, Ringing, &c, Directions to cure all diseases, of Horses, Oxon, Cows, Bulls, Calves, Sheep, Lambs, Goats, Swine, Dogs, Conies, Hares, Poultry and singing Birds at 12d. charge; To Improve Clover and St. Foin; To make Table drink for families, both sick and well, at a Farthing a Gallon worth Gold, good against all Dis­tempers; And to cure all outward Sores or Pains, Aches. &c, at a Penny charge, with divers other matters.

LONDON, Printed for G. Conyers, at the Ring in Little Brittain. Price. 1 s.

THE Husbandmans Jewel, &c.

To Improve Land to 50 or 100 Pound per Acre per Annum.

IT'S evident in many places, especially in the fenny Country, that by draining the fens, that Bogy Lands, not worth 2s an Acre, has been improved to 5 or 6 Pound by Corning, &c, and Mr. Blith, in his Ex­cellent Book of Husbandry, says that if you Plant Boggy Lands, with Willow and Sallow, and such like Aquaticks, draining it first well and deep, it will be worth 5 Pound an Acre tho' before it was not worth 2s an Acre, and in 11 or 12 Years, the Wood on that Land may be worth 60 Pound an Acre. Also in Kent they have im­proved Ground not worth 6s an Acre, to six Pound by Planting in their Hedge Rows, Fruit Trees, about 16 17 or 20 yards distant, the more Room the better, from one another, and one sort of Fruit or other will prosper▪ on any Ground, and if you plant 160 Trees, of the best Pip­ins and Red-streaks on an Acre, it may reasonably be sup­posed that one with another, they will yeild 320 Bushels, and 20 Bushels of Apples usually makes a Hogshead, so that there will be 16 Hogsheads on an Acre, and these will make 8 Hogsheads of Royal Cyder, which at 2d per Quart, is 2 pound an Hogshead, so that the 8 Hogs­heads will yeild 16 Pounds. But this Cyder Royal may be worth 9d per Quart, and then an Acre will amount to near 40 Pound per Acre, and the Grass will grow the between your Trees, or Gooseberry, or Currants may be Planted betwixt, which is best, for the Grass is apt to be sour and bitter, and by this method you may Probably make 8 Pound per Acre more, so that in the whole by a modest computation 50 Pound per Acre may be made, but some affirms that above 140 Pound an Acre may well amount to in a Year, but however the Product, no Questi­on [Page 3] will be very great. Now to make Cyder equal to Canary, to a Bottle of Cyder, Botled in March, put two spoonfuls of the Spirit of Clary, sold at the Apothecarys, and will be about a penny charge, and if you put a little lump of Loaf Sugar, and a spoonful of Brandy, and let it stand a­bout a Week, it will make Cyder resemble Canary, so near, that a well exercised Pallet, shall not know the dif­ference: A Planter Writes that if in March you put a spoon­ful of Spirit of Clary to your Cyder, it will equal Canary, without any more a doe, but you may strenghten it with▪ Spirit of Brandy and Clary▪ and sweeten it, and put in your Ingredients more or less as you think fit, this Spirit is a strong Spirit but very wholesome, and has the perfect flavour of Canary, see more of this by and by, and Read a Book Call'd the way to get Wealth, by making 23 sorts of Wine equal to French, and also to make divers other Liquor, and other Curious Matters; and also remember that these English Liquors are more wholesome for the Body than French. &c, Every Nation affording that which is most proper for it's Natives, and the great ad­vantage that would accrue to the Nation, by Promoting our own Liquor, may be supposed near a Million a Year, that is spent in Poreign Liquor. Also by Marl and Soil great Improvement In-Land is to be made as appears about the City of London, and what has been done, may by the like good Husbandry be done again.

To Improve Land.

COnsider from whence the cause of Barrenness proceeds, whether from Heat or Cold: if from Heat and it lye near any River convenient, over flow it, and when it is pretty well soaked, open Trenches to draw it off: then Mud it over with the Casting of some Ditch, Lake, Pond, &c. Instead of Dung, spread the soil when dry, and break­ing the lumps in the nature of Dung Harrowing, and af­ter a large Shower of Rain, turn it up with a large Plow and let it lye till some more showers have fallen on it, and then Plow it over again lightly, and sow your Seed and you will have a large Crop, a Third more than usually.

If the Ground be Cold, lye low and Moorish, subject to Weeds, Flaggs, Rushes, &c. Make Trenches lower than the Weeds to Drain it thorowly, or it will signify nothing, then marle it over with Marle or Chalk, and let it lye till▪ the Rain dissolves it, then Plow it in high Land Ridges, that the Water may fall off into the Furrows, turn­ing [Page 4] the soard downwards, that it may Rot more speedily, thus let it lye a Month or six Weeks or more; then scat­er over it Wood-Ashes, Sea Coal-Ashes, or Soap-Boilers Ashes; let them be washed in by the Rain, and then with a Trenching Plough in convenient places draw the Water out of the Furrows, into Water Courses, and then sow the Seed, and in a Year or two the Ground will be good, if not two subject to overflow, and when you have done with it for Corn, lay it Fallow, and by marling it every other Year it will afford Excellent Grass and become good Pasture.

To improve pasture if it lye Low and wet, whereby it Chills the Roots, and produces Weeds, &c. Cast on it Hogs Dung, Horse Dung and the Dung of any Fowls, mingled with Slack'd Lime, or Lime Stones, which being well soaked, Plough up the Land, turning down the Green Soard, yet raise the Ridges of the Land but a little sloping, and so run a Trench Cross-ways very deep, or as you see it otherwise convenient, and lay it Fallow; by this means it will be much dryer, and the next Grass young, sweet and tender.

If your Ground be a Burning Sand, then Osie it over (as before directed) and if it is troubled with Ant-hills, open them to the bottom, or rather lower, and the wet will drive them away, and if you Scatter Slacked Lime or burnt Pitch and Brimstone on them, and it will kill them. If with Mole-hills, at the end of March, or beginning of A­pril, take their Nests, or set a Pott Trap in the Ground, even with the surface in their Tracts and they'll fall into it. If the ground is troubled with Gaurse Tansie, Fern, Thistle &c▪ pull them up, Hoe or strike of the Tops, that the Root that remains being over Charged with Sap may Perish.

And to raise immediately a good Soard, and prevent Weeds growing, you must Dung your Grounds, and spread­ing the Dung suffer the Rain to soak in, levelling the Land with a Rowler, and suffer not heavy Cattle, if it lye Low, to Graze when the Rain has made it soft, for by treading they will spoil it's growing when soft; and if you intend it for Hay, then no Cattle must come in it after Lady-Day, least by Croping too near the young blades of Grass, they spoile the first cutt, and hinder the latter also. Read more of these things in Blith's Husbandry a Book wrote by Experience, and the only Book of Hus­bandry Extant, the Fourth Edition with large Aditions. Sold at the Ring in Little Brittain. Price. 3 s,

To improve Ground by Hops, Flax, Liquorice and Saffron.

FOr a Hop Garden, choose a good mellow Ground, and rich Ground, not two hot, moist nor Cold, well shel­tred by Trees from strong Winds that may rend the Vines from the Poles, turn it up deep with a Plough or dig it with a Spade, and cast it up into little hills or Rows, with Alleys betwixt the Hills about two foot distant from each other, then take your best Sprouts, or for want of them the Growth of slips, and making four or five holes in a Hill, crumble in some Mold lightly, and put the slips or Sprouts into the holes, and so cover them up, do this in the beginning of April, observing, if time will permit, the Moon to be in the Increase, and to every Sprout that rises well, fix a Pole and suffer that to twist about it. Ob­serve to set them all Inclinning towards the South, that the Sun may the better compass them, for this is most evident, a bending Pole has more Hops than an upright. And a Gentlemen in York shire, places his Hops in such sort that one Plant may not shadow another, but that his whole Garden receives the fulness and strength of the Sun Beams at once, whereby his Hops are more kindly, and the Bells much larger than any other Hop Ground, whose Poles are erected and stand upright after our ordinary and gross manner. To return I say fix the Pole for them to twist about it, the Pole being 8 or 9 Foot above Ground at least, being full of Snags, for the better supporting the Vine. At Lamas Tide, you will find them Belled and when you find them fit to cut, cut the Vines by the Root and take them off with the Poles into a plain place and ga­ther them, dry them on a Kiln, and Bag them up, an Acre of Hops are sometimes worth 100 Pound.

To Improve Land by Flax.

PLough up a considerable mellow Ground, and having a good sort of Seed sow it in the middle of April, if possible in the Moons increase, having before improved the Land with fat Soil from the streets, or some Olse place, casting the Seed 2 Bushel to an Acre and when it appears above Ground, whilst young, take care that the Weeds over grow it not, tho when it has out slipt them it needs no Weeding, for [Page 6] the Land being some what moist it will grow to an Ex­traordinary height; when ripe, which is known by the Yellowness of the outward Rind, and the swelling of the Seeds, then must you pluck up the Stalks, and bind them up in little bundles, suffering them to dry in the Sun, then lay the bundles in Water, soaking them with heavy weigth, and when you find the Rind loose, then are they steeped enough▪ then take them out and unloose them, again drying them in the Sun, and strip off the Rind, which you must hackle on Crins of Iron, &c. Fit for use. an Acre well managed, will bear 30 or 40 Pounds worth of Flax, when dressed and ordered to the purpose. Hemp Seed steeped in plain Salt-peter, diluted in Water, and other fit Earthy substance, in its due time, arrived to the Talness that it rather seem'd a Coppice of Wood of 14 Years growth, than plain Hemp.

Of Planting and Grafting

IN Planting observe when you remove any Tree to mark it in the Rind, that you set it the same way it grew first, bring with you as much of the natural Earth as you can, and over and above, adding a small matter of Dung and fresh Mold, cuting off part of the top Branches, that they may not draw away too much Sap before its well Rooted.

In Grafting there are several methods to be observed, and first when you have taken the Scion, which must be from the body of the Tree, and not a top Twig; You must saw off your Stock, about 3 or 4 Foot above the Ground, then cuting the Twig flat at the great end, but not the Bark off, slit the Stock with a Knife or Chisell, and put in the Scion that both barks may toutch, then with Dung and Clay, well tempred together bind it up close that neither Air nor Bugs can enter and let it con­tinue.

Secondly there are some who bore a hole a sloap into the heart of the Tree, and so put the Scion in. Thirdly, they take a Bud from one Tree and slitting the Bark of another Tree▪ let it in and so close them together. Fourth­ly there are those that slice off a Bud, or Scion with the intire Bark and plaister, and by opening the Bark of a Branch into another Tree, and all these ways sometimes hit.

[Page 7]In Grafting the Fig will grow on a Mulbery, the Apple or Pear, on a Quince or Crab, the Damson on a Wild Thorn, Peach and Cherry upon a Peach, the Apricock on a Plumb, the Wal-nut upon the Ash, the Quince on the Barbary, the Almond on the Philbeart, the Vine upon the Cherry Tree and so of other, which are better and improv­ed by Grafting.

To improve Liquorice.

LIquorice greatly improves Ground, and is of a lasting quality; to order it, dig your Ground very deep, then mellow the Mold, and cast it up into Banks, making Al­leys between the Banks, being about two Foot high, then take your Crown-slips, and make Holes with a setting Staff, upon the Banks in a line, put in the slips, having first crumbled in some soft Mold, covering all but the Top, and as the Leaves sprout, draw the Earth about them, with a small Hoe, and Water not the Plants, ex­cept the Weather be excessive dry, and then but very lit­tle, and that in the Evening: and because you can expect but little Benefit of these Plants, the First and Second Year, you may Sow Onions, set Potato's, Beans, Cabbage, or any thing of the like nature between them, and the 3d Year about the beginning, you may draw and dig the Plants, and dry them in a Hot-house, Killn or Stow, and a good Acre of Liquorice will yeild 90 Pound.

To improve Saffron.

