A LEARNED TREATISE OF Globes: Both Coelestiall and Ter­restriall: with their several uses.

Written first in Latine, by Mr. Robert Hues: and by him so Published.

Afterward Illustrated with notes, by Jo. Isa. PONTANUS And now lastly made English, for the benefit of the unlearned.

By John Chilmead Mr of A. of Christ-Church in Oxon.

LONDON, Printed by J. B. for Andrew Kemb, an [...] to be sold at his shop, on S. Marga [...] hill in Southwark, 1659.

To the Reader.

THat nothing is at once brought forth, and perfected▪ is an ob­servation we may make, as from other things so in a more especiall manner from Arts and Sciences. For (not to speak any thing of the rest, which yet have all of them in suc­cession of times, had their accessions of Per­fection) if wee but take the Astronomicall writings of Aratus, or of Eudoxus, (accor­ding to whose observations Aratus is reported by Leontius Mechanicus to have composed his Phaenomena) and compare the same with the later writings of Ptolomy; what er­rours and imperfections shall we meet with­all; And in the Geographicall wo [...]ks of the [...]ncients, whether we compare them among themselves, the later with the former; er either of them with the more accurate de­scriptions of our Modern Geographers: how many things shal we meet wit haltherein, that need either to be corrected [...] erroneous, or else [Page] supplied as defective? There shall wee find Strabo, every w [...]ere harshly censuring the ex­travagances of Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Polybius, and Posidonius; Authors among the Ancients of very high esteem. For as for Pytheas, Euthemeres, Antiphanes, & those Indian Historiographers, Megast­henes, Nearchus, and Daimachus, whose writings are stuffed with so many fabulous idle relations, he accounts them unworthy his censure. In like manner, Marinus Tyri­us, however a most diligent Writer, is yet hardly dealt withall by Ptolomy. And even Ptolomy himself, a man, that fo [...] his great knowledge and experience may seeme to have excelled all those that went before him: yet if a man shall but compare his Geo­graphicall Tables with the more perfect dis­coveries of our later times: what defects & imperfections shall he there discover? Who sees no [...] his errours in the bounds he sets to the Southern parts of Asia & Africa? How imperfect are his descriptions of the Nor­therne coasts of Europe? These errours of Ptolomy, and of the Ancient Geographers have now, at [...]ngth, been discovered by the late Sea voyages of the Portugals, and Eng­lish: the Southern Coasts of Africa and [Page] Asia, having been most diligently searched into by the Portugals; as the Northerne parts of Europe, have in like manner been by our owne Country-men. Among whom, the first that adventured on the discovery of these parts, were, Sir Hugh Willoughby, and Richard Chanceler: after them, Ste­phen Borough. And farther yet, then ei­ther of these, did Arthur Pet, and Charles Jackman discover these parts. And these voyages, were all undertaken, by the instiga­tion of Sebastian Cabot: that so, if it were possible, there might bee found out a nearer passage to Cathay and China yet all in vaine, save only that by this meanes, a course of traffick was confirmed betwixt us and the Moscovite.

When their attempts succeeded not this way; their next designe was then to try▪ what might be done on the Northerne Coasts of America: and the first undertaker of these [...]oyages was Mr. Martin Frobisher: who was afterwards seconded by M John Davis. By meanes of all which Navigations, many errours of the Ancients, and their great ig­norance was discovered.

But now that all these their endeavours succeeded not, our Kingdome at that time [Page] being well furnished, in ships, and impatient of idleness: they resolved at length to adven­ture upon other parts. And first Sir Hum­phrey Gilbert, with great courage & Forces attempted to make a discovery of those parts of America, which were yet unknown to the Spaniard: but the successe was not answer­able. Which attempt of his, was afterward more prosperously prosecuted, by that honou­rable Gentleman, Sir Walter Rawleigh: by whose meanes Virginia, was first discove­red unto us, the Generall of his Forces being Sir Richard Greenvile: which Countrey was afterwards very exactly surveighed and described by M. Thomas Harriot.

Neither have our Country-men within these limits bounded their Navigations For Sir Francis Drake, passing through the Straites of Megellane, and bearing up a­long the Westerne Coasts of America, disco­vered as far as 50. degrees of Northern Latitude. After whom, Mr. Thomas Can­dish, tracing the same steps, hath purchased himself as large a monument of his fame, with all succeeding ages. I shall not need to reckon with these, our Countryman, Sir John Mandivel, who almost 300. years since, in a 33. yeares Voyage by land, took a strict [Page] view of all India, China, Tartary, and Per­sia, within the Regions adjoying.

By these, & the like expeditions by Sea, the matter is brought to that pass, that our Eng­lish Nation may seem to contend, even with the Spaniard, and Portugall himself, for the glory of Navigation. And without all doubt, had they but taken along with them, a very reasonable competency of skill in Geometry, and Astronomy: they had by this, gotten themselves a farr more honourable name at Sea, then they. And indeed, it is the opinion of many understanding men, that their en­deavours have taken the lesse effect, meerely through ignorance in these Sciences. That therefore there might be som smal accrwment to their study and paines, that take delight in these Arts; I have composed this smal Trea­tise: which, that it may be for their profit, I earnestly desire. Farewell.

The Contents of the Chapters, of this TREATISE.

THe Preface: wherein is shewed the Antiquity, and excellency of Globes, in comparison of all o­ther Instruments, as being of a forme, most apt to expresse the figure of the Heavens and Earth. The roundnes of the Earth, is defended against Patricius. The height of Hills, how much it may detract from the roundnesse of the Earth.

The first PART.
  • Chapter. 1. WHat a Globe is, with the parts thereof; and of the Circles without the Globe: What the Horizon is, with the things described therein, in a Materiall Globe. What the Meridi­an is, the Poles: and Axis; as also the Hour­circle and Index.
  • Cap. 2. Of the circles, which are described on the supersicies of Globes. Of the AEquator or AEquinoctiall circle. What a day is, both Naturall, and Artificiall: as also of Houres, [Page] both Equall, and Unequall. Of the Zodiack, and Eccliptick. What a year is, and the Inde­terminate limits thereof: together with the diverse opinions of Authors concerning the same; as also many of their errours. What the AEquinoctium, and Solstices are; with change­ing of their places, and Anticipation in the Calendar, confirmed by many observations. The errour of Sosigenes, and Julius Caesar, in designing the place of the AEquinoctium. Of the Colurs. The Longitude, & Latitude of the fixed Stars,, are proved by observations, to have been altered. A place of Ptolomy, l ib. 1. cap. 7. Geograph. is vindicated from the in­jury of his Interpreters, and confirmed by the authority of Strabo. Of the Tropickes: with the changing of their declination. What the Arctick, and Antarctick Circles are: Of the Verticall Circles, and Quadrant of Al­titude.
  • Chap. 3. Of the three positions of Sphere, Right, Pa­rallel, and Oblique: with their severall af­fections.
  • Chap. 4. Of the Zones, and their number. The vaine opinions of the Ancients, concerning the tem­perature of the Zones, are rejected; both by the Testemonies of some of the Ancients themselves, as also by the experience of later times.
  • Chap. 5. Of the Amphiscij, Periscij, and Heteroscij.
  • [Page] Chap. 6. Of the Perioeci. Antoeci, and Antipodes, com­pared to each other.
  • Chap. 7. Of Climats, and Parallels.
The Second PART.
  • Chap. 1. OF such things as are proper to the Coele­stiall Globe: as namely of the Stars. And first of the Planets, or wandring Stars.
  • Chap. 2. Of the fixed Starres, and their constellati­ons.
  • Chap 3. Of the Constellations of the Northern He­misphaere.
  • Chap. 4. The signes of the Zodiack: and first of the Northern.
  • Chap. 5. The Constellations of the Southern Hemis­phaere: and first of those in the Zodiack.
  • Chap. 6. Of the rest of the Constellations of the Sou­thern Hemisphaere.
  • Chap. 7. Of the other Stars which are not expressed in Globes. Why the Stars appear sometimes in greater number, then at others times, and sometimes greater, and at other times lesse: [Page] with the confutation of some vaine opinions concerning the same. The idle relations of Americus Vespasius, Cardan, and Partcis, concerning the extraordinary greatness of the Stars about the South Pole, are refuted out of the Authors owne experience.
The third PART.
  • Chap. 1. THe Geographicall description of the Ter­restriall Globe, with the parts of the world that are yet known. The errours of Ptolomy, concerning the Southerne bounds of Africa and Asia, as also of the Northerne limits of Europe, are condemned, out of the Writings of the Ancients; and various experience of later Writers.
  • Chap. 2. Of the compasse of the Earth and the mea­sure of a Degree: with divers opinions con­cerning the same of the Greeks; as namely. Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Posidonius, Cleomedes, and Ptolomy: as also of the Arabians, Jtalians, Germans, English. and Spanish. Posidonius, and Eratosthenes are confuted out of their owne observation and propositions. Ptolomyes opi­nion is preferred before the rest, and he freed from the Calumnies of Maurolycus, who is also taxed, in that without cause favouring Po­sidonius, he unjustly condemnes Ptolomy.
The Fourth PART.
  • [Page]Chap. 1. HOw to find out the Longitude, Latitude, distance, and Angle of position or situati­on of any places, expressed in the Terrestriall Globe.
  • Chap. 2. Of the Latitude of any place.
  • Chap. 3. How to find the distance, and Angle of po­sition of any two places.
  • Chap. 4. To find the Altitude of the Sunne, or Starrs.
  • Chap. 5. To find the place and declination of the Sun for any day, given.
  • Chap. 6. To find the Latitude of any place, by ob­serving the Meridian altitude of the Sunne, or Stars.
  • Chap. 7. How to find the Right and Oblique Ascen­sion of the Sun, and Stars, for any Latitude of Place and Time.
  • Chap. 8. How to find the Horizontall difference be­twixt the Meridian and the verticall circle of the Sun, or any other Starre, which they call the Azimuth, for any time, or place as­signed.
  • [Page] Chap. 9. To find the hour of the day, as also the am­plitude of rising and setting of the Sun, and Stars, at any time and Latitude of place.
  • Chap. 10. Of the threefold rising and setting of Stars.
  • Chap. 11. How to find the beginning and end of the Twilight, for any Latitude of place and time.
  • Chap. 12. To find for any Latitude of place, and time, the length of the Artificiall day, or night; or the quantity of the Suns Parallell that remains above the Horizon, and that is hid beneath it: and to perform the same by any other Star.
  • Chap. 13 To find the hour of the Day, and Night, both Equal and Unequal, for any time & La­titude of place.
  • Chap. 14. To find the Longitude, Latitude, and decli­nation of the fixed Stars, as they are expressed in the Globe.
  • Chap. 15. To find the declination of the Needle from the true Meridian, which they commonly call, the Variation of the Compasse, for any Latitude assigned: Where the errours of those are disco­vered, who assign to the Magneticall Needle a certain Meridian, and fixed po [...]nt which it always respects; and that affirme this change of variation to be regular. All which [Page] vaine conjectures of theirs, and ungrounded Hypotheses, are refuted both by more certain observations of others, as also of the Authour himself.
  • Chap. 16. How to make a Sun Diall, by the help of the Globe, for any Latitude of place.
The fifth and last PART.
  • OF the Rumbes that are described upon the Terrestriall Globe: wherein their na­ture, Originall, and use in Navigation is de­clared.

The Preface.

THere are two kinds of Instruments, by which Artificers haue concei­ved, that the figure of this so beau­tifull, and various fabricke of the whole Universe, might most apt­ly bee expressed, and, as it were, at once presented to the view. The one, exhibiting this Idea in a round solid, is called a Globe, or Sphaere: The other, expressing the same in a plaine, they tearme a Planisphaere, or Map, Both of which, having been long since invented by the Ancients, have yet even to our times, in a continued succes­sion, received still more ripenesse and perfection. The Sphaere or Globe, and the use thereof, is re­ported by Diodorus Siculus to have been first found out by Atlas of Libya: whence afterward sprung the Fable, of his bearing up the Heavens with his shoulders. Others attribute the inventi­on of the same to Thales. And it was afterward brought to perfection by Crates, (of whom Strabo makes mention) Archimedes, and Proclus; but most of all, by Ptolomy; according to whose rules, and observations especially, succeeding times composed their Globes, as Leontius Mechanicus affirmes. And now there hath been much perfe­ction [Page] added to the same, in these our later times, by the industry, and diligence Gemma Frisius, and Gerardus Mercator; as it may appear by those Globes, that were set forth at London, An­no 1593. so that now there seemes not to bee any thing that may be added to them. The Planisphaere indeed is a fine invention, and hath in it wonder­full variety of workm [...]nship, if so bee, that the composition of it be rightly deduced out of Geome­tricall, and Opticall principles: and it wants not it's great delightfullnesse, and beauty also. But yet that Other, being tbe more ancient, hath also the priority in Nature, and is of the most convenient forme; and therefore more aptly accommodated for the understanding and fancy, (not to speak any thing of the beauty, and gracefulnesse of it) for it representeth the things themselves, in proper ge­nuiue figurs. For as concerning the figure of the Heavens, whether it were round, was scarcely e­ever questioned by any. So likewise, touching the figure of the Earth, notwithstanding many, and sundry opinions have, been broached among the an­cient Philosophers, some of them contending for a plain, others an hollow, others a Cubic all, and some a Pyramidall forme: yet this opinion of it's Round­nesse, with greatest consent of reason, at length pre­vailed, the rest being all exploded. Now wee af­firme it to be round, yet so, as that wee also admit of it's inequalities, by reason of those so great emi­nences of hills, and depression of vallies. Erato­sthenes, as hee is cited by Strabo in his first book, saith, that the fashion of the Earth is like that of a Globe, not so exactly round as an artificiall Globe [Page] is, but that it hath certain inequalities. The earth cannot be said to be of an exact orbicular forme, by reason of somany high hilles, and low plaines: as Pliny rightly observes. And Strabo also in his first book of his Geography, saith, that the Earth and the water together, make up one sphaericall bo­dy, not of so exact a forme, as that of the Heavens, although not much unlike it. This assertion of the roundnesse of the Earth, with the intervening Sea, is confirmed also by these reasons. For first, that it is round from East to West is proved by the Sun, Moon, and the other Stars, which are seen to rise, and set. first with those that inhabit more Eastwardly, and afterward with them that are farther West. The Sun riseth with the Persians that dwell in the Easterne parts, foure hours soon­ner then it doth with those that dwell in Spaine, more Westward: as Cleomedes affirmes. The same is also proved by the observing of Eclipses, especially those of the Moon; which although they happen at the same time, are not yet observed in all places at the same houre of the day or night, but the hour of their appearing is later with them, that inhabite Eastward, then it is with the more West­erne people. An Eclipse of the Moon, which Pto­lomy reports lib. 1 Geogr. cap. 4. To have been seen in Arbela, (a town in Assyria,) at the fift houre of the night; the same was observed at Car­thage at the second houre. In like manner an E­clipse of the Sun, which was observed in Campa­nia to be betwixt 7. and 8. of the Clock; was seen by Co [...]bulo, a Captain in Armenia, betwixt 10 [...] and 11. as it is related by Pliny. Now that it is [Page] also of a sphaericall figure from North to South, may be clearly demonstrated by the risings, set­tings, elevations and depressions of the Stars, and Poles. The bright Star that shines so resplen­dently, in the upper part of the sterne of the Ship, Argo, and is called by the Greeeks [...], is scarcely to bee seen at all in Rhodes, unlesse it bee from some eminent high place: yet the same is seen very plainly in Alexandria, as being elevated a­bove the Horizon, about the fourth part of a signe: as Proclus affirms in the end of his book, de Sphae­ra. For I read it, Conspicuè cernitur; not as it is commonly, Prorsus non cernitur; notwithst an­ding, that both the Greek text, and also the Latine translation are against it. Another argument may bee taken, from the figure of the shadow, in the E­clipse of the Moon, caused by the interposition of the Earths opacous body: Which shadow being Sphaericall, cannot proceed from any other then a round Globous body: as it is demonstrated unto us out of Opticall principles. But this one reason is beyond all exception: that those that make toward the Land at the Sea, shal first of all descry the tops of the hilles onely, a [...]d afterwards, as they draw nea­rer to shore, they see the lower parts of the same, by little and little: Which cannot proceed from any other cause, then the gibbosity of the Earths su­perficies.

As for those other opinions of the hollow, Cu­bicall, Pyramidall, and plaine figure of the Earth, you have them all largely examined both in The­on, (Ptolomies Interpreter) Cleomedes, and almost in all our ordinary Authours of the Sphaere: [Page] together with the reasons why they are rejected. Yet that old conceit of the plainnesse of the Earths superficies, is again now at last, tanquam Cram­be recocta, set forth in a new dresse, and thrust upon us by Franciscus Patricius; who by some few eold arguments, and misunderstood experiments, endeavours to confirme his own, and consequently to overthrow that other received opinion of the sphaericall figure of the Earth. I shall onely light­ly touch at his chiefest arguments; my present purpose and intention, suffering mce not to insist long on the confutation of them. And f [...]rst of all, the great beight of Hills, and the depression of vallies, so much disagreeing from the evennesse of the plain parts of the Earth, scem to make very much a­gainst the roundnesse of the Earth. Who can hear with patience, saith hee, that those huge high moun­tains of Norway, or the mountaine Slotus, which lies under the Pole, and is the highest in the world, should yet be thought to have the same su­perficies with [...]he Sealying beneath it? This there­fore being the chiefest reason, that m [...]y seem to o­verthrow the opinion of the Earth, and Seas ma­king up one sphaericall body; let us examine it a little more nearly, and consider, how great this in­equality may bee, that seems to make so much a­gainst the evennessc of this Yerrestitall Globe. Many strange, and almost incredible things are reported by Aristotle, Mela, Pliny, and Solinu [...], of the unusuall height of Atho [...], an Hill in Mace­donia, and of Casius in Syria, as also of another of the same name in Arabia, and of the monntaine Caucasus. And among the rest, one of the most mi­raculous [Page] things which they have observed of the mountain Athos, is, that whereas it is situate in Macedony, it casts a shadow into the market place at Myrrhina, a Town in the Island Lem­nos; from whence Athos is distant 86. miles. But for as much as Athos lies Westward from Lemnos, as may appeare out of Ptolomies Ta­bles, no marvail that it casts so large a shadow: seeing that wee may observe by dayly experience, that as well when the Sunriseth, as when it sets, the shadowes are always extraordinary long. But that which Pliny, and Solinus report of the same mountain, I should rather account among the rest of their fabulous Stories; where as they affirm it to be so high, that it is thought to be above that region of the aire whence the rain is wont to fall. And this opinion (say they) was first grounded upon a report that there goes, that the ashes which are left upon the Altars on the top of this hill, are never washed away, but are found remaining in heapes upon the same. To this may be added ano­ther testimony, out of the Excerpts of the seventh booke of Strabo, where it is said, that those that inhabite the top of this mountain, do see the Sun three hours sooner, then those that live neare the Sea side. The height of the mount [...]in Caucasus is in like manner celebrated by Aris [...]otle, the top whereof is enlightned by the Suns b [...]ames, the third part of the night both morning and evening. No lesle fabulous is that which is reported by Pli­ny and Solinus o [...] Casius in Syria, from whose top the Sun rising is discovered about the fourth watch of the night: which is also related by Mela of that [Page] other Casius in Arabia. But that all these rela­tions are no other then meer fables, is acutely and solidly proved by Petrus Noninus, out of the ve [...]y principles [...]f Geometry. As for that which Eusta­thius writes, that Hercules pill [...] called by the Greeks Calpe and Abenna, are celebrated by Di­onysius Perlegetes for their miraculous height is plainly absurd and ridiculous. For these a [...]ise not above an hundred Ells in height, which is but a furlong: whereas the Pyramids of Egypt are reported by Strabo to equall that height; and some trees in India are found to exceed it: if wee may credit the relations of those Writers, who in the same Strabo affirm, that there grows a tree by the river Hyarotis, that casteth a shadow at noon, five furlongs long.

Those fabulous narrations of the Ancients, are seconded by as vaine reports of our modern times. And first of all Scaliger writes, from other mens relation, that Tenariff, one of the Canary Islands, riseth in height fifteen leagues, which amount to above sixtie miles. But Patricius not content with this measure, stretchth it to seventie miles. There are other hills in like manner cryed up for their great height; as namely the mountain Andi in Pe [...]u, and another in the Isle Pico among the A­zores Islands▪ but yet both these fall short of Te­nariffe. What credit the relations may des [...]rve, we will now examine. And first for Tenariffe, it is reported by many writers to be of so great a height, that it is probable the whole World affoards not a more eminent place; n [...]t ex [...]pting the mountaine Slo [...]us it sel [...]; which whether ever any other mor­tall [Page] man hath seen, besides that Monke of Oxford (who by his skill in Magicke conveighed him­self into the utmost Northerne regions, and tooke a view of all the places about the Pole, (as the Story hath it) is more then I am able to deter­mine. Yet that this Isle cannot be so high as Sca­liger would have it, wee may be the more bold to believe, because that the tops of it are scarcely e­ver free from snow: so that you shall have them coverd all over with snow all the year long, save onely one, or, at the most, two months in the midst of summer: as may appear out of the Spanish Writers. Now that any s [...]ow is generated 60 or 70 miles above the plain superficies of the Earth and Water, is more then they will ever perswade us: seeing that the highest vapour [...] never rise a­bove 48 miles above the earth, according to Era­tosthenes his measure; but according to Pto­lomy, they ascend not above 41 miles. Notwith­standing Cardan, and some other profest Mathe­maticians, are bold to raise them up to 288 miles; but with no sma [...] stain of their name, have they mixed those trifles with their other writings. So­linus reports that the tops of the mountain Atlas reacheth very near as high as the circle of the Moon: but he betrayeth his own errour, in that he confesseth that the top of it is covered with snow, and shineth with fires in the night. Not unlike to this, are those thi [...]gs which are reported of the some mountain, and it's height, by Herodotus, Dionysius Afer, and his scholiast Eustathius: whence it is called in Authours, Coelorum co­lumen, the pillar that bears up the Heavens▪ [Page] But to let passe these vain prodigious relations: let us come to those things that seem to carry a greater shew of truth. Eratosthenes found by Dioptricall instruments, and measuring the di­stances betwixt the places of his observation, that a perpendicular, drawn from the top of the highest mountain, down to the lowest bottome or vally, did not exceed ten furlongs. Cleomedes saith that there is no hill found to be above fifteen fur­long [...] in height: and so high as this, was that vast steep rock in Bactriana, which is called Sisimi­trae Petra, mentioned by Strabo in the 11 booke of his Geography. The topps of the Thessalian mountatns are raiscd to a greater height by Soli­nus, then ever it is possible for any hill to reach. Yet if wee may believs Pliny, Dicaearchus, being employed by the Kings command, in the same busi­nesse, found that the height of Pelion, which is the highest of all, exceeded not 1250 pases, which is but ten furlongs. But to proceed yet a little fur­ther, least wee should seem too sparing herein, and to restrain them within narrower limits then wee ought: we will adde to the height of hills, the depth also of the Sea. Of which the illustrious Ju­lius Scaliger in his 38. Exercitation against Cardan, writeth thus. The depth of the Sea (saith he) is not very great: for it seldome exceeds 80 pa­se [...], in most places it is not 20 pases, and in many places not above six, in few places, it reacheth 100. pases, and very seld [...]me, or never exceeds this num­ber. But because that falls very far short of the truth, as is testified by the daily experience of those that passe the Se [...]s: let us make the depth of [Page] the Sea equall to the height of mountains: so that suppose the depth thereof to bee ten furlongs, which is the measure of the Sa [...]dinian Sea, in the deepest places, as Posidonius in Strabo affirms. Or if you please, let it be fifteen furlongs, as Cleomedes, and Fabianus, cited by Pliny lib. 2. c. 102. will have [...]. (For Georg. Valla in his interpretation of Cle­omedes, deales not fairly with his Author, where he makes him assign thirty furlongs to bee the mea­sure of the Seas depth.) These grounds being thus laid, let us now see what proportion the height of hills may bear to the Diameter of the whole Earth: that so we may hence gather, that the extubcran­cy of hills are able to detract little or nothing from the roundnesse of the Earth; but that this excres­cency will bee but like a little knob or dust upon a ball, as Cleomedes saith For if wee sup­pose the circumference of the whole earth to bee 180000 furlongs, according to Ptolomies ac­count, (neither did ever any of the Ancients as­signe a lesse measure then this; as Strabo wit­nesseth:) the Diameter thereof will bee, (ac­cording to the proportion betwixt a circle and it's Diameter found out by Archimedes,) above 57272. furl [...]ng. If then we grant the highest Hills to bee ten furlongs high, according to E­ratosthenes and Dicaearchus; they will beare the same proportion to the Diameter of the Earth, [...]hat is, betwixt one and 5727. (Peucerus mi­stakes himself when he saith, that the Diame­ter of the Earth to the perpendicular of ten fur­longs is as 18000. to one for this is the propor­tien it beareth to the whole circumference, and [Page] not the Diameter. Or suppose the topps of the [...]ighest hills to ascend to the perpendicular of [...]ifteene furlongs, as Cleomedes would have it: [...]he proportion then will be of one to 3818. Or if [...]ouplease, let it bee thirtie furlongs, of which [...]height is a certain rock in Sogdiana, spoken [...]f by Strabo, in the eleventh Booke of his Geo­graphy, (notwithstanding Cleomedes is of o­ [...]inion, that a perpendicular drawn from the top of the highest hill, to the bottome of the dee­ [...]est Sea, exceeds not this measure:) the pro­portion will be no greater, then of one to 1908. Or let us extend it yet farther, if you will, to foure miles, or thirty-two furlongs, (of which [...]eight the mountain Casius in Syria is repor­ [...]ed by Pliny to be,) the proportion will yet bee somewhat lesse then of one to 1789. I am there­fore so farre from giving any credit to Patri­cius his relation of Tenariffes being seventy­ [...]wo miles high, (unlesse it bee measured by ma­ [...]y oblique and crooked turnings and windings: [...]n which manner Pliny measureth the height of [...]he Alpes also to bee fifteen miles;) as that I [...]annot assent to Alhazen, an Arabian, who would have the topps of the highest hills to reach [...]o eight Arabian miles, or eighty furlongs, as I think: neither yet to Pliny, who in his quarto lib. cap. 11. affirmes the mountain Hae­mus to be six miles in height: and I can scarce­ly yeeld to the samc Pliny, when as he speakes of other Hills four miles in height. And who­soever should affirm any Hill to bee higher then this, though it were Mercury himself, I would [Page] bardly believe him. Thus much of the height o [...] hills, which s [...]emed to derogate from the round­nesse of the Terrestriall Globe. Patricius pro­ceeds, and goes about to prove that the water also is not round or sphaericall. And he b [...]r­roweth his argument from the observations of those that conveigh or levell waters, who finde by their Dioptricall Instruments; that water [...] bave all an equall and plaine superficies, ex­cept th [...]y be troubled by the violence of winds. On the contrary side, Eratosthenes in Strabo affirmes, that the superficies of the Sea is in some places higher, then it is in other. And hee also produceth, as assertors of his ignorance, those Water-levellers, wbo being employed by De­metrius ab [...]ut the entting away of the Isth­mus, or neck of land betwixt Peloponesus and Greece; returned him answer; that they found by their In [...]ruments, that that part of the Se [...] which was on Corinth's side, was higher then it was at Cenchraee. The like is also storied of Sesostris, one of the Kings of AEgypt, who going about to make a passage out of the Medi­terranean into the Arabian gulfe, is said to have desisted from his purpose, because hee found that the superficies of the Arabian gulfe was higher then was the Mediterranean: as it is reported by Aristotle, in the end of his first Booke of Meteors. The like is also said in the same place, by the same Authour, to have happened af­terward to Darius. Now whether tbe Archi­tects or Water-levellers, imployed by Deme­trius, Sosostris, and Darius, deserve more cre­ [...]it, [Page] then those whom Patricius nameth; I shall no [...] [...]uch trouble my selfe to examine. Yet Strabo in­ [...]igheth against Eratosthenes for attributing any [...]ch eminencies, and depressions to the superficies [...] the Sea. And Archimedes his doctrine is, [...]at every humid body, standing still and with­ [...]t disturbance, hath a Sphericall superficies, whose [...]enter is the same with that of the Earth. So that [...]ee have just cause to reject the opinions, hoth of [...]hose that contend that the superficies of the Sea is [...]aine; as also of those that will have it to bee in [...]me places higher tben in other. Although we [...] [...]annot, in reason, but confesse, that so small a por­ [...]on of the whole Terrestiall Globe, as may b [...] [...]mprehended within the reache of our sight, cannot [...]ee distinguished by the helpe of any Instruments [...]om a plaine superficies. So that we may conclude [...]atricius his agreement, which he alledgeth from [...]he experience of Water-conveighers, to be of no [...]eight at all.

But hee goes on, and labours to prove his [...]ssertion from the elevation and depression, rising [...]d setting of the Poles, and Stars, which are [...]served daily, by those that traverse the Seas: [...]ll which, hee saith, may come to passe, al­ [...]ough the surface of the water were plaine. For [...] any Star be observed, that is in the verticall [...]int of any place; which way soever you tra­ [...]ell from that place, the same Star will seem [...] bee depressed, and abate something of it's ele­ [...]ation, though it were on a plaine superficies. [...]ut there is something more in it then Patri­ [...]ius takes notice of. For if wee go [...] an equall [Page] measure of miles either towards the North, or to­ward the South; the elevation or depression of the Star, will alwayes bee found to bee e­quall: which that it can possibly bee so in a plaine superficies; is more then hee will ever bee able to demonstrate. If wee take any Star situate near the AEquator, the same when yo [...] have removed thence 60. English miles, will bee elevated about a degree higher, above the Hori­zon, whether the Star bee directly over your head, or whether you depart thence, that so it may bee depressed from your Zenith, for 30. or 50. or any other number of degrees. Which that it cannot thus bee; on a plaine superficies, may be demonstrated out of the principles of Geometry. But yet mee thinks, this one thing might have perswaded Patricius (being so well versed in the Histories of the Spanish Naviga­tions, as his writings sufficiently testifie) that the superficies of the Sea is not plaine; because that the Ship called the Victory, wherein Fer­dinand Magellane losing from Spaine, and di­recting his course towards the South-west parts, passed through the Straights, called since by his name, and so touching upon the Cape of good hope, haveing compassed the whole World a­bout, returned again into Spain. And here I shall not need to maintain the famous Voyages of our owne Countrie-men, Sir Francis Drake, and Master Thomas Candish, not so well known perhaps abroad; which yet convince Patricius and the same errour. A [...]d thus have wee lightly touched the chiefe foundati­ons [Page] that his cause is built upon: but as for [...]ose ill understood experiments, which he brings [...] the confirmation of the same. I shall let them [...]sse, for that they seem rather to subvert his opi­ [...]n then confirme it.

Thus having proved the Globe of the Earth [...] be of a Sphaericall figure, seeing that the E­ [...]inency of the highest Hills hath scarcely the [...]e proportion to the Semidiameter of the [...]rth, that there is betwixt 1. and 1000. [...]hich how small it is, any one may easily per­ [...]ive: I hold it very superfluous to goe about to [...]ove, that a Globe is of a figure most proper and [...]t to expresse, and represent the fashion of the Hea­ [...]ns and earth, as being most agreeable to Nature, [...]siest to be understood, and also very beautifull [...] behold.

Now in materiall Globes, besides the true [...]d exact description of places, which indeed is [...]e chiefest matter to bee considered; there are [...]o things especially required. The first where­ [...] is the magnitude and capacity of them; that [...] there may bee convenient space for the de­ [...]ription of each particular place or region: the [...]cond is the lightnesse of them, that so their [...]ight be not cumbersome. Strabo in his eleventh, [...]ok, would have a Globe to have ten foot [...] Diameter, that so it might in some rea­ [...]nable manner admit the description of particu­ [...]r places. But this bulk is too vast, to bee [...]nveniently dealt withall. And in this regard, [...] think that those Globes, of which I intend [...] speake in this ensuing discourse, may justly [Page] bee perferred before all other, that have been [...] set forth before them; as being more capaci­ous then any other: for they are in Diameter two foot, and two inches: whereas Mercator's Globes, (which are bigger then any other ever set forth before him,) are scarcely sixteen in­ches Diameter. The proportion therefore of the superficies of these Globes, to Mercator's, will be as 1. to 2 [...] and somewhat more, Eve­ry Countrey therefore in those Globes will bee above twice as large as it is in Mercator's: so that each particular place may the more ea­sily bee described. And this I would have to bee understood of those great Globes, made by William Saunder [...]on of London; concerning the use of which especially, wee have written this discourse. For he hath set forth other smaller Globes also, which as they are of a lesser bulk [...] and magnitude, so are they of a cheaper price: that so the meaner Students might herein also bee provided for. Now concerning th [...] Geographi­call part of them, seeing it is taken out of the newest Charts and descriptions; I am bold to think them more perfect then any other: how ever they want not their errours. And I think it may bee the Authors glorie to have performed thus much in the edition of these Globes. One thing by the way you are to take notice of: which is, that the descriptions of particular places are to bee sought for else where; for this is not to bee ex­pected in a Globe. And for these descriptions of particular Countries, you may have recourse to the Geographicall tables of Gerardus Mercator, [Page] whose diligence and industry in this Regard seemes to exceed all other before him. To him, therefore we referre you.

PONT. STRABO in the place above, cited by the Author, speakes of a Globe of that bignesse, not such an one as himself had made but such an one as he could wish were made; that so it might be every way absolut [...]. And in­deed with in this age of ours, the magnificent and Illustrious Tvcho Brabe, who is now de­servedly celebrated with the titl [...] of a Second Atlas, hath made a very faire Coelestiall Globe composed all of wood within, and covered over with plates of Copper, artificially wrought, containing sixe foot in Diameter, besides the Meridian, and Horizon, and other [...]ppendances which may be guessed at by the rest▪ the like whereof, so coldly and elaborate­ly framed, and every way exactly answering it self, I think was never made by any. And in­deed, it is a vast and magnificent piece of worke: insomuch that many strangers came out of divers parts into Denmarke, while it was there, onely to see this Globe But Tycho [...]fterward betaking himselfe to the Emperour [...] Court, caried this Globe with some certaino other Mathematicll instruments with him. All which after the death of Tycho, were [...]ought for a great sum of money by the Em­perour, and are now preserv [...]d at Prage in the [...]mperiall Castle, and shewed among other [...]arities there. About the Horizon are read thes [...] words, written in letters of gold.

[Page] Anno a Christo nato M. D. XXCIV. Regnante in Dania Frederico secundo, hunc Coe­lesti machinae conformem Globum, in quo affi [...]a octavae Sphaerae sidera c [...]litùs organis deprehensa, suis quaeque locis ad amussim repraesentare, Erran­t [...]úmque stellarum per haec apparentias perpervesti­gare decrevit, coelo terrigenis, qui rationem eam capiunt, Mechanico opere patefacto, TYCHO BRAHE, O. F. Sibi & posteris. F. F.

Which Globe, by reason of i [...]s extraordinary magnitude, hath this praerogative above all other▪ that all things may be done upon it most exactly, and in the very minute, especially as farre as concernes the doctrine of the First moveable, together with the observations of the Starres, and their aspects in respect of the Ecliptick and AEquator: all which may bee done mechanically, without any [...]edious com­putations.

The great Duke of Tuscany hath also two very faire Globes, as large as this, but made after the ordinary manner; the one a Terrestriall Globe: but the other an Armillary Sphaere, con­sisting of Circles, and Orbes only.

Now concerning those Globes of Mercator, spoken of by our Author, the same have been since, accurately corrected, according to Tycho' [...] observa­tions, and set forth both in a great, and lesser form [...] by J Hondius, and are still made, and sold by his Son.

And because that in this ensuing discourse of Globes, there is often mention made of a Point, [Page] Line, Superficle [...], Angle, Rhombus; Axis, and other the like Geometricall tearmes: I have thought good to set down the severall definitions of the same.

A Point, is that which hath no parts: or a thing supposed to be Indivisible, or that cannot be divided into parts.

A Lin [...], is a supposed length without breadth; whose extreames or bounds are t [...] Points.

A Right Line, is the shortest of all Lines, drawn from any two of the same Points.

Parallels, are Lines equidistant from each other: which though they should be protended infinitely▪ would never meet in one point, but keep still the same distance mutally.

A Perpendicular, is a right Line, falling directly on a Right Line, and making on each side that Point where they touch, two equall Right Angles.

A Superficies, is a Longitude, having onely Latitude: whose tearmes and limits are two Lines.

A Figure, is that which is comprehended within one, or many bands: under one bound is comprehended a Circle: and all other Figures un­der many.

A Tearm or Limit, is that which is the end of any thing.

A Circle, is a plaine Figure, comprehended un­der one round line: in the midst whereof there is a P [...]int, from whence all Lines drawn to the Circum­ference are equall.

[Page] The Center of a Circle, is that point in the midst, from which all equall lines are drawn to the Cir­cumference.

The Diameter of a Circle, is a Right line pas­sing through the Center, terminated at each end with the Circumference, and dividing the Circle into two equall Parts.

A Semicircle, is the halfe of a Circle, contain­ed within the Diameter, and halfe the Circumfe­rence.

An Arch, is a portion of a Circle, comprehend­ed within a Right line, and any part of the Circum­ference. and is alwayes either greater or lesser then a Semicircle.

An Angle is, when two lines are extended upon the same superficies, so that they touch one another in a Point, but not directy.


A Right Angle, is that which is produced of a Right line, falling upon a Right line, and ma­king two equal Angles, on each side the Point, where they touch each other: As the Lines A, B, C.

An Obtuse Angle, is that which is Greater then a Right Angle, as the Angle A, C, D.


An Acute Angle, is that which is lesse then a Right: as the Angle A, C, B.

A Solid Angle, is that which is comprehended [Page] under more then two plaine Angles, which are not in the same superficies and meeting all in one point: as are the Angles of a Cube, or Die.

Rhombus, is a Figure Quadrangular, having equall sides, but not equall Angles.

Rhomboides, is a Figure having neither equal sides, nor equall Angles: yet the Opposite sides and Angles are equall.

A solid Body, is that which hath length, breadth, and thickness; as a Cube or Die: and the Limits or Extreames of it are superficies.

The Axis is that Diameter, aboue which the Sphaere or Globe is turned.

The Poles of a Sphaere, are the Extreames, or ends of the Diameter, and are terminated in the superficies of the Sphaere.

A Sphaere is defined by Euclide to be, when the Diameter of a semicircle remaining fixed, the Se­micircle is turned about, till it returne again to the place, whence it began to move at first.

The first Part, Of those things which are common both to the Caelestiall and Terrestriall GLOBE.

CHAP. I. What a Globe is, with the parts thereof: and of the Circles of the Globe.

A Globe, in relation to our present purpose, we define to be an Ana­logicall representation either of the Heavens, or the Earth. And we call it Analogicall, not only in [...]egard of it's forme, express­ing the Sphaericall figure, as well of the Hea­vens, as also of the Terr [...]stiall Globe, consi­sting of the Earth it self, together with the in­terflowing Seas: but rather because that it re­presenteth unto u [...] in a just proportion and distance, each particular constellation in the Heavens, and every severall region and tract of g [...]ound in the Earth, together with certaine circles, both greater and l [...]sser, invented by Ar­tificers for the more ready computation of the same. The g [...]eater Circle we call those, which [Page 2] divide the whole superficies of the Globe into two equall parts, or halfes: and those the les­ser, which divide the same into two unequall parts.

PONT. A Globe is also called a Sphaere: onely with this distinction, that a Sphere is proper­ly such an one, as consists only of circles or little hoopes of brasse, or like matter, and is not a solid body, as is a Globe: the Latines call it Armillaris. Now those Circles whereof it is made, although we are not to cone eive that there are any such reallones in the Heavens, yet they have been in­vented by Artificers, to the end, that by meanes of the same, the doctrine of the true motions of the Coelestiall bodies might the more easily bee appre­hended. And what is said of the AEquator, Zo­diaque, Axes, and the other Circles, is also to bee understood of the other Orbs themselves, and their Hypotheses. For as concerning the objection made long since by Rhoeticus, and lately by Peter Ra­mus lib. 2. Schol. Math. touching the facility the ancient AEgyptians had in search ing out the courses of the Stars: I think it not amisse to let you see what the Noble Tycho's opinion is herein, and what answer hee, once upon occasion gave Ramus himselfe, proposing the same unto him: as wee find it related by himself in his book of Astronomicall Epistles pag. 60. And thus it is.

Quod celeberrimus ille noltri aevi Philoso­phus Petus Ramus, &c. Where as that famous Philosopher of our times, Peter Ramus, was of opinion, that the Science of Astronomy might bee framed by some certain Logicall wayes of com­putation, [Page 3] with Hypotheses: this is nothing else but a meere ground-lesse conjecture. Which con­ [...]eit of his, he proposed indeed to mee about sixteen [...]eares since, when as wee were together at Au­ [...]purge: wishing mee withall, that when as I had [...]nce reduced the course of the Stars into some [...]xact order, by the Hypotheses now in use; I [...]ould then try what might be done without them. And that this might possibly be effected, he brought this for his reason, because that hee had read, that the AEgyptians, had antiently a most easie and facile way and method in their Astronomy. And therefore, seeing that this way of computation by Hypotheses is very intricate and difficult; it must needs follow, that they had a more plaine and com­pendious way to the knowledge of the course of the Starres, and that without them But I opposed him herein, shewing withall, that it was altogether impossible that the Caelestiall Apparen­ [...]es should bee reduced into any certain order or science, so as to bee understood, without the help [...] of Hypotheses. And that this facility of the AEgyptians was onely in the AEquators of the Planets, whereby they freed themselves from all tedious supputation; Whereas, the ease and facile use of the Ephemerides was not as yet brought to light. But for as much as hee (thought otherwise a man of an excellent apprehension and wit, and a great lover of the truth) seemed not to bee so throughly acquainted with the hidden secrets of this intricate Science, and considered not that the course of the Heavenly bodi [...]s did not keepe a con­stant period at any set time: I neither could nor [Page 4] indeed desired to get any thing of him, in this mat­ter. He hath many Sectaries at this day, who have a strong faith of the possibility of this thing: but such they are, that neither understand the matter themselves, nor will ever be able to bring it to any effect. For seeing that all things consist in number, weight, and measure: without these, there is no [...] any thing in this visible world that can be explai­ned or understood. Now the office of these Hypothe­ses is only to shew the measure of the apparent mo­tion of the Heavenly bodies, by circles and other fi­gures: which are again resolved into numbers by Arithmeticke without which, whosoever shal think to attaine to the knowledge of the motion of the Stars: he may be said to invoke Fortune, (as the Proverb is:) and dreames of some strange incorpo­reall, and more then Seraphicall way, above the reach of humane capacity.

Besides the body of the Globe it self, and those [...]hings which we have said to be thereon inscribed, there is also annexed a certain frame, with necessary instruments thereto belonging: which we shall declare in order.

The fabricke of his frame is thus. First of all, there is a Base, or foot to rest upon: on which there are raised perpendicularly sixe c Pillars b or a Columnes, of equall length and distance; upon the top of which there is fast­ned to a levell, and parallel to the Base, a round plate or circle of wood, of a sufficient breadth and thicknesse, which they call the Horizon: because that the uppermost superficies thereof The Hori­zon. performeth the office of the true Horizon. For [Page 5] it is so placed, that it divideth the whole Globe [...]nto two equall parts. Whereof that which [...] uppermost, representeth unto us the visible [...]emisphaere, and the other, that which is hid [...]omus. So likewise that Circle which divi­ [...]es that part of the world which we [...]ee, from [...]hat other which we see not, is called the Hori­ [...]on. And that point which is directly over our [...]eads in our Hemisphaere, and is on every side [...]quidistant from the Horzion, is commonly [...]ailed Zenith: but the Arabians name it Se­ [...]th. But the former corrupted name hath yet [...]revailed, so that it is always used among Wri­ [...]ers generally. And that point which is oppo­ [...]ite to it in the lower Hemisphaere, the Arabians [...]all Nathire; but it is commonly written|Nadir. These two points are called also the Poles of the Horizon.

Furtheremore, upon the superficies of the Ho­ [...]izon in a materiall Globe there are described, first, the twelve Signes of the Zodiaque: and [...]ach of these is again divided into twenty lesser portions: so that the whole Horizon is divided [...]nto 360. parts, which they also call degrees. And if every degree be div [...]ded into sixty parts [...]lso, each of them is called a Scruple or Mi­nute: and so by the like subdivision of Minut [...] [...]nto fixty parts, will arise Seconds, and of these Thirds, and likewise Four h [...], and Fifths, &c. by the like partition still of each into [...]xty parts.

PONT. In the midst among these Signes are there described certain Characters, to denote the [Page 6] particular Planet, to whose dominion each Sig [...] doth appertain. Next to this there is another Section, wherein are set down the severall day [...] of every week: after that, followeth the number of the dayes of every Moneth, throughout th [...] whole yeare. Besides this number of the day [...]s, each of them hath in their severall orders some one of these three letters affixed, K. N. I. signifying the Kalends, Nones, and Ides, which tearmes the Ancient Romans used in their accounts, to sign [...] fie the dayes of every Moneth. For they did [...] reckon as wee doe now, from the first day of every Month to the 30. or 31. of the same; but their account was according to the Kalendes, None [...], and Ides. So that the first of each Month w [...] the Kalends; and the rest of the dayes of the same month were not reckoned forward, but after a re­trograde manner. As for example: The last day of December, with us is the 31. They called the second of the Kalends or January, and the 30. of the same month, the third of the Kalends of January Thus reckoning backward till they came to the Ides, which was the foure­teenth of December, and the nineteenth of the Kalends of January,. The like order they obser­ved in the Ides and Nones also. Now what months have more or fewer Kalends or Nones may be found upon the Horizon, as we have said: and as may be gathered also out of these old verses.

Majus sex Nonas, October, Julius, & Mars:
Quatuor at reliqui. Tenet Idus quilibet octo.
Ind dies reliquos dic omnes esse Calendas.

