E [...]ie & u [...]ro Ril [...] di Masianiello, [...].

[Page] THE SECOND PART OF MASSANIELLO, His Body taken out of the Town-Ditch, and solemnly buried, with Epitaphs upon him. A Continuation of the Tumult; The D. of Guise made Generalissimo; Taken Prisoner by young Don JOHN of Austria. The end of the Commotions. By J. H. Esquire.

Truth never look'd so like a Lie
As in this modern Historie.

LONDON, Printed by J. M. for A. Roper, and T. Dring, and are to be sold by Richard Lownds at the White Lion in S. Paul's Church-yard. 1663.

To the Right Worshipful The Governour, The Deputy, and the rest of the Worthy COMPANY OF LEVANT-MERCHANTS.


THere are none so capable to judge of the truth of this Napolitan Story as your selves, who have so frequent Intelligence from that Countrey where it was acted; Therefore, I presume, no man will question my judgment for making this Dedi­cation.

Moreover, I had some particular engage­ments that induc'd me thereunto, in regard of those helps which I received from some Wor­thy Members of that Society, who favour'd me with the sight of divers of their Letters from time to time, and furnish'd me with [Page] other advantages towards the compiling of this Piece.

The Part you formerly had attended the Fisherman to his Greatness, and this accom­panies him to his Grave. That blind instable Thing which we call Fortune never shew'd Her self more like Her self then She did in the handling of this man, whom in a very few days She rais'd to such a prodigious alti­tude that the Great Turk was not more terri­ble in Constantinople, then he was in Naples. But afterwards, like a Statue of some course Stone, set up upon a high Marble pedestal or frame, she suffered him to fall down and dash himself to pieces.

This second Part is nothing inferiour to the first in strangeness; and he who with a seri­ous well-weigh'd judgment will meditate on the passages thereof, will confess that Reali­ties never appeared more like Romances then in this Story: For it will tell you of above a hundred several Fights and Skirmishes that happen'd in Naples within the compass of about two Months time; how every Street was made Frontier one to another, and dispu­ted by inches; how above fourscore thou­sand Cannon-bullets were shot from the three Castles, and twenty thousand from the [Page] Town; A great number of stately Palaces, with invaluable rich Furniture, all turn'd to ashes by the fury of the Fire, and of the Peo­ple, who may be said to be the more furious of the two. And indeed it cannot be denied but the people had some reason to be incens'd, in regard of those multitude of Gabels that were impos'd upon every thing; which Gabels had flown so high, that they had got up to the tops of the very Trees, among all sorts of Fruit; Insomuch that one may well say, the Napolitan Coursier was almost rid quite off of his legs, and his back so gall'd that upon the least rubbing he could not choose but winch, kick and flounce, which he did to some pur­pose, so that he had almost quite orethrown his Rider. Now, if the Spaniard had lost Na­ples, you know better then I, what an infinite detriment it had been unto him, it being one of the fairest Flowers in his Garden, one of the best patches upon his Pilgrims coat, as the Frenchman compares the squandred Domini­ons of Spain. For it is to be seen upon good account, how that this King and his Father have had above a hundred millions of crowns in meer Donatives from that Kingdom, be­sides the stable Rents and Perquisites of the Crown, which comes to near upon three mil­lions [Page] per annum. Insomuch that it had been more advantagious for Spain that Massaniello had not been kill'd so soon; for had he lived a few days longer he had taken a course to raise five millions for the King in compensati­on of the Gabels.

So, desiring again your gentle acceptance of this now-compleated Story, as a further evi­dence of my respects unto you, I rest,

Your humble and ready Servitor, JAM. HOWEL.

The Proeme.

IT is well known to the world what a high pitch of Power, and vast latitude of Dominion, the Kingdom of Spain hath arriv'd unto in the com­pass of a few years: The first step into this great­ness was the Conjunction of Castile and Arra­gon by Marriage. The second was the Discove­ry of the West-Indies, which happen'd a little after. The third was an Alliance 'twixt the Houses of Austria and Burgundy, whereby all Belgium, viz. The seventeen Provinces of the Low-Countreys, or the Netherlands, came to be united in a joynt Subjection to the Empe­perour Charles the Fifth, who attempted to heighten those Provinces to the Title of a King­dom: but He, and his Son Philip the Second, after him, fail'd in the Design. The fourth step was the Conquest of Portugal (though an He­reditary Title was pretended) whereby Spain came to be Mistress of the East-Indies, and part of the Antipodes, with sundry Islands in the Atlantick Sea, and divers strong Maritim holds in Barbary.

[Page] Now, since the time that Spain came to this height by such a marvellous Celerity (for all these Accessions happen'd in less then fifty years, part­ly by Alliances, partly by Succession and Inhe­ritance, partly by Donation, and partly by right of Discovery and Conquest) I say, since these huge Accumulations of Titles and Territories, both in the old and new world.

1. The first Countrey that rose up and revol­ted from the King of Spain was Holland with her five considerate Provinces, which happen'd a little after the beginning of Queen Elizabeths Reign.

2. The second was Catalonia, some twelve years since.

3. The third was the Kingdom of Portugal, which entirely fell off from him a little after, and setled it self under another King in a ve­ry few dayes, in such a quietness as if it had been twenty years a doing.

4. The last that banded against him were the Kingdoms of Sicily and Naples, which happen'd about four years since; but the fire of the first was quickly extinguisht; yet the flames there­of flew ore the Phare of Messina into Calabria, and so to Naples, where they grew to such a vi­olence, that an utter revolt was intended.

Touching the falling away of Holland, which [Page] kept such a stirre in the world, the causes thereof may be comprehended in two words, viz. Inquisition and Imposition, the latter whereof conduc'd to wring the Purse, the o­ther the Conscience.

Catalonia flew off in regard of the free Quar­ter which the Castilian Souldiers took, with other Insolencies they committed in their march to imbark for Italy.

The Portuguais unyok'd himself, not so much for the extraordinary Taxes, but that the King of Spain, having so many irons in the fire, could not, or at least neglected to protect him against the Hollander in Brasile, and elsewhere in the Indies.

Now the causes of the Risings of Naples have much Analogy with all the former, for they proceeded from the multiplicity of Gabels that were laid upon every thing both for Back and Belly: Add hereunto the forced Services that were so frequently impos'd upon the Subjects to go to hazard their lives in other Countreys; And lastly, the Rapine of the Viceroyes (with the Gabelliers or Customers) It being a kind of Proverb in Italy touching the Governour of Milain, the Viceroy of Sicily, and he of Na­ples, that the one eats, the other gnaws, and the third devours.

[Page] These Commotions came at last to such a vio­lence that the whole Kingdom was upon the point of an utter defection, having introduc'd the French for Protector, and trac'd the form of a Common-wealth: but the soft Napolitan was not, it seems, so constant to his ends as the Hollander or Catalon, and other tougher Na­tions. The ensuing History will satisfie the Rea­der with much exactness and fidelitie the whole Circumstance of the business, extracted out of Authentick Manuscripts, which Collection and Collation of Letters from divers Persons of Ho­nour.

J. H.

A HISTORY Of the late REVOLUTIONS IN THE KINGDOM of NAPLES, And how suppressed and ended.

BEfore we fall upon the second and third Revo­lutions that happened in the City and King­dom of Naples, it is not amiss, for the more regular proceeding in the series of the Story, to make a succinct recapitulation of what succeeded in the first tu­mult, wherein some signal passages shall be imparted, which were omitted in the former Narration, for want of better Intelligence.

The Gabel of Fruit, and the Act confirmed, newly impos'd upon the most faithful people of Naples, was insupportable; to which purpose the Viceroy made the Lords of the Customs to Convene divers times herea­bouts; and it was at last determined, that it should be utterly abolished; and that the said Lords should find [Page 2] some means where another Imposition might be laid for satisfaction of those moneys which the Royal Court had rais'd upon the credit of the foresaid Gabel. The people were also mightily discontented for other Taxes which were laid upon every edible thing; for there was scarce any commodity scap'd, but the Imposition did countervail well near the value of the thing; whereun­to the most faithful people did conform a long time, as holding it necessary for the support of the Catholick Monarchy, by stooping their heads to the pleasure of him who Reigned over them, and preserv'd them in peace.

The foresaid Lords often met to take off the new Ga­bel; but for want of money, and for the calamities of the times, they knew not where to turn themselves: Besides, the people grew to be wonderful impatient; whereupon one day as they were exacting the said Gabel in the Market-place, a shrewd clash happened 'twixt the Farmers of the said Gabel and the Fruiterers, to whom the Costermongers did closely stick; and the business being aggravated by multiplication of words, all re­spect was lost unto the said Farmers; insomuch that the Toll-house was burnt to the ground, with all the Writings therein, by the fury of Boys, and others of the poorest sort of people; among whom Massaniello, a poor bare-footed retailer of Fish, was chief. The Lord Andrea Anaclerio, the Elect of the people, inter­ven'd to appease the tumult; but finding the business too hot for him, he withdrew himself, and with much difficulty and danger scap'd away in a Feluca.

The rabble of the common people being further ani­mated hereby, the boys went up and down with Canes in their hands to all places where the said Gabel was [Page 3] rais'd, and burnt the houses and goods of the Gabel­leers, as also of the Farmers of all other kinde of Tolls.

A little after two Companies well armed, but all masqued, pass'd by Jesu-street, and another Brigade of 300. foot, with above four thousand Boyes. By the Market of Saint Elino two Companies more met, who broke through the Court of Guard which was before the Castle Court, hurling two of the Souldiers into the di ches thereabouts. Afterwards they ran towards the Palace, where they furiously entred: The Viceroy hereupon found himself in no small danger, therefore throwing handfuls of Gold among them, and promi­sing to take off Gabels they were aggriev'd at, he stole away with much ado to Saint Francisco. Many of the Nobles endeavoured to pacifie the tumult, and, among others, the Prince of Bisignano Carafa, and the Prince of Satriano labour'd very hard herein, but it was in vain, so that they incurr'd some danger of their lives.

The rabble went afterwards to the Prison of Saint James, and forcing it violently they released all the Prisoners, whereof there were some in for their lives; and they burn'd to Cynders all theWritings and Leger books, as also all the goods of the Gaoler. They did the like in all other Prisons, excepting that of the Vicaria, in regard of the reverence they bore to the holy Church.

This made the Viceroy change his lodging and re­ [...]ire to Castel novo with all his Family. The Lord Vi­ [...]tor General seeing these horrid tumults, open'd his [...]risons also, and let loose all the prisoners, making [...]ereby virtue of necessity, and so retired with all his [...]amily to the Viceroy.

[Page 4] Hereupon the bread rose to thirty two ounces upon a sudden, which gave a general discontentment.

That night there was nothing but beating of Drums, as if some Enemy were in the Field, or the Turk upon the Coasts ready to invade.

The Viceroy thought it expedient in policy to release from prison the Duke of Matalone, which was detained in Castelnovo; who mounting on horseback rode up and down Naples well accompanied, asking the peo­ple with all mildness what they would have: they cried out, That they would have all the Gabcls to be abo­lished that were imposed upon them since the time of Charles the Fifth, and that all the priviledges should be renewed, & punctually observ'd, which were granted to the most faithful people of Naples by that Empe­rour. The Viceroy with all meekness said it should be done; therefore he suddenly caus'd a Pragmatica or Pro­clamation to be printed and publish'd to that purpose, with the advice of the Collateral Councel. Yet this would not satisfie, but they cried out that the Duke of Mata­luni had couzen'd them; therefore they took him for one Hostage, and shut him up in the Carmine of Naples, whence he afterwards fled.

After dinner the Prior of Rovella procur'd another Proclamation to be stamp'd in Parchment, all in Letters of Gold, and carrying it about the Streets of Naple on horseback said, That his Excellency the Viceroy had done them the grace, in his Catholick Majesties Name, to take off all the Gabels: Hereupon an infinite number of Boyes danc'd and leap'd up and down about the Priors horse, crying out, Let the King of Spain live, who hath abolish'd all Gabels; and so went to the Market place: But this neither would give full satisfaction; but they went more [Page 5] violently to work, running to the house of Hieronym [...] Letitia, where they hurl'd out all his goods at the win­dows, and burnt them in the midst of the Street, taking special care that nothing should be pilfer'd away, but that an entire sacrifice should be made thereof to Vul­can. Then they ran to Felix Basil's house, and us'd him with the same punctuality: Thence they steer'd their course to Antonio d' Angelis, and did the like; Thence they went to Andrea Anaclerio's Palace, who was the Peoples Elect; and though 'twas late, yet they us'd his house as they did the rest.

The next day the Viceroy commanded to be pro­claim'd by sound of Trumpet, that all Gabels should be abolish'd that were impos'd ever since the time of Charles the fifth, which Trumpeters went up and down the places, as well within the City as towards the Sea side where the Gabel houses stood: Yet for all this they ran to the house whete the Magazine of Powder was, and took away what proportions they pleas'd: nor would this serve the turn, but they set fire to what re­main'd, with the death of forty men; which made such a hideous noise, as if not only one City, but the whole world did tremble: Hereupon every one did put him­self in Arms, and the women were as busie as any.

In the Sellaria they planted five pieces of Ordnance, six hundred Foot pass'd by Magdanela bridge, to be imbarked in some Gallies for the Kings service; but the rabble fell upon them, and took away their Arms for another use. The Nobility fail'd not ever and anon to court the Viceroy in behalf of the people, who now began to prohibit things to pass to his Palace. One would think now that he had been in Cocagna or Lub­berland, for every thing entred into Naples without [Page 6] paying the least toll; nor could a Sergeant be scarce seen in the streets, nor any Officer that had any thing to do with the Farmers of the Gabel.

The next morning the rabble went to the Lord An­tonio Mirabello's house, whom they took in bed, and he hardly scap'd away in his shirt; they presently burnt all his movables, which made a rich bonefire; thence they went to Duke Caviano's house, and used him alike, with many other sair Palaces,: Then they came to Caesar Librano's house, where scarce a pin scap'd the fury of the fire: In the same manner they came to the Duke of Ostuin's house, and to Dr. Tavaglo's, where they did the like. They sent to Andrea Mazzola for fifteen hun­dred Muskets, but denying he had any, they put fire to his house, and took out the said Muskets: Every House-keeper in Naples was commanded to put him­self in Arms immediately, under pain of having his house burnt. There were some sixty Spaniards in gar­rison about the Tower of St. Laurence, but the rabble ran thither with two Cannons, where they disarmed and thrust out the Spaniards, and possess'd themselves of all the ancient Records that were in those Archives, so they plac'd presidial Forces of their own there. Then they put fire to Biasio de Balsamo's house, whence they pass'd to Bartholomeo d' Auqino of Chaia, and trea­ted him as they did all the rest; but they spared the house he had in Pizzifalione, which they turn'd to a fortress: Jeronymo Nacarella had his share in this Tra­gedy, who had a sumptuous new Palace made level with the ground: Then they flew to Baron Valentia­no's house, who was Farmer of the Corn; from him they passed to Pietro Florio, who was Cash-keeper to the Royal Dogana or Custom-house; and because it [Page 7] was fitting that at such a holy day a Minister of the Chamber should have some share, they went to Presi­dent Cenano, to whom they did the like curtesie as they had done to others. It was admirable what a regular method they observed in their fiery executions; for they used first to take all the goods out into the Mar­ket place to be burnt, crying out it was the blood of the people of Naples, and 'twas death to embeazle the least thing; insomuch that one who had stoln but a peep of Sausage was like to be hang'd by Massanicllo; nor did they spare either gold, silver or jewels, but all was thrown into the flames, as also coaches and horses were burnt alive, most rich Tapistries and Pictures; but they saved all books and pieces of Piety, which they sent to several Churches; and in Fclix Basils house they burnt a huge proportion of bisket, which was rea­dy to be sent to the Gallies for the Kings service.

The Viceroy ordered that some Companies of High-Dutch who were in Garrison at Pozzuolo should come to Naples, the rabble having notice hereof ran out of Gratta, and meeting them they disarm'd them all, and brought them prisoners to the Market-place.

When they entred into Saint Lorenzo, they found there the picture of Charles the Fifth, which they car­ried round about Naples with twenty thousand souls, who accompanied it, crying all along, Viva il Ré di Spagna, May the King of Spain live.

After this they went to Cornelio Spinola's House, where it was expected they would have used the same Complement as they did to others; but he told them that he never had any thing to do with the Gabels, but he was there for the service of Genoa only, thereupon they chose him for Grassiero, or superintendent of the [Page 8] Flesh-Market, and lest in his house the picture of Charles the Fifth. One may easily conjecture in what pickle the poor Genoway stood all the white.

They placed up and down the City five and twenty great Cannons in the most necessary Advenues; and the busiest man who was employed herein was Joseph Per­rone a notorious Bandito, whom they appointed to be Captain of the Guard in the great Market-place, who dispensed his commands with that reservedness and punctuality that 'twas wonderful, but some under-dealings of his being detected, he and his brother were hackt to pieces by the fury of the people, and their bo­dies for publick satisfaction and example, were dragg'd up and down the Streets, and hurl'd afterwards into the Common Ditch.

The Duke of Mataluni, for the safeguard of his house assembled his outlaws, and other desperate persons, but the people haivng notice thereof kill'd five of them, and took one, alive, the rest sav'd themselves by flight: Thereupon the great Bell of Lorenzo rung out to give notice that every one should be ready in Arms, which had not been done a hundred years before. Massaniello now grew higher in Command, yet he would not alter his habit, but went still barefoot, and in Mariners ha­bit; so that the common cry was, Viva Dio, Ré de Spagna, & Massaniello, Let God live, live the King of Spain, and Massaniello, and there was such an opinion conceiv'd of him, that they thought him to be di­vinely inspir'd, so that every nod of his went for an absolute Command: This opinion was confirm'd by a strange Passage, which was, That certain Banditos and Outlaws intending to murder the said Massaniello, they discharg'd divers Muskets at him, but they did [Page 9] no execution, which was held a notable miracle, eight of the said Banditoes were slain, the rest sav'd them­selves in the Church of Carmine; The whole City was cut out into Trenches, and all Coaches were prohibi­ted: The foremention'd Joseph Caratta, brother to the Duke of Mataluni, who had retir'd into Saint Maries Church, and thence into the Monastery, the people be­leaguered the Monastery; whereupon he thinking to flee under a disguised habit, was betrayed, and his head chopp'd off, with three servants more, as enemies to the people; his brother the Duke, hereupon took a fair pair of heels, and fled towards Rome, as 'twas thought.

Massaniello began now to send out his Commands very magisterially, and the penalty of his Commands were, Sotto pena della vita, & incendio, under pain of life and firing: he commanded that every Window should have lights in them, which was punctually per­form'd, which seem'd to embellish the City, and make the streets as lightsome by night as by day.

Another peremptory Command of his came out, that all should go en cuerpo without Clokes, which ex­tended to Priests and Bishops, who went up and down only in Cassocks, Ladies and Gentlewomen were for­bidden likewise to go abroad with wide-hoop'd Gowns or Kirtles, and the reason was, that they might carry no arms underneath. A report did fly, that the Duke of Mataluni had poison'd the waters of Formali, which serv'd the City, this made the rest of the Nobles to be so ill look'd upon, that happy was he who could fly away first from the City. The women up and down did wonderfully encourage their husbands, and all traffique except Market-solks was quite down.

[Page 10] There came in the heat of this hurly-burly eight Napolitan Gallies, which were missing a long time; the Viceroy commanded they should not enter into the Port, but that they should stay 'twixt St Vincents Tow­er and the Key.