SAffron is a great Improver of Land and will grow in in­different good Ground, where it is not Stony nor two wet, and in this case having Ploughed your Ground into Ridge Lands, as for Corn or Pease, take your Roots, a Bushell of which will set an Acre, and having drawn a Drill with a large Hoe, place them therein with the spurns down­wards, about three Inches assunder, then draw another Drill, so that the Mold of it may coverup the for­mer, and in that place, others in the same manner, and so successively till you have set the Roots, and when they Spring up draw Earth about them, and these set in the beginning of July, and if the weather be exceeding dry, you may sometimes Water the Top Ranges, and in Septem­ber, the Blew Flowers appears, and in it upon opening three or four Blades of Saffron, which you must observe to gather out Morning and Evening for a Month [Page 8] together, the Flowers Continually encreasing. The Saf­fron being gathered, made a Kiln about half the bigness of a Bee Hive of Clay and Sticks, and so puting a Gen­tle Fire of Charcoal under it, tend it by often turning, till you have reduced, three Pound of wet Saffron, to one dry, an Acre may yeild 40 or 50 Pound, the two Crops for the Root will yeild no more, without being renewed or Transplanted. Read more at large of these things in Blith's Husbandry.


FLax will yield 30 or 40 Pound an Acre, Baren Sandy and Heath Ground is best for it, and after Flax, Turnips; one Acre of good Flax is Accounted worth 3 or 4 Acre of the best Wheat, and the Liquor hath much advanced the goodness thereof. The best time to Sow it is about the beginning of April, presently after a Shower of Rain, some Sow it to the End of May, and some after.

A Gentleman Planted 100 Ashes, and Lived to see them Sold for 500 Pound at 50 Years growth. Blith Husband­man page 163.

If you cover Cherry, Plums or other Fruit Trees, with a rough Canvas, or other Cloth in Summer, and wetting of the Cloth often, it will keep the Fruit back a long time, that you may have it when others are gone.

If you put a Branch of a Cherry, Vine, Apricock, &c. in at a Window, and nail it to the Seeling of the House, Fruit will grow within Doors.

A hot Bed of Horse-dung laid a Foot high, and supported on the sides, and Mould laid thereon 3 Fingers deep. If you Sow Cucumber-Seed, Turnip-Seed, Wheat or Pease, it will come up half an Inch above the Ground in two Days; this is a Notable Experiment. Try also Cherries, Straw­berris and other Fruit, that are dear when they are Early.

Strawberries water'd once in three Days with Water wherein Sheep Dung is steeped, or Pigeons Dung will come early, a good and Profitable Experiment.

Canker'd Fruit Trees.

CAuse the Earth to be taken away round it, about four Feet from the Stem, and about 5 or 6 Inches deep, and in room thereof cause Stones to be set close and near together, in dirt taken out of the High-way, instead of Gravel after the manner that Streets are pav'd, and it will Prosper, and bear to admiration; do the same to other Trees, with a proportionable quantity of Chalk, and ramm it fast about the Trees, and it will have the like Effect as the Paving; tho' it will not last so long as Paving.

To make Trees grow much.

WHen any Young Trees, as Ash, Elm, Birch, Oak, but Ash especially, are in their Bodies about two Inches Diameter, which they are at three or four Years growth, then take a piece of a Coat of mail, or some such like Net of small Wier, or Hair Cloth and putting it in the Palm of your Hand, rub it pretty hard, but not to tare off the Bark; twice in a Year, and you will find such Trees will out grow the rest very much.

Mr. Wolridge says, That if our Waste and common Down Grounds were inclosed, it would Feed more Sheep and Cattle by half than they do lying open; and that in case ten Acre were Sown with Clover-Grass, Turnips, Cole-Seed, Parsely, or the like, they would feed as many Cattle or Sheep, as 100 Acres of the same Land would do that is laid waste.

To make Butter better than ordinary, without seting the Milk for Cream.

AS soon as the Milk comes from the Cow, and is strain­ed, then Charn it, as usually Cream is done; also the Cheese made of the Butter Milk will be better than the [Page 10] best two Meal Cheeses that you ever did eat; and one Pound of this Butter shall be better than a Pound and half of the best Butter made of Cream. Probatum. Hartlib's Legacy.

Urine. In Holland they preserve the Cows Urin as carefully as the Dung for their Land; old Urine is very Excellent for the Roots of Trees, Columella says, That a good Husband may make 10 Load of Dung for every great Beast in his Yard, and as much for every one in his House, and one Load for small Cattle, as Hogs; this is strang to us, and I believe there are many ill Husbands by this Account. I know a Woman near Canterbury, who saveth in a Pail, all the droppings of Urine, and when the Pail is full sprinkleth it on her Meadow, which causeth the Grass to grow much, at first it looks Yellowish, but after a little time it grow'd so wonderfully, that her Neighbours were like to have accused her of Witchcraft. Hartlib.

St. Foin, or Holy Hay, commonly called Cinquefoin.

ITS a mighty improver of dry and barren Ground, and excellent for feeding Cattle, in France they sow these Seeds, and Oats a like quantity, on Ground out of Heart, and Mow their Oats only the first Year, that it may root well, yet they may Mow it the first Year, but its not so well, but the Year following you may, and so for seaven Years, it commonly bears four Loads or more on an Acre; after seven Years break it up, and Sow it with Corn till it be out of Heart, and then Sow it with St. Foin, as be­fore, for it does not impoverish Land as other Annual Plants do, but enriches it, when the Roots is turn'd up by the Plow; I have seen it thrive well in England on Chalky Banks, where nothing else would grow, and such dry bar­ren Ground is fittest for it; (as moist Rich Land is fit for Clover-Grass and great Trefoil) (tho' St. Foin will grow pretty well on all Lands) and will Flourish, it Rooting deep, when other Grass is Parched by heat; but wet Lands soon corrupts its Root. For the right managing of it, observe these Rules, or it will come to little.

  • 1. Make your Ground fine, and Kill all other Grass or Plants. for they will choke it.
  • [Page 11]2. Be not too sparing of Seed, for the more you Sow the thicker it will grow.
  • 3. Expect but seven Years Crop, and then Plow it up, or Sow it again with the same Seed or other Grain.
  • 4. Let not Sheep or other Cattle bite them the First Year.
  • 5. Your best way is to make your Ground Fine, as when you Sow Barly, and Harrow it even, and then to Plow these Seeds in alone, without any other Grain, as Gardners do Pease, but not at so great a distance; but make your Range about a Foot distance one from ano­ther, and they'l see it Flourish like Green Pease, es­pecially if you draw the Plow through them once or twice that Summer, to destroy Weeds and Grass; and if you do thus great Clover and other Seeds, may be mow'd twice the first Year. There is another sort at Paris, called La Lucern, which is not inferior to St. Foin, but ra­ther better for dry barren Land, and is to be managed as St. Foin. Thus you may improve barren Ground of 2 or 3s. an Acre, to forty or fifty Shillings an Acre. There is a Grass at Madrington near Salisbury, that is 24 Foot long, with which they feed Hogs. I question not, but if the Seeds of it were fown in Rich Meadows, it will yield Extraordinarily.

Mr. Worlidge says, That for Clover-Grass, a Rich light Land, warm and dry, will afford a great Profit: that a Parcel [...] Ground, a little above two Acres of Clover-Grase [...]Year yielded in May two Load of Hay worth 5 l. the next Crop of Seed was ripe in August, and yielded three great Loads worth 9 l. that Year, the Seed was 300 l. which with the Hay was Valued at 30l be­sides the after Pasture. Another president is, that on 4 Acres grew 12 Load of Hay at twice Mowing, and 20 Bushel of Seed; one Load of Hay that was Mowed in May, was worth two Loads of other Hay, and the after Pasture three times better than any other, though four Acres in one Year yielded eighty Pounds.

Another. That 6 Acres of Clover, did maintain 6 Months 10 Oxen, 13 Cows, 3 Horses, and 25 Hogs, Valued at 40 l, besides Winter Herbage. It will prosper pretty well on any Ground that is not poor. Clover-Grass lasteth but three Years. An Acre of Ground will take 10 Pound of Clo­ver-Crass-Seed, in Measure about half a Peck. The more you Sow the better; some have Sown 16 Pound on an Acre with good Success; let your Seed be the best, and then in March or April Sow your Clover-Grass upon your Bar­ly and Oats being harrowed, or you may Sow it alone, and you may cut it about June the first Year. If you Sow it alone, the best time is about Michaelmas, and a­bout [Page 12] the end of May you may cut the first Crop, the exact time is when it begins to knot, and after feed it with Cattle till January: if you will preserve Seed, expect but two Crops that Year, the first as before, the second must stand till the Seed comes to a dead ripeness. After your Seed is Thrasht the Cattle will Eat the Stalks, but if too Old they will not. After two Years standing, if you let it shed its seed, it will store it with Clover; and one Acre of this Grass will feed as many Cows as 5 of the o­ther common Grass, and your Milk will be much better, and exceed in quantity, and it fattens well. In Flanders they cut it daily, as your Cattle eat it, and give it un­der Trees, or in Sheds in Racks. Let not your Cattle at first eat too much of it least they furfeit. When its throughly dry, in March Thrash it.

Of Bees, and how to manage them to great Advantage.

BEes are both Delightful and Profitable, if managed with Care, in order to which, I shall give those short Directions.

If you have no Stocks of Bees, but [...], I advise you first, not to give Money for them, but some o­ther Commodity; for tho' there be nothing in it but a Superstitious Observation, yet things often dishearten People that are apt to credit such Reports. Having Pur­chased, you must be sure to carry them gently in a Sheet between two Persons, on a Pole, in the Night-time, that they be not disturbed, nor their Combs disordered; the best time to remove them is in April, and then carry them to a Pleasant Place, lest they leave you, nor must you immediately open them after you have placed them in your Garden, but wait till they are at rest, which you will know by their ceasing humming; be sure place them that the Hive Mouth be to the Rising of the Sun, observ­that the Air and Water, as also Herbs, Trees and Flow­ers about them be very Wholsome. Those they much delight in, are Rosemary, Cassia, Thyme, Saffron, Bean-Flowers, Mustand Seed, Flowers, Pinks, Mellilot, Poppy, Roses, and all Sweet Flowers, Herbs and Trees. Those they dislike, are Worm-Seed, wild Cucumbers, Elms, Spurge, Laurel, Southernwood, and all bitter Herbs and Trees, delighting most in Vallies, and near Purling Streams. [Page 13] The best Honey is extracted from Thyme, the next best from Wild Thyme, and the third from Rosemary, tho' there is good Honey where none of these grow: also where your Clovergrass, St. Foin, &c, grows, good and much Honey is produced. Be sure, if you intend to mind Bees, that you be cleanly and sweet, and Eat no stinking things, as Garlick, Onions, &c. least they sting you, and keep their Hives clean from Cobwebs, Moths and other Filth, or they'l not thrive. Read more of these Matter in Mr. Worlidge, his Compleat Bee-Master, price 6 d. and Rusden of Bees. price 1 s. 6 d. and Butler of Bees, price 1 s. The only three Books Extant on this Subject. All sold at the Ring in Little-Brittain. In the beginning of April Bees begin to Work, and if they stand in a Pleasant place, they will work so chearfully, that they will afford Honey three times in a Summer, viz. the latter end of May, the latter end of July, and the latter end of Au­gust, if the Summer be temperate; tho' if you would have them subsist well in Winter, to take their Honey in May and July is sufficient,

If it happen that by reason of the Young Brood, the Hive be overcharged, which by their clustriug about the Mouth of it, and Humming, you may plainly discern; prepare a New Hive, ready rub'd, with Fennel, Bean-Tops, Thyme, Balm, Marjoram, Bean-Flowers, Milk and Honey, Hyssop, Mallows, and with some of these rub the Hive well, but rather with a Sprig, or Branch of the Tree they swarm on, then dip such Sprig or Branch in Mead, or Honey and Water, or with Milk and Salt, or Salt only; and when you have rub'd the Hive well with the Herbs, that tis wet, observe the coming out of the Young Bees for several days, especially when the Sunshines hot on them, least they Swarm on a sudden, and take Wing and Fly away, which is prevented by Ringing on a Warming-Pan or Candle-stick, &c, when you see they are settled either on Tree, Hedge or Ground; if they settle on the Ground, lay the Hive prepared as before directed over them. If on a Tree, take your Hive rub'd with Sweet Herbs, and let one hold up the Hive, and another with a gentle Hand shake the Bough they hang on, that they may fall into the Hive, them immediately set it on a large Cloth, and take Boughs that are Green, and put just under the place you take the Bees from, and cover them with some more Boughs, and the Corner of The Cloth they stand on, and let it rest till all the Bees are gaue [...]. If in a hard Winter Honey fail, then re­plenish their more with Brown Sugar mixed with Anni­seed-Water, till its just Liquid, and by fiting long pieces of [...] Cans with it, and then put the Cane gently into [Page 14] the Mouth of the Hive. You may give them also Ho­ney and Raisins after the same manner. Be sure you cover them with warm Housings of Staw, and feed them with Care, and they'l reward your Pains Bountifully.