[Page 7] There is also described upon the Horizon the Romane Calendar, And that three several waies: [...]o wit, the ancient way, which is still in use [...]ith us here in England; and the new way, ap­ [...]ointed by Pope Gregory 13. Wherein the E­ [...]uinoxes & Solstices were restored to the same [...]laces, wherein they were at the time of the ce­ [...]ebration of the Councell of Nice: and in the [...]hird, the said Equinoctial and Solsticial points [...]re restored to the places that they were in, at [...]he time of our Saviour Christs nativity. The [...]onths in the Calender are divided into dayes [...]nd weekes: to which are annexed, as their pe­ [...]uliar characters, the seven first letters of the Latine Alphabet. Which manner of designing [...]he dayes of the moneth, was first brought, in by Dionysius Exigum, a Romane Abbot, after the Councell of Niee.

The innermost border of the Horizon is di­vided into 32. parts, according to the number [...]f the winds, which are observed by our mode­ [...]ne Sea-fareing men in their Navigations; by [...]hich also they are wont to designe forth the [...]uarters of the Heavens, & the coasts of Coun­ [...]ries. For the Ancients observe but foure [...]inds only: to which were after added foure [...]ore: but after ages, not content with this [...]umber, increased it to twelve and at [...]ength they brought it to twenty foure, as [...] is notes. And now these latertimes ha [...]e [...]ade them up thirty two, the names whereo [...], [...]oth in English and Latine are set down in the [...]he Horizon of Materiall Globes.

[Page 8] PONT. The true Horizon is either Rational or Sensible. The Rationall or Intelligible Horizo [...] divide th the Sphaere into two equall parts exactly; and these are called the upper and the lower He­misphaeres. The sensible or apparent Horizon, is s [...] called, because it only seemes to divide the Heavens into two equall parts, or Hemisphaeres: whereas in­deed it doth not divide it so exactly, but only seem­eth so to doe. The Rationall Horizon, is also cal­led the artificiall, because that it was brought in, for the use of Astronomy.

The use of the Horizon is manifold. First, it di­vides the Heavens into two Hemisphaeres. Second­ly, it sheweth what Starres never set, and so what never rise from under the Earth; and so, like­wise what Stars do both rise and set. Thirdly, it shewes the cause of the equality, and in equality of the artificiall dayes and nights. Fourthly, it con­dueeth to the finding out of the latitude of any place. Fifthly, it is the cause of the Rectitude and obliqui­ty of the Sphare; whereof we have occasion to speak more largely hereafter.

There is also let into this Horizon, two notches opposite one to the other, a circle of brasse, making right angles, with the said Ho­rizon, and placed, so that it may be moved at pleasure up and down, by those notches, a [...] need shall require. This circle is called the Meridian, because that one side of it, which is The Meri­nian. in like manner divided in 360. degrees, sup­plyeth the office of the true Meridian. Now the Meridian is one of the greater circles, pas­sing through the Poles of the world, and also [Page 9] of the Horizon: to which, when the Sun in his daily revolution is arrived in the upper Hemisphaere, it is midday; and when it toucheth the same in the lower Hemisphaere, it is midnight, at that place whose Meridian it is.

These two circles, the Horizon and Meridian, are various and mutable in the Heavens and Earth, according as the place is changed. But in the materiall Globe, they are made fixed and constant: and the earth is made moveable: that so the Meridian may be applyed to the ver­ticall point of any place.

PONT. The us [...]s of the Meridian are these, especially. First, It determineth the paynt of mid­day, and midnight: whence the Astronomers be­gin the day alwayes from the Circle.. Secondly, in the Meridian is observed the Zenith or v [...]rti­call point of places, whence afterward the distan­ces of Stars and Parallel circles are gathered. Thirdly▪ The Longitude and Latitude of places are taken from hence. Fourthly, It shewes the greatest elevation of the Sun, and other Starrs: which elevation is called their Meridian Alti­tude. Fifthly, By the Meridionall elevdtion of the Sun, when hee is in the AEquinoctiall point, may be found out the eleuation of thé Pole, and habitude or position of the Sphaere. For the quarter of a circle being 90. degrees, if then we substract the Mer [...]dionall Altitude of the Sun in the AEquinoctiall from 90. degrees, the remainder sheweth the elevation of the Pole. As for example, The elevation of the Sun at noon, when it is in [Page 10] the AEquinoxe, is about 38. degrees with us here at London: which being deducted out of 90. there remaines 52. Which is the elevation of the Pole with us. So at Rome the AEquinoctiall altitude of the Sun is about 48. degrees; which being sub­stracted from 90 degrees, which is a Quadrant, there remaines 42. for the elevation of the Pole.

In two opposite points, of this Meridian, are fastened the two ends of a [...] iron pin, passing through the body of the Globe and its Center. The Poles and Axis. One of which ends is called the Arcticke, o [...] North Pole of the world; and the other the Antarctick, or South Pole: and the pin it self is called the Axis. For the Axis of the world is the Diameter about which it is turned. And the extream ends of the Axis are called the Poles.

To either of these Poles, whē need shal require, there is a certain brass circle or ring, of a rea­sonable strong making, to be fastened, which circle is divided into 24. equal parts, according to the number of the hours of the day & night: and it is therefore called the Houre-circle. And this circle is to be apply'd to either of the Poles The Houre-Circle. in such sort, as that the Section where 12. is de­scribed, [...]ay precisely agree with the points of mid day, and mid-night in the superficies of the t [...]ue Meridian.

There is also another little pin, or stile to be fastened to the end of the Axis, in the very cen­ter of the Houre-circle: annd this pin is called in Latine, Index Horarius: and is so made, as that it turnes about and pointeth to every [Page 11] of the 24. sections in the Houre-circle, accor­ding as the Globe it selfe is moved about: so that you may place the point of it to what hour you please.

PONT. The use of this Houre-circle and Index is to denote the houres of the riseing and setting of the Sun and other Starrs, which must be practised after this manner. First, you must set the Globe to your elevation or Pole, and then apply the degree of the signe, in which the Sun at the time is, to the Meridian, and the Index to the twelfth houre which is uppermost. And so having thus done, you must turne the Globe about, till the degree wherein the Sun is, come to the Eastern side of the Horizon; which done, the Index will point out the houre of his riseing, and if you turne it about to the West side, you shall in like manner have the houre of his set­ting.

There is also belonging to the Meridian a Qua­drant of Altitude, being made of a long thin plate of steele or brasse, and fashioned crooked, so that it may be apply'd to the conuexs Superficies of the Globe, and having the fourth part of the circle in length. And this Quadrant is made in such a sort, as that The Qua­d [...]ant of [...] Altitude. it may be fastened on the Meridian, and so be ap­plyed to the Zenith of any place whatsoever, being divided from one end to the other into 90. equall parts or degrees.

There is besides at the foot of the Globe, a Ma­riners compasse placed: which serves to shew, how to place the Globe rightly, according to the Foure winds or quarters of the world.

CHAP II. Of the Circles which are described upon the Super­ficies of th [...] Globe.

ANd now in the next place we will shew wh [...] Circles are described up­on the Globe it selfe. And first of all there is d [...]awn a circle, in an e­quall distance from both the Poles, that is 90. degrees, which is called the AEquinoctiall, or The AEqua­tor. AEquator; because that when the Su [...] is in this Circle, dayes and nights are of equal length in all places. By the r [...]volution of this Circle is defended a Naturall day, which the Greeks call [...] For a day is [...]; Naturall and Artificiall. A Naturall day is defined to be the space of time, wher [...] in the whole AEquator A day Na­turall and Artificiall. makes a full reuolution▪ and this is done in 24. hours. An Artific [...]all day is the space, wherein the Sun is passi [...]g thorough our upper Hemi­sphaere: to which is opposed the Artificiall night, while th [...] Sun is carried about in the lower Hemisphaere. So that an Artificiall day and night are comprehen [...]ed within a Natu­rall day.

The Parts of a dav are called houres; which are either Equall or Vnequall. An Equall houre is the 24. part of a Naturall day, in which Houres e­quall and un [...]quall. space, 15. d [...]grees of the AEquator do always rise, and as m [...]ny are depre [...]ied on the oppo­site part. An Vnequall hour is the 12. part of [Page 13] an Artificial day, betw [...]xt the [...]ime of the Suns rising and setting again. Th [...]se hours are a­gaine divided into Minutes. Now a Minute is the 60. part of an hour▪ in which space of time, a quarter of a degree in the AEquator, that is, 15. minutes do [...]ise, and a [...] many set.

PONT. The use of the AEqu [...]tor consists chiefly in these things. First, it sheweth the time of the AEquinoxes, which are alwayes when the Sun falies upon the AEquinoctiall circle. And this is, when as the Sun enters into the first degree of Aries and Libra: according to that of Manil [...]us.

Libra Ariesque parem reddunt noctemque diemque

In English thus.

The Sun in Libra, and Aries plac'd, each yeare:

The day and night are equall every where.

Secondly [...]he AEquator divides the Heauens into two equall parts, or Hemisphaeres. whereof one is called the Septeutrionall or Northern Hemi­sphaere: the other, the Meridionall or Southerne. Thirdly, it sheweth the ascension and descension of the parts of the Zodiack: whence the length of the Artificiall day and night, for any position of Sphaere, may be known. Fou [...]thly [...] shewes what Starrs, and parts of the Eclipticke have any Declination.

The AEquator is crossed, or cut in two oppo­site points, by an oblique Circle, which is cal­led the Zodiack. The obliquity of this Circle is said to have been first observed by Anaximan­der Milesius, in the 58. Olympiad. as Pliny writeth in hi [...] lib. 2. Cap. 8▪ who also in the [Page 14] same place affi [...]mes, that it was first divided in­to 12 parts, which they call Signes, by Cleo­stretus Tenedius, in like manner as we see it at this day. Each of these Signes is again subdi­vided into 30. parts: so that the whole Zodi­ack is divided, in all, into 360. parts, like as the orher circles are. The first twelfth part where­of, beginning at the Vernal Intersection, when the AEquator and Zodiack crosse each other, it assigned to Aries, the second to Taurus, &c. reckoning from West to East. But here a young beginner in Astronomy may justly doubt, what is the reason, that the first 30. degrees or 12, part of the Zodiack is attributed to Aries, whereas the first Star of Aries falls short of the Intersection of the AEquinoctiall and Zodiack no lesse then 27. degrees, The reason of this is, because that in the time of the Ancient Greekes, who first of all observed the places and situation of the fixed Starrs, and expressed the same by Asterismes and constellations, the first Star of Aries was then a very smal space distant from the very Intersection. For in Thales Milesius his time, it was two degrees before the Inter­section: in the time of Meton the Athenian it was in the very Intersection: in Timocharis his time it came two degrees after the Intersection. And so by reason of it's vicinity, the Ancients assigned the first part of the Zodiack to Aries, the second to Tauru [...]; and so the rest in their order: as it is observed by succeeding ages, euen to this very day.

[Page 15] PONT. Thales Milesius was the first that calculated the time of the AEquinoxe and Eclipses: and he flourished about the yeares of the Creation, 3370. which was about 634. yeares before Christ, Meton lived about 431 yeares before Christ, in the yeare of the Creation, 3517. He was the Son of [...], and was a man of excellent knowledg in Astronomy. He also first invented the Moones Circle of 19: yeares: whose first new Moon fell upon the 13 day of the month Scriophorion, which is the same with our 16 of June, being on a Fri­day. Vid D [...]dorum Siculum. Censorinus writes of him thus. Praeterea sunt &c. There are (saith he (besides, many other great yeares: as the Metonicall yeare which Meton the Athenian in­vented and consisted of 19. common yeares &c. Timochares was by nation an Alexandrian, and he lived 300 yeares before Christ.

Vnder this Circle, the Sun and the rest of the Plane [...]s finished their severall courses and periods, in their severall manner and time. The Sun keepes his course in the midedst of the Zodiaque, and therewi [...]h describeth the Eclip­tick circle. But the rest h [...]ve all of them their latitude and deviations [...]rom the Suns course, or Ecliptick. By reaso of which their digres­sions and extravagations, the ancients as­signed the Zodiaque 12. Degrees of Latitude. But our moderen Astronomers, by reason of the Evagations of Mars, and Venus, have ad­ded on each side two degrees more: so that the whole latitude of the Zodiaque is confined [Page 16] within 16. degrees. But the Ecliptick onely is described on the Globe, and is divided, in like manner as the other circles, into 360. de­grees.

PONT. The whole latitude of the Zodiaqu [...] is divided into two parts by the Ecliptick, which is the circle, or Circumference under which the Sun steeres his course continually. whence it is called in Latine, Via Solis, & Orbita Solis, the Sun [...] high way. And in G [...]eek, [...], a Circle divideing the Zodiack in the middest. And it is called the Ecliptick, be­cause the Eclipses of the Sun and Moon ne­ver haeppen, but when they are either in conjun­ction or opposition under this line, or very near the same.

The Sun runneth thorough this Circle in his yearly motion, finishing every day in the yeare almost a degree by his Meane motion, that is 59. minutes, 8. seconds. And in this space, he twice cro [...]seth the AEquator; in two points equally distant from each other. So that when he passeth over the AEquator, at the beginnings of Aries and Libra, the dayes and nights are then of equall length. And so like­wise when the Sun is now, at the farthest distance from the AEquator, and is gotten to the begining of Cancer, or Capricorne, hee then causeth the Winter and Summer So Istice [...]. I am not ignorant, that Vitruvius, Pliny, Thco [...] Alexandrinus, Censorinus, and Columolla are of another opinion; (but they are upon an­other ground,) when as they say, that the

[Page 17] AEquinoxes are, when as the Sun passeth through the eighth degree of Aries and Libra, and then it was the midst of Summer and win­ter, when the Sun entered into the same degree of Cancer end Capricorne. But all these Authors defined the Solstices by the returning of the shadow of Dials: which shadow cannot bee perceived to return back again, as Theon saith, till the Sun is entered into the eighth degree of Libra and A [...]ies.

PONT. The office and use of the Zodiack is. Fi [...]st, in that, it is a rule or measure of the proper motion of the Planets. Secondly, By the helpe of the Zodiack the true place, of all the Starrs are sound: besides it may be knowne in what signe any fixed Starr or Planet may be said to be. Thirdly, It sheweth the Latitude of the Planets and fixed Starrs, Fourthly, All Eclip­ses happen when the Sun and Moon are under the Ecliptique. Fifthly, The obliquity of the Eclip­tique is the cause of the inequality of the artificial dayes and nights.

The space wherein the Sun is finishing his course through the Zodiack, is defined [...]o be a Yeare, which consists of 365. dayes, and almost 6. hours. But they that thinke to find the exact measure of this period, will find themselves frustrate: for it is finished in an un­equall time. It hath been alwayes a contro­versie very much agitated among the Ancien [...] Astronomers, and not yet determined. Philo­laus a Pythagoraean determines it to bee 365. d [...]yes: but all the rest have added something [Page 18] more to this number. Harpalus would have it to be 369. dayes and a halfe: Democritus 365. dayes and a quarter, adding besides the 164 parts of a day. Oenopides would have it to be 365. dayes and almost 9. hours. Meton the Athenian determineth it to be 365. dayes 6. hours, and almost 19. minutes. After him Calipius reduced it to 365. dayes and 6. hours, which account of his was followed by Aristarchus of Samos, and Archimedes. of Syra­cusa. And according to this determination of theirs, Julius Caesar defined the measure of his Civile yeare, having first consulted (as the report goes) which one Sosigines a Peripatetick, and a great Mathematician. But all these, [...]x­cept Philolaus, (who came short of the just measure) assigned too much to the quantity of a yeare. For that it is somewhat less then 365. dayes, 6. houres, is a truth, confirmed by the most accurate observations of all times, and the skilfullest Artists in Astronomicall affaires. But how much this space exceedeth the just quantity of a yeare, is not so easie a matter to determine. Hipparchus, and after him Ptolomy would have the 300. part of a day substracted from this measure: (for Jacobus Christmannus was mistaken, when he affirmed, that a Tropi­call [...], according to the opinion of Hip­parchus and Ptolomy, did consist of 365. dayes, and the 300 part of a day) For they doe not say so, but that the just quantity of a yeare is 365. dayes, and 6. hours abating the 300. part of a day: as may be plainly gathered out [Page 19] of Ptolomy, Almagest. lib. 3. Cap. 2. and a [...] Christmannus himselfe hath else where rightly observed. Now Ptolomy would have this to be the just quantity of a yeare perpetually and im­mutably: neither would he be perswaded to the contrary, notwithstanding the observati­ [...]s of Hipparchus, conc [...]ning the inequality of the Suns periodiacall revolution. But yet the observations of succeeding times, compared with those of Hipparchus, and Ptolomy, do [...] evince the contrary. The Indians and Jewes substract the 110. parte of a day: Albategnius the 600. part: the Persians the 115. part: ac­cording to whose account Messahalah and Al­bumasar wrote the tables of the Mean moti­on of the Sun. Azaphius, Avarius, and Ar­zachel affirmed that the quantity assigned was too mcch, by the 126. parte of a day. Al­phonsus abateth the 122. part of a day: some o­thers, the 128. and some the 130. part of a day. Those that were lately imployed in the resti­tution of the Romane Calendar, would have almost the 133. part of 1. day to be substracted, which they conceived in 400. yeares, would come to three whole dayes. But Copernicus observes that this quantity fell short, by the 115. part of a day. Most true therefore was that conclusion of Censorinus, that a year con­sisted of 365. dayes, and I know not what certain portion, not yet discovered by Astro­logers.

By these divers opinions here alledged, is manifestly discovered the error of Dion, which [Page 20] is indeed a very ridiculous one. For he had a conceit that in the space of 1461. Julian yeares, there would be wanting a whole day for the just measure of a yeare; which hee would have to bee intercaled, and so the Ci­vile Julian yeare would accurately agree with the revolution of the Sun. And Galen also, the Prince of Physitians, was grossely decei­ved, when he thought that the yeares consisted of 365, dayes, 6. hours, and besides almost the 100. part of a day: so that at every hundred yeares end there must be a new intercalation of a whole day.

Now because the Julian yeare, (which was instituted by Julius Caesar, and afterward re­ceived, and is still in [...]) was somewhat long­er then it ought to have been: hen [...]e it is that the AEquinoxes and Solstices have gotten before their ancient situation in the Calen­dar. The mutati­on of the AEquinox. and Solsti­ces, For about 432. yeares before the inca [...] ­nation of our Saviour Christ, the Vernall AE­quinoxe was obserued by Meton and Euct [...] ­mon, to fall on the eighth of the Kalends of A­prill, which is the 25. of March, according to the computation of the Julian yeare. In the year 146. besore Christ it appeares by the observa­tions of Hipparchus, that it is to be placed on the 24. of the same month, that is the 9. of the Kalends of Aprill. So that from hence we may observe the error of Sosigenes (notwithstand­ing he was a great Mathematician) in that above 100. yeares after Hipparchus, in institut­ing the Julian Calendar, he assigned the E­quinox [...] [Page 21] to be on the 25. of March, or the eight, o [...] th [...] Kalends of Aprill, which is the place it ought to have had almost 400. yeares before his time, This error of Sosigenes was derived to succeeding ages also: in so much that in Gal­lens time, which was almost 200. yeares after Julius Caesar, the AEquinoxes were wont to be placed on the 24. day of March and September: as Theodorus Gaza reports. In the yeare of our Saviours Incarnation, it happened on the 10. of the Kalend [...] of Aprill, or the 23, of March. And 140. yeares after, Ptolomy obserued it to fall on the 11. of the Kalends. And in the time of the Councill of Nice, about the yeare of our Lord 328. it was found to be on the 21. of March, or the 12. of the Calends of Aprill In the yeare 831. Thebit Ben Chorah observed the Vernal AEquinoxe to fall on the 17. day of March: in Alfraganus his time it came to the 16. of March. Arzachel a Spaniard in the year 1090. observed to fall on the Ides of March, that is the 15. day. In the year 1316. it was obserued to be on the 13. day of March. And in in our time. it is come to [...]he 11. and 10. of the same month. So that in [...]he space of 1020. yea [...]s. or thereabout, the AEquinoctiall points are gotten forward no lesse then 14. dayes. The time of the Solstice also about 388. yeares be­fore Christ, was observed by Meton and Eucte­mon to fall [...]pon the 18. dav of June: as Joseph Scaliger, and Jacobus Christmannus have obser­ved. But the same in our time, is found to be on the 12. of the same month.

[Page 22] The Ecliptick and AEquator are crossed by two great circles also, which are call'd Colures both which are drawn through the Poles o [...] The Co­lures. the world, and cut the AEquator at [...]ght An­gles. The one of them passing thorough the pointes of both the Intersections; and is cal­led the Equinoctiall Colure: The other passing through the points of the greatest distance of the Zodiack from the AEquator is therefore called the Solsticiall Colure.

PONT. The office of the Colures in general is. First to show the foure principall points of the Zodiack, in which, by reason of the motion of the Sun, there are caused the great changes of the Sea­sons of the year. Of which points, two are in the AE­quator, at Aries and Libra, determining the place of the AEquinoctial Colure: and Capricorn, which constitute the Solsticiall Colure. Secondly, To distinguish the AEquator Zodiack and the whole Sphaere of the Heavens into foure equall parts. The use of which is principally seen in examining the ascensions of the Signes. These Colures differ from each other, in that the Solsticiall Colure passeth through the Poles of the world, and also of the Zo­diack: but the AEquinoctiall Colure passeth through the Poles of the world only.

Now that both the Colures, as also the AE­quinoctiall points have left the places, where they were anciently sound to bee in the hea­vens, is a matter agreed upon, by all those that have applyed themselves to the observa­tions [Page 23] of the Coelestiall motions: onely the doubt is, whether fixed Starrs have gone for­ward unto the proceeding Signes, as Ptolomy would have it: or else whether the AEquino­ctiall and Solsticiall points have gone back­ward to the subsequent Signes, according to the Series of the Zodiack, as Copernicus opini­on is.

PONT. What the opinion of Joseph Scaliger was, concerning the procession of AEquinoctial points thus diversly thought on by Ptolomy and Co­pernicus, you have expressed in an epistle of his [...]o Isaac Casaubon, there having been not long be­fore a disputation holden concerning some certain Mathematicall question, at the intreaty of some of the chiefest of the States of the Low Countries; among which number Scaliger was chosen also, as an Arbitrator: which Epistle of his, was after­wards Printed, amongst some other of his Epistles at Paris. What the Illustrious Tycho also thought concerning this point, you have in his Progym­ [...]asmata Instaur. Astron. p. 255. But I will first set down Scaliger's opinion: and afterward adde Tychoe's, and some others also. Scaliger speakes thus.

Alterae literaetuae, &c. I received (saith he) [...]eur second letters, the next day aster your former. In which you make mention of one that undertakes [...]o discourse of the Magneticall direction of the Needle. Many indeed have endeavoured in this matter, and doc daily endeavour, being thereto incouraged by the rewards proposed by the Illustri­ous States. To whose hands some have de­livered [Page 24] up their opinions in writing: and Arbi­trators forthwith have been called about it. O [...] which number, it was my chance to bee chosen f [...] one: there being indeed amongst them many ex­cellent, both Mathematicians and [...] But those that professed the Mathematicks, were altogether unexperienced in Nauticall affaires: an [...] the Navigators were as ignorant of Astronom [...] ­call. Besides these Authors of whom wee were [...] passe our judgments, performed nothing worth [...] great expectation. Neither hath that English­man, who wrote a Book three yeares since, of the Magnet, produced anything answereable to th [...] great opinion was raised of it. I my selfe hav [...] often proposed, to these Mathematicians that pro­fesse in this place, a thing which it seemes can ne­ver sinke into their heads: insomuch that they entertained it with scorne and laughter. Hippar­chus was the first that brought in that merry con­ceit of the eight sphaeres moveing toward th [...] East: and so perswaded Ptolomy, that the fix [...]d Stars in the eighth sphaere moved all in the same order, situation, and distance from each other, to­ward the East. Which Ptolomy so confirmed, that it had been a hainous matter for posterity to have doubted of the same. And first of all within the memory of our Fathers, Nicolaus Copernicus, that great restorer of Astronomy, perceived the weaknesse of this conceit of Hip­parchus: and withall observed, that the eight Sphaere did not move toward the East, but that the AEquinoctiall points went forward in [...]o the pre­cedent Signes: and this he calls [...] [Page 25] But this observation of his, hee onely nakedly proposed, without any demonstration at all. But I have observed, that the Starrs have not (as Hipparchus and Ptolomy dreame) gone on to the subsequent parts: and that the Cynosure, or Polar Star was at the same distanoe from Pole in Eudoxus his time, as it is at this day. For proof of which assertion I have collected ma­ny instances. which being granted, the procession of the AEquinoctiall point must necessarily fol­low. For one of these two must needes be granted; to wit, either of the motion of the eighth Sphaere to­ward the east, or else the progresse of the AEqui­noctiall points into the precedent Signes. Now that the first is not to be admitted appeares mani­festly, because that the fixed Starrs have not [...] all [...]hanged their situation in respect of the Pol [...], since Eudoxus his time. Therefore the other must needs be granted. The AEquinoctiall points therefore, have gone forward to the ant [...]cedent Signes. Which proposition notwithstanding the great Copernicus had no way to demonstrate, [...] out of the Phaenomena; by which that other motion might as well bee defended▪ as [...]his. Wee therefore now have this [...] But what is it? Even nothing else, b [...] the motion of the AEquinoctiall points into the precedent Signes. Now if the AEquinoctiall points be [...] moveable; and the AEquinoctiall C [...]cle b [...]e de­ [...]cribed by these points; the AEquinoctiall Circle [...]hen must needs be moveable also: which is as true, as truth it selfe. And if the AEquinoctiall circle be moveable; his Pole must be moveable also; and [Page 26] so the Poles of the AEquinoctiall must be divers from the Poles of the world. for the Pole of the World is immoveable; but this moveable. Besides, all the Meridian circles do passe through the Poles of the AEquinoctiall: and in the superficies of stone Dialls, the Meridian line, which is drawn for the placing of the Sun Diall, is understood to passe through the Poles of the AEquinoctiall; which is con­fest by all men, and is most true. But because the Poles of the AEquinoctiall are moveable, the Meri­dian line. that passeth through the same, must bee moveable also. And therefore it necessarily fol­loweth, that after some certain number of yeares, there wil be no further use of these Meridian lines in the designing of the hours in Dialls; but a new Meridian line must be taken, and the situation of the Diall altered, though not the Diall it self. We may therefore conclude, that the Sun Dialls, after some certain time, will prove false, unlesse the Meridian line be rectified. This is demonstra­ted of the very principles of the Mathematitcks. But besides this, we have some notable instances out of the Ancients, which do manefestly evince, that after some tearm of yeares, Sun Dialls doe not agree to their first designations: all which I have diligently collected. These things thus demonstra­ted, I proposed them to these Mathematicians, that, because the whole businesses of the Magneticall Needle had dependance upon these Meridians, they would consider, whether or no, this doctrine, by me first proposed, might open the way to the matter in hand, &c.

[Page 27] Thus far Scaliger. Let us now heare Tycho. Inaequalitatis, inquit, circa motum, &c. That the reason (saith he) of the inaequality observed in the motion of the fixed Starrs, or as Copernicus calls it, the Anticipation of the AEquinoctiall points (which is a very subtile and ingenious speculation of his owne, that so he might reconcile and maintain the inventions of all that went before him) that this conceit, I say, doth not constare sibi, these 70. yeares obseruations of the Starr called Spica Vir­ginis, since his first observing the same; doe mani­festly prove. For in this space of time, the recipro­cation of the AEquinoctiall points, or promotion of the Starrs, is swifter, by much, then he conceiued it would have been. So that, whereas now they ought to have finished but one degree in an hundred years space, or thereabout, they finished the same in 70. the quantity of the yeares being not so slow as hee imagined it to be: as appeares plainly by that wee have delivered in the former Chapter. For these two things do mutually cohere together in Coper­nicus, that when the quantity of the yeare is great­est, the motion of tho fixed Starrs should then bee slowest. But these things the accurate observat [...] ons of these present yeares doe manifestly elude, for as much as they doe not answer his periodicall re­stitutions.

Thus these two great lights of our times, Tycho, and Scaliger, to whom wee may adde the opinion of our Country-man Dr. Gilbert, who in his 6th book de Magnete, will have the praeces­sion of the AEquinoctiall points to depend upon the [Page 28] Magneticall mot [...]n of the Poles of the Earth▪ And this is that English-man, as far as I can gather, whom Scaliger mentions in his fore-cited Epistle: Vnto whom I refer you for satisfaction in this point, in his lib. 6. cap. 8.

The first Star of Aries, which in the time of Meton the Athenian, was in the very Ver­nall Intersection, in the time of Thales Mile­sius was two degrees before the Intersection. The same in Timochares his time, was behind it two degrees 24. minutes: in Hipparchus time, 4. degrees, 40. minutes: in Albumasars time, 17. d [...]grees, 50. minutes: in Albarenius his time, 18. degrees, 10 minutes: in Arzachels time, 19. degrees, 37. minutes: in Alphonsus his time, 23. degree [...], 48. minutes: in Co­pernicus and Rhoeticus his time 27. degrees, 21. minutes. Whence Franciscus Baroccius is convinced of manifest error, in that hee af­firmes that the first Star of Aries, at the time of our Saviours Na [...]ivity, was in the very Vernall intersection: especially contend­ing to prove it, as he doth, out of Ptolo­mies observations, out of which it plainly appeares, that it was behind it no lesse then 5. degrees.

In like manner the places of the Solstices are also changed, as being alwayes equally distant from the AEquinoctiall points. This m [...]tion is finished upon the Poles of the E­cliptick, as is agreed upon, both by Hippar­chus and Ptolomy, and all the rest that have come after them. Which is the reaso that [Page 29] the fixed Starrs have alwayes kept the same latitude, though they have changed their de­clination. For confirmation whereof, many testimonies may be brought out of Ptolomy, lib 7. cap. 3- Almag. I will onely all dg one, more not able then the r [...]st, out of Petolomies Georgr. lib. 1. cap. 7. The Starr which wee call the Polar Starr, and is the last in the taile of the Beare, is certainly known in our time to be scarse three degrees distant from the Pole: which very Starr, in Hippar­chus his time, was above 12. degrees distant from the Pole: as Merinus in Ptolomy affirms. I will produce the whole passage, which is thus. In the Torrid Zone, (saith hee) the whole Zodiack passeth over it, and therefore the sha­dowes are cast both wayes, and all Starrrs there are seen to rise and set. Onely the little Beare begins to appear above the Horixon in those places, that are 5 0 furlongs Northward from Ocele. For the Parallel that passeth through Ocele [...] distant from the AEquator 11. gra. ⅖. And Hipparchus affirmes, that the Starr in the end of the little Beares taile, which is the most Southward of that Constellation, is distant from the Pole 12. degrees▪ ⅖. This excellent testimony of his, the Interpreters have, in their translating the place, most strangely corrupted (a [...] both Johannes Werne­rus, and after him Peter Nonius have observed) setting down in stead of 500. Quinque mille, 5000▪ and for Australissimam, the most Southern, Borealissimam, the most Norther­ly: [Page 30] being led into this error, perhaps, because that this Starr is indeed in our time the most Northern. But if these testimonies of Ma­rinus and Ptolomy in this point bee substract­ed, Strabo in his lib. 2. Geogr. shall acquit them of this crime. And hee writes thus. It is affirmed by Hipparchus (saith he) that those that inhabit under the Parallel that run­neth through the Countrey called Cinnamo­mifera (which is distant from Meroë South­ward, 3000. furlongs▪ and from the AEquinoct­iall, 8800.) are situated almost in the midst, betwixt the AEquator and the Summer, Tro­pick, which passeth through Syene (which is distant from Meroë 5000. Furlongs) And these that dwell here, are the first that have the Con­stellation of the little Bear, inclosed within their Arctick Circle, so that it never sets with them: for the bright Starr, that is seen in the end of the taile (which is also the most Southward of all) is so placed in the ve­ry Cirele it self, that it doth touch the Hori­zon. This is the testimony of Strabo, which is the very same that Ptolomy and Merinus affirme; saving that both in this place, and elsewhere, he always assignes 700. Furlongs in the Earth, to a degree in the Heavens, ac­cording to the doctrine of Eratosthenes: where­as both Marinus and Ptolomy allow but 500. onely: os which wee shall speak more here­after.

Let us now come to the lesser Circles [Page 31] which are described in the Globe. And these are all Parallel to the AEquator: as first of all the Tropickes, which are Circles drawn through the points of the greatest declination of the Ecliptick, on each side of the AEquator. Of which, that which lookes toward the North The Tropick Pole, is called the Tropicke of Cancer: and the other, bordering on the South, the Tropicke of Capricorne. For the Sun, in his yearly mo­tion through the Ecliptick, arriving at these points, as his utmost bounds, r [...]turneth again toward the AEquator. This Retrocession is cal­led by the Greekes [...], and the Parallel Circles, drawn through the same points, are likewise called Tropickes.

PONT. The use of those tropickes is, First, to shew when the Sun, in an oblique Sphaere, is neer­est the verticall point of any place, and so likewise when the farthest off. Secondly, they shew, when the Sun, in his Diurnall motion, maketh the longest or shortest dayes in the yeare. Thirdly, they are▪ as it were, the limits and bounds, wherein the Sun finisheth his yearly course. Fourthly, they distin­guish the Torrid Zone in the heavens, from the two temperate Zones.

The distance of the Tropicks from the AEquator, is diversly altered, as it may plainly appear, by comparing the ob­servations of later times, with those of the Ancients. For, not to speak any thing of Strabo, Proclus, and Leontius Mechanicus, [Page] who all assigned the distance of either Tro­picke from the AEquator to bee 24. degree [...] (for these seeme to have handled the matterbut carelessely) we may observe the same from the more accurate obseruations of the greatest Ar­tists. For Ptolomy found the distance of either Tropicke to be 23. gr. 51. min. and ⅓▪ just as great, a [...] Eratosthenes and Hipparchus had found it before him: and therefore he conceived it to be immutable. Machomethes Aratensis observed this distan to bee 23. degrees, 35. mi­nutes, right as Almamon King of Arabia had done before him. Arz [...]l the Spaniard found it to be in his time, 23. degees, 34. minutes. Almehon the Son of Albumasar, 23 degrees, 33. minutes, and halfe a minute. Prophatius a Jew, 23. degrees, 32. minutes, Purbachius and Regio­montanus, 25. degrees, 28. minutes Johan. Wernerus, 23 degrees, and 28. minutes, and an half: and Copernicus found it in his time to be just as much.

PONT. This distance of the Tropickes from the AEquator, is caused by the Suns greatest decli­nation, as the Astronomers call it. which greatest declination of the Sun hath been, at divers times, found to be variable. For begining as sar back­ward, as possibly we can, and so driving it down by the Olympiads, and the yeare of Christ, even to these present times, according to Tychoes cal­culation. wee find it to bee thus, both in the de­gree and minute, as is here expressed in this ensu­ing Table.

[Page 33]

 gr. m. 11. 
Aratus24. 0. 0.Olympiad.
Hipparchus23. 51½124.
Eratosthenes 127.
Ptolomaeus23. 51. 20,An Christi 140.
Albategnius23. 35. 0.749.
Arzahel23. 34. 0.1070.
Almeon23. 33 ½.1140.
Prophatius Judaeus23. 32. 0.1300.
Purbachius23. 29. 30.1458.
Regiomontanus23. 30. 0.1490.
Copernicus23. 38 30.1500.
Tycho Brahe23. 31. ½.1592.

To which we may adde these words out of Ty­choes. 1. Book of new Star which appeared An. 1572. p. 101. where he saith, that by certain obser­vations it hath been found, that both the Suns great­est declination, as also the other Intermediat by the same reason are alter'd, as it is testified by the whole current of the most skilfull Artists, in a continuall succession of time: so that Ptolomies time, & some certain yeares before him, it was found to be 23. gr▪ 51. ½ but it doth not appear by any certain testimo­ny to have been ever greater. Whence may be col­lected, that Aratus, whome we have set in the first place, who assignes 24. gr. speakes with the largest, and as it were, at randome, and (as our learned Au­thour hath also observed of Strabo, Proclus and Le­ontius Mechanicus) not so accurately as he should have.

There are also two other lesser circles des­cribed in an equall distance from the Poles, to that of the Tropickes from the AEquator? [Page 34] which circles take their denomination from the Pole on which they border. So that one of The Arct­ique, and Antarct­ique circles. them is called the Arctick or North circle; and and the oppsite circle the Antarctick or South­erne. In these circles the Poles of the Eclip­tique are fixed, the Solsticiall Colure crossing them in the same place. Strabo, Proclus, Cleo­medes, all Greek Authors, and some of the La­tines also, assigne no certain distance to these circles from the Poles: but make them various and mutable, according to the diversity of ele­vation of the Pole, or diverse position of the Sphaere: so that one of them must be concei­ved to be described round about that Pole which is elevated, and to touch the very Hori­zon, and is therefore the greatest of all the Pa­rallels that are alwayes in sight: and the other must be imagined, as drawn in an equall dist­ance from the opposite Pole; and this is the greatest of those Parallels that are alwaies hid­den.

PONT. The Arctique, and Antarctique cir­cles do shew, 1. The Poles of the Zodiaque and their distance from the Poles of the world, 2. They doe distinguish the frigid Zones from the Temperate, and with the Tropiques and AEquator they helpe to divide the whole Heaven into five parts or regions which they call Zones.

Besides these circles expressed in the Globe, there are also some certain other circles in fa­miliar use with the Practicall Astronomers, which they call Verticall circles. These are The Verti­call circles, greater circles drawn from the Verticall point [Page 35] through the Horizon, in what number you please: and they are called by the Arabians A­zimuth, which appellation is also in common use among our ordinary Astronomers. The of­fice of these circles is supplied by the help of a Quadrant of Altitude, which is a thin plate of brass divided into 90. degrees. This Quadrant must be applied to the vetrex of any place, when you desire to use it, so that the lowest end of it, noted with the number of 90. may just touch the Horizon in every place. This Quadrant is made moveable, that so it may be fastened to the verticall point of any place.

PONT. Concerning the moveableness or muta­bility of the Arctique, and Antarctique Circles, Joseph Scaliger reports himself to be the first that observed it, out of the Ancient Greek Authors: as you may see in his Comentaries upon Manilius, re­vised, and published by himself a little before his death. Neither doth he think that any ancient La­tine Author within 400. yeares after those Greek Writers, nor scarcely any before Sacrobosco's time, can be found to have determined them to be im­moveable. But because there are many excellent things to be met withall in that pssage of his, and that he sets down the same by way of demonstration; I have thought it not impertinent, seeing our Au­thor hath given a touch at it, to set down Scaliger's opin [...]n in his own words: as you have them upon those verses of Monilius, lib. 1. Astron.

Circulus ad Boreā fulgentem sustinet Arcton, Sexque fugit folidas a coeli vertice partes.

[Page 36] He proceeds after this manner. Describantur circuli AEquinoctiali paralleli XC &c. Let there be described (saith he) 90. Parallel circles to the AEquinoctiall, and these will be the same that Gaminus calles, [...], alwayes appear­ing. Now among all those, That which toucheth the Horizon in the point of intersection of the Ho­rizon and Meridian, will be [...], the greatest of those that alwayes appeare, and so conseqvently, the Arctique Circle of that place: now because the Horizons are moveable, the Arctique Circles must also be moveable. So in the Climat wherein Cnidus lies, the eleva­tion of the Pole being thirty six degrees, Ev­doxus determines the Artique Circle also to be so many degrees from the Pole▪ in like manner in another Climate, it will bee diverse, according to the diversity of the elevation of the Pole. Thus Hipparchus [...]. At Athens (saith he) the greatest of the Circle alwaies appearing is distant from the Pole thirty seven degrees: but that in Rhodes thirie sixe degrees: and look how great the Altitude of the place is, the same must the distance necessarily be, betwixi the Pole and that point, by which the Artique circle is described. And therefore the Ancient Greekes alwayes defined the Arctique cir­cle to be [...]. Sive [...]. The most Nor­therne point that their Horizon, or place of habi­tation had. So that the Artique circle is nothing else, but the pointe of their habitation which touch­eth [Page 37] the Horizon. For in describing, they have both one common point. Only in this they differ, that the center of the Arctique circle is the Pole of the world; but the center of the Horizon is the Verti­call circle, or Zenith of the place,


As for example. A. F. D. E. is the Horizon: A. G C. H. the Artique circle A. D. the Me­ridian: A. the point of Intersection of the Hori­zon with the Meridian; in which place also the Artique and Horizon in describing doe mutually touch each other. B. the Pole: C. the Zenith of the place. I. the opposite point of the diameter of the Actique circle, Now if the elevation of the Pole bee full 45. degrees, as it is at Vienna in Franc [...], then the point I. will be the same with C that is to say, the opposite part of the Ar­ctique cir [...]le will touch the Zenith of the place. Ent if the elevation of the Pole be lesse then 45° [Page 38] degrees, the Zenith will then fall without the cir­cle: but if it be greater, it will fall within. S [...] that by this meanes it will come to passe, that the nearer wee are to the AEquator, the lesser these circles will bee: and contrarywise, the farther we live off the AEquator, the greater they are: But under the AEquinoctiall it self, that is in a right position of Sphaere, there is no Artique circle at all: Pytheas writes, that those that inhabit Thule, now call Iseland, have a Tropick for their Ar­ctique circle. Whether therefore this Circle fal within or without the Tropicke, the distance of it from the poi [...]t, l. Will be as great, as is the diffe­rence betwixt the elevation of the Pole, and the elevation of the Equinoctiall above the Horizon of the place. As for Example: The elevation of the Pole at Rome is 41. degrees, therefore the AE­quinoctiall is elevated above the Horizon 48. gr. 20. m. and the difference is 7. degrees 40▪ m. And therefore the Zenith, or verticall point of Rome, falleth 7. degrees, 40. m. without the circumference of its Arcticke circle. So this distance which those that inhabite Iseland, is 43. gr. as having their Pole elevated 66. degrees 30. m. So that the Tre­pick with them toucheth the very point of inter­section of the Meridian and Horizon. And there­fore, Martianus Cappella designes the Artick cir­cle to be. Semper apparens, & contingens con­finia Finitoris, nunquam mersus assurgent. A circle that alwayes appeareth, and toucheth upon the skirts of the Horizon, yet never goeth under it. By these words Confinia Finitoris, hee meaneth the intersection of the Horizon and [Page 39] Meridian [...], in the most Northerly point.

These grounds being thus laid, we see that as many habitations as there are, so many Arctick circles there are also, and the same not [...], fixed and unchangeable, but different according to the diversity of paces. So that, by this we may plainly [...]erceive the errour of our moderne Artificers, who, in their Artificiall Globes, describe this circle con­trary to the doctrine and practise of the Ancients, drawing it on the Poles of the Ecliptique above the Pole of the world. Fur such an Arctick circle there cannot be, but only to those that inhabit Syene by the Nile: for with them, the Pole is elevated 23. gr. 30. m. These things considered, the Arctick cir­cle ought not to have any place in the Materiall Globe, unlesse it be made for the inclination of some certain place: otherwise there can be no such Arct­icke circle.

These things, when I first proposed in Aquitaine, where were many, both learned and unlearned, Noble and Paedants, it cannot be imagined with with what scorne and hissing they entertained them. And at length, when my constancy would not give place to their stubborne ignorance; I thought I should have been beaten among them. Yet at last, having nothing to defend themselves with, they said, that, however it were, these circles were use­full for the distinction of the Zones. At which answere of theires, I had much adoe to forbeare laughing. For this division of the world into Zones, is quite cashiered in these our times, when as the whole world hath at length been fully discove­red [Page 40] by the Navigations of the Portugals and Spa­niards. And for this purpose, to confute these Mathematicians, I alledged these words of Strabo, [...]. Polybus therefore did not, (saith he) in making certain Zones, which are to be limited by the Arcticke circles: two of which line under the said Arctiques, and other terminated betwixt the Arctiques, and the Tropiques. For this is a Maxime: That determinate things cannot bee bound by uncertain and indeterminate limits. This their Philosophy therefore is vaine and fri­velous. But yet their impudence ends not so. For you shall hardly meet with any of those Mathe­maticians, that will not presently conclude him madd, that should but dare to descend any whit from the doctrine of John de Sacrobosco, in the point of these circles. Yet one of them, not long since, being as it seemes, advised thereto by the former edition of Manilius, confesseth by the way, and as it were unwillingly, that the Ancients made other use of the Arcticke circle s; then wee now doe. And yet he would not be thought to have learned this of me: notwithstanding these kind of fellows are the most ignorant in matters of Anti­quity, in the world. Who should be the first broa­cher of this ridiculous conceit, I cannot guesse, otherwise, then that it must needs bee some latine Writer, and thaet 400. yeares later then any of the Greeke Authors. And I know not whether [Page 41] any other taught this doctrine before John de Sa­crobosco: ceartainely he is the most ancient I can readily think on. As therefore our men are in an errour, in making the Arcticke to bee an Immu­table circle, so likewise are the Ancients, and those among us that follow them, to be blamed, for making this circle to be Parallel to the other three: whereas the Parallel circles in a Sphaere have the same Pole with the Sphere it self. But the Pole of the Arctique is the same alwayes with the Pole of the World: whereas the Pole of the other three altereth, as do the Tropicall, and Equinoctiall points. For the AEquinoctiall and Tropicall points doe anticipate their places in the Zodiaque: insomuch, that in a certain tearme of yeares, they are removed forward a degree. Now the AEqui­noctiall, and Tropicall circles, are no other then what are described by those points, which in them­selves are moveable. Therefore are their Poles also moveable. But wee shall suffer for these things too, I doubt not, untill that length of time shall have beaten this into the heads of such men, with whom strength of reason is able to prevaile nothing at all:

And this is the opinion of Scaliger, and the Ancients, concerning the Artique circles: which Johanne [...] Pincierus, a learned man, in his lib. 2 [...] cap. 13. Parergor. Otij▪ Marpurg. hath late­ly examined, and indeavonred to confute the Ar­ctique circle (saith he) is thus described by Pro­clus. Arcticus circulus, &c. The Arctique circle is the greatest of all those circles that are alwayes in sight, and it toucheth the Horizon in [Page 42] one point, and is seen also above the earth. And the Antarctique he defines thus. The Antartique is a circle equall and Parallel to the Arctique, and lies wholy hid under the earth. These circles therefore, in the opinion of Proclus, are moveable, andare described by a point that toucheth the Horizon a­bout the Pole that is nearest to it: and they are al­so changed, with the Horizon, as often as a man mo­veth either Northward or Southward. So that the nearer they are to the Pole, the lesser they are: and so contrariwise, the farther off they are from the same, the [...] are so much the greater: and consequent­ly it followes, because they have no fixed place, that therefore they cannot be described upon a Sphaere or Globe.