Thereupon by intervention of Cardinal Filomarino, who was Archbishop of Naples, and accounted the com­mon Father of the City, an interview or parley was appointed t'wixt the Viceroy and Massaniello, who with much ado was perswaded to shake off his Mariners slop, and put on a rich Sute of Cloth of Silver, to de­note by that white Colour the innocence of the peo­ple. Being attended to the royal Castle by an infi­nity of the people, and he himself mounted upon a choice Courser with naked sword in hand; the Vice­roy treated him with terms of extraordinary respect, being both for the satisfaction of the people, in an open Balcone. At that time there were many obstreperous noises among the people below, and a great confusi­on; but Massaniello lifting up onely his hand, all was hush'd.

The Capitulations for peace t'wixt the Viceroy and Massaniello being read aloud, and confirm'd by the Viceroy, and the Collateral Councel, Massaniello said, That by the wise deportment of his Excellency his Catholick Majesty had gain'd the Kingdom of Naples more firmly then ever; for that mass of people he saw, with millions more were bound to thank his Majesty, and his Excellency, who will be ready to expose their lives to defend his Government here against the French or any other Enemy.

Oulio Genovino was the chiefest Counsellour of Mas­saniello, who in the Duke of Ossi [...]a's time was crea­ted [Page 11] the peoples Elect in another great tumult; for which he had been sent Prisoner to Spain, and thence banish'd to Oran in Barbary, whence he return'd, and turn'd Priest; a man most zealous for the common good and interest of the People, Doctor of the Civil Laws, and a shrew'd politick Person; this Man and Massaniello, clung together as nail and flesh, for the time.

Massaniello sent a Regalo of sweet meats to the Vice­roy, and to his Lady; who return'd a Present of Jew­els to Massaniello's Wife, who afterwards did visit her attir'd in Cloth of Gold. Massaniello commanded the Kings-Arms to be set up over all the Gates of Naples, and the Cities Arms underneath, with P. in the mid­dle; and understanding there were many Bandito's lay sculking in the Town, and fled to Sanctuaries, the fury of the people was such that they pull'd them all out and kill'd them.

Francisco Erp [...]io was chosen by Massaniello to be the Peoples Elect, and by sound of Trumpet he declared, That every one should open his shop under pain of Re­bellion; he caused also among divers others, an Ab­bot to be put to death, and two men besides of an ill life, who had onely time given them to confess.

There was order given to erect to Erect a fair Palace in the great Market place for Massaniello, and much of the Materials had been brought thither to that purpose; there was a Spaniard imprisoned by the people, but Massaniello commanded him out, and sent him to the Viceroy, who remanded him to Massaniello, who pardoned him.

All the Tribunals of Justice were shut up at this time, nor was any person obeyed but Massaniello, who commanded Gibbets to be set up in divers places of [Page 12] the City, which struck a great terrour into the hearts of all people.

The next day the Viceroy with the Royal Collate­ral Councel came in great pomp to the great Church, where Cardinal Filomarino was in his Pontificalibus at the high Altar, and Massaniello standing with a naked Sword upon one of the steps, and his Brother behind him in Cloth of Silver also, the Viceroy tooke there a solemn Oath to perform the Capitulations in his Ca­tholick Majesties name, viz. That all kind of Gabel that were imposed upon the City of Naples since the Reign of the glorious Emperour Charls the Fifth should be ut­terly abolished, and never to he levied again: That his Excellency should do his endeavour to procure a full ratifi­cation hereof from the Court of Spain, within the compass of two moneths, and that in the interim the most faithful People of Naples should stand upon their Guard, and in Arms.

Massaniello gave out, That he would provide five Millions very speedily to send his Catholick Majesty for this singular grace towards the support of his Wars: He commanded all the houshold-stuff of the Duke of Mataluni [...] to be brought out to the publick street and burnt, and 'tis incredible what rich Furniture, what e [...]quisite Pictures, what costly Jewels, with abundance of Treasure did endure the brunt of the fire; There was upon this above a hundred thousand men enrolled to bear Arms, and all to be at the beck of Massaniello: Moreover, there was a Declaration publish'd by the Viceroy, wherein he disclaim'd this Sollevation to be a Rebellion; and so passed a general Pardon.

Massaniello gave out, That what Courtesan soever desired to marry, she should have fifty Duckets given [Page 13] her. He went then among the Gallies, and made a poor Mechanick a Captain of one of them. He was feasted in the Castle by the Viceroy, together with his Brother and his Wife; but the next day he commit­ted some ridiculous Extravagancies, as leaping into the water to refresh himself in his Clothes, so that some thought he had a fig given him in the Castle to intoxicate his brains; Others did impute it to want of repose and sleep, for he was wonderfully watchful, intentive, and restless in his business. But he began now to lose the wonted respect among the Souldiery and Citizens: Insomuch that Marco Vitale his Se­cretary giving a Captain a cuff before the Ca­stle, the Captain and others fell upon him and slew him.

Andrea Roma and Ardizzone, with others, all ven­trous Blades, went the next day to the Church of Carmine, where they found Massaniello airing himself, they surpriz'd and dispatch'd him, and cut off his head; 'Twas thought the people would have resented it, but it proved clean contrary, for they followed the Coach wherein the head was carried to the Viceroy, with a great deal of applause and triumph: His body was drag'd up and down by the Boyes of the City. So fell the bold Fisherman of Naples, who had reign'd as absolutely as any Sovereign, the space of eight days and eight hours; And one may say more absolutely then any Kings use to do; for they are restrained by Laws; but Massaniello was beyond the bounds of any; For during this short time, he caused to be killed by his own order two hundred and fifty persons, and that suddenly, giving them onely time to confess, and to some he would give none. In fine, He was thought [Page 14] to be more then a man, and that what he ordered was ordained by God himself.

After this Tragical Act, the Lord Regent of the Vi­caria, with his wonted Guards, went with Trumpets before him about the Streets, and proclaimed, That none under pain of Rebellion should stirre: He declared further, That all Gabels were taken off: to which pur­pose he carried the Instrument in his hand; therefore he commanded, That none should adhere to the complices of that late Rascal, that Retailer of Fish, who disturbed the tranquillity hoth of People and City; So there was a great cry, Viva il Ré di Spagna, Let the King of Spain live. A little after, the Viceroy passed up and down the City in stately Equipage, which increased the cry, So that the noise then was, Viva il Ré di Spagna, è Duca d' Arcos, Let the King of Spain, and the Duke of Arcos live: And as the Viceroy went along, he as­sured the people every where of the Abolition of the Gabels, and further Concession of Graces.

The next night after, there entred into the City at the Royal Port six hundred Horse, with admirable se­crecy, who went all to the Palace to serve the Viceroy upon occasion, and the next Morning they betook themselves to divers Ports.

That day the bread fell to be eleven Ounces lighter; whereupon the people mutined again, and fell a burn­ing the Furnaees and goods of the Bakers. Then they went in multitudes of armed men to find out the body of Massaniello, which it seems was cast into a Ditch; they took it out, washed it, and persumed it, and car­ried it upon a Bier out of the gate of the Holy spirit; where they took down his Head, and sewed it to the rest of the Carkass, and so brought it in a very solemn [Page 15] order to the great Church of Carmine: The people went along, both men and women, crying out, Bro­thers and Sisters say a Pater Noster, and an Ave Mary for this our Countryman and fellow-Citizen; his body being hoised up a great height, to be made more visi­ble. So he who was cursed and dragged up and down the streets the day before, is the next day after bewailed, missed, prayed for, and buried in marvel­lous pomp: the white Boyes of Loreto went before him with above a thousand Priests with burning Torches in their hands, the Trumpets and Drums sounded the doleful march; and as he lay in his Funeral bed, they put a Crown upon his Head, and a Scepter in his hand; so he had at his death those Ensigns, the jurisdiction whereof he usurped in his life. Many thousands of armed men accompanied his Herse, and women with­out number, raising up their beads and voices in high and dolorous accents, with requiems and refrigeriums to his soul. This Funeral pomp came out again from the great Church of the Carmine, and fetching a com­pass about all the five Precincts of Naples, they carried the body under the very Balcone of the Viceroy, where it stayed a while till they had fix'd a Standard, and hung Colours thereabouts. After all this the Bier was brought about two hours at night to the great Church again, where he was interr'd with much pity and ho­nour; the common people crying him up for a Saint already.

—Quantum est in rebus inane!

Thus Massaniello being raised up by popular Air, slain and scorn'd by the same people, honour'd and idc­latriz'd after his death by the same persons, may be compared to a Ball tossed up and down by Fortune. [Page 16] The voice went then, that a Chappel should be built for him, and these ensuing Epitaphs were compos'd by the prime wits of Naples.

Lamento di Massaniello al po­polo Napolitano.

ALtra paga sperai, altra mercede,
Di Te patria crudel, populo ingrato,
Troncarti ill collo à chi t' há il capo alrato,
Fidelissima sci senra fede.
La pesca non lasciai, com' altri erede,
Nelle mie reti di qualunque stato
Pescai la libertá, ne'l vil mercato
De commando piantai la Real sede.
Di Re divenni Reo, in ra instante
Rimasti in vita tu, io nel' Inferno,
Jo strascinato fù, Tu triomphante,
Pompa non fù, mâ vituperio Eterne.
L'essequie mie di general Forfante
Fù gloria infame, & honore vol' sherno,
Cosi con questo essempio Eterno,
Impari ogn uno da me par troppo audace,
Per altro non pugnar starsene in pace.

Massaniello's Lamentation concerning the people of Naples.

I Did expect from Thee a better Fate
Ingrateful City, People more ingrate,
Thou chop'st his Neck, who thy Head did unthral,
Faithful thou art, yet hast no Faith at all.
I did not leave my Fishing, as some say,
But still employ'd my Nets to catch, and lay
The Gabels on the ground: The Royal Throne
I brought into the Market, ev'ry stone
Can witness it; The Nobles I did quell,
Thou still shalt live, but I must fry in hell.
While my drag'd body bleeds, so basely slain,
Thou triumph'st in that Freedom I did gain.
Learn hence ye Mortals all, Be not too rash and bold
To sight for other Men, Lest you be bought and sold.

Nobilium Tyrannide, In usi [...]is oppressionibus & angari [...] In Regnum, Cives, & Exteros, Praeter Rerum & Naturae ordinem Violenter extortis, Repressa

[Page 18] Virgini Dei Matri Carmeli Die 7. Julii, 1647. Gabbellis

Publicis, Facinorosis, secretis Patriae Hostibus,

Incensis, fugatis, profligatis, suhlatis.

Inconcussa fide servata,

Ferdinandi primi, & Frederici Aragonensium Regum,

Caroli quinti Imperatoris Gaesaris confirmatis, renovatis aureis privilegiis.

Philippo Quarto Rege Catholico, D. Rodcrieo Pons de Leone Duce d' Arcos Regis vieem geren [...]e,

Thoma Anello de Amalfi invicti populi Duce.

Pristina libertate redemptus Fidelissimus populus Neopolitan. Mausolaeum

In reportatae victoriae memoriam posteris excitamen [...]um posuit.

[Page 19] The Tyranny of the Nobles being repressed, who beyond the order of things, and rules of nature, did so violently extort unusual taxes and services from King­dom, Citizens, and strangers,

An unshaken faith being kept to the Virgin the Mo­ther of God, in the holy Church of Carmine the 7. of July 1647. The Gabels being abolished, and the pub­lick, facinorous and secret enemies of our Countrey, be­ing burnt, banished, subdued, and extinguished,

The golden priviledges of Ferdinand the First, and Frederick King of Aragon, and of Charles the Emperour being confirmed and renewed,

Philip the Fourth, being the Catholick King, and Don Rodrigo Pons de Leon Duke of Arcos being Vice­roy, Thomas Anello of Amalsi being General, the most faithful people of Naples and publick liberty being re­deemed,

This Monument was erect in memory of the Victory obtained, and for an encouragement to all Posterity.

[Page 20] THese Commotions in Naples, being the Metropo­litan great Town, did cause that almost the whole Kingdom did rise. In Bitonto many houses were like­wise burnt; as also in divers others places, as shall be related hereafter. In the ancient City of Nocera the Pa­lace of the Duke himself did not scape the fury of the flames, but was made even to the ground, with all the costly movables, as also the dwellings of all such that adhered unto him; and if the Duke himself had not taken a fair pair of heels and fled to Messina, he might have expired his last in the Tumult.

In Naples the Count Cosino laboured to have a pub­lick Inscription set up in the Market-place, which should mention the abolition of all Taxes that were granted by the Viceroy, and the people were mighty eager to have it erected.

The Counsellour Moschetola persisting by his Agents to exact the Gabel in Meleto Casale of Aversa, upon Corn which he had rented, the people of that Town being transported with fury, came to Naples, and col­leagueing with that people, they ran about dinner time to the Market-place, where the said Moschetola had a house, and gave him such a hot Alarm, that like a Cat he was forced to flee over the tops of the houses to save himself. The women were permitted to go out of the said house, and afterwards they took out all the houshold-stuff, and carrying it to the open street in a kind of solemnity, all was burnt to ashes, besides rich Tapistry, and exquisite Pictures, there were two cup­boards of silver Vessels, and a great Library of Books [Page 21] exposed to the fury of the fire; all which was compu­ted to the value of thirty thousand Crowns, all which was reduced to Cinders. They directed their course after to Alonso d' Angelis house, a great Officer of the Kings Dogana or Custom-house, and would have ser­ved him with the same sauce; but the Viceroy interpo­sed his authority, or request rather, so earnestly that he prevailed.

In the Market-place the day following there happen­ed a huge tumult concerning the publick Inscription to be set up concerning those Capitulations which the Viceroy had signed and sealed in behalf of the most faithful people, which being delayed, the rabble flew to Cavallero Cosino's Palace, a most famous Limner, who had the charge of doing the thing; but he finding himself in imminent danger of his life, fled away, and his House with many rare Pieces had felt Vulcans fury, had not the Viceroy caused the King of Spains Picture to be hung up before the Gate in a high Balcone, which preserved the House.

They of the Market-place ran and burnt all the Play­houses up and down the City, as also that which was near the Castle ditch, and they chop'd off the head of a lame Sicilian who kept it. But the Viceroy having commanded two of the said Incendiaries to be impri­soned, they were by his order both strangled that night, and the next morning their Bodies were hanged up be­fore the Castle, which put a period to all burnings for the time. A Jesuite was also beheaded, but he was un­sacred and degraded first of his function in the Church of Sancta Barbara; he was suspected to have come from Sicily to trace some machinations against the Crown of Spain, his name was Regnicolo, and he hath a [Page 22] Brother who is a Baron in Abruzzo.

There was a notable thing discovered about this time in the City of Naples, which was this; One Fran­cisco Severino a publick Notary, had a Sister who had been a Widow seventeen years before; he was to pay her six hundred Duckets towards her Dowry; but he had immured her and a little daughter of hers betwixt four walls in a dark cave, where he fed them with Bread and Water, with some few Fruits and Roots, as Ra­dishes, Cucumbers, and other such stuff: This Widow had a Son in the custody of an Uncle all the while, who being grown up to mans estate came to the said Notary, and loudly demanded his Mothers goods, thinking she had been dead: The rumour of this business flew up and down among the people, who therefore rushing into the Notaries house, and searching up and down, the woman began to shriek out in the cave with her Daughter; so they broke down the wall, and entring into the cave they found there two Women like sava­ges or furies, with long dishevel'd hair, in a strange po­sture; hereupon the Notary was clap'd up in Prison, and the Women carried to the Monastery of St. Onuphrio, where a great concourse of people came to see them; so the Notary had exemplary punishment.

The City of Naples went on to inroll more men for the Militia, which came to above the number of eighty thousand Foot, besides Horse; they changed the Guard every night, nor did they esteem any commands that came from the Castle; the Tribunals of Justice did cease sitting, and the commotion was held up as high as it was in Massanicllo's time, only there were not so many heads chop'd off, and houses burnt, yet there was no sace of any government but only among the Souldiery. [Page 23] One day which was a Festival, a great number of boys, half naked and painted with red, some on horseback and others afoot, with Turbands on their heads, and habited like Turks, went up and down; in the midst of them there was a triumphant Chariot, where there sate one apparelled like a King, and sitting in a Throne, with a half Moon upon his head; others were masked; others went with strange Spectacles on their noses, in such a hideous manner, as if they had been so many Devils broke loose out of Hell; before the Chari­ot there went a Troop of Horse, whereof the hinder­most carried a Scepter in his hand, habited like a Turk; and in this garb they passed before the Ca­stle, and under the windows and mustachos of the Vice­roy.

In these commotions the Franciscan Friers of St. Lo­renzo thought to make their advantage in a long suit they had with the Capuchins of St. Antonio de Padoua; The Capuchins pretended that it belonged to them to carry the silver statue that was in the Treasury upon so­lemn days; but the Franciscans alledged twas their right, in regard their Order was more ancient, and theirs but a branch of it, and that in the time of St: An­thony there was no such thing as a Capuchin: besides, he is buried in Padoua, and painted to the life in a Chappel that belongs to the conventual Franciscans, who are of the same Order as they of St. Lorenzoin Naples: Upon a sudden they went in Procession, and carried the said silver Statue of St. Antonio up and down the Streets of Naples, and the great Street of Toledo, accompanied by a mass of people, with divers bands of Souldiers, and Drums beating before, as if some assault were to be given: The common people were for the [Page 24] Franciscans, but the Noble-men and Gentry were for the Capuchins; but the Franciscans got the better, be­ing the more ancient: This Contracto had been brought formerly before the Viceroy, but he reserred it to Rome where it depended. The said Statue being replaced that night in the Treasury, the next morning the peo­ple entred and took away the keys by force, and put out the Chaplains who were appointed there by the Nobility, and appointed others of their election.

The next day the Viceroy sent a Galley to Calabria, which carried John Baptista Montforte Duke of Laureto, who was expresly employed by the said Viceroy to ap­pease the tumults in Cosenza, which were little inferi­our to those of Naples. The Lord Don Carlo di Capon was clapped up in Prison by the Souldiers of Pusilipo, together with his servants, & many hainous things were to be laid to his charge. A Brigade of the people pas­sing along the Castle ditch, the Spanish Souldiers put themselves upon their Guaed, one of them discharging his Musket, hit Doctor Benedetto Guadagno that stood in a window, who fell down dead in an instant; where­upon the Viceroy caused the said Souldier to be present­ly hanged after confession, under the same Window, although he alledged that he knew not the Musket had been charged with a bullet.

The Students of Naples would have a share also in these Revolutions, therefore they went all in a body and presented a Petition to the Viceroy, the effect whereof was, That they should pay no more Fees for their Degrees then was used to be paid in the time of Charles the Emperour: The Viceroy gave them no po­sitive answer for the time, which they imputed to some i [...]l offices that the Prince of Av [...]llino had done; there­upon [Page 25] they attempted at their return to burn his house, but it was prevented by some means the Viceroy wrought; and the next day he caused divers of the Students to be imprisoned, who were the chief ring-leaders.

The City still resolved to stand upon her Guard till the confirmation of the Articles concerning their Pri­viledges came from the Catholick Court, and they arm'd day and night accordingly; one of which Ar­ticles was, That such arming should not be tearmed a Re­bellion in the interim. The Viceroy was not idle, but he caused Bulle [...]s to be cast, and other warlike things to be provided within the Castles. He sent Councel­lour Oraca to Leve to appease the Commotions which happened in the Country of Otranto, with Commissi­oners to divers other places in Calabria, as he had done the Duke of Lauretto to Cosenza, were the sparkles of their Commotions flew from Naples in greater quanti­ty, and did as much mischief as any where else, there­fore it is worth the labour to insert here a particular re­lation thereof.

A Compendium of the Sublevations and Turmoils which happen'd in the City, and among the People of Cosenza.