Thus I have given you the Opinion of several of the best Authors, for the improving of this Noble Insect, and that with as much Brevity as possible.

Its said Bees will not Fly away, if you smear the Holes of their Hives with the Dung of a Calf newly Killed, Wicker.

Bees will not Fly away, if you bruise the Leaves of the Wild and Garden Olive-Tree together, and about the Evenings anoint their Hives with the Juice, or else with Water and Honey, both the Walls and the Hives.

To know if Honey is mixed, or falsified, throw some into the Fire, and that that is false, will not burn clear. Diophans.

The best Water for Bees, is That that runs through Stones and Pebbles, and is very clear. This makes them Healthful, and makes good Honey, and you must lay in great Stones and pieces, of Wood for them to pitch upon, when they drink. If you have no Running Water, bring it to them from a Well or Fountain, in Pipes, least they fall Sick with carrying Water.

In taking Honey, you ought to leave them a Tenth part, both in Summer and Winter, but in Winter you must take but one third part. Dodymus.

How to Order Silk-Worms the right way.

THe Silk Worms feed chiefly on Mulberry-Leaves, the scarsity thereof is the cause of their fewness; some say they will feed on Lettice, Dandelion, Poplar-Trees, Plum Trees and Apple Trees, but I leave the certainty of it to be tryed by Experience; In the beginning of May, the Mulberry Trees begin to spread their Leaves, and the Silk-worms Eggs, are at it were adapted for a release from their Imprisonment; that if you lay them in a Window, in the Sun, or keep them in a warm place about you, but keep them warm in the Night, and they will quickly appear in a new form, cut them some Paper full of little holes, and lay over them, and some of your young Mulberry, Leaves over that, these Worms will Ea­sily find the way to the Food, and as fast as Hatched apply [Page 15] themselves to the Leave; after they betake themselves to the Leaves, place them on Shelves or Tables, at a di­stant convenient, according to the Number of Worms, and Proportion of place you have for them; in their feed­ing thy are four times sick, about twelve or thirteen Days after they are Hatched, and from that time Suc­cessively every Eight Days and their sickness, lasteth two or three days, then feed them but little, which is but to Relieve such as are past their sickness, before the rest, and those that do not fall sick so soon; the time of feeding them is Nine Weeks; and then feed them twice a Day, laying Leaves over them, and they'l soon make way through them▪ and as they grow in bigness, and strength, feed them more Plentifully and oft. Observe the Leaves be clear of Rain or Dew before you give them, in case they be wet, spread them on a Table, you may gather them, and keep them two or three days, in case you live Remote from Mulberry Trees, or the Weather prove bad, rid their Shells often off their Dung, and Remainder of their Leaves, by removing the Worms, when they are fast on new Leaves laid on, for then Easily you may re­move the Worms with the Leaves; A Principal means to preserve them, is keeping clean the Shelves of the Room, also give them some Air in warm Weather, and keep the Room warm in cold Weather, keep them not in a cold moist Room; nor too near the Tiles or Top of the House: They will look clear of an Amber Colour, when they are feed as long as able, and are then ready to go to Work, therefore with Heath made very clean, make Arches, betwixt their Shelves, or with Lavender, Rosemary-stalks, and upon those the Worms fasten them­selves and make their bottom, which is finished in fifteen days, but the best way is to make small Cones of Paper, and with their sharp ends downward, place them in Rows, in each of which put a Worm, as they appear to you to be just going to work, and then they'l Finish their bottom most Compleat.

When their bottoms are Finished, take as many as you intend for Breeders, then lay them by themselves, and in Four or Five days time, the Worms within will Eat their wayout, then put them together on some Piece of old Say, or the backside of old Velvet, or the like, made fast at the Hangings or Wall of the House or on a Tables; these Flies will then Engender, and the Male having spent himself dyes, and the Female doth the like when she hath Lain her Eggs, then with the point of a Knife, put them on a piece of Say, or old Velvets, keep them in a Box among Woolen Cloaths, till next Spring; the Female [Page 16] will lay abundance of Eggs, but a few kept for Increase is Sufficient; the Residue put into an Oven after Baking of Bread, that it be only hot enough to kill the Worms, for their gnawing their way out prejudices the bottom, then take the Bagg, having obtained the bottoms, and having found the end, put twelve or more in a Bason of Water; where a little Gum Traganth is mixed, and then you will Easily wring them, if you feed them not well, the Silk is small and Easily breaks.

Prognosticks of the Weather.

HOw to know when it will be fair, for four or five days together which seldoms fails.

When the Wind hath been in the North, or North-East, two days, without Rain and sits there the third Day, then go your Journey if the Air be clear.

How to know when it is like to Thunder.

WHen the Wind hath been South two or three days, and it grow very Hot, or when you see Clouds rise with great high Tops like Towers, as if one Cloud were upon the Top of another, and joyn'd together with black on the nether side, then it is like to be Thunder and Rain suddenly in many places.

How to know when it is like to be a wet Spring and Summer, and Danger of Rotting Sheep.

If the Eighteen last Days of February, and the Ten first Days of March, prove for the most part Rainy, then the Spring Quarter, and the Summer Quarter are likely Rainy for the most part, this I have Observed, these Forty Years, and found much benifit by it, if a drought enters in that Season, it is like to be so the most part of the Spring Quarter, if not the Summer Quarter too, and by that Reason there will be scarcity of Hay.

If October and November be for the most part Rainy and Warm, then is January and February, like to be Cold and Frosty; on the contrary, if October and November be Frosty and Snow, then January and February, for the most part open Weather.

[Page 17]If in the Autumn Quarter ground be Flooded, that ground will Rot Sheep, though you give them never so good Hay.

If there be no Floods, in the Spring Quarter and Summer Quarter, then Sheep are not Subject to Rot, in the Au­tumn nor Winter Quarter.

To destroy all sorts of Vermin.

TO Kill Rats and Mice, take Wheat Flower and bitter Almonds, and make them into a Past, and lay it into their holes, and it will Kill them.

Another, cast Hemlock seed, into their holes, and it will Kill them.

To catch Moles, lay a head of Garlick or Onion before the holes, and they will Immediately come forth.

To Kill Weasels, Wheat Flower, Sal Armoniack made into a Past, with some Honey, throw it where the Weasels usually come, and they will eat it and it Kills them.

To Kill Pismires, Origanum beaten to Powder, and strewed before their holes and it Kills them.

To Kill Bugs, or Fleas, take Rue and Wormwood a good quantity, boil them about a quarter of an Hour, then take some common Salt, the more the better and use it as before.

To Kill Lice and Nits and to cure Scabby Heads; Stave saker, and Fresh Butter mixed together, and the Head a­nointed with it, kills Lice,

To Kill Caterpillars, take Lees of Oyl and Ox piss, and boil them together, then cast it upon the Trees or Bushes and it kills them.

To preserve Cattle from Flies, take oil wherein Bakeleer hath been boiled, and anoint the Beast with it, and they will not come near them.

To make abundance of Cream.

TAke a Skiming dish full of the Top of the Milk, add to it four spoonfulls of scraped Sugar, and a drop of good Runnet, then stir them together, that they may thicken [Page 18] a little, then sett it in a warm Place, and a great deal of Cream will rise in an Hours time.

To Fatten any sort of Fowl in Fifteen Days.

TAke Nettle seed, and Leaves gathered and dryed in their proper Season, beat them to Powder, and make them into Past with Wheat, Bran and Flower, adding a little sweet Olive Oyl, make this up into little Lumps, Coop them up and daily feed them with it, giving them to Drink, Water that Barley hath been boiled in, and they will be fat within the time Proposed.

For Burns or Scalds.

MIngle Lime Water with Linseed-Oyl, by beating: them well together with a Spoon and with a Feather Dipt in it, anoint the place, grieved till the Fire is gone.

To Brew Ale and Beer.

AN Ingenious Author says, That we may Brew as good Liquor at London as either York or Nottingham affords, and that our Derby Malt, Water and Hops, is as good as theirs, and that the difference lies only in the Brewing and well Ordering it. 1. He advises to put to one Quar­ter of Malt 75 Gallons of Liquor, or River-Water, let­ting it Boil for one Hour, and so proportionably for a greater or lesser quantity, and to every Quarter of Malt half a Pound of Hops; your Malt being ready in the Mesh-tub, pour so much Water on it as will wet it quite thro', insomuch that the Mesh may be rais'd in the Tun a considerable hight; then cover it up with Cloth very close two Hours, preserving the remaining part of the Liquor very hot in the Coopper, if not Boiling. Next the two Hours being expired, work your Mesh with proper [Page 19] Instruments very well, till you can discern no dry Malt in the Mesh; this done let your Mesh Tun run gently into a convenient Vessel, and when you have let it run about half an Hour, according to the largness of the Mesh, put on the remaining part with a Pail, throwing it all over the Mesh by degrees. 3dly. Your Worts being all gather­ed and emptied from the Vessel wherein you have gather­ed it, into the Copper, and the Hops put therein, boil it three Hours at least, then empty your Copper into the back Cooller. 4thly. While your Worts are Milk-warm, clear it in your guile Tun, while it runs clear from dregs; you may put your dregs into a Flannel Bag, and drain a quantity off clear, and of the Strongest Liquor from them. 5thly. To your Worts 54 Gallons from a quarter of Malt, put two Quarts of good Yeast, and let it work 24 Hours beating it in three or four times a day, according to the Season; Winter requiring great Care. The Guile being well wrought, Tun it up into well Seasoned Vessels, leaving li­berty for it to Work for about half a Day, then bung it up so close. Let your Cask stand undisturbed 6 or 10 Weeks, and it will be Fine and Strong. He says that if by accident it does not Work, a Remedy is; Take the Whites of two Eggs, and half a quartern of Brandy ▪ beat them well together, and pour them into the Guile ▪ if the Drink is in the Cask, pour it into the Bung, and lay a warm Cloth over it, and in an Hours time it will work briskly. Remember you under-lay you Cloth that you cover your Vessel with, that it may have room to begin to work, then take off the Cloth. Another way, take a quarter of an Ounce of Zinziber Pouder, 2 Ounces of fine Loaf Sugar, mix them well with some of the Li­quor being warm, and pour it in. The best time for Brewing is March and October.

A way to clear Ale or Beer, tho' never so thick.

TAke a Pint of Water, half an Ounce of unslackt Lime mix them well together, let it stand three Hours, and the Lime will settle to the bottom, and the Water as clear as Glass, pour the Water from the sediment, and put into your Ale or Beer, with half an Ounce of Ising­glass well boiled, and in five Hours time or less, the Drink will settle and clear. This quantity will serve a Hogshead.

To make Cyder equal to Canary and very cheap.

