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Two Discourses, Lately Revievv'd and enrich'd by the Author.

One, The Pre-eminence and Pedegree of PARLEMENT. Whereunto is added A Vindication of some passages reflecting upon the Author, in a Book call'd the Popish Royall Favorit, penn'd and published by Master Prynne; wherein he styles him, No Friend to Parlements, and a Malignant, pag. 42. With a clearing of some Occurrences in Spayne at His MAjESTIES being there, cited by the said Master Prynne out of the Vocall Forrest, whereunto the collaterall Landskippe refers.

The second, ENGLANDS TEARES. By Iames Howell Esqr one of the Clerks of His Majesties most Honble Privy-Councell.

Printed at London according to Order, by Richard Heron. 1644.

The Printer to the Reader.

REader, These two Discourses, one, the Pre-eminence and pedegree of Parlement, the other Englands Teares, I present again to your view: They went abroad singly before, but I have conjoyn'd them now in one peece, for your better accommodation. They have bin surreptitiously printed in Oxford, and els where, but mistaken in divers places; They come forth now, not only corrected, but enrich'd by the Authour himselfe. When they were expos'd first to the world, they found extraordinary good acceptance, and have been very much sought for since, as well for the richnesse of the stile and matter, as for the gallant worth of the Author, which is so well known at home and abroad.

R. H.

To my worthily honored Friend, Sir W. S. Knight.

SIR,

I Have many thanks to give you for the Book you pleased to send me, called the Popish Royall Favorite; and according to your advice (which I value in a high degree) I put pen to paper, and something you may see I have done (though in a poore pam­phleting way) to cleare my selfe of those aspersions that are cast upon me therein. But truly Sir, I was never so unfit for such a task; all my Papers, Manuscripts, and Notes, ha­ving been long since seized upon and kept from me. Adde hereunto, that besides this long pressure and languishment of twenty three Moneths close restraint (the sense wherof, I find hath much stupified my spirits) it pleased God to visit me lately with a dangerous fit of sicknes, a high burning feaver, with the new disease, whereof my Body as well as my Mind is yet somewhat crazie: so that (take all afflictions toge­ther) I may truly say, I have passed the Ordeal, the fiery Tryall. But it hath pleased God to reprieve me to see bet­ter dayes I hope; for out of this fatall black Cloud, which now oresets this poore Island, I hope there will breake a glo­rious Sun-shine of peace and firme happinesse: To effect which, had I a Jury, a grand-Jury of lives, I would sacri­fice them all, and triumph in the oblation.

So I most affectionately kisse your hands, and rest

Your faithfull (though afflicted) Servant, Iames Howell.
The Pre-eminence OF …

The Pre-eminence OF PARLEMENT.

Sectio Prima.

I Am a Free-born Subject of the Realm of England; whereby I claim as my native Inheritance, an undoubted right, pro­priety, and portion in the Laws of the Land; And this di­stinguisheth me from a Slave. I claim also an interest and common right in the High Nationall Court of Parlement, and in the power, the priviledges and jurisdiction thereof, which I put in equall ballance with the Laws, in regard it is the fountain whence they spring; and this I hold also to be a principall part of my Birth-right, which great Councell I honor, respect, value, and love in as high a degree as can be; as being the Bulwark of our liberties, the main boundary and banke which keeps us from slavery, from the inundations of tyrannicall Rule, and unbounded Will-go­vernment. And I hold my self obliged in a tye of indispensable obedience, to conform and submit my self to whatsoever shall be transacted, concluded, and constituted by its authority in Church or State; whether it be by making, en­larging, altering, diminishing, disanulling, repealing, or reviving of any Law, Statute, Act, or Ordinance whatsoever, either touching matters Ecclesiasticall, civill, common, capitall, criminall, martiall, maritime, municipall, or any o­ther; of all which, the transcendent and uncontrollable jurisdiction of that Court is capable to take cognizance.

Amongst the three things which the Athenian Captain thank'd the gods for, one was, That he was born a Grecian, and not a Barbarian. For such was the va­nity of the Greeks, and after them, of the Romans, in the flourish of their Monarchy, to arrogate all civility to themselves, and to terme all the world [Page 2] besides Barbarians: So I may say to have cause to rejoyce, that I was born a vassall to the Crown of England; that I was born under so well moulded and tempered a Government, which endows the subject with such Liberties and infranchisements that bear up his naturall courage, and keep him still in heart; such Liberties that fence and secure him eternally from the gripes and tallons of Tyranny: And all this may be imputed to the Authority and wise­dome of this High Court of Parlement, wherein there is such a rare co-ordi­nation of power (though the Soveraignty remain still entire, and untransfer­rable in the person of the Prince) there is such a wholsome mixture 'twixt Mo­narchy, Optimacy, and Democracy; 'twixt Prince, Peers, and Communalty, during the time of consultation, that of so many distinct parts, by a rare co­operation and unanimity, they make but one Body Politick, (like that sheafe of arrows in the Emblem) one entire concentricall peece, and the results of their deliberations, but as so many harmonious diapasons arising from different strings. And what greater immunity and happinesse can there be to a People, than to be liable to no Laws but what they make themselves? to be subject to no contribution, assessement, or any pecuniary levy whatsoever, but what they Vote, and voluntarily yeeld unto themselves? For in this compacted Politick Bo­dy, there be all degrees of people represented; both the Mechanick, Tradesman, Merchant, and Yeoman, have their inclusive Vote, as well as the Gentry, in the persons of their Trustees, their Knights and Burgesses, in passing of all things.

Nor is this Soveraign Surintendent Councell an Epitome of this Kingdom only, but it m [...]y be said to have a representation of the whole Universe; as I heard a fluent well-worded Knight deliver the last Parliament, who compared the beautifull composure of that High Court, to the great work of God, the World it self: The King is as the Sun, the Nobles the fixed Stars, the Itine­rant Judges and other Officers (that go upon Messages 'twixt both Houses) to the Planets; the Clergy to the Element of fire; the Commons, to the solid Body of Earth, and the rest of the Elements. And to pursue this comparison a little farther; as the heavenly Bodies, when three of them meet in Conjunction, do use to produce some admirable effects in the Elementary World: So when these three States convene and assemble in one solemne great Iunta, some nota­ble and extraordinary things are brought forth, tending to the welfare of the whole Kingdom, our Microcosme.

HE that is never so little versed in the Annales of this Islle, will find that it hath bin her fate to be four times conquered. I exclude the Scot; for the scitu­ation of his Country, and the quality of the Clime hath been such an advantage and security to him, that neither the Roman Eagles would fly thither, for fear of freezing their wings; nor any other Nation attempt the work.

[Page 3]These so many Conquests must needs bring with them many tumblings and toffings, many disturbances and changes in Government; yet I have observed, that notwithstanding these tumblings, it retained still the forme of a Monarchy, and something there was always that had an Analogy with the great Assembly the Parlement.

The first Conquest I finde was made by Claudius Caes [...]r; at which time (as some well observe) the Roman Ensignes, and the Standard of Christ came in together. It is well known what Laws the Roman had; He had his Comitia, which bore a resemblance with our Convention in Parlement; the place of their meeting was called Praetorium, and the Laws which they enacted, Pleboscita.

The Saxon Conquest succeeded next, which were the English, there being no name in Welsh or Irish for an English man, but Saxon, to this day. They gover­ned by Parlement, though it were under other names; as Michel Sinoth, Michel Gemote, and Witenage Mote.

There are Records above a thousand years old, of these Parlements, in the Raigns of King Ina, Offa, Ethelbert, and the rest of the seven Kings during the Heptarchy. The British Kings also, who retaind a great while some part of the Isle unconquered, governed and made Laws by a kind of Parlementary way; witnes the famous Laws of Prince Howell, called Howell Dha, (the good Prince Howell) whereof there are yet extant some Welsh Records. Parlements were also used after the Heptarchy by King Kenulphus, Alphred, and others; witnesse that renowned Parlement held at Grately by King Athelstan.

