Heic tutus obumbror

Symbol. Auth.


  • Power and VVeaknes
  • Glory and Reproch
  • Vertues and Vices
  • Plenty and VVant
  • Advantages and Defects
  • Antiquity and Modernes

Of all the Kingdoms and States of Christendom are impartially poiz'd. At a solemn Convention of som German Princes in sundry Elaborat Orations Pro & Con.

Made fit for the Meridian of ENGLAND, By Iames Howell Esq.

Senesco, non Segnesco.

LONDON, Printed for HUMPHREY MOSELEY, and are to be sold at his Shop at the Prince's Armes in Saint Paul's Church-yard. 1653.



MY brain was a good while in labor be­fore it could produce a Resolution, to whom of those Noble Personages I have the honor to wait upon som­times I shold most properly addresse this Piece in point of Dedication: At last, my thoughts reflecting upon your Lordship, did there acquiesce and settle. Nor, I beleeve, will any knowing Soul question my judgment in this Election, considering how excellently your Lordship is versd in the Customes, Conditions and Languages of divers Nations, which is the scope and subject of these Criticall Orations, though running in a new untrodden way.

Moreover, the Orators here being Princes, and No­blemen, wherof those of Germany are esteemd to be of the [Page] ancientst Extraction and purest Allaye of any in Eu­rope, being those who yet retain their first integrity as Machiavill confesseth, I say, the Orators here being all Peers, I thought it not incongruous to present their Con­ceptions to a Personage of their own rank, that Patronus might be par Operi.

Lastly, the main design of this application to your Lordship was to divulge my gratitude for the frequent noble respects I receave within your walls, that not only the present times may bear witnes, but future Ages may find it allso upon Record (in this small Monument) how much I am (and was)

My Highly Honored Lord, Your most humble, and truly devoted Servitor, Iames Howell.

To the Discerning Reader, whether Home-bred, or broken in the World abroad.

AS Fire is comonly struck by concussion of Flint and Steel, which are two differing bodies; So Truth, who is the Child of Light, as also Knowledg, who is the Child of Truth use to break out, and appeer more conspicuous by contest of Ar­gument, and the clashing of discrepant Opinions: It was the first Dessein, and it is the Method of this Work all along, which descants by way of contraries and altercations upon the hu­mors of all the European Nations: Som of these Orations (in point of matter) may be sayed to be Sugar dissolv'd in Oyl, Others Salt mingled with Pepper and som dashes of Vineger, yet it is not Sal Momi, but Sal Mercurii, ther is nothing here scurrilous or favouring of malice; the dirt which is thrown here is like the dirt of Oysters, which rather cleanseth then contaminats: We all are Coppies of Adam the Prototype, Infir­mities are entail'd upon us by a Conveyance drawn in his time, therfore it must not be expected that Man shold be better out of Paradis, then when he was in't: Ther is neither Horse, nor Humane Creture so good but is subject to stumbling, and that stumbling may make him afterwards go faster and stronger in the road of Vertu. I have read of an old French Poet Iean Clopinel or de Meung who was a great Satyrist, his Pen was like the dart of Death, it spar'd none; and having fallen foul upon the Queen's Maydes of Honor for their wantones in these two verses which were fix'd upon the dore of the back staires.

Toutes estes, serez, ou futes
De fait on de volonte Puttes.
Yee are, or will be, or have bin
All Whores in Act, or Thought of Sin.

Complaint being made herof, Iean de Meung was deliver'd over for a Sacrifice to the Maydes, who having got him bound to a post to be whip'd, he sayed, Noble Ladies, Let me desire but one boon of you be­fore you fall to execution, and it is, That She of you which finds her self most guilty wold give me the first lash: Therupon they fell gazing one upon another, and none wold begin; so the Poet scap'd. The application herof is easy if it be made to relate to the Countreys of Europe: We read the Queen of Bewty herself had a Mole, and Queen Anne of Bullen had a Wren upon her Neck, to hide which, Ruffs were brought first in fashion. So the best Region and fayrest City on earth have their blemishes.

Now touching those frailties which are thus hereditary to Mankind; ther is nothing contributs more to the propagation & practise of them then diversity of Opinions and Caprichios of the Brain, which are infinit; And how can it be otherwise? for if out of 24. letters only in the Alphabet so many millions of differing words may be fram'd, and if these two Verses alone (which relate to Good and Bad according to the subject of the Book)

Rex, lex, Grex, Res, spes, Ius, thus, sal, sol, (bona) lux, laus,
Mars, Mors, sors, fraus, fex, styx, nox, crux, pus (mala) vis, lis;

I say if so few words (and we know words are the Indexes of the mind) may be varyed (as it hath bin tryed) to nere upon four millions of Verses, how many variations of Crochets and Opinions must then the boyling braines of so many millions of men be subject unto? To this may be as­cribed the miseries and distempers of most Countreys, especially the rents and heresies in Religion, wherof som peeple have so many that they need not pray, Adauge Fidem nostram, (Lord increase our Faith) but rather, O Lord decrease our Faiths, they are so many; and I am sorry that England deserves to have a fillip upon the nose for this.

Now as these alternative Orations treat of the humors of Nations, so they do also of the quality of their Countreys. They will tell you that France hath the best Granary of Europe, England the fattest Kitchin, Spain the best Exchequer, Italy the richest Wardrobe, Germany the best Woodyard, Holland the best Dayrie, &c. They will tell you that som Countreys com­par'd to others are like Gold compar'd to Silver, others as Silver com­par'd to brasse: as Ireland to England is as Silver in point of value to Gold which requires 12. ounces for one, and Scotland to England is as Brasse to Silver which requires 100. ounces for one in proportion of intrin­sique value; in so much that one may say the Union 'twixt England and Scotland was like Oil mingled with Vineger: They will tell you also that som Countreys are so perfect that they are created to preserve themselfs only, and not to propagat, as England with her Concomitant Provinces; Others to plant abroad and expand themselfs, as Spain with her Domini­ons; Others to be Umpires and Arbitrators among their Neighbours, for their fit posture, as France, and the Popes Territories, the first being seated about the midst of Europe, and the other running through the midst of Italy; Others are unhappily placed 'twixt two Neighbours more potent then themselfs, as Savoy and Lorain, the one being seated 'twixt the Em­perour and France, the other 'twixt France and the dominions of Spain in Italy, so that they cannot make a legg to the one but they must pull off their hatts to the other; They will also tell you how some peeple are so fiery mouth'd that they must be ridd with a bitt as the Napolitan and French, &c. whereas a small Snaffle will serve others, fearing that if they cast their Rider they may fall from bad to worse, as the Castillian, the Savoyard, the Venetian, and Florentine.

Touching the perfecting of this Work, ther were Stones fetch'd from many Quarries (whereof the learned and well-read Lansius affoorded most) which were pil'd up to compile this fabrique. Now, I impos'd upon my self this task for the demulsions of my life, and to delude those tedious howers and turbid intervalls which the contemplation of these sad disjointed times makes many subject unto besides my self, specially those active spi­ritts who having bin formerly in Employment who lead now a sedentary and umbraticall life; So I wish that this Peece may produce the same effects in the Reader as it did in the Writer.

—Sic Tempus adulor.
The names of the Princes and Orators who conven'd upon this Occasion.
  • 1. THe Duke of Wirtemberg, and Teccia, Count of Mountpelgard, &c. Lord President of the Assembly make the Proeme.
  • 2. Francis Duke of Saxony, Angaria, and Westphalia, &c. pleads for Germany High and Low.
  • 3. The Lord Wilhelm of Retwiz pleads against Germany.
  • 4. The Lord Ioachim Ernest Duke of Sleswick, and Holstein pleads for France.
  • 5. The Lord [...] [...] D. of Saxony declaims against France.
  • 6. The Lord George Fredrique Baron of Limburg declaims for Spain.
  • 7. The Lord Magnus Duke of Wirtemberg declaims against Spain.
  • 8. The Lord George Baron of Stubenberg replies for Spain.
  • 9. The Lord Wolfangus Baron of Stubenberg declaims for England, Scotland, and Ireland.
  • 10. Lord Daniel Bensin declaims against England, Ireland and Scotland.
  • 11. Lord Maximilian of Mesch pleades for Poland.
  • 12. The Lord Axelius of Goerholm declaims against Poland.
  • 13. Lord Albert Baron of Limburg pleades for Hungary.
  • 14. Lord Schafeliski declaims against Hungary.
  • 15. The Lord Laurentius Bensin pleades for Italy, the Popedom, Repub: of Venice, &c.
  • 16. Lord George Rolderer declaims against Italy.

The Result of all these Declamations, and Rising up of the Assem­bly.

To the Knowing Reader upon the Subject of these Princely Orations.

AXIOM. Contraria juxta se posita magis elucescunt.

BLack sidelong putt, or standing opposite
Doth use to add more lustre unto White;
A Perl shine's brighter in a Negro's ear,
Som Ladies look more fair who Patches wear;
So Vice, if counterplac'd, or seated neer
Makes Vertu shew more lovely, strong, and cleer.
This Book hath Vice and Vertu, White and Black,
'Tis as a Crystall Glasse fo [...]l'd on the Back▪
'Tis like a Chessboard (Or an Ermins skin)
Checkquer'd with two Extremes both Out and In,
It weighs and winnowe's Good from Bad which any
Of Europe's Kingdom's have (and they have many.)
Now, if those purer Regions of the Sky
Where ev'ry Star's a perfect Monarchy;
If the bright Moon, and glorious Sun above
Have Spotts and Motes, as Opticks Organs prove,
How then can these grosse Earthly Regions bee,
And we that peeple them, from taintures free?
This were for US to arrogat that blisse
Which ADAM could not keep in Paradise.
I. H.

An Advertisement to the Reader.

WHeras there are various Quotations here out of sundry Forren Au­thors in their own Language, you may please to take notice that they are rendred into English all along, that so they may fall under the Capacity of any Reader.

Humphrey Moseley.

FREDERIQUE, DUKE OF WIRTEMBERG, &c. Appointed Lord President, and Proloquu­tor of the Diet, HIS PROEME, OR INTRODUCTORY Oration to the rest of the Princes.

Most Illustrious, and High-borne Princes,

HOW joyfull am I to see this day! O, how happy I am to behold this glorious Assembly! What a high Ho­nour is it to be a Member of it! Specially being met upon such a brave Designe of Vertue, as to render a voluntary free account of our forreigne Peregrinati­ons; to discover what we have observ'd most memo­rable abroad: And to do this with such a latitude of liberty, that our hearts and tongues may be Relatives, they may go together all along; It being the Prerogative of this Noble Consisto­ry, that every one may deliver and descant upon, without the least apprehen­sion of danger, or giving any distast, what he hath met withall most remarkable in other Countries, as well as his own, either in point of Morality, or Military Discipline; either referring to their Vertues, or Vices, their Poverty, or Wealth, their weaknesse, or strength, their policy, or misgovernment. And so in order to the Province he hath undertaken, to vent his Conceptions, and passe his Judgment accordingly.

The Inhabitants of China, a Potent, and Eagle-ey'd People, as being the nea­rest Neighbours to the Rising Sun of any upon this side of the Hemisphear, are reported to have such a haughty conceit of themselves, that beholding all other [Page 2] Nations with a Supercilious disdainfull Countenance, they magnifie and extoll their own, contemning as it were, the rest of Man-kind, as an inferiour and ig­norant Race of rationall Creatures, which appeares by a kind of proverbiall Saying they have common amongst them: That the Chineses have two eyes, the Europaeans one, and the rest of the World is blind. For my part, I cannot deny but the people of China, or Sina, more properly the true Appellation of the Country, being Sinarum, or Tzinarum Regio, may be an ingenious progeny of men: They may be exquisite Artists, as we finde by their Manufactures; They may also have good Intellectuals, and forecasts in framing wholesome Statutes, and Politicall Constitutions, for the safe and peacefull Government of that huge tract of Earth, which is estimated to be in one intire peece, eight times as big as the whole Continent of France. Yet, under favour, they have two Lawes which favour not so much of Prudence and Rationability. The first, an Inhibition, that none of their Natives must travell abroad beyond the bounds of their own Country, under pain of loosing one of his eyes. The second, that no Forreigner be permitted to enter into the bowels of the Land, except onely Ambassadours, and Ministers of State, and they also must be carried hoodwink'd all along from the Marine. I say, though the Chineses in other things may haply be wise, and Ar­gc-ey'd (who was all eye) yet herein they may be said to be as blind as Buz­zards, and their Noddles to be as flat as their Noses, which is a peculiar shape they have above all other people: for these restrictive Lawes are repugnant to common humanity; They destroy the magna charta, the grand Ordinance of Nature, which injoynes mankind in generall to endeare themselves one to another, by reciprocall Offices of benevolence and love, of Charity and Com­passion, of comfort, and mutual Commerce. Such a dotage as this seem'd to have sez'd upon Lycurgus and Plato in point of Opinion: The furr'd Muscovit, and frozen Russe is possess'd also with it to this day.

But oh immortall Gods! what Infatuation, or Frenzy rather transports this people so far from the dictates of reason? What a transcendent presumption is it in them, to invade, as it were, the Capitoll of Heaven, and violate the Decrees of the divine Providence: For we well know that God Almighty himselfe, by the mouth of his Chancellour Moses, hath commanded Peregrinos non minui ac Cives benignè habendos esse: That strangers should be as gently intreated, as the Natives themselves. Moreover there is a Sanction published by our Saviour, love thy Neighbour as thy selfe; Nay, Nature her selfe doth dictate unto us, that man hath the least share in his own Nativity, but he is born to be [...]. a communicable Creature, born to benefit others: Therefore that Custome and Constitution of China is dissonant to the Law of the Creator, the dictates of nature, and disagreeable to humane reason. Now whom shal we give cre­dit unto, the eternall word of God, or the Policy of these men? For, if as the Canon goes, de Imperatoris judicio disputare sacrilegij instar est, If to dispute of the judgment of the Emperour be a kind of Sacriledge, what Trespasse, what Piacle, what a flagitious Crime are they guilty of, who doubt of the verity of divine Oracles. It is the Imperiall Decree of Gratianus, Valentinianus, and Theodosius, confirm'd by all their Successors, Qui Divinae legis sanctitatem aut nesciendo [...] ­mittunt, aut negligendo violant & offendunt, sacrilegium committunt: Whosoever doth by ignorance omit, or by negligence infringe, or offend the Sanctity of the divine Law, commits Sacriledge. Therefore I may say, that the Chineses are Sa­crilegious, that the Muscovits are likewise so, with all their Adherents, who un­lesse they would go about to overthrow the Rights of the Rationall Creature, unlesse they would extinguish all the sparkles of Charity, would not put in pra­ctise so absurd a Law. For it stops the Channels, and choakes up the Cisternes of all Hospitality, of all kind of Humanity; it utterly subverts all increase of know­ledge, all mutuall Offices of love, all Trade and Commerce, all improvement of Wealth, and plenty, all intercourse of Kindnesse, and Civility among the Chil­dren of Adam. For, in my judgment, this whole Globe of the Earth, is no o­ther [Page 3] then the Native Country of all kind of men: It is but one common City, Domicile and Habitation. Therefore that Saying of Socrates was a true Philo­sophicall one; when being askt what Country-man he was, he answer'd, I am a Cosmopolite, I am a Citizen, or free Denizon of the World. For what an Indig­nity is it to Captivate the mind of man, which Heaven can scarce hold, to one territory or clod of Earth? What an injustice is it, that the Volatils of the Aire should have such liberty to flye, and the Fish of the Sea to swim where they please without controulement, or interruption, and that man, who by divine Charter is Lord of all Elementary Creatures, should be confin'd within the com­passe of one poor tract of ground.

Therefore as those high Ethereall, and heavenly bodies above delight in moti­on, so among men all generous and noble Spirits should take pleasure in Pere­grination; they should make truce with their domestick Affaires, ask their Parents blessing, embrace their Kindred, bid their Friends farewell, and shake hands a while with their own Country, to take a view of the World abroad, to observe the Customes, and Carriage of other people, to pry into their Lawes and Government, to their Policy and waies of preservation, to attain unto the knowledge of their Language, to convert every good thing they see into wholesome juice and blood, and for the future benefit of their own Country; to learn how to converse with all people: For the French have no improper saying, Un honneste homme est un homme mesle, an honest, or wise man, is a mixt man; that is, one who hath something in him, in point of knowledge of all Na­tions.

Truely, that I may discover unto you the most Intrinsick thoughts of my Soule, I am of Opinion that it is a kind of degenerous thing, for any gentile Spi­rit to sit still at home, as it were lurking in the Chimny corner, & be so indulgent of himselfe, as never to see the World abroad. Nay, a noble mind should resolve with himselfe to undergo any injury of the Elements, any roughnesse of waies, any difficulty of passage, to be acquainted with forreigne Nations; he should pre­sently get his Bills of exchange, or Letters of credit, settle his Servants, call for his Boots and Spurs, put his Sword by his side, and mount a Horseback, being invited thereunto by so many noble examples, specially by yours, most Illustrious Prin­ces, who have made such exuberant fruits of your Peregrinations, whereof all Germany your deare Country is like to make such a mighty benefit. For I know there is none of you here, but, as the Prince of Poets speakes of Ulisses,


You have seen the manners of millions of men, with so many magnificent Cities, Castles, Fortifications, and Palaces. Touching my selfe, though I do not travell in body, as I have done, yet in a contemplative way, and upon the wings of Fancy I daily passe through, and measure with my thoughts all those most flourishing Kingdomes of Europe I once perlustrated with my eyes: I travel still in my imagination, and nothing is so delightfull unto me, as the Ideas of those va­rious Objects I have seen abroad.

I confesse there are some, and they are too many, who abuse this excellent benefit of forreigne Travell: if they have but once saluted France, they return altogether Frenchified; If they have eaten their bread a while tother side the Alpes, they come back altogether Italianated: if they have cross'd the Pyre­nies, they return altogether Spanioliz'd: They force themselves by affected and fanstastick postures and gestures, to imitate forreigne Fashions, by their Garb, their Cloathes, their Speech; they would shew themselves Travellers in a kind of Histrionicall, Mimick way, like Actors or Comedians upon a Stage, whose part is to represent others; They seem to slight, and some of them to scorn the Manners, the Custome, and Behaviour of their own Country. Such a Caprichi­ous Traveller, or Stage Player, Sir Thomas More, that Golden English Knight, [Page 4] hath accurately set forth in his own Colours in that witty facetious Epigram, which I beleive is not unknown to any of this Illustrious Auditory.

Amicus & sodalis est Lalus mihi, &c.

In the person of Lalus this renowned Chancellor displayes a phantastick Tra­vellor, or Landloper rather; who having breathed a while the ayre of France, returned all metamorphozed, and Frenchifield in the motion of his members, in the accent of his words, in the tone of his voyce: He was become, Ex Brit­tanno Gallus, or Capus; he came home all transvers'd, not only in his braine, but in his body and bones, having haply left a snip of the Nose he carryed with him, behinde him. Such sort of Lalie's, such Capons are most worthy of Cybeles Priest­hood (whose Flamins were Hermaphrodites, or Capons) we finde in the midst of Germany. Now, as the Spanish mares use to conceive sometimes by the gen­tle breezes of a Southerly Favonian winde, but the colts they bring forth, pre­sently languish and dye; so these fantastick Landlopers, returning home, preg­nant with some odd opinions or fashions, bring back nothing that is serious and solid; but their braines are stuffed only with windy fables, and frivolous stories. And as neer Charenton Bridge in France there is an Eccho, that reverberates the voyce thirteen times in atticulate sounds, so these Peregrinators do often­times multiply what they heare, or see. As those who reported to have seene Flyes in India as big as Fo [...]es, Others, to have seen Trees in Russia which could not be shot over, and that an Army of men might finde shelter under their branches in foule weather; Others had seen Pigmies upon Rams backs, going to Warr with the Cranes: Some speak of the Generation of Basilisques, of the Crocodiles of Aegypt, of the Phenix of Arabia, of the Rooks of Madagascar, of the Scots Clakes, and Geese, and so come back more arrand Geese then they. And what they have haply read of in Pliny, Lucian, or Brandanus, they va­pour as if they had seen them all, and that with strong asseverations, and some­times with oathes.

De nihilo magna, & de parvo maxima fingunt.

They make Mountaines of Molehills, and Whales of Sprats.

But the most judicious sort of Noble Germans make other use of Peregrina­tion; it makes them not to disdaine their owne Countrey afterward, or to be infected with any affected forraine humour, but continue constant to them­selves, and true Germans in point of naturall affection.

But now, Most illustrious Princes, and Noble Lords, whom I see present at this splendid Convention, may you please now to reduce into an Oratory me­thodicall way those discourses and Forraine observations, wherewith you have been used to season your Tables and meetings at other times, confining your selves to the Kingdomes and Common-wealths of Europe, according as you have pleased to assigne every one his particular task; that at last we may make a con­jecture which Country of Europe may merit the Palme and Prerogative of all the rest. I know by proposing this, my boldnesse is as great as my request; but I shall endeavour to make some retaliation unto you most Noble Princes, and brightest eyes of Germany, when any opportunity whatsoever doth present it selfe, and shall court all occasions to do it.

And now, you my most Illustrious Cozen Francis Charles, Duke of Saxony, &c. be pleased to begin.


Most Excellent Prince, and Princes, with the rest of this Illustrious Assembly:

BEfore I launch out into the maine of this large Sea of matter, and that my Sayles be filld with the gentle bree­zes of your favourable attention, I have something to say, while I remain yet in the Port, of Perigrination, or Forren Travell, which your Excellency hath already approved of, and applauded in such a high straine of Eloquence. Yet for my part I wold after the example of the Chineses, were I worthy to give Counsell herein, prohibit Forren travell, under pain of a penalty, as the times go now, or at least I wold prescribe som exact Lawes to regulat Peregri­nation. Now whereas the young Traveller shold apply himself principally to the knowledg of that which might prove pertinent and profitable to the pub­lique good of his own Countrey; let him make account before hand that he cannot find that every where as he passeth: For as a man cannot expect to find out in a Taylors Shopp in Hungary a suite of Clothes that will fitt a Spaniard, or in Spain a suite that will fitt a Frenchman, though his next Conterranean Neighbour, their modes of habit being so different. So every Countrey hath som municipall constitutions and customes peculiar and proper to themselfs, which are not onely disagreeable, but incompatible with the Goverment of o­ther Nations; and one of the chiefest curiosity and care the prime judgment of a Traveller shold be to distinguish betwixt such Lawes. But helas, how ma­ny go now abroad, of whom ther are high hopes conceav'd that at their return they might act the part of Agamemnons; but having so journed som yeeres in Italy and other hott Countreys in the flower and spring of their youth, they com back grown old men before their time, bringing home Winter in their fa­ces, and so are rather fitt to act the part of Thersites then Agamemnon. How [Page 6] few do rerurn true Germans? having habituated themselves to softness, Effemi­nacy, and Lux, or to some il-favour'd posture; either by shrinking in the Shoul­ders, by cringing with the k [...]ee, and sweeping the earth with their feet, or by ducking down their necks, by poudring their Dublets, by extenuating the tone of their voice, after a womanish fashion, or by jetting, dancing, or pratling up and down the Streets, with other loose, and affected Modes. Now, as Paris in Homer, when he went abroad, fell enamour'd with Helen, which was the onely fruit of his Travels: So these never looking after serious things, hunt af­ter toyes, and bables; Or as Physitians observe of Horse-leeches, that when they apply them to the body, they use to suck onely the ill, corrupted blood: So these Travellers draw in the worst things, and it were well, if it remained onely with them; but the mischiefe is, that they disperse the poyson among others, and infest them by their touch, or breath. For where can be found a greater Lux in Apparrell, then in Germany? where a greater vanity in cloathing dead Walls? while poor living Soules, who beare the Image of God Almighty, go naked. Where is there greater excesse in Dyet, in Queckshoses, Made-dishes, and Sawces? And all this may be imputed to Peregrination. Where is there more crisping of haire, more boring of Eares to hang in Rings? where is there more dead mens haire worn upon the heads of the living? And we may also thank Peregrination for this. How many have gone to France with some Re­ligion, and come back without any? How many have gone to Spain with cheer­full, and well-dispos'd humours, but come back with a kinde of dull Melancho­ly? How many have gone o're the Alpes with plain and open hearts, but re­turn'd full of cunning and mentall reservation? How many have gone to Eng­land,' and come home with Tobacco-pipes in their mouths? How many have gone to Holland gentile men, but come back meer Boors? And we may thank Peregrination for all this. The French Disease, the English Sweat, the Hungari­an Scab, the African Leprosie, the Spanish Calenture came into Germany by Peregrination. The Physitians observe that if a man hath drunk Poyson, and be presently clap'd into the belly of a Mule, he may recover; and if one Mule will not serve, another must be kill'd. I was told of one that was preserv'd so by the death of ten; but I beleive if all the Mules of Barbary were sacrificed, they would not be enough to cure our German Gentlemen, who have suck'd in so much Venome abroad, under the tast of Hony. Now, if there be a strict Law a­mong us, to punish those severely who import counterfeit Merchandises by way of Commerce; And if it be death to bring in base Sophisticated Coine, how much more do they deserve to be punisht, who indroduce Vice instead of Vertue, bad Customes for good; to pervert the manners, the dispositions, and nature of the whole Nation? I know this itch of Travelling, and to wander abroad, is no where greater then among us: How many thousands of us are found in Paris at this time? How many hundred in Padua, and Venice; England is full of us, and many other Countries. Prince Rodolphus discoursing with one that had been a great Traveller, told him, Iam vidisti Orbem terrarum universum, qui nihil aliud est quam colles, Montes, Valles, Planities, syluae & hujus generis alia. I finde thou hast gone over most part of the earthly Globe, which is nothing else but Hills, and Dales, Mountaines, Vallies, Plaines, and Champians, Woods, and Groves, with such like things. Eudoxus wish'd and implor'd the Gods, that he might but have power to go neer the body of the Sun to behold his Beauty, Magnitude, and Matter, and he would willingly be content to be after­wards burnt with the Beames thereof. So many of our Country-men are so greedy of Peregrination, that they will venture upon it though they shorten their lives thereby. Let us heare how Seneca that grave Philosopher, descants upon Peregrination, when he writes thus to Lucilius. Quid per se prodesse Pere­grinatio cuiquam potuit? What hath Peregrination of it selfe profited any man? It hath not bridled lust, attemper'd pleasure, repress'd anger, nor broke the un­ [...]amed violence of love; It hath ro [...]ted no ill out of the minde, it hath not im­prov'd [Page 7] the judgment, nor rectified errour, but it hath detain'd us a while with new Sights, as Boyes are with Rattles: It provokes the inconstancy of the minde, and by tossing it to, and fro, makes it more light and moveable; There­fore men use to be quickly cloy'd with those places they formerly did so much covet; and like Birds, flye away thence almost before they have taken any foot­ing. Peregrination will give you knowledge of Nations, it will shew you new shapes of Mountaines, of Fields, and Meadowes, with the course and nature of some River: As how Nilus swels in the Sommer Solstice, and Tygris is sud­denly snatch'd away from our sight, but passing a little under the Earth reco­vers her former greatnesse: How Meander, which hath afforded the Poets so much matter and sport, is intangled with so many windings, and often-times rushes into her Neighbour before she can recover her selfe, but she growes there­by neither better, nor wiser. Beleive me, my noble Country-men, unlesse this strange itch of forreigne Travell be cured in us, or at least-wise unlesse there be some Lawes and Cautions prescribed to regular Peregrination, that there be bet­ter returns made, our Ancestors Ghosts will rise up against us, and Posterity will bewaile our Incogitancy, and weaknesse too late; for they will hardly be able to finde out among us what were the Primitive manners, the continence, the constancy and nature of a true German.

And now to the task impos'd upon me; but before I buckle my selfe for the businesse, I make it my humble request that those touches I have given of Peregrination, may be understood in a sane sense: It is not out of any dis­like I have of it, for there is no Creature on earth hath a greater esteem thereof, then my selfe, acknowledging it to be the ripest Schoole and principall Acade­my, for the study both of men, and manners; and the World affoords not more gallant Students and Proficients herein, then I finde now before me in this Princely Assembly: but what hath dropt from me, was touching the abuse thereof, as also in order to the method we have propos'd to our selves, to dis­course of things pro & con, and to answer in part to that incomparable Speech of your Highnesse, made in praise of Peregrination.

And now I will enter into the Province I have under-taken, which is high Germany, and for performance of your desires, most Excellent Prince, which are Commands to me, I will compose my voice and tongue accordingly; and at the very first, will unmask my minde unto you in three words: Germania Eu­ropae Princeps, Germany is the Princesse of Europe. And truly never any Opi­nion proceeded more impartially, and more from the Center of my heart, then this: For the maintenance of which Tenet there wants not much Oratory, or any moving perswasions and allurements of words, which the ancient Orators both Greek, and Latine did use, when they delivered their mindes in any doubt­full or desperate matter. The greatest difficulty I finde in this businesse, is out of such a hugh heap of matter to cull out, and put before you the choicest and best peeces: And as Geographers in describing the World, use by little lines to shew the course of mighty Rivers; as Danube, Nile, Ganges, Thames, Tyber, Ta­gus, with others; As also in small points to describe Rome, Constantinople, the gran Cayre, Paris, London, and Ghent, the greatest wall'd Towne in Europe: So will I be as briefe and as punctuall as possibly I can, in setting forth the prai­ses of this mighty Country, and Nation.

But to speak the worst at first, I pray hear what Cornelius Tacitus, the Cri­tique of his times, writes of it; Quis prater periculum horridi & ignoti Maris: Who without the dangers of a doubtfull and unknown Sea would leave Asia, Affrique, or Italy, to seek Germany, an informed peece of earth, a rough clime, a Land unmanured, full of thick horrid Woods, huge Lakes, impatient of fruitfull Trees, yet full of Cattle though small: In stead of Silver Vessells they have them of the same stuff as themselves, of pure earth: They have no Cities, they are given to sleep, sloth, and gluttony, being ignorant of the secrets of Letters; they use Dice among their serious affaires, with so much rashnesse [Page 8] in winning or losing, that at one cast they will hazard their bodies, and liberty. Caes [...]r also saith, that the Germanes hold it a kind of policy to have large vast Wildernesse about them, wherin they permitt Robberies for the exercise of their young men, and avoyding of idlenesse, &c. Such speeches Caesar and Ta­citus give of the Germans; but will you know the reason of it? Because the one in divers conflicts was soundly beaten by them, and the other speaks ignorantly, or partially, because he was an Officer under Vespasian in France, then a little after upon the beginning of Trajans Raign, the Emperour Nerva being newly gone out of the World, a matter of a hundred yeers after the Incarnation he scribbled a Book, De mori [...]u Germanorum, of the manners of the Germans: But Caesar himselfe saw onely the Skirts of the Countrey, whence he was repelld, he never entred into the bowells of the Land, and what he delivers he took up in trust by confused rumors: But if either of these liv'd now, they wold sing another note, they wold stand astonish'd that Germany should have so many florishing Provinces, so many noble and opulent Cities, so many pleasant Vil­lages▪ such fruitfull Orchards, fragrant Gardens, and fart Fields, such Mines of Gold▪ Silver, Lead, Iron, with all other Mettalls, such martiall people so many Universities, so many Archdukes, Princes, Marquises, Landgraves, Earls, Barons, Knights, with a world of Noble Families that can exactly draw their Pedigree thousands of yeeres pass'd: I say, if Caesar or Tacitus liv'd now, they wold be more enlightned, and cry out, We Romans in many things were too credulous in beleeving what was spoken of our Enemies, and in some things we injur'd them to shew our wits, but our owne senses do convince us now, and tell us that Germany is another thing: We were Trojans once, but all our glo­ry hes buried in the dust of our Nephewes and Posterity, having with sloth, idlenesse, and foulnesse of vice, soyld all our Heroik exploits: But the Germans continu still great Heroes both in respect of their own Vertues, and their Proge­n [...]tors. They are still magnanimous, most just, Religious, fortunat, and so bless'd, that there you cannot discover any decay at all in the age of the World. If Virgi [...] were reviv'd, and again upon earth, leaving the barren theme of pray­sing Augustus▪ he wold break out into the admiration of our German Emperour, and having got so rich and divine an Argument to rowse up his Muse, he wold sing,

Ille ego qui quondam gracili modulatus avena
Carmen, & effudi laudes magnae Urbis in Orbem,
Gratum opus Augustis, at nunc horrentia Martis
Arma, Viros (que) cano, Romae quae moenia primi
Aequavere solo, superatis Alpibus, amplos
Et de Fortuna tandem duxer [...] triumphos, &c.

In lieu of the Romanes he would extoll the Germanes, who first ransack'd and ruin'd Rome. But most Princely Auditors, let us not examine as much what our Predecessors did, but how we follow their steps, and how neer [our vigilance, vertue▪ and valour comes to theirs: It is the practise of Providence, and the rule of divine Majesty, not to powr down all his benedictions at once, but to re­serve some of them for future ages. And Homer, as blinde as he was, could dis­cern this, when he sings,


The Gods do not showre down all their blessings at once upon man-kinde. But how mightily have we profitted, what huge advantages have we now of our Fore-fathers? Tis true wee were once without God, because without Christ, as all Gentiles were; but now by his ineffable grace, and immense good­nesse we are his Domestiques, we are coopled and admitted to enjoy the privi­ledges, and rights of Children, of his Chosen; therefore tis fitting that every [Page 9] Christian heart when he falls into the contemplation of this high Prerogative, shold with pious ejaculations cry out, Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus exercituum, plena est omnis terra gl [...]ria ejus, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God of Hosts, all the Earth is full of his glory. Now as there be som Rivers that pre­sently as soon almost as they are derivd from their Fountains encrease and flow with such a force, that they can bear Shipps of burden, and drive Mills; as Bla­vius in this Countrey, and the little Loire in France hard by Orleans, which with­in almost a flight shott from the Source, swells to such a stupendous fulnesse and depth, that ther's a Bridg with diverse arches over her: so the glorious light of the Gospell darted from above did irradiat all Germany as it were in a moment, it dispelld all the clowds of Paganisme, and with its powerfull beams it did melt the hearts of the most frozen and remotest parts with admirable celerity: For presently there were such pious contentions who shold exceed one another in devotion and acts of Charity, that a world of Schooles, Hospitalls, Temples, Monasteries, and Religious Houses were built, and endow'd with plentifull re­venues soon after.

And such was the height and excesse of piety among our Ancestors, that they were forcd to enact Lawes to restrain the disposing of Legacies for Ecclesiasti­call uses: There were som Emperours, and German Princes that bequeathd to the holy Church whole Provinces and Territories; Bishops became equall to Kings, and Prelats fellowes to Princes, and Abbots to Barons, both in autho­rity and dignity, in extern pomp, power, and riches: No Nation hath bin more munificent to the Church of Rome, and no Countrey endowd her own Churches with larger demains: Among others, I will instance in one Abbot and his great­nesse, whereby you may make a conjecture of the rest, and he is the Abbot of Fuldo, who as Lipsius hath it, supplyed the Emperour at one time with three­score thousand fighting men. And for the nomber of Monachicall persons you may make a guesse what a huge nomber ther is of them, when in lower Germany alone ther are seven thousand Nunns.

But as in a most delectable Garden ther are somtimes, beyond the expectation of the Gardiner, Weeds and noxious Herbs that grow up, as Tares among the best Wheat; so where God builds his Church, Satan commonly putts up his Chappell, superstition mingles with devotion, and men grew greedy after inno­vations and changes; such deformities crepd into the German Church, that it might be well termd an Augaean Stable; Purgatory, Exorcismes, Idolatry, In­dulgences, and other things in derogation of the merits of the Messias were in­troduc'd. The Church now required another Hercules to clense her, and shee found one, a true one, not a fabulous one, such as the Poets sing of, who strangled Gyants, killd the Erimanthaean Bore, choakd the two Snakes sent by Iuno, drive away the Stymphalian monstrous Birds, slew Busiris, took Cerberus by the throat, killd the Nemaean Lyon, suppressd the many headed Hydra: But our Hercules did more, for he overthrew Antichrist, and with a Goose Quill did more then Hercules did with his Iron Clubb, and Germany alone was wor­thy of such a Champion; I meane Martin Luther, an Augustin Monk, who, though a man of mean birth and meanes otherwise, observing the exorbitances, [...]nd excesse of Churchmen, and the Marchandise that was made of Indulgences, could indure it no longer, but armd himself to subvert the Babylonish Empire, he rusheth against the Pope, spitts in his face, and hath shaken his Kingdom e­ver since very shrewdly: This happend when the Bishop of Rome was at his highest pitch of power, when it was beleevd that the Pope might dispense with the Writings of the Apostles, and Sanctions of Generall Councells: And this seasonable Champion made such a progresse, that not only whole Townes, Cit­ties, and Provinces, fell from the Roman Church, but Common-wealths and whole Kingdoms abandond Her, and among other Pasquills, this Epigram was compos'd.

Roma Orbem domuit, Romam sibi Papa subegit,
Viribus Illa suis, frau [...]ibus iste tuis.
Quanto isto major Lutherus, major & Illa,
Illum Illamque uno qui domuit Calamo!
I nun [...], Alcidem memorato Graecia mendax,
Lutheri ad Calamum, ferrea clava nihil.

Rome orecame the World, the Pope orecame Rome, Shee by strength, He by cunning; but Luther is greater then either, for with his Pen he subdued both; Let lying Greece bragg no more of her Hercules, the Quill did more atchievments then the Club: The one knockd down the Nemaean Lyon, and the other ill­favouredly knock'd Leo the tenth.

In this large field of matter, if I should hunt for arguments to set forth the glory of Germany, I shold find innumerable; let the testimony of Bodin him­self, who was known to be no freind to Germany, serve for one, when he saith, Nullum illustrius est exemplum, There is not on earth so illustrious an example as that of the Germans, who but diffring little from the wildnesse of Beasts, who wandring as it were in Marshes and Moores, and being averse to all kinde of civility and literature, are becom now such great proficients in both, that in humanity they bee said to surpasse the Asians, in Philosophy the Graecians, in military Discipline the Romans, in geometry the Egyptians, in Astronomy the Chaldaeans, in Arithmetic the Phenicians, in Religion the Hebrews, and in variety of Manufactures all other Nations whatsoever.

Here what Paulus Iovius saith, a man not very well affected otherwise to us; litterae non latinae modo,—not onely the Latine, but the Greek, and Hebrew let­ters have by a fatal comigration pas'd over to Germany; who now being not con­tent with their old way of military Discipline, whereby they took away from Rome her Martiall Glory, invents new ones every day; besides, she may be said to have bereft languishing Greece, and drowsie wanton Italy, not onely of the Ornaments of Peace, but also of Arts and literature: which makes Machiavill rebuke his Country-men, in regard they made use of Germans to survay their Land. It is acknowledg'd by all people that Regiomontanus might be compared to T [...]ales, Eudoxus, Calippus, or Ptolom [...]y himselfe. Nor could the Pope correct the yeer, and bring it from the old Intercalation, for reducing of the Paschall Ceremonies to set courses of the Moon without him, being sent for to Rome of purpose for that end.

It is incredible, since the Councell of Constance, how Schooles and Acade­mies have multiplied in Germany; Witnesse Vienna, Prague, Frankford, Heydelberg, Erford, Basil, Triers, Witeburg, Gripswald, Mentz, R [...]stoch, Regi­omontana, Dillingham, Lovain, Helmstad, Leyden, Franiker, Tubingen, with di­vers other Universities; nor is there any German Gentleman, be he never of so mean extraction, but he hath his Education in one of these, otherwise it will be cast in his teeth as an opprobry. The Emperour Lotharius a Saxon born, when he found the Schooles in a squalid kind of condition, cover'd over with Barba­rism from the time of Charlemain a German born, he caus [...]d the dust to be swept off, and restor'd them to their former lustre, with restauration of publique Lectures, and Chaires for all Sciences, which did so augment the nomber of knowing men, that in one University alone there were 4435. that had the Ma­gisteriall Laurell given them within the compasse of a few yeers. Besides these Academies there be divers Monasteries that have Schooles to train up youth, as amongst the rest I will instance in the Abbacy of Fuldo, where 600. Gentle­mens Sons in Sturmius his time were bred, and 30. Doctors reading to them in one yeer. What do I speak of Noble men? there are soverain Princes which daily becom graduats in one Academy or other. Iohn, Duke of Megalopolis would not return to the Government of his Country, till he had studied 20. [Page 11] yeers in Paris. Harman Prince of Hassia took the degrees of Mastership in Pra­gue, and was congratulated by the Emperour himselfe, and the chiefest Nobles of the Kingdome of Boh [...]miah. Richwinces Duke of Lorain did the like: Al­bert Count of [...] took the degree of Doctor of the civill Law, with others; [...]ut the examples of the Duke of Geldres is admirable. A [...]nold and William were Brothers, whereof the one was learned, the other illiterat; The one was in favour with the Pope, and all other Princes, the other was neglect­ed for his ignorance: which disgrace least it might be transmitted to his Poste­rity, William his Brother, sent his Sons to be educated in Paris, whence they return'd not till they were both Masters of Art. Albert the 6th. Duke of Ba­varia, the Founder of Ingolstad University, did dignifie Learning with so much honor, that he himselfe took the degree of Batchillor of Arts, and publiquely woare the formalities of the order up and down the Streets. But what shall we say, Charlemagne our Compatriot, whereof Sigebert a French Author writes, that Charlemagne was not onely excellently vers'd in his own maternall Toung, but in other [...]orreigne Languages; He put old barbarous Verses which spoak of the Acts of Kings in a more refined stile; he also caus'd the Grammar to be rendred in the vulgar Toung: He commanded Teutonique, or German names to be impos'd upon the months of the yeer, as also all the winds which he divided to twelv, being afore but fower. He us'd to be present at School-exercises, en­courag [...]d the Commons to learning, and threatned a degradation to Noble men that were illiterat. What shall I say of Otho the second, who being overcom in Greece, and left alone, escaped because he spoak Greek so well. Frederique the second was excellently vers'd in sundry Languages, and caus'd Aristotles works to be translated out of Greek, and Arabique into the common Toung. Charles the fourth fed the Imperiall Eagle in the Muses Garden, and made a firm League twixt Mercury and Mars. Charles the fifth had Thu [...]idides alwaies with him as his Companion in the field: He much favour [...]d Doctor Seldius, who after he had voluntarily resign'd the Empire to his Brother, and the rest of his Domi­mon to his Son, was his individuall Companion, and attending him to Flushing where he was to embark for Spain; and the Emperour discoursing with him very late at night he at last toll'd a little Bell to call up some of his Servants, who were all asleep, whereupon he lighted down the Doctor himselfe, saying, now Seldius forget not this, that Caesar, Charles the first, who was used to be guarded with whole Armies, hath not now a Servant to wayt on him, and he who thou hast attended so ma­ny yeers, doth now serve thee, and light thee down. How many most signall, and glorious men hath Germany produc [...]d? as Adrian the 4th. Io. Brentius, Coch­laeus, Staupicius, Philip Melancthon, Zuinglius, Osiander, Car [...]lestadius, Oecolam­ [...], Cassander, Bucer, Grynaeus, Fagius, Wigandus, Bullinger, Mathesius, [...], Mentzerus, Winckellman, Gretzer, Becanus, Tannerus, Ursinus, H [...]nnius, Hondius, Gerlachius, Paraeus, Musculus, Hutterus, Lessius, Back­meisterus, Mylius, Drexelius, Biderman, Balduin, Sigwardus, Meisnerus, Gerar­dus, Finkius, Pappus, Pelargus, Scultetus, Pitiscus, Simlerus, Flaccus, Illiri­cus, Thummius, and the Excellent Hafenriffus; all these were renowned Di­vines, whose Works are extant, with divers more. Now for Polititians, and Ci­vilians, their nomber is endlesse. There is Baron Skenckins, Heimburgius, Hen­ningus, G [...]eden, Strenius Baro, Enenchelius Baro, Camerarius, Zasius, Zuiclemus, Everardus, Marnixius, Haloander, Mudaeus, Oldendorpius, Pistores, Welserus, Leunclavius, who having bin employ'd Ambassador to the Post to Osman, the great Turk, by the Emperour Rodolphus, did compile the Annals of the Mahu­metans, and all the Historie of the Orientall World. There are moreover Iustus Lipsius, Freherus, Iunius, Reusnerus, Besoldus, Wackerius, Bocerus, Rulandus, Godelmannus, Lechmannus, Fabrus, Herwartus, and multitudes more, whose Works are extant for the universall good of man-kind.

For Physick, there is Vesalius, Copus, Crato, Hadrianns Iunius, Guinterius, Langius, Tragus, Dodonaeus, Vierus, Zuingerus, Sceckius, Planerus, Peucerus, [Page 12] Tragus, Horstius, Sennertus, Pistorius, Philippus, Theophrastus; and abun­dance more of most renowned men.

For Philosophy and Philologie, who by profound speculation of divine and humane things, and a curious indagation of the hiddenst Closets of Nature, have expos'd to the world many mysterious Rarities: There is in the first place Albertus Magnus, Agricola, Trithemius, Reuclinus, Nauclerus, Pircklei­merus, Erasmus Roterodamus, whose wit Longolius preferrs before all the wealth of France. Rhenanus, Huttenus, Celtenus, who was first that was Crown'd Poet Laureat by the Emperour Frederique the 4th. own hands. There is Cranzius, Aventinus, Cuspinianus, Sleidanus, Lazius, Surius, Golzius, Gruterus, Clennar­dus, Carion, Scioppius, Kirkmannus, G. Agricola, who digg'd deeper into the bowels of the Earth for the knowledge of Mettals more then any one. Add here­unto Cranter, Sturmius, Gesner, Xylander, Buxtorfius, B. Keckerman, Bau­dius, Heinsius, Dousa, Taubmannus, Melissus, Calaminus, Meursius, Crusius, Frisklinus, Sibcros, Sabinus, Glareanus, Stigelius, and a great many more, who have transmitted their Names to immortality by printed Monuments.

For Mathematicians there is no Country hath produc'd rarer men; witnesse Mullerus, Regiomontanus the Son of Trapezuntius, whom after the correction of the Kalender, the Greeks out of envie, because he was superiour to them in knowledg found a trick to poyson. Let Purbachius be added hereunto, who first reviv'd the study of the Stars under this clyme: St [...]fflerus, Copernicus, Mestlitus, Braheus, Keppler, Clavius, whom Scaliger so much esteem'd, that he said, he had rather be corrected by him, then commended by others. There is Stadius, Reinholdus, Schonerus, both the Appians, Gemma Frisius, Vadianus, Dyander, Stevinus, Mercator, Ortelius, Peutingerus, Dasypodius, Merula, Cluverus, Munsterus; and many more.

For Musitions, ther have bin Orlandus Lassus, Hasleros, Lechnerus, Praetori­us, with others. But oh, immortall God! besides these me-thinks I see before me an Host of rare renowned Authors, who have contributed infinitely to the Common-wealth of Learning, as if the Muses had taken up the chiefest mansion in Germany; what a world of Books and Libraries are up and down? Insomuch, that Book-Merchants drive a greater Trade in our Marts then any wher else; therefore those Verses of Horace may well be applied unto us.

Venimus ad summum Fortunae, pingimus, atque
Psallimus, & luctamur Achivis doctius unctis.

Avant hence then those base Calumniators, and Forgers of lies and scandals, and if they have any tincture of shame left, let them away to Utopia, and there belch out their Venom, specially that opprobrious Saying, that I Tedischi hanno l'ingegno nelle mani, The Germans have their wit in their hands; as if they had none in their brain. How can this be aver'd by any that hath the least spark of Ingenuity and truth in him; considering that I have already musterd up so ma­ny Heros in all knowledg, as well in Theologie, as in Civill Policy, in Physic, in History, in the Mathematiques, in Philosophie, Philologie, with all other kind of knowledg, as well morall as naturall; So that Germany may be without de­rogation to any other Country be call'd the Gran Schoole and Academy of all Knowledg.

But most Illustrious Princes, because by our Adversaries own confessions we have such ingenious hands, let us search a little into the ground of this Saying. The first Broachers of it were the Italians, who were well known to be a cun­ning acute Peeple, yet they give us the priority almost in every thing; there passeth never a yeer but they send out of Germany for Architects, Statuaries, Limmers, Painters, Surveyors, Aqueduct makers. Aeneas Silvius had all his Artificers hence: France also makes the same use of our men, for the best Ta­pistry, Hangings, and Household-stuff, with Tables, Chaires, curious Glasse [Page 13] which are fetcht away hence. Norimberg is admired all the Earth over for her rare industry, and inventive faculty: The Goldsmiths of Auspurg are cryed up in every corner for Bracelets, Rings, Chaines, Necklaces, and other Curi­osities, which are carried every where abroad, from the rising to the setting Sun. Nor doth Norimburg and Auspurg excell only, but every Citty in Germany abounds with exquisit Opificers, though som Townes do apply themselfs to one thing more then another. In Friburg they have an art to polish Christall, and make Vessells and curious Cupps therof: Other Townes are dextrous in making Muskets, Archibuses, and Pistolls: Ulms excells in Drapery and wea­ving of Cloth, whereof she vents an incredible quantity: Other places excell in making of Pewter, Tinn, Brasse, and Copper Vessells; som in casting of Canons, som in making of all kind of Pikes, som in exquisit sorts of dying, som in painting of Glasse, som in framing of all kind of earthen Potts, som in devising new sorts of Waggons: But he who desires to see a Compendium of the Manuall subtilties of the German, let him beg leave to go to Dresden in Saxony, or to Stutgard in Wirtemberg, or to Munchen in Bavaria, and ther he may take a surfet of beholding thousands of rarities, and feed his eyes with new objects a whole twelvmonth together.

Now what we have already spoken of high Germany, may be as well sayed of the lower, who is little inferior herein to the higher, whom Thuanus avouch­eth to abound with Artificers more then any part of the earth in so narrow a compas. It is upon record in story, that iu the yeer one thousand three hun­dred and thirty, ther were in Lovain alone, four thousand Weavers Loomes, every Workhouse employing thirty or forty persons to prepare the Wooll, to spinn and card it; so that by this computation ther must have bin an hundred and sixty thousand soules at least did eat their bread upon this sole Manufacture. And what credit the English Cloth hath now gaind, may be attributed to the Lovanians, and other Low-Countrey Opificers, who brought whole Colonies into great Britain, and made that Nation such able Workmen in this kind of comodity, who were given altogether before to Agriculture and grasing of Cattle: for the fury of the Duke of Alva drive many Families of Flemins thi­ther, where they peepled many Townes which were very thin of Inhabitauts before, as Norwich, Colchester, Maidston, Sandwich, Canterbury, Hampton, and others, teaching them the art of making Bayes and Serges, with other such like woollen Manufactures; yet the Belgians still florishd by this industry, and the Drapers of Wooll began to lessen among them; ther was a compensation made by making Linnen cloth, wherin they are so exquisit, and herin the Ba­tavians or Hollanders bear the Bell, who are arrivd to that perfection of making fine Cambricks, and other Cloth, that Holland hath given the name to the thing it self, which is commonly calld Holland; and their dexterity is such herin, that their Loomes may be compard to Arachnes webb for finenesse, as if they were woven by Pallas her own hand; for they may be sayd to equall the Snow in whitenesse, Lawne in thinnesse, Silke in softnesse and value: Cambray is al­so famous for this, and growes rich from what it was beyond beliefe: For Thuanus reports there are 30000. Clothes made in that Town alone every yeer, which at four pound Sterling a peece come to a vast Somme. Flanders also excels in woven Pictures, specially Holst, and Oudenard, fit for the Pomp of Princes; I know the Ancients have been Admirable for the Needle, the Phrixian Gownes, the Istrian Cadowes, the Attalicall Hangings, and the Babylonian Cutwork were very famous, according to that of Martiall.

Non ego praetulerim Babylonica picta, superbé
Texta Semiran it quae variantur acu.

But all that Curiosity by a kind of transmigration is remov'd to Germany: The thing exceeds faith, no Colour is wanting here, think upon what you will; [Page 14] The Peacock is not adorn'd by nature with more gay colour'd Feathers, then Art makes Tapistry here to delight the Optiques with such changable and vari­ous Objects, insomuch that no Nation exceeds them herein, or produceth more inventive Spirits. Among others the Quintins, the Florians, the Brugelians, the Clerians, the Brillians, the Mabuseans, the Mores, the Schoorelians, the Hemskirkians, the Pourbusians, the Barensians, the Winghians, the Hofnalians, are most famous, specially Iohn Eckius, who first found out the way of mingling Oyle with Colours; And Albert Durer of Norimberg came to a wonderfull height of perfection herein, which extorted a confession from the Italians them­selves, who using his name in vaine, would father their workes upon him to make them more vendible.

And now let all those Limmers, and Painters who have gain'd immortality by their rare peeces, come and appeare; let Apelles, Zeuxis, Protogenes, Parrha­sius, and the Theban Aristides com; let the most renowned Architects appeer, let Ctesiphon Gnosius, who erected the Ephesian Temple to the honour of Diana, let Dinocrates, who trac'd Alexandria: let Philo the famous Athenian com, let all the choicest Sculpters, Leochares, Alcamenes, Briaxis, Scopus, Pythis com; let the most celebrous Statuaries appeer, as Polycletus, Praxiteles, Ctesias, Ly­sippus: Let the ablest Artificers and Opificers the World ever affoorded appeer, and they shall find that Germany hath their equals, and as great Masters as they in every thing. But they will be transported with wonder, when they meet our Albertus Magnus, who made a Statue so neer the life, that by the motion of certain wheels and ginns, latent within, made the tongue move & prolate articu­lar sounds; which Statue, when Albertus had got Tho: Aquinas the Angelicall Doctor into a Chamber where it was, and making it speak with an audible voice, Aquinas being suddenly surpriz'd with amazement, struck it with a stick and broak it, whereupon Albertus in as great amazement, sayed; Ah Thomas! what hast thou done? Thou hast destroyed in a moment the work of thirty yeers. Could any of these old Artists make an Eagle of wood, such a one as Regiomon­tanus, upon the Emperours entrance into Norimberg, making her to flye in the Air, and welcome him to Town.

But these are triviall things, most Illustrious Auditors, they are Stars of the least magnitude, in comparison of others that shine in this Firmament: What think you of the invention of Gunns, and Printing, the first for Mars, the last for Mercury; two mighty things worthy of German Inventors, whereby Armes and Arts are so much advantag'd.

The Bow, the sling, the Roman Ramms, the Scorpions, and Engines of Bat­tery, were nothing compard to the Canon which doth such Execution, and de­stroyes men, and horses at such a distance: If any thing can compare with Thun­der, tis the sound of a Culverin, in noise and terriblenesse: Witnesse when at the three yeers Siege of Osten, the report of the Canon was heard at Lovain; and when the Duke of Guyse surpriz'd and took Calis from the English, the noise of the great Gunns reach'd as far as Antwerp, having the wind favourable for its transport; which made Scaliger say, Pace tua dicam, Iupiter, fulmina nostra sunt terribiliora tuis; Age, coge nubes ut tonare queas, nos etiam te tran­quillo iratum Regnum tuum faciemus. By your good leave, oh, Iove! our Thunder-bolts are more terrible then yours; Go gather Clouds, that you may thunder and teare the Air, when you are quiet, we also can make your Kingdom angry: And Berchtoldus Scharwarzius was the first Inventor of this Miracle, a Franciscan Philosoper.

But the finder out of Typography, or Printing was a German Knight, Iohn Guttenberg of Mentz, though Winphelingus sayeth, he projected it first at Stras­burg, and perfected it in Mentz: The greatest advantage that ever the Com­mon-wealth of Learning receav'd, which made Beroaldus the Italian break out into a kind of admiration, and this lyric Verse.

O Germania muneris Repertrix
Quo nil utilius dedit vetustas;
Libros scribere quae doces premendo.

What a toyl it was to exscribe Authors before, and preserve them from the injury of time? What a care the Emperour took to keep Tacitus, commanding him to be written out ten times every yeer; yet this Golden Author had been like to perish, had he not been found in Corbe Monastery in Westphalia, whence after many ages silence Tacitus was brought to speak again: Besides the neg­ligence of Scribes in former times used to fill the Books with errors, as Cicero witnesseth in his time, Viz. That Latin books were so falsly written in his time, and adulterated, that he knew not what to do; whereupon Christian Authors thought it fitting that Booksellers shold be sworn to divulge none but tru ex­amind Coppies, which made Irenaeus in the end of his Worke to adjure the Transcriber by the name of Christ, and the dreadfull day of Judgment, that all coppies therof shold be examind and made concordant with the Originall. Ty­pography may be sayed to cast a Bridle in Times mouth, that he may not devoure so much, and bring things under the yoke of mortality: Typography may be calld Ars memoriae, & mors oblivionis, the art of memory, and death of Obli­vion: Ther is no Epithet or Elogium adaequat to the worth of Typography, it deserves such attributs as Philon the Physition gives to his compositions, cal­ling them Manus Dei, or as others call theirs, Manus Christi, Apostolicon, gra­tiam Dei, Catholicon, Antidotum Paulinum, and such Divine Epithets: For the Christian World owes more to Frobenius, and Oporinus of Basile, to Plan­tine of Antwerp, to Aldus Manutius of Venice, to Robert and Henry Stepha­nus of Paris and Geneva, which have so much promoted all kind of Sciences in such durable Characters; I say the Christian World owes more to these Men, then to the greatest Captains and Warriers who have enlargd the bounds of their Countrey: And I hope it will not be fastidious to you, most Noble Audi­tors, if I recite unto you an Epigram in praise of Aldus Manutius, made by Beza.

Didonis cecinit rogum disertus
Maro, Pompeij rogum Lucanus;
Et discite adeo hoc uterque fecit,
Ut nunc vivere judicetur Illa,
Nec jam mortuus hic putetur esse.
Imo sunt redivivi & Hic & Illa;
Ergo credere [...]as erit poetas
Divos, utpote qui loquendo possint
Vitam reddere mortuis, quod ipsis
Est Divis proprium & peculiare.
Quod si fas credere Deos poetas,
Vitam reddere quod queant sublatam;
Quanto est justius aequiusque, quaeso,
Aldum Manutium Deum vocare,
Ipsis qui potuit suo labore
Vitam reddere mortuis poetis?

Virgil sung on Dido's Hearse, and Lucan on Pompeys, and they did it so well, that neither Shee nor Hee may be sayd to be dead, but both do daily revive: Therfore Poets may be termd Gods in one sense, because they can give life unto the dead, which is proper and peculiar to the Gods: But if Poets may be taken for Gods, because they can restore life, how much more just and equitable is it to call Aidus Manutius a God, who could by his labour give life to so many Divine Poets?

[Page 16]If therfore Typography may be calld a Goddesse, because she restores vertuous men to life, may not the Germans who got Her, be termd Gods: These are the two great beneffits which Germany hath communicated to the World, and made therby a way to Peace and recovering of right, to vertu, and all kind of learning, to Religion, to Heaven, and Christ himselfe: Boterus doth also at­tribut to us the first Invention of Wheel Clocks, wherby the courses and re­courses of Time and the Starrs are distinguished, when he saith, I Tedeschi sono stati Inventori della stampa, dell' Artiglieria, et dell' Horologio a ruota, cose no­bilissime. The Germans have bin the Inventors of Printing, of Artillery, and Wheeld Clocks, three most noble things. I will relate here what Scaliger writes of all three, By the Canon we imitate Ioves anger, by the Presse we make men im­mortall, and by Dialls and Wheel Clocks we are made companions with time, and go still along with him.

This noble Continent of Germany was once Townlesse, and without Citties, but now I pray what part of the habitable Earth hath more? Your Duchy of Wirtemberg alone, most excellend Prince, hath threescore, Holland in a small circuit of ground comprehends three and thirty Cities, Gorchon Tower will shew you two and twenty. Utrecht stands betwixt fifty Citties, wher of the remotest is but one dayes jorney distant. Now high Germany is so thick with Citties, that they may be sayed to shake one another by the hand, and all of them are most beutifull, both for amaenity of soyl, for firmenesse of structure, for state­linesse of Palaces, for delicacy of Fountaines, for curiosity of Walks, for clean­linesse of wayes, for comodity of Rivers, for Stadshouses, for Monasteries, Chappells, and Churches.

Can ther be a better fortified place then Vienna, for which tis tru we are be­holden to an English King: can ther be neater Citties then Harlam (who also arrogats to her self the first Invention of Printing) then Amsterdam, then Strasburg, then Brunswick, then Ingolstadt, then Dresden, then Lubec, then Hamburgh, then Breme, then Magdenburg (the Metropolis of Germany) then Antwerp? Can ther be more pleasant Townes then Auspurg, Leipsic, Bern, Noremberg, Lunsburg, Saltzburg, Basil, Leiden, and Bruges? Can ther be greater Townes then Ghent, Prage, Erford, Lovain, and Colen? With o­ther wherof ther might be made a farr larger Catalog; in diverse of these the Cit­tizens houses look like the Palaces of Princes. Srabo writes that the Romans went beyond the Greeks in purity of Citties; and Boterus an Italian confesseth the Germans to surpasse his Countreymen herin, Hora I Tedeschi accanzano di gran lunga I Romani: The character which Charles the Emperour gave one of Flo­rence in Toscany, being ravished with her bewty, Viz. That Florence was a Cit­ty to be seen upon Festivalls, and Holydays; the same may be sayed of many of the German Citties; Behold Antwerp, a place situated upon a faire navigable sweet River, a spacious Plain, which streets and structures, for order and sym­metry, for high, strong, and spacious Walls, whereon three or fower Coches may go abrest, for wayes, prospects, and an universall kind of Elegancy, ther is not any can surpasse Her: if one observe all the members of her body with an unpassionat judgment, I know he will give his suffrage with me: Let Scaliger, a branch of a German stemm, be one of Her Judges in this Hexastic, making the Citty her self by way of Prosopopoeia, speak:

Oppida quot spectant oculo me torva sinistro,
Tot nos Invidiae pallida tela petunt:
Lugdunum omnigenum est, operosa Lutetia, Roma
Ingens, Res Venetum vasta, Tolosa potens,
Omnimodae merces, Artes priscaeque novaeque:
Quorum insunt alijs singula, cuncta mihi.

Add herunto that incomparable Cittadell, built according to the tru rules [Page 17] of Enginry, and this slately Plain like a Campus Martius which lyeth twixt Her and it. Now if a man shold go to particulars, and observe the greatnesse of Ulm Temple in Suevia, the bewty of Freidenstad Church in Wirtemberg, the magnificence of the Jesuitts Colledg in Bavaria, the neatnesse of Halberstadt Church▪ the Mount Olivet in Spire, the Armory of Dresden, the Suburbs and Gardens of Stutgard, the Tower of Strasburg, which is computed to be five hundred seventy four foot high, with innumerable other singularities; I say, if a judicious spectator shold survay all these, he will acknowledg Germany to be inferior to no Countrey upon the Earth.

Therfore what Tacitus writes of Germany, was taken up in trust, and from imperfect hearsayes; nor must we take all the narrations of the Ancients for Gospell, or Articles of Faith. What false things have they delivered of the Countrey which l [...]eth under the torrid Zone, whom they made so parching and scorching, that it was inhabitable? Yet 'tis now found by experience, and the travells of Spaniards, English, Hollanders, French, and others, that it is a temperat clime, that one need not throw off his Cloke for immoderat heat, nor keep it on for cold: Indeed Ioseph Acosta sayeth, That at the Vernall E­quinoctiall he found himself so cold that he went to the Sunshine to get heat by aprication: What Aristotle and many others write of the Swan, that shee sings her own dirge before her death, we find to be false; sundry other things the old Wisards deliver for truth, which our experience find to be false, ther­fore we must not give credit to all that Tacitus writes, whom Budaeus stiles the wickedst of all Writers; Tertullian calls him lyingst, and Orosius the flatteringst; what a simple grosse error was that in him to derive the Etymologie of the Jewes (Iudaei) from the Mountain Ida in Crete? But the Epithetts that were given him were a little too bitter, for I must confesse with Lipsius, that he may be well rankd among the prudentst and soundest of all the Roman Historians; but ther's no Pomgranet but may have som rotten grains: Now put the case that Barbarisme did once cover the face of this Countrey (as it did all other at first) how marvellously is it civilizd since? Open the Windowes and look a­bout, and where will you now find such uncouth Fenns, and horrid Woods as Tacitus speaks of: 'Tis tru that the Her [...]ynian Forest might be once nine daies jorney broad, and whose beginning after sixty dayes travell none could find, as Caesar reports, but now tis otherwise, for it may be easily survayd; and all other places are cultivated and made commodious for mans use: This most no­ble Duchie of Wirtemberg may be calld the marrow of Germany; Alsatia, and those Territories upon the Rhin, may be termd the Garden of Germany; West­phalia, Hassia, Saxony, Bavaria, Sil [...]sia, Thuringia, and Misnia, may be calld the Granaries of Germany: Franconia, Silesia, Thuringia, and Tirol, the Pan­try of Germany: Styria and Austria, what are they but a kind of Paradis? What is all Germany but a Pandora's Box? Ther is no kind of ground, whither sandy, fenny, or rocky, but is made usefull som way or other; among other places [...] will instance in Holland, which though by her low situation she be no­thing else but a Moore or Marsh, I pray what character Ioseph Scaliger gives of her, who sings thus to Dousa.

Ignorata tuae referam miracula Terrae,
Dousa, peregrinis non habitura fidem.
Omnia Lanicium hic lassat textrina Minerva,
Lanigeros tamen heic scimus abesse greges.
Non ca [...]iunt operas fabriles oppida vestra,
Nulla fabris tamen heic ligna ministrat h [...]mus.
Horrea triticeae rumpunt heic frugis acervi,
Pascuus heic tamen est, non Cerealis Ager.
Heic numerosa meri stipantur dolia cellis,
Quae vineta colat nulla putator habet.
[Page 18]Heic nulla, aut certé seges est rarissima lini,
Linifici tamen est copia major ubi?
Heic medijs habitamus aquis, quis credere posset?
Et tamen heic nullae, Dousa, bibuntur aquae.

Both Italy, and hungry Spain with divers other Countries, tast often of the fatnesse of Germany. Tis well known that som yeers since, the City of Rome being reduc'd to such extremity, that all the Jews and Courtisans being com­manded out of the City, eight ounces of bread was allow'd to every mouth, but the Hansiatique Townes fetching a huge compas by Hercules Pillars, kept them from starving by a Fleet of Corn Ships which they sent into the Tyber; And the Pope did gratifie the first bringer in of the newes with a thousand Ducates.

Among other places, let Bern in Swizzerland shew the fertility of Germany, which though it be inferior far to Wirtemberg and Alsatia, yet is it compard to the great Plain about Milan, which is accounted one of the best corn Countries in Italy: According to the Proverb, Berna & il Bernese, vale Milano, & il Mi­lanese. And for Wine, Germany hath divers most generous sorts of her selfe, which are carried to England, Poland, Moscovie, and other Regions. What's more delicat then that of the Rhine? What Wine's more pure then that of the Nec­car! what's stronger then that of Franconia? what's sweeter then that of Au­stria? And so excellent are the German Wines, that Bacchus himselfe it seemes desired to be worshipped here, more then any where els; As appeers by an Altar that was erected to him in the lower Palatinat, call'd Bacchara, where the choicest Grape growes. Now the plenty of Wines seem to contend with their plesantnes: Augustus Caesar delighted more in German Wine, then in a­ny, so did Tiberius; Charles the 4th. drunk no other then Backragg, and divers Emperours have preferr'd the Franconian Wines before the Falernian: And t'will strike a wonder in any man, to see what a world of huge butts ther are in Wrisburg, call'd Herbipolis of old, and dedicated to Diana, where she had a sumptuous Fane. Go to Stutgard, and there you will find a Proverb among them, that they have more Wine then water; Insomuch that the Wines of Stut­gard, besides their own Provision, may affoord the value of 100000. rose Nobles in Marchandize. But if you travell upon a wooden Horse upon the Danube, what a world of Vineyards may you behold about Vienna, which though the Countrey was not com to that perfection of industry as it is now, nor the City half so much peepled, yet Aeneas Sylvius, neer upon 200. yeers since speaks of her thus.

It is incredible what a world of Provision is thrust into Vienna every day; what a company of Carts come in laden with Eggs and Crabfish, with bread, with fish with Volatills tame and wild, yet in the Evening you shall find nothing in the Market. The Vintage lasts here a matter of forty daies, there's not a day pas­seth but there are 300. Carts employ'd laden with Wine, and some laden twice or thrice; There are above a thousand Horses us'd in the Vineyards; their Caves are of that depth, and so spacious, that the Subterranean places may compare with those above ground, and such an exuberance of Wine ther is in som places of Germany, that they will exchange a butt of Wine for one of water; nay, they use in som Towns to mingle Wine with their Morter, and macerat their Lime with it.

If you go to other drinks in Germany, you will find Sr. Iohn Barly-corn as well as Bacchus to be there in his Kingdom. Nay, in som places he may compare for strength with Bacchus himself; witnesse the powerfull beer of Rostock, of Bruns­wik, of Breslaw, of Danzik, of Delph, and Paderborn. The like may be sayed of Mede, which surpasseth Candy wine in sweetnesse. And for beer the World knowes what a Medicinall vertu Lubecks beer hath to heal bruises, and other distempers. What shall I speak of the Austrian Saffron? of the Frankincense and Myrrh of Moravia, of the Licorish of Franconia, of the Mader for Diers [Page 19] in Silesia! of the Ambar of Thuringia! all which are accounted the best in that kind that can be found any where.

For all other commodities either for pleasure, profit or necessity, what doth Germany want? what delightfull Orchards are there, what large fields of Graine, what a World of Cattle; where can you finde Cowes that will yeeld twelve quarts of milk every day as in Holland; where can you find better Cheese? where can you find such Bacon as in Westphalia; a Gamon whereof is accounted so rare, that in feasts it is served up last after all the fine courses of Fowle and Fruit. Heare what Guicciardin spoak in his times of Holland, that in Cheese and Butter, shee did vent every yeare above a million: and what shall we think shee does now, that her Trade is com to such a portentous encrease; some think that the benefit shee makes of Milk may compare with Bourdeaeux Wines, or the spices of Portugall.

Touching other animalls, and Horses especially, Germany yeelds to no other Countrey, either for all kind of labours, as also for service in Warre, as France knowes well, who is furnish'd hence: what horse can carry a Cuirassier more stout­ly then a Frislander; what famous Marts are in Germany for Horses! what choice breed! I will instance but only in one Prince of Holsteyn, a Kinsman of ours, who at one time had above a thousand Mares for breed, and above one hundred choice Stallions.

Now will I go to the shores of Prussia, Pomerland and Livonia, to gather Gum; and Lord what abundance of it is found there! a curious kind of Aromatique Am­bar, which tricles down from the Firre Trees, whereof there are such huge Forrests, which serves for Marchandize all the World over.

Now for Noblenesse of Rivers; what Countrey is comparable to Germany! We have the Danube acknowledg'd by all to be King of Rivers.

Qui centum populos et magnas alluit Urbes.

Shee waters a hundred severall people; with many mighty Citties; The Rhin is ours, The Elve is ours, the Main, the Mossell, the Skeld, the Vistula with ten great Navigable Rivers are ours; which for Fish and freighting of comodities and conveyance of them from place to place run very conveniently; Guicciardin in his time made a supputation that the Fishing of the Low Countries alone came to above two millions a year. Now in High Germany there are some Fish, who of themselves are so savoury and sweet that they need no sawce: and in Prague he is held to have but a very dull tast who useth any sawce with some sorts of fish. Now for salt pits, what numbers are there in Luneburg, in Saxony, in Suabland, Austria, and other places? What variety of Baths and Medicinall waters have wee? whose virtue proceeds from Mineralls, whereof there are such plenty; What curious Marble is dig'd up in Limburg, and Namur! you have there Marble of all colours, white, black, red, gray, which may vie with Crystall for lustre and brightnesse. Germany hath her Mines also of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Tinne and Iron; The German Dollars furnishd all the Mints of Europe, before the Mines of Mexico and Potosi were discovered in America. And it is wonderfull how the plenty of Gold and Silver is encreasd in Germany these two last ages which hath enhancd the price of all things. Yet the Helvetians scarce made any use, or had any esteem of Gold and Silver, till they gave that fatall over-throw to Charles the Hardy nere Granson, where they carried away their Cap-fulls of Gold and Silver, which since is extremely multiplyed amongst them by the salary the Kings of France have given them both for their atten­dance about his person, by way of garde as also for their service in the Warre a­gainst the House of Austria; The Swisse herby being come to the apprehension of the value of Gold and Silver, with other Nations have mightily approvd their stock since that time. In so much that they provd often very usefull to France and other people in great sommes of money. And as Germany abounds thus with Gold and Silver, so the bowels of her earth is also full of Mettalls in divers places; Tirol above other Provinces of Europe hath plenty of Mettalls: [Page 20] the Elve, Edera with other Rivers afford Gold; Corbachi in Westphalia hath also som, Steinheid in Franconia and other places. Cellerfiela in Saxonie hath Mines of Silver, as also Friburg, Marieburg, Anneberg, and Sneberg; Ioachims vale, Cotteberg and other Soyles in Bohemia have much Silver. Schonback also, and Beraun in Bohemia hath quantity of quick-Silver. Melibot and Carpat a­bound with Copper. Aldeberg and Irberesdort in Misena, likewise have great store of white Lead, and the Mountaine Ramel in Saxony hath black, and Ash­colour Lead: There are innumerable places where Iron is found, the best in Sorland, Gishubel, and Lavestein. In this affluence of all earthly commodities, Germany hath often relievd her Neighbours, and supplyed them with necessa­ries according to the rule of Charity, the Germans being observd to be least gi­ven to the base vice of covetousnesse, They have been hospitable in the highèst degree, making no difference twixt Native and stranger herin, as Tacitus himselfe confesseth; And to this in most places we retain that Primitive Vertue.

But because by giving still, and not receiving, the [...] might draw scar­city upon her self, therefore the mystery of Marchandizing was found out, and permitted to be exercisd by way of Commutative Justice, for bartering Commo­dities by way of Exchange, or else by taking reasonable prices for them▪ In so much, that any under the degree of a Gentleman might export superfluous Wares out of Germany, and make a return of others in their steed, which custom tended both to publique and private benefit, and nombers hereby have raysd their families to be great and rich. And as high Germany is full of such gallant Marchants, so the lower Germans exceed all other in the feat and my­stery of comerce, where Women as well as men do exercise the trade, and beat bargaines in their Husbands absence▪ And the advantagious situation of their Countrey seems to invite them hereunto. And if any doubt this, let him look upon the multitude of Shipps that lye in every Port, so that take bottoms of all sorts, they have more that sayle upon salt water then all Christendom besides: witnes els that nomber which the King of Denmark did stay of theirs at one time in the Baltique Sea, which were 600 for offring an affront to his Ambassadors. In Amsterdam alone ther go in and out as many Vessells of all sorts one day with another as there be dayes in the yeare, either for England, Scotland, France, Spain, Italy, Turky, Egypt, Norway, Russia, and the East or West Indies. What a thing was Antwerp before the revolt of the Low Countries? ther usd to be more Mercantile businesses transacted there in one month, then a whole yeer in Venice, ther being no lesse then 300 families of Spaniards there at one time, besides other Nations; she erected the first Burse in Christendom, where twice a day many thousand negociators use to meet, and upon the River of Skeld before the Citty two thousand five hundred Vessells have rid at anchor at one time, one tide bringing in sometimes four hundred sayles, and two hundred Waggons going out and coming in. Nor do we include in this nomber, the Countrey Car­men, which were reckond in one week to have been ten thousand: So that by this vicissitude, and perpetuall exercise of Comerce, five hundred millions of Crownes were computed to have been received and payed by buying and selling at home and abroad upon the account of this sole Citty. And when the Spani­ards fell one time to pillage that City, the booty they made was estimated at two millions of Crowns: I do not put in this account the plate and Jewells they took, nor the brave houses which were burnt: The common Gregarian Souldiers were so much enrichd hereby, that it was observd, one of them lost in one day neer up­on ten thousand Crowns in the exchange, where publique tables were erected of purpose for gaming. They made hilts for their Swords, and Daggers som of massy Gold, som of Silver, yea Corslets and Helmets were made of the same mettall; but because they would not have it discovered when they went out of Town, they causd them to be varnishd over with some other colour; but therein the Artificers and Gold Smiths were too hard for them, for they mingled cop­per with the Gold, and Tin with the Silver, whereby they redeemed som of [Page 21] their Wealth again from Free-booters. Yet Negotiation did not quite depart from this glorious City, but she flourisht awhile afterward in the midst of the fu­ries of Mars; Insomuch, that at one time ther were a great many valued at mil­lions of Crownes a peece, and some worth three millions, some more. But I will make a step hence to high Germany; how many famous Mercantile Ci­ties have you there, besides the sixty and odd Hans Townes? Ther is Frankfort upon the Main, the Mistresse of all the Marts of Europe, where one may meet with all sorts of Nations, and any kind of imaginable Comodity; And ther is such excellent order usd to secure their passage, that it is a most rare thing to heare of a Robbery. And as, most Illustrious Duke, your renowned Ancestor Everard, the first Duke of Wirtemberg, calld Barbatus (because going young and beardlesse to the Holy-land against the common Enemy of Christ, he after many exploits came back with a great Beard which he had got there, and never cut it off afterward) was usd to say, that when he went amongst his Cittizens, or Tenants abroad, he might sleep securely in any one of their lapps, and his men might carry home his Rents in the palmes of their hands; So is it universally up and down Germany, where ther are fewer Robbers then any where else: For innated probity and down-right dealing the German is cryed up more then any, as also for his fidelity and trust; which hath causd divers great Emperours and Kings to put their lives in their Custody. Augustus Caesar, Tiberius, and other Emperours till Galba's time, had a Guard of Germans next their persons; but Galba, as Suetonius recordeth, dissolved this most faithfull and valiant Guard, whose fidelity had bin tryed so many yeers: yet other Emperours took them af­terwards; nay, Herodes King of Iudaea sent for a Guard of them: And they continue to have this high honour to this very day; for not onely the late Cae­sars, but the Pope, the Kings of Spain, France, and Sarmatia, together with the Gran Duke of Toscany, with divers other soveraign Princes, committ the custo­dy of their lives and persons to this stout and honest Nation; insomuch that we may glory with the Frizland Legions, not onely in Pompeys Theater, as Ta­citus hath it, but all the World over, Nullos mortalium armis, aut fide ante Ger­manos esse, There are no kind of Mortals superiour to the Dutch in Armes, and trust; nor shall you seee a tru German ever beat his Servant, or clap in Prison any of his Tenants for non - payment of Rent, but either defalk something out of the wages of the one, and amercing the other to some small Heriot.

And as the probity of our Nation is like a great flourishing Tree, whose branches shoot every where, so the German Chastity is very remarkable; which as Egidius the Fraciscan sayed, is like a cleer crystall Glasse which may be dark­ened by the breath onely: And where doth this Chastity look more cleer, and shine more bright then in Germany. For one to have knowledg of a woman there before yeer twenty, is held a great turpitude, and a disgracefull thing: Let Cae­sar be heard herein: The German lust is care, every one is contented with his own wife, so that adultery is rare among them, and it is not as much the punishment as the publique shame that deterrs them from it. And Thuanus sayeth, that no Nation observes the honests of conjugall honesty according to Gods holy Prae­cept more then they; Insomuch that the Verses of the Lirique may be applyed to them.

Nullis polluitur casta domus stupris,
Mos & lex maculosum edomuit nefas,
Laudantur simili prole puerperae:
Culpam poe na premit comes.