CYder, of which Red Streak is best, is a good Stomach Liquor, purifies the Blood, is Diuretick, and roots out the Scurvy. To make Cyder as good as Canary, you must make Sweets thus. Take 112 Pound of Sugar, Water 8 or 10 Gallons, in which 30 or 40 Eggs are well beaten and dissolved; put your Sugar into your Kettle or Vessel on a gentle Fire, and put to it 4 Gallons of the Egg Wa­ter, stir all about till the Sugar is dissolved, when it boils put in more Egg-water, to keep it from boiling too high; and thus continue putting one Quart of another for about an Hour, till your Egg-water is spent. But if you pre­pare your Egg-water in Parcels, to wit 4 Pints at a time, its the best way, so will the Eggs carry away all the foulness of the Sugar, making it rise in a Scum, and then take it clear; thus having done, boil it to the consistency of a Syrup, which will be clear and pure and cold, is to be put into your Cyder with a little Coriander seed bruis'd and tied in a Rag, and this Syrup I call sweet. Observe that you may make them of Brown or White Sugar, the White makes your Cyder a pale Colour, and the Brown of an Amber Colour; the latter may do as well, and this will not stand in 6d a Quart; put in of this sweet two or three Gallons, more or less as you please, but let your Cyder be rack'd the last time, and past the fermentation before you put it in; thus mix your sweets and the Spirits you intend to put in together, with a little quantity of Cyder, stir them well together, and put all into the Hogshead of Cyder, stirring them all together 7 or 8 Minutes with all your strength, with a strong Staff at the Bung-hole, then stop it close, and draw none off till three, or four or five Months, and then its fit to Drink. In making it resemble Canary, you must use more sweets and Spirits; if you put in the Spi­rits before Permentation, they will evaporate and be lost. That your Cyder thus mixt with sweets and Spirits, may ever drink well, it must first be put up into Wooden Casks, and then kept its due time to incorporate as aforesaid; you may first make tryal of a Vessel of seven Gallons, put­ting in three Quarts of Spirits, and two Quarts of sweets; and after Twelve Weeks it will be as strong and Pleasant as Candry, and then you may Bottle it up. This Liquor will keep in a Cask three Years, if you keep the [Page 21] Cask full, but observe that in eight Weeks time, the Liquor will waste about two Pints, which be sure fill up again with Liquor of the same strength, or stronger; and thus it will grow better and better. If you chance to keep it too long, and it becomes unpleasant as old Hock, then take one Hogshead of your stale Cyder, and one of Tart New Cyder, before it is quite fine, and mixing them well together. Tunn them up in two other Hogsheads, ad­ding the proportion of Spirits and sweets to the quantity of new Cyder, and then it will be as good as ever it was and speedily fit to drink▪ Wormwood Cyder. To make this, you do by adding Wormwood to Cyder Royal, as you do to Wines; and this is Excellent to procure Appe­tite, and cause Digestion.

If you would make Cyder-Royal as strong as French Wine, take a Hogshead of Cyder, and add some part of another Hogshead to it, and Distil off the Spirit; this Spirit rectifie a second time, and then put into the remain­ing part of the Hogshead of Cyder, fill up the Hogshead with other fresh Cyder; stir it about well, and keep it close stopt, except one Day in 9, 10, or 20, you let it lie open 5 Hours, and thus in three Months its fit to drink▪ and will be as strong as French Wine. To make it as stron [...] as Canary, add half as much more of the Spirit to [...] Hogshead as you did the former, and two or three Gallo [...] of sweets more or less, to please the Palate, and it w [...] be as strong as Canary. Experience is gain'd by makin [...] many Tryals. 1. That Cyder of the strength of French Wine, requires to every Hogshead of Cyder 4 Gallons of Spirits, or Cyder Brandy, which is not a Pint of Spirits to four Quarts of Cyder, 2. The second Cyder of the strength of Canary, requires of Spirits 6 Gallons, or Cyder Brandy, to every Hogshead, that makes about a Pint and a half of Spirits to a Gallon of Cyder, and about three quarters of a Pint of sweets to the like quantity.

The Spirit of Cyder is Extracted by Distillation, in a Copper Vesica, Tinn'd within, with its Worm, from Cy­der in all respects, as they make S. V. And observe if the Cyder is prickt or acid, its better for Spirits, and yeilds a larger Quantity then that of the best Cyder. Salmon.

I am apt to think, that if you put two Spoonfuls of this sweet, made as aforesaid; and one Spoonful▪ of Spirit of Clary, and a spoonful of Spirit of Cyder into a Pottle, it will be very Rich in a Months time, and will not stand in above 6d or 7d a Bottle. Try Experiments, by put­ting more or less, till you please your Palate. I conceive with Syrup of Clove-gillyflowers or Spirit of it, or any wholesome Spirit or Syrup, you may make what tasted [Page 22] Wine you please. By this Method, Perry, Cherries Currans, Gooseberry Wine, may be made to resemble Canary, and as good and wholesome. Doctor Hartman says he has observed that Brandy, Spirit of Wine or Grain, and other Spirits, if they are Fine may do; and that he has experienced, that the Spirit of Molosses, Raisons, and the Lees of good Wine, with other Fruits if rectifi'd and drawn fine, are as good; and that a re­ctified Spirit of Malt will serve where Spirit of Cyder is not to be had. He says that the first he compleated was, thus, He put six Gallons into a Vessel, two Quarts of Sy­rups or sweets, and three Quarts of the Spirit of Cyder, which after two or three Months he found to be as strong and Pleasing as Canary. He says further, that twenty eighth Pound of Sugar will make four Gallons of sweets, and so proportionably, and the Whites of 8 or 10 Eggs well stirr'd and put in as before directed.

To make Mead.

TAke four Pound of Honey, three Gallons of Water, you may put two or four, as you would have it in [...]ength; mix or dissolve them, and then let them boil gently, and clarifie with nine or Twelve Whites of Eggs, taking off the Scum, being only Blood-warm; then add a Pint of Ale-Yeast, or a small Leaven dissolved in a Pint of the Liquor, and let them work, then Tunn it into a Vessel, and being well settled, Bottle it up.

Note. 1. That the Liquor ought to be so strong of Ho­ney that it may bear an Egg, and break and boil the shells with the Whites of your Eggs; for present spending you may put the Juice of two Limons to a Gallon, and you may if you please add Cloves, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Li­mon-peel, Ginger, to make it taste according to the Pa­late, or you may let it alone. Some put Marjoram, Mint, Thyme, Balm, or what other sweet Herbs they like; let it stand 12 days before you Bottle it, and it will be fine. In a Months Bottleing its fit to drink: if you work it with yeast, have a great care to draw it into Bot­tles; presently after the Working is over, as in 14 or 18 Days; for Working it with Yeast, makes it soon grow stale, sower and dead, before you are aware; but if you singly work it of it self, and by the Suns help, or a gen­tle [Page 23] Sand-heat, or B. M. without adding Yeast▪ or Leaven, it will keep 12 Months, if fill'd to the top, and stopt close; if you put Spirit of Clovegilly-flowers into it, it makes it a curious Red Colour.

To make Pleasant Mead.

PUt a Quart of Honey to a Gallon of Water, with a­bout Ten sprigs of Marjorum, and five of Bay, boyl all these well together, and when it is Cold, Bottle it up, and in Ten days you may drink it.

To make Metheglin.

TAke four Pound of Honey▪ Water 15, 18 or 20 Pound more or less, as you would have it in strength, dissolve and mix, then put Mint, Sage▪ Rosemary, Balm, Thyme, Bay-leaves, Angelica, Savory, Roman wormwood, Gera­nium Moscatum Origanum, Smallage, of each a handful; Ginger, Cinamon, Nutmegs, Mace, Cloves, all in gross Powder, and ty'd up in a Bag, of each two Ounces, boil it an Hour, and clarifie with the Shells and Whites of Eggs only, taking off the Scum, then strain it through a Cloth into Wood Vessels, and being Blood-warm or cool, Tunn it up. Note, 1, Some People will put to every Gal­lon of Liquor a Pound of Black Currants well bruis'd. 2. Keep your Vessel always near full. 3. Cover the Bung­hole with a Plate of Lead lying loose on, that the Work­ing of the Liquor may lift it up as need requires. 4. That as it works over, you still sill▪ it up, but not to the Brim, with fresh Liquor of the same fort. 5. That having done working in a Months time, stop the Bung close. You need not work it with Yeast nor Leaven, for it will Work of it self. Some hang the Spices in a Bag, not. Boiling them with it at all. For present Drinking, take the Whites of three Eggs, three spoonfuls of Wheat-Flower, beat them together, and mingle well with your Liquor, and it will presently work, when done, stop it close with Clay tempered with Salt. 6. If for long keep­ing, put in a Pound of Hops to every Barrel; in twenty four Weeks draw off the clear into another Barrel, or Bottle it. This will keep many Years. This opens Ob­structions, and Cures Consumptions. Salmon.


TAke a Quart of Water and a Quarter of a Pint of Brandy, a little Vinegar or Verjuice, or Limon Juice, or Lime Juice, which of them you can get, a little Nutmeg and Sugar, or a little Ginger; and if you please a little Treacle to Colour it.

To make Punch.

TAke two Quarts of Water, one Pint of Lime Juice, three quarters of a Pound of fine Sugar, mix and dissolve the Sugar, then put three Pints of choice Brandy; stir them well together, and grate in a Nutmeg. This Liquor chears the Heart, and revives the Spirits beyond any other Liquor, Moderately drunk it helps Digestion, restores lost Appetite, and makes the Body profoundly Healthful, and able to resist the assaults or all Diseases. Salmon.

Juniper Cyder, or Wine to make.

PUt 10 or 12 Berries dry'd in a Bottle, or a proportion­able quantity to a Hogshead, Ginger may be used with good success, and it makes it brisk; Dry'd Rosema­ry put into it makes it Pleasant; Wormwoom put into Cyder tasts as Wormwood Wine; Juice of Rasberries, as good as Rasberry Wine; Elder-berries Juice the same. Clovergilly-flowers dry'd and steep'd in Cyder, gives a rare Tincture and Flavor, and thus you may make Wine of Cyder of any Dry'd-Flowers, Leaves and Roots what­ever. Query, whether the Chymical Oyl of Mace, Cloves, Mutmeg, &c. will not do the same, put in with some sweets, as before is directed.

Brumswick Mum to make.

TAke 63 Gallons of Water, and boil till the third part is consumed, then Brew it with 7 Bushels of Wheat-Malt, and one Bushel of Oatmeal, and one Bushel of ground Beans; Tunn it, but not too full at first: put 3 Pound of the inner Rind of Firr, of the Tops of Birch, and Firr, of each 14 Ounces, and three Handfuls of Cardus Benedictus dried, two Handfuls of Flower of Rosa Solis, of Betony, Burnet, Marjoram, P [...]ny-Royal Flow­ers, Elder, and with Thyme, of each one Handful and a hall, and three Ounces of seeds of Cardamum, Barberries bruis'd one Ounce. Put them into the Cask, your Liquor having wrought a while with the Herbs, let the Liquor Work over the Vessel as little as you can, fill it up at last, and stop it, and put in then some New Laid-Eggs, the Shells not broke nor crackt; Stop all close, and Drink it 25 Months Old; some add, Horse-Radish rasp'd 6 Handfuls, and alike quantity of Water-Cresses, Brooklime, and Wild Parsley. If Mum is carried▪ by Water, it is the better.

Artificial White-wine to make.

N. B. REd-streak Cyder 8 Pound, good English Bran­dy and Spring Water, of each 1 Pound with white Sugar half a Pound, mix and let it gently ferment and meliorate, after some Months it will have Colour and taste of White-wine.

Claret Artificial to make.

N. B. REd-streak Cyder 8 Pound, English Brandy (freed from it's flavour) Spring Water Juice of Bram­ble-Berrys, of each 1 Pound, white Sugar half a Pound, Roch-Allom about half an Ounce mix and stop it up till it's Fine. Note. Instead of Bramble-Juice you may use Alkanet-Root, which gives a true Claret Colour Salmon.

Secrets of Sports.

HOw many Changes in Bells, may be Easily told, set down 1, and under, set down 2, then Multiply 1 by 2 it is 2 that is 2 Changes in two Bells; then set down 3 under 2 and Multiply 2 by 3 it is 6, so there is 6 Changes in 3 Bells, do thus.

Then put down 4 under 6 thus, Multiply 6 by 4, and it is 24. So there is 24 Changes in 4 Bells.

  • ½
  • 3/6
  • 4/24
  • 120 Changes in 5 Bells.
  • 720 in 6 Bells.
  • 5040 in 7 Bells.
  • 40320 in 8 Bells.
  • 362880 in 9 Bells.
  • 3628800 in 10 Bells.
The Changes in 3 stand thus.