UPon Sunday-morning about the break of day, a Dispatch was expresly sent to the President of this Province from the Viceroy, wherein he ordered that a Pragmatica should be publish'd and proclaim'd through all the Territories and places thereof; the sub­stance whereof was, That his Excellency was ready to grant and pass unto that people all those Graces which they expected, as was done to the City and People of Naples, for prevention of that horrid effusion of blood, firings, and other confusions which might ensue.

Yet for all this a multitude of common People ga­ther'd together in Bands that very Sunday-morning, all armed with a full and furious purpose to repose the Insolence and Pride of the Nobility, who had reduced the common people to such a pass that they could hardly live by them. The Cape or chief Leader of which Popular Brigades was Captain Joseph Gervatio, who with his Ginet in hand caused himself to be cal­led Captain-General, and was so accepted: it was concluded amongst them, That they should procure to live separately from the Nobles, and to be subordi­nate to no other but to the King himself, to his Vice­roy, [Page 27] or some principal Officers of Justice; This Assem­bly of the common people was so numerous and active all that Sunday that a Gentleman dared scarce stir out of his house, or hardly peep out at the Windows: The Bells rung out to give general Alarms; at last they formed a Petition to the Lord President for a present Concession of those Indulgences and Graces which were granted the people of Naples, and with much ado for that night the President did appease them. But upon Munday-morning the Nobles rouz'd up their spirits, desiring to know the cause of this hurly-burly, and what the people did desire, and there should be a course taken to satisfie them. Hereupon a choice num­ber of the said people being met at the Monastery of Saint Francisco di Paola, the Lord President, accompa­nied with the foresaid Antonio Gervasio the Cape of the people told them, That their pretention and intention was to live separate from their Nobles, as also from the Sindiques and Regiments, as likewise from the payment of certain Gabels; And that every one of them should pay for his own particular fire, it being not consentaneous to reason, that the people who were alwais disposed to make ready paiment, not only to the royal Court, but of all other inferior Gabels, and that the Nobles by their authority should be exempt, in such sort that the burden fell still upon the people which re­ceiv'd more weight daily; at least they payed doubly as much as the Nobles, as the Jurat can testifie, who was one year for the Nobles, & another year for the people.

To these Pretentions and Demands Doctor Baracca offer'd to give a satisfaction to the Nobles, and to make it appear that they were very just: So it was agreed on both sides, that he should have time to do it; In [Page 28] the interim it was order'd, that all should lay down their arms, which was done as it were in an instant, by the command of Captain Antonio Gervatio, untill a minute or scedule should be made, declaring the man­ner how they desired to live among the Nobles; so every one return'd to his own fire. While this was a doing, and all this was hush'd for the preseut, certain Albaneses being arm'd passed through the Market­place of Cosenza, who were clad like Country-Soul­diers: Hereupon Captain Gervatio with a huge Con­fluence of people ran to the Lord Presidents Palace, complaining and crying out, That it was no reason that the Nobles during the time of treaty, which tended to an amiable accord, should make provision of Arms, calling in those Albaneses, specially since the people had laid down their Arms in that interim, therefore they sus­pected some false-play under-hand, whereupon they de­sir'd that the Lord President would do them the favor as go to Pompeo Sambiate who maintain'd those Alba­neses, and inorder him to dismiss them; that all sur­mises and Clouds of Diffidence might vanish: Here­upon the Lord President went accordingly; and treat­ing with the said Pompeo to discharge his Souldiers, He answered, That he could not do it by any means, nor ought he to do it, in regard that that armed Band was for his own Defence, and not to offend any other: The Lord President replied, and rejoined, but he could not prevail.

Hereupon Captain Gervatio having notice what had passd 'twixt the President & Seignior Pompeo, he with a huge rabble of people well arm'd, having made pro­vision of barrels of Pitch, Oil, Matches and Wood, went in a kind of fury to the Lord President; telling [Page 29] him, That since his Lordship could not thrust out those Albaneses, they would do it themselves; So de­parting thence like so many enraged Lions they went up and down with Drums, and Trumpets, discharging divers shots at Sembiate's windowes and applying Pitch, Oil, Match and Wood to his Gate, where the fire began to crackle: Another Brigade of people set fire in another part of the Town to the houses of Sci­pio and Bartolo Sembiate; Others to the house of An­gelo Matera; Others to the house of Ignatio Sembiate, with other of the chiefest houses; Insomuch, that real­ly the Town of Cosenza seem'd to be a Mongibelo, or Mountain of fire at that time, the like whereof was ne­ver seen before: All Obedience to Authority, all Pity and Piety was lost: While they put fire to Scipio Sem­biate's house, the poor Genrleman half naked stood upon the top of his house, and bullets flew about his Ears; at last he was reduced to that extremity, that he said aloud, I yield, kill me not in this manner with­out Confession. The people answered, If he yielded, they desired not his life; so he came down from the Tiles of the House, and put himself in a Chamber; in the interim some or other of his servants had dis­charged a Pistol, at the report whereof the people fu­riously rushed into the Chamber where he was upon a Couch, and one of them, and he of the meanest sort of Mechanicks, fell upon the person of the said Lord Scipio Sembiate, and chopt off his head, and threw his body out at the window; so his head was fixed up­on the top of a Lance, and carried up and down with this cry, M [...]uia il mal Governo, Let the ill Govern­ment die. Hereupon the women ran up and down with piteous shrieks and cries, having no sense of Dan­ger, [Page 30] Honour or Life, the Boyes ran up and down tho­row the flames, that the face of things look'd as if the day of Judgment had been come. Others surrounding the head of Scipio Sembiate, they plac'd it at last upon the Bridge of the Revocati, so the people multiplied in numbers, and encreass'd in fury more and more, till they came to the number of Ten thousand armed persons. The Nobles, some of them, hid themselves in Grotzes and Caves; others, in Churches, others in Monasteries and Hospitals; others, would not forsake their Wives and Children, but would stand to the brunt of what should happen: And it be­ing now neer noon, Captain Gervatio came to the Town­hal with a great number of his men, whence he sent a kind of command to the Lord President, that he should send a Trumpet for the Fiscal Proctor, and send him un­to him upon business that much concern'd the service of his Majesty. The world stood astonish'd at this peremp­tory Order, but it was presently obey'd: so the Trum­pet, together with the Fiscal Proctor was sent, who be­ing come to the Town-house, Captain Gervatio order'd that the Trumpet should go back; which being done, the Captain propos'd to the Fiscal, That for the special service of his Catholick Majesty, it was needful that a Tax should be impos'd upon all the Nobles, and sent to the Vice­roy for the necessities of war: This took effect presently, and a Tribunal was appointed to tax every one accord­ingly: They began with An. Cavalcante, who was assess'd 500. Crowns, which was proclaim'd by sound of Trum­pet, and the party sent for, who with fear and reverence appear'd and obey'd presently, assigning but so much time to provide then mony: so all the Nobles were sum­mon'd in like manner by sound of trumpet, and assess'd [Page 31] accordingly, and in case any refus'd, his house should pass the fire, which was done to some: So there was up­on a sudden a kinde of Exchequer or bank of money rais'd up in the City of Cosenza: some Gentlewomen came with their children to move compassion, & to have some abatement made in behalf of their Husbands; but neither the tears of the Mothers, nor the cries of the In­fants, could prevail or soften the stony hearts of the people.

A little after Bartolo Sembiate was imprison'd, who being penn'd up in a dark Grotza, with a son of the late murther'd Scipio Sembiate his brother, who being ready to starve got out to get some bread, but he was repriz'd, and they were both thrown into the prison of the Audientia, but in the way thither he swooned thrice for weakness, and former want of nourishment: A little after he was sent for by a Trumpet before Captain Ger­vasio, where he was inorder'd to pay 15m Crowns be­fore 24. hours, otherwise, he must be contented to have his head taken off by his Souldiers. Any one may conje­cture what a pitiful plight this Gentleman was reduc'd to; the throbs, tears and sighs that came from his wife and children would have mollified an Adamant; but rather then to exchange life for death; he made a shift to take this money up by Exchange. Many dayes after the said Captain Antonio Gervatio sitting in the Tribu­nal, sent out his Summons by sound of Trumpet, and laid what Assessments he pleas'd upon all the Nobles and Gentry that dwelt in Cosenza, and all the places adjacent: and now we will proceed to the Territories of Otranto.

A NARRATION OF The Tumults happened in the Territories of Otranto.

THe rumours of what passed in Naples, Cosenza, with other places, together with the flames of those fires flew as far as the Countrey of Otranto; and though the people be thin in those parts, yet the Com­motions were very high and hot in the Town of Leve, and the circumjacent places, as also thorow all Ca­labria.

The Viceroy had writ to the Lord President and Councel of Leve, to take off all kind of Gabels: The President then was Giacomo Arnolfini who was absent at that time, and the Audienza was very weak. Gio­vanni Angelo the Elect of the people, with divers o­thers, went to the Camp-Master Boccapianolo to consult with him: Who advised, that it were expedient to send back to his Excellency to know what kind of Ga­bels he understood should be abolished, which was done accordingly: But the President being return'd in the interim, together with the Tribunal, without conference with the Camp-master they sent out order [Page 33] to take off all kind of Gahels; but this was done with such a little Decorum, that it caused rather a kind of alteration then quietness in the baser sort of people; and gave occasion to ill meaning men to put their ma­lice in execution, which was done in an instant; for a crue of the common sort went to three or four houses of particular men, and did them much dammage; they sack'd and burnt the house of the Duke of Santo Donato which stood in the said Town of Leve; but matters were handled so, that they proceeded no further, only the houses of two Doctours suffered, who they pretend­ed did some ill Office towards an immunity from Ga­bels.

The Camp-master was inform'd, that there were some people coming from abroad to assist the Citizens of Leve, with intent to burn three houses more; there­fore, for prevention hereof, he arm'd some Troops of horse: The houses they aimed at were known after­wards to be the house of Tauritano, of Francisco Cimi­no the Fiscal, and of Auditor Stephano Pagliva; By the operations of the said Camp-master these houses were saved, yet some entered into the Dogana, and burnt whatsoever they found therein; They also e­lected a Capo popalo, who might govern all the Com­monality.

The City of Nardo, with the Inhabitants, did rise up, and bandy against their Patron, raising up For­tresses within the Wals, and renouncing all obe­dience unto him: He having timely notice hereof, came flying with a great number of Horse and Foot, with all his kindred and allies, who were numerous in those parts; and having begirt the City round, she [Page 35] did most stoutly maintain her self with Cannon and Musket; whereupon some were killed on the o­ther side, and divers wounded, the number where­of could not be known; But at the same time Duke Francifco Burtato was wounded, with one of the Family of Sersale whose name could not be known.

But the Lord Titta Cicinello, more fearless then the rest, went on to batter the said City in the best manner he could: The Siege lasted three dayes; at last arrived the Bishop of Leve, with him of Gallipo­li; and the Camp-master, who interposed so effectu­ally, that they commanded and reconciled all mat­ters betwixt the City of Narda and her Lord, in so much that they returned all to their former Obe­dience.

The first who entered the City was the Lord Titta: But if I should recount what succeeded in other places, I should never end; as those mur­thers, and firings which happened in Misagine, in O­stuni, in the Territories of Tolva and in Taranto, more then any where else; In Guttagia they mur­thered twelve persons in one morning.

In Otranto there happened new garboils, no lesse New then Lamentable: For the Tumults of Nar­do being quieted, the Count parted thence with his train every one to his own home. You must con­sider that those poor people are in a worse Condi­tion then others; for their syndique, and the chiefest of the Common people were beheaded, which struck such an astonishment into most of them that they all fled, and those few who stayed behinde made ac­count [Page 34] they remained but as silly sheep for the slaughter, but the Duke returning had more com­passion then was expected.

In Leve Councellour Urracea was arrived there from Naples; the people had shrew'd Umbrages of fear that he came to no good purpose, but to Com­plement with them, and impose some new Gabel: therefore he understanding that they had a Design upon him, he absconded himself in the Camp-ma­sters House: But they laid violent hands upon Boc­ca-pianolla, and cut off his Head, Hurling his Car­kasse out of the Windows, and carried it about the Town in piece-meales.

They went about to seize upon Cinino the Fiscal Advocate, who cunningly escaped into the Castle; but he could not preserve his House which was burnt to the Ground, with whatsoever was in it, and no House could be better furnished; Nor did the Lord President himself escape some affronts from the Common people, but they beleaguered him in the Castle of Leve, which was succoured af­terwards by the Valour of the Camp-master Boc­capianola.

In the City of Ostuni also there were perpetrated horrid murders, yea within Sanctuaries where Jero­nymo de Fina Serjeant Major was knocked down, in the Land of Grottaglia: they slew the Baron Ba­sta; and in the Countrey of Martina there were many firings and slaughters committed, with other horrid things, that unless there were fresh ocular Witnesses thereof, the Recital of them would sound as Fables; I must adde hereunto that the people [Page 36] of Leve did put into the Hands of Boccapianela, all the Powder and Ammunition of the City; which person was much esteemed, and held to be so af­fectionate to the People as no man more; But yesterday they write that he was so hacked, and ill handled, that all wounded they brought him to the place where the said Gunpowder was with the rest of the Ammunition, and took all things from him but his Life, clapping him in close Prison, meerly upon surmises and fears.

In fine, the worst things that humane imaginati­on can conceive were acted in those parts. And now 'tis high time for us to return to Naples, the source whence all these mischiefs did flow.

The second Tumults happened in the City of Naples, held to be hotter and higher then the former, which succeeded the 7. of July.

THe 20. of August, the Lord President Fabricio Cenano, intervening in a Cause before the Colla­teral Chamber, which concern'd the interest of the people; he was told by some of their Ministers, That he was not a fit person to be seen in that Cause, in re­gard his House had been burnt by them; and accord­ing to the Pragmatica lately stamp'd, he could not intermeddle with a cause of that Nature. Cenano an­swered, That it was too true, his House had been burnt, yet not by the people, but by some malevolent and emulous spirits, as Seignior Julio Genovino could make affidavit: It happen'd that Genovino was there present, who rose up and said, 'twas true, whereof he was ready to make attestation: Cenano likewise produced divers Captains, who serv'd the people for Witnesses, that his House was not set on fire by order of the peo­ple, but by the malice of some particular enemies; therefore he humbly desired his Catholick Majesty, and his Excellence, that they should receive due pu­nishmēt who were found to be the burners of his house, While this writing went about for subscription, the peo­ple [Page 34] began to be sensible of the wrong and prejudice that might redound unto them thereby, and of the consequences that might grow further from hence: Therefore upon a sudden they took up Arms again; and the rather because in that affidavit they told a lye, because when the people burnt any House, they did it with that punctuality that none might embeazle the value of a pepper Corn, but that all should be sa­crificed to the fire, as proceeding from the blood and radical moisture of the poor; but most of Cenano's goods were preserved. Hereupon there was twenty thousand Foot presently in Arms, before whom the Captains cried out, Tradimento al popolo, un pater, un ave Maria, pregate dio ne doni victoria, Andiamo à mo­rire per voj altri, ó vivere ó morire: which was as much to say, The people is betrayed, one Pater, and one Ave Maria, pray to God that he would be pleased to give us the Victory; let us go to die for you, to live or to die. And 'twas wonderful to see how many young men went on so resolutely, who making a halt upon Sancta Lucia à Monte, made themselves Masters of that Post, as an eminent place whence they might shoot at the Castle with advantage, and at the Viceroys Palace: Having planted their Standards there, and placed a Court of Guard for the defence thereof, they dismiss'd some Companies. Then they directed their course towards Pirrifailione for the Guard of the New-bridge: This place was guarded by six hundred Foot of a new Le­vy, who were weli Intrenched; and not being able to repell the violence of these men, who advanced with such a resolution and fury, the Souldiers that were formerly, were forc'd to abandon the place and leave their Arms behind, which the people seiz'd on: As [Page 35] also upon the house of the Prinee of Ascoli, and the Camp-master General was ingaged therein: a Ser­geant with thirty Spaniards were there for the guard of it, whereof about ten were killed, and the rest saved themselves into a grott. The people being en­tred therein did not touch any thing but the Arms that were hid there, without doing any detriment at all.

Afterward they went on to the Palace of the Princess of Bucera; and seiz'd upon all the Arms she had, whereof they gave a receit: Then they marched to­wards the Palace of the Viceroy; but not being able to do any good there, in regard of the preparations he had made for defence, they directed their course to Sancta Lucia again, and thence to the Dogana, and took out the Arms they found there, which were a thousand five hundred Archibuzes, and Pistols, but touch'd not any thing else.

With three hundred foot they made themselves Ma­sters of the Convent of Saint Martin, and entered on the grove's side; nor could any resistance prevail, where afterwards they began to stir and interpose again; and all the street Captains being assembled at Saint Augustin, they desired that the Viceroy would deliver them Massaniello's brother, who was prisoner in Castelnovo, as also Julio Genovino, whom the peo­ple demanded to keep in their custody, together with all those Captains who had subscribed in favour of President Cenano: The Archbishop by his singular ad­dress, prudence and gravity, did labour so far that an accord was determined, whereupon the Bels rung out for joy, and a white Flag was hung up in Castelnovo by the Viceroy.

[Page 36] But when the Souldiers who were in Garrison in Castelnovo faw a crue of people drawing towards the Palace, they gave a volly of shot to the people without bullet; but the people thinking that their Muskets were charg'd, they fell all with their Face on the ground; nor did the people go then on any hostile intent, but to congratulate. Yet as the Devil would have it, the report went that five hundred of the people were kill'd by them of the Palace: so the Accord was dis­solv'd, and the War grew hot again. From Sancta Lucia they began to batter the Castle where the Vice­roy kept his Court, discharging all their great Artille­ry, which did some hurt to the adjacent places; the Castle answered, and also the Castle of Saint Elmo; but the people being nothing at all dastardiz'd here­with, but incited still by the Women; the whole day was spent in shooting off the great Cannons on both sides: The House of Don Diego Manciohe was saluted by divers shots, but did not much hurt: Porto was of­fended by some of the Canons; whereupon they set up the Kings Picture in a high Balcone, but a Cannon bullet shot it through and through.

In the Evening they chose for the Elect of the peo­ple, the Lord Don Francisco Turaldo Prince of Massa, who mounting on horseback, undertook the business, and dispens'd his orders accordingly. The next morn­ing the Castle of Saint Elmo, as also Castelnovo dis­charged four Cannon bullets apiece, then a suspension of Arms was agreed upon, and a Treaty was resum'd for an accord, but in vain: For there were ten Heads of slain Spaniards six'd upon poles, and carried in tri­umph up and down the City.

The next day, the great Artillery that was planted [Page] upon Sancta Lucia, did some hurt to Castelnovo; the same day they of Porto secur'd themselves with good Trenches rear'd up in the uight time: but there was a strict watch laid, that nothing either for belly or back, any other thing, should be carried to the Castle where the [...]iceroy was.

The Camp-master General sent forth an Order that all the street-Captains, and other Captains of the In­fantry, should meet at Saint Augnstin, to treat and determine some capitulations for peace, which was done accordingly: And when they were agreed upon, they sent them to his Excellency by six Captains of Foot, accompanied by the Lord Bishop of Salut, Car­dinal Filomarini's brother: But that morning there were discovered some Trenches cast up in the night at the Hospitaletto: there were others cast up in Toledo street; for both parties digg'd night and day notwith­standing the Treaty; besides that which remain'd of the Duke of Ostuni's moveables were committed to the mercy of the Fire, and his House was turn'd to a quar­ter; above his Palace they planted great Muskets, with other kind of Artilleries to batter the Castelnovo; the Son of the said Duke was kill'd at Pizzifalione; besides, they planted two great Cannons upon the Trenches of Porto to annoy Castelnovo.