Which causes a strict Law against Bastards, which are rendred incapable of all Promotions; which was the reason that Mary Queen of Hungary, Sister to Charles the 5th. could never be entreated by the Emperour to pardon one of her prime Noble-men, who had deflower'd one of her Maydes of honour, though [Page 22] much importun'd thereto. To this vertu of Chastity we may add the strength of conjugall love, which is found in Germany; and hereof there be many signall examples. Among other, let that in the reigne of the Emperour Conradus the third take place here, who having in your Town of Writsberg in Writemberg, streightly block'd up Guelpho of Bavaria, and reduc'd the place to extreme Exi­gents, at the cryes and importunity of the women of the Town, he publish'd a Diploma, or imperiall Placart, wherein he indulg'd all women this priviledg, that they might freely depart from the Town, but not carry any luggage with them, but what they could bear upon their own backs. Hereupon the Dutchesse took Guelpho her Husband on her sholders, and all the women else following her ex­ample, came out of the Gates laden with men and youths. The Emperour be­ing much taken with this witty Stratageme, forgave Guelpho the Duke with all his Adherents. Lorenzo de Medicis, Duke of Toscany reading this Story, was transported with so much joy and plesure, that being sick of an indisposition, whereof all his Physitions could not cure him, recovered his health hereby, as Bodin relates.

Let us proceed now to another Vertu, which is signal and shining in the German, and that is Modesty. Can there be a greater example then that of Charles the fifth? who being yet in a vigorous state of body, voluntarily resignd the German Empire to his Brother Ferdinand, and all his spacious Dominions to his Son Philip; though as some malevolent spirits reported afterwards, that the next after his resignments was the first day of his repentance.

But now I will speak something of the heroik Valour and Fortitude of our Nation, whereby Europe hath stood unshaken so many ages: And truely to dilate this, my words must needs com short of the matter; and herein it was the disadvantage of Germany to be destitute of Writers; for our Progenitors were more for the Pike then the Pen; bipennem, non pennam tractabant: And it was enough for other Nations to extoll their own feats, not ours, so that it may be sayed of the Children of this Noble Continent,

Vixere Fortes ante Agamemnona
Multi; sed omnes illachrymabiles
Urgentur, ignotique longa
Nocte, Carent quia Vate sacro.

The memory of Dido had rotted with her body in her Grave, had not Maro preservd it; so had Ulisses without Homer: Mecaenas, had it not bin for Horace, Lucilius without Seneca, and divers other Heros, whose names were made inde­lible and immortal by the quil: Therefore as Bodin sayeth, one of the greatest mo­tives that inducd the Scythians and Goths to burn Libraries, was, because the fame of other Nations, as well as their own reproaches might perish. Yet those frag­ments of stones which are found up and down in our Archives, shew well what heroique Spirits this Clime hath bredd, and what Martiall men; in comparison of whose Preliations and Fights, those of the Greeks were but Combats twixt Froggs and Mice. I will not go so far as Tuisco, Mannus, Ingavo, Istaevon, Her­mion, Marsus, Gambrivius, Suevus, and Vandalus; But I will come neerer our times, it is enough we are Germans, ergo All men, and manfull according to the etymon of the word. Tacitus sayeth, it was an infamous Crime among us, to leave our Colours behind in the field, or to com thence alive, the Prince being killd; For it was held a kind of Religion to protect, and defend his Person, as also to assign the glory of all exploits to him: So terrible we were to our Neighbours the Gaules, that the very name of a German was a Scarecrow unto them; for Gallia lay alwaies open to us, though they never took foot of ground in Germany. How did Andirestus trounce them, making them flye to Iulius Caesar, and implore ayd so pittifully, or at least his intercession, to make peace twixt them and the Teutoniques. Hereupon Iulius Caesar employing some Am­bassadours [Page 23] to Ariovistus then in Suabland, that he would appoint an indiffe­rent place for a Parley: He answerd, that if Caesar had any businesse with him, he might com to him accordingly, at he wold do if he had any businesse with Caesar; Hereupon a War was denouncd: but certain Travellers, and Merchants telling the Gaules, what huge mighty men both for stature and spirit the Ger­mans were, and how habituated to Armes being abroad in the fields, without houses; such apprehensions of fear and terror did seize upon that Army of Gaules which Caesar had levied against Ariovistus, that they durst advance no further, but retire; such was the high valour of the Suevians at that time, which made Caesar himself break out into this confession: Suevis ne Deos quidem im­mortales pares esse posse, reliquum quidem in Terris esse neminem quem non supera­re possint; Galli vero paulatim assuefacti superari, multisque victi praelijs, ne se qui­dem ipsi cum Germanis virtute comparabant. The immortall Gods are not like the Swablanders; there are none upon earth but they are able to overcom them, but the Gaules being accustomed to be beaten, and discomfited in many Encounters, did not hold themselfs by their own confession equall to the Ger­mans.

When Iccius and Ambrogius came Ambassadors to Caesar, among other things they told him that the Belgians were the valiantst of all the Gaules, who were descended of the Germans, who had crossd the Rhine to settle themselfs there for more commodiousnesse by the expulsion of the Gaules, which Coun­trey was calld for distinction sake, Ci [...]-Rhenana Germania, which is now calld the Netherlands, or Belgium, the Inhabitants wherof have Dutch for their na­turall language; therfore they were usd to call Germany, Magnam patriam, their Great Countrey. Now as Cities use by degrees to grow greater, and have outwalls and Suburbs; and as great Rivers do not tie themselfs to one direct even Channell, but oftentimes inound, and gain ground; so Kingdoms have their fate: It is not therfore the Rhin, the Danube and Vistula that confines Germany, though they run like great veines of bloud through her body, but beyond them she hath Belgium, the Swisserland, the Grisons, and Alpes, Styria, Carniola, Carinthia, Austria, a great part of Sarmatia, Denmark, Swethland, Norway, Finmark, with other most potent and patent Regions, who glory in the name and language of Germans: Moreover touching the Gaules, the Ger­mans may be termd their Fathers, as well as their Conquerors; for Ammianus Marcellinus sayeth, In Galliam vacuam populos quosdam ab insulis extremis, & tractibus trans-Rhenanis crebritate bellorum & alluvione fervidi maris sedibus ex­pulsos. Som peeple from the outward Islands and Territories beyond the Rhin, by the fury of Warr and the encroachments of the tumbling Sea were driven to Gallia: and whence can this be, but from Germany?

Nor was a great part of Gallia alone, but Great Britany also was Colonizd by Germans; wittnesse the words of Caesar, who sayeth, Germanos si non patres, tamen Britannorum Avos esse. The Germans, if they were not the Fathers, yet they were Grandfathers to the Britains. And as the hither parts of Gallia, so the southerly parts also towards the Pyreneys and Spain were Colonizd by Germans, I mean Languedoc: and this is plain argumento ducto ab Etymologia, the word Lan­guedoc being derivd from Langue de Goth, though som would foolishly draw it from Langue d' ovg, or Languedoc. But let us go neerer to work, and with more certainty; I pray whence hath France her last and present appellation, but from the Franconians in Germany? Hear what a famous Author writes. Francos, Francos nostros sequamur, Gentem omnium quotquot magna illa & vasta Germania tulit generosissimam, acerrimos libertatis propugnatores. Let us follow the French, the French one of the most generous peeple that huge Germany ever bore, and the greatest propugnators of their liberties. And this revolution or transmigration happend upon the decay of the Roman Empire, in the time of Valerianus and Gallienus, the one being taken Captif by the Persian, the other eclipsing the Empire with Luxury and sloth; so Pharamond the German rushd [Page 24] into France (then Gallia) and his Successor establishd there a Monarchy which hath continued in three races of Kings above these twelve hundred yeers; Tis tru, the whole Countrey was not all reducd at once by the Franks, but by degrees, and being once settled, nothing could resist their valour, but they still got more ground: Whence that Proverb hath its rise from Valentinianus Au­gustus, [...] Have the Frank, or the Frenchman for thy friend, not for thy Neighbour. And the name of Frank, or French grew so renownd, that Iustinian the Emperour calld himselfe Francicum, whereat Theudebert King of France took exception, because he was neither born there, nor gott one foot of the Countrey. And now the fame of the Franks, like a bright flame of fire flew higher and higher, and at last it grew so high, that in Charlemaynes time all Gallia, and all Germany that extended from the Rhin to Illyrium, was calld France, nay the name of Freink or Frence came to be of such a huge extent and latitude, that all Christians, among the Turks, and up and down Asia, of what Nation soever they were, were calld Freinks; yea the Christian Affricans in Ethiopia, calld the Habissines, calld all the Europaeans Al­frangues, and the Countrey Frankia.

Herby, most noble Princes, by our fortitude and constancy we became twise the Fathers of Gallia, and so we may be sayed to be also twise the Fathers of the Britains: For the Saxons (which som wold derive from the Saci, a renowned peeple in Asia, but wrongfully) being, as Zosimus sayeth, for their magnitude of spirit, strength of body, and patience in labour, grown famous and feard by the Romans, as Marcellinus hath it: The Saxons, I say, were sent for by the Britons, to help them against the incursions of the Picts and Scots, where being arrivd, after many vicissitudes, they settled there a Monarchy, so that by som it was calld Transmarina Saxonia: nor have the ancient Britons, Irish, and Scotts, any other name for an English man to this day, but Sasson: Nor was the English Language any thing else at first but a meer dialect of the Ger­man, so that all their Townes terminant in Dutch, either in Ham, thorp, wich, burg, berg, sted, heim, stadt, &c.

Now I pray were not the ancient Kings of Spain, before the House of Austria, all Germans, with the principallst Families of Spain, who to this day take it a glory to be descended of the Goths? Now it is observd that whersoever the German and Goth took footing, they never forsook the place, but multiplied there ex­ceedingly; nor is there any Nation so fruitfull and prolificall as the Germans; witnesse these examples, though somthing prodigious. Margaret Florence, the fourth Count of Hollands Daughter, and Wife to the Earl of Henneberg, being about two and forty yeers old, about nine a clock in the morning was brought to Bed of an Almanack of Children, Viz. three hundred sixty five, as many as there be dayes in the yeer, whom Guido the Suffragan Bishop of Utrecht christ­ned all alive, being brought all to Church in a great Bason, and being half Boyes and half Girls, the Males were calld Iohns, and the Females Elizabeths, but they all expird with their Mother in one day, which was Anno 1276. Another Margaret, Wife to a Count of Holsten some thirty yeers after brought forth so many. But these were unusuall abortive weak Issues, Germany needs, and daylie produceth stronger broods: I pray observe that nere Tubinga ther is a Castle calld Entringh Castle, which for the serenity of the ayr, the sweetnesse of soyl, and amaenity of walks, is a place most delectable; there livd within these few yeers in this Castle five Gentlemen with their Wifes, in a rare harmo­ny of affection, who got a hundred Children, who livd to be all Men and Wo­men. Consider the Countesse of Dalburg, who saw her numerous Issue to the third degree, of whom this Distic was made:

Mater ait natae, dic natae, filia, natam
Ut moneat natae plangere filiolam.

[Page 25]Rise up Daughter and go to thy Daughter, for thy Daughters Daughter hath a Daughter. The story is notable of Babo Count of Abeneberg, who of Wifes had two and thirty Sonns and eight Daughters, whom he gave the choi­cest education unto that could be; this Count being invited one day to Hunt with the Emperour Hen: the second, took oportunity to bring his Troup of Sonns well horsd, and in gallant Equippage, and making a present of them to the Emperour, he took them all with much grace and contentment to his ser­vice, and married them very nobly, insomuch that many Illustrious Families sprung from their loynes. And the Emperour was bound to do this according to Law, for whosoever in Germany getts seven Sonns together, the Emperour is to maintain them all; and though the German Continent be very vast, yet is it full of people, so that as Boterus hath it, ther was a cense of ten Millions of soules who breathd ther at one time; but he corrected himself afterward, and averrs, Veggo che quella amplissima provincia passa 19. millioni d'anime senza comprendervi I Regni di Danemarca & di Boemia: I find that that huge Pro­vince besides Denmark and Bohemia hath nineteen millions of soules within it. Therfor though an Army of two hundred thousand Soldiers shold be carried out of Germany, ther would be no misse at all of them.

What shall we say of the Normans in France, who establishd a Monarchy both in England and Sicilie by their meer prowesse; and having subjugated that fertile Province in France, calld Normandy ever since, they did so infest the rest of that spacious Kingdom, that it was a part of their Letany, a Furore Nor­manorum libera nos Domine. From the Norman Fury the Lord deliver us.

At last Charles the simple was forcd to give Rollo their Duke, his Daughter Gista to wife, with that whole Province; and when at that Ceremony Rollo was advisd by his Nobles to kisse the Kings foot; answerd no, by God, which is the cause that the Normans are calld By-gods to this day. Roger Hoveden speaks thus of the Normans, Audax Francia Normannorum Militiam experta est, ferox Anglia captiva succubuit, dives Apulia sortit aestoruit, Heirosoly­ma famosa, & insignis Antiochia se utraque suppoluit. Bold France felt the Norman Disciplin, fierce England yeelded her selfe as Captive, rich Apulia re­ceavd them, and flourishd; holy Ierusalem, and famous Antioch subjected them­selfs both unto him. What a man of men was Tancred, who going as a Martiall Adventurer abroad with many goodly young Princes, his Sons did perform ma­ny exploits in Italy, chasd the Saracens out of Sicilie, and did sundry brave feats in the Holy-land: And to this day the Sicilians acknowledg that it was by his valour they enjoy their own Country, that they live free, and became all Christi­ans again. Tacitus himself, though no great Friend to our Nation, confesseth that the Germans cut the Romans more work to do, then either the Samnites, the Carthaginians, the Spaniards, or French and Parthians; For what can the Orient, as he sayeth, bragg of, but that they conquerd and killd our Generall Crassus, and Pacorus? But the Germans did not onely rout five Roman Ar­mies in the Consulship of Carbo, Cassius, Scaurus, Aurelius, Servilius, Cepo, and Manlius, but they took away Varus with three Legions besides; And this happened when Rome was at her highest point of strength. It was cryed up for a Triumph that Caligula brought and put in the Capitoll of Rome, certain Cockle shels that he had gathered upon the Costs of Holland. Augustus Caesar himself who was calld happy to a Proverb, yet he receavd two overthrowes by the Germans, calld Lolliana, and Variana Clades: Iulius Caesar conquerd the Gaules by the help of Germans, and in the Pharsalian fields they performd the prime Service. Then the Romans, because they could not do much upon Germa­ny by strength and valour, they went another way to work, they found means to raise and foment divisins among the Germans themselfs, and did more that way then they could by Armes: Which policy also Charles the fifth, a German himself, did put in practise to break the strength of the Lutherans. But that I may return a little to the old times, what shall I say of that German Legion, which in [Page 26] Spain gave the denomination to the Kingdom of Legio, now calld Leon. What shall I say of the Exploites of the Vandales, who gave name to Andalusia? Of the Longobards, who denominated Lombardy in Italie, and occupied it two hund­red yeers?? What of the Goths, who did lead a dance through all Europe? All these were Birds of our Feathers: And Charles the quint was usd to say, that the prime Nobility of Christendom descended from the Gothique race, and that ther was no one more entire body upon Earth then Germany, if united.

But to go from lesse to great, what a Mirroir of men was our Charlemagne, who first▪ translated the Roman Empire to Germany, where it hath continued a­bove eight ages. By these rivulets you may gesse at the greatnesse of the River; by these sparks you may conjecture what the flame is, and by these Rayes you may know somthing of the Sun. Indeed in Germany Caesar sits like the Sun him­selfe in the Zodiac, surrounded with seven Planets; that is, the Septemvirat of Electors, with multitudes of other refulgent Stars: And this Caesarean dignity is now so rooted in Germany, that it is a Fundamentall Law, Ne quis exterus, & non Germanus in Imperatorem eligatur, That no Forrener, that is no German be chosen Emperour. And why should we seek for any abroad, when there are so many Imperiall Families at home? Now, the Imperiall Majesty is without a fel­low; Caesar of any mortall is next to God, and deserves Veneration all the world over, his Dignity being supereminent, and his power shold be transcen­dent. Athalaricus the Goth could say so much, that the Emperour is doubtlesse an earthly God, and whosoever doth heave up his arm against him, he is guilty of his own blood. By Baldus words he is Summus superior, Dominusque Orien­tis, Occidentis, Meridiei & septentrionis. He is the highest Superior, and Lord of all the four Cardinall corners of the World; He is the Supreme Judg, from whom there is no appeal, the prime Arbiter. It is he who in sign of ex­cellence wears a triple Crown on his head; He is Creator of Kings, the chief source of honor, and Fountain whence all greatnesse flowes. Nay, the common and Capital Enemy of Christendom, the Turk, gives his Ambassadors more honor then to any other Potentate. As among others, ther is one pregnant example; for when David Ungnadius was Ambassador for the Emperour in Constantinople, and went to take his leave of the grand Turk, and the Persian Ambassador be­ing com to the Duana before him, and taken the Chair before him, he was going away without saluting the Sultan, but the gran Visier, the [...], or chief Minister of State perceaving that, causd the Persian Ambassador, though a Mahumetan, to take a lower Seat. Another time upon the Celebration of Mahomet the third's Circumcision, which lasted forty daies and nights continual­ly, there being in Constantinople the Legats of the greatest Monarchs upon earth, yet he who was Ambassador then in the Port for Rodulphus the second, had al­waies the first place.

Now, as the Emperour himselfe is the prime Potentat, so the Princes and No­bles of Germany are the best descended of any other; and wheras divers Ger­man Princes bore great sway abroad, it is probable that they left there much of their Of-spring. But in Germany there are no forren extractions; Germany re­ducd and ruld other Countries, but none ruld Germany but her own Children; swarmes of Germans have gone abroad to Italy and other Provinces for Gover­nors, but no strangers have swayd in Germany. Tis tru, that Captives of all Na­tions have been brought thither from Italy and other places; and among those Captives ther might be haply som Princely Stemms: As now in Westphalia a­mong the Boors ther are som found who derive themselfs from the Caesarean, and Consulary Families in Rome, but in Rome her self there are very few of them left, having bin ravisht and ransackt so often. There are none left of the publi­colae, of the Iunij, of the Fabij, of the Valerij, of the Manlij, of the Cassij, of the Cincinnati, of the Menucij, of the Papirij, of the Bruti, of the Fulvij, of the Sempronij, of the Tullij, of the Hortensij, of the Aurelij, of the Tarquinij, [Page 27] Hostilij, Licinij, Sempronij, Caecilij, Crassi; and multitudes of other Illustrious Families of Rome they are all extinct, onely the Lakes of Venice hath preservd som upon the inundation of the Goths. Therefore sayeth Aeneas Sylvius, Ita a­gamus, ut nos potius Germani quam Itali nuncupemur, &c. Let us carry the bu­sinesse so, that we may be calld Germans rather then Italians; for ther the pu­rest and certainst, ancientst Nobility upon earth doth yet flourish. And indeed most of the Nobles of Italy that now are of German extraction originally, as the Lords of Colalta, Della Scala, di castel Barco, della Rovere, della Beccaria, del caretto, di monte feltro, di porcia, Fazzoni, and Arogari, Carrafi, Bolchetti, Rossi, Landriani, Gonraghi, Gabrieli, Palavicini, Savorgnani Farnesi, Bentivogli, Soardi, &c. All which acknowledg themselfs to have had their first extraction from Germany. The Pole in magnifying their Sigismunds, the Dane in extolling their Christians, the Sweds in glorying of their Gustavus Adolphus, do all this while commend Germany; whence they first descended. Let England also boast of their Nobility & Gentry, and in so doing they praise Germany and Normandy. Let Spain vaunt of their King, and who knowes not but he is a German two wayes, by the Gothique and Austrian Family, with the best Stemms of Spain be­sides, where he is accounted but an upstart Noble-man, that is not derivd de la sangre de les Godos, of Gothic Blood. Let France stand as high a tiptoe as she will, to vaunt of her twelve hundred yeers Monarks, and she will confesse her three race of Kings, Merovengians, Carlovingians, and Capevingians, whence Lewis the fourteenth now regnant is descended, came all primarily of the German race.

But let us com to Germany her self, and you will find that she is like the Fir­mament, spangled and glistring with so many coruscant Starrs, I mean so ma­ny illustrious Families. I will begin with those of the Order of Knighthood, which being so many in nomber, I dare not adventure to nominat one without naming all, for fear of offence; let it suffice that ther are in Germany her self, besides her annexed Regions, above six hundred Knights, who according to the Lawes of the Emperour Henricus Auceps (the Faulconer) do train up them­selfs in noble exercises, disdaining any kind of mechanique Trade, or to marry any but a Gentlewoman by descent. Now, touching Counts and Barons, their number is incredible: I will instance in the chiefest. You have in Germany the Il­lustrious Families of the Barbij, the Bronkhorstij, the Castelli, the Cimbrij, the E­berstenij, the Erbachij, the Falkenstenij, the Furstenbergij, the Gerobrekij, the Gleichij, the Hannovij, the Helfenstenij, the Hohenloi, the Isenburgij, Leimnigij, the Leonstenij, the Limpurgij, the Lippij, the Mansfeldij, the Monfortij, the Nassovij, the Oldenburgij, the Ortenburgij, the Oestfrislandij, the Oettingij, the Rappolstenij, the Rhenigravij, the Reussij, the Salmij, the Schaunburgij, the Swaertenburgij, the Solmij, the Stolbergij, the Sulzij, the Tubingij, the Wald­burgij, the Waldbeccij, the Wirdij, the Witgenstenij, the Zollerij, and divers more. I put down here the names of the Trees onely, whereof every one hath multitude of branches; And some of these have such Prerogatives and Royal­ties, that countervaile some Soveraign Princes elsewhere. But to look upon the high Classis of Nobility, how many Imperiall and Regall Families are there? Guilielmus Brussius sayeth, that as Italy excels in Palaces, and Monuments of Antiquity, as France in Soldiers, as Spain with Bishops, as England with Yeo­men, as Poland with Nobles, so Germany abounds with Princes. Brussius herein said true; but besides the last, he may also find all the rest in Germany; I will instance first in your Princely Family, my Cosen Frederique Achilles; how famous was Ulric the seventh for his Amability? Prince Lewis for his probity? Prince Georg for his Hospitality, Ulric the ninth; the first, second, third, and fourth Eberhards for their Fortitude, and your Father Frederique for his Magnanimity? What a signall Prince was Eberhard the first, whom the Italians seemd to adore, being inflamd with the Rayes of his Virtues; Soe that Maximilian the first, passing by this Tombe, sayed, There ly­eth [Page 28] a Prince that not left his fellow in the whole Empire, of whose sage coun­sells I made mighty advantages. What a Grandee was the Lord Christo­pher, whom Catharina de Medicis Queen Regent of France sent Rascalon unto, desiring his assistance and advise, during those tumultuary times, and intricat Warr of the Ligue; he at such a high Ladies request went accordingly, but with a gard of three thousand Horse and Foot, which did notable service.

So you, my noble Cozen Ioachim Ernest, a branch of the Illustrious and re­gall House of Holsteyn, do shine with many splendid titles, whose vertues not all Denmark, Norway, Gothland, or the Kingdome of the Vandals, nor Holsasia, Dictsmarsh and Sleswic, nor Oldenberg and Delmenhorst can equall; the immor­tall memory of your Oncle Frederique the second, of your Granfathers, Chri­stians the second and third, of your great Granfather Christian the first, doth so illustrat and ennoble; O the high felicity of the great Witikind, whose renown after so many centuries of yeers is yet fresh and fragrant.

I will be modest in speaking of my Saxonian Family, twise Electorall, and in the setting forth of the magnitud of their merit; he made the greatest opposi­tions against Henry the sixt, who by indirect meanes was Emperour a while, but afterwards he forcd him to quitt it; an exploit to be preferrd before other tropheys and triumphs, because he therby did vindicat the liberty of Germany. I could run into a larg field to display the princely vertues and merits of this Fa­mily—Sed Cynthius aurem vellit. Apollo plucks me by the eare, telling me that this copious Theme is fitter for another then my self.

Of the Anhaltin Family, nere allied to the Saxonian, how many Heros have bin? Sigismund, Wolfangus, Rodolphus, Ioachimus, Ioannes, Ernest, were re­nowned both for feats of armes, and acts of Peace.

In the Badensian Family ther have bin som Starrs of the greatest magnitude, which have bin so refulgent for high achievments, prowesse, and justice: I will instance in Iames Duke of Baden, who kept his Territories so free and safe, that if any one was robd upon the high way, he wold command him to be satisfied out of his own Tresure, upon good Affidavit made.

In Brunswic Princely Family, how many Worthies have flourisht; Cardinall Conradus, Henricus Leo, Albertus Magnus: Henry the Peaceable, William the Vi­ctorious, Henricus Iulius sago & toga illustris, famous for the Gown, & the Gun.

In the stemm of Mechelburg how many high-top Trees have flourisht; as Henry of Ierusalem, Albert the first, Casimirus the second, Ericus the first, all mighty men in merit.

In the Pomerla [...]d Family Suantipiorus, Suantipotius, Busglavus, were super­eminent with divers more.

In the Hassian Family, Henry Ironside, Lewis the meek, who refusd the Empire, with sundry more were famous,: As Hermannus Archbishop of Colen, Philip the thunderbolt of War, and Morris the Darling of the Muses.

In the Brandeburgian Family, there was Albertus calld the German Hector for his Exploits; Iohannes for his Eloquence calld the German Cicero, with others most celebrous for their Piety, their Prowesse, their Benignity, and Justice.

Touching the Family of the Bavarian Palatin, wheresoever I cast my eyes upon any part of Europe, I find most parts eccho forth their Glory: For out of this Family as out of a Trojan Horse, there have issued out nombers of venturous and magnanimous Princes. Othowitelsbachius, who meerly for his high worth receavd Bavariae from Frederique the first, Lodwick the first, and second, both E­lectors: Lodwick & Rupert both Emperours, Wolfangus Bipontinus, who with five thousand Foot, and six thousand Horse, penetrated the very heart of France, and from the banks of the Rhin advancd as far as Aquitane, insomuch that the very name of Deuxponts is grown famous and dreadfull in France to this day. What shall I say of Albert the third, who being offerd the Kingdom of Bo­hemia, by a very splendid Embassy of the chiefest Nobles, utterly refusd it: Maximilian the present Duke of Bavaria is accounted a Prince of consummated [Page 29] wisdome, his Authority and Esteem being so great throughout the whole Em­pire: With what prudence, prowesse, and prosperous successe did he take Prague, when ther was an Army twice greatet in number that stood in his way! How glorious is the memory of Philip Palatin of Bavaria, who made the great So­liman to break his Vow, wherof he had made three, the one to finish that huge Aquaeduct of bringing water into the City of Constantinople from the Danube: The second to erect two Bridges in a Creek of the Hellespont, the third the re­ducing of Vienna in Austria; though he finisht the two first, yet he fayld in the performance of his last Vow, chiefly by the Valour of the foresayed Bavarian Philip, who forcd him to quit the Siege with tears in his eyes, and to go back with his three hundred thousand men, for his Army consisted of so many, though the Defendants in the Town were not sixteen thousand, who repelld them after twenty times storming.

But I ascend to the cumble of all Renown and glory, the house of Austria; and now although I had a brazen brest, a hundred toungs, and so many throats, as the Poet once wishd, I should not be able to set forth the Majesty of this Im­periall Stemm: Nay, if all the green leafs that wag in the Hercynian Forest were turnd to toungs, I should not be able to expand the glory of this Heroique Family. I may truly apply thereunto that of the Lyrik,

—Micat inter omnes
Austrium sydus, velut inter ignes
Luna minores.

Let all Posterity learn, and all Annals have it upon Record, and ruminat upon't, that there wer never so many Crowns, Scepters, and Empires, fell so sud­denly upon any Race: and I pray what could we do.

Niforet Austriacis Germania fulta columnis?

If Germany were not supported with Austrian Pillars, she wold quickly tor­ter. Antiquity in former times did deifie many of their brave men, as Iove, Mercury, Hercules and others, raysing them up, and fixing them in the Firma­ment. But I dare say, there have bin divers of this divine Progeny, that merit to be stellified more then they; I could muster up thirteen Emperours who have bin successively of this house: and indeed who is fitter and abler to make head, and preserve us from the common Enemy, from the fury of the Ottoman Em­perour, then the Austrians? considering that they have their hereditary Ter­ritories upon the Frontires of Turky: How many Saint-like persons have bin of this house, as well as great Captains, and notable Polititians? What shall I say more my noble Auditors? I have read that when Timanthes wold have drawn Iphigenia standing at the Altar, and ready to be Sacrificed, together with the standers by, he painted them in a Picture of deep Melancholy, specially her Oncle; but being come to her Father, all his fancy being spent, he coverd him with a Vaile: So must I do at this time, passe over this Semidean Family with silence: for having spent my Fancy in displaying the high Vertues of other Ger­man Princes, I want both imagination and words to set forth the glory of this. And now most judicious and noble gallant Princes, what think you of Germany? may not she expect the highest roome among the Kingdomes of Europe? Yes surely, being the seat of the Empire, the Source of such a Nobility, and having so many advantages besides. For my own particular, as we read that Plato gave Nature thanks for three things; viz. That he was born a man, and not a woman, a Greek, and not a Barbarian, an Athenian, and not a Theban, specially in Socrates his time: So I render most hearty thanks to the divine Majesty for three things likewise, that he hath made me a man, a Christian, and a German, and that I live in the Raign of the most glorious Emperour Ferdinand, ever Au­gust, whom Heaven conserve.


Most Excellent President, and Illustrious Princess,

TO be a good Patriot, and to love his Countrey, disco­vers a noble mind in any man; for my own part I am so wholy possessd with an inhaerent, and tru naturall affection unto her, that did necessity require, I wold not only employ all the limbs of my body, and faculties of my brain to do Her service, but I would hazard the pu­rest arteriall bloud which lies in the best ventricle of my heart, for her incolumity, honour, and wellfare; but now there is a businesse of another nature incumbent upon me, which is touching the Excellence and Prerogative of Germany, in re­lation to the rest of the Provinces of Europe; and this task I must discharge im­partially, measuring her according to her merit, not according to blind affecti­on. It is far from the rules of Justice, and incongruous to reason we shold exalt our own, by depressing other Countries, or Dares like, triumph before Victory. We Germans do not see that Wallet that dangles behind us, which I will endea­ver now to shake off with a gentle hand: And by the favour of this high and honourable Assembly, and your patience, most illustrious Duke of Saxony, I will make it my businesse to make some inquiries into the extravagances, the man­ners and vices of our own Country, which when I have displayed unto you, I beleive you wil revoke your former Opinion of ascribing the Principality to Ger­many.

[Page 32]Now, touching the Vices of Germany, as Cardinall Bellarmin sayeth of the Bishop of Rome, Tantam esse papae amplitudinem & Majestatem, ut perquam difficile sit illam definiri, The Amplitude and Majesty of the Pope is such, that it is a hard matter to define it; so by a kind of Antithesis I may say, the ill man­ners, and customes of Germany are so large and lothsom, that it is a very difficult task to describe them. And where shall I begin this task? I will take my rise at the power and Dominions of Germany, which I find to faint, and languish e­very day more then other. O immortall God! What Diminutions hath she receavd? how many potent and flourishing States have fallen away from her? The Venetian, the Milanois, the Florentine, the Genoways, the Luqueses, have quite shaken off her Yoke: Nay, Rome her self hath played the Fugitif, and ran away from her. Witnesse the Emperour Charles the fourth, who being to make his entrance into Rome, was let in, but limited to this condition by the Cardinall of Ostia, Ut neque Romae, neque in Italia diu moraretur, That he should not so­journ long in Rome, nor Italy, as Nauclerus hath it. Nay, all the Jurisdiction of the Roman Emperour is almost quite vanisht in Italy; Insomuch that Caesar cannot restore any of the Popes Subjects to his Birth-right, either in point of Title or Possession, without the Popes consent, which if it be wanting, the de­cree of legitimation is invalid: Nay, the Pope doth not onely interdict him in his, but he will not permit the Emperour to exercise absolute power in his own Territories: Witnesse that Act of Sixtus Quintus, who glorified himselfe to be of an Illustrious House, meaning a small Cottage, which for want of Roof took in alwaies the lustre of the Solar Beames. In this Sixtus his Pontificat, it chancd that the Count Pepili possessd som Manners beyond the River of Po; Cardinall Salviatus questioning his Title, in that the said Count came from the Race of som Banditi; he producd the Emperours grant, but this wold not serve the turn, for the sayed Cardinall causd him to be apprehended in his own Palace, and sending for a Ghostly Father to confesse him, he causd him to be presently strangled.

The Lorrainers, Burgundians, and Belgians; I mean the united Provinces are also revolted, who in regard they have by their Armes shaken off the Spaniard, alledg they have also at the same time freed themselfs from any Homage to Cae­sar. So have also the Helvetians, or Swisses, whom Aeneas Sylvius calls Fla­gellum principum, ac nobilium; Homines naturâ superbos, qui ipsam sibi Iustitiam famulari volunt, justumque id putant quod eorum phantasticis est conforme capitibus. The Swisses are a scourge of Princes and Nobles, men naturally proud, and who wold make Justice her self to attend them in quality of a servile handmaid, think­ing that onely to be just, which conformes with their caprichious heads. Hereof ther was a late example, for being summond upon a Processe of a high nature to the Imperiall Chamber at Spire, they sent their rough-hewn Ambassadors, who told the Councell, Domini confaederati Helvetij vos vicinos suos salvere ju­bent, mirantur vero quod tam crebris citationibus, &c. The Lords Confederats of Swisserland do greet you their Neighbours, but they wonder that by your so often Citations you wold disquiet them, therfore they pray and exhort you that you wold no longer molest them.

So also ther are very spacious Countreys Northward, who have fallen quite away from our German Emperour; among others, som part of the Livonians Countrey, who when they were summond to obedience by Charles the fifth, otherwise he would reduce them by force, they answerd in a geering manner, That they knew his Horse wold be tyred before he could reach the skirts of Li­vonia, as Thuanus hath it. Good Lord, whersoever I turn my eyes, I behold Nations revolted from Caesar, which makes the Imperiall Eagle so thinn of Feathers, and almost stark naked. From the raign of Rodolph the first, which is not much beyond the memory of man, I could instance in two hundred States and Princes who have unmembred and emancipated themselfs from our Ger­man Emperour, who were usd to obey his summons, and make apparance ac­cordingly: All the Hansiatique Townes are now grown petty Republiques, [Page 33] whereas they did once owe Vassallage to the Empire. The Emperour Charles the fifth, though a glorious Prince, yet he made in his time such a pittifull complaint to Pope Adrian, that Germany was reducd to that penury and in­digence, that she was not onely not able to bear up against the incursions of the common Enemy, but she was not able to suppresse Domestique insolencies, and maintain Peace and Justice within her own dores; This Goldustus hath upon Record; nay Scioppius goes further, that Germany was grown so beggerly, that ther were some of her best born Children, som of Regall extraction, who had not three hundred Crownes a yeer for their whole subsistence, insomuch that many of them went habited rather like Poets then Princes; but this in­deed is too much, it is a meer Scioppian Chymera, and indeed there was not since the creation of man, a more lying and base licentious toungd fellow then Scioppius.

Now, our very Foes can tell us our defects in Government, and in what a deplorable condition Germany stands, as will appeer by this example. When Maximilian the second was chosen Emperour, it chanced that Ibraim, Soli­mans Ambassador was then at Frankefort, who having bin a spectator of the Shew, and observd what great Princes did attend the Emperour that day, and being told that som of them could raise an Army of themselfs against the Turk, the Ambassador smiling, sayed, That he doubted not of the strength of Germany, but that the minds, the counsells, and actions of the Germans, were like a Beast with many Heads and tayles, who being in case of necessity to passe through a Hedge, and every head seeking to finde a particular hole to passe through, they were a hindrance one to another, every head drawing after his own fancy, and so hazarded the destruction both of all the heads and tayles; but the Empire of Solyman his great Master, was like a Beast with many tayles, yet she had but one head, which head getting through, or over any passage, withour confusion of fancy and dispute of any other, all the tayles and the whole body followed him accordingly; well sayed the Turk, and very wisely, and I am sorry that we find it so by wofull experience.

Ther is another mighty soloecism in the German Government, which is the confusion and differences that useth to be in Diets, which made. Aeneas Sylvius to give us a tart reprehension when he saith; Omnes Germanorum Dietas esse faecundas, et quamlibet in ventre habere alteram; Ac credibile est quia fae­mineum sit nomen, libenter impraegnari, Pietas est parturire. All the German Diets or Assemblies are fruitfull, so that every one hath another commonly in her belly; And it is credible that Diets, because they are of the Faeminine Gender, are willing to become pregnant and bring forth. The Emperour Charles the fifth could also say to the same purpose, That the German Iuntas, and Iudicatories and Diets were like Vipers, for as these destroy their Dam, so the latter decrees of Diets destroy the former. Now what a lame imperfect power the Emperour himself hath in these Imperiall Chambers or Diets we well know: Indeed as one said, the name of Caesar remaines, but the Majesty is gone. The thing it self is vanishd, and the shadow remaines. O degenerous times! O deplorable poor Germany: In former times the greatest Kings of Europ and Asia, and Afrique, thought it no disparagement to submit to Caesar, and now not only Kings, but every meane Count doth scorn to stoop to him; And indeed it doth not tend much to the reputation of our Ancestors, that in lesse then three hundred yeers nine German Emperours should be destroyed, besides those that were deposed, and abdicated. It grieves me to remember here the improbous saying of Gerardus Bishop of Mentz, who having with divers others conspird against. Al­bert the first, and intending to elect another, the said Gerardus having a hun­ting horn about him, and being a potent popular man, in so much that he was calld propola imperij, the Huckster of the Empire, he belchd out these words: In hoc Cornu complures gesto Caesares, I carry many Caesars in this Horn; But the [Page 34] Albert by the speciall benedictions of Heaven was quit with them all at last, that he made them carry Doggs so many miles, which is accounted in Germany the most opprobrious and disgracefullest punishment that can be inflicted upon a Nobleman or Gentleman; whereas a Plebean is bound according to the quali­ty of the offence, to carry a Chair from one County to another. So we read that Frederique Barbarossa made Hermannus, Count Palatin of the Rhin, and ten Counts more, to carry Doggs above a whole German mile, for the praedations and insolencies they had committed, while he was in Italy. But whereas this kind of punishment is grown obsolet, I could wish it were still in force, we should not then have so many treasons, and transgressions of Imperiall sancti­ons, the Majesty of Caesar, the balance of Dollars, the decrees of Diets would be more regarded, and Justice would not be so frequently baffled, and affron­ted.

It is an odd character that Velleius Paterculus gives of our Countreymen; Esse Homines qui nihil praeter vocem et membra haberent hominum, in summa feritate versutissimi, natumque mendacio genus. The Germans were men who had no­thing but the voices, and Members of men, yet they had a great deale of wili­nesse in their wildnes, a Race born for lies. Witnes their perfidious carri­age in Great Britany towards the old Inhabitants therof, when at a solemn mee­ting and Treaty they carried Knifes hid in their Stockins, wherwith in the midst of their salutations they murthered the ancient nobility of the Britons, who had come armeles into the field according to the Capitulations of agreement between them, that none should bring with him any offensive or defensive Weapon. Then when those Saxons, which were tru Germans, for they came from the lower circuit of Saxony, and to this day are calld Saxons by the Welsh and Irish, had taken firm footing in Britain, what a World of spoiles and devastations did they commit both by Land and Sea: In so much that Sidonius complaines of them, Quot re­miges videris Saxones, totidem decernere putes Archipiratas, Ita simul omnes impe­rant, parent, docent, discunt latrocinari. Hostis est omni hoste truculentior; est ijs quaedam cum discriminibus pelagi non notitia solum, sed familiaritas—As many Rowers you see of the Saxons, you discern so many Rovers and Arch-pirats: They all command, and obey, they learn, and teach how to robb; An enemy more truculent then any enemy, They have not only knowledg, but a familia­rity with the sea &c. I beleeve ther is none here who is ignorant of the story of Hatto the first Archbishop of Mentz, who so basely betrayed Albertus Bi­shop of Bamberg, who had casually slain Conradus the Emperours brother, who having besiegd him in Therussa castle, the sayed Albert was perswaded by Hatto to go and submitt himself to the Emperour, and he promised to bring him safe back to his Castle, which he did: but Albert had his hand tied behinde, and so as soon as he returnd his head was chopd off; but Hatto sayed, to excuse himself, that he had only promisd to bring him back to the place from which he had fetchd him, and no more. What a horrible story is there of another Hatto, an Archbishop also of Mentz, who was devoured and eaten up alive by rats for his uncharitablenesse to the poor in a yeer of famine, whom he had lodgd in a great barne, and putting fyre therunto in the dead of night he burnt them all, saying, that those were the rats which devourd his corn; And that this story may be upon perpetuall record, the castle where he was eaten, is called Rat ca­stle to this day, being scituated in the middle of the Rhin, whither the Rats swomm after him, and never left him till they had bin the executioners of divine vengeance upon him.

Another such a horrid story as this was that of the devill who appeerd at Hamelen in the shape of pied piper, which towne being very much infe­sted with rats, the sayed piper did covenant with the Burgers to free them of [Page 35] that Vermin for such a reward, which he was to receave a yeer after they saw themselfs freed; Hereupon the Piper playing upon a kind of bagpipes that he had, all the rats followed him to a great lough hard by, where he drownd them all: but returning at the yeers end for his reward, the Burgers wold put him off with a small matter; thereupon playing upon his pipes one evening, all the children of the town followed him to the mouth of a hill, where he and the children vanished; There is a great stone piller stands in that place, whereon there is mention hereof, and the people of the town to this day in all their publick writings draw their Epoches and computation of yeers from the going out of their children. And as the devill appeerd here in the shape of a piper; so nere Bremen he gott into a Butcher, who being inraged one day with his wife that was bigg with childe, he took her into a stable and ripping up hir belly took out the embryon; & ther being a sow hard by big with pigs, he killd the sow also, and taking out the piggs, he sowed them up in his wifes belly, and the childe in the sow's. Can the witt of man run upon a more nefandous thing? But Germany is full of these bloody stories. And whereas you know we have a custom when any notorious theef is hangd to stick so many pegs in the gibbet as he had killd men, it is ordinary to finde in Moravia, and other places such gib­bets som with twenty, som with thirty, and I heard lately of one that had sixty three peggs stuck into it, denoting so many murthers by one man. Now, if we descend to Low Germany, we shall find hir litle inferiour to the Higher in strange kindes of immanities. What an inhuman thing was that in Gant, when the father and the son being condemnd to die for one Fact, it was adjudged they shold draw lotts whither the father should hang the son, or the son the father, and it fell to the son, who accordingly thrust out of the world him who brought him in. But now I speake of the Citty of Gant, which is held to bee one of the most mutinous and inconstant Cities of Christendom (and therfore no wonder that she hath so many windmills within her walls) what nation, I say, hath shewd more arguments of instability then Allmain; Go first to Religion, since that Shaveling Monke Luther fell in love with the Abadesse, to enjoy which he made Religion his bawd, I pray you how many new Sects have crept in since? Iohn Calvin came apace after him, he usherd in the Anabaptists, then what a swarm of Swenkfeldians, Osiandrians, Huberians, Oecolampadians, and Arminians have we; and if you desire more, you may go to Amsterdam, Where you shall find as many sorts as ther be of Venice glasses in Murano. What a scandall to the German Nation was Iohn of Leyden, that frantique Rascall? what an opprobry to Christianity is that Amsterdam, wher such a confusion of Religions is allowed! & no wonder, for she is one of the nearest to Hell of any town upon earth. And as in the reign of Nimrod there fell a curse upon those that would dwel so high by a confusion of tongues, so a confusion of beliefs is fallen upon these men by dwelling too low, and cosen­ing the fish of their inheritance, for indeed the Fish shold inhabit that Countrey which they have forced out of the jawes of the Sea, and thereby may be called tru Usurpers.

But touching religion, the French fancy was never so greedy after new fashions in apparrell, as we Germans high and low do thirst after new fangling opinions in matters appertaining to Christian Doctrin and discipline: It was a notable say­ing of Queen Katherin de Medici when she was Regent of France, that the two greatest Heretiques which Europe produced were Luther and Machiavil (hir Countrey man) the one in matters of piety, the other of policy. But we Germans being commonly of a higher stature then other Nations, we are com­pard to Houses of five or sixe stories high, wherein the upper rooms are worst furnished, meaning the cells of our brains; as if the largenes of members shold lessen the strength of the mind, according to that of Seneca, Nimio robore mem­brorum vigor mentis hebescit, quasi abnuente naturâ vtriusque boni largitio­nem, [Page 36] ne supra mortalem sit felicitatem eundem et valentissimum esse, et sapien­tissimum. The vigor of the mind growes dull by too great strength and boy­sterousness of the body; Nature denying as it were such a double bounty, it being beyond humane felicity for the same man to be most valiant and most wise. It is the saying of Bartolus, that Longi Homines sunt raro sapientes, Tall men▪ are seldom wi [...]e: And as Helvetia is so sterill that she cannot feed her self; Hassia so swelling with barren Hills that somtimes she is ready to starve; As the Marquisat of Brandenburg and Westphalia are choak [...]d with sand, as other places up and down Germany are full of ill aird fenns and ma­rishes that hinders the fertility of the Countrey, and impaires the health of the people; and as in som rank grounds weeds get up so fast that the corn can­not grow, so in our German natures there is still som obstacle or other that choakes the growth and tapring up of vertu.

I confesse that our Compatriotts are cryed up generally for continence, but truly I do not think they deserve it so much as the world thinks, for how many Baths (or rather Brothell Houses of lust) have you up and down Germany, where shirts and smocks promiscuously meet, whence som Ladies that came Penelop [...]s thither, go away Helens▪ Poggius writes a book entitled de schola Epi­cureae factionis quae regnat in Teutonia; Of the school of Epicurism which raignes in Germany, meaning the Baths of Boden and others; He sayeth Nul­la in orbe Terrarum balnea ad faecunditatem mulierum magis esse accom­modata▪ innumerabilem multitudinem nobilium et Ignobilium ducenta mil­lia passuum eo venire, non tam Valetudinis quam voluptatis gratia▪ Omnes Ama­tores, Omnes Procos quibus in deliciis vita est posita, eo concurerere ut fruantur rebus concupitis, multas faminas simulare corporum aegritudines cum animo la­borent, omnibus unam mentem esse tristitiam fugare, quaerere hilaritatem, non de communi dividundo agere, sed de communicando divisa. There are no bathes so accommodated for the fruitfulnesse of women as the Germans, an innumerable company of nobles and ignobles come thither two hundred miles off, not so much for health as pleasure; All amorous men, all suters, all servants of ladies who delight in delicacies flock thither, many women go thither to cure the sicknesse of the mind rather then of the body; they com thither not to treat of dividing the Common, but of communicating what are divided: What sayeth the Monke of Ulmes of his own Country women? he sayeth, Omnia ali­arum Regionum lupanaria habent foeminas de Suevia, sic etiam omnia poene mo­nasteria procul existentia habent virgines Suevigenas; et dilectae et utiles Mona­steriis sunt plus quam aliae propter bonam naturae dispositionem. The Bordells allmost of all Countrey [...] have som women of Suevi, and also all Mona­steries though a good distance off have Suevian Nunnes, for they are loving, and prove more usefull then others for their good naturall dispositions; A­mong other examples let this serve to shew the impudicity of our German la­dies in the person of Barbara Count Hermans daughter, and wife to the Em­perour Sigismund, who having tried the mettall of the strongest backs in her husbands time, was after his death admonish'd by her ghostly father to live chast and like the turtle, wherunto she answerd, If you, Father Confessor, wold have me imitat birds, why shall I not the life of a sparrow rather then of a turtle?—Now, Frederique the brother of this Barbara was as bad as she; who having murtherd his wife for the love of his concubine, and being de­horted by a pious freind from his damnable dissolut courses, specially now being ninety yeers of age, and to think on his Grave, Yes, I will, sayed he, and I in­tend to have these lines insculpd upon't. Haec mihi porta est ad Inferos, quid illic reperiam nescio, scio quae reliqui: abundavi bonis omnibus, ex quibus nihil fero mecum, nec quod bibi, atque edi, quodque inexplebilis voluptas exhausit. This is my passage to Hell, I know not what I shall find there, I know what I left: I abounded with all things, whereof I carry nothing with me, [Page 37] neither of what I ate or drunk or exhausted in insatiable pleasure. The example of Henry Duke of Brunswik is very signal, who being desperatly in love with Eva Tottina, a young damsell, (daughter to a gentleman of good quality) that kept his Dutchesse company, he plotted that she shold make [...]emblance to go to visit her frends, at such a castle, whither being com, she faind her self sick over night, and so her women who were her complices, gave out she was dead of the plague in the morning; so having gott a wooden statue in a chest of pur­pose, they coffind the statue and sent it to be buried, so the Duke did satiat his [...]ust and got seven children of her. What shall I say of the kings of Den­mark? is it not a common thing for them to keep concubines in their Courts, which are attended upon like Queens; It is well known how many bastards Maurice Prince of Orenge left behind him, who being advised by a reverend Di­vine upon his deathbed to marry that woman of whom he had most of his sons, & therby he might preserve her reputation from being a whore, and his children from being bastards: but being pressed to it, he answerd, No, I will not wrong my brother Harry so much, who was to be his Heir. Albertus the Archduke it seems preferrd the pleasure of his body before that of his soul, when he shook off his Toledo miter, and Cardinals capp, to ma [...]ry the Infanta of Spain.

Touching Intemperance, especially the vice of ebriety and excesse of drinking▪ where hath it such a vogue as in Germany? it is her bosom peculiar sin, and she hath infected all other Nations with it; The Belgian complaines that the im­moderat u [...]e of wine came tumbling down upon him from high Germany, like snow rushing down the Alpian Hills, whence it found passage over with wind in poop to England, which are good at it, being of a German race, and therefore apt to take. Nay, as they say, the English are good Inventis addere, to improve any new Invention, so they go beyond us; for whereas the Dutch doth pelt the brain with small shot, the Englishman doth storm it with whole canons and huge carowses; for he when he is at it doth not sipp and drink by halfs, or demurr upon it by som discourse as the German doth, or eat some salt quelchose between, but he deals in shire liquor, and is quickly at the bot­tom of his cupp without any intervening discourse. Yet the Dutch bears the bell away both from Him and all others; Hereupon they use to characterize a Dutchman to be an Animal that can drink more then he can carry, as also one who useth to barrell up more then he can broch, that understands more, then he can utter: Tis he who drinks cum mensura, but absque modo, according to measure, but without a mean. I heard of four old men in the upper Saxony, that having mett at a clubb, they did not stir til they had drunk as many healths as they had yeers betwixt them; all which came to above three hundred. I heard of another company who at a match of drinking upon the Texells side in Amsterdam, tippled so long looking out of a casement, that they thought they were at sea in a tempest; therefore to lighten the shipp they began to throw tables and stooles with other luggage out of the windowes, thinking they were in danger of shippwrack. But he was not so intemperat a Drinker, who used to drink according to the gamuth, Vt, Re, Mi, Fa, sol, la, tos­sing up one carouse to every one, saying it was,

Vt Re-levet Mi-serum Fa-tum, So-litosque La-bores.

Aeneas Silvius hath a story of the Count of Gorits, that to try whether his children were legitimat or no, he used to give them wine; and if they grew sick upon it, he concluded them to be bastards, and none of his. But he was a witty soule, and deservd to drink wine of the best, who comprehended the lawes and causes of drinking in these verses.

Si bené quid memini, causae sunt quinque bibendi.
  • [Page 38]1 Hospitis adventus.
  • 2 Praesens sitis, atque
  • 3 Futura,
  • 4 Et Vini bonitas.
  • 5 Vel quaelibet altera causa.
To Drink there may five causes be at least.
  • 1. For to entertain a Newcom guest.
  • 2. To quench the present thirst.
  • 3. Prevent the next.
  • 4. The goodnesse of the Wine.
  • 5. Or any text.

The Jesuit hath a geerupon the German that he forsook the Communion of the Church of Rome, because laymen have not the Cup at the Sacrament.

Now, to draw towards a conclusion, it cannot be denied but heretofore the Germans were appoved men for military glory, but, Helas, they are now much eclipsd; The knights of Rhodes disswading Soliman the Great Turk to warr against Europe, especially against Germany, He answerd, I esteem the armes of the Germans lesse, then of any others, and that for four cau­ses. Quia sunt discordes, et quemadmodum sui quinque digiti, it a illi nanquam in unum coalescant; Quia laborum sunt impatientes, et prae aliis Germani sunt helluones, Potatores, qui in castris scortorum turbam foveant, Ducesque belli plumis potius, quam armis militaribus gaudeant, quia temere.—I value not the Germans much, because they are at discord, nor can they be ever made one, no more then my five fingers; They are impatient of labour, and above all others they are gluttons, and drinkers, fit to march in a Field of Whores, and they take more pride in their feathers then their armes.

But Germany glorieth much that she was the first Inventresse of gunpowder, and printing, of Artillery & Typography; whereof, contrary to the Genius and function of the men, a Fryer found out the first, and a soldier the second; But if we may give credit to Maffeius, and Paulus Iovius, and Boterus, three se­rious and sober Authors, They will tell you the contrary; and they were first invented and practised in China, the most Orientall Countrey upon this part of the Hemisphear. Heare I pray you his words, Aenea tormenta conflare, litteras imaginesque subjectis praelo typis excudere (quibus Cmomentis Europa recentibus adeo gloriatur) vetustissimo in usu apud Sinas compertum est—To cast brasse gunns, or imprint characters by way of stamp hath bin of very ancient use in China, though Europe arrogate the inventions to her self; Besides the mould­ing of Canons, they have a way to make them loose in parts, which may be carried upon a porters back, or a beasts to any place without carriages; Then for printing, their characters are longer then ours, nor do their lines extend from left to right as Greek and Latins, or from the right hand to the left, as the Hebrew and all her dialects, but perpendicularly from top to bottom; There be books hereof both in the Vatican, and the Escuriall. Boterus sayeth, sono piu di mille anni ehe I Chinesi vsano la stampa. It is above a thousand yeers that the Chineses use Typography. And Paulus Iovius affirmes, Maximé mirandum videtur apud Sinas esse Typographos artifices qui libros, Historias, et sacrorum ce­remonias more nostro imprimant, quorum longissima folia introrsus quadrata serie complicentur, cujus generis volumen a Rege Lusitaniae cum Elephante dono mis­sum Leo pontifex humaniter nobis ostendit, ut hinc facile credamus ejus artis exē ­pla antequàm Lusitani in Indiam penetrarint, per Scythas et Moscos adincompa­rabile literarum praesidium ad nos pervenisse. It seems very strange that there shold be typographical Artificers in China who used to print books & the cere­monies of their law, whose longest leaves were folded fowerfold innerly. Pope [Page 39] Leo did us the civility as to shew us such a volume, which was sent him for a gift, with an Elephant, whence we may well thinke that long before the navigation of the Portugalls to the East Indies this Art of typography might be brought to Europe by way of Scythia or Moscovy. But, put case that Germany was first foundress of these two Inventions, truly I do not think she hath therby deservd any thing well of Europe: Touching gunns, they may be called things forgd in Hell, and cast in Belzebubs furnace, for they destroy the Valiant with the Coward; And for Printing, truly I think it hath bin the greatest cause of all the heresies, odd opinions and schismes that have swarmd ever since in the Chri­stian Church.

To conclude, in regard that the wallet that Germany carrieth behind her is so full of Vices, which cast such a shaddow that obscures all her Vertues, I cannot give a full suffrage that she may merit the principality of Europe, but rather vote for Italy, whence all Imperiall Majesty was first derivd unto Her.

THE ORATION OF PRINCE IO ACHIM ERNEST, Heir of Norway, Duke of Sleswik, &c. For France.

Most Heroique Princes,

THe Emperour Maximilian the first, who may be said to have deserved that name for the magnitude of his merits, his singular wisedom, his incomparable spirit, as well as from the sacred Font of Regeneration, in some familiar discour­ses with his Domestique Lords about the Kingdom of France, is said to have broken out into this high commen­dation thereof. If it could stand with the order of Nature that any mortal man might be a God here among the Elements, and I were Hee, I would so dispose in my Will (quantum ad familiae herciscundae judicium) touching the division of my estate, that my eldest son should be God after me, (absit proptana mens) but my second should be King of France. This saying or excesse of speech must be interpreted with a sane judgment; for hereby the noble Empe­rour meant nothing els then to intimate his opinion touching that potent, po­pulous, and opulent Kingdom of France, and that no one Countrey under the Sun is preferrable to it. I use this preface, most excellent Princes, for preparing your attentions; and if peradventure I be transported too far with the elogie of France, I may have the suffrage of so noble an Emperour and a Countrey­man of our own, to apologize for me; And truly though I owe my vitals to Germany and all that I have, being my most dear native soyl, yet let me not be thought to degenerate a jot from the nature of a German, if in my subsequent discourse I hold France to have the advantage of Germany in divers things; as also of any Europaean Country besides; which while I endeavour to assert and prove, I humbly desire this most Noble Auditory that the same gale of favor and candor may blow upon me all along as I go, which did on that Illustrious Prince who spoke before me.

And now will I endeavour to take a survey of France, which noble Monar­chy whosoever will behold with a judicious and impartial eye, will acknowledg that first for her position and site she hath the advantage of any other Coun­trey being placed in the Center of Europe, having Italy, Spain, Germany, and Great Britain round about Her; She enjoyes a most delicate temper of clime, for she needs not either the stoves of Germany to preserve her children from the [Page 38] inclemency of the Heavens in point of cold, or the subterranean caves in other Countries to refresh her in point of heat, nor is she much infected with un­wholsom aguish and infectious aires which in other Countreys produce such a legion of diseases. Now, that which adds much to the advantage of her situa­tion is, that she lieth accessible and open to all mankind for Commerce and ne­gotiation both by Land and Sea, and being seated so in the midst she is the fittest to be Arbitresse, and to give law to the rest of Christendom, as being able to divide, hinder, or unite the Forces of Europe when she pleaseth; She stands commodiously to restrain the growing and unproportionable greatnes of some, as also to releeve the weaker, that they be not oppressed by the stron­ger: She bridles Great Britany backward; On the right hand she checks Spain, on the left hand Germany both high and low. The Ocean and Mediter­ranean wash both her sides, the Alps fence her from Italy, and the Pyrenean Mountains from Spain, those huge hills serving her as trenches of Circumval­lations against both; And where nature fayles, she secures her self by art, by Fortresses, Cittadels, and Castles.

To this Strength of hers may be added her plenty, and indeed she may be call'd a Copia Cornu, or a Pandora's box of all things for necessity or pleasure, and she useth to give such largesse of her luxuriant fortune abroad, that she is a Creditor to all other peeple, but a Debtor to none; Those commo­dities which use to enrich other Countreys singly are here all conjunct, and what is exotique or strange in other Countreys is here domestique & common; Which Italy, who useth to be sparing of other's praises, and prodigal of her own, doth acknowledg, for Boterus saith, that those things which are found but in some places of Italy, are found every where in France. Therefore the character which Pliny gave in times past to Province, and Salvianus gave to Aquitania in particular, may be applyed to France in general. Narbonensis Provincia agrorum cultu, &c. The Countrey of Narbon saith Pliny is not to be postpos'd to any other either for Agriculture, for foecundity of soyl, for uni­versality of wealth, for Nobles and Gentry, &c. And Salvianus saith, that Aquitania is not only a fat Countrey, and full of marrow, but she hath as much jucundity as fertility, as much real pleasure as outward beauty: Nam Illic omnis admodum Regio aut intertexta est Vineis, aut florulenta pratis, aut irrigata fon­tibus, aut interfusa fluminibus, aut distincta culturis, aut consita pomis, aut amaenata lucis, aut crinita messibus, Ut verè possessores ac Domini illius terrae non tam soli istius portionem quàm Paradisi imaginem possidere Videantur. There every place is either interwoven with Vines, or flowr'd with Medowes, or set with Orchards, or cut by Corn fields, or peepled with Trees, and Woods, or refresh'd with Foun­tains, or inchanel'd with Rivers, or periwigg'd with all sorts of grain; In so much that the Inhabitants of that Countrey may be sayed to have a peece of Paradise rather then a portion of the Common Earth.

But the four Cardinal Commodities of France may be said to be Corn, Wine, Hemp, and Salt, which Boterus calls Galliae Magnetes, the four Loadstones of France: For as the loadstone, especially the blew and Ethiopian, is more pre­cious in weight then silver, and hath an attractive Vertu to draw, and embrace iron with other mettals, so these French Loadstones which are so far more no­ble then the Ethiopians, as the climes are in temper, and noblenesse, do draw unto them all the silver and gold of their neighbours; so that France may be call'd the Exchequer of Europe.

Touching French Corn ther's no question but it is the perfect'st of all other, Solinus, and Pomponius Mela expatiate themselves very far in the French fields, and speak much of their fatnesse and foecundity; Nor was Cicero himself si­lent, but he speaks of vast proportions of Corn which were exported from the Gaules of France; And Pliny, one of Natures Protonotaries, bears witnesse that the Gallic corn was nitidissimi grani. & plus panis reddere quàm far aliud; it was of a neat grain, and yeelded more bread then other Wheat: Who knowes [Page 39] not but Spain might starve without French Corn, which is transmuted to Indian silver and gold; Insomuch that the Spaniard may be said to have the dominion of the Mines of Mexico, but the French reap the benefit thereof.

Now, touching the French Wines we may well say they need no bush; for by bartring of useful rich Commodities, and great summes of Money, the English, the Scots, the Flemins, Hollanders, Germans, Danes, Swedes, and other bi­bacious Northern Nations fetch away Vast quantities by Sea, and by Land; Bodin speaks of one Laud a Marchant of Cambray who bought and brought in Carts 33000. barrels of French Wines in one yeer. Now, as the grape streptos according to Pliny doth turn about with the Sun, so the French nectar confor­ming it self to the course of the Sun, doth refresh as it were with a golden showr all the circumjacent Countreys. What shall I say of the excellent stomack Wines of Bourdeaux, the full bodied Wines of Orleans, which by an expresse Edict are prohibited from the Kings Cellers by reason of their strength; the neat Whites of Aix, the rich Frontiniak and most pleasant Wines of Province and Languedoc fit to feast the gods withal? In some places of Burgundy there are Wine Vessels as big as some Houses in altitude, little inferior to the Vast vessels of Heydel [...]erg, Tubinga and Groninghen.

Now I come to Hemp the third loadstone of France, and indeed it is more precious then any Gem or jewel: who would think that such a contemptible Vegetal scarce a yard high should be able to remove Egipt to Italy? for we read that Galerius in 6. daies sayl'd from Sicily to Alexandria, Babilius in six, that can bring Naples to Hercules pillers, and the Baltic Sea to the Hellespont: a poor Vegetal that can remove this upper part of the Hemisphere to the An­tipodes, for the Navigators into the East Indies do so. A vegetal that can re­sist Eolus, and overmaster Neptune himself both winds and waves, notwith­standing the impetuous whirlwinds of the one, and the tumblings of the other; a Vegetal that can joyn East and West, North and South together, and to in­terchange mutual offices of humanity and frendship. Now where doth this so useful Vegetal grow more copiously then in France? She furnisheth all her Neighbours with Sayles for their Ships, and shirts for their backs.

I come now to the Salt which savours all things, how much are all Coun­treys obliged to France for this wholsome commodity? I have heard there are rocks of Salt in Ormus, that in Carra in Arabia they make walls and houses of massy salt. In Hungary they have Mines of Salt, but both Sea and Land makes France abound with Salt wherewith she preserves from stinking, those huge Regions of the North, where, as Catullus saith,

Vix in tam magno corpore mica salis.

What millions of bushels of Salt are expended, and exported out of France ev'ry yeer? how doth salt fill the Kings Coffers with treasure? In so much that in the last computation that was made, it appeer'd that the French King had 20. millions of Franks from this sole commodity which is two millions of pounds sterling.

'Tis tru, Spain hath Salt, but it is more corroding, and acrimonious; There­fore in Charles the fifths time, when for the vent of the Spanish Salt he had put out a Placart prohibiting that no French salt should be us'd in the Low Coun­treys, the Countrey was like to mutiny for this tart proclamation, because the Spanish salt was nothing so vigorous and sweet as the French.

To these riches of France you may add Oyl, Figs, Orenges, Cytrons, Saffron; with all sorts of Fruit and most excellent Cydre. Ther are not such delight­ful fields on the surface of the whole Earth, such Herds of Cattle, and abun­dance of cloth and stuffs made, which makes le drap de Berry so famous, such swarms of bees, such hosts of Deer, and other wild beasts you will hardly find any where: Nor do there want horses of all sorts, with other animals neces­sary for the use of man, about Orleans they have 4000. breeding Mares perpe­tually: Their numbers of Forrests, Chaces and Parks, Woods and Groves▪ [Page 40] ev'ry where is infinite. In fine, France is universally fertil in ev'ry corner, nor is there one acre of ground which produceth not something or other for need or pleasure, which they who made the perambulation and tour of France have found to be tru. Ther are great number of large deep ponds. The Countrey is cover'd in many places with delightful Woods and Lawnes, which, besides the pleasure the Gentry are permitted to have without injury done to the peason, afford not only fire for the Kitchin, but instruments for war by Sea and land: Pliny was not deceiv'd when he said that France was full of yew Trees, which though it be poysonous if one sleeps or eats under them, (whence may be inferr'd that toxica came first from taxica or taxus,) yet there is a reme­dy found out, that if one doth beat into the yew a brasse nayl, it takes away the force of any poyson.

Hitherto most Princely Auditors I, have shew'd the face and outward purple of our French Helen, I will now discover unto you her belly and inward parts, wherof she is pregnant, as iron the best and worst instrument of life, for here­with we manure the Earth, we lopp trees, we prune Vineyards, we build Houses and Ships, we arm our selves against the Enemy, which makes the In­dians to prefer it before all metals, and when any Ships arrive to their Havens, the first thing they cry out for is Iron, Iron. But we use it also to pernicious uses, as killing and slaying, we give it wings to do mischief, &c. And nature hath furnish'd the bowels of France with this mettal more then ordinary that she might defend herself, and arm her couragious sons: There is good store also of other mettals, and although Diodorus seems to undervalue France be­cause she hath no Mines of silver, he is deceiv'd; for though by a casual fire that happen'd among the Shepherds on the Pyreney hills, which search'd the very bowels of the Earth, and melted the Mines of gold and silver; yet Domi­nicus Bertinus affirmeth, that if we would go to the pains, there might be as much gold dig'd out of that part of the Pyrenean hills which look upon France, as is found in Peru. But the vertu of France looks upward towards heaven; for since the upper parts of her earth affords all things that may satisfie hu­mane desire and appetite, even Apidicus himself, why should we tear the bowels of so kind and benigne a Mother? The Pagan Poet could complain of this,

—Itum est in viscera Terrae,
Quas (que) abscondiderat, stygijs (que) admoverat Umbris,
Effodiuntur opes irritamenta malorum.

Now for habitation, Nature hath provided stones of all kind, Marbles of all colours, with white specious free stone, wherewith the Burgundian, and Pyre­nean Hills abound; Now as her upper parts abound with Woods, Fruits and Grounds, her bowels with Mines and Marble, so her veines, I mean her Rivers, are full of fish, and some extraordinary ones; there is observ'd to be in the River Arari a great fish call'd Clupea, which in the increase of the Moon is white, and in the wane grows black, therefore sure those that eat of it must be inconstant peeple, having such a sympathy with the Moon; This fish grow­ing too great is kill'd by his own finns, and in his head there is a stone taken out which is good against quartan Agues, being tyed to the left side of the bo­dy in the decrease of the Moon: There is a lake in Bonvalle in Burgundy that abounds with sundry sorts of strange fish, which lake hath a trick to hide her self for a while in the caverns of the Earth, and then to appeer again.

Nor is there any Countrey so conveniently water'd not only with rare Sour­ces, and Rivulets, but with great Navigable Rivers which makes one Province communicable to another; for all the great Townes of France are situated up­on mercantil Rivers that will bear Ships and Boats, whereby there is a very commodious way for intercourse of trade; And in some of these Rivers there are found out small ingots of gold, as in Tagus in Spain, the Po in Italy, Pactolus in Asia, and Ganges in India. Among others the Sein is observed to be the most [Page 41] delectable, and gentlest River, never subject to inundations, and to have her banks mended, by her windings and maeanders she seems to visit and salute ev'ry place as she runs; for in some places which are distant one from another but six miles by Land, there is thirty miles distance by the River: This is that River which embraceth France in her armes; France, whom Iosephus calls the source of beatitude, Cicero the nurse of plenty, and Procopius prefers her in power before all the Regions of Europe; O unspeakable indulgency of nature, O most delicate and divine part of the Earthly globe, surely that character which was given of thee doth well be fit thee, La France est le petit aeil, et la perle du monde. France is the little ey and perl of the World.

I come now to the Inhabitants of France, who are a gallant peeple and de­serve such a dwelling, but both fo [...] quality and quantity, for their Vertues and nombers I shall not be able to set them forth to any perfection: In a multi­tude of peeple lieth the Kings dignity, and in the paucity his shame, saith Salomon; which was the cause that God Almighty purposing to exalt Abraham, pro­mis'd him that his posterity shold so multiply, that their nomber should be like the Stars in the Firmament, or like the sands on the Sea shore; Now what Region under the Cope of Heaven is more repleted with peeple then France? Ther can be no vacuum found there, no desert corner, or any part of the air but is breath'd in by men; so that, as One sayed, France may be sayed to be but one great City distinguish'd by passages, and wayes: And as it is observ'd in the Ant's Common Wealth (the Emblem of industry) that ev'ry one is a doing something, so is this stirring peeple.

Ther are in France 102. Episcopal Citties, whereof 14. are Metropolitan, with an incredible nomber of other Townes: Ther are nere upon 30. thou­sand Parishes, what myriads of soules shall we think then may breath under those roofs? What was spoken of old of Narbo among the Romans, may well be spoken of France in general.

Salve Narbo potens salubritate,
Urbe et Rure simul bonus videri,
Muniris, civibus, ambitu, tabernis,
Porto, porticibus, foro, theatro,
Delubris, capitolijs, monetis,
Thermis, arcubus, horreis, macellis,
Pratis, fontibus, insulis, salinis,
Stagnis, flumine, merce, ponte, ponto,
Unus qui venerere jure Divos
Lenaeum, Cererem, Palem, Minervam,
Spicis, palmite, pascuis, trapetis
Solis fise viris, nec expetito
Naturae auxilio procul relictis,
Promens montibus altius cacumen,
Non te fossa patens, nec hispidum
Objecti sudium coronat Agger &c.
Quid quod Caesaribus ferax creandis,
Felix prole Virum semul dedicti
Nates cum genitore Principantes?

Now to com to the Citties of France, it were an infinit task to speak of them all, I will instance in a few, behold Nismes, where more antiquities, as Fanes, Palaces, Amphitheater with other monuments are to be seen, then in any one Town of Italy except Rome. Take a survay of Monpelier, a most ancient seat of the Muses, and incomparable for simples and the study of Physi [...], whither the Saracens when they were expell'd from Spain came with som Arabian Do­ctors disciples to Avicen, Averroes and others, who left their rare knowledg there behind them. Now, Paris may be call'd a little world of it self; hear [Page 42] what Boterus speaks of her, Parigi Cittá che di popolo et di abondanza dôgni cosa avanza di gran lúnga tutte láltre Cittá di Christianitá. The City of Paris far exceeds all others of Christendom for peeple, and plenty of all things; Charles the 5th said, that Paris was not to be rank'd among Citties but Provinces, for her amplitude and affluence of all things; Nor was Prince Christopher your Granfather, most noble Duke of Wirtemberg much out of his account, when he affirm'd that ther were more soules in Paris then in all the Territories of Wirtemberg; Who will beleeve this that hath not seen Paris, and who will not beleeve it that hath seen her! It is a place of such infinit provision, that Mons. Vigner sayed, if he were to invite the greatest Feasters among the Ro­mans, were they alive, as Apicius, Lucullus, Pompey, with a dozen more, he would desire but a daies warning to do it, and they should be so treated, that they should confesse they never found the like in Rome.

Among others Henry the 4th. did contribute much to the glory of Paris, he desir'd to survive but two Wishes, the one to perfect the Louure, the other to encompasse the Suburbs of St. Germain with a wall; Then for Court and City he would compare with all the Potentates upon Earth: He would not suffer any new tax to be impos'd upon the Parisians, Insomuch that the Provost of the Citty desiring his Majestie would be pleas'd to give way that ther might a small imposition be layed upon the water pipes towards the defraying the charges of the Helvetian Embassadors, he answer'd very pleasantly, that ther was need of an other invention, for it belong'd only to Iesus Christ to turn Water into Wine.

But to proceed further in this theme, as of all the visible works of nature the Firmament is the fairest, so of all Earthly Continents France is the most florishing, and fullest of the most vigorous Gentry, nor doth the gentlenesse of the Countrey effeminat their spirits, or the indulgence of the Heavens sof­ten their courage, but they are all of high heroical dispositions; And as ver­tue dwells commonly in free minds, so France is the freest peeple upon Earth, Insomuch that it is a Rule, Servi peregrini ut primùm Galliaef [...]nes penetraverint li­beri sunto, as Bodin hath it; Strange servants as soon as they breath French air let them be free: I will produce one Example. A Marchant came to Tholouse and brought with him a slave whom he had bought in Spain, the slave being told of the Constitutions of France, came and told his Master, Sir, I have serv'd you hitherto in quality of a slave, but I am now a Freeeman, yet I am content to serve you still, but as a free attendant according to the custome of this no­ble Countrey. The like thing happen'd at the siege of Mets, where a servant had play'd the fugitive and ran away with his Master Don Luis de Avila's horse, who was Master of the horse to the Emperour, Don Luis sent to the Duke of Guyse a Trompetor for his man and his horse; The Duke understanding that the horse was sold caus'd the money to be sent the Spaniard, but for the servant he sent him word, That his servant had enter'd into the inner parts of France, where the Law is, that if any of a servile condition puts his foot once, he in­stantly recovers his liberty, which custom being so consonant to reason, and agreeable to Christianity, he could not nor would not violat.

Touching the magnanimity and valour of the French ther are infinit Exam­ples all the World over; Alexander the great hearing of their valour sent to know of them what they fear'd most? They answer'd, Ne coelum rueret, Least the heaven should fall. 'Tis tru, Gallia became a Province to the Romanes, but presently after the death of Iulius Caesar she was declared free: And Rome call'd the Gaules in their publique writings by the appellation of frends. 'Tis well known what footing the Gaules took in Italy, for the best part of Lom­bardy was call'd Gallia Cisalpina; We read in Caesar that the time was cum Ger­manos Galli virtute superarent, that the Gaules were superior to the Germans in valour, that they had conquer'd much of the Countrey about the Hercynian Forest: Are not the Britains of the Gaulic or Wallic race? are not divers Pro­vinces in Spain and Portingal descended from Them? Afterward in revolu­tion [Page 43] of time the German Franconians, and Gaules, being neighbours, came by coalition to be one Nation, and they have continued so above these 12 Ages. The Kings of Sicily descend from Tanered the Norman; so do the Kings of England from William the Conqueror and the Plantagenets; The Kings of Cyprus, Syria, and Greece, com from Guy of Lusignan; nay Constantinople was held awhile by Gallic Emperours: What glorious Expeditions have bin made to the Holy Land by 5. French Kings in person; Me thinks I see Godefroy of B [...]llion having sold his Duchy to that purpose marching with a huge Army through Germany, Hungary, and Greece, and so passing to Asia and Syria to encounter the Forces of Soliman the Ottoman Emperour, and Chalypha the Sol­dan of Egipt with other Barbarian Kings whom he put all to flight, making himself Master of Nice, of Antioch, and Hieresulam her self with the holy Sepul­cher of Christ; Me thinks I see him when he was to be crown'd King of Hierusalem throwing away a Crown of gold, and taking one of thorns in imita­tion of his Saviour: Me thinks I see all the tributary Princes therabouts bringing offrings unto him, and he clad in the habit of a common Gregarian Soldier, wherat they being astonished, som of them, as the Archbishop of Tyre said, How is it that so great a King, so admirable a Conqueror, who coming from the West hath shaken all the Eastern World shold go so plain and homely? But to step back a little, look upon Brennus ransacking Rome with an Army of Gaules: look upon Charles Martel who was call'd Conservator of the Christian World, which was then upon point of ruine, and to fall under the yoke of Infidels and Saracens. Look upon Pepin who chas'd the Long [...]bards out of Italy; upon Bertrand who depriv'd Peter King of Castile of his King­dom for his tyranny; I could instance in a great nomber who have their names engraven, and their Ensigns hung up in the Temple of immortality. More­over for Cavalleers and horsemen it is granted by all Nations that the French are the prime. It is recorded in good, how in the African Warr 30. French re­puls'd 2000. Moors: But to come neerer home, In the siege of Mets where the fifth himself commanded in chief, What resolute Sallies did the French make out of the Town, causing the Emperour at last to trusse up his bagg and baggage and go away by torchlight; Inso much that the Town of Mets being then kept by a French Garrison put the last bounds to the Conquests of that Great Captain, as a Poet could tell him,

Si metam nescis, Urls est quae Meta vocatur.

Now to go from the Sword to the Crosier, What brave Prelats, and Cham­pions against haeresie hath France bred? St. Hilary the queller of the Arrian heresie, St. Hierom▪ Pontius Paulinus Bishop of Nola, Rusticus, Phaebadius, Pro­sper, [...]cditius, Avitus, Mamertus Archbishop of Vienna, Sidonius Apollinaris, Lupus, Germanus, Salvianus, Remigius Archbishop of Rheims, with multitudes more all of them most pio [...]s, and learned Prelats, whose Monuments shew them to be so to this day; And so well devoted were the French alwayes to the Church of God, that they thought nothing too dear and precious to endow her withall, witnesse those mighty revenues the Gallican Church possesseth: For in the late Raign of Charles the 9. ther was a cense brought in of the de­mains of the Church, and they amounted to 12 millions, and 300. thousand Franks in annual rent besides voluntary oblations.

Now touching Learning and Eloquence Lucius Plotius a Gaul was the first began to read Latin Lectures at Rome, and Cicero being then a boy, and find­ing such a great confluence of Auditors to flock ev'ry day to hear him, he griev'd that he could not do the like, as Suetonius hath left it upon record; Mar­cus Antonius Gnipho a Gaul did then florish also at Rome, a man of singular Elo­cution, and a prodigious Memory, he delivered praecepts in Greek and Latin; and among others Cicero himself when he was Praetor us'd to be his Auditor. [Page 44] Marseilles was very renowned for great learned men, having bin so many ages a Greek Colony; so was Lions also a special seat of the Muses, as it is now for Marchants of all Nations, of whom the Kings of France have borrow'd Millions of money to supply their sudden necessities: Valence was also famous for Philosophers and Poets, witnesse Athenaeus, as also Vienne where Latin was so vulgar, according to that signal Epigram of Martial,

Fertur habere meos si vera est fama [...]
Inter delicias pulchra Vienna suas;
Me legit omnis ibi Senior, Iuvenis (que) puer (que),
Et coram tetrico cast a puella viro,
Hoc ego maluerim quàm si mea carmina cantent
Qui nilum ex ipso protinus ore bibunt;
Quàm Meus Hispano si me Tagus impleat auro,
Pascat et Hybla meas, pascat Hymettos apes. &c.

And questionlesse no Countrey florish'd with Learning more then France in those daies, witnesse St. Hierom when he writ, Sola Gallia monstra non habuit, &c. France alone had no Monsters, but abounded still with most valiant, and eloquent men; And elswhere, post studia Galliarum quae vel florentissima sunt misit Romam, &c. After he had finish'd his studies in Gallia where they are most florishing, he sent him to Rome, sparing no cost that he might season the copiousnesse and neatnesse of the French speech with the Roman gravity.

