Decemb. 23. 1663.


William Morice.

FLORVS HVNGARICVS: OR The History OF HUNGARIA AND TRANSYLVANIA Deduced from the Original of that Nation, and their setling in Europe in the Year of our Lord 461, To this Dangerous and Suspectful Period of that Kingdome by the present Turkish Invasion, Anno 1664.

Iohn Chantry. sculp

LONDON, Printed by W. G. for Hen. Marsh at the Princes Arms in Chancery-Lane. 1664.

To the Right Honourable IOHN Earl of BATH, &c.

May it please your Lordship,

THIS History (Written Ori­ginally in La­tine by a No­ble Hand, na­tive of that Kingdome) was [Page] like a Treatise of that de­serving quality, addressed to the Hands of two Illustrious Persons, whom the Transla­tour (sure of doing the Au­thour no injury in this parti­cular) hath represented in your single SELF, to what ad­vantage of Lustre the World shall speak.

For (my Lord) it is not the design of this Dedication to bring water to the Ocean, (although the Ever-flowing Tribute that is due to Ver­tue is natural and necessary) both because this streight and shallow, will not boast or [Page] presume to be proud of any Additament to Your Fame; & for that this Candle in such Day-light will prove but a faint and unobserved Glim­mering of that full Splen­dour.

Actions and not Words, have entertained the greatest part of your Life, till the late blessed Change, which shall never be mentioned but with Your Name;

Pax nescit COMITIS non memor esse sui:

Insomuch that your Lordship [Page] is a living Epitome of our late War, and is read by most men with Delight and Admiration.

Vpon that account it is (my Lord) that I humbly present to You this FLO­RUS HUNGARICUS and Abridgement of their History, not knowing with whose Sum of Glory this Compendium of so renown­ed a Nation would better sute; for from the Founding of their Empire, Time hath had few respites, and but momentary vacations from Military Affairs.

[Page] In which Speculation (my Lord) I am so much assu­red, that you are frequent­ly Conversant, and famili­arly please your Self in that Heroical Diversion, that I could not restrain the Ambitious Tender of this COMMENTARY; which although very uneven, and abrupt of Stile (as could not be avoided in such a pent and narrow inconve­nience of Expression) yet it hath plainly conveyed and continued the story.

The Endevour, what it is, is most humbly sub­mitted [Page] to Your Lordships Iudgement, and most sub­missively begs Your Pro­tection and Patronage, under which it doubts not to find acceptance with the World.

(My Lord) I am Your most Humble and Obedient Servant
J. H.

To the READER.

THE Affairs and Hi­story of Hungary variously agitated under several muta­tions and Revoluti­ons, are now presen­ted to the World in an Epitome, which neverthelesse Comprehends most of the Transactions in Europe, and may intitle it self to be its Remembrancer. This Nation some Ages before, not seen and unheard of, did out of its Ruins rise to a Mighty Kingdome, and as it did so wonderfully increase, so did it with the same Urgencies of Fate, de­cline [Page] as fast, and again recover it self; and so by the inconstancy of its For­tune either added Terrour or Hope to its Neighbours: For while this People struggled for Empire, intending to heap up their Glory in the Splendor of one Day, and would allow no futurities to their Felicity, the Justice of Provi­dence decreed them a laborious race, wherein their speed and Strength hath been tired; and by many uneven As­cents and Descents, almost wearied out of Breath: in which time notwithstand­ing (the space of Twelve hundred years and upwards) it hath effected so many great things both in War and Peace, that it seemeth to have dared and ac­complished things far beyond either its Fortune or Ability, Commanding and extending its Power so far over the ad­joyning Nations, that while its Actions and story is read, both Asia and Europe are concerned, and are again subjected in the review, as Tributaries to the Re­nown of this Empire.

I must confesse that so many Vici­ssitudes, and the Grandeur of the sub­ject do much discompose the Contex­ture, [Page] but so that the shape of the Ma­jesty hereof will sufficiently appear, al­though it have not its full Proportions.

We consider therefore the Hungarian Nation according to these Intervals or Distances, The first Age was most fierce and Sanguinous, while they were under the darknesse of Paganisme, which lasted almost 600 years, during which time they exceeded the very Beasts in all savage and barbarous Cruelty. The following Age under Geysa and Stephen, Christian Princes, until the Reign of Charles Son of Lewis, in which time passed 340 years, was afflicted and sore put to it; yet it made a shift to rear it self & raise its Glory out of the Dust. Thence to our Times have run 330 years, in which its Glories have been retrograde, and have verged to a de­crepit and feeble estate, save that under K. Matthias the Kingdom mov'd its Arms with some vigour, and seemed to be renewed to a Fresh and active Youth and Virility.

