THE Compleat Vineyard: OR A most excellent Way FOR THE PLANTING OF VINES: Not onely according to the German and French way, but also long experimented in England.

WHEREIN Are set forth the whole circumstan­ces necessary for the Planting a Vineyard, (viz.) The best election of your Soil; the scituation thereof; the best way for the Planting of your young Plants; the best time and manner of Proining, both the Stocks and Roots; the turning and translation of the ground, &c. With all other things necessary to the Plant; and the fashion of your Wine Presses; with the manner of Bruising and Pressing; and also how to advance our English Wines: never be­fore Printed.

By William Hughes.

LONDON, Printed by G. M. for W. Crooke, at the three Bibles on Fleet Bridge, and John Playfere, at the White Lion in the Upper Walk of the New Exchange, 1665.

To the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

IT is the saying of the Philosophers, that those things are most principally to be taught and maintained, which in the Commonwealth are most profitable and necessary: according to which opinion, if we consider how profitable many acts of Husbandry have been to the Commonwealth, I think it necessary that this of Vines should be made publick: for as Seneca, Cato, Varro, Columel­la, &c. do affirm, the Planting of Vineyards have been more gain­ful then any other act of Husbandry whatsoever.

And it being manifest, that there have been plenty of Vineyards in, England heretofore, as Mr. Hollinshead in his History of Eng­land doth affirm, and Cambden in his Chronicle maketh mention; and some there are at this day both in Essex, and in the West of Eng­land, as also in Kent, which produce great store of excellent good Wine: I think it not impertinent to set down a way how we may of our English Grapes purchase a very good Wine; and the rather, for that I find the same to be both probable and possible, not only by Anti­quities, but also by experience, set down by Mr. Barnaby Googe, in his Book of Husbandry, as also by that inevitable Argument which be draweth from the same latitude of the Pole wherein we are, and under which there be found beyond the Seas most fruitful Vine­yards, and which doth yield both good and pleasant Wines; as about Backrach, Colin, Andernach, and divers other places in Ger­many, which hath, as he affirmeth (and also others) the same La­titude and disposition of the Heavens that we have; whereby is sufficiently confuted that common received opinion against our Cli­mate, that is should not be hot enough for that Plant: nay, he pre­veth [Page]farther, that the wideness to the South is not altogether the cause of good Wines, as appeareth in, that you have about Orlance great store of good and excellent Wine; whereas if you go to Bru­ges, two daeyes journey farther to the South, you shall finde a Wine not worth the drinking; the like is proved between Paris and Barleduke, aend divers other places,

And here I have just cause to accuse the extream negligence and blockish ignorance of our people, who do most unjustly lay their wrong­ful accusations upon the Soil, which truly may be removed on them­selves; for whereas neither in Pasture or arable ground, they look for any great increase without all the due and necessary circum­stances of Husbandry be performed to the same; yet in Vines onely they expect a plentiful Harvest, or else they condemn the Soil; although they bestow no other manuring, proining, or ordering of them, but onely cut or proine them in the twelve dayes, and that very carelesly, and without any due regard or choice had of the branches, which should be taken away close to the stock, and which should be cut off between the third and fourth joynt, and many other observations as we shall hereafter shew in our fol­lowing discourse: Therefore, in a word, I have just cause (as I said) both by Travels, Discourse, and Experience in England, and also out of it, to be fully perswaded: Nay, I do know, that Plants by continuance of time and good ordering once made fa­milar with our Soil and Climate, will produce both full and good Wine.

This Method in Planting was used by that experienced Gard­ner M. K. Deceased; who for about twenty years practised the same in his own Countrey, Germany. And about the Year one thousand six hundred thirty two became over into England, and from that time until the Year one thousand six hundred fifty eight he practised the same here; from whose own mouth I turned it out of High Dutch into English my self, having for some years before been an observer of his proceedings and operations; and since being abroad in the world, have added many observations of my own experience, both according to the German, French, and English practice; which if fully and rightly understood, is the full and sole discour, a necessary for the producing of English Wine, [Page]which is most natural to our constitutions, as I shall hereafter prove. Thus Reader, I desire thee to excuse the rudeness of the language, and the several faults thou meetest with; and however accept of my good will, who hath not written ad ostentationem, I onoly now wish I were present at thy proceedings. Vale.

William Hughes.

The Contents.

  • OF the excellency of the Vine.
  • Extream heat or extream cold not good for the Vine.
  • How to bring Vine plants from beyond Sea.
  • Vines to bear the first year.
  • Whether the Vine were known before the flood.
  • Vineyard more gainful then other Husbandry.
  • The divers wayes of dressing of Vines.
  • What tree is good, and what hurtful to the Vine.
  • The height of the Vineyard Vines.
  • Of the Grafting of Vines.
  • Of weeding the ground.
  • The best time to gather Grapes.
  • The siituation of the Vineyard.
  • The manner of fencing the Vineyard.
  • How the Vineyard ought to be laid before it be planted.
  • Of dunging the Vineyard, and when good.
  • The Vine a tree of the Sun.
  • Proining of Vines, and the time when.
  • Best not to proine till the second or third Moneth.
  • When to lay open the roots of Vines.
  • What dung is best for Vines.
  • How to hasten the ripning of Grapes.
  • The proining of Vines.
  • Cautions in proining of Vines.
  • How to chuse your young plants.
  • The time when to gather your young plants.
  • Of proining.
  • How to order your young plants, to plant in May or June.
  • When to water your young plants.
  • How the roots of your young plants ought to be left.
  • [Page]How to replant young plants,
  • The best time to plant, when.
  • At what distance the young plants should be set.
  • The French way of planting.
  • At what distance the French usually see their plants.
  • Of weeding your ground.
  • When good to take up your young plants.
  • The French way of cutting out plants.
  • The time when it is good to break off sulperflnous branches.
  • How your Vine are supported and tyed.
  • When to take up your young plants.
  • How to defend the root of the Vines from mush heat and wet.
  • When to water the young plants.
  • The time when your Vines begin to flower.
  • Grapes how they ripen best.
  • Observations in gathering your grapes.
  • How to preserve the bunches till they are ripe.
  • How to know when your grapes are ripe.
  • The fashion of your wine-presses.
  • How to bruise your grapes the best way.
  • Of divers things that belong to bruising your grapes.
  • Of the best Juice or Liquor.
  • How to make your Claret wine.
  • Wine-presses how they are made.
  • Another fashion wine-press.
  • How to make other sorts of wines, as of Rasbes, Cherries, Curt­rans, &c.
  • When to gather grapes to keep long.
  • How the first and second running is called.
  • The manner of pressing.
  • What vessels you ought to put your wine in.
  • Of the best Cellars.
  • Of fermentation.
  • [Page]How to keep wine from decaying.
  • How to help the wine that reboileth.
  • When the wine fermenteth.
  • Thereason why wine reboileth.
  • How to purge wine quickly.
  • How to make wine brisk or quick.
  • How to make wine more pleasant.
  • The best way to help our English wines.
  • To help your sharp wine another way.
  • Of weeding your Vineyards.
  • Vineyard grapes the best.
  • Air a great help to the Vine, as also to all other trees.
  • How the Germans preserve their Vines in the winter.
  • When to cut away the small roots of the Vines.
  • Of proining.
  • Of laying open the roots.
  • Of several things to be used to prevent the bleedig Vines
  • How to have grapes to grow long upon the Vines.
  • How to have them grow long on the Vines another way.
  • How to preserve bunches of grapes long.
  • Another way to preserve bunches of Grapes.
  • How to keep Claret wine, or any wine good 9. or 10. years.
  • How to separate water from wine.
  • How to make spirit of wine.
  • How to make good Vinegar.
  • How to make Vinegar with your corrnpted wine.
  • How to make Verjuice of Grapes.

