LONDON Printed by T: B. for Humphrey Mosley, at the Princes Armes, in Paules Church-yard, Ano 1642.


Shewing by what cours, and in what compasse of time, one may take an exact Survey of the King­domes and States of Christen­dome, and arrive to the practicall knowledge of the Languages, to good purpose. ‘—Post motum dulcior inde Quies.’

LONDON, Printed by T. B. for Humprey Mosley, at the Princes Armes, in Paules Church-yard. 1642.

To the growing Glory OF Great Brittaine, Prince CHARLES.
A parallell 'twixt His Highnesse, and the Black Prince.

Wales had one Glorious Prince of haire and hue (Which colour sticks unto Him still) like You:
He travell'd far, He won His spurs in France,
And tooke the King, the KING, ô monstrous chance
Then His victorious troupes afresh He getherss
And with the gray Goose-wing his shaftsnew fethers,
He beats a march up the Pyrene Hils,
And the Cantabrian clime with terro [...]fils,
To re-inthrone Don Pedro Castile's King,
Of which heroique Act all Stories ring.
Your Royall Sire travell'd so far, and Thay
Of all our Princes only made that way.
[Page] Who knowes, Great Sir, but by just destiny,
Your bunch of (Youthfull) Plumes may further fly?
But Faulcon-like, You may with full summ'd wing
The Eagle cuff, and from his tallons wring
Prey, or in exchange seize on his Ore,
And fixe Your Standard on the Indian shore.
'Twas by
Carolus Magnus.
[...] Charles, France once the Empire got,
'Twas by a
Carol Quintus.
Charles the Spaniard d [...]ue that los,
Why may not Brittaine challenge the next call,
And by a CHARLES be made Imperiall?
—Sic Vaticinatur. IA. HOWELL.

The Substance of this Discours.

OF the advantage, and pre­heminence of the Eye.

Of Forraine Travell, and the progresse of Learning.

What previous abilities are requi­red in a Traveller.

A caveat touching his Religion.

Precepts for learning the French Language.

What Authors to be made choyce of, for the Government and History of France.

Of Books in generall.

Of Historians, and a method to reade them.

Of Private Meditation. [Page] Of Poets.

An estimat of the expences of a Nobleman, or of a private Gentleman a broad.

Advertisements for writing of Letters.

INstructions for travelling in Spaine.

Of barren and fruitful Countreys.

The strange contrariety 'twixt the French and the Spaniard, the reasons natural & accidental.

Of their cariage, cloathing, and diet, &c.

Of the Spanish Language, how to be studied, and of its affinity with the Latine.

Of Spanish Authors.

The advantage of conversing with Marchants.

[Page] PRecepts for travelling in Italy.

Of the people and Language.

Of the Repnblique of Venice and other States there.

What observations are most use­full in any Countrey.

A digression into a politicall Dis­cours of the Princes of Europe.

Of crossing the Alpes, and passing through Germany.

Of the Court of Bruxells, and the Netherlands.

Of the wonderfull Stratagems u­sed in those wars.

The best Authors for the Belgick Story.

Of the States of Holland, and their admired Industry, and Navall strength.

[Page] A Discours of the vulgar lan­guages of Europe, with their severall Dialects.

Of the richnesse of the English Tongue.

Of the Pattuecos a People nere the heart of Spaine, never dis­covered til of late yeares.

Of the abuse of Forrain Travell.

Of S. Thomas Moore Traveller.

Of Ptolomeys Travellers, and of the most materiall use of Travel.

What cours a Traveller must take at his returne home.

Of the Parlamentary Governe­ment of England, and her hap­pinesse therein above other Countreys.

Of the Mathematiques; of Chy­mistry.

INSTRVCTIONS FOR Forraine Travell.


AMongst those many advan­tages, which conduce to en­rich the mind with Knowledge, to rectify the Iudgement, and com­pose outward manners; [Page 2] Forraine Travell is none of the least.

But to bee a Sedentary Traveller only, penn'd up be­tween Wals, and to stand poring all day upon a Map, upon imaginary Circles and Scales, is like him, who thought to come to bee a good Fencer, by looking on Agrippa's book-postures on­ly: As also to run over and traverse the world by Heare­say, and traditionall relation, with other mens eyes, and so take all things upon cour­tesie, is but a confused and imperfect kind of speculati­on, which leaveth but weake and distrustfull notions be­hind it; in regard the Eare is not so authen [...]q [...]e a wit­nesse [Page 3] as the Eye; because the Eye, by which as through a cleare christall Casement, wee discerne the various works of Art and Nature, and in one instant compre­hend halfe the whole Vni­verse in so small a roome af­ter so admirable a manner, I say the Eye having a more quick and immediat com­merce and familiarity with the Soule (being the princi­pall of her Cinq ports, and her Centinell) taketh in farre deeper Ideas, and so makes firmer and more lasting im­pressions, conveying the ob­ject more faithfully to the memory, where it remaines afterward upon record in particular topicall notes, and [Page 4] indelible characters: For though I confesse with the Stagirite, that Hearing is the sense of Learning (and of Faith also, as the holy Text tels me) yet the Sight surpas­seth it by many degrees, if you respect the curious workeman-ship of the Or­gan, the readiest roade to the heart, and love's best Intelli­gencer and Usher: As also for the penetrative apprehen­sion of the object, with the intuitive vertue and force of affection, it worketh inward­ly, as we find upon good re­cord that a heard of Sheepe conceived once by the strength of the Eye, as like­wise for the wonderfull quicknesse of this Sense, [Page 5] which is such that i [...] makes the effect oftentimes fore-run the cause, as we see the Light­ning, before wee Heare the Thunder, though thunder be first in Nature, being by the violent eruption it makes out of the Cloud, the cause of such fulgurations. And although one should reade all the Topographers that e­ver writ of, or anatomiz'd a Town or Countrey, and mingle Discourse with the most exact observers of the Government thereof, and labour to draw and draine out of them all they possibly know or can remember▪ Yet one's own Ocular view, and personall conversation will still find out something [Page 6] new and unpointed at by any other, either in the cariage or the Genius of the people, or in the Policy and munici­pall customes of the Coun­trey, or in the quality of the Clime and Soyle, and so en­able him to discourse more knovvingly and confidently and vvith a kind of Authori­ty thereof; It being an Act of parlament in force a­mongst all Nations: That one Eye-witnesse is of more va­lidity than ten Aur [...]cular.

Moreover as every one is said to abound with his owne sense, and that among the race of man-kind, Opinions and Francies, are found to be as various as the severall Faces and Voyces; So in each [Page 7] individuall man there is a differing facultie of Obser­vation, of Iudgement, of Ap­plication, vvhich makes that every one is best satisfied, and most faithfully instru­cted by himselfe, I do not meane soley by himselfe, (for so he may have a foole to his Master) but Books also, and conversation vvith the Dead must concurre, for they are likevvise good Teachers, and edifie infi­nitely; yet the study of li­ving men, and a collation of his ovvn Optique observati­ons and judgement vvith theirs, vvork much more strongly, and where these meet (I meane the living and the dead) they perfect.

[Page 8] And indeed this is the prime use of Peregrination, which therefore may be not improperly called a moving Academy, or the true Peri­patetique Schoole: This made Ulisses to be cryed up so much amongst the Gre [...]ks for their greatest wise man, because he had Travelled through many strange Countreys, and ob­served the manners of divers Nations, having seene, as it was said and sung of him, more Cities than there were Houses in Athens, which was much in that age of the World: and the Greatest of their Emperours did use to glory in nothing so often, as that he had surveyed more [Page 9] Land with his Eye, than other Kings could comprehend with their thoughts.

Amongst other people of the Earth, Islanders seeme to stand in most need of For­raine Travell, for they being cut off (as it were) from the rest of the Citizens of the World, have not those ob­vious accesses, & contiguity of situation, and other ad­vantages of society, to mingle with those more re­fined Nations, whom Learn­ing and Knowledge did first Vrbanize and polish. And as all other things by a kind of secret instinct of Nature follow the motion of the Sun, so is it observed that the Arts and Sciences which [Page 10] are the greatest helps to Ci­vility, and all Morall endow­ments as well as Intellectuall, have wheel'd about and tra­vell'd in a kind of concomi­tant motion with that great Luminary of Heaven: They budded first amongst the Brachma [...]s and Gymnosophists in India, then they blossom'd amongst the Chaldeans and Priests of Egypt whence they came down the Nile, and crossed over to Greece, and there they may bee said to have borne ripe fruit, having taken such firme rooting, and making so long a Plan­tation in Athens and else where: Afterwards they found the way to Italy, and thence they clammer'd over [Page 11] the Alpian hils to visit Ger­many and France, whence the Britaines with other North-west Nations of the lower World fetch'd them over; and it is not impro­bable that the next Flight they will make, will bee to the Savages of the new di­scovered World▪ and so turne round, and by this circular perambulation visit the L [...]vantines again.

Hence we see what a Tra­veller [...] Learning hath beene having in conformitie of cours, been a kind of com­panion to Ap [...]llo himselfe: And as the Heavenly bodies are said to delight in move­ment and perpetuall circum­gyration, wherein as Pytha­goras, [Page 12] goras, who by the Delphian Oracle was pronounced, the wisest man that ever Greece bredd, did hold, there was a kind of Musique and Har­monious concent that issued out of this regular motion, which we cannot perceive, because being borne in it, it is connaturall to us, so it is observed to be the Genius of all active and generous Spirits, ‘Quêis meliore luto finxit prae­cordia Titan,’

To have been always trans­ported with a desire of Tra­vell, and not to be bounded, or confined within the shoares and narrow circum­ference [Page 13] of an Island, without ever-treading any peece of the Continent; whereas on the other side, meane and vulgar spirits, whose Soules sore no higher than their Sense, love to hover ever about home, lying still as it were at dead anchor, mo­ving no further than the length of the cable, where­unto they are tyed, not da­ring to lance out into the maine, to see the wonders of the deep: Such a one was hee of whom Claudian speakes, to have had his birth, breeding, and buriall in one Parish; such slow and sluggish spirits may be said to bee like Snailes or Tortuises in their shels, [Page 14] crawling always about their own home, or like the Cy­nique, shut up alwayes in a Tub.

Amongst other Nations of the World the English are observed to have gained much, and [...]mproved them­selfes infinitely by voyaging both by Land and Sea, and of those foure Worthies who compassed about the Terre­striall Globe, I find the ma­jor part of them were En­glish, but the scope of this Discours is to prescribe precepts for Land Travell only (for the other requires another Tract apart) and first,

[Page 15]
A Iove principium—
Sic feret antennas aura secunda­tuas.


IT is very requisit that hee who exposeth himselfe to the hazard of Forraine Travell, should bee well grounded and settled in his Religion, the beginning and basis of all Wisdome, and somwhat versed in the Con­troversies 'twixt us and the Church of Rome, which I [Page 16] presume he hath done in the University, where (I take it for granted, hee hath been matriculated, and besides his initiation in the Arts and Sciences, and learn't to chop Logick (& Logick though she be no Science of her self, but as she is subservient to another, Like the Shoomakers Last, that may bee applyable to any foot, yet no Science can bee rightly studied without her method, nor indeed can the termes of Art be well un­derstood, or any Scholler­like discours fram'd but by her) where I say, besides these studies, he hath sucked the pure milke of true Reli­gion, and Orthodoxall truth, and such a one will be rather [Page 17] confirmed, than shaken in the tenets of his Faith, when he seeth the sundry fond fantastique formes, which have crept into the solemne service of God, since the pri­mitive times, for the practise of the Roman Church is worse than her positions, so that I have knowne some, who were wrought upon ve­ry far by the one, averted a­gain by the other, I meane by her Ceremonies, which in some places are so mimi­call, and set forth in such an­tique postures, that it may be not improperly sayd, whereas Religion should go array'd in a grave Matron-like habit, they have clad her rather like a wanton [Page 18] Courtisane in light dresses: Such a one, I meane he that is well instructed in his own Religion, may passe under the torrid Zone, and not bee Sun-burnt, if he carry this bon-grace about him, or like the River Danube which scornes to mingle with the muddy streame of Sava, though they run both in one Channell, or like Arethusa, which Travelleth many hundred miles through the very bowels of the Sea, yet at her journeys end issueth out fresh againe, without the least mixture of saltnesse or brackishnesse: So such a one may passe and repasse through the very midst of the Roman See, and shoot [Page 19] the most dangerous Gulphe thereof, and yet returne home an untainted Prote­stant; nay he will be con­firmed in zeale to his owne Religion, and illuminated the more with the brightnesse of the truth thereof, by the glaring lights and specious glosses, which the other u­seth to cast; For Opposita ju­xta se posita magis elucescunt: Nay the more he is encom­passed with the superstitions, of the contrary, the more he will bee strengthned in his own Faith; like a good Well useth to be hotter in Winter than Summer, per Antiperistasin, that is, by the coldnesse of the circumam­bient ayre, which in a man­ner [Page 20] besiegeth it round, and so makes the intrinsique heate, unite and concentre it selfe the more strongly to resist the invading E­nemy.

After Religion, it is fitting he should be well versed in the Topography, Govern­ment and History of his own Country, for some are found Foris sapere, and domi caecu­tire, to be Eagles abroad, and stark Buzzards at home, be­ing not able to satisfie a stranger by exchange of dis­cours, in any thing touch­ing the State of their owne Countrey.

To this end it were not amisse to run over Cambden, Sir Iohn Smiths Common­wealth, [Page 21] with those short pieces of Story, as Daniel and others who have written of the English Kings since the Conquest, and extract out of them, what traverses of war, what other passages and entercourses of State have happened 'twixt us and other Nations since the last Conquest, specially the French our nearest neigh­bors: It is also very behoof­full, that he have a passable understanding of the Latine tongue, whereof the Italian, the Spanish, and French, are but as it were branches of the same Tree; they are but Dialects or Daughters, and having gain'd the good will of the Mother, hee will [Page 22] quickly prevayle with the Daughters.

That hee understand the use of the Map and Globe, to find out the Longitude and Latitude of all places, and to observe and compare the temper of them as hee shall passe along.

Lastly that hee seriously contemplate within himself, how the eyes of all the World are upon Him, as his are upon the World, what his parents, kindred and ac­quaintance, yea his Prince will expect at his returne: That he is now in the very forge of his hopes, either upon making or marring: That (being of Noble extra­ction) he is like to be a Star [Page 23] of the greatest Magnitude in the Spheare of his owne Countrey, therefore com­mon qualities will not serve his turne, that the higher the building is, the more it re­quires exquisit forme and symmetry, that Nobility without inward ornaments is as faire guilded shels with­out kernels, or like a sattin doublet with canvas li­nings, whereas on the O­ther side Vertue reflecting upon a Noble subject, is as the Sun-beames falling upon a rock of Cristall, which makes the reverberation stronger and far more re­splendent, or as rich gold­embrodery, upon a piece of Tissue: Such thoughts [Page 24] as these will worke much upon an ingenious Spirit, and bee as a golden Spur, to set him forward, and cheere him in this high roade of Vertue, and Know­ledge.