But Matthias being taken away by the envyous Destinies, the Hungarians soon lost their ancient Courage and [Page] Vertue, suffering the Turks to possesse themselves of the greatest part of their Country (which they are now like wholly to subdue) while they were di­vided betwixt the Interests of Ferdi­nand the Emperour, and Iohn Zapolyai Vayvod of Transylvania, pretenders to that Crown; so that Hungary is to be sought in it self. For while the Kingdome was insociable and coveted by many, it became burdened with more weight then it could bear; and that Government which might have been well supported and maintained by one, being shouldred by so many, fell with ruine to the Ground.

It is now redevable to the Reader, that I give an account of what Authors have been consulted in the Compiling of this Treatise; Many Hungarian Wri­ters being waived because of their Flat­tery and fondnesse of their own Nati­on, or Fabulous Untruths; of which sort are Ranzanus, Ritius, and others; but one for all is Bonfinius, who hath loaded the Original of the Hungarians with a multitude of Fictions. Thu­r [...]zius hath done something better; in [Page] the whole six hundred Authours have been conferred; but those to whom Credence was due are onely these; First Nicholas Istuamfi, a man conversant in the story who wrote his Rationale from the life of Matthias the first; but be­cause of his propense affection to the Caesars (for which teason he either neg­lects Truth or conceals their Vices) fome rare, more Ancient and modern Writers have been contra-examined a­gainst him. Next to him, Flavius As­canius Centorinus, who Composed his History of the Dacian Wars out of the Manuscript Commentaries of Ferdinand, and Castaldus (his General) them­selves. Lastly, Iohn Michael Brutus, who wrote of this matter by the Com­mand of Stephen Bathori King of Po­land, together with Thuanus and some few not so Eminent.

The Reader, it is presumed, will be hereby satisfied of the veracity and Authority of this Discourse, whose Subject (being so much a stranger) needed a very ample Certificate, for that Impostures of these distant Re­gions are very rife and frequent.

[Page] All that is to be Apologised and Excused, is the style, which pretends to nothing but understandible English, shut up by such rigid clauses and re­straints of matter, that it could not breath any free Language. And when the Reader shall have perceived how this Volume is crowded to render it a Manual acceptable to the diversion of curious and inquisitive men, he will no doubt vouchsafe a Pardon to this Endevour.



THIS Nation,The Deri­vation of the Huns not seen nor known in Europe, before the decrepit E­state of the Roman Empire, had their formidable Extract from the extremest part of Maeotis, inha­bited by the Massagetes, next neighbours to the Dahi, as Plinius, Mela and Ptolomy do report, though some Authors have derived them from the Parthians, both seated betwixt the Rivers Oxus and Iaxarta.

Former Times call'd all that Tract of ground [Page 2] lying North and North-east, by the Name of Scythia, and under that general Appellation the Inhabitants were notified to the world, which now is distinguished into the different Tribes of the present Tartarian Empire; who at this day continue that vagrant, incursive, and predatory disposition, that brought these neces­sitous Huns in vast multitudes into fertiler though never so distant Regions.

It will be therefore requisite to give some breif account of this Nursery and source of so many Martial Nations,Scithia their place of Extra­ction. and particularly of this of the Huns, because of this singular re­marque, that none of her swarms besides, were ever blest with the Christian Faith; and arri­ved to, and persisted in the Glory of a King­dome and Empire under the Ensigne of the Crosse, intire, separate and unmixt from other Nations, in all the Fortunes of War, and the variation of their Estate.

Scythia by the Ancients was divided into the European and Asiatick; Its Descri­ption and division. the former made stretch­ing it self from the Springs of Tanais by the Banks of the Lake Maeotis and the Euxine Sea, to Ister (so named when swelled with the Con­fluence of the Danow, Savus and Dravus, 3 great Rivers by the City of Belgrade) the reason of which mistake was, for that they falsly supposed Asia to be divided from Europe by the Tanais: For from Taenarus the Extreme promontory of Peloponesus to the Springs and rise of Tanais, not more than half the Line [Page 3] extending to the Northern Ocean, is Compre­hended; that River arising in the Confines of the greater Russia, and the lesser Tartary, from a Lake called Ivanowo Iezcier, not out of the Riphaean Mountains, as is fabled by the Ancients; for that there are no such Hills in nature, nor was it ever agreed among Geogra­phers where they should be sited. And it is since manifest that from the Lake aforesaid there is as much space of ground lying between the Sea, as is betwixt it and Peloponensus, so that many places are assigned to Asia in this Region, which do truely belong to Europe. This is the rather insisted, to rectifie the general mistake in most of the modern Maps and descriptions of the World.