THE Compleat Vineyard.


The excellency of the Vine.AMong all Trees and Plants the Vine by good right challengeth the Sovereignty, seeing there is no Plant used in Husbandry more fruitfull, and more commodious, then it; not only for the beautifulness and goodliness of the Fruit; but also for the easiness he hath in growing, whereby he refuseth not almost any kind of Countrey in the whole world, Extream hot or Extream cold not good for the Vine.except such as are so extreamly scorched with the burning heat of the Sun, or else too extreamly frozen with vehement cold; prospering also as well in the plain and Champion Countrey, as it doth upon the Mountain and hilly Countrey; likewise as well in the stiff and fat ground, as in the soft and mellow ground; and oftentimes in the leany and lean ground, as in the fat and foggy; and in the dry as in the moyst and myrie; yea and in many places in the very Rocks, and gravily ground, it groweth most abundantly, and most fruitfully; but this is for the most part in other Countries, as in Germany, France, Spain; &c. How to bring Vine Plants from beyond Sea.for here we are more choice in the election of our Soil; yet the Plants being brought over, of what sort you please, (if you cannot have them in England) and with use made familiar with our Climate and ground, I know they would prosper in many sorts of this soil. The way we used to bring our Plants out of Germany, was this; At Proining [Page 2]time we cut out as many Plants as we sw good, or that we thought we should have need of, and filled large and deep Baskets or Tubbs with good earth, and so we pat or set in the said Plants, almost to the head or toppe; and bringing them thus over, we order'd them as you are taught in March, by which means we were furnished with divers sorts or kinds of excellent Grapes, which are prosperous to this day; for of thousand of Plants that I have seen ordered and planted, as hereafter is shewn, there hath scarce any mist growing; Vine to bear the first year.yea, I have known some bear the first year, and others the second or third years after they have been planted, whereof we have had Wines.

Whether the Vine were known before the flood.Whether the Vine were known, or at least in request, be­fore the Flood, I know not; but the first Planter of it after the Flood, according to the general opinion, or that I read of, was Noah, and with good reason indeed; Vineyard more gainful then o­ther Husban­dry.for Seneca, Cato, Varro, Collumella, &c. do affirm the Planting of Vine­yards have been more gainful then any other Art of Hus­bandry whatsoever.

The divers dressings of Vines.These Vines are also very diversly dressed, according to the fashion of each Countrey; for they are Dressed other­wise in Spain then in Italy, neither do they Dress them so in France as in Germany; but every Country using his several manner, as is best known to them.

Also there are different ways in Planting or supporting; for as Pliny and Collumella teacheth, the Vine may be Plant­ed five several ways; as some are suffered to run upon the ground; or without a stay grow upright; or upon an Ar­bour, serving to sit under; by a house, or Wall side; but properly in a Vineyard they have a Stay or Prop set for them, and they climbe up by it, or run up by a course of stiff props, or sustained with four, as you see good.

What tree is good, and what is hurtful to the Vine.Some will not have them to be sustained by either Nut­tree, or Bay-tree, &c. for that by their Antipathy they spoil the Vine, but will have them either supported or sustained by Elme, Willow, Ash, Poplar, Figge, Olive, &c. which by their Simpathy do rather cherish the Vine then hurt it.

Also some will have the body of the Vine to grow not [Page 3] The height of the Vineyard Vines.above 5, 6, or 7. foot high at the most; some nor above 3, or 4. foot; others will have all cut away to one Stock or Twigg; and that cut within two Joints of the ground.

As in this, so they differ much in the cutting out of their Plants, and after in the planting of them, or the fashion of placing of them in the ground.

Of the grafting of Vineyard.Some held heretofore Grafting of Vines a good way, for the which the best time (say they) is a warm weather, when the winter is past, and when the Bud and Rind is naturally moved, and it safe from cold, the which might annoy both the Stock and Graff; for which purpose you must chuse a warm day, and no wind, or as little as may be, should be stirring; the Graff must be round and sound, not full of Pith, but of Buds, and of thick Joints the tenant whereof must not exceed three inches, and small and even cut; the Stock and Cleft must be well closed with Clay and Moss,

The Poets observed or took notice heretofore of this man­ner of operation according to this Verse,

It is receiv'd that Seed of Grapes being sown,
Bring forth degenerate Clusters, or else none:
But Stocks being grafted prove a faithful Vine,
Whose pleasing Berries yield a generous Wine.

There are also great variety of opinions concerning the Digging and Dunging, for some would have them to be dugge every Moneth, some but three times in a year, and that between the Tenth of October and the Tenth of March, &c. Weeding As for their opinion in Weeding them, I shall very well approve of, which is, if it be found needful, to Weed them every Moneth, which some do with a Hoone, but it is better to pluck them up by the Root, for thereby they do somewhat hollow the ground, neither are they so apt to grow again.