When this rumor began, there were in the Castle the L. Prior of Rocella, the L. Prior of Caraceioli, Don J. Baptista, and the Duke of Saint Petro, whither they retir'd them­selves during the broyl, with divers other personages of high rank, for their safety: some of them went forth one day, and the Camp-master-general clapp'd them up in prison, because they conceiv'd some jea­lousies of them, nor could they pump any thing out [Page 38] of them in point of information; they surpriz'd also Don John Lorio Sanfelice, but they chop'd off his Head as a President to the most faithful people.

The President Cenano was shut up in prison by the people of Santa Lucia, and they put him with his Con­fessor in a great chair, and carried them about the great streets, and in the Sellaria they took off his Head, burning his clothes afterwards; They chop'd off the Head also of a Corporal of Sergeants called Marchetol­lo: The next day there was a Truce accorded; yet not­withstanding both parties went on in entrenching and fortifying night and day. The Camp-Master-General being well informed of the innocency of some Roya­lists which were in prison, joyned with some street-Captains he freed them, which business was delibera­ted in S. Augustine, who upon their enlargement took Oath to be faithful unto the City.

They took off the head also of the Corporal of the Sergeants of Porto, who said that in those places where they made their fortifications there should be so many Gallowses and Gibbets set up to hang those who wrought in the said fortifications; all which was pro­ved by pregnant proof, and authentick witnesses, and in three hours he was dispatched. The scale of the Mi­nister of Justice was found, but he did it upon a stone by reason of the fury of the people: There was order given that the Holy Sacrament should be exposed and set open in divers Churches, that it would please God to enlighten the hearts of the people to see the right; Besides the Nuns with poor maidens amongst them made solemn processions, repeating the most holy Rosa­rio. There was scarce a post or place without and within the City butw as intrench'd which made the [Page 39] world wonder where they could get so much Cannon.

A company of Priests appeared who went with their Sotunes raised up; at the head of them there marched a very Reverend Church-man upon a Ginet, with a gold Cross in his hand; but this gave rather an occa­sion of scandal and murmuring, nor was it well taken by the people.

They pillag'd all Genovino's goods, who for many days before had withdrawn himself to the Castle; and if they could have laid hold on him they would have sent him after President Cenano to the other world.

The next day a Peace was publish'd, which made every one to dance for joy; yet the Viceroy thought it not safe to come out of Castelnovo.

After dinner the Lord Cardinal Filomarino went on horse-back with the Prince of Massa, and Camp-Ma­ster-General, and rid up and down the streets, all cry­ing out, Peace, Peace.

Towards the evening there came out an Edict in di­vers Precincts of the City, wherein the Viceroy did thank the most faithful people of Naples for their good wills and inclination to peace. He ordered likewise, That none should speak of the Castle of S. Elino, which was fortified and furnished with all things necessary: Now, amongst other places, he understood that the people in­tended to make a new motion that that Fortress should be in their hands.

The next day they took the Goods of President Ce­nano, which they had conserv'd in a Convent of Terre­sian Nuns, and brought them to the Sellaria; they brought thither also the Goods of Giovamis S. Felice, which all passed the flames. They gave out an Order also to take the Son of Sanfelice, Don Lucio; because [Page 40] he had given out in a menacing manner, That he would make the people of Naples eat the very earth in lieu of bread. Now the said Don Lucio was a great Corn­master in Aversa.

They of the people went to the Convent of the Oli­vetuni on Mount Olivct, where there was Abbot the bro­ther of Tonno de Angelis, together with the Visitor-Ge­neral, they were both put in a Coach, and command­ed to depart from Naples.

One among the people cried up and down the street' Guerra, Guerra, War, War; but he was put to prison by Order of the Prince of Massa, then he was shot to death, and his head carried up and down the City for a disturber of the peace of the most faithful people of Naples.

The Monks of the Trinity made themselves prisoners to the Popes Nuntio; and upon that Church door they fastned an Edict that had passed, wherein she was stil'd, La Santissima Trinita de Spagnuoli, The most Holy Trini­ty of the Spaniards; they caused that Edict to be can­cell'd and torn in pieces: They a little after made pri­soner Caesar Sanfelice, for some words which drop'd from him which gave scandal.

The next day those Capitulations of peace which were accorded 'twixt the Viceroy and the most faithful people came out, and were published in divers precincts of the City, whereupon they raz'd some of their Tren­ches. His Excellency form'd a new Company of three hundred Officers, all Italians, making a Cap­tain over them, Captain Biasi di Fosco, a person of high resolution and merit.

The Viceroy sent prisoner to Spain Julio Genovino upon a Galley, who was accused to be the first inciter [Page 41] of Massaniello, and the chiefest fomenter of all the tu­mults; Doctor Luis [...]i Capaccio at the instance of the most faithful people was appointed to be the Minister for confirming and swearing the foresaid Articles of peace 'twixt his Excellency and the most faithful peo­ple; but the Viceroy was advised by the Collateral Councel, not to go forth in person out of the Castle to swear unto those Articles, but that the Oath should be administred to both parties within the Walls of Castelnovo.

The next day being Sunday, the City sent to, the Viceroy in behalf of the most faithful people, that the Articles should be effectually ratified within the Arch-Bishops House; His Excellency returned an exeuse, that he was not well disposed in his health, and alledg­ed examples, besides that in such cases all treaties were used to be confirmed within the Castle: Thereupon the Camp-Master General Don Francisco Turaldo went thither, being accompanied with all the Officers of War, beginning with the Alferez of Lieutenants, to higher Degrees, together with the General of the Or­dinance Ottavio Marchise, all on horseback, and it was a very goodly sight; the horses were extraordinary, but the horsemen were not so good, being oppidane: and Turaldo himself being sick of the Gout went in a Sedan. They all entred into the Castle in a solemn manner, where the Articles were all sworn unto; and so they return'd into the City very well satisfied, spe­cially in outward appearance.

The next day they entred the House of Francisco de Lieto, a principal Merchant, and of very high credit, an honest man and much honoured, where there was a pillar which the people took exceptions at, and would [Page 42] carry it away; He said that he had lost upon the Ga­bels fifty thousand Crowns, and he would spend fifty thousand more, provided that the Gabels were regu­lated and setled; But they went to call in more peo­ple to plunder him, which he perceiving he stole away surreptitiously; Thereupon they imprisoned his Chil­dren, and took away a great quantity of Cloth and o­ther Merchandizes of value; Thus when some thought the insurrection had been ended, it began afresh: they began to double their Guard again; but they freed the rich Merchant di Lieto for a ransom.

In regard of the absence of the Nobility who were retired to their Countrey-Houses, and abandoned the City, trade began to decay extreamly, and the Arti­sans went up and down the streets like vagabonds ha­ving nothing to do. Thete came news from Sicily, that his Catholick Majesty had confirm'd the capitulations of peace with the Palermitans, which caused much joy in the City, in regard they hoped that his Maje­sty would ratifie their Articies also in as ample manner.

There came fresh information, that Don John of Austria, Generalissimo of the Seas, and natural Son to his Catholick Majesty, was with a royal Fleet at Sar­dinia, he sent to the Viceroy to provide some provisi­ons for the Gallies; but he returned answer, That there was little convenience to accommodate them there, but the Island which his Royal Highness was at, was more proper for to furnish Bisket, and other necessaries: It was wonderful to see how dexterous the Citizens of Naples, were in handling their Arms, in their disci­pline of war, in their marches and watches, as if they had been bred souldiers all their lives.

[Page 43] There were solemn processions made by all the re­ligious houses within and without the City, for a be­nediction to come from Heaven upon the last agree­ment, and that God almighty would please to inspire the heart of the Catholick King, to confirm the capi­tulations for avoyding of more blocdshed, but it seems their solemnities took little effect, as shall appear here­after. The great statue of silver was carried up and down with that of Saint Germano Protector of Naples; but aster the end of the processions the said silver statue of Saint James was replac'd in the Arch-bishops Pa­lace: There happened some stir the next day after, touching Joseph Palumbo Lieutenant of the people, who had the chief charge of the Magazines of Gun-powder; Notice was taken, and complaints made, that he suf­fered too great a proportion to go for the Castles, but that it should be reserved for the service of the most faithful people; therefore the said Palumbo was re­strain'd to Saint Lorenzo; but being a popular man, and one known to be a good Patriot, and of a publick soul, and a prrson of integrity; there were four thou­sand of the best armed men joyn'd together, to vindi­cate and free the said Falumbo, and there was like to be a hot fray, and bloody business, had not the Prince of Massa, General to the City, with much ado and no less discretion appeased the tumult.

The third Tumult happened in the City of Naples after the arrival of the Armada of his Catholick Majesty under the command of the Serenissimo Don John of Austria.

THe first day of October, 1647. The Castle of Saint Elmo hung up the great Standard upon sight of his Catholick Majesties Royal Army, there entred afterward into the Port, five and fourty great Vessels and as it was thought the Galleys of his Royal High­ness Don John of Austria: A Rumour ran that they carried six thousand fresh Foot, others said they came but to three thousand. All the Royal Castles saluted them, the Quay was throng'd with many thousands of people to fee the Fleet; It was then certainly known, that his Royal Highness was aboard the Galeones, thereupon it was ordered that Prince Thraldo with Ar­qata the Elect of the people, should go to tender a Tribute of due Obsequies and Reverence to his High­ness, and he with many evidences of affection receiv'd them, and gave audience, saying, that he was ready to do whatsoever they desired or could imagine to have, having authority from his Majesty to grant a Remis­sion [Page 45] of all things, provided that the Arms should be consign'd to his Excellency, and put in the Castles. They carried him a plentiful present, two hundred Turky-Cocks, two hundred Capons, two hundred pair of pigeons, twelve Calves of Surrento, and a­bundance of choice Fruit upon twelve Felucas: he re­ceived all very joyfully, causing some pieces of Gold to be hurl'd into the Felucas among those who carried the presents. The same Evening the Viceroy sent him a hundred Weathers, a hundred gammons of Bacon, with other commodities.

The next day his Highness signified his pleasure, That he was desirous to disimbarque and put foot on shore, but he desir'd that first the City should disarm: Hereupon all the Captains of War, and all the Street-Captains assembled at S. Augustin to conclude upon that which his Highness demanded; but the common people of the Market and of Lavinaro forc'd into the said Church, threatning death to all the Captains who were there met, who dismiss'd the Parliament for the time, and referr'd all to his Highness. The next day Arpaia the Elect of the people was inorder'd to go to his Highness, and desire him that he would come a­shore but with a limited number, whereunto Don John gave no pleasing ear: The next day a choice number of Captains went to attend his Highness, and to advertise him, that the people were willing to lay down their Arms, and put them up in their own hou­ses, not otherwise; this likewise gave little content­mentto his Highness.

The next day certain Spanish Souldiers came down from Castlenovo with a company of Reformadoes, and made themselves masters of Caesar Lubrano's house in [Page 46] the Hospitaletto, where they disarm'd all those that stood for the people, who were but few, because they depended upon the contract of Peace, all the Trench­es being destroy'd to that purpose round about the City: The Captain of that Post was a Glover, the Spanish Souldiers burnt the door of his house by an artificial fire, plunder'd him, as they did many other houses: All the three Castles began to play and dis­charge their great Guns, which struck a terrible af­frightment into the women, but they did but little execution in regard of their distance, unless it was at Porto, which suffer'd much. The Captains of the people who were assembled in Saint Augustin and in Toledo-street went all into the Castles, as also some of the great Market, another Captain of Porto, of Santa Maria, with divers other: Then the gross squadron of Spaniards came down, and with much cautiousness got possession of many of the importunest Ports in and about the City, without the loss of one soul.

The people of Toledo-quarter remain'd much asto­nish'd being without Captain, Alfarez, or any other Officer, as much as a Serjeant or Corporal: The Spa­niards seiz'd also upon Porto, but the people recover'd that again; for the people of the great Market came in great numbers, and revil'd them, calling them Pol­trons, with other opprobrious language, which inci­ted them to take Arms again.

The people thought they had all the justice of the world on their side, in regard, that according to the Capitulations with the Viceroy, they were to continue in Arms till the confirmation had come from Spain, which time was limited to three moneths; therefore the Prince Turaldo going to the great Market, the peo­ple [Page 47] cryed out, We are betrayed, we are all betrayed: The Prince answer'd them with gentle language, and in substance; Son con voy, per morir con voy, sio hó fatto Errore la testa lo paghi, má io Son stato Gabbato con voy: I am with you, to dye with you, if I have offended let my head pay for it, but I have been cheated as well as you. From that time forward the people would not permit Turaldo to go out of their arms, either in­to the Castle, or aboard the Galeons. The Spaniards in the mean time stirr'd themselves notably, and took into their possession the Post of Porta Reale, with that of Porta Medina; the three Castles still played upon Santa Lucia and Chaia, whereupon they gave up their Arms into the hands of the Spaniards, and scarce any of the people peep'd out thereabouts.

That Night not only the three Castles, but the great Galeons which were in Port played upon the Ci­ty, and one would think by the horrid noise they made, that a house could not stand, yet the damage was not very great; thereupon his Highness published a strict and high Order, That every one should lay down his Arms upon pain of death; which many did accord­ingly; considering with themselves how they had three Castles, a Fleet of Galeons, and another of Gallies against them; the Spaniards also having rendred themselves masters of so many Posts, and going on still in their Fortifications, but specially there being in the Port another Don John of Austria.

Yet they did not lay down their Arms or Spirits, but with a flying squadron of two thousand foot they recover'd the Port of Constantinople, and the White port; they attempted to regain Reale and Porta Me­lina; but they fail'd in that enterprize, as God would [Page 48] have it: Therefore Prince Turaldo was of opinion, it was better to fall to entrenching again, for fear the Spa­niards might gain more places and posts. This coun­cel was embrac'd; yet while they were busie to en­trench, the flying squadron of two thousand foot did recover le fosse del Grano, and divers Spaniards fell there, for a great number of them coming to Saint Sebastian, upon the upper ground, they let fly upon them shot as thick as hail, as also at Saint Andrea, insomuch that the Spaniards knew not which way to turn themselves to avoid those fiery Tempests. A Lieutenant General of his Majesties was on horse-back, with about fourty horse, and stood before the house of Bernardo Turboli upon a special piece of service; but he was so wounded that his bowels gushed out, and so was carried to Spi­rito Santo.

The Spaniards afterwards hurl'd themselves in Ca­talana street, but the women out of the Balcones and Windows pelted them with stones, whereupon the Spaniards put fire to three Shops, and sack'd divers Houses besides, the Women flying away at the back­sides. The Brigade of Reformado's advanc'd afterwards with many Napolitan Cavaliers in the Vanguard, and in the Rear a Company of Spaniards, with six Officers of War, Don Gaspar de Salta, Hieronymo Arnadeo, with others, united themselves in the street of Porta, as far as Saint Stephano, and the Spaniards as far as Jesu Ma­ria; but they were repell'd by the people by a flying squadron remaining Masters of Porta Medina and Porta Reale.

The Day following the people rush'd into the Pri­son of the Vicaria, and burnt all the criminal Writings, setting at liberty fifteen hundred Felons, whom they [Page 65] enroll'd for Souldiers, and fetch'd as many Arms as would serve their turn: Among those prisoners there was one Frenchman, who had been in the Candian wars for the service of the Signory of Venice: This French­man had been a Commander a long time, being a man of knowledge and courage, therefore they put him in the head of a Troop; So there was hot skirmishing both night and day in the City on both sides, and the great Cannons played without intermission, wherein there was much slaughter. Most of the Officers did con­fess, and took the Communion, carrying the Badge of the Carmine, hoping thereby the holy Virgi n would protect them in the publick Service of their Countrey, and for disburdening themselves from the insupporta­ble weight of Gabels. The Artillery which stood upon the Tower of Carmine did notable service, and one Bullet was shot thence into the Royal Galeon, where Don John of Austria himself was: He therefore land­ed, and got into the Palace of the Viceroy in safety, he is a comely youth, about twenty years of age, and full of Vigor and Resolution. His Sea-Commanders inci­ted him most of all to begin the War, telling him, that half a dozen shots from the Galleons would so terrifie the people, that they would lay down their Arms, then the Sword-justice should restrain them afterwards. Both parties had now as it were beleaguer'd one another; all Toledo-street as far as the Palace, the Hospitaletto, Chaia, together with Santa Lueia, were full of armed men, insomuch that none could pass to and fro, nor did any bread appear in the Shops, or flesh in the Sham­bles, or fruit in the Market: There went such a num­ber from the City to Pozzuolo, that they have half famished that place; thereupon the Viceroy propo­sed [Page 50] a Truce, but the people refused.

The Spaniards the next day rais'd up a great Trench about Porta Reale, together with a little Bulwark, which was done with that suddenness in the night time, that it could not be prevented; Coaches as well as Carts were employed to carry Materials up and down to fortifie: The Walloons who guarded Porta M [...]dina rais'd also in an instant, as it were, a marvellous strong Trench, which the people offering to resist, they could not do it.

The people then occupied San Sebastian, they rush'd the Zezza or Exchequer, and seis'd upon all the silver violently into that was therein, with other treasure; as also all the banks of Moneys for the service of the Publick.

The Viceroy publish'd a Declaration, That whosoe­ver would bring Corn or Meal into the Castle he should be allow'd to sell it at such a rate for ready money. At that time there came a Galley laden with Corn from Aver­sa; but the Galley-slaves killing the Captain made her run upon the sands, and so the people took her with five Cannons. There began to be a mighty scarcity in the City, yet the fury of the war grew hot [...]er and hotter; and the Spaniards began to set up double and treble Trenches, which the other did imitate: The great Bell of S. Lorenzo rung out to encourage them to Arms all night; every house almost had a kind of Trench a­bout it, and some two, some three: There were great Cannons planted also in the street of Cavaglioli, which played upon the people incessantly near the Garden of San Felice.

The Viceroy put forth a Proclamation, That whoso­ever would come into any of the three Castles to serve their [Page 51] King, his Catholick Majesty, should have an advance of pay, and be presently entertain'd: And that day 3 Brothers were detected to have a Design that way, but they were all put to death by the people who were heated more and more. There were divers Carts laden with dead bodies pass'd up and down the streets, to the number of fourty, this Morning; In the midst of the City the Picture of Death was set up near a red Flag; yet there went great numbers, that had neither houses nor shops to be plunder'd, to the Castles. There was a Design to make a Mine under Saint Ursola, and to blow it up with Gunpowder; but Prince Turaldo, in regard it was a Religious house, would not permit it, which made him to be somewhat suspected by the people; There were some houses near the Fathers of Santa Ma­ria which were burnt to the ground, and all the Of­fice-houses which belong'd to the said Fathers, were us'd in the like manner; besides divers other fair hou­ses near San Suriano, that it was a most pitiful specta­cle to behold it.

There was a Design discover'd, that a Priest had on foot against the most faithful people who was of the Fa­mily of the Giordani, they presently chopp'd off his head, and cut others to pieces in great numbers who were of the Conjuration: The Nuns of the Divine Love were remov'd for fear of the Spaniards into ano­ther Monastery, call'd the Sacrament near Francisco nuovo. There came from Nocera to serve the most faith­ful people four hundred fresh men very well arm'd, which did much encournge the City, and the next day after they came, they perform'd a notable piece of service against the Spaniards, who were thought to begin to want powder; for there was a calculation [Page 68] made that they had discharg' d from the three Castles, Galleons and Gallies, above thirty three thousand Bul­lets already.

There was a Captain made shorter by the head, in regard the people had some jealousies that he held cor­respondence with the Viceroy, having divers barrels of powder in his lodging which he had not discover'd.