Moreover in the Constitutions of the Emperours Valens and Gratianus ther is mention made that France was full of Philosophers, Rhetoricians, and Gram­marians, who excell'd both in the Attique and Roman Learning. To this tribe of learned men are to be refer'd the Druyds, the Eubages and Bards, among whom Votienus Montanus, Domitius, After, Gabinianus, M. Aper, Iul. Florus, Iul. Secundus, Nazarius, and Nazarius daughter Eunomia, Eumenides, Terentius Varro, Phavorinus, Pacatus, Rutilius Numatianus, Ausonius Gratian, and Valenti­nians Schoolmaster, were most famous.

Now touching the Lutetian Academy in Paris, she is acknowledg'd to be the Mother of all the rest, one of the brightest eyes of all Europe, the great nomber of Masters in all faculties there make all the World to make their ad­dresses thither for instruction. Pope Innocent the third gave this character of Paris, that Studium Parisiense erat fundamentum Ecclesiae. Ther have bin known to be in Paris at one time 20000. Students, and somtimes 30000. until the Emis­saries of the Roman Capitol, the Iesuits did draw away and allure the chief flower of our youth to their Colleges. What a brave masculin spirit was Robert of Sorbon, a man of high reason, and an invincible Disputant, who was born in a convenient time to vindicat his Countrey from the Encroachments of the Papall power, and keep it within its own channel so that it shold not mound, and overwhelm the Prerogatives of the Gallican Monarchy, whereof the Colledg of Sorbon may be sayed to be one of the chiefest props. Besides Paris ther are 15. great Seminaries of learning, and seates of Muses, whence as from never drieng sources all scientifical knowledg do flow, and disperse it self every where. What great lights of Learning were Io. Gerson, Peter Lombard, Gentianus Hervetus, who was so much admir'd in the Tridentine Councel; What Giants of Erudition were Vatablus, Io. Mercerus, Genebrardus, Calvin, Beza, Sedelius, Ducaeus, as also Monsieur du Plessis among the Nobility or Lay­tie: What a man of men was Cardinal Perron; with great nombers of other besides?

Moreover for the Civil Law France is acknowledg'd to have bred the acu­test wits of the World; witnesse Duarenus, Aemarus Rinconetus, Michael Ho­spitalis, who underwent all the offices of the gown, and was observ'd to resem­ble Aristotle in physiognomy, as in all other profounndesse of learning, and [Page 45] quicknesse of spirit; Ther have bin other great Legislators, as Car. [...] whose lucubrations serve for lanterns to direct any in the study of the Law, an, for the decision of all crabbed points; let Baptista Menilius com in next, whd for rectitude of opinion was accounted an Oracle: Bonus Broveus was famous also for his orthodox judgment, and moving flexanimous Eloquence. To these may be added Gulielmus Budaeus whom Erasmus calls the prodigie of France, Oli­varius, Fabrus, Hottoman, Conanus, and Contius, Puteanus, Bellonus, Bodinus▪ Chop­pinus, Bonifidius, and Iacobus Cuiaccius who was call'd the Papinian of his time.

Now, touching Physick what shall I say of Fernelius, Hollenus, Charondas, Gorreus, Dalechampius, and Quercetanus, Foxius Candala, Orontius Finus, Io. P [...]na, Montareus, P. Ramus, Nostradamus, all most acute Mathematitians, spe­cially Francis Vieta, as also Lescotus the greatest Architect that Europe ever had since the time of Vitruvius, who was the first tracer of that stupendous Castle of the Louure, which in Elegancy, in vastnesse of Symmetry, and ex­actnesse of proportion when it is finish'd, may compare with any fabrique upon Earth.

Augustus Thuanus may now take place for the most Methodical, and judi­cious Historian that ever put pen to paper, or committed any thing to the Archives of truth; As also the Sammarthans brother who were Auxiliaries to Thuanus in his collections; And we desire and advise Puteanus, and Ri­galtius to expose to public light those peeces that were committed to their trust by Thuanus, and not frustrat the Common Wealth of learning of the sight of them by any longer procrastination.

Now for heavenly inspir'd Poets let Ronsard appeer first, the excellentest that hath bin since Augustus his egresse out of this World; Let Bellay come next him, and Bellaqua be in the third place; But we may well add a fourth to these three, which is Auratus; And for a fift let Salust Du Bartas carry the place, who hath described the Creation of the World so lively and elegantly, that he merits the praise and admiration of the whole World of wit; Witnes that modest opinion and applause which Ronsard himself gave him, who being ask'd what he thought of Dubartas his Works? answer'd no lesse ingeniously then ingenuously, Mons. Du Bartas afait plus en vne semaine que je nayfait en [...] ma vie, Monsieur Du Bartas hath don more in one Week, then I have don all the dayes of my life.

Now, for Philosophers let Turnebus, and Montanus com in the Van, men of rare Erudition and probity; Let Ant. Muret, and Passeratius accompany them; let Causabon also com in the same file of Worthies, a man vers'd in omni (cibili, in all knowledg as well as Criticismes; Let Ioseph Scaliger bring up the rear and be Dictator of all Literature, who

Idumaeus Arabs, Syrus (que) et Indus,
Chaldaeus simul, Aethiops (que) Civis,
Quem (que) Achemenii suum Vocarent,
Pelasgus simul, et simul Latinus,
Et Graius Vetus, et Quotidianus,
Et Thuscus simul, et simul Britannus,
Et quod altera secula obstupescant,
Hispanus simul, et simul Batâvus.

Now, let it be observ'd that the French toung hath a great advantage in couching any kind of knowledg as well for the copiousnesse, as the lenity and smoothnesse of speech, wherein neither her mother the Latin, or her two sisters the Italian and Spanish can contend with her, nor our Teutonique also which is so sinewy and masculine a language being so knotted with con­sonants▪ [Page 46] Nor is ther any kind of science or knowledg but you shall find it in the French toung, so that if all other toungs were perish'd, ther might be an instauration, and consummation made of all arts and learning in the French alone; Therfore Charles the Emperour the compleatest Prince of his time was overheard to tell his Son Philip in a privat discourse that he held it a signal honor, that by his grandmother Mary of Valois he was extracted of the illustri­ous progeny of France, and that he could speak that language, which was very frequent in his Court among his domestiques. Now, it cannot be denied but this French toung hath many Dialects, and in these dialects ther are as is found in all other languages certain [...], but the prime and purest property of idiotisms seems as it were to dwell upon the banks of the Loire, and princi­pally in Blois, and Orleans; Insomuch that as the Attique was esteem'd the choi­cest dialect among the Greeks, so the Aurelian is by the French.

Now for language, vertu and learning the French have perfected all three with a marvailous dexterity and promptitude of nature, and a rare vigor of all the senses inward and outward; which makes Iulius Scaliger to break out thus into their praises. I find there is a fiery kind of vigor, and mature celerity in the French which other Nations have not: To whatsoever they apply themselves they become nota­ble proficients, and arrive to a perfection in a short time, whether it be in the mystery of Marchandising, in letters, armes or Arts; Paulus Me [...]ula gives this testimo­ny of them, I have observ'd, and became astonish'd, that among the French some will argue and discourse extempore of any probleme, and that with such an admira­ble method as if they had studied the theme many daies before: Therfore sure Servius was deceav'd in the French, when he sayes they are pigrioris Ingenii; so was Iulius Firmicus, wheen he calls them stolidos, foolish; so was Iulianus, when he terms them stupidos et rusticitatis amantes, blockheads, and lovers of homeli­nesse; so was likewise Polybius where he saith, that doctrinae et artibus operam non dant, they apply themselves neither to Learning nor Arts; I know Diodo­rus, Athenaus, and Clemens Alexandrinus say, that they are faithlesse, and given to gluttony and drunkenes; Livie brands them to be light and effeminat; Me­la accuseth them to be greedy after gold, proud, and superstitious; Solinus calls them vain-glorious; Plutark writes they are insatiable of money, and Cicero sayeth, Gallos minimè vlla Religione moveri, The Gaules are not mov'd at all by any Religion: Surely these Writers took all these reports a far off, and upon trust. For they who have had intimacy with the French and studied the nation in general, will say otherwise of them.

But that which is most noble in France, and which elevats Her above all other Empires is the Majesty of her Kings, wherof ther have bin so many brave heroique Monarks who have don such exploits, that one may speak more of them in telling truth, then can be spoken of Others in vapouring out hyper­boles and lies. Pope Gregory writing to Childebert King of France, Quantò cae­teros homines Regia dignitas antecellit, tantò caeterarum gentium regna Regni vestri culmen excellit. As much as Kings excel other men, so far doth the glory of yours exceed the Kingdomes of other Nations. Honorius the third said, that the Kingdom of France was the unexpugnable wall of Christendom. Urban the fourth saith, that the King of France is the morning Star in the midst of the Western clowds, He is an Earthly God in his own Kingdom, he is above all Kings; Ejús (que) umbrâ totus mundus regitur, and all the World is govern'd by his shadow, saith Baldus. Nay St. Thomas saith, that he who prayeth for the King of France hath 100. daies indulgence granted by Pope Clement, and 10. added by Innocent the fourth.

Moreover France is not subject to the distaff as other Kingdoms are, but the Salique Law proclaimes aloud,

Gallorum Imperii Successor masculus esto.

For this is not only consentaneous to reason, but hath a congruity with na­ture [Page 47] her self, Because that in man the mind, the body, the voice and all things els are more strong and strenuous, They are fitter for action, and attract more awe and reverence unto them; In the female all things are softer and lighter, which may attract more affection, but there is a kind of contempt that mingles with it; In the one, authority and Majesty appeers, in the other fears, and jealousie: And how preposterous is it to the law of nature, for man to be a vassal to that sex which should be under him? The Pagan Epigrammatist can tell you in oeconomical government.

Inferior maetrona suo sit, Prisce, marito,
Non aliter fuerint foemina Vir (que) pares.

I cannot deny but ther may be examples produc'd of som notable Heroique Queens, as Zenobia, Pulcheria, Semiramis, Isabella of Castile, and of Elizabeth Queen of England, a Lady that was prudent beyond her sex, and ador'd with literature, she understood Greek and Spanish indifferently well, but for La­tin, French, Italian, English, and the old British she spoak them familiarly, which made Pope sixtus the fifth break out into this wish, that he had a greater desire to see one woman, and one man, then all the race of mankind besides, and they were Queen Elizabeth of England, and Henry of Navar [...]; to whom, were they not tainted with heresie, he had things of mighty consequence to communicat; But we may not forget what kind of Queens other women have bin, as Athaliah, Cleopatra, Messalina, Faustina, Iane of Naples, and Fredegunda of France, which made Eu­molpus or Porphyrius under Constantine to break out into this harsh tetrastique

Crede ratem Ventis, animum ne crede puellis,
nam (que) est faemin [...]a tutior vnda fide.
Faemina nulla bona est, et si bona contigit ulla,
nescio quo fato res mala facta bona est.

Ther is another prerogative that the Kings of France are said to have, which is never to die, whereupon Maria de Medicis being struck with a consternation when she heard of the death of her husband Henry the fourth, and cryeng out Helas, that the King is dead; No, answer'd the Chancelor, the Kings of France never die; And the reason that they die not is, because they are born Kings, and perpetuat themselves so in their own bloud; And as in all successions accord­ing to the mode of speaking in France, le mort saisit le vif, so in an hereditary Kingdom

—Uno avulso non deficit Alter,

The next a kin succeeds though a thousand degrees off by right of bloud. Which cours doth not only foment and encrease affections 'twixt the Prince and his peeple, but it prevents all tempests of ambition, and pretences that may happen during the vacancy or interregnum, and propps the Crown with columnes of eternity. But in Elections, what expectations, and stirrs! what sidings and factions do use to happen; Besides what Prince will care for ano­ther mans, as much as for his own inheritance, which he is assured will descend upon his own issue and bloud: Moreover in Elective States what a nundina­tion, what a buying and selling of suffrages is ther? The Roman Empire pre­sently after Claudius, who was the first Caesar that was chosen by the Soldiers whose alleageance he bought with rewards, did fall upon vile and base heads by that kind of Election or rather by that kind of Emption for it may be sayed that the Empire lay under the spear expos'd to publique sale; What contestations happen'd 'twixt the Senat and the Legions? In so much that ev'ry Province might be sayed to have their several Emperours; And when Zenobia was Em­presse ther were reckon'd 30. at one time.

[Page 48]In our Germany, how many Interregnums have we had by this way of Electi­on? How many yeers did she appeer as a Monster without a head after the death of Frederic the second? What a world of confusion, and exorbitances, of fraud, and depraedations did she fall into? What a base plot had Charles the fourth, as also Vuenceslaus who would have prostituted the Empire for mo­ney? They did so deplume the Eagle that she became contemptible to all other Creatures; These were they whom Maximilian the first call'd the step­fathers or rather the two pests of the Empire. The same Maximilian also in the Councel of Constance protested that he had rais'd 100. tonnes of gold out of his own patrimonial demeanes to support the sacred Roman Empire, and all that while he had not receiv'd from the States of the Empire 40000. flo­rins.

Now, because my discourse hath transported me so far, I cannot but ex­tremely groan, and deplore the state of the Empire, and to what a pitiful low ebb 'tis fallen unto; For wheras in the time of Frederic the first, (and the strength of the Empire was then much attenuated) the annual revenues came to 60000. tonnes of gold, which amounts to about 6. millions sterling, the exility of the rents of Caesar which he gets by the Empire are scarce able, as Schneiderin a famous Civil Lawyer doth assert, to maintain the domestic expences of the Imperial Court, nor those neither unlesse Caesar did contribut much therunto out of his own patrimonial inheritances, which made Cardinal Granvil to affirm aloud in the time of Charles the 5. ex Imperio ne tantillum Emolumenti habere Caesarem, that Caesar had no Emolument at all from the Empire, and we know no King in Christendom was reduc'd to that tenuity.

But France is not subject to those Comitial diseases or Diets of the Empire, being secure by the succession and prerogatives of her Kings, who have a tran­scendent and absolut authority not derived at all from their subjects; wherby Caesar himself may be sayed to be inferior in point of power, though not in pre­cedence to Caesar himself, though as Bartolus averrs, Haeretici sunt pronunciandi qui­cun (que) Imperatorem Germanicum universi terrarum Orbis Dominum esse negant, They are to be pronounc'd Heretiques who deny the Rom. German Emperour to be Lord Paramount of all the Univers; And he grounds this right upon the an­swer of the Emperour Antoninus to Eudaemon of Nicodemia, [...], Ego quidem Mundi Dominus, lex autem maris; I am Lord of the World, and the Law of the Sea: He urgeth also another ar­gument from the words of the holy Evangelist, when he sayeth, Ther issued forth a Decree from Augustus, that the whole world shold be taxed. But France acknowledgeth no such superiority; for when L. Madrutius was employed by Ferdinand the Emperour to Francis the second, for the restitution of Toul, and Verdun, with other feathers which he had pluck'd from the Eagle, Franciscus Oli­varius the Chancelor answer'd, that they deserv'd capital punishment who wold advise the King to such a surrendry, or held that the most Christian King and first son of the Church was any wayes inferior to Caesar: Herupon we know that the doctrine of the Imperial Lawes are prohibited in Paris by this Edict and Caveat, Ne quis publicè profiteretur Romanas leges in Academia Parisiensi, neve quem Scholasticos ejus disciplinâ ad gradus auderet provehere, That none shold make profession of the Roman Lawes in the University of Paris, or dare to ad­vance the Students therof to any degree of dignity. Herupon Hospitalius Charles the ninth's Chancelor in presence of the King himself and the assembly of the three Estates procur'd it to be enacted, that the Kings of France the very same moment that they entred into the 14th yeer of their age shold be pronounc'd capable to raign, and to be out of his minority, and so govern in­choativè. Now for the Imperial Lawes, their reason and equity may be haply made use of in other Dominions, but not their authority and sanction; No more could the Romans in times past be sayed to be any way under the Greeks, because they borrowed, and made use of som Lawes of theirs. No more can [Page 49] the Turks be sayed to be any way subject to the Romans because they have the Iustinian Code translated into their vulgar language, and that their Cadies make use of them to rectifie somtimes natural reason.

Furthermore the supereminent royalties of the Kings of France appeer ma­nifestly, in that they have the sole power to indict war, or establish peace, to make leagues and confederacies, to enact Lawes, to creat Magistrates of the gown and the sword, to give pardon for lives, to stamp money, to give letters of denization, to impose taxes, and make pecuniary levies at pleasure. Now, the Kingdom of France is like a most fertile and florishing medow, wheron in­finit flocks of sheep do feed and bear golden fleeces, which may be shorn when the shepherd pleaseth; yet I will except here the province of Languedoc wher the King cannot exact any subsidiary contributions, without the expresse con­sentment of the three Estates of that Countrey.

For administration of Civil Justice, France comes short of no other Region, whose charge it is to preserve the Kings prerogatives, as well as the priviledg of the subject; To which end ther be 8. Courts of Parlement whose names are known to any that have travel'd France; Among these that of Paris is the most praedominant in regard the Parlament of Peers is alwayes there residing, which high Court useth to verifie (not confirm) all the Kings Edicts to make them the more plausible, and for form sake only. Now, as France is the beau­ty of Europe, so that Parlement is the eye of France, and the Parlement of Peers is the apple of that eye; Nor do ther want examples how other For­ren Kings and Princes have refer'd themselves to this Court of Parlement, as a high consistory of reason, and Justice, as being Astrea's noblest tribunal. The Emperour Frederick the second refer'd the controversies 'twixt him and Pope Innocent the fourth, touching the Kingdom of Naples to the decision of this Court: So the Count of Namur in a difference 'twixt Charles of Valois and him touching the County of Namur put himself upon the verdict of this Court, and he therby carried his businesse. Philip Prince of Tarentum over­came the Duke of Burgundy in this Court, touching som expences made in recovering the Greek Empire; The Dukes of Lorain have in divers things refer'd themselves to the judgment of this Court; They of Cambray who are a free peeple have bin willing to be tryed by it: The confederacy also 'twixt the Kingdom of Castile and Portugal were confirm'd by this Court, Nor is ther any admitted to this Soverain Court but persons either priviledg'd by their birth, or men of exquisit knowledg, erudition, and integrity. When Henry the second King of France by the eager importunity of a great Princesse had recommended one of the long Robe to this Court, and being rejected, he spoke merrily, je pensois que parmy tant de chevaux d'espagne vn asne pourroit bien passer, I thought that among so many Spanish ginets one Asse might have well pass'd.

Now for the Oppidan Government of Paris ther is such special circum­spection had, that never any is intrusted with the chiefest office in the Citty call'd the Provost of the Marchants, unlesse he be a man of eminent parts, probity and prudence, and generally esteemed so; so that it is us'd as a common saying to their Children if they commit any absurd or base thing, Tu ne seras point prevost des Marchands, Thou shalt never be Provost of the Marchants.

And among others the providence and prudence of Lewis the twelfth was notable, who had alwayes by him a catalogue of the discreetest, and best qualified Cittizens upon whom he us'd to confer offices of Magistracy accordingly.

And the time was when the Kings of France us'd to sit upon the tribunal themselves to determine causes, Charles the eight devoted two daies every week to that purpose, and St. Lewis three; Nor are there any Kings so [Page 50] obvious and accessible as those of France. For as the Sun when he is up in the Orient displayes his beames upon all alike, upon the Prince as well as the peasan, upon the shrub as well as the Cedar; so the Kings of France behold all their Subjects with like humanity and grace; They are benigne and affable to all both in speech, countenance and gesture, and seldom are any of them revengeful.

As ther is a memorable passage of Lewis the twelfth, who while he was Duke of Orleans fell in some disgrace with Charles the eight; herupon di­vers great men and others seeing him clowded in the Kings favour, did him sundry ill offices, Charles being dead and he succeeding in the throne, a Cour­tier to get som boon of him, told him of such and such who had bin no frends of his in his predecessors time, and so wish'd his Majestie to question, and pu­nish them; The King answered, Tu vero aliud a me pete, & meritis tuis gratia erit, Nam Rex Galliae non exequitur injurias Ducis Aurelianensis: Propose som other thing unto me, and I will prefer thee, for the King of France is not to re­venge the injuries of the Duke of Orleans.

And as the Kings of France are remarkable for their freedom, mildnesse and mansuetude to their subjects, so is the affection of the French alwayes in an in­tense degree towards their King.

Nor was ther ever a more pregnant example hereof then at the death of Henry the fourth the report wher of struck such an Earthquake into the hearts of many thousands, that som Ladies miscarried in childbirth before their time, others died suddenly upon the newes: Every one up and down the streets both men, women and children damn'd the Assassin to a thousand hells both his soul and body; Every one scruing up his witt how to devise som exquisit lasting torment for Ravillac.

Now if all matters were weigh'd in an impartial balance of justice, who can deny but the most Christian King of France is preferrable before all other Earthly Potentates: For although the Emperour by an old custom be the Prime of Princes, yet the King of France appeers in more glorious Robes then He, He hath a far more numerous guard then He; The King of France is the first Son of the holy Church; and well they may deserve it for their sanctity, and munificence to the Temple of God; and so many Voyages they made abroad to redeem the Sepulcher of Christ, and the Countrey which he did blesse with his feet, from the slavery of Infidels.

Now as Homer and Virgil are call'd The Poets [...] by Excellency; As the Pope is call'd the Bishop; so is the King of France The King: 'Tis he that by a special benediction from Heaven doth cure the Struma or the Kings Evil, and to that end His Court is frequently strew'd with sick pa­tients of all Nations, and with Spaniards as much as any other who clammer over the Pyreneans Hills, and make a kind of pilgrimage unto him, and he doth it with that modesty that he alwayes entitles the cure upon God, accord­ing to his speech in performance of the Act, Le Roy te touche, Dieu te guerisse. The King toucheth thee, God heal thee.

Therfore were it but for this vertue alone, and for his title, the most Chri­stian King, with his antiquity being the elder Son of the Church, the Spa­niard hath no reason to dispute precedency with him; which made Men­doza in the Councel of Trent to say somewhat modestly, Se nolle quide [...] anteire, tamen cogi non posse ut Francorum Legatos sequeretur. He wold not go before, yet he could not be compell'd to follow the French Ambassa­dors.

I shold enter into a field that had no horizon, if I shold attempt here to conine morat the heroique achievments and trophy's of the French Kings, Merovee quell'd Attila's pride in the Catalonian fields: Childebert Almaricu [...] the Gothic tyrant being slain subdued a great part of Spain; Clota [...]ius tam'd [Page 51] the dauntlesse Saxons: Pipin protected the Roman Church against Astulphus the Longobard, and erected the Exarchatship of Ravenna: Charles the Great above all re-establish'd the Roman Empire, freed Italy from their Invaders, and made the Kings of Galicia and Scotland his tributaries: Lodovicus Pius 40▪ daies before he died fed upon nothing but the holy host; Lewis the gros chac'd Henry the fifth into Germany, and gave Sanctuary to four Popes, Paschal the second, Calixtus the second, Honorius the second, and Innocent the second, when Italy was too hot for them: Philip Augustus threw his Crown upon the ground before his Nobles, and invited any one to take it up; St. Lewis ravish'd the very Barbarians with the admiration of his piety: Charles the fifth did wrest again from the English what they had taken in France. Charles the eight kept Italy under subjection almost five moneths; Lewis the twelfth kept all Lombardy for the time. Francis the first the new Apollo of the Muses overthrew the Helvetians in a memorable fight. Henry the fourth was inferior to none of these, for Vertu and Fortune did contend which shold entitle him Henry the Great, They both striv'd for mastery in him, and which shold overcom, wheras indeed he may be sayed to have sub­dued both; He was Conquerour in fower pitch'd battailes, in 35. hot skirmiges, and above 100. personal encounters, with the siege of 300. se­veral places wherin he prov'd alwaies Victorious. His memory is still fresh in France, and taketh impression successively from father to child to make it eternal. Ther is scarce any considerable Town but hath his statue in brasse or marble, and pictures innumerable, Insomuch as one sayed, Una Henrici oblivio e [...] Humani generis Occasus, the memory of Henry the great will not perish but with the world. But for a true Character of him I will insert what is here en­graven upon the belly of his Brazen horse on the new bridge in sight of his most royal Castle of the Louure in Paris.

Ie suis Henry, grand honneur de la Terre,
L' Astre de paix, et foudre de la guerre
L' Amour des Bons, la Cranite des Pervers,
Dont les Vertus meritoîent L'Univers.
Henry I am, The Glory of Mankind,
The Star of Peace, and Thunderbolt of War,
The spurr of Vertu, scourge of Vice, a Mind
That merited to sway more Scepters far.

We com now to Lewis the 13th. his son, Lewis the Just, who though Na­ture was a stepmother to him, by reason of some bodily imperfections, yet Fortune was mightily indulgent and favorable to him; He began to bear Armes almost when he was no higher then a sword: for in his bassage he repress'd two ill-favour'd Commotions in Poitou and Britany; He was a Victor all his life time, nor did he know how to be beaten; He bang'd all his neighbours round about; He clammer'd twise o're the Alps, and came back having done his businesse. He clammer'd o're the Pyreneys, and establish'd a French Vice Roy in Catalonia; He cross'd o're the Meuse and made many ill-favour'd hacks in the Ragged staffe; His Armies flew o're the Rhin, and help'd to cuff the Eagle in the German Air: And lastly, he fouly foyld the English at the Ile of Ré. At home also he did marvailous things, He debell'd the Huguenots and left them not one cautionary Town to stand upon their gard; An Exploit which his five immediat predecessors could not do, though they attempted it many wayes: And by Sea he improv'd the power of France▪ more then ever.

[Page 52]Therfore, most excellent President, and you no lesse Illustrious Princes, I do not see but France and her Monarks, if we respect the freedom, the ferti­lity, the fairnesse and self-sufficiency of the one, And the glorious Exploits against Infidels both in Europe, Asia, and Afrique, of the other, with their ab­solut power, their ordinary gards being greater then any one Potentat's in Christendom, If we consider the maner of their anointing, and what a divine prerogative they have to be Physitians in curing the Struma, I say, under the favor of this Judicious Assembly, that France may well stand in com­petition for priority with any Countrey of Europe.

THE ORATION OF RODOLPHUS MAXIMILIAN Duke of Saxony, of Angaria and Westphalia, &c. Against Francé.

Most Splendid and Illustrious Auditory,

WE read that Actius Syncerus Sarmazarius a most Ingenious Poet, who was next Maro for his muse and Monument, ‘—Musâ proximus et tumulo,’ being buried hard by Virgil, when he had made that fa­mous Hexastic, Viderat Hadriacis Venetam, &c. in honor, and to the glory of the Citty of Venice, the Senat for every verse gave him in lieu of reward 100. Zecchins of gold: Now, if Sarmazarius merited such a gift, what guerdon do you deserve my Illustrious Cosen Prince Ioachim Ernest, who have given France so gallant Elo­giums? for whatsoever may be laudable or glorious you have confer'd it up­on that Countrey with such a prodigality of affection, and high straines of Eloquence: surely you merit no lesse then to be Peer or high Constable of France for it. But under favour you have omitted one thing which Bodin re­ports to have Aristotle speak of France, his words are, Ne (que) tamen verum est quod Aristoteles scribit, nullos in Gastia Hispanis proxima reperiri asinos—that ther are no asses found in France though next to Spain; Indeed Aristotle was much misinform'd therin; for if he liv'd now, and made the tour of France, he wold find more asses there then in all Europe besides, for all the common peeple and poor peasans of France are all made asses of, by the insupportable burdens they bear of so many impositions and tallies: But wheras Bodin among other ex­travagancies falls a praising the asses of his Countrey, that distic may be not impertinently applied unto him.

Dum laudas Asinos Patriae, Bodine, quid Erras? Ignotumne tibi [...] erat?

But wheras, noble Cosen, you have extoll'd France so highly, and suffer'd your self to be transported so far with her praises, 'tis tru she may be outward­ly fair, but she is foul within, take off the gay saddle you have put upon the horse, and you will find his back all gaull'd; take off those paintings you have [Page 54] with so much art put upon France, and I believe she will look but very homely.

Monsieur de la Noüe one of her own children will tell you, that as a rapid torrent never stops her furious course till she be swallow'd in the Sea; so the French being snatch'd away by the torrent of their Enormous vices, will never rest till they find their graves in the gulph of perdition. The same Author will whisper you in the Ear, that France is possess'd with 3. furies, viz. with Im­piety, Injustice, and Corruption of discipline, the first gnawes the conscience, the second gaules the Cominalty, and the third raignes among the Gentry.

For Impiety, let that horrid massacre on St. Bartholomew's bear witnesse, at which time brother did butcher brother, the son the father, and children their mothers; Is it possible that a race of peeple adoring one God, born in one Countrey, fellow subjects to one King? Is it possible that a Christian peeple trusting in the same Redeemer, govern'd by the same Lawes, eating the same bread, breathing the same air, shold prove such tygers? Thuanus President of the Parlement in Paris abhors the very memory of it, applying most appositly those Verses of Papinius, and cryeng out,

Excidat illa dies aevo, nec postera credant
Saecula, nos certè taceamus, [...] obruta multa
Nocte tegi propriae patiamur crimina gentis.

Let that black day be raz'd out of our Calender for ever, that it may die with us, and never com to the knowledg of our Nephews. And, which doth ag­gravat the thing▪ what a horrid thing was it that Charles the ninth shold give way that this butchery shold be done at the Nuptials of his own Sister the La­dy Margaret of Valois, and Henry of Bourbon King of Navarr. In so much that, as one sayed, ther was more bloud spilt, then wine drunk at that wedding; Nor did this effusion of innocent bloud end in Paris, but it went all the Kingdom over; And among others that had a hand in tracing this massacre, ther was a woman that was chief, and where women are in any conspiracy ther must be bloud, and this was Katherine de Medicis: a certain Poet doth descant wittily upon the humor of that Queen.

Tres Erebi Furias ne posthac credite Vates;
Addita nam quarta est nunc Catharina tribus:
Quòd si tres Furias a se dimitteret Orcus,
Haec Catharina foret pro tribus una satis.
Speak of Three Furies now no more in Hell,
Katherin doth make Them fower, and bears the bell,
But if all Three were thence dismiss'd, this One
Wold be enough for Pluto's Realm alone.

About this time France did swarm with Magicians, insomuch that Trisalca­nus their ringleader being condemn'd therfore to suffer death, confess'd that ther were above 30000. of his Camerades in the Kingdom; and 'twas ob­serv'd that Queen Katherine wold often confer with som of them: 'Tis ob­servable what Theodore Beza sayeth of a new Star that appeer'd the November next after this massacre in the Asterisme of Cassiopaea so refulgent, that it went beyond Iupiter in his perigaeum for brightnesse, and Gemma Frisius affirms, that since the birth of Christ, and that Herod murther'd the children, ther was ne­ver such a phaenomenon seen, whether you respect the sublimity of the sign with the splendor and diuturnity of the Star; Among these sanguinary assassinats old Coligni the Admiral was pistoll'd, with Telinius his son in law, with divers Noblemen mor; Peter Ramus also was dispatch'd, having no fallacy in all [Page 55] his new logique to escape death, and above 20000. more: Nor had the King any remorse of sorrow for these murthers, but he was so far from it, that he caus'd new medals to be made in memory of the day, after the custome of the Roman Emperours, with this Motto engraven, Virtus in Rebelles, et Pietas excita­vit justitiam▪ Carolus nonus Rebellium domitor, Valour and piety excited Justice against Rebels, Charles the ninth the Tamer of Rebels; besides, the Parlement of Paris did inorder that ther shold be an anniversary celebration of the day.

And as Charles the ninth was branded for this massacre, (and died a little after a young and lusty man, which was held a judgment fallen upon him from the text that sayeth, the bloody man shall not live half his dayes) so his Successor did do a most unchristian and ignoble act, for to bear up against the House of Austria he introduc'd the common Enemy of Christendom the Turk into her bowels, by a solemn league struck betwixt both, and what a world of mischief did Ahenobarbus Solymans General in many parts of Italy by vertu of this con­federacy: And this league must be countenanc'd and confirm'd by publique writing and examples; How A [...]a King of the Jewes, sought help of the King of Syria against the Israelites; How David who was so great a Prophet as well as King, being ill entreated by Saul, fled to Achis for to succour an Idolater; How Constantine the Great made use of the Goths, and Narsetes of the Longo­bards; how Henry and Frederic Kings of Castile made the Sarracens their Auxiliaries, And that other Christian Princes employed Pagans and Hea­thens and took them in pay; What a rabble of rogues did follow Monsieur Monluc, the very scumm of the peeple, so that it grew to be a Proverb, that a pack of raskals were call'd les Laquais de Monluc; And he was us'd to say, tha [...] one may make arrowes of any tree against the Enemy, and if he could he wold evoke and employ all the infernal legions of devils for the destruction of him of whom he was in danger; but a little after his conscience troubled him for that prophane speech, saying, Dieu me le pardonne. Confessing that since that confarreation 'twixt Christians and Mahumetans matters went from bad to worse with France▪ And indeed Antoine du Pré who then was Chancelor, refused to subscribe the transactions which pass'd 'twixt Francis and Solyman, it wold prove so great a scandal to Christianity, and an indeleble blemish to France; And matters succeeded accordingly, for this ignominious League did not only turn to the dishonor but detriment of France afterwards, for she lost all she had in Italy, sand it prov'd so ominous, that Henry Francis his son was immaturely and un­luckily kill'd at a tournement, leaving the Crown most deeply laden with debt, and two young Sons under the tutele of the foremention'd Katherin, who de­scending from the House of Medici could make philtres as well as compound potions for whom she listed; And Henries two Successors as they were short liv'd, so they came far short in vertu and gallantry of other Kings of France; Then come's Henry the third, having stoln away surreptitiously out of Poland, els he had bin sent away, for they had had too much of him. This King spent the publique treasure in voluptuousnesse and vanities, his very doggs and hawks stood him in an incredible summ, he was the first who had his table rayl'd about when he did Eat; He had so profusely exhausted the publique demeanes that in an Assembly of the 3. Estates at Blois, he desir'd them to advise of som means to acquit his Crown which was engag'd in above a hundred millions of gold.

A little after this that horrid Hydra, that mystical and many headed Mon­ster the Ligue began to rage, this hideous Monster did not onely like your In­dian Serpents, as Pliny reports, swallow up bulls and beasts, but it destroy'd whole Provinces: Good God in what a fearful and frantique condition was poor France at this time, as if all the Furies of hell had bin let loose to di­stract and torment her; Ther were base Mercenary preachers set on work to powr oyl upon the fire, to encrease it, rather then water to quench it; Among [Page 56] others, Gul. Rose, Hamilton, Bernard, Christin, with divers more did bellow out nothing but war, and belch out bloud; Nay the College of Sorbon which will be an everlasting reproch unto it, did passe a solemn decree, that the Kings name, and the prayers that were appointed for him in the Canon of the Masse shold be expung'd: At last the French madnes being com to the highest cumble of wickednesse, the Parisians sent a young cut-throat, a couled Fryer to murther their anointed lawful King, his name was Frere Iacques Clement, wherof ther was this pertinent Anagram made, c'est l'enfer qui m'a cr [...]é, 'tis Hell that crea­ted me: But he did his busines, and butcher'd the King with a long knife he carried in his sleeve so dextrously, as if he had bin brought up to the trade, but he was instantly hack'd to peeces. Thus the Valesian line extinguish'd; And remarquable it is, what a vision the King had in his dream not long before, for he thought that he was torn by Lions, wherupon he commanded the next day, this dream having made such a deep impression in him, that those Lions and young Cubbs which were in the Louure shold be presently kill'd, which was done accordingly. Ther was an Epitaph put upon this Henry, which I think it not impertinent to impart unto this Ingenious Auditory.

Adsta Viator, et dole Regum vicem,
Cor Regis isto conditum est sub marmore,
Qui jura Gallis, jura Sarmatis dedit▪
Tectus cucullo hunc abstulit sicarius
Cùm magno potens Agmine cinctus fuit,
Abi Viator, et dole Regum Vicem.

Paraphrastically thus in English,

Whether thy choice or chance thee hither brings,
Stay passenger, and wayle the fate of Kings,
This little stone a g [...]eat Kings heart doth hold
Who rul'd the fickle French, and Polaques bold,
Whom with a mighty warlike host attended
With fatal steel a couled Monster ended.
So frayl are even the highest earthly things,
Go passenger, and wayle the happ of Kings.

Now, though that nefarious conjuration of the Ligue was partly dissipated by the fortitud and felicity of Henry the 4th. yet this inundation settling it self so long upon the fair continent of France, left a great deal of scruffy odd dreggish stuff behind it, as it happens often when the pestilence ceaseth, the in­fection may a long time continue in beds and clothes; For though it happen'd 22. yeers after, yet it was by one who was impell'd by the Genius of the old Ligue, (and he must needs go whom the devil drives) that Henry the fourth was kill'd by Ravillac; so in revolution of not much above half an age ther were 3. Henries all Kings of France died violently, two by knifes, and the first by the splinter of a Lance, all contemptible instruments; the first was kill'd on horse­back, the second in his closet, the third in his coach. Now, as all is not gold that glisters, no more was the last Henry so Peerles a Prince as he is cryed up to be; we know well how he shrunk from that Religion he had professed nere upon forty yeers, how it was his common practise to lye 'twixt other mens sheets, what a nomber of known natural children he left behind, besides those that were fa­ther'd by others; We know how he repudiated his first wife of better Extraction then himself, and being all gray maried a young Princesse to whom he mought have bin a granfather for age: We know also how he wrought Birons head to be chop'd off, and others who were the chief that put the French Crown upon his head; How he broke with Queen Elizabeth of England in the perfor­mance [Page 57] of many promises, who had done him such signal courtesies, &c. I will conclude this period of my discourse with a proverb worth the knowledg▪

Quand Italie sera sans poison,
Angleterre sans trahison,
Et la France sans guerre,
Lors sera le monde sans Terre.
When Italie doth poyson want,
And Traytors are in England scant,
When France is of Commotions free,
The World without an Earth shall be.

I com now most noble Auditors, to the third Ery [...]nis or Furie of France▪ Injustice▪ Injustice, and this fury compar'd to the first may change places with her, and take the precedency; ther is nothing so great an opposit, and pro­fess'd enemy to the Queen of Vertues as Injustice, she is covetous, revengeful▪ and ambitious in the superlatif degree, yet she goes commonly under the holy, and wholsom name of Justice wherwith she doth vayl and varnish all her acti­ons, and yet while she palliats her proceedings she doth perpetrat a world of mischiefs, of rapine, of tyrannical exactions, and extorsions, with a thousand villanies more, she spares the nocent, and so wrongs the innocent; nay she spils the bloud of the guiltlesse oftentimes, and swallowes bribes by gobbets; Her brain is alwaies at work to find new Monopolies, new projects, new devices to rack and rend money, to grind the face and excoriat the poor peasan that she leaves him neither eyes to bewayl, nor toung to bemoan his misery; This Henry the 4th found to be true, for he observ'd that ther was a double tribute us'd to be payed, one to the King, the other to his Officers, but the first was made in­tolerable by the second; so that it was impossible but that both Prince and peeple [...]hold be abus'd: wherof in the last civil warrs ther was a notable instance hap­pen'd in a president of Normandy, who being inordred to raise 30000. Crowns upon the Reformists, it was discover'd that he had levied 300 thousand crowns in lieu of the 30.

But among other ocasions and bayts of Injustice in France, the nundination and sale of Judiciary offices which lye prostant for him who gives most, is one of the greatest and dishonorablest, for it is lawful for him who buyes to sell again, Insomuch that it often falls out that they who buy by detayl do sell again in grosse: Others clean contrary do buy in grosse and sell by detayl, as But­chers use to do in buying a beast for the slaughter▪ whom they afterwards cut into parts, and haply make one quarter to pay for the whole. It is recorded by a modest Author, that in the compasse of 20. yeers ther came to the Kings coffers above 26. millions of crownes this way; And they wold justifie this by the example of the Venetians, who to support the war they had against Lewis the twelfth, they rais'd 5. millions by selling Offices by outcry under a spear to the highest bidder, and by this way they were said to have levied 100. millions since to preserve S. Marks bank from breaking: But the rate of Offices in France is mounted now to its highest pitch, La vente des Offices aujourdhuy est montés a sa periode. A President's or Attorney Generals place is valued at about 20000. franks, 2000. l. sterling, which the poor client in a short time payes treble again.

It was a brave law of Theodosius and Valentinian, that none shold be promoted to publique honors, or Magistracies for money, but for merit, and that the party advanc'd shold be liable to an oath that he came to his place with clean hands▪ without gratuity, price or compromise directly or indirectly. Now as Covetous­nesse is sedulous▪ so she is ingenious, as appeers by the Edict of the Paulette, wherby it is enacted, that if the Officer doth not transmit it to another 40. daies before he dies▪ the Office returns to the King▪ therfore to be free of this casualty [Page 58] they either give the more at first, or they give an annual pension wherby most of the places of Judicature in France are not onely vendible, but hereditary. This was the device of one Monsieur Paulet at first, therfore when one hath bought an office he useth to say, j'ay Paulette, or j'ay payé la Paulette.

Besides this institory and marchandising way of handling Justice, 'tis incre­dible what multitudes of gown'd cormorants ther are in France, as Advocates, Proctors, Scribes, Clerks, Solliciters, who prey upon the poor Client, and suck his vital spirits, they are call'd the souris de Palais, the mice of the Court, and the Judges the ratts, they are as thick as gnats, and able to corrupt ten worlds: Stephen Paschasius recordeth, and he was a man of great ingenuity and inte­grity, that the King of France might raise an Army of 200 thousand Scribes or Chicanears as they term common Barretors, and Clerks, and VVolfangas Prisbachius thinks ther are more of those in Paris alone, then in all Germany, which is estimated to be two parts in three larger then France: ther's not a word, syllable, or letter of the Law, but they will draw you arguments of strife from them, for the propagation of Pleas.

Nor is Justice lesse abus'd there by the multitude of Lawes which is beyond belief, which the subtile capacities and working brains of that peeple use to wrest, and distort as they please, making therof a nose of wax; As also the revocation of Ordinances and Arrests, which is so frequent among them; In so much that as Baudius observes, the high supreme Court of France whose au­thority was held so sacred, doth retain little of its pristin ancient Majesty, the King Edicts which they verifie being so commonly repeal'd.

Now, as in a working tempestuous Sea ther is not a drop of water stable and quiet, but one wave struggles, and thrusts one another forward and back­ward, Or as a Shipp under sayl wrestleth as she makes her way with the tum­bling billowes, so France may be sayed to be over-whelm'd with an Ocean of confusion.

And as France at home is so subject to acts of oppression and injustice, so whensoever she hath taken footing in any Countrey abroad, her children shew themselves what they are, and who was their mother, by ther insolencies, and extortions; They corrupt the manners of all Nations where they com, with their fashions and levity; They do not only corrupt the mind, but they in­fect the body with their foul disease, and leave stigmatizations behind them.

Had the French administred justice in Sicily, or had they comported them­selves with that humanity, prudence, rectitude and moderation they shold have done, the Sicilian Vespres had never happen'd, when the Natives patience so often abus'd turn'd to fury, and made a solemn conjuration to free themselves of them for their tyranny, violation of virgins, scortation, ravishments, stu­pration, and insupportable taxes, wherupon by a national unanimous con­sent, and at the sounding of a bell they dispatch'd 8000. French into the other World, not sparing the pregnant wombs and embryos, ther was such a mortal hatred generally conceived of the Nation, Having pittifully complain'd to the Pope Nicolas the third a little before, imploring him that he wold cast out of Sicily that ill spirit wherwith she was so miserably possess'd; so Charles Duke of Anjou brother to St. Lewis, having tyranniz'd in Sicily 17. yeers was sud­denly put out of his new Kingdom, and the society of mankind all at once, with all his proling Countreymen; And he was ejected the same way as he entred, which was by bloud, for when King Manfredus was defunct, a young Prince Conradinus, the lawful Heir descended of the Imperial stemm of the Hohenstauffens was to succeed, but he was betrayed by a Fisherman and sur­priz'd; and together with the Austrian Duke Frederique he was barbarously butcher'd. Which made an Italian Author expresse himself pathetically, Ve­ramente di sasso sarebbe coluy che non fosse—Truly he shold be made of stone that wold not be mov'd at such a cruel tragaedy, that so hopeful a young King [Page 59] descending from so many Caesars, with such a valorus Duke being both but youths, shold be so basely made away, and that by the councel of a Pope Cle­ment the fourth, which aggravat's the businesse much.

Ther is another pregnant example how the State of the United Provinces having made a voluntary election of the Duke of Anjou for their Governor, being induc'd therunto by the Letters of the Queen of England, how unjustly, perfidiously, and ingratefully the said Duke did carry himself with his train of ruffling French, by attempting in a proditorious way to make himself absolute and independent, but the cocatrice was crush'd in the shell, and his design fru­strated, yet for his person and domestiques he was suffer'd to depart civilly, and peaceably, though ingloriously in point of reputation to himself and his Countrey; This was the reward the French gave the Belgians, notwithstand­ing that among many other demonstrations of confidence, affection and trust, they had made him Duke of Brabant, and given him the title of Governor, which titles he wold not desert, but wold have them to his death, which hap­pen'd a little after; such are the humors, such the ambition of the French, which made Henry Fits Allen Earl of Arundel, who first introduc'd the use of Coaches into England, disswade Queen Elizabeth from matching with the said Duke of Alençon, because he had had sufficient experience of the inconstancy, arrogance and levity of the French, and that few of them had upright and just hearts.

Nor do the Kings of France pay the debts, or hold themselves bound to per­form the promises of their immediat predecessors, for they say that they come to the Crown not as much by Hereditary as Kingly right; as appeers by the an­swer which Lewis the 12. gave the Parisians, who humbly petitioning for som Armes and Canons which they had lent Charles the 8. he told them that he was not Charles his Heir, much lesse his Administrator: So the Swisses demanding of Francis the second, a return of those large sommes which they had lent his father, receiv'd this short injust answer, that he was not tied to the solution of any mans debts.

Nor do the French wher they com bestow the Indian disease, and infect the bloud of their Neighbours; but in one part of France they have another disease as bad and more ugly, which is the leprosie, for in the South parts towards the Pyrency Hills in the Countrey of Bearn and other places, ther is a despicable kind of peeple call'd the Capots; and in another dialect Gahets, most of them being Carpenters, Coupers, Tinkers, or of such mean mechanique trades, whose society all men do shun and abominat, because they use to infect others with their leprosie, therfore they are not permitted to enter into any Towns, and hardly to live in the Suburbs, they have distinct stations apart in Churches; when any dye they can leave no lands but only their moveables to their Chil­dren, scarce having the same priviledges in their own Countrey, that Iewes have in Italy and Germany.

But to resume the threed of my discourse a little before, if the Kings of France be not tied to pay the debts and legacies of their parents and predeces­sors, what law of honesty do we think can bind the vassals of France to do so? Caesar and Tacitus had felt the pulse of this Nation sufficiently, when they call them Levissimum hominum genus, a most light race of peeple, that they have more of imagination then judgment, more words then common honesty. Yet Francis the first could vapour, as Lipsius hath it of him, Etiamsi fides toto Orbe exularet—although Faith shold be banish'd from among mortals, yet she shold be found among Kings, who shold be tied to performance by her alone, and not by fear. You pleas'd to say, Noble Cosen Ernest, that the Kings of France never die; shall they be eternal, and their faith so mortal? I am not ignorant that Bodin goes very far in the commendation of the French, being transported with passion more then judgment, and therin he shewes himself to be of a tru French humor; And he thinks to do her right by wronging her [Page 60] neighbours, specially the Empire and Germany; He calls the Germans stupidos et rusticos, plus roboris quàm rationis habentes, leves, suavitatem orationis et Vene­res respuentes, &c. I say he calls the Germans doltish and stupid, having more strength then reason, they are light, and averse to sweetnesse and elegancy of speech, that the German Princes are feudatary to France, and their Emperour to the Turk, with such like calumnies; Bodinus herein shew'd himself a base, and ignorant sciolist, and his lies are so notorious, that they are not worth the answering, nor worthy of the indignation of a German Prince; for my self I hold them to be like a brute beast besmattring a Traveller upon the high way with dirt, for which the Passenger is not angry, nor doth he respect it coming from an irrational animal, and such a beast may Bodinus be in aspersing the Ger­mans as he doth.

The third Furie which possesseth France is her temerity and unadvisednesse most commonly seen in her Actions, which as Caesar, who was not only a Tra­vellor, but a Conquerour, and dweller there, saith, Gallorum Genti temeritas est innata, Rashnes is innated in the French Nation: And as we read of moving Ilands, so the French is not only stirr'd, but toss'd perpetually with the waves of Temerity and lightnes; especially when the Circian or Southern wind blowes; Augustus made his vow unto the Gods that it should not blow upon them; For the French have a whirlwind in their brains, they have quicksands in their breasts, which tosseth their Councels, and cogitations to and fro.

The Physitians dispute whether the Worms that are engendred in man out of putrefaction proceed from the stomack or the belly; but I am of opinion that in French bodies those Magotts are generated in the brain, rather then any place of the microcosm besides. To confirm which tenet I will produce one of their own Authors and Countreymen who shold be best acquainted with their Genius, It is Alexander Pontamarinus in his description of the French Nobility; and no Limmer could put them out more to the life, when he sayeth, La jeuno Noblesse de France est d'un estrange humeur, elle ne se plaist que d'une especce de migno­tise, où elle rend plus preu [...]e de lascheté que de valeur; Elle est tellement imbue de je ne sçay quel Esprit de mespris, que tout son maintien n'est qu'un continuel desduin; Elle á plus de mouuement aux espaules, plus de bricolles aux pieds, plus de singeries aux mains, et de tournoyement en la teste qu'il n'y a de goute d'eau en la Seine; Elle se contrefait, elle se deguise, elle begaye au lieu de parles▪ Elle pantalonne a cheval, et se comporte en toutes ses actions si ridiculement, qu'vn Penitre ne scauroit auec plus d'artifice esbaucher la d'un figure fol que ce ce pouure gentilhomme François en donne tesmoignage; Et piu [...] oyes le discourir, c'est luy qui ne craint personne, et na iamais appris de se faire Craindre, c'est luy qui bat tout le monde, et il ignore le moyen de se defendre, C'est luy qui est bien a cheval, et il ne scait pas tenir la bride; C'est luy qui scait bien Entretenir les dames, et les fiiles de chambre se mocquent de ses discours; Bref, c'est luy mesme qui est la fable du peuple, l'ordinaire, pitiè des honestes gens, et le scandale de sa lignee; Va-il par la rue il ne fait pas vne demarche qu'il ne negarde en arriere pour se glorifier en l [...] suite de ses valets; Chasque fois qu'il aurá les yeux sur ses souliers, il postera la main sur le collet de sa chemise, Homme sot et miserable: This character of a French Gentleman is rendred as wittily in Latin. Nobilis Gallus in delicias et inertiam quàm magnanimitatem est proclivior, cum perpetuo rerum Omnium fastidio, ubicum (que) in inimicis pedum, manuum (que) gesticulationibus, scapularum motationibus, capitis vi­brationibus prodigiosè frequens; I [...]cessu, vestitu, Sermone, et in omnibus actioni­bus ita ridiculus, et histrio, vt omnem consummatissimi Fatui indolem, et personam exactè representet; Si coll [...]quii res sit hic ille est qui prosternit omnes, sed qui modum se defendendi ignorat; Ille est qui omnium optimè regit equum, sed qui frenos mode­rari adhuc nescit; Ille est qui Ginecaei applausum sibi vendicat, sed quem a tergo s [...]mularem multa ciconia pinsit; Summa, Ille est fabula vulgi, bonorum miseratio, ordinis sui macula; si verò deambulationibus per vrbem indulgeat, sine stultitiae scen [...] id n [...]n facit, modo vno vix gradu promoto ad pedissequos oculos rejicit gloriosulè se prae­dican [...] ▪ mod [...] in calceis mir acula quaerit, modò indusii collare manibus terit, Homosto­lidus, [...] publicis Christianorum supplicationibus includendus.

[Page 61]The French Gentleman is a thing of an odd humour, he pleaseth himself in a kind of fantastiquenesse, which discovers more of softnesse, then manhood, he hath ever and anone such a slighting way, that all his carriage is but a kind of perpetual disdain; He hath more stirrings about his sholders, he fetcheth such stroakes with his feet, he hath such apish motions in his hands, he hath such windings of his head, that ther is no member at rest about him; He counterfeits, he disguiseth, he gapes and lisps insteed of speaking; He doth so pantonolize it on horseback, and comports himself in all his actions so ridicu­lously, That an expert Painter cannot draw a fool with more artifice then this poor French Gentleman doth it really and to the life: Hear him discourse and he will tell you that he fears no body, yet never learnt any body or boy to fear him; It is he who could beat all the world, yet knowes not how to defend himself against a pigmey; It is he who is the only man on horseback, yet haply he knowes not how to hold his bridle: It is he who is the only entertainer of Ladies, and yet the Chambermaids make mowes at him. In fine, 'tis he who can hold excellent discourse, yet he is the by-word of the peeple, the pity of honest men, and the reproach of his family: Doth he march in the streets, he scarce makes two steps, but he looks back to behold his Laquay strutting behind him, he hath his hands often upon his locks, and his eyes upon his shooes; O poor sot, fit to be pray'd for in all Churches that he recover his wits.

Thus Pontamarius in his Protean Academy doth describe and characterise a true Monsieur, though he was one himself: Among their liberal Sciences dicing and carding are two wherunto they are excessively addicted, and many of them hereby bring a milpost to a thwittle, and a noble to lesse then ninepence: A Physitian's son, when I was in Paris, lost in one night above 60. thousand Crowns; nor do young gallants only, but Schollers, Lawyers, and Marchants of all sorts frequent this school of fortune. One Ionas kept a gaming house in the Suburbs of St. Germain, that som daies and nights he had above 1000 franks to his box. And as the French are thus extremely given to gaming, so in the Academy of Venus they are the greatest practitioners of any peeple, the other us'd to wast their estates, but this consumes their bodies, and commonly ther is no French Gentleman but is a Surgeon himself of the Venerean disease, which makes him carry his salve box and implements alwaies about him for fear he get a clapp. Som parts of France have bin proverbially infamous for this kind of turpitude; among other, Marseilles in Province is one, wherof the Greeks have a saying, [...], sayl to Marseilles if you desire your choice of whores; They us'd also there [...], to make use of boyes, but this ne­fandous custom they had from the soft Greeks▪ who had a colony there so many ages, and infected their neighbours with it; Indeed ther is no Countrey where Venus keeps so great a Court, and where they go sooner to it, so that som wo­men cannot tell when they were mayds: And as the French are observ'd to be thus extraordinarily salacious, and given to this kind of lux, and wantones with such a strong propensity of nature; so is their language fit for such effeminacies and soft plesures, which language is but squama latini Sermonis, et rubigo trivia­lium barbarismorum, she is but the scales of the Latin, and rust of other old toungs. I know that many distinguish thus among languages, that it is fittest to speak to God in Spanish for the Majestie of it, to Princes in Italian for the gravity of it, to the enemy in Dutch for the manfulnes of it, to women in French for the softnes of it. Ther is a tale of a German Ambassador to Charles the fifth, who being ordred to deliver his Embassie in high Dutch, a Spanish Don being attending the Emperour, and then at the audience, observing the strength and severity of the language, said in a kind of passion, Voto al' Antichristo—I swear by Antichrist I think it was high Dutch that God Almighty spoak when h [...] ejected Adam out of Paradice, and caus'd an Angel with a flaming formidable sword to be Porter that none should re-enter: Wherunto the German acutely answer'd, that he esteem'd the Spanish language for her subtlety to be that which th [...] [Page 62] devil us'd when he seduc'd our poor granmother Eve; Ther is another story of Langas sent Ambassador from Ferdinand the first, to Poland, who convers'd much with Don Pedro Ruyz a Spaniard, and privy Councellor to Caesar, and being both one day at dinner, and the said Don Pedro hearing Dutch much spoken in a dispute at the table, and listning to the high though harsh accents and pronun­tiation of it, broke out into this speech, Me thinks the Germans do not speak but thunder, &c. But let us still love our maternal Language, and not be allur'd by those loose lascivious toungs of Spain, Italy, and France especially which serves chiefly to make wanton loves and complements, to compose amorous sonnets, and attract femal bewty, or frame such odd Romances, and hyperbolical sto­ries, as Amadis de Gaule, and such like; what a world of wanton books are ther in French which tend chiefly to amuse the understanding with vicious thoughts, and to corrupt maners? what stories they have of adulterious loves, of un­bridled lusts, what stratagems do they relate of such things? teaching that Vowes made by the goddesse Venus are not obligatory, according to the Poet when he gave Councel to one that was desperatly in love,

Nec jurare time, Veneris perjuria Venti
Irrita per terras, et freta longa ferunt.

Such books are fitter to be made a sacrifice to Vulcan, then kept in Gentlemens studies, or to be transported to Sicilie, where parents are put to a perpetual kind of watching to preserve their daughters from being stollen away, and suborn'd; The Lacedemonians by a vertuous law caus'd the works of Archilochus, though a very ingenious and great Poet, to be banish'd from their Citty, because the reading therof might deprave the pudicity of their youth, least more hurt might com by the wantonesse, then good by the wittinesse of the verse. O most pru­dent and provident act! but how few such Lacedemonian Patriots are found now a dayes, specially in France? But the French Venus is not only a smooth pratling gossip, but she is also profuse and luxurious. I pray hear what Ammia­nus Marcellinus speaks long since of the French, Vini avidum genus, affectans ad vini similitudinem multiplices potus—A race of peeple greedy of wine, and affecting according to the similitude of the wine multiplicity of compotations, they are quickly transported with excesse this way; I will produce one example of a notable wine-bibber, which was Rablais, who though he was very well in­structed both in the Greek and Latin toungs, and an excellent Physitian, with other choice parts, yet at last leaving all other serious studies, he did totally inslave himself to Epicurisme, to gluttony, and drunkennesse, in which humors he belch'd out that Atheistical kind of book which goes under his name though under pleasant notions able to turn ev'ry Reader therof to a Democritus: As I have instanced in a man (wherof ther might be produc'd thousands in this kind) so I will bring before you a woman a rich widow who liv'd hard by Bourdeaux, who was got with child while she was in a deep drunken sleep, who beginning to swell thought it was onely a tympany, but her Physitians told her she was with child▪ wherupon she caus'd it to be openly publish'd in the Church of the Parish, that if he who got her with child wold confesse it, she wold take him for her husband herupon; Herupon a yong Vineyard man who was us'd to frequent her house, did confesse that he had done it as she slept in a chair one night by the fire side, having drunk much wine upon such a holiday, so she married him, and he thanked Bacchus for it. 'Tis tru, that Virgins use not to drink wine in France, it being a great dishonor if they shold, only they give somtimes a tincture to a glasse of water with some few drops of claret, but Bacchus goes down smooth­ly the married womens throats.

And as for drinking, so for eating also the French are inferior to none in point of excesse, and indeed they seldom make sacrifices to Bacchus, but they have Ceres with it; Bishop Reginald Belney a man renowned for eloquence [Page 63] and learning, us'd to eat at ev'ry 4. hours end night and day, which was six times ev'ry natural day: And indeed they hold it no disparagement in France among the best sorts of Ladies, to be alwaies eating somthing or other as they go along the streets in their Coaches: And 'tis a common saying in France▪ Com lets go to dinner quickly, that we may have time enough for a collation in the af­ternoon, and so go in a seasonable hower to supper, to take afterwards a nuntion, and so go to bed betimes, that we may rise early in the morning to breakfast.

Other Nations eat, and chew their meat, but divers of the French do devour and swallow it up whole, and after they have eaten their pottage, it is common among som to lick the dish and their fingers afterwards. I com now from their diet to their clothing; good Lord, was ther ever any Nation so mimical, so fan­tastique, and variable in their vestments? I know they are greedy of change, and gaping after novelty in all things, but for their apparrel, nor Proteus, nor Vertumnus, nor the Camelaeon was so transformable; In the Kings Court the fashion of the sute you put on in the morning growes obsolet in the evening, and their brains are at labour in the night to find som new mode for the next day. But this alteration and variety of fashions though it impoverisheth pri­vate men, yet it tends much to the Kings emolument; for Thuanus avoucheth that this liberty of vestments brings the King in above 300 thousand crownes yeerly, by those stuffs that are brought in from Italy, and other places; yet ther have bin Edicts and sumptuary lawes enacted often touching apparrel, but such is the humor of the Nation, and their elboes so itch ever and anon for new fashions, that no lawes were ever observed long; nor is this to be soly imputed to a desire of change, as much as to an innated National pride which raigns in the French. Then came up to foment this pride, sale of honors and offices, nay, the highest dignity of all, which is St. Michaels order, was prostant for money, which made Tiercelin a Knight of very ancient Extraction to say, that the Conchyliatus torques, the order of St. Michael was becom a coller now for ev'ry asse.

To raise this pride higher, the use of Coches was introduc'd in the raign of Francis the first, by Iean de laval a Gentleman of noble extraction, who being of a corpulent and unweldy constitution, was the first who had one made for him; yet we read, that in Henry the seconds time which was a good while af­ter▪ ther were but two Coches in all Paris, one for the Queen, and another for his base daughter. But now their nomber is so monstrously increas'd, that one may say ther be as many Coches in Paris, as ther are Gondolas in Venice, and indeed no place wants them more, Paris being one of the dirtiest Townes in Christendom, nor is it an ordinary but an indeleble oily coagulated dirt whose spots cannot be wash'd off with any sope, and the sent of it so strong, that one may smell the dirt of Paris 10 miles before he comes at her if the wind be in his face.

Moreover as the French grow quickly in love with any thing, so are they soo­ner cloyed therwith then any other; And for their affections one to another and towards strangers they are soon hot, and soon cold; they will take a pet at any thing, and pepper in the nose though their bodies be not pepper proof all over; An inquiet Nation, and enemies to tranquillity, impatient of peace untill they have recover'd the ruines of war, lovers of stirrs and motion, which makes his next neighbour the Flemin to have this proverb of him, Quand le François dort, le diable le berse: When the Frenchman sleeps, the devil rocks the cradle. Ther is not a more sanguinary and barbarous rabble in the World then in France, 'tis an ordinary thing to digg one out of his grave and dragg him up and down in peeces, as among others they did the Marquis of Ancre, whose death and the manner of it redounds infinitly to the dishonor both of King and peeple. The King having commanded him to be kill'd in his own House the Louure, whose walls were besprinkled with his bloud, and King [...] Courts shold be sacred places, and then a thing which prov'd ridiculous to all [Page 64] the world his proces was made after his death: Nor were any of that base ra­scality punish'd who broke into the Church, and into his mortuary, whence they pull'd him out and dragg'd him like a dogg up and down the channels, and then hanging him to a gibet by the heeles, they hack'd his body in ma­mocks, notwithstanding that he was neither arraign'd, convicted or con­demn'd, but death is not sufficient to satiat the French malice: What an in­human thing was it? an act that a Wild Arab wold never have don▪ to roast a man alive in the market place at Bourdeaux without any form of law. Gaspar Coligni writ in a letter of his to Charles the ninth, C'est le naturel de Francois. It is given by nature to the French, that if they cannot find an enemy abroad they will make one at home; They seldom rob but they kill; and 'tis safer to fall into the hands of any then into a French pyrat's, for ther is no mercy with them, but all must overboard; what horrid barbarismes have they committed at the plundring of Towns? how have they ravish'd Nunns at the altar, not sparing any sex, as Tillemont of late yeers can bear testimony; Nor are ther any peeple so contentious, so quarelsom, so malitious and bloudy among them­selves at home and abroad. It is the saying of Montagne, Mettez trois Fran­cois aux deserts de Libye ils ne seront pas vn mois ensemble sans se harceler, et esgra­tigner, put three Frenchmen in the deserts of Lybie, they will not be a month together but they will scratch one another; nay the least ocasion in the World will make them thirst after one anothers life: For upon the least affront or surmize of affront, ça Ça, they must presently to the Field and seek one ano­thers hearts bloud: And ther be more monomachyes and duels fought in one yeer in France, then in 20. yeers all Christendom over; St. Lewis had damn'd this fury of single combat to Hell, but Philip de Valois fetch'd her out again. Ther have bin 20. Edicts of late yeers against it, but the French are possess'd with such spirits, that they care not for body or soul to preserve a lit­tle puntillo of supposed honor. But Francis the first brought monomachy to be very frequent by his Example, when he defied Charles the Emperour in the Consistory at Rome for giving him the lye to a duel, insomuch that the lye hath bin ever since a mortal word; It being the principle of that King, that he could not be a good man who return'd not the lye with his sword.

But, most noble and highborn Cosens, som may haply admire that I shold perstringe the French peeple thus sharply, considering that they are extracted from Us, and branches of the great German Tree. 'Tis tru they are so, but as the Poets sing of Circe, that she transform'd men to beasts, so the clime of that Countrey hath quite metamorphos'd, perverted and quite aliena­ted their primitive natures & dispositions, Gallia hath prov'd a Circe to Germany herin; Or as ther be som Fountains in Italy and elswhere, which have that quality as to turn stone to iron, so have the Germans which went to France dege­nerated from themselves by a strange kind of transmutation of nature.

You may please to hear what one of themselves confesseth in these words, Les Francois passans le Rhin ne cesserent de tourmenter les Gaules, jusques a ce que les Francois les ayans tous sinon chessé du moins appaisé les vns, et forcer les autres a faire jo [...]g, y establirent en fin leur domination; lesquels reprenans, comme par droit de legitime succession avec les Commoditez du pays le bien et le mal, tant de l'insuffi­fance, que de la pen discrete legereté de ces peuples anciens, n'ont esté moins signatez pour vn semblable naturel guerrier, que pour les grands troubles, et trop animeuses di­visions les quelles ont assez souuent approché l'estat de sa ruine.

This a pure Frenchman acknowledgeth; The French passing the Rhin did not cease to torment the Gaules, untill the French having if not chac'd away, yet at least induc'd som, and forc'd others to the German yoke, they establish'd ther at last their domination—

To travel a little further in France they, say, Se Clementissimo aere frui, ne [...] ulla caeli gravitate flagellari, they say that they enjoy a most mild air, nor are beaten by any inclemency of heaven. Sure this cannot be tru, for Claudian [Page 65] saith, that Gallia is nive ferox, that France hath fierce snowes; Petronius hath a proverb, gallica nive frigidior, colder then French snow; Diodorus saith, that the French frost is so strong and contumacious, that Rivers have bin pervious for whole Armies to passe over dry foot both for Cavalry and Infan­try. Nay of late yeers in the siege hefore Amiens it was so bitterly cold, that the wines did freeze in the cask, and was sold in cakes and by weight unto the Soldiers.

And for the wholsomnesse of that clime, sure it cannot be so far, it is found by experience, that the French both men and women are more subject to ver­min, to the itch and scabs then any other peeple.

But the greatest thing they glory of, is, that France is so fertile and exube­rant a soyle that it may be call'd a Copia Cornu of all things (I confesse indeed ther are in France of horns) and that ther is not any part that is altogether barren; but in point of fertility. This cannot be so generally tru; for in Burgundy not far off, ther is a Town call'd Orgelet, wherof ther is a proverb, that ther are there fields without grasse, rivers without fish, and hills without groves: betwixt Bourdeaux and Bayon you traverse such a tract of sandy ground, that one wold think he passeth through the deserts of Arabia, when he goeth over les landes de Gascoigne, for so they are call'd vulgarly; ther are divers large tracts of gronnd which are as bad, In so much that Bodin inge­nuously confesseth, Exploratum est deserta et inculta loca si aquas et vias iis ad­jungamus duos Galliae trientes auferre; It is is found and explor'd, that the de­sert and untill'd places, if we add to them waters and wayes, make up two thirds of France; Then he confesseth that ther is such a scarcity of great timber trees, that not only for building of Ships, but for erecting of ordinary houses they must be beholden to other Nations.

Is this that incomparable fertility of France you speak of, Cosen? is this that land of promise? what a bragging do the Bourdelois keep of their grove of Cypres for the honor of which it was a custome that no ship shold go out of the Port with wine till the Magistrat had given him a branch of Cypres tree, for which he was to pay such a gabel; yet this Grove wherof they vaunt is scarce seven acres in all.

But Salt is the great staple Commodity of France, yet I pray be pleas'd to hear what Lemnius speaks thereof, Majores nostri salem confecerunt uberrimo sanè questu, non ex aqua marina solis ardore in salem concreta at (que) indurata, qualem ex Hispaniis & Galliis ad nos perfertur, sed ex maritimis glebis exusti at (que) in cinerem redactis quem infusâ aqua minutatim in salem reducebant splendidum ac nitentem nec alio salis genere tota Belgica ad nostram us (que) memoriam usa est. Qui conficiendi sa­lis modus cum inducto externo inolesceret excogitatus est alius non minus quaestuosus, scilicet advecto ex Hispaniis at (que) Aquitanico sin [...] rudi ac nigricante sordido (que) sale, exempto limo, excoctis (que) sordibus candidissimum id nostrates efficiunt rebus conservan­dis ap [...]issimum. Sed alter ille modus facilè in usum revocari potest, si externus sal hostili odio denegetur, aut ex quavis alia causa copiam nobis deesse contingat.

Our Ancestors made Salt with much profit, not of Sea water crusted by the heat of the Sun and so obdurated, such as is brought us from Spain and France, but out of maritime glebes burnt, and reduc'd to Cindres, which powring ther­into a small portion of water by drops, they brought to be splendid and pure Salt, nor did all Belgium use any other Salt until our memory▪ Which mode of making when it grew out of use, a new extern way being introduc'd, ther was another no lesse gainful way invented; Which was that a rude and blackish sordid kind of salt being brought over from Spain, or Aquitane Coasts, the dreggs and filth being excocted, we brought it by our art and industry to be candid and beautiful, and most fit to conserve things; but the t'other way may be revived again very easily, if forren salt shold be denied us in case of enmity or otherwise.

Now although 'tis confess'd, that France abounds with Salt, and in that [Page 66] point may be sayed to be a sweet Countrey, yet the Inhabitants pay dear for it, for the King makes neer upon 20. millions of Franks ev'ry yeer of the ga­bel of salt (as it was spoken before) which are two millions sterling; In so much that although France have such plenty of Salt, yet it is cheaper in any other Countrey. For it is found that the Marchant hath it at lower rates on the Sea side then the Peasan in the Countrey, which makes the Hollander often­times bring thither French Salt back again and gain by it. One shall see som­times the poor Roturier or yeoman to go from the market with his pockets cram'd with salt to avoid paying the gabel, and women steal it home in their purses.

Now touching such an affluence of all things in France, besides which you insist upon, my Noble Cosen, it may be so, but then surely ther is the worst kind of government there upon earth, and the most unproportionablest divi­dent made of that plenty, for I dare avouch France doth abound with beggars more then any Countrey under the Sun. One cannot ride upon the high way but he shall have swarmes of little mendicants sing before his horse head, as also when he remounts the next day; The poor Vigneron, and Husbandman go in their wooden shooes and canvas breeches to Church upon Sundayes, and if their wifes have a buckram petticot she is brave. Therfore wheras you say that France is the freest and frankest Countrey in the World, and that she draws her etymology thence, she may be so to strangers and passengers, but for the Natives I beleeve they are the arrand'st slaves upon earth, they are of a meer asinin condition, not only in relation to the King who so grinds their faces with taxes, but they are villains also to their Lords: I will produce one example for all; The Lord of Chasteauroux or red Castle in Berry had a Tenant, that by his industry became Bourgesse of Paris, Le seigneur vendica son serf, qui s'estoi [...] retiré et obtint la provision, the Lord in open Court demands his slave, which the Court could not deny, and so pass'd sentence accordingly.

You say, noble Cosen, that France is adorn'd with all vertues, truly I do not see how vertue can cohabit where such furies do tyrannize; I am sure that Scaliger speaks of som parts of France, quae ab omni humanita [...]e et literis vasta est, ubi librorum et bonorum hominum maxima solitudo est. Som parts which are void of all humanity and literature, where ther is a kind of solitude and wil­dernesse both of books and good men.

Touching the magnanimity and prwoesse of the French, 'tis tru they did achieve som brave things while the German bloud continued fresh in them, and untainted; Cicero saith, that Caius Marius by his divine vertu and valour, influentes in Italiam Gallorum Copias repressit, that he repress'd those swarmes of French who rush'd into Italie, but Caesar, who was a better Historian then Cicero saith, they were Cimbri and Teutones both which are High Dutch, as also those which Brennus brought to sack Rome, and afterwards took Delphos from the Greeks.

Touching the French courage we know the trite proverb, that the French are at the first onset more then men, and afterwards les then women; Indeed Florus sayeth, Habent eorum corpora quiddam simile cum suis nivibus, quae mox vt caluêrs pugnâ statim in sudorem eunt, et levi motu quasi sole laxantur; The French bodies bear some analogy with their snowes, for as soon as they are heated in fight they vapour into sweat, and they are as it were thaw'd by the Sun at the least motion.

But your Highnesse seems to extol mightily the power of the French King, indeed 'tis an old saying, that Gallum in suo sterquilinio plurimum posse, The cock (Gallus) can do much upon his own dunghill. But this power is not so superlatif if we descend into the truth of things, for touching the demeanes of the Crown, the King cannot alienat one acre therof without the consent of the three Estates, as ther is a pregnant example herof in the Assembly of Blois, where Bodin lost the favour of Henry the third about this debate: For the [Page 67] French King is by the law but an Usufructuary of the Crown possession; nor could any of them be sold for the redemption of King Iohn in England though it was then propos'd, nor of King Francis in Spain, though this was the greatest ne­cessity that could be. We well know how often the Parlement of Paris hath clash'd with the King, and rejected his Edicts; Nor is the single testimony of the King valid enough in France to take away any ones life, ther was a notable example herof in Henry the seconds raign, who when he had commanded an Italian servant to be clap'd in prison, and had solemnly sworn that he had found him in a most foul offence, yet the Kings affidavit could not prevail with the Judges, but they releas'd the prisoner. But now the integrity and stoutnesse of those brave ancient Legislators and Judges in times past is much diminish'd, because Kings do use to lend their eares to Parasits, Sycophants, and Buffons rather then to Helvidius Priscus, Monsieur Lavacre, or such Sages. Ther is a tale of Bajazet the first, that he had an Ethiop born in India about him, and having upon a march one day his tent pitch'd nere a high tree, he call'd the Ethiop and sayed, Dre Areb, if thou lov'st me go up to the top of that tree, the Indian scambled up presently, so the Emperour sent presently for som to hew down the tree, the poor Ethiop begging his life all the while, and that his Coun­sellors wold intercede for him, but nothing prevailing, the Ethiop pull'd down his breeches, and with his Excrements and Urine did so beray the hewers, that they gave over work, and in the interim the Ethiop gets down, telling the Turks Counsellors, Wold all such Privy Counsellors as you were so beray'd, whose oouncel cannot do as much as my Excrements. The French Kings use to have many such weak Councellors.

Touching the unlimited power the French Kings have to make pecuniary Le­vies and lay taxes, I pray hear what Philip Comines sayeth, one of Lewis the xi. chiefest Councellors of State, and whom he employ'd in the most intricat and arduous ocasions, Nemo omnium est Principum qui jus habeat vel teruncium vnum exigendi a suis praeter constitutum annuum censum nisi populus assentiatur, sunt quidem principes quibus hoc frequens est in Sermone vt dicant habere se privilegia vt quantum velint exigant a populo, Galliarum vero Rex omnium minimè causam habet vt istud de se jactet, nec enim vel ipsi vel cui vis alii licet. Ther is no Prince that hath right to raise the least farthing of his subjects besides his settled re­venues, without the peeples consent; 'Tis tru, ther are som Kings who have it frequently in their mouthes, that they have such praerogatives to impose what they please, but the King of France hath the least cause to vaunt thus of him­self.

The Exorbitancies of the French Kings this way hath bin the ground of all the warrs that were wag'd pour le Bien public, for the common good which have harass'd France so often; Charles the Grosse herby came to such an extreme exigence that being overcom by Arnosplus he begg'd his bread of him to pre­serve him from starving, and so obtain'd of him a small pension in Germany. Neverthelesse, though a clowd of examples of this kind could be produc'd, the Kings of France do still use to flay their sheep, insteed of shearing them; witnesse the last King who assum'd to himself the Epithet of Iust, and God knowes he least deserv'd it of any, having exacted more of his people by extrajudicial wayes then any of his predecessors ever did, to maintain a groundlesse warr against the Spaniard by the advice of an ambitious and bloudy Cardinal, whose heart was as red as his habit, and of a deeper sanguine die. Now as we read of a Town in Spain that was undermin'd by Coneys, of another in Thrace that was undermin'd by Mol [...]e of another in Greece ranvers'd by Frogs, another in Ger­many that was subverted by Rats, so I beleeve that ther are in France many such Cunnies, Moles, Froggs and Rats, I mean ambitious and sandy brain'd syco­phants, that will undermine, ranverse and tumble to destruction their own dear Countrey; and Pope Gregory could prophecy so much of Richelieu when he came to confirm'd Bishop of Lucon to Rome at 20. yeers old, of whom he said [Page 68] when he had perceiv'd his genius by his discourse, This man will overturn the World; nor is this Cardinal inferior unto him awhit, but his head and his hat are altogerher as red; He treads directly in his stepps, and so doth the Queen in her husbands against her only Brother: In so much that truly, if I appre­hend any thing, one may see France running post to her own destruction.

Wheras you alledg that the Kings of France are such divine Physitians in curing the Struma, I pray be pleas'd to hear what Petrus Crescentius a famous French Doctor affirms, Multoties se vidisse Reges pro more tangere strumosos, sed qui inde sanatus fuerit, vidisse neminem; He had seen often som of the strumatical disease touch'd by Kings, but he saw not any cur'd meerly by the touch: I am of opinion ther be waters in Moravia that can do the cure better, being of a saltish, bituminous, chalchanthian vein, and 'tis more probable that God and Nature shold infuse more vertu to those mineral Waters, then to a mans fingers.

All these things being unpassionatly considered and well ponder'd, I do not see how the Countrey of France or her King, considering the slavery and po­verty of the peeple, the unequal distribution of the public weal and blessings of the land, with sundry other reasons and solaecismes in Government before mentioned, I say, I do not see what hopes or reason France may have to expect and demand the preheminence of the rest of the Europaean Provinces.



Most Illustrious Princes, &c.

THe Province I have undertaken, and the task that is impos'd on me, is to speak something of that most Ancient, and noble Countrey of Spain; therfore while I put my self under that hot Clime, I humbly desire the heat of your Affections, and ac­customed candor may goe along with me.

The Emperour Charls the V. a Prince of approved judg­ment, although he was born, and bred in Germanie, (for he intitled himself Citizen of Gant) yet he lov'd Spain with a more profuse love then any other Region, making his residence there most commonly when he was not engag'd in the French; German, and African Wars; In so much that when he had transmitted, and made a voluntary resignment of all his King­doms, he reserv'd that Country for his last randevous; And as it is curiously ob­serv'd by divers Caesarean Writers, when he hois'd saile from Sudeburg with Eleo­nor Queen of France, and Mary Queen of Hungary his two sisters, and with pro­pitious gales had landed in Spain, he fell down prostrat upon the first ground he trod, and kissing it, brake out into these words: Salve mihi optatissima Tellus, nudus ex utero matris exivi, nudus ad te tanquam alteram matrem redeo, & quod unum possum, pro tam multis in me meritis corpusculum hoc, & ossa mea do dedicoque. Haile O most wished Country, I came naked out of my mothers [...]womb, and I re­turn naked to thee as to another mother. And, which is the onely thing I can do now, I give up and dedicate to thee this body and bones of mine, for so many bene­fits I have receav'd from thee. Now there be many eminent arguments for the high prerogatives of Spain,—Adeò sunt multa loquacem Ut lassare queant Fabium; They are so numerous that they wold tyre the best Orator, but I will end eavour to wind all up upon a small bottom.