The best times to gather grapesAnd some there be so nice and curious, as to observe and take notice in what Signe or Degree the Moon is in when they gather their Grapes, and say, that the best time to ga­ther them, is the Moon being in Cancer, Leo, Scorpio, Capri­corn, [Page 4]&c. But passing by all controversies and varie [...]ies of o­pinions, and large discourses, which many have written (which if you please) you may read at large in their several books of Husbandry now extant, as being for the most part taken from authors who have written and approved the same in other Countries.


VVE will now come to set down, a plain, easie, new, yea, and the best and surest way, that I could ever see or hear of, for the planting and bringing up of vines; and experienced here in England for many years last past.

The situation of the vineyards.And in the first place give me leave (as nigh as I can) to describe unto you the situation of our ground, or what kind or sort of ground it was, the manner of fencing, and also how it ought to be ordered, and dunged before it be planted, and in what fashion it should be laid in.

First, then for the situation it was on the side of a hill, which lieth towards the South or South-east-part.

Secondly; as for the sort of ground, it was a sort of red earth, which is commonly called Marle, a little inter­mingled with sand; the other part was sandy, and gravilly ground.

The manner of Fencing.Thirdly, it was fenced with a wall, (which may also be done with a bank, or pale close Jointed) to keep of as much as might be, the North, North-east, and North-west-winds, and withall not hindring the force of the Sun, but by the re­flection to further as much as may be.

How it ought to be laid before it be Planted.Fourthly, clearing the place of bushes or any other rub­bidge which might otherwise be noxious, let it be made even or level, either by bringing in of earth, or by abating one place to raise another, so that it may lie slooping down al­most as the flat side of a house; and being thus laid, dung it with good rotten dung, as Oxe or Cow-dung, or Hoggs-dung, and if your dung be mingled with Sheeps-dung for [Page 5] Dunging good, and when.sandy ground, so much the better; also if your ground be more cold, pigeons dung is excellent, and other dung may be used, as you see good; which being dung'd we digg a good depth to turn in the dung, about October, November, or De­cemb. that it may lie all or most part of the winter, that so the turffe (if any be) and the dung may be rot together; then when the spring draweth nigh you ought to lay on it a little more good dung (being well rotted) or rank earth if you think your ground be not ranke enough before; and so digg it again, which being this dugg and laid even, or rather as it were, in little berries according to the French fashion, as we shall hereafter more at large declare (but slooping as I said) plant it as is shewn in March.

CHAP, III January.

The Vine a tree of the Sun.THe Vine is a most excellent tree of the Sun, which to set down the several names, and kinds, according to each Country, and according to every quality, would be a thing beyond my reach to perform: besides it would be here alto­gether needless, therefore we shall not trouble you with long tautologies, but come to our discourse intended.

Proining of Vines, and the time when.First, then you may in this month proine your vines; but observe that the surest and best way is to stay till the begin­ning of the next month, and then proine them as I shall there declare; the first quarter of the moon and the last is held the best time to cut or proine in, and by the way observe, that if you proine the first year after they be planted, it must be done with great care, therefore in my opinion it is better to break off some of the leaves and branches and let them alone (which is most usual) till the second or third year, and then warily proine them.

Best not to proin till the second or third year.(I say) proine your vines in this month, if the time be in­clining to be seasonable, (viz.) not to much cold winds and black-frosts; for it is observed that the earlier in the year a [Page 6]Vine is provided, the earlier in the spring it beginneth to budd; but afterwards many times comes (as I said) cold winds and frosts and nips the buds, and so spoileth the fruit.

When to lay open the Roots.In this month you may also dig away the mould or earth (which some do three times a year) from the root of your vine-trees, that have born fruit, and so mingle it with good rotten dung and lay it too again

What Dung is best for your Vines.Pigeons dung is excellent mingled with other dung for the same purpose, also it is said that Oxe bloud, or Horse blood, or I suppose the blood of any other beast tempred with Pige­ons dung, is most excellent to lay to the principal root of any vine (the root of the Vine having taken aier a few daies by laying it bare) for some say it will make a decaying tree or Vine, to bring forth fruit and blossomes fresh; also the bloud of beasts tempred with some lime (for without lime the bloud ingendreth great store of wormes) is said to be excel­lent to be laid on the roots of vines, both to make them bear, and also to hasten the ripening of the grapes.

To hasten the Ripining of the Grapes.This is best to be applyed to make them bear in February, or March, but to hasten the ripening of the grapes apply it in July, or August, and also any piss, or urine put to the root, especially in some sort of ground is excellent,

CHAP. IIII. February.

The proining of Vines.

The Proining of Vines.THe surest and safest way is, not to proine your vines till this month, for then the spring draweth nigh, and the cold winds, and black frosts are almost past, which other­wise might nip the bud, and spoile the fruit, as aforesaid.

Cautions in proining.

First note, that if you can let the wind be the South, or [Page 7] Cautions in proining.South-west, for commonly then it bloweth somewhat warm, and if you cut them so that the slope place which you cut be to the south, so much the better, but in this you need not be very cautious.

Further note, that when you proine your Vines that you do not cut the little sprouts that shoot, or spring out at eve­ry knot, or joynt, too nigh; but about a straws breadth from the body or sprigg.

Note also, that you cut off the great spriggs, that come from the body of the Tree, namely the tops, between the two joynts, somewhat nigher to the lower Joynt then to the uppermost.

In this time of proining, you may observe to cut off some old branches that you see begin to decay, pretty nigh to the body of the tree, & let a young one grow up in the room of it.

How to chuse your young Plants.Leave not too many branches upon the body of the Tree, for if you so do, unless your ground be very well Manur'd & ordered, it will not bring forth, but (may be) grow wild; but if it do bring forth it will not bring them to perfection, but commonly half of the berries of each branch will be small and never come to be ripe.