The next morning betimes the Spaniards played from Land and Sea with their great Cannons, so that it made the very earth to tremble; they threw balls of wild-fire also into the City, which did notable hurt, and made both women and children to cry out, and howl miserably up and down the streets: The great Bell of San Lorenzo rung out again; but that night the Capuchin Fryer who was brother to the Archbishop, and was accounted a very holy man, was permitted to go to the Castle to his Highness Don John of Austria, to whom he propos'd some terms of Ac­commodation; Don John directed him to the Viceroy, but nothing could be obtain'd.

The Captain General of the people, the Prince of Massa, was suspected to have intelligence with the Enemy, in regard of a Lukewarmness they found in him in the execution of his Office, therefore he was committed prisoner to the Zapateria, in a certain dark Cave, and Chanchiero, who had chopp'd off the head of Don Peppo Caratta, the Duke of Mataluni's brother, who was but a Shop-keeper, was appointed to exercise the Office of Captain General; for it wa [...] incredible to what a skill the common Citizens wer [...] come to in point of Arms. And now the most splendid and delicate City of Naples which ravish'd all tha [...] came into Her, she which was one of the Glories [...] [Page 69] Italy, was reduc'd now to such an extremity, that she might be termed the miserablest and most barbarous of all Cities; such is the effect of War, and the fury of the people.

The Spaniards on the one side put all to fire and sword, the Citizens on the other side bur [...] the Goods, and destroy the houses of those of whom they had the least umbrage of suspition: The children cry up and down the streets for bread, which was extream scant, and every thing else very dear, only the sea, thanks be to God, afforded good store of Fish, but for Flesh there was neither salt nor fresh in any competency. The people having made a Mine under Porta Reale it was discovered by the Spaniards, who seiz'd upon all the powder, and took some of the Miners, which they carried to the Castle. There was a very bloudy fight 'twixt the Citizens and the Spaniards, about the Do­gana or Custom-house, whence the people had re­mov'd above a Million of goods into the House of the Duke of Adri. There came four hundred fresh men from Sanseverino to serve the people, about which time a great many houses were burnt about Porta Re­ale. There came also six thousand Combatants for Recruites from other places, as Lauro, Nola, and other Towns, insomuch that the City had not wherewith to sustain them, they were in such numbers.

About the Dogana there was the most furious fight of all, which lasted six hours, wherein many hundred, were wounded and slain, but more on the peoples sides and all the while the great bell of St. Lorenzo rang out, while they were shedding one anothers blood.

Thete were about a hundred boys called La­zari, which had certain darts, who went up and down [Page 54] and put fire to the Convent of Jesu, where they rush'd in and did much hurt; but they were all beaten out by the Spaniards.

The next day there was a tough and bloody skirmish at Porta Medina, and the great bell of St. Lorenzo rung out three times; the Fight was pursued to Sancta Lu­cia, where the people broke open a gate, but they were forced to turn back by the exemplary valour of Don Di­omede Caraffa, who had a very choice Brigade, though few in number; the next morning there was nothing but flames and smoak through the West side of the City, there were so many Houses, and some of them very fair ones, which were set on fire the night before, which had not yet done burning.

There came the next day three hundred men from Salerno for the assistance of the people, who were quar­ter'd towards the Sea-side; that evening, and all night following the great Bell of St. Lawrence sounded again, and the Fight continued all night most furiously, wherein many of the new Salerno-men breath'd their last.

The next day there was truce propos'd, but to little purpose; so they fell to it all night again, and many hundreds were slain: Among the people some of the Family of Parigi were shot to death, upon suspition to hold correspondence with the Castle.

Don John of Austria sent some Gallies with a design to secure Posilipo, but they fail'd in the effect; for the Spaniords were beaten back, being ore-powr'd by mul­titudes. The people finding that they were weak in Horse, they made a new Cavalry, and they admitted some of the Banditi to their Troops, who had come to fish in these troubled waters, to command them. The [Page 55] Duke of Mataluni had sent some choice Troops of Horse to Don John of Austria, which did extraordinary ser­vice. He sent a Cavalier of Quality to the Captain-General of the People, to know the merit of their Cause, and why they were so active in their own de­struction, and the ruine of so many innocent souls, and such a glorious City: But the people sent back but an uncivil Answer, viz. That when the Confirmation was come from the Court of Spain they would send his High­ness another kind of Message; till then 'twas but just they should continue to stand upon their Guard, and repel any force, by that power which God and Nature had given them for the defence of themselves and their Franchises, together with their Wives and Children; yet persisting with firm resolution to continue in an exact obedience to his Ca­tholick Majesty, and not to listen to the Enchantments of any other Prince, which began to tamper with them al­ready for a Revolt.

That night being a clear moon-shine, the people cull'd out three hundred Horse, and four thousand Mus­ketiers and Pikemen, to keep in one body upon some design, and it was to meet with the Auxiliaries that the Duke of Mataluni had sent; but they did not bring their intent home to their aim that night. The next morning a Ban was published, That none in any part of City or Suburb should plunder, under pain of death; which was obeyed accordingly.

Upon Saturday the 19. of September the great Bell rung out for every one to be in a posture ready to fight: There was fire put to the house of the Prince of Monte­sarchio, hard by the Dogana of Corn, and a general skirmishing continued all night long till the Sunday morning, at which time there came out a Procession of [Page 72] Friers in a doleful grave posture, with their faces bend­ing towards the earth, which struck such a sense of mortality among them, that there was a White Flag raised up for a Truce, which the Castle condescended unto; but notable execution had been done on both sides the night before, so that the greatest business of the next Sabbath was to bury their dead.

The night following there poured down such fear­ful cataracts of rain that hindered all kind of action on both sides; but upon Munday there was a tough Fight happened betwixt the Brigade of the Duke of Mataluni and the people at Marano, three of his Commanders had their Heads chop'd off in the great Market-place, besides there was one hanged who had been surprized and searched, and a Letter found about him from the Duke of Mataluni to the Viceroy.

The next day the voice went up and down, That if there were not terms propounded for a sudden Peace they intended to introduce Forreign force, and fix up a Protest against his Excellency: The sound of this voice went up to the Castle. There was brought that day the Head of Captain John Rosso di Nola into the Mar­ket-place, who was one of the chief Commanders in the Brigade of the Duke of Mataluni.

A publick Ban was fixed upon the Church-doors, and in the publick Market place, as also upon the gates of the City, that all Cavaliers who had withdrawn themselves from the City might return with safety, which was done at the importunity of the Artisans, who cried out that all Trade was failed, which they imputed principally to their absence. The 20. of Sep­tember there was a general assault made, and the most pertinacious was at Santa Lucia upon the hill, and at [Page 73] S. Martins; They of the people would have forced their passage that way, but the Spaniards being strong­ly intrenched, they could do no good, notwithstanding that the Dispnte was extreme eager and hot; eleven Spaniards were taken prisoners, besides those that were hurt and killed. The next day there was a furious Dispute at Porta Medina, where the people had made a Mine, which wrought a contrary effect, and flew in their own faces, insomuch that divers were blown into the air, some killed on the ground, and divers pitiful­ly disfigured.

The next day the people caus'd their own Head to be beheaded, which was the Prince of Massa, Tural­do their General, because he had caus'd sand to be put into some Barrels in lieu of Gun-powder, specially in those which were to do execution near Jesus Church: His Body and his Head were brought to the open Mar­ket-place, to be a spectacle to all people: And about that time the Spaniards sallied in divers places out of their Trenches, and did notable execution upon the Citizens, while they were gazing on the Head of their General.

Tuesday the 22 of September, having been engag'd in fight all night long, the people put forth a publick Ma­nifesto in print, with their reasons why they had taken Arms, therefore they desired his Holiness, together with the Emperour, and all the Princes of Italy, as al­so all other Christian Princes, to be sensible of their sad condition, and assist them, not onely with their prayers, but with their Arms, in so just a quarrel; con­cluding, that besides the recompence which they might expect from the goodness of God in an act of so much lawfulness and piety, that most faithful people would [Page 58] be ever bound to do the like or greater courtesies unto them upon all contingencies.

The Prince of Turaldo who had a good while serv'd the people in quality of a General, having receiv'd the Pass-port to go to the other World without his Head, Gennaro Arnese succeeded him in that publick charge: The first piece of Justice he did was to condemn a Captain to have his Head struck off, for violating a Woman in the Doury of Virgins where he had his Command.

Turaldo being gone, 'twas imagin'd by some that it would facilitate the way to peace; and that which rais'd the hopes of some the more, was, because his Ho­liness's Nuntio had gone to the Castle, where he re­ceiv'd that solemn audience; but nothing came of it, so that all the next day there was nothing but skirmish­ing up and down in every corner.

The 23. of September, six hundred of the people 'twixt Horse and Foot, went to Marano in succour of that important Post, where they found three thousand Horse of the Barons; in particular, the Marquess of Va­sto, the Duke of Cagnano, the Duke of Mataluni, the Prince of Monte Sarchio, the Duke of Caivano, the Mar­quess of Marianella, the Duke of Siana, and a number of other Cavaliers, all which were repelled by them of the place, and the succour which came from the City; among other, their Captain General was killed, and thirteen more, whose Heads were brought to the great Market-place in triumph, with divers prisoners be­sides.

The next day the great Cannons from the three Ca­stles plaid more furiously than ever, and made both Towers and Steeples, Houses, Monasteries, and Chur­ches, [Page 59] to tremble every where. The Spaniards attempt­ed to open a passage at Vemero, which was a Post of mighty consequence; the Dispute was very stubborn, and wonderful hot, lasting above three hours; but the Spaniards were made to retire at last, being surprized by night. That day the people did strictly command, that under great penalties the Cavaliers should keep within their houses, nor were they suffered to go hear Mass inany Church for fear of Conventicles: They sent their Orders abroad likewise in the Countrey cir­cumjacent, that they should bring provision to the Ci­ty, and other Assistances, under pain of Rebellion. The day following it was pitiful how the Women went howling up and down with their Children at their breasts, crying out for Bread, which was come down to 11. Ounces. There came into the post eleven Gallies from Genoa with the Duke of Tursi, who all saluted the Castles, and the Castles them; besides, the Torrion of Car­mine gave them also divers Salutes in behalf of the people; but the said Duke coming ashore was after­wards clap'd up in prison.

There came six hundred fresh Souldiers from Sanse­verino and the precincts thereabouts for succour of the Neapolitans, who upon their Ensigns brought the pi­cture of Death; They were quartered about the Mona­stery of S. Andrea, the Nuns being removed thence to another place.

Certain Letters which were sent from the Ambassa­dour of the most Christian King to the most faithful people of Naples were publickly read, being consign­ed to Don Luigi Ferro, who had been Ambassador for the people in dispersing the foresaid Manifesto up & down: The proffers which the Christian King made there­in [Page 76] to the Republick of Naples were accepted, which was two Millions of Gold, twenty Galeons, eighteen Gallies, and fourty Tartanas: Thereupon a Feluca was dispatched with an Express from the people to em­brace the said propositions, and whatsoever was con­tained in them. This Express was to go to Don Luigi Ferro, who was then in Rome, negotiating with the French Ambassadour.

Sunday the 26. of September, the people sent out a Ban to call in all the Barons up and down all the Countrey for their assistance, under pain of burning their Houses, and other penalties.

The Viceroy understanding what had happened be­twixt Franee and Naples, and that Johu Baptista Ferro was sent expresly to Rome about it, he sent present ad­vice thereof to his Catholick Majesties Ambassadour there resident at that time, to do what diligences he thought fitting in so pressing occasions. In the mean time all that day there was fighting in divers posts about the City, and much bloud spilt. The Viceroy caused the great Cistern of Oyl, which was near Porta Reale, to be emptied, and to be sold for the use of the Souldiery, wherein there was computed to be above one hundred thousand Sesters or Quarts. The Viceroy, Cardinal Filomarino, and the Duke of Tursis, they say, had a private Conference over the Walls therea­bouts that afternoon.

The next day the voice in many places of the City, Viva Francia, Let France live, in other places, Viva il Parlamento d'Inghilterra, Let the Parliament of Eng­land live, which caused Don John of Austria and the Viceroy to have Fleas in their Ears. The rumour went that Monsieur de Fountain, Ambassadour at Rome for [Page 77] his most Christian Majesty had sent four Veteran Cap­tains for the service of the City, who had order to let them know that he had a Million every year to be ex­pended for the preservation of their liberties, terming them a most noble, and a most generous people. They of the long Robe went melancholy up and down the Streets, complaining that they were undone for want of practice, w ich was no wonder, for Inter armasilent leges; there was news brought, that the Duke of Mata­luni was towards Aversa.

There came another express from Rome by Baptista Ferro that the King of France was resolv'd, and would make good his purpose, and promise, to preserve Na­ples in quality of a Common-wealth; thereupon the cry up and down went Viva Francia, Let France live; which they strain'd their throats to cry so loud, that the sound thereof might reach to Castelnovo, which was but a harsh note in the ears of the Viceroy and his Highness. That day there was fire put to the house of Nicolo Tinano in the Piazza ofS. Elmo.

The General Gennaro Arnese put out'a Declaration, that none under pain of death should say, that the Let­ter of the King of France was false; wherefore another Express was sent to the French Army to sollicit their haste. The 30. of September the fight was somewhat cold, as if the spirits on both sides had languish'd.

The Viceroy caus'd a Letter to be Printed in form of a Manifesto to be sent to all the Barons throughout the Kingdoms, wherein he required them in his Catho­lick Majesties Name, to contribute and send speedily what Auxiliaries and assistants they could to bri­dle the tumultuous humours of these Mechanicks.

On the other side, they caus'd the Capitulations [Page 62] which were made with the Crown of France to be stampt and fairly printed. They also put out a pro­test against the Barons, If they contributed any aid or advantage whatsoever to the Viceroy against them.

'Twixt the Conciaria and Lavinaro there was a great contest whether they should receive the King of France, or continue still under the Catholick King; but at last it was concluded that they would have nei­ther; but they would reduce themselves to the form of a Republick, according to the example of old Rome, their next neighbour, who never flourish'd more then under the form of a Republick. Another answered, that to establish any thing, it must have first a founda­tion; we must not be transported with Chimeras, and build Castles in the Air.

The report ran that divers of the Nobles had taken Port at Capo di Chino, which fill'd the City full of odd thoughts; because it was a post of infinite advantage: Therefore all that night there was nothing but shoot­ing of small and great Guns, ringing of bells to fight, and much hurt was done on both sides, both to men and houses, which ceased about the morning.

Newes came to the City, that yesterday morn­ing there was a great contention betwixt the Brigades that the Nobles had levied, whereof some would cry Viva Francia, others Viva Spagna, and the Dispute went so high, that from words they fell to Arms, and 200. were slain upon the place of those that cried for France. The Army of the Barons were advanced as far as Aversa, where they made a hal [...] [...] they pas­sed to Nola, thence to Scafati, and thence [...]o the Tow­er of the Anuntiata, and the Greek Tower, with a no­table slaughter of the people.

[Page 63] The next day the Bell of Santa Barbara within Ca­stelnovo rung out as a Signal to battel, which was not done before; Thereupon the Spaniards came down with a great deal of violence; and the people endea­vouring to get Porta Medina and Porto Reale, specially Vomero, which was next under the Castle, the dispute was very eager and bloody; but those places by the ad­vantage of the great Cannon were notably defended, and a great slaughter made of the Citizens which made the women go up and down the streets like frantick folks; one crying out for her husband, another for her brothers, another for her Children; so that it would have softned a heart of stone, and they began then to revile not only the Viceroy, and Don John of Austria, calling him unlucky Bastard; but they fell with foul terms upon the King of Spain himself, crying out, Viva Francia, Viva il Parlamento d' Inghilterra.

The Barons bestir'd themselves notably in the Coun­try, and made themselves Masters of Scafati, and the Greek Tower where the people were strongly entrench'd, but forc'd to yield and run away: And the same hour that I was writing this, there was a bloody combat at Porta Reale and Porta Medina, and New Jesu, which was so batter'd, that it can never be repair'd again: The slaughter was such, that dead bodies were carried away by Cart-loads, and great pits made to hurl in the carkases; so that one Priest serv'd for many to sing their requiems; Then they discharg'd some Can­nons in the Castle with powder onely for joy and triumph.

I will now relate here what persons they were that were the first raisers of these horrid tumults. It must be presupposed that about the lower places of the [Page 80] great Market-place, as also in Lovinaro, Conciaria, Sel­laria, at Saint Anthony, and Santa Maria Loreto, and the hourg of the Virgins, there were about thirty thou­sand men that used to goe barefoot, with Canvass slops, and onely their shirts upward; these men li­ving most of them upon the Retailing of Fish, Hearbs, Sallets, Flowers, and such petty Commodities; and some of them carrying Cruses of Oyl, Fruits, Bread, Honey, with other things of the like Nature about the Streets; Most of them have their Wives, who attend their Labours at home, as beating of Flax, spinning and washing; These people are very prolifical and fruit­ful, that they have abundance of Children; they fare hard and lie upon Mattresses; for few of them have any sheets, yet they earn about twelve pence a Day; They have no stable possessions at all, but what they have is from hand to mouth: They are called in Naples Scalzi, that is, unshod people; be­cause they go most an end bare-footed; Their or­dinary Food, besides Roots and Fruit, is a little Ba­con put betwixt two pieces of Bread, having boiled or rosted it before to make it melt upon the Bread to make it savory; They have nothing but Water to drink after it, and this is commonly their Dinner; for Supper they have commonly but Hearbs and Grass, whereof they will eat as much as a Horse, a little Oyl and Vinegar; and divers of them with­out Bread.

They live best in Fruit time, whereof there is greater store about the City of Naples then any where else; and Fruit time doth last there near up­on six Moneths: They feed much upon Figs, which are there very great, and most delicate; yet these [Page 81] people are plump and well to pass, vigorous and hearty, notwithstanding that their greatest sustenance is fruit.

The Viceroy Duke of Arcos had imposed a [...]ornese which is less then a farthing upon every two pounds of Fruit by way of Gabel, and this year afforded more quantity of Fruit then ordinary: These poor peo­ple grew half mad thereupon, considering what Tax­es were imposed upon all other Commodities as far as bread, which is the staff of Life: Massaniello, as was related before, assisted by a number of these poor people, burnt the Gabell-House in the Market place, and committed other high Acts of Auda­city.

The Viceroy commanded the House to be set up again, and continued still to exact the said Gabell upon Fruit: Thereupon they grew more incensed and resolute then they were before; and the Artisans with other of the best sort of Citizens joyning with them for the Common interest and Freedome, the Tumult by Degrees ascended to this monstruous height, that whereas before they spoke Reverently of the King of Spain, they now villifie him together with Don John his Bastard, and crye up the King of France, knowing him to be a mortall Enemy to the Spaniards, and to be now in Actuall Warre a­gainst him; besides by the information of some Merchants here, they had notice how matters pass'd in England; Therefore oftentimes they cry out, Vi­va el Parlamento d' Inghilterra; and in this man­ner ended the Moneth of October within the City of Naples.

[Page 82] We are now on the first day of November, the Feast of All Saints; and to begin the Moneth, the Spaniards shot very furiously from the Castle of Saint Elmo, and gave them hot Alarums; but this was onely in the Morning; they were quiet all the Day after.

[Page 83] WHile these prodigious tumults succeded in the City of Naples, I must not omit to declare that in Calabria at most Towns by a kind of strange influence, the same spirit of insurrection did possess the people. They of Monteleone did tumultuously rise up, and burnt 3 houses, which made Don Fabricio Pigna­tello, Duke of the said City, to hasten thither for sup­pression of the broyls in his own person, and for that time his presence did so prevail, being attended by the Nobility, and others of best rank, that he quench'd those popular flames, and brought divers of the chief Mutineers to punishment, whereby he setled a perfect quietness, not only in the City of Monteleone, but in all the places adjacent.