THe first Countrey that is most requisite for the English to know, is France, in regard of neighboured, of conformity in Government in divers things and necessa­ry intelligence of State, and of the use one shall have of that Language wheresoever he passe further: And the younger one goeth to France the better, because of the hardnesse of the accent and pronunciation, which will be hardly overcome by one [Page 26] who hath passed his minori­ty, and in this point the French Tongue may bee said to be like Fortune, who, be­ing a woman, loves youth best. Whereas for other Tongues, one may attaine to speake them to very good purpose, and get their good will at any age; the French Tongue by reason of the huge difference 'twixt their wri­ting and speaking, will put one often into fits of de­spaire and passion, as wee read of one of the Fathers, who threw away Persius a­gainst the wals, saying, si non vis intelligi debes negligi, but the Learner must not bee daunted awhit at that, but after a little intermission hee [Page 27] must come on more strong­ly, and with a pertinacity of resolution set upon her again and againe, and woe her as one would do a coy Mistres, with a kind of importunity, untill he over-master her.

Indeed some of riper plants are observed to over­act themselves herein, for while they labour to trencher le mot, to cut the word, as they say, and speake like naturall French-men, and to get the true genuine tone (and every tongue hath a tone or tune peculiar to her self, specially the French, which hath a whining kind of querulous tone specially amongst the peasantry, which I beleeve proceeded from that pitti­full [Page 28] slavery they are brought unto) I say while they la­bour for this, they fall a lis­ping and mincing, and to di­stort and strain their mouths and voyce, so that they ren­der themselves fantastique and ridiculous; let it bee sufficient for one of riper yeares, to speake French in­telligibly roundly, and con­gruously without such forc'd affectation.

The French tongue like the Nation, is a bold and hardy speach, therefore the learner must not be bashfull or meale mouth'd in speak­ing any thing, whatsoever it is, let it come forth confi­dently whither true or false Sintaxis; for a bold vivaci­ous [Page 29] spirit hath a very great advantage in attaining the French, or indeed any other Language: He must be cau­telous not to force any An­glicismes upon the French Tongue, that is certaine vul­gar Phrases, Proverbs, and Complements, which are peculiar to the English, and not vendible or used in French, as I heard of one that could not forbeare a great while to salute his Land-Lord by bon matin: Another would be alwayes complaining at play of his mauvaise Fortune: Another when at the racket court he had a ball struck into his ha­zard, hee would ever and anon cry out, estes wous là a­vec [Page 30] vos Ours, Are you there with your Beares? which is ridiculous in any other lan­guage but English, for every speech hath certaine Idiomes, and customary Phrases of its own, and the French, of all other, hath a kind of contu­macy of phrase, in respect of our manner of speaking, pro­per to it selfe.

He must alwayes have a Diary about him, when he is in motion of Iourneys, to set down what his Eyes meetes, with most remarquable in the day time, out of which he may raise matter of dis­cours at night, and let him take it for a rule, that Hee offend lesse who writes many toyes, than he, who omits [Page 31] one serious thing. For the Penne maketh the deepest fur­rowes, and doth fertilize, and enrich the memory more than any thing else, ‘Littera scripta manet, sed manant lubrica verba.’

It were very requisit to have a book of the Topogra­phicall description of all places, through which hee passeth; and I think Bertius, or the Epitome of Ortelius, which are small and por­table, would bee the best. At his first comming to any Citie he should repaire to the chief Church (if not I­dolatrous) to offer up his sa­crifice of thanks, that hee is [Page 32] safely arrived thither, and then some have used to get on the top of the highest Steeple, where one may view with advantage, all the Countrey circumjacent, and the site of the City, with the advenues and approaches a­bout it; and so take a Lands­kip of it.

Being come to France, his best cours will be to retire to some Vniversity abou [...] the Loire, unfrequented by the English, for the greatest bane of English Gentlemen a­broad, is too much frequen­cy and communication with their own Countrey-men, and there let him apply him­selfe seriously to gaine the practicall knowledge of the [Page 33] Language, and for the time hoc agere. This hee may do with more advantage, if hee repaires sometimes to the Courts of Pleading, and to the Publique Schooles; For in France they presently fall from the Latine, to dispute in the vulgar tongue: So that it were not amisse for him to spend some time in the New Academy; erected lastly by the French Cardi­nall in Richelieu, where all the Sciences are read in the French tongue, which is done of purpose to refine, and enrich the Language.

Some have used it as a prime help to advance Lan­guage, to have some ancient Nunne for a Divota, with [Page 34] whom hee may chat at the grates, when hee hath little else to do, for the Nunnes speake a quaint Dialect, and besides they have most com­monly all the Newes that passe, and they will enter­taine discours till one bee weary, if hee bestow on them now and then some small bagatels, as English Gloves or Knifs, or Ribands; and before hee go over, hee must furnish himselfe with such small curiosities; but this I dare not advise him to, in regard the Hazard one way may bee greater, than the Advantage the other way.

In this retirement he must assigne some peculiar dayes to read the History of the [Page 35] Countrey exactly, which is a most usefull and delight­full study: For in History, that great Treasury of Time, and promptuary of Heroique a­ctions, there are words to speake, and works to imitat, with rich and copious mat­ter to raise Discours upon: History, next to Eternity only triumphs over Time, she, only after God Almighty can do mi­racles, for shee can bring back Age past, and give life to the Dead, to whom she serves as a sacred shrine to keep their names immortall.

Touching Books he must choose them, as hee should do his Friends, Few, but Choyce ones, yet he may have many Acquaintance: And [Page 36] as for morall society, the greatest Wisdome of a man is discerned in a judicious election of his friends, which are as Commenta­ries upon one's selfe, and are more necessary than fire and water, as the Philosophher said: So for speculative and private conversation with Authors our dead Associates, there must bee must judge­ment used in the choice of them, specially when there is such a confusion of them, as in France, which as Africk peoduceth always somthing New, for I never knew week passe in Paris, but it brought forth some new kinds of Authors; but let him take heed of Tumultuary, [Page 37] and disjointed Authors, as well as of frivolous, and pe­dantique.

And touching Bookes, as a a noble speculative Lord of this Land said, some are to be tasted, only, some chewed, and some swallowed: Here­unto I will adde that some are to be dissected and anato­mized into Epitomes and Notes.

To this purpose for the generall History of France, Serres is one of the best, and for the moderne times d' Au­bigni, Pierre Mathieu, and du Pleix; for the politicall and martiall government, du Haillan, de la Noüe, Bodin, and the Cabinet; Touching Commines, who was con­temporary [Page 38] with Machiavil, 'twas a witty speach of the last Queen mother of France, that he made more Heretiques in Policy, than Luther ever did in Religion: Therefore he re­quires a reader of riperyears.

The most difficult taske in gaining a forrain language is to turne English into it, for to translate another Tongue into English, is not halfe so hard nor profitable. In reading hee must couch in a faire Alphabetique paper­book the notablest occur­rences, such alliances, and encounters of warre (speci­all in the last Race of the Kings) that have intervened 'twixt England and France, and set them by themselves [Page 39] in Sections. When he meets with any great businesse, hee must observe therein the preceding Counsels, the action it selfe the motives of it, and the mould wherein it was cast, the progresse & even of it, which if successeful, he must note by what kind of Instruments, cō ­federations & cours of poli­cy it was carried, if not, where the difficulties and defects lay. The manner & method in reading of Annalists is in­finitly advantagious, if one take his rise hansomely from the beginning, and follow the series of the matter, the Epoch of the times, and re­gular succession and contem­porarinesse of Princes; o­therwise if one read skip­pingly [Page 40] and by snatches, and not take the threed of the sto­ry along, it must needs puz­zle and distract the memory, wherein his observations will lye confusedly h [...]ddled up, like a skeine of intangle silk.

For Sundayes and Holy­dayes, there bee many Trea­ [...]ises of Devotion in the French tongue, full of pathe­ticall ejaculations and Hea­venly raptures, and his Clo­set must not be without some of these. For he must make account before hand that his Closet must bee his Church, and chiefest Chappel abroad. Therefore it were necessary when he fixeth in any place, to have alwayes one in his chamber, whether to retire [Page 41] early and late, to his solilo­quies and meditations, the golden keyes wherewith hee must open and shut the day, and let in the night, and deaths Cousin-german.

Peter du Moulin hath many fine pieces to this purpose, du Plessis, Allencour, and o­thers; and let him bee con­versant with such Books on­ly upon Sundayes, and not mingle humane Studies with them. His Closet also must be his Rendez-vous, when­soever hee is surprized with any fit of pensivenesse (as thoughts of Country and Kinred will often affect one) For no earthly thing exhile­rats the heart more, and ray­seth the spirits to a greater [Page 42] height of comfort▪ than conver­sation with God, than peace with Heaven, than Spirituall Meditation, whereby the Soule melts into au inconceavable sweetnesse of delight, and is de­livered from all distempers, from all tumultuary, confusion and disturbance of thoughts:

And there is none, let him have the humors never so well balanced within him, but is sub­ject unto anxiety of mind som­times, for while we are compo­sed of foure d [...]ffering Elements, wherewith the humours within us symbolise we must have perpetuall ebbings and flowings of mirth and melancholy, which have their alternatif turnes in us, as naturally as it is for the night to succeed the [Page 43] day: For as the Physitians hold there is no perfection of corporall health in this life, but a convalessence at best, which is a medium 'twixt health and sicknesse, so is it in the state of the mind. This extends from the Lord to the Laquay, from the Peasant to the Prince, whose Crown is oftentimes in­layed with thornes, whose robe is furred with feares, whereof the Ermine is no ill Embleme, having as many black spots in it as white; Nor is there. any thing so hereditary to mankind as vexation of spirit, which doubtlesse was the ground the Pagan Philosopher built his opinion upon, that the Rati­onall soule was given to Man, for his selfe-punish­ment [Page 44] and martyrdome,—Man often is A tyrant to himselfe, a Phalaris.

But as when we go abroad, we cannot hinder the birds of the ayre to fly and flutter about our heads, yet we may hinder them to roost or nestle within our haire: So while we tra­vaile in this life, we cannot pre­vent but myriads of melancho­ly cogitations, and thoughtfull cares and longings will often seaze upon our imaginations, yet we may hinder these thoughts to build their nests within our bosomes, & to descend from the head to the heart and take foot­ing there; if they do, I told you, before what's this best cordiall to expell them thence.

[Page 45] There bee some French Poets will affoord excellent entertainment, specially Du Bartas, and 'twere not amisse to give a slight salute to Ron­zard, Desportes, and the late Theophile: And touching Poets, they must be used like flowers, some must be only smelt unto, but some are good to bee thrown into a Lambique to be Distilled; whence the me­mory may carry away the E­lixi [...] of them, for true Poetry is the quintessence, or rather the Luxury of Learning. Let him runne over also the Pro­verbs of every Countrey, and c [...]ll out the choicest of them, for many of them carry much weight, wit, and cauti­on, with them.

[Page 46] And every Nation hath cer­taine Proverbs and Adages peculiar to it selfe; Neither would it be time ill spent to reade Aesope in every tongue, and make it his taske to relate some Fable every day to his Governor or some other by heart.

Thus the life of a Travel­ler is spent either in Reading, in Meditation, or in Discours: by the first hee converseth with the Dead, by the second with Himselfe, by the last with the Living, which of all the three is most advantagi­ous for attaining a Language, the life whereof consists in so­cietie and communication; let his Chamber be street ward to take in the common cry [Page 47] and Language, and see how the Town is serv'd, for it will bee no unprofitable di­version to him, but for his Closet let it bee in the inner part.


HAving by the retirement aforesaid attained to a conversable Knowledge in the French tongue, hee may then adventure upon Paris, and the Court, and visit Am­bassadors, and going in the equipage of a young Noble­man, hee may entertaine a Cook, a Laquay, and some young youth for his Page, to parley and chide withall, (whereof he shall have oca­sion enough) and to get some [Page 49] faire lodgings to keep house of himself, and sometimes he may frequent Ordinaries, for it will much breake and enbolden him: As for ex­pences, he must make ac­compt that every servant he hath (whereof there should be none English but his Go­vernour) every one will stand him in 50 pounds a piece per annum; And for his owne expences, he cannot allow himselfe lesse than 300 l. I include herein all sorts of exercises, his Riding, Dancing, Fencing, the Racket, Coach­hire, with other casuall charges, together with his Apparell, which if it bee fa­shionable, it matters not how plaine it is, it being a ridicu­lous [Page 50] vanity to go gaudy a­mongst Strangers, it is, as if one should light a candle to the Sun.

The time that he spends in Paris, must be chiefly em­ployed to improve himselfe in the exercises afore-said, for there the choycest Ma­sters are of any part of Chri­stendome. Hee must apply himselfe also to know the fa­shion and garb of the Court, observe the Person and Ge­nius of the Prince, enquire of the greatest Noble-men, and their Pedigree (which I recommend to his speciall consideration) of the Favo­rits and Prime Counsellors of State, the most eminent Courtiers, and if there bee [Page 51] any famous man, to seek con­versation with him, for it was the saying of a great Emperour, that he had rather go fifty miles to heare a wise man, than five to see a faire City.

For private Gentlemen and Cadets, there be divers Academies in Paris, Col­ledge-like, where for 150 pistols a yeare, which come to about 110 l. sterling per annum of our money, one may be very well accommo­dated, with lodging and diet for himselfe and a man, and be taught to Ride, to Fence, to manage Armes, to Dance, Vault, and ply the Mathe­matiques.

There are in Paris every [Page 52] week commonly some Odde, Pamphlets and Pasquils dis­persed, and droped upon down; for there is no where else that monstrous liberty (yet London hath exceeded her farre now of late, the more I am sory) which with the Gazets and Courants hee should do well to reade weekly, and raise Discours thereon, for though there be many triviall passages in them, yet are they couched in very good Language, and one shall feele the generall pulse of Christendome in them, and know the names of the most famous men that are up and down the World in action.

Some do use to have a [Page 53] small leger booke fairely bound up table-book-will, wherein when they meet with any person of note and eminency, and journey or pension with him any time, they desire him to write his Name, with some short Sen­tence, which they call The [...] of remembrance, the pe­rusall whereof will fill one with no unpleasing thoughts of dangers and accidents passed.

One thing I must reco­mend to his speciall care, that he be very punctuall in writing to his Friends once a month at least, which hee must do exactly, and not in a carelesse perfunctory way, For Letters are the Ideas and [Page 54] truest Miror of the Mind; they shew the inside of a man, and by them it will be discerned how he improveth himselfe in his courses a­broad: there will be plen­ty of matter to fill his let­ters withall once a month at least: And by his Mis­sives let it appeare that he doth not only Remember, but meditate on his Friend; not to scribble a few cur­sory lines, but to write e­laborately and methodi­cally, and thereby hee will quickely come to the habit of writing well: And of all kind of Hu­mane Meditations, those of ones absent Friends be the pleasingst, specially when they [Page 55] are endeared and nourished by correspondence of Letters, which by a Spirituall kind of power, do enamour, and mingle Soules more sweetly than any embraces.


HAving Wintered thus in Paris, that hudge (though durty) Theater of all Nations (and Winter is the fittest season to be there) and plyed his exercises to some perfe­ction, the fittest Countrey for him to see next is Spaine, and in his Iourney thither he shall traverse the whole diameter of France one way, and passing through Gascoi­gne and Languedoc, hee shall prepare himselfe by degrees [Page 57] to endure the heate of the Spanish clime; let him not encumber himselfe with much loggage: and for his Apparell; let him as soon as as he enters Spaine go after their fashion, for as a Spani­ard lookes like a bug-beare in France in his own [...]ut, so a Frenchman appeares ridicu­lous in Spaine: nor would I advise him to cary about him any more money than is ab­solutly necessary to defray his expences, for some in this particular have beene Peny-wise, and Pound-foolish, who in hopes of some small benefit in the rates, have left their principall, exposing their Persons and Purses, to dayly hazard, and inviting [Page 58] (as it were) unto them danger for their Companion, and feare for their bed-fellow.