As for the chusing, cutting out, or gathering of your plants observe this, that you chuse them, so that the butt end may have some of the old stock in it (for some are of opinion that a Vine will bear the sooner at least for leaving some of the old stock on it; this I know, that they will take root better and come to be a Tree the sooner) and that they be of a rea­sonable bigness towards the lower or butt-end, let them be somewhat less or about the bigness of the fore-part of your little finger, and about a cubit or neer two foot in length, and cut in the middle of the Joynt at the lower end (which is not to be done till you set them in the ground) and at the upper end between the two Joynts.

The time when to gather your young plants.The time to gather your plants is, in what Month or time soever you find fit to proine your Vines; note that you cut them where they may be best spared.

So having gathered so many plants as you think you shall need to use, lay the butt-ends in the mould, or earth, any [Page 8]where in the Garden or Vineyard, to keep them moist, and so let them lie till a little before Easter or the month of March, (but the French do plant them in a Vineyard or in a nursery assoon as they have cut them, and some English following their fashion do the like) as the season of the year and discre­tion shall best instruct, at which time (they being cut even at the butt-ends) bind them up in bundles and set them in the ground, as I shall declare in March.

Also in this month you may if you have time, or by reason of neglect before, digg away the mould from the root of your Vines, and so mingle it with some good rotten-dung, and lay it too again as I said before in January.

CHAP. V. March.

Of proining.IN case of necessity, or that you have neglected, you may in this month proine your Vines, so it be before the tenth day, for then the sap beginneth to ascend▪

How to make up your plants to put into the earth, to plant in May or June.

To make up your Plants to plant in May or JuneHaving chosen and cut out as many plants as you think you shall have occasion to use (as before) and having cut the butt-ends smooth and even in the middle of the Joint, as it were between the new and the old part (for they should be but one years growth) but rather leaving some of the old on, lay the said butt-ends of all your plants even together, and bind them with two withs or twigs, or such like things, pretty hard in a bundle, or bundles; and so dig a hole in the earth in some warm place, as deep or deeper then the length of the said plants and so put them into the hole; the top downwards and then fill up the hole again; till it be within a hands breadth of the top of the butts (the butts being up­wards) then take some Field-moss and lay over and about the [Page 9]butts, and then the hole being fild even, lay some sand and earth mingled together upon the Moss, about a fingers length in thicknesse; and so let them there remain till May, or June, and as for the time to take them up, observe what is said in those Months.

When to water your yong plantsBut if the time or season be very dry, so that you think they are dry, or want moistning, Water them a little (not so much as to starve them) two or three times as you shall think need requires, pouring the water on the sand that it may soke in by degrees.

How the roots of Plants ought to be left.Now the reason why they be thus planted, is, that the Moss by the exhalation of the Sun keepeth them moist, it being spungeous and imbibes the water, and the sand and earth by the reflection of the Sun beams or rayes keepeth them warm, so that they shoot out the earlier, by which means at the time of your replanting, you shall find a root (although young and tender) ready grown; of which you must be very careful, and leave but two or three of the principal branches or sprouts for the root of each plant.

The manner of setting these plants is the same with those that have been planted a year or two, and are to be removed as I will here next declare.

How to replant those plants that have been planted, one, two, or three yeares.

How to replant young plants.Suppose you have some plants that have been planted in a nursery, or elsewhere, a year, two, or three, and that you would replant them, you may in this moneth take them up and remove them, having your ground ready dug and in good order as aforesaid: and having also ready some good rotten dung, and good rank earth, or mould mixed together, or very good earth onely to put to the roots, and then set them half a foot or more into the ground long wayes, leaving the very top onely out; for your plant is cut commonly with a­bout three or four of the principal roots left; the rest must as superfluous be cut off, and so close up the mould or earth close about them.

When the best time to plant.The last quarter of the Moon, and the first is by the Ger­mans observed to be the best time to plant or remove in, if the weather be good and seasonable, as I have before noted.

At what di­stance your yong plants should be set.Also here you may take notice that these plants (as also the young ones) ought to be set a yard, or very nigh a yard di­stance, squarely each from other, that you may have a conve­nient passage between the rowes if it be in a vineyard, not onely to mould, dung and weed them almost as you do your hops, but also to proin, to break off the superfluous leaves and branches, and to gather the grapes when they be ripe, and such other conveniences as are required: I shall make it more plain by an example or two.


If you have a piece of ground prepared as we have before shown, and that you would have it planted after the German manner, or as some now use in England; you may suppose at each of these prlcks to be set a Plant a yard distance each from other squarely.

[planting out scheme]

And set in the ground slope-wayes along the row, with the tops up the hill; and so have you room to pass between them which way you please; neither do they incumber the ground so much, but that it may bear them.

The French way of planting.The French manner of planting as it was learnt of them, and is now used in some places of England, is this:


They having prepared their ground ready as is before shown (viz.) laid sloping, they lay about two foot even, and then about a yard they rise somewhat higher, and then even, and then rais'd in a kinde of a little berry, or bury, as it were, [Page 11]and so they do, all through the piece of ground they intend to plant, as thus: suppose a Plant or Vine at each of these pricks.

the lowest ground.

the highest ground.

At what di­stance the French set their Plants.A yard from row to row in the midst, or that which lies highest, or about two foot from row to row in the narrowest, or that which lieth low and level, and they do not set the Plants long wayes in the rows, but the tops of the Plants of each rows together, and the butt-ends towards one another thwart, that so you may dig and dung at your pleasure; as suppose they were set thus,

the highest and broad­est part.

the lowest part be­ing plain.

And in the widest place between each two rows over the but­ends or roots is laid your earth mixed with good dung: but in my opinion this way of planting incumbreth the ground too much, and seldom will it maintain so many Plants as to stand at this distance.

Note.Here note, that you do not let your Plants grow high too quickly, but every year by degrees, as the Stock or Body of your Tree increaseth in bigness and substance.

If they be thus thick planted, one stock is enough to grow up from each plant or root.

But if they are planted after the Dutch way, you may sometimes let two or three grow up.

CHAP. VI. April.

THere is little to be done in this Moneth, unless it be so that you could not, or by any neglect you have not or­dered them in the fore-going Moneths, as is there set down; in such case you may both dung and plant as is before ex­prest.

Also you may weed in this Moneth, and such other operations as you shall find necessary.


Of the taking up of your young Plants.