A cheap Family Drink:

A Drink most excellent to be drunk at Meals, or in the Morning, or any time of the Day, for all sorts of People, either Sick or Well, both Winter and Summer, and will not cost a Farthing a Gallon. Its excellent a­gainst Stone and Gravel, and for any other Obstruction, it strengthens the whole Body and quenches▪ Thirst beyond [Page 27] any other Liquor, it begets Chearfulness, extinguishes all Flushings and Vapours, cause good Digestion, purges by Urine powerfully, if a Quart or more be drank in a morning fasting its good against Stone, Gravel and all Griping pains of the Bowels, it clenseth the Stomach and Vessels if furd by Intemperance, it prevents Fumes and Va­pours, carrying the Windy matters its proper way, good against shortness of Breath, or any ill habits of the Sto­mach; its excellent against Scurvy and Dropsie and is in all respects frendly to nature; and they that accustome themselves to it, will find more benefit then I have here set down, in Winter, drink it warm as Milk, and in Summer too you may warm it to that degree of Heat you usually do Ale or Beer: which rather betters it than the Contrary.

Take a spoonful of ground Oatemeal and temper it with Water as you do to put into broth, then add a Quart of clear Water to it, Brew it 6 or 7 times out of one Cup or Pot into another and its done.

An universal Medicine for all Wounds or diseases.

GOD is often pleased to manifest his great Power in things, that seem very little in our esteem, as appears by this Medicine of chew'd white Bread, I was struck by a new shoed Horse on the Shin-bone: my Leg swelled that my Bone was forced to be cut, I lay'd some chew'd white Bread to my Leg when I went to Bed, and next Day the Pain was gone. My Hand was bit through by a mad Dog, I lay'd this to it and Cured it in four Days, I have Cured divers Green Wounds with it, I Applyed it but six times, and Mollifyed a Corn so, that I took it out Core and Root, and it grew no more, I Cured my self of an old Pain in my Shoulder by it, a great swelling in my Throat, Occasioned by a violent Cold, it broak out like the Kings Evel. I Cured it in four Days, a swelled Leg, Putrifyed, and great Holes in it, and all over full of Tulch and Rottenness, that it was conceived to be a Gan­gren, I Cured with it; a Pruning Hook stuck through my Thumb-nail and all, I Cured with it, also one run into the Knee with a Rusty. Raper, so Festred, that it was thought it must have been out off; I Cured one Black and Blew from Elbow to Shoulder by a blow, and many [Page 28] other I Cured; the quality of it is to stench Blood, draw out Poison, or a Thorn, to ease Pains and heal greeved places, Read more of this and abundance of Curiosities in a Book called the way to get Wealth, by making 23 sorts of English Wine equal to French, Metheglin, Rum, Rack, Coffee, Tea, Mum, Cyder and 40 sorts of Ale in a Minute; to make Corn produce a treble Crop, to dress Fish, Flesh and Fowl, Accounts cast up of great use to Traders, to Write Letters, Accounts where Coach, Carts and Waggons Inns, to Compound bad Debts, and recover them, and a­bundance of other Curiosities. Also another Book Inti­tuled the way to save Wealth by living well for 2d a Day, to save Coals, Shoes, Candles, Soap, and Cloth in making a shift, to Angle, order Bees and Silk-worms, Cattle Powltry, &c. to Improve Land by Hops, Flax, Liquorice to destroy Virmin, to speake by Signs; and 20 in the Room shall know nothing of it, aod by this means; cheating at Cards is plainly Demonstrated, to feed Horses fatt without Corn, Hay or Grass, with many other Curiosities. Also another Book Intituled a Thousand Notable things, teaching speedily to Read, Write and Indite Letters, to speake any Language speedily, the Laws of the City, Ob­servations in Planting, Gardening, and Grafting, to catch Birds, to Build and save Lime, a cheap way, to take spots out of Cloths, the use of Dullidge-water, to know what Weather will happen, Rules of Health and how to live long, of Moles, Riddles, Dreams, Stories; to make all sorts of Ink, to make fine Pictures, of Perfuming, Dying, Colouring, with 900 other Curiosities, price of each Book. 1 s. 6d. Sold at the▪ Ring in Little▪Brittain.

To cure the Farce or Scurf in a Horse.

HAng a Toad about the Neck of a Horle, in a little Bag, and it will Infalibly cure him, it must be a live Toad; and this I am told cured a Child of the Evil hung about its Neck in a Bag a live, and hang there till it dyes and Stink.

The Angler's Instructor.


TO be a Compleat Angler observe these things fol­lowing.

1. His Cloaths ought to be of a dark Colour.

2. Let your Angling Rod be light and taper, and the top prety stiff, and about 4 yards long.

3. The best time to provide Fishing Rods, is from the 11th of December to the middle of January, being then freest from Sap, Hasle, Black Thorn, Crab-Tree and Yew­switches are mostly used. Let your Stocks and Tops be taper and smooth, and each joint neatly suited, bind them together 16 Months with straight poles among them, that they may not wrap. If you use a Firr Angle rub it with Aqua fortis and it gives a curious Chesnut Colour.

Proportion your Rods and Lines according as the Ri­vers, Ponds, &c. are in largeness; your Lines also must be in strength proportionable to the Fish you expect to catch; For the colour of the Hair, if there be any diffe­rence, I prefer a pale water Green, which you may dye thus; Take a Bottle of Allom-water, a good handful of Marygolds, boil them till a yellow Scum arises, then put half a pound of green Copperas, and half a pound of Ver­digrease, and beat them to powder, put these into the Allom-water, then put in the Hair, set them to cool 12 Hours, then take out the Hair and let it dry.

Let your Line for the Artificial Fly be stronger than the Ground Line for the Trout.

5. Your Shot ought to be fastned about a foot from the Hook. Your Float, if a Quill, make thus, Take two soft Goose Quills, cut the Heads of each, about an Inch [Page 30] and a half, then shut them together like a Pin case, fasten­with melted Shoomakers Wax, put a Pill of the same Wax within the end, to keep out Water, with 2 Caps or Rings made of Quill, to slip on each end of the Float, for the Line to go between; some use a Cork cut like a Pear, and bored thro' with a small hot Iron, then put in a Quill of a fit Proportion, then on a Grindstone rub it smooth.

6, In the next Place be provided with a Plummet to try the Depth of the Water.

7. Have Bags of Linnen and Woolen for all sorts of Baits, and a little Wherstone to sharpen your Hook and also be provided with a Landing Net, and a Pen­knife, &c. All your Tackling in Order, go to the River, and find a Place, if you can, that hath a gravelly or smooth Bottom, and about 2 or 3 yards in depth, the Stream not too swift, then about a yard from the place you design to Fish at, cast in a quarter of a Peck of Grains, or as many more if you please, dip them first in the Ri­ver, that they may sink the better, and about an Hour after you may begin to Fish; for by that time its proba­ble the Fish may have found them. If you have not Sport in an Hour, you may conclude there is none, or else that Pearch and Pike are there, that live on small Fish.

8. Then plumb the Ground, and Fish about 2 Inches from the Bottom; the best Summer Bait, except in April and May, their Spawning time, when they are not gone, should be large Wheat, ordered as Furmety, which may be kept 15 or 20 days in Water or Beer, putting in fresh as the Skins grows upon it, if you keep it in Water, when you put any in a Box for present Angling, put Wort, or Ale, or Beer, to it a while, or you may boyl good Grain, as Wheat, Malt, &c. in Milk till it's soft, or in sweet Wort which is full as good, and peel off the outward Rine, which is the Bran, and so use it; or if you please you may fry it in Milk and Honey, or steep it in strong scented Oyls, as Spike, Amber, Ivy, Polipody, Anise, Turpentine, Oyl of Peter, Assa Faetida. &c.

Your Hook thus baited with a Corn, the point covered with a thin Rind, that you may see the White on one side, cast in your Line above the Stream, near the side, the Float being upright, swimming down the Stream, when you see the Float sink, strike prety quick, according to the strength of your Line; if the Fish is too large, make use of your landing Net, and after the catching 3 or 4 Fishes, cast in a handful of Grains, and now and then lifting the Float above Water, and so you may catch many Fishes.

For Ground Angling, use it only Evening and Morning, in hot Sun-shiny Weather; but if cloudy, at any time of the day.

[Page 31]In Winter choose the middle of the Day, and where the Sun shines on your Pace warm, and bait with a little white tail'd Worm found in old rotten Thatch, when you Angle after a shower, endeavour to have the Wind on your Back, coming from South or West, the Sun on your Face.

When the Earth is hot and dry, it's to no purpose to An­gle, or when the Rivers are out, or hasty showers much move the Waters, or when the North-East Winds blow strongly and cold.

The best time to Angle is, 1. When the Weather is calm and clear, or cool and cloudy, the Wind gently blow­ing.

2. When a sudden shower has a little mudded the Wa­ter, then with a red Worm Angle at the bottom in a Stream, and you will have sport.

If you Fish for Carp or Tench, from Sun-rising till 8 or 9 in the Morning, and from four in the Afternoon till Night. Fish bite best at a Fly after a shower that hath not mudded the Water, and the best Months for the Fly are March, April, May and June.

Salmon bites best about three in the Afternoon, especi­ally from May to September, and when the Water is clear, and a little Wind, and the Wind bloweth against the Stream.

Barbel bites best early in the Morning, and till ten a Clock, from the beginning of May till the beginning of Au­gust.

Perch bite all Day in cool cloudy Weather, but chiefly from Eight in the Morning till Ten, and from three in the Afternoon till five,

Pike bite best about three in the Afternoon, in clear Water and gentle Wind; August, September, and all Win­ter he bites all Day long, April, May, June and July, he bites best early in the Morning.

Bream bites best from Sun-rise till 8 or 9, in muddy Water and a brisk Wind, and in Ponds, the higher the Wind the better; and Fish in the middle of the Pond: In June July and August, in a gentle Stream or nigh it.

Roach and Dace bite all Day long, but best at the Top.

Gudgeon bites in April, and till he hath spaw'd in May, and generally all the Day long, in or near a gentle Stream; Angle for him in a gravelly bottom, stirring the Sand with a Pole or Rake, and they'll bite the better.

Flounders bite best April, May, June July, in a swift Stream, and sometimes in a still Deep.

Trout bites best in a muddy Water, in dark, cloudy, Windy Weather, from 8 till 10 in the Morning, and from 3 till 4 or 5 in the Afternoon; March, April, May and [Page 32] June are the chiefest Months. When you catch the first Fish, take out his Belly, and you may see his Stomach, take it out tenderly, for if you bruise it you lose your Labour, and with a sharp Knife cut it open, and you will see what Food he takes at that instant.

Keep out of sight when you Fish, and let the Sun be in your Face, or you'll have but little Sport, for if the Sun is on your Back, your Rod will with its Shadow fright them.

To preserve your Hazel Rods from Worm and Rot, rub them twice or thrice a Year with Linseed Oyl, Sat­late Oyl, or fresh Butter unsalted, or Tallow, very well inside and outside, if hollow.

In Summer time when Cattle come to the Fords, then Dung driveth the Fish to the lower end of the Ford; then Angle for a Cheven, with baits proper for him.

The Eyes of Fishes are an excellent baite for most fort of Fishes.

Baits of all sorts.

BAits for Salmon, is a great Garden Lobworm or an ar­tificial Fly.

Trouts take the Brambling, and all sorts of Worms, and all sorts of Flies Menows, young Frogs, Marsh-worm, Flag-worm, Dock-worm, Cod Baits, Bob, Caterpillars, Wasps, Gentle Bees, Grashopers and Bark-worms.

The Umber takes the same Baits, especially the Fly and Cod-bait.

The Barbel takes Cheese, Pastes, Gentles, large Worms and salt Beef.

The Pearch takes red Worms of all sorts, more especial­ly Branding, and Lob-worms well scoured, also Bobs, Gentles, Cod-baits, Wasps, Menow, and some, all baits except the Fly.

Tench takes large Worms, but better if they smell of Tar, which you may put a little to the Worms you fish with before you Angle, letting them lie a short time left they die. Also Paste scented with Tar; Oyls, Bread, Grain boyl'd soft, Cods-baits, Gentles and Marsh-worms.

Carp takes sweet Pastes, Gentles, Worms, Cod-baites, Grait boyled, Bobs and Wasps, and sometimes with a na­tural Fly.

Pike Pastes Gudgeon, Roaches, Dace, Leaches, Smelts, young Frogs, and almost all sorts of Baits except a Fly.

Eels take great red Worms, Wasps, Beef, Guts of Fowls, Minows. [Page 33] Gudgeon takes Cod bait, Gentles, Wasps, the natural and artificial Fly.