For although Sir Thomas More wisheth one to carry always his Friends about him, abroad, by which hee meanes pieces of gold: Yet too great a number of such Friends, is an encomber and may betray him: It will make his Iourney all along to be a Motus trepidationis. And he that loades himselfe with a charge of money, when he may carry it about him with such security, and ease, in a small piece of pa­per, I meane a Letter of cre­dit, or Bill of exchange▪ is as wise as he, who carried the coach-wheele upon his back, [Page 59] when he might have trilled it before him all along.

In Spaine hee must bee much more carefull of his diet, abstemious from fruit, more reserved and cautelous in his Discours, but enter­taine none at all touching Religion, unlesse it be with Silence; a punctuall repaire of visits, extraordinary humble in his comportment; for the Spaniards, of all o­ther, love to be respected at their own homes, and can­not abide an [...]nsolent cariage in a Stranger; On the other side, Courtesie and Morige­ration, will gaine mightily upon them, and courtesie is the chiefest congnisance of a Gentleman, which joyned with [Page 60] discretion, can only Travaile all the World over without a Passeport, and of all sorts of Friends, he is the cheapest who is got by Courtesie, and Complement only: Moreover a respectfull and humble ca­riage, is a mighty advantage to gaine Intelligence and Knowledge; It is the Key that opens the breash, and un­locks the heart of any one: He that looked downeward, saw the Stars in the water, but he who looked only upward could not see the water in the Stars: therefore there is much more to bee got by Humility than other­wise.

One thing I would dis­swade him from, which is [Page 61] from the excessive commen­dation and magnifyng of his own Countrey; for it is too much observed, that the En­glish suffer themselves to be too mvch transported with this subject, to undervalue and vilifie other Countreys, for which I have heard them often censured. The Earth is the Lords, and all the corners thereof, he ereated the Mountaines of Wales, as well as the Wiles of Kent, the rugged Alpes, as well as the Fertile plaines of Cam­pagnia, the boggy fennes of Frizeland, as well as the daintiest Valleys in France; and to inveigh against, or deride a Countrey for the barrenesse thereof, is tacit­ly [Page 62] to taxe God Almighty of Improvidence or Partiali­ty. And it had beene wished, some had beene more temperate in this theme at their being in the Spanish Court, in the yeare 1623. For my part, as the Great Philosopher holds it for a maxime, that Moun­taignous people, are the most pious; so are they observed to be the hardiest, as also the barrener a Countrey is, the more Masculine and Warlike the spirits of the Inhabitants are, having as it were more of men in them; Witnesse the Scythian and Goth, and other rough-hewen hungry Nations, which so often over-ranne Italy, for all her [Page 63] Policy and Learning; and herein Nature may seeme to recompence the hard con­dition of a Countrey the other way.

Having passed the Py­reneys hee shall palpably discerne (as I have ob­served in another larger Discours) the suddenest and strangest difference 'twixt the Genius and Garb of two People, though distant but by a very small separation, as betwixt any other upon the surface of the Earth; I knowe Nature delights and triumphs in dissimili­tudes; but here, shee seemes to have industri­ously, and of set pur­pose [Page 64] studied it; for they differ not onely Acci­dentally and Outwardly in their, Cloathing, and Ca­riage, in their Diet, in their Speaches, and Cu­stomes; but even Essenti­ally in the very faculties of the Soule, and operations thereof, and in every thing else, Religion and the forme of a Rationall creature only excepted; which made Do­ctor Garcia thinke to aske a Midwife once, whither the Frenchman and Spaniard came forth into the World in the same posture from the womb or no.

Go first to the Operations of the Soule, the one is A­ctive and Mercuriall, the o­ther [Page 65] is Speculative and Satur­nine: the one Quick and Ayry, the other Slow and Hea­vy; the one Discoursive and Sociable, the other Reserved and Thougthfull; The one ad­dicts himselfe for the most part to the study of the Law and Canons, the other to Po­sitive and Schoole Divinity; the one is Creatura sine Praete­rito & Futuro, the other hath too much of both; the one is a Prometheus, the other an Epinetheus; the one appre­hends and forgets quickly, the other doth both slowly, with a judgement more abstruce and better fixed, & in se re­conditum; the one will dis­patch the weightiest affaires as hee walke along in the [Page 66] streets, or at meales, the o­ther upon the least occasion of businesse will retire so­lemnly to a room, and if a Fly chance to hum about him, it will discompose his thoughts, and puzzle him: It is a kind of sicknesse for a Frenchman to keep a Secret long, and all the drugs of E­gypt cannot get it out of a Spaniard.

The French capacity, though it apprehend and as­sent unto the Tenets of Faith, yet he resteth not there, but examines them by his owne reason, debates the businesse pro & contra, and so is often gravelled upon the quick sands of his own brain, the Spaniard cleane contrary [Page 67] by an implicite Faith and ge­nerall Obedience beleeves the Canons and Determination of the Church, and presently subjects his Understanding thereunto, he sets bounds to all his Wisdome and Know­ledge, and labours to avoyd all Speculation thereon, fea­ring through the frailty of his Intellectuals, to fall into some Error.

Go to their Garb and Clo­thing, the one weares long haire, the other short; the one goes thin and open clad, the other close and warm, so that although the Sun should dart down his rayes like lances upon him, yet he could not bee brought to o­pen one button of his dou­blet; [Page 68] the one goes gay with­out, the other underneath; the one weares his Cloake long, the other short; so, that one might give him a Suppositor with his Cl [...]ake about him, if [...]eed were; the one puts on his Doublet first, the other last; the Frenchman butto­neth alwayes down-ward, the Spaniard upward; the one goes high-heeled, the other low and flat, yet looks as high as the other; the one cari­eth a Combe and Looking-glasse in his pocket, the other a piece of bayes to wipe off the dust of his shooes: And if the one hath a Fancy to stars his mustachos, the other hath a leather bigothero to lye upon them all night; the first [Page 69] thing the one pawns, being in necessity, is his Shirt, the o­ther his Cloak, and so by de­grees his Cassoke goes off, and then his Doublet; the one cares more for the Back, and outward appearance, the other prefers the Belly; the one is constant in his fashion, for the other 'tis impossible to put him in a constant kind of Habit; ‘—You may as soone Cut out a kirtle for the Moone.’

Go to their Diet, the one drinkes Watered Wine, the other Wine watered; the one begins his repast, where the other ends; the one begins with a Sallet, and light meat, [Page 70] the other concludeth his repast so; the one begins with his boyled, the other with his roast; the French­man will Eate and Talke, and Sing sometimes, and so his Teeth and his Tongue go oft­en together, the Spaniards Teeth only walk, and fals closely to it with as little noyse and as solemnly as if he were at Masse.

Go to their Gate, the Frenchman walks fast, (as if he had a Sergeant always at his heeles,) the Spa­niard slowly, as if hee were newly come out of some quartan Ague; the French go up and down the streets confusedly in clusters, the Spa­niards if they be above three, [Page 71] they go two by two, as if they were going a Procession; the French Laquays march behind, the Spaniards before; the one beckens upon you with his hand cast upward, the other downward; the Frenchman will not stick to pull out a Peare or some o­ther thing out of his pocket, and eate it as he goes along the street, the Spaniard will starve rather than do so, and would never forgive himselfe, if he should commit such a rudenesse; the Frenchman if he spies a Lady of his ac­quaintance, he will make boldly towards her, salute her with a kisse, and offer to Vsher her by the hand or arme, the Spaniard upon such [Page 72] an encounter, useth to re­coyle backward, with his hands hid under his Cloack, and for to touch or kisse her, he holds it a rudenesse beyond all barbarisme, a kind of sacri­ledge▪ the Frenchmen is best and most proper on Horseback, the Spaniard a foot; the one is good for the Onset, the other for a re­trait; the one like the Wind in the Fable, is full of ruffling fury, the other like the Sun, when they went to try their strength upon the Passengers Cloake. The one takes the ball before the bound, A la vo­lee, the other stayeth for the fall; the one shuffleth the Cards better, the other playes his game more cunningly; your [Page 73] French-man is much the fai­rer Duellist, for when hee goeth to the Field, he com­monly puts off his doublet and opens his breast; the Spaniard cleane contrary, be­sides his shirt, hath his dou­blet quilted, his coat of maile, his cassock, and strives to make himselfe im­penetrable.

Go to their Tune, the one delights in the Ionique, the other altogether in the Do­rique.

Go to their Speech, the one Speakes oft, the other seldome; the one Fast, the other slow­ly; the one mangleth, cuts off, and eates many Letters, the other pronounceth all; the one contracts and enchaines his [Page 74] words, and speakes pressingly and short, the other delights in long breathed Accents, which he prolates with such pauses, that before he be at the period of his Sentences, one might reach a Second thought: The ones Mind and Tongue go commonly together, (and the first comes sometimes in the arreare) the others Tongue comes flag­ging a fourlong after his mind, in such a distance, that they seldome or never meet and justle one another.

In sine Mercury swayeth ore the one, and Saturne ore the other, insomuch that out of the premisses, you may inferre, that there is an Intellectuall, Politicall, Morall [Page 75] and Naturall oposition be­tweene them both in their Comportement, Fancies, Incli­nations, Humours, and the ve­ry Understanding, so that one may say, What the one is, the other is not; and in such a vi­sible discrepancy, that if one were fetched from the re­motest parts of the Earth, the Sunne displayeth his beames upon, yea from the very Antipods, hee would agree with either better, than they do one with another.


ANd truly I have many times and oft busied my spirits, and beaten my brains hereupon, by taking infor­mation from dead and living men, and by my own practi­call observations, to know the true cause of this strange antipathy betwixt two such potent and so neare neigh­bouring Nations, which bringeth with it such mis­chiefe into the World; and keepes Christendome in a perpetuall alarme: For al­though the Ill Spirit bee the principall Author thereof, as [Page 77] being the Father and fomen­ter of all discord and hatred (it being also part of the Turkes letany, that warres should continue still betweene these two potent Nations) to hinder the happy fruit that might grow out of their V­nion: yet neverthelesse it must bee thought that hee cannot shed this poyson, and sow these cursed tares, un­lesse hee had some grounds to work his designe upon.

And to fly to the ordina­ry termes of Sympathy and Antipathy, I know it is the common refuge of the igno­rant, when being not able to conceive the true reason of na­turall Actions and Passions in divers things, they fly to inde­finite [Page 78] generality, and very often to these inexplicable termes of Sympathy and An­tipathy.

Some as Doctor Garcia, and other Philosophicall Authors, attribute this op­position to the qualities of the clymes and influences of the Stars, which are known to beare sway over all Sublunary bodies, insomuch that the position of the Heavens; and Constellati­ons, which hang over Spaine, being of a different vertue and operation to that of France, the temper and humours of the Natives of the one, ought to bee accordingly disagreeing with the other.

An opinion which may gaine credit and strength from [Page 79] the authority of the famous Hippocrates, who in his Book of Ayre, Water, and Climes, affirmeth that the diversity of Constellations, cause a diversi­ty of Inclinations, of humors and complexions; and make the bodies whereupon they ope­rate, to receive sundry sorts of impressions. Which reason may have much apparance of truth, if one consider the diffe­ring fancies of these two Nati­ons, as it hath reference to the Predominant Constellations, which have the vogue, and qualifie the Seasons amongst them.

For then when the heate be­ginneth in Spaine, the vio­lence thereof lasteth a long time without intension, or remission, [Page 80] or any considerable change, the humour of the Spaniard is just so, for if he resolves once upon a thing, he perseveres, he pon­ders and dwels constantly upon it, without wavering from his first deliberation; it being one of his prime axiomes, that Deliberandum est diu, quod statuendum est semel.

It is farre otherwise in France, for be it Sommer or Winter, Autumne orSpring,neither the cold nor heate, nor serenity of Ayre continueth nere so long, without a sen­sible vicissitude and change; so that it may be truly said there in the morning, ‘Nescis quid serus Vesper trahat.’ [Page 81] Therefore it being granted that all Elementary bodies depend upon the motion and vertue of the Heavenly; the people of France must of necessity par­take of the inconstancy of the Clime, both in their passions and dispositions.

But this reason though pro­bable enough, resolves not the question to the full; for al­though we should acknowledge, that the Celestiall bodies by their influxions, do domineere over Sublunary creatures, and [...]osse and tumble the humours and the masse of bloud, as they list; it cannot be said, notwith­standing, that this vertue ex­tends to those actions that de­pend immediatly upon the abso­lute empire of the Will, with [Page 80] the other faculties and powers of the soule, which are meerely Spirituall, as Love and Hatred, with the like.

They that dispute thus, have much reason on their side, yet if we consider well the order and method that our Understand­ing and Wils do use in the pro­duction of their actions, we shal find, that the influence of the Heavenly bodies must have something to do therein, though indirectly and accidentally: for all Terrestriall creatures by a graduall kind of subordi­nation, being governed by the Heavenly, it must needs follow that whatsoever is naturall in man, as the organs of the body, and all the senses must feele the power of their influence.

[Page 81] Now is the Soule so united and depends so farre upon the senses, that she cannot produce any act, unlesse they ministeri­ally concurre and contribute thereunto, by presenting the matter to her, which is the in­telligibles species: Whence it ne­cessarily comes to passe, that in regard of this straight league and bond, which is betweene them, she partakes somewhat, and yealds to that dominion, which the Starres have over the sensuall appetite, which to­gether with the Will, are dis­possed off, and incited (I will not say forced) by their in­fluxes.

And as that famous Wi­sard, the oldest of the Trisme­gisti, did hold, that the Intel­ligences [Page 84] which are affixed to every Spheare, doe worke through the organs of the body upon the faculties of the mind, (an opinion almost as old as the World it selfe) so it may be said more truly, that by the sensuall appetite, by the frailty and depravation of the will, the Heavenly bodies worke very farre [...]upon the Spirituall Pow­ers and passions of the Soule; and affect them diversly, though by accident and indi­rectly, as I said before. The position therefore of the Hea­vens and Asterismes, which go­verne the Spanish Clime, be­ing different in their vertue and operations to them of France, the Minds and Fan­cies of both People, must by a [Page 85] necessary consequence bee also different.

Yet notwithstanding that this assertion be true, yet it doth not follow, that the Influxions of the Starres and diversity of Climes, are the sole cause of this Antipathy and Aversenesse, for there are many Nations which live un­der farre more distant and differing Climes, which dis­affect not one another in that degree, therefore there must be some other concurring Accidents and extraordinary motive of this evill.

I reade it upon record in the Spanish Annales, that Lewis the eleventh desiring a personall Conference with the King of Castile, they [Page 84] both met upon the borders, the Spaniards came full of Iewels and Gold Chaines and richely apparelled: Lewis, though otherwise, a wise and gallant Prince, yet had he an humor of his own, to weare in his hat a Me­daille of Lead, which he did at this enterview, nor were his attendants, but Regis ad Exemplum▪ but meanely ac­coutred; which made the Spaniards despise them, and make disdainefull Libels of them, which broake out af­terwards into much contempt and disaffection, which came to bee aggravated more and more.