But from hence there ariseth three inconvenien­cies. First, that these Arctiques described by Pro­clus, are not of any use in distinguishing the Frigid Zone from the Temperate, by reason of their uncer­tain situation, and mutability. The next is, that with those that inbabite within twenty three de­grees and an halfe of the Pole, (which is as much as the Suns greatest declination from the AEquator) the Arctique circle will bee the same with the Tropique of Cancer, and the Antartique with that of Capricorne. So that they will have but two lesser circles or Parallels, which will make but three Zones in all, two cold ones; and a torrid. For in this confusion of the circles, there will be no distinction betwixt the cold, and the temperate Zones, And which is more, they that dwell under the AEquator. will have [Page 43] no Arctiques at all. Lastly there are certain acci­dents proper to, certain Climates, which cannot he assigned them, unlesse there bee fixed and certain limets set to distinguish the cold Zones from the temperate.

As for example, If it be enquired, what pro­perties are incident to those that inhabite betwixt the Tropique of Cancer and the Arctique circle: and what to those under the Arctique circle it self: and lastly, what betwixt the Arctique circle and the Pole of the World. To these questions there can be no answere made without these fixed Arctique cir­cles. Besides this, it would take away much light and futhera [...]ce, both from Geographicall Maps, and Astronomicall instruments, if these Arctique circles might not bee described in them: Which could not possibly bee described in them, but that they might change evermore with the Ho­rizon.

These and the like inconveniences are easily avoided, by placeing the Arctique circle, as usually it is, on the Poles of the Zodiaque. Neither am I any way swayed with the Authority of Joseph Sca­liger, adhering to Proclus his Doctrine of the mutability of the Arctique Circle: although I am n [...]t ignorant, how rare a thing it is▪ for such Judgment, matched with so great knowledg, to fall into an errour. And as for that testimony which they bring out of Strabo, lib. 2. Geogr. that it is sufficient, if there be Arctique circles in the temperate Climes, and that those that have any, [Page 44] have not all the same: this is [...] (to use Straboes own words) nothing to the argu­ment in hand, and concludes nothing. For then they should be of no use at all. I cannot therefore assent to a man, whose Tenent is dissonant both from the nature of the thing, and reason it self.

But to return at length to Proclus: who, seeing that he acknowledgeth that there are five Zones: two of which are terminated betwixt the Poles, and the Arctique and the Antarctique circles: and other two bordering upon the same, which are the two temperate Zones, and are bounded on one side by the Arctique, and the other, by the Tropickes: betwixt both which lieth the Torrid Zone. he himself seems tacitely to approve these Immoueable Artiques, without which there can be no set constant limits of the Frigid and temperate Zones.

Thus Scaliger and Pincierus. Now concer­ning the opinion that the Ancientes had of those Zones, namely, that some of them were inhabited through extream cold, and some through parch­ing heat; notwithstanding these are discovered at length to be but vaine dreames, by the late Sea­voyages both of the Portugals and our owne Countrimen: yet can it not be denyed, but that in each of them there are certain speciall and pecu­liar Occurrences. So that, if, but for doctrine sake. it were good that these circles should not bee taken away, neither are wee to despise it, if by the industry of later times, any thing hath been added to the inventions of the Anci­ents, which may any whit bee usefull for the [Page 45] instruction of learners, or may any way conduce so the clearing of things, in themselves obscure and in­tricate.

CHAP. III. Of the three Positions of Sphaeres: Right, Parallel, and Oblique.

ACcording to the diverse habitude of the AEquator to the Horizon, (wich is either Parrallel to it, or else cutteth it, and that either in Oblique, or else in Right Angles,) there is a threefold Position or situation of Spheres. The first is of those, that have etheir Pole for their Verticall point: for with these, the AEquator and Hori­zon are Parallel to each other, or indeed ra­ther but one circle betwixt them both. The 2d is of those whose Zenith is under the AEquator. The third agreeth to all other places else. The first of these situations is called, a Parallel Sphaere: the second a Right: and the third an Oblique Sphaere. Of these severall kinds of po­sition, the two first are simple: but the third is manifold and diverse, according to the diver­sity of latitude of places. Each of these have their peculiar properties.

[Page 46]


Those that in habite in a Parallel Sphere, see not the Sun or other Stars, either rising or set­ing, or higher or lower, in the diurnall revo­lution. Besides, seeing that the Sun in his yea­ly motion traverseth the whole Zodiaque, wich is divided by the AEquator into 2. equall parts: one whereof lieth toward the North, and the other toward the South: by this means it comes to passe, that while the Sun is in his course through those signes that are nearest their verticall Pole, all this while hee never setteth, and so maketh but one continued Arti­ficiall day; which is about the space of six months. And so contrarywise, while he run­neth over the other remoter signes, lying to­ward the opposite Pole, hee maketh a long continuall night of the like space of time, or thereabout. Now at such time as the Sun iu his diurnall revolution shall come to touch the [Page 47] very AEquator, he is carried about in [...]uch sort, as that hee is not wholly apparent above the Horizon, nor yet wholly hidden under it: but as it were, halfe cut off.

The affections of a Right Sphere are these. All the Sarrs are observed to rise and set in an equall space of time: and continue as long above the Horizon, as they doe under it. So that the day and night is alwaies here of equal length.


PONT. That in a right Sphaere all the Stars do both rise and set that is, are all generally seene above the Horizon, and in like manner doe also all set by turnes; so likewise that boath the Poles, both Arctique and Ant [...]rctique may be seen at once: hath hitherto been the received opinion both of Geminus. And Proclus, and generally, of all other Writers: whichour Author also here followeth. [Page 48] Yet if wee do but examine the matter more nearely, we shall find this to agree not so much with the Sen­sible, as with the Rationall or Intelligible Hori­zon. For as much as eve [...] in a Right Sphaere, the fight can hardly reach both the Poles, by reason of the extuberancy of the earth. Which is also confirmed by the Testimony of Johannes Lerius a Burgonian, who in his history of his voyage into the New world, whether thus. Non modo sub AEquinoctiali po­lus uterque non apparet, &c. Under the AEqui­noctiall (saith he) not only both the Poles are invisi­ble, and do not appear, but neither one nor other can be seene, till a man hath passed on two degrees from the AEquator. But whether this assertion of his, or the contrary of some of our Countrymen, who have also sailed through those parts, be to be ac­counted the more accurate and trne, I leave to o­ther to determine,

An Oblique Sphaere hath these properties. Their dayes are sometimes longer then the Nights, some times shorter, and sometimes of equall length. For when the Sun is placed in the AEquinectiall points, which (as wee have said) happeneth twice in the yeare; the daies and nightes are then equall. But as hee draw­eth nearer to the elevated Pole, the dayes are observed to increase, and the nights to decrease; till such time as hee comes to the Tropique, when as he there maketh the lon­gest dayes and the shortest nights in the yeare. But when he returneth toward the Opposite Pole, the dayes the [...] decrease, till he toucheth the Tropique, that lieth nearest the same Pole: [Page 49] at which time, the nights are at the longest and the dayes shortest. In this position of Sphaere also, so me Starrs are never seen to set; such as are all those that lie within the com­passe of a Circle described about the Elevated Pole, and touching the Horizon: and some in like manner, are never observed to appeare a­bove the Horizon: and these are all such Starrs as are circumscribed within the like circle drawn about the Opposite Pole.


These Parallel circles (as wee have said) are those which the Greeks, and some of the La­tines also, call the Artictique and Antarctique circles, the one alwaies appearing, and the o­ther alwaies lying hid. All the other Starrs, which are not comprehended within these two circles, have their riseings and settings by course. Of which those that are placed be­between [Page 50] the AEquator and this alwayes ap­parent circles, continue a longer space in the upper Hemisphaere, and a lesse while in the lower. So on the contrary, those that are nea­rer to the Opposite circle, are longer under the Horizon, and the lesser while above it Of all which affections this is the Cause. The Sun being placed in the AEquator, (or any other Starr) in his daily revolution describeth the AEquinoctiall circle: but being without the AEquator, he describeth a greater, or lesser Pa­rallel, according to the diversity of his decli­nation from the AEquator. All which Paral­lels, together with the AEquator it self, are cut by the Horizon, in a Right Sphaere, to right angles. For when the Poles lie both in the very Horizon, and the Zenith in the AEquator: it must needs follow, that the Horizon must cut the AEquator in right angles, because it passeth through its Poles. Now because it cutteth the AEquator at right angles; it must also neces­sarily cut all other circles, that are Parrallel to it, in right angles: and therefore it must needs divide them into two equall parts. So that if halfe of all these Parallels, as also of the AEqua­tor, be above the Horizon, and the other halfe lye hid under it; it must necessarily follow, that the Sun and other Starrs must bee as long in passing through the upper Hemis­phaere, as though the lower. And so the daies must be as long as the nights, as all the Stars in like manner will be 12. hours above the Horizon, and as many under it. But in an Ob­lique [Page 51] Sphaere, because one of the Poles is ele­vated above the Horizon, and the other is de­pressed under it: all things happen cleane o­therwise. For seeing that the Horizon doth not passe through the Poles of the AEquator: it will not therefore cu [...] the Parllaels in the same manner, as it doth the AEquator: but those Parallels that are nearest to the elevated Pole, will have the greatest portion of them above the Horizon, and the least under. But those that are nearest the opposite Pole, will have the least part of them seen, and the greatest part hid: only the AEquator is still divided into two e­quall parts, so that the conspicuous part is e­quall to that which is not seen. And hence it is, that in all kinds of Obliquitie of Sphaere, when the Sun is in the AEquator, the day and night is alwayes of equal length. And as he approach­eth toward the elevated Pole, the days encrease; because the greater Arch, or portion of the Parrallels are seen. But when he is nearer the hidden Pole, the nights are then the longest, because the greatest segiment of those Parallels are under the Horizon. And by how much the higher, either Pole is elevated above the Hori­zon of any place, by so much, the daies are the longer in Summer, and the nights in Win­ter.

PONT. The position or siauation of a Sphaere is rightly distinguished by our Author, into three [...]inds, to wit, Parallel, Right, and Oblique. Not­withstanding Clavius, with Sacrobosco. acknow­ledg onely two: and they are, Right, and Ob­lique▪ [Page 52] For if it be demanded, (saith Clavius) what manner of Sphaere they may be said to have, that inhabite under the Poles: we must make answer, an Oblique. But both Clavius, and Sacrobosco are herein deceived. For those that have such a position of Sphaere, as that they dwell under the Pole, the AEquator with them doth not make Oblique An­gles with the Horizon: because the Horizon and AEquator there, make both but one circle. This kind of Sphaere therefore may more rightly be called a Pa­rallel, or Neutrall Sphaere: because that it's Ver­ticall point falleth upon the Pole of the Sphaere. But Joseph Scaliger hath given it the aptest appella­tion of all, in his Notes, upon Manilius. Astronom. lib. 3. upon these Verses.

Stantis erit coeli species, laterúmque meatus Turbinis in morem rectâ vertigine currit.

Where he saith, that every Sphaere may be said, aut jacere, sedere, aut stare, either to lye, sit, or stand. So that the first position of Sphaere is, as of lying all along, which is that of a Right Sphaere, where the Horizon makes right Angles with the AEquinoctiall. The seeond is of sitting, [...]. The third is of standing, [...] and is like a Mill. for in this Position, the AEqui­noctiall, supplying the office of the Horizon, and as it were, turned round about, is just like a Hand­mill, both in habit, and manner of turning about, But we cannot so properly call it a Right Sphaere because of the right Angles that it makes with the AEquinoctiall, as passing through it's Poles: because that that appellation seemes to suit more [Page 53] fitly with a standing Sphaere, in which the AEqui­noctiall is the same with the Horizon and Arctique circle. Lastly there is but one Right, or Lying Sphaere because there is but one AEquinoctiall: and there are but two standing Sphaeres; because there be but two Poles. But there is great variety and diver­sitis of Oblique; or sitting Sphaeres, as may ma­nifestly appear to any man; and as our Author hath declared at large,

CHAP. IIII. Of the Zones.

THe four lesser Circles, which are Parallel to the AEquator, divide the whole earth into five parts, cal­led by the Greekes, Zones. Which appellation hath also been received, and is sti [...] in use among all our Latine Writers: not­withstanding they sometimes also use the La­tine word, Pl [...]ga, in the same signification. But the Greekes do sometimes apply the word Zona, to the Orbes of the Planets, (in a diffe­rent sence then is ever used by our Authors) as may appeare by that passage of Theon Alex­andrinus, in his Commentaries upon Aratus, [...]. that is: There are also in the heavens se­ven Zones, whi [...]h are not contiguous to the Zodiaque: the first whereof is assigned to Sa­turn, the second to Jupiter, &c.

Of these five Zones, three were accounted [Page 54] by the Ancient Philosophers and Geographers to be inhabitable and intemperate. One of them by reason of the Suns beames continually beat­ing upon the same: and this they called the Torrid Zone, and is terminated by the Tropi­ques on each side. And the other two by reason of extream cold, they thought could not be in­habited, as being so remote from the heat of the Suns beames: whereof one was compre­hended within the Arctique circle, and the o­ther within the Anta [...]ctique. But the other two were accounted temperate, and therefore habi­table, the one of them lying betwixt the Arctique circle and the Tropique of Cancer; and the other betwixt the Antarctique and the Tropique of Capricorn.

Neither did this opinion, (although in a manner generally received a mōg the Ancients) concerning the number and bounds of the Zones, even then want its opposition. For Parmenides would have that Zone, which they call the Torrid, to be extended farr beyond the Tropiques: so that he made it almost as large againe, as it ought to have been: but is withall reprehended for it by Posidonius, be­cause he knew that about halfe of that space which is contained betwixt our Summer Tro­pique and the AEquator, was inhabited. So likewise Aristotle terminated the torrid Zone betwixt the Tropiques, and the temperate Zones, with the Tropiques, and the Arctique and Antarctique circle. But he also is taxed by the same Posidonius, in that he appointes the [Page 55] Arctique circles, which the Greekes will have to be mutable, to be the limits of the Zones. Polyibus makes six Zones, by dividing the Torrid into two parts, and reckoning one of them from the Winter Tropique to the AEqui­noctiall, and the other from thence to the Summer Tropique. Others following Era­tosthenes, would have a certain narrow Zone; which should be temperate and fit for habita­tion, under the AEquinoctiall line: o [...] which opinion was Avicen the Arabian. And some of our Modern Winters, (Nicolaus Lyranus, Thomas Aquinas, and Campanus) I know not upon what grounds, will have the terre­striall Paradise, spoken of in the begining of Genesis, to bee placed under the AEquinoctiall line. And so likewise Eratosthenes and Polybi­us, would have all that which they call the Torrid Zone, to be temperate. In like manner Posidonius contradicted the received opinion of the Ancient Phylosophers, because he knew that both Syene, which they place under the Tropique of Cancer, and also AEthiopia, which lieth more inward, and over whose heads the Sun lieth longer, then it doth upon theirs un­der the AEquator, are notwithstanding inhabi­ted. Whence he concluded, that the parts under the AEqinoctiall were not inhabitable, because he saw [...]at those under the Tropique wanted [...]ot inhabitants. Yet Ptolomy in his 2d book [...]d sixt Chapter of his Almageste, conceiveth [...]hose things, which are prepared of the temperateness under the line, to be rather con­jecture [Page 56] then truth of story: and yet in the last Chapter of his fifth book of his Geography, hee describes us a Country in AEthiopia, which he calleth Agisymba, and placeth farr beyond th [...] the AEquinoctiall: (notwithstanding some of our Modern Geographers stick not to place it Northward from the AEquator, contrary to Ptolomies mind.) This inconstancy of Ptolo­my hath given occasion to some to suspect, that the Almagest, and Cosmography were not the same Authours workes.

Now as concerning these conceits of the Ancients, about the number of the intempe­rate Zones, if they were not sufficiently pro­ved to bee vain and idle, by the authority of Eratosthenes and Polybius: yet certainly it is very evidently demonstrated by the Navigati­ons both of the Portugalls, and also of our own Countrymen, that not only that tract of land which the Ancients call the Torrid Zone, is fully inhabited; but also that within the Ar­ [...]tique circle, above 70 degrees from the AEquator, all places are full of inhabitants. So that now, no man needs to doubt any fur­ther of the truth of this; unlesse he had ra­ther erre with Sacred and Venerable Antiqui­ty, then be better informed by the experience of Moderne Ages, though never so strongly backed with undeniable proofes and testimo­nies.

PONT. Whereas our Author accuseth Pto­lomy of inconstancy, in that in his Almagest. cap. 6. lib. 2. hee accounteth it a fahle, rather then any [Page 57] true, history whatsoever is reported of the in hahitants under the AEquator: where as in his Geography lib. 5. cap. ult. he seemeth to contradict the same: I think that Pliny also is not free from the like fault. For whereas in his lib. 6. cap. 22. having dis­coursed of the M [...]gnitude of the Isle Taprobane, (which is now thought to be Sumatra, and lyeth directly under the line,) out of Eratosthenes and Megasthenes: he presently adds, that besides the testimony of the Antients, the Romans had better knowledg of the same, in the time of the Em [...]eror Claudiu [...], there being Embassadors sent from thence to Rome; who among other things, should relate, that with them Gold, & Silver was in high account, and that they had greater wealth then the Ro­mans themselves; but yet that the Romans had greater use of riches, then they. Which words of Pliny, with many other there at large set down by him, if they be but compared with what himself elsewhere writeth, in his 2d book chap. 68. he will be found manifestly to contradict himself. For dis­puting in this place, and inquireing, how great a part of the earth is inhabited: Tres (saith he) ter­rae partes abstulisse nobis coelum, &c. Three parts of the world the Heaveus have robbed us of; to wit, the Torrid, or middle Zone, [...]bat is, whatso­ever lieth betwixt the two Tropiques: and the two outmost or Frigid Zones: that is to say, whatever ground lieth betwixt either Pole, and the Arctique and Antarctique circles. According to that which the Poët sung of old:

[Page 85]
Quarum quae media est, non est habita bilis aestu.
Nix tegit alta duos.

In English thus.

The midst of these is not inhabited,
Through heat: and two, with snow are covered.

For this is that which Pliny meaneth: that those two outwardmost are not habitable, by reason of extremity of [...]old, nor the other, through too vio­lent heat. But that which is more to be wondred at in so great an Author, (who not withstanding indif­ferently took up aswel the common popular fables, as the extravagant fixions of the Poëts also) is that which he very confidently relates out of Corlius Ne­pos, how that one Eudoxus, taking Ship in the Ara­bian gulf, came as farr as the Gades, two Isles up­on the confines of Spain. Which voyage if we should but throughly examine, wil be found to be as much, [...] that all the Fortugals, and our Countrymen at this day performe in their Sea voyage to the East Ind [...], when as touching upon the Cape of good hope, they twice crosse the line, and passe through the whole Torrid Zone. Not to speak any thing of that which he writes in his first book, twenty third Chapter, Namely, that there is never a yeare, that India doth not suck out of the Romane Empire, at the least 500000. Sestercies, by sending in such commodities, as they sell to the Romanes for an hundred times as much as they are worth in India. And that there is yearly Traffique by Shippe through the Red Sea, betwixt them and the Ro­manes, who are saine, for their safer passage, to [Page 59] defend themselves from Pirats, by going provided with bands of Archers. And here, all that can be said in Plinies defence, is, tha [...]those things which he relates in this second book, were written by him long before the rest which followeh: and that at that time, these Indian voyages were not so fre­quently undertaken, or the passages so well known unto the Romans: especially, for that in the bookes following, as namely the sixth book 17. and 23. Chapters he saith, that the whole course of the voy­age from Egypt into India, began but then first to be discovered, when as he was writing the same: and that Seneca having not long before begun a de­scription of India, reckoned up therein 60. great rivers, and 122. Nations, to be contained within the same.

The principall cause of the habitablenesse and fortility of the parts under the Torrid Zone, i [...], in that the Sun shineth upon them but 12. houres: so that the nights beeing alwayes as long as the daies, the coldnesse of the one doth very much attempe­rate the excessive heat of the other. In like manner, that both the Frigid Zones are habitable, is to be attributed to the Sun, which in his course, through the six Northern signes of the Zodiaque, never sets in six months space so those that live under 84 de­grees of latitude: so that by his continuall presene [...] the extream rigidity of the Clime i [...] mitigated, and the cold, by this meanes, dispelled.

CHAP. V. Of the Amphiseij, Hereroscij, and Periscij.

THe inhabitants of these Zones, in re­spect of the diversity of their noon­shadowes, are divided into three kinds, Amphis [...]ij, Heteroscij, and Periscij. Those that inhabit betwixt the two Tropiqu [...]s are called Amphiscij, because that their noon shadowes are diversly cast, some­time toward the South, as when the Sun is more Northward then their Verticall point: and sometimes toward the North, as when the Sun declines Southwa [...] from their Zenith.

Those that live betwix the Tropiques and A [...]ct que circles, are called Heteroscij, because the shadowes at noon are cast onely one way, and that [...]ither North or South. For the Sun never comes farther North, then our Summer Tropick; nor more Southward, then the Win­ter Tropick. So that those that inhabit North­ward of the Summer Tropique, have their shadowes cast alwayes toward the North: as in like manner those that dwell more South­ward then the Winter Tropick, have their Noon-shadows cast alwaies coward the South. Those that inhabit betwixt the Arctique or Antarctique circles, and the Poles, are called Periscij: because that the Gnomons do cast their shadowes circularly: and the reason hereos it, for that the Sun is carried round about, above their Horizon in his whole diurnall Revolu­tion.

[Page 61] A figure of all these may here be seen:


PONT. The Heterosciall Zone is therefore two, fold ei­ther Northern or Southern. The Northern is comprehended betwixt the Tropique of Cancer and the Artik circle: and [...]s called [...] Septentrionalis, because that in it the Sun beames, at noon, are alwayes cast to that part only that byoth toward the [...]ole Articks

[Page 62] The Southern Hetorosciall Zone, containeth all that space of ground that lieth betwixt the Tropique of Capricorn, and u [...]e Antarctique circle, And it is call [...]d [...] Meridonalis, because the Noon shadowes are proje [...]ed to­ward the South Pole only.

The properties of these severall Zones are these that fol­low. First, they that inhabit the midst of the Torrid Zone, are in a Right Sphaere: for with them, both the Poles of the world lie in their Horizon: and their Zenith or Verticall point falleth in the AEquinoctiall Circle. So that their peculi­ar Accidents are these. First, All the S [...]arres do rise and set in an equall space of time, except the Arctique and Antarcti­que Poles: as we have demonstrated out of Lerius, in our notes upon the third Chapter. Secondly, They have a per­petuall AEquinoxe. Thirdly, They have the Sun verticall unto them twice in a yeare, namely, when hee entered into ♈ and ♎ Fourthly, In the Suns periodicall motion through the Zodiaque, look how much he goeth Southward from their Zenith, in his returne hee declines as farr north­ward srom the same. Fi [...]thly, They have soure Solstices; two when the Sun is in their Zenith and AEquinocti [...]ll points: and two Collaterall, when he is in the Sol­sticiall points. Sixthly, They have two summers every yeare, when the Sun is in the AEquinoctioll points: and two, as it were, Winters, when the Sun declineth to either Tropiqu'. Seventhly, They have five different kindes of shadows: to wit, Eastward, Westward, North­ward, Southward, and Perpendicular. And therefore the Inhabitants of this Zone are called Amphiscij, that is to say, having their shadowes cast on both sides: The pro­perties os those that inhabit toward the utmost border of the Torrid Zone, and being os the Northern Tem­perate, whi [...]h have an Oblique Sphaere, (for the Arctique Pole with them is elevated twenty three degrees and an halfe, and their Zenith fall th on the Troqi [...]ue of Cancer,) are these following. Fi [...]st, All those Starrs that are comprehended within the compasse of the Arctique Cir­cle, are alwaies above the Horizon: and contrari­wise, those within the Circuite of the Acctique alwayes [Page 63] lye hid. But if the intermediate Starrs, those that are Northward from the AEqnator, or a longer time above the Horizon, then they are under it: in like manner, as the other that decline more Southward, their Nocturnall Arch is greater then the Diur­nall: onely those in the line itself, do rise and set in an equall space of time. Secondly, Their Artifici­all dayes and nights are unequall. Thirdly, The Sun is in their Zenith but once in the yeare, and that is in the beginning of Cancer: so that it never as­cends more Northward, but at all other times is Southward to them. Fourthly, They have two Sol­stices: one, when the Sun is in the begining of Cancer, which is their Verticall point: and the other when the Sun entereth into the begining of Capricorne, at which time the Sun hath the least elevation. Fifthly, They have also but one Summer and one Winter. They have foure differences of shadows, namely, Eastern, Western, Northern, and Perpendicular. And here is the beginning of the Heteroscij.

They that dwell on the Oblique Sphaere, so that the Arctique Pole is elevated with them above 23. degrees, an an halfe, but lesse then 66. degrees, and an half: their Zenith or Verticall point alwayes falleth betwixt the Tropique of Cancer, and the Arctique Circle: whence they have these pro­perties. First, Very many Stars with them are ne­ver observed to set: for the higher the Pole is eleva­ted, the more Stars there are which alwaies appear; and so, in like manner, there are as many in the oppo­site Haemisphaere that never rise. Secondly, Their Ar­tificiall dates and nights are equall. Thirdly, The [Page 64] Sun is never in their Verticall point: but is al­wayes at Noon Southward from them. Fourthly, They have one Summer, and one Winter, and two Solstices. Fifthly, They have also three different kinds of shadows, as namely, Eastward, Westward, and Northward. Whence they are called Hete­roscij.

Those that inhabit about the end of the Northern temperate Zone, have the Pole Arctique elevated with them 66. degrees and an halfe: so that their Zenith falleth on the Arctique circle: whence they have these properties of Sphere. 1. All the Starrs that lye within the Tropique of Cancer, and the Pole Arctique are of perpetuall Apparition: and contrarywise, those that are comprehended within the Opposite circle, are never seen to rise. 2. When the Sun is in the begining of Cancer, the Artifi­cial day is with them twenty foure hours in length: and so likewise when the Sun entreth into Capri­corne; the nights are as long. 3. The Sun, at noon, is alwayes Southward to them: but when he is in the begining of Cancer, and is near the very Ho­rizon, he then seemes, in a manner, to be Northward. 4. They have two Solstices, and one Summer, and one Winter. 5. They have foure differences of shadows: as namely, Eastern, Western, Southern and Nor­thern also, especially when the Sun entereth into the begining of Cancer▪ About these parts the Hete­roscij end, and the Periscij begin.

Those that inhabit about the middle of the Nor­thern Frigid Zone, have a Parallel or standing Sphaere: for the AEquinoctiall is their Horizon, whence they have consequently these properties [Page 65] 1. No Starrs either rise ar set at all: but what­soever are circumscribed within the AEquinoctiall circle and the very Pole, are carried about in circles Parallel both to the AEquinoctiall and Horizon. 2. For the space os 6. months they haue one continued day, the Sun in this space finishing his course through the Northern signes of the Zodiaque, and so likewise while he is in the opposite meridionall signes, they have a night of the same length. 3. They have but one Solstice, and that is, when the Sun entereth into the begining of Cancer. 4. They have one Winter and one Summer, or rather instead of a Summer they have some certain small remission of the extremity of cold. 5. Their shadows are carried round about them in à circle toward every part of the world: whence they are called Periscij, that is to say, having their shadows carried round about in a circular forme.

These are the properties of the Northerne Zones; which if they be referred to the opposite meridi­onall parts also, you have their properties likewise. For whatsoever is said of one Hemisphaere, the same is also to be understood of the other opposite Hemi­sphaere, only in a contrary sense. For when these that dwell in the Septentrionall Hemisphaere, have their longest day, the opposite inhabitants in the meri­dionall part of the world have their shortest: and when they have their Summer, with those it is then winter, &c. And the same is also to be understood of the other Accidents also, concerning their sha­dows, the rising and setting of the Starrs, and the li [...]e.

CHAP. VI. Of the Perioeci, Antoeci, and Antipodes:

THe Inhabitants of the temperate Zones have by the Ancient Geo­graphers been divided, in respect either of the same Meridian, or Parallel, or else equal situation in respect of divers parts of the AEquator, in such sort, as that to every habitation in these severall parts, they have added three other dif­ferent in position, whose inhabitants they cal­led, Perioeci, Antoeci, and Antipodes.

Perioeci, are those that live under the same Meridian, and the same Parallel also, being e­qual distant from the AEquator; but in two opposite points of the same Parallel.

Antoeci, are such as have the same Meridian, but live in diverse Parallels, yet equally di­stant from the AEquator, though in diverse parts.

Antipodes, (which are call [...]d Antichthones) are such as inhabite under one Meridian, but under two diverse Parallels, which are equally distant from the AEquator, and in opposite points of the same: or else wee may define them to be such, as inhabit two places of the earth, which are Diametrically opposite.

They therefore which are Perioeci in respect of us, are Antoeci to our Antipodes: & those that are Antoeci to us, are Perioeci to our Antipodes: [Page] and our Perioeci, are Antipodes to those which are Antoeci to us.


We have also many accidents common with our Perioeci. For we both inhabit the same temperate Zone; and have Summer, Winter, increase and de­crease of daies and nights, at the same time. Only this difference is betwixt us, that when it is noon with us, it is midnight with them. Those Authors [Page] that have added this differnce also, that when the Sun riseth with us; it setteth with those that are our Pe­rioecij, have betrayed their own ignorance. For if this were so, it would then follow, that when the day is longest with us, it shall be at the shortest with them: but this is most false. They have committed the like error concerning our Antoeci also; when as they will have the Sun to rise with us, and them at the same time. The ground of which their er­rour perhaps may be, in that they conceived us and our Antoeci to have the same Horizon, but that ours was the uppermost Hemisphaere, and theirs the lower: the like they conceived of our Perioeci. But this is an errour unworthy of those that are but mean [...]ly versed in Astronomy. We agree with our Antoeci in this, that we have midday, and midnight both at the same time. But herein we differ, that the seasons of the yeare are cleane contrary. For when we have Summer, they have Winter: and our long­est day, is the shortest with them. We also inhabite temperate Zones both of us, though different from each other in the time and seasons.

But with our Antipodes all things are quite con­trary, both daies and nights, with their beginnings and endings, as also the seasons of the yeare. For at what time we, through the benefit of the Sun, en­joy our Summer and the longest day: then is it winter with them, and the dayes at the shortest. So likewise when the Sun riseth with us, it setteth with them; and so contrary wise when it setteth with us, it riseth with them. For we inhabite the upper Hemisphaere, and they the lower, divided by the same Horizon.

CHAP. VII. Of Climates and Parallels.

ACcording to the different quantity of the longest dayes, Geographers have divided the whole earth, on each side of the AEquator to the Poles in Climates and Parallels. A Climate they define to be a space of earth comprehen­ded betwixt any two places, whose longest dayes differ in quantity halfe an houre. And a Parallel is a space, wherein the dayes increase in length a quarter of an houre: so that every Climate containeth two Parallels. Those Cli­mates, as also the Parallels themselves are not all of equall quantity. For the fi [...]st Clime, (as also the Parallel) beginning at the AEquator, is larger th [...]n the second, and the second is like­wise greater th [...]n the third. Only herein, they all agree, that they differ equally in the quan­tity of the longest day.

The Ancients reckoned but 7 Climates at the first; to which number were afterward added two more, so that in the first of these numbers were comprehended 14 Parallels, but in the later. 18. Ptolomy accounting the Parallels by the difference of a quarter of an hour, reckon­eth in all 24. by whole hours difference 4 by whole months, 6 So that b [...]ides the AEquator, reckoning he whole number of Parallels on each side, they a mount to 38.

In the Meridian of a Materiall Globe, there [Page 70] are described nine Climates, differing from each other by the quantity of halfe an hour. After these, there are, other also set according to the difference of an whole hour: and last of all those that differ in whole month [...] are continu­ed to the very Pole, each of them expressed in their severall latitudes. The distance of all, both Climates and Parrallel [...], together with, their latitudes from the AEquator, and diffe­rences of the quantity of the longest dayes, are here fully exprest it this Table following.

Ampihscij.Climates.Parallels.The longest Summers day Hour. Scr.Latitude and E­levation of Pole Hour. Scr.The bredth of the Climates. Deg. Scrup.
0012 00 04 18
112 154 18
1 [...]12 308 348 25
[...]12 451 [...] 43
2413 016 437 50
513 1520 33
3613 3023 107 3
713 4527 36
Heteroscij.4814 030 476 9
[...]14 1533 45
51014 3030 305 17
1114 4539 2
61215 041 224 30
1315 1543 32
71415 3045 293 48
1515 4547 20

[Page 71]

Heteroscij.Climates.Parallels.The longest sumers day Hour. Scr.Latitude and Elevation of the Pole. Degr. ScrThe breadth of the Climates. Degr. Scr.
81616 [...]049 13 13
1716 1550 33
91816 3051 582 44
1916 4553 1 [...]
102017 054 292 17
2117 1555 34
112217 3056 372 0
2317 4557 34
122418 058 261 40
2518 1559 14
132618 3059 5 [...]1 26
2718 4560 40
142819 061 181 13
2919 1561 53
153019 3062 251 1
3119 4562 54
163220 063 220 52
3320 1563 46
173420 3064 [...]0 46
3520 4564 3 [...]
183621 069 490 36
3721 1565 6
193821 3065 210 29
3921 4565 35
204022 065 470 22
4122 1 [...]65 57
214222 3066 60 17
4322 4566 14
224423 066 200 11
4523 1566 25
234623 3066 [...]80 5
4723 4566 [...]0
244824 066 310 0
Periscij.Here the Climates begin to be accoun [...] ted by months, from 66 gr. 3 [...]. [...]. where the day is 24 hours lon [...] to the Pole it self, who [...]e it is 6. months in length.16715

The second Part,

CHAP. I. Of such things as are proper to the Coelestiall Globe: and first of the Planets.

HItherto, hath our discourse been concerning those things which are common to both Globes: We will now descend to speak of those that properly belongs to each of them in particular. And first of those things that only concern the Coelestiall Globe: as namely the Stars, with their severall confi­gurations.

The whole number of Starrs hath been di­vided, by the Ancient Astronomers, who first applied themselves to the diligent observing of the same, into two kinds. The first is of the Planets, or wandering Stars: the other of the fix'd. The first of which, they there­fore called Planets or Wanderers because they observe no constant distance or situation, nei­ther in respect of each other, nor in respect of those that are called fixed Starrs. And these were so called, because that they were obser­ved [Page 74] alwayes to keep the same situation and distance from one another, as is at large proved Ptolomy, in his Almagest, lib. 7. cap. 1. out of his owne observations, diligently compared with those delivered by Hipparch­us.

PONT. The Starrs are divided into Planets, or wandring Starrs, and fixed: not as if these were indeed fixed in one certain place, and al­together without motion, and the other only moveable and erraticall: but these appellations are onely given then comparatively; in which sence also they are to be understood. For seeing that the fixed Starrs were observed alwayes to keep the same places in the eighth Sphaere, and the same distance srom each other: notwithstanding that they are al­wayes in continuall motion, caused by the vertue of the first Moveable, which carrieth them about in the space of twenty foure hours. But the Planets, besides this motion, have a proper motion of their owne, so that they keep neither their the same di­stance from the fixed Starrs, nor yet the same aspect to each other: for these reasons were the one called Fixed, and the other Planets. For otherwise if the Planets be considered severally, each one by himselfe, there is nothing more certain then their periodicall motion. So that Tully, alluding here­to, would have the Planets to bee called Erran­tes, by Antiphrasis, quam minimè erran­tes.

The Planets, (exceeding those two grea­ter lights, the Sun and Moon) are five in [Page 75] number. A [...] which, beside the Diurnal motion, by which they are carried about from East to West, by the Rapture of the first Moveable, have also a free proper motion of their owne, which finish from West to East, according to the suc­cession of the Signes, upon the Poles of the Zo­diaque; each of them in a severall manner and space of time: Their order in the Heavens, and periods of their motions being such as fol­loweth.

Saturne, called in Greek [...] or [...], (and by Julius Higinus, Stella Solis the Star of the Sun) is the highest of all the Planets: and [...] about the greatest [...]: but doth not therefore appear to be the least of all the Plan­ets, as Pliny hence conjectured. Hee finisheth his Periodical course in twenty nine yeares, five months fifteen dayes, according to Alfra­ganus.

Jupiter, in Greek Zeus and [...], moveth through the Zodiaque in the space of e­leven yeares, ten moneths, and almost 16. dayes.

Mars, [...] and [...], (which is also cal­called by some, Hercules his Star) finisheth his course in two yeares.

Sol, the Sun in Greek [...], performeth his course in a yeare, that is to say, three hundered sixty five dayes, and almost sixe hours.

Venus, [...], (called by some June's Starr, by thers, Isis, and by others, The Mother of the Gods:) when it goeth be­fore [Page 76] the Sun, it is called [...], the day Star appearing like another [...] Sun, and as it were, matu [...]g the day. But when it fol­loweth the Sun, in the Evening, p [...]otracting the light, after the Sun is [...]er, and supplying the place of the Moone; it is then called [...], the Evening Star. The names of which Star, Pythagoras Samius [...] first to have observed about the thi [...] ie 2d. Olympiad, as Pliny re­lates, lib. 2. cap. 8. It p [...]meth its course in a yeares space, or thereabout: and is never distan [...] from the Sun above forty six degrees, according to Timaeus his computation. Not­withstancing, our later Astronomers, herein much more [...] then h [...], allow it two whole signes, or 60 degrees, which is the utmost limit of its deviation from the Sun.

Mercury, in Greek [...], and [...], (called by some Appollo's Star) [...] his course through the Zodiaque in a yeare also: And according to the opinion of Timeus and Sosigenes, [...] ever distant from the Sun above 25. gr. or, [...] our later writers will have it, not above a who [...]e, [...], or 30. degrees.

Luna. [...] the Moon, is the lowest of all the Planets, and finisheth her course in twenty seven dayes, and almost eight hours. The various shapes and appearan­ces of which Planets, (seeming sometimes to bee [...]ned, sometimes equally divided in­to two halfes, sometimes finished like an Im­perfect [Page 77] circle, and sometimes in a respect circu­lar [...]) together with the other diversities of this Star, were first of all observed by Endy­mion; as it is related by Pliny: whence sprung that Poëticall fiction, of his being in love with the M [...]on.

All the [...]e Planets are carried in Orbes, which are Eccentrical to the earth: that is, which have not the same center with the earth. The Semi­diameter of which Orbes, compared to the Se­midiameter of the earth, have this proportion, as is here set down in this Table.

Of what parts the [...]emidiameter of the Earth i. 1. Of t [...]e same the [...] ter of the Orbe ofLuna1.48. 56 m.
Mercury116. 3 m.
Venus641. 45. m
Sol1165. 23. m.
Mars5022. 4. m
Jupiter11611. 31. m.
Saturne17225. 16. m

The Eccentricities of the Orbes, compared to the Orbs themselves, have this proportion.

Of whatparts the Semidiame­ter of the De­ferent is 60. Of the same the Ec­centricity of.Luna1812. 28. m. 30 secMaurolycus, out of Al­phons.
Mercury2. 0. m.
Venus1. 8. m.
Sol2. 16. m 6. sec.
Mars6. 0 m.
Jupiter2. 45 m.
Saturne3. 25 m.

The Eccentricities of some of the Planets, (especially of the Sun) are found to have [Page 78] decreased and growne less since Ptolomyes [...]ime. For Ptolomy sets down the Eccentricity of the Moon to be 12. gr. 3 [...] m. but by Alphonsus it was found to be but 13 gr. 28. m. and an halfe. Ptolomy assigned Eccentricity to Venus 1 gr 14. m Alphonsus 1. gr 8. m. Ptolomy found, by his owne observations. and also by those that Hip­parchus had made, that the Eccentricity of the Sun was 2 gr. 30. m. Alphonsus observed it in his time to be but 2 gr. 16. m. and the 10th. part of a minute In the year of ou [...] Lord 1312 it was found to be 2. gr. 2. m. 18. sec. Copernicus found it to be lesse yet then that. and to be but 1 gr. 56 m 11. sec. So, that without just cause, did the Illustrious Julius Scaliger think Coper­nicus his writings, for this reason, to deserve the Sponge, and the Author himself the Bastinado: he [...]ein dealing more hardly with Copernicus, then he deserves.

PONT. Besides the Eccentricities of the Plan­ets, it is worth our paines also to observe their Mag­nitudes: And this consists especially in the know­ledge of their Diameters, and what proportion they beare to each other. For the Diameter of a Planet, compared to the Diameters, of the Earth, is after this, manner following.

The Diameter ofSaturneCompared [...]o the Di­ameter of the Earth is as9102

[Page 79] The Diameter of the Sun compared to the Dia­meter of the Moon, beareth the same proportion, that is betwixt 187. and 10.

And now that which is said may be demonstra­ted by an example: let us suppose the Diameter of the Sun, in proportion, to the Diameter of the Earth, to be (as is already shewed) as 11 to 2. The Cube therefore of the Sun is 11. and the Cube of the Earth. 2. Now these Diameters being multiplied cubical­ly and thae greater Cube divided by the lesse, the difference of their severaell Globes will appear. For if you multiply 11. by 11. there ariseth 121. which number being multiplyed again by 11. the whole will be 1331. So likewise multiply 2. cubically, that is to say, by it selfe, and there riseth 4. which being again multiplied by 2- ariseth to 8. Now di­vide the greater Cube, 1331. by 8. and the product will be 166. which is the difference of the Globes of the Sun and the Earth.

And thus much may suffice us to have spo­ken of the Planets: and if any desire a more copious Narration of the same, they may have recourse to Ptolomy, Copernicus, and others, that have written the Theories of the Planets. For a more large description of these things seams not [...]o stand without purpose: especially for that by reason of their Erraticall motion, they cannot be expressed in a Globe. Let thus much therefore be spokn of them, as by the way only,

CHAP. II. Of the fixed Starrs, and their Constellations.

ANd here, in the next place, we intend to speak of the Fixed Starrs, and their Aste­rismes, or Constellations, which Pliny calls Sig­na and Sidera, signes. Concerning the number of which Constellations, as also of their figure, names, and number of the Starrs they consist of, there is diversity of opinion among Authors. For Pliny in his 2d book, 41. chap. reckoneth the whole number of the signes to be 72. But Ptolomy Alfraganus, and those which follow them, acknowledge but 48. for the most part: notwithstanding some have added to this number one, or two more; as Berenices Haire, and Antinous. Germanicus Coesar, and Festus Avienus Rufus, following Aratus, make the number lesse. Julius Higinus will have them to be but 42. reckoneing the Serpent: and The man that holdeth it, for one signe: and he omitteth the little Horse: and doth not number Libra among the signes: but he divideth Scorpio into two signes, as many others also doe. Nei­ther doth he reckon the Crow, the Wolf, nor the South Crown among his Constellations, but onely names them by the way. The Bull also. which was described to appear but half, by Hipparchus, and Ptolomy, and those that fol­low them: the same is made to be wholy ap­parant, both by Vitruvius, and Pliny, and also before them, by Nicander, if we may believe Theon, Aratus his Scholiast: who also place the Pleiades in his back.

[Page 81] Concerning the number also of the Starrs, that goe to the making up of each Constella­tion, Authors do uery much differ from Pto­lomy, as namely, Julius Higinus, the Com­mentator upon Germanicus, (whether it bee Bassus as Philander calles him: or whether those Commentaries were written by Germa­nicus himself, as some desire to prove out of Lactantius) and sometimes also Theon, in his Commentaries upon Aratus; and Alfraganus very often.

Now if you desire to know what other rea­son there is, why these Constellations have been called by these names. save onely, that the position of the Starrs doth in some sort seeme to expresse the formes of the things sig­nified by the same: you may read Bassus, and Julius Higinus, abundantly discoursing of this argument out of the fables of the Greekes. Pli­ny assures us, (if at least we may believe him) that Hipparchus was the man that first deli­vered to posterity the Names, Magnitude, and Places of the Stars. But they were called by the same names, before Hipparchus his time, by Timochares, Aratus, and Eudoxus. Neither is Hipparchus ancienter then Aratus, as Theon would have him to be. For the one flourished about the 420. yeare from the beginning of the Olympiads: as appeareth plainly out of his life written by a Greek Author. But Hip­parchus lived above 600. year [...]s after the be­ginning of the Olympiads: as his observati­ons, delivered unto us by Ptolomy, doe suffici­ently [Page 82] testifie. Besides that, there are extant cer­tain Commentaries upon the Phaenomena of Eu­doxus and Arratus, which goe under Hipparchus his name: unlesse perhaps they were written by Eratosthenes (as some rather think) who yet was before Hipparchus.