When to take up your young plants:IF the Spring be very forwardly, and the weather good and seasonable, you may take up your Plants which were set in the ground in bundles in or about March, and plant them according as I have said in that Moneth of the other Plants; but if the Spring be not forwardly and the season very good, it is best to let them alone till June; Notethe best way to know when they be ready, is, to observe the Vine leaves, as thus, when they are pretty broad and some of them begin to look of a grass green colour, then is in nigh ready to take them up, for then have they a little shot forth as you will find.

The French fashion.The French they cut out their Plants when they proine, and presently plant them where they intend they shall grow, or else in some Nursery to remove afterward.


The time when it is good to break off super­fluous branchesThat if your Vines be forwardly, you may towards the latter end of this Moneth break off some of the leaves where they grow too thick, and some of the long branches or tops (that small part I mean which is above or beyond the bunch) where they grow too thick, or two or three together, as your reason may best instruct you; and have a care in breaking, that you break not off the young bunches with them;Note. you may also break off the young springs that spring up from the root of the Tree if there come up more then you would wil­lingly have to grow, observing to leave so many young ones to grow up to supply where is wanting; How your Vines are supported and tyed.and as they grow in length tie them up with Rushes, Saggs, small Withs, or such like things; or else nail them up with leathers, if it be by a Wall or House; but in a Vineyard they are supported by sticks fit for the same purpose, as before.

If the weather prove very hot in this Moneth, after you have planted your young Plants you must water them a little only to keep them moist, not so much to keep them very cold, for then they will not grow so well, nor so fast. Now the reason why it is necessary to break off leaves and bran­ches at such times, is, because when such superfluous bran­ches are taken away, needs must the Tree have the more force and nourishment for that which is left.


When to take your young plants.HEre is further to be noted, that if the Spring be back­wardly, you ought not to take up your young Plants; namely, the bundle or bundles which you put in the ground [Page 14]in March untill this Moneth, as you may observe by the Vine leaves; so your ground being prepared and made ready, plant them as I have before set down.

How to defend the root of the tree from much heat or wet.And if the parching heat of the Sun do offend the root of the Vine, or dry the ground too fast, you may prevent it with the help of boards, stones, &c. setting or laying them at the root of the Tree.

And if by much rain in Winter, the wet offend the said Vines, you may prevent that also with the use of boards, &c.

Also it is necessary if the Spring be backwardly in this Moneth, to break off some of the leaves and branches ac­cording as is said in May.

When to water the young plantsFurther observe that if the weather prove very hot and dry, after you have planted your young Plants, you must water them a little, only to keep them moist.

The time when your Vines be­gin to flower.About the tenth of this Moneth your Vines begin to flower, by which it is, by some observed a plentiful or scarce year of Grapes.

CHAP. IX. July.

Grapes how they ripen best.IN the latter end of this Moneth, it is very necessary that we take notice where the leaves, or long shouts, or bran­ches, grow too thick, and break them off; but see that you do not break them off so, that all the bunch will be exposed to the Sun, nor to leave it so, if you can help it, that it will be always in the shade; but that it may be a little shaded and sometimes in the Sun and so will they ripen the more kindly.

CHAP. X. August.

IN this Moneth you may also break off some of the leaves, according as is said in July; and if the Summer be wet so that the rain maketh the Grapes swell, you must break off the leaves that the Sun may come at them the better.

Observations in gathering.When you gather your Grapes do not slive them off, but cut them at the next joint to the sprig they grow.

How to preserve the bunches till they are ripe.I might here add many artificial wayes to preserve the bunches either on, or off the Trees to last long, and to pre­serve them from the frost, or wet, till such time as they are fully ripe.

As those that have but a few, tie some of the best bunches in Glasses, others set up boards over them slope wayes to shoot off the rain if too much wet offend them, and many other artificial wayes are used to preserve them as may be best added by the operators in this emploiment, onely some few receipts worth the noting I shall hereafter set down.

How to know when they are ripe.You may know when they be ripe, thus; if the stones be­gin to look black, or if with crushing the Grape the Stone slip out smooth, or else onely by the clearness of the Berry, but especially by the taste.

The fashion of your Vine pre [...] sesAnd here I think it not impertinent to set down the fashi­on of a Wine-press, the manner of bruising and pressing of your Grapes, and such other circumstances necessary there­unto.

How to bruise your Grapes best way.The Germans have an extraordinary great weight with devices, as scrues, and the like, to lift it, and so to let down to press the Grapes; but we shall describe here another and better manner of pressing.

First, then for bruising your Grapes you may have made two rowles of good sound wood; each of which may be about a yard round, and about a yard, or an ell in length; to each of which you must put a turnless, in the form of a turnless for a grinding stone, and then place these two rowls [Page 16] Of divers things that be­long to bruisingtogether about breast high (they having gudgeons, or things of iron in each end to turn upon) in some pieces of wood to put athwart to turn upon, in what room or house you please to have it in; and continue it so, that you may set one of the said rowles wider or closer as you please, for the bruising of your big or small berries, as you shall have occa­sion; by the turning of these said rowles contrary the one to the other, doth squeeze or crush the Grapes, as the Mill crusheth the Sugar Canes, out of which runs the juyce of which the Sugar is made.

The rowles being thus set, hang over them slopewise to put your Grapes in a kinde of a hopper, made in the form of a large tray, at the lower end of which over the middle of the two rowles, must be a hole made to put them down at, as the rowles turn, and under the said rowles you must set a re­ceiver to take the bruised Grapes and Wine.

Of the b [...]st juyce or liquor.Here note that all the liquor or juyce which will run only with this bruising, is much the better, and is usually kept apart from that which runs in pressing.

How to make your Claret wineAnd here you may also further observe, that as for your white Grapes, of which is made your white Wine, you may press them presently after you have bruised them; but as for your red Grapes, of which comes your Claret Wine, you must let it stand for the space of four and twenty hours or more, or less, according to the high or pale colour you desire to have your Claret look; for it is the standing together af­ter they are bruised, which causeth the skins of the Grapes to give it the colour; for should you press it presently (as the white) it would have very little or no colour of redness at all.

The Fashion of Presses.