Bleak takes the same bait as the Gudgeon.

Dace, Roach and Bleak takes Cod-baits, Worms, Flies, Bobs, Paste, Wasps, Cherries, and all sorts of Worms bred on Trees; Ant Flies they greedily bite at under Water, near▪ the Ground 6 Inches.

Chevin or Chub takes Bobs, Minow, all sorts of Earth­worms, Flies of all sorts, Cod-baits, young Frogs, Cher­ries, Bees and Grashoppers at the top of the Water, Cheese, Grain, Beetles, Waspes and Humble-bees.

Bream takes red Worms, Paste, Waspes, green Flies, Butterflies, a Grashopper his Legs cut off.

Flounders and Shads take red Worms, Waspes and Gen­tles.

Minow, Loach, Miller's thumb or Bull-head, take Worms or Gentles.

To make Pastes.

TAke Manchet, the fattest old Cheese, Suet of Mutton Kidney,, a little strong Runnet, mix them equally and finely together, then Colour it with a little Turmerick; this Paste takes Chub, &c.

For Carp and Tench, mix Crumbs of Bread with Ho­ney, or take Kidney Suet, as much Cheese, Flower or Manchet, soften it with clarify'd Honey. Cherries, Sheep's Blood, Saffron, and Manchet made with Paste.

You may add to any Paste, Assa Foetida, Occulus In­diae, Oyl of Polipody of the Oak, and the Gum of Ivy; and be sure to all your Pastes add a little Flax or Cot­ton-wool, to keep your bait from washing off. Man's Fat, and the Fat of the Thigh-bone of a Heron, makes an Oyntment that rarely fails.

Paste will keep very long, if you put clarify'd Honey and Virgin's Wax into it.

To Angle with an artificial Fly, that is, a Fly in the like­ness of a natural Fly; you must have Fur, Feathers, Wooll, Down, Silk, Woasted, Bears hair, Camel's hair, Badger's hair, Spaniel's hair, Dog's hair, Sheep's Wooll, Mo-hair, Cow-hair, Camlets, Furs, Hackles or Feathers of a Cocks neck or tail of several Colours, Silk of all Colours, Wyer and Twist, Silver Twist, Gold Twist, Silver and Gold Wyer▪ (Read more of these in a Curious Book lately Printed call­ed, The Anglers sure Guide. Sold at the Ring in Little Brittain,) and the like, suitable and proportionable to the Fly you would imatate. The way to make them, is with soft Wax and Silk, binding first the Wings on, and after­wards [Page 34] shapening the Body and Head, with such Colours as to resemble the Colour of the Fly you design to Angle with, and be sure let the Belly be the same, and wet your Materials e're you go to Work. Use a larger body'd Fly when the Water is muddy or dusky, than in clear Water; and be sure always keep your Fly in continual motion. When the water is clear and low Angle with a small body'd Fly, with slender wings; and when the water begins to clear after Rain, and is of a brownish Colour, then use a red or Orange Fly, if the day is clear, then a light coloured one, with a little Body and slender wings; if the water be dark or a Whey Colour, let your Line be suita­ble, and twice as long as the Rod. Another way of Ang­ling is called Trouling, which is mostly for Pike; the baits are Roach, Gudgeon, Dace, Minow, Loach or Frog, put on the Wyer, that the Head being downwards, it may look as if it were playing in the Water, sometimes manag­ing it high, and then low, near the Place that Pike haunts, when he has taken it, give him Line, and he'll carry it to his Place of Abode, and there paunch it, then range abroad for more, and this you discerning by the Lines Motion, wind it up till the Slackness ceaseth, then with a jerk hook him, observing this, as for all other Fish, that you do it contrary to the Motion of the Fish, and be sure let your Tackle be strong. To Angle for a Pike at the Snap, use a double Spring-hook, for he usually holds the bait so fast betwixt his Teeth, that it's hard to get it forth, or strike him; then with a Spring-hook, the Wyer will draw thro' the bait and hook him if your hook be long; If he lie still, or move slowly after he has taken the bait, and you can­not find which way his Head lies, strike directly upward and you will hardly miss him. He greedily takes a Minow after the same manner.

Of the Haunts of Fishes.

TO be an experienced or compleat Fisher, at leisure times try all waters where you suppose Fish are.

Angle for Perch in gentle Streams of reasonable depth by a hollow Bank. For Salmon, in large, swift Rivers that ebb and flow, gravelly and craggy. For Trouts in purling Brooks, or Rivers very swift, strong, or sandy bot­tomed. For Carp and Tench in still waters, Ponds mud­dy, and where Weeds and Roots of Trees are, For Elee, in muddy Rivers and Ponds. For Bream, Pike, or Chub, in fandy or Clay Rivers, Brooks or Ponds, wherein Bull-rush­es and Flags grow. For Roach, Dace, Barble and Ruff, in sandy and gravelly deep water, shaded with Trees. [Page 35] For Umber, in clayey Marshes, Streams running swift. For Gudgeon, in small, sandy or gravelly Rivers; they bite best in Spring. Shad, Peel, Mullet and Flounder Thwait and Scant, are found near the Sea, or in brackish Rivers. counting Ebb and Flow, where the bottom is fine sand or gravelly; and somtimes all the Fish I have mentioned are found in divers waters, therefore try all waters, as above directed.

To keep Baits.

RED Worms keep in a bag of Red Cloath, with a hand­ful of chopt Fennel, mixed with half as much fresh black Mould, will preserve and scour them; or nettles chopt small and put in the bag, or keeping them in moist Moss will do it; or a Dish-clout dipt in Mutton Suet, and wrap them in it, will keep them well. All other Worms with the Leaves of the Trees they grow on. Cod-baits, Bob and Canter must be kept as you find them.

Great white Maggots keep in Sheeps Tallow, and to scour them, put them in a warm Bag made of Blanketting, with Sand. Frogs and Grashoppers, in long Grass and in wet Moss, and when you spend them, cut off the Legs of the Frog, and the Wings of the Grashopper.

Flies, use as you take them. Wasps, Hornets and Hum­ble-Bees, dry in an Oven, their Heads dipt in Sheeps Blood, and dry'd again; then keep them in Boxes for use.

Curiosities in Angling.

EEls. Take a Bottle of Hay, and put in the middle of it Sheeps Guts or Garbage, then tye it up close with a Cord about the middle, then sink him to the bottom of the River over Night, and leave the Cord out, then when you come next Morning early, pluck out the Bottle sud­denly, and you will catch many Eels sticking fast in the sides of the Hay.

To bring Fish to the place you desire. Boil clean Water, then put Barley into it, when it bursts: then put Liquorice, a little Mummy and some Honey, and beat them toge­ther in a Mortar into a stiff Paste, and boil about the Quan­tity of a large Nutmeg of this Paste, with a Quart of Barly, till it grows like Glew, then lay it for ground bait, and all the Fish will come to it.

An Artificial Cod-bait.

MAke the Body of yellow Bees-wax, and the Head of Black Duben, and black Silk, or make the Body of [Page 36] yellow Wash-leather, or Buff, or Shammy, and the Head of black Silk. This bait takes Salmon, Trout, Grayling, Tench, Roach, Chub, Dace, Ruff, Bream, Barble, &c.

Of Baits in general.

OBserve, that Fish takes such baits freely, as the Season or Months afford; therefore when you Angle Morning or Evening, beat the Bushes about the Rivers or Ponds, and such Flies as you find there fish withal, or imitate them with an Artificial Fly. And also see what Worms or other Infects sit for baits stick on the Leaves or Grass, or are in the Water, and Fish withal, and you may expect good Sport.

To take Fish in the Night with a Light. Take a Glass in shape of an Urinal, very deep, put as much Clay into the bottom of it, as to sink the Mouth of it within an Inch of the Water, floating with pieces of Cork ty'd about the Neck to keep it steady and upright, then place a Candle in it by sticking it in the Clay Socker, anointing the outside of the Glass with Oil of Asper, this will make all the Fish come about it, then with a Net you may take abundance of Fish.

Proper Flies for every Month.

February. PAlmer Flies, little red Brow, the Silver Hackle the plain Hackle, the Gold Hackle, the great blew dun, the great dun, the dark brown.

March. The early bright brown, the little whirling dun, the Thorn-tree Fly, the whitish dun, the little black Gnat, the blew dun, the little bright brown.

April. The little dark brown, the small bright brown, the Violet Fly, the great whirling dun, the Horse. flesh Fly, the yellow dun.

May. The green Drake, the dun Cow, the black May Fly, the Stone Fly, the little yellow May Fly, the Camlet Fly, the great Drake, the yellow Palmer, the Turky Fly; the black flat Fly, the little dun, the brown, light the white Gnat, the Cow Lady, the Peacock Fly, the Cow-turd Fly.

June. From the 1st to the 24th. The Stone-fly and green Drake, the Barn-fly, the Owl-fly, the purple Hackle, the Flesh-fly, the purple Gold Hackle, the little Flesh-fly, the Ant-fly, the Peacock-fly, the little black Gnat, the brown Gnat, the green Grashopper, the brown Hackle, the dun Grashopper.

July. The Orange-fly. the Badgers-fly, the Wasp-fly, the little white dun, the black Hackle, the black brown dun, the Shell-fly.

[Page 37] August. The Fern-fly, the late Ant-fly, Harry-long-leg, the white Hackly.

September. The late Bagger, the Camel brown Fly.

October. The same Flies that were used in March.

Artificial Flies how to make them, and the Season they are to be used in.

IN April a Stone-fly is in Season, the body of it is made with black Wooll, made yellow under the Wings, and under the Tail, the Wings made of Mallards Feathers.

May at the beginning, a ruddy Fly is in Season, make the body of red Wooll wrapt about with blew Silk, the Wings make of the Wing of a Drake and a red Hackle.

The yellow or green Fly is made of yellow Wooll, his Wing made of red Hackle and the Wing of a Drake.

The dun Fly is made of black Wooll, and sometimes dun, in season in March, his Wings made of Partridge Feathers, black Drake's Feathers, and the Feathers under his Tail.

The black Fly in season in May, made of black Wooll, and wrapt about with Peacock's Tail: his Wings the Fea­ther of the Wings, of a brown Capon, with the blew Fea­thers in his Head.

In June the said yellow Fly is in season, made of black Wooll with a yellow List on either side, the Wings of a Buzzard, bound with broken Hemp.

Also the Moorish Fly in season in June, made of duskish Wooll, the Wings the black Feathers of a Mall Drake.

Also in the middle of June, the Taring Fly made of Bear's Wooll, the Wings made contrary one against the o­ther of the whitish Feathers of a Mall Drake.

In July the Wasp Fly in season, made of black Wooll, wrapt about with yellow Silk; the Wings made of the Feathers of a Buzzard or Drak.

The Shell Fly good in the middle of June, made with greenish Wooll, wrapt about with Pearls of a Peacock's Tail, the Wings made of a Buzzards Feathers.

The dark Drake Fly, made of black Wooll, wrapt about with black Silk, in season in August; the Wings made of the Feathers of a Male Drake with a black Head.

The May Fly, made of greenish coloured Cruel or Wil­low Colour, and darken it in most Places with waxed Silk or ribb'd with a black Hair, or some of them ribb'd with a Silver Thread, and such Wings for the Colour, as you see the Fly, to have at that Season.

[Page 38]The Oak Fly, the Body made of Orange paring and black Cruel; the Wings, the brown of a Mallard's Feathers.

To take Pikes.

TAke what quantity of blown Bladders you please, and at the mouth of it tie a Line longer or shorter, as the Water is in depth, bait your Hooks Artificially, and put them into the Water, and as the Wind blows them gently, the Pike will strike himself, and make pleasant Diversion, by flouncing about, when spent take him out, the same may be done by tying your Line at the Leg of Ducks or Geese.

To take a Pike as he lies sleeping and sunning in fair Weather, with a Loop or Net.

MArch and August is the best time: Take a long Pole or Rod that is light and strait, on the small end fasten a running Loop of twisted Horse-hair and Silk, or made of Wyre of a large Compass, which gently draw on him, and when it is 5 or 6 Inches over his Gills, hoist him up, if it is a small Pike, draw it not so far on, make no Noise in walking nor speaking, if he lies so that you cannot con­veniently noose him, touch his Tail with the Rod, and he'll turn as you please; also with a hand Net, putting it gently under Water, guide it just under him, and lift it softly till you just touch him, and then do it as quick as you can.