But when the said people had understood how stoutly the people of Naples held out still, notwithstand­ing the Arrival of Don John of Austria, whom they called the By-blow of his Majesty: The said Duke of Monteleone finding the inclinations of the people general­ly for an insurrection, and their spirits elevated to a high pitch, by the example and constancy of Naples, he wisely gathered what choice men he could to a con­siderable number, and having got a good Vessel, toge­ther with a Brigantine, he arrived safely to the Port of Naples the first of November, whence he went presently to Castlenovo to do his Observance to Don John of Au­stria, who with extraordinary demonstrations of fa­vour and affection received him. Whereupon the said [Page 84] Duke offer'd with many hot Protestations to make litter of his life for the service of his Catholick Majesty the King his Master, upon all occasions, though never so full of imminent and unavoidable danger; which Pro­testations he made good afterwards by his Actions; so he dis-imbarqued the fifteen hundred men he brought, with a good quantity of Arms, Corn, and other Pro­visions which he brought along with him from Calabria. That night the Spaniards being much animated by these new Auxiliaries, and the person of so gallant a man, made sallies out of the Castles down towards the City, where they sought in three several posts all night long, and the people of Naples were ready to receive them; so that they got little at that time. The next day the Viceroy had a design upon Pusilipo, and to that purpose sent thither a considerable force; but the passages being narrow, and the people resolute to live and dye with the Napolitans, the Spaniards were repelled with some considerable loss, so that they re-imbarked themselves, and so retir'd.

The next Morning three hundred Calabreses more were sent from the Prince of Satriano as a new supply for the Viceroy, in behalf of the Catholick King his Master. There were tidings also brought from the Ar­my of the Barons, That Don Vicenzo de Tuttavilla had parted from Aversa towards the Greek Tower, and Sca­fati, where runs the source of the waters that drive all the Mills thereabouts; it was beleagured by three thou­sand of the people; Tuttavillia had with him six hun­dred Horse, the Duke of Andria, with others, six hun­dred more, the Duke Martina sixty, the Marquess of Turiviso two hundred Horse, and fifteen hundred Foot, the Prince of Yorella three hundred Foot, and three [Page 15] hundred Horse, the Prince of Supino fifty Horse, the Count of Santa Maria in Grisone thirty Horse, the Duke of Cassa Massima fifty Horse, and Tonno Gentili having left Aversa to the Government of the Duke of Matalu­ni, who had two hundred Banditi, together with the Duke of Sora fifteen hundred Horse, the Prince of Ser­nia fifty Horse, and the Camp-Master Marco Laudulpho of the said City was inordered to keep his Station at some distance from the City.

The Viceroy having seasonable notice of the motion of the Army under the Barons, gave Order to batter the Trenches about Porto; but they were so well forti­fied and barricadoed that the Artillery could do no good.

The next morning Massaniello's Command was re­new'd in the City, That none must go abroad in a Cloak or upper Garments, but all en cuerpo. The Duke of Mata­luni maintaining his Brigade upon his own expence, without one Carlin charge to His Majesty, and de­manding some Quarter to guard, he was assigned that of Santa Lucia on the Hill, a place of the greatest con­sequence, because the Enemy had means thence to batter Castelnovo. About midnight an Alarm was given by the Enemy, and the said Duke would have exposed his own person in the Van, which he did, and did nota­ble execution upon the Citizens. The next day being returned to the castle his Highness Don John fell embra­cing of him, expressing much Thankfulness and Joy.

The people the day following took eight of Puzzu­olo men Prisoners, with a Corporal of the Duke of Ma­tàluni's, who had been freed formerly by the said peo­ple when the Vicaria was taken; he was hanged in the Market-plaee. The City made great provisions for [Page 86] the Frenchmen, whom they expected to come for Auxi­liaries; whereupon the Viceroy sent some choice Gal­leys to Pusilipo, and other places, with two hundred men upon a design. The same morning the General of the Barons Army march'd to Cerra, where he found the Prince of Montesarchio, the Prince of Fraia (who was Governour of that place) with three hundred Horse and two hundred Foot; with these three was Don Francis­co Caracciola, the Son of the Duke of Cosenza, Don Fabricio Spinello, Don Jusepe Mastrillo, and Carlo Gar­tano a Captain of a Troop of Horse, together with Don Antonio Tuttavilla, Don Francisco de Vargas, 'twixt Ton­n [...] and Somma. Being come at night to Nola, where Don Fernando Caracciola was Governour; they found also there the Prior his Brother, Don Giovanni Sanchez, with the Prince of Ottoiano, and others, who had four hundred good Horse, and three hundred Foot, con­ducted by the said Barons.

Upon Munday the fourth of November the Citizens of Naples sent in the Name of the most faithful People two thousand Foot well armed towards the Greek-Tower: The Duke of Tursis with much difficulty did land his Goods, with some of His Highnesses Don John of Austria. The rumour ran, That his Catho­lick Majesty sent a peremptory Command, that an Ac­commodation should be made with the people by all means possible, and that the War should cease. There­upon his Highhess sent a person of quality to tell the people how he received a great deal of consolation that he had found so much experience of the most faithful people in the Alleglance to his Catholick Majesty, in that they had caused some of theirs to be taken off, whose tongues had cried out, Viva Francia, therefore [Page 87] there should be reasonable Justice done to all their just demands. Thereupon they proposed, That the Duke of Arcos should be removed: Secondly, That His Highness might govern them; Thirdly, that the Spa­niards in Vallom should retire to Castlenovo; Fourthly, that the chief Incendiaries should depart the King­dom: Fifthly, that the Castle of S. Elmo should be in the hands of the people, with the posts about it, as it was in the time of Charles the Emperour; Sixthly, and lastly, they desired a performance of the Capitu­lations agreed upon at first.

The next day the Forces of the Duke of Montelione imbarqued themselves, who came to preserve that Ci­ty in her obedience and security. The people thereup­on removed, and planted some of their Artillery in the Palace of Cardinal Filomarino and S. George the Great, that they might the more conveniently shoot at the Castles; which many wondred at, considering there was an Overture of Treaty made; the Barons Army met all in one gross Body, the General being the Prior Caraeciola before-mentioned, and Don John Sames with two hundred Horse went towards Scafati, where he arrived about fix a clock, and found the place be­leaguer'd by two thousand of the peoples Forces; There were within fifty Spaniards, who had but an Al­ferez for their chief Commander, they were in want of Match and Bullet, having been besieged four days, and they were forced to make use of their Shirts for Match, and melt Copper-money for Bullet; The Ita­lian Tercia under the command of Prospero Tuttavilla came very luckily at that time, together with Captain Siglia and Osman, two Companies of Musketiers, one of Don Diego de Cordova, the other were Burgundians; [Page 88] there was another Brigade of [...]oluntiers, theMarquess of Turicuto, theD. of Bovino, the P. of Mondervino, the P. of Supino Don John Sanchez, Don Francisco Caracciala, Don Lucio san Felice, Don Gulliermo Tuttavilla Don Joseph O­rilla, Don Thomaso Guinazzo, Tonno Dentici, AndreaSan­felice, Duarde Andria, the Marquess of San Juliano, Michael Ruffia, Don Jeronomo Suardo, Don Carlo Aqua­viva; all these of the Barons Army were missing, in re­gard that every one attended his own Post. The Ene­my had eight Troops of Horse, who were command­ed by Poleto Pastina of Salerno. The people lost 1500 persons, and 25 were taken prisoners, the rest were pursued as far as Stradono novo, near the Territories of Aversa; On the Barons side onely one Burgundian was slain, and 2 more wounded; they made a Halt there, and the Barons Army sack'd and burnt many houses, among the rest the house of Pietro Cassale. There was also much pillage and treasure seiz'd upon, most part whereof was distributed among the fifty Spaniards who kept Scafati so gallantly.

Afterwards they march'd to the Tower of Aversa, where they hung out white Flags in sign of obedience; and the General being entred he gave them an uni­versal pardon, and while he march'd towards the Greek Tower of Castelmare, the Duke of Montelione appear'd to receive further Orders, together with the Duke of Girifallo, the Marquess of S. George with 400 Foot, to­gether with the Prince diValle, came also unto them; the whole Army being come to the said Tower, whi­ther they of Scafati had fled, before they gave any Assault, the Enemy did abandon the Post.

While thus in the Countrey there was a course ta­ken to straiten the people to the obedience of his Ma­jesty, [Page 89] there was no time lost in Naples; for the Duke of Montelione did bestir himself notably, who advanc'd boldly towards the Dogana; he attempted also to force the passage to Sancta Lucia to confront the Enemy, ha­ving done so oftentimes before: At last having ad­vice, that in Calabria there were new Tumults, he made it appear to his Highness how necessary it was for him to return thither; hereupon parting from Don John, with many expressions of endearments, he had the Title conferr'd upon him of Vicar-General, with a very ample Commission to that effect, yet with this restrictive clause, That the Kingdom being quieted he would be willing to resign the Cha [...]: So leaving the best part of his Brigade behinde for the service of Na­ples, he imbarqued himself the night following for Carantaro.

In the morning betimes they of the Greek Tower came to tender their obedience the sixth of November; So for the guarding of that place the Camp-master-General quarter'd there 150 Calabreses, and 200 Nea­politans, to be commanded by the Duke of Nartina and Luigi Minutulo with their Troops of Horse, and Seignior Caesare Caraffa: But being setled there, there came the day following 1200 of the peoples Army under the command and conduct of Capitan Rosso, who suriously assaulted them, and having gain'd the first Trenches with the death of 15 Calabreses whom the Duke Monteleone had brought, and 4 Spaniards, they burnt the Monastery of Santa Maria, together with the Hospital of the Incurables, cutting off the heads of 15 sick men; but they within making a virtue of ne­cessity, sallied out with that magnanimous resolution, that they put them to flight, and took about 300 of [Page 90] them prisoners, and did execution upon above 100 in the pursuit; Cavallero Medici got the Colours of the Horse, the Count of Santa Maria, Don Michael Al­maide, the Prince of Castillaneta, with the Marquess of Trevico did signal service that day.

In Naples, in the interim, Judge Palma, who had re­tired himself into the Castle, did frame a Writing, exhorting the people to conform themselves, and sub­mit to the mercy of his Highness, who did offr to stay there for Hostage, until the Capitulations came from his Majesty: In that Writing of the Judge there were many Proposals worthy of the consideration, with Cautions how the French in former Ages did carry and miscarry themselves in that Kingdom: How that in the compass of less than 4 moneths they were forced to send them away packing, and desire the Spaniard to enter: now it is not observed, that the French are any thing alter'd in their Natures to this day, but are still the same, insolent and unstable men, as they were from the beginning.

Yet for all these Overtures of Reconcilement, the great Cannons played still, and all sorts of small shot, and acts of hostility committed night and day 'twixt both parties; and this day the Musketiers came as far as the Nuncio's house, which was much wondered at. It was expected about this time, that a general Indulgence or Amnestia should be publish'd through all the King­dom, and that for 10 years there should be a Freedom given of all the Lands; moreover that the power of the Barons o're their Tenants should be restrain'd.

There came news to Naples, that the Marquess of Velez was dead in his Viceroyship of Sicily, and that Cardinal Trivultio was appointed to succeed him in the [Page 91] Government of that Kingdom. Tidings were brought also, that 4. Feluca's were come from Rome, with cer­tain Commanders of War, for the service of the peo­ple; there came news afterwards, that 7. more were ar­riv'd, and thought to be French; and that a great Per­sonage was aboard of them, which was thought to be the Duke of Guise; therefore the Town made prepa­rations to receive and entertain him according to his quality in point of diet and housing. There sallied out of the Town that day 5000. souldiers upon some De­sign on the Greek Tower, but they came back Re infectà.

The 8. of November, all night long, the great Bell of San Lorenzo rung out, and the great Cannons played more furiously then ever; Drums and Trumpets soun­ded every where, the Castles did a great deal of hurt to the City: At Donna Alluina the Spaniards made two Mines to force their passage that way further in­to the heart of the City; but the Mines played not, which made them return to their own Posts with some Mortality: Yet two of the fairest Houses in Naples were blown up that night: And about the Dogana there was skirmishing for six hours together, 'twixt the Spaniards and the people, which caus'd such mortality on both sides.

The next day the people understanding that the Prince of Montesarchio was coming with 3000. fresh Combatants for the Royalists, the great Bell gave an Alarm, so there sallied out of the City 500. men to re­pel him which took effect; for they made the Prince to sind his way back again: Now, because the business of the people might go on more regularly, they might go on more regularly, they elected 4. Doctors of the [Page 92] Law, and 4. Swordmen as a Committee to consult what was to be done: Some houses were burnt without the Gate of the holy Spirit; and upon the Palace of Tonno d' Angelis, there was a black Flag set up, so that the Cannons played most part of the day.

Yesternight there was a great Brigade of Cavalry and Infantry discover'd in form of a Squadron beyond the Bridge [...] of Santa Madalena; there came also two Gallies which were laden with dead bodies from divers places of the Country, to receive honourable burial in the City, whereof there were divers Commanders. St. Elmo had got a supply of Gunpowder from Sicily by a Gally of purpose; so the next day the Castle thun­dred for 7. hours together.

This incens'd the City so much, that the next day there was a Bando publish'd that none should speak of peace; but that every soul should prepare to defend himself by Arms, and annoy the Enemy as much as he could. The Cavaliers, and General of the Barons, who kept up and down the Country, made a halt at Ma­rigliano, and Sequestred the goods of Ciccio Ferlingero, General of the Calvary to the people, where they found 500. Butts of Lacrime Christi, a choice sort of Wine; the Prior Caracciola was left Governour of the said place with 200. Souldiers, and Ottaiana the Prince himself guarded the place.

Wednesday following, they march'd towards A­versa; in the way they made a halt at Marigliano, and Sergeant Major Nega was left Governour of the place, with 4. Troops of Horse. In many places of the Coun­trey circumjacent to Naples; the tenants rose up in great numbers, hoping that the City would be able to free them from the yoke of slavery they groan'd under, and [Page 93] the excessive Rents they paid to their Landlords. They of Naples had so fortified the Dogana, that it look'd like an impregnable Bulwark; it commanded one side of the Sea; so that the Spaniards could not pass to the little Mole to and fro, which was a great incom­modity unto them; for divers were, killed as they went along from time to time, and it hindred the convey­ance of necessaries to the Castle.

For two days together there was nothing but shoot­ing of great and small Guns, and the Bullets flew up and down every where, which made no distinction of persons, whereby you may conjecture what a mortality there was. The civiller sort of people, as Lawyers, Clerks, Notaries, and other of the long Robe, were commanded to put themselves in Arms for the common defence, and were assigned several Posts for them to Guatd.

There came gladsome news to the City that the Prince of Montesarchio was routed, who came to stop the watets of Poggio Reale, insomuch that he himself was put to fly, nor was the service without considera­ble loss to the people also: There was one of the house of Capello, that was surprized and taken for a spie to the Duke of Mataluni, with divers other prisoners of qua­lity brought to the Market-place: Thereupon there were bonfires of joy made in divers places of the City, and the Bells rung out, and the Cannons played to congratulate their good successes. The Cavalry of the people thought to assault some posts about Vomero; but by the valour of the Germans and Burgundians, who served the Viceroy, they were repuls'd with no little loss: They took an eminent man called Andrea Carola, who belong'd to the Prince of Massa, prisoner, [Page 94] and a Councel of War went upon him, so he was con­demn'd to have his head cut off.

The Camp-master General, Scipione Latro, was ap­pointed by the Viceroy to have the chief charge in guarding Puzzuolo. The people that night march'd with 500. resolute men, and advanc'd just under the Castle of S. Elmo; they entred into an outward House that belong'd to the Governour of the Castle, where they found some provision, and great store of Wine, which they let out upon the ground, and burnt the House: The chief Leader of this venturous Brigade did play his game so well, that he came off with the loss of ten men only.

The Duke of Arcos did publish a Bando, that who­ever could bring him the Head of Gennaro Arnese, who was Elect of the people, should have 10000. Crowns: Thereupon the people caused another Bando to be publish'd, that whosoever could bring into the Market-place the Head of the Duke of Arcos, who was Vice­roy, should have 12000. Crowns; or whosoever did kill him any way, should have 6000. upon certainty of the act: Insomuch that the eagerness and enmity on both sides grew hottet and hotter. They of the long Robes and divers Priests went up and down the streets en cuerpo all in black, with Muskets on their shoulders, and Pistols on both sides hanging at their Girdles.

There came unwelcome news to the City the day following, That the Count of Conversano was come to Puzzuolo with four thousand fresh Combatants, to joyn with the Cavaliers by the way of Ansignano; there was brought in the afternoon a Cart-load of Heads into the Market-place, which had been cut off in the Countrey. The fight grew very furious towards the people, espe­cially [Page 95] at Porta Reale, where a Spanish Camp-master Don Jeronymo Guzman, kinsman to the Viceroy, fell gloriously; yet his body was rescued, and received ho­nourable burial in the Church of Spirito Santo: Eleven Spaniards more perished in that place; but of the com­mon people 'twas thought there were about a hundred slain.

The next day the Castles saluted the City betimes with their Cannon from St. Elmo; an unhappy bullet came and killed one of the principal of the Black-coats that was in Arms. There came news from the Country, That Don Julio Aquaviva was slain about Marigliono, with others who had sold their lives very dear, with slaughter of divers of the people.

The Popes Nuntio, there having come unto him a Courtier expresly from Rome to that purpose, desir'd to have Audience of the people in the Name of his Ho­liness, to whom he had some things to communicate that tended to the publick Incolumity and Welfare of the City: Thereupon there was a Consultation had in Gennaro Arnese's House, the General of the people, where it was deliberated that he should be heard; but that he should pass through some private Houses, not through the open streets, to the place of Audience, be­cause he might not discover their works: Thereupon the General of the Napolitan Republick put himself in State all in Cloth of Silver, to attend the Nuntio; who came at last with an Auditor, whom the Pope had sent purposely with a Brief, exhorting the City to con­form themselves to a serious treaty of Peace, otherwise the holy Church must do her duty, and exercise her Spiritual Arms for the preserving of Christian blood, and preventing the effusion of it. 'Twas said he stil'd [Page 96] Gennmaro by the Name of Excellency; who answered the Nuntio, That he could not expect a sudden Answer to so grave an Embassie; Therefore the most faithful People de­sired some time to consult and consider of it: So the Nun­tio parted, and some did laugh in their sleeves at him when he was gone, so little they feared the Arms of the Church.

But this message from the Pope did so little prevail, that the next day the people buckled themselves for fight more earnestly then ever, being now so long flesh'd in blood that it made them little sensible of danger; therefore all that day there was Skirmishing in all places.

Towards the evening there was a Feluca discovered, which had been chased by two Gallies, but narrowly scaped them; this Feluca came safely to Port, and she brought in her the Duke of Guise, who had lived a good while retir'd in Rome, having left France upon some disgust: Hereupon there went off from the Torrion of Carmine twenty six shot of Ordnance, and then the Bells did ring out à Gloria: The Duke had with him but four Servants: Gennaro Arnese went to meet him in splendid Equipage, and he was received by the people with extremity of gladness; the Cannons upon the Bastion of the great Church went off again, and he was conducted to the Carmine, where there were Church-Offices performed to God and the most blessed Virgin for his safe arrivall to Naples. His Quarter was provided for him behind the Bastion of Carmine. The next morning he appeared in the Windows of His Lodging, and hurl'd money among the people, telling them that they should be of good cheer, for the French Army was near: That evening he did the like; but [Page 97] as they were discoursing of this business news came that the said Army was sailed towards Toscany. About night there were brought eight Heads into the Market-place; and it was reported that one of the Sons of Count Conversano was dead. The next day there were sixteen Fe [...]ucas that brought French Officers and others from Rome, for the Duke of Guise, who threw monies again among the people up and down the streets. That evening there was skirmishing at every Post about the City.