PONT. That which is written of Hippar­chus, is not to be understood any further, then touch­ing the distinction of the Starrs of the first, second, and third magnitude. For so Servius in his Com­mentaries upon the 1. lib. Geogr Hipparchus (in­quit) scrip [...]it de signis, &c. Hipparchus (saith he) wrote of the Signes, and reckoned up how many bright Stars, how many of the second degree of light, and how many obscure Stars there were in each con­stellation, For otherwise, that the Stars were known by the same names 1000 yeares before Hipparch­tus, may be proved cut of Seneca, who in his 7. lib. Natural, Quest. chap: 25 saith thus Nondum sunt an [...]i, &c. It is not (saith hee) 1500. yeares yet, since Greece first began to number the Starrs, and to give them certain Appellations, Now Seneca, we know, was put to death by the com­mand of Nero, in the 65. yeare after Christ, And Hipparchus lived not above 283. yeares before Christ, in the time of Ptolomies Phila­delphus. And Job also whom Philo Judaeus re­porteth to have married [...], Jacob's daughter, mentioneth these names, Arcturus, Pleiades, and Orion, if wee may trust St. Hierom's trans­lation in this case, cap. 9. verse. 9. Who maketh (saith he) Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and [Page 83] the Starrs in the remo [...]st parts of the South. So likewise the Prophet Am [...], chap 5 vers 8. Quaeri­te (inquiet) opificem Pleiadum & Orionis, &c. Seeke ye him that made the Pleiades and Orion, &c.

Now it is probable, that there were two kinds of men, that reduced the Starrs into constellations: and these might probably be Husbandmen, and Mariners. The Husbandmen perhaps might make these, to wit: the Ram, the Bull, the E [...]e of Corne in the Virgins hand, the young Kids, the Goat, the Waggoner, the little Goat, the Wag­gon: all which, are names used also by Homer. Of the Mariners, the Pleiades, the Hyades, the Whale, and the like names seem to have been in­vented, according to that of Virgil, in the first of his Georgickes.

Nav [...]ta tu [...] Stellis numeros & nomina fecit:
[...] des, Hyades, clarumque Lycaonis Ast [...]m.

Which is thus translated into English Verse by T. May.

The Sailers number then, and nam'd▪ [...] Star:
The Pleiads, Hyads, and the Northern Carre.

And now to whom do those other new Constellati­ons above the Antartick Pole, we their now so well known names but to the Portugals, Hollander, and English Sea-faring men? Neither are those men at all to be regarded, that condemne these usual names of the Starrs, and Constellations, as unfit to be used by Christian men. For seeing they are now used, without the least shew of superstirion, and that there is very great necessity of these Appellations, in as much [Page 84] as without them there could be no agreement or ac­cord in these Arts and cience (for these very names are used all the world over, where ever the same Arts are taught or professed) I see no reason but that we may lawfully use these names, til such time as, the true names, wherewith the great Creator of all things, at the first called every Star as David witnesseth in the 146 Psalm be made known unto us. As concerning the practise of the Arabians, who rejected these humane figures, having substi­tuted in their places the forme of Beasts: you may read Joseph Scaliger, in his Commentaries upon Manilius.

Pliny in his 2. Book, 41. chapter affirmeth, (though I know not upon whose authority or credit) that there are reckoned 1600. fixed Starrs, which are of notable effect and vertue. Whereas Ptolomy reckoneth but 1022. in all, accounting in those which they call Sporades, being scattered here and there, and reduced to no Asterisme. All which, according to their degrees of light, he hath divided into 6. or­ders. So that of the first Magnitude he reckon­eth 15. of the second 45. of the third, 208. of of the fourth. 474. of the fifth, 217. of the sixth, 49. to which we must add the 9. obscure ones, and 5. other. which the Latines call Nebulosae, cloudy Starrs. All which Starrs, expressed in their severall Constellations, Magnitudes, and names, both Latine and Greek,) and some al­so with the names by which they are called in Arabique) you may see pescribed in the Globe.

[Page 85] PONT. Now as we have already shewed, how by comparing the Diameters of the Planets, with the Diameter of the Earth, their magnitude may bee known: in like manner also, may the magnitude of the fixed Sttarrs be found out: as may be seene by this scheme.

The Diameter of a Starr of the1is to the Earths Diame­ter, as119to4

More over concerning those other fixed Starrs about the Southern Pole, which were unknown to Ptolomy and the Ancients, and now of late yeares discovered by the Portugals and Hollanders; wee shall set down their names also in their due place.

All these Constellations (together with their names in Arabique, as we find them partly set down by Alfraganus, partly by Scaliger in his Commentaries upon Manili­us, and Grotius, his Notes upon Aratus his A­sterismes, but especially as Jacobus Christman­nus hath delivered them unto us out of the Arabique Epitome of the Almagest) we will set down in their order. And if any desire a more copious declination of the same, wee must refer him to the 7. and 8. bookes of Ptolomies Almagest, and Copernicus his Revo­lutions, and the Prutenicke Tables digested by [Page 86] Erasmus Reinholt: where every one of these Starrs is reckoned up, with his due longitude, latitude, and magnitude annexed.

PONT. You may also see Christophorus Cla­vius in his Commentary upon Johan. de Sacro­bosco, cap. 1. And above all the rest Tycho Brahe: who in his book of the New Starrs that appeared in the yeare 1572. hath proposed tables of the lon­gitude and latitude of all the fixed Starrs that can conveniently be seen in these Climates, according to his owne most accurate observations: as you may see in the aforenamed book, pag. 258. and so for­ward.

But here you are to observe by the way, Co­pernicus and Erosmus Reinholt do reckon the longitude of all the Starrs, from the first Star in Aries: but Ptolomy from the very Intersecti­on of the AEquinoctiall and Ecliptick. So that Victorinus Strigelius was in an error. when he said, that Ptolomy also did number the lon­gitude of Starres from the first Star, the head of Aries.

CHAP. III. Of the Constellations of the Northern Hemisphaere.

THE first is called in Latine Ursa Minor, and in Arabique Dub A­lasgar; that is to say, the lesser Bear, and Alrucaba, which signi­fieth a Wagon or Chariot: yet this name is [Page 87] given also to the hindermost Starr in the taile, which, in our time, is called the Pole Starr, be­cause it is the nearest to the Pole of any other. Those other two in the taile, are called by the Greekes [...], that it to say, Saltatores, Dancers. The two br [...]ght Starrs in the fore part of the body, the Arabians call Alferkathan, as Alfraganus writeth: who also reckoneth up seven Stars in this Constellation, and one un­formed near unto it. This constellation is said to have been first invented by Thales, who cal­led it the Dog, as Theon upon Aratus af­firmeth.

The second is Vrsa Major, the Great Beare: in Arabique, Dub Alacher. The first Star in in the back of it, which is the 16 in number, is called Dub [...], and that which is in the flanke, being the 17 in number, is called Mi­raë, or rather, as Scaliger would have it, Mizar, which signifieth (saith he) locum praecinctionis, the girthing place. The first in the taile, which is the 25. in number, is called by the Alfonsines, Aliare, and by Scaliger, Aliath. This Asterisme is said to have been first invented by Nauplius, as Theon affirmeth. It hath in all 27. Stars: but as Theon rekoneth them, but 24 Both the Beares are called by the Greeks, according to Aratus, [...], which signifieth a Wagon or Chariot. But this name doth properly appertain to those seven bright Starrs in the great Beare, which do something resemble the forme of a Wagon. These are called by the Arabians, [Page 88] Beneth As; i. e. Filiae Feretri, as Christ­manus testifieth. They are called by some, though corruptly, Benenas, and placed at the end of the taile. some will rather read it Bene­thasch, which signifies Filium Vrsae. The Gre­cians in their navigations were wont alwayes to observe the great Bear: whence Homer gives them the Epithete [...] as Theon ob­serves: for the Greekes call the great Beare [...]. But the Phoenicians alwayes observe the lesser Beare, as Aratus affirmeth.

The third is called the Dragon, in Arabique Alanin, and it is often called Aben: but Sca­liger readethit Taben; whence he calleth that Starr which is in the Dragons head, and is the 5. in number, Rastaben, though it be vulgarly written Rasaben. In this Constellation there are rekoned 31. Starrs.

The fourth is Cepheus, in Arabique Alue­daf. To this Constellation, besides those two unformed Sarrs, which are hard by his Ti­ara, they reckon in all, 11. among which, that which is in number the 4. is called in Ara­bique Alderaimin, which signifieth, the right Arme. This Constellation is called by the Phoenicians Phicares, which is interpreted Flam­miger, which appellation, peradventure they have borrowed from the Greeke Word [...].

The fifth is Booses [...], which signifieth in Greek an Heardsman, or one that driveth [Page 89] Oxen. But the Arabians mistaking the word, as if it had been written [...] of [...], which signifies a Clamators, Cryer, call it also Alha­va, that is to say Vociferator, one that maketh a great noyse or clamor: and Alsamech, Al­ramech, that is the Launce-bearer. Betwixt the legs of this Constellation, there stands an unformed Star of the first magnitude, which is called both in Greek and Latine Arcturus, and in Arabique Alramech, or the [...]ghtest Starr, Somech haramach This Starr Theon placeth in the midst of Bootes his belt or gir­dle, The whole Constellation consisteth of 22. Starrs.

PONT. There is mention made of Arcturus also in Job, cap. 9. verse. 9. according both to Hieroms translation, and also the Greeke transla­tion of the 70. as we have noted already. But in the Hebrew text it self, it is called Gnasch, or Asch, from the root Gnusch, which signifieth Congre­gabit. Hesychius in his Onomastic [...]n observeth that Bootes is also called sometimes Orion: accor­ding to that of Manilius.

Arctos & Orion adversis frontibus ibant.

In Which signification H. Grotius in his notes upon Aratus his Asterismes, thinkes it is here to be taken. Sometimes also the whole Constellation of Bootes, or Arctophylax, is called Arcturus; from the Greek word [...], a Bear, and [...], which is the same that [...], a Keeper: as Scaliger upon Manilius observes. Now that the Hebrewes call Arcturus by a word signifying a congregating, or gathering together, the reason [Page 90] I take to be, because he hath the great Bear joyned to him. For this Star standeth behind the taile of the great Bear, whence it seemeth to have it's name, quasi [...] the keeper of the Bear, whence Pliny also, lib. 2. cap. 41. Bootes sequitur Sep­tentriones.

The sixth Constellation is Corona Borea, the North Crown, called by the Arabians, Acli­laschemali, and that bright Star, which is pla­ced where it seemeth to be fastened together, and which is the first in number, is called in A­rabique Alpbecca, which signifieth Solutio, an untying or unloosing. It is also called Munic: but this name is common to all bright Starrs. The whole Constellation consisteth of eight Stars.

The seventh is Hercules, in Arabique, Al­cheti hale rechabateb, that is one falling upon knees, and sometimes absolutely Alcheti: for it resembleth one that is wearied with labour (as Aratus conceives) whence it is also called in Latine Nisus, or Nixus; (which in Vitruvius is corrupted into Nesses:) and the Greekes call it [...] that is to say, One on his knees. The Star which is first in number in the head of this Constellation, is called in Arabique Rasacheti, not Rasaben, as the Alfon­sines corruptly have it: and the 4. Star is called, Marsic, or rather Marsic, Reclinatori­um, that part of the Arme on which we leane. The eight Starr, which is the last of the three, in his Arme, is called Mazim, or Maasim, which signifieth Strength. This Constella­tion [Page 91] hath eight Starrs, besides that which is in the end of his right foot, which is betwixt him and Bootes, and one unformed Starr at his right Arme.

The eight is the Harpe, called in Latine Lvra, in Arabique Schalias, and Alvakah. i. [...] Codens so Vulture, the Falling Vulture. It consisteth of 10. Stars, according to Hipparchus and Ptolo­my: but Tymochares attributed to it but 8. as Theon affirmeth: and Alfraganus 11. The bright Star, in this Constellation, being the first in number, Alfonsus calleth Vega.

The ninth is Gallina, or [...], the Hen, or Swan, and is called in Arabique Aldigaga and Altayr, that is the flying Vulture. To this Aste­risme they attribute, besides those two, unform­ed, near the left wing. 17. Stars, the 5. of which is called in Arabique Deneb Adigege, the tale of the Hen; and by a peculiar name, Arided, which they interpret, quasi redolens li [...]um, smeiling as it were of Lilies.

PONT. And here, in this place, it is worth our noting that there was a new Star observed in the breast of the Swan, in the yeare one 1600 which set many Mathematicians on work and among therest, besides Justus Byrgius Engineer to the Emperor, Johannes Beierus, Maestline, and others: Johan. Kepler also, who had some time been Tychoes Scholler, put forth a Mathematicall Tract of it. when it had now continued in the same place of that constellation for the space of 6. years, being a Starr about the third Magnitude.

[Page 92] The 10th is Cassiopeia, in Arbiaque Dha [...] Aleursi, the Lady in the Chayre: and it consist­eth of 13. Starrs: among which the 2d in num­ber Alfonsus calleth Scheder, Scaliger Seder, which signifieth a Breast.

PONT. There was another new Star also ap­pared in Cassiopeia, being as great as a Starr of the first Magnitude, in the year 1572. Novem. 11. th and it lasted 11. Months. Of which Star there were divers opinions amongst Astronomers: yet they all agreed in this, that it was placed in the seat of Cassiopeia in the very Skie, and in Via­lactea. and those that had observed it more accur­ately) & among the rest, the noble Tycho Brahe, who also wrote a large Volume of the same, full of most accurate observations did a [...] of them unanmiously confess that they could not perceive that it had any [...] at [...]all, nor yet distinguish any differ­ence betwixt its True and Apparant place; and al­so added, that it alwayes kept the same situation in the Eight Sphaere whence they manifestly are refu­ted, who deny that there hath ever any new Starr risen in the heavens since the first Creation: among which is Lambertu [...] Danaeus, as may appeare in his Physic. Christian. Tract. 4. cap. 10. But he ought to have mentioned, not this Star only, but al­so that other, which (as [...]ny testifieth) was obser­ved by Hipparchus to have been generated in the very Skie it self in his time. For where as the same Danaeus thinkes, that the Star which appeared at our SAVIOURS Nativity, was either some Comet, or else some one of the Ordinary [Page 93] Starrs, whichr at that time kept an extraordinary course in its motion: the first of these cannot be granted; because it is expresly called a star: nei­ther is the second of any force becaase, it is not pro­bable, that the Magi, who were so skilfull in the knowledg of the Starrs, should be so much deceived as to mistake an old star that had only changed its place, for a new one. Neither yet do we believe this to be the same that Hipparchus is said to have ob­served in his time, or this other, which, as we have said. was seen Anno 1572. but rather that it was a different star from both. For further satisfaction whereof, I refer my reader to Tycho de Nova Stella pag. 3 [...]9. &c.

The 11.th is Perseus, Chamil Ras Algol that is to say, Bearing the head of Medus [...]: for that Star which is on the top of his left hand, is cal­led in Arabique Ras Algol, and in Hebrew Rosch hassatan, the Divels head. This constellation hath besides those three unformed, 26 other Stars: of which, that which is [...] seventh in number, Alfonsus. alleth Alchcemb, for Alche­nib, or Algeneb, according to Scaliger, which signifieth a side.

The 12th is Auriga, the Waggoner, in Ara­bique Roha, and Memassich Alhanam, that is, One holding the raines of a bridle in his hand. This Astermisme hath 14. Stars: of which that bright one in the left shoulder, which is also the third in number, is called in Greek, [...] Capra, a Goat; and in Arabique Alhaiok or, as Scalig [...] saith, Alatod, which signifieth a Hee Goat: and the two which are in his left [Page 94] head, and are the 8th and 9th are called [...], Hoedi Kids; and in A abique, s Alfonsus hath it, Saclateni, but according to Scaliger, Sadateni, the [...]inmost a [...]me. This Configuration of these Stars was first observed by Cleostratus Te­nedius, as Higixus reporteth.

The 13th Aquila Alhhakkab, the Eagle: the modern Astronomers call it, the flying Vulture, in Arabique Altayr: but Alfraganus is of a contrary opinion, for he calleth the Swan by this name, as we have already said, they reckon in this Alte [...]isme 9. Stars; besides 6. other unformed, which the Emperour Hadrian caus­ed to he call Antinous, in memory of Antinous, his Minion.

The 14th is the Dolphin, in Arabique Aldel­phin, and it hath in it 10. Stars.

The 15th is called in Latine Sagitta, or Te­lum, the Arrow or Dart, in Arabique Alsoham: it is also called Istusc, which word Grotius thinkes is derived from the Greek ward [...] signisying an arrow. It containeth 5. Starrs in all.

The 16th is Serpentarius the Serpent bearer; in Arabique Alhava, and Hasalangue. It con­sisteth of 24. Stars. and 5. other unformed. The first Star of these is called in Arabique Rasa­langue.

PONT. There was also discovered a new Starr in the foot of the Serpent. bearer, Anno. 1605. which might have been reckoned among the Stars of the third magnitude. It began first to appeare about October, in the yeare aforesaid, [Page 95] and about February, the yeare following, being 1606▪ it vanished out of fight. Kepler wrote a Book of this Star also, unto whom you may have recourse for further satisfaction.

The 17th is Serpens, the Serpent, in Arabique [...]: it con [...]sts of 18. Stars.

The 18th is Equiculus, the little Horse, and in Arabique Kasam Alfar [...], that is in Greek [...], as [...] were the sure part of a Horse cut off. it consisteth of 4. obscure Stars.

The 19th is Pegasus, the great Horse, in A­rabique Aifaro [...] Alath [...]m; and it Hath in it 10. Stars. The Star on the right shoulder, which is called Almenkeb, and is the third in number, is also called Seat Alfras, Br [...]hium equi. And that which is in the opening of his month, and is numbred the 17th is called in Arabique Enif Alfaras, he Note of the Horse.

The 20th is [...], in Arabique Almara Al [...]sela, that is, the Chained Woman; Al­fraganus interpre [...] it [...], quae non est ex­peri [...] [...] a Woman that hath not known a man. This Constellation concaineth in it 23. Stars: whereof that which is the 12th in num­ber, and is in the girdling place, is commonly called in Arabique M [...]ach, or, according to Scaliger, Mizar: and that which is the 5th is called Alamac, or rather Almaac. which sig­nifieth a socke or bu [...]kin.

The 21th is the Triangle in Arabique [...], and [...], which signifies Triplici­ [...]. It consisteth of 4. Stars.

[Page 96] PONT. Among all these constellations in the Northerne Hemisphaere, which are in all 21. there are but three Stars onely of the first Magnitude. The first of which is that in the left shoulder of E­richthonius, or the Waggoner, called in Latine Capella. The second is the bright Star in the Harpe: and the third is Arcturus, betwixt the legs of Bootes. Now the whole number of Stars in this part of the Heavens, reckoning in these also which are of the 2d 3d 4th 5th and 6th magnitude, with the obscure and cloudy ones also, ariseth to 360.

CHAP. VI. Of the Northerne Signes of the Zodiaque.

THe first is Aries the Ram, in Ara­bique Alhamel: this Constellati­on hath 13. Stars, according to Ptolomies account; yet Alfraganus reckoneth but 12. besides the o­ther 5 unformed ones, that belong unto it.

The 2d is Taurus, the Bull, in Arabique Altor, or Ataur: in the eye of this Constella­tion there is a very bright Starr, called by the Ancient Romans Palilicium, and by the Ara­bians Aldebaram, which is to say, A very bright Star, and also Hain Altor, that is, the Bulls eye. And those five Starrs that are in his forehead, and are called in Latine Suculae, the [Page 97] Grecians call [...] because, as Theon, and Hero Mechanicus conceive, they represent the forme of the Latine. Y. although perhaps i [...] is rather because they usually cause raine and stormy weather. Thales Milesius said that there were two of these Hyades, one in the Northern Hemisphaere, and the other in the South: Euri­pides wil have them to be 3. Achaeus 4. Hippias & Pherecides 7. Those other 6. or, rather 7 Stars, that appeare on the backe of the Bull the Greeks call Pletados, (perhaps from their multitude) the Latines Vergiliae, the Arabians Atauria, quasi Taurinae, belonging to the Bull. Nican­der, and after him Vitruvius, and Pliny place these Stars in the taile of the Bull: and Hip­parchus quite out of the Bull, in the left foot of Perseus. These Starrs are reported by Pliny and Solius to be never seen at all in the Isle Tapro­bana: but this is rid culous, and fit to bee re­ported by none, but such as Pliny and Solinus. For those that inhabite that Isle, have them almost over their heads. This Constellation hath 33. Stars in it, besides the unformed Stars belonging to it, which are 11. in number.

PONT. Plinies words in that place do not seeme to carry any such sense simply, seeing that he addes the same also of the Bear. His words are these in his lib. 6. cap. 22. Where speaking of certain Embassadours that came from the Isle Taprobana to Rome, he saith; Septentriones, Virgilia sque apud no [...], veluti novo caelo, mi­rabantur. They wondered to see the Beare. and [Page 98] the seven Stars withus, [...] if they had b [...] [...] in a new world. And [...]tainely if Vap [...] bee situated under the very Li [...]e, this then, for that very reason we alledged before on the 3. [...] par. [...] of Lerius, had been no such strange [...] ­ter, is it had been spoken of the Septentriones only. Neither had Pliny written any so absurd [...] ­on, if he had said thus. Septentriones [...] nos, veluti novo [...]lo, mirabantur.

In the meane time I could wish, that Authors would [...] nothing in their bookes, without [...] examination: although I am not ignorant, that it is not strange to find Pliny fa [...]ring, [...] and then, in these kind of things.

The third is Gemini, the Twinns, in Arabi­que Algeuze. These some will have to bee Castor and Pollux, and others, Ap [...] and Her­ [...]: whence with the Arabians, the one is called Apollar, for a Aphella [...]; and the other [...], for [...] Scaliger [...]. It containeth in it, (besides the 7. [...] ­formed,) 18, Stars, amongst which, that which [...] their [...]ad, is called in Arabique [...] ­geazr.

The fourth is Cancer, the Crab, in Arabique [...], consisting of 9. Start, beside 4. [...] ­formed: of which that cloudy [...], which is in the [...], and is the [...] of all, is called M [...]l­les in Arabique, which, as Scaliger faith, signi­fieth thick or well compact.

The fifth is [...], the Lion, in Arabique Alosed; in the breast whereof there is a very bright Star, being the [...] in number, and is called [Page 99] in Arabique Cale Alased, the heart of the Lyon, in Greek [...], because that these that are borne under this Starr, have a Kingly Nativity, saith Proclus. And that which is in the ende of the taile, and is the last of all in number, is named Deneb Alased, that is to say, the taile of the Lion: Alfraganus calleth it Asumpha. This Constellation containeth in it 27. Stars besides 8. unformed. Of the un­formed Stars which are betwixt the hinder parts of the Lion, and the Great Beare. (accor­ding to Ptolomies account, although Theon fol­lowing Aratus, reckons the same as belonging to Virgo,) they have made a new Constellation, which Conon the Mathematician, in favour of Ptolomy and Berenice, would have to be called Berentces Haire: which story is also celebrated by the Poët Call [...]achus in his Verses.

The sixth is Virgo, the Virgin, in Arabique Ela­dari: but it is more frequently called Sunbale, which signifieth an Eare of Corne: and that bright Star which she hath in her left hand, is called in Greek, [...], an Eare of Corne, and in Arabique Hazimeth Al [...]acel, which signifi­eth a handfull of Corne. This Star is wrongly placed by Vitruvius and Higinus in her right hand. The whole Constellation consisteth of 26. Stars, beside the 6. unformed.

CHAP. V. Of the Constellations of the Southern Hemisphaere: and first of those in the Zodiaque.

ANd first of Libra, which is the 7. in order of the Signes. that part of this Constellation which is called the Southern Ballance, the Arabians call Mizan Aliemin, that is to say, Libra dextravel meridionalis, the Right-hand or Southern ballance. But Libra was not reckoned anci­ently among the Signes: till that the later A­stronomers robbing the Scorpion of his claws, translated the same to Libra, and made up the number of the Signes: whence the Arabians call the Northerne ball [...] Zubeneschi mali, that is in Greek, [...] the North Claw, and the other part of it that lookes Southward, they call Zubenalgenubi [...], the South Claw. This Constellation containeth in it 8. Starrs, besides 9. other unformed belonging to it.

The eight is Scorpio, the Scorpion, in Ara­bique commonly called Alatrab, but more rightly Alacrab: whence the Starr in the brest of it, which is the 8. in number, is cal­led Kelebalacrab, that is, the heart of the Scor­pion: and that in the end of his taile, which is the second in number, they call Leschat, but more truly Lesath, which signifieth the sting [Page 101] of any venemous creature, & by this word they understand the Scorpions sting. It is also cal­led Schomlek, which Scaliger thinks is read by transposition of the letters, for Mosclek, which signifieth the bending of the taile. This Con­stellation consisteth of 21. Stars, besides 3. un­formed.

The ninth is Sagitarius, the Archer, in Ara­bique Elcusu, or Elcausu, which signifieth a Bow; it hath in it 31. Starrs.

The tenth is Capricornus, the Goat, in Ara­bique Algecli. To this Constellation they attri­bute 28. Stars, among which that which, is in number the 23. is called in Arabique Denob Al­gedi, the taile of the Goat.

The eleventh is Aquarius, the Waterman, in Arabique Eldelis, which signifieth a Bucket to draw water. The 10. Star of this Constellation is called in Arabique Seat, which signifieth an Arme. It containeth in all 42. Stars.

The twelfth is Pisces, the Fishes, in Arabique Alsemcha. It containeth 34. Stars, and 4. un­formed.

PONT. Among all the Constellations recko­ed up by the Author in this and the precedent chap­ters, there are only found 5. Stars of the first Mag­nitude. The first of which, is Oculus Tauri: the the second, Cor Leonis; the third, Cauda Leonis: the fourth Spica Virginis: and the fifth and last, is a star about the month of the south Fish. The rest are all either of the 2. 3. 4. 5. or 6. Magnitude, beside some certain cloudy ones; which are reckoned in all to be 346.

CHAP VI. Of the Constellations of the Southern Hemisphaere, which are without the Zodiack.

THE first is Cetus, the Whale, cal­led in Arabique Elkaitos, consisting of 22. Starrs. That which is in number the second, is commonly called Menkar, but more rightly; as Scaliger saith, Monkar Elkaitos, the nose or snout of the Whale: and the 14. Boten Elkaitos, the belly of the Whale: and the last of all save one, Deneb El­kaitos, the taile of the Whale.

The secondis Orion, which the Arabians call sometimes Asugia, the mad-man; which name is also applied to Hydra: and sometimes Elgeuze. Now Geuze signifieth a Wall-nut: and perhaps they allude herein to the La­tine word Jugula, by which name Festus cal­leth Orion: because he is greater then any of the other Constellations, as a Wall-nut is big­ger then any other kind of Nut. The name Elgeuze is also given to Gemini. This Con­stellation is also called in Arabique Algibbar, which signifies a strong man, or Gyant. It consisteth of 38. Stars, among which that which is the second, and is placed in his right shoulder, is called Ied Algeuze, that is, Orion's [...]nda, as Christmannus thinketh: but more commonly Bed Elgeuze, and perhaps it should [Page 103] rather be Bet Elgeuze, that is the bright Star in Orion. The third Star is called by the Al­fonsines Bellatrix, the Warrier. That which is in his left foot, and is the 35. in number, is called Rigel Algeuze, or Algibbar, that is to say, Ori­ons foot.

PONT. In the 9. cap. of Job. vers. 9. there is mention made of Orion, as we said before. Now the word in the Originall is Kesil, which signifi­eth Madnesse; Rage, and Instability: and it is so called perchance, because that when this Constella­tion riseth with the Sun, it causeth great store of tempestuous weather in all places: whence it is stled by the Poëts, Nimbosus & Aquosus Orion. Now we must note, that this word Kesil in Hebrew, (which is rendred Orion by Hierome and others) doth answere to the Arabique word Asugia, which signifieth likewise a Bold or Furious fellow as our Author saith. In like manner there is mention made of Orion again in the 38. Chapter of Job, verse 13. Nunquid cohibebis delicias Pleiadum, aut lora Orionis dissolves: Canst thou bind the sweet inflences of the Pleiades, or loose the bands of Ori­on? notwithstanding, Interpreters do not all agree in rendering this plaee. Look also in the Prophet Amos. cap. 5. ver. 8.

The third is Eridanus, in Arabique Alvahar, that is to say, the River: whence Nar, the name of a River in Hetruria, is conceived, by some, to have been contracted. It hath in it 34. Starrs: among which that which is the 19. is commonly called in Arabique An­getener, [Page 104] but Scaliger rather thinkes it should be red Anchenetenar, which signifieth the wind­ing or crooking of a River. The 29 Star is al­so called Beemim, or rather Theemim, which signifieth any two things joyned [...]ther: so that it is to be doubted, whether o [...] no, this name may not be as well applied to any two Stars standing close by one another. And the the last bright Starr in the end of it, is called Acharnahar, as if you should say, Behind the River, or, in the end of the River and it is commonly called Acarnar.

PONT. Avienus calls this River Nilus, in these verses of his.

—Pharium pars altera Nilum (amne.
Commemorat, largo s [...]getes quòd nutriat

In English thus.

The other part relates of fruitfull Nile,
Whose swelling streames enrich the Pharian Ile.

And Plautus also hath an elegant Periphrasis of the same in his Trinummus, Scen. Huic ego. where be speakes thus: Ad caput amnis, quod de coelo [...] sub solio lovis. relating it, as of a River that should spring out in the Heavens, from under Jupiters Throne.

The furth is Lepus the Hare, in Arabique Al­ [...]bet: and it containeth in all 12. Stars.

The fifth is Canis the Dogge, Alcheleb A­lachbar in Arabique, the great Dog; and Al­sahare aliemalija, that is to say, the right hand or Southerne Dogg. Which name, Alsa­bare, which is also sometime written Scera, Scaliger thinkes is derived from an Arabique [Page 105] word which signifieth the same that [...] in Greek, a disease that mad Dogs are troubled with, when as they cannot endure to come near any water. Notwithstanding Grotius is in doubt, whether or no it should not rather be Elseiri, and so derived from the Greek word [...], For by this name is that notable bright Starr called, which is in the Dogs mouth, and is cal­led in Arabique Gabbir, or Ecber, and by cor­ruption, Habor. This Constellation hath in it 11. Stars.

The sixth is the little Dog, called in Greek Procyon, and in Latine Antecanis, because it ris­eth before the great Dog. The Arabians call it Alcheleb Alasgar, that is to say, the lesser Dog, and Alsahare alsemalija, and commonly, though corruptly, Algomeiza, the left hand or North­ern Dog. This asterisme consisteth of two Stars onely.

PONT. There is extant a noble witty Epigram in Ausonius of the Coelestiall, Terestriall and Ma­rine Dogs; which may have reference to this place also, if so be that, it be presented in it's proper mean­ing after this manner.

Trinacrij quondam currentem in littoris ora
Antecanis seporem coeruleus rapuit. ( [...]:
At Lepus. In me omnis terrae, pelagique ruina,
Fo [...]i an & Doeli; si Canis astra tenet.

In English thus.

At once a Hare came lightly tripping o're
The sandy banks of the Trinacrian shore:
A Dog fish caught her. Where at she replies.
Land, Stars, and all are still mine enemies
[Page 106] Nor should [...] yet be more secure, I feare,
In heaven it selfe; if dogs they bar bour there,

In which place Antecanis Coeruleus, in the second verse, signifieth a Sea-Dog. Yet this place hitherto hath commonly gon thus, Ante canes, le­po [...]m, &c. without any sense at all. Now the Poët in this place useth this word Antecanis, in [...]ation of Tully, who first of all Latine Authors, rendred Procyon, Antecanis: as manifestly ap­peareth out of his translation of Aratus into Latine verse.

The seventh is Argo: the Ship in Arabique Alseph [...]a; now Seph [...]a signifieth ship. It is also called Merk [...]b, which signifieth a Chariot: according as the Poëts [...] usually cal it, [...] [...] if one should say, a Sea-chariot, instead of a Ship. But the Alsonsines give this ap­pellation to that [...] which is the 6. in num­ber. The whole Asterisme containeth in it 45. Stars, of all which that which is the last save one, is called in A abique Sohel, or Syhel, which signifieth Ponderous or weighty. Which Ap­pellation they perhaps have given it, for the same reason, that Bassus hath another like it, which is, Terrestris because it alwayes appeareth to them very low, and neare the earth. The Greeks [...] this Star [...], the Hebrews Chesil, as Christmannus is of opinion. Which if it be so, then Ar [...]as Montanus is in an error, in taking it for Orion, in his [...] of the Itin [...]rary of Benjamin Tudelensis. The Inhabitants, of A [...] [...] called it an Horse, as Prolomy affirmes, in his Geogra. lib. 5. cap. 7.

[Page 107] The eighth is Hydra, in Arabique Alsugahh, or Asuta, which signifieth Strong, or Furious. The AEgyptinas called it Nilus, as Theon writeth in his Commentaries upon Aratus. It hath in it, 25. Stars, besides two unformed: the 12. of which the Alphonsines call Alphart.

The ninth is Crater, the Cup, in Arabique Albatina, and Elkis, which signifieth a Goblet or standing cup. It hath in it 7 Stars.

The tenth is Corvus, the Crow, Algorab in Ara­bique, consisting of 7. stars.

The eleventh is Centaurus, the Centaure, cal­led by the same name in Arabique. It contain­eth 37. Stars: among which, those that are in his hinder feet, are the Stars that make up the Crosse, so much celebrated in the Spanish Na­vigations.

The twelfth is Fera, the Wild beast, called in Arabique Asida, signifying a Lionesse, and Alsubahh, which also is taken for a Wolf; or other ravenous beast. To this Constellation they reckon 19. Stars.

The thirteenth is Ara, or Thuribulum, the Altar, or Censer, in Arabique Almugamra: Bassus called it Sacrarium. It containeth 7. Stars.

The foureteenth is Corona Australis, the South Crown, in Arabique Alachil Algenubi: it con­sisteth of 13. Stars making up a double wreath, according to Alfraganus: yet Theon reckoneth but 12. in it.

The fifteenth is Piscis Austrinus, the South Fish, Ahaut algenubi in Arabique. It contain­taineth [Page 108] in it 12. Stars in Ptolomies account but 11 onely according to Alfraganus. Among which the bright one that is in his mouth, is call [...]d Phom Ahut, that is to say, the mouth of the Fish, and commonly by corruption, Foma­hant.

There is also described in the Coelestiall Globe a certain broad Zone or circle, of the colour of milk, which representeth that which appeare [...]h in the Heaven [...], and is commonly called Via Lactea, [...]he milkev way. Which Zone or circle is n [...]t drawn regularly or equally, ei­ther in respect of latitude, colour or frequen­cy of [...] is differenc and various, b [...]th in [...]rm and [...]tion, in [...]ome places appearing but as [...] circle, and again in others seem­ing as it were dividing in two parts. The de­lineation whe [...]eof, you may see in the Globe, and the d [...]scription more largly set down by Ptolomy in his A [...]megest. lib. 8. cap. 2.

PONT. This part of the Heavens hath in it 7, Stars of the first Magnitude, whereof the first is in the right shoulder of Ori [...]n: the second, in his left scot: the third, in the end of the River Eridanus; the fourth, in the mouth of the great Dog, which they call Siriu [...]: the sifih, in the thigh of the Little Dog, called Procyon: the sixth, is Canobus, in the ship Argo: and the seventh is in the right foot of the C [...]ntaure. To which we may add of the second magnitude. 18. of the third, 60. of the fourth, 168. of the fifth, 53. of the sixth, 9, and one cloudy one. All which are in the generall, 316.

[Page 109] Now the whole Firmament, reckoning in the Northern and Southern Hemi phaeres together with th Zodiaque, co [...]taineth in all 1022. Stars, which make up 48 Aste [...]ismes or Constellations. Neither did either Ptolomy, or Hipparchus before him, know any more then these. Notwithstanding Pliny, as our Author hath advertised before in the second Chapter, made the number of Stars and Constella­tions a great deal larger But of this wee shall spe [...]k more in the end of the next Chapter. And concerning those Constellations, which have been more lately observed about the South Pole by the Portugals and Hollanders. and by them named, we intend to speak something in the end of t [...]o Chap­ter following.

CHAP. VII. Of the Starrs which are not expressed in the Globe.

BEsides these Stars which wee have here reckoned up out of Ptolomy, there are yet many other to bee seen sometime, especially in the winter time, in a cleare night, when as there are both many more Stars to be seen, then at other imes, and those that are seen, appeare by much, greater. Now if you expect that we should assigne the cause of this: we might answere, that it is besides the intention of our present purpose. Yet for your satisfaction, and because that some Au [...]hors have very [Page 110] much erred from the right, in setting down the true reason of the same: we doe therefore the more willingly make this digression. For some there are, who (out of the extraordinary know­ledge they have in Phylosophy, and Optickes) would very willingly perswade us, that either we conceive them to be more, then indeed they are, and that our sense onely is deceived: or else (which is altogether as ridiculous) that the aire being in winter more pure and thin, making them more conspicuous, which otherwise in the Summer, when the ayre is more grosse, do alto­getherlye hid. And this is an error which I do not so much blame in others as I wonder at i [...], in Johannes de Benedictis: that so great a Mathematician, as he is held to be, should be led away with so grosse an error. For the rea­son of this is altogether otherwise, and cleane contrary. For, for that very cause that the aire is more grosse and thick, the Stars therefore do appeare more, and greater. Which opi­nion of ours is confirmed, both out of princi­palls of the Opti [...]s, and also by the sense of it selfe, experience, and authority of learned writers.

For first, that the raies being refracted through a grosse Medium, and diffused, as it were, in certain Canales, do represent the image of the object greater then indeed it is, is plainly affirmed (and that accordiong to the doctine of the Optickes) by Strabo himself out o [...] Posidonius. And that through Perspi­cills [Page 111] o [...] Sp [...]ctacles, things appeare more, and [...] [...]hen otherwise they would, is a thing well known to the most Ignorant. Cleomo­des also saith, that the Sun being seen by any in the bottom of a deep Well, s [...]emes gr [...]ater, then when he is seen from above: and [...]hat by reason of [...]he moistnes and [...] [...]f the ayre in the bottom of the Well. And if it were possible to see the Sun through stone walls, or other solid bodies, (as the old Poëts fabulously report of Lyn­ceus:) he would seem much bigger then he is, as Posidonius rightly teacheth. And hence is it, (saith Strabo) that we see the Sun al­waies gre [...]ter at his rising and setting, espe­cially to those that are at Sea. Yet wee doe not say that he appeares ten times greater then hee is, as it is reported he doth in India, out of the Excerpts of Etesias his Indian H [...]sto­ries: much lesse, that he seemes to be an hun­dred times greater then he is in other places, as he is feighned by Artemidorus to bee at his setting, to those that inhabit a Promontory in the outmost parts of Spain, which he calls Promontorium Sacrum: but is justly taxed for the same by Posidonius. Alsraganus would have the cause of this to be, for that the va­pours which are exhaled out of the earth, and elevated into the ayre, and so interposed be twixt our sight and the Sun, at his rising or setting, do make him appeare greate [...] then hee is. The same is the opinion of Strabo and Cleo­medes also, out of Posid [...]nius: neither doth [Page 112] this differ much from the opinion of the best of our Opticall writers. But of this enough.

There are also observed many Stars in the Southern parts of the world: which because they could not be seen by our Artists in these parts of the World, we have therefore no cer­tain knowledg left us concerning the same. So in like manner, among those which we have hitherto spoken of, many of them cannot bee seen by those that inhabit any whit neare the North Pole. But concerning those Stars that appeare about the South Pole of the World, I will here set you down a very admirable story, which Franciscus Patricius Senensis relateth in the end of his Nova Philosophia, out of the Navigations of Americus Vespuccius. And it is thu [...]. Coelum decentissimè exornatur, &c. The Heavens (saith he, meaning about the Antar­ctique Pole) is variously adorned with divers Constellations, which cannot be seen here with us: among which I do verywell remember that I reckoned very neare twenty, which were as faire and bright as Venus, and Jupiter here with us, and a little after he saith. I was cer­tain therefore, that these Stars were of greater magnitude, then any man can conceive: and especially three Canobi, which I saw, and ob­served; two whereof were very bright ones, but the third was somewhat obscure, and no­th [...]g like the rest.

And a little after, he proceeds. But the Pole it selfe is encompassed about with three [Page 113] Stars, which represent the figure of a right-an­gled Triangle: among which, that which is in the midst, is in circumference, 9. gr. and a halfe: and when these [...]ise, there appeares, on the left hand of them, another bright Canobus of notable magn [...]tude.

And a little after, he saith▪ After these there follow three other very faire Stars, the mid­dlemost of which hath in Diameter 12. degrees and an halfe; and in the midst among these, there is seen another Canobus. After this there follows 6. other bright Stars which excell all the other Stars, in the eighth Sphaere for bright­nesse: the middlemost of them, having 32. gr. in Diameter. These Stars are accompa­nied by another greater, but darker Canobus: all which Stars are observed in the Milky way.

To this he addeth, out of Corsalius, his that followeth. Andreas Corsalius also affirmeth, that there are two clouds, of a reasonable brightnesse, appearing near the Pole; betwixt which there is a Star distant from the Pole, a­bout a 11 gr. over which, he saith; there is seen a very admirable figure of a Crosse, standing in the midst of 5. Stars that compasse it about, with some certain others that moue round a­bout [...]ith it, being distant from the Pole, a­bout 30. degrees: which are of so great bright­nesse, as that no Signe in the Heavens may bee compared with them.

And now, that you have heard this so strang and admirable relation of the Stars about the [Page 114] Antarctique Pole, Auditum admissi risum tenea­tis? For Vespuccius hath here forged three Canobi, whereas Ptolomy, and all the Ancient Greekes never knew but one, and that is it wich is placed in the stearne of the ship Argo, And here it is very well worth our noting, that Patricius (as far as I am able to gather out of his writings) out of Vespuccius his ill expressed language, and by him worse under­stood, hath very excellently framed to himself a strange kind of Star, that hath in apparent Diameter; 32. degrees: whereas the Diame­ter of the Sun it self hardly attaineth to 32. minutes.

But those things which out of our owne cer­tain knowledg and experience in above a years voyage on Sea, in the yeares, 1591. and 1592. we have observed beyond the AEquator, and a­bout the Southern parts of the world, we will here set down.

Now therefore, there are but three Stars of the first magnitude that I could perceive, in all those parts, which are never seen here in England. All which, notwithstanding, Ptolo­my saw, in Alexandria in Egypt. The first of these is that bright Star in the stearn of Argo, which they call Canobus. The second is in the end of Eridanus. The third is in the right foot of the Centaure. To which if you will add for a fourth, that which is fixed in the Centaures left knee, I shall not much stand against it. But other Stars of the first magnitude, then these which I have named, that part of the [Page 115] world canot shew us. Neither is there to bee found scarcely two or three at the most, of the second magnitude, but what Ptolomy had seen▪ and indeed there is no part of the whole Heavens, that hath so few Starrs in it, and those of so small light, as this neare about the Antarctique Pole. We had a sight also of those Clouds Andreas Corsalius speakes of, the one of them being almost twice or thrice as big as the other, and in colour, something like the Via Lactea, and neither of them very farr distant from the Pole. Our Mariners use to call them Magellanes Clouds. And wee saw also that strange and admirable Crosse which he talkes of, which the Spaniard call Crusero, and our Countriemen, the Crusiers. And the Stars of which this Crosse consists, were not unknown to Ptolomy also: for they are no other, then the bright Stars which are in the Centaures feet. All which things I did the more diligently and oftener observe, for that I remembred that I had read in Cardan al­so, strange relations of the wonderfull magni­tude of the Stars about the South Pole, not un­like the stories he have now alledged out of Patricius.

PONT. The names of the Constellations of the Southerne Hemisphaere as they have been now lately observed, and named by the Portugals and others, are these. The South Triangle: the Crane; the Phaenix; the Water Serpent; the Dorado, or Gilthead fish, situated in the ve­ry Pole of the Ecliptique; the Chamaeleon [Page 116] with the flye; the Flying Fish; the Bird of Paradise; the Peacock; the naked Indian; the bird [...]oucan, or Brasilian Pye. All which are accurate [...]y portraited in the Globes set fourth by Hondius. Among all these there are no Stars, of the first Magnitude, hut of the 2. seven: of the 3. six: of the 4. thirty five: of the 5. fifty six; of the 6. eleven: with six unsormed, and two clow­dy Stars, besides the two cloudes themselves. Now, the whole number of the Stats in this Southerne part, beside-the cloudy ones, is 121. which being added to 1022. the whole sum will b [...]e 1143. Of which, 1022. were reckoned before, by our [...]u­thor, out of Ptolomy onely there is a scruple cast in our way by those words of Pliny, in his lib. 2. cap. 41. Patrocina [...]ur vastitas coeli &c. And this opinion (sa [...]th he) is seconded also by the vast n [...]sse and immensity of the Heavens which is distinguished into 72. Signes, all which are the resemblances either of living creatures, or other things, according as they have been reduced into method and order by the skilfull in those Arts. Among which Constellations. They have observed 1600. Stars, all which are not able either in their effects or magnitude, Where wee see that [...]ee ac­counteth the whole number of the Stars to be 1600 whereas Ptolomy, after him acknawledged only 1022. So likewise he reckoneth the Signes or A­st [...]rismes to be be in all 72. which yet in Hippar­chus, Eud [...]xus, and Ptolomies account, are but 48.

Scalig [...]r in his Comentaries upon Manilius, pag 67. that he might untie this knot, reads these [Page 117] words of Pliny thus. Patrocinatur vastitas coeli, immensa altitudine, discreta in duo de L: signa, &c. Where, for seventy two, he would have it to be wanting two: which is 48. the j [...]st number reck­oned by Ptolomy But yet the same doubt still re­maines in the ensuing words, where he maketh the whole number of the Stars to be 1600.

I find also two other Signes added to the former Southern Constellati [...]ns, which are Noah's Dove, a [...]d the Phoenicopter. The first of which contain­eth in it, 11. Stars: of which there are two in the back of it, of the second magnitude, which they call the Good [...], or bri [...]gers of good newes: and those in the right wing are consecrated to the App [...]d Deity, and those in the lest to the Retir­ing of the Waters in the time of the Deluge.

The Phoenicopter we may call the [...]ittou. Of this bird, Mar [...]iall hath an Epigram, lib. 13.

Dat mihi penna rubens nomen, sed lingua gu [...]osis
Nostra placet. Quid si garrula lingua foret?