[Page 2] Spain hath bin reputed from the beginning a most considerable Countrey, wit­nes the Roman by whom she was prima tentata, and ultima subacta; first attempted, and last subdued: For the old Romans, as now the Ecclesiastique Lords of Rome, sought most after those places where the plenty and pleasure of the soyl might strive with their desire to make them happy, as it is now the humor of our new Iasons (the Iesuits) to plant themselfs there wher ther are fat and golden returns. But ther be other extraordinary conveniences in Spain, the subtile and cleer temper of the air, the salubrity of the soyle, and the constancy of one sort of weather a long time, in so much that Homer and other Authors have plac'd there the Elisian Fields.

Ther are no grosse caliginous vapours rising up there out of any Fenns, gorsy grounds or loughs. Ther are most delicat breezes that blow from the Sea, and penetrating the circumambient Air, use to refresh both man, and all sorts of brute animalls, attenuating and chasing away all dull terrestriall meteors; Nay, Navi­gators when they sayle along the Sea, do come to know when they are nere the coasts of Spain, by the fragrant odor which Rosemary and other aromatique Ve­getalls, that grow there up and down the fields do usually transmit and cast into the Air; Spain is neither parch'd with so violent a Sun as Afrique is, nor disquietted with such impetuous winds as France, or shaken with such Earthquakes as Italy, or benum'd with excessive cold as other Regions are, but she partakes of all these in a middle kind of temperature. Spain doth not only furnish Europe, but the Indian also with most generous Wines, most perfect Oil, most pure Salt, excellent gaules, the best fruits, as Almonds, Figgs, Raisins, Orenges, Lemons, Pom­grannets; and all other kind of Vegitals, as Roots, Herbs and flowers, which are there in a greater perfection then in other Countreys.

The bowells of Spain abound also with excellent mettalls, what Iron, what Steel goes beyond that of Biscay? What Quicksilver comparable to that of Medina? What gold purer then that which is found in Tagus? What Silke better then that of Granada and Valentia? What Flax so good as that of Murcia? What wool primer then that of Segovia? witnes the testimony of Martial,

Vellera nativo pallent ibi flava metallo,
Et linit Hesperium bractea viva pecus.

The Pasture, and soyl in som places is so exuberant, that the milk cannot turn to whey, nor can Cheese be made unless you intermingle water with the milk 'tis so creamy and thick, and this is observ'd about Cales and other parts.

Now for Horses, that generous animall, Spain is well known to excell all other Countries, read Boterus, or Quinqueranus and they will tell you that the Cor­dovan Ginetts in fierceness surpasse those of Turky, in swiftness those of Barbary, in bewty those of Italy, som of those Ginets are sold for above 1000. Duckets a peece, they are so daintily limm'd, as if they were made of wax; The Ginets of Asturia called Asturcones, are also brave mettall'd animals. They go so wan­tonly, as if they danced all the way, their feet moving in a kind of regular glome­ration, as Martiall hath it,

Hic brevis ad numerum rapidos qui colligit ungues,
Venit ab Auriferis gentibus Astur equus.

For Marble, and other curious Stones, for Architecture, Spain is known to have Variety and what may seem miraculous; Not far from Barcelona, ther is a Mountain call'd Mondivi, and by the antients Mons Iovis, wherein there is an inex­hausted quarrey of usefull stones for structure, for although great quantities are hewn out of the body of the hill every day, yet let the place rest but a while, and nature will quickly heale the Ulcers, and fill the place again as if it had never bi [...] touch'd. The Monastery of Saint Laurence nere the Escurial can witnes what [Page 3] dainty Marble, and Free stone Spain abounds withall, a stupendous fabrique, an egregious and Imperiall peece, which stood Philip the 2. in more then 20. millions of Gold; Let Aegypt bragg as long as she will of her Pyramids, Greece of her Fanes and Temples, Rome of her Amphitheaters, and Palaces, Babilon of her Walls, France of her Louvre, Venice of her Arsenal, Milan of her Cittadel, Turkey of her Baths, This Monastery and Royall Pallace doth exceed them all far, for matter and form; It harbors and maintains 100. Fryers, wherof every one is allowed his Man and his Mule, with great nombers of Officers; besides ther is a stately Edifice annexed homogeneous to the rest (which is part of Saint Laurence's Grideiron) that may lodg four Kings, and every one have a ca­pacious quarter. 'Tis incredible to think how many hundred weight the very keyes of the Monastery weigh. For delicate Orchyards, curious Aqueducts and Fountains, for Grotts and Groves, for Galleries and Ambulatories, for neatnes and amaenity of all things, you wold be so transported, that you wold think your self to be in som earthly Paradis. And if Hee who will take an exact survay of this stately structure must goe above 33. miles, passing from roome to roome, from quadrangle to qua­drangle, with other places annexed, judg you therby of the magnitude and vast­nes of the whole. He may be said to carrie a Pompion in his breast in lieu of a Heart, that wold not be inflamed with a desire to see this eighth wonder of the world.

Now for Cities I pray who will dare to make any comparison with Sevill in point of Wealth, where divers Fleets com yeerly from the Indies laden with ingots of Gold, and balasted with barrs of Silver, as also with Gemms, and other rich Commodities, in so much that Sevill alone payes the King in duties, and imports above a Million every yeer; therfor that proverb is not ill grounded, which saith, Quien no ha visto Sevilla, non ha visto Mar avilla, Qui no ha visto Lisb [...]a, no ha visto cosa boa; I will now passe from Sevill to Ulissipolis the Citty of Ulissis or Leisbon, the very name tells her antiquity; for largenes, and com­merce, she vayles to no Citty under the Sun, she was the first happy discove­resse of the East Indies, whence she hath a world of Spices, and Jewels that her Caraks bring yeerly, and which she dispenseth up and down the world; What a delicat Citty is Granada, what a glorious peece is her Allhambra which may be called a Citty of it selfe, rather then a royall Castle or Pallace, for it is of such an amplitud that it will hold 40. thousand Men; What Town is more renowned then Toledo? where 17. Generall Councells have bin kept, and no Citty can say so much: what a Heavenly Temple is there? What a stately antient Palace where the Gothic Kings resided? What a rich Archbishoprick hath she, worth 300. thousand Crownes in annuall rent? What a Noble Aqueduct will you find there of the workmanship of Ianelli Turiano of Cremona, who was so famous for invention of hidraulique fabriques; In this antient Citty ther be above 10000. Soules, that earn their living by spinning, twisting, and weaving of Wool and Silk; What place can compare with Vallodolid for a large Market place 700. paces compasse? The Royal City of Leon hath the Sepulchers of [...]7. Kings: Where can you find a more industrious people then in Segovia, where a beggar is held a Monster; For salubrity of air what town is like Madrid, the greatest Village in the World, and the most Populous, made so by the residence meerly of his Catholique Majestie, and his Councells, in so much that at one time there was a cense made there of neer upon a Million of soules. Charles the Emperour removed hither of purpose to be cur'd of a quartan Ague, and he recovered, which made it first so famous: What a beuteous brave built Citty is Valentia, where there is a kind of spring all the yeer long? The only place to make a stranger forget his own Countrey; The brute Animalls, there make themselfs beds of Rosemary and other Aromatique flowers; This Citty affoorded lately two Popes of the Family of Borgia, Calixtus the 3. and Alexander the 6. When Queen Margaret, Philip the 3. wife passed through that City, the pomp of her entertainment amounted to 300. thousand Crowns. What a commodious place for negotiation is Bilbo or Flaviobriga, whence above 50. Shipps are laden with Wools every yeer, and transported to other Regions? What a stately thing is [Page 4] Barcelona, situated so commodiously upon the Mediterranean, and to be an Arse­nall for the Kings gallies? What a Rendevous for Devotion is Compostella, where ther is such a frequency of Pilgrims to visit the body of Saint Iames the Apostle? Pompey the Great in his Trophyes which he erected on the Pyrenean Hills, makes mention of 946. Towns thence to the furthest part of Spain; Ther is nere Anti­quera a choice kind of Morter call'd Tarra, which is far more solid and lasting then the playster of Paris, and makes a more firm incrustation upon walls. Nere Corunna ther be quarrys whence Jaspers are hewn out; But I will passe now to Minneralls, Pliny in his natural History affirms that Spain had great plenty of Lead, Iron, Brasse, Silver, Gold, Marble, and of speculares lapides, a certain kind of specular stones which being cut thin will be as cleer as Crystall, wherwith in former times windows were usd to be glazed; In so much that Possidonius saith, Pluto the God of riches dwelt in som of the subteranean parts of Spain. Moreover George Agricola avers, that among those Regions where mettals were digged, Spain was the first, Thrace the second, Great Brittain the third, France the fourth, Greece the fifth. In Biscay where the antient'st Inhabitans of Spain dwell, ther be such rich veins of Steel and Iron, that Vulcan was said to have his chiefest Forge there, and Mars his Armory; Pliny speaks of a whole mountain in Cantabria (now Biscay) which is all of Iron, whereunto Martiall alludes,

Auro Bilbilis, & superba ferro.

'Tis wonderful what is read in the Roman story, that about Carthagena ther were 40. thousand Men that digged in the Mines of Silver, which affoorded 25000. Drachmas every day, amounting according to Budaeus his calcule to 2500. Crowns; This no meaner man then Strabo affirmes: He goes further and saith, that Hannibal had begun a mine which affoorded 3000. Crownes every day. It is well known what Diodorus writes of the Pyreny mountains, that they were once very thick of Gold and Silver mines, that the Phaenicians the first traders by Sea of any people upon earth came often thither for tresure; If we will give credit to Livie (and what Historian I pray is more Magisteriall?) He will tell us, that the spoils which the Romans in a few yeers brought from Spain came to 600. thou­sand weight of Silver, and 10000. of Gold; so that Spain was then to Rome, what America is now to Spain. Nay, som are of opinion that Tortosa in Spain, was that Tharsis whether Salomon sent his fleet for treasure, and they ground the probabi­lity of this opinion upon the frequent Navigation of the Tyrians and Phenicians then into Spain.

But shall we passe with a dry foot the waters of Spain? Strabo, Pomponius Me­la, and Ptolomy assimilat Spain to an Ox hide stretched upon the ground, whose sides are all washed with the circumfluent Sea, the North side with the Cantabrian, the West with the Atlantique, the South with the Herculean or Balearique Sea, but the neck of the hide lying Westward is bound by the Pyreny Hills, where the di­stance twixt the Cantabrian, and Meditterranean Seas is so small in som places, that Iohn Vaseus leaves it upon Records, that when he travelled through Biscay he might from the top of Mount Adrian, see both the Seas. Besides these various Seas that like so many Laundresses wash the skirts of Spain, there are 150. Rivers that water the Continent up and down, and upon those Rivers ther are about 600. Bridges; besides som ponds, lakes, baths and Fountains; In the field of Xerezcher are above 1500. Springs. Among other Rivers ther is Guadiana which playes bopiepe with passengers, for she suddenly steales away out of sight, and runs aboue 20. Miles in subterrenean Caverns under ground, and then she popps up againe to the ey of the beholder at Villa Harta; Wherupon when the Spaniards speake of their miracles they say ther is a bridg in Spain whereon many thousand heards of Cattle do usually feed. Ther are som Spanish Rivers, where they fish for gold sane, in so much that the Portugals do glory, that their Crown is made of their own gold, viz. of the sands of Tagus, then which no oare is purer.

[Page 5]Ther are variety of things more that might be produced for the glory of Spain, which made Claudian to break out into this Elogium.

Quod dignum memorare tuis, Hispania, Terris
Vox humana valet? primo lavat aequore solem
India, tu fessos exacta luce Iugales
Proluis, inque tuo respirant sydera fluctu,
Dives equis, frugum facilis, pretiosa Metallis.

Pacatus though a Frenchman gives this Encomium of Spain, Hispania terris om­nibus terra foelicior cui excolendae, &c. Spain a Countrey more happy then all Coun­treys, whom the Supreme Fabricator of the world hath indulged extraordinarily in point of agriculture and riches: she is not obnoxious to faint Southern heats, or fierce Northern blasts, but she is favoured with the temper of both the Poles; And being wall'd in by the Pyreneans, with the gentle waves of three or four Seas, she may be said to be a little world of her self▪ What a nomber of noble Citties shine up and down? she hath golden streams, rocks of Jewells, mines of all Met­tals, &c.

But (most noble Auditors) having expatiated my self thus up and down the Countrey, let me speak somthing of the Inhabitants; And who knows not but the Spaniard hath bin ever reputed and felt to be a stout magnanimous people, con­temners of death, and mighty conservators of liberty? we may beleeve Lilius herin, where he sings

Prodiga geris animi, & properare facillima mortem;
Namque ubi transcendit florentes viribus annos,
Impatiens aevi spernit novisse senectae,
Et fati modus in dextra est.

The patience of the Spaniard is admirable, ther are a world of examples hereof; Iustin speaks of a boy, that having bin reveng'd of his Master, did exult and laugh in the midst of torment: and when Augustus Caesar had debell'd the Bislayners, they write that most of them rather then becom slaves to a Forrener, made themselfs a­way either by Fyre, the Sword, or Poyson: Mothers slew their children, and chil­dren their Fathers.

Cantaber ante omnes hyemisque, aestusque famisque

Besides the Spaniards did much glory to die in the field, for the incolumity of their Countrey, and rather perish by Famine, then yeeld up their Fortresses. Witnes the siege of Sagunto called now Morviedre in Valentia, who when the peo­ple of the town could no longer repell the punique armes, and the strength and stratagems of Hannibal, they brought all their Jewells, Tresure and Wealth to the Market place, together with their wifes and children, and made a bonefire of them­selfs, and all the rest, rather then by a base succumbency to yeald themselfs slaves to an African. So that Hannibal in taking Sagunto might be said not to have taken the Citty of Sagunto, but the tomb of the Saguntins. What shall I speak of Nu­mantia beleagerd no lesse then 14. yeers, though she had no walls or bastion but the bodies of the Inhabitants, no stones but humane bones, to defend her self against a furious Enemy, she had but 4000. men against 40000. Romans. At last when the fatal destroyer of Citties, Scipio Africanus, had taken her, he found rather a large Sepulchre of dead men then a Citty, for the Numantines held out so long till they devoured one another, and when the bodies of the dead were rifled, they found in their bosoms joynts of human bodies, which they had killed for food, in so much that it was not in the Roman force, but Famine that took Numantia.

[Page 6]For their fidelity the Spaniards have bin very signal in all ages, which induc'd Iulius Caesar to have a gard of them, and Augustus Caesar a band of Biscayners or Cantabrians. But how far the vertu and valour of the Spaniards prevailed against the Romans let Paterculus be heard to speak, Per ducentos annos in Hispanis multo mutuoque certatum est sanguine—For the space of 200. yeers, ther were so many and mutuall conflicts of bloud, that many of the Roman Emperours, and Armies being lost, much reproch, and sometimes great danger resulted to Rome; How many of their Scipios were destroyed there? how VIRIATUS for ten yeers toge­ther did shake them? what a disgracefull truce Pompey made, and Mancinus a more disgracefull. In all Sertorius his time it was doubtfull whether Spain shold be tributary to Rome, or Rome to Spain.

But why do I fly to Pagan instances, when ther are so many Christian Examples at hand? Sancho King of Castile (I pray listen attentively to this stupendous story) I say Sancho King of Castile took Tariffa from the Moors, but he being anxious and doubtfull whether he shold keep it or no, by reason of the vicinity of the enemy, and the great expences that it wold put him to, Alfonso Perez rise up and told the King that he wold undertake to secure & keep the place: Thereupon the Moore by the help of the King of Morocco came with a numerous Army before the Town, and Alphonso's Son being taken prisoner at a sallie, the Generall of the Moores desiring a parley upon the walls with Alfonso, he shewed him his Son, protesting unto him that he wold torture and slay his Son, unlesse he wold yeeld up the place: Alphonso being not a whit abash'd, told him, that if he had a hundred Sons, he would prefer his honour and Countrey before all; so the Moor having barbarously kill'd young Alphonso, They of the Town made such a resolut sallie the next day, that they ut­terly routed the Moores, and took so many prisoners, that he offered 100. Moors for a Victime for his son. To this Alonso the Family of the illustrious Dukes of Me­dina Sidonia ow their rise.

The Spaniards are admirable for their military discipline, being exactly obedient to their Comanders, and lesse subject to mutiny then any peeple. They are allwayes true to their trust, witnes that Spanish Centinel who was found dead in the morning in a Tower upon the Cittadel of Antwerp with his Musket in his hand in a defensive posture, and standing on his leggs all frozen. Moreover ther is no people so mu­tually charitable and carefull of their nationall honor then the Spaniards.

For their modern exploits the name of Alvaro Sandeo is terrible to this day a­mong the Moors, for having invaded Barbary with 4000. Spaniards, and beat before him above 16. miles, 20000 Moores, with but 800. of his own: The memory of the 2000. Spaniards, is irksome to the French to this day, who routed and quite discomfited Gaston de Foix who had quintuple the nomber: Gonzalo, call'd the great Captain [...], is much spoken of amongst them to this day, for having with such admirable fortitude taken away the Kingdom of Naples from Lewis the 12. and being return'd to Spain, the King took off a Gold chain from off his own neck and hang'd it about his; Antonio de Leiva was a stout and sedulous Comman­der, so was the Count de Fuentes Don Pedro Encques, who did not only defend, but extend the boundaries of Belgium for the King his Master, and in the midst of a double warr took such Towns, that might be in the wish but not in the hope of the Flemish. The Italians do yet tremble at the name of Don Fernand Alvarez Duke of Alva and his ghost, who wold not take Rome when he could. He who terrified France, secur'd Hungary, subdued Afrique, and appeas'd both Germans high and low; He who chastis'd Spain, He who first after the death of Don Sebastian told King Philip, that it was fitting he shold see the rites of buriall to be perform'd in Lisbon for King Sebastian. Then Henry being dead, in lesse then 50. dayes space he enter'd, survay'd, and subjugated all Portugall; And it was said se regnum Lu­sitanieum eo modo, quo regnum caelorum acquiritur, cepisse, &c. That he had taken the Kingdom of Portugall in the same manner as the Kingdom of Heaven is got, that is, by eating bread and drinking water, and abstaining from other mens goods. And this was sayd, because his Souldiers liv'd upon their allowance only, having no [Page 7] benefit of booty in any Towns as they passed, such a regular and strict Order was observed in his Army. We Germans do yet contemplat with admiration the ex­ploit that a band of Spanish Soldiers did perform in the Saxon warr, when stripping themselfs naked, they leap'd into the Elve with their Swords in their mouths, and swimming to the other side did fight for new cloathes, and did notable feats after­wards; Don Christopher Mandragon did do things in the low Countreys beyond belief. I could produce here a long scrowle of other late notable Spanish Comman­ders: therfore all things well ponder'd it may be justly said Hispania Rerum potitur in Europa. The Spaniards are the men of Europe, and their King the considerablest Monark, for he hath not only all Spain united under him, and reduc'd to one Em­pire, but he hath taken footing both in Germany and France by the House of Bur­gandy; He possesseth above half Italy by having the Duchie of Milan with the King­domes of Naples and Calabria, the first is the heart of Lombardy, and the second the very marrow of Italy; Then hath he Sicily, Sardinia, the Baleares, and all the Ilands in the Mediterranean. He hath Piombino in Toscany, Port Hercules, Te­lamon, Orbitello, Porto Longone, all which bind the Italians to their good beha­viour towards him. Genoa is as it were under his protection, like a Partridge under a Faulcons wings, who can seize upon the prey when he lift▪ That Citty being his scale for conveyance of his tresure is grown infinitely rich by his money, and tied to him by an indissoluble knot: Nay, Rome her self, by making som of the Cardinalls his Pensioneries, is much at his devotion; The Spaniard hath don more then Alexander the Great, for he hath not only got much of the old world, but conquered a new one, for which the Greek sighed so much. And if we beleeve the Civill Lawyers he hath don this justly, for 'tis the sentence of the Almighty, Quic­quid calcaverit pes tuus—Wheresoever thou shalt tread with thy foot, shall be thine, the Heavens is the Lords, but he hath given the Earth among the Sonns of Men. Moreover Reason dictats unto us, that men who live like brute Animalls, or wild Beasts, shold be reduc'd to civility, and to the knowledg of the true God. Be­sides, it is the Law of Nations, Quae bona nullius sunt ea fieri Occupantium, Those goods which are no bodies, may be any ones if he venture for them.

The Portingals have by their painfull discoveries made all the best ports of Afrique as it were their own by way of commerce, as also the maritime coasts of Asia, they found a way by the Cape of good Hope to the Orientall Indies. Fran­cisco Almeyde did dissipat Campsen with his Egiptian Fleet, and Alphonso Albur­querque did subdue Goa, and placed there a Vice Roy: then he reduc'd Malaca, and erected a Castle at Calecut, and brought the Inhabitants from worshiping the Devill, to adore the true God, and this he did when thousands of Infidells were arm'd against so many hundreds of Christians.

O immortall God, what glorious exploits did Fernando Cortez achieve in the Occidental Indies, indeed they were rather miracles then exploits; And as Lupus Suarez, Sequera, Meneses, Vascus Gama, Gratia [...] Norogna, Iuan de Castro, by foyling the Emperour of Cambaia did establish unto the Crown of Portugal the East Indies, and som part of the Antipodes, on the other Hemispher, so did Chri­stopher Columbus (who though an Italian, yet his fleet was Spanish) Americus Vespu­tius, Iuan de Puente, Ferdinand Magellan, Fernandez Cortez, de Vargas, & Pizar­ro, reduce and settle the new world to the Crown of Spain; They civiliz'd the Savage Inhabitans, and Coloniz'd the Countrey with Christians, subjugated so many Heathenish Emperors, and introduced Religion and vertue; And I pray what Heros can be compared to those Worthies of Spain who perform'd all this? what Age ever produc'd the like? when had Envy more matter to work upon? Let the fable of the Argonauts be now exploded, let Bacchus and Hercules descend from Heaven, and let Spaniards take their room; Let that so much cryed up Argo come down from among the celestiall bodies, for she made but a small short voy­age through the Pontique Sea, and let that glorious galeon which conducted Ma­gellan to the discovery of a new world, let that happy vessell be fixed among the Starrs, and make a new Constellation, let her Pilot Iuan Sebastian Canoaa [Page 8] Mountaneer of Spain, a most excellent Navigator make also another aste­risme.

But, most noble Princes, me thinks I see a kind of amazement in your counte­nances at these mighty exploits of the Spaniards from the Rising Sun to his Setting; But it is a hard question to determine whether the Indians reap'd more benefit by the Europaeans, or Europe by them: but if a judicious soule enter into a true contem­plation of the business, he will make it no question at all; 'Tis true that we have receav'd from the Indies gemms and gold which I confesse are the most precious productions of nature; but what did the Indians receave from us by way of bar­ter? They receav'd Christianity, and vertu, civility and knowledg, government and Policy; All these benedictions the Viracochas, for so the Savage call the Christians, the Spaniards brought among them. It was the Spanish Navigation, who first con­futed that grosse opinion and hereticall tenet (for there was a Bishop imprisoned in Rome for holding the contrary) that ther were no Antipodes; Therfore the rest of Europe, and indeed of Asia and Afrique also shold vayle unto the Spaniard, and respect him more then any Nation for this blessing of discovery, which it seems the God of Nature had reserved for him from the beginning; and a mighty blessing it was, and we must needs acknowledg it so, if we descend into the tru speculation of the thing, for therby ther was as much of the terrestriall globe discovered, as for extent and amplitude did equall the old world. But what a world of dangers and difficulties did they overcom? on the one side the incertitude of the thing, and the perills of the vast confused Ocean did offer themselfs, on the other the expences of the voyage, and the despair of more provision when the old store was spent, and in case they shold discover and take footing on a new Earth, the Savages might prove stranger then they. 'Tis tru, that such thoughts as these did possesse and puzzle them a while, but at last their courage and magnanimity was such, that it broak through all these difficulties: and as a wild Boar being taken within the toyles doth try all wayes, turn about and struggle how to get out, at last when all will not serve, he lyes down betwixt quietness and despair, putting himself upon the mercy of the Huntsman, so that American fortune being tyed to that fear which possess'd it, at last doth prostrat her self at the feet of the Spanish vertu, tying her self therunto by a perpetuall tribut; she brings her afterwards golden mines, and moun­tains, yea Rivers running with gold, Seas full of Perl, som parts of the earth labouring with gems with all kind of arromatick Spices, sweet woods, with new Species of birds, beasts, plants and fishes; All these things did India afford the Spaniard for a gratefull return of his indefatigable and hazardous pains in coming to visit her: The mines of Potosi in Peru yeeld 30000. Crowns every day in good gold ore, The Mines of Mexico much more in Silver. But what exchanges did Spain make to Amenia for this tresure? Mary she afforded her a far more precious thing, even Christian Re­ligion; and what a world of pains did the Spaniards take to plant that among them at first? It is recorded by Borerus that one Franciscan Frier did Christen 400000. Americans in the Sacred Laver of regeneration; In so much that the Spaniards may term themselfs with arrogance the Apostles of the new world: They were the first who cultivated that Vineyard, the first that brought light out of darknes; and as the Fryers in the West, so did the Iesuits in the East Indies take infinite pains in planting Christianity, and their piety and diligence hath succeeded so well that it is got into the Court of the great Emperour of China. What brave atchievments are these to conquer and subdu Souls, which is more then to subjugat the body? Certainly the Spaniards may be call'd the Grandees of these times above any other people.

Now although ther be a kind of proverbiall saying, Espanam las Armas, Italia la pluma, Spain is for the Pike, and not so proper for the pen; for the Sword, not for Sciences, which the Italians are more apt unto; Though som Authors do brand them to be somwhat idle and Phlegmatique, yet I could muster up here a whole Regiment of acute and learned wits in all faculties: And first for Theologie; I pray what great lights of the Church were Vigilantius, Aquilius, Severus, Prudentius, [Page 9] Osius, Avitus Presbyter, Marcianus, Paulus Orosius, Pacianus and Dexter his Son, Audentius, Isiodorus, Iustinian, Leander, Martinus, Fulgentius, Eladius, Eu­tropius; To whom may be added, though of a Judaicall adventitious tribe and sect, yet great learned men in their way, Rabbi Abenezra, Rabbi Moyses, Rabbi David Chimchi, Moses of Corduba, Rabbi Camora.

Franciscus Ximenez Cardinall and Archbishop of Toledo employed 60. thousand Crowns, for the Editions of the Complutensian Bible, a great Spirit certainly, and born under a happy Star, for these times and for the ornament of Spain, for he in­cited others to workes of vertue; Franciscus de Sancta Aelia compos'd an usefull Ecclesiastique Dictionary; But what a nomber of renound Bishops both for piety and erudition hath Spain had? what shall I speak of Hierom Osorius, Andrew Re­sendius, Benedictus Arius Montanus, who by a rare and most singular benignity, and for a great example to posterity, entertained Lipsius, not only for a friend, but as a Son, and invited him to Spain, and as he continued to make him his Asso­ciat in his life time, so he made him his successor at his death: What eminent men have the Dominicans produc'd? Lewis of Granada was born for the advancement of Piety: what credit did Franciscus Forerius pourchase in the Tridentine Councell, though he died a violent death?

Now, touching the Fathers of the Society, the Iesuits, what saintlike men were Hieronimus Pradus, Villalpandus, Tunianus Pererius, Tolletus, who was first of that Order that was coopted by Clement the 8. into the Colledge of Cardinalls? What a man was Maldonatus? what a bright Star he was both for candor of Ma­ners, for quicknes of wit, for profound speculations in Philosophy and Theologie, and for singular piety, who studying ten yeers together in Clermont Colledg in Paris, brought the French to have a better opinion of the Iesuits by his example, whereas before they were so much hated: What rare Commentaries hath he upon the four Evangelists, published by the care and charge of Puteanus, who was of the same Society? which Comentaries never the lesse 'tis thought by the judgment of the learnedst men, had bin better and purer if they had com out in his life time. But what shall I instance in particular men, go to the whole Order of Iesuits first found­ed by a Spaniard, and you shall find in the new and old world above three hundred and fifty Colleges of their Society, the greatest Seminaries for institution of youth, and a rigid practise of piety that are in the Christian world, but specially for the pro­pagation of Christianity among Infidels: in the Kingdome of Iaponia alone, it is credibly reported that they converted two hundred thousand of Soules, among whom were three Iaponian Kings, who made a pilgrimage to Rome to the amaze­ment of all the world. Henry the Great of France came to have such an opinion of this so pious and prudent order, that he conferred Mountains of favours upon them, for he gave them not only one of his best palaces in his life time, but he be­queathed them his heart after his death; Certainly the Jesuits are men of extraor­dinary talents, They are said to be Timothies in their Houses, Chrysostomes in the Pulpit, and Augustins in the Chair; Being excited by their example, Sancta Teresia a woman of a Masculine spirit rise up, and did mighty and miraculous things, for being a little stepped in yeers, she tooke a Monasticall life upon her, where she liv'd with such austerity, that is wonderfull and transcending the frayle sexe of wo­men; she was the foundresse and Instauratrix of a new Order of reclus'd Virgins, and 'twere mervailous to relate what encrease this order receav'd not only in Spain, but in both the Indies, and other parts of Christendom, being encourag'd by the countenance of Pope Sixtus quintus and Clement the 8.

Now for great Doctors and eminent men in the Civill Lawes, Spain hath bred as profound as any, witnes Calixtus the third. Fortunius Garzia, Coraviva Aspil­cueta the Navarrin a man of celebrous integrity as well as of knowledg: For when Caranca Archbishop of Toledo, was by the permission of Philip the second, sum­mon'd and brought to Rome for suspition of being a Sectarian, Doctor Aspilcueta being his old friend, and having 80. yeers on his back went purposely to Rome, and defended the Archbishop with such strenuous arguments, that he brought him off [Page 10] cleer. He also made good the title of the Kingdom of Navarre to Charles the Em­perour, when it was litigated, to the satisfaction of all rationall men; To him may be added Ferd: Vasquius Pinellus, the two Vergaras, Emanuel Soarez, Villalobos, Alvarus Valascus, Gutierez, and Goveanus, whom Cujaeius consesseth to be the truest Iustinian interpreter that ever was.

For Physitions, what part of the Univers hath produc'd more famous men then Spain? as Averroes of Cordova, Rasis Almansor, Messahallath, Avicenna of Sevill, Nonius, Amatus, Christopher a Vega, Garcias ab Horto, Franciscus Valessus, with divers other, able to make a whole College of Physitions of them­selfs.

Now for Philosophers, Rhetoritians and Poets, Spain hath produc'd many mas­culine births also that way, what a Man of Men was Seneca the Philosopher? who in precepts of morality outwent and excell'd [...],’ not only all his contemporaries, but all that went before him or came behind him; Next to the Philosopher I wil bring in Seneca the Rhetor, of whom among other rarities 'tis written, that ther being two thousand names told him, he presently repeated them all exactly in his Oration; Lucan shall enter next, then Silius Italicus, after him Martiall Collumella, Fabius Quintili­anus, Pomponius Mela, Trogus Pompeius, Iustinus the Great, Alphonso King of Castile. Henry Infant of Portugal, Arnoldus Villanovanus, Raymundus Lullius, Lu­dovicus Vives, Nonius, Salinus, Antperez, Morales, Surita, Geomecius, and Baro­sius the best compiler of the Indian History; all these by their workes have deserv'd infinitely much of all the Common-wealth of Learning: To these may be ad­ded that miracle of women-kind, Aloysia Sigea, who was practically vers'd in 5. severall languages, as Latin Greek, Hebrew, Syriaque, and Chaldaique, in so much that the letters are yet extant which Paul the third writ to this Toledo Virgin: I could muster here great nombers of learned men more whom Spain hath bred.

Quos aget penna metuente solvi
Fama superstes.

What therfor Ausonius sung to Augustus Caesar in poeticall amplifications, I will now mention in part unto you, it being so proper for the subject.

Bellandi, Fandique potens Hispania honorem
Bis meret, ut geminos titulos, qui praelia musis
Temperat & Geti [...]um moderatur Apolline Martem,
Arma inter quantum cessat de tempore belli,
Indulget Clariis tantum inter castra Camaenis.

I com now to the vastnes of the Spanish Monarchy, and certainly without con­trolment it is the greatest that hath been since the Creation, considering all things; It may be sayed take all the Members thereof together, to be ten times bigger then the Ottoman Empire, although he hath in Europe the better part of Hungary, Bos­nia, Servia, Bulgaria, Macedon, Epire, Greece, Peloponesus, Thrace, and the Iles in the Archipelago: All though he can go from Buda in Hungary, nere to Tauris and all in his own Territories; Nay it is of more extent then the Roman Empire was, when she was mounted to the highest pitch of power, and Spaciousnesse; for the Domini­nions of Philip now King of Spain expand themselfs further. The Sun doth perpe­tually shine upon som part of the Phillippean Monarchy, for if it sets in one clime, it then riseth in another. He hath dominion on both the Hemisphers, and none of all the four Monarchies could say so much, nor any Potentat now living but him­self; Therfore he may well joyn the Sphear of the world to his armes, and better share Empires with Iove then Augustus Caesar could; his Scepter points at the four Cardinal corners of the world, East, West, North and South, for of those [Page 11] 360. degrees in the Aequinoctiall, Portugall alone is said to occupie 200.

Iupiter in coelis, in Terra regnat Iberus.

Most Illustrious Auditors, you have hitherto heard the magnitude of the Spanish Monarchy, but that which tends most to the glory of Spain, is her policy and pru­dence in governing so many distinct Regions, so many squandred Kingdoms, so many millions of people of differing humours, customes and constitutions. To be able to Rule so many Nations is more then to raign over them; the one is imputed to the outward strength of bodies, the other to the Sagacity of the brain; but for Spain her self ther is that sweet harmony twixt the Prince and peeple, the one in obeying, the other in bearing rule, that it is admirable, and here the Spanish King hath the advantage of all other Imperando & parendo. He is neither King of Asses as the French is, nor the King of Devills as the English is, nor the King of Kings as the Emperour glories to be, but the King of Spain is Rex Hominum, the King of Men: he may also be termed the King of Princes, according to the Character which Claudian gives Spain, that she was Principibus faecunda piis

There also as he signs—Fruges, aera [...]ia, Miles
Vndique conveniunt totoque ex orbe leguntur▪
Haec generat qui cuncta regunt—

Therfore let Candy the Cradle of Iove, let Thebes the Mother of Hercules, and Delos the nurse of two Gods yeeld to Spain. It was she who brought forth Trajan to the world, who was as good as Augustus was happie; she gave Hadrian the Empe­rour, she gave Theodosius the first, and the first of Emperours for Morality and Vertue, who rays'd and rear'd up again the Roman Monarchy when she was tot­tering; Ferdinand the first, who was an Infant of Spain, a Prince who for liberty and justice, for mansuetude and munificence, for assiduity and vigilance, for piety and peace was inferiour to none of his progenitors, and to this day they keep in Spain the Cradle, and Rattles he us'd when he was a child in Complutum where he was born, which Town enjoyes to this day some speciall immunities for his Nati­vity there.

But Spain gave all these Princes to other Nations; how many hath she affoorded her self? she gave Ferdinand of Aragon a Prince of incomparable piety and prowesse who first lay'd the foundation of the Spanish Monarchy, by matching with Donam Isabella Queen of Castile, a heavenly Princesse, she gave Philip the second, call'd the prudent, and so he was, to a proverb; how cautious was he in administration of Justice? how circumspect in distribution of Offices? how judicious in rewarding of Men? &c. how wary in conferring of honors? for he was us'd to say, that honors conferred upon an unworthy man, was like sound Meat cast into a corrupt Sto­mack; What a great example of Parsimony was he? yet Magnificent to a miracle, witnes the eighth wonder of the world, the Escuriall, which stupendous fabrick he not only saw all finished before his death, though the building continued many yeers, but he enjoy'd it himself twelve yeers, and carried his own bones to be buried in the Pantheon he had built there. He was so choyce in the election of his Servants, that he had no Barber for his Ambassador, nor Taylor for his Herald, nor Physition for his Chancellor, as we read of Lewis the XI. of France, nor a Faukner to his chief Fa­vorit as the last French King had. But that which was signall in this wise K. was, that he never attempted any great busines but he wold first refer it to the Councel of Con­science; And before the Acquisition of Portugall he shewed a notable example here­of; For King Sebastian being slain in a rash War against the Moores, and Henry dying a little after, ther were many Candidates and pretenders for the Lusitanian Crown, first Philip himself, then Philibert Duke of Savoy, after him Farnessius Duke of Parma, then Iohn Duke of Bragansa, and lastly Katherine de Medici; King Philip, though twas in vain to compasse this busines [...] by Legations, therfore he did it with his Legions; yet he paus'd long upon the busines, referring it to the debate of the learnedst Theologues, and Civill Doctors, where it [Page 12] was eventilated, and canvas'd to and fro with all the wit and arguments the brain of man could affoord pro & con; At last the title and right being adjudg'd for him, and having fairly demanded it in a peaceable way, and being put off, he raiseth an Army answerable to the greatnes of the work, and yet being advanc'd to the bor­ders he made a halt, and summons again both Divines and Civillians to deliver their knowledg and consciences herin, conjuring them by God and the sacred Faith to do it with integrity, and freedom; Herupon they all unanimously concur'd in the confirmation of their former judgment, as Ripsius doth testifie; After this great transaction, he sends the Duke of Alva with an army to take possession of his right, wherin he was so prosperous that he invaded, survay'd, and subjugated the whole Kingdom of Portugall in a very short time, utterly defeating Don Antonio, whom though King Philip might have surpriz'd a good while before lurking in a Monastery, yet he would not do it; Besides, he caus'd the Duke of Bragansa's Son, being Captif among the Moores, to be redeem'd at his own charge, and when he could have detained him, yet he suffer'd him to go where he would: Now having debell'd and absolutely reduc'd the Kingdom of Portugall, among ma­ny others who were his Opposers, the Doctors of Conimbria were most busy, yet he sent them not only a generall pardon, but encreased the exhibitions of the University; This mighty King was also a great Lover of his Countrey, preferring the publick incolumity therof before his own bloud; his only Son Charls, who being a youngman of a restles ambitious spirit, and being weary of the compliance he ow'd his Father, was us'd to carry Pistolls ready cock'd about him in the day, and put them under his pillow in the night; He confest to his ghostly Father, that he had a purpose to kill a Man, and being denied absolution from him, he desir'd that he would give him unconsecrated bread before the Congregation to avoid pub­lick offence; King Philip being told of this confin'd his Son, and put him over to the Councell of the Inquisition; The Councell deliver'd their opinion, and humbly thought that since his Majesty could pardon those whom he hated most, he might well pardon him whom he lov'd most; And so made instance in Charles the Great, who pardon'd his Son Pepin for a conjuration against his person, and having at­tempted it the second time, only committed him to a Monastery; The King her­upon answer'd, that by the Law of Nature he was to love his Son, but he lov'd Spain better: therupon he put a question to them, whether the pardon he shold give his Son would not prove a Sin rather then an Act of Mercy, considering the publick calamities that might thence ensue, therfore he asked them which was to be pre­ferr'd the peoples good or his Son's? They answered certainly, the peoples; So he transmitted him to that Councell, conjuring them in his name, who is to judg the Angells one day, and will make no distinction twixt Kings and Coblers to do justice herin; So the young Prince was adjudg'd, and Sentence of Death passed upon him; Good God! what passions did struggle in the Father, when he was to sign the Sen­tence? and tis his paternall affection to the chaire of Justice: he was a Father, ther­fore his affections could not grow to such a hatred, but they might returne to their own nature; But after many such conflicts, he chose rather to be Pater Patriae, then Pater Caroli, to be Father of Spain then Father of a Son, and make naturall respects yeeld to prudentiall; So the young Prince dyed, yet not by the Executioners hand, but as 'twas rumor'd by Poyson; Thus to the consternation of all the world the Phosphorus of Spain fell to the West, and suddenly set and divers of his Favorites with him, if you desire to know the yeer this Cronogram will tell you.

fILIUs ante DIeM patrIos InqUIrIt In annes.

This Phillip was also famous for his Piety as well as Iustice, which made Gregory the 13. to break out in these words, The prolongation of my life can little availe the Catholick Church, but pray for the health of King Philip, for his life concerns her more. He was wonderfully constant to himself, he was always without passion, [Page 13] and somtimes above them, of a marvailous Equanimity, and Longanimity, wit­ness his patience in his sicknesses, wherof he had many, but that which brought him to his grave was the Pediculary disease, which though nasty and gastly, yet he endur'd it with invincible patience. When he found his glasse almost run out, he sent for his Son and Daughter, and upon his death-bed told them, In this small afflicted body you see to how small a threed the pomp and splendor of all Earthly Mag­nitude doth hang, my Mortall life is upon departing, the care of my Sepulchre, and rites of exequies, I commend unto you with my blessing. Among many other ther is one remarkable passage in this Kings life; when the Duke of Alva was upon point of going to Portugall, he had a great desire to kisse the Kings hand, but to the amazement of all the world, he was denyed at that time, which made the Duke to say, that his Master had sent him to conquer Kingdoms, being tyed with chains and fetters.

His Son Philip the second, did equall him in Piety, and in nothing els, we know what a Saint-like man he was, having his Beads alwayes either about his neck, or in his hands.

I will hold you no longer, only I will tell you that the Kings of Spain more then any other have don miraculous and immortall things; For as God almighty when he builds, creates no lesse then a world, When he is angry, sends no lesse then an uni­versall deluge; When he conferrs grace to mankind, sends no lesse then his own Son; When he rewards, gives no lesse then Paradise; when he warrs, employs no lesse then Legions of Angells and makes the Elements to fight, the Sea to open, and the Sun to stand; so if finite things may beare any proportion with infinity, the Kings of Spain are borne to do no petty things, but mighty matters; When they build; they erect no lesse then an Escuriall; If they are angry, they drive forth whole Nations, as the Moores and the Iews; If they reflect upon the publique good, they sacrifice no lesse then their own Sons; If they desire to oblige any, they restore Kings as Muleasses to Tunis, and make Popes of their Schoolmasters; when they take armes, then they conquer not only whole Kingdoms, but new Worlds.

Therfore my dearest Brother, Frederique Achilles, and you most Illustrious Cosens and Auditors, I think I shall derogat from no other Region, if taking King and Countrey together, I preferr the Spaniard for glory and amplitude of Domini­ons, for fulgor of Majesty, for the longest arm'd Monark, for Men and Mines, for Iles and Continents, I say I do no wrong to any, if I prefer him before any other Prince or Potentat upon the earthly Globe.


THE ORATION OF The Lord GEORGE FREDERIQUE, Baron of LIMBURG, and Hereditary Officer to the Sacred Roman Empire, and allwayes Free. Against SPAIN.

Most Illustrious Prince and President, &c.

WE have hitherto delivered sundry opinions, wheron ther have been many learned and Rhetoricall descants; I observe allso ther are som divorcements and discrepancies in the said opinions; But for my particular suffrage, I will preferr France before any Province of the Europaean world; and if I shold attempt to speak more then hath bin presented by that high-born Prince Duke Ioachim Ernest upon this subject, it wold be an argument of rashnes in me, and so I shold incurr no small hazard of my reputation: Me thinks I see Ciceno before me, and saying, Illam O­rationem solùm populus Gallicus parem Imperio suo habet, France hath that Oration alone, equall to her Empire. But though ther was much spoken of Spain by that noble Prince, Duke Magnus of Wirtemberg, yet I will endeavour to shew that Spain doth not deserve either the Elogium or love of so great a Prince in so high a degree; For as shadows use to make bodies bigger then they are really in bulk, so it seemes his affection hath made Spain more then she is in intrinsique value. For truly unlesse I be stark blind, I find Spain to be the most unhusbanded, and the sterillest Country of Europe, the thinnest of peeple, the fullest of fruitlesse Hills, which they call Sierras, and are indeed no better then Wildernesses: In so much that though she be so scant of Inhabitants, yet hath she not Bread enough to put into the mouths of the sixt part of them: So that unlesse she be very ingratefull and impudent, she must ac­knowledge Germany and France to be her Nources, and Sicily her Barn, as she was somtimes to the Romans. And among these ther was a computation made once of foure millions of tresure that France receav'd that yeer from Spain for Corn in Pi­stolls and Patacoons, which made Henry the fourth say that the great store of tresure which Spain hath, discovers her necessity as well as her plenty, because she cannot keep her money at home, which she might well do, if she had Corn as well as Wine. For our Wheat is scarce grown ripe, but the Spaniard is gaping for it at our Ports, or some other Nation for them.

In Portugall, if a Vessell com and cryes Traygo [...]trigo, I bring Corn, he may turn it to present Silver, and carry it away in the palm of his hand, which is not permit­ted for any other commodity but Frumentarian: Which makes Frossard report that those English which went for the succour of Spain under the Duke of Lancaster to Portugall cry out that they wold be loth to return to Spain, where they found such [Page 15] rough Craggs which could not be eaten with Verjuyce, a feverish Air, troubled Waters, indigent peeple, nasty and ill cloath'd. But ther is no man can judge of Spain but he who hath travell'd the Countrey, where his Mule and he must lodg to­gether in som places, and haply the Mule may fare better then the Master▪ yet ther is not any that can dissemble Saturity as much as the Spaniard, who useth to stroake his beard and breast from crumms, and pick his teeth with that state, as if he had bin at a feast in Germany. Therfore it was charitably spoken by one, Beati qui sterilita­tem non viderunt, sed crediderunt, They are happy who have not seen the sterility of Spain, but beleeve it. For whosoever doth purpose to see Spain, must resolve before­hand to undergo hardshipps of all sorts, to have oftentimes the lower Region of the Air for his Canopie, Hunger for his food, and Thirst for his drink; he must resolve to fast perpetually, and if he lights by chance upon som edible things, as root, fruit, an ounce of flesh, or the like, tis a question whether he eats or fasts; yet one shalbe sure to stay there as much for such little modicums, as one shold do in France or Ger­maay at a Crown Ordinary.

Frederique the II. Count Palatine of the Rhine going to Spain to visit the Em­perour Charles the V. came to a Town call'd Cervera upon Corpus Christi Eve, and thinking to rest there the next day being a Holy-day for the refreshment of himselfe, his Train and Horses, the Corregidor or chief Magistrat of the Town sent to him, desiring him to depart the place, for fear of enhancing the rates of things. The next day going to Gomorrha, a Town of the second Classis in Spain, and sending his Caterer to market to buy som Butter, where being asked how much he wold have? answered twenty or thirty pound: the Shop-keeper cross'd himself, and said, You cannot find such a proportion in all this Town, you must go to Estremadura, where ther is good store of Oxen and Cowes. At last he brought him a Kids blad­der full of Butter, as if he went to grease the wheele of a Cart.

But this scarcity brings one comodity with it, that Spain is not so subject to be o­ver-run by any forren force, for an Army wold quickly starve there for want of ali­ment. Which inconvenience diverted Murat the great Turk once from invading Spain. Yet of late yeers ther is a better accommonation for passengers in som of the chief Towns, but they are strangers that do it. Most of their Opificers are also Forre­ners, specially French, insomuch that in Valentia alone ther were reckond at one time above ten thousand Artists. For indeed the Spaniard himself is of a flothfull, and stately nature; he puts his Sword by his side, his great Ruff about his neck, and only goes with his Asse to the market to buy him bread, with other necessities, which strangers use to provide for him.

Now, since the expulsion of the Moriscos, which were a laborious peeple, and wold grubb up Corn from among those craggy hills, Spain is poorer then she was, and wold be more poor, were it not for those swarmes of Gascons that crosse the Py­reneys thither for love of their money.

And as the Countrey of Spain is so indigent, so the Inhabitants are poor in point of Vertu, but rich for sundry sorts of Vices. They use to make use of Religion for a mantle to palliat their designs; They rap out somtimes horrid blasphemies, and ther is an Author (but he is a Frenchman) who relates that a King of Spain having had divers ill successes, fell into that impatience, that he swore he wold be reveng'd, ther­fore he comanded that none of his Subjects shold adore God, or beleeve in him, or speak of him for so long a time. What shall I say of the Portugalls, which are calld the new Christians, whereas they are for the most part Iewes in their hearts. It is re­corded, that in the battaile where Don Sebastian was killd in Barbary, ther were a­bove 1500. Renegado Christians of Andaluzia that were in the Army of Moley Molue King of Morocco.

'Tis tru, that they have planted Christianity in both the Indies, raysd up the Stan­dard of the Crosse, and taught Sauvages the way to heaven; But those Pagans may say as Robert Duke of Normandy said when he was going to the holy Sepulcher, who being met by one of his own Subjects, as he was mounted upon a great Sarracens backe, & being much tyrd, he said, Commend me to all in Normandy, & tell them I am [Page 16] going to Heaven upon the Devills back. So the converted Infidels may be said to goe to Heaven upon the Spanish Iesuitts backs.

But now that I have touch'd upon the Iesuits, who are a tru Spanish ospring, and the most intimat Confidents of the Catholic King, I will enlarge my self a little on this subject, for by laying open these men, you will better discover the humor of the Spaniard. It was the saying of a Burgundian Nobleman, That a Spaniard without his Iesuit, is like a Partridg without an Orenge. Un Espagnol sans son Iesuite, est come un Perdrix sans Orenge. These Jesuitts have turnd all the world topsitervy; they have bin the Inceadiaries of all the differences, the fire-brands of all the Warrs, the fo­menters of all the Rebellions that have bin in Christendom ever since they had a Bull to establish their Society by Pope Teatin from whom they bear the name. And indeed it must be confessd, that they have bin very thankfull to the Pope for it, for they have bin the greatest supporters of his Chair ever since: in regard that all their consulta­tions tend principally to depresse the power of Kings, and enhance the prerogative of the Pope, whom they hold to be the universall Lord Paramount of the Universe among men, and the highest Vice-roy of God Allmighty in this elementary world. They take him for a speaking Scripture, and that Heresie is nothing else but a Tenet in the points of Faith, contrary to the decision of the Pope. They hold he can absolve any from his Allegeance and fidelity to his naturall lawfull Prince, excommunicat any earthly Monark, and not only so, but tumble him out of his throne, yea into hell both Soul and Body by the thunderbolts of Excommunication. They hold he can dispense with Subjects to levy armes against their soveraign Prince, to meet him in the field and murther him, insomuch that the verses of the Prince of Pagan Poets may be most fitly applyed to these kind of Christians.

Tu potes unanimes armare in praelia Fratres,
Atque odiis versare domos, Tu verbera tectis
Funereasque inferre faces, tibi nomina mille
Mille nocendi artes—

Moreover 'tis their tenet that the holy Father cannot only depose any earthly potentat, but dispose of his dominions to any other. And if a new Countrey be discover'd, the party cannot possesse it, till he receive it as a gift from him, wherin the King of Spain did so far comply with him, that as soon as he had discover'd and conquer'd America, the first thing he thought upon, was to make his humble ad­dresses to his Holines for investiture.

But the sages of the Parlement of Paris, and the most acute learned Doctors of the Colledg of Sorbon detested such Doctrines, therfore by a solemn arrest of that high Court abetted by those great Divines, caus'd the Institutions of Mariana the Arch-Jesuit, who broach'd such tenets and expos'd them to the world, to be made a Sacrifice to Vulcan by the hand of the common Executioner, with another intitled de temporali potestate Papae adversus Gulielmum Barclaium, and that under pain of committing High-Treason, none should keep, communicat, print or vend any of those damnable bookes.

The Venetians, the prudentst and politiquest Republic that ever was, as we may infer by the constancy of her goverment, and longaevity, did shew France the way of using the Jesuits in this manner, but that grave Senat went a rounder way to worke, for they did not only burn their pages, but banish their persons eternally from the Republic of Venice and all her Territories. And although Henry the 4. did earnestly mediat for their readmission, yet all wold not do, for ther was a double inconvenience in it, first, a hazard of disreputation, and opinion of rashnes upon the Senat for revoking so solemn a Decree, which was debated and deter­mined with such mature deliberation contrary to their custom; And secondly, ther wold be a continuall encrease of danger to the Republique, for admitting such strangers into her bosome, For they were not ignorant that whersoever they live, or what Countrey soever they are in, They are the Subjects of another Prince, viz. the Popes.

[Page 17]Furthermore the Iesuits have another dangerous doctrine prejudiciall to all soveraign Princes, de confessione non detegenda, ne in causa quidem Majestatis, & presenti Regis ac regni periculo, That the confession of a penitentiary must not be reveal'd, no though it reflect upon Majesty, and to the danger both of King and Kingdom; this is an Appendix of the Hildebrandine Iesuiticall Doctrine. The English Cronicle makes mention that Father Garnet the Jesuit being interrogated by the Earl of Notingham if any one wold confesse unto him in the morning, that he had a purpose to murther the King the next evening, whether he was bound in con­science to reveale it? Garnet answer'd no. Which opinion Binetus the Jesuit con­firm'd to Causabon in these words, praestare Reges omnes perire quam si vel semel Confessionis Sigillum violaretur, Regem enim ait humani juris Imperium esse, Con­fessionem Iuris divini; It were better that Kings should perish then that the seal of confession should be broken, for the power of Kings is by humane right, Con­fession by Divine. Moreover another Jesuit in France did dare openly to affirm, si Dominus noster Iesus Christus in terris versaretur morti obnoxius, & aliquis sibi in confessione dixisset velle se illum occidere prius quam confessionem revelaret, passu­rum se ut Christus occidatur, If our Lord Jesus Christ were himself again upon Earth subject to death, and one under the seal of confession should tell him that he had a purpose to kill him, before he would reveale the confession he wold suffer that Christ shold be slain. Henricus Henriques also another furious Jesuit averrs that the Holy seal of Confession must not be broken for any cause whatsoever; and the said Spanish Jesuit saith thus, Quamvis se ageretur totius Orbis salus; aut ipsius paenitentis utilitas, nec pro vitando ullo damno gravissimo Innocentis, aut quod esset totius orbis conflagratio, aut perversio Religionis; & omnium sacramentorum in­tentata demolitio. Although it tended to the salvation of the whole world, or the utility of the penitentiary, or that som Innocent might escape som grievous dan­ger, or that the conflagration of the whole world depended upon it, or the perver­sion of Religion, and the utter overthrow of all the Sacraments, All these wold not be causes sufficient to impell the Ghostly Father to break the seal of Confession. All this Isaac Cansabon doth averr to be tru in his works to Fronton Pucaeus, and Cardinall Perronius. For such a high and most venerable opinion they have of au­ricular Confession, that what the penitentiary poures in the Priests breast, is put up in the Closet of God Almighty, and so it must be kept with sacred silence. This may be one of the reasons that more penitentiaries make their addresses to the Jesuits then to any other Order, and it may be a reason also why other Monasticalls do so much Envie them, som Malign them, others detest them. Those which for­merly were mentioned, are the tenets of the Jesuits, touching privat Auricular con­fession, if Causabon may be believed, who ('tis tru) was a profess'd enemy of theirs, yet the positions are maintained but by the rigidst sort of Teatins not generally as som affirm; By these meanes of Confession, they open the Cabinets of Princes, and know more of State-matters then any: For ther are none who have sooner and surer intelligence then they from all parts, and their correspondencie is admirable for the punctuality of it. Ther are no Ecclesiastiques so frequent in Princes Courts, and Noble mens Palaces, then they, which makes them have more Legacies given them then any other.

They have also another way besides secrecy of confession to oblige the Nobility by instructing their Children gratis, and they have a rare method of Education that way, it cannot be denied. But in Spain her self, though the Jesuits have a powerfull hand over the King himself, and in the Councell of the Inquisition, as also a great stroak among the Nobility and Gentry, yet the common peeple malign and hate them generally, as appeers by the Libel which was made in the Court of Spain which I think worthy the relating here.

Los mandamientes de los Teatinos Mas Humanos son que Divinos.
  • [Page 18]1. Adquirir mucho diuero,
  • 2. Sugetar todo el mundo,
  • 3. Buen Capon, y buen Carnero,
  • 4. Comprar Barato, y vender car [...]
  • 5. Con el blanco aguar el tinto,
  • 6. Tener siempre el lomo en siesto;
  • 7. Guardarse bien del sereno,
  • 8. Obrar lo suyo y lo ageno,
  • 9. Hazer del Penitente esclav [...]
  • 10. Mesclarse en cosas d'estado.
Estos diez Mandamientes se encierran en dos.
Todo para Mi, y nada para vos.
The Commandements of the Teatine Are more humane then Divine.
  • 1. To rake up much riches,
  • 2. To subjugat all the world,
  • 3. Good Capons, and good Mutton,
  • 4. To sell deare and buy cheap
  • 5. To water red Wine with White.
  • 6. To lye warme and easie
  • 7. To take heed of the serenes, and ill ayr [...]s,
  • 8. To do his own busines and others,
  • 9. To make their Penitentiaries slaves.
  • 10. To be busie in matters of State.
All these ten may be made two:
All for my selfe and nothing for you.

Thus you see though som hug, yet divers hate the Jesuit in Spain it self.

Alexander Hayes a Jesuit himselfe gives this character of them, Iesuita est omnis Homo, A Jesuit is every man; That is in their subtile and nimble way of negotiation, wherein they will represent, and personat the humour of any man; They are the great Architects of all politic designes which tend to enrich themselfs, and enhance the omnipotency of the Pope, For the wisest men are of opinion, that had it not bin for this pragmaticall order, Saint Peters chair might have tumbled down ere this, his bark sunk, and his keys lost. When they first negotiated to take footing in the Academy of Paris, they were asked whether they were Seculars or Regulars, they answered, they were Tales Quales, they were such and such; herupon the Parisian Students brought up this character of them, that the Jesuits were Ta­les Quales, and are nick'd so to this day; herupon one applied this Distic unto them.

Vestra datis cùm verba datis, nam [...] Vestrum est,
Et cùm verba datis nil nisi vestra datis.

In England it was their equivocations that caus'd the clause without Mentall re­servation to be inserted in the Oath of Supremacy.

[Page 19]One compares them to those little Animals that Seneca speaks of, qui mordent & non sentiuntur, that bite and are not felt, onely the swelling shews they are bit­ten; so this subtile sort of Ghostly Fathers by insensible encroachments damnifie where they nestle, though the party knowes not where he is hurt.

When they were first to be introduc'd to France, the Parlement of Paris desir'd the opinion of Sorbon Colledg compos'd of the acutest Theologues in France, which they deliver'd thus as it stands upon Record. Novem hanc societatem appella­tione insolita Iesus nomen sibi vindicantem praebere occasionem—This new society arrogating to themselfs by an unusuall appellation, the name of Jesus, doth admini­ster occasion of Schisme in the Church, they subtract the obedience that is due to Prelates, they deprive Ecclesiastic Lords and others of their rights, They induce much perturbation both in civill and sacred administrations, they usher in quarrells, contentions, debates, emulations, and divers scissures into the Church, therfore they held them to be dangerous instruments in the busines of Religion, as such that wold disturb the peace of the Church, overthrow Monasticall Discipline, and that their Order tended more to Destruction then Edification; yet by the power of the Guysian faction, they were admitted, but the Parlement wold demur upon it a little before, Herupon Stephen Paschasius an eminent Doctor, did sharply argue against them▪ sectam eam ambitiosam & fucatae Religionis plebem appellans, in Hispa­nia natam—He call'd them an ambitious sect, fellowes of a counterfet Religion, born in Spain, but foster'd in Paris, strengthned in Rome, who under the spe­cious shew of a gratuitous institution of children, cheat and exhaust many fami­lies, infusing pernicious principles into the brains of youths—Then he went on with high exaggerations, and said, that their Provinciall was alwayes chosen by the King of Spain, to which Provinciall, they yeeld an unquestionable blind obedi­ence,—Therefore he concludes, that if these new sectaries were admitted, they wold introduce a Trojan horse into the bowels of the Kingdome full of armed Ene­mies, and that France shold repent her of her credulity when it would be too late, for these men by their subtilties, and superstition, by their praestigiatiory kind of arti­fices, would distract the settlement and tranquility of the whole Kingdome. Herupon while this busines was in agitation, King Henry the IV. was thrust in lieu of his breast into the Mouth by a yong Jesuit, with the losse of one tooth, the King having escap'd so great danger, sayed pleasingly; falloit il que les Iesuites fussent convaincus par ma bouche? Was it needfull then that the Jesuits shold be convinced by my mouth? Herupon by a solemn arrest of the Court of Parlement, they were utterly exterminated, and commanded to quit the Kingdome by such a day under great penalties; Ther was also in the sentence an interdictory clause, that none shold send their children abroad to be instructed by the Jesuits under pain of trea son.

Herupon ther was a new Gallowes of Stone erected before the Pallace gate, to execute the transgressors of this decree; But the King finding that his life could never be safe while he stood out with the Jesuits, rather out of fear then affection, connived for the non-execution of the Sentence, causing the said Gallowes to be ta­ken down, herupon one sung wittily to the King,

Sire, si vous voulez du tout a l'adenir
De l'Assassin Chastel oster le souvenir,
Ostant la Pyramide, & l'Arrest qui la touche,
Quon vous remitte donc une dent dans la bouche.

Sir, If you will for the future extinguish the remembrance of Chastel, take down the Jesuits Pyramid and Sentence, then let them put in a new tooth into your mouth. Elizabeth Queen of England had so ill a conceit of this order, that by the credit the great Turk gave to her Embassador, and by her advise he banished them out of Pera on the Asian shore, over against Constantinople where he had permit­ted them formerly to reside.

[Page 20]But you will say Iesuits are a great advantage to a State, because they propagate learning, and instruct youth so dexterously; 'tis tru, they instruct them, but they infuse into them besides, most dangerous principles of equivocation and cunnning, you will say they are the greatest and most masculine propugnators of the Roman Church; 'tis tru, but they are great weakners of the power of temporall Princes; They have planted the standard of the Cross in the Indies, and are the greatest pro­pagators of Christian Faith among Infidells. 'Tis tru, but they do it as much for extending the Spanish Monarchy; for as they are the chiefest Agents of the Pope's where e're they come, so are they Factors also for the King of Spain, the bent of all their projects being to enlarge the power of the one, and establish the omnipotency of the other; That Prince or peeple are in a dangerous condition, when any censures from Rome come against them, if ther be Jesuits there, who are the punctuallest executioners of the Papall excommunication; such respects the Spaniards give them, that they are called Apostles in America, and Disciples in Portugall; But finding at first that they were malign'd for assuming the name of Jesuits, they did moderat it, and cal'd themselfs socios Iesu, the companions of Jesus: Now, in the Holy Scriptures we read but of one that was cal'd the companion of Christ, and that was Iudas.

But, most Noble Princes, be pleased to excuse me that I have bin so tedious and tart in displaying this new Ignatian Order, the reason is, that being to speak of Spain, it was pertinent to speak also of them, who are so great Votaries of that Crown.

I will give you now a little touch of the Spanish Inquisition, which is, that if any be found to doubt or dispute any thing of the Roman Church, he is answered with a syllogisme of fire or hemp, which concludes more strongly then a syllogisme in Barbara. But such kind of arguing is fitter for Butchers, Hangmen and Devils, then for the Doctors of the Christian Church. Now, as we read that Heliogabalus the scandall of Emperours, wold have had the Vestall fyres extinguished, with all religious invocations and victimes, and the name of Heliogabalus to be only ador'd, so the Spaniard endeavours to extinguish all other orders and government, to set up the Iesuit (his chief chaplain) and the Inquisition.

Now this proceeds from the ignorance of the Spaniard, who reads no Authors commonly but his own Countrey-men, because he understands no Language but his own, which in the Spanish Academies and Schools, sways more then Latin, though the fourth part of the Language be meer Morisco, and patched up of Ara­bick words.

But I wonder, my noble Cosen Magnus, that in the Catalog you give of the learned men of Spain, you extoll Raymundus Lullius so much, a man foolishly sub­tile, who scarce understanding the Latine tongue, which he mingled with his own, yet he dared expose som things to the world, but involv'd in darknes, such obscuri­ties that few of his Readers understand him. For my part, I hold his Philosophers stone; and his Learning to be all one, but meer imaginary things, in so much that one may say;

Qui Lulli Lapidem quaerit, quem quaerere nulli
Profuit, haud Lullus; sed mihi nullus erit.

Now for the nature of the Spaniards, they are most made up of Imagination, and a kind of fantastique gravity, under which is cloak'd a great deale of pride: They beleeve more what they fancie, then what they do. Nor doth the Portugais deny it, when he confesseth that he acts according to that which he thinks himself to be, then what he really is. Portugalli dictitant se niti eo potius quod se esse putant, quam eo quod reverasunt.

Now for Portugall, it is made up most of Slaves, for the nomber of them in som pla­ces are allmost equall to the Inhabitants; and ther are few Countreys where ther is lesse distinction made twixt men and beasts, for they are both sold in the market for money alike. Now for the state of the Spaniard, you shall have him march gravely; [Page 21] with a croud of servants or slaves, two before him, another holds his hat upon occa­sion, another his cloak if it doth rain, another carryes a clout to wipe the dust off his Shoos, another a cloth to rub his Ginet while he hears Mass, another a Curry­comb to keem his mane, and all these when they come home will be content haply with a loaf and a radish a peece for their dinner. It is admirable and indeed hate­full to see with what a Tympany of self-conceitednes the Spaniard useth to swell, and how a common fellow will stand a tipto pulling out his Mustachos, and saying, Voto a tal jo soy tan buen [...] como el Rey don Felipe, I vow by Hercules that I am as good as King Philip: They mightily puff themselfs up with hopes of preferment, ayming more at the honor of the thing then the profit. Among many others I will instance in Antonio de Leyva, who from a Gregarian common Soldier came to be a Generall to Charles the V. and comming to attend the Emperour, he was permitted to sit down, because he was troubled with the gout, but the Emperour being told that he verily beleev'd he shold be a Knight of the golden fleece, or one of the Grandees of Spain, and complaining of his gout one day, the Emperour said, I beleeve you are more indispos'd in your brain then in your feet. Barclay in his Euphormio hath a story of a Spanish woman that comming with three of her Sons a begging to a French Shomaker one day, he told her, good woman, I will ease thee of one part of thy charge, for if thou leave one of thy children with me, I will breed him up in my trade, wherby he may by his labour be able to live like a man; O Sir, God forbid I shold cast away my childe to a stranger, and to so Mechanick a trade, for who knowes but he may be Viceroy of Naples or Mexico? One Matheo Serran a Spaniard, was Governor of the Sluce, in the time of Marquesse Spinola, who asking him what provision & defence he had in the place, & advising to be carefull of fur­nishing it, he rapt out a great Rodomontado, saying, Marquesse look you to your siege at Ostend, I know well what belongs to the conservation of the Sluce without a Mo­nitor; for if the enemy shold com with fifty thousand Devills after him to besiege the place, he shall not thrust me out: yet for all this vanity this Captaine lost the Sluce afterwards; And this fancy of pride raignes in the Spaniard more then any other, for if one shold go to a Casa de Locos, a Bedlam house in Spain, and observe the humors of the Prisoners; he will find that one will say he is an Emperour, another that he is King of such a Countrey, another that he is Pope, and so he shall ob­serve that ther will be more of this kind of madnes then of any other distem­per.

Now as the Spaniards are bladder'd up generally with this arrogance, and altitude of mind, so they care not how they com by their wealth though they take it from another by violence to support it; nor how little they worke to get a subsi­stance, for they are sloathfull and idle to a proverb, unlesse it be in the Warrs; This makes them to be cryed up for such theeves, Herupon Charles the V. their own King, being accompanied with many Spanish Dons, as he pass'd in Germany by a great Inne, where divers were a drinking and merry▪ he asked his Dons, are not the Germans personable proper men, well complexion'd and limm'd? This cannot be deny'd, the Spaniards answer'd, but they are excessively given to drinking; the Emperour replyed, 'tis tru, but do you know what vices the Spaniards are guilty of? for as these are greedy of Wine, so are the Spaniards greedy of another mans wealth, and so to interdict the German his wine were the same as to prohibit the Spaniard he shold not robb, which was one of the ten Commandements of God Almighty, where you shall not find any against drinking.

And as the peeple of Spain are such robbers, so the Kings of Spain are the great­est of all; They are Robbers of whole Kingdoms, and Countreys, they are the Harpies of the earth, for whersoever they confine, they cast about how to devoure their Neighbours, using all artifices, and picking any quarrell to that end, in so much that those Virgilian Verses may very well quadrat with their practi­ses.

Armati Terram exercent, semperque resentes
Convectare juvat praedas, & vivere rapto.

The greatnes of this Nation is but Modern and upstart, when the fortune of France was a little wayning, Spain began to shine, first under Ferdinand King of Aragon Grandfather to Charles the V. so that as one sayd, Ubi Galli desierunt Rerum potiri, ibi Hispani inceperunt. This Ferdinand, the first Catholique King, vail'd and varnish'd all his Enprizes with the plausible pretext of advancing Reli­gion, yet were his pen and his tongue double in doing this, he carryed oftentimes two faces under one hood, and played with a staff of two ends in his greatest ne­gotiations, specially in the performance of Articles 'twixt him and the French King Lewis the XII. about the division of the Kingdom of Naples, that he shold have Ca­laba and Apulia, and the French Naples, and Campania; But afterwards he sent his great Captain Gonsalvo who conquer'd both. He got also the Kingdom of Na­varr by a trick, for when an English Army who was sent from Hen. the 8. of Eng­land for his assistance, was to passe from Spain to Aquitain, and the King of Navarr (who tis tru was then under Excommunication, together with the King of France) desiring his English son-in-lawes Forces leave to passe through his Country, Ferdi­nand took his advantage hereby, with the help of the English, to seaze upon the Kingdom of Navar, and thrust out Iohn Labretan, who was then lawfull King. And to make his cause more specious, and pretend som right, he insisted upon the cen­sure of the Pope, saying, That they who were enemies to the Holy Father, might be assaulted by any Christian King, and that his Holines was to give the Countrey to the first Conquerour.

Now touching the East and West Indies, the Spanish title is unquestionable there you will say, but let us examin the busines a little. The right which the Spaniards pre­tend to these two Indies, is Right of Discovery; For the East Indies, it hath been so celebrated by ancient Pagan Writers, that to hold the Spaniard to be the first De tector therof, were to maintain the grossest paradox that ever was; For Pliny re­lates how Hanno the Carthaginian being carryed about from the feet of Gibraltar to the farthest end of Arabia was the first discoverer of India, by twice crossing the Equinoctiall; And 'tis easie to finde in antient Authors, that Malacca was call'd Aurea Cherchonesus, and that huge Iland Sumatra was known formerly by the name of Tatrobana; what is he who is never so little vers'd in Antiquity but hath read the Orientall Brachman Philosophers, and of the Sinenses the peeple of China? Touching the West Indies, they were not unknown to Plato, for whereas he placeth Atlantidis at the mouth of the Gaditan Frete, which is the mouth of the Mediterranean, he sayeth, [...]. Ther is from Atlantidis a passage to other Ilands, and from them to a great opposit Continent—What doth he intimat herby but the great Canarie with other Ilands in the Atlan­tique Sea, and by the other Ilands Cuba, and Hispaniola, & by the opposit Continent Peru and Mexico. Moreover the Spaniards themselfs confesse that in a valley call'd Cautis in the Province of Chyli, they found among the Sauvages many pictures and formes of two-headed Eagles in midst of their houses, therfore the Spaniards call that part of AMERICA The Imperiall Province to this day, because the Armes of the Roman Empire were found there.

There is a greater evidence then this that the Spaniards were not the first disco­verers of America, for ther was a Welsh Epitaph found there upon Madoc a British Prince, who it seems flying from the fury of the Saxons in England, put himself in som Bark to the fortune of the Sea, and landed in America. And that the old Britains or Welsh were there, it may be confirmd further, in regard ther are divers British words found amongst them to this day.

But what shall we wander so far in the Indies? We will come neerer home. We know well that Solyman the Turk denied Charles the V. the title of Roman Emperor, [Page 23] alledging that he himself was the tru successor of Constantin the Great, who was Emperour of East and West; And that consequently the City of Rome belongd to the Ottoman Empire, and Selim, Solymans son urgd such an argument when he took Cypres from the Venetians, for he sayed that the sayed Ile appertained to the Soldans of Egipt which was now under his dominion.

But the Apostolicall concession and bounty of Pope Alexandor the VI. entitles the King of Spain to America; touching that I pray here what Attabalipa a wild Pagan King sayd, when he heard that his Kingdome was given by the Pope, to the Spanish King; surely, said he, that Pope must be [...] [...] fo [...]l, or som injust and impu­dent Tyrant that will undertake to bestow oth [...]r mens possessions so freely.

But his title may be just, you will say, for the propagation of Christian Religion: yet Christ enacted no such Law, that any free peeple shold be made slaves, much lesse murther'd, and tortur'd, either for refusing the Gospell, or continuing in their former Religion, ther was not any of the Apostles claym'd a Kingdom for his preaching; Saint Paul preaching to the Romans, did not demand the Empire; Our Saviour sayd, Go and preach the Gospell to all Nations, The Spaniard's lesson is, Go and preach the Roman Religion, and the Spanish Empire to all Nations, and keep under you, or kill whosoever shall resist: For the first Doctrine which the Spaniards were us'd to vent in any place was▪ Vos Indiani hujus loci—Yee▪ Indians of this place, we make known unto you All▪ that there is but one God, one Pope, one King of Spain, which you must all obey. Thus Motezuna King of Mexico, and Ataba­lipa Emperour of Peru were brought under the yoke, though they gave a house full of Gold for their ransome. But the Indians did more upon the Spaniards, then the Spaniards could do upon them; for they brought more Spaniards to adore the Indian Gold, then the Spaniards brought Indians to adore Christ; Herupon a company of Indians being ready to fall into the Spaniards hands carryed som Gold into the Market place, saying▪ This is the Spaniards God, lets dance about him, and worship him, for so he may command the Spaniards not to be [...]oruell unto us. Ther is not far from Conimbria in Spain, a Well call'd [...], which swallowes any thing thats cast into it, and yet she is never full as 'tis found by experience, it seems the Spaniards have an Analogie with that Well, in reference to Gold which they have swallow'd in the Indies, and yet are never satisfied:

And as the Spaniard is covetous, so is he extreamly cruell, for how many mil­lions of men hath he made away in America? Bartholome de Casa affirmes, that in 45. yeers, there were above ten millions of humane soules (though Savage) kill'd in the new world as they call it, in so much that the Indian Husbands forbore to lye with their wives for fear they should prove with child, and bring more slaves for the Spaniards. These millions before mention'd were kill'd out right, and if we add to them those who have died of working in the mines, of doing the offices of Asses, Oxen, and Mules, to what a number do you thinke will they accrew? som of them carry burdens upon their back of 160. pound weight, and that above 300. Miles. How many of these poor wretches have perished by water as well as by land, being forc'd to dive so many fadomes deep for the fishing of Perl, and to stay there som­times halfe an houre under water panting and drawing in the same breath all the while, and being fed of purpose with corse bisket and dry things to be long­winded for that work. And if what is reported be tru, they hunt the poor Indians with doggs to find them sport: wherupon ther goes a tale of a Spaniard, who to exercise his dog and make himself some sport with an old Woman, made shew as if he sent her with a letter to the Governor of the next town hard by, the poor woman being gone a flight shot off, he let slip his dog after her, which being com neer, she fell down on her knees, saying, Senior dog, Senior dog, do not kill me, for I am going with letters from your Master to the Governour: the dog it seems was mov'd with compassion, and so only lift up his legg and piss'd upon her.

One may easily imagine how detestable the Spaniards became to these poor Pagans for these cruelties, there is a tale of Hathu Cacico a stout Indian, who be­ing [Page 24] to dye, was perswaded by a Franciscan Fryer to turn Christian, then he shold go to Heaven, Cacico ask'd whether ther were any Spaniards in Heaven? yes said the Fryer, 'tis full of them, Nay then said he, I had rather go to Hell then have their company.

But how hath the Indian discovery prosper'd? or what profit hath it brought to Europe? It cannot be denyed but we brought among them all slavery and cruelty, and I beleeve more vices and infirmities then we found, we brought them the small Pox, the gastliest disease that can befall a humane body, and in exchange they gave us the Venerean Pox; Touching the tresure that hath been transported thence, it hath fomented all the Warrs of Europe ever since, upon this a French Poet de­scants wittily.

Par Toy, superbe Espagne, & lo'r de tes doublons
Toute la pouvre France insensez nous troublons,
Et si de tes doublons qui causent tant de troubles
Il ne nous reste rien a la fin que de doubles.

Plutarch speakes of Attinius Asiaticus who brought Gold first into Peloponne­sus, but it was found that it became an instrument of corruption, therfore Attinius was accounted a publick enemy to his Countrey; the Indian Gold in Europe hath not bin only the cause of corruption, but of the effusion of an Ocean of bloud; Nor hath it much prosper'd with the Spaniard, for although such a Masse of tresure hath been transported from time to time, yet Spain hath the least of it, for the common coyn there is copper and no countrey fuller of it; Moreover Spain may be said to furnish all the world, yea the great Turk, with tresure to fight against her self, and the rest of Christendom.

This Indian tresure hath wrought another disadvantage to the Spanish King, for it hath puff'd him up with a pride and an ambition that hath no horizon, it makes him flatter himself that he shall be at last Monark of the Western world, which drawes upon him not onely the Emulation, but the hatred of all his Neighbours, who are ready ever and anon to confederat and bandy against him, for fear he shold swallow them up one after another to satiat his ambition; It was a witty say­ing of King Iames, when he was only King of Scotland, when he receav'd a caveat from his Godmother Queen Elizabeth of England, to take heed of the Spanish fleet, He answer'd, Se non aliud ab Hispano beneficium expectare quam quod Ulyssi Polyphemus promiserat, scilicit ut aliis devoratis postremus degluriretur, For his part he desir'd but one request of the Spaniard, such a one that Po­lyphemus had promis'd Ulysses, that when he had devour'd others, he wold swallow him last of all.

Now as among those poor Pagan Indians, the cruelty of the Spaniard was so much discover'd, so was it here in Europe among Christians, witnes els the Tyran­ny of the Duke of Alva, who may be call'd the sponge of Belgian bloud, for he bragg'd that he had dispatch'd to the other world above 18000. Belgians, either by Fire, Water, the Rack, or the Axe, his principles being, that a Rebell must be us'd like a madd dogg, for whom ther is no cure but to be knock'd in the head, and we know mortui non mordent.

Now touching the Gigantik power of the Catholique King, if it be well weigh­ed in the ballance of a knowing judgment, is not so great as we conceive it to be, the unsociable distance of his territories, the infinit sommes he owes to the Geno­wayes and others, the vigilance and Emulation, with the apprehensions they have of his still growing greatnes; the Universall dis-affection, and a kind of antipathy that all Nations have to the peeple themselfs, is a great weaknes to him one way, as his riches and power another way; For matter of Justice, who is the Queen of Vertues, I beleeve she raigns as little in Spain as among any peeple, unlesse it be among them­selfs, nor universally among themselfs, but only the Castilians may have her with more ease, and lesse expences then their Conterraneans and the rest of their [Page 25] Fellow-subjects; I will produce an example of an Arragonez who having a sute there long depending which put him to mighty expence and attendance, at last he came to the King himself, Philip the second, who, opening his businesse unto him, gave him this absolute Answer, Ther's nothing that you have propos'd can be granted; Sir, answer'd the Aragones, I thank you, that you have refuted the lies of threescore Ministers of yours in so few words, who with much expence of time and tresure did put me still in hopes that my busines was just, and it wold take effect, but had I known it, I wold have come to your Majestie at first, and then I had been wiser then I was, and a better Husband; Now for Forreners it is as easie to redeem a damn'd soul out of Hell as almost to recover any thing if they have got it once among their clutches: did not Philip the second break, and make himself an absolute bankrupt with many thousand besides, when he alter'd the intrinseque value of coines and hois'd it higher, and found out som Puntillios to pay the Ge­noways their interest, which was cryed up to be a high point of injustice: How many hundred sutes have strangers had there, wherein the processall charges countervail oft times the value of the thing?