Wine Presses how they are made.Now as for the Press, some will have them after one man­ner, others after another; one fashion is this; you may have made a couple of large and long scrues, and in what room you please to set your press, you may have them very firmly fixed, by some weighty pieces at the bottom and top of the [Page 17]said screws so that they may not rise, or stir with screwing; upon which screws you must have two boxes (as they are cal­led) fitted, with ends made convenient to screw or force down in pressing, in the form as Sider in some places is made; and between these two screws towards the bottom you must have made fast a very strong and thick piece of planck, made round or square, as you please; upon which must stand a strong basket to hold your Grapes, being bruised; and round about the basket in the said planck must be cut a natch, or channel, for the juyce or wine to run round into one spout, under which must be set a receiver.

Another Fashion wine press.Another fashion press is this, (which I think is the best) in place of the two screws aforesaid you may have fast fixt, that is to say, on each side two supporters or posts; at the top, or pretty high athwart; between them must be fixed a very strong box, in which must turn a strong screw in the middle, and on the lower end of the screw is a cross piece fastned for the end of the screw to turn in, as it is moved or screwed commonly, with a long and weighty crow of iron by two holes made in the square towards the lower end of the screw cross, for the end of the crow of Iron to go in, to force, or screw it down, and the basket in which you put the Grapes to be prest in, may be made round, and also the trench or channel in the planck, &c.

There are other wayes used besides baskets, as wreaths of straw, &c. But I shall forbear to treat of them, for that they are more tedious and troublesome; and for that you may this way that I have here set down, bruise and press an hun­dred bushels or more in a day.

How to make other sorts of wines.This way you may also make Gooseberry Wine, Rasber­ry Wine, Wine of Cherries, either black or red, or Wine of Currans, Apricock Wine, Wine of Plumbs, &c. but these last must be stoned.

CHAP. XI. September.

IN this, and both the former, and the next Moneth is the time to gather Grapes here with us in England, wherefore (as I said before) it is best in the gathering not to cut off your bunches close to the Tree, but one joynt or knot from it.

When to gather grapes to keep long.Gather not your Grapes (if you mean to keep them long) till the full Moon, otherwise it is not observed

And here you may take notice that when you have ga­thered your ripe Grapes, and put them into some large vate or vessel, which you shall find convenient for that purpose, according to the French, Spanish, or German manner; you shall before you come to brusing (being many together) have a liquor exprest from them which is called Protophum, as being the first that comes or drops.

How the first and second [...]ning is called.Secondly, That which runs immediately from them being trodden or used, is called fortimum; the best part of the li­quor: But of the divers kinds of names we shall speak in a second part hereafter.

The manner of pressing.Thirdly, Let us come to pressing, where note that the first part of each pressing is accounted the richest or best part of the juice which comes by expression, and is included under the general name Vinum; the latter running is accounted (although of the same sort or kind) smaller or weaker.

What vessels you ought to put your wines in.Your Grapes being thus prest, and you having received your Wine together or a part, as you see good; let your Vessels wherein you put the same be firm, new, and well bound with Iron, Of the Cellar.also let your Cellar be very deep, for the deeper the more cool is it for Summer, and the warmer for Winter, which is a great help for the keeping and perfecting of good Wine, as may be seen in Germany, where their Cel­lars are 18 or 20 foot deep or more.

Note.But by the way note, that your Wine must first have wrought, before you tun it up in so deep a Cellar; for un­derstand [Page 19] Of fermentationthat heat causeth fermentation.

As for the manner of rowling and shifting your Wines upon the Lees, experience will best instruct you; as also to know the time when they are fit to be drunk.

How to keep wine from decaying.But if in the spending of your Wines, they begin to loose their spirits, and as it were decay (as a great deal will, by that time that half the cask is drawn out;) to prevent it, you may at the first piercing draw it all out into Bottles, and set the said Bottles afterwards in sand (as before.) When you find it begin to grow flat never so little, you may dip a piece of linen cloth in melted brimstone, and put it in at the Bung­ho le of the cask, and set it on fire, the linen cloth and brim­stone I mean, (not the cask) and let it so hang in the cask by some wyer or some such like thing till is be burnt, keeping in the sulpherous vapours as much as you can, and so stop it up close again; this doth help decaying Wine very much, by adding spirits thereto, for all Wines have in them a Sul­pherous part as may be proved and seen in burning.

To help the wine that reboileth.Also to help your Wine that reboileth, if you put a piece of Cheese into the vessel you will presently see the effects; or else if you put a bunch of Peniroyal, or Organy, or Cala­mint, about the hole at which the Wine cometh out it help­eth.

VVhen the wine fermenteth.For the Wine Merchants observe in France, and every where else where there is Wine that during the season that the Vines are in flower, the Wine which is in the Cellars makes a kind of fermentation, and pusheth forth a little white Lee upon the surface of the Wine, which continueth in a kind of disorder untill the flowers of the Vines be fallen, and then this agitation or fermentation being ceased, all the the Wine returns to the same state it was in before, accor­ding to the opinion of the ancients, 1300 years ago: The same time doth this fermentation happen that the Vines seem to exhale their spirits in the Vineyards.

The reason why wine reboilethNow those Wine spirits that issue from the buds and flowers, filling the air, they are drawn into the vessels by the connatural and attractive vertue of the Wine within; and these new volatile spirits entring, do excite the most fixed [Page 20]spirits of the Wine, and so cause a fermentation, as if one should pour therein new or sweet Wine; for in all fermen­tations there is a separation made of the Terrestrial parts from the oily, which come out of the essential parts, and so the lightest mount up to the superfices, the heaviest become Tartar Lees which fall into the bottom but in this season if one be not very careful to keep the Vine in a proper & tem­perate place, and keep the ca [...]k full and well bung'd, and use other endeavours which are ordinary with Wine-Coopers, one runs a hazard to have his Wine impaired or quite spoil­ed, because that the volatile spirits coming to evaporate themselves, they carry away with them the spirits of the Wine that is barreled, by exciting them and mingling with them.