And if we say that the Devill made use of this oc­casion [Page 85] to engender that vio­lent Hatred, which raignes between these two Nations, it would not bee much from the purpose, for the least ad­vantage in the World is suffici­ent for him to iufuse his venom where he finds hearts never so little disposed to receive it, ei­ther by naturall or contingent causes.

Adde hereunto the vast extent of greatnesse the Spa­niard is come to within these Sixe score yeares, by his sun­dry new acquest, which fils the French full of jealousies, of emulation, and apprehen­sion of feare; and 'tis an old Aphorisme, Oderunt omnes, quem metuunt.

Furthermore, another [Page 84] concurring motive may be, that there passe usually o­ver the Pyreneys, from Gascoigne and Bearne great numbers of poore French tatterdimallians, being as it were the Scumme of the Countrey, which do all the fordid and abject of­fices to make a purse of money, whereof Spaine is fuller than France▪ from Spaine also there come to France many poore Spani­ards to bee cured of the Kings Evill; the common people of both Nations measuring the whole by the part▪ and thinking all to be such, it must needs breed mutuall apprehensi­ons of disdaine and aver­sion [Page 89] between them; so that what was at first Acci­dentall seemes in tract of time, and by these degrees to diffuse it selfe like Ori­ginall sinne f [...]om Father to Sonne, and become Na­turall.

But I have beene trans­ported too farre by this spe­culation, considering that I proposed to my selfe brevi­ty at first in this small dis­cours.


ANd now being come from France to Spaine, make accoump for matter of fertility of soyle, that you are come from Gods blessing, to the warme Sun, who is somewhat too liberall of his beames here; which makes the ground more barren, and consequently to be a kind of Wildernesse in comparison of France, if you respect the number of People, the mul­titude of Townes, Hamlets, and Houses: for about the the third part of con­tinent of Spaine is made up of huge craggie Hils and [Page 87] Mountaines, amongst which one shall feele in some places more difference in point of temper of heat and cold in the ayre, then 'wixt Winter and Sommer under other Climes. But where Spaine hath water and Valleis there she is extraordinarily fruitfull such blessings humility carieth alwayes with her. So that Spaine yeeldeth to none of her neighbours in perfection of any thing, but only in Plenty; which I beleeve was the ground of a Proverbe they have amongst them, No ay cosa mala en Espana, sino lo que habla, there is no­thing ill in Spaine, but that which speakes: And did Spaine excell in Plenty, as she [Page 92] doth in perfection of what she produceth, specially did she abound in Corne, whereof she hath not enough for the fortieth mouth, as also had she Men enough whereof, besides the Warres, so many Colonies draine her, shee would prove formidable to all her Neighbours.

But let the French glory never so much of their Country as being the richest embroidery of Nature upon Earth, yet the Spaniard drinks better Wine, eates better Fruits, weares finer Cloth, hath a better Sword by his side, and is better Mounted than he.

Being entred Spaine, he must take heed of Posting in that hot Countrey in the [Page 93] Summer time, for it may stirre the masse of bloud too much. When hee comes to Madrid (for I know no other place secure enough for a Protestant Gentleman to live in, by reason of the resi­dence of our Ambassador) he may take new Spanish ser­vants, for I presume he dis­charged his French when he forsooke Paris: There hee shall find the King constant all the Seasons of the yeare in the midst of his Kingdom, as the heart in the body, or the Sun in the Firmament, whence the one giveth vigor to the lit­tle world, th' other to the great in equall proportion. And the first thing he must fall to, is Language, which hee shall find far more easie than the [Page 90] French, for in point of crab­bednesse there is as much difference betweene the French and Spanish, as 'twixt Logique and Philosophy, the like may be said of the Itali­an, for a reasonable capacity may attaine both these Lan­guages, sooner than French it selfe.

There was a Spanish Do­ctor, who had a fancy that Spanish, Italian, and French, were spoken in Paradise, that God Almighty commanded in Spanish, the Tempter per­swaded in Italian, and Adam begged pardon in French.

I presume by the helpe of his Governour he hath made an introduction into the Spa­nish tongue before hee left [Page 91] France, so that in one Som­mer and Winter he may easi­ly come to speake it discour­sively, and to good purpose; being in my judgement the easiest of all Languages, by reason of the openesse, and fulnesse of pronunciation, the agreement 'twixt the Tongue and the Text, and the freedome from Apostrophes, which are the knots of a Lan­guage, as also for the proxi­mity it hath with the Latine, for the Spanish is nought else but mere Latine, take a few Morisco words away, which are easily distinguished by their gutturall prounciation, and these excepted, it appro­acheth nearer & resembleth the Latine more than Italian, [Page 96] her eldest Daughter, for I have beaten my braines to make one Sentence good I­talian and congruous Latin, but could never do it, but in Spanish it is very feasable, as for Example, in this Stanza,

Infausta Grecia tu paris Gentes,
Lubricas, sodomiticas, dolosas,
Machinando fraudes cautelosas,
Ruinando animas innocentes, &c.

which is Latin good enough, and yet is it vulgar Spanish, intelligible by every Ple­beian.

Mariana and Acosta, are the most authentique Anna­lists of Spaine, and Alvares for the moderne story, Lope de Vegas works wil give good [Page 97] entertainment for Verse, and Guevara for pure Prose: Nor shall he be distracted with that confusion of Authors, as in France, and else where, for the Spaniard writes seldom but soundly, and in a quite differing straine from other Nations of Christendome, savouring rather of an Afri­can fancy, which argues that the Moore did much mingle with him.

About the fall of the leafe it were not amisse to make a journey to South Spaine, to see Sevill, and the Contrata­tion House of the West Indies, and (if he can) to get a coppy of the Constitutions thereof, which is accounted the grea­test Mystery in the Spanish [Page 98] Government, but he must shew himself neither too bu­sie, nor too bold in this search; And if he be there at the ar­rivall of the Plate-Fleet, which usually commeth a­bout that time, he shall see such a Grandeza, that the Roman Monarchy in her highest florish never had the like, nor the Gran Signior at this day.

There he may converse with Marchants, and their conversation is much to bee valued, for many of them are very gentile and knowing men in the affaires of the State, by reason of their long sojourne and actuall negoti­ations, and processes in the Countrey: and in a short [Page 99] time, one may suck out of them, what they have been many yeares a gathering: And very materiall it is to know here, as every where else, what commodities the Countrey affoordeth most usefull for us, either for ne­cessity or pleasure: And what English commodities are there in greatest request, and what proportions the Market usually beareth, for in the commutative part of Govern­ment and Mercantile affaires, lieth the most usefull part of po­licy 'twixt Countrey and Coun­trey; but this hee shall ob­serve better in Italy, where the Prince holdeth it no dis­paragement to co-adventure, and put in his stake with the [Page 100] Marchant: So that the old Clodian Law is now of no force at all amongst them.

From South Spaine he may returne by Granada, Murcia and Valencia, and so to Bar­celona, and then take the Gal­lies for Italy, for there are divers Fleets passe in the yeare from thence with trea­sure, and crosse the Mediter­ranean to Genoa. And it is not amisse to see something by Sea, and to embarque in a Fleet of Gallies will much adde to ones experience, and knowledge in Sea affaires, and in the Art of Navigation which is more usefull and important for Englishmen, and indeed for all Islanders, than others, because their [Page 101] security depends upon the Sea, and upon woodden Horses. ‘Naviget hinc alia jam mihi linter aqua.’


HAving put foot ashoare in Genoa, I will not wish him to stay long there, in re­gard the very worst Italian dialect is spoken there, and besides, as it is proverbially said, there are in Genoa, Mountaines without wood, Sea without fish, Women without shame, and Men without con­science, which makes them to [Page 104] be termed the white Moores: And when a Iew (and the Iews are held the most Mer­curiall people in the World, by reason of their so often transmigrations, persecuti­ons, and Necessity, which is the Mother of Wit) meeteth with a Genoway, and is to ne­gotiat with him, he puts his fingers in his eyes, fearing to be over-reached by him, and outmatched in cun­ning.

From thence let him ha­sten to Toscany, to Siena, where the prime Italian dia­lect is spoken, and not stirre thence till he be master of the Language in some mea­sure.

And being now in Italy [Page 105] that great limbique of working braines, he must be very cir­cumspect in his cariage, for she is able to turne a Saint into a Devill, and deprave the best natures, if one will abandon himselfe, and be­come a prey to dissolut cour­ses and wantonnesse.

The Italian, being the greatest embracer of pleasures, the greatest Courtier of Ladies of any other. Here he shall find Vertue and Vice, Love and Hatred, Atheisme and Religion in their extremes; being a witty contemplative people; and Corruptio optimi est pessima. Of the best wines you make your tartest vinegar.

Italy hath beene alwayes accounted the Nurse of Po­licy, [Page 104] Learning, Musique, Ar­chitecture, and Limning, with other perfections, which she disperseth to the rest of Europe, nor was the Spaniard but a dunce, till he had taken footing in her, and so grew subtilized by co-ali­tion with her people. She is the prime climat of Comple­ment, which oftentimes puts such a large distance 'twixt the tongue and the heart, that they are seldome relatives, but they often give the lye one to ano­ther; some will offer to kisse the hands, which they wish were cut off, and would be content to light a candle to the Devill, so they may compasse their owne ends: He is not accounted es­sentially wise, who openeth all [Page 105] the boxes of his breast to any.

The Italians are for the most part of a speculative complexion (as I have disco­vered more amply in ano­ther Discours) and he is accoun­ted little lesse than a foole, who is not melancholy once a day; they are only bountifull to their betters, from whom they may expect a greater be­nefit; To others the purse is closest shut, when the mouth openeth widest, nor are you like to get a cup of wine there, unlesse your grapes be known to be in the wine-presse.

From Siena he may passe to Milan, and so through the Republiques territories to Venice, where he shall behold a thing of wonder, an Impos­sibility [Page 108] in an impossibility, a rich magnificent City seated in the very jaws of Neptune, where being built and bred a Christian from her very in­fancy, (a Prerogative she ju­stly glorieth of above all other States,) she hath continued a Virgin ever since, nere up­on twelve long ages, under the same forme and face of Government, without any visible change or symptome of decay, or the least wrin­kle of old age, though, her too neer neighbour, the Turk hath often set upon her skirts and sought to deflowre her, wherein he went so farr that he took from her Venus joyn­ture, which she had long pos­sessed, and was the sole [Page 109] Crown she ever wore. But if one in Story observes the cours of her actions, he shall find that she hath subsisted thus long as much by Policy as Armes, as much by reach of Wit, and advantage of trea­ty, as by open strength, it having beene her practise e­ver and anon to sow a piece of Fox tayle to the skinne of S. Marks Lyon.

Here one shall find the most zealous Patriots of any, yet some would maintaine (though I do not) that the Venetians, are but indifferent­ly wise single, though they be very Politique when they are together in the Senat.

Having observed in the Republique of Venice what is, [Page 108] most remarquable (and there are many things in that Go­vernment worth the carying away, specially the sight of Nova Palma, a Castle built after the newest rules of For­tification) he may visit the other ancient Townes of I­taly, and so to Naples, where he may improve his know­ledge in Horsmanship, and then repasse through other free States, whereof Italy is full: And truly a wonder it is to see how in so small an extent of ground, which take all dimensions together, is not so big as England, there should bee so many absolute and potent Princes by Sea and Land, which I beleeve is the cause of so [Page 109] many Dialects in the Italian tongue which are above ten in number: As hee traver­seth the Countrey hee must note the trace, forme and site of any famous Structure, the Platforms of Gardens, A­queducts, Grots, Sculptures, and such particularities belong­ing to accommodation or beauty of dwelling, but specially of Castles, and Fortresses, wher­with Italy abounds, the whole Countrey being fron­tier almost all over.


And with the naturall situ­ation of Countreyes, a Travellershould observe also the Politicalposition thereof, how some are seated like Mer­cury amongst the Planets, who for the most part is either in combustion or obscurity, being under brighter beames than his own; Such is Savoyand Lo­raine, and other Princes of Italy, who are between more potent neighbours than themselves, and are like s [...]reens tossed up and down and never at quiet: And they that are so situated may [Page 113] say, as the Mouse once an­swered the Cat, who asking how she did, made answer, I should be far better, if you were further off.

How the state of the Pope­dome running from the Tir­rhene to the Adriatique Sea, is sited in Italy, as France is in Europe, in the midst, and so fittest to embroyle or preserve in peace, to disunite or conjoyne the forces of their neighbours, and so most proper to be Um­pires of all quarrels.

How the Dominions of Spaine are like the Planets in the Heaven lying in vast un­even distances one from the o­ther: But cleane contrary those of France, are so knit and clustered together, that [Page 112] they may be compared all to one fixed constellation.

How Germany cut out in­to so many Principal ties, in­to so many Hansiatiqued and Imperiall Townes, is like a great River sluced into sundry Channels, which makes the maine streame farre the weak­er▪ the like may be said of Italy.

How the Signory of Venice is the greatest rampart of Christendome against the Turk by Sea, and the heredi­tary territories of the house of Austria, by Land, which may be a good reason of State, why the Colledge of Electors hath continued the Empire in that Line these 200 years.

[Page 113] He must observe the qua­lity of the power of Princes, how the Cavalry of France, the Infantery of Spaine, and the English Ships, leagued together, are fittest to con­quer the World, to pull out the Ottoman Tyrant out of his Seraglio, from betweene the very armes of his fifteen hundred Concubines.

How the power of the North-East part of the Euro­pean World is balanced be­tween the Dane, the Swede, and the Pole, &c. And the rest between great Britaine, France, and Spaine; as for Germany and Italy, their power being divided 'twixt so many, they serve only to balance themselves, who if [Page 116] they had one absolute Mo­narch a piece, would prove terrible to all the rest.

Spaine in point of treasure hath the advantage of them al, She hath a Veteran Army al­ways afoot; but She is thinne peopled, She hath many Colo­nies to supply, which lye squan­dred up and down in disadvan­tagious unsociable distances, Her people are disaffected by most nations, and incompa­tible with some; She wants bread, She hath bold accessible coasts, and Her West Indy Fleet, besides the length of the passage, and incertainty of ar­rivall, is subject to casualties of Sea, and danger of interce­ption by Enemies: And if England should breake out [Page 117] with Her in good earnest into acts of hostility, those Islands, which the English have peo­pled, colonized, and fortified lately (being warned by Saint Christopher) in the carrere to Her mines, would be found to be no small disadvantage to Her.

France swarmes with men, and now (more than ever) with Soldiers, She is a body well compacted (though often subject to Convulsions, and high fits of Feavers, the bloud gathering up by an unequall diffusion into the upper parts) and it is no small advantage to Her, that Her forme is circu­lar, so that one part may quickly run, to succour the other: She abounds with Corne, and being [Page 116] the thorough fare of Christen­dome, She can never want money; She hath those three things which the Spaniard said would make Her eternall, viz. Rome, the Sea, and Counsell; for She hath the the Pope for Her friend (ha­ving had his breeding in Her twenty years together) Shee hath Holland for Her Arse­nall, and Richelieu for Coun­sell; who since he sate at the helme, hath succeeded in every attempt, with that monstrous cours of Felicity: They of the Religion, are now Town-lesse, and Arme-lesse, and so are Her greatest Peeres most of them out of Office and Provinciall command. So that if one would go to the intrinsique value of [Page 117] things, France will not want much in weight of the vast unweldy bulk, and disjointed body of the Spanish Monar­chie.