Now for the power of the Spanish Monarchy, I must tell you that her Castillia her head is grown almost bald; Portugall which was no other then a waxen Nose to her is melted off; her Aragonian eyes have still som defluctions falling into them for their priviledges; Navarr one of her Armes begins to have a Gangreen, which none but French Surgeons can cure; her golden bowels of Peru begin to be exulce­rated, and so doth the Duodenum of Mexico: Her hipps in Italy feare they have a symptome of the Sciatica, and her feet in Belgium are pittifully sick of the Gout, to cure which, she hath often applyed Playsters made over with Elixir of Indian Gold, which hath cost her more then Belgium is worth ten times over, if it were to be sold in the Market.

Now for tru reall innated and personall valour, how few Spaniards shall you find indu'd with it! It is a rare thing to heare of a Duell in an age there, though every Cobbler weare a Sword by his side; If they have receav'd affronts by any, they use to shew their courage, and draw their Swords one upon another in the Market­place, where they are sure to be parted, and commonly the Minister of Justice takes away both their weapons for the time, and so makes them friends; The Spaniards have a saying of the French, that al primer impetu son mas que hombres, y de­spises menos que mugeres, The French at first is more then a man, and afterwards lesse then a woman; but the French have an illfavour'd saying of them, that the Spa­niards in point of tru active courage are bearded Women. 'Tis tru in the conquest of the new world, they did exploits, but it was against men who had scarce any defensive Armes, they had neither Horse, Steele, Iron or Gun-powder, they had no coats of Males, they were poor naked inermous creatures, and so simple that they thought the horse and the man was but one animall, and a kind of Monster or Devill, therefore 10. Horsemen only were able to profligat, and make their party good against many thousand Indians, for they thought they had a conceit they were not borne after the ordinary cours of humane nature, but rather of som infernall fiends, which bugbeare opinion scar'd the ignorant American away more then the Spanish valour.

Where was the Spanish manhood in Afrique, when Sebastian was slain, and the Moor got so signall a victory? Where was it at Goleta nere Tunis which was so shamefully lost? which important place, Sinan Bassa got, by the pride as much as the pusillanimity of the Spaniard, for Pedro Carera the Castellan thinking to have the glory of preserving that place himself with his Spaniards, would not admit of 500. Italians, who offer'd themselfs for the service; so the Spaniards were thrust out of Afrique in lesse then 30. dayes, and besides the Castle they took 500. peece of Ordnance in the place, which arm'd Algier and Tunis ever since, and brought them to be such Pyrats; And it was confidently reported that Captain Carrera during the furious siege and storming of the Castle was under-ground in a Vaut all the while, so that when the news was brought to Rome, that Goleta was [Page 26] lost, and consequently the whole Kingdom of Tunis, there was a pasquill went up and down that Carrera's cowardise, the Duke Sesa's gout, Don Iohn of Austria's Codpish, and Cardinal Granvills (then Viceroy of Naples) his Breeches had lost the Guleta. Yet your Thrasonicall Castillians will say that un Espannol vale quatro Tudescos, tres Franceses, y dos Italianos, That one Spaniard is worth four Germans, three Frenchmen▪ and two Italians.

Now touching this vainglorious foolish humor of raunting, it is more peculiar to the Spaniard, then to any other peeple: witnes this following Rodomontado of a Castillian Captain, which goes far beyond that of Pirgopolinices in Plau­tus.

Quando yo pienso en mi mesmo demi terribilissima terrible terribilidad, de tal manera me espanto que no puedo caber en mi mesmo, pienso que 22. mill maestros de guarismo no podrian contar en tres annos has hazannas que ha hecho esta espada Durindana, Castiga Vellacos, pobladora de ciminteries; Viene megana de reyr todas y quantas vezes, que yo me acuerdo que el gran Turco estando al pique de perder su Imperio contra el Sophy, me embiava llamar, yo por no ser acustumbrad, de matar canalla can baxa l'embiava mi ritrato hecho por manos de quinientos Pintores los quales todos murieron haziendo los [...] d'este rostro Basilisco, y como el Gran Turco lo vio cayo enfiermo de una Ca­lentura que le durava tres annos y mas, y embiandolo despues al campo luego que los [...]nemiguos lo miravan con la mayor presteza del mando alearon el cerco con perdida de quarenta mill y ochenta soldados los quales todos perecieron mirando este mi espantable rostro; Tengol [...]s calcones llenos de barbas—
When I descend into my self, and contemplat my most terrible horrible terribi­lity, I can hardly hold my self within my self; I beleeve that all the publick No­taries of Biscay are able in three yeers to cast up an account of those miraculous achievments which this Toledo blade, this Durindana, this scourge of Lutherans, this converter of Pagans, this peepler of Church-yards hath performd: I can­not choose but smile when I call to mind how the great Turk sending for me once, to preserve his Empire, which was ready to be swallow'd up by the Sophy, I, scorn­ing to bath my hands in the bloud of such infidells, sent him only my picture. But the gran Signor, as soon as he look'd upon it, out of pure fear he fell into such a loosenes, which lasted him divers Months, that it had like to have cost him his life, and sending it afterwards to the army, the enemies at sight thereof, ran away like so many hares, when they beheld the Basiliscan eyes of this Physiognomy of mine▪ These Breeches I wear, are stuff'd with Captains beards, and the Mustachos of French Generalls, the pillow I lay my head upon, is fill'd with Amazonian hair, my Cushion is made of a Turban took off from the Sultans head, my Coverlet is the skin of that Nemean Lion which Hercules kill'd, my Courtains are made up of colours and Ensignes taken in divers battailes, when I march into the field I commonly carry two drumms as pendants at my eares, I am lul'd asleep by noyse of trumpets, and brasse kettles, and Perillus bull stretch'd along, serves me for a pillow. The month and day of my Nativity was Mars, who was then the predo­minant Planet and my Ascendant; I came into the world about break of day, Sol himself then suffer'd an Eclypse, Saturn stood astonish'd and dull, Iove and Mer­cury hid themselfs, and Cynthia took in her hornes for fear, but Mars and Venus did cast benign influences being then in Conjunction, yet that morning it rain'd blood, the streames of the greatest River turn'd redd, Mongibel and strombola belch'd out more fire then ordinary, terrible Earth-quakes happen'd in divers places, Eolus blew very furious, which rais'd such impetuous stormes, that made Neptune to tumble and swell very high; Nere the place which I was nurst in, ther was a den of Lions that I might be inur'd to their roaring, and one time my Mother caus'd a yong cubb to be slain of purpose to feed me with the bloud thereof; To con­clude, I am that Invincible, transcendent great Captain Basilisco, Espheramonte, Generalissimo of all the Melitia of Europe, I am he who useth to swallow moun­tains, to breath out whirlwinds, to spit Targets, and sweat Quicksilver—

[Page 27]By this Rodomontado you may give a guesse at the vanity, and extravagant humour of the Spaniard, who though he be not so big, yet he looks higher then any other Nation in his own conceit, which makes them have that vapouring say­ing of themselfs in point of valour, that Tres espanoles son quatro diables en Francia, three Spaniards are fower Devills in France.

When Mendoza was Ambassador in France, he wold break out often into this prophane Ostentation, Dios es poderoso en el Cielo, y Don Felipe en Tierra, Gods power is in Heaven, and King Philips on earth, he can command both Sea and Land, with all the Elements to serve him. When the English Drake swomme to Santo Domingo, and plunder'd the place, ther was a Pyramis erected in the Mar­ket-place, whereon was engraven this arrogant Motto,—Non sufficit Orbis, one world will not suffice Don Philip, yet that Philip, that invincible Philip, was over­com at last by a Regiment of poor contemptible things, for Herod-like, he went out of the world by the pediculary disease, which made no mean modern Poet to sing,

—Rex Ille Philippus
Tot populis Terrisque potens, lateque Tyrannus
Occiditu â faedo rosus grege Vermieulorum,
Carnificesque suos miserando corpore pavit
Vivens, atque Videns, & propria funera planxit.

Som imputed this foul gastly kind of death to his lasciviousnes and lust; som gave out it was a judgment upon him for doing away his Son Don Carlos; others gave out that hé suffer'd for Alva's Tyranny in Flanders; som gave out it was for be­reaving Portugall of her right Heir; But most affirm'd it was a visible judgment from Heaven, because the bloud of so many hundred thousands of poor American souls did cry for vengeance, who for their Gold and Silver were made away, and ex­tinguished by so many kindes of deaths, according to the Italian proverb, La coda condanna spesso la volpe alla morte per esser troppo lunga. The Foxes tayl condemns him to death, because it is too long. How far further could I enlarge my self on this subject? but I will grate the eares of so princely an auditory no longer, ther­fore I will conclude with a character which a most ingenuous Poet gives of one part of Spain, when he sayld thence to France.

Iejuna misera tesqua Lusitaniae
Gebaeque tantùm fertiles penuriae,
Valeta longùm, At tu beata Gallia
Salve bonarum blanda nutrix Artium,
Caelo Salubri fertili frugum solo,
Umbrosa colles pampini molli comâ,
Pecorosa saltus, rigna Valles fontibus,
Prati virentis picta campos floribus
Velifera longis Amnium decursibus
Piscosa stagni, rivulis, lacubus, mari,
Et hinc & illinc portoso littore
Orbe receptans hospitem, atque Orbi tuas
Opes vicissim non avara impertiens,
Amaena Villis, tuta muris, turribus;
Superba, testis lauta, culta, splendida,
Victu modesta, moribus non aspera.
Sermone comis, patria gentium Omnium
Communis, animis fida, pace florida,
Iucunda, facilis, Marte terrifico minax,
Invicta, rebus non secundis Insolens,
[Page 28]Nec sorte dubia fracta, cultrix numinis
Syncera, ritum in exterum non degener,
Nescit calores laenis aestas torridos
Frangit rigores bruma flammis asperos,
Non pestilentis pallet Austri spiritu
Autumnus aequis temperatus flatibus.
Non ver solutis amnium repagulis
Inundat agros, & labores elicit,
Ni Patrio te Amore diligam, & colam
Dum vivo, rursus non recuso visere.
Iejuna miserae tesqua Lusitaniae
Glebaeque tantùm fertiles penuriae
Valete longùm—

Thus the Scottish Poet descants upon France, making Portugall a foyl to her, and so he might have made his own Countrey as well.

And now, most Highborn Princes, I hope ther is not any of this Auditory that will wrong his judgment so far as to think that Spain for any respects shold carry away the Palm, and claime precedencie of the rest of the Provinces of Eu­rope.


THE REPLY OF Prince GEORGE, Baron of Studenberg, &c. in behalf of SPAIN.

Most Illustrious Auditors,—

THis Oration of the excellent Baron of Limburg, though flowing with powerful eloquence, hath not, under favour, wrought so much in me, as that gallant Encomium of yours, Prince Magnus, in the behalf of Spain, therfore I concurr still with you in opinion that she may deserve the primacy, and if the comparison that Strabo makes be admitted, that Europe is like an Eagle whose head is Spain, the neck France, Germany the back and breast, Italy and England the two Armes, the thighs and leggs those huge tracts of Earth Northward, I say if this Simile be allow'd, ther is no question but Spain may challenge the priority and head-ship. But my noble Cofen of Limburg, I much wonder what came into your mind, to throw so much dirt into the face of Spain and her children; If you were now in the Escuriall, and made such a speech before Philip the fourth, I believe we shold heare no more of you, but you shold be buried alive in the Inquisition all your life time.

But is Spain so hungry as you say, that she must eat grasse? Is she so weak that she needs Crutches? Is she so abandond to Vice, that she hath quite shaken off all Vertu, and a good Conscience? Surely no; Touching the first, she may be call'd the Exchequer of all Christendom for Money, and I pray what can he want who hath Money? unlesse he make such a foolish wish as Mydas did, that whatsoever he touch'd might turn to gold, for so he might starve medias inter opes inops. Ther is a proverb in Spain, that Don sin dinero, no es Don si no Donayre, A man without money, is no man but a bable, but a man with money commands the world, according to those witty verses of Petronius Arbiter,

Quisquis habet nummos, securâ naviget Aurâ,
Fortunamque suo temperet arbitrio;
Uxorem ducat Danaen, ipsumque licebit
Arisium jubeat credere quod Danaen,
Carmina componat, declamet, concremet omnes
Et peragat causas, sitque Catone prior.
Iurisconsultus paret, non paret, habeto,
At (que) esto quicquid Servius & Labeo.
Multa loquor, quidvis nummis praesentibus opta
Et Veniet; Clausum possidet Arca Iovem.

I confesse it may be the Catholick King may be plung'd in a gulph of debt, having [Page 30] allwayes his Sword drawn, and being in perpetuall hostility with the common e­nemy of Christendom (to his great glory) as also in actuall Warr with some of the Princes of Europe, who if they wold let him be quiet, he might quickly subdue all Mauritania the opposit shore to Spain, yet for all ther is never any the least ap­pearance of want in the Catholique Court, nor the least shew that Spain is in warr or want, but all things flourish as if he did not ow peny, or as if he were in peace with all the world. It makes me think upon Glareanus a great learned man but much in debt, who being asked by a friend of his how he liv'd? He answer'd, I lead the life of Kings and Princes, for I drink, I eet, and indulge my genius, I game and have money always in my purse, yet I am in arrears to all; so it may be said of the King of Spain; But it is brave security the Spanish King gives to his Creditors, no lesse then assignments upon his occidentall Fleet, which weigh all circumstances well, is one of the greatest glories that ever Monarch had. Fortune her self may be call'd the King of Spaines wife, who hath brought with her such a bottomles tresure for her dowry; His closet is that punctum so often wish'd by Ar­chimedes, whence he moves the whole Globe of the Earth; He hath more King­doms then the French King hath Provinces, more Fleets then the French hath Shipps, more Nations then the French hath Citties, more Viceroys then he hath Marshals, and more Captains by Land and Sea then he hath Common-Soldiers. It is day, It is Spring perpetually with him in one part or other of his dominions. Strabo writes of one who had such a strong and piercing perspicuity of sight, that he could discern an object 135. miles off, for from Lilybaeum a promontory in Si­cily he could discern and dinumerat the Shipps that went out of Carthage road; But the Catholique King hath stronger Optiques, for from his Councell Chamber he can see what is a doing in the Seralio at Constantinople▪ in the Louvre in France, at White-hall in England, at Vienna in Austria, in the Consistory at Rome; his sight is so sharp that he can penetrat the very Cabinet-Chambers of Kings far and neer, and pry into their intrinsecallst and secretst Councells. All other Princes and States stand to him in the light, and he in the dark to them.

But wheras you say that the Spaniard is irreconcilable unto the Reformed Religion, let me tell you although the Theologues there do sometimes inveigh against Luther, and Calvin, alledging that the God of the Calvinists is the Author of sin, Deum Calvinistarum esse Authorem peccati, as may be infer'd out of Iohn Calvins own words, yet you must not count the Spaniard an Antichrist for this; Nor al­though he will rant it out sometimes, that he will go arm'd to Paradis, and rapp out other Rodomontado's; 'Tis tru, the Spanish Soldiers, are great Libertines, but not Atheists; nay som of them have good Consciences and capable of Re­pentance; As ther is a true and memorable story of a Spanish Captain who wold have ravish'd a Lawyers daughter in Flanders, 1578. who was of an alluring beau­ty, but strugling with her she took his own dagger and mortally wounded him to preserve her pudicity; The Spaniard thus wounded was taken away, and he sending for a Surgeon, 'twas told him he could not escape death many howers, therupon he call'd for his ghostly father; to whom having confess'd and shewed great Evidences of repentance he was absolv'd from the attempt, but this is not sufficient sayed he, the party whom I wold have wrong'd must pardon me: here­upon the yong Virgin came, to whom he sayd in rathfull termes, I am here upon my deaths bed, therefore I desire you wold pardon my rash attempt, and for your pardon and the expiation of the offence, I bequeath unto you all my Estate, provided that you will give me rites of buriall, and assume hereafter the name of my wife. The yong maid melting into teares, did do all the Testator desir'd accor­dingly.

But my noble Cousin George Frederique, I find 'twas not enough for you to be­spatter the Spaniard, and tax him of pride, prophanes and many other Vices, but you bereave him of the glory for discovering the new World, and of the right of that Discovery; Seneca the Spanish Tragaedian was as much Prophet as Poet, he was a tru Vates when he sung,

—Venient annis
Saecula seris, quibus Oceanus
Vincula Rerum laxet, & ingens
Pateat Tellus; Typhisque novos
Detegat Orbes, nec sit terris
Ultima Thule.

Late yeers shall bring an Age wherin the Ocean shall slacken the ligaments of nature, a mighty tract of Earth shall appeare, and Neptune shall discover new Worlds, so that Thule or Island will not be the furthest part of the Earth. Now, his Countreymen made Scneca a tru Prophet herein, to whom that mighty blessing of discovery and dominion was reserv'd; In so much that both the Prophet of this new tract of Earth, and the propagators thereof were Spaniards.

So most humbly thanking this noble Auditory for this priviledg of reply, I de­sire you most noble Cosen and illustrious Baron of Limburg, to have a more charitable and just opinion of Spain.



Most Honorable and Heroique Princes,

IF any one of this Illustrious convention would set forth the glory of some great City, which flow'd with plenty of all things that were requisit, either for necessity or pleasure▪ exceeding therein the very wishes of the Inhabitants, a Ci­ty which had also impregnable fortifications, and strength both by art and nature, with armes of all kinds, such pro­pugnacles, such advantages by land and water both to de­fend her self, and destroy the enemy; Who had a grave way of administration of Justice, whose Inhabitants did florish with all sorts of manufactures, with all kind of vertu, invention, and elegance, and shining with all kind of pul­chritude, I believe there is not any of this Princely Assembly but would pas­sionatly desire to see that rare renowned City; But, most excellent President, I have taken in hand to describe unto you not such a narrow thing as one Ci­ty, or one Countrey either, but a little world of it self, wherein many King­doms are conjoind in one, and under one Monarch, which little world doth swell with affluence of all things desirable; those blessings which are found single in other parts of Europe are found conjunctly here; yet this is no other portion of the earth then an Iland, but such an Iland that before I have done with you, you will acknowledg that this Iland may stand in competition for preheminence with any of those noble Regions that you have displayed hi­therto in most learned and eloquent Orations; And this is Great Britain, the Queen of Iles, the minion of Neptun, the darling of Ceres, Incomparable Britain; for so the Greek Poet will tell you;

No Ile did ever dare
With Britain yet compare.

Which Ile being disjoin'd from many other potent Neighbours, and rich Countreys, but by a small distance, lies very commodious to receive into her [Page 34] bosome by way of Navigation and Negotiation the wealth of all the world, and to make others happy with Hers; she lies very apposit to comfort, and relieve those that come neer her coasts, if they be in any danger by distresse of wea­ther, or want of any thing that is needfull for vessell or men.

The aire is there so temperat that a well disposed body may passe there without either stoves in Winter, or shades in Sommer; There be gentle breezes that blow from the circumjacent Sea, which refresh all kind of animalls both brute, and rationall, the clowds there drop fatnes, dissolving into silver wholsom showers to soften and fertilize her glebes; she useth to have in Decem­ber and Ianuary frost enough to knit the joints of the earth, and so corroborat them; in February she hath snow enough to fill her dikes, and like a coverlet to keep her plowd fields warm. And whereas the seas of Spain and Italy are barren of fish, Hers have them by whole shoales, and in such variety that it is incredible. Her Forests and woods have no birds or beasts of rapine, and noxi­ous animalls, but harmeles (though wild) creatures, as the Stagg, the Hind, and the Hart, which serve for pleasure and hospitality. The bowells of her soyl, and hills are pregnant with mineralls, or fuell; The Sun which scorcheth Spain and Naples, doth gently warm Britain with his rayes; The air is nothing so thick and dull as in other climes, but attenuated and cleerd with refreshing and gentle blasts ever and anone; nor is her earth subject to agues, to quaking and trepidation as other places are, but alwayes firme and sure. For store and su­perfluity of corn, in the Romans time she was call'd the barn and granary of the western part of the Empire, in so much that Zosimus reports, that they us'd to lade eight hundred vessells with British corn for many yeers to supply their army upon the frontiers of Germany. These ensueing verses of a Forrener do hint a little upon the happines of this Countrey.

Anglia Terra ferax, tibi pax secura quietem,
Multiplicem luxum merx opulenta dedit.
Tu nimio nec stricta gelu, nec sydere fervens,
Clementi coelo, temperie (que) places.
Cùm pareret natura parens, varias (que) favore
Divideret dotes omnibus una locis,
Seposuit potioratibi, matrem (que) professa,
Insulasis foelix, plena (que) pacis, ait.
Quicquid amat luxus, quicquid desiderat usus,
Ex te provemet, vel aliunde tibi.

Eumenius in the famous panegyric he made to Constantin melts thus into her praises. O fortunata & omnibus beatior terris Britannia, quae Constantinum Caesa­rem prima vidisti; Merito te omnibus coeli ac soli dotibus natura donavit, in qua nec hyemis est nimius rigor, nec aestatis ardor, in qua segetum tanta faecunditas ut muneribus utrius (que) sufficiat & Cereris & Liberi; In qua nemora sine immanibus be­stijs, terra sine serpentibus noxijs; contrà pecorum mitium innumerabilis multitudo lacte distenta, & onusta velleribus, certè quidem quod propter vitam diligitur, lon­gissimae dies, & nullae sine aliqua luce noctes, dum illa littorum extrema planities non attollit umbras, noctis (que) metam coeli & syderum transit aspectus, ut sol ipse qui nobis videtur occidere, ibi appareat solummodò praeterire. O most fortunat Britain, (saith Eumenius) more bless'd then any other Country, which didst first see Constantin! Nature hath deservedly endowed thee with all gifts both of heaven and earth. In thee neither the excessive cold of winter, or ardent heat of som­mer doth offend the inhabitant: thou swellest with such a faecundity of all kind of corn, that thou mayst be called the Favorit of Ceres and Bacchus; Thy groves are without savage rapacious beasts, and thy heaths without poysonous serpents, thy fields are covered with innumerable multitudes of mild crea­tures labouring with exuberance of milk, and laden with rich fleeces; For [Page 35] delightfullnesse or life, thy daies are very long, and no night but hath some glimpses of light. The glorious Sun which sets and goes down in other Coun­tries, seemes onely but to passe by the Coasts. That salt ditch which girds Britain about, renders her invincible; I meane the circumambient sea, which opens and shuts, and embosoms himself into her at divers commodious creeks. This Sea is so high and turgid oftentimes, that some Authors record it ri­seth 80. Fadoms at a spring-tide in divers places. He sometimes salutes and covers the inviting soyle, then he departs, but to come again. He doth cast up sometimes and leaves upon the shore huge fishes, of strange shapes, as the Lyric sings.

—belluosus qui remoris
Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis.

Rejoyce therefore O Britain, and triumph, that Dame Nature hath cast such a mote about thee, which no Engine of Man can choake, no reach of wit or labour can dry up. Let the Flemish secure Ostend with new dikes, Anwerp with a strong Cittadel, let Milan glory for her inexpugnable Castle, let the Venetians bragg of their Palma, The Hungarians of Iavarin and Comorra, The Turkes theirs of Goleta, Savoy hers of Monmelian, The French theirs of Baion, where none must enter but the King himself, or the blood Royal; Let the Spa­niard bragge of his Havana, the Pole of Smolenksco, The Austrian of Vienna, The Bavarian of Ingolstad, The Dane of Croneburg, Let Brandeburg bragge of Castreni, Silesia of Breslaw, the Franconians of Norimberg, the Swed of Stock­holm, and let other Kings and Countries glory never so much of their strong holds, Motes and Fortifications; but to compare them to that Dike which is cast about great Britain, were to compare a purl, or small rivulet of water to the Archipelago, or a small tuft of Earth to Mount Adrian.

Nor doth this huge Mote give security alone to the Inhabitants, but it brings them many other inestimable benefits; it animates by vertue of the salt­waters the heat of the contiguous Earth, it nourisheth the air with pregnant vapours, to make wholsom showres for the irrigation and refreshment of the Earth; it takes in and lets out many brave Rivers for navigation, which are replenished with all store of Fish. Among other kind, the benefit that is made of Herrings is beyond belief, which swimme in huge shoales like Mountains about the Iland. Towards the Summer Solstice, they seek the Coasts of Scot­land, then towards Autumne they retire to the English, and it is incredible what huge quantities are taken twixt Scarborough and the Thames mouth from the month of August to September: then they move more Southward to the British Sea, and find matter for fishing till Christmas; then having as it were fetch'd a compasse about Britain, they seek the Western Sea, and the Irish Coast, where they keep till Iune, and then set forward for Britain again, when they are grown fat, and numerous by multiplication.

Thus Britany, like a Microcosm of her selfe, is seated in the midst of a tur­bulent and working Sea; yet she within is still quiet, serene and safe. And now I will take a survay of this Noble Iland, as one would doe of some stately Castle: and to do that exactly, one must not onely view the Trenches and outworks which are about, but pry into the recesses and roomes within, and observe what fashion of men they are that keep it; therefore I will make a progresse into the Center and bowells of Britain. Touching the people who inhabit Her, they are the wellfavourdest, and best complexion'd people of any upon the surface of the Earth: they have excellent Intellectuals, sucking Ca­pacities, and spacious Understandings; they add unto, and perfect any inven­tion that is brought them. And truly, wee Germans should be very ingrateful, unlesse we should acknowledge to have receiv'd great benefit by them: for in point of Religion and literature they have been Doctors and Parents unto us. [Page 36] They brought Christ and the Standard of the Crosse first amongst us, they dispell'd the black clouds of Faganism and ignorance from amongst us, and let in the sweet raies of piety and knowledge to enlighten us. This, unlesse wee brand our selfs with the ugly mark of ingratitude, we must ingeniously confesse.

Now, it is observ'd that the Britans were alwaies by a special instinct very much addicted to Religion; And as in the Discipline of the Druyds, whose founders they are held to be, they antecell'd all others, (for Caesar records that the Gaules went over to be instructed by the British Druyds) so when the name of Christ was known among them, with flagrant desires, and fervent affections they embrac'd that beliefe with a wonderful ready devotion; and as the glorious Sun when he culminates and appears in the East, doth as it were in a moment illustrate the whole Hemisphear; so the beames of Christi­anity displayed themselves with marvellous celerity all the Hand over. But this had very good helps to advance this work, for in the infancy of the Church, as Baronius doth assert, Ioseph of Arimathea a Noble Decurion arrived there, and Claudia Rufina, Wife to Aulus Pudens the Roman; of whom the Po­et Martial, nay Saint Paul himself makes honorable mention. Simon Zelotes having made a hot progresse through Barbary, died in Britain. Nay, some say that Saint Paul being freed from Nero's shackles, encreas'd the propagati­on of grace there.

Hereupon the Britains having had the advantage of such great lights, ap­plyed themselves to erect Oratories and Churches for the publique exercise of devotion; wherein they grew so zealous, that Lucius a British King left his Crown, with all earthly pomp, and made a spontaneous pilgrimage to Rome in the time of Eleutherius, the year 150. after the Incarnation, and spent the rest of his life in holy Meditations, and practices of piety. Now, what a glory it is for Britain to have had the first Christian King that ever was; Nay, the first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great. And to speak truth, no Region produc'd more constant professors of Christianity then Britain did, and more fincere Propagators thereof, which will appear if we look into the Catologe of Saints, Martyrs, and Confessors. In so much that in lieu of that malitious character which Porphyrie gives of her (who hated her for being such a zealous Christian) by calling her feracem tyrannorum provinciam, a Country fruitful for Tyrants; she may more deservedly be call'd Regio sanctorum faecundissima, a Region most abounding with Saints. Nor were the Britans such Zelots only at home, but they cross'd the Seas to disperse the beams of Christian Know­ledge abroad; and their paines prov'd very successful herein. Germany was be­holden to Winfridus, and Willebrod that she was converted. France was behol­den to Alcuin for establishing the Academy of Paris, though Paschasius, a ca­villing Author, denies it. Touching us Germans, among other testimonies of gratitude to Britain, let this of an excellent Almain Poet serve for one.

Haec tamen Arctois laus est eterna Britannis,
Quod post Pannonicis vastatum incursibus Orbem
Illa bonas Artes, & Graiae munera linguae,
Stellarumque vias, & magni sidera caeli
Observans, iterum turbatis intulit oris,
Quin se Relligio multùm debere Britannis
Servata, & latè circum dispersa fatetur.
Quis nomen Winfride tuum, quis munera nes [...]cit?
Te Duce Germanis pietas se vera, Fides (que)
Infinuans, caepit ritus abolere prophanos.
Quid non Alcuino facunda Lutetia debet!
Instaurare bonas ibi qui faeliciter Artes,
Barbariem (que) procul solus dispellere caepit.

[Page 37]To these British Champions of Christianity we may add Bede, who hath the Epithet (by the consent of the universall Christian Church) of Venerable given him. I will bring upon the stage next Io. Dunscotus, who was so supereminent in Divinity, and the spiny art of Logique, that he was call'd by the whole com­monwealth of learning Subtilis Doctor, and he was a man of such large esteem, that he founded a sect who are call'd Scotistae to this day: he also was call'd lima veritatis, the file of truth: He was so great a man, that as many Cities contended for the Nativity of Homer, so did many Kingdoms strive for him, Ireland, Scot­land, England, and France; yet, what a strange destiny befell this famous Do­ctor? for being surpriz'd by an apoplexy, and given for dead, he was buried alive, for it was found that he breath'd his last in the Grave. After him I may instance in Iohn Wicklif, a great Artist and Theolog; next to him I rank William Ockam, patrem Nominalium, who establishd a sect calld the Nominalls, but both these were strong enemies to Rome, as appeers yet by their penns; There was another great Doctor calld Doctor Resolutus by the Italians for his acute way of disputation, and he was Io: Baconthorp, one of the deepest clerks of his time. What a rare man and of heavenly speculations was Io: de sacro bosco, the Author of the sphaere, which remaines yet engraven upon his tomb in Pa­ris? some ages after these, the world of learned men did much esteem Reginald Poole, Iohn Colet, William Lillie, Linacre, Pace, Cardinall Fisher Bishop of Rochester, Sir Thomas More, Latimer, Tindall, Baleus, Tunstall, men infe­rior to none, as well for sanctimony of life, as for rare erudition and know­ledg; Toby Matthew Archbishop of York, another Chrysostom, Thomas Stapleton, Nic. Wotton, Iewell, Cheek, Humphreys, Grindall, Whitgift, Plowden, Ascham, Cooke, Smyth, Whitaker, Perkins, Mountagu, those great speculative Lords Baeon and Herbert, Andrews, Usher that rare Primat, Selden, who knows as much as both the Scaligers, Camden the English Strabo, Owen another Martiall, with divers excellent Dramatique Poets, and it is a great wrong to the Common­wealth of learning that their works are not made intelligible in a larger toung then that Insulary Dialect; Add hereunto, that for Physicians and Lawyers, both Civill and Common there are as profound spirits there as any on earth.

And as for learning, so for prowess and magnanimity the Inhabitants of Great Britain have been and are still very celebrous; And though there hath been al­wayes an innated kind of enmity twixt the French and the English, yet they have extorted prayses out of their enemies mouths: witnes Comines, Froissard, and Bodin, who write so much in honor of the English; Nor do they herein complement or flatter a whit. What a bold Britain was Brennus (who liv'd long before the English took footing there) what notable feates did he perform in Italy, Greece, and Asia? so that the old Britains, or Welsh in honor of that Heroe call a King after his name to this day viz. Brennin, and there is a Castle in Wales of his name to this day. How manfully did the ancient Bri­tains tugg with the Romans, who receav'd fowler defeats there then in any other Region? which one of their Poets seemes to confesse, when he saith,

—Invictos Romano Marte Britannos.

The Silures who are a peeple but of a few small shires in Wales, viz. Mon­mouth, Brecknock and others, being animated by the courage of their King Cataracus, and provok'd by the menaces of the Emperour Claudius, who threatned to extinguish the very names of them, met his army in open field, and cutting off an auxiliary Regiment which was going to recreut the Empe­rour under Marius Valens, they utterly routed him: In so much that Ostorius the propraetor of Britanny for the Romans resenting this dishonor died out of a sense of grief. Charles the Great had to doe with them in three battailes, wherein there was such a slaughter of his men, that he cryed, Si vel semel tantùm cum il­lis [Page 38] adhuc depugnandum foret, ne unum quidem militem sibi superfuturum, If he were to encounter the Britains but once more, he should not have a soldier left him: a saying proceeding from such a man as Charlemain, that tends much to the reputation of the Britains. But the Gaules are they whom the Britains galld, having in so many victories left their arrowes in their thighs, in their breasts, and some sticking in their hearts; which makes Bodin complain, Gallos ab An­glis in ipsa Gallia clades accepisse, ac pene Imperium amisisse—That the French receaved many overthrowes in France herself by the English, and had almost lost their Kingdom, whereupon the Poet sings wittily,

Anglorum semper virtutem Gallia sensit,
Ad Galli cantum non fugit iste Leo.

For how often have the French Kings with their Nobles been routed, defeated and discomfited by the English Gray-goose-wing? how often hath it pierc'd the very center of the Kingdom? what notable rich returnes have the English made from France? And what pittifull looks must France have, when Edward the fourth got such a glorious victory at Cressy, where above thirty thousand pe­rish'd, among whom the King of Bohemia was found among the dead bodies, ten Princes, eighty Barons, twelve hundred Gentlemen, and the flower of the French fell that day, and King Philip of Valois did hardly escape himself to a small town, which being ask'd at the gate who he was, qui va la? answer'd, la Fortune de France, the Fortune of France. This made France weare black a long time. But in another battail she had as ill luck, wherein her King Iohn, and David King of Scots where taken prisoners, and attended the prince of Wales to England: yet such was the modesty of that prince, though conquerour, that he waited upon King Iohn bareheaded at table; this was such a passage as happen'd in King Edgars raign, who had foure Kings to row him upon the ri­ver Dee hard by Westchester, viz. Kennad Kind of the Scots, Malcolm King of Cumberland; Maconus King of Man, and another Welsh King. The English re­duc'd France to such a poverty at that time, that she was forc'd to coin leather money. In divers other battailes in the raignes of Charles the fift, sixt, and se­venth, and Lewis the elevenths time, the English did often foyl the French, untill the war pour le bien public begun by the Duke of Burgundy. Such a large livery and seifin the English had taken in France, that for three hundred and fifty years they were masters of Aquitain and Normandy; Nay Henry the sixt of England was crowned King of France in Paris. And so formidable were the English, in France, that the Duke of Britany, when he was to encounter the French army in the field, thought it a policy to cloth a whole Regiment of his soldiers after the English mode, to make them more terrible to the French.

What shall I say of that notable Virago Queen Elizabeth, who did such ex­ploits again Spain, by taking the united provinces of the Low Countreys under her protection? How did she ply the Spaniard, and bayt him by Sea and Land, how did she in a manner make him a Bankrupt, by making him lose his credit in all the banks of Europe! And all that while Spain could do England no harme at all; touching the strength of which Kingdom you may please to hear what a judicious Italian speaks of it, Il Regno d'Ingliterra non há bisogno d'altri per la propria difesa, anzi non solo é difficile, mà si può dir impossible se non é divisione nel Regno che per via de force possa esser conquistato. The Kingdom of England stands in no need of any other for her own defense; so that it is not only difficult, but a thing impossible, unlesse there be some intestin division, to make a conquest of that Countrey. Philip offer'd very fairly for her in the year eighty eight, when he thought to have swallowed her with his Invincible Fleet, which was a preparing three yeers: she consisted of above 150. saile, 8000. Mariners, 20000. foot, besides voluntiers, she carried 1600. Canons of brasse, 1000. of iron, and a hundred and twenty thousand granados of all sorts. The [Page 39] Fleet stood the King in every day thirty thousand Duckets; insomuch that Bernardin Mendoza, the Spanish Ambassadour in France, being in a private con­ference one day with King Henry the fourth, assured him, that viis & modis, that Fleet had stood his Master in above tenne Millions first and last, from the time that she set sayl from Lisbon. This Fleet look'd like a huge Forrest at Sea as she made her way. Good Lord how notably did that Masculine Queen bestirre her self, in viewing her Armies, in visiting her Men of Warre, and Ships Royall, in having her Castles and Ports well fortified, in riding about, and in the head of the Army her self, in discharging the Office of a true Pallas, wearing a Hat and Feather in lieu of a Helmet. Henry the fourth of France sent her seasonable notice hereof, so that most of the Roman Catholiques up and down were commanded to retire to the Ile of Ely, a fenney place; and o­thers were secured in Bishops houses till this horrid cloud which did threaten the destruction of England should be overblown. But this prodigious Fleet being come to the British seas, how did the little English vessels pelt those huge Gigantick Galeons of Spain? whereof those few which were left (for all the rest perisht) were forc'd to fetch a compass almost as far as Norway in 62. degrees, and so got to Spain to bring the sad tidings what became of the rest.

There were Triumphs for this not onely in England, but all the United Provinces over, where a Medal was coyn'd bearing this Inscription on the one side, Classis Hispanica, The Spanish Fleet; on the other side, Venit, [...]vit, fuit, She came, she went, she was: But had the Duke of Parma come out of Flan­ders with his Land Army, then it might have prov'd a black day to England; and herein Holland did a peece of Knight-service to England, for she kept him from comming forth with a squadron of Men of Warre. How gallantly did the English take Cales, the Key of Spain, and brought home such rich plunder? How did they infest the Indies, and what a masse of Treasure did Drake (that English Dragon) bring home thence? he made his Sailes of Silk, and his An­chors of Silver.

Most noble Princes, you have heard something, though not the tyth that might be said of the early Piety and Devotion, of the exquisite Knowledge, and Learning, of the Manhood and Prowesse of Great Britain; but these praises that I give her is but a bucket of water cast into her Seas. Now touching both King and people, it is observ'd that there is such a reciprocation of love be­twixt them, that it is wonderfull; the one swayes, the other submits, obeyes, and contributes to the necessities and preservation of the honour and maje­sty of the King, for which he receives protection and security.

Touching the Regall Authority, and absolute Power and Prerogatives of the Kings of Great Britain, it is as high and supreame as any Monarchs upon Earth: They acknowledge no Superior but God himself, they are not feudetary or homageable to any, they admit no forraign jurisdiction within the bounds of their Kingdomes, and herein they have the advantage of the Kings of France and Spaine, yea of the Emperour himself, who is in a kind of vassalage to the Pope, and may be said to divide authority with him in their own Dominions. No, they have long time shaken off that servitude, and manumitted the Crown from those immense sums which were erogated and ported from England to pay for First fruits, for Indulgences, for Appeales, Palls, and Dispensations, and such merchandises of Rome. How many hundred of years did England pay Tribute, though it went under the name of Peter­pence, to Rome, think you? no less than near upon a thousand, from the reign of King Inas the Saxon to Henry the eighth.

From the Power of the Kings of Great Britain, let us goe to their Justice, let us descend from the Throne to the Tribunall. Now, such is the Divinitie of the Kings of Great Britain, that they cannot doe any Injustice; it is a Canon of their Common Law that the King can doe no wrong; if any be done, it is the Kings Minister, the Judge, Magistrate, or Officer doth doe it, and so is pu­nishable [Page 40] accordingly: such a high regard the English have of the honour of their King; and such a speciall care the Kings of England have us'd to take for punishing of Injustice and corruption; such a care as King Edgar had to free the Iland from Wolves (and corrupt Officers are no better than Wolves) which he did by a Tribute that he impos'd upon a Welsh Prince for his ranson, which was, to bring him in three hundred skinnes of Wolves every year: this produced [...]o good effects, that the whole race of Wolves was extirpated in a short time, so that it is as rare a thing to see a Wolf now in England, as a Horse in Venice.

Touching the care that the Kings of England us'd to have to enrich their subjects, hath been us'd to be very great, and to improve the common stock: Edward the third (that Gallorum malleus, the hammer of the French, he quell'd them so) was the first who introduced the art of making of Cloth into Eng­land, whereby the Exchequer, with the publique and private wealth of the Kingdome did receive a mighty increment; for Wooll is the Golden Fleece of England, and the prime Staple-commodity, which is the cause, that by an old custome, the Judges, Masters of the Rolls, and Secretaries of State in Parliament time doe use to sit upon Woolsacks in the House, that commodum lanarum & ovium non negligendum esse, Parliamentum moneatur, that they put the Parliament in mind that the commodity of Wool and Sheep be not neg­lected. The Swede, the Dane, the Pole, the German, the Russe, the Turk, and in­deed all Nations doe highly esteem the English cloth. The time was that Antwerp her self did buy and vend two hundred thousand English cloths yearly, as Camden hath it. And great and antient are the priviledges that the English have in Belgium; for since the year 1338, which is above three hun­dred yeares agoe, when Lewis Malan Earl of Flanders gave them very ample immunities in the Town of Bruges, since which time it is incredible how all kind of commerce and merchantile affaire did flourish among the Flemins, for which they were first obliged to the English; for the English Wooll hath been a Golden Fleece also to the Flemins, as well as the English themselves, because it was one of the principal causes of enlarging their Trade, whereunto the Duke of Burgundy related, when he established the order of the Golden Fleece Guicci­ardin makes a computation, that the Traffique and Intercourse betwixt England and Flanders amounted to twelve millions yearly, where of five was for woollen manufactures.

What an Heroique incomparable Princesse was Queen Elizabeth, who wore the English Crown, and sway'd the Scepter as politiquely, prudently, and stoutly as any of those Kings which wore swords before her, or after her; she raigned four and forty years in a marvellous course of prosperity, and all the world, yea her enemies did confesse that there was never such a Virgin and a Virago upon earth. Her subjects lov'd her as their most indulgent Mo­ther, her foes fear'd her as a just Revengresse; her Neighbour Princes and States did attribute their safety to her, and all Europe, yea the great Turk, and the Emperour of Russia (to whom she first open'd the way of commerce) did behold her, though a far off, with the eyes of admiration. They esteem'd her as a great Heroina, and the Arbitresse of Christendome; for she might as well as her Father have taken that Motto, cui adhaereo, praeest; He, whom I sti [...]k to, prevailes. Nay, she did more truly verifie that saying of her Father's, Galliam & Hispaniam esse quasi lances in Europae libra, & Angliam esse lingulā, sive libripendem; That France and Spain were like the Beams of the great balance of Christen­dom, and England was the handle of that balance.

Touching the observance and fidelity which the English us'd to bear to­wards their Soveraign Prince, it hath been us'd to be rare and exemplary. They reverence him in his absence, as wel as when he is present; for whersoever the Chaire of State stands, all goe uncover'd, they honour his very shadow, they serve him upon the knee. The Preacher makes three profound reverences in [Page 41] the Pulpit before he beginnes his Sermon. They pray for him five times in the publique Liturgy, and for his Queen, the Heir apparent, by name, with the rest of his children; which I beleeve is not done so often to any Christian Prince. Their fidelity, and affectionate Allegiance is also very remarkable, and may serve for a pattern to all subjects; when the Spaniard by internunciall nego­tiation and secret practises did treat with the Duke of Norfolk, and the Earle of Ormond, that the one in England, the other in Ireland, should rise against Queen Elizabeth; the people were so eager in the cause, especially on the Sea side, that it is wonderfull how they flocked to all the Ports voluntarily of themselves, to prevent an Invasion, insomuch that there came a command to restrain such confluences of people, and that every one should retire home to his dwelling and business till there were occasion.

When Prince Charles return'd from Spain in safety, what exultations of joy was in every corner of the Kingdome, specially in the great City of Lon­don, what huge Bonefires, some of big massy timber, were up and down streets, which made them as lightsome in the night as if it had been noon; insomuch, as one said, the flames of the fires might be seen as far as Spain; what barrels of Beer, Ale, and Wine were brought out to drink carouses to his health?

But most Illustrious Princes, in regard this Iland is so delicate a peece of Earth, I'le take her into parcels, and present her to your view. I will beginne with the Southernst part, with Cornwall, a Province which abounds with di­versity of necessary commodities, whereof Spain hath every year a good share, being the nearest part of the Iland towards Her; here besides Gold and Silver, and Marble, there is great store of Tinne digg'd out, which is so pure and white, that it may passe for Silver when it is hammer'd into Vessells. This commodity is transported and dispers'd into all parts of the World, & rich re­turnes made of it. Then they have a savory Fish call'd Pilchards, which Spa­niards call Sardinas, which is found in incredible quantities in the Sea near that Coast; whereof there be huge Cargasars carried to Spain, and Italy every year, and for barter they will give you Silke, Wine, Oyle, Cotton, and the best Commodities they have. About November this Fish is taken, and they shape the course of their Voyages so, that they may be in Spain & Italie a little before Lent, which is the convenientest for their Market, because in those Catholick Countries, that season is observ'd so strictly. There is in this Pro­vince of Cornwall a wonderfull thing, and it is a great famous Stone call'd Mainamber, a little distant from a small Market Town call'd Pensans. That stone though it be as bigg as a little Rock, and that a multitude of men cannot carry it away, yet you may stirre and move it sensibly with your little finger. Prince Arthur, one of the 9. Worthies, was born there, who is so much celebra­ted through the World, and by such a number of Authors, among other things, for his round Table which was made of stone, about which a selected number of Chivalrous Kinghts were us'd to sit with him, and they had special Or­ders and Lawes made among themselves, which they were bound to observe punctually. Good Lord, what a Heroe was this Arthur, being an old Britain born! he overcame the Saxons in twelve several battells. In so much that an ingenious Poet sung of him thus.

Prisca parem nescit, aequalem postera nullum
Exhibitura dies, Reges supereminet omnes,
Solus praeteritis melior, major (que) futuris.

From Cornwall I passe to Devonshire, where there is also quantity of choice Tinne, not inferior in purity to that of Cornwall; there is a place there also, where Loadstone is found. Winfrid, who was the Apostle of the Germans, was borne there at Kirton, who converted the Thuringians and Friselanders to Christianity. I will leave Exeter the Provincial Town, Neat, Rich, and [Page 42] large, and wil go to Plimouth, a most comodious and safe well frequented Port. Here Sir Francis Drake was born, for Naval glory and skill the ablest that a­ny age hath afforded; he did circumnavigate and compasse the World, I mean the Globe of the Earth, he saild further into the Southern Seas, into mare pacifi­cum then any other; where starres are so scant to guide one's course by: for there are but three of the first magnitude to be seen there. He gave part of A­merica a new name, call'd new Albion. Among other prizes he tooke from the Spaniard, the Shippe Caga fuego was one, which had seventy pound weight of Gold in her, thirteen great Chests cramm'd with Patacoons, and a huge quantity of barrs and sowes of silver which serv'd for Ballast. This rich ship this English Iason brought with him to England with his own ship the Publi­can in safety. But the Spanish Captain broke this jest for all the losse of his treasure, that his ship and Drakes ship should change their names, and that his should be call'd Caga plata, and Drakes Caga fuego. Thus this English Drake swom like the great Leviathan to the new and old World; of whom that most ingenious Epigrammatist Owen hath this Hexastic.

Drake, pererrati quem novit terminus Orbis,
Quem (que) semel mundi vidit utrum (que) latus,
Si taceant homines, facient Te sidera notum,
At (que) loqui de Te discet uter (que) polus.
Plus ultra Herculeas inscribas Drake columnas,
Et Magno dicas Hercule Maior Ego.

I passe now to Dorsetshire, which Province were it commendable for no o­ther benefit, as it is for many, yet Biertport doth make it singular for the great plenty of Hemp which growes there, whereof Cable and Ropes for shipping are made. But Somersetshire what a beautiful blessed County it is, wherein the City of Bristol shines as a jewel in the bosse of a ring, for indeede that City affords plenty of Diamonds; a great Merchantile Town situate upon the Avon, who not farre off disgorgeth her selfe into the Severn: In the craggy Rocks of this Avon, Diamonds are cut out in that plenty, that they are carried away by pecks full; and on the other side there is an extraordinary hard kind of flintstones found, which are fetch'd for other Countries. Wilt­shire is famous for the martial courage of her Children, who in times pass'd did represse the fury and stop the progresse of the Danes, that they should passe no further Southward that way. There Warder Castle stands, made famous by the Noble Baron Iohn Arundel, who receives his Title of honor from it, for having perform'd such noble exploits against the sworn Enemy of Christ­endom the Great Turk; for which the Emperor Rodulphus did put a deserved mark of honor upon him, by making him a Count of the Empire, and the merit of the cause is thus mentioned in his Patent. Quod fortiter & strenuè se gessisset in apert is praeliis, & in Civitatum & Castrorum oppugnationibus, & spectato forti­tudinis exemplo in expugnatione oppidi aquatici juxta Strigonium, vexillum Turcis sua manu eripuit, Ipsum, omnes (que) & singulos liberos haeredes & posteros, & descen­dentes legitimos vtriusque sexus natos, aeterna (que) serie nascituros, veros sacri Im­perii Comites & Comitissas Creavimus, fecimus, & nominavimus, tituloque, honore & dignitate comitatus Imperialis auximus, & insignivimus. Because the foresaid Iohn Arundel had comported him magnanimously and stoutly in open field­fights, as also in the oppugnation and beleagrings of Cities and Castles, and for that notable example of fortitude in storming and subduing a Town hard by Strigonium in Hungary, where he tooke with his own hand the Turkes co­lours; We therefore have created, made and nominated the said Iohn Arundel, himself, and all and every of his Children, Heirs, and Posterity of both sexes lawfully descended, or shall by eternal propogation issue thence, to be Counts and Countesses of the sacred Empire, and do dignifie and adorn them with honor and title accordingly.

[Page 43] Hampshire is remarkable for many things, specially for the pretty Port Town Southhampton, where King Canutus the Dane did a memorable Act: for one day having many Parasits and Temporizers about him, who did magnifie his Power, and in a manner Idolize, by calling him Great Monarch of Land, of Sea, and men; The King listning unto them with silence upon the Sea-shore, caus'd his Chair of state to be brought thither, wherein being sate in Majesty upon the Sands, it being flowing water, he made a speech unto the Sea, say­ing, Tu meae ditionis es, & Terra in qua sedeo mea est; nec fuit qui meo resisteret Imperio. Impero igitur tibi ne in Terram meam ascendas, nec vestes, nec membra Dominatoris tui madefacias. Mare verò de more conscendens Pedes Regis sine reve­rentia madefecit, Ille igitur resiliens ait, sciant omnes habitantes Orbem, vanam & frivolam esse Regum potentiam, nec Regis quempiam nomine dignum praeter eum cujus nutui Caelum, Terram, Mare legibus obediunt aeternis: nec unquam postea co­ronam sibi imposuit. O Sea thou belongst to my dominions, and the Earth whereon I sit is mine, nor hath there any yet resisted my commands unpunish­ed; I command thee therefore that thou come not up to my ground, nor pre­sume to wet the Vest, members of thy Lord. But the Sea still rising, began to bespatter and wet the Kings feet, which making him recoyl backward. He said again, Know yee all the Inhabitants of the Earth, that the power of Kings is vaine and frivolous, and none deserves the name of a King, but he at whose nod Heaven, Earth, and Sea obey his eternal Lawes. So Canutus would never wear the Crown again. Odia must not be pass'd over with silence, proud for a Royal Palace, where David the Scots King pass'd some part of his Captivity. Thir­teen English defended this place against Lewis of France most couragiously for 15. daies. How many memorable things occur in Barkshire; Reading can shew the ashes of Henry the 1. and Matilda his Queen, Daughter to the Emperor Henry the 4. This witty Epitaph is put upon Her.

Ortu magna, viro major, sed maxima prole,
Heic jacet Henrici filia, sponsa, Parens.

She was Daughter, Wife and Mother to three Henries. But the most stately Castle of Winsore deserves a kind of admiration; a most delicate and pom­pous Palace, which hath been the cradle and Sepulchre of many Kings. Among others; Edward the third (that thunderbolt of Warre) was born there, who to excite military vertue with splendor and rewards, erected a noble society of Knights call'd the Knights of Saint George; Whereinto many Emperors, Kings, and forren Princes held it a great honor to be coopted. In the Pro­vince of Surrey there be many Royal Palaces, there is Nonsuch house, where the amaenity and sweetnesse of the soyl and fite doth contend with the rare artifice and curiosity of the structure for priority.

Sussex is a strong peece of Earth, for her bowells are full of Iron; whereof there be huge proportions made and dispers'd to other Shires.

I come now to Kent, a very noble portion of Great Britany, abounding with Pasturage, with Medowes and fields of extraordinary fatnesse and fertility; for any kind of cattle, though never so meager, do thrive when they come to feed on Kentish Grasse. This County is very plentiful for all sorts of fruit, specially for Cherries, and 'tis a pleasure to behold the Orchards when they are ripe. This delicate fruit was brought to Rome by Lucullus from Pon­tus 600. years after the founding of the City, and by the Romans brought to Britany, and 'tis remarkable how the vein of Earth and genius of that soyle doth agree with that fruit. This Noble County enjoyes greater priviledges then any other, for Kent was never conquer'd by the Norman, but by way of treaty; she conform'd upon such conditions: By her shores lie all the Arsenals, and Docks, where the royal Shipps are built. There is Canterbury an antient City, the Metropolitan seat of the Archbishop and primate of all England; [Page 44] call'd by Urban the 2. the Patriarch of the other World. There stands Dover with a stupendous high Castle, which seems to menace France, that stands op­posite and in sight of it. We will leave Kent and go to the Severn, on whose banks the gentle City of Glocester, built first by Claudius Caesar, doth stand, with divers other very jolly rich Towns, as Worcester, Shrewsbury, Bridgnorth, Teuxbury; and that Noble River of Severn doth part England from the anti­ent Country of Wales. In so much that He, who is master of the Severn, may be said to be master of the 3d. part of England in point of Power. I have a great mind now to come to Oxford, a little Earthly Paradise for situation, sa­lubrity of air, and sweetnesse of soyl, most daintily watered, and crested about with hills a convenient distance off; because she might have a freer respirati­on. But the prime thing which graceth this delightful City, is, that renown­ed University which is founded there: she is rank'd among the 4. principal A­cademies of Europe for antiquity, for number of Colledges, for large exhibi­tions to students; for a Library they may compare with the Vatican. The story relates that in the reign of Edward the first, there were thirty thousand stu­dents in Oxford, which did homage to the Muses. Hear what Lipsius saith, U­num Oxoniense Collegium decem Belgica: One Oxford Colledge is worth ten Flemish. Richard the first, call'd the Lionhearted, for the vastnesse of his spirit, was born here, He who built the walls of Vienna at his Victorious return from Palestine: It is a great pleasure to passe from Oxford to Buckinghamshire, to see those numerous heards of sheep which graze there, and bear excellent Wooll. Bedfordshire among other things hath such large fieldes of Beanes and Pease, that it is a great delight to behold them, for they make the very air redolent, and perfume it with a kind of fragrancy. The County of Hartford hath all Commodities in it. Verolam stands there, famous for the Protomartyr of Brita­ny, Saint Albons. Middlesex comes next, wherein there are many memorable places, but that which illustrates all the rest, and indeed the whole Iland, is the potent, and populous vast city of London, Englands Imperial Chamber; one of the greatest eyes of Christendom. There you have as proud, and as deep a Navigable River as ever made her bed between banks, you have an antient inexpugnable Tower, you have two exchanges, old and new, of most curious structure, you have the largest Hall at Westminster for tribunals of Justice of any in the World. The King hath divers Royal Palaces there: There is a Bridge of ninteen large high Arches over the rapid profound River of Thames, which would astonish you to behold, and indeed it may be called one of the wonders of the World, all circumstances considered; you have in the heart of the City, and the highest peece of ground, the antient Church of Saint Paul, one of the stateliest piles of stone that ever was reard: this stately Temple is founded upon Faith; for underneath there is another subterranean Parish Church, which is a rarity that no other I know of hath through all the Christian World. There is Westward a large Abbey, the sight whereof would strike devotion into the beholder, and a most curious Chappel annexed there­unto, call'd Henry the sevenths Chappel, which, as Leland saith, may be call'd Orbis miraculum. And judge you if London in the time of William the Con­queror could send out forty thousand foot, and twenty thousand horse, as the Annals have it, how many would she be able to set forth now that she is more opulent, more peopled, and greater in all dimensions by the 6d. part; for her Suburbs are of more extent then her self, so that some have compar'd her to a narrow crown'd hat with broad brimms. There are more parish Churches there then in Rome, viz. 122. There are divers Hospitals, both for Orphans, which come to above 600. and other poor people of both sexes above 1200. in so much that one may say that poverty is no where better hous'd and fed then there.

I goe now from London to Essex, a most fruitfull and well hedg'd Country: among other things she is famous for Iohn Hawknood, whom the Italians, [Page 45] among whom he was so well known, call Aucutho; nor was he more known than honour'd by them; for in regard of the rare documents he gave for Mili­tary discipline, the Senate of Florence rays'd a Statue and Tomb for him. There is old Walden in that Country, where excellent Saffron growes; there is Colchester, where the best Oysters are, and Dunmow, which hath the proverb for the best Bacon. I pass to Suffolk, a spritefull pleasant Country; and Doctor Despotino, an Italian Physitian, affirm'd that the healthfullest air under hea­ven, is that which moves over Saint Edmondsberry. That famous Navigator, Sir Thomas Cavendish, who sailed about the World, makes this Country famous for his Nativity there. Norfolk lies next, a County full of acute wits, and a­bounding with Lawyers; Norwich is the Metropolis, a large City, and full of Artisans; for there are hardly found so many Loomes any where. Now comes in Cambridgeshire, a self-sufficient County, where the antient Academy of Cambridge stands still flourishing with scientificall wits, and rare acute capaci­ties in all professions, in all faculties and knowledge, and reputed all the world over for a most learned University: and she must needs be so, being so near allyed to Oxford, as to be her only Sister, and having such stately seats for the Muses, though the circumjacent soyl, and site on Camus banks be not so pleasant as that which stands on Isis. Huntingdonshire her neighbour is famous for rurall Philosophy; upon a time the Town of Gormonchester entertain'd the King, in a kinde of pomp, with ninescore Ploughs. Northampton is full of noble Townes, Villages, and Churches, whereof most are of a Danish built; for you shall behold at once in some places, thirty holy Pyramids or Steeples as you pass along, and the field cover'd all over with sheep. Leicestershire doth benefit all her neighbours, and warm them with her Cole-mines, which she distributes up and down. Lincoln was us'd to be a well devoted County; for in her chief Town there are half a hundred of Churches, wherof the Minster or Cathedrall Church is one of the most conspicuous and visiblest Church in the World. Notingham for delightfull prospects hath not her fellow; there you have true Troglodits, as on the Mountaines of the Moon in Ethiopia, that hew their houses out of Rocks. This Country is singular for Liquorish. Derby lies next, famous for the best Ale; on the West parts her bowels are pregnant with excellent lead, in somuch that the Chymists say that the Planet Saturn, who presides over Lead, is more benign to the English than to the French. Warwick excels for Fabrarian inventions, for Smiths work. Worcester for Salt-pits, and delicate Sider; for Pears and Apples grow there, as also in Gloucestershire, up and down the Hedges and Highwayes. Among other Fish which the Severn, which waters her soyl, doth afford, Salmon is one, and 'tis the best in the world, which the Romans confessed. The Trent, called so for thirty species of Fishes that shee breeds, doth make Staffordshire of extraordinary account; others will have that River called so, because that thirty other Rivers do pay her tribute, and disemboke into her. There is in this County a Lake of an ad­mirable nature, that no beast will enter into, though pursued never so close by dogges; for they will rather dye than goe in: and as Necham hath it, this Lake is Prophetique; for when her waters roare, it is a presage of some ill.

Rugitu lacus est eventus praeco futuri,
Cujus aquis fera se credere nulla solet:
Instet odora canum virtus, mors instet acerba,
Non tamen intrabit exagitata lacum.

Shropshire for amenity of soyl, and neatnesse of well pav'd streets, yeelds to none; She is a Peninsula, compassed about every where with the Severn, ex­cept [Page 46] one little neck of land, so that she beares the form of a horshooe. Che­shire her neighbour is the Shire of men; she affords also good store of salt; there is no Shire that is fuller of Gentry. Hereford is a delicate little County, very frugiferous; for passengers as they goe along the highwayes may pluck Apples, Peares, and Plums off the trees without offence; she hath good store of Marble, and her Lemsters ore, or wool, yeelds nothing in finess to the Spa­nish, or that of Apulia and Tarentum; and judge you of the salubrity and whol­somnesse of this County, when in the Town of Hereford, there was a Morris­dance of tenne men taken up on the Welsh side, that made above a thousand years betwixt them, the one supplying what the other wanted of a hundred; and one Philip Squire the Tabourer, and Bess Gwin the Maidmarian, were a­bove a hundred a peece. Caermarthan, old Maridunum, the Court of the British Kings, is a gentile County. Giraldus speakes of a Well there that in i­mitation of the sea doth ebbe and flow every four and twenty houres. Then you have Pembrockshire, where there are many Families of the Flemish race, that were sent to colonize there by King Henry, for bridling of the Welsh. This Country is call'd little England beyond Wales, because the English tongue is so frequent among them: This County is also celebrous for Milford Ha­ven, the most comodious and capacious Port in the world; for a thousand sayles of Ships may ride at Anchor there in severall Creeks, and one not in sight of the other; and from hence she takes her denomination. She hath also an ancient stately Temple at Saint Davids, call'd Menevia, the seat of an Arch­bishop in times past: it stands in a solitary by-corner of the whole Isle, a place fittest for contemplation, and for sequestring the spirits for holy exer­cises of any upon the earth. Next is Cardiganshire, which hath the River Towy, that affords rare Salmon, which fish thirsting after fresh water, doth use to put himself in a circle, and by a naturall slight taking his tayle in his mouth, will spring and leap up three cubits high over Wears into the fresh water, whence he cannot goe back, as Ausonius hath very elegantly.

Nec te puniceo rutilantem vis [...]cre salmo,
Transierim, latae cujus vaga verbera caudae
Gurgite de medio summas referuntur in undas.

M [...]n gomery shire hath good Horses, Merioneth shire hath a famous Lake call'd Pimble meare, which the River Deva runnes through, and goes out of the same bignesse as she enters; but that which is wonderfull, is that there is a Fish call'd Guiniad, which the Lake breeds, and cannot abide the river, and the river hath Salmons that cannot abide the Lake water, which Leland de­scribes very hansomly;

Illud habet certè lacus admirabile dictu,
Quantumvis magna pluvia non aestuat, atqui
Aere turbato, si ventus murmura tollat,
Excrescit subitò rapidis violentior undis,
Et tumido superat contemptas flumine ripas.

The River Conow makes Arvon pretious, where there are Musles bred, wher­in there are plenty of pearl found, insomuch that I had it from a good hand, that one of those pearles was sold for two hundred and fifty Crownes. Denbigh and Flintshire are wholsome high crested Countreyes. Now for the County of York it may be called a little Kingdome of it self for the spaciousness of it, being halfe as bigge as all the fix United Provinces in the Netherlands. [Page 47] There is a famous Quarrey there, whence is digged a Free-stone, which is soft at first, but receives hardness and incrustation by the air. There is also a rare Well, called Dropping Well, which transmutes wood into stone; there is Mou­grave Castle, where there is good store of Rozin, with Jet and Agat stones, which is ranked among Jewels, as Marbodaeus sings wittily,

Nascitur in Lycia lapis, & prope gemma Gagates,
Sed genus eximium faecunda Britannia mittit,
Lucidus & niger est, levis & levissimus idem,
Vicinas paleas t [...]ahit attritu calefactus,
Ardet aqua lotus, restinguitur unctus olivo.

Among other properties of this Stone, it burns in water, and that burning is extinguished onely by oyl.

In this Province stands Scarborough Castle highly mounted; the Sea under­neath is almost as full of fish as of water, and this the Hollanders know well, when they fish there for Herring, with the leave of the Castle, not otherwise; so that it may be said the English doe reserve the honour to themselves, but pass over the profit to others. There is Rippon Temple, famous for Saint VVil­frids Needle, which is a hole to try the chastity of woemen, and onely the honest can passe through it: There is Halifax, who hath a peculiar mode of punishment, which is an axe tied to a pulley, which falls down upon the neck of the Malefactor, and chops it off in a trice, and heretofore they were us'd to punish first, and examine the cause afterward. In this County there is a jolley Port Town call'd Kingston upon Hull, which hath the true resem­blance of a Low-country Town; for she lies so low and flat, that she can in­ound and overwhelm the Country four miles land-ward. The Metropolis of this County is Eboracum, called York, where a high Provinciall Magistrate was used to keep Court, to determine all causes from Trent to Tweed. This City hath been famous for the residence of Emperours; for Severus had his Palace here, Antoninus Augustus died here, and breathing his last he sayd, Turbatam Rempublicam ubi (que) accepi, pacatam Britannis relinquo, I found the Commonwealth full of troubles, I leave it peaceable. A hundred yeares after Severus, Flavius Valerius Constantinus having got Constantin the Great by his former Wife Helene, a British Lady, kept his Court here. I will now to Rich­mondshire, whose Mountaines swell with three severall Commodities, with Brasse, Lead, and Cole: The River Swale runnes hard by, celebrous and sa­cred in regard the story speakes of ten thousand Pagans that were baptised and regenerated there in one day by Paulinus: Here dwels the fruitful race of the Metcalfs, whereof one of them being Sherif, brought three hundred of his own name in Blew-coats to wait on the Itinerant Judges at the Grand Sessions. There confines to the Province of York, the Bishoprick of Durham, a County Palatine, whereof the Bishop is perpetuall Sherif, there is a sump­tuous antient Cathedrall Church belongs to it, and the soyl is so fat, that the fertility thereof doth contend with the labour of the Tiller. Then there is Lan­cashire, that brings forth goodly Oxen with larger hornes than ordinary; be­sides that Country produceth the handsomest and best favour'dst women of any in the whole Iland. VVestmerland excells in the Town of Kendall for curious Artists in all sorts of Wooll. Cumberland is singular for abundance of Fish, and doth upbrayd the negligence of the Inhabitants, who might make a farre greater emolument of them; there runnes there the precious River of Irt, which affords plenty of Pearle. This County also hath Mines of Copper, amongst which is found some Gold ore; which Mines were first discovered by a Countryman of ours, Gemanus Augustan; insomuch [Page 48] that Caesar & Cicero were in the wrong, when one saith, that he was forc'd to bring brasse to Britany for Coining of Money, & the other saith, neque Argenti scrupulum ullum esse in Insula Britannica; for in Cardigan in Wales, there is both a Silver Mine, and a Mint, which emploies about three hundred men every day in the week, and makes them rich returnes. And for other Minerals, there is not onely enough to satisfie the Natives, but to furnish other parts of the World besides, which is done by frequent transportation. The most Nor­thern County of England is Northumberland, which is full of Warlike stout people; for every Gentlemans house there is built Castlewise, with Turrets and Motes.

I have hitherto most noble Princes spoken of the best part of Great Bri­tain, which is England. I will now crosse Offa's Dike, which is a continued Mount of Earth that extends from Sea to Sea, which the Romans did cast up to make a partition twixt England and Scotland; there is another Water-par­tition that Nature hath put betwixt them, which is the Tweed; but before I part with England, I will give you that Character which Pope Innocent the 4th. gave of her. Anglia est verè hortus deliciarum, & puteus inexhau­stus, England, saith he, is a true Garden of delicacies, and an inexhaustible Well. But there is not any, who can make a true estimate of England, but he who hath seen her—auget praesentia famam. Touching this Elo­gium of mine, I confesse it too barren to set forth her fertility.

I will now to Scotland, which by King Iames was united to England, he was the first who may be said to break down the partition-wall by way of descent, Henricus Rosas, Regna Iacobus. Henry the eighth joyn'd the two Roses, and King Iames joyn'd the two Kingdomes. And here it is worth the observing, how Keneth the Pict being utterly destroyed, carried with him a fatal stone out of Ireland, and placed it in a woodden chaire in Scone-Monastery, with this inscription engraven upon it.

Ni fallat Fatum, Scoti quocun (que) locatum
Invenient lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem.
If Fate failes not, The Scots where e're they find
This stone, there they shall raign, and rule mankind.

This Northern Kingdome is fenc'd with the same salt ditch as England is. It is much longer then it is in latitude, in so much that there is never a house there that is much above twenty miles distant from the Sea. There is plenty of Fish, Foule and Flesh there. In Sutherland there are Mountaines that afford fair white Marble, and among the craggs of Craford there was a Gold Mine discover'd in the time of Iames the fourth. But that which re­dounds most to the glory of Scotland, is, that they can shew a cataloge of Kings for above twenty ages, which come to the number of 109. from Fergusius to Charles the first. There hath a strong antient league been struck betwixt this Nation and the French, who confederated alwaies with them against England upon all occasions. In so much that the French King hath a gard of Scots ever about his person, call'd la Garde de la manche; then there is a gard of Swisse, and the French is last.

I passe now from Scotland to Ireland, which is no long voyage, it is but twelve leagues distance over a working and angry Sea, full of Rocks and little Ilands, whereof there are hundreds about the two Iles call'd the Orcades and Hebrides. Ireland is a Noble and very considerable Region, if you [Page 49] explore either the fatnesse of the soyl, the conveniency of Ports and Creekes, the multitudes of fresh Rivers, and huge loughs, as also the Inhabitants who are a robust [...], nimble, and well timbred people. In so much that Giral­dus saith, Naturam hoc Zephyri regnum benigniori oculo respexisse, Nature did look upon this Western Kingdom with a more benign aspect then ordinary: The temper of the air is such, that neither the summer solstice forceth them to seek shades or Caves against the violence of the heat, and in the Winter sol­stice they may make a shift to be without fire against the rigor of the cold. There are cattle there in an incredible abundance; In so much that in one of the four Provinces alone, there were reckon'd there hundred and twen­ty thousand head of cattle at one time. Bees do thrive and swarm there infi­nitely in hollow trees up and downe, as well as in hives. They were Christians with the first, for Saint Patrik, a Britain born, did convert them, where he did many miracles. They so adore the memory of him, that it is a common saying among them, That if Christ had not been Christ when he was Christ, Saint Patrik had been Christ. Hereupon many famous men flourished in Ireland, both for sanctitie of the life and Doctrine, which the Roman Eccle­siastic history speakes of, as Caelius Sedulius the Priest, Columba, Colmannus, Aidanus, Gallus Kilianus, Maydulphus, Brendanus, and divers of a holy and austere Monastique life, who contemned the World, with the vanity and riches thereof. For it is recorded of Columbanus, who being offered great mat­ters by one of the Kings of France,) if he would not depart the Country, (as Eusebius writes also of Thaddeus, he answer'd, non decere videlicet ut alienas divitias amplecterentur, qui Christi nomine suas dereliquissent, It was not fitting that any should embrace other mens riches, who for Christ's sake had aban­doned their own. Nay, it is recorded in good story, that the Saxons (now English) cross'd over those stormy Seas to the mart of learning, which was then famous in Ireland, so that you shall find it often mentioned in the Eng­lish Annalls, how such a one amandatus est in Hyberniam ad disciplinam, he was sent to Ireland to be taught, and in the life of Sulgenus, who lived neere upon 700. years since, these verses are found.

Exemplo patrum commotus amore legendi,
Ivit ad Hybernos sophiâ mirabile claros.

According to the example of his Ancestors, he went to Ireland for love of learning, who were marvellously famous for wisdom and knowledge. This Iland doth partake with Creet, now Candie, in one property, which is, that she produceth no Venemous creature, as Toads, Vipers, Snakes, Spiders, and the like; and if any be brought thither, they die. It is wonderfull what huge confluences of birds do flutter about the shores of this Iland, as also of Scotland, which offuscate the broad face of Heaven sometimes, and likewise such huge shoales of Fish. A thousand things more might be spoken of these Ilands which are fitter for a Volume then a Panegyrical Oration. I will end with the end of the World, and that is the Ile of Shetland, which most of your great Geographers take to be that ultima Thule that terminates the Earth, which ly­eth under 63. degrees, and the most Northern point of Scotland.

And now most Noble Princes since the most generous Ile of Great Britain, and her handmaid Ilands, which indeed are without number, doth as it were overflow with abundance of all commodities that conduce to the welfare and felicity of mankind, and is able to afford her neighbours enough besides, as the Hollander confesseth, when he saith, that he lives partly upon the Idle­nesse and superfluity of the English: Since the antient Britaines were the first displayers of Christianity in most part of the Western World; Since of late years [Page 50] they have been such Navigators, that they have swom like Leviathans to both the Indies, yea, to the other Hemisphere of the Earth among the Antipo­des; since that in the Newfound World they have so many Colonies, Plan­tations and Ilands; yea, a good part of the Continent of America annexed to the Crown of England. And since that Her inhabitants for Comelines and courage, for arts and armes, as the Romans themselves confessed, whose con­quests in other places had no horizon—Invictos Romano Marte Britan­nos; I say, that all circumstances and advantages Maturely considered, Great Britain may well be a Candidate, and conte nd for priority, and the Dicta­torship with other Provinces of Europe. For my part, according to the motto upon Saint George his Garter, Hony soit quimaly pen­se, let him be beraid who thinks any hurt by holding this opinion, which neverthelesse I most humbly submit to this Princely Tribunall.


Most Illustrious President and Princes,

MY most dear Lord and Cosen, the Baron of Eubeswald, hath made an Elogium of the noble Ile of Great Britain, as co­pious, and as full of Eloquence, as the Ile itself is full of all things that are requisite for humane accommodation: but most humbly under favour in this survey there are some things pretermitted, which are peculiar to Great Britain, and worthy the taking notice of; one is the gene­rous, strong-bodied, and dauntless race of Dogs, which that▪ Ile produceth, whereof Claudian makes mention.

Magnaque taurorum fracturi colla Britanni.

Britain hath Dogs that will break the huge necks of Buls: I do not mean by these Buls those fierce and truculent White-buls which are found in the woody Caledonian hils of Scotland (who are so wild, that they will not touch any thing that men have handled, or blown upon) for they cannot only repell, but they contemn the assaults of any Dog. It was the custom of the Romans, to bring in huge Irod Cages the British Dogges to Rome, which in their Amphithea­tres were put to tugge with huge wild beasts; therefore there was an Officer call'd Procurator Cynegi [...] in Britannis Ventensis, The Keeper of the Dog-house among the Britains, which Cuiacius would have to be Gynaecii, not Cynegii, viz. a Work-house for Women, not a Kennell for Dogges: And Pancirollus is of the same opinion, when he saith, Gynaecia illa constituta fuisse texendi [...] principis, militum (que) vestibus, navium velis, stragulis, linteis, & aliis ad instru­endas mansiones necessariis, That those Gynecia, or Female Work-houses were appointed to weave Garments for the Prince and Souldiery, as also Sailes for [Page 52] Ships, Beds, Tents, and other necessaries for furnishing of houses. But Wol­fangus Lazius holds to the first opinion, Procuratorem illum canes Imperato­ribus in illa Venta curavisse, That the said Procurator did keep and provide Dogges for the Emperour. Strabo saith further, that Britanni canes erant mi­lites, the English Dogs were Souldiers, and the old Gaules made use of them so accordingly in their Wars.

They are also rare Animals for Hunting, and herein it is wonderfull what Balaeus hath upon record, that two hundred and seventy years before the In­carnation, Dordanilla, King of Scotland, did commit to writing certain pre­cepts for Hunting, and to be observed by his subjects, which are yet in force.

Great Britain hath also the most generous and sprightfull Cocks of any Country, and 'tis a great pleasure to be in one of their Pits at that sport, where one shall behold a Cock fight out his eyes, and yet retain still his na­turall vigour to destroy the other; and if these brute Ani­mals, Beasts and Birds be thus extraordinary couragi­ous, we may well think the rational creatures may hold analogy with them.


Most Excellent Lord President, and Princes,

NOw, that I am to speak of the Britains, I will begin my Oration with that of Ausonius, Nemo bonus Britto est—No good man is a Britain, which ever since grew to be a Proverb. God forbid this should be verified of all, but I believe I shal rectify the judgment of those noble princes who spoak before me, that (as I observ'd when I so­journ'd there) neither the Countrey of Great Britain, nor her Inhabitants are generally so good as they by their perswasive and powerfull Oratory would induce you to give credit un­to. For as the English sea is unfaithfull, and from Beerfleet in Normandy almost to the midst of the chanell is full of rocks and illfavourd ragged places (wher­in prince VVilliam, son to Henry the first, and Heir apparant to England and Normandy, was cast away by shipwrack, together with his sister, and a great ma­ny noble personages besides) so the nature of the Britains may be said to be full of craggs and shelfs of sands, that vertue cannot sayle safely among them without hazarding a wreck. England is not such a paradis, nor the Angli such Angeli (though styld so by a Popes mouth) which you make them to be, most Illustrious Baron of Ewbeswald. First, for the Countrey it self it is not sufficient­ly inhabited, notwithstanding there be some Colonies of Walloons & Hollanders among them. The earth doth witnes this, which wants culture, and the sea is a greater witnes that wants fishermen; Touching the first, it is a meere desert in some places, having no kind of agriculture, though she be capable of it; And for the other, the Hollanders make more benefit upon their coasts then they themselves, and which is a very reproachfull thing, they use to buy their own fish of them. 'Tis incredible how many hundreds of Busses they of Holland put forth every yeer, and what infinit benefit they make thereof. Therefore Gount Gondamar the Spanish Ambassador had some reason to say, that the King of Great Britain had a richer mine upon his coasts (meaning fishing) then his Master had, either at Mexico or Peru, if he knew how to make right use of them; some of the Charibbi Ilands also, which the English have as Antego, Mevis, and others, which have not neer the number of men which should colonize them, shew the scarcity of the peeple of Britain, or which is worse, their sloth.

Now, touching the Inhabitants of Great Britain 'tis well known, as the sea tumbleth perpetually about the Countrey, so their braines do fluctuat in their [Page 54] noddles, which makes them so variable and unsteady; And herein they are little inferior to their next transmarin neighbours the French, only they use to come short of them in point of counsell and policy, wherein the French hath been too hard for them in all Treaties. But they exceed the French in superstitious kinds of vanities, specially, (as many writers brand them) with prophecies, and old Milesian tales, being very apt in arduous & important businesses to suf­fer their belief to be transported that way; and as Tages was to the Hetrus­cans,

Indigenae dixere Tagen, qui primus Hetruscam
Edocuit gentem casus aperire futuros.

So Merlin of Caermarthen the son of an Incubus left behind him some things which they believe as Oracles, though they be meere Orestes dreames. To this Merlin I may add that Arch-Heretick Pelagius (whose true name was Morgan, an old British name) who in Europe, Afrique, and Asia, belchd out such perni­cious opinions, as Prosper sayed,

Pestifero vomuit Coluber sermone Britannus,

Like a poysonous Viper he vomited much venome;

But in point of solid learning the English are much degenerated from what they were, they are grown more flashy, and superficiall, and nothing so pious as they us'd to be; where shall we find now among them a Winfred, an Alcuin, a Bede, men that converted whole Nations? Yet this must be imputed to their supinesse and sloth, rather then to decay of Nature in their intellectualls. Now, in point of idlenes the women sympathize with their men, who have not onely their faces, but their hands mask'd with leather, for fear their skin should be too much hardned with working; And for their femalls they seem to be Her­maphrodits at first appearance, for they use to weare hatts as men do, with toting feathers in them. There cannot be found now among them such a woman as Queen Anne was, daughter to the Emperour Charles the fourth, married to Ri­chard the second, who first reform'd that wanton, unseemly fashion of riding astride on horseback. Their men of late yeers are arrand pirats; one of them, call'd captain Ward, did do Christendom one of the greatest mischiefs that ever was done, by teaching the Art of piracy, and a better way of building shipps to the picaroons of Algier and Tunis. They go roving abroad to other seas, when their own might find them work enough, if they would make use of the comodities they affoord. They are but dull for invention, whereas 'tis true they use to add something when they have seene a thing; For matter of manu­factures of cloth, and Kersies with other woollen stuffs, they were Flemmins that taught them first, as also all goldsmiths work, and argentry, with judg­ment in Jewells. Add hereunto that it is the proper humor of the English to be arrogant, high minded and proud, yea in forren Countreys; where if they have a little language, they will keep such a magnifying of their own Iland, that it is fastidious to hear them. Nor of any other Nation can they agree among themselves when they are abroad, specially the Marchants, who are envious, and repine at one anothers profit; and so ready to cut one anothers throat. When the Prince of Wales was in Spain, thinking to have the Infanta for his wife, it was observ'd that the cariage of the English was very insolent there; for some of them being dieted in the Kings House, they would fall a vilifying the Spa­nish fare, extolling ever and anon the good beef of England; which was so much taken notice of, that it did much hurt to the treaty of the match.