And it is not only in France and other places where Vines are near Cellars of Wine, that this fermentation happens; but in England also where we have not Vines enough as yet to make good store of Wine the same thing is observed; yea and some particularities beyond: Although we make not very much Wine to any considerable proportion, yet we have wine in great aboundance, which is brought over by the Merchants as from the Canaries, from Spain, and from Gas­cony; now these Regions being under different degrees and climates in point of latitude, and consequently one Country is hotter or colder then the other; or that some vegetables grew to maturity sooner it comes to pass that the aforesaid fermentation of our differing Wines advanceth it self more or less, according to the Vines whence they proceed do bud and flower in the Regions where they grow, it being con­sentaneous to reason that every sort of Wine attracts more willingly the spirits of those Vines whence they come then any other but no more; this being only a digression by the by

How to purge wine quicklySo then if your Wine be new, and you would have it quickly purged, you must put half a pint of Vinegar to eve­ry fifteen quarts of Wine.

I do not write this to Vintners nor Wine-Coopers, neither do I do it to put them in mind, for that they are ready e­nough of themselves early and late with their jumbling [Page 21]slights and mixtures, which if they forbear it would be much better both for the credit of their houses and health of their Customers.

Objection. But you may object and say, how then can the Wines be put off if no such tricks should be used: Resp To make wine brisk or quick.True indeed, for if the wine be not brisk, how shall we make it without the ad­dition of Sugar, Vinegar, Vitriol,—&c. to sparkle or rather bubble in the Glass or how will the colour be altered as we please without the use of Red wine, and many other ingre­dients which must not be mentioned, fore there must not be pierced a fresh cask so often as Customers desire [...]o have change, yet must they be pleased if possible; but no more of this.

To make your wine more pleasant.Let us proceed further and suppose that we have perfor­med all things necessary in this work, and have here the juice of the English Grape such as it is, but yet it wanteth a suf­ficient and perfect digestion to bring it to maturity, or a plea­santness to please your pallat; to perform this, let us accord­ing to the Spanish and some others fashion, boile this said juice, by which boiling is evaporated the thin or aquious quality, so that, that which remains is more pleasant, and it being cold, may be mixed with equal proportion of the crude Wine, or else proportion it according as it wil best pleasure your own pallat.

The best way to help our English wines.But if we be forced to use outward helps in default of our Soile or Climate, in my opinion this is the best; as to every gallon of our English Wine, such as it is, add one pound of Raisins of the Sun, or Maligo Raisins, being first washed in several waters; or for other sort, chuse the best Currans you can get, being wel cured, and washed and pickt, and use the same proportion as before, to each gallon of red Wine; leave them in this imbibition until the Liquor have extracted the tincture and strength of the fruit; then draw the Wine from the fruit, and let it stand until they have wrought themselves into one body, at which time they wil become a most pleasant Wine, resembling divers kinds, either to be drunk alone, or serving to tast any other Wine, according to the proportion of the fruit that is infused.

To help your sharp wine another way.I wil here add one observation more. Suppose you have a piece of Wine which naturally is too sharp for your drinking, you may draw it out into bottles, and in each bottle put a spoonful or two of refined Sugar, and so set them in sand in a Cellar, and let them stand a considerable time before you drink it, and you wil find it pleasant and good Wine.

Here I might add more ways for the help of our English Wines, but that it would be impertinent; for, Verbum Sapi­enti sufficit▪

CHAP. XII. October.

MOst commonly the year is so favourable, that the lat­ter part of your Grapes or Vintage is not gathered til this Month; for the gathering of which, chuse a dry day, and gather none but those which are ripe, if they be for Wine, lest being not ripe, they spoil all; the rest, if they wil not come to be ripe at all, yet may you use other ways and means with them, so that they may be very useful for Vine­gar, or the like.

Of weeding.Also in this Month you must weed, either by heaving, dig­ing, or pulling up the weeds, for they commonly grow very fast about this time of the year.

Vineyard grapes the best. Note, that your grapes come to be far better, and more riper in a Vine-yard, than upon any house or wall: partly because they grow so nigh the ground; Air a great helper of the grapes.and partly because the Sun hath more liberty to go about them, and also the air, which is a very great advantage to them, as experience (the best Judge) teacheth, as you may by an example prove; for if you have by the glasier made a case (as it were) either round or square, but long, according to the height of one of your Vine-yard Vines, into which glass (being close) made up but onely on one end; put the said Vine (I mean any one of your Vineyard Vines) so that the air come not to it: let it be put in when the Grapes are but half ripe, or when the berries [Page 23]be very small, and look what bigness the berries are when you set over your glass, of that bigness shall they be (for want of air) when you take off the glass again, although they wil grow sweet by the heat of the Sun; but if you let it stand till the other are full ripe, yet will not they be bigger, as I have seen tried.


How the Ger­mans preserve the Vine in the Winter.In this Moneth there is little to be done here in England, but in Germany and other places where the Climate, or Win­ter is very cold, they cut off the Boughs, and Branches nigh to the Tree, and so lay the Tree along the ground, and cover it on each side, onely leaving the top uncovered, so to de­fend it from the nipping Frost, and there let them remain till January, or February, but here in England the Frost is not so sharp, violent, or piercing but they may stand all the year: so that you need not cut them till proining time.

When to cut away the small roots of the Vines.But if it be so you do lay open your roots, you may cut away the small ones, as being superfluous, with care, and so will the principal root, or roots, prosper the better.

This must be done but the first five years.

CHAP. XIII. December.

Of Proining.IN this Moneth you may proine your Vines here in Eng­land if you think you shall not have leasure in January or February; but to do it in these moneths is the best and safest way, as I have before shown: Of laying open the may also if you please lay open the roots of your Vines, and having lien open a certain space, storcorize them, and lay the mould too a­gain.

And here I think it not amiss to set down several things fit to be applyed to prevent the bleeding of Vines.

It falleth out many times that there are many sort of Vines [Page 24] Of several things to be ap­plied to prevent the bleeding of Vines.much subject to bleed when they are proined, or cut, espe­cially when the sap is ascended never so little, yea, some­times to the loss of the Vine if it be not prevented in time; which to do, presently cover the place with good store of Turpentine, and it will sometimes stay the bleeding: or, binde a packthread very strai [...] about the Bark, or sear the place with a hot Iron, and put hot ashes presently upon it: or,

Take the powder of Bole-almenack, and the white of an egge, beat the white of the egge well, and put too the bole, and mix them, and binde it fast on the place that bleedeth, with flax, or linnen cloath: or,

Take the order of a man that is dry and stiff, and binde it on the place very hard with some packthread: or,

Drop on the place where it bleeds some melted Brim­stone, &c.