Great Britaine being encir­cled by the Sea, and there being an easie going out for the Na­tives, and a dangerous landing for Strangers, and having so many invincible Castles in motion (I meane Her Ships) and abounding inwardly with all necessaries, and breeding such men, that I may well say, no King whatsoever hath more choyce of able bodies to make Soldiers of, having also most of Her trade intrinsique, with many other Insulary advan­tages, She need not feare any one Earthly power, if She bee [Page 120] true to Her selfe; yet would She be puzzled to cope with any of the other two single, un­lesse it be upon the defensive part, but joyning with Holland She can give them both the Law at Sea, and leaguing with any of the other two, She is a­ble to put the third shrewdly to it.

Now it cannot be denied, but that which giveth the greatest check to the Spanish Monarchy is France: And there is no lesse truth than caution in that saying, that the yeaue of the Conquering of France, is the morning of the Conquest of England (and vice versa.) It hath not been then without good reason of State, that England since that monstruous height of [Page 121] power that Spaine is come to of late, hath endeavoured ra­ther to strengthen France (to beare up against Her) than to enfeeble Her, having contri­buted both her power and purse to ransome one of her Kings, at that time when Spaine began to shoot out Her braunches so wide: Besides, during the last Ligue, which raged so long through all the bowels of France with that fury, when there was a designe to Canto­nize the whole Kingdome; Queene Elizabeth though of­fered a part, would not accept of it, for feare of weakning the whole: Therefore this chaine of reciprocall conservation, lin­king them together so strongly; England may well be taken for [Page 120] a sure Confederate of France, while France containes Her selfe within her present bounds, but if Shee should reduce the Spaniard to that desperate passe in the Netherlands▪ as to make him throw the helve after the hatcher, and to re­linquish those Provinces alto­gether, it would much alter the case: for nothing could make France more suspectfull to En­gland than the addition of those Countreyes, for thereby they would come to be one conti­nued piece, and so England her overthwart neighbour, should bee in a worse case than if the Spaniard had them entirely to himselfe. For it would cause Her to put Her selfe more strongly upon Her Guard, [Page 121] and so increase Her charge and care.

To conclude this point, there cannot be a surer maxime and fuller of precaution for the se­curity of England, and Her Allies, and indeed for all other Princes of this part of the World, than Barnevelt gave of late yeares, a little before he came to the fatall block. ‘Decrescat Hispanus, nec cres­cat Francus.’

But I have been transpor­ted too farre by this tick­lish digression, which re­quires an ampler and more serious Discours.

In fine, with these parti­culars, a Traveller should ob­serve [Page 122] the likenesse and sym­pathy of distant Nations, as the Spaniard with the Irish, the French with the Pole, the German (specially Holstein­men) with the English, and in Italy there have beene many besides my selfe, that have noted the countenance and condition of some people of Italy, specially those that in­habite Lombardy, to draw neere unto the ancient Brit­taines of this Island, which argues, that the Romanes, who had their Legions here so many hundred yeares toge­ther, did much mingle and clope with them. Amongst other particulars, the old Ita­lian tunes and rithmes both in conceipt and cadency, [Page 123] have much affinity with the Welsh, (and the genius of a people is much discovered by their prosody) for ex­ample, ‘Vlisse ô lass [...], ô dolce Amor [...] muoro, &c.’

This agrees pat with the fancy of the Welch Bards, whose greatest acutenesse consists in Agnominations and in making one word to tread as it were upon the o­thers heele, and push it for­ward in like letters, as in the precedent example, whereof many Italian Authors are full, appeareth.


HE must also observe the number of Languages, and difference of Dialects, as neere as he can, in every Countrey as hee passeth a­long.

The French have three di­alects, the Wallon (vulgarly called among themselves Romand,) the Provensall, (whereof the Gascon is a sub­dialect) and the speech of Languedoc: They of Bearne and Navarre speak a Lan­guage that hath affinity with the Bascuence or the Canta­brian tongue in Biscaie, and [Page 125] amongst the Pyrenean moun­taines: The Armorican tongue, which they of low Brittaine speake (for there is your Bas-Breton, and the Breton-Brittonant or Breton Gallois, who speakes French) is a dialect of the old Brittish as the word Armorica im­ports, which is a meere Welsh word, for if one observe the Radicall words in that Lan­guage they are the same that are now spoken in Wales, though they differ much in the composition of their sen­tences, as doth the Cornish: Now some of the appro­vedst▪ Antiquaries positively hold the Originall Language of the Celtae, the true ancient Gaules, to be Welsh: And a­mongst [Page 126] other Authors they produce no meaner than Cae­sar and Tacitus, to confirme this opinion: For Caesar saith that the Druydes of Gaule understood the Brittish Druyds, who it seemes were of more account for their Philoso­phy, because as he saith, the Gaules came usually over to be taught by them, which must bee by conference, for there were few books then: Be­sides Tacitus in the life of Iu­lius Agricola reporteth, that the Language of the Brit­taines and the Gaules little dif­fered, I restraine my selfe to the middle part of France cal­led Gallia Celtica, for they of Aquitaine spake a language that corresponded with the [Page 127] old Spanish, they of Burgundy and Champagny with the German, and most part of Provence spake Greek, there having beene a famous Co­lony of Grecians planted in Marseilles: Other small differences there are up and down in other Provinces of France, as the low Norman useth to contract many words, as he will often say, I' ay un pet à faire, for I' ay un petit affaire, and the Poi­ctevin will mince the word, and say, ma Mese, mon pese, for ma Mere, mon Pere; but these differences are not con­siderable.

The Spanish or Castilian tongue, which is usually cal­led Romance, and of late [Page 128] years Lengua Christiana, (but it is called so only amongst themselves) for a Spaniard will commonly aske a stran­ger whether hee can speake Christian, that is, Castillian? The Spanish (I say) hath but one considerable dialect, which is the Portugues, which the Iewes of Europe speake more than any other language, and they hold that the Messias shall come out that Tribe, that speake the Portingal language; other small differences there are in the pronunciation of the gut­turall letters in the Castillian, but they are of small mo­ment. They of the King­dome of Valencia and Catalu­nia (Goth-land) speake rather [Page 129] a language mixed of French, and Italian: In the Moun­taines of Granada (the Alpu­xarras) they speake Morisco, that last part of Spaine that was inhabited by the Moores, who had possessed it above 700 yeares.

But the most ancient speech of Spaine seemes to have beene the Bascuence or the Cantabrian tongue spo­ken in Guipuscoa, the Asturias and in some places amongst the Pyrenes; but principally in the Province of Biscaye, which was never conquered by Roman, Cartaginian, Goth, Vandall or Moore, which Nations overrunne all the rest of Spaine, (though some more, some lesse) therefore [Page 130] whensoever the King of Spaine commeth to any of the territories of Biscaye, hee must pull off his shooes upon the frontiers, when he treads the first step, being as it were Virgin holy ground. And as it is probable that the Bascu­ence is the primitive lan­guage of Spaine, so doubt­lesse the people of that Countrey are a remnant of the very Aborigenes, of her first Inhabitants. For it is an infallible Rule, that if you desire to find out (the Indige­ [...]nae) the ancientest people or language of a Countrey, you must go amongst the Moun­taines and places of fastnesse, as the Epirotiques in Greece, the Heylanders in Scotland, [Page 131] the Brittaines in Wales, with whom (I meane the last) the Biscayner doth much sym­bolize in many things, as in the position and quality of ground, in his candor and humanity towards Strangers more than any other people of Spaine, his cryed up An­tiquity; for the Spaniards confesse the ancientest race of Gentry to have been pre­served there: So that a Bis­cayner is capable to be a Ca­valier of any of the three ha­bits without any scrutiny to be made by the Office, whe­ther he be, limpio de la sangre de los Moros, that is, cleare of the bloud of the Moores or no, 'tis enough that he be a Mon­tanero, that he be borne a­mongst [Page 132] the Mountaines of Biscaye. And many may be the reasons why Hilly people keep their standings so well, for being inured to labour, and subject to the in­clemency of the Heavens, distemperatures of Ayre, to short Commons, and other incommodities, they prove the hardier and abler men, and happily with the eleva­tion of the ground their spi­rits are heightned, and so prove more couragious and forward to repel an invading enemy.

Adde hereunto, that the cragginesse and steepinesse of places up and down is a great advantage to the dwel­lers, and makes them inac­cessible, [Page 133] for they serve as Fortresses erected by Nature her selfe, to protect them from all incursions: as Caesar com­plaines of some places in Scythia, that Difficilius erat hostem invenire, quam vin­cere.

And now for further proofe that the Cantabrian language is the ancientest of Spaine, I thinke it will not be much from the purpose, if I insert here a strange disco­very that was made not much above halfe a hundred yeares ago, about the very midle of Spaine, of the Pat­tuecos, a people that were never knowne upon the face of the Earth before, though Spaine hath been a renown'd [Page 134] famous Countrey visited and known by many warlik Na­tions: They were discove­red by the flight of a Faul­con, for the Duke of Alva hauking on a time neere certaine hils, not farre from Salamanca, one of his Hauks which he much valued, flew over those Mountaines, and his men not being able to find her at first, they were sent back by the Duke after her; these Faulkners clam­mering up and down, from hill to hill and luring all a­long, they lighted at last up­on a large pleasant Valley, where they spied a company of naked Savage people, locked in between an assem­bly of huge crags and hils in­dented [Page 135] and hemmed in (as it were) one in another: As simple and Savage they were, as the rudest people of any of the two Indies, whereof some thought a man on horse­back to be one creature with the horse: These Savages ga­zing awhile upon them, flew away at last into their caves, for they were Troglo­dites, and had no dwelling but in the hollowes of the rocks: The Faulconers ob­serving well the track of the passage, returned the next day, and told the Duke, that in lieu of a hauke, they had found out a New World, a New People never knowne on the continent of Spaine, since Tubal Cain came first [Page 136] thither: A while after, the Duke of Alva went himselfe with a Company of Musca­teers, and Conquered them, for they had no offensive weapon but slings; they were Pythagoreans, and did eat no­thing that had life in it, but excellent fruits, rootes and springs there were amongst them; they worshipped the Sun, & new Moone, their lan­guage was not intelligible by any, yet many of their simple words were pure Bascuence, and their gutturall pronuncia­tion the very same, and a gut­turall pronunciation is an in­fallible badge of an ancient lan­guage; And so they were re­duced to Christianity, but are to this day discernable [Page 137] from other Spaniards by their more tawny complexions, which proceeds from the re­verberatiō of the Sun-beams glancing upon those stony mountaines wherewith they are encircled, and on some sides trebly fenced, which beames reflects upon them with a greater strength and so tannes them.

But I did not think to have stayed so long in Spain now nor indeed the last time I was there, but he that hath to deale with that Nation, must have good store of Phlegme and patience, and both for his stay, and successe of bu­sinesse, may often reckon without his host.


BVt these varieties of Dia­lects in France and Spaine, are farre lesse in number to those of Italy; Nor do I beleeve were there ever so many amongst the Greeks, though their Countrey was indented and cut out into so many Islands, which as they differed in position of place, so there was some reason they should differ something in propriety of Speech: There is in Italy the Toscan, the Ro­man, the Venetian, the Neapo­l [...]tan, the Calabrese, the Ge­novese, the Luquesse, the Mi­lanese, [Page 139] the Parmasan, the Pie­montese, and others in and a­bout Abouzzo, and the A­pennine hils; and all these have severall Dialects and Idiomes of Speech, and the reason I conceive to be, is the multiplicity of Govern­ments, there being in Italy, one Kingdome, three Repub­liques, and five or six absolute Principalities, besides the Popedome, and their Lawes, being different, their Lan­guage also groweth to be so, but the prime Italian dialect, take Accent and Elegance to­gether, is Lingua Toscana in boca Romana. The Toscan tongue in a Roman mouth.

There is also a Mongrell Dialect composed of Italian [Page 140] and French, and some Spanish words are also in it, which they call Franco, that is used in many of the Islands of the Aegean Sea, and reacheth as farre as Constantinople, and Natolie, and some places in Afrique; and it is the ordina­ry speech of Cōmerce 'twixt Christians, Iewes, Turkes, and Greeks in the Levant.

Now for the Originall Language in Italy, as the Mesapian and Hetruscan tongue, there is not a syllable left any where, nor do I know any Countrey where the old primitive Languages, are so utterly and totally ex­tinguished without the least trace left behind, as in Italy.

[Page 141] Touching the Latine Tongue, which is one of the ancientest Languages of I­taly, but not so ancient as those I spake of before, the re­ceived opinion is, that the inundation of the Goths, Van­dals and Longbards, were her first Corrupters but it is not so, as the Learned Bembo, and our no lesse Learned Brere­wood are of opinion; for as the Latine Tongue grew to perfection by certaine de­grees, and in Caesar and Cice­ro's times (whereof the one for purity, the other for co­piousnesse, were the best that ever writ) she came to the highest flourish together with the Empire, so had shee insensible degrees of corru­ption [Page 142] amongst the vulgar, and intrinsique changes in her selfe before any forrain cause concurred; for the Salian Verses, towards the end of the Republique, were scarce intelligible, no more were the capitulations of Peace 'twixt Rome and Carthage in Polybius his time: And e­very one knowes what kind of Latine stands upon record on the Columna Rostrata in the Capitoll, in memory of the famous Navall victory of Duillius the Consull, which happened but 150 yeares before Cicero. As also what Latine had the vogue in Pla [...]utus his time: And here it will not be much ou [...] of the byas, to insert (in this [Page 143] Ogdoastique) a few verses of the Latine which was spo­ken in that age, which were given me by a worthy polite Gentleman,

Sic est, nam nenum lacient uls manaca, praes est
Andreas; Ipsus Hortitor ergo cluo
Dividiam estricem ut genii a­verruncet, & ultra
Calpar, si pote, Lurae insipet omnimodis,
Calpar, quod Nymphis nenum ebrium, at Argeliorum
Zitho, quod nostra haec vin­cia dapsiliter
Degulet, ha frux obgraecari (haut numina poscent)
Prodinit, topper morta mo­do orta necat.

[Page 144] So that as before, so after Ci­cero's time, the Latine Tongue wrought certaine changes in her selfe, before any mix­ture with Strangers, or the intervention of any forraine cause: For as Kingdomes and States with all other Sublunary things are subject to a tossing and tumbling, to periods and changes, as also all Naturall bodies corrupt inwardly and in­sensibly of themselves, so Lan­guages are not exempt from this Fate, from those accidents, and revolutions that attend Time: For Horace complai­ned in his dayes, that words changed as coynes did: Yet besides this home bredd change, it cannot be denyed but the Latine Tongue, had [Page 145] some forraine extrinsique cause to degenerate so farre into Italian, as the admission of such multiplicities of Strangers to be Roman Citi­zens, with the great num­ber of slaves that were brought into the City; Adde herunto at last those swarms of barbarous Nations, which in lesse than one hundred yeares thrice over-ran Italy, and tooke such footing in her: And as in Italy, so like­wise in Spaine and France, they corrupted the Latine tongue, though I beleeve she never tooke any perfect im­pression amongst the vulgar in those Countreyes, albeit the Romanes laboured to plant her there, making it [Page 146] their practise (though not at first: for we reade of some People that petitioned unto them, that they might bee permitted to use the Latine tongue) with the Law to bring in their Language as a mar [...]e of Conquest.