There is a saying, and 'tis a true one, That England may be call'd the Hell of Horses, the Purgatory of servánts, and the Paradis of Women. Touching the first, the English take a great pride in galloping, and post it on the high way, as if they were going for a ghostly father, a midwife, or a physician for one mor­tally [Page 55] sick, though indeed there be no cause of any hast at all; and then the poor beast is thrust into some cold corner, all in a water, where he commonly contracts some distemper. Then have you huge long Races, whereof there are many hundreds in England, wherein a poor sprightfull horse is rid off his legges, and made to spend his very lungs, having holes in his flank that will hide rowell and beame. And in this kinde of pastime, there is more cunning, and rooking then in Cardes and Dice, or any other sport. Then for their Carrs and Carts they are so unmeasurably loaden, that the track doth not only spoil the pavements of the streets and highwaies as they passe, but oftentimes it seems to break the very heart-strings of the poor passive animall; insomuch that of any Nation that holy Text is least observed by the English, A good man is mercifull to his beast.

England is the Purgatory of Servants; for they live no where in so much sla­very: the poor Footman must keep pace with his Master when he gallops in Hunting, they are sent upon arrands forty, fifty miles a day. The Appren­tices, though Gentlemens sonnes of good extraction, sometimes are put to fetch tankards of water, carry coales, to sweep the gutters, and doe other as servile offices, as slaves doe in other Countries; and Servingmen must not offer to put on their hats, though it rain, or the weather be never so cold, standing before their Master; which makes me think on a facetious tale of a German Gentleman, who having entertain'd an English servant, and ri­ding before him through a rough foard, where the horses stayed to drink, and the servant keeping his hat in his hand, though the winde blew hard, his Master smil'd upon him saying, Put on thy hat fool; for our horses drink no healths.

But you will say that England is the Paradise of Women: then it is either for the extraordinary respect the husbands bear them by permitting them to be alwayes at the upper end of the Table (whither their lightnesse carries them sometimes) or for their extraordinary beauty. To the first I have nothing to say; but for the second, 'tis true, they are moulded commonly of good flesh and blood, and have sanguine clear complexions, but they are withall fleg­matick and dull, and many thousands of them are so massie and big, that they seem men rather than women, unlesse they were distinguished by their clothes.

Now touching the haughtinesse of minde that is naturall in the English, there is one notable example in the person of Nicolas Breakspeare, born at Langley in Hartfordshire, who, being elevated to the Popedome by the name of Adrian the fourth, came to such a height of arrogance, that he rebuked the Emperour for writing his name before him in a certain Instrument. And be­ing to hold the stirrup while that Adrian mounted, he took hold of the wrong; but a little flie cur'd in him this humour of pride, who getting into his throat choakt him, and so made him low enough. With such a spirit of pride was Thomas Wolsey possessed, who was at once Chancellor, Archbishop, and Cardinall, though a Butchers Son of Ipswich by blood. Charles the fift in his Letters subscrib'd himself his Son and Cosen; for indeed he had a designe for the advantage of his affairs, as they stood then, to advance him to the Popedom after the decease of Leo the tenth; but when the Emperour had exalted Adri­an the sixth, a Brewers sonne, his Tutor, in lieu of the Butcher his Cosen, to the Chair, and having denied him also the Archbishoprick of Toledo, he grew so implacable to the Emperour, that he set all wheeles a going to make both England and France to bandy against him. He therefore began to whisper some surmises into Henry's eare touching Katharine of Aragon his Queen, VVhether the match was consonant to the holy Scriptures, she having been his eldest brothers wife before; and he raised this doubt the rather, because the said Queen had miscarried so often in Childbirth of Male Princes. The Cardinal knowing his Masters humor, might well think that this would make impressions within [Page 56] him, and so recommended unto him the Lady Margaret, Sister to the King of France; but when this scruple was thrust into the Kings thoughts, and that a Divorce was procurable, he did not look towards France, but he cast his eyes upon Anne, daughter to Sir Thomas Bolen, having no regard to Majesty, but beauty and lust. This cool'd Wolsey from negotiating the said Divorce, and made him spinne out the time by tergiversations and delayes; which his Ma­ster perceiving, his favour began to decline towards him, and so he died, some say, out of apprehension of grief, others say by poyson. This Wolsey was a man of a notable high spirit, and vast designes, and among other passages which discovered it, one was, that having built a Colledge in Oxford, he put his own Armes before the Kings, with this Motto, Ego & Rex meus, I and my King: which, as one wittily said, might be true by the rule of Grammar, which tels us that the first person is more worthy than the third, but the Moral rule tels us otherwise. He had such a splendid magnificent Family, than an Earl, nine Barons, and I cannot tell how many Knights and Squires, with near upon four hundred were his domestique servants; there were all likewise choice personable men whom he entertain'd, so that after his fall, divers of them came to be the Kings servants.

After Pride comes in the Lust and Luxury of the English; It stands upon good record how Pope Boniface writ to King Etheobald in these words, Gentes Anglorum spretis legalibus connubiis adulterando & luxuriando ad instar Sodomi­ticae gentis faedam vitam ducere; The English Nation forsook their lawfull Wives, and like a Sodomiticall people spent their lives in Adultery and Lux­ury. There was one of the Henries left thirteen Bastards behinde him, as some write; and it was more than probable that Anne of Bolen (who was call'd in France, La Mule du Roy, & l'haquenée d'Angleterre, The Kings Mule, and the English hackney) I say, according to some Writers, it was more than proba­ble, that she was both Daughter and Wife to the eighth Henry: Among others, one inference was, that when Sir Francis Brian, who was a facetious Knight, asked the King what it was to lie with the Daughter and the Mother, It was no more, said he, than to eat the hen first, and the chicken after. This King mar­ried six several Wives, whereof the second and the fift he chopt off their heads with an Axe; the first and fourth he repudiated; the third was destroyed in childbearing; the sixt he left behind him. This was that mercilesse Prince who sign'd a Warrant for beheading some Noblemen upon his very death-bed, and being much troubled in conscience, as he was taking his farewell of the world, the last word he breathed out to the Bishop by him, was, All is lost, all is lost, and so expir'd, to go before the Tribunall of Heaven to give account of his life, wherein he had confessed before, that He had never spar'd man in his rage, nor wo­man in his lust.

But you say that the English are strenuous and stout: they might be such in former ages, but now they are much degenerated, their warrs are now in Tap-houses and Tobacco-shops; for since Drake brought that inchanting Nicotian Drugge from the Indies against crudities and rheums, the use thereof is so frequent in England, that it is incredible; the very Impost of that Indian smoak alone amounting to more than Queen Elizabeth received in custom for all commodities whatsoever. In Ireland also this Weed is taken excessively in sneezing, which the Husbandman at the Plough-taile, and the servant mayd at the washing block doe use to suck into their nostrils to beget new spirits in them when they are tyr'd with labour. King Iames was a great enemy to this smoak, and when he was a Hunting if any fogge or mist would rise up to inter­rupt his sport, he would swear that Belzebub was then taking Tobacco; and be­ing once surprised with a great showre of rain, and forced to goe to a Pigstie for shelter, he caused a pipe of Tobacco to be taken, that one stink, as extremes use to doe, might drive out another. Moreover since the English have been ac­customed to have Beer for their beverage so much, not using so universally [Page 57] the old drink of England, which is Ale; the Hop by its inflammation hath made them more subject to diseases, fill'd them with gravell, and so troubled them with the Stone, Strangury, and Coliques. These with drinking such sophisticated Wines, hath much enervated the English Nation in point of strength, which in former times was such, that they could draw an arrow of an Ell long, and make the Gray-goose-wing fly through the heart of France. And now that I speak of Wine, it is so adulterated in England, that it drinks in some places like a Potion; and I beleeve as many dye there by drinking bad Wines, as of any other disease; for indeed all Vintners are Brewers in England, they mixe French Wines with Syder, the Spanish with milk, and feed other Wines with flesh very frequently.

Now for the Valour of the English in France, whereof the noble Baron hath spoken so much, they were very valiant indeed, when a silly Shephear­desse, Anne d' Arc did beat them away from before Orleans, pursued them to Paris, and so drive them over the Seine to Normandy, and when they could not be reveng'd of this Mayd in the Field, being taken by a Stratageme, they cut her off by a forged accusation, that she was a Sorceresse forsooth. Then was the time, if the English had comported themselves like men of prowesse and policy, to have reduc'd all France under a perpetuall subjection, King Charles the seventh being driven to such streights, that he was constrain'd to fly to Bour­ges, and so for the time was in a jeering way call'd King of Berry. But that notable mayd at her execution being tied to the stake was nothing daunted, but left prosperity and victory for a legacy to her Countrey men, till the Eng­lish should be beaten quite out of France, as they were afterwards; for being dri­ven and dogg'd as far as Calais, they kept that a while, but afterwards they were by a writ of ejectment publish'd by sound of drum and trumpet, as also by the Canon & Musket of the Duke of Guise, thrust out of Calais, and so casheer'd quite out of France; which sunck so deep, and made such black impressions of sorrow upon the heart of Queen Mary of England, that she would often say, if she were open'd after death, the town of Calais would be found Engraven in her heart. Now for the piety, goodnes and vertu of the English, which the noble Baron did so much magnifie, you may judge what it was in those dayes by the ingenuous confession of an English Captain, who when he had truss'd up his bagg and ba­gage to go for England, as he was going out of the gate he in a geering way was ask'd, O Englishmen, when will you back again to France? The Captain with a sad serious countenance answer'd, When the sinns of France are greater then the sinns of England, then will the English return to France. Nor indeed had the French much cause to affect the English, in regard of their insolence and cruelty, wherof there be divers examples: for in some good successes they had, the victory was more bloody then the battaill, cutting of prisoners off in cold blood for their greater security. But the English must needs be cruell in a Forren Countrey, when they use to be so in their own. What a barbarous act was that of Edward the fourth, to clapp up his own brother, George Duke of Clarence, in prison, and afterwards to drown him in a butt of Muscadin, by a new invention of death. But to descend to neerer times, what an act of immanity and ignoblenes was that in Queen Elizabeth, when she promis'd safety & welcom to Mary Queen of Scotts, and Dowager of France, if she came to England, for preventing the machinations of her rebellious subjects against her, and afterwards to suffer her to be hurried from one prison to another for twenty yeares, and then to suffer her head to be chop'd off, and by a cunning kind of dissimulation to lay the fault upon Davison her secretary, and throw the bloud into his face, under pretence that he sent the warrant for her execution without her knowledge? Truly this was a most inglorious act, and the reproach of it will never be worn out, but will stick as a black spot to England while she is an Iland, nor can all the water of the Sea about her wash off the stain, but it wil continue still indelible. But 'tis the more strange, that Queen Elizabeth should doe this, a [Page 58] Queen that had been herself bred up a good while in the school of affliction, and might be said to have come from the Scaffold to the Throne, I say 'tis strange that she should not be more sensible of anothers calamity. Dido the Pa­gan Queen out of a sweet tendernes could say, Non ignara mali miseris succur­rere disco, and it had more becom'd Queen Elizabeth to have said so, being a Christian Queen. That Queen Elizabeth should do this to her own Cosen, and sister Queen, one as good as herself, who after an invitation to England would never suffer her to have the comfort of her presence all the while; That Queen Elizabeth who was cryed up and down the world to be so just, so ver­tuous, so full of clemency should do this, it doth aggravat the fact much more then if another had done it. I must confesse she lost much repute abroad for it; Satyres, pasquills, and invectives being made in every corner of Christendom: among others I will recite unto you one that was belch'd out in France, which was thus,

Anglois vous dites qu'entre vous
Un seul loup vivant on ne trouve,
Non, mais vous avez une Louve
Pire qu'un million de loups.
No Wolfs ye Englishmen do say
Live in your Ile, or beasts of prey,
No, but a Wolfesse you have one
Worse then a thousand Wolfs alone.

Among other Kings and Queens of England the example of this Queen and her Father may serve to verifie the saying of Porphyrius which you alledg'd, most noble Baron, Britannia fertilis Provincia Tyrannorum; That Great Britan­ny is a province fruitfull for Tyrants. Now Nimrod was call'd the Robustus Ve­nator, the strong Hunter, which the Divines do interpret to be a mighty Ty­rant; And certainly the chasing and hunting of beasts, the killing of them, the washing of the Kings hands in their blood, and feasting with them afterwards, must needs make the minds of princes more ferocious, and lesse inclinable to clemency; wherefore they have a wholsom law in England, that no Butcher who is habituated to blood may be capable to be a Juryman to give verdit up­on any mans life. The Nobles of England may in some kind be call'd Carnificers of some sorts of beasts, as the buck, and the doe; with other such poor harmeles creatures, whereof some have no gall in them: for having wounded them first, and then worried them down with their doggs, at last as a signall of victory they bath their fingers in the blood of the poor animall, which they call to take the essay; but certainly this must conduce to obdurat human hearts, and as it were flesh them in blood. Now 'tis well known there are no Kings on earth such great hunters as the English, and who have more of variety of sport in that kind then any, for there are more Forests, Chaces, and Parks (besides va­riety of Royall palaces) annexed to the Crown of England then to any other of Europe, which might make the Countrey far more copious of corn, fuller of cattle, and have fewer beggars, if they were made arable grounds, or turn'd to pasturage. Moreover the English Kings may not improperly be call'd Nim­rods, as Bodin hath it herein, considering what rigorous punishments use to be inflicted upon the poor peeple, by vertu of the Forest lawes. In the book call'd Liber Rufus, there was one law enacted in Canutus time, Omnis homo abstineat a Venerijs meis super poenam vitae, Upon pain of life let every man refrain from my deer and my hunting places.

The Swainmote Courts have harsh punishments and amercements, and for the poor Husbandman ther's no remedy for him against the Kings dear, though they lye all night in his corn, and spoile it; Sarisburiensis, a reverend and au­thentic Author, comprehends all this in a few words, when he speaks of the [Page 59] exorbitancies of England in this kind. Quod magis mirere, ait, pedicas parare, avibus, laqueos texere, allicere nodis aut fistula, aut quibuscun (que) insidijs supplantare ex edicto saepe fit genus criminis, & vel proscriptione bonorum mulctatur, vel mem­brorum punitur, salutis (que) dispendio; Volucres coeli, & pisces maris communes esse audieras, sed hae Fisci sunt, quas venatica exigit ubicun (que) volant: manum contine, abstine, ne & tu in poenam laesae majestatis venantibus caedas in praedam. Anovalibus suis arcentur Agricolae, dum ferae habeant vagandi libertatem, illis ut pascua auge­antur, praedia subtrahantur Agricolis, sationalia insitiva Colonis, cùm pascua ar­mentarijs & gregarijs, tum alvearia a floralibus excludunt, ipsis quo (que) apibus vix naturali libertate uti permissum est. But that which is more to be wondred at, saith Sarisburiensis, is, that to lay netts, to prepare trapps, to allure birds by a whissle, or to supplant them by any kind of wile becomes oftentimes a kind of crime by the Edicts of England, and is punish'd either by amercement, or some corporall punishment; whereas in other climes the birds of the Air, and the fish of the Sea are common, but not in England; they belong to the Fisk, or some particular person; you must hold your hand, and refraine for fear of comit­ting treason; The Yeoman is hunted away from his new plowd fields, while wild beasts have liberty to wander in them at pleasure; nay sometimes cattle are kept from pasture, and the Bees are scarce permitted to use their naturall liberty of sucking flowers.

But the English tyranny doth not terminat onely in the King, but it difuseth it selfe further among the Nobles; In so much that as Camden relates there were in King Stephens raigne as many tyrants in England as there were Castellans, or Governors of Castles; Stephani Regis tem­poribus tot erant in Anglia tyranni, quot Castellorum Domini; Who arrogated to themselves regall rights and prerogatives, as coyning of money, marshall law, and the like; For now, there is no Kingdom on earth (Naples excepted) where there have been more frequent insurrections then in England: for as the Kings have been noted to be Tyrants, so the subjects are branded for devills. In the Civill warrs that happen'd in Comines time there were above fourescore that were slain by the fortune of war, and otherwise, of the blood Royall, besides the Kings themselves that perish'd; Whereupon when the Queen of Scots heard of the fatall sentence that was pronounc'd against her, with an intrepid and un­daunted heart she said, as an Author of credit hath it, Angli in suos Reges sub­inde caedibus saevierunt, ut neutiquam novum sit si etiam in me ex eorum sanguine natam itidem saevierint, If the English have been often so cruell in the slaughter of their own Kings, it is no new thing then, that they have grown so cruell to me that am descended of their blood. What a horrid and destructive conjura­tion was that subterranean plot of the Gunpowder Treason? so bloody a de­signe no age can parallell. It was like the wish of Caligula, who wish'd the pee­ple of Rome had had but one neck, that he might cut it off at one blow; He had it onely in wish, but these had a reall attempt to blow up not onely the blood Royall, but all the Nobility and chief Gentry of the Kingdom: And Guido Faux who was to set fire to the powder, did shew so little sign of feare and repentance, that he boldly said, It was none but the great Devill of Hell who had discovered the plot, and hindred him from the execution of it; that God Al­mighty had no hand in the discovery and prevention of that meritorious work, Which if it had taken effect, one of the Conspirators sayd, it would have satis­fied for all the sins of his whole life, had he liv'd a thousand yeers after.

And whereas, my Noble Baron, you travelled in your highstrain'd and smooth Oration through all the Shires of England, and pointed at some things extraordinary in every one of them; you shall find that they have as many blemishes as they have blessings. When you extoll the Province of Corn­wall so much, you should also have made mention of their Pyrrhocora­cas, their Sea-theeves and Pirates, which are so thick as choughes among them. And whereas you magnifie Drake so much, he was no better then a Cor­sary, [Page 60] or a Skimmer of the Seas, and an Archpyrate, who, notwithstanding there was an Ambassador here resident from Spain, and a firm peace twixt the two Crownes; yet was he permitted to steal and robb by land as well as by Sea a­mong the subjects of the King of Spain. Nor did he exercise cruelty on the Spaniards and Indians only, but upon his own Countrymen; as for example, when he landed at Port San Iulian, and finding a Gallowes there, set up by Ma­gellan, he hang'd up by his own power a gentleman better then himself, which was Mr. Iohn Doughty, meerly out of envy, because he might not partake of the honor of his Expeditions. You praise Devonshire, and the Town of Exe­ter especially, about which there growes nothing but thin Oates, and eares without grains in many places; but you should have remembred, that whereas Henry Duke of that City had married Edward the fourths Sister, yet in tat­tered raggs, and barefooted, he was forc'd to begge his bread up and down in Flanders. Whereas you speak also of Dorsetshire, you should have call'd to mind the tyranny of King Henry the third, against de Linde, for killing one of his Dear, which was made a Hart in White Forrest; for which he was not one­ly amerc'd in a great sum of money, but the Tenants of those Gentlemen that hunted with him were condemn'd to pay every year such a tax call'd White heart Silver, every year to the Exchequer. You passe also over Portland, a poor naked Iland without Woods or any kind of Fuel, but the ordure of beasts, wch they use for fyring. For Somersetshire, what huge tracts of wast grounds are found there up and down without Inhabitants, which makes it so subject to theeves and Robbers? Touching Hampshire, what a large act of sacriledge did King William commit there, by demolishing divers Churches, and take­ing away the Glebes from God and men the space of thirty miles and up­wards, making it a wild Forrest, to plant and people the Country with bruite beasts useful only for his hunting, venery and pleasure. But the judgements of Heaven fell visibly upon his Children; for Richard his second Son died of a Pestilential air in the same Forest. William Rufus, another Son of his, succeeding him in the Kingdome, was kill'd there also by the glance of an arrow from Sir Walter Terrell: Henry also his Granchild, Sonne to Robert his first begotten, breath'd his last there like Absolon, hanging at a bow while he was a hunting. 'Tis true that Barkshire hath one goodly structure, which is Winsor Castle; but most of the Country about is inhabited by savage beasts, who may be said to live better then the people thereabouts. For Surrey, you should have remem­bred what a perfidious act Godwin Earl of Kent perform'd at Guilford; who be­traying to Harald the Dane a young Prince, that was sent from Normandy to receive the Crown of England, was delivered to Harald the Dane. Sussex is infamous for the murther of King Sigebert by a Swineheard. And the Province of Kent will never wash away the foul stain she received for the sacrilegious murther of Thomas Becket, a Saintlike man; which assassinate was perpetrated in the very Church near the high Altar: for which crying and flagitious deed, they say, that the race of the murtherers have ever have since a white tuffe of hair in their heads, and the wind blowing in their faces whersoever they go. For Glocestershire, her inhabitants there are worthy of reproach, that by idlenesse and ignorance they would suffer the Vineyards there to decay ut­terly, and in lieu of Wine be content with windy Sider. In Oxfordshire was that lustful Labarynth made at Woodstock, where Henry the second kept Rosa­mond his Concubine, whom the revengful Queen poysoned. Now touching the City of London, the Metropolis of Great Britain, she may be well call'd a Monster, for she being the head, bears no proportion with the rest of the body, but is farre too bigge for it, and might serve a Kingdom thrice as bigge; but what Saint Hierom spoake of Constantinople, Eam nuditate omnium civitatum constructam fuisse, that she was made up of the nakednesse (and ruine) of o­ther Cities, so may London be said to grow rich out of the poverty of other Towns. She is like the Spleen in the natural body, by whose swelling the rest [Page 61] of the members pine away. And herein let me observe the poor policy of the fatheaded English, who suffer this one Town to be pamperd up, while other places though situated in as convenient places for Navigation▪ are ready to starve for want of trade. 'Tis true that Queen Elizabeth, King Iames and King Charles his Son, did put forth Proclamations for restraint of building in London, and that all the gentry should retire to their Country dwellings in the Vacation time, and at Christmas; but these Proclamations were like a fire put under a green wood, which did flash a little, but suffer'd presently to go again; so those Royal Proclamations were put in hot execution for a while, yet they quickly grew cold again. But indeed such is the crossgrain'd and contumacious perverse nature of the Londoners, specially the schismati­cal part, that they suspect, or repine at any new command that comes from authority. For whereas there was a secure and comely durable way of structure inordred them, that every one should build for the future with stone or brick, and not with lath and wood; and that they should build regularly for the beauty, prospect and evennesse of the streets, as also that the Houses might not be subject to firing; Yet this obstinate selfwitted people do stand still in their own light, and fall againe to build with lath and lime, notwith­standing that they know well enough the great advantages that would re­dound to the City by the other mode of Edifice: In so much that in England ther's not near that Elegance of building generally as in other Cities, nor are their streetes so streight and lightsome; by reason the Houses paunch out, and are not so uniform as else where.

I could condescend to the praises you give of Essex & Suffolk, were it not that in the one, at Saint Edmunds Berry, there have happened so many popular tumults twixt the Monks and Citizens. And were it not for a sordid tenure that lands are held by them of Hemingstone, where Baldwin call'd le Petteur, held lands from the Crown by sarieanty, pro quibus debuit Die Natali Domini singulis annis coram Domino Rege Angliae unum saltum, unum suflatum & unum bumbulum, for which lands he was to pay one leap, one puff, and one crack of the taile, before the King upon Christmas day, every yeare under paine of forfeiting his Tenure! O brave Knight service! O Noble homage! O brave devotion upon the birth day of Christ.

Touching the Norfolk men, they are naturally wranglers and Cavillers. The Fenny situation of Cambridge is such, that I cannot wonder sufficiently how that place should be chosen out to be made a seat for the Muses. Hun­tingtonshire Countrymen have such a rustiquenesse, that hardly admits any civility. Northhampton, and Leicestershire are so bald, that you can hardly see a tree as you passe through them. The people of Lincolnshire are infested with the affrightments of Crowlands Daemonical spirits. Notinghamshire doth delude the labour of the husbandman with the Sandinesse of their soyl. God deliver us from the Devills Posteriors at the Peak in Darbishire; War­wik is choaked up with wood, there, as well as in Lincolnshire,

The Ordure of the Sow and Cow
Doth make them fire and Sope enough.

I should like Worcester but for cold flatulent Perry. Stafford relates many odde fables of her Lake, and the River of Trent. In Shropshire the sweating sick­nesse took its first rise, which dispers'd it self not onely all England over, but cross'd the Seas, found out and infested English bodies in other Regions. Chest­er complaines for want of corn to make her bread. In Herefordshire there are walking Mountains; for in the year 1571. about 6. of the clock in the evening, there was a hill with a Rock underneath, did rise up as if she were awaken [Page 62] out of a long sleep, and changing her old bed, did remove herself to a high­er place, carrying with her trees, and folds of sheep, she left a gap behinde of forty foot broad, and eighty ells long, the whole peece of earth was above twenty Acres, and the motion lasted above a natural day, that the sayd Moantain was in travell. Radnor with her crags would frighten one; for the rest of Wales, though the inhabitants be courteous and antient, yet the country swels with such a conglobation of Mountains, that strangers would be hardly invited to visit her; which Mountaines in some places are so high, and yet so near one to another, that Shepheards may talk one to another from the tops of them, and not be able to meet one another in a whole day, by traversing from one Mountain to the other, through the valley, and precipices under­neath.

Touching the large Province of York, whereas you averre that Constantine and his Mother Helen were Britaines, and born there, Nicephorus makes a question of it, and would have them to be of Bithynia. Towards Richmond there are such squalid uncouth places, and horrid Mountaines, that the English themselves call them the Northern Alpes, and there be such roaring streames of water which rush out of them, that the inhabitants name them Hell-becks, that is, Infernal, or Stygian Rivers.

Now for Scotland, Good Lord what a pittifull poor Country is it! It were no petty kinde of punishment to be banisht thither, for it is a Country onely for those to dwell in that want a Country, and have no part of the earth besides to dwell upon. In some parts the soyl is such, that it turns trees to stones, and wheat to oats; apples to crabbs, and melons to pumpions. In some places as you pass along, you shall see neither bird in the aire, nor beast on the earth, or worm creeping on the ground, nor scarce any vegetall, but a black gorsie soyl, a raw rheumatique air, or some craggy and squalid wild disconselate hils: And touching Woods, Groves, or Trees, as Stephen might have scap'd stoning in Holland for want of stones, so if Iudas had betrayed Christ in Scotland, he might (as one sayd) have repented before he could have found out a tree to have hang'd himself upon. And most noble Auditors, you may make easie conjectures of the poverty of Scotland by the demeans of the Crown, which scarce amount to a hundred thousand Dollars a year, which you know is the ordinary Income of a German Prince, and this both Boterus and Bodin do testifie, who were Eagle-ey'd Inspectors into the Revenues of all Kingdomes and States. And the answer which the Duke of Norfolk made Queen Elizabeth when she reprehended him for his presumption to marry the Queen of Scots, doth verifie this; Madam, said he, it is no great presumption in me to attempt this, for my Revenues are not much inferiour to the King of Scot­lands. This induced the Queen Elizabeth to give King Iames, her Godsonne, and Successor, a Pension every year. Nor were the Revenues of the Crown of England any thing considerable, till of late years that Trade began to encrease so infinitely, and consequently the Customes, with Suits in Law since the de­molition of Abbeyes, and the alienation of Church-Lands to the Crowne with the First-fruits, Fines, and other perquisites by Offices, and Courts of, Justice, I say before these additions to the Crown, the Revenue of the Crown of England was but very contemptible in comparison of other Princes. I must con­fesse indeed that in these late Wars, the Wealth of England, as well as the Strength thereof, hath wonderfully appear'd; for I believe on both sides there hath been above two hundred Millions consum'd. And there is now coming into this new Republique, I beleeve, above twelve Millions of Crownes every year. And for her Strength, one may say, England was like a Horse, she knew not her own strength till now; for who would have thought that England could have put forth a hundred thousand foot, and forty thousand horse, all arm'd, besides her power at Sea? I say, who could have thought it? [Page 63] Yet there were so many in number at least, betwixt King and Parliament at one time.

But to reflect again upon Scotland, as the Country is pittifully barren, in­somuch that long Keale and short Keale, which is a kind of Cabbidge, that they can dress twenty sorts of wayes, is one of their principall food, besides fish, and some odde fowle, as the Solan Goose, which is their greatest Regalo, yet the Eater must stop his nose when he takes a bit into his mouth, the smell is so rank and strong. I say, as the Country is so steril, so is the people sordid, and subject to vermine. Good Lord what nasty little huts, and holes shall you finde there up and down; what dirty courts, and stables above the anckle deep cramm'd with dung. The sight of an ordinary Scots woman is a remedy a­gainst Lust; for they are as big as Cows in the middle: Nature seems to make no distinction there between the two sexes, but the women commonly are as bigge limb'd as the men. These short commons at home drive the men com­monly abroad to seek their fortunes in Swethland, Denmark and Poland, where they are in such multitudes, that in case of necessity, the King of Poland might put in the field thirty thousand Scots Pedlars, though they passe by the name of Merchants; for if one can come up to a horse and a pair of panniers, he presently assumes that name unto him. Now, though abroad the Scots are kept under a strict discipline that they cannot steal, yet at home they are no­table theeves, and indeed the Caledonians were ever so to a proverb, they goe now under the names of Mossetroupers. Hear I pray what their own Coun­try man, Iohn Lesley the Bishop of Rosse speaks of them, Noctu turmatim per invia loca, per (que) multos maeandros è suis finibus exeunt, interdiu in prostitutis la­tibulis equos vires (que) suas recreant, donec eò tandem per tenebras quo volunt per­veniant. Arrepta praeda similiter noctu per circuitus & devia loca dunt axat ad sua redeunt. Quò quis (que) peritior Dux per illas solitudines, anfractus & praecipitia, me­dia caligine & tenebris esse potest, is ut ingeni [...] excellens majore in honore habetur, & tanta calliditate hi valeut, ut rarissimè praedam sibi eripi sinant, nifi canum odo­ratu, quorum ductu rectis semper vestigiis insequentium ab adversariis non nunquam capiantur. In the night time the Scots doe use to steal forth by troups, through odde invious places, and divers Meanders and windings; they bait in the way in some odde nook or cave, where they refresh themselves and their horses, untill they come unto the places they aime at, where they had intelligence there was booty for them, which when they have got, they return by some other devious passage, wheeling about until they are come to their own home. He who is the most cunning conductor through these unfrequented, and craggy by-places in the dark, is cried up to be a very knowing man, and conse­quently he is held in greatest esteem. And so cautious & crafty they are in their art this way, that their prey is seldome or never taken away from them, unlesse they be pursued with Dogs.—But these Borderers or Mossetroopers, which this description aimes at, are far inferiour to the Highlanders or Redshankes, who sojourne 'twixt craggs and rocks, who in the art of Robbery, go much beyond all other; insomuch that it is a Law in Scotland, St quis ex aliqua illo­rum gente damna intulerit, quicunque captus fuerit, aut damna resarciat, aut capite luat: When any of the Highlanders commit any Robbery, let the next that is taken repair the losse, or suffer death. I know I shall strike a horrour and astonishment into this Princely Assembly, by relating here what Saint Hierome writes of this people he saith, Se adolescentulum in Gallia vidisse Sco­tos, gentem Britannicam, humanis vesci carnibus, & cum per sylvas porcorum greges, & armentorum pecudum (que) reperiant, pastorum nates, & faeminarum pa­pillas solere abscindere, & has solas ciborum delicias arbitrar. When I was a young man among the Gaules, I saw Scots there, a people of Britain, who fed upon humane flesh, for when they passed through the Woods, where there were Swineheards, and other Shepheards, they us'd to seize upon, and cut off the [Page 64] buttocks of the male, and paps of the female, which they us'd to feed upon as the greatest dainties.

For the Learning of the Scots, once in an age haply they produce a Wit, but tentimes they prove pestiferous; witness Buchanan and Knocks, which two villaines were fratres in malum, what a world of troubles have they rais'd? what a distraction did they bring on mens braines? what proud rascals were they in their own conceit? how they would vapour and raunt (an humor that is more the Scotchmans own than any) nay what a malitious and ingratefull monster was one of them? I mean Buchanan, who though a poor Paedagogue, yet he presum'd to write in such familiar terms, and disgorge such base invectives against so great a personage, as Mary Queen Dowager of France, and his own Soveraign Princesse, and which sets forth his abject spirit further, this Paedagogues pen was mercenary; for he was hir'd to doe it. Yet King Iames took him afterwards for his Tutor, notwithstanding that he had been so ingratefull, and bespatter'd his mother so fowly, as appeares by these pedantick dunsticall incongruous lines, this most base and scurrilous Libell which hee vomited against her with that virulencie.

O Maria, O Scota, O Meretrix, O quàm bene nota
Impurè illota, Veneri dedidissima tota
Quae stimulis mota, moechos trahis ad tua vota,
Vino (que) praepota, facis id quod rancida Gota.
Reproba Regina, mage salax quam Messalina,
Altera Faustina, semper recubans resupina,
Pellex Palatina, temerans conjugia bina,
Moribus lupina, Regni jurata ruina.
Belie incepisti tu quando puella fuisti,
Inguine pruristi, procaxque viros petiisti,
Hin [...] excussisti pudorem, & aperuisti
Seram tuae cistae quam claudere non potuisti.
Quid precor egisti tu in Francia quando fuisti?
Antequam nupsisti, cum Cardinale coisti?
Marito & tristi tu [...]ornua multa dedisti,
Contra & jus Christi vitrico temet subegisti.
Nec minus arsisti postquam in patriam rediisti,
Nonne tuo mystae Davidi succubuisti?
Unde viro tristi causam vindictae dedisti,
Et huic & isti mortis tu causa fuisti.
Nonne vir [...] est scitum te propinasse aconitum,
Blandéque accitum somno jugulasse sopitum,
Nec mora, protritum moechum duxisti maritum,
Caede insignitum Regni scelerisque peritum.
At principatus moecho est pro munere datus,
Hinc Scotiae status tumultibus est cruciatus,
Miles & armatus jugi in statione locatus,
Us (que) quò fugatus est Boshwellus dux sceleratus.
Ita (que) cun [...] tota sic intus & in cute nota,
Daemoni devota, tam prudens ut est Idiota,
Ut sic amota cupimus ante omnia vota,
Fortunae Rota si reflectat, vae tibi Scota.

But now that I have given a touch of Ingratitude, I think the Scots are a [...] guilty of that base vice as any Nation. What mountainēs of favours did the two last Kings of England tumble upon them? What honors, offices, and dignities did they conferr upon them? What vast pensions had they from the English Exchequer? how did the last King enervat his own prerogative, to strengthen their priviledges? What gracious concessions did he make them, according to their own confessions? how he pull'd down Bishops at their re­quest and distributed the lands amongst them; how at his last being in Scot­land in Parliament he was so easy and yeelding unto them, that they did no­thing but ask and have, In so much that as one said, he had granted them so much of his Royall right, that for the future he was but King of Scotland, as he was King of France, only Titular. How at his depar [...]ure they confessed, that they had nothing to complain of for the government of Kirk or State, that they could imagine, and therefore in lieu of their gratitud their Parliament voted, that the old Act should be reviv'd, which is, that it should be det [...]sta­ble and damnable treason in any of the subjects of Scotland of what degree, condition or quality soever, to make any military levi [...]s, or put themselves in armes without the Kings Royall commission; to observe which Act they took their oths upon the Evangelist, yet the yeer scarce revolv'd when they rais'd an Army, and rush'd into England, not only without his comission, but point blanck and expresly a­gainst his Royall letters, wherein he desir'd them (as they confess'd themselves▪) since they had nothing to complain of, that they would be Spectators onely and no Actors in some differences which were 'twixt him and his English Sub­jects, yet directly against his will and request they did thrust themselves in­to the busines; And afterwards, when their own Country-man and King had fled to them in his greatest extremity for shelter and comfort, they most base­ly sold him away. O monsters of men! O horrid ingratitude, and per [...]idious­nes, which hath cast such foule blemishes, and indelible Spo [...]ts upon that nati­on, that I believe all the water of the Tweed will never be able to wash away. But the judgments of heaven were never so visible upon any peeple as those which have fallen upon the Scots since; for besides the sweeping furious Plague that raign'd in Edenburgh, and the incredible multitude of Witches which have encreas'd, and been executed there since, besides the sundry shamefull defeats they have receav'd by the English, who carried away more of them prisoners, then they were themselves in number, besides, that many of them died by meere hunger, besides, that they were sold away slaves, at half a crown a dozen, for forren plantations among sauvages; I say besides all this chaine of judgments with divers other, they have quite lost their reputation among all mankind; some jeer them, some hate them, and none pitty them. What's become now of their hundred and ten Kings which they us'd [Page 66] to raunt of so much? What's become of their Crown which they bragg'd to be more weighty, and have more gold in it then any Crown in Chri­stendome?

I will now by the continuance of the sweet gale of your Noble favours cross over to Ireland, another rough hewn Country, and crosse graind peope too; and indeed the Irish and Scots are originally but birds of one feather, the same tongue being maternal to both. Yet for the soyl and the climes, Ire­land much exceeds Scotland; Nevertheless, the Country is full of boggs, of squalid and unfrequented places, of loughs and rude Fenns, of huge craggs and stony fruitlesse hills; the air is rhumatique, and the Inhabitants odiously nasty, sluggish and lowsie. Nay, some of them are Pagans to this day, and worship the new moon, for the kerns will pray unto her, that she would be pleas'd to leave them in as good health as she found them. For all the paines the English have taken to civilize them, yet they have many savage customes among them to this day; they plow their ground by tying their tacklings to [...]he horses taile, which is much more painful to the poor beast, then if they were before his breast and on his back. They burn their corn in the husk in stead of threshing it, which out of meer sloth they will not do for preserving the Straw. But to set forth the Irish in their own colours, I pray hear how Saint Barnard describeth them, when he speakes of Saint Malachias a holy Irish Bishop of a place call'd then Conereth; a man that had no more of his Country rudenesse in him then a fish hath saltnesse of the Sea. Malachias, in­quit Barnardus, tricesimo ferme aetatis suae anno consecratus Episcopus introducitur Conereth, hoc enim nomen Civitatis. Cum autem caepisset pro officio suo agere, tun [...] intellexit homo Dei non ad homines se, sed ad bestias destinatum. Nusquam adhuc tales expertus fuer at in quantacunque barbarie, nusquam repererat sic protervos ad mores, sic ferales ad ritus, sic ad fidem impios, ad leges barbaros, cervicosos ad dis­ciplinam▪ spurcos ad vitam, Christiani erant nomine, Re Pagani. Non decimas, non primitias dare, nec legitima inire conjugia, non facere confessiones. paenitentias nec qni peteret, ne [...] qui daret penitus inveniri. Ministri altaris pauci admodum erant, sed enim quid opus pluribus, ubi ipsa paucitas inter Laicos propemodum otiosa va­caret? Non erat quod de suis fr [...]ctificarent officiis in populo nequam. Nec enim in Ecoles [...]iis aut prae [...]icantis vox, aut cantant is audiebatur. Quid faceret Athleta Domini? aut turpiter cedendum, ant periculosè certandum: sed qui se pastorem & non mercenarium agnoscebat, elegit stare potius quam fugere, paratus animam suam da­re pro ovibus si oportuerit. Et quanquam omnes lupi & Oves nullae, stetit in medio luporum pastor intrepidus, omnimodo argumentosus quomodo faceret oves de lupis. Malachias, saith Saint Barnard, in the 33. year of his age, was consecrated Bishop of Conereth, but when he began to officiate, and to exercise his ho­ly function, he found that he had to deal with beasts rather then with men, for he never met with the like among any Barbarians, He never found any so in­docil for manners, so savage in customes, so impious in their faith, so barba­rous in their lawes, so stiffnecked for discipline, so sordid in their carriage. They were Christians in name, but Pagans in deed. There were none found that would pay tiths or first fruits, that would confine themselves to lawfull wedlock, that would confesse, or doe any acts of penitence: For there were very few Ministers of the altar, and those few did live licentiously among the Laiques; Neither the voice of the Preacher or singing man was heard in the Church: Now, what should the Champion of God do? He must recede with shame, or strive with danger, but knowing that he was a true Pastor and not a hireling, he chose to stay rather then flye, being ready to sacrifice his life for his sheep. And though they were all Wolfs, and no sheep, yet the faith­ful shepheard stood fearlesse in the midst of them, debating with himself how he might turn them from Wolfes to sheep.

It seems this holy Father S. Bernard was well acquainted with Ireland by [Page 67] this relation; for ther's no Countrey so wolvish: they are in up and down heards in some places, and devoure multitudes not only of cattle but men. In deed of late yeers Ireland, I must confesse, was much improv'd both in point of civility as also in wealth and commerce; Their mud cottages up and down, specially in Dublin, where the Court was, turnd to fair brick or free-stone-houses; Ire­land was made to stand upon her own leggs, and not onely to pay the standing English army which was there, and us'd to be payd out of the Exchequer at Westminster, but to maintain the Vice-Roy with all the Officers besides of her self, and to affoord the King of England a considerable revenu every yeer; and this was done by the management and activity of the last Lord Deputy, after whose arrivall the Countrey did thrive wonderfully in traffic (which is the great artery of every [...]land) and in all bravery besides. In so much that the Court of Dublin in point of splendidnes might compare with that of England; But that refractory haf-witted peeple did not know when they were well.

But now I will leave the Irish to his Bony clabber, and the Scot to his long Keall, and short Keall, being loth to make your eares do penance in listning to so harsh discourses. Therefore to conclude, most noble Princes, I conceave it a high presumption in Great Britain to stand for the principality of Europe, considering how many inconveniences attend her: for first though she be most of all potent at sea, yet she cannot set a ship under sayle in perfect equipage without the help of other Countreys, she hath her cordage, pitch and tarr, she hath her masts, and brasse Canons from abroad▪ onely she hath indeed incom­parable Oke, and knee timber of her own; she abounds 'tis true with many commodities, but they are rustic and coorse things in comparison of other Kingdoms, who have silk for her wooll, wine for her beer, gold and silver, for lead and tinne. For arts and sciences, for invention, and all kind of civilities she hath it from the Continent; Nay the language she speaks, her very accents and words she borroweth els where, being but a dialect of ours. She hath a vast quantity of wast grounds, she hath barren, bad mountains, uncouth uncom­fortable heaths, she hath many places subject to Agues and diseases, witnes your Kentish and Essex Agues; what a base jeer, as their own Poet Skelton hath it, have other Nations of the English, by calling them Stert men with long tailes, according to the verse,

Anglicus a tergo caudam gerit, ergo caveto.

What huge proportions of good ground lieth untill'd in regard of the sloth of her Inhabitants? she suffers her neighbours to eat her out of trade in her own commodities, she buyeth her own fish of them, They carry away her gammons of bacon, and by their art having made it harder and blacker, they sell it her againe for Westphalia, at thrice the rate; she hath affronted, impri­sond, deposd, and destroyd many of her Kings; of late yeers she hath been baf­led at Amboyna, she made a dishonorable return from Cales, she was fowly beaten at the Ile of Rè, the small handfulls of men she sent hither to Germany, in the behalfe of the Daughter of England, did her more discredit then honor. And her two lasts Kings were overreach'd in the Treaty touching the match with Spain, and the restitution of the Palatinate. She hath been a long time in a declining condition; her common people are grown insolent, her Nobi­lity degenerous, her Gentry effeminate and fantasticall, they have brought down their wasts to the knees, where the points hang dangling, which were us'd to tie the middle, they weare Episcopal sleeves upon their leggs, and though they are farre from observing any rites of the Roman Church, yet they seem to keep As [...]wensday all the year long by powdring not onely their locks and haire, but the upper parts of their doubletts, with the capes of [Page 68] their cloakes; and the time was not many yeers since that they made them­selves ridiculous to all the world by a sluttish yellow kind of starch, which was a pure invention of their own, and not an imitation of others, whereunto they are very subject; specially of the French, in so much that they may be said to be scarce men of themselves, but other mens Apes. Therefore most excellent President, and Princes, I see no reason why Great Britain should com­pare with the other noble Continents of Europe; yet I allow Her to be Great within herself (if she had the wit to make use of her Greatnes,) and to be the Queen of Iles.



Most Excellent President and Prince,

TWo Perusian Ambassadors were imployed to Pope Urban the fifth residing then at Avignon, who being admitted, and desir'd to deliver their Ambassage as succinctly as they could in regard of the Popes indisposition, yet they made a long tedious Oration, which did disquiet his Ho­linesse as it was observ'd by the Auditors; The first Am­bassador having at last concluded, the second subjoyn'd very wittily, saying, We have this moreover given to us in Charge, that if you will not condescend to our demands, this my Colleague must re­peat his speech again, and make some additions to it. The Pope was so much taken with this, that he presently dismissed both of them very well satisfied for the businesse they came about. But I being to speak for the Noble King­dom of Poland, need no such trick of wit to procure your consent that it may have the Principality of the rest of the Provinces of Europe; Nor confiding so much in your judgements need I any Rhetorical florishes, or force of Elo­quence to induce you thereunto, for the argument hath strength enough of it self, to do the businesse. Poland needs no artifice, she needs no Mountibank to set forth her riches, which nature hath scattered in every corner with a libe­ral hand; It is a high and very Noble peece of the Continent, she abounds with Mines of Iron, Lead and Sulphureous Mettals, and with Lazurium, a kinde of stone of a blew caerulean colour, which God himself pleas'd to make use of for the Adorning of his own Palace. Lituania may be said to be Ceres Barn, and Russia her Haggard: for there if a field be sowd, it will be the year following, without necessity of throwing any new seed. In Podolia there be grounds that return 100. graines for one, besides there be Pasturages there that the horns of the Oxen feeding therein can hardly be seen. The salt pits of Cracovia may compare with any on Earth, there are such concamerations in them that make a little Town supported by great Pillars of Salt; and the entrance is so high, that you need not stoop your head to go in; There is no where better Hony, and mix'd with lesser Wax, or whiter then that which is found in Samogitia; The trunks of trees are full of their hives. There is such abundance of Pears, Apples, Plumms, Cherries, and Nuts, and these in such variety, that no Country can produce more in every one of the 32 County Palatines of Poland, whence huge quantities of Wheat, Barley, and Oates, with other Grains, as also Hopps, Hides, Tallow, Allum, Hony, Wax, Pitch, Ta [...], Pot­ashes, [Page 2] Masts, and Hemp are exported to other Countries: The number of Ox­en and Horses are infinite. Now for the Wealth of the Subject, and private men I will produce you one stupendous Example. In the year 1363. about the sea­son of Shrovetide the Emperor Charles the 4th. his Nuptials were to be cele­brated at Cracovia wth the Neece of Casimir the Great King of Poland; the Kings of Hungary and Denmark, Peter King of Cyprus, and a great number of the Im­perial Princes were present; Vernicus Germanus, being then Consul of Craco­via, entertain'd all these Kings and Princes in his own Houses, and feasted them for many daies, dismissing them with presents, whereof that which he bestowed upon Casimir was valued at 100 thousand Florins; This Vernicus be­ing infinitely rich, exhausted his wealth in such publique Gallantries, yet he looked to the main chance, that he left himself a competence to live well and honestly: a small pittance will suffice nature, when immense possessions can­not satisfie opinion. The Pole doth not glory much in high ostentous buildings, measuring the vanities thereof by the frailty of his own body, which is subject to decay in so short a time; So he falls into contemplation that the proudest Fabriques will dissolve and crumble to dust at last. What shall wee think of the Pyramides of Egipt, towards the rearing thereof, there were nine­score Talents erogated out of Garlike, Leeks and Onions alone; there were three hundred and sixty thousand opificers and labourers imployed for twenty years together in the work; but whats become now of those 4. Pyra­mids? They are all turn'd to rubbish. But observable it is, that one of them was reard by Rhodope a Courtisan, who was grown so infinitly rich by the publique use of her own. The Temple of Ephesus was no lesse then 220. years a building, to which all Asia did contribute, the stupendous length whereof was 425 paces, the Latitude 220. It had 120 columnes, 60. foot in Altitude. The Tomb of King Mausolus was an admirable thing, and the love of Artemisia his Wife was more admirable in erecting such a Tomb; and not onely so, but taking some of the powder of her husbands body and drinking it in little doses next her heart, saying, that her body was the fittest Tomb for her dear Husband. Now come in the Walls of Babylon, 200 foot high, and 60 miles compasse; to finish which there came three Millions of people together. I will now fix my eyes upon the Rhodian Colosse, which did bear the image of the Sun in that glory; It was 70 Cubits high, the thumb of the Image could not be embrac'd with both the armes, and so you may guesse at the vast proportion of the rest; The statue of Iupiter Olympius compos'd of Ivory and Gold by Phidias was a work of wonder. I will conclude with Old Rome, wherin there were in the Pagans time 420▪ Temples; The very roof of the Capitol stood in 12 Talents; she was once above 30 miles about: She had in one Cense that was made above 25 hundred thousand souls in her, but now in point of people she is but a Wildernesse, and but a Village in comparison of what a City she was; being spacious once to hold all mankind, all her amphitheaters, her baths, Statues and Temples are mouldred away, and scarce any remnant left, together with her vast Palaces which aemulate Cities. The serious, wise Pole considering the small duration, and great charge, with the vanity of such things, measures his House by his own body, as the Turks do; it is sufficient if it last him for his own life, let his Sonne build for himself. It is remarkable what Seneca saith; Romae olim cul [...]um lib [...]ros texisse, postea sub marmore atque auro servitutem habitasse, Rome liv'd free under culme, and thatch'd houses, but afterwards she grew to be a slave under Marble and golden roofs.

For matter of civility you shall find Italy her self in Poland; for comple­ment you shall find France, for plain downright dealing, you shall find Germa­ny; Nay for urbanity, and elegance of manly attire, the Pole goes beyond us; his language also is smoother, and not so abrupt as ours: Therefore they are very wide from truth, who charge Sarmatia with asperity and roughnesse of man­ners; for whosoever will converse familiarly with them, shall find that they [Page 3] are very humane and open-hearted, that they are simple and upright; for the first integrity of the World may be found amongst them.

Moreover the Polish air [...] is favourable to the M [...]ses, for ther's both poore and rich, Gentry & Commonalty, Town and Country are vers'd in the know­ledge of holy things, wherunto it is a great advantage that the latine tongue is spoken so frequently and vulgarly among them, in every Dorp and petty Village; Nay their Hoslers, and Chamberlains understand and speake it in many places; They are also vers'd in the Dutch, French, & Italian; Which was wondred at in Paris, when the Delegats of Poland came thither to declare that they had elected by unanimous suffrage the Duke of Aniou to be King of Po­land, for some of them spoak as perfect French, and knew the Mode of Paris as if they had been born there: Besides the Parisians did admire the goodly large bodies of their new guests their manly-Physiognomies, their furr'd Capps, their rich Buskins, their costly scabbards with huge silver Chapes, and it was also wondred at, that none of the whole company, whither Laquay, Page, Groom, or Cook, but could speak latin, and parly some French; which many spoake so exactly, as if nature had brought them forth upon the bankes of the Loire, and Sein, rather then upon those of the Vistula and Boristhenes. In this splendid Legation, Sirius Samosius Chancellor of Poland was chief, a man of rare Erudition and Policie; There was also Baldwin the celebrous Ci­vilian, who was the Orator, which he perform'd to admiration; The foresaid Samosius was famous both for the Gown and the sword; Touching the lat­ter, he performd many exploits both against the Muscovites, and the Austrian Family; For the other, there are many printed works published in his name, as the History of the Muscovian Wars, which Thuanus would father upon Ca­rolus Sigonius, or Secretary Heidenstein, but wrongfully.

Among the Polish Nobility, whereof many are famous for Arts and Scien­ces, Stanislaus Hosius was very renowned in Italy, where he had spent much time, both in Padua and Bolonia, where Alexander Farnese was a breeding the same time, together with Madrucci, and Otho Truchsesius, who were all three coopted afterwards to the Colledge of Cardinals. Besides Hosius, Iohn Dantiscus was a rare man for knowledge, who when Charles the Emperor had resign'd both Empire and Kingdom with all Earthly Glory, and dismiss'd all from about him, yet he reserv'd Iohn Dantiscus; But with what Elogies sha [...]l I celebrate the memory of Martinus Polonus, or Matthias de Miechow, or Martin de Ilte, who was the first Composer of the Almanak or Ephemerides in Europe? Cromerus, Herbortus, Varsevicius, Bzovius, Lascius, Vaporius, Dres­nerus, Herbestus, Sternaus, Lumbostus, Cichocius, with multitudes more of Authors, were men of sublime and celestial soules. The times are much altered now from what they were, when Pope Clement, the fourth Bishop from Saint Peter the Apostle did write, In Sarmatia extremam Germaniam contingente, nul­lum Geometram, vel Poetam Pictoremve, aut Trapezitam esse, In Poland confi­ning upon the furthest parts of Germany, there was neither Geometrician, Po­et, Painter, or Trapezit, viz. an exchanger of Monies, or Banker. There is a strange Vicissitude since; for all Poland now is a most litterated Country, as if Athens had transported herself thither; There is Religion, and Piety also there in the highest degree, since Paganisme was expell'd thence by Mieczis­laus, and established Christianity, which they maintain still with that stout­nesse and fervencie, that when the Apostolical Creed is read in the Churches, every man stands up and drawes out his sword, which he holds naked in his hand till the Creed be read, intimating thereby that they will uphold and de­fend it with all the strength that God and Nature hath given them: a solemnity which is observ'd by no other Nation so much. And it seems that God al­mighty hath plac'd Religion thus under the Clientele of Poland, because that she confining upon divers ferocious and wild Nations, which are capital Ene­mies to the name of Christ, at least wise dissociated and cut off from the [Page 4] Latine Church, she by the valour and virility of her Inhabitants might be a pro­pugnacle and rampart to the Holy Church, and by her fulminating legions, and armes, might be able to repel, and frustrate any attempt of theirs. The Muscovit her confining neighbour, distant from her in Faith, though not in territory, serves as a Whetstone to sharpen the Polonian courage, least by de­suetude it should grow dull and rusty; The Mahumetan is also her limitane­ous Neighbour, but a sorer and more formidable foe then the other: for there is a saying, ubicunque equus▪ Turcicus ungulam impresserit, ibi gramen non cres­cere. Wheresoever the Turks horse doth once plant his hoof▪ no grasse grows there any more: Yet of late years he bears up notably against that huge Giant, and apprehends no great fear of him; As it appears by the magnanimous an­swer which King Stephen gave the Sultan, who having sent to him for some auxiliar forces against the Persian, under pretext of an antient Custom, he sent him word, candidam Polonorum Aquilam antea implumem, & viribus suis destitutam, nunc rejuvenescere, pennas recepisse, ungues & rostrum exacuisse The white Eagle of Poland which was thin of feathers before, had now renewed her strength, recovered her quills, and sharpned her pounces and bill. For the Pole is naturally a stout man, that will neither be softned with pleasure, nor dismay'd by danger; a death bravely purchas'd he holds to be an immortality, and a life disgracefully preserv'd to be worse then any death. He is more careful to keep his Honor, then life; & as, according to Cromers testimony, near the Town of Streme, there is a hill, where Pots, Caudrons, and other Vessells are found naturally so shapen, though they be soft within the Earth, but being digged out, they quickly incrustrate and grow hard when they are expos'd to the cold air; so the Pole is naturally shap'd for a soldier in his Mothers womb, but confirm'd afterwards by the severe discipline of his Pa­rents; He feares the clashing of armes no more then the wagging of oken leaves, or the bubbling of waters; And herein they retain still the genius of the Great Piastus, who as by probity and justice he got the Kingdom at first, so his Ospring conserv'd it by succession for 500. years. The women there also are indued with a masculine courage, for by the old constitution of Poland, no maiden was to marry, till she had kill'd three enemies in the field; but Pi­astus abolished this custom, and commanded women to exercise themselves in matters more consentaneous to their sex. We read that Augustus Caesar gave in command to Lentulus his Ambassador, that he should not disquiet the Sarmatian; for if he were once provoked, he would not understand what peace was afterwards: so the Danube did put limits to the so prosperous Augustus, and the Pole did terminate his progresse. All this is confirm'd by that disticke of Ovid who was banished thither.

Maxima pars hominum nec te pulcherrima curat
Roma, nec Ausonij militis armatimet.

Good Lord, what Victorious Kings hath Poland had? Ziemovit did debell the Hungarians, Bohemians, Pomeranians, and made them all tributary; Bo­leslaus Chrobri subdued the Russe, bridled the Prusse, chastised the Saxons, and upon the frontires of his Dominions erected brazen Pillars: after his death all Poland mourned a whole year, all which time there was neither feasting nor dancing. What shall I say of Boleslaus the third, who fought 50. battailes, and was Victor in all? In his time the Emperor Otto the third, made a Pil­grimage to Poland to visit the body of Saint Adalbertus (which Boleslaus had redeem'd from Prusse Pagans) and it was to expiate a crying sin that he had committed, which was thus. The Empresse being light, she caressed an Italian Count so farre, that she offered him the use of her body, which he refu­sing, out of a malitious indignation, like Pharo's Wife, she accus'd the said Count that he would have forc'd her; whereupon he was arraigned, con­demned and executed, but before his death he discoverd the whole series of the businesse to his Wife. A little after a great Sessions in Roncalias, appointed [Page 5] to right Orphans and Widdows, the Countess came before the tribunal, and brought her husbands head under her vest, so desiring leave of Caesar to speak, she ask'd what punishment did he deserve that took away another mans life? Otto answered, no lesse then death. Then O Emperor you have condemned your self, who have taken away my guiltlesse husband, and behold here his head; and be­cause there wants proof in so private a cause, I will undergoe the Ordeal, the fyrie tryal; which the Countesse having perform'd without any hurt, the Em­presse Maria Augusta, who had accus'd the Count was brought, and condem­ned to be burnt, which was done accordingly. And the Emperor gave the Countesse Dowager 4. Castles in fuller satisfaction. To make further atone­ment for this offence, the said Emperor Otto came to Poland upon a Pilgri­mage, and Boleslaus came 7. miles to meet him, the way being cover'd with cloth of divers colours all along. Hereupon the Emperor for so Signal a fa­vour, did solemnly create Boleslaus King, and his Companion, and a friend of the Roman Empire, declaring him free from all tribute and jurisdiction for ever.

But to come to more Modern times. What a man of men was Sigismund the first? you know, most noble Princes, that, the Persians doe cry up Cyrus, the Macedonians, Alexander the Great; The Germans, Charlemagne, for he­roique and valiant Kings. The Athenians cry up Miltiades, Cimon, Alcibiades, Thrasybulus, Phocio and others. The Lacedemonians their Pausanias, Lysander, and Agesilaus. The Thebans, Epaminondas, and Pelopidas. The Carthaginians cry up Hamilcar, Hannibal, and Asdrubal. The Romans do celebrate their Fa­bios, their Scipios, Lucullus, and Caesar for strenuous and incomparable Cap­taines. 'Tis true, they might be so, but they had to deal with soft effemi­nate people. But the Polonian Sigismund had to doe with the toughest, the most intrepid and fiercest Nations of the Earth, and a most favourable gale of fortune did blow upon him, throughout the whole Progresse of his life and actions. He tugg'd with Mechmet the Moscovian Emperor, whom Amurath the 3. acknowledg'd to be one of the greatest Warriers in the World, and got the better of him. He wrastled with the grim Tartars, with the furious Vala­chians, and layed them on their backs. He cop'd with the Great Turk (who glories in a perpetuity of Victorship) and foild him more then once. Nay, he had divers Praeliations with us Germans, and took from us the spacious Provinces of Livonia, and Prussia, which, not without a foule blemish to Ger­many, he added to the Crown of Poland. And although the people of those Countries have often solicited our Diets, and put the German Emperors in mind of the avulsion, and losse of those Countries, yet we have thought it better to leave the quarrel alone, because there is nothing to be got by the Pole but knocks, for the Poleax is a terrible weapon. Now, touching the strength of the King of Poland; you know that for Cavalry, he is the potentest Prince of Europe. Thuanus the Frenchman confesseth that the King of Poland can bring to the field in Noble men and Gentry alone, which are bound to serve him so long time upon their own charge, above a hundred and fifty thousand men of all sorts of Arms. The name of Cosacks is formidable all the World over; And although they are cryed up to be freebooters, fighting onely for plunder, I will rectifie your opinion in that, by a late pregnant example in the Ivonic War: for having taken the General of the Enemie Prisoner, although there was offer'd 6. times his weight, twice in Gold, thrice in Silver, and once in Jewells, yet this would nothing at all move the valiant Cosacks.

Now, for the Nobility of Poland, it is numerous and antient, nay, there be good Authors affirm that the great families of Italy, the Ursins, the Colonni, the Ialians, the Gastaldi are originally of a Lituanian race. There are in Poland the Radivils, the Ostrogians, the Starasians, the Tarlons, the Herburtons, with 30. princely families more. All this considered, most noble Princes, Poland may well come in and stand in competition for the principality of Europe, but—verbum non amplius addam


Most judicious and Excellent President and Princes,

THE Oration that was pronounc'd before was too long and prolix, considering the poornesse and tenuity of the Sub­ject; but to me it was too brief and concise, considering the Eloquence and strength of the stile▪ I will not say it was like those ranting speeches that are usually made upon the Theaters of Italy, who use to make an Ox of a Bee, or a Mountain of a Mole-hil, when they speak in commendation of the vertue of their Balsams, to advance the vent of them. But I wonder what should come into the mind of the Noble Orator, before me to extoll Poland so hyperbolically; sure it was to trie what he could doe upon so bare and barren a Subject. As we reade that Archippus fell a praising the sha­dow of an Asse, and Passeratius the Asse himself; as Glaucus fell in praise of injustice, Polycrates and Isocrates of Busiris, H [...]ttenus of the Fever, or as Maro fell upon the praise of a Flea, Synesius of Baldnesse, Pickhennerus of the Gout, Libanius of an Ox, Diocles of a Rape, [...]ierius of Poetical poverty, Miran­dula of Barbarism, Salerius of Drunkennesse; Lucian of a Fly, Dion of a Parrat, Mayoragius of Dirt, or as Erasmus fell upon the praise of Folly, and Heinsius of a Louse, to make experiment of their inventions what they could say upon such small theames.

But to make Poland contest either with Germany, France, Spain, Italy, or Great Britain for superiority and worthynesse; were to make Vatinius and Cicero competitors for one preferment, or Arachne to contend with Pal­las, who was the best Spinstresse. Now, touching Poland, let the report of those French Gentlemen that attended the Duke of Aniou thither to be King, be heard, who questionlesse found the best things that Poland could afford. They at their return to France, put her forth in such illfavoured colours, that possibly could be. They said she was the proper seat, and perpetuall domicile of all barbarism and misery; Therefore it was superfluo [...]s labour for them to passe a decree, that no French should have a faculty granted him to purchase any Stable possession in Poland, for none of them was of so abject a mind or fortune, that would be Great Duke of Lituania. Let us take a survay of the fertillest piece of the Country, which is Podolia, and what is it but a harsh and a hard stony soyl, that a yoak of ten Oxen are required most commonly to plough up the Earth. Then the cold is there so violent, that water thrown but a yard or two high into a ba [...]on, will freeze in the air before it descends. But this extemity of cold hath been sometimes advantagious to the Country; for one year there [Page 7] r [...]sh'd in an Army of 70 thousand Turkes, but there hapned such a terrible frost upon a suddain, that 40. thousand of them starv'd for the rigor of the frost, and some of them were found wrap'd in Horses bellies; Which did strike such a Religion into the Mahumetan, that he thought the Pole and Russe were protected by Heaven.

Touching [...]amogitia, a large part of the Kingdom, it is such, that the very Nobles there dwell in Cottages; What shall we thinke then of the Common­nalty?

Touching the Vertues of the Pole, I will begin first with Religion, and where is she hous'd so poorly as in Poland? Where is she more mix'd with prophannesse? Near Vilna, one of their Capital Cities, the Mahumetan Tar­tar doth observe his rites. Nay between Lituania and Samogitia, there are ma­ny who attribute a divinity to a kind of Serpents, which in their language are call'd Givoijtos, they carry them home, and a certain time of the year they offer Sacrifices unto them, they provide them meat, and if those Penates or houshold Gods of theirs do not eat, it is an Omen of ill luck, and presageth calamities. Nay, (I will not tell so Princely an Auditory a falshood) in some places of Russia, Lituania and Samogitia, the Country people, towards the latter end of October, do provide Oblations and Holocausts for the De­vill. They use to meet in some Ba [...]n or Stable, and bring thither a Calf, a Hogge, a Cock and Hen, with other creatures to make an immolation of them, and when they are kill'd to that purpose, their Priest or Inchant or whispering out some words, doth strike the ground with his staffe, and cryes out, the whole brigade keeping tone with him in pronouncing these words. O God Zeimminick (for so they call the Devill) These things we offer unto thee, and render thee thanks, that thou hast vouchsafed to conserve us this year in safety and health. And now we pray thee be pleas'd to defend us for the future from Fire, Iron, the Pestilence, and from our Enemies. Then they take the flesh of those slain A­nimalls and eat them, throwing first into the four corners of the roome some morsells, and pronouncing these words, Haec O Zeimmenick nostra Holocausta suscipe, & comede benignus▪ O Zeimmenick accept of these our sacrifices, and eat favourably: Now I beseech you, how can we think that Christ can cohabit or be found with those infernall, and Reptill Gods? Moreover the Samogitians are so given to superstition, that whereas it was the old custom of that Coun­try to till the ground with wooden Ploughes, and Cul [...]ers, and that the Governor of one of their Provinces brought them the use of iron Plough­shares for the ease of the labourer, and that some years after by an unusuall distemper of the air, they had a dear year or two; They threw away their iron ploughshares, and fell to the old wooden ones again, attributing a kind of divinity unto them, and unluckinesse unto the other. Though the rest of the Polonique people be not infected with such grosse Idolatry, yet they are as grossly ignorant as any Christians on Earth can be. Few of them can say the Lords Prayer, or know what the ten commandements are, they leave that to their Landlords and Priests, it is enough for them to believe by an im­plicit faith in God Almighty, and his Son Iesus Christ, and the holy spirit; touching more knowledge, it belongs to Princes and Great men. Now for the Masse of common people; They are meer slaves unto the Gentry, and worse then the Peasants of France; a Landlord may come into any husband­mans house, attended with a hungry train of followers, and there do or take away what he will, without any controllment. Nor do the Country people refrain from their ordinary labour upon the Lords day, but they plough, and harrow, they digge and delve as upon other daies; hereupon a stranger asking one of them, why he laboured upon the Sunday? Because, said he, I must eat upon the Sunday. The Landlords there have not only a Despoticall, but Regal power over their Tenants, having power of life and death; which slavish custom, Vitoldo Duke of Lituania brought in among them, who was such a [Page 8] Tyrant, that if he bad any to go away and hang himself, the party must do it, or else he should be put to a worse kind of death. Murther is no capitall crime among them, but onely finable; if a Gentleman kills another Gentleman, he forfetis 30. Crownes; if a clown kill a Gentleman, he forfeits twice as much, and if a gentleman kill a yeoman, it is but 10. crownes amercement: But Si­gismund the first reform'd these lawes, and made the price of blood more pre­cious. That Sigismund could crack a horshoe with his hands, or tear a whole stock of cards to flitters, or heave up a reasonable horse in his armes. But it is a thing much to be deplor'd, that the people of Poland were divided to four parts, three parts of four are Arrians in the i [...]hearts, for that heresie reignes no where more in Europe; there are other among them, but this is the greatest: and can there be a greater heresie among Christians?

Now for Religion, and all kind of civilities, the Pole is oblig'd to the German, who was their first introducer and instructer; as is evident by those reliques of the German tongue, which are yet found among them, which the Slavonique did shoulder out. Now the Slavonique is the most spacious vulgar language upon Earth, it extends as far as Constantinople, one way, and Mosco another way; for above twenty severall Nations speak it for their Vernacular tongue.

Now touching the naturall disposition of the Pole, it is as savage and san­guinary as of any Nation. Among a cloud of horrid examples which could be produc'd, that of King Popiel the 2. is remarkable; Who finding himself to be illbeloved by his Subjects, and suspecting that his brothers and uncles did goe to undermine him, He counterfeited himself to be sick, and so sent for them as it were upon his death-bed to take his farewell of them, committing his wife and children to their care, and speaking unto them faintly and with much tenderness; he calls for a boul of wine to drink unto them, which he scarce touch'd with his lipps; but they pledging him freely, were all poyson'd, and died soon after. Hereupon the cunning Queen crying out that they had an in­tent to poyson the King her Husband, their bodies were depriv'd of Christian buriall, and thrown into the lake Goplus: but mark the judgements of Heaven. Out of the putrified bodies, there were such ratts engendred, more bigg then ordinary, that first devoured all Popiells children, and then his Queen, and lastly himself in Crusvicia Castle, in a most disastrous manner, to the astonish­ment of all mankind.

Moreover touching the perfidiousnesse of the Polish Nation; there be as ma­ny pregnant examples as can be produc'd among any people; but not to detain your ears long with such harsh notes, let this one serve. When Ladislaus, the Son and rightfull Heir of King Albertus was put by, and Uladislaus the 5. made King of Poland, God Allmighty having respect to the innocence of young Ladislaus, powr'd his judgement upon the Pole in the Varvensian Battaile, wherein besides the loss of many thousand soules, Christianity receiv'd the fowlest blemish that ever she did from her infancie to that day. For this usur­ping Uladislaus, having agreed upon Articles of peace with Sultan Amurath, and given him the holy host for caution in point of performance, The said Uladislaus breaking the Capitulations, caus'd Amurath to rush into Poland with a fearfull army, and as both were to close, the Turk drew out of his bo­some the host, and the Articles which Uladislaus had sworn unto, crying out, O thou Crucified, O thou crucified, look upon thy perfidious people who have pawn'd thee unto me, yet in a most scelestous and perjurious manner have infring'd their vow: if thou art some God, let perjury be vindicated. Hereupon there was a generall o­verthrow given to the Austrian Army, and Uladislaus himself slain; In so much that Poland grew so despicable, that scarce any would undertake the title of her King.

Touching the Cosacks which were so much applauded in the preceding O­ration. Truly, most noble Princes, let me tell you, that they are a race of [Page 9] people of the same trade the wild Arabs are of, who live by robberies and plunder; and I had almost said they are as wild as they, for they feede upon raw flesh, which they put sometimes upon their horses back under the sad­dle to warm a little, and so they devoure it. They are farre worse then the Mosstroupers of Scotland, the Tories of Ireland, the Frondeurs of France, or the Bandoleros of Spain, which lurk among the Pyrenean hills for rapine and spoil.

To draw to a conclusion, as the genius and naturall disposition of the Pole is rough, fierce and unpolish'd, so is their speech, which is a most abrupt and craggy kind of language, in so much that in some words you have ten conso­nants and but one vowell; the words of the Pole when he speakes high, are as so many stones thrown at a mans braines that heares him, they have such pene­netrating harsh sounds and accents. The teeth of a Wolf, dentes lupini, are the of Poland, I arms wil not say their nature doth sympathize with that rapacious beast, but me thinks the Latine tongue whereof they bragge so much in point of vulgarity, should sound but very harshly among such teeth.

For conclusion, I will relate unto you the character which one of Henry the thirds Secretaries, when he was then attending the King, gives of Poland and the people, which stands upon record in an Authentique peece of story. Quant a moy qui ne puis mentir je vous diray fort librement que je ne vis iamais un si mise­rable pays, [...]ant de pouvre Noblesse, touts brutals & sauuage, mais toutesfois si pleins d' arrogance qu' elle n'estime ancune Nation. Ces sont choses difficiles a repre­senter par escrit, & du tout impossibles a croire que par ceux qui les auroient veu­es. For my part, saith the French Secretary, who cannot lie, I will tell you freely that I never saw in the whole course of my life so miserable a Country; so indigent a Gentry, so brutish, and savage a Commonalty, but nevertheless so full of arrogance that they esteem no other Nation. These are things which are difficult to be represented by writing, and impossible to be believ'd but by them who have been Eyewitnesses hereof, as I have been too long.

Surely it must be imputed to this arrogant nature of theirs, that they think no man worthy to be their King by birth, but by Election. Nature is not wor­thy and wise enough to give them a King, but they must choose one them­selves. And it is observable that they are the only people among Mortals, who fetch their Kings from far, and admit Forreners to rule over them, and one reason may be, that they who are acquainted with the squalidness of the Country, will not take upon them such a spendid slavery. But the truth is, that Poland hath neither King nor Kingdom, but it is a kind of confus'd Oligarchycall kind of Government; which made the Lady Christina, Caesars Daughter, and Wife to Uladislaus the 5. so say, summum illud jus, & authorita­tem Monarchiae in Polonia esse vmbratilem. That the highest power and authori­ty of the Polish Monarchy is meerly umbraticall, 'tis but a shadow of a pow­er; for neither in the OEconomicall Government of his domestick family, nor in choosing himself a Wife, much lesse in the senate hath he any power of free will.

Therefore most excellent and judicious Princes, for to make Poland to have a precedence of the rest of the Provinces of Europe is the same, as when the Bramble, according to the holy text, was made the King of Trees.


THE ORATION OF Prince HENRY ALBERTUS Baron of LIMBURG &c. Hereditary Lord BUT­LER of the Sacred Roman Empire, and Allwaies free for HUNGARY.

Most Excellent President and Prince,

WHile we are in so serious a debate touching the King­domes of Europe, and which of them may deserve the principality; truly me thinks that we are ingratefull to Hungary, that we have deferr'd so long to speak of the stoutest people that march under the standard of the Crosse, and by whose valour the peace and incolumity of the Christian World hath hitherto stood. We should have been more mindfull of the memory of our Bene­factors. But as the Roman Respublique is oftentimes tax'd to have sinn'd a­gainst her best and most devoted Cittizens, as when Camillus was ostracis'd and banish'd, Scipio dismiss'd, Cicero after Catiline undervalued, Rutilius hurried o­ver to Smyrna, Cato was denied the Praetorship, Vatinius the basest of men being preferr'd before him; so truly it may be said that we have misdemean'd our selves towards Hungary. Now if Hungary could transplant her self hither before us, she would sharply rebuke us for this preterition and neglect; but because that cannot be, I will adventure to be Advocate for that most Noble Kingdom. But as in a vast Forrest full of Trees, one intending to fell down one for Timber, and building, but having such choise about him, is puzzled which to single out; so am I at a stand being entred into this large Forrest of matter, where or how to begin.

Will an inestimable treasure of all Wealth delight you? I pray where hath nature endeavoured with more industry to enrich a Country? If the amaenity of soyl, the marvellous clemencie of the air, the faecundity of ground can ennoble a Country, I pray hath not Hungary all these qualities? such is the fertility of fields there, that grain growes no where so kindly and copiously as there. There are such Vineyards up and down, that you will hardly find any where such generous and strong Wines. The Medows are there so luxuri­ous, that one Cart cannot see one another though at a small distance. For [Page 11] numerous heards of Cattle where can we find the like? How many thousand heads of fat cattell doe the Graziers fetch thence for the supply of all the neighbouring Provinces? Vienna her self, the Caesarean Court, spends above 80. thousand of them. Such is the felicity of Woods and Groves, that they are full of fruit trees as well as timber, as Chessnuts, Walnuts, Acrons, Plumms, and Apples; besides they abound with wild beasts, and Foul, as Boares, Hares, Phea­sans, Partridges, which is the familiar food of the Peasans.

For stately deep Rivers Europe hath not greater, and more commodious and navigable for commerce, and the easie conveyance of all necessaries to and fro. They are quickned with abundance of Fish, great and small; inso­much that the River Tibisco is said by a proverb of the circumiacent Inha­bitants to have two parts water, and the third fish, so that Wernherus▪ affirmes that 100. Carpes taken out Tibisco were sold for one Hungary ducket.

What shall I say of the Richnesse of Mines up and down, wherein there are precious ores of Gold and Silver, the purest that is in the World. In a mine of Dalmatia, which is no ignoble part of the Hungarian Empire, there have been digg'd out 500. pound of Gold in one day, out of a Mine in the Principality of Nero as they call it. There be some Rivers in Transyl [...]ania, wherein ingots of Gold have been found half a pound weight, as Bonfinius re­ports. There is a very credible report, that Sigismund Chanzares Bishop of the five Churches, was so rich in Gold, in the memory of man, that he could entertain an army upon his own pay. Hereupon when Albertus the Pole challeng'd the Kingdom of Hungaria from his brother Uladislaus, he us'd to heighten the courage of his souldiers by puting them in mind of the exu­berant riches of the Country, saying, Hanc esse Illam Regionem quam mediam Danubius tot fluviorum consiuxu incolis percommodus intersecat, & quae universi paenè orbis faelicitatem complectitur. Hanc esse Illam optimdrum for acissimam fructuum, vinetis specio fissimam, equis & caeteris animalibus aff [...]im abuudant [...]m; Auri atque argenti, multorumque praeterea metallorum ditissimam, [...] [...] [...] ribns quae non modo ad vitae usum spectant, sed & luxum possit ministrare, instruct­issimam. This was that Region which the Danube with the conflux of other Rivers doth cut up and down with many intersections, a Country which hath the [...]aelicity of the Universe. This is she that abounds with such variety of fruit, with fair Vineyards, with plenty of generous Horses, and other animalls of all kind. She is enrich'd with Mines of Gold and Silver, with many other sorts of mettalls. In sum, this is that Kingdome which is furnished with all things that appertain to humane life, either for use or pleasure. Yet Hungary doth not measure these splendid gifts of nature according to the common o­pinion and wish of man, but she proportions them according to the necessity and use. And the Inhabitants must labour for them accordingly▪ Without doubt industry is a high and indefatigable vertue; idlenesse and voluptuous­nesse is a servile, slothfull, weak and degenerous thing, her station is com­monly in stoves and taphouses, in baths, and hot▪houses, or such places; When we find the other in the field, in the Market, in the Mines, or standing in defence of a Town with hard callous hands. If Vertue and industry can be found no where else, you are sure to find them embracing each other in Panno­nia, now Hungary. What brave masculine births hath she produc'd, what grave and learned Doctors for the Church, as the most eminent B. Martin a pious Bishop, a pure Apostolicall man. Then she had Saint Hierom, who for his sanctity and learning is reckon'd, and with good reason, among the holy Confessors and Doctors of the Church. Then you have Andrew [...] an admired student of Ciceronian Eloquence, who writ thrice with his own hand all Cicero's works that are instant. But at last leaving the Papaci [...], the miter, the sublime honors of the Court, and all worldly Pomp, he be took himself to a private contemplative life, and to his devotions.