The Spaniards call it Flamengo: and it is de­scribed with the wings spread abroad and as it were striking with his bill at the South Fish, in that part where he boweth himself. This Asterisme consisteth of 13 Stars [...]nf whi [...]h that of the second magnitude in his head is called the Phoenic p [...]rs Eye: and it hath [...]wo other tars also of the same magnitu [...]e, one in his back and the other in his l [...]twing. And those two which are in the middle of his neck. Paulus [Page] Merula in his first book of his Cosmography, calleth his Collar or Chaine.

Lastly we are to take notice that the Indian [...] call the south Pole, Dramasa: for so Pliny testifi­eth in his lib. 6. cap. 19. Austrinum Polum Indi Drammasa vocant.

The third Part,

CHAP. I. Of the Geographicall description of the Terrestriall Globe; and the parts of the world yet known.

DIonysius Afer, in the beginning of his Perigesis, saith, that the whole Earth may be said to be, as it were, a certain vast Isl­and, encompassed about on every side with [...]e Ocean. The same was the opinion of Homer also before him, a [...]d of Eratosthenes (whom Dionysius is observed by Eustathius, his Scholiast, to follow in many things) as is witnessed by Strabo. The same is affirmed by Mela also after him This vast Island of the whole Earth they would have to be terminated on the North side, with the fro­zen Sea, which is called by Dionysius Mare Saturninum, and M [...]rtuum: [...]n the East, with the Eastern Sea, which is also called Mare Se [...]: on the South, with the Red Sea, (whi [...]h Ptolomy calleth the Indian Sea) and The AEthyopian: and on the West, with the Atlantick Ocean. Out of this Ocean also, [Page 120] there are foure particular gulfes (as the Anci­ent Geographers conceived) which emboso­med themselves into the maine land. Two of which derived their course out of the Ery­thraean or Red Sea, to wit, the Persian and A­rabian gulfes. From the West, there is sent out of the Atlantick Ocean a vast gulfe, which is called the Mediterranean Sea. And out of the North, they would have the Scythian O­cean to send in the Caspian Sea, which is shut in, almost on every side, with high craggy rocks; from whence the streames flow with su [...]h violence, that when they are come to the very fall, they cast forth their water so farr into the Sea, without so much as once touch­ing upon the shore, that the ground is left dry and passable for whole Armies, under the banks: the streames in the meane time being carried over t [...]r head [...]s; as it is reported by Eudoxus in Strabo. This Sea both Strabo, Pli­ny, Mela, [...]nd Solinus, will have to come out of the Scythian Ocean, (as we have said) But this e [...]rour, of theirs b [...]sides the experience of these later times, is manifestly convinced by this one testimony of Antiquity: which is, that the water of this Sea is found to be fre [...]h and sweet, as was first observed by Alexander the Great, and afterwards by Pompey, as M. Varro in Solinus t [...]stifieth, who at that [...]ime himselfe served under Ptompey in his Warrs. And this is the chiefest reason which Polycletus in Strabo [...]lledged, for the proofe of the same.

Now all this tract of land the Ancients de­vided [Page 121] at first into two parts only, namely, Asia, and Europe: to which, succeeding times a [...]ded a third, which they call Africa, and sometimes also Lybia. And of these, Asia is the greatest, A­frica the next, but Europe the last of all: accor­ding as Ptolomy determines it, in the 7. book of his Geography.

Europe, is divided on the East from Asia by the AEgaean Sea (which is now called the Archipelago) and the Euxine Sea, which was at first (as Strato in Strabo tho [...]ght) encom­passed about on all sides in manner of a great lake, till at last by the great accession of other River [...] and waters, it so farr encreased, as that the banks being unable to containe it, it violently made it's way into the Propontis and the Hellespont. The Euxine Sea, is now called Mare Maggiore. It is also bounded on the same side, by the like of Maeotis (now called Mare dellezahacche) the River Tanais, (commonly called Don) and the Meridian, which extends it selfe from thence to the Scy­thian or Frozen Sea. On all other sides it is encompassed with the Sea. For toward the South it is divided from Africa, by the Straits of Gibraltar, and part of the Medi­terranean Sea. (The length of these [...] is according to Strabo, and Pliny 120. fu [...] ­longs: and the bredth of it, according to the same Strabo, 70. surlongs. But Mela would have it to be 10. miles, that is to say, 80. Furlongs. T. Livius, and Cornelius Nep [...]s, make the latitude of it to be, in the broadest [Page 122] place, 10. miles, or 80. furlongs; and where it is narrowest, 7. miles, or 56. furlongs. But Turannius Graccula, who as Pliny reports, was borne about those parts, accounted it to be from Mellaria, a town in Spaine, unto that Premontory in Africa, which is called Pro­montorium Album, but 5. miles in all, that is, 40. Furlongs. Eratosthenes was of opinion, that Europe was sometime joyned to the Conti­nent of Africa. and it is reported by Pliny▪ that the inhabitants of those parts have a Tra­dition, that the Isthmus, or neck of the land by which Europe and Africa were joyned toge­ther, was cut through by Hercules.

Europe, is terminated on the West with the Atlantick Ocean: and on the North with the British, Germane, and frozen Seas.

PONT. This Northern part of Europe began first to be discovered and known to the world, in the raign, or rather through the meanes, and by the di­rection of Augustus Caesar. For as Pliny saith. lib. 2. cap. 76. Septentrionalis Oceanus, majore ex parte navigatus est, &c. The Northern Ocean for the greatest part was first searched by Augustus Coesar, who sent forth a Navy, which passing all a­long the Coasts of Germany, came so far as the Pro­montory of the Cimbrians, and thence passing on through a vast Sea, which they h [...]d only heard of, be­fore, they went as far as the Coasts of Scythia. In which place, Pliny meaneth those Sea expeditions, performed by Tiberius, and Drusus Germanicus: but especially that of Drusus, as may appeare by [Page 123] those words of Tacitus, where he saith thus. Ipsum quin [...]tiam Oceanum illa tentavimu [...], &c. Wee left not the Ocean unattempted that way also, and it is a common fame, that Hercules Pillars are yet remaining; whether it be true indeed, that H [...]r­cules ever went so [...]ar, or else, that [...]hat ever Magnificent thing is any where to be found, we all conspire un [...]nimusly to honour him therewith. Nei­ther was there wanting courage for the attempt to Drusus Germanicus: only the Ocean would not suffer it self, nor Hercules, to be sarther inquired into. After this no man att [...]mpted it: and is was thought a greater poynt of reverence and religion, to believe the Actions of the gods, then to know [...]. Thus he.

Now before this time, all this tract of land lying towards the North, the Romans called Novus Or­bis, Ignotus Orbis, the new and unknown world: as I remember I have seen it, in a certain Elegy of Albinovus upon the death of the same [...]. And the Promontory of the Cimbria [...]s, which [...] speakes of, is now called Scagen, and is the most northern point of Denmarke.

And as concerning these Pillars of Hercules, mentioned by Tacitus; Hadrianus Junius who sometimes saw these coasts, r [...]ferreth the same to that high rock or Promontory in Scandinavia (Junius hath it No [...]vegia, but not rightly) which is at this day called Col, bath by the Natives, and our Mariners also. For in this place they have a superstitious custome, that as Strabo reportes of the Gad tane Pilla [...]s, when any ships had arrived there, as if they had attained the [Page 124] end of their labours and travaile, they forthwith sa­crificed to Hercules: in like manner in this place they have a custome, that if they have fresh men that never sailed tbose Northern Seas before, they have certain Ceremonies with which they use to make them free of the Sea, (as I my self once saw done sailing by this Promontory) for they ta [...]k and bind them to the Mast of the ship and then taking the scoope, and filling it with Sea water, they make as it were a Libation, powring it upon their heads, which done, they are forthwith expiated, and ac­counted free of the place. But whereas Junius would have the word Col, to be only corrupted from Columna, I much doubt whether he will have any more of his opinion But of this place, as also of all this Northern tract of land, I shall have a more conve­nient opportunity to speak elsewhere.

Africa, is divided from Asia, according to Dionysius and Mela by the River Nilus, and a Meridian drawn through it, to the AEthiopi­an Ocean. But Ptolomy, would rather have its limets on this part to be the Arabian gulfe, (which he not so rightly calleth the Red Sea, and a Meridian, which should bee drawn from thence to the Mediterranean Sea, over that neck of Land which lyeth betwixt the two Se [...]s, and which joyneth AEgypt to the Continent of Arabia and Iudaea, Neither doth he think it congruous, that AEgypt should be divided into two parts, one whereof should be reckoned to Africke, and the other to Asia: which must needs be, if the River Nilus be set [Page 125] for the bounds of the same. Neither doth Strabo conceive this to by any whit improper, since that the length of this Isthmus, which divideth the two Seas, is not above 1000. fur­longs. And hee seemeth to have said very rightly, that it is not above a 10 [...]0. furlongs. For however Posidonius reckoneth it to bee ve­ry near 1500. furlongs: yet Pliny would have it to be no more then 115. miles, that is to say, 920. forlongs. And Strabo also reckoneth the distance betwixt Pelusium and the Heroes Ci­ty, which is situated close by the highest part of the Arabian Gulf, to be but 900. Furlongs. But if we will give any credit to Plutarch, at the narrowest [...]art of the Isthmus, the two Seas wil be found to be distant not above 300. furlongs. And that, (when Anthony was over­thrown by Augustus in a Sea fight, and all his forces clean [...] broken,) Cleopatra, seeking to a­void the servitude of the Romans, went about to transport her Navie this way over the firme Land, that [...]o she might find some new place of habitation, as farr remote from the Romans as she might: as it is reported by the same Author, in the life of Anthony. But what should move Copernicus, In his first Book, 3. Cap. to say that these two Seas are scarcely 15. furlongs distant; I cannot conjecture; unlesse I should think the place to bee corrupted, through the negligence of the Transcribers, or Printers. And yet I could wish, that this, (though it be a very great one,) were all the erours that were to bee found in the writ­ings [Page 126] of that most excellent man.

This Isthmus, as Eratosthenes conceived, was anciently covered all over with waters, til such time as the Altantick Ocean had intercourse with the Mediterranean: and some of the old Grammarian [...] ▪ Scoliasts on Homer, doe affirm, (as Strabo testifieth) that it was this way, that Menelans in Homer, sailed to the AEthiopians. I wil therefore here set down some few things, which may seem to make for the confirmation of this relation, (whether you will call it an History, or rather a Fable, or Conjecture) of Erat [...]sthenes:

First therefore that Egypt, (if not all of it) yet atleast that part of it, which is situated beneath Delta, and is called Egyptus Inferior, the lower Egypt, and is accounted to be the guift of Nilus (or rather the Sea) was made by the aggestion and gathering together of mud and sand; was the conjecture of Hero­dotus, long before Strabo. In like manner, that the Island Pharos, which in Plinies time was joyned to Alexandria by a bridg, as himself testifieth, lib. 5. cap. 31. (and therefore, for this reason may seem to have been called a Peninsula by Strabo) was ancien [...]ly distant from Egypt a whole day and nights saile, is re [...]orted both by Pliny and Solinus, out of Ho­mer. And this is the reason as Strabo con­jectures, that Homer, (whereas h [...]e ma [...]es of­ten mention of Thebes in Egypt) yet speakes not o [...]e word of Memphis: and that either because at that time it was a very smal place [Page 127] or else perhaps was not as yet in being, the land being in Homers time covered all over with water, where Memphis was afterward built. And this seemes also to be confirmed by the great depression and lownesse of tho intermediate shore betwixt the two Stars; which is so great, that when Sesostris fi [...]st had an intent of cutting a channell betwixt the two Seas, as was afterward intended also by Darius, and lastly, by Ptolomy; they were all forced, for this reason, to desist from their en­terprise. And indeed Strabo reports that himself saw the Egyptian shore, in his time, all overflowed, beyond the Mountaine Casius. Besides, the great retireing of the waters at an ebbe, as well in the Arabian gulf, as in the Persian, seeme somewhat to confirme this conjecture of Eratosthenes. For the tides withdrew themselves so far back in the A­rabian gulfe: that Julius Scaliger makes men­tion of some Cavillers, that, for this very rea­son went about to derogate from the miracu lous passage of the Children of Israel for the space of above 600. miles through the red Sea: as if they had watched their time, when the tide gave way: and that when it returned a­gain, the Egyptians were overtaken therewith and all drowned.

PONT. This Sea is alwaies rendered by the Septuagint, Erythraeum; and by St. H [...]erom, Rubrum: but the Hebrew text it self, under­s [...]ding this gulfe of the Sea (which is called also by Ptolomy, Sinus Arabicus) calleth it Mare [Page 128] Suph; which is as much as to say, Mare algo­sum, seu caricosum, because it bringeth sorth great store of Alga, and Sea weeds. Which is observed also by Pliny lib. 13. cap. 25. where he saith. Naseuntur & in ma [...]i frutices, &c. There are also bred shrubs in the Sea, and in our Sea, little trees also. For the Red Sea, and all the Eastern Ocean is full of trees. For no other Language hath a proper word to expresse that which the Greeks call [...] because that Alga is more usually taken for the name of an hearb, but in this place it signisieth a shrub. Thus Pli­ny. You may also see Strabo, lib. 16. That place which the Author cit [...]th out of Scalige [...], is in his 35. Exercitation against Cardan. And I thinke it not a misse to heare him speakeing in his owne words, that so it may appeare what his judge­ment is of that which is objected by those Cavil­lers. His words are these. In plaga Indica se­cnndùm Gangis at que Ind [...] fauces magnus est aestus, &c. About the coast of India (saith hee) where the Rivers Ganges and Indus, disburthen themselves into the Sea, there are very high tides: So likewise in the Red Sea, they are so great, as that the contemners of Holy Writers have impiously forged that Moses, when he led the Israelites out of AEgypt, took the opportunity of the Waters, retireing after the Tide. Which notwithstanding could not possibly be, because that as farr as Sues, which is situated in the innermost corner of the gulf [...], the Sea covereth the very shore; neither, when it ebbeth, doth it ever leave the ground so bare, as that the lower parts, through which the [Page 129] Israelites passed, should be free from passage on foot.

And it is reported by Pliny, that Numenius, Generall to Antiochus; sig [...]ting ag [...]st the Pe [...]sians, neare the mouth of the Persian gulfe, not farr from the Promontory called Maca­vum, got the victory of them twice in one day, first by a Sea combat: and afterward (the waters having left the place dry) on hors­back: as it is related by him in his 6. book, 28. cap.

And thus much concerning Eratosthenes his conjecture. Let us now return to the bounds of Africa. Which is divided (as wee have al­ready said) on the East from Asia, by a Meri­dian drawn through the Arabian gulfe to the Mediterranean Sea. On all other sides it is encompassed about with the Sea: as on the West, with the Alantick; on the South with the AEthtopian Ocean; and on the North, by the Mediterranean, which is also the South­ern bound of Europe,

Now as concerning Ptolomies ignorance of the Southern parts of Africa, making it a continent and contiguous to Asia by a cer­tain unknown Land, which hee would have to encompasse about the South side of the In­dian Sea, and the AEthiopian gulf: if it bee not sufficiently evinced out of the relations of the Ancients; as namely of Herodotus, who re­porteth, that certain men were sent forth by Darius by Sea, who sailed about all this tract: nor yet of Heraclides Ponticus, who re [...]es a [Page 130] story of a certain Magician that came from Gelon, who said that he had compassed about all those coasts: (because Posidonius accounteth not these relations of credit enough to con­clude any thing against Polybius: neither doth he appove of that story of one Eudoxus Cyzicenus, reported by Strabo, Pliny, and Mela, out of Cornelius Nepos, an Author of very good esteem, (and that because Strabo thought this relation to deserve no more cre­dit, then those fabulons narrations of Pytheas, Evemerus, and Antiphanes: nor lastly, those traditions of King Ju [...]a concerning the same matter, related by Solinus: Howsoever, I say, that those Traditions of the Ancients do not convince Ptolomy of ignorance: yet certaine­ly the later Navigations of the Portugals most evidently demonstrate the same, who touch­ing upon the outmost point of all Africa, which they now call, the Cape of good hope, passe on as far as the East Indies. I shall not, in the meane time, need to speak at all of that other story which Pliny hath: how that at what time C. Caesar, Son to Augustus, was Pro­consul in Arabia, there were certain Ensignes found in the Arabian gulfe, which were known to be some of those, that were cast away in a shipwrack of the Spanish Navy: and that Carthage at that time being in her height of power, Hanno a Carthaginian sailed about from Gades, as far as Arabia, who al­so afterward himself wrote the story of that n [...]vigation.

[Page 131] Asia, lyeth Eastward both from Europe, and Africa, and is divided from them, by these bounds and limits which we have alrea­dy set down. On all other parts it is kept in by the Ocean: On the Northe by the Hyper­borean or Frozen Sea: on the East, by the Tartarian and Eastern Ocean: on the South, by the Indian and Red Sea. But Ptolomy would have the Northern parts of Asia, as also of Europe, to be encompassed, not with any Sea, but with a certain unknown Land: which is still the opinion of some of our later writers, who think that Country, which we call Grcënland, to be part of the Indian Continent. But we have very good reason to suspect the truth of this their opinion; since that so many Sea-voyages of our owne coun­try-men, who have gone far within the Arctique Circle, beyond the utmost part, of Norway, and into that cold frozen Channell, that divides Nova Zemla from Russia: do sufficiently testifie, that all those parts are en­compassed with the Sea. Not to speak any thing of that which Mela alleadgeth out of Cornelius Nepos, how that when Q. Matellus Cesar was Proconsul in Gallia, there were pre­sented him by the King of Suevia, certain In­dians, who having been severed by force of tempests form the Indian shore, had been br [...]ught about by the violence of the windes as far as Germany. Neither will I here men­tion that other relation of Patrocles, in Stra­bo: who affirmed, that it was possible to [Page 132] saile to India, all along the Sea shore a great Ideal more Northward then the Bactrians, Hircania, and the Caspian Sea: now Patrocles was made governor of these place [...]. Nor lastly, that which Pliny himself reporteth, how that all this Eastern coast, from India as farr as to the Caspian Sea, was sailed through by the Ma­cedonian Armies, in the reign of Seleuchus and Antiochus.

Concerning the quantity of the Earth, which was inhabited, there was great diver­sity of opinions among the ancient. Ptolomy defined the longitude of it to be, from West to East, beginning at the Meridian which pass­eth through the fortunate Islands, and ending at that which is drawn through the Metro­polis of the Sinae, or Chineans countrey. So that it should contain halfe the AEquator, which is 180 degrees, and 12. AEquinocti­all houres, or 90000. furlongs measured by the AEquator. And he determined the bounds of the Latitude to be, toward the South, that Parrallel which lyeth 16. gr. 25. m. Southward of the AEquator: and the Northern limets he made that Parallel which passeth through Thule or Iseland, being distant from the AE­quinoctiall 63. degrees. So that the whole Latitude of it containeth in all, 79. gr. 25. m. or 80. whole degrees, which is neare upon 40000. furlongs. The exent of it therefore from East to West, is longer, then it is from North to South, under the AEquinoctiall, som­thing then more by halfe as much, and under [Page 133] the most Northen Parallel, almost by a fifti­eth part. Good reason therfore had the Ancient Geographers, as Ptolomy conceiveth in his lib. 1. cap. 6. Geograph. to call the extent of it from West to East, the Longitude of it; and from North to South, the Latitude. Strabo also ac­knowledgeth the Latitude with Ptolomy, to be 180. degrees in the AEquator, as likewise Hipparchus doth also: notwithstanding there is some difference betwixt them, in the num­ber of the furlongs. For these last have set down the Longitude to be of 126000. sur­longs under the AEquator: herein following Eratoshenes, who reckoneth 700. furlongs to a degree. But Strabo maketh a Latitude a­great deale lesse; that is, something lesse then 30000. furlongs: and hee bounded it on the South with the Parallel, drawn through Cin­namomifera, which is distant. Northward from the AEquator 8800. furlongs: and on the North with that Parallel, which passeth through these parts which are 4000. furlongs, or there­about, more Northward then Britaine. And this Parallel that passeth through the Region called Cinamomifera, Strabo makes to be more Southward then Taprobane, or at least, to passe through the most Southern parts of the same. But herein he betrayeth his own notable igno­rance; for as much, as the most Southern part of this Island, is extended farr beyond the AEquator; as both Ptolomy affirmeth in his Geography, lib. 7 cap. 4. and is further con­firmed by the late Navigations of the Portu­gals. [Page 134] But Dionysius Afer is much farther out of the way then so: for he placeth Taproba [...] under the Tropick of Cancer.

And these were the bounds where with the Ancient Geographers terminated the then in habited parts of the world. But in these ri­per times of ours, by the industry at Sea, both of the Spaniards, English, and others, the Ma­ritime coasts of Africa have been more through­ly discovered, to above 35. gr. of Southern Latitude: and the Northern limits of Europe have now been searched into, as far as the 73. degree of Northern Latitude, far within the Arctick circle: besides all that which hath at length been discovered in the New World, be­yond the hope or opinion of any of the Anci­ents, the name of it being not so much as known to them.

America, which for it's spaciousnesse, may well be called, The other World, extending it self beyond 52. gr. of Southern Latitude, is there bounded wi [...]h the Straites of Mag [...]llane: and toward the North it runeth farr within the Arctique circle: on which side also that it is bounded by the Sea, the many Navigatiors of our Country-men into these parts, do give strong arguments of hope I shal not here speak of those Sea coasts, which are beyond that Sea that encompasseth about the most Northern parts of Europe and Asia; as haveing been but onely seen afarr off as yet, and not throughly discovered Nor yet those other, which are more Southern, then the Indian and Red [Page 135] Sea: which as yet we have not any experi­ence to the contrary, but that wee may be­lieve to bee one continent with those other Southern Lands, that lye beyond the Straits of Magellane.

Europe, (whether so called from Europa Ty­ria, daughter of Agenor, as some think; or Phoenix, as Herodotus will have it; or else from Europa a Sea Nymph, according to the opinion of Hippias in Eustathius; or else from Europus, as Nicias in the same Eustathius would have it to be; containeth in it these principall regi­ons: to wit, Spain, France, Italy, Germanie, Bohemia, Prussia, Rhaetia, Liuonia, Sclavo­nia, Greece, Hungary, Polonia, Moscovia. or Russia, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. To these we may add the principall Islands, as namely, those of great Britaine, the chiefe of which is England, and Scotland, enobled chiefely by being united to the English Crown: as also Ireland, which is, in like manner, sub­ject to the same. Besides the Azores, and many other Islands scattered up and downe in the Mediterranean Sea, as Sicily, Sardinia, Crete, &c.

PONT. In Europe these things are chiefely observable. 1. The most famous Monarchies which are in it; as namely the Emperour of Ger­many, the Kings of Spain, France, Great Bri­taine, Denmarke, Swethland, Polonia, and Mosco­via. To which we may add the Pope of Rome, who, though he usurpe not the title of a King, yet is his power no whit inferiour to theirs: a [...] also the great [Page 136] Turke, who at this day possesseth a great part of Europe also. 2. The principall hills, which are the Alps, dividing Italy from Germany and France; and also the Pyrenoean Hills, severing Spain s [...]om France. 3. The noteable Rivers, as the Da [...]ow, the Rheine, the Elue, the Wetsell, Bortsthenes, and Tanais, now called Don. To which we may adde the River Tagus in Spain, the Rhene and Guar [...]nn: in France, and Thames in England. Lastly, the principall commodities in Europe, are Gold, Silver, Tin, Lead, Iron, Oyle, all kind of graine, Flax, Wooll, Salt, &c.

Africa, (whether it be so called from Apher, one of Hercules his companions, in his expe­dition against Gerion; according to Eusta­thius: or else from one Iphricus, a certain King of the Arabians; whence also it is called in Arabick Iphricia, as Johannes Leo testifieth: or lasty from it's scorching heat, as if it should be called [...] quasi sine frigore, as some are pleased to derive it:) hath in it these principal regions. First of all, next to the Straits of Gi­braltar, (anciently called Fretum Gaditanum) there lyeth Barbary. heretofore called Mauri­tania; which containeth in it the kingdomes of Morocco, Fez. Algier, and Tunis. Next to Bar­bary lyeth AEgypt, which also bordereth upon the Mediterranean Sea. Now within Barbary toward the continent, there lyeth Biledulgerid known to the Ancients by the name of Numi­dia. The 3d is that part which is called by the Greeks and Latines Lybia: but the Arabians name it Sarra. After this followes the coun­try [Page 137] of the Negroes, so called because they bor­der upon the River Niger, or else from their colour, This Country is now usually called Senaga: and it hath in it many petty King­domes, as namely, Gualata, Guinea, Melli, Tombutum, Gagos, Gub [...]ris, Agades, Canos, Casena, Zegz [...]ga, Zanfar [...], Burnum, Gaoga, Nubia, &c. Next othese is the spacious Ter­ritory of the King of the AEthtopian, (who is al [...]o called Pretegiani, and corruptly Prester John) which Kingdom is famous for the long continuance of the Christian Religion in it, which hath been kept amongst them in a con­tinuall succession, ever since the Apostles time. These Christian are commonly called Abys­sines, but more rightly Habassines, as Arias Montanus observeth in the Itinerary of Benya­mine Tudelersis. I h [...] dominion was anciently extended very far through Asia also. These have bordering on the West some few obscure kingdoms, as Manicongo, and D' Angola: and toward the East and South, Melinde, Quiloa, Mozambique, and Benamatapa. The chiefe Islands that are situate neare it, are Madagas­cur, the Canary Islands, the Isles of Cape Verd; and S. Thomas Island, lying directly under the AEquator.

PONT. Africa, hath these things in it consi­derable. 1. It is greater then Europe but lesse then Asia, and lesse inhabited, and civiliz [...]d then either. 2, It is b [...]unded with the Sea on all sides, sa [...]e on [...]ly where it is is con terminat with Asia, 3. The principali regions of it, are, Mauritania, [Page 138] Numidia, Libya, Cyrenaica, Egypt, and AEthi­opia. 4. The mast famous kingdoms are these, Mo­rocco, Fez, Algier, and also that of Prester John, or AEthiopia 5. The greatest Mountains are, Atlas, and that other whence Nilus, springeth 6. The prin­cipall r [...]rs of Nigar, and Nilus, which is account­ed to bee the greatest in the world, and as Diodorus Siculus affirmeth, encompasseth 700. Islands. 7▪ The principall Merchandise of Africke, is Ivory, Civet, Gold Cotton Wooll, Jewels, and cer­tain kinds of spices, as also Salt, Lions, Camels, &c.

Asia (so called from Asia, the mother of Prometheus, as the common received opinion is; or else from a certain Heroe of that mane a [...] Hippias in Eustathius will have it, at this day wholly in subjection to the great Turke, and the Persian, as far as to the East Indies, the great­est part whereof is under the Kings of China & Pegu. But the more Northern parts of Asia are possessed by the Muscovites, Tartarians, and those that inhabit the region or Cathaia. The principall Islands appertaining unto at, are Cy­prus, and Rhodes in the Mediterranean: and on the South side, Sumatra, Zeilam. Java, Major and Minor, the Molucean and Philippine Islands, beside Borneo, and almost an infinite company of others And on the East of it there lye the Japonian Islands.

PONT. That it ought to be written Sinae, not Chinae, as our Author in this place, and com­monly all other writers use to doe, appeareth manifestly out of Ptolomy, who alwayes calleth [Page 139] them Sinai. The eighth Table also of Asia in Ptolo­myes Geography, placeth the Scythians called Cathae, (which our Author calleth the region of Cathaia.) betw [...]xt th [...] mountaines Imavus and Emodus: and the region of the Siaeans a part of it beyond the same Emodus and Ottoro cara, which are hills in the Country of the Seres, and looking towards the South East. So that I cannot but wonder that Matthaeue Riccius a Jesuite, in his Sinaean expedition should take so much pains to prove, that the Kingdom of Cathaia▪ and of the Sinaeans is all one. But it were easi [...], by other, and those more proper arguments and testimonies, (were this place convenient) to prove the contrary to this his assertion.

Now as concerning Asia, these things occurre n [...]it worth our observation. 1. That it is twofold, Asia Minor, and Major. 2. Asia Minor, or the lesser Asia, is bounded on the East by the Euxine Sea; on the South by the river Euphrates; on the West by the Mediterranean, on the North by the AEgean Sea. 3. The principall countries it contained anci­ently, were these: Cilicia, Pamphilia, Caria, Ly­cia Jonia, Lydia, AE [...]lia, Mysia, Bithinia, Paph­laponia, Cappad▪ cia, Galatia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia. 4. To the greater Asia th [...]se Regions apper­tained: Syria, Armenia, Chaldaea, Arabia, Pe [...]a, Tartaria, Hircani [...], Parthia, and India. 5. In both of them there are setled at this day these Empires; namely, the Turkish, Persian, Tartarian, Indian, and Sin [...]sian or Chinean 6. The chiese hills of note in it, are Taurus, Caucasus, and Im [...]us. 7. The [Page 140] principall Rivers, Euphrates Ganges, and In­dus, 8. The chiefest traffick is, Gold, Pearle, Jewels, all kind of Spices, Muske, Frankincense, Balsame, Amber, Silks, Ivory, and Ele­phants.

America, (so called from Americus Vespuc­cius, who first discovering it, gave it both name and bounds,) is terminated on the East side, (on which it lokes toward Europe, and Africa) by the Atlantick Ocean: on the West with the Sea, which they call, del Zur, or the South Sea: on the South it is bounded with the Straits of Magellane. But as for the North­ern parts of it, they are not yet throughly discovered, or the Limets thereof knowne: notwithstanding the many adventures by Sea of our Countrymen, M. Martin Frobisher, and M. John Davis, having given strong argu­ments o [...] hope, that it is on that side [...]ounded by the frozen Sea. It containeth in it these principall regions. First, on the North, that Country which the Spaniards call, Tierra de Labrador: after which followeth that which they call, Baccalearum Regio: then Nova Francia: after this Virginia: then Floride: next to this Nova Hispania, famous especially for the City Mexico and last of all the Kingdomes of Brasilia and Peru, which are the most South­ern parts of all. There are also many adia­cent Islands: most of which lye in the Bay of Mexico, Eastward from America: the most notable of which are Cuba and Hispaniola, besides many other of les [...]e note.

[Page 141] There are also many other parts of the world, not yet throughly known or discove­red, as namely those southern coasts, wherein stands Nova Guinea lying beyond the Indian Sea, which whether it be an Island, or else a part of the m [...]ine Continent, i [...] not yet disco­vered: and likewise, that the other tract of the Southern known Continent, which is called Magellanica: as also these Northern parts of Eu­rope, Asia, & America which have bee [...] but lately detected by many of our English Navigators, but not as yet fully searched into.

CHAP II. Of the Circumference of the Earth or of a Greater Circle: and of the Measure of a Degree.

IT remaineth now that wee speak somewhat of the circumference of the Earth, or of the greatest circle in it; the knowledg whereof is ve­ry necessary, both for the study of Geography, as also for the easier attaining to the Art of Navi­gation. And therefore, I hope, I shall not seeme impertinent, if I insist something the longer on this argument: especially seeing that there is great diversity of opinion among the most lear­ned Authors that are extant, concerning this matter; in somuch that it is not yet determined, which of them we are to follow.

[Page 142] Aristotle in the end of his 2d [...]ook de Coelo, af­firm's (and that according to the doctrine of the Mathematicians, as himself saith) that the circumference of the Earsh is 400000. in: longs Cleomedes lib. 1. reckons it to be 300000. for he saith that the Verticall Points of Lysimachia and Syene, were observed by Sciotericall Instru ments, to be distant from each other the 15th. part of the same Meridian. Now the distance between these two places he sets down to be 20000. furlongs: So that if 20000. be multipli­ed b [...] 15. the whole will arise to 300000. Era­tosthenes (if we may beleeve Strabo, Vitruvius, Pliny, and Censorinus) would have the whole compasse of the Earth to containe 252000. fur­longs. To which number Hipparchus, as Pliny testifieth, added very near 25000. more. Yet Strabo as well in the end of his 2d book of his Geography, as else where, affirmeth, that hee used the s [...]me measure that Eratosthenes did: where he saith, that according to the opinionof Hipparchus, the whole quantity of the Earth containeth 252000. furlongs: which was the measure delivered also by Eratosthenes. Which opinion of Eratosthenes is seconded also by that fabulous relation of Dionysiodorus, recorded by Pliny. lib. 2. cap. ult. Where he saith, that there was found, in the Sepulcher of Dionysiodorus, an Epistle written to the gods; wherein was testified, that the Semediameter of the Earth contained 4200. furlongs. Which number be­ing multiplyed by 6. the Product will be 252000.

[Page 143] Cleomedes relating the observations of Era­tosthenes, and Posidonius, making it to be some­what lesse, and that according to the doctrine of Eratosthenes: to wit, 250000. furlongs. For he placeth Syene and Alexandria under the same Meridian, Now Syene being situate direct­ly under the Tropick of Cancer, the Sun being then in [...]he Summer Solstice the Gnomons cast no shadow at all. For confirmation of which, the experiment was made, by digging a deepe Well, which, at that time of the yeare, was wholly enlightened on every part: as it is re­ported both by Pliny and also by Strabo before him. But at Alexandria, when the Sun is in the Summer Tropick, the Gnomon is observed to cast a shadow to the fiftieth part of the cir­cumference, on which it is erected to right an­gles, so that the top of the same, is the center of the circumference. Now the distance betwixt Syene and Alexandria is commonly set down by Eratosthenes, Pliny, and Strabo, to be 5000. furlongs. If therefore 5000. be multiplied by 50. the whole will arise to 250000. which is the number of furlongs [...] to the cir­cumference of the whole earth by Eratosthenes Posidonius, proceeding after another method, though not unlike this, labours to prove the whole circuit of the Earth to contain 240000. furlongs. And first hee taketh for granted (which is also acknowledged by Ptolomy, lib. 5. c [...]p. 3. Almagest.) that Rhodes and Alexan­dria are situate under the same Meridian. Now that bright Star in the sterne of Argo, (which [Page 144] they call Canobus, and which never appeareth in Greece, which seemes to be the reason why Aratus maketh no mention of it:) first begin­neth to appeare above the Horizon at Rhodes: but it doth but stringere Horizontem, just touch the Horizon, and so, upon the least circumvo­lution of the heavens, setting againe, or else, as Proclus saith, is very hardly seen, unlesse it be from some eminent place. But when you are at Alexandria, you may see it very cleare above the Horizon. For when it is in the Me­ridian, that is, at the highest elevation above the Horizon: it is elevated above the Horizon about the fourth part of [...] Signe: that is to say, the fortieeighth part of the Meridian that pas­seth through Rhodes and Alexandria. The same is affirmed alo by Proclus▪ if you read him thus: Canobus in Alexandria consp [...]euè cerni, quar [...]a [...] Signi portione supra Horizontem [...] as i [...] ought to be; and not as it is cor­ruptly read, in Alexandria prorsus non cerni. It is not seen at all: in stead of it, is seen ve­ry plainly: [...] being crept into the text, perhaps in stead of [...] Now the di­stance betwixt Rhodes and Alexandria is set down both by him and Pliny, to bee 5000. furlongs: which being multiplyed by forty eight, the product will be 240000. the number of furlongs, agreeing to the measure of the Earths circumterence, according to the opini­on of Posidonius.

Ptolomy, every where in his Geography, as al­so Marinus Tyrius before him, have allowed [Page 145] but 500. furlongs, to a degree in the greatest circle on the earth, of which the whole circum­ference containeth 360 [...] that the wh [...]le com­pass of the Earth, after this account, con [...]aineth 180000. furlongs. And yet Strabo affirmes in his lib. 2. Geograph. that this measure of the Earths circumference set down by Ptolomy, was both receiv [...]d by the Ancients, and also approved by Posidonius himself.

So great is the difference of opinions, con­cerning the compasse of the Earth: and yet is every one of these opinions grounded on the authority of great men. In this so great diver­sity therefore, it is doubtfull whom we should follow. And if you should desire to know the cause of all these dissentions; even that also is altogether as uncertain. Nonius, and Peuce­rus would perswade us, that certainly the fur­longs they used were not of the same quantity. Maurolycus, and Philander conceive the diffe­rence of furlongs to rise out of the diverse measure of Pases. And therefore Maurolycus takes great paines to reconcile them; but in vaine: for they seem not capable of any re­concilement. They t [...]ll us of divers kinds of Pases in use among the Ancients. It is true: we assent to them herein: but withall desire to heare of some diversity of furlongs also, or at least, of feet. The Greekes (as I conceive) measured not their furlongs by Pases: but by feet, or rather [...] Now [...] is the measure of the extension of both the hands, together with the breast betwixt, containing [Page 146] sixe feet, which wee commonly call a fadome, and is a measure in familiar use with our Ma­riners, in sounding the depth of the Sea, or other waters. This word notwithstanding is translated by many, a Pase: but how rightly, I leave it to learned men to judge. Xylander in his translation of Strabo, alwayes rendereth it, an Ell. In like manner a furlong is defined by Herodotus, a very ancient Greek Author, to consist of 600. feet: the same also is affirmed by Suidas, by much later then hee. Yet Heroe Mechanicus (or at least his Scholiast) one, as I conceive, of the lowest rank of Ancient Writers:) will have a surlong to contain 100. fadomes; a fadam foure Cubits: a Cubi a foot and a halfe, or twenty four digits: But you will say perhaps, that Censorinus propo­seth three severall kinds of furlongs: the first of which is the Italian, consisting of 625. feet: which he would have us understand to be that which is commonly used in measuring the Earth. The second is the Olympian: contai­ning 600. feet: and the third and last is the Pythean, consisting of 1000. feet. But to let passe this later, if wee doe but looke more nearly into the matter, we shall find the Ita­lian and Olympian furlongs, howsoever they differ in names, yet to be no other but the self same thing. For the Italian furlong, which containeth 625. Romane feet, (according as Pliny testifieth, in his second book and twen­ty third Chapter) will be found to be equall to the Olympian, consisting of 600. Grecian [Page 147] feete. For 600. Grecian feet, are equall to 625 Romane: for as much as the Grecians foot ex­ceeds the Romane by a twenty fourth part: as much as in the difference betwixt 600. and 625.

Amongst these so great diversities of opini­ons, let us give our conjecture [...]iso, both what may be the cause of so great disagreement, and also which of them we may most safely follow. We will therefore passe by Aristotle, whose as­sertion is onely defended by a great name. And for Cleomedes his opinion, of the Earths being in compasse 200000. furlongs, we should scarse vouchsafe to mention it, but that Archimedes also had taken notice of the same, as of a por­tion not altogether disallowed in his time. Let us therefore examine Eratosthenes, and Posido­nius, whose opinions seem to be grounded on more certain foundations. The cause there­fore of their disagreement I conceive to bee in that neither of them had measured exactly the distance of those places which they layd down to work on, but took them upon trust, from the common reducing received of Travailers: save only, that of the two, Posido­nius is the more extravagant. Whereas on the contrary Ptolomy grounded his opinion on the distances of places exactly measured, as him­self affirmeth; when he saith: That the la­titude of the known parts of the world is 79, degrees, and 45. minutes. Or supposing it to be full 80. degrees; it will then contain 10000. furlongs, allowing for every degree [Page 148] siue hundred furlongs: as by measuring the distance of places exactly, wee have found it to be

But Eratosthenes is much taxed by Hippar­chus, for his strange mistakes and grosse igno­rance in setting down the distance of plac [...]s: as Strabo testifieth in his first book. For hee reckons betwixt Alexandria and Carthage a­bove 13000. furlongs, whereas (saith Stra­bo) it is not above 9000. So likewise Posi­donius is to bee blamed, for setting down the distance betwixt Rhodes and Alexandria to bee 5000. furlongs, and that from the relation of Mariners, whereas some of them would have it to be but 4000. and others 5000. as Eratosthenes confesseth in Strabo: but addeth moreover, that he himself had found by Sci­otericall instruments, that it was but 3750. And Strabo would have it to be something lesse then that, namely 3640. furlongs. So that hence, [...]e may safely conclude, that Ptolomies opinion, being grounded upon the more exact and accurate dimensions of distances, (as bim­self professeth (must necessarily come nearer the truth then the rest.

But Franciscus Maurolycus, Abbot of Messava, whiles hee goes about to defend Po­sidonius against Ptolomy, is overtaken himself in an errour, before hee is aware. For [...]e suspecteth the truth of Ptolomies assignement of the latitude of Rhodes, which he sets down to bee thirty sixe degrees▪ And hee adverti­seth [Page 149] us, that certainly the number in his Geographicall tables are corrupted: which, we confesse, is most certain. But in the meane time let us see how he proves them to be so, in this Latitude of Rhodes Posidonius (saith he) out of his owne observations, setteth down the Latitude of it to be thirty eight degrees, and an halfe: unlesse that Ptolomy bee out al­so in designing the Latitude of Alexandria; which Maurolycus thinkes cannot possibly be. But wee affirm on the contrary side, that Ptolomy himself is against this Latitude, not onely in his Geographicall bookes, but also in diverse places throughout the Almagest also, and especialy in the lib. 2. cap. 6. where he sets down the same latitude for Rhodes, that he hath in this Geography: adding moreover the quantity of the longest day, and also what manner of shadowes the Gnomonos cast, both when the Sun is in the AEquinoctiall, as also in the Tropicks: all which do plainly prove the s [...]me He also very often hath the same lat [...] ­tude of it in his Planisphaere: unlesse you will say, that either Masses the Arabian, in transla­ting it into Arabick, or else Rodulphus Bru­gensis, who translated the some again out of A­rabick into Latine, have [...] us. Hither­to therefore we stand on equall tearmes. But he proceeds, and saith, that this opinion of Po­sidonius is favoured also by Proclus, & the obser­v [...]tions of Eudoxus Cnidius, delivered by Stra­bo Let us therefore see what all this is. P [...]sido­nius (saith Strabo) reports, that himself being [Page 150] sometimes in a City distant from the Gaditane Straits 400. furlongs, saw from the top of an high house a certain Starr, which hee took to bee Canobus: and those that went thence more South ward from Spaine, confesse that they saw it also plainly. Now the Tower Cnidus, out of which Eudoxus is said to have seen Canobus, is not much higher then the other buildings. But Cnidus is in the same Climat with Rhodes, as is also the Gades, with the Sea coasts adjoyning. Thus Strabo. But what doth he conclude hence against Pto­lomy? That Canobus may be seen in Cnidus? Wee deny it not. Or that Cnidus is in the Rhodian Climate? Ptolomy acknowledgeth as much: for hee makes it to have not above 36. gr. 15. m. of Latitude, in the fifth book of his Geography. But is not Ptolomy out also in assigning the Latitude of Cnidus? That the Latitude of Rhodes is no greater then Pto­lomy hath set it, may be proved even out of Proclus himself: for he makes the longest day at Rhodes to be 14. hours and an halfe. And Ptolomy will have the same to bee equall both at Rhodes, and Cnidus. And to this assenteth Strabo likewise, save onely that in one place he sets it down to be but 14. hours bare: so that by this reckoning it should have lesse Latitude. Now Proclus his words are these, In the Horizon of Rhodes (saith he) the Sum­mer tropique is divided by the Horizon in such sort, as that if the whole circle bee divi­ded into forty eight parts, twenty nine of the [Page 151] same do appeare above the Horizon, and 19. lye hid under the Earth Out of which divi­sion it follows, that the longest day at Rhodes must be 14. AEquinoctiall hours and an halfe, and the shortest night, 9. and an halfe, Thus he, I do not deny, but that Posidonius his setting down of the quantity of the portion of the Meridian intercepted betwixt the verticall point o [...] Rhodes and Alexandria, might deceive Pliny, Proclus, and others. Yet Alfraganus draweth his second Climate through Cyprus and Rhodes, and maketh it to have the longest day of 14. hours and an halfe, and in latitude 36. gr. two thirds. So that there is but very small difference betwixt him and Ptolomy. And even Maeurolycus himself. when in his Cosmo­graphical D [...]alogues he numbereth up the Pa­rallels, h [...] maketh that which passeth through Rhodes to have 36 gr. and a twelfth of Lati­tude: herein differing, something with the most, [...]om Posidonius. Eratosthenes his obser­vations also do very much contradict Posido­nius. For Eratosthenes saith, that he found by Sciotericall Gnomons, that the distance be­twixt Rhodes and Alexandria was 3750. fur­longs. But let us examine this a little better. The difference of Latitude betwixt these two places he found Scioterically, after his manner, to be something more than 5. degrees. And to this difference, (according to his assumed mea­sure of the compasse of the Earth, wherein he allows 700. furlongs to a degree) hee attri­butes 3650. furlongs. Neither is there any [Page 152] other way of working by Sciotericall instru­ments (that I know) in finding out the di­stance of furlongs betwixt two places; unlesse we first know the number of furlongs agree­ing either to the whole circumference of the Earth, or else to the part of it assigned. Let us now see if we can prove, out of the observati­ons of Eratosthenes himself, that neither Posi­donius his opinion concerning the measure of the Earths circumference, much lesse Eratost­henes his owne can be defended. And here we shall not examine his observation of the diffe­rence of Latitude betwixt Alexandria and Syene, that so we might prove out of his own assumptions, that the whole compasse of the Earth cannot be above 241 620. furlongs: as it it demonstrated by Petrus Nonius, in his lib. 2. cap. 18. De Nauigatione. Neither doe we en­quire, how truely hee hath set down the di­stance of these two places to bee 5000. fur­longs: whereas Solinus reckoneth not from the very Ocean to Meroë above 620. miles, which are but 4960. furlongs. Now Mercë is a a great deal farther then Syene. Neither will wee question him at all, concerning the small difference that is betwixt him and Pliny, who reckons from the Island Elephantina (which is 3. miles below the last Cataract, and 16. miles above Syene) to Alexandria but 486. miles so that by this reckoning, betwixt Syene and Alexandria, there will not be above 4560. furlongs. But we will proceed a contrary way to prove our assertion. This one thing therefore [Page 153] we require to be granted us; Which is: that looke how great a space the Suns Diameter taketh up in his Orb; for the like space on the Ter­restriall Globe shall the Gnomons be without any shadow at all, while the Sun is in their Zenich. Which if it be granted, (as it is freely confessed by Posidonius in Cleomedes,) we have then got­ten the victory.