Baits for Fish.

TAke Oculus Indiae, soft Cheese and Honey, and Crumbs of White Bread, make it into a Paste, and throw little Pellets into the Water, and the Fish will swim above the Water.



LET your Net be made of the best Pack-Thread, well twisted and dry'd, and for great Fowl, let your Meshes be two Inches at least form point to point, the larger the better, provided the Powl cannot creep through. Let the Net be about 2 Fathom deep, and 6 in length, is the best, verge it on each side, and at either end; extend it with long Poles, that the lower end of the Poles may be fastned with a piece of a Line or two Stakes fast driven in­to the Ground; And observe to do this at the Places [Page 40] where Birds feed and haunt in the Mornings, and you may expect Sport.

To take Birds with Lime twigs.

THus you must make it; At Midsummer, peel the Bark from the Holli-Trees, and fill a Vessel and put running Water to it; then boil it over the Fire till the white and grey Bark rise from the green: Take it off the Fire, drain the Water well away, and then separate the Barks, and take the green, lay it on some moist Floor and close Place, and cover it with Weeds, and let it lie about a Fortnight, and in that time it will rot, and turn to a slimy Substance; and then put it into a Mortar, beat it well, and then take it out and wash it in some running Stream, till the foul­ness is gone. Then put it in a close Earthen Pot, let it stand five days; look to its purging, and scum it. When clean, put it into another Earthen pot, and keep close for use. As for your Setting-dog, it must be elected and trained thus; He must be of good Scent, and love naturally to haunt Fowls, the Land Spaniel is best, being of a good nimble size, and couragious Mettle, which you may know by his Breed; and being of a good Ranger, &c. Then the first Lesson is to make him crouch and lie down close to the Ground, and its done by frequent laying him on the Ground, and saying to him, Lie close; and upon his doing well, give him a bit of something to cat, and if he does not well, chastise him with Words not Blow.

Next, To creep to you with his Body, and his Head close to the Ground, by saying, Come nearer, Come nearer, or such Words, to understand and do it, and intice him with shewing Bread, and the like, thrusting down any ri­sing part of his Head or Body, and threatning him roughly if he flies far, with a good jerk or two with a Whip-cord to reclaim his Obstinacy.

And repeat his Lessons, and encourage his well doing, and you may exercise him in the Field, as you walk along, calling him from his Ranging to his Duty, and teach him to follow you close at the Heels in a Line or String, with­out straining. When he is a Year old, and the Season fit, go in the Field, and let him Range obediently. If he bab­bies or causelesly opens, correct him by lathing him, or by biting the root of his Ears, when you find he ap­proaches the haunt of his Patridge, known by his whin­ing, and willing, but not daring to open. Then speak and hid him take heed, if notwithstanding this he'roln in and spring your Partridge, or opens, and so they escape, then correct him soverely: Then cast him off to another haunt [Page 41] of a Covey, and then if he mend his Error, and you take any by drawing your Net over them swiftly, reward him with the Necks, Heads and Pinions of the Partridge.

For your Water Dog, the Instruction above for the Setter will serve any, by fetching a Glove, or the like, and keep him very much under, and to observe your Commands.

The longest Barrel is the best Fowling Piece, above 6 Foot long, with an indifferent bore, under an Harquebuse. And observe shooting with the Wind, and side ways, or behind the Fowl, not in their Faces, having your Dog in Command, not to stir till you have shot.

Small Birds to take; A very good way▪

YOU must take about three handfuls of Wheat Bars, let the straw remain to them about a Foot long, and lime that and not the Ears, then stick them up in Frosty Weather, that the Ear may bend, and your straws bend Archwise, you may do this in Snow, and scatter a little Chaff over it, and fasten down a Bird if you have it, of the same kind you design to take, let the Ears be spread single and then the Birds flocking to pick them, and at­tempt to fly away, the straw to be sure laps their Wings, and brings the Birds down again, and this way you may, take great Numbers, you may fix them for Sparrows on Barns or Thatch'd Houses, and not only get the Birds, but abundance of Corn by destroying them. Low Belling. This is chiefly practised in open Countries, from October till March, is the properest Seasons, and the manner is as followeth.

In an evening about 8 or 9 a Clock, when the Moon does not shine, take a Low Ball of a moderate size, that it may be managed by one man in one Hand, in having a deep and hollow sound, you must also have a Net with small Mashes about 20 yards long, and as broad as four or five Lands may be covered with it, and you must go into Fields where the Stubble has not been much trod▪; but in high and fresh Wheat Stubble is the best. The Bellman must go foremost, and toll it distinctly and dole­fully, letting it strike now and then on each side, and you must follow with the Net born up at the four corners, and on each side must be carried a Pan of Live Coles with­out any blaze, and then pitching your Net where you sup­pose the Game is: Then make little bundles of Stubble aud set them on a blaze, or carry Links for that purpose; then with making a noise or hitting the Stubble, rowse [Page 42] the Fowl, if any be under the Net; So they being en­tangled you may take them. Then go to another haunt, but you must put out the light of the Stubble whilst you have occasion for it again. In this case the noise of the Low bell astonishes them; and makes them lie still; but the Light makes them rise by afrightning them, but be sure you make no other noise till you think your Nets are over them.

Batt Fowling the manner of it.

OBserve where that Birds roost in great numbers, as they generally do in Stubs, Hedges or Trees; then go in a dark Night, and have a Wicker with a handle to hold on high, in which Place pieces of Links or great Candles to make a great Light, some have a Pan to make a Fire, and carry it at their Back; but then one must put Fire on as fast as it burns out, then let one go with a Pole, and beat the contrary side, and two or three be with you, carrying long Boughs; and when they are un­roosted with beating they will come flying about the Light, so that they with the Boughs may easily strike them down, if among Shrubs, as in a wood, let one on each side beat at a pretty distance: This must be done in a pure still Night.

To take wild Ducks, Geese, Herns, Sea-Gulls, &c.

DRive a Stake into the Ground two or three Foot long just by the Water-side, then take a strong Horse Hair Line with a large hook fastned to it, and bait it with Fish, or Frog, or Guts, &c. And let your Line or Lines lie in the River, and they will swallow it, and so hang that you may take them, some lay in the same manner Snares made of Horse Hair, and often catch them by the Feet as they swim about.

Partridge to take.

THE first thing yo do is to find the Partridges haunt which is mostly in standing Corn, where they breed, as also in Stubble after the Corn is cut; but in Wheat [Page 43] Stubble till it is trodden very much, and then they repair to fresh Barley Stubble, and the Furrow among the Clots, long Grass and Brambles, are sometimes their lurking Places. For a Covey of twenty and upwards, in the Winter they sit in dead Grass in upland Meddows, or fog under Hedges▪ or under the Roots of Trees or among Mole Hills, &c. Their haunts are various and uncertain, and tho' some by the Eye, by distinguishing the Colour from the Ground; and others by the Ear, by hearing the Cock call after the Hen, and the Hen's answering, and their chattering at joy at meeting; but to find Par­tridge the best way, is as you do the Pheasant, by the Pipe or Call and they will come near to you, and count their number and then to your Sport: You must surround your Covey, prepare your Nets, and prick a stick fast in the Ground, and tie the one end to it, and then let your Net fall as you walk briskly round, without stopping, and cover the Partridge; then rush in and frighten them, and as they rise they are taken.

To take them with Bird-lime do thus, you must call first near to their haunts; if answered, stick your Lime Straws about a Cross in rows at some distance from you; then call again, and as they come near to you they will be fastened by your Straws, and so become your Prey. This way is used with great success in Stubble Fields, from August to September, and in Wood. To take them with Rods, and in Pastures, do as for the Pheasant. The most pleasing and diverting way of taking Partridges is with a Setting Dog, and he having set them use your Net, and by this Rule and Method; the Quails, Rails, Moor­poots, &c. Are to be taken and are for Hawk flight too; And here I make an end of the material part of Fowling.

An approved way to dare and take Larks in the day times.

GEt Nets in the form of a Hoop or Scoop Net, such as Fishers land Fish with, and it must be made of fine Thread, but a small Tramel Net will do better. Then carry a Lark Hawk, or Hobby upon a Pole into the Field, where the Larks haunt about Harvest time; then beat them up with a Dog, and observe where the Flocks Light; then creep as close to them as may be, then on a sudden hold up your Hawk on a Pole, and so soon as ever they perceive him they will be so afraid that you may easily draw your Net over them, and they will not offer [Page 44] to stir, for they are so fearful of the Hobby which pray on them about this Season, that they will rather let you take them than they will offer to rise for fear of the Hobby, and you may continue this Sport till Michaelmas, then the wild Hobby leaves this Country, or that Exercise: and the Lark is more confident and not to be affrighted.

How to take Rooks, Jackdaws and most others Birds that pull up and spoil the Corn.

TAke thick brown Paper and divide a Sheet into eight parts, and make them up like Sugar Loaves, and then Lime the inside of the Paper with Birdlime; let them be limed four or five days before you set them, then put some Corn in them, and lay forty or more of them under the Clods of dirt on the Land, early in the Morning be­fore they come to feed, then stand at a distance and you will see most excellent Sport; for as soon as a Pidgeon, Rooks, Crows, &c. Come to peck out any of the Corn, it will be about his Head, and then he will fly bolt right up very high, and when he is spent, come tumbling dowu as if he had been shot in the Air, and you may take them at Plowing time, when the Crows and Rooks follow the Plow, but you must then put in Maggots and Worms of the largest size.

Snares to take Birds and Woodcocks, and how to set them and to make them.


TAke a stick of a pretty height, about two Foot high, and stick them slaunting on the sides of the Furrows; [Page 45] then fasten to them a Horse-Hair Line, and in Moon­shiny Nights when the Corn begins to spring, especially those next the Hedges or Banks, and make a running noose in the Line, hanging about 3 Inches from the Ground, and set severally; and set them abovt 9 Foot distance from one another. And when Woodcocks come at such Places as are their usual Haunts, the Loop being wide enough, the foremost will run his Head thorough and finding him­self entangled by the closing of the Noose, he will neither cry out nor struggle, but stand still till you take him; but you need not take him presently; for those that follow, tho' going aside, will turn into the Furrow again, and you may take as many in half an Hour, as you have set Snares, if they much haunt the Places, and these serve for Snipes, near Springs, where they haunt; but then they must be higher, and take them as they are alighting; that when they are fastened they cannot reach the Ground, and you must be very ready, or else they will get loose.

Of the Stalking Horse and Fowling piece.


THE best Fowling Pieces are five Foot and half or six Foot long, with an indifferent Bore under Harquebuss, pound your best sort of Powder, and let your Shot be well siz'd, and not too big; for then it scatters too much: And if too small it has not weight not strength sufficient to do execution on a large Fowl. In Shooting observe always to Shoot with the Wind if possible, and rather behind the Fowl or side-ways, than full in their Faces; and▪ observe you [Page 46] shelter your self behind a Hedge, Bank, Tree, or any thing else that may keep you from the sight of the Fowl; and be sure to have your Dog at your Heels, and at good Command, not to stir after you have Shot, till you bid him; but sometimes the Fowls are so shy, there's no getting a-near them, without a Stalking Horse, which must be some old Jade train'd up for that purpose, who will gently and as you will, walk along with you, but for want of such a live Horse you may cut out the resemblance of one in Canvas, or Match Paper, pasted together a sufficient bredth and length, with Ears, Legs and Tail, and all the Parts proportionable, which you must Paint to the lively Colour of a Horse, and something like Grass at his Nose, and his Head being stooping as Grazing, and you may do this either stuft or flat, but the latter is more easie to carry; there are other things that are used for shelter in this case, as in woody Places, a Bush in Marshes and Rivers, Bents or Rushes, or such things as grow there: But these being unusual to Mo­tion, you must move them very slowly, or else the Birds will take flight and be gone.

To take Birds or Rabits.

TAke seed of Letice, Popy, Henbane and Hemlock, or some of them will do, boil them in Dregs of Wine, and then boil some Wheat in it, and strow where they come and it will make them drunk, for Rabits use Oates.