If I should stuff my speech with all those rare and holy men which Hungary [Page 12] hath produc'd, it may be the Catalogue would be so large as that of Germany, or France. Some of them have deserv'd so well of the Common-Wealth of learning, that they have been greater Benefactors then some Kings or Princes. Among other Ioānes Sambucus a Doctor of Physick by profession, was so diligent in the collection of the best Authors, that his Library might be compared to any one private man's in Europe; which Nonnus and Hesychius doe testifie at large. We are going now to make inspection into the heroique vertue of the Hungarians, in point of Valour and Courage. And first we could nominate eight Emperors, which under a benign and happy star were born in Hunga­ry. In the Emperor Decius, his vertues kept touch with his age, and grew up together. He came to the Caesarian dignity, neither by ambition, by bought suffrages, nor canvasing and corrupting of friends; but as his Election was fair, so his Government was so exemplary and glorious, that he was adjudg'd to deserve the character of Optimus Princeps by the unanimous judgement of the Senate; had he not been given so much to Pagan superstition, and op­press'd Christianity by such cruentous persecutions. Aurelianus is cryed up to have kept the whole Roman Empire three years without the least invasion, or noise of Warre; he augmented the bounds of it, and enhanc'd the glory of it all his life time; but he was tainted with the same stain as Decius was. He was of a tall stature, but of a sinewy constitution, and robust; In so much that it is recorded how in the Sarmatian War he slew with his own hand 48 in one day, but in all above 950. In so much that children and boyes us'd to sing up and down the streets on festivall daies. Mille, mille, mille, mille, mille, mille decollavimus, unus homo, mille, mille, mille, mille, mille, decollavimus, mille, mille vivat, qui mille, mille occidit: What shall I say of Probus the Emperor, who for his meer vertue and valor was hois'd up to the transcendent dignity of an Emperor, though descended of very mean Parents, of a Gardiner; his name suted with his nature, for he was a man of punctuall probity. He trounc'd the Pole, he extinguish'd Tyrants, he pacified the VVorld, in so much that VVarres being ceas'd all the World over by Land and Sea, it was said, Milites minimè fore necessarios, cùm desint hostes, Soul­diers were superfluous when there were no Enemies. Dioclesian was also an Hungarian, a Prince of a notable spirit, who would have antecell'd all the rest, had not the tenth persecution happen'd in his raign. For there were nine before under Nero, Domitian, Tra [...]an, Marcus, Severus, Maximus, Decius, Valerianus, Aurelianus, but that of Dioelesian was the bloudiest of all. Iovianus Augustus was also a child of Hungary, who being chosen Emperor, refus'd it, saying, that he would not rule Pagans. hereupon the soldiers with a loud voice said they were Christians. Valentinianus and Valens were Hun­garians, and his Son Gratian, all Emperors, who did more exploits,

—quam quae comprendere dictis
In promptu mihi sit—

After this there rush'd into Hungary many rough septentrionall people in swarms, as Vandales, Goths, Hunns, Ostrogoths, and Longobards, at which time Pannonia came to be call'd Hungary, and those stout Nations did incorpo­rate and mix with the Hungarians. Attila struck in like a thunderbolt and brought hither the Empire; at which time Hungary had Greece and Italy in Vassalage, and Stipendiary. She did persecute the Gauls with devastations and [...]yrings; She brought Germany after many changes of VVar to be tributary unto her; and to pay this tribute, Germany was constrain'd to make use of, and melt her Church plate, and that of Monasteries. And there was no people on Earth so formidable as the Hungarian. For their Empire did extend then from Austria to Constantinople, and the Pontique Sea, and from Poland to the Adriatique another way: in which compasse of Earth there were 7. spacious Kingdoms, subject to Hungary; In so much that the King began to be call'd Archirix.

[Page 13]But what shall I say of Stephanus Sanctus, who would never attempt any▪ act in Warre or Peace, but he would offer up some extraordinary sacrifice to Heaven. What shall I say of Andrea the 2. who was so happy in the Educa­tion of his Children, that his Daughter Elizabeth being married to the Lan­grave of Hessen, for her austere and abstemious holy course of life, was enroll'd in the Calender of Saints? What shall I say of Ladislaus the first, who quell'd the Pole, brought down the Swisses courage, while he was upon an expedition against the Sarracens, by conjunction with other Princes, pai'd nature the last debt, and so died in the fulnesse of glory▪ and the magnitude of his great ex­ploits; a man, besides valour, for integrity of life, and innocence incompara­ble. What shall I say of the Geisis, of the Belis, of Emericus, of the many of the name of Charles and Lewis, of Sigismund, Albert, and Uladislaus, and of other most gallant Kings full of prowesse and piety; VVith what Praeconiums shall I blazon the praise of Matthias the first? ô what a Heroe was that Matthias, he that was a terror to the East and West. He that was Son to Huniades, who was so great an Artist in policy, and a well temperd Government? He never em­barqu'd himself in any businesse but he arriv'd at his wished Port; he never at­tempted any businesse though never so arduous, but he compas'd it, being most constant and thorough in all his resolutions, and in the prosecution of them; who had such a dextrous and moving way to incite his souldiers, that he made hope of Victory to serve for pay. The Emperor Maximilian the first, when he took the City Alba, when he triumphantly entred the City, the first thing he enquired after was Saint Maries Church, where the body of Sanctus Ste­phanus was interr'd; but spying the Armes and Ensignes of Matthias Corvinus, being neerly fix'd and pendant upon the walls with this Inscription, Sub mar­more hoc Matthias situs est, quem facta Deum ostendunt, Fata fuisse hominem: Here lieth Matthias under this Marble, whom his feats shewed to be a God, but his fate a man, having I say spied and read this, he burst into teares, so highly did Maximilian esteem Matthias; and indeed the perfections and prosperity of such a man, whom would it not ravish? For Matthias in his time was the on­ly man who was said to bear armes. He subdued the Bohemians, he orecame the Valachians, he afflicted the Pole, he tam'd the Rebells of Hungary, he re­duc'd Austria under his Dominion, he extended the limits of his Possessions to the shores of the Adriatique Sea; he rais'd the seige of Otranto; He dissipated in­numerable swarmes of Turkes, and so abated the spirit of the great Sultan Mahomet, who in 32. years had acquir'd two Empires, had got 12. Kingdoms, and taken 200. Cities; I say he so handled this Mahomet, that he and Bajazet his Sonne desir'd peace. Besides, this Sultan Mahomet when he gloried of him­self that he had conquer'd and quell'd all the Kings round about him, he used to except alwaies King Matthias, who was call'd by him strenuus Princeps, the strenuous Prince.

But that which adds much to the renown of this notable King, was that he joyn'd Arts with Armes, that he contracted a kind of Matrimony twixt Mars and the Muses; to whom he was much devoted in his private retirements. At dinner and supper he had alwaies some book or other read unto him, or some Doctors discoursing by learned altercations: He would alwaies say that 'twas impossible for any to be a Generall, and to deserve the name of a great Cap­tain, unlesse he were vers'd in the institution of Warre among our Ancestors, and observ'd their discipline of Warre and Stratagems. He made Buda the Domicile and rendevous of all kind of Vertue and Knowledge; For he was very liberall and munificent to all learned men as well as Military, and his reign florished with both. Earl Emericus was another Ulisses, his brother Stephen an Agamemnon, Paul Cinisius another Aiax, Micolas Cyupor a Diome­des, Michael Palatine a Nestor, Blasius Magerus (who was of [...]o robust a con­stitution, that he lift up a but of wine which three horses could hardly draw) [Page 14] was another Hercules, and King Matthias himself was a true Achilles. In his happy reign, Hungary was no other then an Academy of brave men in all faculties. He boar up most magnanimously against the whole power of the Ottoman Empire, who denounced Warre so often against him; That fresh Em­pire which florisheth with such incredible Wealth, most spacious and variety of Dominions, with such veteran Captains and exact discipline and exercised souldiery; flesh'd so often with blood and a continuall course of conquering, having their courage elevated with the conceit of the puissance and large ter­ritories of their Emperor, with divers other advantages which the soft. Euro­paean Princes have not, among whom either want of mony, the mutining of souldiers, the covetousnesse of Commanders, the carriage of so much lug­gage and amunition for the mouth, the luxury, and excesses of the common souldier is so frequent. In so much that as an Italian Author hath it, it is a harder matter to take the smallest cottage from the Turke, then it were to take Calais or Bayon from the French. Hungary is the greatest rampart of Christen­dome against that Gigantique Enemy, who magnifieth and esteems the Hunga­rian, and slightes all other Europaeans, confessing that when he comes to the field against them, he is sure to meet with men. Nay the women of Hungary have such masculine spirits, that it is admirable. Among many other instances which might be made, I will produce a late one. When Mahomet had closely begirt Agria by a pertinacious siege, and that the Praesidiaries being summon'd to make a rendition of the place upon very fair termes; for answer they set up a Mortuary with a death's head upon it on the top of one of their turrets, prefer­ring death before a dedition. Hereupon the next day he made a furious storm, and brought his scaling ladders round about the walls, but he was notably re­puls'd twice by the Inhabitants. Wherein the virility and valour of the wo­men was much seen, whereof one having her husband kill'd before her face, her mother being by, the mother said that she should have a care of her Hus­bands body to give him buriall. God forbid, O mother, that my husband should go unreveng'd to his grave, pugnas hoc tempus, non exequias poscit, this is a time of fighting not burying, and so taking up her husbands sword and tar­get, she rush'd in among the throng of the Enemies, and never left till she had kill'd three Turks with her own hands, as they were scaling a wall, and so offer'd them for a Victime to her spouse, to whom she afterward gave the rites of buriall. Another following her Mother, who carried upon her head a great stone to throw down upon the scaling Enemy, and being shot by a bullet and kill'd; the daughter takes up the same stone and went furiously to the walls, where she made so happy a throw, that she knock'd down dead two huge Turks as they were climing up a ladder. This female courage did much heighten the spirits of the men, who behav'd themselves so manfully, that the gran Signior was constrain'd to raise his seige most ingloriously, and so trusse up his bagage and be gone. Bonfinius hath another story of a valiant Hungari­an, who at the seige of Iayza, clim'd up a Turret where the Turk had set up his colours, which he pull'd down, and fell down with the colours, and so sa­crific'd his life. What shall I say of the portentous courage of Nicolas Iurischy­zius who kept Gunzium a small City against Solyman, maugre his Army of 300. thousand men. What stupendous exploits did Nicolas Serinius perform [...] at the siege of Ligeth, who being encompas'd on al sides, with fire, famine, & thirst, with the howling and screeching of women and children, Thuanus reports, he caus'd a gate to be open'd, and having a select company of Adventurers with him, they rush'd into the midst of the Enemy, to the amazement of the whole army, where some of them lost their lives so happily, that they rais'd the siege: But Serinius like the Salamander went through and through the fire without being burnt. Necessity is vertues occasion, and it is the property of a man truly valiant to make use of it, and turn it to vertue. Now vertue hath many [Page 15] waies to try the valour of her children. She tries the courage of Regu­lus by fire, of Rutilius by banishment, of Socrates by poyson, of Cato by his self-necion; And of the Hungarians by these and many other waies: Thus she tryed Serinius, Iurischyzius, Georgius Thurius, and Nadastus, who have got themselves high seates in the Temple of immortality.

It is Hungary that is the Antemurale, the true Propugnacle of all Europe, a­gainst that prodigious huge Tyrant the Musulmans Emperor. The Germans grow rich by the Hungarian armes, the Italians live by their Funeralls, the French sleep quietly by their Calamities, the Spaniard is at leisure to Warre else where by their Perills, the English and Dutch made the more safe for their Power, The Pole followes his spotes by their labour. And Christians in generall live securely through their perpetual and contiguous dangers. So that Noble Hungary is not onely the inexpugnable rampart, but the buckler of Christendom.

Therefore, most Noble Princes, the Hungarians without much propha­nesse may be call'd the Patrons and Tutelar Angells of Europe. Therefore the Pole, when the French Henry had stole away from them, made no ill choice when they reflected upon Stephen Bartorius to be their King. What an he­roique Expedition did he engage himself in against the Moscovite; what an immense tract of ground was he to traverse, what thick endlesse woods, what huge Rivers, what fenns and loughs with other horrid uncouth places was he to meet withal! The Turks expeditions to Persia, the Spaniards to the Indies, the expeditions which were made in former ages to the holy Land, come short of this difficult march which Bartorius made. But what did he doe by this tedious and venturous march? when he had gone from Bo­risthenes to Cerinova, from Staricia, and Novogard, as farre as the lake Lohod; depopulating all before him, and taking all the youth of the Country Cap­tives, he constrain'd the Sudari the Emperor of Mosco, to refrain from all na­vigation in the Boristhenes, and all the Ports of the Baltique Sea, and confin'd him to the interior Russia, that he should wander no further. This Bartorius extended his arme from the Danube, the Titisco, the Dravo, and the River Marossa to the furthest parts of the Northern World. When the Turk besieg'd Plescovia, there came an Ambassador from him into Bartorius his Army, where they were put in battalion. The Ambassador beholding the counte­nances of the men, their postures, and regular discipline, with the splendor of their armes, and richnesse thereof, together with their horses and Canons, he fel into a kind of astonishment, breaking out into these passionate words, Fa­ceret Deus ut isti Principes—would God were pleas'd that these Princes, meaning his Master the Great Turk, Amurath the 3d. and King Stephen Bar­torius were conjoin'd in a league, and they might subdue all the World. I will conclude with a brave Character that Vanotius gave of Stephen Bartorius.

Bartorius erat
In Templo plus quàm sacerdos,
In Republica plus quàm Rex,
In Tribunali plus quàm Senator,
In Iudicio plus quàm Iurisconsultus,
In exercitu plus quàm Imperator,
In acie plus quàm miles,
In adversis perferendis injuriisq, condonandis plus quàm Vir,
In public a libertate tuenda plus quàm Civis,
In amicitia colenda plus quàm amicus,
In convictu plus quàm familiaris,
[Page 16]In Venatione, ferisque domandis plus quàm Leo,
In tota reliqua vitâ plus quàm homo.
Bartorius was
In the Temple more then a Priest,
In the Common-wealth more then a King,
In point of Judgement more then a Lawyer,
In the Army more then an Emperor,
In the field more then a souldier,
In suffring adversities and more then man,
In pardoning of injuries more then man,
In preserving the Publique liberty more then a Patriot,
In all Offices of friendship more then a friend,
In his conversation more then familiar,
In hunting and taming wild beasts more then a Lion,
In all the rest of his life more then a Philosopher.

All these things impartially consider'd and well ponder'd, I do not see, un­der correction of the judgement of this most sage Assembly, but Hungary may stand in competition for preheminence with divers other Provinces of Europe.


Most Illustrious, and Highborn Princes,

THE Noble Henricus Albertus, Baron of Limburg, hath detained your attentions a good while in setting forth the praises of Hungary, and so to make her capable of the principality of Europe; but therein he hath labour'd to put a Giants head upon a Pygimes shoulders, or Hercules Buskins upon a Childs leggs. For, as by unanswerable ar­guments I shall endeavour to prove, she hath no reason in the World to aim at such a Prerogative.

For the Kingdom of Hungary, although it enjoy a fat and fertile soil, and almost every where Productive, yet by the fury of Mars, and neighbourhood of the common Enemy, her agriculture and Mines have extremely suffer'd for many Ages. Besides, her air is found unwholsom, and disagreeable to all strangers, for the grossnesse of it in some seasons, and the tenuity of it in others. Therefore they cannot continue in one place above a month without danger, least the languor Hungaricus, the Hungarian faint­nesse seize upon them; which is prevented by frequent remove of stations; that disease of the Hungarian languor or lithernes, having begun in the army at Co­morra, dispers'd it self to Iavarin, and so the contagion did expand it selfe a­mong the Germans, Bohemians, Belgians, French, and Italians, where it ex­tremely raged for a while. And as at Buda (then which besides Possonium there is scarce a City worthy the view of a stranger in all the Kingdom) there be some sulphureous Waters of such an intense heat, that will singe hoggs if they be thrown into them, yet there are peculiar sorts of fish that are there generated, with certain kinds of froggs, but if you throw other Rivers fish or froggs into them, they presently die and turn up their bellies. So the air of Hungary agrees by decree of nature with the inhabitants themselves, but it is averse, pestilentiall and intollerable to other people. What shall I say of those kinds of lice, which are the ofspring of the Hungarian air, which much infest all people? for it is found there by experience, that if one take a Nap­kin and wash it there in pond water, and expos'd to drying in the Sun, it will be presently full of Vermine. Nay, if one sweat never so little, the moisture of his body will turn to lice by the pravity of the Hungarian air. Adde here­unto, that besides the Malignity of the air, the waters are also there of an ill quality both Fountaines and Rivers, all for the most part except the Danube, [Page 18] whose streames are wholsom and potable: The River Rabniza which ming­leth with the Danube about Iavarin, runns with such unwholsome waters, that the fish and crabbs which are caught there do cast an ill sent, yea, after they are boyl'd. But as Parents, if they have a child either crump-shoulderd, hopperhipp'd, bleareyd, or mark'd with any other deformity, do make her a compensation for it in an extraordinary Dowry, which is able to make a sow appear like Susanna; So Nature and Fortune have made Hungary some a­mends for these her imperfections, and furnished her with patches to put up­on her Moles.

Now touching the Inhabitants of Hungary, I pray be pleas'd to hear what Otto a grave Bishop of Frisinghen saith of them. Hungari sunt facie tetri, pro­fundis oculis, statura humiles, moribus & linguâ barbari & feroces, ut jure fortu­na culpanda, vel potius divina patientia sit admiranda, quae ne dicam hominibus, sed talibus hominum monstris tam delectabilem exposuit terram. The Hungarians saith the Bishop (and Bishops should not lie) are commonly of a tetrique countenance, hollow eyd, low statur'd, barbarous and fierce in their behavi­our and speech; That either Fortune may be justly blam'd, or the Divine pro­vidence admir'd, that such a delightfull Country should be expos'd to such men, or rather Monsters of men. The Hunns, which are birds of a feather with the Hungarians, if antient writers may be believ'd, had their Originall from a sort of Demons. For, as not only tradition, but the story goes, Filimer King of the Goths having in his army a huge vast-bodied woman which was accus'd of impudicity; he banish'd her to a Wilderness beyond the Maeotis, where meeting with Satyres and Demons, she coupled with them and brought forth a nume­rous issue, which were afterwards call'd Hunns. But certain it is that both Hunns and Hungarians came at first from the extremest parts of the North, out of a Province call'd Iuharia, or Iurha, which were subject to the Moscovite; who in quest of a hotter clime came as farre as the banks of the Danube, to that part of the Continent now call'd Ungaria, which took its name from Iuharia; for in that Province of Iuharia, they speak to this day the same lan­guage as the Hungars do: of these Iuharians Claudian speakes.

—quo non deformius ullum
Arctos alit, turpes habitus, obscaena (que) visu

Marcellinus calls them Bipedes bestias, vel quales in commarginandis pontibus effigiati stipites dolantur incompti in hominum figuras; They are two footed beasts, or rough-hewn trunks effigiated in the form of men, which use to stand upon the margen of bridges.

Now their Intellectualls are as ugly as their bodies. There were never be­fore nor after such Martins, and such Hieroms, as Hungary had the happe once to produce, which were two columns of Christianity. What a bloody tyrant of Christians was that Decius you extoll so highly? what a fierce Perse­cutor was Dioclesian? Valentinianus though a Christian was a Tyrant, and Va­lens an Arrian. But Attila you say was that unparalleld Heroe, yet I pray hear what Lucan speakes of him.

Terrarum fatale malum, & sydus iniquum

That Attila was a prodigious Blasphemer; he was us'd to belch out that, as Olaus hath it, he would make stellas prae se cadere, terras tremere; the starrs to fall before him, and the Earth to tremble. In his Publique diplomas, and warrants he stil'd himself to be Attila filius Beneduci, Nepos magni Nemroth, nutritus in Engaddi, Dei gratia Rex Hunnorum, Medorum, Gothorum, Dacorum, flagellum Dei, metus & malleus Orbis. Attila the Son of Beneduc, Nephew to great Nemroth, nurs'd in Engaddi, by the grace of God King of the Hunns, [Page 19] Medes, Gothes, Dacians, the scourge of God, the terror and hammer of the World. He had an Army of 700▪ thousand men, yet fearing to be taken once, by Aëtius the Roman Generall, he had caus'd many saddles to be put in a place, that if need were, a fire might be made of them to burn him: but it pleas'd God to throw away this iron rodd in the height of his pride; for being to be married to the daughter of the King of the Bactrians, this bloody Tyrant was choak'd in his bed the night before by a sudden flux of blood.

You well know, my Noble Princes, how these Hungarians were for many ages like Goads in our Ancestors sides; how prone they have alwaies been to rush into Germany to breath better air; but stories tell how magnanimously our Emperors have repell'd and routed them. Among others, how did Hen­ricus Auceps, and Otto the great trounce them? They grew so insolent as to demand tribute of the Emperor, who in disdain of them, sent them a lame old scabby dogg; whereupon they came into the field with a formidable Ar­my, but Heaven was so auspicious to Henricus Auceps, that he utterly dis­comfited them with the death of 150. thousand, and 50. thousand taken pri­soners; yet they made head again, and invaded the confines of Germany by the incitement of Horoldus Bishop of Salisburg, with such a numerous Army, that they vapour'd in these words, nisi Caelum cadens nos obruat, aut Terra de­hiscens nos absorbeat, nulla vis humana tanta erit quae vel aspectum nostrum susti­nere possit: Unlesse the Heaven fall down and overwhelm us, or the Earth gape and swallow us, there is no humane power never so great dare look us in the face. But Otto the Great pricked the Tympany of their pride, utterly o­verthrew them, took their King Bultzko prisoner, with their 4. chief Gene­rals, Lelius, Sura, Toxus and Schaba. This Signall and mighty victory did so abate their spirits, that they could never since be elevated to that height a­gainst Germany; but that which confounded them most, was, that their But sco should be hang'd before that Gate in Ratisbone which looks towards Hungary. There is a proverb that Hungarus multum lupi in se habet, The Hungarian hath much of the Wolf in him: this alludes to his immanity, fiercnesse and cruel­ty. Therefore one gave Uladislaus this advice, as Bonfinius hath it; Hungaros non clementia & impunitate, sed ferrea virga continendos esse, The Hungarian was to be kept in aw, not by mildnesse and impunity, but with an Iron rodd. Much more might be spoken of the odd humors of the Hungarians, but I will here cut off the thred of my discourse, for feare I should abuse the ears of so gentle an Auditory with such abrupt matter. And, most Noble Baron of Lim­burg, this presumption of Hungary in demanding the precedence of other Kingdoms, is like that of Weiderad the Abbot of Fuldo, when in a Diet at Mentz, he demanded Priority of the Archbishop of Colen, who answered, sure this Imperiall Councell will not think it fitting, that an Archbishop should give the place to an Abbot, nor a Prince Elector to a Monk.


Most Illustrious, and nobly extracted Princes,

IT is recorded of the Macedonian Alexander, that when he fell a reading those verses of Homer, wherein the Vali­ant Hector challeng'd any of the nine greatest Captaines of Greece to combat, and that the army thereupon put­ting it to a sortilegious chance or lot, with trembling vows, so Iupiter wish'd that he might be Aiax, or Agamem­non; Alexander broak out into a sudden passion and said, Occiderem qui me Tertium nominasset: I would kill him who should name me the third, intimating thereby that he scorn'd to be the third in chief among nine, though thereby he might have more under him then above him. But, most excellent Princes, put case any were at Rome, and in the presence of Caesar or Pompey should offer to range Italy in the third place among the Provinces of Europe, I believe an ordinary death should not serve his turn, or such as Alexander threatned, but he should be presently snatched to the Gemonian scales, hurld into Tyber, or praecipitated down the Tarpeian Rock.

For indeed Italy, fair Italy is the most precious gemme of Europe, and o­ther Provinces are but Bristoll stones in comparison. I will begin with that Character which Pliny gives of her, who is acknowledg'd to be one of Na­tures chiefest Notaries. Italia omnium rerum alumna, eadem & parens, numine Di­vum electa, quae caelum ipsum clarius faceret, sparsa congregaret imperia, ritus (que) molliret, & tot populorum discordes ferasque linguas sermonis commercio contra­heret ad colloquia, & humanitatem homini daret, breviter (que) una cunctarum Gen­tium in toto or be patria fieret. Italy is the nurse and Parent of all things, she is the Elect of the Gods, as she who should make the Heavens more clear, who should congregate scatter'd Empires, and mollifie their customes: 'tis she that's cut out by nature, to draw unto her by sweet comerce of language the most discordant and fiercest people, yea, to give humanity to man. And lastly, 'tis she who is fittest to be the common Country of all Nations. Therefore I can­not choose but wonder, and not injustly, that she should be pretermitted all this while in so Judicious an assembly; but the same fortune befalls Italy here, as doth commonly fall upon the most precious jewells expos'd in some Cabinet to be sold, where the richest are shewn last: For if the praises of Italy had been first dilated, the elogiums of all other Countries had prov'd insipid and tedious. Now as the glorious Sun, when he culminates and toucheth [Page 21] the Meridian Circle doth cast a lesser shadow, then when he declines towards our horizon Westward; so the perfections of Italy which are so high, that they may be said to be in the Zenith, and the Verticall point over all other Nati­ons. If I should undertake to speake of them, and draw them down to the horizon of humane understanding, I should shadow and obscure them the more. There is in Italy such an harmonious concent of all creatures, that the E­lements can afford, and those in such a perfection, that as Pliny saith again, quicquid est quo carere vita non debeat nusquam est praestantius. Whatsoever is, that life ought not to want, is no where more excelling. The terroir or soil is gentle, copious and cheerfull, it returnes more profit to the husbandman then he sometimes expects, being at no great charge of culture, for the land doth not struggle there with her Lord, but is gentle and complying with his desires. The Italian Wheat for whitenesse and weight is distinguish'd from a­ny other Countries; the Boetian is next, then Sicily, and the African Wheat is the fourth in goodnesse. Here I pray what an Emperor (Constanstin Paleolo­gus) speakes of her, Nisi scirem a sanctissimis viris in Oriente Paradisum esse▪ meo judicio non alibi posse reperiri quam in persuavi Patavina amaenitate. If I did not know▪ saith the Emperor, by the affirmation of most Holy men, that Para­dise were Eastward, it could be found no where else but in the most sweet amae­nities of Padua; whence sprung the proverb, Bologna la grassa, Padoua la passa. There be some soyles in Italy that afford four lattermaths of Hay & grass; there are Cheeses made there in many places of a hundred poundweight. Nor doth Italy feed the eye onely as you passe with delectable prospects farre and near, but it feeds the smelling also with the most aromatical odors of her fruit, wit­ness Apulia with many other places, which would make you think you passe through the Elysian fields as you journey along her territories. For Vineyards, she may be call'd Bacchus his Inner Cellar, where the most generous & sweetest Wines are kept. And whereas Pliny, who had survaid so much of the Earth, doth enumerate fourscore kinds of Wines, the one half of them may be ap­propriated to Italy. Who hath not heard of the Greek Wine that growes hard by Naples, on that part of ground were the fierie Mountain Vesuvius is super­incumbent? the Set in Wine which Augustus Caesar preferr'd before all others; the Caecubum and Falernian Wine, the Albanian, the Surrentin, the Massican, the Statan, the Calen [...], Fundani and Veliternian Wines, with the Rhetican which growes near Verona, and is of a royall tast, which Theodoric King of the Ostro­goths, while he did signorize over Italy, caus'd to be brought to Rome for his own palate; the Ligustic and Tabian Wine, and lastly the Wine about Mon­te Fiascone call'd Lachrymae Christi, the tears of Christ, for the suavity thereof, which when one of our Countrymen had tasted, he fetch'd a sigh saying, O Domine, quare non lachrymâsti in nostris Terris? O Lord why didst thou not shed some teares in our Country? At Papia there grow most fragrant Grapes which perfume one's mouth as he eates them. The licor of these grapes is better then any Hellebor against melancholy, it expells corroding cares, and wonderfully elevates the languishing spirits. It is recorded that the Famous Boetius Severinus, a Patrician of Rome being in Prison, and but half alive, the sence of his Captivity having sunk so deep into him, was so reviv'd by this Wine [...] that it begat new spirits in him. O faelicia vina quae labantem m [...]rore animum, curisque depressum modico haustu erigunt, firmantque nutantem. O hap­py Wines which elevate the mind depress'd with cares, and crestfaln with grief, bearing it up from going down, though he drink but a modicum of it. Hereupon his strength and spirits being restor'd and instaurated by this Wine, he fell to write his book de Consolatione: Who doubts but Oenotria re­ceiv'd her old denomination for the goodnesse of the Wine that is gathered there.

Italy also excells for rare large cattle, whence she haply may receive her name from [...], which is a Calf. The fame of the Neapolitan Coursier runs [Page 22] all the World over. And for heards of sheep she hath had alwaies great num­bers, according to Martial.

Velleribus primis Appulia, Parma secundis
Nobilis, Altinum tertia laudat Ovis.

Apulia hath the first fleeces, Parma the second, and Altinum the third. For Volatills and Aquatique creatures, Italy also abounds with variety. For all sorts of metalls Italy also vailes to no Country; there is a Mine of Quicksilver hard by the River Hydra. For Allum also in Toscany, and the territories of the Church there is great store, and it may be call'd now one of Romes Staple Commodities, whereof there are mighty proportions carried away; and to encourage the Merchant to come thither, the Pope hath long since publish'd a Manifesto, that if any shipp be taken by Pyrates, or cast away by storm being laden with Roman Allum, when he comes again he shall have it at halfe the rate he payed for it before; 'tis thought that France vents of this Commo­dity above a Million of Duckets every year. There is most excellent Salt made in Italy; she hath excellent Alablaster, and Marble. She hath Manna, which no Kingdome of Europe hath besides her. She hath store of Corral and Porphyrie, she hath Ophits, Agats, and Chalcedeny, shee hath the hard Azur, and the Lazul stones, the grain for Purple dies, with in­numerable other rich Commodities. O precious Italy, and among other ter­ritories of thine, O luxurious Campania? which Florus doth describe thus very elegantly. Omnium non modo Italia, sed toto terrarum orbe pulcherrima Campaniae plaga est, nihil mollius caelo, nihil uberius solo, bis floribus vernat, Ideo Liberi Cererisque certamen dicitur, nihil hospitalius mari. Heic illi nobiles portus, Caieta & Misenus, & tepentes fontibus Baiae, Lucrinus & Avernus quaedam maris ostia. Heic amicti vitibus montes Gaurus, Falernus, Massicus, & pulcherrimus omnium Vesuvius, Aetnaei ignis imitator. Campania is the most beautifull tract of Earth, not onely of Italy, but of all the World. Ther's nothing more gentle then her air, more luxuriant then her soyl. Bacchus and Ceres strive here for the mastery. There is no Sea so hospitable, here are the Noble Ports of Caieta, and Misenum, Lucrinus and Avernus are as two Gates to let in Neptune; here are Baths fedd with tepid Fountaines, here are hills clad with Vines, Gaurus, Falernus, Massicus, and the fairest of all Vesuvius, Aetna's Ape. Halicarnassaeus affirm'd in his time, that fruits are gathered there three seasons in the year; what a place of pleasure was Capua in Tiberius his time? what a Paradise is Naples at this time? Here Virgil melted away his time when he writ his Ge­orgiques. Horace, Livy, Statius, Pampinius, Claudian, Anneius Seneca, Agellius, Petrarca, Panormitanus, Laurentius Valla, Porcellius, Blondus, Facius with o­ther excellent writers. For the lustre and number of Nobility, there is not such a concourse upon Earth of Princes, Dukes, Marquises, and Counts. Who then, that hath the least ambition to vertue, but would be transported with a violent desire to visit Italy, who hath Cities that shine in her like so many constellations in the Firmament? Those of the first magnitude are Rome, holy and magnificent Rome, wise, rich and Lordly Venice, gentile, and odoriferous Naples, beautifull Florence, a City, as Charles the Emperor said, to be seen only on Festivall daies, Milan the spacious, Bolonia the fat, Fer­rara the civill, Padoua the strong, Bergamo the subtle, Genoa the proud, Verona the worthy, Brescia the fortified, Mantoua the glorious, Rimini the good, Siena the studious, Luca the industrious, Furli the wanton, Ravenna the mild, Capoua the amorous, Urbin the loyall, &c. with divers renouned Cities more that have their peculiar Epithets.

The Divine ingenie, and inventive brain of the Italian, is well known all the Earth over, for all Countries have reap'd the benefit thereof. There are not such Opificers and Artists in the World; if you respect Limmers, Archi­tects, Painters, Weavers, and such like; who are not only imitated, but ad­mir'd by the rest of the Europaeans. What a rare Chymicall invention was that [Page 23] of making Christall Glasses by the Venetian. What a happy, and infinitly pro­fitable invention was that of the Mariners compass, found out by the subtile reach of a Napolitan wit, that immortall Iohn Goia of Amalphi: What prodigi­ous fancies had Michael Angelo of Florence, and Raphael of Urbin. Now, as Biscopius a British Monk, made 5. Pilgrimages to Rome, and carried back to Great Britain in the year 703. the choicest Artificers of Italy, at which time one may say that that Iland was first civiliz'd, so to this day all other Coun­tries fetch their chiefest Artists from thence.

Moreover for all other Speculative and Theorical Knowledge, the Italian brain transcends all other in the study of the Sciences. Rome had but short skirts before litterature was introduc'd, which happen'd a little after the first Punique Warre, then she began to be another Athens. O immortall Gods, how did she expand her self afterwards, how violently did she thrive and augment her Dominions? what rare wits did she produce, as Ennius Rudinus, Accius Plautus, Lucretius, Catullus, Statius, Horatius, Persius, and Valerius Flac­cus, Iuvenal, Porpertius, Ovid, & Virgil; all heavenly Poets. For Prose, Porcius Cato Censorinus, Q. Claudius, Marcus Varro, who wrote more then others use to read, Salustius Crispus, Cornelius Nepos, Pompeius Trogus, Titus Livius, Caius Iulius Caesar, Velleius Paterculus, Cornelius Tacitus, Valerius Maximus, Suetonius, Plinie, Natures Bibliothecary. What accurate rules of historizing are given us by Ar­chytas, Aristoxenus, Luritus, Nicomachus, all Tarentines. Alchmen, and Philo­laus, Crotonians, Vitruvius of Verona; The Mysteries of Greek Philosophy were open'd to us by Papirius, and Sempronius. For the Pandects of the Law we are beholden to Papinianus, Paulus, and Ulpian. What shall I say of those Hero's of Eloquence, Cornelius Cethegus, Appius Caecus, Q. Metellus, C. Laelius, P. Afri­canus, Ser. Galba, Aemilius Lepidus, C. Gracchus, Q. Catulus, Herennius, Ti­tius, and the great Standardbearer of Orators, of Tullius Cicero. What were found single in all the other, met all in him together. His Orations had the gravity of Cato, the lenity of Laelius, he had neither the boysterousnesse of Grac­chus, nor the heat of Caesar, nor the confus'd distributions of Hortensius, nor the sophisms of Calvus, nor the niggardnesse of Salust. There could nothing imaginable be either added, spar'd or alter'd in his Orations. And what a powerfull stroak did the Ciceronian Eloquence carry with it against Catiline? what a virtue it had to preserve Rome? Romulus did not so great an act to build Rome, as Cicero did to defend it. It was a great trophy that Scipio carried away from Hannibal, Fabricius from Pyrrhus, the other Scipio from Antio­chus, Crassus from Spartacus, Pompey from Sertorius and Mithridates, but it was a more wholsome Victory for Rome which Cicero had of Catiline.

But after these glorious Lamps of learning, there happen'd afterward dark times, by the irruption of many barbarous Nations into Italy, who ravish'd Rome so often, overwhelm'd all Italy with ignorance. But Urban the 4. re­vok'd the Muses from Banishment, and learning began to flourish again. He sent for Thomas Aquinas to Rome, who had been a scholler to Albertus Mag­nus. This Aquinas was a man of extraordinary intellectualls, so that he grew more illustrious for his learning, then for his birth, though he descended from the antient Counts of Apulia: The old Academy of Rome was then re­established by new instaurations. After Urban, Clement the 5. in the Councell of Vienna made a Decree, that at Rome, or wheresoever the Pontifical Court should reside, the Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Arabic should be read by publique Professors. Then in Nicolas the 5. time choice Agents were sent all Europe over to fish for old Authors, to which end he gave them golden hooks, and large allowance. He offer'd 5000. Duckets to him who could bring the Hebrew Copy of Saint Matthews Gospel. Cosmo, and Laurence de Medici, were great Restaurators of learning. Which made Marsilius Ficinus, Argyropilus, Chal­co [...]diles, Picus, and Politianus to come to Florence. Azon of Bolonia did much in reviving the Civill Law, together with the glossaries of Accursius.

[Page 24]I come now to Dante Aligero, Petrarca, and Boccaccio a triumvirate, who were Gran-Masters of the Italian tongue.

Leo the tenth was a man born for the reparation of Letters, and advance­ment of knowing men; from his time it is incredible how all kind of Sciences did reflourish in Italy, and consequently in all Countries else; for Italy may be call'd the Source or great Cestern, whence all kind of Vertues flow to the Europaean World. Divine Writers did multiply, Sadolet, Caietan, Contarenus, Borromaeus, Sirletus, Caraffa, Caesar Baronius, who with much Oyl and labour compil'd a Gigantic work, viz. the Ecclesiastic History, which for Magnitude, for Method, for Variety of Narrations, for Expence and paines, must be confess'd that nil oriturum alias, nil ortum tale. There is not, nor will there be such a work. I bring Bellarmine next to Baronius, they were both purpurated, and great Cardinalls, great in Doctrine, as well as in Dignity, there was a great heap of knowledge lodg'd under their red Caps. Peter Martyr, Zanchius, Paulus Venetus, Isidore, Clarius and Folengius, two Benedictins, were Eminent men.

For prudence of the Law how Celebrous is Alciat, Pancirolus, Albericus Gentilis, Pacius, Peregrinus, Monochius, Vaudus Mascardus, Farinacius, Surdus, and Hondaeus.

What could Hippocrates or Galen know more in the secrecies and Opera­tions of Physick then did Fracastorius, Fallopius, Hierom Mercurialis, Aldro­vandus, Matthiolus, Maranta, Brasavolus, Cesalpinus, Baccius, Iohn Baptista Porta, Costeus, Chlumna, Ghinus, Aloys, Anguillara, Tapivacius, Tali [...]otius, who could make Lipps, Noses, Eares, and Eyes so artificiall, as if they had been naturall, to the wonder of the spectator.

Within the whole circumference of Phylosophy, what could be so criticall and recondit, that Iulius Caesar Scaliger did not penetrate. Fran. Guicciardin need not give place to any Historian old or new, according to the opinion of Thuanus and Lipsius. What singular men were Paulus Iovius, Sigonius, Bonami­micus, Gyraldus, Cardinal Bembo, Cardan, Gauricus, Onufrius, Hermolaus, and Daniel Barbari, Calepin, Albertus, Manucins, Peter Aretin, Pomponius Laetus, Vergerius, Picus, Zabarella, Piccolomini, Magirus, Bonciarius, Ehinus, Speronius Torquatus Tasso, Paruta, Ur sinus, Ricobonus, Superantius. What rare Women for Morality and Erudition were Laurentia Strozzia, and Olimpia Fulvia Mo­rata. Nor can Italy choose but be full of such exquisite learned spirits, consi­dering there are so many convenient Seminaries to plant them in, so many brave Universities. There is Rome the Mother of all. There is Padoa her first Daughter, there is Bolonia the subtillest, Siena the pleasantest, Florence the fairest, Milan the profoundest; There is Naples, Pisa, Papia, Ferrara, with di­vers others, to the number of 17. in all; therefore there must needs be good corne where there are such fields to sow it, and such good culturage.

Nor hath Mercury only his Pavilions in Italy, but Mars hath also his tents ther, Military Vertue and Discipline never came to that height of perfection as it is there; what notable ingenious Engineers doth she daily produce? what new waies of fortification doth she daily invent? how she reduceth all to rules of art, so that any one is there a Mathematitian. The Italian doth not rush rash­ly into danger as other blind bayards; but he doth cast the action first into the balance of judgement, to see whither it be feasable, and then he conti­nueth in one degree of heat all the while; whether it be in assaulting, or pur­suing, whither he makes a halt or retires, he is still the same man in point of courage. In matter of Treaty there is no Nation ever went beyond the Ita­lian, he was never cosend that way, wherein he useth to shew resolution as well as reservednesse; there is a memorable example of that, when Charles the 8. came into Italy, he advanc'd as farre as Florence, where entring into a Treaty with the Duke, he employed 4. Commissiones to the Emperors Camp, whereof Caponi was one, who hearing the propositions read by the Kings Secretary, [Page 25] and finding them very high, snatched them from him, and toar them, saying, Frenchmen, if you propose such high things, go and sound your trumpets, and Flo­rence shall ring her bells; and so he and his fellow Commissioners withdrew themselves suddenly from the Kings Bed-Chamber, where the businesse was to be transacted. This resolute comportment of Caponi startled the French, and brought them to farre lower termes. I should tire your patience too much if I should give a Cataloge here of all the great Captaines of Italy, therefore I will instance but in few. Who hath not heard of Farinata Uberti, celebrated by Dante? Castruccio was admir'd by all. Scaliger Prince of Verona was fear'd by all, Balbicino, Draccio, Sforza, Gutamelata, to whom the Venetians erected a brazen Statue at Padoa Piccinini, Coleone, and Feltrio Prince of Urbin, Vitellio, Ursini, Liviano, Macone, Correggi, Trivultio, Gonzaga, Davali, Vastio, and Prospero Colonna, were all of them great Martialists, and men of admirable conduct. What shall I say of the Strozzi, of Iacomo Medicini, of Castaldi, of Andrea Doria, another Neptun, and of Ambrosio Spinola a great Captain; of sound prudence in Counsell, and performance in the Camp. What notable exploits did he do in high and low Germany? how important was his pre­sence at the siege of Ostend, where 120. thousand soules found their Graves. What a stupendous circumvallation was that of Breda? how politiquely did he seaze upon the Palatinat; but being commanded a farre off from Spain to raise the siege of Casale, his great spirit not being able to brook it, he said, me han quitado la honra, They have taken away my honor; which made such im­pressions in him, that he retir'd to the town of his Nativity (Genoa) and so march'd to Heaven. But, most Noble Princes, excuse me that I have preter­mitted so long one of your rank, Alexander Farnese, Duke of P [...]rma, of whom Monsieur de la Noue his Enemy, and one of the greatest Martialists in France, saith, Iamais Capitain n' eust plus de Iugement en la conduite d'vne Ar­mee, ni plus de justice en la discipline militaire. Never Captain had more judg­ment in the conduct of an Army, nor more Justice in the discipline of Warre. Who doth not admire Americo Vespucio the Florentine, who hath christn'd the New World, which is held to be as big as the Old, with his name? Who doth not stand astonish'd at Christophoro Columba, who may be said to be a greater Hero [...] then Hercules; for he discover'd a farre greater World; and went far be­yond his nil ultra. Truly all Antiquity cannot parallel that exploit which he perform'd, meerly by strength of wit, and his rare skill in the Mathematiques: for contemplating with himself, that the Aequator the great Circle in the Heavens did divide the whole World into two equall parts, and finding that there was such a proportion of Earth on the North-East side; he concluded with himself that there must needs be so much on the South-West to counter­balance the Globe, and make the Heavenly Circle to be just in his division; and this speculation of his was grounded upon a true principle, as it prov'd by the effect; Though the Ligurians his Countrymen deem'd it a vain fancy. Henry the 7. of England held it ridiculous, Alphonsus the 5. a meer fancy, at last this great Artist being in despair to find some Prince to patronage the Work; he made his addresse to Isabella Queen of Castile, a most pious and fortunat Lady, who began to give ear and credit to him, & so accommodated him for the voyage, which notwithstanding a thousand difficulties, as the dan­ger of those vast unknown Seas, the murmuring humor of the Spaniards that went with him; yet he brought his ends home to his aim, and return'd with an Olive branch, or rather a leaf of Gold home in his mouth. Thus as provi­dence would have Columba, a Dove first to discover dry Earth after the Deluge; so Columbus first discover'd this new peece of Earth to the Inhabitants of the old World. In so much that this Italian may be said to have laid the first foun­dation of the greatnesse, which Spain is mounted unto at this time. But Colum­bus chancing to be one time unkown among some Spaniards, who discours­ing of this discovery, and slighting it, saying it might have beeen feasable by [Page 26] any Navigator, he calls for an Egge, and laying a wager that none could make that Egge to stand at an end upon a smooth table, the Spaniards trying many wayes to doe it, and missing, Columbo took the egge, and b [...]uising the shell at one end, made it stand upright; then every one could doe it after him; where­upon he told them, just so when an Italian had shewed you the way, 'twas easie for you Spaniards to goe to the new World. Yet that brave Queen Isabella and Ferdinand with their Successors did nobly reward Columbo, though Genoa his own native town was ingratefull unto him, for having left her a mighty Legacy at his death, she did not raise any monument, much lesse any brass Statue to his memoey, which he so much deserved. But herein Genoa carried her self towards Columbo, as London in England did towards Cavalier Middle­ton, who fell upon a brave wholsome invention of bringing a fresh River fifty miles about, to runne through her streets to her infinite advantage for many uses.

Touching the noble virtue of Friendship, she reigns no where so strongly as among the Italians, who are naturally of a most humane and mansuete dispo­sition, not onely among themselves but to strangers. There was a notable ex­ample thereof in Alostio Priuli, a Gentleman who had contracted a strict league of love with Cardinal Pole an English man, which lasted many years, so that there was much notice taken at Rome, of that conformity of manners, recipro­cation of affection, and sweet sympathy which were between them. This friend­ship continued in the same strain of strength for twenty six years; all which time Priuli could not be wrought upon to enter into the Colledge of Cardi­nals, though often invited by Iulius the third. Cardinal Pole falling at last sick of a lingring disease, Signior Priuli never stirred from his side all the while: at last, the Physitians telling him he had not long to live, he sent for a Notary, and made Priuli Heire of all he had; but such was the generosity of the Venetian, that he made not a penny benefit of it, but gave it all among his English kindred; being twenty moneths in perpetual agitation for the recove­ring of the estate.

Nor are there any people so naturally addicted to Charity as the Italians: Cardinal Atestino was a great example hereof, of whom there was a kind of Proverb in Rome, That his House was an Exchequer to the rich, an Hospitall to the poor; his Person was the splendour of the sacred Colledge, and an or­nament to the Roman Court.

I passe now to the Nobility of Italy, which is very numerous; there is no clime under Heaven, where Virtue is more rewarded, good qualities more pryed into, and Industry higher advanced. Rome is the Common-countrey of all Nations, it is the rendevous of all Ingenious spirits; and its impossible for any person of Merit to be there long, but he is sought after, and advanced. This makes Italy so abound with Nobles of all Nations. For the generous ex­ercise of riding great Horses, they goe beyond all, and it is wonderfull to see, what a docible creature they bring those fiery mettall'd animals to be; they use to make them dance, and keep touch with the musique, by a rare art, and do strange feats besides. What a famous Master in this art was Sigismondo Loca­tello of Ferrara? Grisonio was no lesse rare in point of Horsmanship.

Among other compleat and gallant spirits which Italy produced these latter Ages, Cosmo de Medici was one of the most admired all the world over: 'Twas He that did first found the grandeur of the Medicean Family; 'twas He brought his Hetruscan Countrey to such a civility; 'twas He who taught Soveraigne Princes first, to look to the encroaching power of their Neighbours, and to keep them in aequilibrio; therefore Apollo made fit choice of him to hold the Balance, when all the Kingdoms and States of Europe were weighed before him at Delphos. He was a man of an exquisite temper in his behaviour, of a nota­ble reach of understanding, of a marvailous forecasting head, a subtile cleare brain, quick apprehension and profound judgement. He was munificent to [Page 27] strangers, liberal to his domestiques, and extreamly charitable to the poor, a mighty restaurator of Gods Houses. In all these acts he was equal to Kings, he exceeded ordinary Princes, and went far beyond all private men. Now, al­though out of the largeness of his heart, and piety of his soul, he had expen­ded a Kings Ransom in Hospitals, Monasteries, and Churches, yet he was used to say, Non potuisse se in suis accepti & expensi codicibus unquam reperire Deum Debitorem: When he went to look into his Leger book of Account what mo­neys he had received and issued, he could never find God his Debter. Yet this mighty man was, when Auditor Cossa did audit his expenses, 'twas found, that he had spent forty millions in publique and private Fabriques, and tenne millions in private acts of munificence, and charity. He was such a Lover of his Country, so mighty a Patriot, that having lived above seventy yeares, this modest, but well merited Epitaph was engraven upon his tomb, Cosmus Med [...] ­ces heic situs est, Decreto publico, pater patriae. Cosmo of Medici lyes here, Father of his Country by publique Decree.

And now that I am in Toscany, I will visit Pisa, who I finde was in former times a Commonwealth of great authority by land, and power by sea, she did subjugate Sardinia, and Carthage also, bringing her king captive to the Pope▪ by whom he was converted; she also made her self mistris of Majorica, Panor­mo, and Salerno; she was once at that cumble of wealth and greatness, that a hundred Gentlemen of Pisa were us'd to build and maintain upon their own charge every one his Galley, to scowre and secure the Ligustic sea.

What shall I say of the state of Genoa? who among the Records of her Tri­umphs, can glory, that she took and possessed once, Sardinia, Cyprus, Lesbos, and Chio, as also Pera opposite to Constantinople on the Asian shore; she was al­so mistris of Theodosia, or Caffa, insomuch that her dominions extended as far as the banks of Tanais: And to this day there be some Christian Rites, and Ita­lian Families in that part of Tartary. What tough wrestling, and terrible Wars continued 'twixt her and Venice for two or three Ages together? and we may easily conjecture how potent she was, when she could tugge with Venice so long.

The Dutchy of Milan is come to a stupendous height of magnificence, power, and riches; insomuch that the Insubrian Revenues are above those of some Kings.

I come now to the most Rare and Renowned Republique of Venice; she is of that high consequence, that without her, Italy should want her chiefest Orna­ment, Liberty should want a refuge, Europe should want her chiefest Bu [...] [...]Neptune should want a Mistris, and Nature a Miracle. What shall I say [...] Venice, orbis christiani arx, the prime Castle of Christendome; and the Sea [...] be said to be hers too; she is Lady of more Sea than any state in the world [...] point of extent; she hath a Fortress the most exactly built by the rules of [...] ­ginry of any upon earth, 'tis Palma, which cost two millions the erecting, [...] the yearly keeping of it stands her in a hundred thousand Crowns per annum▪ She hath an Arsenal that is almost as great a wonder as her self, there is no [...] [...]e like under the Sun: she hath three hundred Artificers perpetually in pay, and she spends communibus annis, above six hundred thousand Crowns meerly [...] that Arsenal. She would ravish a fresh comer with the lustre of her Palaces▪ with her marble Pictures, and marble Statues, with the Church of Saint Mark pav'd with Porphyrie, and chequer'd with many kind of precious stones, and her roof and walls all Mosaical work: If I could get into the Treasury of St. Mark, I could tel you more wonders; but they who have seen it, report they were quite stupified at the wealth they saw there.

Touching the Commerce of Venice, it is beyond belief; walk in the Rialto, or Saint Marks place, and you shall meet with Greeks Turks, Arabs, Egiptians, Moores, Cannibals, Tartars, Ethiopians, Persians, and Indians: There you shall finde Merchants of the black, white, and red sea, of the Hellespont, of all the [Page 28] Iles of Greece, of the Miditerranean, of Ormus, besides European Marchants from every corner; The boyes there will not stand gazing at a turband or a shash, or any other strange habit which are worn there familiarly; This City, though a Virgin (of neere upon thirteen hundred yeares standing) hath been such a Vi­rago, that she hath wrastled with the greatest Monarchs upon earth, and layed some of them on their back, but none of thē could lay her in such a posture as to get her maydenhead; And lately she hath cop'd singly of her self with the Great Ottoman Emperour any time these eight yeares both by sea & upon Terra firma, and given him many ill favoured foyles; Now the reason that this sage Signo­rie hath continued a pure intacted maid so many ages, besides her advantagi­ous situation, the Adrian Sea being her protector, is, that the Venetians are grave in their Counsells, severe in judgment, constant in adverse fortune, and temperat in good; They are excellent patriotts, they have publick soules, and it is the study of every particular man how to conserve their liberty, im­prove their strength, and the glory of Venice. But her incolumity doth not depend upon any one frail mans life, progeny, or wit, but upon the pru­dence of a politic and immortall Senat; For although Venice hath had most heavy, and in the eye of human reason irreparable defeates, as destructive as that of Rome at Cannas, yet she never sunk in her courage and Counsells, but boare up still above water; That overthrow at Abdua, That at Trebia and Trasimeni, that at Bresica and Vicenza were very sore and fatall blowes, as great as that of Cannas was to Rome, yet she recovered herself in a shorter time far then ever Rome could doe; For the richesses of this state you may easily guesse at their greatnes, when the revenues of S. Mark, use and imposts of the City of Venice herself is able to support an Emperour. Besides the very de­meanes of the Church amount to three millions.

And now O Rome, O glorious Rome, O holy Rome, I make my entrance in­to thee, the pyramidall top of all glory, the lady of all vertues, the source of all piety; It was the wish of S. Augustin to see three things, Christ in the flesh, Paul in the pulpit, and Rome in her highest florish. Hear Martial.

Terrarum Dea, gentiumque Roma,
Cui par est nihil, & nihil secundum.

Livie in his time gave this character of her, Nulla unquam Respublica nec ma­jor, nec sanctior, bonis (que) exemplis ditior fuit; No common-wealth was ever more potent, more pious, and richer for good examples; Lipsius averres, that Rome had three millions of men in her, and a hundred and fifty millions in annuall revenu: she had at one time in Legions abroad and at home for her pre­servation six hundred and five and forty thousand armed Soldiers; From Ro­mulus to Augustus Caesar she had above three hundred Triumphs; Iulius Cae­sar brought into the aerarium or common treasury sixty and five thousand ta­lents, which amount to almost forty millions of our money: she had above thirty miles in circuit, which in Aurelianus his time extended to twenty miles more, and the people encreased accordingly. In so much that Vopiscus affirmes, she fed at one time foure millions of men in City and Suburbs. Seneca left se­venty and five hundred thousand philippicos, or crowns behind him; Caecilius Claudius Isidorus, although he had lost much by the civill warrs, yet he left 4117. slaves, 3060. yoke of Oxen; and of other cattle two hundred and fifty seven thousand: Tacitus reports the first, and Plinie the second. There were at one time in Rome five hundred Gladiators or Fencers, a thousand Beares, one hundred Lions; which were kept in divers denns. The high way of Appia ex­tended three hundred and fifty miles, the Flaminian more. Touching the A­queducts and fountaines, the baths, and the waters of Rome, there were at once five hundred men hired to look to them, and the channells were so broad, that a horseman might foord over▪ What art was used to furnish the seven hills [Page 29] with conduits and cesternes. When Cyneas the Ambassador of Pyrrhus came to Rome and was brought about to view the City, he was asked what he thought of her? He answered (looking upon her foure hundred Churches) he thought, said he, that all Rome was but one Temple, her Senat is an assembly of Kings, she is yet to this day the flower of the whole earth, and the better part of mankind. Now Rome came to this vast magnitude by her parsimony, by her se­verity, and industry; she had her legions alwayes well trained, and never suf­ferd to be idle, nor did she pamper them with too much pay; The Senators were more carefull for the discipline of the soldiers, then of the education of their children; They used to inure and habituat them to armes before they sent them abroad; And certainly the Romans must needs be very valiant men naturally; besides so many victories did heighten their courage; Among thou­sands of examples which I could produce, let Licinius Dentatus serve for one, who as Valerius Maximus avoucheth, had receaved forty and five severall wounds and never a one backward, he had been in above one hundred bat­tailes, and brought home thirty and foure spoiles. What notable great Gene­ralls did she breed of divers tempers; Marcellus was of a fiery spirit, Fabius Maximus was politiquely slow, Pompey was daring, The Scipios were patient, Caesar for expedition, for martiall knowledge, and magnitude of mind was unparalleld. When Pyrrhus came with a new race of men, and horrible Ele­phants into Italy, and was advanced within thirty miles of Rome; He sent un­to her if she would parly, word was sent Pyrrhus, Italiâ cum copijs excedito, ubi excesserit, de pace si volet agito; ni excesserit, Arma & viros & acie [...] expe­ctato. Let Pyrrhus depart Italy with all his forces, when he hath done that, there shall be a treaty for peace if he will, but if he do not depart, let him expect Armes, men, and a battaile: such was the undauntable courage of Rome in that age, which it seems did much degenerat afterwards, when the Goths, Vandalls, Huns, and other Septentrionall rough-hewn peeple appeared before her; And the reason of this degeneration in the mind of the Romans was, that by de­suetude of arms, and want of an enemy they fell to voluptuousness, to ease and softnes; Before, they had a brave method in training up their youth, they were instructed in letters till they were twenty, & afterwards in military discipline.

But new Rome after so many assaults, and sackings of divers barbarous na­tions, as she fell in glory, so she also fell lower in situation, for she removed from the seven Hills to the plaine of Campus Martius where she is seated now, having lost the fift part of her circumference, and magnitude, and being not the sixt part so populous; yet a notable providence hath attended this City, that she florisheth still, and though she be not so bigg as she was', yet she is bet­ter, since the standard of the Crosse was planted there by a speciall benignity of heaven; she hath the Law of Christ insteed of her Legions, As she was before the chiefest City in the world for armes, so she is now for Religion; she is the Court of the Chief Pastor, and the common Countrey of all Christians, she is the gnomon of the great Diall of saving Faith, Romana Ecclesia est illa quae non modo tot principum & Imperatorum, sed quod longè praeclarius est, omnium san­ctorum Catholicamater, & in cujus gremio mori faelicius est, quàm ab initio nasci, cùm non nasci satius sit, quàm in hac non mori. The Roman Church is she who is not onely the Catholique universall mother of Princes and Emperours, but of Saints, in whose lapp it is more happy to die, then to have been born, it being better not to be born at all, then not to die in Her; as Montanus saith. This makes her so refulgent for so many prerogatives, that the greatest part of the European world, as also all the new Converts in the American new world doe acknowledge her the Chief seat of the Oracles of God, and her Bishop the chiefest ministeriall head of the holy Church: and to deny this, if we may be­believe Stapleton, summae impietatis vel praecipitis arrogantiae est: It is either the highest impiety, or the desperatest arrogance; He is the universall Shepheard, [Page 30] the successor of Saint Peter, and the Vicar of Christ; the Commission which our Saviour gave Saint Peter, Feed my Flock, is transferr'd to him in chief, and with the Commission the keyes, and power also of absolving, and bind­ing. For which respect (such an humiliation and reverence Religion strikes into the Soul of man) all Emperors and most Kings doe willingly give not onely precedence, but perform Offices of service unto him, as, among a world of instances that could be produc'd besides, Charles the fifth, did at Bo­lonia, and Francis the first at Marseilles. How many Emperors have held the bason while he wash'd his hands, how many Kings have held his stirrop while he mounted and descended off his Mule, how many have lead his horse by the bridle. How many thousand Princes have kiss'd his Pantouffle, and carried him in a Chair upon their shoulders, and gloried in all these acts of submission; such a Power Christian Religion hath to humble the hearts of the greatest Princes, and make all temporall greatnesse stoop to the spiritual hopes of Heaven.

'Tis true, that Rome from her very infancy, when she was a Pagan, was much given to the reverence of the Gods. Her Pontifex Maximus was then in high adoration, she had magnificent, and costly Temples, Altars and Fanes which had singular immunities and prerogatives, the Temple was then an Asylum and Sanctuarium, a refuge and sanctuary from all violence; and of these Eth­nic Temples Rome had 4. times more then she hath now of Christian Chur­ches. She had then her Nunneries and Vestall fires, her Flamins and Archfla­mins more in number then any other City; when she had conquer'd any for­ren Nation, their Gods were brought to Rome, and they were ascited among hers, & admitted; alledging that there could not be too many Gods to preserve so great a City. Yet there was violence laid then upon the conscience in spi­ritual things, nor did the Ecclesiastick Power, and Pontifex Maximus ever clash with the temporal for Superiority, but alwaies yeilding unto it, as re­ceiving his Protection, Meanes and Maintenance from it. This was the geni­us of old Rome, but new Rome came to be so high in her devotions, that she came at last to give more alleageance to the Pontifical Power then to the Im­perial. Nor were the Roman Emperors ever in that adoration in old Rome, as the Pope is now in the new, whom she holds to be so farre above the tem­porall power as the Soul is above the body. 'Tis true, there was much reve­rence given to the chief Roman Magistrate and Senate, from all times. Adher­bal King of Numidia call'd himself Romanorum Procuratorem, The Romans Procter. Eumenes King of Pergamus came to Rome, and pulling of his Capp, offer'd it to the Senate, confessing he receiv'd his liberty from Rome. Prusias King of Bithynia when he came to the Senate, he us'd to kisse the threshal of the door, acknowledging himself Mancipium Senatus, a slave unto the Senate. Tiridates, King of Armenia, bowd himself to Nero's knees. But there was never such low submission done to any Pagan Governor, as is now done to the Pope, whom the Turkes call Rumbeg, that is Prince or Lord of Rome, and the Persian Rumschah, King of Rome; for we never read that the Ethniques ever de­scended so low as to Foot-Osculation, which is a reverence peculiar and due only to the Pope; the Emperor and other Kings being contented only that the Vassall kisse their hands, or hem of their Garment. Nor doth the Pope return reverence to any other potentate by rising up, bowing his head, or uncovering his head to any, onely to the Emperor after he hath kiss'd his feet, he is af­terwards admitted to kisse his hand, and then he riseth a little and giveth him a mutuall kisse of Charity with an Embracement. There is a cloud of examples, how diver Emperors and Kings came to Rome to do their filial duty to the Holy Father, and to have their Coronations confirm'd by him. Iustinian, did so to Constantine, Pipin to Stephen the second, Charles the Great to Leo the 3. Lodovicus pins of France to Sergius the 2. the Emperor Henry the [Page 31] forth to Paschall the 2. Frederic the first to Adrian the 4. But that was a nota­ble Signal reverence which Lewis of France, and Henry the second of England did to Alexander the 3. Who came both together, and jointly attended the Pope a good way to his lodging, he being on horsback, and they both a foot. Now it is one of the high Tenets of the Catholiques, That the Pope is the only Free independent Prince upon Earth; not accountable to any for his actions, but unto Christ himself whose Vicegerent he is. He cannot onely command, but make Kings, at least confirm them. The King of Spain did not hold himself perfectly established King of the West-Indies, till the Holy Father pleas'd to allow of it, and confirm him. Now touching the Title of Emperor, there is a notable letter upon record, which Adrian the 4. writ to the three Ecclesiastic Electors of Germany. Romanum Imperium a Graecis translatum est ad Alemannos, ut Rex Teutonicorum non ante quam ab Apostolica manu coronaretur Imperator vocaretur; ante consecrationem Rex, post Imperator. Unde igitur habet Imperium, nisi a nobis? ex electione principum suorum habet nomen Regis, ex consecra­tione nostra habet, nomen Imperatoris, Augusti & Caesaris. Ergo per nos imperat, &c. Imperator quod habet, totum a nobis habet; Ecce in potestate nostra est, ut dem [...]s illud cui volumus, propterea constituti a deo super gentes & Regna, ut destruamus, & evellamus, ut aedificemus & plantemus. The Roman Empire, saith Adrian the 4. was transferr'd from Greece to Germany, therefore the King of the Teutons cannot be call'd Emperor, till he be apostolically Crown'd, before his conse­cration he is but King, and Emperor afterward. Whence therefore hath he the Empire but from us? by the Election of his Princes he hath the name of King, but he hath the Title of Emperor, of Augustus and Caesar, by our conse­cration. Therefore he is Imperial by us, &c. that which he hath of Emperor he hath wholly from us; behold it is in our power to give the Title to whom we please; therefore are we constituted by God himself over Nations and Kings, that we may destroy, and pluck up, build and plant, &c. Nor doth the Papall power extend to give Titles to Emperors, but to make Kings. It is up­on record how Pope Leo made Pipin King of Italy, Sergius made Stephen King of Hungary. Pope Iohn made Wenceslaus King of Poland. Alphonso King of Portugal was made by Eugenius the 3d. Edgar was made King of Scotland by Urban the 2d. Iohn de Brenna was made King of Ierusalem by Innocent the third; Pope Pius the 5. gave Cosmo de Medici the Title of Gran-Duke of T [...]scany, notwithstanding, the opposition of Maximilian the 2d. and Philip the 2d. of Spain. I saw in the Archives of Rome the names of those Kings who are Vassalls to the Pope, and they are rank'd in this order, and Bodins Cata­loge agrees with it. Reges Neapolis, Siciliae, Arragoniae, Sardiniae, Hierolosy­morum, Angliae, Hiberniae, Hungariae; all these are, or should be at least feu­detary and hommageable to the Bishop of Rome.

Nor can the Holy Father entitle Emperors, and make Kings and Gran-Dukes; but he can, as he alledgeth, depose them if they degenerate to Ty­rants or Heretiques; he can absolve their subjects from all ties of allegeance. As among other examples Innocent the 3. did to Iohn King of England, and Sixtus quintus did to Queen Elizabeth. Innocent the 1. did not onely thrust Arcadius out of his Throne, but out of the society of Christians. Anastasius the Emperor was excommunicated by Anastasius the 2. Pope Constantine anathematiz'd the Emperor Philippicus, Gregory the third delivered over to Satan Pope Leo Isaurus, and took from him all Italy. Gregory the 7. excom­municated the Emperor Henry the 3. and Boleslaus King of Poland. The Empe­ror Lewis the 4. was barr'd to come to Church by Benedict the 12. Otho by Innocent the 3. Frederic the 2. by Innocent the 4. and Peter King of Castile was quite thrust out both of his Throne and the holy Church by Vrban the 5. who made Henry the bastard capable to succeed him by a bull of legitimation; and indeed that Peter was a hatefull Tyrant, having mur­therd [Page 32] many of his own Subjects, and his Queen or the house of Bourbon with his own hands.

There is another high prerogative which the Roman Bishop claimes, which is to summon Generall Councells, which Montanus, who was presi­dent of the Councell of Trent from the Pope, did avouch in open assembly upon a design of removing the Councell to Bolonia, where he among other things did positively assert and pronounce, Caesarem nempe non Dominum a [...]t Magistrum esse, sed Ecclesiae filium esse, se verò & Collegas qui adsint, Romane sedis Legatos esse, penes quos ordinandi & transferendi concilii jus erat. Caesar was not Lord nor Master, but Sonne of the Holy Church. But he and his Col­leagues there present were Legats of the Roman See, whose right it was to or­dain, and transferre General Councells▪

Moreover the Bishop of Rome hath a great stroake in preserving the Univer­sal peace of Christendom, and keeping Earthly Potentates from clashing one with another. In so much that the Pope may be compar'd to that Isthmos of land which runns twixt the Ionian and Aegaean Seas, keeping their waters from jusling one with another. Nor is the Bishop of Rome thus powerfull only by his spirituall Authority, by vertue whereof, besides Patriark [...], Arch­bishops, and a world of Bishops, he hath 70. Cardinalls, who are accounted equal to Princes, and who, as they are all of his making, so are they at his devotion; which number of 70. was limited by a solomn diploma, or Bull of Sixtus Quintus; and the election to be alwaies in December, so many daies before Christmas; which is a general Jubile of rejoycing for the Nativity of our Saviour. And as these Cardinals are Princes Companions, so have they revenues accordingly from the Common aerarium, or Treasury of the Church, which is an unknown thing and inexhaustible. For as long as men have soules within them, and believe there is a Heaven or Hell, the Roman Church can never want Mony. There is a proverbe in Italy, Al papa non mancano maj da­nari quando non manca la mano & la penna. The Pope can never want Money as long as he hath fingers to write. In so much that when a league was struck twixt Pius the 5. Phillip the 2. and the Venetians; whereas the Spaniard was to be at half the charge, the Venetians two thirds of the other half, & the Pope the sixth part of a third; The Venetian Ambassador took him up somewhat short, telling him, that his Holinesse quill might command all the Wealth of Europe. In that age there were 130. Archbishopricks, and a thousand and seventeene Bishopricks that the Pope had the confirmation of, besides those of the East and West Indies. Touching Monasteries and Religious Claustral Houses, there were in Charles the fifths time, and Paul the 4. which was 60. years before, a­bove a hundred and 44. thousand; of Parishes two hundred and fourscore eight thousand, which the Pope had influence upon. In so much that when there was an ouverture of a league twixt Charles the Emperor and the French King, for a conjunction against the Turk; there was a proposition made, that every Monastery should contribute 6. Crownes yearly, and every Parish 52. Crownes towards the support of the Warre, which would have amounted to near upon 16. Millions per ann. And for men, if there had been 10 cull'd out of every Monastery, it would have made an Army of fourteen hundred and for­ty thousand men: Nor should so much regard be had to the number, as to the quality of the men, who having been accustomed to penances, to fasting, and watchings, could endure more hardship then other men. Add hitherto the zeal they would have to the Cause, being Votaries and Religious persons; holding the Pope to be an Earthly God, and that those who lose their lifes in any service or expedition warranted by his Cruzada, deserve a greater de­gree of beatitude in Heaven. Such an Army as this the Pope can raise, which no Mundan Potentate can do, or ever could do; Who out of a conceit of the Holinesse they bear to his Function, and power of his Commission, would [Page 33] runne through fire and water, to serve him with their Soule, as well as with their bodies.

Nor is the Pope thus potent among the Ecclesiastiques, for spiritual re­venues and perquisits, but he is also a Great Temporal Prince: witness the Dutchy of Ferrara, and Bolonia; Each whereof singly is able to support a se­cular Soveraign Prince, besides other signories which he hath. Wherefore it was well express'd by the Poet, speaking of the Pope.

Ense potens gemino, Cuius vestigia adorat
Caesar, & aurato fulgentes murice Reges.

This is the largest field for matter that possibly an Orator can run in, me thinks it hath no Horison. Now Scaurus hath a wise saying; Non minus magnam virtutem esse scire desinere, quam scire dicere, It is no less vertue to know when to give over speaking, then to know when to speak. Therefore most noble Princes, I hold it safer to strike saile, and launch out no further into this Oce­an of matter: Wherefore I will bid a farewell for this time to fair Italy, and conclude with three several Characters, which three famous Authors gives her. Mamertinus the Panegyrist calls her Gentium Dominam, The Lady of all Nations. Rutilius Numatianus calls her Caelestem, mundi (que) Reginam, A Heavenly thing, and the Queen of the World. Dionysius Halycarnassaeus calls her Totius Orbis Optimam, The Best of the Universe. Therefore under favour take spiri­tual and Temporal power; take the word and the sword, the pike and the pen, Arts and Arms together, Italy, Divine Italy deserves without controversie, or any scruple at all, the Supremacy of Europe.



Most noble, and anciently descended Princes;

IT is reported of Francisco Barbaro, and Georgio Trapezuntio, a pair of great Scientifical men, and singularly vers'd in the Greek and Latin Tongues, that by decay of their In­tellectuals, and decrepitnesse of age, they came utterly to forget both. The like is recorded of Philip Seci [...]s, a fa­mous Jurisconsult, and Professor of both the Laws, both in Padoa, Florence, Siena, Ticini, and Pisa, that his memorie came to be so strangely eclipsed and clouded, that he did not remember one Paragraph of the Roman Law. And Pliny, that great Regi­ster of Nature, doth write of Messala Corvino, that the faculty of remembrance was so declin'd in him by longaevity, and the revolution of so many Winters, that he had forgot his own name. The same may be said now adayes of Italy, she that was in former times the Eye of the World, and Rome the Apple of that Eye, are fallen to that delirium, and dotage, that neither of them can remember what once they were, most of her Cities have almost forgotten their primitive names, her vital spirits, vertue, and valour are so far spent, by having so many yeares on her back, that she is quite transmuted from what she was, and grown [...]ank and litherly both in her strength and courage. Touching Rome, she is shrunk into a Pigmey's skin, from that Gigantick stature she was of▪ And as some did guess at the magnitude of Rome by that Incendium, that huge voracious fire which happened in Nero's time (who was then in his turret tuning upon his fiddle the sack of Troy, so little did he resent that direfull spectacle, but ra­ther rejoyced at it; hoping out of the rubbish of old Rome to re-edifie a new Citty of his own name) which fire, though it was very consuming and vio­lent, yet the City found it matter enough to work upon for nine dayes: I say, as partly out of that the hugeness of Rome might be guessed at; or by that ra­ging Plague which swept away about tenne thousand men every day in the time of Vespasian; or by the weight of those Cobwebs which Heliogabalus caus'd to be gather'd and poiz'd, which came to ten thousand pound weight; I say, as out of these one may make a conjecture of the vast dimensions of Rome, so out of that obscenity and filth which now reigns, out of the fire of concu­piscence which rageth there (no where more) and lastly out of those numberless infectious diseases and various vices that now raign there, which I shall endea­vour [Page 35] to produce before you, you may give a guesse at the goodness and govern­ment, the happiness and deserts of Italy; and then I beleeve you will not have so favourable a conceit of her as the noble Lord who spake before, and was so prodigal in displaying her merit.

The Peacock when she beholds her glorious feathers, swels and puffs with an amorous opinion of her self, but looking upon her feet she is presently deject­ed: you have hitherto seen the gay feathers of Italy, I will shew you now her [...]oul feet. The common tenet, that Italy in goodness and riches excells all o­ther Regions, is a meer fable, which Boterus her own child doth refell, accu­sing them of imprudence and shallow judgement who think so; for we know wel that two third parts of Italy hath no navigable Rivers, and the fourth part is a steril rough-hewen umbratical country, made up by the Apennine hil. Bon­finius, who had been a curious lustrator of many Countries, prefers Austria before Italy, though his own Country. Liguria was damn'd by Nature her self to a perpetual sterility; And the Plaines of Verona, though they be famous for some battles that have been fought there, yet doe they bear but a sorry re­port for the wildness of the soyl, and huge stones that are therein. In Alagnia there is a cankerworm that corrodes the Vines, and strangely grows with the grape, and takes wings at last, it revives with the culture of the earth, and dies with it; besides there be swarmes of little stares that doth much annoy the crop both of Corn and Wine, and there is no fence against them, they are so nu­merous. The Pisan, Aquileian, and Roman fields themselves how many patches of rough barren ground have they? what ill air'd fens in many places? which makes them so thinne of inhabitants. How many places in Italy are there, whither strangers when they goe thither, are warned not to goe unto, in re­gard of the ill air? as Piombino, Grossetto, Sinigallia, Arimino, Cervia, Pesar [...]. Pestilentiall Fevers are frequent in Venice and Ancona, and Tertians in Ferra­ra; nor is the meridian of Rome free from them; for upon the Maritime coasts from Port Hercules to Tarracina, which is a hundred and fifty miles in extent, there are hardly eight thousand inhabitants in all. The Veliternian Wines are good for nothing unless they be boil'd; nor can those of Viterbo last any time till they be also used so; for generally the Italian Wines are so fading, that they will last scarce a year to an end; whereas our German Wines gather strength with their age, as those of the Rhine, and the Necc [...]r; but those of the Po and the Tiber grow quickly sower and flat, which made Scaliger spit out this bitter jest of Rome, Urbem illam esse novum ac [...]tum pessimum veteris vini optimi; that she is the worst new Vinegar of the best old Wines. Besides, there are some places in Italy which might be fruitfull, if they had the hands of industry; for the Italians are not so industrious with their bodies (I cannot tell what their braines may be) as the world takes them to be, witnesse that capacious and noble port of Ancona, which was suffer'd to be choak'd up with sand, meerly by the supinenesse and sloth of the inhabitants. For Mettals; I am sure in Cle­ment the sevenths time, there were knowing Mineralists sent for from Germany to Italy, and they returned quickly after; for they said that the benefit would not countervail the charge.

Moreover there is no clime so subject to vicissitude of Tempests as Italy: The Apennine keeps her snow longer than the Abnoba, the mother of the Danube. How passengers are tormented with Chinches, [...] stinking little vermin, in their lodgings at night? The heat of Naples is such, that none will travell in Iuly and August, though the King should command him. 'Tis true that Padoa hath fertile fields about her, but the Tillers of them are half devils, and more humorous than any part of France. Sicilia, once a part of the continent of Italy, was used to bear away the bell for faecunditie, being called by Cicero▪ Cella penaria Reipub. & nutrix plebis Romanae, She was Romes Nurse, and the peoples Pantree; but whereas there is a principle, Omnes Insulanos esse malos, pessimos autem esse Siculos; That all Ilanders are bad, and the Sicilians the worst [Page 36] of all; It is truer now then ever it was. Touching the Calabrians, King Alphonso could say that, nihil habebant praeter figuram, they had nothing of men, but the shapes of men. Touching Campania and the Kingdom of Naples it cannot be de­nied but they are luxurious Countreyes, and very populous, in so much that Bozius gives an account of above three millions of peeple there, and neere up­on foure hundred thousand fit to beare armes, together with foureteen hun­dred and sixty towns; but take all along with you, the improbity of the peeple is such, that there is a proverb among the rest of the Italians, Napoli é un para­diso, ma habit ato da diaboli; Naples is a paradis inhabited by devills. Indeed it is so delicat a country that it will put to tryall the vertu of any one; witness Hannibal and his army. The Genoways is as bad as the Nopolitan, heare what the tartmouthed Scaliger speaks of him, giving a wipe also to the English, by huddling up a company of Epithets.

Genuenfi Osor pacis, ac boni moris,
Unus Brit annis tetrior, Ligur cunctis,
Saxicola, pelagi cursor, invidus, spurcus,
Famelicosus, turpis, Archipirata.

Now whereas you have been persuaded to believe that Italy is the source of civility, the nurce of noblenes and vertue, the prime propagatresse of piety and learning, I pray herein take me along with you; I will not say the Itali­ans are ignoble, but the corrupters of Nobility; They are not illiterat, but the perverters of letters: They are not vicious, but the very cutthroats of vertu; They are not impious, but the abusers of piety: they have drunk so much su­perstition, and it hath got so far into their bones, that it will never out of their flesh. I am loth to bring all their vices before so princely an Assembly, for feare the sent of them might be unpleasing unto you, and make you stop your noses, as peeple use to do when they passe by a carren, or dounghill: and when they once infect a German, they transform him to a Devill, accord­ing to the proverb, Tudesco Italionato é un diabolo incarnat, a Dutchman Italio­nat is a Devill incarnat. Now there is no place upon earth where vice goes more oft in vertues habit, and so is able to deceave the wisest: For as in the sands of the river Anien there are fine white stones gathered of various shapes, some like comfetts, others like round suger plumms, others like candid [...]in­namon, which are call'd in derision the junketts of Tivoli, and are put some­times upon the table for a merriment to strangers, so are counterfet banquetts and sweets of vertu served before strangers in Italy, though they be meer baits of vanity and vice.

I confesse Italy abounds with nobles, but what kind of one's are they? such as are found in Lunigiana, where a passenger spied three Marquises upon one tre [...] eating figgs to preserve them from starving: I Marchesi di Ceva, i Conti di Pia­cenza, i Cavaglieri di Bolognia, The Marquises of Ceva, the Earles of Piacenza, the Knights of Bolonia, are poore to a proverb; for all of them will not make one compleat nobleman in point of estate. But indeed the Italian Nobles are rather Marchants then Nobles, nay many of their Princes are no better: what I pray is the Gran Duke of Florence? what are the Clarissimi of Venice? what are the Senators of Genoa but all Marchants? yet every broker and pedler is there termed by Vostra Signoria, which is, your Lordship: The meanest Prince in Italy must be called Serenissimo, a title used to be given only to the Archdukes of Austria; they scorn to be call'd Excellentissimi, or Illustrissimi. Nay the Duke of Savoy return'd the Senats letters to Venice, because mention being made in them of the Dukes children, they termed them Excellentissimi, not Sere­nissimi.

But learning and the sciences you say doe florish in Italy more then any where; Indeed I confesse literature is a rare vertu, it enables one for any profes­sion; [Page 37] and no profession, unlesse it be mechanique, can be without it. The Em­perour Sigismund did make high esteem of it, in so much that he preferr [...]d a Doctor before a Knight, and his reason was that he could make twenty Knights in a day, but not one Doctor. You all know the famous apophthegm of Alphonso King of Aragon, Rex illiteratus est Asinus coronatus, an illiterat King is an Asse with a crown on his head; The Genoa Lady was of another opinion, who saied, penna non facit Nobilem, sed penis. 'Tis true, we are beholden to Italy for learning, and she to Greece; But as poore Greece is now so degenerated in this point, that she who call'd all the world Barbarians (yea the Italians among others) is now become Barbary Herself in point of literature, and scientificall knowledge. In Honorius time there dwelt but a few Marchants of honey in Athens. And I wish the same fate may not befall Italy for her nefandous crimes which are rife there: but touching learning, I pray heare what Muretus speaks; In media Italia, in medio Latio, in media Magna Graecia vix centisimum quem (que) invenias, qui Latinè aut Graecè loqui sciat, In the midst of Italy, in the midst of Latium, in the mid [...]t of Magna Graecia you shall not find the hundreth man that can understand Greek or Latin, or any kind of letters.