But one may justly as [...]e why the Latine tongue could receive no growth at all a­mongst the Brittaines, who were so many hundred years under the Roman gover [...] ­ment, and some of the E [...] ­perours living and dying a­mongst them? To this [...]t may bee answered, that i [...] Brittaine wee reade of no more than foure colonies that ever were planted; but in Spaine there were 29, and in [Page 147] France 26. But as I cannot cease to wonder that the Ro­mans notwithstanding those Colonies and Legions that had so long cohabitation, and coalition with them, could take no impression at all upon the Brittaines in so long a tract of time in point of Speech, (notwithstanding that in some other things there be some resemblances observed 'twixt the people, as I said before) I wonder as much how such a multitude of Greeke words could creep into the Welsh language, some whereof for example sake, I have couched in this Distique. [Page 148] [...].’ Which words Englished are, Salt, water, birth, fire, the belly, an old woman, to teach, the earth, hony, to heare, the Sun, destiny, drunkard.

Besides divers others, which are both Greeke and Wels [...], both in pronunciation and sense.

Now for the Greek tongue, there is no question, but it was of larger extent than e­ver the Roman was, for these three respects, for the mighty commerce that Nation did exercise, for their humour in planting of Colonies, for their [Page 149] Learning and Philosophy, for Greek is the scientificalst tongue that ever was, in all which they went beyond the Ro­mones: And it is not long ago since in some places of Italy her selfe, as Calabria and Apulia, the Liturgy was in the Greek tongue. Nor is some vulgar Greek so farre a­dulterated, and eloignated from the true Greek, as Itali­an is from the Latin, for there is yet in some places of the Morea true Greek spoken vulgarly (you cannot say so of the Latin any where) only they confound these three letters, [...], (Eta, Iota, Up­silon) and these two dip­thongs [...], and [...], all which they pronounce as Ioata. As [Page 150] for [...], they pro­nounce [...], for [...], they say [...] There is also true Greek spoken in some parts of the lesser Asia, where there is no place upon the surface of the earth, for the proportion, where so many differing Languages are spoken, yet most of them are but Dialects and subdialects; so that of those two and twenty tongues, which Mithridates is recorded to have under­stood, above two parts of three, I beleeve, were but dialects.

I dare go no further East­ward, for it is beyond the bounds of so smalla Volume as this, to speak of the Levan­tine [Page 151] tongues, that go from the Liver to the Heart, from the Right hand to the Left, as the most Spacious Arabique, which is spoken (or learnt) throughoutal the vast domi­nions of the Mahumetan Em­pire, and is the most fixed language now upon Earth, it being death to alter it, or Translate the Alcoran into any other language, to adde the least title to the first text, or comment upon it; a rare policy to prevent schismes, and restraine the extravagant, and various restlesse fancies of humane braine.

This page is also too nar­row to comprehend any thing of the most large Sla­vonique tongue, which above [Page 152] other Languages hath this prerogative to have two Cha­racters, one resembling the Latine, the other the Greek, and in many places the Li­turgy is in both, one for Sun­dayes and Holy-dayes, the o­ther for working dayes. There are above forty severall Na­tions, both in Europe and A­sia, which have the Slavonick for their vulgar speech, it rea­cheth from Mosco, the Court of the great Knez, to the Turks Seraglio in Constanti­nople, and so over the Propon­tey to divers places in Asia, i [...] being the common language of the Ianizaries.


THe German or Teutonique tongue also is of mighty extent, for not only the large Continent of Germany high and low, but the Kingdomes of England, Scotland, Den­marque, S [...]ethland, Norway, Island, and some parts of Hun­gary and Poland speake it vul­garly. And questionlesse the German is one of the first mo­ther tongues of Europe, where­of Scaliger would have but eleven, though there be foure or five more, but I find that they who are cryed up for great Clearks may erre, as he [Page 154] did in this, as also when hee made Prester Iohn an African and placed him in Ethiopia, in the Habassins Countrey, whereas it is certaine that he was an Asian, and King of Tenduc in Tartary above two thousand miles distant, be­sides he was a Nestorian by his religion, and it is well known the Habassines are Iacobites and Christians from the girdle upward, and Iews downward, admitting both of Baptism and Circumcision.

And so ancient is the Ger­man tongue, that Goropius Be­canus flattered himselfe with a fancy, that it was the lan­guage which was spoken in Paradise, which Ortelius also shewed a desire to beleeve; [Page 155] they grounded this conceipt upon these words, Adam, Eve, Abel, Seth, &c. which they would stretch to bee German words; also that their language came first from Asia, because Godt, Fa­der, Moder, Broder, Star, are found to signifie the same things both in the German, and Persian tongue.

There is no language so ful of Monosyllables and knot­ted so with Consonants as the German, howsoever she is a full mouthd masculine speech: the speeches of the Kingdoms before mentioned, are but Dialects derived from her; And the English is but a Sub­dialect or branch of the Saxon Dialect, which hath no other [Page 156] name in Welsh and Irish to this day; for take an Englishman Capa pea, from head to foot, every member hee hath is Dutch.

Yet since the last Conquest much French hath got in, and greatly embellished and smoothed the English, so that there is very much affinity between them, as for Ex­ample,

La Fortune me tourmente,
La Vertu mecontente.


Men desir est infiny,
D' entrer en Paradis.

Which sayings are both French and English.

Of late yeares the English [Page 157] tongue hath much enriched her selfe, by borrowing of some choyce, well sound­ing and significant words from other Languages also; so that she may be compared to a Posie made up of many fra­grant choyce Flowers: And truly, without interest and passion, let it be spoken, there is in English as true straines of Eloquence, as strong and si­newy Expressions, as elaborate and solid pieces of Fancy, as far fetched reaches of Inventi­on, and as full of salt, Meta­phor's as faithfully poursued Similies as aptly applyed, and as well cloathed and girded a­bout; as in any Language whatsoever, both in Poesie and Prose; It must be gran­ted [Page 158] that some other Lan­guages, for their soft and smooth melting fluency, as having no abruptnesse of Consonants, have some ad­vantage of the English; yet many of their fancies, which amongst themselves they hold to be strong lines and quintessentiall stuffe, being turned to another tongue be­come flat, and prove often­times but meere gingles, but what is witty in English, is so, with advantage, in any Language else, unlesse the conceipt be topicall, or perso­nall, and peculiar only to this Island.

But whither have I been thus transported? The Co­piousnesse and pleasure of [Page 159] the Argument hath car­ried mee a little further than I made account, for to bee a [...], to have the knowledge, spe­cially the practicall know­ledge (for the Theory is not nere so grateful nor useful) of many languages is one of the richest and pleasingst kind of Notions that is; And we find upon the best record, that the first blessing which fell down from Heaven upon those holy Heralds of Chri­stianity, the Apostles, was the knowledge of many tongues, inspired into them immedi­atly by God Almighty him­selfe.

For what is Imagination, Invention and Sense, without [Page 160] the faculty of Speech without expression? Speech is the in­strument by which a Foole is distinguished from a Philoso­pher: Speech is the Index, the Interpreter, the Ambassador of the mind, and the Tongue the Vehiculum, the Chariot, which conveyeth and carrieth the no­tions of the Mind to Reasons Palace, and the impregnable Tower of Truth: And although there be but one way thither, yet there be many sorts of Chariots, some more sumptuous and bet­ter harnessed than others; for amongst tongues there be some farre more rich, more copious, and of stronger expressions than others: And amongst Tongues there is also a kind of, good fellowship, for they [Page 161] sometimes supply one anothers wants, and mutually borrow and lend.


BVt whether have I wan­tred? I had almost for­got where I left my Travel­ler, but now I remember wel it was in Italy. And having surveyed Italy, that minion of Nature, he may crosse the Alpes, and see some of the Cantons, those rugged Repub­ [...]iques, and Regiments, and then passe through many of the Stately proud Cities of Germany, till hee comes to Bruxels, and there he shall be­hold [Page 162] the face of a constant Military Court, and Provinci­all Government, with a mis­cellany of all Nations, and if there be any Leagers a foot, or Armies in motion, it should bee time well spent to see them. For the Netherlands have been for many yeares, as one may say, the very Cockpit of Christendome, the Schoole of Armes, and Ren­dezvous of all adventurous Spirits, and Cadets, which makes most Nations of Eu­rope beholden to them for Soldiers. Therefore the History of the Belgique wars are very worth the reading, for I know none fuller of stratagemes of reaches of Pol­licy, of variety of successes in [Page 163] so short a time: nor in which more Princes have been en­gaged (though some more, some lesse) for reasons of state, nor a warre which hath pro­duced such deplorable ef­fects directly or collaterally, all Christendome over, both by Sea and Land.

Iean Petit in French, is an approved Author, Guicciar­din, Don Carles Coloma in Spa­nish, and Sir Roger Williams in English, with others, there you shall reade of one Towne taken by a Boat of Turfs, and reprized many yeares after by a Boat of Fagots, another taken by the flight of a Ha [...]k, another by a load of Hey, an­other by a Cart full of Apples, and many by disguises, either [Page 164] of Boores, Fryers, or Mar­chands.

Having spent some small time in Brabant and Flanders, he may by safe conduct, as is usuall, passe to Holland, where he shall find a People planted as it were under the Sea, out of whose jawes they force an habitation, with in­finite expence and toyle, checking the impetuous cours of the angry Ocean, and shewing the World how far Industry and Art, can curbe and controule Nature: And very expedient it is, hee should take an exact Survey of the States of the United Provinces, because they are accounted the surest Confede­rates of England, and her fa­stest [Page 165] Friends, for interest of Religion, for commu­nity of danger, and con­sequently of reciprocall preservation.

And it will be a won­derfull thing to see what a mighty subsistence of wealth and a huge Na­vigable power that State in come too, by a rare unparalelled industry: For I dare avouch that the Roman Common-wealth, (though she had her head as well knit in her infan­cy as any that ever was) did not come neere her, in so short a progresse of time, to such a growth of strength.

But it seemes all things [Page 166] conspired to rayse Holland to this passe: First, the humour of the people, being patient▪ and iudustrious, and of a ge­nius more in clinable to a De­mocraticall Government than to a Monarchy: Adde here­unto the quality of the Coun­trey, being every where half cut, and as it were inlayed with water, and thereby much fortified, and made in many places inaccessible; so that, if need were, Holland could turne her selfe into a huge pond when she list.

Hereunto concurred a fur­ther advantage of situation, having behind her the Bal­tique Sea, which affoords her all kind of Materials for ship­ping, and for all kind of Nu­triment [Page 167] and Military forces England and France, both swarming with superfluous people, suspectfull of the Spanish greatnesse, and so not unwilling to contribute auxi­liary strength for mutuall se­curity and conservation.

Navigation and Mercan­tile Negotiation, are the two Poles whereon that State doth move, and to both these, it seemes, Nature her selfe hath expresly designed both Countrey and People; Them be an extraordinary kind of Propensity, the Countrey by apt position, for having no Land to manure, they plow the very bowels of the Deep, the wrinkled fore-head of Nep­tune being the furrowes [Page 168] that yealds them encrease.

Moreover, there being many great Rivers that slice and cut the Countrey up and down to disgorge themselvs into the Ocean, those Rivers may be said to pay them tri­bute, as well as to the Sea, which Rivers branching themselves into large and bearing streames, do so fitly serve one another, and all the whole, that it may bee said, Nature in the frame of humane bodies, did not dis­cover more Art, in distribu­ting the veines and arteries, for the easy conveyance of the masse of bloud into each part, as she hath shewed here in dispersing those waters so orderly for trafique.

[Page 169] These Rivers bring her what the large continent of Germany, and other Easterne Countreys affoord, and shee lying between them and the Sea; furnisheth them with all far fetched Indian, African, and Spanish commodities.

Here you shall see the most industrious people upon earth, making a rare vertue of necessity, for the same thing which makes a Parrot speake, makes them to labour. For having nothing of their own, yet they abound with all things, and may be said, to live by the idlenesse of some of their neighbours, I am loth to name here who they are.

Here you shall find a people grow Rich also by [Page 170] that which useth to impove­rish others, even by Warre, for pri [...]es and booties abroad, go to make a good part of their wealth.

Yet in conversation they are but heavy, of a homely outside, and slow in action, which slownesse carieth with it a notable per severance, and this may bee imputed to the quality of that mould of earth, whereon they dwell, which may be said to bee a kind of [...]ding poole of Ayre: And which is known to have such a force of assimilation, that when people of a more viva­cious temper, come to mingle with them, at the se­cond generation, they seeme to participate of the soyle [Page 171] and Ayre, and degenerate in­to meere Hollanders; the like is found dayly in Horses and Dogs, and all other ani­mals. ‘Occulta est Batavae quaedam vis insita terrae.’

One remarquable piece of Policy I forgot, that hee should observe in the Vnited Provinces; viz. Why in so small an extent of ground they have so many rich, wel­built and populous Townes amongst them; one of the principall reasons is, because they appropriate some staple materiall commoditie to e­very one of the great Townes, as Amsterdam hath [Page 172] the trade of the East and West Indies, Roterdam the En­glish Cloth, Dort the Rhenish Wines, Middelborough the French Wines, Treveres the Scots trade, the Hage the resi­dence of the Prince, and the States, Haerlam subsist by knit­ting and dying, and so forth which is a very laudable cours▪ not to suffer one place to swallow the wealth an [...] traffique of the whole, like the spleene in the naturall body, whose swelling makes all the rest of the members languish.


HAving thus passed the diameter of France, run over Spaine, crossed the Me­diterranean to Italy, and ob­served the multiplicity of Governments therein; ha­ving thus climbed the Alpes, and traversed the best part of Germany, having also taken the length of the Belgique Lion, (of all which France for a Kingdome, Venice for a Republique, Millan for a Du­chy, Flanders for a County beare the bell) having I say, Travelled through all these places, all which may bee [Page 174] done compleatly in three yeares and foure months, which foure Months I allow for itinerary removals and journeys, and the Yeares for residence in places; it wi [...]l be high time now to hoyse sayle, and steere homwards, where being returned, hee must abhorre all affectation▪ all forced postures and com­plements: For Forraine Tra­vell oftentimes makes many to wander from themselves, as well as from their Coun­trey, and to come back mere Mimiques, and so in going farre, to fare worse, and bring backe lesse wit, than they carieth forth, they go out Figures (according to the Italian Proverb) and returne [Page 175] Cyphers, they retaine the Vice of a Countrey, and will dis­cours learnedly thereon, but passe by, and forget the good, their Memories being herein like haire seeves, that keep up the branne, and let go the fine flowr [...] ▪ They strive to de­generate as much as they can from Englishmen, and all their talke is still Forraine, or at least, will bring it to be so, though it be by head and shoulders, magnifying other▪ Nations, and derogating from their own: Nor can one hardly exchange three words with them, at an Ordinary▪ (or else-where) but present­ly they are th [...]other side of the Sea, commending either the Wines of France, the [...] [Page 176] of Italy, or the Oyle and Sal­lets of Spaine.

Some also there are who by their Countenance more than by their Cariage, by their Diseases, more than by their Discourses, discover themselves to have been A­broad under hot Climats.