The third Conquest was by the Danes, and they govern'd also by such gene­rall Assemblies, (as they do to this day) witnesse that great and so much cele­brated Parlement held by that mighty Monarch Canutus, who was King of Eng­land, Denmark, Norway, and other Regions 150 years before the compiling of Magna Charta; and this the learned in the Laws do hold to be one of the spe­cialst, and most authentick peeces of antiquity we have extant. Edward the Confessor made all his Laws thus, (and he was a great Legis-lator,) which the Norman Conquerour (who liking none of his sons, made God Almighty his heir, bequeathing unto him this Island for a legacy) did ratifie and establish, and digested them into one entire methodicall Systeme, which being violated by Rufus, (who came to such a disastrous end as to be shot to death in lieu of a Buck for his sacriledges) were restor'd by Henry the first, and so they continued in force till King Iohn; whose Raign is renowned for first confirming Magna Charta, the foundation of our Liberties ever since: which may be compar'd to divers outlandish graffs set upon one English stock; or to a posie of sundry fragrant flowers; for the choicest of the British, the Roman, Saxon, Danish, and Norman Laws, be­ing cull'd and pick'd out, and gathered as it were into one bundle, out of them the foresaid grand Charter was extracted: And the establishment of this great Charter was the work of a Parlement.

[Page 4]Nor are the Lawes of this Island only, and the freedome of the Subject con­served by Parlement, but all the best policed Countries of Europe have the like. The Germanes have their Diets, the Danes and Swedes their Rijcks Dachs; the Spaniard calls his Parlement, las C [...]rtes and the French have, (or should have at least) their Assembly of three States, though it be growne now in a manner ob­solete, because the Authority thereof was (by accident) devolv'd to the King. And very remarkable it is, how this happened; for when the English had taken such large footing in most parts of France, having advanced as far as Orleans, and driven their then King Charles the seventh, to Bourges in Berry; the Assembly of the three States in these pressures, being not able to meet after the usuall man­ner in full Parlement, because the Countrey was unpassable, the Enemy having made such firme invasions up and down through the very bowels of the King­dome; that power which formerly was inhaerent in the Parlementary Assembly, of making Lawes, of assessing the Subject with Taxes, subsidiary levies, and other impositions, was transmitted to the King during the war; which conti­nuing many years, that intrusted power by length of time grew as it were ha­bituall in him, and could never after be re-assumed and taken from him; so that ever since, his Ediots countervaile Acts of Parlement. And that which made the businesse more feasable for the King, was, that the burthen fell most upon the Communalty (the Clergy and Nobility not feeling the weight of it) who were willing to see the Peasan pull'd downe a little, because not many years be­fore, in that notable Rebellion, call'd la laquerie de Beauvoisin, which was sup­pressed by Charles the wise, the Common people put themselves boldly in Arms against the Nobility and Gentry, to lessen their power. Adde hereunto as an advantage to the worke, that the next succeeding King Lewis the eleventh, was a close cunning Prince, and could well tell how to play his game, and draw water to his own mill; For amongst all the rest, he was said to be the first that put the Kings of France, Hors de page, out of their minority, or from being Pages any more, though thereby he brought the poore peasans to be worse than Lacquays.

With the fall, or at least the discontinuance of that usuall Parlementary Assem­bly of the three States, the liberty of the French Nation utterly fell; the poore [...]oturier and Vineyard-man, with the rest of the Yeomanary, being reduced ever since to such an abject asinin condition, that they serve but as sponges for the King to squeeze when he list. Neverthelesse, as that King hath an advantage hereby one way, to monarchize more absolutely, and never to want money, but to ballast his purse when he will: so there is another mighty inconvenience ariseth to him and his whole Kingdome another way; for this illegall peeling of the poore Peasan hath so dejected him, and cowed his native courage so much by the sense of poverty (which brings along with it a narrownesse of soule) that he is [Page 5] little usefull for the warre: which put's the French King to make other Na­tions mercenary to him, to fill up his Infantery: Insomuch, that the king­dome of France may be not unfitly compared to a body that hath all it's bloud drawn up in to the arms, breast and back, and scarce any lest from the girdle downwards, to cherish and bear up the lower parts, and keep them from starving.

All this seriously considered, there cannot be a more proper and preg­nant example than this of our next Neighbours, to prove how infinitely ne­cessary the Parlement is, to assert, to prop up, and preserve the publike li­berty, and nationall rights of a people, with the incolumity and well-fare of a Countrey.

Nor doth the Subject only reap benefit thus by Parlement, but the Prince, (if it be well consider'd) hath equall advantage thereby; It rendreth him a King of free and able men, which is far more glorious than to be a King of Slaves, Beggars, and Bankrupts; Men that by their freedome, and competency of wealth, are kept still in heart to do him service against any forraine force. And it is a true maxime in all States, that 'tis lesse danger and dishonour for the Prince to be poore, than his people: rich Subjects can make their King rich when they please; if he gain their hearts, he will quickly get their purses. Parlement encreaseth love and good intelligence twixt him and his people; It acquaints him with the reality of things, and with the true state and diseases of his kingdom; It brings him to the know­ledge of his better sort of Subjects, and of their abilities, which he may employ accordingly upon all occasions; It provides for his Royall Issue, payes his debts, fines means to fill his Coffers: and it is no ill observation, That Parlement-monyes (the great Aid) have prospered best with the Kings of England; It exceedingly raiseth his repute abroad, and enableth him to keep his foes in feare, his Subject [...] in awe, his Neighbours and Confederates in security, the three main things which go to aggrandize a Prince, and render him glorious. In summe, it is the Parlement that supports, and bears up the honour of his Crown, and settles his Throne in safety, which is the chiefe end of all their consultations: For whosoever is entrusted to be a Member of this High Court, carrieth with him a double capacity; he sits there as a Patriot, and as a Subject: as he is the one, the Country is his object, his duty being to vindicate the publike liberty, to make wholsome Lawes, to put his hand to the pump, and stop the leaks of the great vessell of the State, to pry into, and punish corruption and oppression, to improve and advance trade, to have the grievances of the place he serves for redressed, and cast about how to find something that may tend to the advantage of it.

[Page 6]But he must not forget that he sits there also as a Subject, and according to that capacity, he must apply himselfe to do his Soveraigns businesse, to pro­vide not only for his publike, but his personall wants; to beare up the lustre and glory of his Court; to consider what occasions of extraordinary expen­ces he may have, by encrease of Royall Issue, or maintenance of any of them abroad; to enable him to vindicate any affront or indignity that might be offered to his Person, Crown, or Dignity, by any forraine State or King­dome; to consult what may enlarge his honour, contentment, and pleasure. And as the French Tacitus (Comines) hath it, the English Nation was used to be more forward and zealous in this particular than any other; according to that ancient eloquent speech of a great Lawyer, Domus Regis vigilia de­fendit omnium, otium illius labor omnium, deliciae illius industria omnium, vaca­tio illius occupatio omnium, salus illius periculum omnium, honor illius objectum omnium Every one should stand Centinell to defend the Kings houses, his safety should be the danger of all, his pleasures the industry of all, his ease should be the labour of all, his honour the object of all.

Out of these premisses this conclusion may be easily deduced, That, the principall fountaine whence the King derives his happinesse and safety, is his Parlement; It is that great Conduit-pipe which conveighes unto him his peoples bounty and gratitude; the truest Looking-glasse wherein he dis­cernes their loves; now the Subjects love hath been alwayes accounted the prime Cittadell of a Prince. In his Parlement he appears as the Sun in the Meridian, in the altitude of his glory, in his highest State Royall, as the Law tels us.

Therefore whosoever is averse or disaffected to this Soveraigne Law-ma­king Court, cannot have his heart well planted within him: he can be neither good Subject, nor good Patriot; and therefore unworthy to breathe English ayre, or have any benefit, advantage, or protection from the Lawes.

Sectio Secunda.

BY that which hath been spoken, which is the language of my heart, I hope no indifferent judicious Reader will doubt of the cordiall affection, of the high respects and due reve­rence I beare to Parlement, as being the wholsomest consti­tution, (and done by the highest and happiest reach of po­licy) that ever was established in this Island; to perpe­tuate the happinesse thereof, Therefore I must tell that Gentleman, who was Author of a Booke entituled the Popish Royall Favorite, (lately printed and exposed to the world) that he offers me very hard measure; nay, he doth me apparant wrong, to terme me therein, No friend to Parlement, and a Malignant; A character, which as I deserve it not, so I disdain it.