Easie and New Invented Plows.
The discription of Trenching Plows.

SIx or seven Labouring men, in light Ground it is usual to have to follow the Plow, and that at some distance each with their Spades, taking some proportion to cast up the Earth from the bottom of the Fourow, on that was turned over by the Plow. By this means an Acre of Ground may be Plow-trench'd in a day, as well as if it had been wholy done by the Hand; the Plow going be­fore, and turning in the Sword or Turf, and the Spades coming after and covering it with Earth that is light, makes it fit for divers sorts of Tillage to be Planted in it, [Page 47] this saves a great deal of the Charge of Trenching wholy by the Spade.

But there is a Cheaper and easier way to Plow Trench Land, without the Spade at all, and that is, by making your Plow, that it may under cut the Earth, and cast it over, instead of the, usual way of Plowing, for the usual way of Plowing, the Plow is made pointing and is forced under the Sword, and by the spreading of the Plow, and help of the turning board, you force the Earth from - ward which requires much more strength, than if the Plow were made of a bredth proportionable, from the Shares point to it's hinder part, and the Sword or Earth caryed from the bottom, and a turning board cast from - ward; and then you may either add a second Colter, and share to succeed the former (fixt to the very same beam) about 4 or 5 Inches lower, which said second Colter and share will cut and take up another course in the bottom of the Trench, and carry it higher.

And then the turning board will throw it on the first Plowing, or else you may make another to cast higher then the first to follow it. Each of these Plows require but half the strength of the common forcing Plow, for that it Cuts Raises, and casts the Earth over without any side forcing at all.

You may make this Plow 5, 6, or 7 Inches broad, or more according to the Nature of the Ground and strength you design to use, whether 1, 2, or 3, Horses to draw it and it will serve not only to Plow and Plow-Trench Land, but it will also serve to pare off the Turf of Ancient Pasture Land, in order to burn it, for the Foot on which the fore end of the Beam rests, may be made to stand higher or lower as you please to have it; to the end it may cut thicker or thiner; and being as broad, will do that sort of work as well as your brest Plow, and with 6 fold; more speed Worlidge says, he has made a model of it, that answers what is here proposed, and had he an Ingenious Assistant should soon bring it to perfection, but these hints he hopes may prove sufficient.

To make a Denshireing Plow.

THis must be drawn by one or two Horses. It must have 2 Wheels or Trundles; If they are low, then let your paring Plow rest on the Axis, but if larger Wheels are found more proper, then fix your paring Plow at some di­stance under the Axis, and both ways let it have a long stave or handle, that the Labourer by lifting up or pressin [Page 48] down the same, may cause the Turf to pare thin or thick as he likes best, or as the unevenness of the Lands re­quires, let him Regulate his Labour. This way with one Horse and 2 men, and a Skillfull-man to Regulate and Guide the Plow, you may pare 2 Acres in a Day or more, if the Ground be but smooth and even, but if the Ground is full of Hills, Stumps, &c. It must be done over again, and then 2 men and one Horse may pair the one Acre a Day, as well to the full as with a brest Plow, and more easily and cheap, a fourth part at least both in Charges, and in time an Ingenious Man will quickly a mend any Er­ror such an Instrument may meet with, and it is so Beneficial and easy to be done, that I commend it highly to those that may have occasion.

There is lately a Steel-plow, invented by one dwelling in Catteaten-street London; which with one Man and 2 Horses or 2 Oxen, may be Plow'd any Land whatever, as soon as double the men and Cattle, performed by common Plows, Worlidge says, he has seen the Model, which was well made and true, and Questionless, will far exceed the common or usual Plows, and it may cost 30 or 40s extraordinary being of Steel, it will soon repay it if 2s a Day can be saved by it, there is a French Plow, also much like our double Plow, already described, which carry 2 Furrows at once, the Description and use you have in I Houghtons Collection of Husbandry, to which I refer you.

To take Moles, kill, Foxes, &c:

Paxamus says, that an Earthen Jug or Pot, large Bely'd, and narrow Necked, and put into it Chaf or Straw, Chopt Rosin, Bees Wax, and some Brimstone, and Ceder­wood, mix them together, then set them on fire; then put the Neck of the Bottle into one hole, and stop all the holes besides that one, and passages where the Moles pass, your smoak Kills them or drives them away presently.

Another. Take white Helibor, or the Bark of Dogs Còle, which you please, powder'd, mix it or them with Wheat-flower, or Barly Meal, or Rye-flower, and with Milk and Wine, make it into a Paste; put this into their holes, and they eat it and it Kills them.

Some keep Cats in Gardens, and tame Wesells, that will destroy them:

Some use to fill the Holes with Marking-stone, and wild Cucumber Juice, and pour it into their Holes.

[Page 49]Some pour Oyl of Lees into their Holes only; Pliny.

Some set Traps at the mouth of the Holes with Hair.

Some with a Bough fastned down in the Ground, take them, or take Pitch, Rosin, and Brimstone, with some loose Tow or Rags, put into an Earth long Neck Pot with a great Belly, Fired and put into their Holes, Stifles them.

Or a deep Earthen Pot let in the Ground in their Stracks, just even with the surface of the Earth they fall in and cannot get out; if this is wisely set, it takes ma­ny, especially in Bucking time, which is about March.

Another Incredible way. A Mole catcher and his Boy, in 10 Days time in a Ground of 190 Acres, laid down for Tillage, took near three Bushels of Old and Young, by casting up their Nests only, which are always built in a great Heap as big again as the rest easily disern'd, and then presently the Old ones would come to look their Young, which he would snap up presently also, or, if you have a conveniency of Water bring it over the Ground, and it will destroy them as far as it goes.

To kill Moles:

TO take them in Trenches, spoils much Ground, there­fore take a Mole Spear, or Staff, and where you see them cast, go lightly, but not on the side 'twixt them and the Wind, least they hear you, and at the first or second putting up of the Earth, strike them with your Mole Staff downright, and mark which way the Earth falls most, If she cast toward you strike some what over, If she cast up toward the Left-hand strike somewhat on the Right-hand, and so on the contrary, to the casting up. In plain Ground strike down and there let it remain, then take out the Tongue in the Staff, and with the spitle or flat end dig round about your grains to the end thereof, to see if you have Killed her, if you have mist her leave open the Hole, and step a side a little, and perhaps she'll come to stop the Hole again, for they love but very little Air, and then strike again, but if your miss her, pour into her Hole a Gallon or two of Water and that will make her come out for fear of Drowning, mind them going out in a morning to feed, or coming home when fed, and you may take a great many.

To take Moles when you Plow:

TAke a she with a large Vessel full of Water, and when you see any new Mole Holes cast up, being o­pened [Page 50] with the Plow, pour therein Pitchers or large Cans of Water, and that will make them in a little time come out, and thus you may destroy them in Plowed Land or Pasture, in Corn Lands, make Treuches in Spring-time to take them.

To take Moles another way.

IN March and April, the Ground is soft, and they run shallow, and also after a Rain, and by Bank sides, and in the Rout of Carts and when you see such newly wrought tread it down always softly, and then at her Accustomed Hours, which is usually in Spring time, from about 6, 8, and 11 in the Morning, and in the Evening about 3, or 4, or 7, she will stir up the Earth in the said Trenches, and▪ so go from Trench to Trench, and then watch diligently, and hearken, and you will either hear her or see her at Work, moving the Earth in the Trench, then stop down the broad end of your Staff, cross the Hole behind her, and with your Foot before her, so stop the way behind, with your Staff, and before with your Foot, and this takes her up with your Spattle; Moles go abroad generally about Sun Rising or soon after, in Dry or Hot Weather, Moles seldom go abroad but in the Morning, but in moist Wea­ther, twice a Day, Forenoon and Afternoon, in Frosty Weather they Work under Trees, and thick Hedges and Bushes, In wet Seasons and in Winter they lye most in wet Banks of Hedges, under the Roots of Trees and, in Hills and come out every Morning to go a broad (if it is Dry) 2 or 300 Yards from the Holes, and after an Hour or two feeding return home, then observe where they have been, and there make Trenches or chop the Earth down with the Spattle or broad end of the Mole Staff, which he hath before raised or passed through, and there tread it down with your Foot in your Trenches lightly and the longer the Trenches are the long­er she is a pasing through it, make Trenches in the most convenient place in the Ground, if you make them neigh their Holes, it is best to take them going out, or in going home, make their Trenches along by the Hedge-sides or Nigh Banks, and Roots of Trees for that is best.

Another. Some say that in Gendering time, if you lead or draw a Bitch Mole in a String a long the Ground, the Buck will Grice her, and so you may Catch them in Pots set in the Ground.

Put a dead Mole in their common Haunts, makes them for sake them.

Another. The best Instrument to destroy them is made thus.

TAke a small Board of about 3 Inches and a half broad, and sive Inches long, on the one side thereof, raise 2 small round Hoops or Arches, and at each end, like unto the two ends, Bail or Hoops of a Carriers Waggons, or a Tilt-Boat, large enough that a Mole may pass through them: in the middle of the Board, make a Hole so big that a Goose-quill may pass through, then is that part Finished, then have in a Readiness, a short Stick, about two Inches an half long, about the bigness that the end there­of may just enter the Hole into the middle of the Board, also you must cut a Hasle, or other Stick about a Yard, or Yard and half long, that being stuck into the Ground, may spring up like unto the Spring they usually set for Fowl, &c. Then make a link of Horse-hair very strong, that will easily slip, and fasten it to the end of the stick that Spring, also have in Readiness, four small hooked sticks, then go to the Forrough or Passage of the Mole, and af­ter you have opened it, fit in the little Board with the bended Hoops downwards, that the Mole when she Passes that way, may go directly through the two, semicircular Hoops, before you fix the Board down, put the Hair spring through the Hole in the middle of the Board, and place it round that it may answer to the two end Hoops, and with the small sticks, and gently put into the Hole to stop the Knot of the Hair spring, place it in the Earth in the Pas­sage, and by thrusting in the four hooked Stick, fasten it, and cover it with Earth, and then when the Mole passeth that way, either the one way or the other by displacing or removing the small Stick that hangs, Perpendicularly downward, the Knot passeth through the Hole, and the spring takes the Mole about the Neck, tho' this descrip­tion seems tedious, yet this is very plain and easily per­formed, these Vermin being so very prejudicial even worse to Ground than Swine, I have enlarged the more upon it. And refer you to Mr. Blith's Husbandry, a Book all Hus­bandmen ought to peruse, being Reprinted with large Ad­ditions.

To take Foxes.

TO take your Foxes, take 2 large Fish Hooks and hang them on Branches of Trees, hang them from the Ground, that the Fox may Leap at it before he can catch it, cover it with Beast Liver, Flesh or Chicken, and when he catches at it the Hook holds him, and when you have baited, drag Raw Flesh a Cross in his usual Paths or Hants unto the Gin, and that Excites him to the place of Distruction.

Another. Foxes will eat no Hens that have eaten a Pox Liver.

A Spring Trap.

TAke a thick Hasle, stick it fast in the Ground, make a string fast to the end of it, and to this string make fast a small short stick with a Nick in the lower end thereof, made on the very upper side thin thereof, the Pole is bound down with it to another stick set in the Ground fast, with a nick likewise under, then open the end of the string, set it in some Dung or where you please, when the Fox plucks the upper string aside, then the Nick slips, and the Pole starts, and holds him up by the Neck.

To learn a Dog to stand upright, and Exercise as a Soldier, by taking to the right and left.

BEtwixt your Fingers hold a Piece of raw Flesh, and thus you may make him run a Figure of 8, or Dance the Hay, having a Whip at each end in your Hand, and so off as you swing it he will jump over it.

2. If you would make him go Lame of 2 Legs, or on all four, or cross Leg'd, strike him on the Legs with a small Stick.

To make him Pace, Trot or Gallop.

ABout his Neck tye a string, holding the end in your Hand with a Whip, lashing to the Left and Right as you please, and thus you may make him Dance on the Rope, stand in the Pillory; go up a Ladder Backward, and what you please.

Let your Dog be Young that you teach, and very Hun­gry, and when he is Tractable encourage him, and when otherwise beat him well.


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