There are many other wayes to prevent this bleeding, or gleeting; but I suppose this is sufficient at the present: so that here we shall conclude this with onely a small addition of pretty receipts and useful upon many occasions. If any be curious to know something of the different kindes, and also the many vertues of the moderate use of Wines, he may partly be satisfied in perusing Mr. Gerrards Herbal, from page 724. to page 736. where he hath set down a lively descri­ption thereof, &c.

CHAP. XIIII. How to have Grapes to grow long upon the Vines.

DO thus, put a Vine Branch through a Basket in December, chuse such a one as is like to bear Grapes, fill the Bas­ket with earth, and when the Grapes are ripe, cut off the Branch under the Basket, keep the Basket abroad whilst it is warm weather, and within doors in cold weather.

Another way is this to have them grow late.

Towards cold weather you may cover with Horse Dung, or Flax (but I think Flax the best) all the stalks of the Vines, even to the bunches of Grapes, covering the bunches them­selves with straw, or put them in Glasses, and so you may happen to have Grapes growing on the Vines at, or near Christmas.

How to preserve bunches of Grapes very long.

When the Grapes are ripe, and before the Frost hath ta­ken them, in the new Moon gather as many of the fairest bunches as you would keep, and having knocked some nails, or hooks into a Box, or Chest-lid, with some thread, hang some bunches thereon, so that they touch not one another, and shut down the lid close that no aire come at them, and set them in a room wherein is usually kept a fire, and when you would use them plump them in a little warm water.

Another way.

If you cut a large Branch of the Vine which hath one, two, or three clusters of Grapes on it, and at each end of the cutting thrust onely the Branch whereon the bunches grow in a sound and lasting apple, and so hang it up.

To keep Claret Wine, or any Wine good nine or ten Years.

At every vintage draw almost every part out of the Hogs­head, and then rowle it upon his Lees, and after fill it up with the best new Wine of the same kinde you can get.

To separate Water from Wine.

To separate Water from Wine, put into the vessel of Wine melted Allum, and after stopping the mouth of the [Page 26]said vessel with a spunge, drenched in oyl, turn the mouth of the vessel so stopped downwards, and so the water onely will come out: or,

Cause a vessel of Ivy Wood to be made, and put there­in such quantity of Wine as it will be able to hold▪ the water will come forth presently, and the wine will abide pure and neat.

Some do use presently to change the Wine so watered, and to draw it out into another vessel, and then to put a pint and a half of salt to every fifteen quarts of Wine.

Others do boil the Wine upon the fire so long until the third part be consumed, and the rest they use three or four hours after.

How to make Spirit of Wine.

This of all vegetables is the most precious thing, and also the truest of all Cordials, as we shall hereafter show, and is thus made.

Take of good white Claret Wine, or Sack, which is not sowre nor musty, or otherwise corrupt that quantity which may serve to fill the vessel wherein you make your distilla­tion to a third part; then put on the head, furnished with the nose, or pipe, and so make your distillation, first in ashes, drawing about a third part from the whole: as for example, six or eight pints out of four and twenty, then still it again in B. M. drawing a third part, which is two pints, so that the oftner you still it the less liquor you have, but the more strong; some use to rectifie it seven times.

How to make good Vinegar.

Take as much Wine as you see good, either white or red, and cast into it Salt, Pepper, and sower leaven mingled to­gether; afterwards heat red hot some tyle or gad of Steel, and put it hot into the Wine. Or

In like manner a Radish-root, a Beet-root, or a shive of Barley bread new baked put in Wine, and it being set forth [Page 27]in a Glass in the Sun or in the Chimney corner to the heat of the fire, will make good Vinegar in a short time; which to make better you may infuse in it the leaves of Red Roses, or put in the Juice of Mints and Centry.

To make Vinegar with your corrupted Wine.

Take your marred Wine and boil it, and take away all the scum that riseth in boiling; thus let it continue on the fire till it be boiled away one third part, then put it up into a vessel wherein hath been Vinegar, putting thereto some chervile, cover the vessel in such sort that there get no air into it, and in short time it will prove good and strong Vinegar.

To make Verjuice of Grapes.

Take of your Grapes before they be quite Ripe, as many as you please, beat or bruise them, and press out the juice and put it into some small vessel that so you may fill it, let it stand to settle and work a pretty while, and you have an ex­cellent Verjuice for to sharpen your sauces and provoke or whet the appetite.


Books newly Printed for William Crooke, at the three Bibles on Fleet-bridge, 1665.

SIn Dismantled, shewing the loathsomness thereof in lay­ing it open by Confession, with the Remedy for it by Repentance and Conversion; Wherein is set forth the man­ner how we ought to confess our sins to God and Man, with the Consiliary decrees from the Authorities thereof, and for the shewing the necessity of Priestly Absolution, &c. And an Historical relation of the Canons concerning Confession, and the secret manner of it; also the Confessors affection and in­clinations are shewed, by K. A. L. Rev. L. I. D. D. 40. 1664.

There is newly engraven the so much desired Cuts or Pi­ctures to the Old Testament, all lively done, to fit Bibles of all Volumes, small and great, 1665.

Sixty nine Enigmatical Characters, all exactly drawn to the Life, from several Persons, Humours, and Dispositions; pleasant and full of delight the 2d. Impression; by the Au­thor R. F. Esq 1665.

The Royal Stem, being an account of all the most remark­able actions either by Land or Sea, in these Kingdoms since William the Conquerours time to this year 1665. With the Picture of K. Charles the IId. in the middle; all in a Broad­sheet of Paper, fit to hang in Houses, Closets, or Chambers.

The famous and delightful History of St. George the Patron of England; shewing all his Life, Atchivements, Miracles, and Deeds of Renown, with his Conversion of Arabia, being the exactest relation ever was Printed, by the 16. years industry of J. Lowick Gent.

Caliope's Cabinet Opened; wherein Gentlemen may be informed how to adorn themselves for Funerals, Feastings, and other Heroick Meetings; also here they may know their places of worth, with all the degrees and distinctions of Ho­nour in the Realm: Shewing how every one ought to take place, with their Titles due to them; with other things of Antiquity very observable by James Salter 1665.


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