But there came cold news from the Countrey, That there about three hundred of the people kill'd by the Barons Army, who was recruited much by the Cavaliers of Castlemare. The Duke of Guise went to view all the Trenches that were rais'd up and down for the defence of the City, as also at Vomero, and Puslipo, at which time a fire happened in the Vicaria, which was extin­guish'd before it had done much hurt.

About this time Polito Pastina the Cape of the Bandi­ti, for to be revenged of some enemies of his in Salerno, made himself Master of the place by force, notwith­standing that he had received some refreshments there a little before: He secur'd the Town for the people; but the Camp-master Boccapianola of Leve came with three thousand well appointed men presently after, and be­sieged Pastina in the Town of Salerno, where he appre­hended so much fear, that he proposed suddenly some Articles, That if the Viceroy would pardon him he would for the future constantly serve his Majesty with all his Brigade; which was accordingly accepted.

These are the successes out of Naples; but within her Walls there were hot disputes all this day without any intermission, which lasted till night and darkness parted them.

[Page 98] The Duke of Guise the next dav went to the Arch­bishops Palace, to take on Oath of Fidelity to the peo­ple, and hear Mass, and so he took the Communion by the hands of Cardinal Filomarino. News came that the City of Nocera was in great commotion, and that much slaughter was done there, some adhering to the people, but the greatest number to the King, who hated the very name of the French. That evening there was a hot encounter at San Carlo alle Mortelle, where a Knight of St. Jago was slain, with divers others; but the people lost more; for they were in a better conditi­on to spare them, having ten times more store of men then the Enemy.

The Duke of Guise got a choice Brigade, to give a general assault to Donna Alluina, whereupon the Bells rung out to Arm; in this Service very many fell; but re infectà thence they went to Santa Maria la Nova; but the success was not great. The Viceroy caused nine to be executed that he had taken prisoners into the Castle, and published a Ban, That whosoever took up Arms against His Majesty should suffer death without mercy.

The next day there were very hot encounters in di­vers places, and many were slain, hurt, or taken pri­soners; the great rain caused them to be quiet in the afternoon, which foul weather came accompanied with a tempest that endangcred some of Don J. of Austria's Fleet, which was in the Port, expecting what would be the issue of these broyls.

The Duke of Guise desir'd to have 6000 Foot, and 1000 Horse, and he would go to finde out the Barons Army, which did so much spoil in the Countrey: he had his desire, and so march'd to Auversa. The Ba­rons having timely intelligence hereof, joyn'd all in a [Page 99] Battaglion, and came with a great deal of resolution towards the Duke; and understanding there were many French in the Army, it heightned their spirits the more: The people hearing the noise of so many Trumpets, and sound of Drums, were seared, and so astonished that they thought of flying away; but the Duke with other Commanders did encourage them, so that a furious Fight lasted for 2 hours; but at last the Dukes people gave ground, and so ran away with the the loss of 300 upon the place, and about half so ma­ny wounded, and 40 prisoners. The Lieutenant-Ge­neral of the people was slain, who was a French-man, with a Camarade of the Duke of Guise, whose body he bought for burial: On the Barons side there fell the Marquess of San Juliano, Don Emmanuel Vaaz, with 30 more; the victorious Barons retired (the night be­ing come) to Aversa, and the people for another place that stood for Naples.

They had been somewhat quiet in Naples all this while, attending the success of the Countrey Army a­broad, which when they heard, it somewhat dejected them. The Duke being returned to Naples, went to vi­sit all the posts up and down; the next morning the City had a hot Good-morrow given her by the Ca­stles, that put her in a palsie for a great while; There came more French from Rome to finde out the Duke of Guise, but they were very few. Some of the people re­membring the words of the Duke, that the French Army was near, made a motion, that if the said Army came not by such a day the Dukes head should pay for it; Many thought this French Army was a meer Chy­mera, and a pure Cheat; nor did there want some In­struments os the Viceroy to infuse this into the peoples heads.

[Page 100] About the Dogana the next day, there was a tough Dispute, where 20 were killed, and 30 of the people wounded, many fell likewise on the other side. The Admiral of Don John's Galeous died about this time, having been sick divers days of a continual Feaver. There was a new Patent to be given to the Duke of Guise, wherein he should be stiled the Doge of the Royal Republick of Naples; but some under hand gave advice, it was not fitting to be done until there were some certitude of the French Army he spoke of. Be­sides some reports were flown from the Castle, that the confirmation of the Articles was come from the Catholick Court, and was a printing with addition of further Graces for the City of Naples. In the interim there came reports daily how divers places in Calabria, as Pizzo and others, were mightily troubled with fa­ctions, which were grown so high that much bloud was spilt, many houses burnt, and other mischiefs done.

In some places the Kings party prevail'd, in others the people; Yet the Marquess of Santa Catherina did a great deal of good, who went up and down with 2000 Foot, and 1000 Horse, and did quiet sundry places that were in uproars with such moderation and pru­dence that it is admirable; He suppress'd besides some Rogues, that taking the advantage of the times robb'd up and down the Countrey, hanging them up on the High-ways on Boughs of Trees, that they might be a terror to the passengers. And in one little Grove which lay upon the common passage, they say, he did such an execution of those Free-booters, who were worse than Banditi or common Robbers, that every Tree was la­den with their dead bodies, some having 4, some 5, [Page 101] some 6, or more, dangling upon their branches.

Upon Mund [...]y the second of December, leaving the affairs of Calabria, and returning to Naples, from 3 hours of night to 7 in the morning, there was a kinde of general battle given, specially about the Kings D [...]ga­na; there fell of Spaniards and Germans above 60, and twice as many of the people; This afternoon t [...]hre were imbarqued about 300 Souldiers to go for Aversa for a further supply to the Barons, those Gallies which carried them had Ammunition and Arms also for the service of the said Barons.

Upon the third of December there was quietness on both sides, as if there were no war at all, but after­wards there began a fiery Encounter about the Dogana, being the nearest post to Castelnovo; the Duke of Guise ordered that some place should be filled with earth and fagots, that the Cannons towards the Castle might be mounted higher; whereupon many hundred people were set on work for that purpose accordingly; There was order also, That all the Wines near Naples should be brought into the City, because the Enemy should not make use thereof: There were likewise divers private Magazines of Corn found in the City, which being dis­covered they were made use of for the publick good.

The Duke of Guise was resolved to raise a Regiment of men upon his own charge, that they might be more faithful unto him, and as it were his own creatures; he offered 20 Carlins by way of advance to every one, and a greater pay than ordinary; thereupon divers came to enroll themselvs, and he promised to pay 3000 men upon his own score; to which purpose he had Let­ters of Exchange for considerable summes: One of the greatest things that pinch'd the City, was the Ga­leons [Page 102] and Gallies which were in Port, in regard they were a great hindrance for Commodities to come to the City, which was reduced now to a great necessity of victuals. The Spaniards had made a secret Mine in the Prince of Rocca's house; but the people having in­telligence of it, spoil'd it, though it cost the lives of many.

The fourth of December there were very hot Dis­putes about the Dogana, where many fell of both par­ties; The Duke of Guise sent 300 men to Castelamare, to hinder the refreshments that used to come that way for the Castles.

The sixth of the same Moneth, there was a Truce for 3 hours; in the mean time his Highness Don John of Austria gave notice to the City of a Letter sent from his Catholick Majesty, wherein he ratisied all the Ca­pitulations of Peace agreed on by the Duke of Arcos, and this was thought to be procured principally by the the intervention of his Highness Don John. The Let­ter being sent to the Captain General of the people, and communicated to the Duke of Guise, the said Duke exhorted the people to accept of it, in regard their King had therein made Concession unto them of so many signal Graces, and indeed of whatsoever they desired; Thereupon the people boiling with heat an­swered twice, that they would be cut to pieces rather than to be subject to that Nation any longer; The Duke finding the people so stiff in that resolution, he took a Meduill from his breast, saying, that his most Christian Majesty had given him that Meduill for a To­ken, that whensoever he sent it to his Majesty, there should come an Army forthwith: so at the very instant there were 7 Feluca's dispatch'd towards the said Army, [...]o [Page] sollicit it should come away for the succour of the City, and most faithful Napolitan people.

Upon the 7. of the same Moneth, the Bread was commanded to be made at twenty four Ounces, by reason of scarcity of Corn; but the poorer sort of peo­ple extreamly murmuring hereat, it was forced to be made at five tonesses the loaf, for fear of some Revo­lutions.

Advice was brought that from Calabria there came four thousand souldiers under the conduct of Polito Pastana of Salerno, who had executed an hundred persons in that City for their insurrections, reducing also Cava and Nooera to a firm obedience. The people imprisoned three Walloons upon some jealousies of Treason.

The eighth of the same, the Duke of Guise review'd all the posts with much vigilancy, accompanied with his most understanding Officers, giving strict Orders every where to look to their Charge; The people were constrain'd to send forth some Brigades out of the City to preserve the Market folks and o­thers from plundring.

The Duke caused three Bans to be published; one concerning the Gunpowder, the other to regulate the Markets: and the third, that whosoever did not come to keep his watch, he should forfeit so much.

The City began to be fcant of Corn, so that much bread was made of Indian Wheat: Upon the 12. of December the Castles began to give hot salutes to the Cisitens, and the Spaniards sallied towards the Dogana, where the Son of Regent Casanate was slain, with di­vers other persons of quality, and a Cavalier of Sant [Page 104] Jago was one of them; there were fifty wounded men carried to the Castle: Don Joseppe de Sangro also fell within the ditches of the entrenchments, so that his body could not be rescued: The Spaniards made this fight as it was said, of purpose to divert the Duke of Gui [...]e from going to the Countrey towards Aversa, with 6000. Foot, and 1500. Horse, which he had de­termined to do that day.

Yet the Duke of Guise went on in his Design, and with 15. Troops of Horse, 14. pieces of Cannon, and 4000. Foot, he march'd towards Juliano, and so to Aversa; he had 20. Carts, besides his train of Artillery: The people renew'd the Order, That none should wear Cloaks that very day. The Duke of Guise being come to Juliano with such a force, the Guardian Giacomo Rosso presented him the Keys of that place kept former­ly by the Duke of Mataluni; so that he recruited his Army there to 15000. Combatants making Juliano his randevouz: When he was departed, the Castles did so let fly their Ordnance, as if the day of Judgement were come. In San Lorenzo the Carmine, and San Carbona­ro, the Bells rung out to give Alarms, and those shoot­ings began an hour before day, and continued all the morning; they sallied out of the Castles with much Resolution, and passed through some of the Trenches, advancing as far as S. Peter the Martyr, where the gross of the peoples Army falling upon them, they made a very handsome retreat, and got back to their posts; notwithstanding, there was an ambush made for them in the way, which they avoyded, but with the loss of the third part of their number; that Evening there came tidings that Count Conversano had burnt Fratta Picciola with great slaughter.

[Page 105] Afterwards it was inordered; that the Duke of Guise should be treated his Highness; He was now at Juliano, where among other things he found 4000. sacks of Grain: He put sorth an Order, That none should part from the present Army which he had then, under pain of death. In Naples there were hot doings the 14. of December, both in Castles and City, and one unlucky Bullet did good execution against Castel­novo, for it battered down a little Turret, and made a breach in the Wall.

The cry was still The French Army will come; but some said, 'twas but a Fancie: News came that the Duke of Guise not being able to lodge all his men in Juliano, he was forced to find them Quarter in the places circumjacent. The business was still hot in Na­ples, and many skirmishes on both parties. A com­pany of Lazzari were assaulted by some of the Duke of Mataluni's men, whereof the Duke of Guise having notice, he got presently a Horse-back, and with a choice number went to their succour, so there was a tough Dispute wherein many of the people perish'd, and twenty of the Lazzari.

In Naples there were some suspected of foul play, and to have intelligence with the Castle, among whom, the Captain of the Post hard by Saint Do­mingo Suriano, and others of the House of Colentano, who were all imprisoned by the people; some of them freed themselves, but others were condemn'd to die, and executed.

A Mariner come from Genoa reported that he had seen at Piombino thirty four French Vessels under sail design'd for these Seas, and that others who were their consorts were scatter'd by a violent tempest.

[Page 106] It was given out, that the Duke of Guise had sent a Herald to assign a day of battel to Tuttavilla, who was in Aversa, and that he answered, That he much wondred that the most Christian King, and he himself being a Prince of the House of Lorrain, who had so many Obligations to his Catholick Majesty, should offer to assist the vilest people of Naples. The Duke replied, That the King of France being the Protector of the op­pressed, as it appear'd to him the Napolitans now were, had commanded him to defend them in their just priviledges; therefore he sent him notice that he should make himself ready for combat, for he was re­solv'd to have a battel.

There were the day following a Fleet discovered at Sea, and some thought it was the French Armada, and so rejoyced exceedingly; But they of Castel Ovo, thought it to be a Fleet of Spaniards, consisting of twenty three Vessels; thereupon up went the Flags within the Castles, crying out, Armada de Cielo, Ar­mada Catholica, the Armada of Heaven, the Catho­lick Army: Others said, it was the Indian Plate-Fleet which was come to succour them here: This bruit ran through all Toledo street; afterwards from the Castle they spied six more; they were all about two miles distant from the shore; so night came on, that they could see no more for that time.

The next morning that Fleet proved to be French indeed, which came to assist the people of Naples, as they made their approach towards the shore, they re­duced themselves to the form of a half Moon, as if they came to besiege the Spanish Fleet, which was in post. The Spanish Admiral seeing that French Fleet sailing towards the shore, he wondred at the [Page 107] rashness of those who had the guidance of it, that they would offer to enter into that Gulf, having no post of security: therefore he gave out a Rodomontado that he would not leave a Vessel unsunk of them. 'Twas thought that Fleet would sail towards Posilipo to disimbark some men and ammunition, and so de­part.

The Napolitan people finding it was a French Fleet, displayed their Colours up and down the City, and rais'd up the great Standard with the Image of the Lady of Carmine, of San Gennaro, and other Pro­tectors of Naples, with the Arms of the Royal Re­publick; and those of France, and all being brought to the Church of Carmine, solemn Mass was sung in presence of the Duke of Guise (who was now returned to Naples for the timee) and Gennaro Arnese the Cap­tain General, with an incredible multitude of people about them; and after Mass the Standard was set up in the bastion of Carmine, by divers of the principal Offi­cers, and the great Guns went off every where in token of joy.

The next day there came on shore many Comman­ders and others from the said French Fleet: they land­ed also six hundred Cows and Buffalo's; which the people took for provision for City and Souldiery: The French Fleet kept still in form of a half Moon; and it was a goodly sight to behold it; it consisted, as formerly was said, of twenty eight great Vessels, and one small one; they kept their distance so far, that they were out of the reach of the Spanish Fleet, or Castles.

There came about this time a Declaration set forth by the Napolitans, that they never had done, nor [Page 108] intended to do any thing against the Nobility and Gentry, whereat divers did very much wonder, con­sidering the state of things then.

The next day Ginnaro Arnese resign'd his General­ship with great applause of the people; who cried out aloud, Let the Duke of Guise, let the Duke of Guise live: There was a purpose thereupon to make him Doge of the Royal Republick of Naples six years, and the said Arnese Governour of the Bastion of the Carmine, till some of the Castles should be taken, allowing him twelve thousand Duckets provision per annum. The Duke also assured him of the greatest Offices of trust that could be in the said Republick.

That Evening the six thousand Sacks of Corn which the Duke of Guise had found in Juliano was brought to Naples for supply of the City; and the Duke of Guise parted again for Juliano.

There was great expectation what would be­come of the two great Fleets at Sea; but in the inte­rim by distresse of Weather two Vessels were sunk; one on this side Posilipo: the second t'other side to­wards Chaia: The sirst saved her men, but they were all cast away in the other; and it was a ruth­full sight to behold Men swimming, being closed arm in arm.

They say, that there was another sunk, and two more were boarded; so that with those of Castleamane, they accountd fourteen Vessels in all, and one more lost in full Sea five Tartana's: The Spanish Fleet had the Winde on their side at first, but then it turned contrary; in so much That the French Fleet followed the Spanish al­most under Castle Ovo, and the Tower of Saint [Page 109] Vincent, by perpetual shooting; so that this night there were great expressions of joy in Naples, and the Bells rung à Gloria.

The Duke of Tursis had Order from the Castle to pro­pose a Truce for three hours, which lasted above six between the Castle and the Town: The rumour ran, that the French Fleet was gone very ill handled, and also disgufted by the people, who would not consigne the Bastion of Carmine into the French hands; and there wanted not those who painted out the French­man to the life, and exaggerated his ill qualities. It was given out, that the French Fleet had disimbarked both men and victuals at Bagnoli.

It was Christmas-day; and in honour of that holy Tide there was a cessation of Arms on both sides, and no hurt done: On the peoples side there was a Letter intercepted from Tuttavilla to the Viceroy, wherein he complained that he could not furnish him with either men or money, therefore he advis'd him to manage the business as well as he could; he express'd likewise, that they had scarce a shirt left amongst them; for all went to make clouts for the wounded men.

The Galley Santa Agata went voluntarily to find the French Fleet, which came on almost under the command of Castelnovo, putting it self in the posture of an half­moon: there were among them three vessels so huge that they seemed as so many Mountains in the Sea: They came upon the point of Pusilipo, and got 'off again clear by the favour of the wind: The dearth of bread increased in the City of Naples, which made their spirits to faint somewhat; yet the next day they advanced towards the Castle of Saint Elmo, and the Spaniards sallying out towards them, they lost five and [Page 111] twenty of their men. There was a plot discovered for the murthering of the Duke of Tursis, who had been lately taken prisoner, and the Complices received their condigu punishment. Don John of Austria's Steward came in a Feluca of purpose, with white silk Flags, to treat with the people for the freedom of the Duke of Tursis, and a Ransome was put upon him of fourty thousand Duckets.

There came a recruit of three thousand men from Farino for the service of the people; their Leader was Antonio Donato, who had the title of Camp-Master from the Duke of Guise: The Spaniards took a Feluca that was coming from Pozzuolo full of people of good quali­ty; but it cost them dear; for among others a Knight of S. Jago was slain in the action, three hurt, whereof one was a Captain of note; the weight and price of bread was regulated.

There came tidings, that the City of Aversa was yielded up, which had been so well fortified: The peo­ple took likewise Caviano, where there were divers Ca­valiers mingled with Spaniards, so that the Camp­master Tuttavilla fled into Capoa with hundreds more: Cerra also made a rendition of it self; The Duke of Guise appointed Governours in those places according; and there were fourty thousand measures of Corn brought to Naples from those places, for the common sustenance of the people.

Don John of Austria sent to the Duke of Guise an of­fer of three thousand Duckets for the Duke of Tursis by a Spanish Camp-Master: The Duke answered, That the City of Naples wanted no money; and when he would yield the Castles, and the Fleet of Gallies, the Duke of Tursis should be given up. The Tower of Anuntiata, a Post of [Page 110] great consequence was taken by the people, and likewise all the Advenues about Castelamana; the Post of San Leonardo was also reduced to the peoples obedience. There was a hot dispute between the Spaniards and the people at Chaia, where the peoples Souldiers advan­ced as far as Pedro de Toledo's house: A Letter of Don John of Austria's intercepted going to Sicily, wherein he inordered Cardinal Trivultio to send the Sicilian Armada hither, for preserving of Naples, which with the whole Kingdom was in danger to be lost.

The first day of the year 1648. there came letters from divers places in Apulia, from the Capipopolo there, That they had twenty thousand good Combatants ready to assist the Royal Republick of Naples, if need were: An Alfarez going that day to the Elect of the people for Corn to make bread for his Souldiers, and the Elect refusing, the Alfarez took out his Poniard, and would have stab'd the Elect; whereupon the Alfarez was ta­ken and hanged that very day in the Market-place. The Duke of Guise removed his dwelling to the Palace of the Prince of Santo Buono, in S. John of Carbonaro.