For the first part of his charge, I lwoud have him know, that I am as much a friend and as reall an affectionate humble servant and Votary to the Par­lement as possibly he can be, and will live and dye with these affections about me: And I could wish, that he were Secretary of my thoughts a while, or if I may take the boldnesse to apply that comparison his late Majesty used in a famous speech to one of his Parlements, I could wish there were a Chrystall window in my breast, through which the world might espye the inward motions and palpitations of my heart, then would he be certified of the sincerity of this protestation.

For the second part of his Charge, to be a Maligna [...]t, I must confesse to have some Malignity that lurks within me much against my will; but it is no malignity of minde, it is amongst the humours, not in my intellectuals. And I beleeve, there is no naturall man, let him have his humours never so well ballanced, but hath some of this Malignity raigning within him; For as long as we are composed of the foure Elements, whence these humors are de­rived, and with whom they symbolize in qualities; which Elements the Philosophers hold to be in a restlesse contention amongst themselves (and the Stoicke thought that the world subsisted by this innated mutuall strife) as long I say, as the foure humors, in imitation of their principles (the Ele­ments) are in perpetuall reluctancy and combate for praedominancy, there must be some malignity lodg'd within us, as adusted choler, and the like; whereof I had late experience, in a dangerous fit of sicknesse it pleased God to lay upon me, which the Physitians told me proceeded from the ma­lignant hypocondriacall effects of melancholy; having been so long in this Saturnine black condition of close imprisonment, and buried alive between [Page 8] the wals of this fatall Fleet. These kinds of malignities, I confesse are very rife in me, and they are not only incident, but connaturall to every man ac­cording to his complexion: And were it not for this incessant strugling and enmity amongst the humors for mastery, which produceth such malig­nant effects in us, our soules would be loth ever to depart from our bodies, or to abandon this mansion of clay.

Now what malignity my Accuser means, I know not; if he means malig­nity of spirit, as some antipathy or ill impression upon the minde, arising fromdisaffection, hatred, or rancor, with a desire of some destructive revenge, he is mightily deceiv'd in me: I maligne or hate no Creature that ever God made, but the Devill, who is the Author of all malignity; and therefore is most commonly called in French le Malin Esprit the malignant spirit. E­very night before I go to bed, I have the grace, I thanke God for it, to for­give all the world, and not to harbour, or let roost in my bosome the least malignant thought; yet none can deny, but the publike aspersions which this my Accuser casts upon me, were enough to make me a malignant to­wards him; yet it could never have the power to do it: For I have prevail'd with my selfe to forgive him this his wrong censure of me, issuing rather from his not knowledge of me, than from malice, for we never mingled speech or saw one another in our lives to my remembrance: which makes me wonder the more, that a Professor of the Law, as he is, should ronounce such a positive sentence against me so slightly. But me thinks PI over-hear him say, that the precedent discourse of Parlement is involv'd in generals, and the Topique Axiome tels us, that Dolus versatur in universalibus there is double dealing in universals: His meaning is, that I am no friend to this present Parlement (though he speaks in the plurall number Parlements) and consequently, he concludes me a Malignant; Therein, I must tell him also, that I am traduc'd, and I am confident it will be never p [...]ov'd against me, from any actions, words, or letters (though diuers of mine have bin in­tercepted) or any other misdemeanor, though some things [...]re [...]ather'd up­on me which never drop'd from my quill. Alas, how unworthy and unca­pable am I to censure the proceedings of that great Senate, that high Syne­drion, wherein the wisedome of the whole State is epitomized? It were a presumption in me, of the highest nature that could be: It is enough for me to pray for the prosperous successe of their consultations: And as I hold it my duty, so I have good reason so to do, in regard I am to have my share in the happinesse; And could the utmost of my poore endeavours, by any ministeriall humble office (and sometimes the meanest Boat-swain may help to preserve the Ship from sinking) be so happy, as to contribute [Page 9] any thing to advance that great worke (which I am in despaire to do, while I am thus under hatches in this Fleet,) I would esteem it the greatest honor that possibly could befall me, as I hold it now to be my greatest disaster, to have fallen so heavily under an affliction of this nature, and to be made a sa­crifice to publike fame, than which there is no other proofe, nor that yet urg'd against me, or any thing else produc'd after so long, so long captivity, which hath brought me to such a low ebbe, and put me so far behind in the course of my poore fortunes, and indeed more than halfe undone me. For although my whole life (since I was left to my selfe to swim, as they say, without bladders) has bin nothing else but a continued succession of crosses, and that there are but few red letters found (God wot) in the Almanacke of my Age, (for which I account not my selfe a whit the lesse happy;) yet this crosse has carried with it a greater weight, it hath bin of a larger extent, longer continuance, and lighted heavier upon me than any other; and as I have present patience to beare it, so I hope for subsequent grace to make use of it accordingly, that my old Motto may be still confirmed, [...].

HE produceth my attestation for some passages in Spaine, at his Maje­sties being there, and he quotes me right, which obligeth me to him; and I hope all his quotations, wherein he is so extraordinarily copious and elaborate in all his workes, are so; yet I must tell him, that those inter­changeable letters which passed between His Majesty and the Pope, which were originally couch'd in Latine, the language wherein all Nations treate with Rome, and the Empire with all the Princes thereof, those letters I say, are adulterated in many places, which I impute not to him, but to the French Chronicler, from whom he tooke them in trust. The truth of that businesse is this: The world knowes there was a tedious treaty of an Alli­ance 'twixt the Infanta Dona Maria (who now is Empresse) and His Majesty, which in regard of the slow affected pace of the Spaniard, lasted above ten years, as that in Henry the sevenths time, 'twixt Prince Arthur, and (after­wards) Queen Katherine, was spun out above seven: To quicken, or rather to consummate the work, his Majesty made that adventurous journey through the whole Continent of France, into Spaine; which voyage, though there was a great deale of gallantry in it (whereof all posterity will ring, untill it turne at last to a Romance) yet it prov'd the bane of the businesse, which 'tis not the errand of so poore a Pamphlet as this to unfold. His Majesty being there arriv'd, the ignorant common people cried out, the Prince of Wales came thither to make himselfe a Christian. The Pope writ to the Inquisitor Generall, and others, to use all industry they could to reduce him to the Ro­mane [Page 10] Religion; And one of Olivares first complements to him, was, That he doubted [...]ot but that His Highnesse came thither to change His Religion: whereunto he made a short answer, That He came not thither for a Religion, but for a Wife. There were extraordinary processions made, and other arti­fices us'd by protraction of things, to make him stay there of purpose till the Spring following, to worke upon him the better: And the Infanta her selfe desir'd him (which was esteem'd the greatest favour he received from her all the while) to visit the Nunne of Carion; hoping that the sayd Nunne, who was so much cried up for miracles, might have wrought one upon him; but her art failed her, nor was His Highnesse so weake a subject to work upon, according to His late Majesties speech to Doctor Mawe and Wren, who when they came to kisse his hands, before they went to Spaine to attend the Prince their Master, He wished them to have a care of Buckingham, as touching his Sonne Charles, he apprehended no feare at all of him; for he knew him to be so well grounded a Protestant, that nothing could shake him in his Religion. The Arabian proverbe is, That the Sun never soiles in his pas­sage, though his beames reverberate never so strongly, and dwell never so long upon the myry lake of Maeotis, the black turfd moores of Holland, the aguish woose of Kent and Essex, or any other place, be it never so di [...]ty; Though Spaine be a hot Countrey, yet one may passe and repasse through the very Center of it, and never be Sun-burnt, if he carry with him a Bon­grace, and such a one His Majesty had.