Others have a custome to bee always relating strange things and wonders, (of the humor of Sir Iohn Mande­vile) and they usually pre­sent them to the Hearers, through multiplying glasses, and thereby cause the thing to appeare far greater than it is in it self, they make Moun­taines of Mole-hils, like Cha­renton-Bridge-Eccho, which doubles the sound nine [Page 177] times. Such a Traveller was he, that reported the Indian Fly, to be as big as a Fox; China birds, to be as big as some Horses, and their Mice to be as big as Monkeys; but they have the wit to fetch this far enough off, because the Hearer may rather believe it, than make a voyage so far to disprove it.

Every one knowes the Tale of him, who reported hee had seen a Cabbage under whose leafes a Regiment of Soul­diers were sheltred from a shower of raine: Another who was no Traveller (yet the wiser man) said, hee had passed by a place where there were 400 brasiers making of a Cauldron, 200 within, and [Page 178] 200 without, beating the nayles in; the Traveller asking for what use that huge Cauldron was? he told him, Sir it was to boyle your Cabbage.

Such another was the Spa­nish Traveller, who was so habituated to hyperbolize, and relate wonders, that he became ridiculous in al com­panies, so that he was forced at last to give order to his man, when he fell into any excesse this way, and report any thing improbable, he should pul him by the sleeve: The Master falling into his wonted hyperboles, spoke of a Church in China, that was ten thousand and yards [...] long; his man standing behind and pulling him by the sleeve, made him [Page 179] stop suddenly: the compa­ny asking, I pray Sir, how broad might that Church be? he replyed, but a yard broad, and you may thanke my man for pulling me by the sleeve, else I had made it foure-square for you.

Others have another kind of hyperbolizing vaine, as they will say, there's not a woman in Italy, but weares an Iron girdle next her skin in the ab­sence of her husband, that for a pistoll one may be master of any mans life there; That there is not a Gentleman in France but hath his box of play [...] about him; That in Germany every one hath a rouse in his pate, once a day; That there are few Dons in Spaine that eat [Page 180] flesh once a week, or that hath not a Mistresse besides his wife; That Paris hath more Courti­zans than London honest Wo­men (which may admit a double sense;) That Sevill is like a chesse-bord table, ha­ving as many Moriscos as Spa­niards; That Venice hath more Maquerelles, than Mar­chands; Portugall more Iews than Christians: whereas i [...] ▪ is farre otherwise, for the De­vill is not so black as he [...] painted, no more are these Noble Nations and Townes as they are tainted: Therefore one should▪ ‘Parcere paucorum diffunder [...] crimen in omnes.’ [Page 181] And it is a generous kind of civility to report alwayes the best.

Furthermore, there is a­mongst many others (which were too long to recite here) an odde kind of Anglicisme▪ wherein some do frequently expresse themselves, as to say Your Boores of Holland, Sir; Your Iesuites of Spaine, Sir; Your Courtisans of Ve­nice, Sir: whereunto one answered (not impertinent­ly) My Courtisans Sir? Pox on them all for me, they are none of my Courtisans.

Lastly, some kind of Tra­vellers there are, whom their gate and strouting, their ben­ding in the hammes, and shoul­ders, and looking upon their [Page 182] legs, with frisking and singing do speake them Travellers.

Others by a phantastique kind of ribanding themselvs, by their modes of habit, and cloathing (and touching vari­ety of cloathing, there be cer­taine odde ill-favoured old Prophecies of this Island, which were improper to re­cite here) do make them­selves knowne to have brea­thed forraine ayre, like Sir Thomas Moore's) Traveller, whom I will bring here up­on the stage.

Amicus & Sodalis est La [...]us mihi,
Britanniaque natus, altusque Insulâ:
[Page 183] At cùm Brittannos Galliae cul­toribus
Oceanus ingens, lingua, mores dirimant,
Spernit tamen Lalus Britan­nica omnia;
Miratur expetitque cuncta Gallica
Togâ superbit ambulans in Gallica,
Amatque multùm Gallicas la­cernulas,
Zonâ, locello, atque ense gau­det Gallico,
Et calceis & subligare Gal­lico,
Totoque denique apparatu Gal­lico,
Nam & unum habet Mini­strum, eumque Gallicum,
Sed quem, licet velit, nec ipsa Gallia,
[Page 184] Tractare quiret plus (opinor) Gallicè,
Stipendii nihil dat, atque id Gallicè,
Vestitque tritis pannulis, & Gallicè hoc,
Alit cibo parvo & malo, idque Gallicè,
Labore multo exercet, atque hoc Gallicè,
Pugnisque crebrò pulsat, idque Gallicè,
In coetu, in via, & in foro, & frequentiâ
Rixatur objurgatque semper Gallicè.
Quid? Gallicè illud? imò semi-Gallicè,
Sermonem enim, ni [...]fallor, ille Gallicum
Tam callet omnem, quàm Lati­num Psittacus.
[Page 185] Crescit tamen; sibique nimi­rum placet,
Verbis tribus si quid loquatur Gallicis,
Aut Gallicis si quid nequit vo­cabulis,
Conatur id verbis, licèt non Gallicis,
Sono [...] saltem personare Gallico,
Palato hiante, acutulo quodam▪ tono,
Et foemine instar garrientis molliter,
Sed ore pleno, tanquam id im­pleant fabae,
Balbutiens videlicet suaviter,
Pressis quibusdam literis, Gal­li quibus
Ineptientes abstinent, nihi [...]l secus
Quam vulpe gallus, rupibus­que Navita;
[Page 186] Sic ergo linguam ille & La­tinam Gallicè,
Et Gallicè linguam sonat Br [...] ­tannicam,
Et Gallicè linguam refert Hi­span [...]cam,
Et Gallicè linguam refert Lom­bardicam,
Et Gallicè l [...]guam refert G [...] ­manicam,
Et Gallicè omnem praeter unam Gallicam,
Nam Gallicam solùm sonat Bri­tannicè
At quisquis Insulâ satu Britannica
Sic patriam insolens fastidie [...] suam,
Ut more simiae laboret fingere,
Et aemulari Gallicas ineptias,
Ex amne Gallo ego hunc opi­nor [...]brium.
[Page 187] Ergo ut ex Britanno Gallus esse nititur,
Sic Dii jubete, fiat fiat ex Gallo capus.


BVt such Travellers as these may bee termed Land-lopers, as the Dutchman saith, rather than Travellers; Such may be said to go out upon such an Arrand, as wee reade Saules-son went once out upon; or like the Prodi­gall son, to feed upon the huskes of strange Countreys; or as we reade, Aesope travel­led to Istria, thence to Afric [...], [Page 188] and sundry other Regions, only to find out the best Crabs; or like him who came from the furthest parts of Hungary to England, to eate Oysters: These Travel­lers in lieu of the Ore of Ophir wherwith they should come home richly freighted, may be said to make their returne in Apes and Owles, in a carga­zon of Complements and Cringes, or some huge mon­strous Periwigs, which is the Golden Fleece they bring o­ver with them.

Such, I say, are a shame to their Countrey abroad, and their kinred at home, and to their parents, Benonies, the sons of sorrow: and as Ionas in the Whales belly, travelled [Page 189] much, but saw little, why, be­cause hee was shut up in the body of that great (aqua­tique) beast, so these may be said to have been carried up and downe through many Countreys, and after a long pererration to and fro, to re­turne as wise as they went, because their soules were so ill lodged, and shut up in such stupid bodies: No, an inge­nious and discerning Travel­ler will disdaine this, and strive to distinguish 'twixt good and evill, 'twixt that which is gracefull, and what's phantastique, 'twixt what is to be followed, and what's to be shunned, and bring home the best: Hee will strive to be rather Sub­stance [Page 190] without shew, than shew without substance: From the Italian he will borrow his reservednesse, not his jealousie and humor of revenge; From the French his Horsemanship and gallantnesse that way, with his Confidence, and no­thing else: From the Spani­ard his Sobriety, not his lust: From the German (cleane contrary) his Continency, no: his Excesse, the other way: From the Netherland his In­dustry, and that's all: His heart must still remaine En­glish, though I allow him some choyce and change of Habit, ‘Coelum, non animum mutet—’ [Page 191] And as the commendablest quality of Oyle is to smell of nothing, yet it giveth an ex­cellent relish to many sorts of meats: So he is the dis­creetest Traveller, who Sa­voureth of no affectation; or strangenesse, of no exotique modes at all, after his returne, either in his Cariage or Dis­cours, unlesse the subject re­quire it, and the occasion and Company aptly serve for him, to discover himselfe, and then an application of his Knowledge abroad, will excellently season his matter and serve as golden d [...]shes to serve it in.

If any Forrainer be to be imitated in his manner of Discours and Comportement, [Page 192] it is the Italian, who may be said to be a medium 'twixt the Gravity of the Spaniard, the Heavinesse of the Dutch, and Levity of our next Neighbours, for he seemes to allay the one, and quicken the other two; to serve as a buoy to the one, and a ballast to th'other.

France useth to work one good effect upon the English, she useth to take away the mothers milk (as they say,) that blush, and bashfull tin­cture, which useth to rise up in the face npon sudden sa­lutes, and enterchange of Complement, and to enhar­den one with confidence; For the Gentry of France have a kind of loose becom­ming [Page 193] boldnes, and forward vivacity in their cariage, whereby they seeme to draw respect from their Superiours and Equals, and make their Inferiours keepe a fitting di­stance.

In Italy amongst other morall cautions, one may learne not to be over prodigall of speech when there is no need, for with a nod, with a shake of the head, and shrug of the shoulder, they will answer to many questions.

One shall learne besides there not to interrupt one in the relation of his tale, or to feed it with odde interlocuti­ons: One shall learne also not to laugh at his own jest, as too many use to do, like a Hen, [Page 194] which cannot lay an egge but she must ca [...]kle.

Moreover, one shall learne not to ride so furiously as they do ordinarily in England, when there is no necessity at all for it; for the Italians have a Proverb, that a gallop­ping horse is an open sepulcher. And the English generally are observed by all other Nations, to ride commonly with that speed, as if they rid for a Midwife, or a Phy­sitian, or to get a pardon to save one's life as he goeth to execution, when there is no such thing, or any other oc­casion at all, which makes them call England, the Hell of Horses.

In these hot Countreyes [Page 195] also, one shall learne to give over the habit of an odde custome, peculiar to the English alone, and whereby they are distin­guished from other Nati­ons, which is, To make still towards the Chimney, though it bee in the Dog-dayes.


LAnguage is the greatest outward testimony of Travell: Yet is it a vaine and verball Knowledge that rests only in the Tongue; Nor are the observations of the Eye any thing profitable, unlesse the Mind draw something from the Externe object to en­rich the Soule withall, to in­forme to build up and unbe­guile the Inward man, that by the sight of so various ob­jects of Art and Nature, that by the perlustration of such fa­mous Cities, Castles, Amphi­theaters, and Palaces; some [Page 197] glorious and new, some moul­dred away, and eaten by the Iron-teeth of Time, he come to discerne; the best of all earthly things to bee but frayle and transitory. That this World at the best is but a huge Inne, and we but wayfaring men, but Pilgrimes, and a company of rambling Passengers. That we enter first into this World by Travaile, and so passe along, with Cries, by weeping crosse: So that it was no improper Character the Wisest of Kings gave of this life to be nought else but a continuall Travell: as the Author crossing once over the Pyrenes, writ to a Noble friend of his in this distique,

[Page 198]
Vita Peregrinans Iter est, sa­crapagina monstrat,
Nunc verè vitam, nam pere­grinor, ago.

Yet amongst these passen­gers, some find warme lodgings in this Inne, with fift beds, the table plentifully f [...]r­nished, And such is the poore­nesse of some Spirits, and the narrownesse of their Soules, and they are so nailed to the Earth, that when they are [...]l­most at their Iourneyes end, when they lyewind-bound at the Cape of good Hope, and have one foot in the [...] ready to go off, with the next Gale to another Countrey, to their last home: Yet, as the Orator saith, Quò minùs viae [Page 199] restat eò plus viatici quaerunt, the lesse way remaines, the more provision they make still for their journey.

Other Passengers there are, which find but short commons, they are forced to trudge up and down for a roome to lay their heads upon, and would bee well content with a trucklebed, or a mattresse in the garret, for want whereof, they are often constrained to lye in state against their wils in the Starre Chamber, having the Heaven for their Canopy, and the brests of their Common Mother for their pillow.

And it is the high pleasure of Providence this disparity should be'twixt the Citizens of this World, and that the earth [Page 200] should be divided into such un­equall portions, to leave place for Industry, Labour, and Wit, the Children of Neces­sity, and Parents of Vertue, for otherwise, few or none would pourchase any ground upon Parnassus Hill.

To see the Escuriall in Spaine, or the Plate-Fleet at her first arrivall; To see Saint Denis, the late Cardinal-Palace in Richelieu, and other things in France; To see the Citadell of Antwerp; The New Towne of Amsterdam, and the Forrest of Masts, which lye perpetually before her; To see the Imperiall, and stately Hans Towns of Ger­many; To see the Treasurie of Saint Mark, and Arsenall [Page 201] of Venice; The Mount of Pie­ty in Naples; The Dome and Castle of Milan; The proud Palaces in and about Genoua, whereof there are two hun­dred within two miles of the Towne, and not one of the same forme of building; To see Saint Peter's Church, the Vatican, and other magnifi­cent structures in Rome, who in the case she stands in, may be said to be but her owne Tombe, in comparison of what she hath beene, being fallen from the Hils to the Plaines.

To be able to spake many Languages, as the Voluble French, the Courtly Italian, the Lofty Spanish, the Lusty Dutch, the Powerfull Latine, [Page 202] the Scientifique and happily compounding Greek, the most Spacious Slavonique, the My­sticall Hebrew with all her Dialects: All this is but vanity and superficiall Know­ledge, unlesse the inward man be bettered hereby; unlesse by seeing and perusing the volume of the Great World, one l [...]arne to know the Little, which is himselfe, unles o [...]e learne to go­verne and check the passions, our Domestique Enemies, then which nothing can conduce more to gentlenes of mind, to Elegan­cy of Manners, and Solid Wis­dome. But principally, unlesse by surveying and admiring his works abroad, one improve himself in the knowledge of his Creator, prae quo quisqui­liae [Page 203] caetera; in comparison whereof the best of sublunary blessings are but bables, and this indeed, this Vnum neces­sarium, should be the center to which Travell should tend.

Moreover, one should e­vertuate himselfe to bring something home, that may accrue to the publique bene­fit and ad vantage of his Countrey, and not to draw water to his own Mill only; For of those three that the O­rator saith, challenge a share in our Nativity, our Countrey is the first, and our selfs last. Therefore he should pry in­to the Policy and municipall Lawes of other States and Cities, and be able to render an accompt of their govern­ment, [Page 204] and by collation there­of with that of his own, Ex­amine well whether any wholesome constitution or custome may be applyable to the srame of his owne Countrey.

It is recorded in an anci­cient Greek Author, that the famous Ptolomey, he who conversed and Travelled so much amongst Heavenly bodies, culled out a select number of his pregnantest young Nobles, aud Gentle­men to go to Greece, Italy, Carthage and other Region [...], and the prime Instruction they had in charge, was, to observe [...] Government, as they Travelled along, & bring back [...] of the whole­somest [Page 205] Lawes out of every Countrey. Being returned, they related that in the Ro­man Republique, a most singu­lar veneration was had of the Temples, a punctuall obed [...]ence to Governors, and unavoydable punishments inflicted upon ma­lefactors.