The vastnesse of the Asian Scythia is so great,The Asian Scythia. that its bounds were neither known in the past, not discovered to the present Age; Circumscribed to the East with the opposite shore of unknown Seas; to the North with the Frozen Scythian Sea; to the West with the Cimmerian Bosphorus, Maeotis, Tanais, and a Line drawn to the White Sea; to the South with the Indies; whence it comes to passe that the Straight of Anian is yet controverted; some allowing no such Sea; others so narrow a one, that the Scythians are feigned to have had their originals from America. The uncertainty of our knowledge of this Countrey is imputed to this main Cause, for that none of the Mighty of the world could ever boast of a Conquest [Page 4] thereof. We read of Expeditions made against the Scythians, both towards the East and the West, but no way remarquable for their pro­gression. Cyrus never reached Iaxarta; Da­rius attempting the Europaean Scythians, came not to the Mountains of Dacia. Trajan who went further then any of his Predecessors, ar­rived not to the Springs of Marusius. The Arms of Alexander the Great, the more in­ward Inhabitants onely heard of, but felt not. And Pliny complains that in his time the vast­nesse of the Maeotick Lake was altogether un­known, some saying it was a Gulf or Bay of the Sea; others that it was divided from it by an Isthmus or small piece of ground. And even now although Zingis Chan, and Temur or Ta­merlane Chan, attained the Dominion of all Scythia, and their Acts are extant and read by many Men in the Arabick Tongue; yet the places thereof are so obscured by their barba­rous and confused names that they afford im­perfect light to any Discovery.

The very word Scythian, Scythia now called Tartary. in former times ex­tended not its self further than to the Taurica Chersonesu; led by which reason, Strabo called that Scythia the Lesse, now termed by Pine­tus, Precopsa and Gazara, and even at this day, on the same account is Tartaria the Lesse denominated: For what ever Ancient Times called Scythia, the greatest part thereof by the latter is called Tartaria or Tataria, The Coun­trey of a most Warlike Nation, addicted to [Page 5] Prey and Robbery. The whole is almost De­sart and desolat, so that Planocarpus the Nuncio of Innocent the fourth, found the better half of it to be Sandy Plains, and destitute of In­habitants; who have no certain or fixt Habi­tations, as counting it a sin and a crime to build a City;Its Desart and Inha­bitable side (as is reported of the Ancient Nomades, whose Progeny these are) but carry their Tents about with them.

This Desart Tartaria (called in Arabick, Kafshak and Barka, from whence the Hun­garians are deduced) is shut up to the South with the Caspian and Euxine Seas, and the in­terjacent Hills of the Circassian Mamalukes, anciently Caucasus. The East is limited by the Chovaresmi, by Strabo called Chorasma­sini; by Stephanus, Chorameni (a People de­rived from the Massagetae and Sacae, to whom Bessus and Spiramenes fled from the Bactrians and Sogdiani) Atcar and Schagnak; until ranging to other Regions as far as Turquestana (which is Seated betwixt Oxus and Iaxara, the peculiar derivation of the Huns) it joyns with the Getae, and the Chinese, who Conter­minate with the Mogoles and the Chattaei. On the North is the Region of Siberia, vast soli­tudes and Desarts, and Sands like Mountains. Lastly, on the West, Russia, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. There are many Tribes of this People, but quite different in Language, as much as the Borderers differ in their several manners from the peaceable simple dispositions of the Inlanders.

[Page 6] The Nation of the Sythians, The Anti­quity of the Scythians, their pro­pagation. Iustin affirms, to have been most Ancient, although much dis­puted for Antiquity by the Aegyptians. For the Mountainous places were first Inhabited, then the Plains. Nor is there scarce any Peo­ple of Europe or Asia, which have not been propagated out of the North, even the Eastern parts as far as India, where under the Name of Parthians, as mentioned before, now called Persians, they dilated their Empire; and the Western, to the Regions of Polonia, Germany, Pannonia, and Denmark; known now and denominated from the Seats of the Sauromatae, Goths, Huns, and Cymbri, Cu­mani, Comoiri, Geloni, the same with the Peu­cini▪ Othogothi, Thuringi, Eastern Gotths, and Gepidae originally deduced from the Confines of Tanais, and many more, to which are added the Celtae; part of whom had their Seat in Thracia, as another part of them gave Name to the Germans, Gaules, and Brittons; so that the world hath been peopled in a man­ner out of these Regions.