Well, after his Majesties arrivall to Madrid, the treaty of Marriage went on still, (though he told them at his first comming, that he came not thither like an Embassador, to treat of Marriage, but as a Prince, to fetch home a Wife;) and in regard they were of different Religions, it could not be done without a dispensation from the Pope, & the Pope would grant none, unlesse some Capitulations were stipulated in favour of the Romish Catho­likes in England, (the same in substance were agreed on with France.) Well, when the dispensation came, which was negotiated solely by the King of Spains Ministers; because His Majesty would have as little to do as might be with Rome, Pope Gregory the fifteenth, who died a little after, sent His Majesty a Letter, which was delivered by the Nuncio, whereof an answer was sent a while after: Which Letters were imprinted and exposed to the view of the world; because His Majesty would not have people whisper, that the businesse was carried in a clandestine manner. And truly besides this, I do not know of any Letter, or Message, or Complement, that ever pass'd 'twixt His Majesty and the Pope, afore or after; some addresses peradventure might be made to the Cardinalls, to whom the drawing of [Page 11] those matrimoniall dispatches was referred, to quicken the work, but this was only by way of civill negotiation.

Now touching that responsory Letter from His Majesty, it was no other than a Complement in the severest interpretation, and such formalities passe 'twixt the Crown of England, and the great Turke, and divers Heathen Princes. The Pope writ first, and no man can deny, but by all morall rules, and in common humane civility His Majesty was bound to answer it, speci­ally considering how punctuall they are in those Countries to correspond in this kind, how exact they are in repayring visits, and the performance of such Ceremonies; And had this compliance been omitted, it might have made very ill impressions, as the posture of things stood then; for it had prejudiced the great work in hand, I mean, the Match, which was then in the heat and height of agitation: His Majesties person was there engag'd, and so it was no time to give the least offence. They that are never so little vers'd in businesse abroad, do know that there must be addresses, complian­ces, and formalities of this nature (according to the Italian Proverbe, That one must sometimes light a candle to the Devill) us'd in the carriage of matters of State, as this great businesse was, whereon the eyes of all Christendome were so greedily fix'd; A businesse which was like to bring with it such an universall good, as the restitution of the Palatinate, the quenching of those hideous fires in Germany, and the establishing of a peace through all the Christian World.

I hope none will take offence, that in this particular which comes within the compasse of my knowledge, being upon the Stage when this Scene was acted, I do this right to the King my Master, in displaying the Truth, and putting her forth in her own colours, a rare thing in these dayes.

TOuching the Vocall Forrest, an Allegoricall Discourse, that goes abroad under my name, a good while before the beginning of this Parlement, which this Gentleman cites (and that very faithfully.) I understand there be some that mutter at certain passages therein, by putting ill glosses upon the Text, and taking with the left hand, what I offer with the right: (Nor is it a wonder for trees which lys open, and stand exposed to all weathers to be nipt) But I desire this favour, which in common justice, I am sure in the Court of Chancery cannot be denyed me, it being the priviledge of every Author, and a received maxime through the World, Cujus est condere, ejus est interpretari; I say, I crave this favour, to have leave to expound my own Text, and I doubt not then but to rectifie any one in his opinion of me, and that in lieu of the Plums which I give him from those Trees, he will not throw the stones at me.

[Page 12]Moreover, I desire those that are over criticall Censurers of that peece, to know, that as in Divinity it is a rule, Scripturae parabolica non est argumen­ativa; so it is in all other kind of knowledge. Parables (whereof that Dis­course is composed) though pressed never so hard, prove nothing. There is another Rule also, That Parables must be gently used, like a Nurses breast; which if you presse too hard, you shall have bloud in stead of milke.

But as the Author of the Vocall Forrest thinks he hath done, neither his Countrey, nor the Common-wealth of Learning any prejudice thereby (That maiden fancy having received so good entertainment and respect abroad, as to be translated into divers Languages, and to gain the publick approbation of some famous Universities) So he makes this humble protest unto all the World, that though the designe of that Discourse was partly Satyricall (which peradventure induc'd the Author to shrowd it of purpose under the shadowes of trees, and where should Satyres be but amongst Trees?) yet it never entred into his imagination to let fall from him the least thing that might give any offence to the High and Honorable Court of Parlement, wherof he had the honor to be once a Member, and hopes he may be thought worthy again; And were he guilty of such an offence, or piacle rather, he thinks he should never forgive himselfe, though he were appointed his own Judge. If there occurre any passage therein▪ that may admit a hard con­struction, let the Reader observe, That the Author doth not positively as­sert, or passe a judgement on any thing in that Discourse, which consists principally of concise, cursory narrations, of the choisest Occurrences and Criticismes of State, according as the pulse of time did beat then: And matters of State, as all other sublunary things, are subject to alterations, contigencies and change, which makes the opinions and minds of men vary accordingly; not one amongst twenty is the same man to day as he was four years ago, in point of judgement, which turns and alters according to the circumstance and successe of things: And it is a true saying, whereof we find common experience, posterior dies est prioris Magister The day follow­ing is the former dayes Schoolmaster. Ther's another Aphorisme, The wisedome of one day is the foolishnesse of another, and 'twill be so as long as there is a man left in the world.

I will conclude with this modest request to that Gentleman of the long Robe; That having unpassionately perus'd what I have written in this small Discourse, in penning whereof, my conscience guided my quill all along as well as my hand, he would please to be so charitable and just, as to reverse that harsh sentence upon me, To be no Friend to Parlements, and a Malignant.

FINIS.
ENGLANDS TEARES, FOR …

ENGLANDS TEARES, FOR THE PRESENT VVARS, WHICH FOR THE NATVRE of the Quarell, the quality of Strength, the diversity of Battailes, Skirmiges, Encounters, and Sieges, (happened in so short a compasse of time,) cannot be paralleld by any precedent Age.

Hei mihi, quàm miserè rugit Leo, Lilia languent,
Heu, Lyra, quàm maestos pulsat Hiberna sonos.

Printed at London, according to Order, by Richard Heron, 1644.

To my Imperiall Chamber, The City of London.

Renowned City,

IF any showers of adversity fall on me, some of the drops thereof must needs dash on thy Streets. It is not a shower but a furious Storme that powr's upon me now, accompanied with fearfull cracks of thunder and unusu­all fulgurations. The fatall Cloud wherein this storm lay long engendring, though, when it began to condense first, it appeared but as big as a hand, yet by degrees it hath spread to such a vast ex­pansion, that it hath diffus'd it selfe through all my Regions, and ob­scur'd that fair face of Heaven, which was used to shine upon me; If it last long, 'tis impossible but we both should perish. Peace may, but War must destroy. I see poverty posting apace, and ready to knock at thy gates; That gastly herbenger of Death the Pestilence appears already within and without thy Walls; And me thinks I spie meager-fac'd Famine a farre off making towards thee; nor can all thy elaborat circumvallations, and trenches, or any art of Enginry, keepe him out of thy Line of Communication if this hold. Therefore my dear Daughter, think, Oh think upon some timely prevention, 'tis the Counsell, and request of

Thy most afflicted Mother ENGLAND.

Englands Teares.

OH! that my head did flow with waters; Oh, that my Eyes were lim­becks through which might distill drops and essences of bloud! Oh that I could melt away and dissolve all in to teares more brackish than those Seas that surround me! Oh that I could weepe my selfe blind to prevent the seeing of those Mountains of mischiefs that are like to fall down upon me! Oh, that I could rend the Rocks that gird me about, and with my ejaculations tear and dissipate those black dismall cloud [...] which hang over me! Oh, that I could cleave the Ayre with my cries, that they might find passage up to Heaven, and fetch down the Moon (that [...]atry planet) to weep and wayle with me, or make old Saturne descend from his Spheare, to partake with me in my melancholy, and bring along with him the mournfull Pleiades, to make a full consort and sing lachrymae with me, for that wofull taking, that desperat [...] case, that most deplorable condition I have plung'd my selfe into unawares, by thi [...] unnaturall selfe-destroying Warre, by this intricate odd kind of Enigmaticall War wherein both Parties are so entangled (like a skeine of ravell'd silk) that they know not how to unwind and untwist themselves, but by violent and destructive wayes, by tearing my entrailes, by exhausting my vitall spirits, by breaking my very hear [...]strings to cure the Malady. Oh, I am deadly sick, and as that famous Chancelor o [...] France spoke of the civill Warrs of his Countrey, That France was sick of an unknow [...] disease; so if Hippocrates himselfe were living, he could not be able to tell the tr [...] symptomes of mine, though he felt my pulse, and made inspection into my wate [...] never so exactly; onely in the generall he may discover a strange kinde of infecti [...] that hath seised upon the affections of my people; But for the disease it selfe it wi [...] gravell him to judge of it: nor can there be any prediction made of it, it is so sharp which make some tell me that I cannot grow better, but by growing yet worse; Th [...] there is no way to stanch this Flux of Bloud, but by opening some more of the m [...] ­ster Veines: that it is not enough for me to have drunke so deep of this cup of affl [...]ction, but I must swallow up the dregs and all.