Now it is assimed by Eratosthenes, that the Sunne being in the begining of Cancer, and so directly in the Verticall point at Syene; both there, and for [...]. furlongs round a­bout, the Gnomons cast no shadow at all. Let us now therefore see, how great a part of this Orb the Sunns Diameter doth subrend. For by this meanes, if this position of Eratosthenes, which wee have now set down, bee true, we may easily finde o [...], by it, the whole cir­cuit of the Earth. Firmicus Maternus makes the Diameter both of the Sun and Moon to be, no lesse then a whole degree. But he is too farr from the truth: and assigneth a greater quantity, either then he ought, or we desire. The AEgyptians sound by Hydroscopicall instruments, that the Diameter of the Sunne takes up the Seven hundred and fifty parts of his Orbe. So that if 3 [...]0. furlongs on Earth answer to the seven hundred and fiftieth part of the whole circumference of the same: the whole circuit of it then will bee but 225000. furlongs. The fabricke and use of this in­strument is set down by Proclus in his cap 3. Designation. Astronomi. And Theon also speakes [Page 154] much of it in his Commentaries upon the 5. lib. Almagest. Ptolomy. as also doth Maurolicus in his third Dialog. Cosmograph. But these kinds of observations are not approved of by Ptolomy And Theon also, and Proclus de­ [...]race them to be obnoxious to much er­rour. And therefore we examine the matter yet a little further.

Aristarchus Samius, (as he is cited by Archi­medes) affirmed that the Sun [...] apparent Dia­meter taketh up the seven hundred and fiftieth part of the Zodiack, that is to say, 30. minutes; and is equal to the apparent Diameter of the Moon: as he hath it (as I remember) in the 7. and 8. Propositions of his book De magnitud, & distant. Solis & Luna. The same was the opinion also of Archimedes himself. But, in the meane time, I cannot free my selfe of a cer­tain soruple cast in my way▪ by another suppo­sition of the same Aristarchus, in the very same book, where he would have the Diameter of the Moon to bee 2. deg [...]es. Archimedes also, out of his owne observations, by Dioptricall instruments, hath defined the Suns Diameter to bee greater then the 200th part of a right angle, that is to say, 27. minutes: yet lesse then the 164th part of a right angle, which is 33. minutes. But he himself confesseth, that there is not so great credit to bee given to such like observations, as are made by these Dioptricall instruments, as by them to bee able exactly to find out the Diameter of the Sun or Moon: seeing that neither the sight, nor the han [...], nor [Page 155] yet the instruments themselves, by which the observations are to be made, can be every way so exact and sure, as not to faile. Ptolomy by the same Dioptricall instruments, as also by the manner of Eclipses, sound the Diame­ter of the Sun to contain 30. m. 20. sec. and to bee equall to the apparant Diameter of the Moon, when shee is at the greatest distance from the earth, which is, at the full Moon, and in Conjunction with the Sunn. Now where­as he would have this magnitude to bee con­stantly the same, and invariable: Proclus ap­proves not of him herein, as appeares in his 3. cap. Designation. Astronom. being hereto induced by the Authority of Sosigenes a Peripa­teticke: who in those bookes of his, which he intituleth, Derevolutionibus, hath observed, that in the Eclipses of the Sun, there is some­times a certain little ring or circle of the Sun to be perceived enlightened, and appearing plainly on all sides round about the body of the Moon. Which if it be true, it is impos­sible then, that the apparent magnitude of the Sunn shall bee, at all times, equall to that of the Moon in their Conjunctions and opposi­tions. And this is the cause perhaps, that those that have come after Ptolomy, have endeavour­ed to examine these things more accurately. And first of all Albateni found the Diameter of the Sun, when he was in the Apogaeum of his Eccentrick, to be 31. m. 20. sec. which is the same which Ptolomies observation: but in the Perigaum, to be 33. m. 40. sec. But Co­pernicus [Page 156] went yet further, and found the Dia­meter of the Sun, when he was in his greatest distance from the Earth, to be 31. m. 48. sec. and when he is nearest of all, to bee 33. m. 54. sec. Now therefore if wee work upon this ground here laid before us, and take the Dia­meter to be 32. in, it will then follow, that if 300 furlongs answere to 32. minutes, the whole circuite of the Earth will bee but 202500. furlongs: which falls short of that measure which Posidonius hath set down, but much more of that which Eratosthenes hath delivered. And thus much have woe thought good to say (with all [...]e reverence to the judgements of learned Authors) in examina­tion of [...]hose things, which have been deliver­ed by the Greeks, concerning the measure of the Earths circumference.

The way of measuring, used here with us, is by Miles, and Latitudes: of the former whereof 60. and of the later 20. answering to a degree. So that the circumference of the Earth. con­taineth 21600. English Miles: which also agrees exactly with that of Ptolomy For wee find our English foot to be just equall with [...] Grecian, by comparing it with the Grecian foot. which Agricola, and others have deli­vered unto us, out of their monuments of an­tiquity. Now one of our Miles containeth 5000. feet of our English measure: and a fur­long 600. Grecian feet. Now if you multiply th [...] [...] of a furlong by 500. (for so many furlongs doth Ptolomy allot to a degree) and [Page 157] so likewise the measure of a Mile, which is 5000. feet, by 60. (which is also the number of miles that we reckon for a degree,) they wil both produce the same number of feet, viz. 300000. So that from these grounds we may certainly conclude, that the common computation re­ceived among our Mariners, doth agree most exactly with that of Ptolomy.

The Italians also make 60. miles to bee the measure of a degree: but their measure is some­thing less then Ptolomies. The Grecians reckon 15. miles to a degree: one of their miles con­taining 4. Italian: so that this reckoning of theirs falls [...]ust as much short of Ptolomyes, as the Italian doth. For according to their computa­tion, a degree containeth not above 480. fur­longs, every Italian Miles consisting but of 8. furlongs: (unless perhaps you rather approve of Polibius his opinion, who,) as he is cited by Strabo (over and above 8. furlongs, will have 2. Plethra, which is the thid part of a furlong, to be added to every mile: which is the just mea­sure of our English mile.) Yet Appian saith that 15. Germane miles, are as much, as 60. Itslian: and 60. Italian miles contain 480. furlongs: which is lesse then Ptolomies measure by 20. fur­longs, which make up two Italian miles, and an halfe.

The Spaniards reckon to a degree, some of them 16. leagues and two third parts: and some seventeen and an halfe. But how their measure stands, compared with the Grecian furlongs, or with the English, Italian, or Ger­mane [Page 158] miles, I have not yet certainly learned. Yet Nonius seemeth to equall the Spanish league with the Schoenus, or Parasanga: which if it be so, then those that allow 16. leagues and 2. thirds to a degree, have the same measure that Ptolomy hath deliuered: but those that allow 17. and an half, make it somewhat too large.

It only now remaineth to see, what is the doctrine of the Arabians concerning this mat­ter. Of which the most ancient have assigned to the whole circumference of the Earth, 2400. Miles, or 8000. Parasangae: so that after this computation, a Degree must contain 66. Miles, with two third parts. And this measure is used by Alhazenus, in the end of his book, De Crepusclis. Alfraganus, and some of the later Arabick writers, since Almamons time, do generally account 20400. Miles to be the just measure of the Terrestriall Globe: So that one degree containeth, by this reckoning, 56, Miles and a third part. And it is reported by Abilfedea, in the beginning of his Geogra­phy, how that, by the command of Almanon, King of the Arabians. or Caliph of Babylon there were certain men employed, who should observe in the plaine field of Singar and the adjoyning Sea coasts, (meaning the places in a direct linetoward the Pole, (how many Miles answered to a degree: and that they found, by just computation, that in going the space of one degree, there were spent full 56. Miles without any fractions, and sometime 56. Miles, and a third part which make up [Page 159] 1333. cubits, with two [...]. But now what proportion the Arabian Mile beareth to ours, or the Italian, or Germane Mile, is not so easie to determine. Ye [...] conjecture it cannot be losse than te [...] Furlongs. The Parasanga (as Jacobus Christmannus [...]ils us, out of Abil­fedea, that great Arabian Geographer) contai­neth three Arabian Miles, according to the doctrine both of the Ancient, and Moderne Writers among them. Now a Parasanga (as it appeares plainly out of Herodotus Xenophon, and others) containeth thirty furlongs: so that, by this account, every mile must compre­hend ten furlongs. And for confirmation of this, we may observe, that, among the Greekes, there were two kinds of Cubits in use; the one, the common or ordinary Cubit, which contai­ned two foot and an halfe of Grecian measure, or twenty foure digitt, of which sixteen went to a foot. The other was the Kings Cu­bit, in use among the Persians: which was greater than the common Cubit by three fin­gers breadth. Now Alfraganus affirmeth that the Arabian mile contained 4000. Cubits, ac­cording to the ordinary measure. So that if this Cubit be equall to the Grecian Cubit, one of their miles will then contain 6000. Gre­cian feet, which makes up ten furlongs. Now whereas the Parasanga is reckoned by some to contain 40. furlongs, and by others 60. yet no body alloweth to it lesse then 30. with which later account if wee should; with Hero­dotus, Xenophon, and others, rest our selves con­tented [Page 160] (neither indeed is it our intention to stand long in disputing, whether or no in di­verse places, the measure of the Parasanga were also different, as Strabo seemes to think, who observed the very same difference in the Egyp­tians Schoenus, when as being conveighed on the River Nilus from one City to another, he obserued that the Egyptians in diverse places, used diverse measures of their Schoenus:) I say, if we should rest upon their determination, who assigne but 30, furlongs to a Parasanga; then one of the Arabian miles will containe tenn furlongs at the least. Which conjectures, if [...]hey be true, we cannot then assent to those learned men, P. Nonius, and Jacobus Christman­nus, who will have the Arabian Mile to be all one with the Italian,

In this so great diversity of opinions, con­ceruing the true measure of the Earths circum­ference, let it be free for every man to follow whomsoever he please. Yet were it not that the later Arabians do counterm [...]nd us, by propo­sing to us their Positions, which they averre to have been grounded upon most certain and exact mensurations of the distances of places: we should not doubt to preferr Ptolomies opi­nion, I will here propose unto your view a list of all those opinions, which carry in them any shew of probability.

[Page 161]

The circuit of the whole earth containeth ac­cording toStrabo, and Hipperchus,252000.
Posidonus & the Ancient Arabians,240000.
Ptolomy and our English­men.180000.
The modern Arabians,204000
The Ita­lians and Germans,172800.
The measure of a Degree ac­cording toStrabo, and Hipparchus700.
Posidomus & the Ancient Arabians,666⅔
Ptolomy and our English men.500
The later Arabians,566⅔
Italians and Germanes.480.

[Page 162]


PONT. For the finding out of the circumference or circuit of the Terrestriall Globe, these Hypo­theses are first to be laid down for a ground [...] That the greatest circle in the Earth, as well as in the Heavens, is to be divided into 360. parts, or de­grees, 2. That one of these degrees doth contain 500. furlongs or 62500 Romane pases, and 60. English miles 3. That 8. furlong, and a third part make an English Mile.

These things being presupposed, we must multi­ply 360. degrees by 60 miles, which done, the pro­duct will be 21 600. English miles. Or if you mul­tiply 360. degrees, by 500. furlongs; the whole will be 180000 furlongs, which is the measure of the circumference of the Earth.

So likewise if 360. be multiplyed by 15. the whole will be 5400. Germane miles: and if the number of the degrees be multiplyed by 25. there well arise 9000. French miles. All which may be thus ex­pressed.

A de­gree con­taineth.15. GermaneMiles, each of wch con­taine seve­rally.4000.Pa [...]s.
60. Italian1000.
60. English1000.
25 French 
17. Spanish2400

In like manner the Circumferance of the Earth mayas easily bee found out by any of the fixed [Page 163] Starrs, as the Virgins Spike, or the like. For if we take any two places which are situated under the same Meridian, and the distances in a right line exactly known, so that in both places the Me­ridian Altitude of the same Star be certainly known also: the difference of it's Altitude will be the num­ber of degrees of distance betwixt the same places, Wherefore seeing it is certainly known, as we have already said, how many miles answer to a degree, it is very easie then to gather how many miles the circumference of the whole Earth is also As for example: suppose London and Edenburg in Scotland to be under the same Meridian, and the Elevation of the Pole at London to be 52. degrees, and at Edenburgh 56. gr. 20. m. Now if you sub­stract the lesser number, which is 52. from the greater, 56. gr. 20. m. the difference wil be, 4. gr. 20. m. which being resolved into minutes, it will be found to be the 260. distance of miles betwixt London and Edenburgh. Therefore we must now say, that as 4. gr. 20. m. is to 260. miles: so is 360. degrees to 21600. English miles.

The fourth Part,

CHAP. I. Of the Use of Globes.

HItherto wee have spoken of the Globe it self, together with it's dimensions, circles, and other instruments necessarily belong­ing there to. It remaineth now that we come to the practise of it, and declare it's several uses And first of all, it is very necessary for the practise both of Astronomy, Geography, and also the Art of Navigation. For by it there is an easie and ready way layd down, for the finding out both of the place of the Sun, the Longitudes, Latitudes, and Positions of places, the length of daies and houres; as also for the finding of the Longest Latitude, Declination, Ascen­sion both Right and Oblique, the Amplitude of the rising and setting of the Sunne and Starrs, together with almost an infinite num­ber of the like things. Of the chiefe of all which wee indeed here briefely to discourse, omitting the enumeration of them all, as be­ing tedious and not sutable to the brevity we intend Now that all these things may be per­formed farr more accurately, by the help of [Page 165] numbers, and the doctrines of Triangles, Plains, and Sphaericall bodies, is a thing very well known to those that are acquainted with the Mathematicks, But this way of proceeding, be­sides that it is very tedious and prolix, so like­wise doth it require great practise in the Ma­thematicks. But the same things may be found out readily and easily, by the help of the Globe, with little or no knowledg of the Mathema­ticks at all.

PONT. For the better understanding of those things which shall bee spoken hereafter, there are two things especially to be promised: the first whereof is, concerning the position of the Globe, and the other Climates. Now touching the posi­tion of the Globe, you are, first of all, to take care that it bee pla [...] perpendicularly to the true Ho­rizon: 2. That the distinction of the winds an­swere directly to the winds of the reall Horizon, that so the East on your materiall Globe, may look directly toward the true East of the World. For which purpose especially there is usually placed a Nauticall Compasse in the bottome of the frame. When you have thus placed your Globe, so that it may be turned about any way at pleasure, yet so that the base or foot bee not moved out of its place, the next thing that is to bee enquired after, is the Latitude of the place Wherein you live: which ac­cording as it is greater, or lesser, you must elevate the Pole of your Globe above the Horizon propor­tionally. As for example, if the Latitude be 50. 51. or 52. grad. or lesse Northward, then must you elevate the Arctick Pole just so many [Page 166] degrees above the Horizon. And so likewise if the latitude be Southern, you must do [...] the like by the Antartick or South Pole. But under the AEquator, where there is no latitude at all, both the Poles must bee placed in the very Horizon, at opposite points.

2. A Climate is a space of the habitable parts of the Earth, comprehended betwixt two circles Parallel to the AEquator, in which space there is halfe an hours difference in the longest day. Now those that inhabit under the AEqua­tor have a perpetuall AEquinoxe, for the day with them is alwaies twelve hours longer, and the night as much. But as their situation is removed from the AEquinoctiall nearer to either Pole, the further they are from the AEquinoctiall, the grea­ter is the the inequality of the Artificiall day and night: out of which variation of Artificiall daies, the diversity of Climates also is takon and distiu­guished. For wheresoever this difference amount­eth to halfe an houre, there presently beginnes another Climate. Now the ancient Geographers constitutede in every Clime, three Parallels, [...] which the two outwardmost, namely the first and the third, do comprehend and terminate every Cli­mate: and the second divideth it in the midst. So that the proportion betwixt the Clime and the Parallels was Duple; for the Climes, as wee have said, were distant from each other halfe an houres space in the length of the day, but the Parallols were distinguished by quarters of an houre.

Now as concerning the number of Climates, [Page 167] The Ancients, at first, reckoned but seven, but Pto­lomy in his Tables of Ascensions, in the 2. lib. May. Construction. acknowledgeth nine: all of which de­rived their names from some eminent place, either hill or river, situate in the midst of the said Cli­mate. The first Clime to ward the Arctick Pole, be­ginning from the AEquator, they called Diameroës, because the midst of this Clime runneth through Me­roë, which is an Island in Africke encompassed a­bout with the river Nilus, where the longest day is thirteen hours: in the beginning therefore of this Clime it must be 12½ hours long. On the opposite part of the AEquator the first Southern Climate may in [...] manner be called, Antidiameroës. But these other Climes were not constituted neither by Prolo­my, nor any of the ancient Geographers. Yet by the like reason that part of the world also may as well be deseribed into Climate, reserving the same names that the Northern Climes are known by, and onely adding to them the preposition [...] which signi­fies as much as, Opposite, or over against. And the [...] the Scheme, of them all will be thus,

Northern Climates.Southern Climates.
1. Diameroës.1. Antidiameroës.
2. Diasyenes.2. Antidiasyenes.
3. Dialexandrias.3. Antidialexandrias.
4. Diarhodu.4. Antidiarhodu.
5. Diarhomes.5. Anididiarhomes.
6. Diapontu.6. Antidiapontu.
7. Diaboristhenes.7. Antidiaboristhenes.
8. Diabritanias.8. Antidiabritanias.
9. Diatanaidos.9. Antidiatanaidos.

[Page 168] Yet some there are that do not approve of this distinction of Climates, among whom is John Gi­gas. in his lib. 24 System. Geograph. cap. 2. probl. 12. And the reasons they alledg are these. 1. Because of their great in equality, in so much that the latitude of the first is above 570. Eng­lish miles, whereas the last of all is scarce a mile. 2. Because that the increase of hours is but a weake ground to build upon, and of no great use: seeing it is as easie to enquire out the length of the day, as the number of the Climate. And there­fore hee thinkes, it were farr better, that every Hemisphaere were equally distinguished by tenn degrees into nine Climates. So that the first Cli­mate should begin at the AEquinoctiall, and end where the Elevation of the Pole is tenn gr. which might be called the AEthiopian Climate. The second should reach to the 20. gr. and should bee named the Arabian Clime: because that part of Arabia Foelix is situated therein. The third should reach to the 30 gr. and be called the AEgyptian. The fourth the Syrian, ending at the 40. gr. The fifth the Italian, to the 50. gr. The 6. the English, or Germane, extending to the 60. gr. The se­venth the Suecian, or Lapland Climate, reach­ing to the 70. gr. The eighth, the Frozen Cli­mate, ending at the 80. gr. And the Ninth and last, the Polar Climate, reaching to the Pole it selfe.

So likewise the same Method might bee obser­ved on the othes side of the AEquinoctiall: and then by this meanes each Hemisphaere should have nine Climates: whereof seven would be conveni­ent [Page 169] for habitation, and the Parallels might passe through every fifth degree. And the situation of any place might be known by the number of degrees of the Poles elevation. So Rome, because it hath a­bove 40. gr. of latitude, is in the fourth; Westphalia in the fifth; Sicily in the third; Calecur, the chiefe City in India, in the second; Zeilan in the first; and so of the rest.

CHAP. I. How to find the Longitude, Latitude, Distance, and Angle of Position, or situation of any place expressed in the Ter­restriall Globe.

THe Ancient Geographers from Pto­lomies time downward, reckon the longitude of places from the Meridian which passeth through the Fortunate Islands: which are the same that are now called the Canary Islands. as the most men do generally believe, but how [...]ightly? I will not here stand to examine. I shall [...]nely here advertise the reader, by the way, that the latitude assigned by Ptolomy to the Fortunate Islands falleth something of the widest of the Canary Islands, and agreeth a great deal near­er with the Latitude of those islands which are known by the name of Cabo Verde For Ptolomy placed all the Fortunate Islands with­in the 10 gr. 30. m. and the 16. gr. of Nor­thern latitude. But the Canary Islands are [Page 170] found to bee distant from the AEquator at the least 27 degrees. The Arabians began to re­ckon their Longitude, at that place where the Atlantick Ocean driveth farthest into the maine land: which place is tenn degrees di­stant Eastward from the Fortunate Islands: as Jacobus Christmannus, hath observed out of Abilfedea. Our Modern Geographers, for the most part, beginn to reckon the Longitude of places from these Canary Islands: yet some be­ginn at those Islands which they call Azores: and from these bounds, are the Longitude of places to be reckoned in these Globes whereof we speake.

Now the Longitude of any place, is defined to be, an Arch, or portion of the AEquator in­tercepted betwixt the Meridian of any place assigned, and the Meridian that passeth through Saint Michales Island (which is one of the Azores) or of any other place, from whence the Longitude of places is wont to bee determined.

Now if you desire to know the Longitude of any place expressed in the Globe: you must apply the same place to the Meridian and ob­serve at what place the Meridian cutteth the AEquator, reckon the degree of the AEquator from the Meridian of Saint Michaels Island to that place: for so many are the degrees of lon­gitude of the place you look for.

In the same manner may you measure the distance of longitude betwixt any other two places that are described in the Globe. For the [Page 171] difference of Longitude is nothing else, but an Arch of the AEquator intercepted betwixt the Meridian of the same places. Which diffe­rence of Longitude, many have endeavoured to set down diverss wayes how to find by observation. But the most certain way of all for this purpose, is confessed by all learned Writers to be, by the Eclipses of the Moon. But now these Eclipses happen but seldom, but are more seldom seen, yet most seldome and, in very few places, observed by the skilfull Artists in this Science, So that there are but few Longitudes of places designed out by this meanes. Oro [...]us Fin [...]us, and Johannes Werne­rus before him, conceived that the difference of Longitude might be assigned, by the known (as they presuppose it) motion of the Moon, and the passing of the same through the Meri­dian of any place. But this is an uncertaine and ticklish way, and subject to many difficul­ties. Others have gon other wayes to work: as namely, by observing the space of the AEqui­noctiall hours betwixt the Meridians of two places: which they conceive may be taken by the help of Sun Dials, or Clocks, or Houre­glasses either with water or sand, or the like. But all these conceits, long since de [...]ed, ha­ving been more strictly and accurately exa­mined, have been disallowed and rejected by all learned men, (at least those of riper judgments) as being altogether unable to performe that which is required of them. But yet for all this, there are a kind of trifling Im­postors, [Page 172] that make publick sale of these toyes or worse, and that with great ostentation and boasting; to the great abuse and expense of som men of good note and quality, who are perhaps better stored with money, then either learning or judgment. But I shall not stand here to dis­cover the errours and uncertainties of these in­struments. Only I admonish these men by the way, that they beware of these fellows; least when their noses are wiped as we say) of their money, they too Iate repent them of their ill­bought bargaines. Away with all such trisling cheating rascals.

PONT. If you would know how to find out the longitude of any place by the Eclipse of the Moon, you must first goe to some Ephemerides, as the [...] Tables, or of any other learned Ma­thematicians calculation; and see, what hour such an Eclipse of the Moon shall happen at that place, for which the said Tables or Ephemerides were made. Then afterward you must observe the same Eclipse in that place, whose longitude you desire to know, Now if the time of the Eclipse agree with that other, for which the Tables were made, then you may conclude that both places have the same lati­tude, and are situate under the same Meridian. But is the number of the hours be more, then the place you are in, is suuate more Eastward, you must there­fore substract the less number out of the greater, and the remainder must be converted into degrees and minutes, multiplying the hours by fifteen and devi­ding the minutes of hours (if there be any) by [Page 173] foure; for so will the number of degrees arise: and if there remain any minutes after the divisi­on, they must bee multiplyed again by fifteen, and so will the number of the minutes of degrees arise, by which these places are distant from each other: which distance is called the difference of longitude. This difference must bee added to the Longitude of that place for which the Tables were calculated, if the other place be more Eastward: otherwise if it bee more Westward, it is to bee substracted from the longitude of the other. An example herof is thus proposed by Adrianus Metius in his Doctrina Sphaerica. I find (saith hee) out of the Prute­nick Tables, by exact calculation, that there will be an Eclipse of the Moon in the yeare 1598. up­on the eleventh day of February, at foure of the Clock and sixteen minutes, in the morning, and that at Regiomont, a City in Borussia, whose longitude or distance from the Canary Islands, is 41. gr. 16. m. For this Longitude where these Ta­bles calculated. Now I set my self to observe this same Eclipse at Marpurg, and find it to hap­pen at three of the Clock and twelve minutes, on the same day of February. Now because the number of hours here is lesse, it appeares that Marpurg is more Westward then Regiomont. Therefore I take away a lesse number from the greater, that is. 3. h. 12. m. from 4. h. 16. m. and the remainder is 1 h. 4. minutes: which sheweth the difference of longitude in hours, which makes up sixteen degrees. Therefore I again substract these degrees of difference from the lon­gitude of Regiomont, as being more Eastward [Page 174] then Marpurge; and so I find the Latitude of Marpurge from the Canary Island, to be 25. gr. 16. minutes.

CHAP II. How to find the Latitude of any place.

THe latitude of a place, is the distance of the Zenith, or the verticall point thereof from the AEquator. Now if you desire to find out the latitude of any place expressed in the Globe, you must apply the same to the Meridian, and reckon the number of the degrees that it is distant from the AEquator: For so much is the Latitude of that place. And this also you may observe, that the Latitude of every place is alwayes equall to the elevation of the same place. For look how many degrees the verticall point of any place is distant from the AEquator, just so many is the Pole elevated above the Horizon: as you may prove by the Globe, if you so order it, as that the Zenith of the place be 90. degrees distant every way from the Horizon,

PONT. Seeing that the Latitude of every place is alwayes equall to the elevation of the Pole: It will not be amisse to shew, how the eleva­tion of the Pole, or the Latitude of any region may be found out, by the observing of the same fixed Star in the Heavens, which is so neare the Pole, a [...] that it never sets in that region: which to doe you must work thus. You must observe both the least and also the greatest altitude of the sad [Page 175] Star; both which must necessarily happen in the Meridian: the least whereof will be beneath the Pole, and the greatest above it. Which done, you must adde the least altitude of it to the greatest; and so the halfe of the degrees thus numbered toge­ther, will bee the latitude of the Pole, and latitude of that plaee. An example whereof may be this. The first Star of the three in the taile of the great Beare is in his least altitude observed at London to be about 11. gr. and the greatest altitude of the same, when it is above the Pole, is found to be neare upon 92. degrees. Both which numbers being added together, do make up 103. halfe of which Summ, namely 51⅓. is the true elevation ond Latitude of London.

CHAP. III. How to find the distance of two places, and angle of position, or situation.

IF you set your Globe in such sort, as that the Zenith of one of the pla­ces bee 90. gr. distant every way from the Horizon, and then fasten the Quadrant of Altitude to the Verticall point, and so move it up and down, untill it passe through the Vertex of the other place: the number of degres intercepted in the Qua­drant betwixt the two places, being resolved into furlongs, miles, or leagues, (as you please) will shew the true distance of the places assign­ed. And the other end of the Quadrant, that [Page 176] toucheth upon the Horizon, will shew on what wind or quarter of the World the one place is, in respect of the other, and what Angle of Position (as they call it) it hath. For the Angle of Position is that, which is compre­hended betwixt the Meridian of any place, and a greater circle passing through the Ze­niths of any two places assigned: and the quantity of it, is to be numbred in the Ho­rizon.

As for example. The Longitude of Lon­don is twenty six degrees, and it hath in Nor­thern latitude 51. degrees, and an halfe. Now if it be demanded, what distance and angle of position it beareth to Saint Michaels Island, which is one of the Azores: we must proceed thus to find it. First, let the Northern Pole be elevated 51½, degrees: which is the latitude of London. Then fastening the Quadrant of Alti­tude to the Zenith of it, that is to say, fifty one degrees and an halfe Northward from the AE­quator, wee must turne it about, till it passe through Saint Michaels Island: and wee shall find the distance intercepted betwixt these two places to be 11. gr. 40. m. or thereabout: which is 280, of our leagues. And if we observe, in what part of the Horizon the end of the Qua­drant [...], we shal find the Angle of Position [...]o sall neare upon 50. gr. betwixt Southwest and by-west, And this is the situation of this [...] in respect of London

PONT. The [...] of places [...]ring on­ly in latitude may bee found after this manner [Page 177] First you must substract the lesser Latitude from the greater, resolving a degree in minutes, if the substraction cannot be done otherwise convenient­ly. Then multiply the degrees by 15. and divide the minutes by 4. and the summ produced will be the distance of those two places in common Ger­mane miles, one whereof containeth foure of our English miles. As for example: Basile in Ger­many and Geneva have both the same longitude. but differ in Latitude, which at Basile is 47. gr. 30. m. and at Geneva 45. gr. 45. m. Therefore substracting the lesser from the greater, the re­mainder will bee 1. gr. 45. m. which being reduced into Germane miles, will amount to 26. and a quarter or a mile. which is the distance of these two places assigned.

Now if the place proposed bee in diverse Hemi­spheres, then the degrees and minutes of Latitude must first be added together, and so the whole resol­ved into miles, as formerly hath been said. As for example: The Cape of good hope in Africa, and Constantinople are almost situate under the same meridian, but in diverse Hemisphaeres. Now the elevation of the Pole Articke at Constanti­nople is 43. gr. or thereabout: and at the Cape of good hope, the Antarctick Pole is elovated aboue 35. gr. the whole summ therefore is 73. degrees. that is to say 1170. Germane miles.

The distance of places differing onely in longi­tude, is found thus. First substract the lesse num­ber from the greater: then look in the Table here under written, how many miles answere to a degree [...] every Parallel, seeking for the degree of Lati­tude [Page 178] in the first columne descending, and the num­ber of miles over against it. Then lastly let the difference of longitude be multiplyed into miles and minutes: and you have your desire. As for exam­ple; Naples and Ilium or Troy, are in the same latitude of fortie one gr. where eleven Germane miles, and nineteen minutes answer to a degree of that Parallel: but these places differ in longitude, which at Naples is 39. gr. 30 m but at Troy. 55. gr. 50. m. Naw the difference betwixt them is 16 gr. 20. m. which is as much as 184. Germane miles, and fifty scruples: the just distance betwixt these two places.

[Page 179]

A Table of Miles answering to a Degree in each severall Latitude.
2813 [...]55259
2913 [...]5229
301 [...] [...]95118
311 [...] [...]25126
3 [...]1 [...]2 [...]4945
3 [...]1 [...]17499
36123 [...] [...]832
3 [...]11594755
381149471 [...]
401129455 [...]
41 [...]119451 [...]
4 [...]10 [...]54141
568233 [...]33
58 [...]573148
597433 [...]54
6 [...] [...]22810
6 [...]64827 [...]4
646342 [...] [...]8
656 [...]02 [...]21
6 [...]562424
6 [...]5522327
68 [...]372 [...]29
6 [...]52321 [...]0
7145319 [...]2
753 [...]31532
812 [...]1923

[Page 180] The Longitude or Latitude, of any place or City being known, either by observation, as hath already been shewed, or else out of some Geographicall Ta­ble, the situation os the same in the Globe may also be found out by this same meanes. You must first reckon the Longitude of your place, among the cir­cles of Longitude which are described upon the Globe beginning at that which is drawn through the Fortunate Islands: and observe the circle where you end your reckoning. Then if the Latitude of your place be Northern: you must reckon that also among the Parallels toward the Arctick Pole, begn­ining from the AEquator: but if it have Southern Latitude you must then proceed in like manner, but reckon toward the Antarctique▪ And the intersection, or point where these two circles cut each other, shew­eth the situation of your place. But if these circles of Long [...]ude be expressed in your Globe, then must you place that degree of the AEquinoctiall, that an­swereth to the Longitude of your place, under the Meridian, and so reckon the Latitude of your place among the degrees of the Meridian, toward either Pole: and you have the situation of the place you look after.

[Page 181]

A Table of Longitudes and La­titudes of some certain Cities of note.
Alexandria60 3013. 42.
Amsterdam [...]1. 43 [...]2 30.
Antw [...]rp20. 16.51. [...]8.
Athens52. 45 [...]7. 15
Bruxells20. 4 [...]51. 0
Bremen35. 1653. 40
Bamberg28. 10.4 [...]. 56.
B [...]sell24. 22.4 [...]. [...].
Bononia32. 543. 54.
Constantin.56. 042. 5
Cassell26. 36.51. 43.
Colen33. 20.51 0
Corinth31. 15.3 [...]. 5 [...].
D [...]sden38. 551. 6
Dover28. 10.51. 0
D [...]ntzik39. 25 [...]. [...].
Dublin16. 4053. 10.
Erf [...]d28. 40.51. 10
Estinga26. 3648. 39
Francford ad M [...]n.25. 3850. 12.
Jer [...]acia [...]2 1 [...].44. 23
Gen [...]a [...]. [...]13. 50.
Gant19. 851. 24
Graeningen22. 54.53. 16
Heidelberg25. 38.49. 35
Jena29. 251. 8
Lub [...]k28. [...]054. 48
Leiden20. 47.52. 10
Regius Mos46. 4554. 21
London25. [...].51. 3 [...]
Marpurg25. 16.5 [...]. 0
Millaine38. 2045. [...]
Norimberg20. 2049. 24
Naples30 10.41 0
Orleans15 3 [...]47. 16
Oxford24. 052. 0
Prage32. 0. [...]0 6
Paris29 25.48 30
Ratisbane29. 50.4 [...]. 56
Rostock30. 1454. 36
Spier35. 29.49. 20
[...]ubing20. 23.48. 38
[...]ienna34 36.47 44
[...]orke23. 30.54. 30

CHAP. IV. To find the Altitude of the Sun, or other Stars.

THe Altitude of the Sun, or other Star, is the distance of the same, reckoned in a greater Circle, pas­sing the Zenith of any place and the body of the Sun, or Star. Now that the manner of observing the same is to be performed either by the Cross Staffe, Qua­drant, or other like Instrument, is a thing so well known, as that it were vaine to report it. Gemma Frisius teacheth a way, how to ob­serve the Altitude of the Sunne by a Sphaeri­call Gnomon. But this way of proceeding is not so well liked, as being subject to many difficulties and errours: as, whosoever proves it shall easily find.

CHAP. V. To find the place and Declination of the Sun, for any day given.

HAving first learned the day of the Month, you must looke for the same in the Calendar de­scribed in the Horizon of your Globe. Over against which in the same Ho­rizon, you shall find the Signe of the Zodia­que, [Page 183] and the degree of the same, that the Sun is in, at that time. But if it be Leap-yeare, then for the next day after the 28th of Februa­ry you must take that degree of the signe, which is a scribed to the day follwing it. As for ex­ample, if you desire to know, what degree of the Zodiack the Sun is in, 29th of February, you must take that degree which is assigned for the first of March and for the first of March, take the degree of the second; and so forward. Yet I should rather counsell, if the piace of the Sun be accurately to bee known, that you would have recourse to some Ephemrides, where you may have the place of the Sun exactly cal­culated for every day of the yeare. Neither in­deed can the practise by the Globe, in this case be so accurate, as often times it is required to bee.

Now when you have found the place of the Sunne, apply the same to the Meridian, and reckon thereon how many degrees the Sunne is distante from the AEquator, for somany will the degrees bee to the Sunnes declination for the day assigned. For the Declination of the Sunne, or of any other Starre, is nothing else but the distance of the same from the AEquator, reckoned on the Meridian. But the Sunnes Declination may be much more exactly found, out of those Tables which Mariners use, in which the Meridian Altitude, or Declination of the Sun for every day in the yeare, and the quantity of it is expressed. One thing I shall [Page 184] give you notice of by the way; and that is that you make use of those that are latest made, as nere as you can. For all of them, after some certain spaces of time, will have their errours. And I give this advertisement the rather, for that I have seen some, that having some of these Tables, that were very ancient, and written out with great care and diligence, (which notwith­standing would differ from the later Tables, and indeed from the truth it self, often times at least 10. m. and sometimes more) yet would they alwaies use them very constantly and with a kind of religion. But these men take a great deale of paines and care to bring upon them­selves no small errours.

PONT You also find out the Suns greatest De­clination, by his greatest and least Altitude both in Summer and Winter, by substracting the least out of the greatest. For then halfe that which remain­eth, will be the declination you seek for So Regio­montanus at Vienna found the Meridian Altitude of the Sun, at the Summer Solstice to be 65. gr. 30. m. and the least Altitude of it, on the Winter Sol­stice, to be 18. gr. 30. m. when therefore; he had deducted the least number, 18. gr. 30. m. out of 65. gr. 30. m. be found the remainder to be 47. gr. 0. m. the halfe of which was the Suns greatest decli­nation, namely 23. gr. 30. m. which is the number of degrees now commonly received: notwithstand­ing it hath been since observed by some in our time to be somewhat lesse.

Now to know the Longitude of the Sunne for [Page 185] any time, that is to say, in what degree of the Zo­diaque hee is, you must do thus. Seeke in the limbe of the Horizon for the day of the Moneth, for which you would know the Longitude of the Sun: which found, you shall see, over against it, among the Signs of the Zodiaque, described also upon the Horizon, the degree of the Signe that ex­actly answereth to it, and which is the place of the Sunne for that day and Moneth. But if it bee Leape yeare, you must remember after the 28th. of February, to adde one day more still as you go, as if you should look for the place of the Sunne on the 13th. March, you must take that degree which is set for the 14th of March: which is the 3 gr. of V.

CHAP. VI. How to find the Latitude of any place, by observing the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne, or other Starre.

OBserve the Meridian Altitude of the Sun with the Crosse staffe, Qua­drant, or other like instrument, & having also found the place of the Sunne in the Eclipticke, apply the same to the Meridian, and so move the Meridian up and down through the notches it stands in, untill the place of the Sunne be elevated so many de­grees above the Horizon, as the Sunnes Alti­titude is. And the Globe standing in this [Page 186] position, the Elevation of either of the Poles, will shew the Latitude of the place where­in you are. An example whereof may be this.

On the 12th of June, according to the old Julian account, the Sunne is in the first degree of Cancer, and hath his greatest de­clination 23 [...] degrees. And on the same day, suppose the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne to be 50. degrees. We enquire therefore now, what is the Latitude of the place where this observation was made. And this wee finde out, after this manner. We apply the first de­gree of Cancer to the Meridian, which w [...] move up and down, till the same degree bee elevated above the Horizon 50 degrees: which is the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne obser­ved. Now in this position of the Globe, wee find the North Pole to bee elevated 63 gr. and an half: So that we conclude this to be the La­titude of the place, where our observation was made.

The like way of proceeding do Mariners also use, for the finding out of the Latitude of places by the Meridian Altitude of the Sunne, and their Tables of Declinations: But I shall not here speak any further of this, as well for that, the explicatiō hereof doth not so pro­perly concern our present intention: as also because it is so well known to every body, as that the handling of it in this place would be needlesse and superfluous.

The like effect may bewrought in observing [Page 187] the Meridian altitude of any other Starre ex­pressed in the Globe. For if you set your Globe so, as that the Starre you mean to observe, be so much elevated above the Horizon, as the Meridian Altitude of it is observed to be: the elevation of the Pole above the Horizon will shew the latitude of the place. But here I should advise, that the latitude of places bee rather enquired after, by the Meridian Altitude of the Sun, then of the fixed Starres: because the declinations, as we have already shewed, are very much changed, unlesse they bee re­stored to their proper places by later observa­tions.

Some there are that undertake to performe the same, not only by the Meridian Altitude of the Sun or Starre, but also by observing it at two severall times, and knowing the space of time or Horizontall distance betwixt the two observations. But the practise hereof is pro­lixe and doubtfull: besides that by reason of the multitude of observations that must bee made, it is also subject to many errours and difficulties. Notwithstanding the easiest way of proceeding, that I know, in this kind, is this that followeth.

To find out the Latitude of any place, by knowing the place of the Sun, or other Starre, and observing the Altitude of it two severall times with the space of time betwixt the two Observations.

FIrst having taken with your Com­passes the complement of the Alti­tude of your first Observation, (now the complement of the Al­titude is nothing else, but the difference of de­grees by which the altitude is found to be lesse then 90 degrees,) you must set one of the fee [...] of your Compasses in that degree of the Eclip­tique that the Sunne is in, at that time: and with the other describe a circle upon the superficies of the Globe, tending somewhat to­ward the West, if the observation be taken be­fore noone, but toward the East, if ibe made in the afternoon. Then having made your se­cond observation, and observed the space of time betwixt it and the former, apply the place of the Sunne to the Meridian, turning the Globe toward the East, until that so many degrees of the AEquator have passed by the Meridian, a [...]answer to the space of time that passed betwixt your observations, allowing for every houre fifteen degrees in the AEqua­tor, and marking the place in the Parallel of the Suns declination that the Meridian cros­seth [Page 189] after this turning about of the Globe. And then setting he foot of your Compasses in the very Intersection, describe an Arch of a circle with the other foot of the Compasse extended to the complement of the second observation, which Arch must cut the former circle. And the common Intersection of these two circles, wil shew the vertical point of the place where­in you are: so that having reckoned the di­stance of it from the AEquator, you shall pre­sently have the latitude of the same.

The same may be effected, if you take any Starre, and work by it, after the same manner: or it you describe two circles mutually cros­sing each other, to the complements of any two Starrs.

PONT. The Meridian altitude of the Sunne, being found by the help of of the Meridian circle, it will be very easie to find out the latitude of the place or elevation of the Pole, in any region what­soever. For seeing the Zenith or Vertex of every place is distant aquarter of a circle that is 90. degrees from the Horizon: if then, the Sun being in either of the AEquinoctiall points, the Meridian altitude be substracted from 90 degrees; the re­mainder wil be the distance betwixt the Zenith of the place and the AEquinoctiall circle: which will be the latitude of the same place. And the reason also of this deduction is manifest, because that the AEquinoctiall Altitude of the Sun, is nothing else, but the Elevation of the AEquator, the comple­ment whereof is always equali to the elevation of the Pole. But this will appear more plaine by an [Page 90] example, which shall be thus. The AEquinoctiall altitude of the Sunne at Rome is 40. degrees: which being substracted from 90 gr. the remain­der, which is 42. gr. is the elevation of the Pole, and the latitude of Rome. So likewise here at London in the Meridian altitude of the Sunne, when he is in the AEquinoctiall, is found to bee 38 degrees and an half: which being deducted out of 90 gr. which is the Quadrant of a circle, there w [...]ll remain 15½ gr. which is the latitude of Lon­don, and the elevation of the Pole.

The same also may be done, by observing any one of the fixed Sarres, which is is so neare the Pole, as that it never sets in that Country, whose latitude you seek. For you must observe both the greatest and least altitude of the same Starre; both which will happen in the Meridian: the least of them be­neath the Pole, and the greatest above it. Which done, you must adde the least altitude to the great­est, and so dividing the whole into two parts, the half will be the altitude of the Pole. As hath been shewed before.

CHAP. VII. How to find the Right and Oblique Ascension of the Sunne and Starrs, for any Latitude of place, and time assigned.

THe Ascension of the Sun or Stars, is the degree of the AEquator that riseth with the same above the Horizon. And the Descension of of it, is the degree of the AEquator, that goes under the Horizon with the same. Both these is either Right, or Oblique. The Right Ascension or Descension is the degree of the AEquator that ascendeth or descendeth with the Sunne, or other Starre in a Right Sphaere: and the Oblique is the degree that ascendeth, or descendeth with the same in an Oblique. The formes of these is simple and of one kind only: because there can be but one position of a Right Sphaere. But the later is va­rious and manifold, according to the diverse Inclination of the same.

Now if you desire to know the Right As­cension or Descension of any Starre, for any time and place assigned apply the same star to the Meridian of your Globe: and that degree of the AEquator that the Meridian crosseth at that situation of the Globe, will shew the Right Ascension and Descension of the same, and al­so divideth each Hemisphaere in the midst at the same time with it.

[Page 192] And if you would know the Oblique As­cension or Descension of any Starr, you must first set the Globe to the latitude of the place, and then place the Starre at the Easterne part of the Horizon: and the Horizon will shew in the AEquator the degree of Oblique Ascen­sion. And if you turn it about to the Well side of the Horizon, the same will also shew in the AEquator the Oblique Descension of that Star. In like manner you may find out the Oblique Ascension of the Sun [...] or any degree of the E­clipticke, having first found ou, in the manner we have formerly shewed the place of the Sun. And hence also may be found the difference of the Right and Oblique Ascension, whence ariseth the diverse length of dayes.

As for example. The Sunne entreth into Capricorn on the eleventh day of December, according to the old account. I would now therefore know the Right and Oblique Ascen­sion of this degree of the Ecliptick, for the la­titude of fifty two degrees. First therefore, I apply the first degree of Capricorn to the Me­ridian: where I find the same to cut the AEqua­tor at 270. gr. which is the degree of the Right Ascension. But if you set the Globe to the La­titude of fifty two degrees, and apply the same degree of Capricorn to the Horizon; you shall find the 303 gr. 50. m. to rise with the same. So that the difference of the Right Ascension 270. and the Oblique 303. gr. 50. m. will bee found to be 33. gr. 50. minutes.

[Page 193] PONT. This Ascension and descension is al­so called the Astro nomicall rising and setting of the Stars: and that inrespect of the Arches and parts of the Ecl ptick, or Stars, either above or beneath the Horizon. Now an Arch of the Ecliptick or Zodi­acke is tobe understood two manner of ways name­ly Continued, or Discrete. A continued Arch, is when it is reckoned in the AEquator in a continued Series from the beginning of Aries, and so forward into the consequent signes. A Discrete Arch is so called because it is not reckoned from the first de­gree of Aries, but from any other point in the AE­quator: as if you should say, an Arch from the 14. gr. of Gemini to the 14. gr. of Taurus.

Beside, this Right Ascension is called also the greater Ascension, because that in it, a greater Arch of the AEquator riseth above the Horizon, then of the Zodiack: & it is called Right, because that in this, the Angle which is made by the Hori­zon and Eclipticke, is nearer to a Right Angle, then that that is made by any other part of the E­clipticke with the same. And that is said to bee a greater Arch or portion of the AEquator, which is more than 30. degrees in the Ascension or Descen­sion: and that is called a lesser Arch, which falls short of thirtie, degrees in rising or setting.