The Collateral Council gave the Duke of Arcos to understand, that he should sit no more among them in quality of Viceroy, but that his Highness should Go­vern; but this was done, as 'twas thought, in policy, to induce the people to a conformity; but 'tis certain that Don John, speaking of him, said, Vayase en hora mala che ha hecho perder este Reyno a mi Padre: Let him go, in an ill hour; for he hath lost my Father this King­dom. There were two attempts made upon Pozzuolo by the people; but they were repulsed both times. Let­ters came to the Duke of Guise from Abruzzo, That they were ready to serve the Republick upon all occasions, and to obey their Summons.

[Page 112] Don John of Austria sent an Express to the Barons, that they should make themselves ready, and appear in the Field in a Body. The Judge Onufrio was sent to Santa Clara, to perswade them to render themselves to his Catholick Majesty, alledging how that that great King had long Arms; but the people fell a laughing at the Judge.

There was News brought that the passage of Scafati was re-gain'd, whereupon there was great rejoycing in the City; a special Guard of Halberdiers was appointed to attend the Duke of Guise; the Governour of Salerno came to do him reverence, bringing him a present of four choice Ginets with rich Saddles, and the Arms of the Duke upon them. There came also 2 Capopoli from the Territories of Otranto to do reverence to the Duke of Guise, with Presents and assurances that they were at the disposing of the Royal Republick. Most of the Judges were removed through all the Tribunals of Na­ples, and well-affected men put in.

On the other side Don John inordered some part of his Fleet to go to Sardinia to fetch men and munition. There came news also from Rome, that the Conde d' Og­nate (who had been Embassadour in England, Anno 1635.) had a Commission to be the Viceroy of Na­ples. There came also a Courier from Milan, that there were three Regiments appointed. and ready to serve His Catholick Majesty for the quieting of Naples.

Thereupon the next day there was a most terrible fight made betwixt the Castle and the City for 4 hours together, wherein some hundreds perished on both sides; the morning after, the Duke of Arcos with his Family departed, and the Castles gave him a Fare­well; [Page 113] that afternoon Don John of Austria made a C [...] ­vulcata to Jesu novo, where he lighted and went to Church to be sworn Viceroy for the time, whereupon Te Deum was so emnly sung; then he return'd to the Castle by the street of Incoronata, where the great Guns went off for joy.

A general Pardon was publish'd that day by Don John of Austria; whereupon the grave Judge Onufrio di Palma made a moving eloquent Speech to the people, that since the Duke of Arcos with the chiefest Incendi­aries were gone, and that they now had a Kings Son, so gallant a young Prince, to govern them, it was high time for them to return to their former obedience to their Monarch and lawful King, who had maintain'd them in peace and plenty so many years, and now did make a gracious offer to take off all kinde of Ga­bels, and grant a general Indulto or Pardon. The peo­ple answered, That if the Spaniards would go home to their own Countrey, the Peace was made. So this altera­tion of Governour wrought little effect for the pre­sent, but both parties jear'd one another; so that the Phlegm and longanimity of the Spaniard did won­derfully appear in these Traverses of affairs.

The Report was very rife that the Condc d'Ognate was preparing to come from Rome with a Recruit of 1500 choice men for the service of his Catholick Ma­jesty, and to be Viceroy of Naples. In the mean time the War did not languish a whit; for the people were now beleaguering Surrento and Pozzuolo with much resolution; so that the noise of the Cannons was heard from Naples. News was brought that in Santa Maria de Capra many of the people were slain, which did much exasperate matters as they then stood.

[Page 114] There was a new Election of Deputies made; Prior Caracciola, Don Diomede Caraffa, and Marco Antonió Gennaro were appointed for the Nobles and City, who expos'd to his Highness the grievous calamities and confusion that so flourishing a Kingdom was re­duc'd unto by reason of the present Tumults; that the people took up Arms for no other end but to recover their Liberty and Livelihood; that they might be the better able to serve his Catholick Majesty, and conti­nue in their fidelity to their natural King; and for the future they offer'd to keep Arms no more in their houses, but live quietly, and in brotherly concord one with another.

The next morning there came thirty thousand Du­cates from Spain for the support of the War: that Afternoon the Duke of Mataluni came to Naples, to do reverence to his Highness; and a Rumour ran that two Cardinals were to come from Rome with the Conde d'Ognate to accommodate matters: The people receiv'd a foul Repulse before Surrevto; insomuch that they were forc'd to raise the Siege with much loss. The like ill success they had before Puzzuolo; The Duke of Guise did a notable piece of Justice upon a French Baron, who had held intelligence with the Puzzolani, and under-hand had been a means to convey them corn and other provisions. The people put to death a Franciscan Frier, a man of an ill life, and a dishonour to his Frock.

Notwithstanding the fair hopes of Accommodati­on, yet for two days and nights there was nothing but fighting and skirmishing at every Post; insomuch that there was a computation made of near upon five hun­dred slain on both sides in the space of fourty hours [Page 115] There was order given out that the Lazzari which are the scum of the Neapolitan people, being most of them Porterst, Scavengers and Tankerd-bearers, having now grown very innsolent, should be sup­press'd.

There was new Money stamp'd with the Arms of the Royal Republick. The same night Antonio Manel­la Elect of the people was slain by Jacomo Rosso Camp-master of the people, by order of the Duke of Guise, chopping off his head afterwards, and carrying it up and down the City upon a Halberd, and his bo­dy was dragg'd to the Market-place, and so hang'd by the one foot, because he had secretly conveyed Corn to the Spaniards.

The next day divers kinsmen and acquaintance os the Duke of Guise came to the City. Gennaro Arnese Governour of the Bastion of Carmine having had pri­vate intelligence that the Duke of Guise had a Design to introduce the French, and make himself King; the said Gennaro, together with Vincenzo Andrea and a great multitude of Citizens, most whereof were on hors-back, rid up and down the City, and cried, Viva la Republica, Viva il Popolo; At which Rumour every one did shut up his Shop and his Doors, and the City was generally in Arms; which being understood by the Duke of Guise, he commanded his Regiment of Horse to be presently put in equipage, calling together all his Confidents, making all of them a good Squa­dron before his Palace; and Arnese passing by at that time with his Brigade, he was so saluted with some Muskets that six of his men drop'd down dead, which made the rest betake themselves to flight: the Duke afterwards rid up and down the Streets, and the peo­ple [Page 116] cried out, Viva la Republica, Viva il Duca di Guisa, Vivasualtezza; And so going to the Carmine he had some conference with Gennaro Arnese, whereupon all was quieted in a marvellous suddenness, considering the quality of the Commotion.

The first of February 1648. The Castle of S. Elmo put up the royal Standard, upon discovering three Gallies, one whereof was the Capitana of Naples, wherein was imbarqu'd the Conde d'Ognate; upon his arrival to the Post he was saluted by all the Castles, first by Castelovo, then by Castelnovo, and lastly by the Castle St. Elmo. The Bastion of Carmine did also sa­lute him, but it was with Bullets, as he passed by, whereby three of the Gally-slaves and two more were slain, which caus'd him to remove into a Feluca, and so went first to salute his royal Highness, and then in­to the Palace, where he was attended by the C llate­ral Council and all the Nobility, with all the Punctilio's of Ceremony.

There happen'd a great Commotion at this time among the people and Citizens of Naples; some cry­ing up Spain, others France, some The Parliament of England, and others the Republick: so that every one began to arm, and it was like to produce very ill con­sequences, unless the Duke of Guise by a French bold­ness and resolution had appeas'd the uproar.

The D. of Guise reform'd the Officers of the Militia, which tended afterwards to the advantage of his Catho­lick Majesties service. He sent also Manifesto's to the No­bles throughout the Kingdom, that they should inform the people, That for the future no Gabels or Impositions should be laid upon them, but new Graces and Con­cession should be done them, provided they would [Page 117] continue in their loyalty and devotion to the Royal Republique.

The Marquess of Turiano took the command of the reform'd Souldiery, Biasio di Fosso being now dead: All the S [...]ldadesca with their Officers interven'd to see the solemnity, and among others the Marquess of Rat­tivelle.

Upon the thirteenth of February 1648. The Royal Republick of Naples did establish certain Senators, with the consent of the Duke of Guise and the People, together with the approbation of the Councel of State and War; and they were six in number, three Noble men, and 3. Citizens.

  • Don Diomede Carratta
  • Cesare de Bologna,
  • The Prince della Roeca

For the Nobles.

  • Augustin Mollo,
  • Gennaro Arnese,
  • Vincent d'Andrea.

Were chosen for the people.

It was also determin'd that there should be Elected two Senators for every Province throughout the whole Kingdome, which were Twelve in all; so that the whole Number would come to twenty four; Twelve for the Nobles, and Twelve for the Peo­ple, to avoid Confusion that might arise from a greater Number. Moreover, it was Ordered that certain Officers should be elected for the government of the Cities and Towns with Subaltern Instruments un­der them; specially for the Government of Sapona­ra, and the two Provinces of Calabria. The same [Page 118] day those new Officers which had been chosen former­ly were put in possession of their authority derived from the Republick, both in the Vicaria and other Tribunals, who were to regulate themselves according to the new model.

The new Viceroy did stir himself notably, and left no stone unremoved to settle Peace and quietness, thereupon he did insinuate into many of the Captains and Citizens.

The sixteenth of February a Brigade of the peo­ple went by night under the Conduct of a Genovese, called Colonel Grillo, and brought with them scaling Ladders, with other Instruments to surprize the Town of Surrento; but they within having timely notice thereof prepared accordingly, and sallied upon them, with much Animosity and Courage, which caused a great slaughter of the people, and divers were taken prisoners; the said Grillo had both his arms bruised, so that the rest were put to flight, leaving behind them Bag and Baggage, with all their scaling Ladders, and Instruments.

His Excellency understanding, from Genoa, that there were fourteen Vessels laden with Corn to come for the service of the City from Provence in France, he went in person with some of his Cape-officers to Nis [...]ta, whither he carried a train of Artillery, with munition for [...]outh and War, and plac'd there a hundred Spa­niards in Garrison.

Tidings came, that the Prince of M [...]ntesarchia had reduc'd the City and Castle of Arian [...] to the Devo­tion of his Catholick Majesty; at which time he had taken a Convoy of four hundred Mules laden with Corn; he cut off the noses and ears of the chiefest Con­ductors, [Page 119] who would obstinately resist, and be of the Freneh party.

The Prince of Roc [...]a Maria had also brought divers places of consideration to their wonted A legeance, and among others Sporlongo, a Pass of very great Consequence to go and come from Rome, where there was a hot Dispute before a Rendition would be made by the Governour and inhabi [...]ants of that place, where­of divers were slain, and the Town plunder'd.

There arrived the first of April, 1648. in the Port of Naples a Vessel from Malaga with five hundred Spaniards, a great proportion of Victuals and Arms: This Ship gave notice that there were eight more un­der sail, and divers other from several Ports in Spain, to come for the service of his Majesty in Naples. There came also two Gallies from Genoa, with two hundred thousand of Ducates put up in Chests, a hundred Bar­rels of Powder, Salt-Peter, with an infinite number of Bullets, great store of Match, with many sorts of edible Commodities.

There came also an Embassadour from Malta, with a splendid train of Cavaliers, who were received by his Highness Don John of Austria with extraordinary expressions of benignity: The Conde d' Ognate pro­vided them Coaches to go up and down the City from the Palace. The Duke of Guise considering the great hazard and hurt which might befall those Corn ships that came from Province, for the service of the Napolitan Republick, specially now that the Spani­ards had impatroniz'd themselves of the Post of Nisita, and so strongly fortified it: He went with a conside­rable Army of Horse and Foot, with a train of Artil­lery, and divers French Commanders, and three thou­sand [Page 120] of the City Souldiers upon a design to reduce that place to the [...]isposition of the Republick.

The sixth of the same Moneth, his Highness and the Viceroy, with great numbers of Barons, Cavali­ers, and a numerous [...]ldadesca, with all the choicest and most magnanimous Commanders, sallied out of the Castle with all the privacy that could possibly be about twelve a Clock at night, having formerly im­plor'd the Divine help, and so march'd down towards the City: He had a train of choice Artillery along with him, and divers other Military Instruments, with good store of fire-works: He came first to the Ci­sterna del' Oglio, with all his Army, and caus'd the Church of Jesus, which was contiguous to the place, to be gently opened; where having made fervent O­risons to the blessed Redeemer of man, he desir'd Fa­ther Gerunda to confess him, which he did, and after­wards he took the holy Communion; the Viceroy with the chiesest Commanders did the like. Then he in­ordered a Wall to be batter'd down which join'd to San Sebastian, and so pass'd to Porta Alba: Being happily advanc'd so far he mounted his Ginet, and rid towards the street of Constantinople through a throng of Musketeers; whereof some shot, others be­ing astonish'd at so sudden a surprize, stood amaz'd. Thence he went on to Saint Aniello's street, and the Virgins quarter; where the most civil sort of people did inhabit, who were most of them alwayes well inclin'd to the King.

The Archbishop Filomarino was appointed to meet him, which he did, together with the Bishop of A­vers [...] the Lord Caratta: Then he march'd towards the Palace of the Duke of Guise; who togethrr with Pu­lumbo [Page 121] were absent, which was a mighty advantage to the business; and after some musket-shot the Palace yielded; nor would the great Cannon which was plant­ed there go off, though fire was put to it; so that all things seemed to conspire to make this Enterprize happy.

He marched thence to the great Market-place; and approaching the great Bastion of Carmine, where Gen­naro Arnese was, with three hundred select Souldiers of the people; he sent him word that it was expedient that the said Torrion or Bastion should be put into his hands for his Majesties Service; and if he would not conform to so just a demand, he left him to consider what an act of disloyalty it would be: Arnese calling his best thoughts to consultation, held it a desperate teme­rity to refuse, considering that at the end he might be constrained to do it; so he came forth, and presented the Keys to his Highness, prostrating his person before him: Thereupon Don John imployed Fru Paolo Vena­ti, a Knight of Malta, a Commander of renowned va­lour, and of high esteem among the people, to let them know, That it was his pleasure to grant them an Indul­to or general Pardon, with an aboli ion of the Gabels, and of all faults, provided they did presently range themselves to their wonted allegiance. Hereupon the people remained satisfied; but they desired to have that grace declared unto them by Don John of Austria him­self, being so great a Prince of the Imperial House of Austria; So when he came out of the Church the peo­ple desired His Highness that he would be pleased to pronounce with his own mouth what he promised by the Cavalier of Malta; whereupon he uttered aloud what the said Cavalier had said before, assuring them [Page 122] besides of further demonstrations of Grace srom his Father: So that huge croud of people gave such an ap­plause that might have rent the Air as far as the middle Region.

This heroick Enterprise took effect almost without any effusion of blood at all; only two Spanish Captains perished, and one of the peoples, with some few wounded; all which may be imputed to a special pro­vidence of God in the first place, and then to the prow­ess of a young General, and prudence of a grave Vice­roy; And lastly, to the absence of the Duke of Guise, who was much taxed of inadvisedness to leave the Ci­ty, as matters then stood.

The next morning betimes the Duke of Tursis was seen walking among the people in the Market-place, with his Nephew the Prince of Avella, with their naked swords in hand, among a great confluence of people, who cried out, Viva Spagna, viva ill Duca de Tursis; So all the Bells rang out à Gloria, and every one was as it were wild with gladness.

That afternoon there were four hundred Spaniards put into the Torrion of Carmine for a Garrison, where there were eighteen pieces of great Ordnance; among them there were fourty Italians: So all the rest of the posts of the City were secured, together with Chaia. All other places in the Country rendred themselves upon discretion, when they understood this not able news, and particularly Aversa, notwithstanding that Palumbo, a great stickler for the people, and in singular esteem, was there with considerable Forces.

The next day the noise was, that the Duke of Guise, hearing this dreadful news, did cast about how he might return to Rome with all his Camerades; which being [Page 123] come to the knowledge of Don Pompeo Tuttavilla, he went in quest of him; and being come to the Countrey of Mosone, a little dist [...]nt from the City of Capua, he met him; and although the Duke made notable resi­stance, yet at last he was forced to yield himself, and so he was clap'd up in the Castle of Capua, and removed thence to Garta. The Collateral Council sate upon him, and condemn'd him to dy; but Don John pre­vented that, saying, It was more fitting to send him Pri­soner to Spain.

Pastina who would not conform nor accept those gracious conditions from Don John, got two Feluca's, and with all his own and the plundred Goods he had from divers, sail'd for Ligorno.

All those monstrous tumults of Naples being now quash'd, the Conde d'Ognate sent for the Camp-master Scipio Latro, Brother to the Lord Regent Latro, who by the Marchioness of Vasto was appointed Governour of the Isle of Istria, the Viceroy gave him a Patent to that purpose, & besides made him Camp-master Gene­ral in the said Isle; he told him besides that he had re­ceiv'd advice how a great French Armada made her ap­proach; therefore it was fitting he should prepare strength accordingly to resist; The Camp-master an­swer'd him, that at that very instant he would go, and finde out the said French; so the Viceroy com­mending his promptitude presented him with a Purse­full of Pistols. He had no sooner set foot upon the Isle of Istria but the French Fleet appear'd; which draw­ing towards the City of Naples did stay a while be­fore the House of the said Camp-master General at Ciattamone, in form of a Half-Moon: The Castle Dellovo discharg'd some Pieces at them, but the Bullets [Page 124] could not reach. Towards night the French went to Pusilipo, the next day they attempted to dis-imbarque at Istria, but they were hindred; so understanding how matters had pass'd at Naples, when they had rov'd up and down those Seas some days, and taken some few Tartana's, they set sail for Porto Longone.

A little after this when things were pretty well et­led, the Viceroy commanded Gennaro Arnesel to be shut up in prison, who had been Captain General of the people a long time, during the greatest brunt of the Commotion; The pretence was that he was thought to have intelligence with that French Fleet, notwit­standing that his Highness had comprehended him before in the general pardon, and conferr'd an Office upon him of five thousand Ducates per annum, pro­mising him besides the Cross of Santiago: the proofs were such against him that he was condemn'd to die; so there was a Scaffold erected before the Castle, where he receiv'd an honourable Death by having his Head severed from his body.

There were also three Mariners, who had brought the Duke of Guise to Naples, executed that day; There were divers other condemn'd to suffer death; but his Highness, Don John of Austria, going one day to the great Market-place where there were Gibbets set up to execute a great many more, the women did im­portune him with their Petitions; whereupon he refer­ring them to the Castle, the Gibbets were all taken down, and the condemned persons sent to serve in the Gallies.

The next day Don John of Austria imbarquing him­self in a huge Fleet of Galleons and Gallies, hois'd sail for Sicily, having been so fortunate as to repress those [Page 125] prodigious uproars, and leave Naples setled in a perfect peace.

Sic furor evanuit tenues popularis in auras.

The Flema Spagnuola, the staidness, longanimity, and constancy of the Spaniard (for which he is so much cried up) was not discerned more in any of their pro­ceedings elsewhere, then by their carriage in suffering a good while, and afterwards by suppressing these Com­motions.

Moreover, the Conde d'Ognate, the new Viceroy, like a new Broom, swept all clean, and carried himself with that dexterity and diligence, that by degrees he found out the chiefest Fomentors, whereof he hath dispatch'd away divers to the other world; and the Inquisition is not yet ended, but some suffer daily, di­rectly, or collaterally; And touching the Taxes or Gabels, he hath found out other ways to raise Summs equivalent unto them for the service of the King his Master.


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