Oh, Passenger stop thy pace, and if there be any sparkles of humane compa [...]sion glowing in thy bosome, stay a while and hear my plaints, and I know they w [...] not only strike a resentment, but a horror into thee; for they are of such a natur [...] [Page 2] that they are able to penetrate a breast of brasse, to mollifie a heart hoop'd with Ada­mant, to wring tears out of a statue of Marble.

I that have bin alway accounted the Queen of Isles, the Darling of nature, and Neptune Minion; I that have bin stil'd by the Character of the first Daughter of the Church, that have converted eight severall Nations; I that made the morning beams of Chri­stianity shine upon Scotland, upon Ireland, and a good part of France; I that did ir­radiat Denmarque, Swethland and Norway with the light thereof; I that brought the Saxons, with other Germanes high and low ▪ from Paganisme, to the knowledge of the Gospell; I that had the first Christian King that ever was (E [...]ius) and the first re­formed King (the eight Henry) to raigne over me; I out of whos [...] bowells sprung the first Christian Emperour that ever was, Constantine; I that had five severall Kings, viz. Iohn King of France, David King of Scotland, Peter King of Boheme, and two I [...] ­rish Kings my Captifs in lesse than one year; I under whose banner that great Empe­rour Maximilian tooke it an honor to serve in person, and receive pay from mee and quarter his Arms with mine; I that had the Lyon rampant of Scotland lately added to fill up my Scutchen, and had reduc'd Ireland, after so many costly intermissive wars, to such a perfect passe of obedience, and settlement of customs & Crown Revenues; I that to the astonishment and envy of the World, preserved my own Dominions free and flourishing, when all my neighbour Countries were a fire before my face; I that did so wonderfully flourish and improve in commerce domestique and forren both by Land and Sea; I that did so abound with Bullion, with buildings, with all sort of bravery that heart could wish; in summe, I that did live in that height of happines, in that affluence of all earthly felicity, that some thought I had yet remaining some [...]ngots of that old gold whereof the first age of the world was made: Behold, behold, I am now become the object of pitty to some, of scorne to others, of laughter to all people; my children abroad are driven to disadvow me for fear of being jeerd, they dare not own me for their Mother, neither upon the Rialto of Venice, the Berle of Aus­burg, the new Bridge of Paris, the Cambios of Spaine, or upon the Quoys of Hol­and, for feare of being baffled and hooted at. Me thinkes I see my next neighbour France, (through whose bowells my gray-Goose wing flew so oft) making mowes at [...]ne, and saying, that whereas she was wont to be the chiefe Theater where fortune us'd [...]o play her pranks, she hath now removed her stage hither; she laughes at me that I [...]hould let the common people the Citty rabble, (and now lately the females) to [...]ow their strength so much.

Me thinks I see the Spanyard standing at a gaze, and crossing himselfe to see mee so [...]olish as to execute the designes of my enemies upon my selfe. The Italian admires [...] see a people argue themselves thus into Arms, and to be so active in their own ruine; [...]he German drinks carouses that he hath now a Co-partner in his miseries; The Swed joyces in a manner to see me bring in a forren Nation to be my Champion; The [...]etherlander strikes his hand upon his breast, and protests that he wisheth me as well once the Duke of Burgundy did France, when he swoare, He lov'd France so well, [...]at for one King he wish'd she had twenty.

[Page 3]Me thikns I see the Turke nodding with his Turban, and telling me that I should [...]hank Heaven for that distance which is betwixt us, else he would swallow me all up [...]t one morsell; only the Hollander my bosome friend seems to resent my hard condi­ [...]ion, yet he thinks it no ill favoured sight to see his shops and lombards every where [...]ll of my plundered goods, to find my trade cast into his hands, and that he can un­ [...]ersell me in my own native commodities, to see my gold brought over in such heaps, [...]y those that flie from me with all they have for their security; In fine, me thinks I [...]ear all my neighbours about me bargaining for my skin, while thus like an unruly [...]orse, I run headlong to dash out my own brains.

O cursed jealousie, the source of all my sorrowes, the ground of all my inexpressible miseries! is it not enough for thee to creep in twixt the husband and the wife, twixt the lemmon and his mate, twixt parents and children, twixt kindred and friends; hast thou not scope enough to sway in private Families, in staple societies, and Corpora­tions, in common counsells, but thou must get in, twixt King and Parlement, twixt the [...]ead and the members (twixt the Members amongst themselves?) but thou must get a twixt Prince and people, but thou must cast up so deep a trench twixt the Soveraign [...]nd the Subject. Avant, avant thou hollow-eyed Snake-haird monster, hence away [...]nto the abisse below, into the bottomlesse gulfe, thy proper mansion; sit there in thy haire, and preside o're the counsells of hell amongst the Cacodaemons, and never as­cend again to turne my high law-making Court into a Councell of Warre, to turne my best antidote into poyson, and throw so many Scruples into that Soveraign physick which was us'd to cure me of all d [...]stempers.

But when I well consider the constitution of this elementary world, and finde man [...]o be part of it, when I think on those light and changeable ingredients that go to his composition, I conclude, that men will be men while there is a World, and as long as the Moon their next neighbour towards heaven hath an influxive power to make impressions upon their humors, they will be ever greedy and covetous of novelties and mutation; the common people will be still common people, they will sometime or other shew what they are, and vent their instable passions. And when I consider further the distractions, the tossings, turmoylings and tumblings of other Regions round about me, as well as mi [...]e own, I conclude also, that Kingdoms and States and Cities and all body politiques are as subject to convulsions, to calentures, and con­sumptions, aswell as the fraile bodies of men, and must have an evacuation for their corrupt humors, they must be phlebotomiz'd; I have often felt this kind of phlebo­ [...]omy, I have had also shrewd purges and pills often given me, which did not onely work upon my superfluous humors, but wasted sometimes my very vitall spirits; yet I had Electuaries and Cordiall [...] given me afterwards, which fetched me up again; Insomuch that this present tragedy is but vetus fabula novi Histriones it is but an old play represented by new Actors, I have often had the like. Therefore let no man wonder at these traverses and humor of change in me. I remember there was as much wondring at the demolishing of my 600 and odd Monasteries, Nunneries & Abbeis for [...]ing held to be Hives of drones, as there is now at the pulling downe of my Crosses [Page 4] Organs and Windowes,; There was as much wondring when the Pope fell hire, a [...] [...] that the Prelates are like to fall; The World wondred as much when the M [...]sse was disliked, as men wonder now the Liturgy should be distasted; And God grant that people do not take at last a surfet of that most divine Ordinance of preaching, for no violent thing lasts long; And though there should be no satiety in holy things, yet such is the depraved condition of man, he is naturally such a Changeling, that the o­ver frequency and commonnesse of any thing, be it never so good, breeds in tract of time a kind of contempt in him, it breeds a fulnesse and nauseousnes in him.

The first Reformation of my Church began at Court, and so was the more feasable, and it was brought to passe without a Warre; The scene is now otherwise, it is far more sanguinary and fuller of Actors; never had a Tragedy Acts of more variety in so short a time; there was never such a confus'd mysterious civill War as this, there was never so many bodies of strength on Sea and Shore, never such choice Arms and Artillerie, never such a numerous Cavalrie on both sides, never so many Sieges, ne­ver a greater eagernes and confidence, there was never such an amphibolous quarrell as this, both parties declaring themselves for the King, and making use of his name in all their Remonstrances to justifie their actions, The affect on, and understandings of people were never so confounded and puzled, not knowing where to acquiesce, by reason of such counter-commands. One side calls the resisting of Royall commands loyalty, the other termes loyalty, the opposing of Parlementary Orders and Ordinan­ces. Both parties would have peace, the one would have it with Honor, the other with Truth, (and God forbid but both should go together) but, Int [...]a [...]a ring or Ego, in the mean time I, poore I am sure do suffer by both, the one taking away what the other leav's, If the one polls me, the other shaves me, and God grant they fall not a flaying of me at last. Insomuch that whosoever will be curious to rea [...] the future story of this intricate Warre (if it be possible to compile a story of it) he will find himselfe much stagger'd, and put to kind of a riddle before he understand it; for touching the intricacy of it, touching the strange nature, or rather the unnaturalnesse of it, it cannot be parallel'd by any precedent example: In my Chronicles I am sure no age can match it, as I will make it briefly appear, by comparing it with all the Warres that ever embroil'd me, which I finde to be of three sorts, either by the invasion of Forreners, the Insurrection of my Commons, or by the confederacy of my Peers and Princes of the Bloud.