In a Right Sphaere foure signs onely ascend Rightly, which are Gemini, Cancer, Sagitta­rius and Capricornus: all the rest ascend Ob­liquely.

In an Oblique Sphaere six signes rise Rightly [Page 194] and the other six Obliquely. The right are these, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Sagitta­rius: and all the rest Obliquely.

Oblique ascension, is when a lesse Arch or por­tion of the AEquator riseth, then of the Zodiaque: or else, that Starre may be said to rise Obliquely, with whom a lesse portion of the AEquator ascen­deth above the Horizon. And so the Oblique des­cention or setting of a Starre is, where a lesse por­tion of the AEquator descendeth with it. As for example. At Rome with the Arch of Libra, which containeth 30. gr. in the Zodiaque, there riseth an arch of the AEquinoctiall of 37 gr So that this sign is said there to rise rightly: Be­cause that a greater Arch of the AEquator ascen­deth with it, then of the Zodiaque, But then, at the same place, with the Arch of Aries, there arise only 17. gr. of the AEquator. Whence it fol­loweth that Aries riseth Obliquely at Rome. In our position of Sphaere also here at London, which is Oblique, like as that at Rome with Li­bra there ariseth an Arch of the AEquinoctial con­coutaining about 41. gr. but with the Arch of A­ries there ariseth not above 13 degrees. Therefore in our Sphaere Libra ascendeth or riseth rightly, but Aries Obliquely.

Certain Rules, for the Astronomicall rising in a right Sphaere.

THe Rules of Astronomicall rising in a right Sphaere are these. 1. The whole Quadrants or quarters of the Zodiaque and AEquinoctiall [Page 195] rise and set in an equall space of time. 2. But the the parts of the Quadrants rise and set unequally. 3. Those signes that are equally distant from any of those points, have also equall ascensions: as Ge­mini and Cancer. 4. The Ascension of a sign is alwayes equall to the Descension of the same. 5. Four signs only rise rightly, namely Gemini, Cancer, Sagittarius, and Capricornus: and all the rest Obliquely.

Rules for the Astronomicall rising in an Oblique Sphaere.

IN an Oblique Sphaere, the two halfes that begin at the two AEquinoctiall points, do rise together. 2. The parts of these halfes do rise unequally. 3. Those signs that rise rightly, descend Obliquely, and so contrarily. 4. The Ascension of any sign is equall to the Descention of the same. 5. The As­censionall Arches of the Northern signs are lesse in a right sphoere, but in the Southerne signes they are greater. 6. The Ascension of Opposite signes in an Oblique Sphaere, taken together, are equall to the Ascension of the same in a right Sphaere. 7. Those signes that are equidistant from either of the AEquinoctiall points, have equall Ascen­sions, because they decline equally from the AEquator.

CHAP. VIII. How to sinde out the Horizontall difference be­twixt the Meridian and the Verticall circle of the Sunne, or any otheh Starre, (which they call the Azimuth,) for any time or place assigned.

HAving first observed the Altitude of the Sunne or Starre that you desire to know, set your Globe to the Lati­tude of the place you are in: which done, turne it about, till the place of the Sun, or Starre which you have observed, be eleva­ted so much above the Horizon, as the Alti­tude of the same you before observed. Now you shall find that you desire, if you take the Quadrant of altitude, and fasten it to the Ver­ticall point of the place you are in, and so move it together with the place of the Sunne or Starre up and downe, untill it fall upon that which you have set down in your instru­ment at your observation. Now in this situa­tion of the Quadrant, that end of it that tou­cheth the Horizon, will shew the distance of the Verticall circle, in which you have obser­ved the Sunne or Starre to be, from the Meri­dian. As for example.

In the Northern latitude of 51. gr. on the 11th. of March after the old account, at what time the Sunne entreth into Artes, suppose the altitude of the Sun before noone to be obser­ved [Page 197] to be th [...]rtiegr above the Horizon. And it is demanded, what is the Azamuth, or distance of the Sun from the Meridian. First therefore having [...] the Globe to the Latitude of 51. gr. and fastening the Quadrant of Altitude to the Zenith, I turne the Globe about, till I find the first degree of Aries to be 30 gr. above the Ho­rizon And then the Quadrant of Altitude be­ing also applied to the same degree of Aries, will shew upon the Horizon, the Azimuth of the Sun, or distance of it from the Meridian, to be about fortie five degrees.

CHAP. IX. How to find the hour of the day, as also the Amplitude of rising and setting of the Sun and Starres, for any time or Latitude of place.

THe Sunne, we see, doth rise and set at severall seasons of the yeare, in diverse parts of the Horizon. But among the rest it hath three more notable places of rising and setting. The first whereof is in the AEquator, and this is called his AEquinoctiall rising and setting. The se­cond is in the Summer Solstice, when he is in the Tropique of Cancer: and the third is in the Winter solstice, when he is in the Tro­pique of Capricorne. Now the AEquinoctiall rising of the Sun is one and the same in every [Page 198] Climate. For the AEquator alwayes cutteth the Horizon in the same points, which are al­ways just 90 gr. distant on each side from the Meridian. But the rest are variable and change according to the diverse inclination of the sphaere: and therefore the houres are unequal also.

PONT. And here you are to understand, that the Amplitude of the Sunnes rising and setting, is an Arch of the Horizon intercepted betwixt the AEquator, and the place of the rising and setting of the Sun. And it is either Northerne or South­erne. The Northern Amplitude, is when hee sets and riseth on this side of the AEquator, toward the North Pole: and the Southern when he sets or ri­seth on the contrary side. Now when the Sun is in the AEquator, he hath no amplitude at all: but when he is in the Solsticall points, he hath then the greatest amplitude of all: of which that in the Tro­pique of Cancer is called the AEstivall, or summer solsticiall amplitude; and the other the Brumall or Winter solsticiall amplitude.

And here it is to be noted that in all places the Or­tive amplitude of any Starre is equall to the Oc­cidentall amplitude of the same. And likewise, that two stars being equally distant from the AEquator the one Northward, and the other Southward, or both of them Northward or Southward, have equal amplitude of rising and setting.

Now if you desire to know the houre, or distance of time, betwixt the rising and setting of the Sunne, when he is in either of the Sol­stices, [Page 199] or in any other intermediate place, and that for any time or latitude of place: you shal work thus. First, set your Globe to the latitude of your place; then having found the place of of the sunne, for the time assigned, apply the same to the Meridian, and withall you must set the point of the Houre-Index at the figure twelve in the Houre-circle. And having thus done, you must turn about the Globe toward the East part, till the place of the sunne touch the Horizon: which done, you shall have the Amplitude of the sunns rising also in the AE­quator, which you mustr eckon, as we have said, from the East point, or place of interse­ction betwixt the AEquator and Horizon. And then if you but turn the Globe about to the West side of the Horizon, you shal in like man­ner have the hour of his setting, and Occidental Amplitude.

And if at the same time, and for the same latitude of place, you desire to know the hour and Amplitude of rising and setting, or the greatest elevation of any other starre expres­sed in the Globe: you must turne about the Globe, (the Index remaning still in the same position, and situation of the Index as before) till the said starre come to the Horizon, either on the East or West: and so shall you plaine­ly have the hour and latitude that the starre riseth or seteth in, in like manner as you had in the sunne. And then if you apply the same to the Meridian, you shall also have the Meridian Altitude of the same starre. An [Page 200] example of the Amplitude of the Suns rising and setting may be this.

When the Sunne enters in to Taurus (which in our time happen [...] about the eleventh of April according to the Julian account) I de­sire to know, the hour and Amplitude of the Sunns rising, for the Northernlatitude fiftie one degrees. Now to find out this, I set my Globe so, that the North Pole is eleva­ted above the Horizon fiftie one degrees. Then I apply the first degree of Taurus to the Meri­dian, and the Hour-Index to the twelfth hour in the Hour-circle. Which done, I turn about the Globe toward the East, till that the first de­gree of Taurus touch the Horizon: and then I find that this point toucheth the Horizon a­bout the twenty fift degree Northward from the East point. Therefore I conclude that to bee the Amplitude of the Sunne for that day. In the mean time, the Index strikes upon halfe an hour after four: which I take to be the [...]me of the Sunnes rising.

CHAP. X. Of the threefold rising and setting of Stars.

BEsides the ordinary Emersion and Depression of the Starres in regard of the Horizon, by reason of the circumvolution of the Heaven: there is also observed a threefold rising & set­ting [Page 201] of the Starrs. The first of these is called in Latine, Ortus Matutinus, sive Cosmicus, the Morning, or Cosmicall rising, the second Ves­pertinus, sive Achronicus, the Evening, or A­cronicall: and the last Heliachus, vel solaris, Heliacall or Solar. The Cosmical or morning rising of a Starre is, when as it riseth above the Horizon together with the Sunne. And the Cosmicall or morning setting of a Starre is, when it setteth at the Opposite part of hea­ven; wh [...]n the Sunne riseth. The Acronychal or Evening rising of a Starre is, when it riseth on the Opposite part, when the Sunne setteth. And the Acronychall setting of a Starre, is when it setteth at the same time with the Sun. The Heliacall rising of a starre (which you may properly call the Emersion of it) is, when a starre that was bid before by the Sun beams beginneth now to have recovered it selfe out of the same, and to appear. And so like­wise the setting of such a starre (which mav also fitly be called the occultation of the same) is, when the Sun by his own proper motion overtaketh any Starre, so that by reason of the brightnesse of his beams it can no more be seen.

PONT. Concerning the rising and setting of the Starrs, which is considered in respect of the Horizon and AEquator, hath been spoken alrea­dy in the seventh Chapter: where we also shewed, that that kind of rising and setting of the Starres was called astronomicall. But in this place the rising of the Starres is considered in relation onely [Page 212] to the Horizon and Sunnes aspect, but not of the AEquator; and therefore it is also commonly called, the Poëtioall rising and setting of the Stars.

Now as touching the last of these kinds, ma­ny Authors are of opinion that the fixed Stars of the first magnitude do begin to shew them­selves after their Emersion out of the Sunne­beames, when as they are yet in the upper He­misphaere, and the Sun is gone down twelve degrees under the Horizon. But these of the second magnitude require that the Sun is de­pressed 13, gr. and those of the third, require fourteen; and of the fourth, fifteen; of the fifth, sixteen; of the sixth, seventeen, and the cloudy and obscure Starres require eighteene degrees of the Suns depression. But Ptolomy hath determined nothing at all in this case: and withall very rightly gives this admonish­ment, and lib. 8. cap ult Almag. that is a very hard matter to set down any determination thereof. For as he there well noteth, by rea­son of the unequall disposition of the air, this distance also of the Sunne, for the Occultation and Emersion of the Starres, must needs bee unequall. And one thing more we have to en­crease our suspition of the incertain [...]y of this received opinion, and that is, that Vitellio re­quireth nineteen degrees of the Suns depres­sion under the Horizon, before the Evening twilight be ended. Now that the obscure and cloudy Starre, should appeare ever, before the twilight be down, I shall very hardly be per­swaded [Page] to believe. Notwithstanding how­ever the truth of the matter be, wee will fol­low the common opinion.

Now therefore if you desire to know at what time of the year any Starre riseth or [...] in the morning or the evening in any Climate whatsoever: you may find it out thus. First, set your Globe to the latitude of the place you are in, and then apply the Starre you enquire after, to the Eastern part of the Horizon and you shall have that degree of the Eclipticke; with which the said Starre riseth Cosmically, and setteth Acronychally: and on the oppo­site side, on the West, the Horizon will shew the degree of the Ecliptick, wih which the same Starre riseth Acronychally, and setteth Cosmically. For the Cosmicall rising, and Achronicall setting and so likewise the Acro­nycall rising, and Cosmicall setting of a Starre are all one: according to those old verses,

Cosmicè deseendit signum, quòd Acronychè surgit.
Chronychè descendit signum, quod Cosmici surgit.

But these things are to bee explained more fully. For a Starre doth not always rise and set with the same degree of the Eclipticke. For the Southern Starrs do anticipate the de­gree with which they rise, at their setting: but the Northern Starrs come after it: that is, if the elevation be of the Articke [...]ole. [Page 204] Otherwise it is quite contrary, if the South Pole be elevated. Now having found the de­gree of the Ecliptick with which the Star you enquire after, doth rise and set; if you seek for the same degree of the signe in the Horizon of your Globe, you shall presently have the moneth and day expressed, wherein the Sunne commeth to the same degree and signe.

And as for the Heliacall rising and setting of a starre, you may find it thus. Having set your Globe to the Latitude of your place, you must turn about the starre proposed to the West side of the Horizon, and withall on the opposite East part observe what degree of the Ecliptick is elevated above the Horizon 12, 13, 14. or any other number of degrees, that the magnitude of your Starre shall require for distance from the Sunne. And when the Sun shall bee in the Opposite degree to this, then that starre will set Heliacally, that is to say, it will bee quite taken out of our sight by the brightnesse of the Sunne beames. Now, if on the other side, you apply the same starre to the East, and finde out the Opposite degree in the Eclipticke on the West part; that is, the same number of degrees above the Horizon: when the sunne commeth to this place, the same starre will rise Heliacally, or recover it selfe out of the sunnes beames. And so, if you but finde the same degrees of the Eclipticke among the signes on the Horizon of your Globe, you have the Moneth and the day [Page 205] when the Sunne will be in those degrees. And the same also is the time of the Emersion and Occultation of the Starre you enquire after. But we will here propose an example of the Occultation of some fixed Starre of the first magnitude: which done, the Emersion of the same is also found by the contrary way of working.

And the Starre wee propose, shall be, that bright Starre in the mouth of the Great Dog, which is called Sirius: whose Occultation we desire to know for the Latitude of 51. gr. Northward. Now this Starre, being of the first magnitude, begins to bee hid, whenas it toucheth the Horizon in the upper Hemi­sphaere, and the Sunne is at the same time de­pressed under the Horizon but 12. degrees. If therefore you apply this Starre to the West part of the Horizon (having first set your Globe to the latitude of 51 degrees) and on the Opposite East side, observe what degree of the Ecclipticke is just 12 degrees above the Horizon (now this degree is very neare the 11. gr. of Scorpius) when the Sunne shall come to the Opposit: degree in the Eclipticke, which is the 11. of Taurus, that Starre will set Heliacally, and be hid by the Sun-beames. But the Sun comes to this degree of Taurus about the 22. of Aprill: therefore wee con­clude that the Dogge Starre sets Heliacally about that time. And if you worke in the same manner, applying the Starre to the East part of the Horizon, you shall have the time of [Page 216] it [...] Heliacal rising or Emersion out o [...] the Suns be [...].

N [...]t unlike this, is the manner of proceeding al [...]o in finding the b [...]ginning and ending of the twilights: of which we shall speak in the next Chapter.

PONT. The use and benefit of this discourse concerning these kinds of rising and setting of the Starres is principally seen, in reading of the an­cient Authors and Poëts, especially those that have written of Husbandry, and the severall seasons of the yeare. For so Virgil. lib. 1. Georg. makes mention of the Cosmicall rising of the Starres in these verses.

Candidus auratis aperit cum cornibus an­num.
Taurus, & adverso cadens Canis occidit astro.

Which is thus Englished by T. May.

When, with his golden horns bright, Taurus opes,
The year: and downward the crosse Dog­star stoope [...].

In which place hee meaneth to intimate the moneth of April, when as the Snnne is in the sign T [...]us and riseth with it. And we have an ex­ample also of the Cosmicall setting in the same place, where he saith,

At si triticeam in messem, robustaque farra
Exercebi [...] humum solisque instabis aristis.
An [...]ibi Eoae Atlant [...]des abscondantur,
Gno [...]áque ardentis dec [...]dat stella coron [...],
Deb [...]ta quam [...]ulcis cōmi [...]tas s [...]ina, quamque
[Page 217] Invitae properes anni spem credere terrae.
Mult [...]pere; sed illos
Expectata [...] vanis [...] venis.

Thus rendered by T. May.

But if thou plough, to sowe more solid grain,
A wheat or barly harvest to obtain:
First let the morning Pleiades be set,
And Ariadne's shining Coronet,
Ere thou commit thy seed to ground, and there
Dare trust the hope of all the fo [...]lowing year.
Some that before the fall 'oth Pleiades
Began to sowe, deceaved in the increase,
Have reapt wild oates for wheat, &c.

Where hee would have them to expect their sow­ing time, till that the Alta [...]ide, that is, the Pleiades, er seven Starres be hid in the East, that is, in the Morning by the approach of the Sunne, which is also called Occa [...]us Cosmicus. At which time also the bright Starre in the North­ern Crown sets in the Evening with the Sunne, or Heliacally. and so the Poet, by a twofold kind of setting of the Starrs, describes the 28. and 29. of October.

An example of the Achronycall rising you have in Ovid. lib. 1; de Ponto Eleg. 9. where he de­cribeth the tediousness of his ex [...]le, from the Au­tumnall or Vespertine rising of the Pleiades, in words.

Ut careo vobis Sythicas detrusus in oras:
Quatuor Autumnos Plë [...]as orta facit.

In English thus.

Since of your joyfull sight cold Scythia me depriv'd
The rising Pleiades four Autumes have reviv'd.

[Page 208] And he also mentioneth the Achronicall setting, lib. 2. Fastor: where speaking of the third of Fe­bruary, he doth it by this Periphrasis,

Quem modo celatum stellis Delphina videbas,
Is fugiet visus no [...]te sequente tuos.

That is to say.

The Dolphin earst with Stars you saw bedight,
The next night vanisheth out of your sight.

An example of the Heliacall rising in February you have in the same Author, in these words.

Tertia nox veniet, custodem protinus ursae,
Aspicies geminos exeruisse pedes.

Which may be Englished thus.

When now the third night comes, you shall perceive
Arctophylax will both his feet up heave.

And for the Heliacall setting, you had an in­stance above, out of Virgil. Georg. 1.

—Et adverso cadens canis occidit astro.

In which place the Poet speaketh of sowing millet and beans in the spring time. To these wee may also adde these severall kinds of Poeticall ri­sing and setting of Starres exprest.

Cosmicus est ortus, cum sol emergere quaerit.
Ipsius oppositum lapsus, ad ima gerit.
Chronicus est lapsus, cum sol in vespere tabet.
Ipsius oppositum Chronicus ortus habet.
Heliacus signo datur ortus sole remoto.
Illius occasum proximitate noto.

CHAP. XI. How to finde the beginning and end of the Twilight, for any time and Latitude of place.

THe Twilight is defined to bee a kind of imperfect light betwixt the Day and the Night, both af­ter the setting; and before the ri­sing of the Sunne. Of which the first is called the Evening Twilight, and the other the Morning. Now the beginning of the one, and the ending of the other are per­ceived at the same equal space of time from the rising and setting of the Sun: notwithstand­ing the continuance of each of them is some­times greater, and sometimes lesse. For in Summer the Twilights are much longer then in the Winter. The measure of them they com­monly make to be, whenas the Sunne is de­pressed 18 degrees under the Horizon. But, as P. Nonius rightly observeth, there cannot bee any certain Measure or Tearme assigned them by reason of the various disposition of the air, and the elevation of the vapours that are exhaled out of the earth; which the same Au­thor saith, he findes to be also diverse, some­times higher, and sometimes lower. Vitelio, and Alhazenus before him, would have it to bee when the Sun is depressed under the Horizon [Page] nineteen degrees. But how ever the truth be, we shall follow the common rceived opinion herein. Now therefore, if you desire to know upon these grounds here laid down, at what hour the Twilight begins and endeth, at any time or latitude of place; you must do thus. First, set your Globe to the latitude of that place, and apply that degree of the Ecliptick, wherein the Sunne is at that time, to the Me­ridian, and withall direct the point of the In­dex to twelve in the Hour-circle: Then mar­king the degree of the Eclipticke, that is di­rectly opposite to the place of the Sun, turn about your Globe, till such time as the opposite degree of the Sunne be elevated eighteen gr. above the Horizon toward the West part of it: and forthwith the Index will shew in the Houre-circle the beginning of the Morning Twilight. And if you turn about your Globe, in like manner, to the East, you shall also have the houre when the Evening Twilight en­deth.

PONT. Our Northern regions have their [...], or Twilight, of above an houre long. But those Countries, where the Tropickes are ve­ry farre beneath their Horizon, have in a manner no [...], no Twilight or breake of day. And therefore those that inhabite neare the AE­quator, have not the beginning nor later part of the night enlightned at all, neither is there any ap­pearance of light, before the Sunne bee risen. Whereas, on the contrary side, those that have the Tropicke very near their Horizon, must necessa­rily [Page 221] have Twilight almost all the night long in Summer. And therefore when the Romans came into Brittain, and perceived that, at the Summer Sostice, their nights were light almost all the night long: they did not ac ount this Twilight to bee night, but said, Minimâ nocte contentos Britannos, that the Britains were contented with a very short night.

Now this. [...], as it is defined by Jo­seph Scaliger upon Manilius, is nothing else but [...], a kind of Antiperistasis, or Circumstipation (as we may call it) of the light: which can be none at all, in those places, where the Tropicke and Horizon, are farre distant. For this [...], as Scaliger in that place accu­rately observeth, is onely found under those signes which are neare the Solsticiall point, as Gemini and Cancer; and that in those Countries too, where the night is somewhat larger, then it is un­der the Pole of the Ecliptick: as for example. (to use Scaligers own words) those that have not the Tropicke for their Articke circle, nor where it toucheth the North point of the Horizou; with them the night is so long darke, as while the Tro­picke commeth to strike upon the North point of the Horizon. As wee know it hapneth an Scotland where our Countrie men that were Souldiers there, could see to play at dice all night long without any Candle, about the time that the dayes were at the longest. Now the Tropick is distant from the Horzizon at Edenburge 9. gr. 17. m. or there­about. And therefore so much is the distance be­twixt the Sun and their Horizon at midnight in [Page] the Summer Solstice: so that necessarily the rest of the night must bee Twilight, and of 6. houres, 23. minutes, which is the length of their night, not above 37 m. which is not much above halfe an hour, are quite dark: and all the rest of the night is light. Whence you may perceive the reason of the long continuance of the day in those regions, that have the Tropicke neare bordering on their Ho­rizon. And therefore the Romans being not well acquainted with this Antiperistasis of the light, thought that in those parts they had had scarce any night at all. And hence it necessarily followes, that by how much the Tropick is more remote from the Horizon, by so much are the nights lesse enlightned: and those that inhabite neare the AEquinoctiall are so farre from having their day extended farther, either before the Sun rises, or after it sets, as that with them there is no appear­ance of light at all, before the Sun is up. And there is scarcely any Twilight or dawning of the Day at all in those regions that lye within tenne, degrees of the AEquinoctiall: for which there can b [...] no other reason given, but onely the distance be­twixt the Tropicke and their Horizon. And if they have no Twilight in the Summer, how much lesse will there be any when the Sun is in the other Tropicke. So that we have no reason to give any credit to Alosiyus Cadamustus, who when he had occasion to write of this argument, gave this to be the reason of it, because there are no mountaines there to hinder, but that the Sun may be seen at the instant of his rising. But this is a ridiculous reason, and not worthy a consutation. Thus Scaliger.

CHAP. XII. How to find the length of the Artificiall Day or Night, or quantity of the Sunnes Parallel that remains above the Horizon, and that is hid beneath it, for any Latitude of place and time assigned. As also to find the same of any other Starre.

THe Day we have already shewed to to be twofold; either Naturall, or Artificiall. The Naturall Day is defined by the whole revolution of the AEquator, with that portion also of the same that answereth to such an Arch of the Eclipticke, which the Sunne passeth over in one day. Now the whole revolution of the AEquator (besides that portion which answer­eth to the Sunnes proper motion) is divided into twentie foure equall parts, which they call equall hours: because they are all of equal length, fifteen degrees of the AEquator rising, and as many setting every houres space. Now the beginning of this Day being diverse, ac­cording to the diversity of Countries, (some beginning i [...] at Sun-set, as the Athenians and Jewes: so [...]e at midnight, as the Egyptians and Romanes; others at Sun-rising, as the Chaldeans; or at Noon, as the Umbrians, and commonly our Astronomers do at this day:) this being not a thing sutable to our present [Page] purpose, I shall not proceed any further in the explanation of the same.

The Artificiall day is defined to bee, that space of time that the Sun is in our upper He­misphaere: to which is opposed the Artificiall Night, while the Sun remaineth in the low­er Hemisphaere. The Artificiall day, as also the Night, are divided each of them into 1 [...]. parts, which they call unequall hours: because that according to the different seasons of the year, they are greater or lesse, and are never always of the same length.

The length of the Artificial day is thus sound out. The Globe being set to the latitude of the place, you must find out the degree of the E­cliptick that the Sun i [...] in at that time, and ap­ply the same to the Meridian, and direct the Houre-Index to the number of 12. in the Cir­cle. And then turning about the Globe, till that the place of the Sun touch the Horizon at the Easterne part, the Index will shew the houre in the Circle of the rising of the Sun: and if you but turn it about again to the West, you shall, in like manner, have the hour of his set­ting, and so by this means find out the length of the Artificiall day. Now if you multiply the number of the hours by 15. (for so many de­grees, (as we have already often said) are al­lowed to one equall AEquinoctiall houre) you shall presently have the number of degrees of the Suns Parallel that appears above the Ho­rizon: which if you substract out of 360. the remainder will bee the quantity of that part [Page 225] of the same Parallel, that alwayes is hid under the Horizon. Or else you may proceed the contrary way, and first find out the quantity of the Diurnal Arch, and afterward by the same, you may gather the number of the hours also. For the Globe being set to the latitude of the place, and the degree of the Eclipticke that the Sunne is in, being known, you may find out, in the manner now set down, the difference of the Right and Oblique Ascensi­ons of the same degree of the Eclipticke, for the Latitude of that place. For this diffe­rence will be the half of that, wherein the Ar­tificiall day, for that time and place, is either deficient, or exceeds the length of our AE­quinoctiall day. And therefore you must add it, when the dayes are longer then the nights, (which is from the 11th. of March, to the 12th. of September:) but substract all other times of the year, when as the nights are longer then the dayes.

As for example. On the 12 day of June, according to the old account, the Sunne en­ters into Cancer: the Right Ascension of which degree of the Ecliptick is 90. degrees. But if in the latitude of 52 gr. the first degree of Cancer bee applied to the Horizon, wee shall finde the Oblique Ascension of it to bee fiftie sixe gr. and about tenne m So that the difference betwixt them is 33. gr. 5 [...]. m which if you adde to nintie gr. the halfe of the AEquinoctiall day, the length of the Ar­tificiall day will then bee 123. gr. fiftie m. [Page 216] and the whole Diurnall Arch 247. gr. 40. m. which if you divide by fifteene, the quotient will be sixteen and almost an halfe: which is the number of houres in the Artificiall day on the twelfth of June, for the latitude of fiftie two degrees:

And by this means, may you also find out the quantity of the longest, or shortest, or any other intermediate day, together with the in­crease and decrease of the same, for any time or latitude of place.

Cleomedes would have the quantity of the dayes to increase and diminish after this man­ner: that the month immediatly before and al­so after the AEquinox, the days should increase and decrease the fourth part of the whole dif­ference betwixt the length of the longest and the shortest dayes of the whole yeare: and the second moneth they should differ a sixth part; and the third a twelfth part: that is, if the whole difference betwixt the longest and the shortest day bee sixe houres. So that the moneth going immediately before, and after the AEquinoxe, the dayes increase and decrease an hour, and an half, that is to say, the four [...] part of 6. hours: the second month an whole hour; and the third month half an houre. But suppose we this to be exactly agreeable to some certain determinate latitude; yet it is not generally so in all places. For according to the diverse Inclination of the Sphaere, the days also are observed to increase and decrease diversly. For seeing that the Parallels in every [Page 227] severall Latitude are cut by the AEquator in a different manner, it must needs follow, that the proportion of the increase and decrease of the dayes must be also different.

I shall not here need to set down the man­ner, how to find the apparent Arch of the Pa­rallel of any Star: seeing that it is found out in the same manner, as the Diurnall Arch of the Suns Parallel is.

CHAP. XIII. How to find out the houre of the Day and Night, both equall and unequall, for any t [...]me and La­titude of place.

IF you desire to find out the equall hour of the Day, first set your Globe to the latitude of the place you are in: and also observe the latitude of the Sun. Which done, apply the place of the Sunne, to the Meridian, and set the Index to the twelfth hour in the Circle▪ and then turn about the Globe either to the East, or West, as your observation shall re­quire, untill that the place of the Sunne bee elevated so many degrees above the Horizon, as shall agree with your observation: as hath been already shewed, in declaring how to find the Azimuth. And the Globe standing in this situation, the Index will point out in the Hour-circle the hour of the day, where­in your observation was made. After the [Page 228] same manner also you may find the hour of the night, by observing the Altitude of any known Star, that is exprest in the Globe. For the Index must stand [...]il, as it did before, when it was fitted to the place of the Sun: and the Globe must be turned about, till the Star bee observed to have the same Elevation above the Horizon of the Globe, as it had in the Heavens, and then the Index will shew the hour of the Night.

Now the manner how to find out the un­equall hour of the day, is this. First you are to find out, as we have already shewed, the quantity or number of the houres of the Ar­tificial day, and also the equal hour of the same: whence by the Rule of Proportion, you may also come to the knowledge of the unequall houre.

PONT. The unequall hours do answer to the Artificiall day, which, as you have heard before,) is defined to be the space of time that the Sun re­mains in the uppper Hemisphoere: to which is op­posed the Artificiall night, comprehending all that time, while the sun is hid from us. Which space of time, seeing that it is always divided into 12. parts, (which they call unequall hours:) the day it self being at diverse seasons of the yeare of dif­ferent length, the hours it contains must also bee unequall. So likewise on the other side, the equall houres do agree to the Naturall day, which is de­fined by the whole and perfect revolution of the AE­quator: And this also is divided into [...]4. equall parts, which are therefore called equall houres, be­cause [Page] they are alwayes of equall length, fifteen de­grees of the AEquator rising & setting every hour. For the whole AEquator being divided into 24. parts, there are contained in the revolution of it 15. parts of time, which is the measure of an hour so that an equall hour is the 24th. part of the while AEquinoctiall circle.

In the latitude of 49. degrees, the longest day containeth 16 houres, Now therefore when it is 10 of the clock before Noon; or the sixth hour after Sun-rising on this day, [...] to know, what unequall hour of the day it is. I therefore dispose my proportionall tearms thus, 16 give 6 therefore 12. (which is the num­ber of equall hours in every day or nigh.) give 4. and and an half.

And if we desire to know, how many degrees of the AEquator do answer to one unequall hour; we may do it thus: namely by dividing the whole number of degrees of the [...] Arch by 12. As if the Artificiall day [...] e­quall houres in length, then the Arch of the Diurnall Parallel will be 240 degrees. Which if we divide by 12 the quotient, which [...] will shew the number of degrees in the AEqua­tor, that answer to one unequall [...]ou [...] like method also is to be observed, in finding out the length of the unequall hour of the Night

CHAP. XIV. To find out the Longitude, Latitude, and Declina­tion of any fixed Star, as it is expressed in the Globe.

THe Longitude of a Starre, is an Arch of Eclipticke intercepted betwixt two of the greater Circles, which are drawne thorough the Poles of the Eclipticke, the one of which passeth through the intersection of the AEquator and Ecliptick, and the other through the Center of the star.

The Latitude of a Starre, is the distance of it from the Eccliptick; which is also to bee reckoned in that circle which passeth through the Center thereof.

Now if you desire to find out either of these you must take the Quadrant of altitude, or any other Quadrant of a circle, that is but exactly divided into 90 parts: and lay one end of it on either Pole of the Ecliptick, either North­erne or Southern, as the Latitude of the Star shall require. Then let it passe through the Center of the Starre to the very Ecliptick, and there the other end will shew the degree of Longitude of the same, which you must reckon from the beginning of Aries; and so that portion of the Quadrant that is contain­ed betwixt the Starre it selfe and the Eclip­ticke, [Page 231] will also shew the Latitude of the Star.

PONT. The manner how to find the longi­tude and latitude of Starres, may bee shewed by this example. First, let us propose the head of Medusa. which is found in the Tables to bee in the twentie one gr. 8. and it hath in Northerne latitude twentie three degrees. Now therefore in the superficies of the Globe wee must looke for the signe 8. and reckon 21. gr. from the begin­ning of the same on the Eclipticke: And the circle that shall bee drawn from the Pole of the Ecliptick, through this degree, shall be called the the circle of longitude of the head of Medusa. After this, reckon the latitude of the Starre also in the same circle among the Parallels of latitude, be­ginning from the Eclipticke, and so forward to­ward the Articke Pole, (because the latitude of it is Northerne.) untill you have accounted 23. gr. which is the number of the degrees of latitude, and sheweth the place of that Star.

Now because that all the circles of Longi­tude, and latitudes neither are, nor indeed can con­veniently be expressed on the Globe: therefore the Quadrant of altitude is to serve in stead of the same, for the finding out of the longitudes and si­tuations of the Starres that are set in the Globe: and that after this manner. Let us take our for­mer example of Medusa's head: the latitude of which being Northerne, I apply the end of the Quadrant to the North Pole of the Zodiack: (o­therwise, had it been Southern, it must have been fitted to the Southern Pole:) which do [...]e, I seeke [Page] in the Eclipticks for the 21 gr. of Taurus, which is the logitude of the Starre; and having found it, I lay the other end of my Quadrant over it. For by this means the Quadrant shall supply the office of the circle of Longitude of Medusa's head. [...] therefore if I reckon 23 degrees on the said Quadrant beginning from the Eclipticke, I shall have the true situation of this Starre in the Globe.

In like manner, may we find, by a Globe that hath the Starres described on it, the longitude and latitude of any Starre in the Heavens. For if we fit the Quadrant to the Northern Pole of the Zodiaque (if the Starre have Northerne lati­tude) and then let it passe through the center of any Starre: the degree of the Ecliptick that the other end of it shall point out, will be the longitude of the said Starre: and the degrees that are contain­ed betwixt the ECliptick and the Starre, will shew you the latitude of the same. A for example if the Quadrant being first applied to the Northern Pole of the Zodiaque, bee afterward laid along over the the bright Star in the Crown; the other end of it will fall on the 6. gr. m. which is the lon­gitude of this Starre. And then if you reckon the number of degrees betwixt the Eclipticke and the same Starre, you shall find them to bee 44½. which is the Northern latitude of the same.

The Declination of a Starre, is the distance of it from the AEquator: which distance must bee reckoned on a greater circle, passing through the Poles of the AEquator. And [Page 233] therefore if you but apply any Starre to the Meridian, you shall presently have the Decli­nation of it, if you account the degrees and minutes of the Meridian (if there be any) that are contained betwixt the Center of the Star and the AEquator.

PONT. The Declination of Starres, as also their Right Ascension, may be known by the Globe in this manner. The Star proposed must be appli­ed to the Meridian, and forthwith the same Me­ridian will discover, among the degrees of the AE­quator, the Right Ascension of the same: and it will also give you the Declination, if you reckon upon it the number of degrees that are comprehen­ded betwixt the AEquinoctiall and the Star propo­sed. And for an example of this, let us propose the Great Dog, whose right Ascension and Declination wee desire to know. First, therefore we set the Starre it selfe directly under the Meridian, and find the Meridian to cut the AEquinoctiall at 97. gr. 15. min. And this is the right Ascension of this Star. And then reckoning the number of the degrees comprehended betwixt it and the AEqui­noctiall Southward, we find them to be 16 de­grees, which we conclude to bee the Southern la­titude of the Starr.

The same also may be demonstrated by the Sun, For when the Sunne is in the 3. gr. of Gemini, he is carried under the Meridian, which crosseth the AEquinoctiall about the 63. gr. reckoning from the first degree of Aries in the AEquator. And this is the Ascension of the Sun when he is in the [...]. degree of Gemini. Now the number of the [Page 234] degrees that are comprehended betwixt the place the Sun and the AEquator, being reckoned in the Meridian, are found to be 21 which is also the Suns Declination, and that Northward, because it falleth among the Northern signs.

The same may be performed also after another manner, as thus for example. The right Ascension of the bright Star in the Crown is found in the Astronomicall Tables to be 275. gr 31. m. and the declination of it Northward 38. gr. 26. mi­nutes. First therefore I reckon the degrees of Right Assention in the AEquinoctiall, beginning at the first degree of Aries; and having found the degree I apply it to the Meridian, in which I afterward reckon the Declination assigned, beginning from AEquinoctiall, and proceeding toward the Ar­cticke Pole, if the Declination of the Starre bee Northern, if otherwise, toward the Antar­tick.

[Page 135]

A Table representing the Longi­tude, Latitude, Right Ascension, and decli­nation of some certain Notable STARRES.
The names of the Starrs Longitude Deg. Min.Latitude D. M.Nor. Sou.Right Ascen. D. M.Declina. Dr M.Nor. Sou.
The 1 Starr in the Rams Horn.28 07 20Nor.20 018 0Nor.
The 1 horse in the wain The 3 horse3 3053 30Nor.188 1057 27Nor.
21 1054 0Nor.202 2 [...]51 5Nor.
The head of the Dragon.21 075 [...]0Nor.226 852 8Nor
Bootes left shoulder Arcturus.11 049 0Nor.212 5040 0Nor.
18 2031 30Nor.109 172 [...] 53Nor.
The bright Star in the Crown.6 044 3 [...]Nor.229 038 25Nor.
The head of Hercules.9 037 30Nor.252 511 [...] 36Nor
The bright Star of Ly­bra.8 4062 0Nor.275 3138 26Nor.
The taile of the Swan.0 3060 0Nor.307 3044 15Nor
The Swanns bill.25 5049 20Nor.288 4027 3 [...]Nor.
Cassiopeia's b east.2 1046 45Nor.4 2354 5 [...]Nor.
The Goat.16 2022 30Nor.71 5845 7Nor.
The right side of Per­seus.25 030 0Nor.43 018 0Nor.
Medusa's head.21 023 0Nor.41 030 0Nor

[Page 236]

The names of the Stars Longitude Deg. Min.Latitude D. M.Nor. Sou.Right Ascen. D. M.Declina. Dr M.Nor. Sou.
Andro [...]das head.16 402430 Nor. [...] [...]Nor
The Star in the end o [...] Pegasus wing9 0341 [...] Nor.358 [...]13 0Nor.
Pegasus shoulder. [...]5 04110 Nor.341 [...] [...] 0Nor.
The Eagle [...] [...]2910 Nor. [...]2 [...] [...] 57Nor.
The head of the Serpent­bearer. [...]6 10380 Nor.288 3 [...]3 5Nor.
The bu [...] [...] [...] 0 [...]10 Nor.6 [...] [...]5 54Nor.
Castor Pollux.14 40940 Nor. [...]07 0 [...]2 30Nor.
18 0615 Nor.110 20 [...]8 30Nor.
The Lions Heart [...] 50010 Nor.146 1313 45Nor.
Spica Virgi­nis.1 [...] 020 South195 46 [...] 55South
The South ballance of [...]. [...] 20040 South217 84 0South
The heart of the Scorpion [...] 34438 South241 4125 30South
The taile of Capricorne. [...] 0420 South [...] 1 [...]8 5South
Aquarius Thigh.3 0730 South337 47 [...]7 24South
The Whales Taile.27 02020 South5 419 46South
The Whales Nostrils.9 0745 South40 3 [...] 4 [...]South
The Right shouldrer of Orion. [...] 20170 South83 34 [...] 16South
The left foot of Orion. [...]0 3031 [...]0 South73 1 [...] 10South
The lesse Dog.20 30160 South109 4 [...] [...] 53South
The great Dog. [...] 090 South9 [...] [...]5 59South

CHAP. XV. To find the variation of the Compasse, for any La­titude of place.

THat the Needle touched with the Loadstone, doth decline in diverse places from the intersection of the Meridian and Horizon, is a thing most certain, and confirmed by daily experi­ence. Neither is this a meere forgery of Mari­ners, intended by them for a cloake of their own errours: as P. De Medina, Grand Pilot to the King of Spaine was of opinion. Nei­ther yet doth it so come to pass, by reason that the virtue of the Magnet, by long use and ex­ercise is weakened; as P. Nonius conceived: or else because it was not originally endued with sufficient vertue: as some others coldly conjecture: but this motion proceeds from its own naturall inclination. The cause of this deflection, although hitherto, in vain sought after by many, hath yet been found by none. In this as in all other of Natures hidden and abstruse mysteries, wee are quite [...]. There have been some that have en­deavoured to prescribe some certain Canon, or rule for this Deflection, as if it had beene regular and governed by some certain order: but all in vain. For that it is inordinate and irregular, is testified by daily experience, not only such as is taken from the dull conjecture [Page 138] of the common sort of Marriners, which oft­times falls farre wide of the truth: but from the far more accurate observations of skilfull Navigators.

At the Isles, which they call Azores, it declineth not at all from the true Meridi­an: as the common opinion of Marriners is. And I dare bee bold to affirm, that at those more Western Islands also, it varieth very little or nothing at all. But if you saile Eastward from those Islands, you shall ob­serve that point of the Needle that respects the North, to incline somewhat towards the East. At An [...]werpe in Brabant it va­rieth about nine degrees: and neare Lon­don it declineth from, the true Meridian above eleven degrees. And if you saile Westward from those Islands, the Needle also will incline toward the West. About the Sea Coasts of America, in the Latitude of thirtie five, or thirtie sixe degrees, it de­clineth above eleven gr. from the true Me­ridian. Beyond the AEquatour it happens clean otherwise. Neare the outwardmost Promontory of Brasile, looking Eastward, which is commonly called, C. Frio, it va­rieth from the true Meridian above twelve degrees. Within the most Eastward parts of the Straites of Magellane it declineth five or sixe gr. And if you sail from that Pro­montory, we now spoke of, toward Africke Estward, the variation still encreaseth, as far as to 17, or 18. degrees: which (as farre as [Page 139] we can conjecture) happen in a Meridian not farre from that which passeth through the Azores. From thence the deflection decreaseth to nine or tenne gr. which happeneth neare the Isle of Saint Helen, bearing somewhat to­ward the West. And from hence they say it decreaseth, till you are past the Cape of good hope, where they will have it to lye in the just situation of the true Meridian, neare to a cer­tain river, which for this cause is called by the Portugalls, Rio de las Agulias. And all this deviation is towad the East.

All this wee have had certain proofe and experience of, and that by as accurate observations as those instruments, which are used in Navigation, would afford, and the same examined and caculated according to the doctrine of Sphaericall Triangles. So that we have just cause to suspect the truth of many of these traditions, which are commonly deli­vered, concerning the deflection of the Needle. And namely whereas they report, that under that Meridian which passeth through the Azores, it exactly respects the true Meridian: and that about the Sea coasts of Brasilia the North point of the Needle declineth toward the West, (as some affirm) wee have found this to be false. And whereas they report that at New-found land it declineth toward the West above 22 degrees: we very much suspect the truth hereof: because that this seems not at all to agree with the observatiō we have made [Page 240] concerning the variation about 11. degrees, near upon the coasts of America: of the truth of which I am so confident, as of nothing more. It therefore appeares to be an idle fancy of theirs, who look to find some certai [...] point which the Needle should alwayes respect: and that either on the earth, (as namely some cer­tain Magneticall mountains, not far distant from the Arcticke Pole,) or else in the Hea­vens, as (namely the tail of the little Bear, as Cardan thought:) or else that it is situate in that very Meridian that passeth through the Azores, and about sixteene degrees and an halfe beyond the North Pole: as Mercator would have it. And therefore, there it no heed to be taken to them, neither, who conceive that there might be some certain way found out of calculating the longitudes of places by means of this deflection of the Needle: which I could wish they were able to performe: and in­deed it might bee done, were there any certaine point that it should alwayes re­spect.

But to leave this discourse, let us now see, how the quantity of this declination of the Needle may bee found out by the use of the Globe, for any place of known latitude, And first you must provide you of some instrument by which you may observe the distance of the Suns Azimuth from the situation of a Needle, Our Mariners commonly use a Nautical Com­passe, which is divided into three hundred sixtie degrees, having a thread placed crosse­wise [Page 241] over the center of the Instrument to cast the shadows of the Sun upon the center of the same. This Instrument is called by our Ma­riners, the Compasse of variation: and this seemeth to bee a very convenient Instrument for the same use. But yet I could wish that it were made with some more care and accurate­nesse, then commonly it is.

With this, or the like instrument, you must observe the distance of the Suns Azimuth, for any time or place, from the projection of the Magnetical Needle. Now we have before shewed, how to find out, how much the verticall circle of the Sun is distant from the Meridian. And the difference that there is betwixt the distance of the Sun from the true Meridian, and from the situation of the Needle, is the va­riation of the Compasse. Besides, we have al­ready shewed how the Amplitude of the rising and setting of the Sun may be found If there­fore by the help of this, or the like instrument, it be observed, (as we have said) how many degrees the Sun riseth or setteth from those points in the Compass, that answer to the East or West: you shal in like manner have the de­viation of the Needle from the true Meridian, if it have any at all.

PONT. At the end of this Chapter, I think it not amisse to set down, that which Joseph Sca­liger. sometime upon occasion offered, wrote unto David Rivaldus, concerning the declination of the Magneticall Needle from the true Meridi­an. This Epistle of his is extant among those [Page] Epistles that were set forth at Paris with some o­ther of his workes, Anno 1610. Aad because that there is something in the same that concerns the controversie of the Praecession of the AEquino­ctiall points; I will set down very near the whole Epistle: and thus it is. Literas tuas cum maxi­ma voluptate &c.