In Carthage, the Senat commanded, the Nobles execu­ted, and the People obeyed.

In Athens the Rich were not suffered to be Extortioners, the Poore idle, nor the Magi­strates ignorant.

In Rhodes Old men were Venerable, Young men modest, and Women solitary and si­lent.

In Thebes the Nobles did fight, the Plebeians la­bour, [Page 206] and Philosophers teach.

In Sicily Iustice was en­tirely administred, Commerce was honestly exercised, and all enjoyed equall priviledges and interest in the State.

Among the Sicionians there were admitted neither Physiti­ans to hinder the operations of Nature; nor Strangers, to introduce innovations; nor Lawyers, to multiply Con­tentions.

These men it seemes di [...] not go out to see feathers fly in the Ayre, or Reeds shaken with the wind, they did not go to get Complements or Cringes, or Cariage of bo­dies, or new Modes of cloa­thing, or to tip the tongue with a little Language only, [Page 207] but they searchd into the so­lidest and usefullest part of humane Wisdome, which is policy; And doubtlesse, that rare wise King made excel­lent use of their observations, and rewarded them accor­dingly: And one of the hap­piest advantages to a Monar­chy is, to have a discerning and bountifull King when occa­sion requires, for Subjects are accordingly active or idle, as they find their Prince able to judge of their merit and endea­vours, and so emp [...]oy them; for in the Common-wealth of Let­ters, and speculative Orbe of Vertue, the benigne aspect and iufluence of the Prince, is as Apollo was to the Muses, it gives a kind of comfortable [Page 208] heate, and illumination, whereby they are cherished and made vigorous.

The most materiall use therefore of Forraine Travel is to find out something that may bee applyable to the publique utility of one's own Countrey, as a Noble Personage of late yeares did, who observing the uniforme and [...]regular way of stone structure up and down Ita­ly, hath introduced that forme of building to Lon­don and Westminster, and else where, which though d [...]stastfull at first, as all in­novations are, For they seeme like Bug-beares, or Gorgons heads, to the vul­gar; yet they find now the [Page 209] commodity, firmenesse, and beauty therof, the three maine principles of Architecture.

Another seeing their Dikes, and draynings in the Nether­lands, hath been a cause that much hath beene added, to lengthen the skirts of this Island.

Another in imitation of their aqueducts and sluces, and cōveyance of waters abroad, brought Ware-water through London streets: And it had been wished so great and re­nowned a City had not forgot Him so soon, consi­dering what infinite advan­tages redounds to her there­by; for in other Coun­treys I have seene Statues e­rected to persons in the most [Page 210] eminentest places (to eter­nize their memories by way of gratitude) for Inventi­ons of farre lesser conse­quence to the encourage­ment of others, for it is an old Rule of State, and will be in date to the Worlds end, that Honor nourisheth Arts, and is the golden sp [...]rre of Vertue and industry.


AMongst many other fruits of Forraine Travell, besides the delightfull ideas, and a thousand various thoughts and selfe content­ments and selfe content­ments and inward solaces, it raiseth in the memory of things past, this is one: That when one hath seene the Tally and taillage of France, the Milstone of Spaine, the Assise of Holland, the Ga­bels of Italy, where one can­not bring an Egge, or roote to the market, but the Prince his part lyes therinna: When he hath felt the excesse of heat, [Page 212] the dangerous Serains, the Poverty of soyle in many places, the Homelinesse and incommo­dity of lodging, the course cloa­thing of the best sort of Pea­sants, their wooden shooes, and straw hats, their Canvas breeches, and Buckram petti­coates, their meager fare, feed­ing commonly upon Grasse, Hearbs, and Roots, and drink­ing Water, neere the conditi­on of brute animals, who find the cloth always ready layed, & the buttry open: When hee hath observed what a hard shift some make to hewe out a dwelling in the holes of the Rocks; others to dig one un­der the Sea; when he feeles, how in some Climes the Heaven is as Brasse, in others [Page 213] as a dropping Sponge; in o­thers as a great Bellowes, most part of the yeare; how the Earth, in many places is ever and anone sick of a fit of the Palsie; When hee sees the same Sun which only cheri­sheth and gently warmes his Countrey men, halfe parboyle and tanne other people, and those rayes which scorch the adusted soyles of Calabria and Spaine, only varnish and guild the green hony-suckled plaines and hillocks of En­gland; When he hath ob­served what hard shifts some make to rub out in this world in divers Countreys, What speed Nature makes to finish her cours in them; How their best sort of women af­ter [Page 214] forty, are presently super­annuated, and looke like another Charing-Crosse, or Carackes that have pas­sed the Line in three voy­ages to the Indies: When hee hath observed all this, At his returne home, hee will blesse God, and love England better ever after, both for the Equality of the Temper in the Clime, where there is no where the like, take all the Seasons of the yeare together, (though some would wish She might bee pushed a little nearer the Sun:) For the free condition of the subject, and equall participation of the Wealth of the Land, for the unparallelled accommodation [Page 215] of lodging, and security of Travell, for the admirable ho­spitality, for the variety and plenty of all sorts of firme food, for attendance and cleanlinesse, for the rare fer­tility of Shoare and Sea, of Ayre, Earth, and Water, for the longevity, well favoured­nesse and innated honesty of the people: And above all; for the moderation and decen­cy in celebrating the true ser­vice of God, being farre from Superstition one way, and from Prophanesse the o­ther way, (though (with a quaking heart, I speake it) there have been strange in­solencies committed of late) I say, when hee hath well observed all this, he will [Page 216] sing, as once I did to a Noble friend of mine from Denmarque, in this Sap­phique:

Dulcior fumus Patriae, forensi
Flāmula, vino, praeit unda, terrae
Herba Britānae, mage trāsmarino Flore süavis.


HAving thus tasted of so many waters, and beene Salted in the World abroad, and being safely restored to the bosome of his owne Countrey, his next cours should bee, to settle himselfe awhile in one of the Innes of Court, (which hee may do and yet bee a Courtier besides) to understand something of the Common Lawes of En­gland, which are the inheri­tance of every subject, as al­so [Page 218] of the constitutions and Orders of the House of Par­lament, the most indifferent, most wholesome, and No­blest way of Government in the World, both in re­spect of King and People: It being the greatest glory of a King, to be King of a free and well-crested people, and the greatest glory of a People to bee under a Crown so em­bellished with Flowers, and sparckling with such ancient and sacred gemmes of Royall Prerogatives: Yet to bee un­der no Law but of their owne making, to bee the Setters of the great Dyall of the Common-Wealth themselves. To bee sub­ject to no Ordinance, to no [Page 219] Contribution or Taxe, but what is granted in that great Epidemicall Counsell, wherein every one from the Peere to the Plebeian hath an inclu­sive Vote. And if every de­gree high and low, both in Towne and Countrey is there represented by their Subsi­stutes; it were a hard mea­sure (under correction, I humbly speake it) if the Levites, the best of all pro­fessions, who besides the ho­linesse of their function (as having charge of the Nobler halfe of man, of that which should guide and regulate the Understanding in making of all Lawes, I meane the Conscience) do make a con­siderable part of the People [Page 220] of the Kingdome, should be thence excluded; for though it be inconsistent with their calling to have hands to exe­cute, yet they may well have heads to consult in that great Nationall Senat: It were a hard case, I say, if those great Lights, which were used to shine with that brightnesse to the Envy (not the reproach or Scandall of any that I know of) of all other Re­formed Churches, should be now put in wooden Candle­sticks: That those Promo­tions, Endowments, and Honors, which our well di­sposed Progenitors provided, to nourish the Arts, and serve as Spurres to Learning and Zeale, should now be cut [Page 221] off, as if they served only for Stirrops to Pride. There be­ing no professions, but have certaine steps of rising up, and degrees of Promotion for their encouragement to make men aemulari meliora. And he who hath spent the vigor of his yeares and Intel­lectuals in the Lords Vine­yard, it may well become him (having served, as it were, his yeare of Iubile) to have his gray haires dignifi­ed with some Honor and Authority, with reward and rest in his old age, and by his long experience and paines to see that other painefull Labourers be put into the Vine-yard, yet to have his hand often on the Plough [Page 222] himselfe. If there bee a theefe in the Candle, (as wee use to say commonly) there is a way to pull it out; and not to put out the Candle, by clapping an Extinguisher pre­sently upon it; If these Lights grow dim, there is a Trienni­all Snuffer for them: If these Trees beare not good fruit, or shoot forth any Luxuriant boughs, they are sure to feele the Pruning iron once every three yeares.

In the name of God, let these Lights be brought to move within the circumfe­rence of their own Orbes, and be kept from irregular and eccentrique motions, And I am confident it will render them lesse obnoxious to En­vy [Page 223] and Scandall, and draw upon them a greater opini­on of Reverence.

There is a Castle in the grand Caire in Aegypt, called the Nilescope, where there stands a Pillar with certaine markes to observe the height of the River of Nile, at her annuall inundation (which fals out precisely about the Summer Solstice) if the streame come to bee higher or lower than such markes, it portends dearth, but if at highest floud it rest about the middle, it is an infallible presage of a plentifull yeare: So we may say of these great Streames that are appointed to water the Lords Field, they must not swell too high, [Page 224] nor must they run in too low a Channell: And as humility is the fairest gemme that can shine in a Prelats Miter, so the greatest badge of a well devoted Soule, is to reverence the Dis­pensers of the sacred Oracles of God, the Ghostly Fathers, and Governors of the Church, (which in analogy to the Triumphant in Heaven, hath also her degrees of Hierarchy.) For besides Revenue there is a Veneration, due to this holy function, and it were no hard matter to produce a Gran Iury of examples both Hu­mane and Divine, that where this Reverence fayled, it hath been a symptome, and an in­fallible presage of a declining State, or some approaching judgement.

[Page 225] But I hope I shall never live to see the day that the Noble English Nation, who have been so renowned all the world over, and cryed up for their exemplary Piety, as well as Prowesse, will un­dervalue themselves so farre, and grow distrustfull or con­scious of their owne judge­ments, their owne wonted Worth, and Ability so far, as to thinke those Nations (who have not meanes to make the Church shine with that lustre) to be Wiser than they, or to out go them in zeale, as to re­ceive laws for the Consci­ence, and forme of serving God from those, who have been far behind them, both in the first Reception of Chri­stianity [Page 226] and the Reformation thereof—Proh pudor—I will not say, by what I heard muttered abroad, it will be accounted a Nationall dimi­nution, but if it should fo fall out, it is no hard matter to be a Prophet, yea, by what hath passed already, to take a plaine prospect of those A­narchicall confusions, and fearefull calamities, which will inevitably ensue both in Church and State; unlesse with the pious care which is already taken to hinder the great Beast to breake into the Vineyard; there be also a speedy cours taken to fence Her from other Vermine, and lesser Animals (the belluam multorum capitum) which be­gin [Page 227] to brouze her leaves, to throw down her hedges, and so lay her open to wast, spoyle and scorne: Vnlesse there bee a cours taken, I say, to sup­presse those petty Sectaries, which swarme so in every corner, with that connivence (to the amazement of all the world, and disparagement of so well a policed Kingdome) who by their capricious and various kind of gingling fan­cies in serving God, do their best to bring in the opinion of the Pagan Philosopher (Themistius) delivered once to Valens the Emperor, That as God Almighty had infused into his handmaid Nature, a diversity of operations, and that the beauty of the Universe con­sisted [Page 228] in a proportion of so many differing things, so he was de­lighted to see himselfe served by various and sundry kinds of worship and invocations.

In all humblenesse, (and with submission of cen­sure) I desire to be dispensed withall for this excursion out of my first intended sub­ject, but I hope the digres­sion will prove no transgressi­on, in regard the quality of the matter is such, that every one hath a share and interest in it, and should be sensible, when that Liturgy and Church is vilified, wherein he hath re­ceived his Birth and Baptism, and by whose compasse hee steeres his cours to Heaven: When the Windows come [Page 229] down (and the chief Pillars threatned) the House must needs be in danger of falling, and he is worthy to be called a Niding, one, the pulse of whose soule beates but faintly towards Heaven, as having taken but weake impressions of the image of his Maker, who will not run and reach his hand to beare up his Temple.


IN the Inns of Court, where I left my returned Travel­ler, hee will be acquainted with Westminster-Hall, with the courses of pleading in the Courts of Iudicature, by which Knowledge, he may learne how to preserve his own, for, for want of some experience herein, many have mightily suffered in their estates, and made them­selves a prey to their sollici­tors and Agents: Nor in­deed is he capable to beare any Rule or Office in Town or Countrey, who is utterly [Page 231] unacquainted with Iohn an Okes, and Iohn a Stiles, and with their Termes.

Having beene thus settled awhile at home, if businesse and the quality of his life will permit, hee may make one flying journey over a­gaine, and in one Summer review all those Countreys, which hee had beene forty Months a seeing before: And as the second thoughts are held the wisest, so a second survey is more exact, and of a more retentive vertue, and a­mongst other benefits, it will in­finitely improve one in his lan­guage. Noah's Dove brought the branch of Olive in her Bill, at her Second journey; from the latter end of Mars, [Page 232] to the beginning of October, one may leasurely traverse France, crosse the Pyreneys, the Mediterranean, and the Alpes, and so returne either through Germany or through France againe, and thence come home through the Ne­therlands: But being (bis Redux) returned the second time, let him thinke no more of Forrain Iourneys, unlesse it be by command, and upon publique service.

Now to find entertaine­ment for his houres of lea­sure at home, hee may a­mongst other studies, if his inclination leads him that way, apply himselfe to the most materiall and usefull parts of the Mathematiques, [Page 233] as the Art of Navigation and Fortification. The study of the Mathematiques is abstruse, and therfore they require a ripe and well-seasoned judgement, they have this property, to make a dull capacity acute, and an a­cute capacity dull, if he fals un­to thē too soon: which makes us to be censured abroad in the method of our studies in En­gland, to make green wits not yet halfe coddled as it were, to fall too early to such pro­found notiōs in our Universi­ties, as putting childrē to stād too soon upon their leggs.

For Conclusion, in this vari­ety of studies & divertismēts, I will give him this Cauti­on, that he fall not into the hands of the Alchymist, for [Page 235] though there be a world of rare conclusions, and delight­full experiments (most use­full and proper for Physiti­ans) to be found in Chymistry which makes many to bee so inchanted therewith (that being got once in, they have not power to get out againe) Yet I never knew any yet, who made the benefit coun­tervaile the charge; but I have knowne many melt themselves to nothing (like Icarus wings melted, when he attempted the Art of fly­ing) And while they labour so with the sweat of their brows to blow the cole, and bring gold over the helm, they commonly make [...] shipwrack of their own fortunes. [Page 234] Et bona dilapidant omnia pro lapide.’

And the reason well may be, that 'tis doubted, whether such undertakings, bee plea­sing to God Almighty or no, for though Art be Nature's Ape, and is found to perfect her in some things: Yet, it may well bee termed a kind of Presumption in man (by fetching downe the Planets and damning them as crimi­nals to certaine Mettals) to attempt the transmutation of one species into another, as it were against the first ordi­nance of the Creator, and the primitive intent of Nature, whose hand-maid shee is, in [Page 236] the Production of all Elemen­tary bodies: Therefore to be led into a kind of fooles Paradis, and a conceipt of the Philosophers-Stone, and to spend much money in Chy­mistry, hee shall never have the advise of▪


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