I will not [...]ake the ashes of Antiquity so far as to speak of that deluge of bloud I spilt before I would take the Roman Legions for my Garrison; I am loth to set down how the Saxons us'd me, and how the Danes us'd Them, nor how I had one whol brave race of people (the Picts I mean) quite extinguished in me, I will begin with the Norman expedition, and indeed to make recearches of matters before, is but to grop [...] in the dark, but I have authentick Annales and Records for things since. The Nor­man came in with the slaughter of neer upon sixty eight thousand Combatants upon the place, a Battaile so memorable, that the very ground which sucked in the bloud retaines the name of it to this day. The Dane not long after strook in to recover his [Page 5] pretended right, with the sacking of my second great City of Yorke, and the [...]iring of her, with the slaughter of 3000 of my children in one afternoon, yet he was sent a­way without his arrand. In the raigne of Rufus I was made of his colour, red with bloud both by the Welsh and the Scot, who lost his King Malcolme in the Battaile of Alnwick. All my eight Henries were infested with some civill broyles, except my fift Henry the greatest of them, who had work enough cut him out in France, and hee plied his work so well that he put that Crown upon his Sons head. All my Edwards also had some home-bred insurrection or other; indeed two of my three Richards had alwayes quietnesse at home, though the first did go the furthest off from me, and was longest absent of any; And the third, though he came in by bloud, yet the short time of his three yeares Vsurpership he was without any, and prov'd one of my best Law-givers, yet his life ended in bloud, for having come in like a fox, he dyed like a calfe. Touching my second Richard, and second Edward, there were never any of my Kings came to a more Tragique end, and the greatest stains that black my story are the violent deaths they suffered by the hands of their own (Regicide) Subjects. The two Sister Queens that swayed my Scepter had also some domestique commotions; and now my CHARLES hath them to the height, insomuch that of those five and twenty Monarques who have worne my d [...]adems since the Norman entred, there was only foure, viz. the forementioned Henry, and Richards, with King IAMES scaped free from all intestin broyles! Oh how it torments my Soule to remember how my Barons did teare my bowells! what an Ocean of bloud the two Roses cost me before they were conjoyned, for during the time that I came to be a Monster with two heads (made so by their division) I mean during the time that I had two Kings at once, Ed­ward the fourih, and Henry the sixt within me, in five years space I had twelve Battails fought within my entrails, wherin I lost neer upō fourscore Princes of the royal stem, and parted with more of my spirits than there were spent in winning of France. The World knowes how free and prodigall I have bin of my bloud abroad in divers pla­ces, I watered the Holy Land with much of it; Against my Co-Islander the Scot I had above twenty pitch'd Battails, tooke many, and kil'd some of his Kings in the Field▪ the Flower de lyces cost me dear defore I brought them over upon my Sword; and the reduction of Ireland from time to time to civility, and to an exact rule of alleageance wasted my children in great numbers. I never grudg'd to venture my bloud this way, for I ever had glorious returns for it; and my Sons dyed in the bed of honour: but for them to glut themselves with one anothers bloud; for them to lacerat and rip up (viper-like) the wombe that brought them forth, to teare the Paps that gave them suck, can there be a greater piacle against nature her selfe, can there be a more execra­ble and horrid thing? If a stranger had us'd mee thus it would not have griev'd me half so much; It is better to be stung with a nettle, than prick'd by a Rose; I had rather suffe [...] by an Enemy, than by my own naturall born off-spring. Those former home-wag [...] Wars, whereof there hapned above fourscore (smal & great) since the Norman cam [...] in, were but as fires of Flax in comparison of this horrid combustion, which mak [...] both my Church & State to suffer so much. One may finde those Wars Epitomiz [...] [Page 6] in small volumes, but a whole library cannot contain this. They were but Scratches being compar'd to the deep wounds which Prince, Peere, and people have receiv'd by this; such wounds, that it seems no gentle C [...]t [...]plasmes can cure them, they must be [...]anc'd aed canteriz'd, and the huge scars they will leave behinde them will, I feare, make me appear so deformed and ugly to all posterity, that I am halfe in despaire to recover my former beauty ever again. The deep stains these Wars will leave up­on me, all the water of the Severn, Trent or Thames will hardly wash away.

The Sun yet hath not run twice his course through the Zodia [...], since the two-edged [...]word of War hath rag'd & done many horrid executions within me, since that Hel­lish invention of powder hath thundred in every corner, since it hath darkned torn, & infected my well-tempered aire, since I have weltered in my own bloud, and bin made [...] kind of Cockpit, a Theater of death to my own children; And in so short a cir­cumvolution of time, I may confidently affirm take battailes, re-encounters, skir­ [...]ishes, with sieges both winter and summer, there never hapned so many in any Countrey; not do I see any appeara [...]ce, the more is my misery, of any period to be [...]ut to these Distractions, every day is spectator of some new Tragedy, and there­ [...]ations that are hourely blaz'd abroad sound sometimes well on the one side, some­ [...]mes on the other, like a peale of bels in windy weather (though oftentimes in a [...]hole volley of News you shall hardly finde one true R port) which makes me feare [...] the all disposing Deity of Heaven continueth the successes of both parties in a [...]inde of equality, to prolong my miseries. Ita serior, ut diu me sentiam mori, I am [...]ounded with that dexterity, th [...]t the sence and agonies of my sufferings are like to [...]e extended to the uttermost lengt [...] of time and possibility of n [...]ture.

But, O Passenger, if thou art desirous to know the cause of these fatall discompo­ [...]res, of this inextricable War, truly I must deal plainly, I cannot resolve thee herein [...] any full satisfaction. Grievances there were I must confesse, and some incongrui­ [...]es in my Civill government (wherein some say the Crosier, some say the Distaffe [...]as too busie) but I little thought, God wot, that those grievances required a redresse [...]is way. Do'st thou ask me whither Religion was the c [...]use? God [...]orbid; That in­ [...]cent and holy Matron had rather go c [...]ad in the snowie white robes of meeknesse [...] longanimity, than in the purple m [...]ntle of bloud, her practise hath bee [...]e to [...]ercome by a passive fortitude without reaction, and to triumph in t [...]e milk-white [...]ory Chariot o [...] inn [...]cency and p [...]tience, not to be [...]urried away with the fiery [...]eels of War; Dei lar [...]es not les armes ( [...]s my next neig [...]bour hath it) grones not guns, [...] nor swords, prayers not partis [...]ns were us'd to be her weapons unlesse in c [...]se of [...] and impendent d [...]nger, in case of invincible necessity, and visible actuall una­ [...]ydable extinguis [...]ment, and then the Arms she useth most is the Target to shroud [...] selfe under, and fence away th [...] blow▪ she leaves all other weapons, to the [...] to propagate and exp [...]nd it selfe. Thi [...] gentle grave L [...]y▪ though the Rubricks of [...] Service be in red characters, yet she is no lover of Bloud ▪ she is an embracer of [...], and the sole object of her [...] is the God of Peace, in who [...]e Highest [...]ame, in the name I [...]h [...]vah, as the Rabbies observe, all the letters are quies [...]nt. [Page 7] That sacred Comforter, which inspi [...]es her Ambassadors, uses to ascend in form of a Dov [...], not in the likenesse of a [...], and he that brings him downe so, may be sayd to sin agai [...]t the [...]; To be [...]t Religion into the braines with a Pol [...]axe, is to [...], to o [...]er him victims of humane bloud; Therefore [...] wro [...]g R [...] igion if I should cast this war upon her: yet me think [...]s I [...] lame [...] that shee was not also without her [...] Gove [...]ors (for want of moderation) could not [...] t [...]e Church, but [...]hey must pu [...] themse [...]ves [...] up to the Turr [...]ts of civill p [...]licy, many o [...] her Preachers [...] [...]ome to the Cou [...]t, some to th [...] Country; some would h ve nothing [...], o [...]ers nothing [...] Priviledge ▪ some won'd giveth [...], some to feed zeal, would famish the understanding; others [...] underst [...]nding, and tickle the outward eare (wit [...] ess [...]ies and flourishes of [...]) would [...] the soul of her true food, &c.