And I pray, how doth Italy use to encourage and reward learned men? Look upon Philelphus the lea [...]nedst man of his time, yet they were forc'd to sell his books to bury him in Bolonia; And who would have thought that Aeneas Sylvius, or Pope Pins the second, who was beholden to the Muses for all his fortunes and promotion, I say, who would have thought that being congra­tulated by sundry peeces of Poetry when he came to be Pope, in lieu of reward he put them off with this distic.

Pro numeris numeros a me sperate Poetae,
Carmina (que) est animus reddere, non emere.

O Poets, expect numbers for numbers, I use to return, not buy verses.

But it seems that Homers fate of inevitable poverty is devolv'd by way of inheritance to all poets; Paul the second, next successor to Aeneas, had a mis­chievous designe to demolish all learning, in so much that he esteemed students and philosophers no other then Heretiques or Conjurers. And now that I have fallen among the Popes, I beleeve you have heard of the common saying a­mongst them, Nos accipimus pecuniam, & mittimus asinos in Germaniam, We receive money, and send Asses to Germany; There were two Popes, I know not who was the wiser, who was the simpler of the two, viz. Iohn the eighth, or Ca­lixtus the third: The first sold the Crown of France to Charles the bald for a vast summe of money, depriving the right heirs; The other put Edmund of England, and Vincent of Spain into the catalogue of Saints, whereupon when Cardinall Bessarion heard of it, Novi hi sancti de veteribus mihi dubium movent, These new saints puts me in some doubt of the old. Alexander the sixt scrap'd up so much treasure by the nundination, and sale of Indulgences, that Caesar Borgia (his son) loosing a hundred thousand crownes one night at dice, sayed, Germanorum tantum haec peccata sunt, These are onely the sinns of Germany. Iulius the third intending to advance Montanus to a Cardinalship, and the consistory disswad­ing his holines from it, because he was of very meane birth, and no parts, ans­wered no lesse modestly then wittily, Then what thinke you I pray of me, whom you have constituted Prince of the Christian Commonwealth?

Leo the tenth had a purpose to creat Raphael Urbinus, a meer painter, to be a Cardinall, if he had liv'd to it. But touching the strange humors, and extra­vagancies of some Popes, I put you over to Platina, who was secretary to so many of them.

But to revert a little, touching the older sect of Italians, Authors, there is more vice then vertu to be found in most of them; witnes those triumvirs of wanton love, Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius; Ovid might be called a pander [Page 38] to Venus in some of his works; what spurcidicall and obscene things doe we read in Martiall, and Iuvenall? what a foolish humor was that in Persius to stu­dy obscurity so much? And in Virgil, whom we cry up so highly, what was he but a meere Ape to Homer, Theocritus, and other Greek Poets? I have seene Ho­mer's picture in a posture of vomiting, and all the Latin poets about him lick­ing up what he had spewd, but Virgil lapp'd up more then all the rest. Now Cicero whom we magnifie above all, if we well observe him, we shall find that he sate often upon two stooles. Petrus Bembus was such a slave to Cicero, and so sworn to his words, that he infected Longolius with the same humor, who would use no other Latin words but what he found in Cicero; Therefore the Senat of Venice is alwayes call'd by him Patres Conscripti; Dukes and Duke­doms, Reges & Regna; The sophy of Persia, and Gran Turk, Reges Armeniae & Thracum; Faith is call'd by him persuasion; Excommunication, Interdiction of fire and water; Nunns are call'd Vestalls, The Pope Pontifex Maximus, The Emperour Caesar, &c. In so much that he holds any word barbarous that is not found in Cicero; But touching learning and eloquence we well know that Greece hath been the true source of both, whence the Romans have fill'd their cisterns; Nay, for the Latin toung herself we know she is two thirds Greek, all her scientificall words, and tearms of art are deriv'd from the Greek: In so much that it is impossible for any to be a perfect Latinist, unlesse he understand the Greek also.

I will go a little back to Bembo again, who as you have heard was so fanta­sticall, that he would use no words but pure Ciceronian; but this fancy drew him to a pure prophanes, for it brought him to contemne the Epistles of S. Paul, and in a kind of slighting way to call them Epistolaccias, disswading his friends from reading them, least they should corrupt their eloquence. What shall I say of Sanazarius, that in three books he writ of Jesus Christ, he hath not the Name of Iesus or Christ through the whole work? and the reason one gave was, that they were not Latin words; he puts the Sibylls works in the blessed Vir­gins hands, and making no use of Esay or David, he makes use of pagan pro­phets to prove the coming of Christ.

But to leave these santastiques, I will now be more serious, and pry a little into the Canon-law, which hath such a vogue in Italy; It makes the Crown a slave to the Miter, and the scepter to the crosier, and the Emperours throne to the Popes chair; Nay it lessens and distracts the allegeance of the subject to his natural rightfull prince; For it is the concordant opinion of all the Canonists; Imperij vasallos criminis Rebellionis, & Majestatis haud esse reos, si pro Pontifice Ro­mano adversus Imperatorem ipsum pugnent; The vassalls of the Empire cannot be guilty of the crime of Rebellion, if they take armes for the Roman Bishop against the Emperour; And Bartolus himself, who by Schurfius is called Magi­ster veritatis, the Master of truth, by Menochius, Iurisconsultorum signifer, the standard-bearer of Reason, by Natta, Excellentissimus Doctor, by others the Lan­tern of the Law, the Guide of the Blind, the Mirroir and Father of verity; holding that his works are worthy to be bound with the Sacred Code, averres the same in favour of the Pope, though he poorely excuseth it, that he held these te­nets, when he was engaged in the Roman Court.

Moreover, these Canonists are not only content to give his Holines the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, but also of the Kingdoms of Spain, of Great Britain, of France, and indeed of all the Kingdoms upon earth: There are some think there are Kingdoms likewise in the Air, and he may as well pretend a power para­mount over them also. But let us see how the Pope came to this transcenden­cy, to this cumble and height of greatnes. His first rise was when Constantin gave him Rome, and it was a notable rise; yet all others, the Canonists excep­ted, do question the validity of this donation, and Aeneas Sylvius himself did so before he was Pope: for said he, Callidè id provisum a Pontifice; It was cau­tiously provided by the Bishop of Rome, that this should be alwayes under con­troversy, [Page 39] whether that donation of Constantine was valid or not valid, that such a donation might be presumed still to have been; so the Popes are not much displeased that another question should be still litigated, and that the Schools should ring with the debate, Whether that power which the Bishop of Rome hath over Princes in temporalibus be directly, or indirectly; for the stating of the que­stion it self presupposeth that he hath a power. But many Princes, not only those who have quite shaken off his yoke; but others who still adhere to Rome, have quite freed themselves of this servitude; France did it long since in the clash that happen'd 'twixt Philip le bell and Boniface the eighth, claiming a jurisdiction in Gallia over Temporals; but the King wrote to him in these tart words, Que ta tres-grande sottise scache—Let thy great foolishnes know, that in Temporals we are subject to none but to God himself, and they who think otherwise are sots—.

And Monsieur Nogaret going afterwards to Rome in quality of Ambassador, and using some bold termes at his Audience, the Pope upbraided him that his Father had been burnt for a Heretique; thereupon Nogaret tooke him, with a Gantlet, which hee had on his hand, such a cuffe under the eare, that fell'd him.

It is memorable also in what termes the Greek Churches writ to Iohn the third, who demanding plenitude of power over the Church universall, sent him word, Potentiam tuam summam circa tuos subditos firmiter credimus, su­perbiam tuam summam tollerare non possumus, avaritiam satiare non valemus. Dia­bolus tecum, Dominus nobiscum. We firmely beleeve thy supreme power over thy own subjects, but we cannot endure thy pride, nor are we able to satiate thy covetousnesse. The Devill be with thee, and God with us. It was an odde farewell.

Nor of late years touching the right to the Crown of Portugal, would Philip the second, though extremely devoted to the See of Rome, stand to the decision of the Pope after the death of Henry, of whom it is very memorable, that he died the Moon being in an Eclipse, and the very same day and hour that he had been born 68 years before. No, King Philip thought that the Sword was fittest to be Umpire in that business, which he made accordingly. Of such an opinion was Paul the third also for maintainance of his power; for he was us'd to laugh at those who would make use of arguments to maintain the Pontifical power; no, he was us'd to say, It is not the Word only, but the Sword which must defend that; good Garrisons, Castles, and Bastions must do it, as well as Excomunications and Buls.

The Venetians of late years gave a shrewd wound to the Papal power through the sides of Paul the fifth; when he had threatned them with spiritual Armes, Nicolao Pontano the Doge, or Duke, a man of a free soul, answered the Nuncio, That if Rome would dart her thunderbolts so rashly, verendum esse, ne qui Graeci olim fuissent, è Latio in Graeciam migrâssent, it was to be feared that they who were Greeks of old, might goe again from Italy to Greece▪ meaning to the Greek Church. In this quarrel the Pope had recourse to Spain for to appear in it, and thereupon did much complement with the Duke of Lerma, but a little under the dignity of a Pope: He termed him, Basin Hispanicae coronae, super qua acquiescat Monarchia Catholica, unicum Ecclesiae fundamentum. He writ, that Lerma was the support of the Spanish Crown, upon which the Catholique Mo­narchy did rest, the onely prop of the Church.

In the year 1337. Lodovicus Bavarus being Emperour, there happen'd some contrasts 'twixt the Emperour and the Pope, who alledged that the Electors made him King onely, but he made him Emperour. Hereupon at a solemn Diet this notable Sanction was enacted. Sacrosanctum Imperium, summa in ter­ris potestas, coeleste donum est; Imperator enim primus ante omnes, secundus post Deum est, per quem, leges, jura, regna humanae genti largitur aeterna Majestas, & tam grande nomen à solo Deo traditur, cui soli me Reipub▪ administrandae rationē red­dendam [Page 40] habet. A curiatis igitur Heptarchis rebus impositus, continuò more Majo­rum at (que) jure gentium Rex est & vocatur: ipsum contra majestatem Reipub. decus Imperii legatos ad sacerdotem Romanum, ut Author fiat copiam administrandi conce­dat mittere, eidem jurejurando fidem astringere, at (que) petere ab ipso usum regii dia­dematis Religio est. Nullum harum rerum sus omnino est pastori, qui servus ovium est, & in consecrando domino gregi servit▪ quippe jure suffragiorum, beneficio Electo­rum at (que) populi quisque imperat. Haec verissima esse convenit inter omnes annalium, rerum humanarum, divinarumque peritos, atque jam saepius utriusque juris Caesa­rei atque Pontificii coelestis thesauri testimoniis comprobatum est. Nonnulli quidem sanctuli praeter fas contra naturae legem docere non erubescunt, pastoris beneficiarium esse Dominum, neque ante principem principum esse aut nominari oportere, quàm ille servus servorum Author fiat, & dignum judicârit qui regnet, sed haec cum maxima Christianae Reipub. pernicie, intollerabili populi Christiani, imperatoriae Majestatis jacturâ, nec sine gravissimo Tetrarcharum, Dynastarum, Clientium imperii detrimen­t [...], instigante Stygio principe, domino hujus mundi, commenta esse, eventus docet, exi­tus probat.

Quare decernimus, & perpetuò sancimus Edicto, nimirùm ex solo Electionis bene­ficio omnem potestatem imperiumque proficisci, nec ullo pacto pontificis Romani in hac re sanctimonia, flaminio, authoritate, consensu opus esse. Quicunque aliter docu­erit, senserit, [...]actitarit, crimine laesae Majestatis reus, hostis reipub. atque proscrip­tus esto, capite paenas solvito, bona ejus publica sunto, praedia infiscentur. The most holy Empire being the highest power upon earth, is the gift of heaven: For the Emperour is first before all, and second after God Almighty, by whom the eternall Majesty does bestow Lawes, Rights, and Kingdomes to mankind, and so great a name is onely given by God, to whom onely he is ac­countable for the administration of the Commonwealth. By the election of the Heptarchicall Electors, according to the custome of our Ancestors, and by the Law of Nations he is King, and call'd so: For him to send Ambassa­dours to the Priest of Rome, that he would authorize him, and give him leave to administer, is against the Majesty of the Empire; but to binde himself unto him by oath, and seek of him the use of the royal Diadem, is Religion. The Pastor hath no right to any of these things, who is servant to his sheep, and serves the flock in consecrating the Lord: For by right of suffrage, by the be­nefit of the Electors and people, every one reignes. That these things are true, is well known to all those that are vers'd in Antiquity never so little, where they shall finde this Doctrine confirm'd not onely by Caesarean, but Pontificial testimonies themselves. Yet neverthelesse some Sciolists, or little modern Saints doe not blush to teach the contrary, viz. That the Lord is a Beneficiary to the Shepheard, and that the Emperour may not be call'd Prince of Princes, till he receive his authority from servus servorum, from the servant of ser­vants, as the Pope stiles himself to be. But this cannot be without much mis­chief to the Christian Commonwealth, and without the utter overthrow of the Imperial Majesty, on which so many Princes and Potentates depend. Therefore it may be called a Doctrin suggested by the Stygian Prince, and bel­ched forth out of hell.

Therefore we decree and divulge it for an everlasting Sanction, that the Cae­sarean Majesty is derived from the power of Election, and not from any sancti­mony, consent, or confirmation of Pontificall authority. And whosoever shall maintain, publish, or teach otherwise, we pronounce him criminall of High Treason, a professed Enemy to the Imperial Commonwealth, and worthy of capitall punishment, or Proscription, that the property of his goods be altered and confiscated.

Yet notwithstanding this solemn Sanction, how hath the Papal power en­creas'd upon the Imperial of late times? Caesar was us'd to summon universal Councells. It was Constantine the Great, who call'd the Nicene Counsel. Theo­dosius the Constantinopolitan: Theodosius Iunior the Ephesian. Martianus that of [Page 41] Chalcedon, which four Councels are next in authority to the 4. Evangelists, they are like the 4. Rivers that ran through Paradis. Besides how many other General Councels were indicted by Emperors. Besides it was their Preroga­tive to institute Popes. Henry the 3. created Clement the 2. Damasus the 2. Leo 9. and Victor the 2. Nay Caesar was us'd to punish the contumacies, and exor­bitances of the Pope. So did Otto the 1. chastice Pope Iohn and Benedict. Henry the 3. Sylvester and Gregory. Henry the 5. depos'd Pope Paschal. There is a cloud of examples to prove this. The summons of Henry the 4. to Gregory Hildebrand, that Satanical St. as Damianus stiles him, are very remarkable. Tu Hildebrande, non jam Apostolice, sed false Monache descende, vendicatam tibi sedem Apostolicam relinque. Alius sedem B. Petri ascendet, qui nulla violentiam Religione palliet, sed Beati Petri doctrinam doceat. Ego Henricus Rex dei gratiâ cum omni­bus Episcopis nostris tibi dicimus descende, descende. Thou Hildebrand, who art no apostolical, but a false Monk, descend; leave the Apostolical seat which thou claimst, another shall ascend blessed Peters Throne, who will not palli­ate violence with Religion, but teach Peters▪ pure Doctrine. I Henry by the grace of God King, with all our Bishops do tell thee, descend, descend. I do not see but the Emperor is Caesar still, and endow'd with the same power.

Now, touching the oth which the Pope exhibits to the Emperor, it is not an Oth of alleageance or fidelity, but that Oth relates to the protection, and defence which he is bound thereby to give the Holy Church, which Lords use to promise ordinarily to their Vassalls, and temporal Princes to their subjects. And whereas of old, the Emperor out of a pious reverence to the Church, did use to calculate the time of his reign from the day of his Coro­nation by the Pope, we know well that that custom is grown obsolet, and antiquated by a long desuetude; In so much that the German or Electorian Coronation is now as valid as the other. And I pray how many Emperors have omitted the Papal Coronation, and neglected those superfluous forma­lities and ceremonies? The Emperor Henricus Auceps, being invited by the Pope to be crown'd at Rome, answered, It was sufficient for him to be King of the Romans by Gods Grace, and so oblig'd to protect Germany from the in­cursion of infidells. Rodolph the 1. gave such an other answer, being advis'd to go to Rome to be crown'd. Italy said he, I know, hath consum'd many Alman Kings, I will not to Rome, I am already King, I am already an Emperor, and I hope I shall be able to act for the Christian Common-wealth, as if I had perform'd that ceremony at Rome.

The Canonists, whose main endeavours are to elevate the Popes Miter above the Imperial Majesty, would have it; that when Caesar dies, the Right is devolv'd to the Pope, till a new Election. But we well know, most noble Princes, that by our Golden bull it is ordain'd otherwise, & that during the Vacancy of the Empire, the right of Administration appertains to the Electors of the Rhine and Saxony. It is well known how Paul the 4. would have molested Ferdinand the 1. by his Caraffical Canons, but to little purpose. For as Serpents do natu­rally retain a poyson still in them, though they do not alwaies vent it; so the Roman seaven headed Beast doth still keep within him that malignant humor towards the Emperor; which may chance be his own destruction at last: as we read of Iohn Baptista Bishop of Concordia, who at a Ducal feast in Venice, kept in his gutts that Wind which should have found vent backward, so long, that he died of it. Now touching the Right that his Holinesse hath to Rome by the donation of Constantine, it is the same that Venice hath to the Dominion of the Adriatique Gulph; they are both of them no other then Titles of Straw: yet that of Rome doth produce the Pope much grain. And as that vainglorious Citty was first founded by Fugitives and Robbers, and afterwards patched up an Empire of varia magna latrocinia, of divers great Theeveries (for King­doms are little better) which shee got by oppression, tyranny, and rapine; [Page 42] so the same genius remaines still in Rome, for she may be sayed to be a Harpye still, and to robbe all the Christian World that's subject to her by her merce­nary Pardons, Buls, and Indulgences: She seldome takes the Lamb without his Fleece: Lord, how is she degenerated from her self when she was a Primi­tive Christian! in those times there were golden Priests, and wooden Chal [...] ­ces, but now clean contrary, as Boniface the Martyr cryed out,

—In time of old
The Chalices were wood, the Priests were gold;
But now a man may swear by Haly rood,
The Chalices are gold, the Priests are wood.

Indeed the Italians are generally covetous, and it is to foment their plea­sures, whereof they are the greatest embracers of any people. About the precincts of Padoa, there were two brothers that in a cleer shine night were walking in the fields, and one of them casting his eyes up to the Firmament, wished that he had as many fat Oxen as there were Starres in the Heavens. The other presently wished, that he had a Field as large as the Firmament; the other replying, what he would doe with it? he answered, To feed your Oxen. But the judgement of Heaven is observable herein; for as they multi­plied discourse about these prophane wishes, they fell a quarrelling, and so slew one another in the place.

And now, I pray, what Nation is more vindicative than the Italian? How many have been murther'd for casting but a few glances upon another mans wife out of a window? What various inventions have they of poysoning, sometimes by the smoak of a candle, sometimes by the suavity of a flower, sometimes by a poyson'd glove or handkerchief, sometimes by small crosse­bowes with poyson'd needles instead of arrowes. What an inhumane horrid revenge did a Millanez take of an old friend of his, to whom having been reconciled after some quarrell, he bore still a black rancor in his breast a­gainst him, and having surpris'd him in a convenient place, he put a dag­ger to his throat, vowing that if hee would not doe one thing, hee was a dead man, which was to abjure God Almighty, the infortunate man did it thrice, and the third time as he was pronouncing the words, he stabb'd him to the heart, and so dispatcht him, glorying afterwards of the fulnesse of his revenge; for hee had destroyed his body and soul? And now that I am in Mi­lan, me-thinkes I see that glorious Empresse Beatrix, Barbarossa's wife, ri­ding through the streets upon a Mule, with her face towards the posteriors of her, and holding the tayle in her hand for a bridle; O most unmanly, and base unparallell'd peece of barbarism; but the Emperour was soundly quit with them; for besides those whom he put to death for this affront, he caus'd the chiefest of the Town to lick out figges being stuck in a Mules Fundament, whence proceeded that proverbiall Jeere which continues to this day in Italy, Ecco la fico; Lo here the figge: For when they would mock any, they use to put the thumb betwixt the two forefingers, and pro­nounce those words.

And, to draw to a period, I pray hear what that noble French personage, Alexander de Pontaymery, a man of a candid and clear judgement, speakes of this wanton Countrey of Italy, Nous allons, saith he, en Italie auec une despense incroyable achepter la seule ombre de la civitité, & nous en rapportons la masse entiere de vices; ceux de Milan nous apprenment la tromperie, le Veneti­en nous rend Hypocrites, le Romain nous plonge en un Ocean d' Atheisme & d' impieté, & le Neapolitain nous change en satyre, où plustost nous fait un es­goust, & un cloaque de tou [...] lascivité, mollesse, & paillardisse, le Florentin nous [Page 43] enseigne l'artifice et l'operation de poyson—We traverse the Alpes, and trot into Italy with incredible expense, to take up certain shadows of Ci­vility, but we bring back the whole masse of Vice; the Milanez teacheth us how to be Iuglers, the Bolognois to be Lyars, the Venetian to be Hypocrites, the Napolitan transformeth us to Satyres in lascivity and lust, the Roman plungeth us in an ocean of Atheism, the Florentine teacheth us the artifice of Poysoning.

Therefore under the favour of this noble Prince that spoak before me, and of this most celebrous and sage Assembly, I hold Italy, in statu quo nunc, to be most incapable to recover her former Principality, but fitter rather to be the Queene of Pleasures, than the Empress of Europe.

THE ORATION OF The L: NICHOLAS BAWNICKHAUSEN OF BALMEROD, By way of Apologie, or as a Temperament to the preceding ORATIONS.

Most Ample, Illustrious, and High-born Princes,

THere is no quality more naturally inherent, and so hereditary to humane braines, as variety and difference of opinions, which, I think never appear'd more evidently then in this most learned, and re­nowned Assembly; but I beleeve that those discrepancies of Judg­ments, which have happen'd, have proceeded not from any ha­tred, or Malignant humour, but from the innocent, and free con­ceptions of the mind; let malice and partiality seek lodging among the vulgar, and not harbour in such noble breasts as yours; 'Tis tru, ther hath been much acri­mony and bitternes shew'd in detecting the Vices of som peeple, but on the other side ther hath bin as much candor and sweetnes in displaying their vertues; In performance of both, Eloquence mounted up to her very height. But touching the Vices you have spoken of, we must have a due and serious regard of the frailties of humane condition, and it is a high point of injustice to charge a whole Nation with the misdemeanours of a few: so that Apology which the amorous Poet made in behalf of maydes, may be applyed to Nations:

Parcite paucarum diffundere crimen in omnes;
Spectetur meritis Natio quaeque suis.

We are all the Sons of Adam, and sprung from his loynes, Omnes mali sumus, and it comes oftentimes to passe that what one reprehends in another, or abroad▪ he finds it at home, and haply in his own bosome. Now, as all quadrupedrall Animalls, except Asses, are subject to a kind of Vermin, so ther is no Nation un­lesse it be meerly Asinin, but is subject to some infirmities or other; Ther is a free and facetious common saying, Nullam familiam esse in qua non sit fur aut Mere­trix, Ther is no family (high or low) but hath a whore or a knave in't: Now, if single Families cannot plead such an immunity, how shall we think that whole Na­tions can be able to do it? The greatest wits have a kind of mixture of madnes, and the best policied peeple, cannot be without som spice of Exorbitancy. The purest fields have som kind of weeds that repullulat among the corn; Either In­temperance, Incontinence, Idlenes or Hypocrisy, or som other signall vice doth sway [Page 46] among all peeple more or lesse. Wherupon when Gaspar Slickius was telling Frederique the fourth, that he abhorr'd Hypocrisy so much, that he wold go travell to find out a Countrey wher ther were no dissemblers, The Em­perour smiling said, Ultra sauro matas ergo & glacialem Oceanum tibi eundum est▪ tamen cum eò veneris non omnino carebit hypocrisi locus, si modo & tu homo non Deus es, Inter mortales enim nemo est qui non aliqua ex parta fictus fucatusque sit. Thou must go beyond Sarmatia, and the frozen Ocean, yet when thou comst thither, thou wilt find that there is Hypocrisie if they be Men, and no Gods, for there is not a Soul among Mortalls but is som way or other fain'd or counterfeited. Vitia erunt donec Homines, Ther will be Vices as long as ther are men, as Cerialis sa [...]th.

But while we inveigh against the Vice, it is no part of humanity to hate the per­son, let us hate the ill Manners and not the Man. And being mindfull of our own lubricities as well as of mankinds in generall, let us not be too Eagle ey'd into other mens infirmities, unlesse it be by them to mend our own.

I have heard, most excellen Prince Maximilian, what you have charged the French withall, viz. that they were possess'd somtimes with Furies, alluding to their sundry civill Commotions; 'tis very tru, yet they have not bin so far trans­ported, but they came to themselfs againe, and I doubt not but the hand of Hea­ven will in a short time quench these present flames that now rage there, and for us Germans it were our duty to bring all the water of the Rhin to do it; by calling to memory that most holy league which was struck between the Emperour Frede­rique the second, and Lewis the eighth of France, wherin the most ancient appellati­on of Germans and Franks, was reviv'd and acknowledgd to be the same nation, & sprung of the same stock, therfore it was capitulated, that when we came to men­tion one another, we shold mutually term our selfs brothers; We must remem­ber also how Maximilian the first, caus'd the book which was kept among the Records at Spire, to be publickly burnt, wherin all the injuries and quarrells that had ever happen'd twixt the Empire and the Kingdom of France were couch'd.

And you most adorn'd Baron of Limburg, under favour you have inveigh'd a­gainst Spain with too much heat, as if she were

Nido di tradimento ove si cova
Quanto mal per il mond'hoggi si trova.

As if Spain were the nest, wherin was hatch'd all the mischief that hath befaln poore Europe, since the Castilian mounted to this greatnes. Now as som Painters when they draw a Face take more pains to set out a Mole, or Wert, then the gracefulnesse of the whole countenance, so under correction have you bin pleas'd to delineat Spain unto us; It is true, the Spaniard is much emulated by som, and hated by others, suspected by all; but as many sweet and savoury things are not therfore insipid, because they prove so to squeazy and unsound stomachs, so the Spa­niard is not so bad of himself, because he is reported to be so, by such who either envy or Maligne him; All Spaniards are not like the Duke of Alva, who because he perfectly abhorr'd a Rebell, such as he held our Countrey-man the Low-Ger­man to be, did such severe execution upon them; for wheras they alledg that King Philip had broke his Oath, and infring'd their privileges, by introducing the Inqui­sition, and imposing new taxes, K. Philip answer'd, that 'twas they themselfs who had broken their own privileges first, by receding from that Religion, wherein he found them, and wherin acording as he was engaged to God Almighty by solemn Oath, taken at his Inauguration, he was bound to maintain them, which he could not do but by strength of Armes and a Warre, which they had drawn upon themselfs, and therfore it was just they shold maintain it: For what he did was to preserve his Oath with the Religion, and Immunities he found them in, which they wold force him to violat, therfor they may thank themselfs for the miseries that befell them; [Page 47] which yet in som respect turn'd mightily to their advantage, for it fil'd Belgium with wealth and tresure; In regard the Spaniard being of so haughty an humor, that he wold not relinquish his right to those Provinces, he employ'd so much Indian Gold and Silver to reduce them that countervayl'd the price of the Countrey forty times over; And had it not been for those unhappy Warrs, the Catholique King might by this time have pav'd all his Churches and palaces with Peru Ingots, and Mezican Patacoons.

Touching the Society of Iesuits, were it not for their Hildebrandian Doctrine, they might be very necessary Members of Church and State, both for the Educati­on of youth, the propagation of learning, converting of Infidels and other things.

For what concerns Great Britain, Hungary and Poland, truly the Darts which som Noble Princes here have hurld at them, were a little too keen; Touching the two last, those Encomiums which som noble Princes whom I behold before [...]e have made of them, make a full compensation for what was spoken contra; They a Martiall peeple, perpetually inur'd to Armes, and standing upon their gard, that the Common Enemy shall rush no further into Europe. And for them of Great Britain, as they were in former ages much renoun'd for their trophies and feats abroad, (for one of them built the walls of our Vienna returning from the Holy land, which, to confesse the truth, was more honor to him then to the Arch-Duke, who articled with him to do it) I say as some ages since, the English were famous, so of late yeers they were envied by all Nations for their mighty encrease of wealth and commerce, with peace and afluence of all felicity; Untill these late intestine Warrs happen'd, which makes them now to be rather pittied then Envied, to be rather scorned then respected; yet they have discover'd that the same spirit of magnanimity and prow­esse remaines still in the hearts of the peeple, as appear'd by those sundry battails, sieges and Skirmishings they had, which were more then happen'd in any Countrey for the time, considering the extent of ground; But that addition of Scotland to England was unhappy and fatall to her, for from that cold Northern dore blew all her troubles.

And now do I much admire what came into that Prince his mind, who spoke of Germany, to be so tart against her, and to throw so much dirt into the face of his own Countrey; surely as I beleeve he took those taunts and contumelies out of som forr ein Author, who was no great friend to Germany; but 'tis as easie for Her to shake them off, as feathers off a Cloak, or small flies when they infest us in Som­mer; but as Tiberius answer'd one, who told him of som aspersions that were cast abroad upon him, Non indignamur aliquos esse qui nobis male dicat, satis est si hoc habemus ne quis nobis malè faciat; We are not angry that ther are some who speak ill of us, It is enough that we are in such a condition, that no body can do us any ill; so may Germany say of her self. 'Tis too tru, that Caesar hath receiv'd some demi­nution in point of power, but though som Countreys which seem to have revolted from him seem to usurp his rights, yet he still claims them, and they acknowledg fealty; We know that Frederique the second writ to the Pope, Italia haereditas est mea, & hoc notum est toti orbi; you know Italy is my inheritance, and this is known to all the world, therfore when Pius the fourth wold have made Cosmo of Medici King of Hetruria, the Emperour did countermand it; And afterwards when Pius the fift created him, Gran Duke of Toscany, Caesar did protest against it, as an invasion of his imperiall prerogative; though that title was afterwards confirm'd to Francis his Son by the Emperors special charter, and intercession of friends, yet with this proviso, that he shold acknowledg himself Beneficiary of the Empire. Moreover it continueth to this day that when any difference happen twixt any of the Italian Princes about extent of Territory, the decision herof belongs to the Imperiall Court; Ther is a late pregnant example herof, for when the Genoways had en­croached upon the Marquis of Final, and had in a manner exterminated him from House and home, the Emperour Ferdinand did summon them to answer for them­selfs, with this menacing addition, Nisi Feciali suo parerent urbem & agrum Genu­ensem [Page 48] se proscripturum▪ If they wold not obey his Herald, his Imperiall Majestie wold proscribe both the Town and Countrey of Liguria, but they conform'd to his com­mand; Now, ther is no Civilian Doctor but will confesse that Caesar is Lord paramount, and consequently hath Jurisdiction over all the States of Italy, and that it is an incontroulable truth, and a Rule in Law, Nullis Italiae civitatibus leges condere jus esse quae Romanorum legibus quas Fredericus promulgari jussit contrariae sint, Ther is no City of Italy can by right establish any Law that may repugn any way the Roman Lawes which Frederique comanded to be promulgated. Touching the Pope, all the world know that he is no other de Iure but a Vassall or Chaplain to Caesar, who gave him the praefecture of Rome, and the Countrey adjacent; a con­firmation wherof, he solemnly seeks of every new Emperour: Therfore Caesar is not fallen from his property and Imperiall Right to Rome to this day; Nor is it ab­solutely necessary for him to make his personall residence in Rome, it being a Rule, Ibi est Roma, ubi est Imperator, Ther Rome is, where the Emperour is; We know that when Constantine the Great, did first transferr his Court to Constantinople, and fixed there, she being the fittest Citty to rule the world by reason of her situ­ation, yet he and his successors did still entitle themselfs Roman Emperours, pre­serving still their first rights; as the Athenians were sayed, notwithstanding that they had relinquished the Citty to conserve Athens still in their Ships; So that it may be sayd without much impropriety of speech, that Rome is now at Vienna, or Prague, or Norimberg, whersoever the imperiall person of Caesar is: All the Hans Towns, though they have made use of Caesar, and procur'd large priviledges for som pecu­niary contributions, yet they acknowledg him still their supreme liege Lord; Adde herunto that Savoy, Lorrain, and Burgundy are members of the Empire to this day; as also the Neitherlands or Belgium, therfore when the confederat Provinces having revolted from Spain, had sent a splendid legation to Elizabeth Queen of England, to take them under her protection, the just and wise Princesse put it to deliberation of Councell, as it appears yet upon Record, An cum alterius principis subditis protectionis faedus inire liceret, & an Belgae faederati offerre jure possent sine Caesaris consensu qui supremus Feudi Dominus erat; I say the said prudent Queen put it to debate, whether it was lawfull to enter into a league with the Subjects of another Prince, and whether those confederated Provinces could make such a pro­posall with the consent of Caesar who was Soveraign Lord of the Fee: Wherupon the first answer she sent them was, Nihil sibi antiquius esse quam fidem cum honore con, unctam tueri, nec dum sibi liquere, quomodo salvo honore, & conscientia integrâ pro­vincias illas oblatas in protectionem multo minus in possessionē accipere posset, Nothing, sayd Q. Eliz. was of more Religion to her, then to conserve her Faith conjoyn'd with an honor worthy of a Prince, and that it did not yet appear unto her how with safety of her honor and integrity of Conscience, she cold undertake the protection, much more the possession of those Provinces: Yet afterwards som darknesses and jealousies encreasing 'twixt her and Spain, she undertook the protection. And she prov'd a brave Auxiliary unto them, both for men and Money, in so much that the foundation of that Free State may be sayd to be cimented with English blood; 'Tis tru, that France concurr'd with her for pure politicall respects, for they were both as Remo­ras to the Spanish greatnes; Therfore although those sixe Fugitive Provinces which have revolted from Spain have been strangers to the Empire ever since, yet all the rest of the Provinces acknowledg their old homage to Caesar.

Now touching the Helvetians or Suisses, although by an Imperiall Diplom or Charter, they have Exemptionem à Iudicio Aulico, Camerali & Rotvillensi, li­bertatem foederationum, & immunitatem ab omnibus oneribus realibus Imperio de­bitis, tamen constitutione fractae pacis publicae tenentur, & pacem Imperii publicam violantes in Camera accusari possunt, imo etiam contra omnes Imperii hostes exteros suppetias ferre sunt obstricti. I say, although the Swisses have exemption from Court or Chamber censures, although they have freedom or confederacy, and an immu­nity from all reall taxes of the Empire, yet in case they infringe the publick peace, they are citable to the imperiall Chamber, and they are bound to bring ayd against all forren Enemies of the Empire.

[Page 49]Touching the excesse of Drinking, wherwith you brand the German, 'tis tru, that no Nation is more sociable and hospitable, which proceeds from the largenes of their Souls, and free Spirits, yet if they are peccant this way, their rare conti­nence makes a compensation for their intemperance; Yet under favour ther be other Nations that be as guilty this way; For wheras the German doth pelt the brain with small shot, I mean with little draughts, the Englishman doth use to Storm it with Canon Bullet, I mean with huge drawghts at a time, In so much that of the two he is the purer Drinker, for he is the only man who trades in sheere liquor, without eating any thing els, which all other Nations use to do; In so much, that Scaliger doth not hit the humor right in his Epigram, wherin he de­scants upon three Nations,

Tres sunt Convivae, Germanus, Flander & Anglus,
Dic, quis edit melius, quis meliusve bibit?
Non comedis Germane, bibis, Tu non bibis Angle
Sed comedis, comedis Flandre, bibis (que) bene.

Lastly, touching ITALY, Renowned and Triumphant Italy, that Noble Prince who declaim'd in her praise spoke too sparingly, and he who pleaded against her, spoke too much, he rubb'd her sores with too rigid a hand, specially the imperiall seven-hill'd City, glorious and immortall Rome, of whom it seems that Providence hath a peculiar and more speciall care then ordinary, for although she hath bin so often ravish'd by such swarmes of barbarous peeple, yet she still-holds up her head; and though so many Crowns & Scepters have forsaken her, yet the Crosier bears still up her aged limbs, and keeps her from falling. She, who in former ages preserved her self by Prowesse, doth do it now by piety. Touching her Bishops, that saying of Guicciardin's was a little too virulent, wherin he tells us, Hodie tam depravati sunt mores, ut in Pontifice laudetur probitas cum caeterorum hominum nequitiam non excedit: Ther is such a deprivation of manners now a dayes crept into Rome, that if the Popes vices do not exceed those of an ordinary man, he is accounted vertuous. Touching the wealth of the Church, and the bounty of our Pious progenitors, I am none of those that repine at it, and I wold be loath to deprive Saint Peter of his patrimony, or have any of his lands to mingle with mine, for fear they shold prove as a Canker in my Estate, I wold be loath to exchange Souls with any of those that robb the Church, I would not fill my Chests with such Aurum Tholosanum: Ther was a remarkable thing happen'd in the time of Frederique the second, who being extremely incenc'd against Peter de Vineis his Secretary, caus'd him to be ex­oculated; yet though he had so lost his eyes, the Emperour readmitted him to his Councel, because he was an extraordinary wise man: The Secretary was very sen­sible of the losse of his eyes, and therfor studyed how to be reveng'd. Herupon ther being a Warre twixt the Emperour and the Pope, the Secretary de Vineis told him, Vires Ecclesiae suismet opibus esse conterendas, The power of the Church is to be quell'd by her own wealth: Herupon he advised the Emperour to sell som of the Church goods, which he did in Pisa and other places, which being done, the Secretary told him boldly, Imperator, injuriam mihi à te illatam ultus sum,—O Emperor I have now reveng'd my self of the injury that was done me, Thou hast drawn upon thy self already the hatred of men, and now I have drawn upon thee the hatred of God by this act of Sacrilege, therfor all things shall fare ill with thee hereafter, which proved accordingly as the History plainly tells us.

Touching the excesses of some Popes, which Poggio and Platina ripp up, it can­not be denied but among so many som must be bad; In the first Election that our Saviour himself made of his twelve Apostles, we know ther was one naught, But let it not be forgotten that the first 33. Bishops of Rome were all Martyrs; If the Cardinalls purple seem too gay in the eyes of that Noble Prince who spoke against it, and that som Ecclesiastiques live in too much pomp and Plenty, The Capuchins [Page 50] frock, and the austere abstemious lifes of other mendicant Fryers may make som compensation for their excesses; If Venice and Naples with other places, have so many Courtesans, the continence of so many thousand cloyster'd sweet soules who have quite divorc'd themselfs from the world, and wedded Heaven, may serve to apologize for the Countrey in generall; Yet I am not so far transported with the love of Italy, (or any Region els) that she may deserve to stand in com­petition for preheminence with Germany; No, Italy comes as far short of her in that point, a [...] an Italian mile comes short of a German league, which in som places is five times longer.


C. Frederique von Pliegianem.

I Have heard with no lesse pleasure then profit all those most learned and Elaborat Orations, which have bin pronounced in this Princely Diet; and touching my own judgment I totally concurr in point of opinion with the personage that spoke last, and with his highnesse Charles Duke of Saxony, who dilated himself so gal­lantly upon the same subject, viz. that of all the Kingdoms and States of Europe, Germany deserves the Palm, and principality.

B. Henry von Pa [...]owitz.

And I also, most excellent Princes, am setled also in the same opinion, which I hold to be Orthodoxall, and not derogatory to any other Countrey be­sides.

C. Ioachim von Iaxheim.

And I am cleerly of that mind, nor do I hold it a wrong or disparagement to any other part of Europe to veile to Germany, and come in the arreare.

C. Christopher von Belward.

I have weigh'd and winnow'd in my intellectualls, all those opinions that have been delivered in this high convention, and I hold it appertaines de Iure to Germany to have the preheminence, which I wold be ready to maintain with my Sword, as well as with my saying, if occasion did require it; Nor doth this opinion proceed from any partiality or fondnes of affection because I am a German born, but from the pure dictates of reason and Justice.


Most Illustrious Prince, ever endeared Cosens, and much Honoured Barons.—

THer have bin many famous Diets in Germany, which have bin more populous, and of a longer continuance then this, but I beleeve ther was never any which transacted more busines in so short a time; I dare say that Europe was never so exactly survayed, & travelled over, as she hath bin these few dayes by us; And this we have don without incurring any inconveniences or hazards at all; either of difficult wayes, incursion of theeves, stumbling of horses, hard fare, illfavour'd lodgings, or crossing of Seas, with those nomberles incommodities which we know are incident to perigri­nation, and journeying in forrein Countries.

And now me thinks, you expect with earnestnes, and a kind of impatience that I shold deliver my opinion touching the question which hath bin controverted so ma­ny dayes, and canvas'd to an fro, with such high straines of Rhetoric and Energie of wit in so many fluent Orations swelling with such high tides of Eloquence, and learning; But I humbly desire to be excus'd herein, you know 'tis a rule of mo­rallity all the world over, that Comparisons are odious; Besides, under favour, neither the place nor persons of this Assembly, are fit to passe a definitive sentence hereof; We are all Germans, and do what we can, we must be a little indulgent to our own Countrey by an irresistible instinct of Nature: All Regions have som ad­vantage or other to make them lift up their crests. Let Germany glory that she hath the Prince Paramount of Christendom for her perpetuall guest, that Caesar keeps his Court in her. Let Spain be the Queen of Mines, France of Men; let Great Britain be the Queen of Iles, Italy the Queen of Policy, with all sorts of Elegancies; let it be granted that the French and Pole are best a Horseback, the Englishman and Hollander upon a deck, the Spaniard at a siege, the Italian in a Treaty, the Hun­garian upon a rampart, &c. Every Nation hath a particular aptitude to somthing more then another, and this by the common decree of Nature, who useth to disperse her benefits, and not powre them all together upon any one peeple.

And now, most splendid and magnificent Princes, my most dear Cosens and Com­patriots, how shall I pay that due tribut of gratitude, which I confesse to have made my self liable unto, for this noble and vertuous Congress? truly, no words are strong enough to expresse my self herin, unlesse they were couch'd in such pathe­ticall and gallant Orations which have bin formerly framd; All that I can say and desire for the present is, that you would please to accept of a lipp-payment only, (which yet is cordiall) untill som happy encounter may afford me an opportunity to return som reall acknowledgment: In the interim, most noble and hopefull Princes, well may your Soules fare, may your Vertues encrease, and your Fame flourish to all posterity.


A particular of such matters as were debated in this German Diet.

  • A Buse of forren Travell 3. in the pro. sage advise to a Traveller 4. fol. ibid.
  • Abbot of Fuldo the greatest of Christen­dom, he furnish'd the Emperour with 60000 fighting men. 9.
  • In that Abbacy 600. Gentlemen were usd to be bred, and 30. Doctors to teach them 10.
  • Auspurg famous for Goldsmiths 13.
  • The admirable wooden Eagle made by Regio­montanus to the life 14
  • All the old famous Artists musterd up among the Greeks and Romans 14
  • A notable passage 'twixt Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas 14
  • All the famous Printers numbred 15
  • Antwerp characteriz'd 16
  • Acostas opinion of the Torrid Zone 17
  • One of Aristotles Errors 17
  • Augustus Caesar and Tiberius drank most com­monly German wines 18
  • Annwerp erected the first Burse 20
  • Of Ariovistus the valiant German, his stout answer to Caesar 22
  • Above 19 millions of soules in Germany not counting Denmark and Bohemia, as Boterus affirms 25
  • A notable passage of Babo Count of Ahene­berg 25
  • Andaluzia from Vandales 26
  • Augustus Caesar twise defeated by the Germans, call'd Lolliana, and Variana clades 25
  • A memorable passage in Constantinople touch­ing one of the Emperours Ambassadors 26
  • The ancientest race of Noblemen is in Ger­many 26
  • of Artemisia and her wonderfull love to her husband 2
  • The answer of a Pole why he held the plough on Sunday 7
  • A notable example of poysning us'd in Po­land, and the fearfull judgment that ensued thereupon 8
  • Aurelianus the Emperour kill'd 48. men in one day in the field 12
  • Attila characteriz'd 18
  • his death 19
  • A wise Answer of an Archbishop of Colen to the Abbot of Fuldo 19
  • S. Augustins wish 28
  • A Calabrian hath nothing but the shape of a man in him 36
  • A shrewd judgment of a learned Frenchman touching Italy 42
  • Aquitaine daintily describ'd by Salvianus, and Province by Boterus 38
  • Aristotle fouly err'd when he writes that there are no Asses in France 53
  • The Duke of Anjous miscarriage in the Nether­lands, he was made Governor by Queen E­liz. letters 59
  • Of the French disease 59
  • The French Nation censur'd, They have whirlwinds in their brains, quicksands in their breasts, characters given of them by the Ancients 59
  • French Kings not liable to pay the debts of their predecessors, examples produc'd 59
  • A nasty leprous French peeple call'd Capotts dwelling in Bearn 59
  • The Invincible Armada in the yeere 88 des­crib'd 39
  • Of Prince Arthur, his character in verse 41
  • Mr. Arondel of Warder how he came to be Count of the Empire, his patent 42
  • Ausonius his character of a salmon 46
  • His opinion of the Britains 53
  • Adrian the fourth an Englishman his haughti­nes 55
  • Anne of Bullen taunted in France 56
  • Of the Abuse of Tobacco 56
  • An Apologie for human infirmities 45
  • The advantages of divers Countreys 51
  • An Apologie for the Popes and the Cardi­nalls 49
  • Another for Italy 50
  • The Atheisticall life and saying of a German Prince 36
  • Of Amsterdam 35
  • Of the Austrian Family 29
  • BOdins notable description of Germany 10
  • Berchtoldus Swartzius a Franciscan first In­ventor of gunpowder 14
  • Bezas Epigram of Aldus Manutius the Prin­ter 15
  • Boterus his opinion of the German Cities 16
  • Of Bachrag wines 18
  • The benefit Holland makes of her milk may compare with Bourdeaux wines, or Lisbons spices 19
  • Biscopius a Welch Monk made five pilgrimages [Page] to Rome, and us'd to bring with him some choice Artists 23
  • Bon [...]inius preferrs Austria before Italy 35
  • The bad Popes censur'd 37
  • Bembo's prophanesse 38
  • Of a Bishop that died by keeping in his wind backward at a feast 41
  • Beatrix Emp: Barbarossa's wife barbarously usd in Milan, the Emperor had his full re venge 42
  • The Britains of the Gallic, or Wallic race 42
  • Bodin censur'd 60
  • Great Britain characteriz'd 33
  • Her advantag [...]ous situation 33
  • Her seas as fruitfull as her shores 33
  • Her character in verse 33
  • Her character by Eumenius to Constantin the Great 33
  • The progresse that her Fish makes about her throughout the yeer, with her severall sea­sons of fishing 34
  • Britain a microcosm of herself 34
  • Of the Inhab [...]tants of Britain 34
  • Britain had the first Christian King and Em­perour 36
  • Britain branded by Porphyry 36
  • The old Britons or Welsh the greatest planters of Christianity 36
  • Most of the famous men of Britain ancient and modern musterd up 37
  • Boniface his ill report of the English 50
  • Britain hath the best Cocks and Doggs 51
  • The Baths of Germany 36
  • Bartolus saying, that tall men are seldo [...] wise 30
  • S. Bernards description of Ireland 6 [...]
  • A bitter satyre against the Queen of Scot land 64
  • Buchanan and Knocks censur'd 64
  • THey of China an Eagle-eyd p [...]eple, next neighbours to the Rising Sun. They dis­dain all other Nations. Their proverb.
  • The true appellation of China, 8. times bigger then France. They are good Artists. They have generally flat noses. They restrain strangers to come into their Countrey. They inhibit the Natives to travell abroad, &c. 2 in the proeme.
  • The character of man 2 in the pro.
  • The Chino is enemies to humanity, to the law of Nature 2 in the pro.
  • Cybeles priests were Hermaphrodites 4 in the pro.
  • Charlemain vers'd in many languages, a good Poet, he caus'd the Grammar to be put in the vulgar toung, and German names to be impos'd upon the months in the yeer, he di­vided the winds into twelve, he was us'd to be present in the schooles, and threatned a degradation to all Nobles that were illi­terat 11
  • Charls the V. had Thucydides alwaies with him in the field 11
  • A comparison touching Italy 35
  • Another comparison 36
  • A comparison of the French Wines 39
  • A comparison of the French Kings 50
  • A comparison of Monsieur de la Nove 54
  • Two comparisons wittily us'd 7
  • A fit comparison 6
  • A comparison 'twixt the Germans and Italians 8
  • Caesar saluted onely the skirts of Germany 8
  • A comparison of Rivers 9
  • A comparison of Weeds 9
  • Cicero [...]s complaint of false writing 15
  • A comparison of Tacitus 17
  • Caesars saying of the Swablanders 23
  • A comparison touching Kingdoms 23
  • Of the Cosacks 23
  • A high comparison about the praises of Italie 21
  • A comparison 41
  • The Italian Wheat is the first, the Boetian next, the Sicilian the third, and the African next that 21
  • Of Cosmo de Medici and his rare abilities, his admirable pietie, his golden speech, his Epitaph 27
  • THe duty of a Traveller 3. in the pro.
  • Duke of Saxony Orator for Germany 5
  • His curious Proeme. 5
  • Disswasions from forren Travell 7
  • Danzick, Delph, in Low Germany, and Rostock, Paderborn, Brunswick, and Breslaw in High Germany the most famous for Beer 18
  • The Duke of Holyiein had at one time 1000. Ma [...]es, and 160 Stallions 19
  • Of the Danube that watereth a hundred peo­ple 19
  • The Dutch were Grandfathers, if not Fathers of the Britains, as Caesar writes. 23
  • Of divers that writ upon bald petty subjects, as Archippus [...]ell upon the praise of an Asse, Passeratius upon his shadow, Lucian of a fly, Erasmus of folly, &c. 6
  • The defects of Italy in not having Navi­gable Rivers with others 35
  • Divers places in Italy subject to ill aires 35
  • Of Duke Godf [...]ey of Bullen 43
  • A Discou [...]se against Elective Kingdomes, and what confusions come by Interreg­nums 47
  • Dirt of Paris indelible 63
  • Montague his saying of his Countrymen 64
  • A Discourse of Forren Travell by the Duke of Saxony 5
  • Of Duels so much us'd by the French 64
  • The dangerous opinions of the Jesuits, and the various wayes they have to oblige the Gen­try 17
  • Of Sir Francis Drake and his exploits 42
  • [Page]The English taunted wittily fol. 6
  • Eudoxus his Extravagant wish to go near the Sun 6
  • English sweat 6
  • Eckius first found found the way of mingling Oyl with Colours 14
  • An Encomium of Printing 16
  • The Excellencies of the German Cities 17
  • England call'd Transmarina Saxonia 24
  • Entringh Castle, a memorable passage that happen'd in it 24
  • The Encouragement the Pope gives Mer­chants to buy his Allum 22
  • Aeneas Sylvius his witty Distic to the Poets 37
  • Extravagant wishes of two Brothers in Padoa, whereby they both perished 42
  • The Excesse of speech that Maximilian us'd touching France 37
  • A notable example of a drunken woman in France 62
  • Of the English Kings 39
  • The English made Trade to flourish first in Flanders 40
  • Of Queen Elizabeth 40
  • The English great Reverencers of their Kings 40
  • The Earth is the Native Country of all men; she is but one Mansion 3. in the Pro.
  • The marvellous Eccho of Charenton bridge in France, that reverberates 13 times 4. in the Pro.
  • Of the Escurial in Spain the eighth wonder of the world 3
  • Notable Examples of the Spanish constan­cy 6
  • Edgar row'd by four Kings 38
  • The Exploits of the English in France 38
  • The English formidable in France as by exam­ple 38
  • The English King pray'd for more often than any other 41
  • Queen Elizabeth caused the Great Turk to ex­pell the Jesuits out of Pera 19
  • The English censur'd 67
  • Englands Inconveniencies 61
  • The English and Dutch compar'd in point of drinking 37
  • Examples of Drunkards 37
  • A Fantastick Traveller 3. fol. in the Pro.
  • Set forth by Sir Thomas More in the per­son of Lalus, a meer Ape or Mimick, &c. 3. in the Pro.
  • He turns a Sprat to a Whale 4. in the Pro.
  • France taunted 6
  • Forren Travel the best Academy 7
  • The famous Divines of Germany muster'd up, the famous Politicians, the famous Physiti­ans and Philosophers 12
  • Germany the first Correctresse of the Kalen­der 12
  • The Fantastick humour of Petrus Bembus tou­ching the Latin tongue 13
  • France the center of Europe, she enjoyes a de­licate temper, able to unite or hinder the conjunction of the forces of Europe, her comodious situation 38
  • The four Loadstones of France according to Boterus 38
  • Without France, Spain might starve for Bread 39
  • Of the French Wines 39
  • Of the French Hemp 39
  • Of the French Salt compar'd with that of o­ther Countries 39
  • Of divers other French comodities wherewith the Country abounds 39
  • The bad fruits of forren Travell 6
  • Friburg famous for Crystal work 13
  • Florence a City to be seen on Holydaies, as Charls the Emperour sayd 16
  • Of the French Mines 40
  • A Fish in France that changes with the Moon 4
  • Of the French Rivers, and how commodious­ly they lie for Navigation, 40
  • France the eye and pearl of the world 41
  • France hath 102 Episcopal Cities, whereof four are Metropolitan, she hath 30000. Pa­rishes 41
  • Of the French Towne, and of Paris in parti­cular 42
  • France the freest Country upon earth, and the reasons 42
  • The Freedome of France exemplified by two notable instances 42
  • Of the French Martial Kings 43
  • Of the French Church, and the vast Reve­nue thereof 43
  • A Frenchman the first Latin Lecturer in Rome when Cicero was a boy 43
  • Of the great Learned men of France, and the Colledge of Sorbon 44
  • Of the French Academies 44
  • Of the French Tongue, and of Ioseph Scaliger, the Dictator of Literature 46
  • The best French spoken upon the banks of Loire 46
  • Of the French Kings, and their excellencies 46
  • The French Crown not tied to a Distaffe, and the reason alledged 46
  • French Kings never die, example thereof 47
  • France prohibits the Imperial Law, 48
  • French Kings beginne to raign inchoativ [...] at 14 48
  • Their high Prerogatives, and of the Parlia­ment of Paris 49
  • French King more glorious than the Emperor in gards, &c. 50
  • The French King cures the Struma, and the manner of it 50
  • Of the late French Kings, and their charact­ers, specially of Henry the great, and his Son the late Lewis the 13. 51
  • France and her King worthy to have the Principality, and the reasons 52
  • Francis the first brought in the Turk against [Page] Spain, & the act authoriz'd by examples 55
  • Of the French Ligue, and the monstrousness of it 55
  • French Kings censur'd 55
  • Of Henry the 3. his vision, his death, his Epi­taph 56
  • France possessed with 3 Furies 56
  • Sale of Offices in France a high Injustice 57
  • French Gentlemen all Surgeons 61
  • Of the French language 61
  • France full of wanton Books 62
  • Of the French Rablais 62
  • The French often eaters 63
  • The French most changeable 63
  • When the Frenchman sleeps the Devil rocks the cradle, a Proverb of the Flemin 63
  • The foolishness of the Londoners in point of building 61
  • Gratianus his famous Decree 2. in the Pro.
  • Germany much better'd by forren travel 3. in the Pro.
  • The German Gentlemen tax'd for abusing for­ren Travel 6
  • The Germans very thick abroad in other Countryes 6
  • Germany the Princesse of Europe 7
  • Gaunt in Flanders the greatest City in Europe 7
  • Germany suddenly turn'd Christian, her mar­vailous piety 9
  • Germany describ'd by Paulus Iovius 10
  • She hath mightily flourished since the Coun­cell of Constance in Universities and Know­ledge 10
  • The German Princes very covetous of degrees in Learning 11
  • Of the Duke of Gelders 11
  • All the German great Townes excell in some particular thing 13
  • A German Fryer Inventor of Guns, and
  • A German Swordman Inventor of Printing, vice versa 14
  • The German Cities characteriz'd 16
  • The German Territories characteriz'd 17
  • Of the German Wines 18
  • Germany compar'd to Italy 18
  • The German commodities set forth 18
  • Of the German Horses 19
  • Of the German Rivers 19
  • Of the German Fish 19
  • Of the German Mines of Gold and Silver, with other Mettals 19
  • The German most Hospitable 20
  • German Gentlemen restrained from Trade 20
  • The Germans never beat their servants, nor imprison their Tenants 21
  • Germany an ill Country for Bastards 21
  • The German rare for chastity and conjugall love 22
  • Of the German valour 22
  • Germany called by the Belgians, Magna patria 23
  • Germany the strongest body of Europe if uni­ted 26
  • The Genoways only worse than Englishmen 36
  • The Germans tartly censur'd 34
  • The German way to try whether a child be a Bastard 73
  • AN Honest man must be a mixt man, the reason why 3. in the Pro.
  • Hyperboles of divers sorts 4. in the Pro.
  • Hollanders best makers of Linnen cloth, their Looms are as fine as Arachnes Webb 13
  • Holst & Oudenard excel in woven Pictures 13
  • Holland hath thirty three Cities, whereof from Gorcham Tower one may see 22 16
  • Hercynian Forrest once nine dayes journey broad 17
  • Holland characteriz'd by Scaliger 17
  • Holland Cowes give twelve quarts a day 19
  • Herodes King of Iudaea had a Guard of Ger­mans 21
  • How the Germans took footing in France 23
  • Horslers and Tapste [...]s in Poland understand Latin in many places 3
  • How Rome hath been ingrateful to those who deserved best of her 10
  • Hungary hath strong Wines 10
  • Hungary hath a River call'd Tibisco, whereof it is said, that she hath two parts water, and the third fish 11
  • Saint Hierom an Hungarian 11
  • Hungary hath had famous men, their names 11
  • Hungary affoorded eight Roman Emperours, their names 12
  • Other brave Kings of Hungary mentioned 13
  • The brave answer of an Hungarian Gentlewo­man 14
  • Hungary the Antimurale and chiefest Rampart of Europe 15
  • Hungary glorieth of Stephen Bartorius, and de­servedly, his character. 15
  • Of the Hungarian languor, or fai [...]iness 17
  • Some Hungarian Wells that will singe Hoggs, yet they breed fish 17
  • The Hungarians described by Bishop Otto of Frisenghen 18
  • The Huns said to have their original from som Demons 18
  • Henry the 4 of France censur'd many ways 65
  • In Henry the seconds time but two Coaches in all Paris 63
  • The Hollander lives partly upon the idleness of the English 49
  • A horrid Murrher of a German Butcher 49
  • THe Italian taunted 6
  • The Italian sends yeerly to Germany for Artists as Statuaries, Architects, Limmers, Surveyours, Aqueductors, &c. 12
  • Iohn Guttemberg of Mentz, first Inventor of Printing 14
  • How Irenaeus adjur'd the writer of his works tobe true 15
  • Of the Italian Mountibanks 6
  • Of Idlenes and sloth 11
  • Italy to other Kingdoms as a diamond to Bri­stol stones 20
  • Italy characteriz'd by Pliny 20
  • The high Elogy that an Emperour gives of Italy 21
  • Some Italian soyles affoord 4 [...]attermaths 21
  • Italy, Bacchus his Inner Celler 21
  • [Page]Of the Italian wines 21
  • The wines of Papia cur'd Boetius, and after­wards he fell to write his book de Consola­tione 21
  • The various comodities of Italy 22
  • Italy describ'd curiously by Florus 22
  • The Italian Cities with their Epithetts 22
  • A Napolitan found out the Mariners Compas, a Venetian found out the making of glasse 23
  • Of the brave Artists of Italy, of the Poets and
  • Orators with Philosophers 23
  • Italy the great source and Cestern whence all civility flow [...]s 24
  • Italy hath 17. Academies 24
  • The Italian cautious in exposing himself to danger 24
  • The brave resolution of an Italian when Charles the eight entred Italy 25
  • Italy bred great Captains 25
  • Of Christophero Colomba a greater Heroe then Hercules, the reasons induc'd him to that design, his proceedings in short, how he jeerd the ranting Spaniards, how he was slighted, & at last listned unto by Isabella 25
  • The Italians are true friends, exemplified by Signior Priuli a Venetian Gentleman, and Cardinall Pole 26
  • Italy a seeker after, and rewarder of vertu, Rome the common Countrey of all Nations where any is capable of dignity 26
  • Of the stupendous wealth and strength of Ve­nice, stil a virgin, the greatest mistresse of Sea in the world, her exploits and policy 28
  • Divers Characters of Rome, one by Livy, her admired populousnes and riches in times pass'd, of her Bishop, alwayes a Reverencer of the Gods, of old and new Rome, of the Pope, and many examples produc'd, what adorations have been done him by Empe­rors and Kings, the notable letter of Adrian the fourth to the Electors of Germany, the names of those Kingdoms that are feu­detary to Rome, how divers Emperours, & Kings have been excōmunicated by him 31
  • Touching Generall Councels, a proverb of the Pope in Italy, &c. 33
  • Italy by many characters of merit deserves to have the precedence of all Countreys in Europe 33
  • Of famous Iohn Hawkwood 45
  • Ireland famous of old for learned men 49
  • The Irish have a holy proverb of S. Patrick 49
  • Ireland and Scotland censurd. 66
  • KIngdoms no other then Magna Latroci­nia fol. 41
  • Kingston upon Hull like a Low-Countrey town 47
  • Of Keneth the Pict, who brought the corona­tion stone from Ireland to Scotland 48
  • THe Lord Presidents complement to the rest of the Princes 1. in the pro.
  • Lycurgus against forren Travell 2. in the proeme
  • The Law of God that strangers should be as well us'd of Natives 2. in the pro.
  • Of Luther his quil compar'd to Hercules club 9
  • Lotharius the Emperour the first restaurator of learning in Germany 10
  • Leunclavius compild the History of the Ma­humetans while he was Ambassador for Ro­dolphus in Constantinople 11
  • Lovain had 4000. Weavers loomes in the yeer 1330 13
  • The English first taught to make cloth by the Lovantans 13
  • Lubecks beer medicinall 18
  • Of Lorenzo de Medicis a memorable passage 22
  • Leo the tenth born for the restauration of let­ters 24
  • London and Genoa compar'd in Ingratitude and why 26
  • Latin toung two thirds Greek 38
  • Languages descanted upon 61
  • Laval in the raign of Francis the first, a corpu­lent gentleman, was the first Inventor of Coches 63
  • Lipsius his opinion of Oxford 44
  • Of London, Englands Imperiall chamber 44
  • A Libell in Spain against the Jesuitts, and another in France 18
  • Of love to ones Countrey 31
  • MAn not tied to one place no more then a bird or fish 3. in the proeme
  • Man Lord of all elementary creatures by divine charter 3. in the pro.
  • Machiavill rebukes his Countrey men because they us'd German Mathematicians 10
  • Magdeburg the Metropolis of Germany 16
  • Many errors of the Ancients musterd up 17
  • The monstrous trade of Antwerp in times pass'd 20
  • The marvailous riches of Antwerp, when she was plundred by the Spaniards 20
  • The memorable History of a Duchesse of Ba­varia, of conjugall love to Guelpho her hus­band 22
  • The miraculous story of a Countesse in Hol­land who brought forth so many children as dayes in the yeer 24
  • Lituania in some parts doth offer sacrifices to the Devil; the maner of their worship 7
  • M. T. Cicero the great standard bearer of Ora­tors 23
  • A maxime of Ilanders 35
  • A modest saying of Iulius the third, though an odd one 37
  • A mighty clash 'twixt the Pope and the King of France 39
  • Moses Gods Chancelor 2. in the pro.
  • Mets put bounds to the conquests of Charles the fift 43
  • Of the great Massacre in France, and the hor­rid comet that follow'd a little after, the eminent men that were slain 54
  • Medalls with the inscriptions after S. Bartho­lome massacre 55
  • Of Marseilles in France a Greek proverb 61
  • The Marquis of Ancre most barbarously mur­therd 63
  • Of Maurice Prince of Orenge, his speech upon his death bed 37
  • NAtures Great Ordinance 2. in the pro.
  • Nilus hath a strange property 7
  • Norimberg one of the most ingenious [Page] towns in Europe 13
  • A notable saying of Valentinian touching the French 24
  • The Normans a valiant peeple issued from Ger­many 25
  • How they came to be call'd Bygods 25
  • The Normans elegantly characteriz'd by Roger Hoveden 25
  • Notable exploits of the Germans against the Romans 25
  • The Normans chas'd first the Saracens out of Sicily 25
  • A notable resolution of the Gosack 5
  • No learning at all left in Greece at this time 37
  • A notable saying of Borgia Pope Alexanders son when he had lost 100000. crowns at dice 37
  • The notable cunning of Aeneas Sylvius touch­ing Rome 39
  • Nogaret the French Ambassador takes the Pope a cuff under the eare 39
  • A notable letter the Greek Churches writ to Iohn the third 39
  • The notable speech of Charles the fift to Sel­di [...]s at Flushing 11
  • No River so full of Meanders as the Sein in France 14
  • Narbon curiously characteriz'd in Latin verse 41
  • A notable example of sacrilege 49
  • Of Nations in general, & their dexterity 51
  • Three notable stories in Germany 34
  • THe occasion of this meeting 1. in the pro. Otho the Emperour scap'd imprisonment in Greece, because he spoak the language so well 11
  • Of Mary Q. of Hungary a remarkable passage 21
  • Of the glory of the Emperor & the Electors 26
  • Of Charlemain the first founder of the German Empire 26
  • Of the famous men in Poland 3
  • Of ploughs and culters of wood to which the pole doth attribut a kind of Divinity 7
  • Of some positions of the Canon Law 38
  • Of the Canonists who are great champions for the Pope 38
  • Of divers Emperours who summond Generall Councells 41
  • Of divers Popes who were elected, and cha­stiz'd by Emperors 41
  • Of Italy, France and England a proverb 57
  • Of the Jesuits their rise, their progresse and policy, all factors for Spain, their strange tenets, how they tugg'd to get into Paris, how they were banish'd Venice.
  • Of the Indispositions of the Spanish mon­archy 26
  • Of the gastly death of Philip the second, and many circumstances belonging to it, his Epitaph.
  • Of Portugall and her pittifull sterility
  • Of the strongest Forts upon earth 34
  • The Opinion of an Italian touching the strength of England 38
  • The Order of the golden Fleece more proper to England then to any Countrey els 40
  • Of York the Seat of Emperours 47
  • Of Scotland 48
  • Of Ireland 49
  • Of the lightnes of the Britains 53
  • Of the prerogatives of the Emperour 48
  • Of curing the Kings evill by the French King, the opinion of Crescentius 68
  • Of the base Ingratitude of the Scotts 65
  • IN praise of Peregrination 3. in the pro▪ Poyson cur'd in a strange way 6
  • A proverb the Italians have of the Germans 12
  • In the praise of Poland 1
  • Of the Perusian Ambassadors employed to the Pope a facetious passage 1. in Pol.
  • Poland hath salt pitts under ground like pa­laces 1
  • Poland a very plentifull Countrey 2
  • A Polonian marchant nam'd Vernicius being Consull of Cracovia was rich to admiration, famous entertainment he gave to 3 Kings 2
  • The Pole delights not much in sumptuous buildings 2
  • There were nine score talents erogated out of Garlik, Onions and Leeks, towards the building the pyramids o [...] Egypt 2
  • The Pole measures his house by his own body 2
  • The Pole goes beyond all for manly attire 2
  • The Pole confines upon two potent neigh­bours, the Turke and the Russe 4
  • The brave answer that Stephen King of Poland gave the Turk 4
  • Potts found naturally shapen in the earth neere Streme 4
  • Poland hath had very victorious Kings, they are reckon'd up 4
  • King of Poland created a perpetuall friend to the Empire 5
  • Philip the second would not refer to the Pope the right to Portugall 39
  • The prerogative of the German Diet 1. in the proeme.
  • Plato against forren travell 1. in the pro.
  • The famous pilgrimage of Otto the third to a saint in Poland, & the story belonging to it 4
  • The Pole can bring into the field 150. thou­sand fighting men 5
  • Of the Polish Nobility 5
  • The Poles three parts of foure are Arrians 8
  • In some Polish words there are 10. consonants to one vowell 9
  • The Polish words as so many stones thrown at a mans brain
  • A proverb of Hungary 19
  • The power of Pisa in times pass'd, when she had 100 gentlemen that could put every one a gally to sea upon his own charge 27
  • The power of Genoa in times pass'd ibid.
  • Of Philip the second, his consciousnes before he invested Portugall, his sage cariage about his son before he died 12
  • Of the perfidiousnes of the English against the old Britains 34
  • Of Printing and Gunns 39
  • ROme recovered Learning by Urban the 4.
  • who sent for Thomas Aquinas 23
  • As also afterwards by Cosmo and Lorenzo de Medici 23
  • Reasons that Great Britain may stand in com­petition [Page] for the primacy of Europe 50
  • Raphael Urbin design'd by Leo the tenth to be a Cardinal 37
  • Reasons why Great Britain cannot deserve the preheminence of other Countries 67
  • The Russe seldom travels abroad 2. in the Pro.
  • Rodolphus the Emperours wise speech to a Traveller 6
  • The Rule of Providence not to powre down all blessings at once 8
  • Of Regiomontanus 10
  • A Remarkable passage of Everard Barbatus Duke of Wirtemberg 21
  • The Roman Emperours had a guard of Ger­mans for their fidelity
  • Of the Renowned Families of Germany, and their antiquity and extent through all Eu­rope 26
  • Rhodope a rich Courtisan built one of the Py­ramids of Egypt 2
  • Rome in one Cense that was made had in her two millions and a half of soules 2
  • Rome when Pagan had above 400 Temples, now Christian she hath scarce the 4th part 2
  • The sorry report the French gave of Poland at their return with Hen. 3 6
  • Rome often ravished 28
  • Rome shrunk into a Pigmey's skin from that Gigantick shape she was 34
  • The hugenesse of Rome conjectur'd by many arguments 34
  • SCotsmen Men-eaters 63
  • Spain first attempted, and at last subdued by the Romans 2
  • Spain preferr'd before all countries by Charles the 5 1
  • Spain with her commodities laid op [...] 2
  • Spain the fragrantst Country 2
  • In Spain Milk cannot turn to Whey in some places 2
  • Spain the Queen of horses 2
  • Of the chief Cities of Spain 3
  • Of the Mines of Spain 4
  • The site and form of Spain 4
  • Of the 150 Rivers that water Spain 4
  • Spain hath a bridge twenty miles long, where­on cattle feed 4
  • Spanish Crown made of her own gold 4
  • Spain describ'd by Claudian 5
  • A Spanish Guard about Iulius Caesar, Augustus had a Band of Biscainers 6
  • A notable example of the Spanish valour 6
  • The Spaniards right justified to the West Indies 7
  • The Spanish Discoverers of the West Indies, the Discoverers of the East 7
  • Spaniards the sole Grandees of this Age 8
  • Spain hath bred notable Spirits 8
  • Of the Jesuits founded by a Spaniard 9
  • The Spanish Monarchy the vastest since the Creation 10
  • The Sun alwaies shines upon some part of the Philippian Monarchy 10
  • Sacriledge to dispute of the Emperours power 2. in the Pro.
  • Spain taunted 6
  • Seneca's notable Speech against Forren Tra­vell 6
  • Satan doth commonly set up his Chappel near Gods House 9
  • Scaligers witty saying of [...]lavius 12
  • Scaligers cōparison 'twixt thunder & canon 14
  • Scaligers witty saying of Printing▪ of Canon, Wheele-clocks 16
  • Scaligers Elogium of Antwerp 16
  • The Swisse scarce knew the use of Gold and Silver til the overthrow they gave the Duke of Burgundy near Granson 19
  • Spanish Souldiers made hilts of swords of mas­sie Gold at the plundring of Antwerp 20
  • A notable speech of Philip the second when his Father resign'd him his dominions 22
  • The wondrous strength of Sigismund King of Poland, who could crack a horshooe 8
  • Slavonique the most spacious Tongue 8
  • Strange examples of some learned men that lost their memory as not to remember their own names 34
  • Scaligers tart opinion of Rome 35
  • Sicily call'd by G [...]cero, Romes Nurse, and the peoples Pantry 35
  • Sannazarius writ three books of Jesus Christ, and yet never names him 38
  • Spain hath afforded many brave Emperors 11
  • The Spanish Grandezas expressed, and reasons alledged that the Spanish King is to be pre­ferrred before all other Potentates 11
  • In Spain the Mule fares sometimes better than the Master 1 [...]
  • The sterillity of Spain discovered by a pleasant tale of the Count Palatin of the Rhine 15
  • Of the Spanish pride some examples 21
  • How Spain came to this greatness 22
  • A question whether the Spaniards were first discoverers of the East and West Indies 22
  • Of the Spanish cruelty in the Indies 23
  • Spanish King not so potent as we take him to be, and the reasons 24
  • The Spanish valour question'd 26
  • Divers Spanish Rodomantadoes 26
  • The Spanish Fleet the highest Grandeza that ever was 27
  • The sharp sight of the Spaniard 27
  • A memorable story of a Spanish Captain in Flander [...] 27
  • Though the King of Spain be in perpetuall war, and infinitely indebted, yet there is no appearance at all in his Court 27
  • A Traveller compar'd to a Horsleech, and Paris of Troy 6
  • Tacitus his notable speech against Germany 7
  • Thuanus saith that Cambray makes 30000 lin­nen cloths yearly 13
  • Tacitus like to have been lost, had he not been received in a monastery of Westphalia 15
  • Typography casts a bridle into times mouth 15
  • Typography Ars memoriae, & Mors oblivionis 15
  • Tacitus his opinion of Germany rectified 17
  • The Tower of Strasburg 574 foot high 17
  • Tacitus call'd by Budaeus, the wickedest of all writers, by Tertullian, the lyingst, by Orosius, the flattringst 17
  • Tyrol abounds most with Mettals of any Coun­try 17
  • The Turks call all Christians Freinks, and the Abyssins call them Alfrangues 24
  • The Great Turk prefers the Christian Empe­rours Ambassador before all others 26
  • The temple of Ephesus 22 years a building 2
  • The Pope a great temporal Prince & proud 33
  • [Page]A tart censure of the Italian 36
  • A tart saying touching Saints 37
  • ULms excells in Drapery of all sorts 13 Utrecht stands betwixt 50 Cities, whereof the remotest but a dayes journey 16
  • Vienna describ'd by Aeneas Sylvius 18
  • Vladislaus the perjur'd K. of Poland & the horrid judgment that fell upon prince & peeple 8
  • The Yew poysonous to those that sleep under it, a brasse nayl beaten in takes away the poyson 40
  • The vertu of Iron 40
  • A strange vision Henry the 3 of France had be­fore his death 56
  • How he was murther'd, with his Epitaph ibid.
  • Vulcan hath his chief forge, and Mars his Ar­mory in Bilbo 4
  • Of Viriatus the valiant Portuguez 6
  • A question discuss'd, whither the old world got more by the new, or the new by the old 8
  • The vanity of the Portuguais 20
  • Of the Spanish Inquisition 20
  • The three vowes of Solyman 29
  • BOdin wittily taunted 53
  • A witty Epigram on Katherin de Medicis Q of France 54
  • A witty saying of Henry the 4. of France 57
  • A witty comparison touching Bodin 60
  • A witty character of the French by Pontuma­rinus 60
  • A witty Chronogram 12
  • Witty reparties 'twixt a German and a Dutch­man touching their languages 61
  • A witty Epigram for drinking 38
  • A wise law of the Lacedemonians touching las­civious books 62
  • A witty saying touching the order of Knight­hood in France 63
  • Two witty comparisons 64
  • A wise saying of an English Captain 57
  • A witty letter of C [...]ligni to the French King 64
  • A witty Epigram upon Spain 24
  • A witty saying how Philip got the Kingdom of Portuga [...]l 6
  • A wise saying of Philip the second 11
  • His wise speech at his death 11
  • A witty simile touching Spain 14
  • A witty speech of Henry the fourth touching Spain 14
  • The witty speech of King Iames touching the Spaniard 24
  • Whither the Indian gold hath done more hurt or good to Europe 24
  • Some witty sayings of the wild Indians reflect­ing upon the Spaniards 23
  • A witty saying of Robert Duke of Normandy 10
  • A witty speech of K. Iames touching Tobacco 5
  • A wise saying of Cosmo de Medici 27
  • Walloons that fled from the fury of the Duke of Alva in Flanders taught the English to make Bays and Serges 13
  • A witty character of a King 15
  • The Wines of Germany 18
  • Wine fo plentifull in Germany, that in some places they macerat their lime and mingle their morter, with it 18
  • The Walls of Babylon 200 foot high, and 60 miles in compas 2
  • Of the seven wonders 2
  • Where the Turks horse sets his foot the grass never grows 4
  • A witty answer of Charles the sift 21
  • A wise saying of Scaurus 33
  • A wise saying of Sigismund the Emperor, and of A [...]phonso of Aragon touching Learning 37
  • A witty Epigram upon Henry the 4 19
  • A wise speech of the Pontano Duke of Venice to the Popes Ambassadors 39
  • A wise sanction made at a Diet against the Popes power in the election of the Emp. 39
  • A wise saying of the Duke of Alva. 24
  • Witty answers of som Emperors to the Pope 41
  • A witty saying of an Ambassadour 1
  • The witty answer of Hen. 4. to the Parisians 42
  • Of brave women 47
  • A witty saying of Hen. the 2. King of France 49
  • A witty saying of Lewis the 12 50
  • A witty saying of a Spanish Ambassadour 50
  • A witty Epigram upon Sir Francis Drake 42
  • Ward the English Pirat did a world of mischief to Christendom 36
  • A witty saying of a Spanish client to K. Phil. 26
  • A witty Pasquil against Spain when the Golet­ta was lost 26
  • A witty comparison of Europe 29
  • A witty Spanish Proverb 29
  • A Welch Prince freed England of Wolves 40
  • Why Woolsacks are in the House of Peers 40
  • The wise speech of King Canutus 43
  • A wise speech of Charles the 5 1
  • Of the [...] of Wales 46
  • Women did ride astride til Queen Anne, wife to Richard the second 54
  • Of C [...]rdinal Wolsey 55
  • The weakness of the Empire 32
  • A witty Anagram 56
  • A witty comparison made to the French by Flo­rus 66
  • A wise saying of the Emperour Frederique 46
  • Of the Warrs of the Low-Countries and the grounds of them 46
  • A wise answer of Tiberius 47
  • A wise answer of Q. Eliz. to the Hollanders 48
  • A witty comparison that Florus makes of the French valour 66
  • The witty saying of an Aethiop 67
  • Water in Moravia of great vertue 68
  • A witty saying of Henry the fourth 19
  • The wise speech of Paschasius against the Je­suits 19
  • A witty saying touching the Philosophers stone 20
  • A witty saying touching Portugall 20
  • A witty revenge of a Secretary 49
  • The witty answer of an Empress 36
  • A witty saying of Katharine de Medici 35
  • The woful catastrophe and last words of Hen­ry the 8 58

To the Reader.

The plen [...]y of matter wherewith this book doth swel, might have made a larger Index, but that the Au­thour had a regard to the Rule of Proportion, viz. that the poster [...]-gate should not prove too big for the Fabrique.


Edw. the 6. for Hen. 6. pag. 38. best for left. p. 31. Charls the first for fift. p. 11.

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