Your Letters I have receceived, and with very great satisfaction and delight: where­in I perceived two things chiefely to bee insi­sted upon: which were, the Declination of the Magneticall Needle; and the Precession of the AEquinoctiall points. In my former Let­ters I made mention indeed of the same, but with an intention rather to discover the opini­on of others, then to proclaim mine own. For I onely made a bare proposall of the matter, and no dogmaticall Position: that so, i [...] the said declination bee to bee examined by the Me­ridians, add the Meridians, according to my Hypothesis, be moveable; that then our Astro­nomers and Navigators should see, whether or no, there might not some cause and reason of this so manifest disagreement bee discovered, out of this Essay of mine. For I would not have proposed it onely, had I been certainly assured of it: but would rather have endeavoured to make it appear by demonstration. Whether therefore, that be the cause of it, which I desire should be searched for out of my Hypothesis; or whether it be some other it shall be all one to me. But the investigation of the Meridians is not sufficient for this matter. For [Page 143] wee must first dispute concerning the nature of the Magnet, whether or no it be the property of it, always to respect the North point: and if so, yet seeing that it declines from the tearm pro­posed, so many degrees, we are next to enquire, whence this Uariation proceeds: which certainly can be assigned to no other thing, then to the Meridians. But that wee may not urge this question any farther: we must consult with those Authors that have written of the Magnet; and especially with William Gilbert of Colchester, a Philosopher and Practitioner of Physick in London, who about three yeares since put forth three large bookes of the same subject: wherein hee hath discovered to me his own learning rather, then the nature of the Magnet. For now I am more in doubt, then before. The other part of your Letter is, concerning the Praecession of the AE­quinoctiall points. It was observed first of all by Hypparchus, out of the observations of the fixed Starres of Aristarchus Saminus, Conon, and Timocharcis, that the AEquinoctiall points were gone gone forward into the precedent parts; because that hee had found that the four points (AEquinoctiall and Solsticiall) were farther off from the Starres assigned for the same, then they were in the time of those Astronomers. Which when hee saw, bee doubted not forthwith to affirme, that the AEquinostiall points were immove­able, and that the Sphaere of the fixed Starrs was gone backe into the sacceeding parts. And he did not perswad [...] himselfe onely to this, but even Ptolo­my also; and Ptolomy, all that came after him, [Page 144] so great is the power of Prejudicate Authority. And he also rectified the Globe, and made the taile of the little Bear to be distant from the Pole twelve gr. twenty four min. choosing ra­ther to believe it to be so, then to consult with the Starrs to see whether it were so indeed, or no. Which thing I cannot sufficiently wonder at in him; seeing, that not only in his time, but also two hunared and eighteen yeares before him, the taile of the lesser Bear was no farther from the Pole of the world, then it is at this day: as Eudoxus observed, Which I have most plain­ly demonstrated in my book of the Praecession of the AEquinoctiall poin [...]. Besides, Eratost­henes also, who wrote one hundred twenty eight years after Fudoxus, affirmed the same of the same Starre: and so did those that wrote in Au­gustus his time. If therefore two hundred and eighteen years before Hipparchus time, that Starre was where it is now; how then can that position of Hipparchus stand, who placed it 12. gr. 24 min. of the Pole of the world? For if the Sphaere of the fixed Starres laid more back­ward into the succeeding parts, (as hee would have it) and that in his time the Taile of the Cynosure was 12. gr. 24. min. distant from the Pole: it necessarily follows, that in Eudoxus time it must have been farther distant from the Pole, by 13. or 14. gr. For this is the propor­tion of degrees required for that motion. But it was then no farther distant, then it is at this day: and therefore Hipparchus hath abused both himselfe, and all that have come after him. And [Page 145] indeed I my selfe have made a collection out of him, of all the risings and settings of the Starres; which no man shall ever be able to understand, ex­cept he first make such a Globe, wherein the taile of the Cynosure shall be 12. gr. 24. min. distant from the Pole. which thing when I imparted to that great Astronomer Tycho Brahe, he was amused, and wondred very much at the novelty and strangeness of the thing: and indeed not with­out cause. For I did not speak a word to him of the construction of Hipparchus his Globe, and the distance of the Cynosure from the Pole of it. And therefore we plainly see, that for as much as this Star keeps the same distance from the Pole at this day, that it did 1967. years since, there is no motion at all of the eighth Sphaere into the succed­ing parts, but of the AEquinoctiall points into the precedent. For of the motion there is no doubt at all to be made, for at this time the AEquinoxe falleth before the first Star in Aries above 28. gr. which notwithstanding in Eudoxus his time happened at the very Star.

But now whether the Star hath left the Sun be­hind it, or the Sun the Star, is the principall mat­ter in question. For it must be, that one of them must stand still, and the other move: but wee have already shewed that the Starrs are immove­able: and therefore the Sun and AEquinoctiall points are movable. And indeed they have mani­festly gone forward since Eudox's time 28. de­grees.

This Copernicus (that great Scholar, and second Ptolomy of our age) perceived, when he [Page 146] spake these words. Vos putatis, &c. You think (saith he) that the eighth Sphaere moveth into the consequent parts: but consider whether the AEquinoctiall points do not rather move forward. Whence it appears, that this never suffioiently commended man, concluded, that there was a praecession of the AEquinoctiall points, and not a motion of the eighth Sphaere into the subs [...] ­quent paerts. For one of these being granted, the other must necessarily bee taken away: for if the eighth Sphaere doth not move backward, the AEquinoctiall points must necessarily move forward. And therefore herein Copernicus conjectured aright. But hee omitted the chief­est matter of all, either because perhaps hee perceived it not, or else despaired of ever being able to demonstrate it. For seeing that the AEquinoctiall points are Moveable, it must needs follow, that a greater Circle described by the same must bee Moveable also, by the twen­ty Sphaeric. Element. And if the Circle bee Moveable, the Pole must also be Moveable. And therefore the Pole of the AEquinoctiall is not the same with the Pole of the world: for this is Immoveable, but the other Moveable: for so consequently all the greater Circles passing through these Poles, which are the Meridians, are also Moveable. So that Sunne-Dialls, and all Sciotericall instruments, that are placed upon a Meridian Line, after some certain tearm of years, must necessarily be defective: because the line it selfe is removed from its former situation. Of which variablenesse wee have obse ved notable [Page 147] arguments in monuments of Antiquity. These things, it did concern Copernicus either to have seene, or demonstrated, who was the first man that ever rejected that fabulous and ridiculousmotionof the eighth Sphaere, and withall proposed this opini­on of the Praecession of the AEquinoctiall points: who, had hee but seen seen those things, which we have observed historically out of the writings of the Ancient Astronomers, so great was the ingenuity of the man, that he would have instantly consented, and demonstrated the matter Mathema­tically; which certainly is no hard matter to do. For, is there any man so void of all reason and judgement, as having granted the AEquinoctiall points to bee Moveable, to deny that a great Cir­cle described by the same, must necessarily be move­able also: and if so, that the Poles are also Movea­ble: and again this [...] granted, that the Meri­dians are so too? He that shall deny this, I cannot see, what it hath profited bim to have studied the Mathematicks.

But you will object, that the Meridi­ans are not changed, because they pass through the Poles of the world, which are Immuta­ble.

But then you have forgotten our Hypothesis, which is, that the Poles of the AEquinoctiall are not the same with the Poles of the world. For these are immutable, but those other Mutable. And therefore wee see the necessity of this Argument; and withal, that these things being so, we are yet very [Page 148] farre to seek in many things necessary for the si­tuation and construction of the Sphaere. For by this reckoning it followeth necessarily, that the AEquinoctiall Circle should not bee described directly Parallel to the Pole of the world: and many other things of this nature, which might hence bee concluded, I might willingly omit, be­cause I speak to a Mathematician, who might bet­ter teach in these things. Wherefore I think I may boldly say, that none can be so impudent as to deny these things which are so manifest, as that we can prove them not only Historically, but also Apodictically, by certain demonstrations. And it behoves you to see and examine more narrowly whatsoever hath been written by Mathematicians concerning this matter. For there is now no place left of deny all, but rather to see, how these things may be better demonstrated, and this done, the construction and position of the Sphaere corrected. But I do not speak this to the common sort of A­strologers, who never have read any thing but the Theories of the Planets, and never so much as saw any of the ancient Writers: unto whom, although they should perhaps have recourse, they could not understand.

Now as concerning the motion of Trepida­tion, it is long since exploded: and for Co­pernicus his motion of Libration, which is also a very vain conceit, and I shall speak more of it here, and shew whence this so idle a dream should possesse so worthy a man: for it differeth not much from that imposture of Trepidation. And as the truth hath at length got place, and [Page 149] removed that fabulous motion of Trepidation, so we doubt not but necessity will at the last send af­ter it this motion of the eighth Sphaere also.

This therefore is the summe of our answer: that we desire, that the skillfull Artists would consider, whether the knowledge of the variation of the Magneticall Needle may be illustrated by those things which we have delivered concerning the Mutability of the Meridians: That there is no motion of the eighth Sphaere into the consequent parts: That we are the first that have demonstra­ted the same: And that from thence must neces­sarily follow the praecession of of the AEquinoctiall points. And this being granted, that then the AE­quinoctiall points, AEquinoctia Circles, and their Poles, and Meridians, passing through them are also movable: and their Poles also different from the Poles of the world. And that the situation of Sun Dialls doth vary after s [...]me tearm of years: and that we are the first that observed the Histo­ry of this not able piece of Antiquity; which also may be demonstrated out of the Mathematicks. This is my opinion, which I will ever defend. But do you consider better of it: and in the mean time Farewell. Lug. Bat. 16. Kal. Mai. An. 1604.

And this is Scaliger's Epistle, in which where­as he speaketh of three Books of the Magnet, written by W. Gilbert, it seems to be a slip of his memory: for the same Author wrote not three, but sixe Books de Magnete, which were Printed at London by Peter Short, Anno 1600. [Page 150] the fourth and sifth books whereof do especially han­dle the doctrine of the variation of the Compass. And whereas he addeth, that himselfe had plainly demonstrated in a certain book of his, that the Tail of the Cynosure had the same situation anciently, that it bath at this day; he meaneth that book which bear­eth title, Diatriba de AEquinoctiorum Antici­patione, and was printed at Paris, Anno 1613. Which Book I understand since, that Johannes Maginus a Paduan, and professor of the Mathe­maticks| in |Bononia, hath undertaken to con­fute: as appears by the Catalogue of Books in the year 1617. where there is mention made of the same confutation printed at Rome, by Andrew [...]; and at Colen, by Anthony Hierat, in quarto. In which book the Author takes upon him to impugne certain new Tenets, concerning the Polar Star, and the mutation of the AEquinoctiall points, and im­mobility of the fixed Starrs: with divers Astrono­micall matters, which the title promiseth: notwith­standing it hath not yet been my good hap, though I have made very diligent enquiry, to meet with any of these books.

CHAP. XVI. How to make a Sun Diall by the Globe, for any Latitude of place.

WE do not here promise the whole Art of Dialling: as being a mat­ter too prolixe to be handled in this place, and not so properly concerning our present business in hand. And therefore it shall suffice us to have touched lightly, and as it were, pointed out onely some few grounds of this Art: being such as may very easily be un­derstood by the use of the Globe.

And here in this place we shal shew you only 2 the most common sorts of Dials: one where­of is called an Horizontall Diall, because it is described on a plain or flat, which is Parallel to the Horizon: and the other is called a Mu­rall, as being erected, for the most part, on a wall, perpendicular to the Horizon, and look­ing directly either toward the North, or South. But both these may not unfitly be called Ho­rizontal; not in respect of the same place indeed, but of diverse. And therefore whether it be a Flat Horizontall, or Erect, or else inclining any way: there will be but one kind of arti­fice in making of the same.

Let us therefore now see in what manner a [Page 152] plain Horizontall Diall may be made for any place. Having therefore first prepared your flat Diall Ground, Parallel to the Horizon, draw a Meridian on it, as exactly North, and South as possibly you can. Which done, draw another East and West, which must cross it at right angles. The first of which lines will shew twelve, and the other six of the Clock, both morning and evening. Then making a Center in the intersection of these two Lines, describe a circle on your Dial Ground, to what distance you please: and then divide it, (as all other circles usually are) into 360. parts. And it wil not be amiss to subdivide each of these into lesser parts, if it may conveniently bee done. And now it onely remains to finde out the distances of the hour lines in this circle, for any latitude of place. Which that we may do by the use of the Globe, let it first bee set to the latitude of the place assigned. And then make choice of some of the greater circles in the Globe, that pass through the Poles of the world; (as for example, the AEquinoctiall Colure, if you please:) and apply the same to the Meridian: in which situation it shew­eth midday, or twelve of the Clock. Then turning about the Globe toward the West, (if you will) till that fifteen degrees of the AE­quator have passed through the Meridian: you must mark the degree of the Horizon that the same Colure crosseth in the Horizon. For that point will shew the distance of the first and eleventh hours from the Meridian. Both [Page 153] of which are distant an hours space from the Meridian, or line of midday. Then turn­ing again the Globe forward, till other fif­teen degrees are past the Meridian: the same Colure wil point out the distance of the tenth hour, which is two hours before Noon, and of the second hour after noon. And in the same manner you may find out the distances of all the rest in the Horizon, allotting to each of them fifteen degrees in the AEquator cros­sing the Meridian. But here you must take no­tice by the way, that the beginning of this ac­count of the distances, must be taken from that part of the Horizon, on which the Pole is ele­vated: to wit, from the North part of the Horizon, if the Arcticke Pole be elevate; and so likewise from the South part, if the Antar­ctick be elevated.

These distances of the hours being thus noted in the Horizon of the Globe, you must afterward translate them into your Plain, allotted for your Diall Ground, reckoning in the circumference of it so many degrees to each hour, as are answerable to those, pointed out by the Colure in the Horizon.

And lastly, having thus done, the Gnomon or Stile must be erected. Where you are to observe this one thing (which is indeed in a manner the chiefe and onely thing in this Art to be carefully looked unto) name­ly, that that edge or line of the Gnomon, which is to shew the hours by its shadow, [Page 154] in all kinds of Dials must be set Parallel to the Axis of the world: that so it may make an An­gle of inclination with its plain ground, equal [...]o that which the Axis of the world makes with the Horizon. Now that the Stile is to stand directly to the North and South, or in the Meridian line, is a thing so commonly known, that it were to no purpose to mention it. And this is the manner of making a Diall on a plain Horizontall Ground.

Now if you would make a plain Erect Diall perpendicular to the Horizon (which is com­monly called a Murall) and respecting either the North or South: you must remember this one thing: (the ignorance whereof hath dri­ven those that commonly professe the Art of Dialling into many troubles and difficulties:) this one thing, I say, is to be observed: that that which is an erect Diall in one place, will be an Horizontall in another place, whose Zenith is distant from that place 90. degrees, either Northward or Southward.

As for example: Let there be an Erect Diall made for any place whose latitude is 25. gr. this is nothing else, but to make an Horizontall Diall for the latitude of 38 degrees. And if there be an Erect Diall made for the latitude of 27. gr. the same will be an Horizontal Diall for the latitude of 63 degrees. The same pro­portion is to be observed in the rest▪ And hence it manifestly appears, that an Horizontal Diall and a Verticall are the same, at the latitudes of 45 degrees.

[Page 155] And so likewise by this rule may bee made any manner of inclining Diall, if so be, that the quantity of the inclination be but known. As for example, if a Diall be to be made on a plain ground, whose inclination is 10. degrees from the Horizon Southward, and for a place whose latitude is 52. gr. Northward: you must describe in that plain Horizontall Diall for the Latitude of 62. degrees Northward. And if in the same latitude the Diall ground do incline toward the North 16. gr. you must make an Horizontall Diall for the Northern latitude of 36. gr:

And thus much shall suffice to have been spoken of the making of Dialls by the Globe.

The fifth and last Part. Of the Rumbes that are described in the Terre­striall Globe, and their use.

THose lines which a Ship, follow­ing the direction of the Magne­ticall Needle, describeth on the surface of the Sea, Petrus No­nius calleth in Latine, Rumbos, borrowing the Apellation of his Countrymen the Portugals. Which word, since it is now ge­nerally received by learned writers to express them by: we also will use the same.

These Rumbes are described in the Globe, ei­ther by greater or lesser circles, or by certain crooked winding liines. But Sea-men are wont to express the same in their Nauticall Charts by rights Lines. But this practise of theirs is clean repugnant to the truth of the thing, neither can by any means be defend­ed from errours. The invention of Rumbes, and practise of describing the same upon the Globe, is somewhat ancient. Petrus Nonius hath written much concerning the use of them, in two Books which he intituleth, de Navigand [...] ratione. And Mercator hath also ex­pressed [Page 158] them in his Globes. But the use of them is not, as yet, so wel known to every body: and therefore I think it not unfit, to be the more large in the explication of the same.

Beginning therefore with the nature and originall of them, we shall afterward descend to the use, there is to be made of them in the Art of Navigation. And first, we will begin with the originall, and nature of the Nauticall Index, or Compasse: which is very well known to be of the fashion of a plain round Box, the Circumference whereof is divided into 32. equall parts, distinguished by cer­tain right lines passing through the center thereof. One point of it, which that end of the needle that is touched with the Magnet, al­ways respects, is directed toward the North; so that consequently the opposite point must necessarily respect the South. And so likewise all the other parts in it have respect unto some certain fixed points in the Horizon: (for the Compasse must always be placed Parallel to the Horizon.) Now I call these points fixed, onely for doctrine sake, not forgetting, in the mean time that the Magneticall Needle, (be­sides that it doth of it own nature decline in divers places from the situation of the true Me­ridian, (which is commonly called the variati­on of the Compass) according to the custome of divers Countries, is also placed after a divers manner in the Compass. For some there are that place it 5. gr. 37. m. more Eastward then that point that answereth to the North quarter [Page 159] of the world: as do the Spaniards, and our Englishmen. Some place it 3. gr. and almost 18. m. declining from the North: and some set it at 11. gr. 15. minutes distance from that point. all which notwithstanding, let us sup­pose the Needle always to look directly North and South. Now these lines thus expressed in the Mariners Compass, as the common intersections of the Horizon, and Verticall Circles, or rather Parallel to these. Among which, that wherein the Needle is situate, is the common intersection of the Horizon & Meridian. And that which crosseth this at right Angles, is the common section of the Horizon, and a verticall circle drawn through the Equinoctiall East and West. And thus we have the 4 Cardinall winds or quarters of the World, and the whole Horizon divided into 4 equal parts, each of them containing 90. de­grees. Now if you divide again each of these into 8. parts, by 7. verticall circles, drawn on each side of the Meridian, through the Zenith: the whole Horizon will be parted into 32 e­qual sections: each of which shall contain 11. gr. 15. m. These are the severall quarters of the world observed by Mariners in their voyages: but as for any lesser parts or divisions then these, they look not after them. And this is the original of the Nautical Compass, by which Sea-men are guided in their voyages.

Let us now in the next place consider, what manner of lines a Ship, following the directi­on of the Compass, doth describe in her course [Page 160] For the better understanding whereof, I think it fit to praemise these few Propositions: which being rightly and thoroughly considered, will make the whole business facile and perspicu­ous.

1. All Meridians of all places do pass through both the Poles: and therefore they cross the AEquator, and all Circles Parallel to it, at right angles.

2 If wee direct our course any other way then toward one of the Poles: wee change ever and anon both our Horizon and Meri­dian.

3. The needle being touched with the Load­stone, pointeth out the common Intersection of the Horizon and Meridian: and one end of it always respecteth the North, in a manner, and the other, the South. And here I cannot but take notice of a great errour of Gemma Frisius, who in his Corollary to the fifteenth Chapter of P. Appians Cosmography, affirms, that the Magnetical Needle respects the North Pole on this side of the AEquinoctiall line, but on the other side of the AEquinoctiall, it point­eth to the South Pole. Which opinion of his is contradicted, by the experience both of my selfe and others. And therefore, I believe, his too much credulity deceived him, giving credit perhaps to the fabulous relations of some vain heads. But howsoever it be, the er­rour is a [...]owle one, and unworthy so great an Author. This frivolous conceit hath also been justly condemned before, by the Illustrious [Page 161] Jul, Scaliger, instructed hereto out of the Na­vigations of Ludovicus Vertomannus, and Fer­dinand Magellane.

4 The same Rumbe cutteth all the Meridi­ans of all places at equall Angles, and respe­cteth the same quarters of the world in every Horizon.

5 A greater Circle drawn through the vertex of any place, that is any whit distant from the AEquator, cannot cut divers Meridi­ans at equall Angles. And therefore I can­not assent to Pet. Nonius, who would have the Rumbes to consist of portions of greater Cir­cles. For seeing that the portion of a greater Circle, being intercepted betwixt divers Me­ridians, though never so little distant from each other, maketh unequall Angles with the same, a Rumbe cannot consist of them, by the precedent proposition. but this in-equality of Angles is not perceived (saith he) by the sense, unless it be in Meridians somewhat far re­mote from one another. Be it so. Notwith­standing the errour of this Position is disco­verable by Art and demonstration. Neither doth it become so great a Mathematician, to examine rules of Art by the judgement of the sense.

6 A greater Circle drawn through the Verticall point of any place, and inclining to the Meridian, maketh greater Angles with all other Meridians, then it doth, with that from whence it was first drawn. It therefore be­hooveth, that a line, which maketh equall [Page 62] angles, with divers Meridians, (as the Rumbes do) be bowed and turn in, toward the Meri­dian. And hence it is, that when a Ship saileth according to one and the same Rumbe, (except it be one of the four Principal and Cardinal Rumbes) it maketh a crooked Spiral Line, such as we see expressed in the Terrestrial Globe.

7 The portions of the same Rumbe, inter­cepted betwixt any two Parallels, whose dif­ference of Latitude is the same, are also equal to each other. Therefore an equall segment of the same Rumbe, equally changeth the diffe­rence of Latitude in all places. And therefore that common rule of Sea-men is true: that in an equall space passed in one & the same Rumb one of the Poles is equally elevated, and the o­ther depressed, So that Michael Coignet is found to be in an errour, who out of some certain ill grounded positions indeavoured to prove the contrary.

Out of the 4 Proposition there arise h this Consectary; namely, That Rumbes, though continued never so far, do not pass through the Poles. For seeing that the same Rumbe is equally inclined to all Meridians; and all Me­ridians do pass through the Poles: it would then follow, that if a Rumbe should pass through the Poles, the same line in the same point would cross infinite other lines: which is impossible, because that a part of any Angle, cannot be equall to the whole. Neither doth that, which we delivered in the last Proposi­tion make any thing against this Consectary: [Page] to wit, that betwixt any two Parallels of equall distance, equall portions of the same Rumbe may be intercepted; that so it should thence follow, that the segment of any Rumbe intercepted betwixt the Parallel of 80. gr. of Latitude and the Pole, is equall to a segment of the same Rumbe intercepted betwixt the AEquator and the Parallel of ten gr. of La­titude: and the reason is, because the Pole is no Parallel. And therefore it was a true Position of Nonius, That the Rumbes do not enter the Poles: although it was not demon­strated with the like happy successe. For he assumes foundations contrary to the truth: as wee said before. And Gemma Frisius also was mistaken, when hee affirmed, in his Appedix ad 15. Cap. Appian Cosmography. that the Rumbes do concurre in the Poles: which was the opinion also of some others who are therefore justly taxed by Michael Co­ignet.

These things being well considered, it will be easie to understand, what manner of lines a Ship, following the direction of the Magnet, doth describe in the Sea If the forepart of the Ship, be directed toward the North or South, which are the quarters that the Magneticall Needle always pointeth at: your course will bee alwayes under the same Meridi­an: because, as wee shewed in our third Proposition, the Needle always respecteth the Intersections of the Horizon and Me­ridian, and is situate in the plain of the [Page 164] same Meridian. If the fore part of the Ship be directed to that quarter that Fast and West Rumbo pointeth out: in your course you will then describe either the AEquator, or a Circle Parallel to it. For if at the beginning of your setting forth, your Zenith be under the AEquator, your ship will describe an Arch or segment of the AEquator. But if your Verticall point be distant from the AEquator either Northward or Southward; your course will then describe a Parallel, as far distant from the AEquator, as the Latitude of the place is whence you set forward at first. As suppose our intended course to be from some place ly­ing under the AEquator, by the Rumbe of the East and West: we shall go forward still un­der the AEquator. For by this means, as we go on, we always meet with a new Meridian, which the Line of our course crosseth at right Angles. Now no other Line, besides the AEquator, can do this: as appears manifest­ly out of the Corollary of the first propositi­on. And therefore in this course our Ship must describe a portion of the AEquator. But if wee steer our course, by the East and West Rumbe, from any place that lyeth besides the AEqua­tor: we shall be always under the same Pa­rallel. For all Circles Parallel to the AEqua­tor, do cut all the Meridians at right Angles, by the Corollary of the first Proposition. And although the fore part of the Ship always re­specteth the AEquinoctiall East or West, or intersection of the AEquator and Horizon; [Page 165] yet in our progress we shall never come near the AEquator, but shall keep always an e­quall distance from it. Neither shall we come at all thither, whither the fore part of our ship looketh, but shall keep such a course, wherein we shall have, ever and [...], a new Meridian arising, which we shall cross at equall Angles, & so necessarily describe a Parallel. But if our voyage be to be made under the Rumbe which inclineth to the Meridian: our course will then be neither in a greater nor lesser Circle, but we shall describe a kind of crooked spirall Line. For if you draw any greater Circle through the Vertex of any place, inclining to the Meridian, the same Circle will cross the next Meridian, at a greater Angle, then it did the former: by the sixth proposition, And therefore it cannot make my Rumbe: because the same Rumbe cut [...]h all Meridians at e­quall Angles, by the fourth proposition. And all the Parallels, [...]r lesser Circles, do cross the Meridians [...] right Angles, by the Corollary of the first proposition: and therefore they do not incline to the Meridian.

Concerning those lines which are made in Sea voyages by the direction of the Compasse and Magneticall Needle; Gemma Frisius in his appendix to the fifteen Chapter of Appians Cosmography, part first, speaks thus. Verbum hoc obi [...]er annotandum, &c. And (saith he) I think it not amiss to note this by the way, that the voyages on land do differ very much from those that are performed at Sea, For those are [Page] understood to be performed by the greater cir­cles of the Sphaere, as it is rightly demonstra­ted by Wernerus, in his Commenearies upon Ptolomy But the voyages by Sea, are for the most part crooked: because they are seldome taken in a great circle, but sometimes under one of the Parallels; when the Ship steers her course toward East or West: and somtime also in a greater circle: as when it saileth from North to South, or contrariwise: or else under the AEquator, either direct East or West. But in all other kinds of Navigation, the journeys are Crooked, although guided by the Magnet, and are neither like to greater circles, nor yet to Parallels: nor indeed are circles at all, but only a kind of crooked lines, all of them at length concurring in one of the Poles. Thus he, and indeed very rightly in all the rest, save onely that he wil have these lines to meet in the Pole: which as we have already proved, is altogether repugnant to the nature of Rumbes.

Hitherto have we spoken of the original and nature of Rumbes: let us now see what use there is of them in the Terrestriall Globe.

Of the use if Rumbes in the Terrestriall Globe.

IN the Art of Navigation, which teacheth the way and manner how a Ship is to be directed in sailing from one place to ano­ther, there are four things especially to be con­sidered. And these are the Longitudes of the places, the Latitudes; or differences of the same Rumbe, and the space or distance betwixt any two places, measured according to the practise used in Sea-voyages. For the distan­ces of the places are measured by the Geogra­pher one way, and by the Mariner another. For the former measureth the distances of pla­ces always by greater circles; as after Werne­rus, Peucerus hath also demonstrated in his book, De Dimensione Terrae. But the Mariners course being made up somtimes of portions of greater circles; and somtimes of lesser, but for the most part of crooked lines: it is good reason that he should measure the distances al­so of places by the same. Which, and how ma­ny of these are to be known before hand, that the rest may be found out, come in the next place to be considered. Now the places betwixt which our voyage is to be performed, do differ either in Longitude only, or in Latitude only, or in both.

If they differ only in Latitude, they are both under the same Meridian: and therefore it is [Page] the North or South Rumbe, that the course is to be directed by. And there only then remai­neth to know the difference of Latitude, and distance betwixt these two places: One of which being known, the other is easily found out. For if the difference of Latitude be given in degrees and minutes; as Sea-men are wont to do, the number of degrees and minutes, be­ing multiplyed by 60. (which is the number of English miles that we commonly allow to a degree, and that according to Ptolomies opi­nion, as we have already demonstrated:) the whole number of miles, made in the voyage betwixt these places, will appear. And if you multiply the same number of degrees by seven­teen and a halfe, you have the same distance in Spanish leagues. And so contrariwise, if the distance in miles or leagues be known, and you divide the same by 60 or seventeen and an half, the quotient will shew the number of degrees and minutes, that answer to the diffe­rence of Latitude betwixt the two places as­signed. As for example. If a man were to sail from the Lizard (which is the outmost point of land in Corn-wall) Southward, till he come to the promontory of Spain, which is called C. Ortegall; the difference of Latitude of which places is 60 gr. 10. min. If you desire to know the distance of miles betwixt these places, multiply six gr. ten m. by 60. and the product will be 370. the number of English miles betwixt the two places assigned. And this account may be much more truly and rea­dily [Page 169] made by our English miles, in as much as 60. of them are equivalent to a degree, so that one mile answereth to one minute: by which means, all tedious and prolix computation by fractions is avoyded.

In the next place, let us consider those pla­ces that differ only in Longitude: which if they lye directly under the AEquinoctiall, the distance betwixt them being known, the dif­ference of Longitude will also be found: or contrariwise, by multiplication or division, in like manner as the difference of Latitude is found. But if they be situate without the AE­quator; wee must then go another way to work. For seeing that the Parallels are all of them lesse then the AEquator, all of them de­creasing in quantity proportionably, till you come to the Pole, where they are least of all: hence it coms to pass, that there can be no one certain determinate measure assigned to all the Paralells. And therefore the common sort of Mariners do greatly erre, in attributing to each degree of every Parallel, and equall mea­sure with a degree of the AEquator. By which means, there have been very many errors com­mitted in Navigation, and many whole Coun­tries also removed out of their own pro­per situation, and translated into the places of others.

That therefore there might be provision made in this behalfe, for those that are not so well acquainted with the Mathematicks: I have added a Table, which sheweth, what pro­portion [Page 170] a degree in every Parallel beareth to a degree in the AEquator: whence the proper measure of every Parallel may be found. In which Table the first Collume proposeth the severall Parallels, each of them differing from other one degree of Latitude. The second shew­eth the minutes and seconds of the AEquator, that answer to a degree in each Parallel: which if you convert into two miles, you shall know how many miles answer to a degree in every Parallel.

5594 [...]
6594 [...]
7593 [...]
1059 [...]5
14581 [...]
40 [...]558
4 [...]438
69213 [...]

[Page 171] By the use of this Table, if a Ship have sailed under any Parallel, and the space bee known how far this Ship hath gone, the difference of Longitude may be found by the rule of pro­portion: and so contrarywise, if the difference of Longitude be given, the distance will in like manner be known. As for example. Suppose a Ship to have set forth from C. Dalguer, (which is a Promontory on the West part of Africk) and failed Westward, 200. English Leagues, that is to say, 600 mile. We desire now to know the difference of Longitude betwixt these two places. That promontory hath in Northern Latitude 30. degrees. Now to one degree in that Parallel answer. 51. m. 57. sec. that is to say, 51 miles, and fifty seven sixtieth parts of a mile. Thus therefore we dispose our proportionall tearms, for the finding of the difference of Longitude. 51. miles, 57. min. (or suppose 52. full miles, because the diffe­rence is so small) give one degree: therefore 600. give 11 28/51 gr. which is the difference of Longitude betwixt the place whence the Ship set for [...]h, and that where it arived But the tearms are to be invert [...]d, if the difference of Longitude be given, and the distance be to be sought. But this is not so congruous. For we never use by the known Longitude to seek the distance: but the contrary. Neither indeed have we as yet any certain way of observing the difference of Longitudes: however some great boasters make us large promises of the same. But,

[Page 172]
Expectata seges vanis deludet avenis.

It remaineth now to speak of those places that differ both in Longitude and Latitude: wherein there is great variety, and many kinds of differences. Of all which there are four (as we have already said) especially to be consi­dered: and these are the differences of Longi­tude, and of Latitude, & the distance, & Rumbe, by which the voyage is performed. Two of which being known, the rest may readily be found out. Now the transmutation of the things to be granted for known; and to be en­quired after in these four tearms, may be pro­posed six manner of ways, as followeth,

The diffe rence ofLongitude and Latitudebeing known: TheRumbe and Distancemay also be foūd.
The diffe­rence ofLongitude and the Rumbebeing known: TheDifference of Latitude and Distancemay be found.
The diffe­rence ofLongitude and Distancebeing known: TheDifference of Latitude and Rumbemay be found
The diffe­rence ofLatitude and Rumbebeing known: TheDifference of Longi­tude and Distancemay be found
The diffe­rence ofLatitude and Distancebeing known: TheRumbe & Difference of Longi­tude.may be found.
TheRumbe and Distancebeing known: the difference ofLongitude and Latitudemay be found

[Page] Thus you see that any two of these being known, the other two may also be found out. Now most of these (yea all of them, that are of any useat all) may be performed by the Globe And let it suffice to have here given this gene­rall advertisement once for all.

Now besides these things here already to be known: it is also necessary that we know the Latitude of the place whence we set forth, and the quarter of the world that our course is di­rected unto: for otherwise we shall never be able rightly to satisfie these demands. And the reason is, because that the difference of Lon­gitude and Latitude always wont to be rec­koned unto the two parts of the world: some of them to the North and South, and the rest to the East and West. And especially, because that from all parts of the Meridian, and from each side thereof, there are Rumbes drawn that are all of equall angles or inclinati­ons. So that unless the quarter of the world be known, whereto our course tendeth, there can be no certainty at all in our conclusions. As if the difference of Latitude be to be enqui­red after: the same may indeed be found out; but yet we cannot determine, to which quarter of the world it is to be reckoned, whether North or South. And if we seek for the dif­ference of Longitude: this may be found: but in the mean time we shall not know, whe­ther it be to be reckoned towards the East or West. And so likewise when the Rumbe is sought for, we may perhaps find what decli­nation [Page 174] it hath to this Meridian: but yet we cannot give it its true denomination, except we know toward what quarter of the world one place is distant from the other. For from each particular part of the Meridian, the Rumbs have equal inclinations. These grounds being thus laid, let us now proceed to the ex­amination of each particular.

I. The difference of Longitude and Latitude of two places being known, how to find out the Rumbe and Distance of the same.

TUrn about the Globe untill that some Rumbe or other do cross the Meridian, at the Latitude of the place whence you set forth. Then again turn about either to­ward the East or West, as the matter shall re­quire, until that an equal number of degrees in the AEquator to the difference of Longitude of the two places do pass the Meridian. Then af­terward look whether or no the aforefaid Rumb do cross the Meridian at the Latitude of the place, where you are: for if it do so, you may then conclude, that it is the Rumbe you have gone by: but if otherwise, you must take another, and try it in like manner, till you light upon one that will do it.

[Page 175] As for example. Serra Liona is a Promon­tory of Africk, having in Latitude 15. gr. 20. m. and in Northern Latitude 7. gr. 30. m. suppose that we are to sail to the Isle of Saint Helen, which hath in Longitude 24 gr. 30 and in Southern Latitude 15. gr. 30. m. I now demand what Rumbe we are to sail by: and this we find in this manner. I first apply to the Meridian the 356 gr. 40 m. of Longitude: and withal observe what Rumbe the Meridian doth cross at the Latitude Northern of 7 gr. 30. m. (which is the Latitude of the place whence we are to set forth:) and I find it to be the North norwest, and South southeast Rumbe. Then I turn about the Globe toward the West, (because Saint Helens is more East­ward then Serra Liona) untill that 9 gr. 10. m. in the AEquator (which is the difference of Longitude betwixt these two places) do cross the Meridian. And in this position of the Globe, I find that the same Rumbe is crossed by the Meridian in the Southern Latitude of 15. gr. 30. m. which is the Latitude of Saint Helens Isle. Therefore I con clude, that this is the Rumbe that we are to go by, from Serra Liona to Saint Helens. And in this manner you may find the Rumbe betwixt any two places, either expressed in the Globe, or otherwise: so that the difference of Longitude and Latitude be but known.

If the places be expressed in the Globe, be­twixt which you seek the Rumbe; you must then with your Compasses take the distance [Page 76] betwixt the two places assigned, and apply the same to any Rumbe that you please (but only in those places where they cross the parallels of Latitude of the said places,) till you find a Rumbe, whose portion intercepted betwixt the Parallels of the two places, shall agree to the distance intercepted by the Compasses. As for example. If you would know what a Rumbe leadeth us from C. Cantin, a Promontony in the West part of Africk; having in Latitude 32. gr. 20. m. to the Canary Islands, which are in the 28. gr. of Latitude. First, you must ap­ply the distance intercepted betwixt the two places to any Rumbe, that lyeth betwixt the 28 and 32. gr. 30. m. of Latitude, which are the Latitudes of the places assigned: and you shall find that this distance being applyed to the South South-west Rumbe, so that one foot of the Compasses be set in the latitude of 32 gr. 20. m. the other will fall on the 28 gr. of La­titude in the same Rumbe. Whence you may conclude, that you must sail from C. Cantin to the Canary Islands by the South South-west Rumbe. There are some that affirm, that if this distance intercepted betwixt two places, be applyed to any Rumbe where they all m [...]t to­gether at the AEquator, the same may be per­formed. But these men have delivered unto us their own errours, in stead of certain rules. For suppose it be granted, that the portions of the same Rumbe intercepted betwixt two Pa­rallels equidistant from each other, are also equall in any part of the Globe; yet notwith­standing [Page 177] they are not to be measured by such a manner of extension For the Rumbes that lye near the AEquator, differ but little from grea­ter circles: but as they are farther distant from it, so they are still more crooked, and inclining to the Meridian.

The Rumbe being found, we are next to seek the distance betwixt the two places. No­mus teacheth a way to do this, in any Rumbe, by taking with your Compasses the space of 10 leagues, or halfe a degree. Others take 20. leagues, or an whole degree. But I approve of neither of these, nor yet reject either. Onely I g [...]ve this advertisement by the way: that ac­cording to the greater or less distance of the places from the AEquator, a greater or less measure may be taken. For near the AEquator, where (as we have said) the Rumbes are little different from greater circles; you may take a greater measure to go by. But when you are far from the AEquator you must then take as small a distance as you can: because that here the Rumbes are very crooked. And yet the di­stance of places may be much more accurately measured, so that the Rumbe and difference of Latitude of the same be but known) by this Table here set down: which is thus.


In theFirst1110Answer to a degree in the AEquator, or Meridian.

In this Table you have here [...]et down how many degrees, minutes, and seconds in every Rumbe, do answer to a degree in the Meridi­an or [...]qinoctiall. Now a degree (as we have often said,) containeth 60 Miles: so that each Mile answereth to a minute, and the sixtieth part of a mile, or seventeen paces, to every second. So that by the help of this Table, and the rule of proportion, the distance of any two places in any Rumbe as­signed (if so be that their Latitudes be known) may easily be measured: and so on the con­trary, if the distance be known, the difference of Latitude may be found. As for example. If a Ship have sailed from C. Verde in Africk, lying in the 14 gr. 30. m. of Northern lati­tude, to C. Saint Augustine in Brasile, ha­ving in Southern Latitude 8. gr. 30 m. by the Rumbe of South-west and by South: and if it be demanded what is the distance or space be­twixt these two places. For the finding of this, we dispose our tearms of proportion after this manner. 1. gr. of Latitude in this Rumbe, (which is the third from the Meri­dian) [Page 179] hath 1. gr. 12. m. 9. sec. that is to say, 72 9/80 miles: therefore 23 gr. (which is the difference of Latitude betwixt C. Verde and C. Saint Augustine) require 1659. miles and almost an halfe, or something more then 553. English leagues. So that this is the distance betwixt C. Verde and C. Saint Augustine, be­ing measured in the third Rumbe from the Me­ridian.

II. The Rumbe being known, and difference of Longitude; how to finde the difference of Lati­tude and distance.

TO find out this, you must turne the Globe, till you meet with some places, where the said Rumbe crosseth the Meridian at the same Latitude that the place is of, where you set forth. And then turning the Globe either Eastward or Westward, as you see cause, untill that so many degrees of the AEquator have pas­sed the Meridian, as are answerable to the difference of Longitude betwixt the two places; you must mark what degree in the Meridian the same Rumbe c [...]tteth. For that degree sheweth the Latitude of the place, you are arived.

As for example. The Isle of Saint Helen hath in Longitude 24. gr. 20. m. and in Sou­thern [Page 180] Latitude 15. gr 30. m. Suppose there­fore a Ship to have sailed West North-west, to some place that lyeth West from it 24 degrees. We demand what is the Latitude of this place. First, therefore we set the Globe in such soit, as that this Rumbe may cr [...]ss the Meridian at the 50. gr. 30. m. of Southern Latitude, which is the Latitude of Saint Helens: and this will happen to be so, if you apply the 37. gr. of the Longitude to the Meridian. Then we turn a­bout the Globe Eastward, till that 24 gr. of AEquator have passed under the Meridian. And then marking the degree of the Meridian, that the same Rumbe crosseth, we find it to be about the 5. gr. 30. m. of Southern Latitude. This therefore we conclude to be the Latitude of the place where we are arived.

And by this means also the distance may easily be found, if the Rumbe and difference of Latitude be first known.

III. The difference of Longitude and distance being given; how to finde the Rumbe, and difference of Latitude.

THere is not any thing in all this Art more difficult and hard to be found, then the Rumbe, out of the distance and difference of Longitude given. Neither can it be done upon the Globe, without long and tedious practise, and many repetitions and mensurations. The practise hereof being therefore so prolixe, and requiring so much labour: it is the less necessary, or indeed ra­ther of no use at all. And the reason is, be­cause the difference of Longitude, as we have already shewed, is so hard to be found out. The invention whereof I could wish our great boasters would at length perform: that so wee might expect from them somthing else, besides bare words, vain promises, and empty hope.

[Page 182] Some of these conclusions also which wee have here set down, are, I confess, of no great use or necessity, out of the like supposition of the difference of Latitude. Notwithstanding, for as much as the practise of them is easie and facile, I have willingly taken the pains, for ex­ercise sake onelv, to propose them.

IV The difference of Latitude and Rumbe being given, how to find the difference of Longitude and distance.

FIrst set your Globe so, as that the Rumbe assigned may cross the Meridian at the same Latitude that the place is of, whence you set forth. And then turn about the Globe toward the East or west, as need shal require, till that the same Rumbe shal cross the Meridian at the equall Latitude of that place whither you have come. And so marking both places, reckon the number of degrees in the AEquator, intercepted betwixt both their Meridians. And this shall be the dif­ference of Longitude betwixt the same places. As for example. C. D'alguer in Africk hath a­bout 30 gr. of Northern Latitude. From whence suppose a Ship to have sailed North-west and by West, to the thirtie eight gr. of Northern Latitude also. Now we demand, what is the difference of Longitude betwixt [Page 18] these two places? Turning therefore the Globe till the Meridian cross the said Rumbe at the thirtieth gr. of Northern Latitude, (which wil be, when the seventh gr. of Longitude touch­eth the Meridian,) I turn it again toward the East, untill such time as the Meridian crosseth the same Rumbe in the thirty eight gr. of Nor­thern latitude: which will happen, when the three hundred fifty second gr. of Longitude cometh to the Meridian. Whence we conclude, that the place where the Ship is arived, is Westward from C. D'alguer about fifteen de­grees. And the Meridian of that place passeth through the Eastern part of Saint Michael's Island, one of the Azores. Now, how the di­stance may be found, the Rumbe and difference of Latitude being known, hath been declared already in the first proposition.

V. The difference of Latitude, and distance being given, the Rumbe and difference of Longitude may be found.

THe Rumbe may easily bee found out, by the Table which wee have before set down. But an example will make the matter more clear. If a Ship have sailed from the most Western point of A­frick, commonly called C. Blanco, (which lyeth in the 10. gr. 30. m. of Northern Lati­tude) betwixt North and West, for the space of 1080. miles, and to the 20. gr. 30 m. of Northern Latitude also: and it be deman­did, by what Rumbe this course was directed: for answer hereof, we proceed thus. The dif­ference of Latitude is 10. gr. and the distance betwixt these places 1080. miles. We there­fore dispose our tearms thus, 10. gr. contain 1080. miles: therefore 1. gr. containeth 108. miles. Which if we divide by 60. wee shall find in the quotient 1. gr. 48. m, which num­ber if you seek in the Table, you shall finde it answering the fifth Rumbe. Neither is the dif­ference betwixt that number in the Table, and this here of ours above one second scruple. So that we may safely pronounce, that this voy­age was performed by the fifth Rumbe from the Meridian, which is North-west and by west. [Page] Now the Rumbe being found, and the diffe­rence of Latitude known, you may finde out the difference of Longitude by the second pro­position.

VI. The Rumbe and distance being given, the difference of Longitude and Latitude may also be found.

THis also may easily be performed, by the help of the former Table. And therefore we will onely shew an ex­ample how it is to be done. From the Cape of good Hope, which is the most Southernly point of Africa, and hath in Sou­thern Latitud about 35. degrees, a Ship is sup­posed to have sailed North, North-west, (which is the second Rumbe from the Meridi­an) above 64 [...]. miles, or if you will, let it be full 650. Now we demand the difference of Latitude betwixt these two places: and this is found [...]ter this manner. First, we take the de­gree and minutes that answer to a degree of Latitude in the second Rumbe, and turn them into miles. And then we finde the number of these to be 64 miles, 56 minutes, for which let us take full 65 miles. Now therefore our tearmes are thus to be disposed: 65. miles an­swer to 1. degree of Latitude: therefore 650. will be equivalent to ten degrees of Latitude. [Page] Which if you substract from 34. which is the Latitude of the place, whence the Ship set forth) because the course tends toward the AEquator: the remainder will be 25. gr. of Southern Latitude: which is the Latitude of the place, where the Ship is arived.

Now the Rumbe being known, and the diffe­rence of Latitude also found; the difference of Longitude must be found out by the second proposition.


[Page] Imprimatur.

Tho. Wykes R. P. Epis.

Lond. Capel. Domest.

Maii. 110 1638.

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