But the principal thing [...] [...]ear that Reverend L [...]dy, (that Queen of souls, & turn key of heaven) m ke [...] of, is [...] that Se [...]mlesse garment of Unity and Love which our S viour left [...] and rent into so many Sci [...]sures and Sect [...] by those that would make [...] which she wore in h [...]r infancy, to serv [...] her in [...]. I hear her cry out [...]t the monstrous exorbitant liberty that almo [...] every c [...]pricious Mechanique takes to [...]imselfe to s [...]ape and form what Religion h [...] list: for the world is come [...]ow to [...] passe, [...]h [...]t the T [...]ylor and Shoomaker may [...] wh [...]t Religion they please; [...] and [...]apster m [...]y breach what Religio [...] they p [...]e [...]se; The Druggest and Apothe [...]ry m y ming e her as they please; The H [...]berd [...]sher m [...]y put her upon w [...]at block [...]e p [...]eases; The Armourer and Cutler [...] fur [...]sh her as they please; The Dyer m [...]y put w [...]at col ur, the Painter may [...] what face upon her be please; The Dr [...]p [...]r and Mercer may measure her as th [...] please; The W [...]er may cast her upon wha [...] [...] please; The Boatswain and [...] m [...]y bring her to what dock they please; The Bar [...]er may trim her as he plea [...] The Gard [...]er may lop her as he please; the Blackesmith may forge what Religion [...] please, and so every Mechanic according to his profession and fancy may forme he [...] he please. Me thinks I hear that venerable Matron complaine further, how her [...] in some places are become meer Beacons to summon men to Arms; How in [...] of lights, her Churches up and down are full of Firebrands; How every capri [...] of the brain is term'd now tendernesse of Conscience, which well examined is thi [...]g but some fond fa [...]cy, or fanatick frenzie rather of some shallow-braind [...] For whereas others h [...]ve bin us'd to run mad for excesse of knowledge, some of children grow mad now a daies out of too much ignorance. It stands upon reco [...] my story, that when the Norman had taken firm footing within me, he did demo [...] many Churches and Chappels in New-Forrest, to make it fitter for his pleasur [...] venery▪ but amongst other judgements which fell upon this Sacriledge, one was [...] tame sowle grew wilde; I fear God Almighty is more angry with me now than & that I am guilty of a worse profanes; for not my Fowl, but my Folk & peop [...] [Page 8] [...]rown halfe wild in many places, they would not worry one another so in that wol­ [...]ish belluine manner else, they would not precipitate themselves else into such a mixt [...]ungrell War, a War that passeth all understanding; They would not cut their owne [...]hroats, hang, drown, and do themselves away in such a desperate sort, which is now [...]rown so common, that self-murther is scarce accounted any newes; which makes [...]trangers cry out, that I am all turn'd into a kind of Great Bedlam, that Barbary is come [...]to the midst of me; That my children are grown so savage, so flesh'd in bloud, and [...]ecome so inhumane and obdurate, that with the same tendernesse of sence they can [...] a man fall, as see a horse, or some other bruit Animall, they have so lost all reve­ [...]ence to the image of their Creatour, which was us'd to be more valued in me, than [...]mongst any other Nation.

But I hope my King and great Councell will take a course to bring them to their [...]ld English temper againe, to cure me of this vertigo, and preserve me from ruine; [...] such is my desperate case, that as there is more difficultie, so it would be a grea­ [...]r honour for them to prevent my destruction, and pull me out of this plunge, than [...] adde unto me a whole new kingdome; for true wisdome hath alwayes gloried [...]uch in conservation, as in conquest.

The Roman, though his ambition of conquering had no horizon, yet he us'd to tri­ [...]mph more (as multitudes of examples might be produc'd) at the composing of an in­ [...]stine war, than for any new acquest, or forren atchievement whatsoever; And though [...] was a great martiall man, and lov'd fighting as well as any other, yet his maxime [...], That no peace could be so bad, but it was preferrable to the best war. It seemes the [...]lian his successour retaines the same genius to this day, by the late peace, (notwith­ [...]anding the many knots that were in the thing) which he concluded: For although [...] absolute Princes were interessed in the quarrell, and that they had all just preten­ [...]s, and were heated and heightned in their designes, yet rather than they would dila­ [...]t the entrailes of their owne mother (faire Italy) and expose her thereby to be ra­ [...]h'd by Tramontanes, they met half way, and complyed with one another in a [...] kind of freedome, though every one bore his share in some inconvenience. Oh at my children would be mov'd by this so seasonable example of the Italian, who [...]mongst other of his characters, is said to be wise, à priori, before the blow is given. [...]esire my gracious Soveraigne to think, that it was never held inglorious or deroga­ [...]ie for a King to be guided and to steere his course by the compasse of his great [...]ouncell, and to make his understanding descend, and condescend to their advice; [...]was it ever held dishonourable for subjects to yeeld and bow to their King, (to be [...]lowes, not Oakes) and if any mistake should happen, to take it upon themselves, ra­ [...]r than any should reflect upon their Soveraigne. And if, in case of difference, he [...]illing to meet them halfe way, 'twere handsome they went three parts before to [...]ent him. Therefore I conjure them both, in the name of the great Deitie of Hea­ [...]d, (who transvolves king domes, and tumbleth downe Kings in his indignation) that they [...] think of some speedie way to stop the issue of b [...]oud; for to deale plainly with [...] see far greater reason to conclude this war, than ever there was to [...] [Page 9] Let them consider well they are but outward Church rites and ceremonies they fight for, as the rigidst sort of Reformers confesse, the Lutheran (the first Reformist) hath many more conformable to the Church of Rome, which hee hath continued above [...]hese 120 yeares, yet is he as far from Rome as the first day he left her, and as free from [...]anger of relapse into Poperie as Amsterdam herselfe; and must I, unhappie I, be [...]acerated and torne in peeces thus for shadowes and ceremonies? O let not posteritie [...]ind it upon record, that the unparallel'd Act of grace for the continuance of this, be [...]ore hurtfull to me, than the untimely dissolution of all Parlements pass'd. I know [...]here is a clashing 'twixt Prerogative and Priviledge, but I must put them in mind of [...]he misfortune that befell the flock of sheep and the Bell-weather, whereof the first [...]ed in a common, the latter in an inclosure, and thinking to break into one anothers [...]asture (as all creatures naturally desire change) and being to passe over a narrow-nar­ [...]ow bridge which sever'd them, they met in the middle and justled one another so [...]ong, till both fell into the ditch. And now that I have begun, I will warne them by [...]nother fable of the Spanish Mule, who having by accident gone out of the great road, [...]nd carried her Rider thorow a by-path upon the top of a huge steepie rock, stopp'd upon a sudden, and being not able to turne and go backward, by reason of the narrow­ [...]esse of the path, nor forward, in regard of a huge Rockie precipice, she gently put [...]ne foot behind the other, and recoyl'd in that manner untill she had found the great [...]oad againe.

I desire my high Councell to consider, that the royall Prerogative is like the Sea, which as Navigators observe, and the Civilians hold, what it loseth at one time or in one place, gets alwayes in some other; That Subjects banding against their King, are like the earthen pitchers in the Fable justling with the great brasse kettle. I desire my deare King to consider, that the priviledge of Parlement, the Lawes and liberties of the Subject, is the firmest support of his Crown, that his great Councell is the truest glasse wherein he may discerne his peoples love, and His own happinesse; It were wsdome that both did strike saile in so dangerous a storme, to avoyd shipwrack; I am loth to say, what consultations, what plots, and machinations are fomenting and [...]orging abroad against me, by that time I have enfeebled and wasted my selfe, and lost the flower of my best children in these wofull broyles. Mee thinks I spie the Iesuit sitting in his cell and laughing in his sleeve at me, and crying out, The Devill part the Fray, for they do but execute my designes.

Oh, I feele a cold quame come over my heart, that I faint, I can speak no longer; yet I will straine my selfe to breath out this one invocation, which shall be my con­clusion.

Sweet Peace, most benigne and amiable Goddesse, how comes it to passe that thou hast so a­bandon'd Earth, and taking thy flight to Heaven, as once Astraea did, dost reject the sighs and neglect the Sacrifices of poore mortals? was that flaming Vsher of Gods vengeance which appear'd six and twentie yeares since in the Heavens▪ the Herald that fetch'd thee a­way? for ever since poore Europe hath been harass'd, and pitifully rent up and downe with [...] Wars▪ and now I am become th [...] last Scene▪ Gentle peace, thou which makest Heaven [Page 10] and Earth to triumph, which gladdest not only the heart of man, but makest the verie me­do [...]s [...]nd [...] the forr [...]sts and woods the hils an [...] h [...]ses to reioyce; Thou which goest al­wayes [...] by plentie and pleasure, Thou w [...]ich fill [...]st the [...], the Grasiers folds, the Tradesm [...]ns shop, th [...] Vintners cell [...]rs▪ [...] desk▪ the Me [...]chants M [...]g [...]i [...]es, the Prin [...]es [...], how comes it [...] Throne to Bellona, [...]-d [...]stroying [...] Y [...]oman wan [...]s H [...]ds a [...]d Horse to p [...]ow up [...] the mor­ning dew with his anhel [...]d sweat, shakes at his work [...] p [...]undring; The Tradesm [...]n shuts up his shop [...] would; The Mer­chant w [...]lks to the Exchange only to learne new [...], not to negotia [...]e. Behold how my best sort of Children are w [...]arie of their lives, e [...]her for [...] endl [...]sse exacti [...]ns, or remedilesse unthought-on imprisonments, a [...]d ill by an [...] confus'd power which the nec [...]ssitie of this fatall war hath drawn upon them. Sw [...]et [...] which wast us'd to mak [...] Princes Courts to triumph with Tilt and Tournements, and other Gallantries, to make them receive lustre by forren Amb [...]ssadours; to make the Arts and Science [...] flour [...]sh; to make Cities and Suburbs shine with good y structures to make the Countrey ring with the Hun s-mans Horn, and the Shepherds Pipe, the High-wayes with Carriers bels; [...]ow comes it to passe that bloud-thirstie Discord now usurps thy place, and fl [...]gs about her Snak s in everie cor [...]er, that the [...], the double-edg'd [...]word of civill war doth r [...]ge and cu [...] on both sides in so horrid and inhumane a manner? Behold, my Prince his Court is now full of nothing but Buff Coats, Spanners and Musket Rests; both Townes and Countr [...]y, and my High-wayes eccho w th nothing but with t e sound of D [...]ums and Tru [...]pets; Hea [...]k how pitif [...]lly my Lions roare, how dejectedly my Roses and Flower de luces hang downe their heads, what dol [...]full straines my Harp gives.

O consider my case most blisfull Queene▪ d [...]scend, desc [...]nd againe in thy Ivorie Chariot? resume thy Throne, crowne thy Temples with thy won [...]d Laurell and Olive, bar up Ianus gates, and make new Halcionian dayes to shine in this Hem [...]sp [...]ere; dispell those Clouds which hover'twixt my King and his highest Councell, chase away all jealousies and ombrages of mistrust, that my great Law-making Court be forc'd to turne no more to polemicall Commit­tees, and to a Councell of war (unlesse it be for some forren Conquest,) but that they may come againe into the old Parlementarie Road, To the path of their predecessours, to con­sult of meanes how to sweep away those Cobwebs that hang in the Courts of Iustice, and to make the Lawes run in their right Channell; to retrench excessive fees, and find remedies for the future, that the poore Client be not so peel'd by his Lawyer, and made to suffer by such monstrous delayes, that one may go from one Tropique to the other, & crosse the Equinoctiall twentie times, before his sute be ended; That they may think on a course to restraine Gold and Silver from travelling without li­cense, with other staple commodities, and to punish those that transport Hides for Calf-skins; To advance native commodities and Manufactures, to improve and ballance Trade, and settle it so, that it may stand upon its owne Bottome, and not by any accidentall wayes, as of late yeares a glut of Trade was cast upon me by the wars 'twixt France and the House of Austria, and others.

[Page 11]That this Trade of mine (my chiefest sinew) be not cast into the hands of Aliens, who eat me out in many places in my own commodities; That it be prevented here­after, [...]hat one Town be not permitted to ingrosse and ingulph all (like the spleene, [...]hat by its swelling sucks both bloud and moisture from the rest of the members) but that my Trade and wealth m [...]y by some wholsome policie be diffus'd up and down my Cities in a more equ [...]ll distribution. That they may advise of a way to relieve the Orphan, who suffers more for his minority in mee, than any where else; That the poore Insolvent Subject be not so buried alive, and made to rot in Prison, notwithstan­ding his apparant known disability, whereas were he [...]bro [...]d, he might be usefull to the Common-wealth some way or other, and come haply afterwards to an ability to pay. To regulate the businesse of drain'd lands, which well manag'd, would tend very much both to enlarge and enrich my Quarters. To secure the Dominion of my Seas, the fairest Flower of my Crown, which is now almost quite lost. To preserve my Woods, whereof, if this coursehold, their will hardly be found in some places enough to make a Tooth-pick. To settle the Revenues, and supply the wants of my Crown; for the wants of theCrown & the Grievances of the Subject have bin always used to go hand in hand in my Parlements. And now, that my neighbour Princes (specially they of France and Spain) have of late years enhanc'd the revenue Royall, at least to the third part more than it w [...]s, it were a disp [...]ragement to me, that my King should not bear up in equal proportion▪ and point of Greatnesse this way, considering that he hath more of the Royall Stem to maintain, than any of his Progenitors ever h [...]d. Lastly, that they may settle a way to regulate all exorbitant fancies of novelists, in the exercise of holy Religion: It being an undeni [...]ble m [...]xime, th [...]t where there is no obedience, subordi­nation, and restrictive Lawes to curb the change [...]ble humours and extravagancies of mens braines there can be no Pe [...]ce or Piety: if the fire be not kept within the tun­nell of the Chimney, and that some be appointed to sweep down the Soot with a high hand (which may be done otherwise than by shooting up of Muskets) the whole House will be in d [...]nger of burning.

Oh me, I feel the pangs of death assail mee, let some good body go toll the bell; And as one of my Kings, (Wil. Rufus) the night before he was slain in New-forrest, for the expi [...]tion of his fathers Sacriledge, did dreame that a cold winde did passe through his bowels, so me thinks, I feele a b [...]eake cold Northern blast blowing upon me, w [...]ich I fe [...]r will make an end of me: It is a miracle if I scape, 'tis only the high hand of Providence can preserve me. If I and my Monarchy miscarry, I desire that my Epitaph may be written (in regard I know him to have bin a long time not only sensible, but a sharer with me in point of suffering) by my dearly beloved Child

Iames Howell.

To the discerning Reader.

HE that with a well-weigh'd judgement observeth the pas­sions of this last Discourse, must needs conclude, that th [...] Author (besides his own hard condition of two years close impri [...]sonment) hath a deep sence of the common calamities of this hi [...] Country in generall, which makes him break out into such patheti [...] expressions. And because he might do it with more freedom, an [...] lesse presumption, he makes England her selfe to breath out hi [...] disordered passions. We know a Mother hath a prerogative by a [...] uncontrollable Edict of nature to speak home unto her children, & sometimes in a chiding round way (though with tears in her eyes) to give them advice: The same doth England in this discourse but with all the tendernesse and indifferency that may be to bot [...] parties now in Arms. Therefore the Author humbly hopes tha [...] no exception, much lesse any offence, will be taken at Her com­plaints, or Counsell.

Mollia commotum frangunt documenta furorem
Prov.
FINIS.
I. H.

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