But in the middle Age of the World,Their change of Name into Huns. those Scythians were dreaded by fewer Names, and renownedly by that of the Huns, subdivided into the White and Black by Procopius (to omit the Gorths who are also allied to the said People by a neerer Etymology, for that accor­ding to the Aeolian Dialect which rendred the Scythian, the Character [...]. is added before the Consonant [...]. in the word [...] whence are de­rived [Page 7] the Goths, by barbarous pronunciation.

The White were the People seated,The De­struction of the Huns. as afore­said, betwixt Oxus and Iaxarta, that gave Name and being to the Hungariane. But be­cause no sure and undoubted Authority thereof can be produced (which may not be vvondred at, because the most certain things are scarce testifiable and mostly fabulous, and the Romans after the Decay of their Empire intent to their ovvn, became (as justly ashamed) incurious of other affairs) vve must content our selves vvith the best Conjectures, and among others, with that of St. Ierome, vvho Writes, that the Huns came from the Massagetae, and the Extremest parts of the Maeotis; and next with allusion of words, for that Abtela and Attila, the first whereof was the Name of the Eutha­litan Kings (to which stock generally the Huns are referred) and the last of the Hungarians, are Names so alike that they cannot be dis­criminated. To omit many more witnesses, viz. Menander, Paulus Diaconus, Ammi­anus, and Fernandes, who are copious in the proof thereof by divers most Convincing Ar­guments, to which we must refer the Rea­der.

Certain it is, they were Conterminous to the first Extract of the Turks now called Tur­comania, Bordering Northeast upon Persia, where they Inhabited until vanquished by their Sultan or Chan, in the Time of Iustinian, when part of them mixing and uniting with the [Page 8] Turks, the other part fled Northwards; of whose remains descended the Avares, who after their Progenitors migration West­ward, Combated often with the Turks, and likewise by them at last worsted, seconded their fellows into Europe. The Western Huns are those who at this day are called Tartars, part of whom by the Name of Cimmerii since Cym­bri, possessed themselves of Denmark. So that after the race of so many Ages, the same Quarrel is revived now under the same Names of both Nations, if we give credit to Anti­quity. Next we consider the former Inhabi­tants of Hungary.

The Mysians Inhabited both the Banks of Danubius, The former inhabi­tants of Hungary. against whom Darius led an innu­merable Army; They were called by Homer, Galactophagi, Milk-eaters, a Generation of most just and honest men. Of those a part were the Getae, whose King Dormichaetes so despised Riches, that content with Victory, he released Lysimachus his prisoner, which sim­plicity is alledged to this day, as the cause of their Servitude to other Nations. Syrmius had Dominion afterward of the same Nation, as King of the Triballi, who for fear of Alex­ander the Great, fled into the Island Peuce, the Fame of whom remains to this day, by that Tract of Ground which lies between Varadin Peter, and Belgrade, called by his Name Syr­mia.

From these came those Mysians, who posses­ed [Page 9] themselves of Habitations between the Ly­dians, Phrygians, and Trojans; with an equal simplicity, as unwilling to obey, as ambitious of Commanding. The Daci, Dahi, Daae, and Dahae are the same People; part of them sate down by the Mountainous places of Tran­sylvania, part between Oxus and Iaxarta, neer to the Massagetes, which space of ground, because it is so great, Strabo cannot be indu­ced to assign the same originals to them both; but how weakly, their migrations and invasi­ons into remotest distanced Regions do suffici­ently evince. Plinius makes no distinction between the Daci and the Getae, but onely of Name; For as Cottisan is styled by Horace, the King of the Daci, so by Suetonius, he is called Prince of the Getae: But Strabo makes them thus to differ, the Getae to be those whose Coun­try bended towards the East and the Sea; and the Dacians those who stretched themselves oppositely towards Germany, and the rise of the River Ister; although he presently adds, that they both use the same Language.

Neither doth he herein agree with himself, because he makes the River Marus or Maru­sius, to glide through the Getae, and fall into the Danow, which by a due distinction should be said to passe by the Countrey of the Daci. For this River by Herodotus termed Maris, by others Marsus or Margus; and by the Hunga­rians, Maros; which ariseth from the Carpa­thian Hill belonging to the Daci, bends to­wards [Page 10] the South, till before Alba, winding to the Westward, it is mingled with the Tybis­cus, from whence another Error of the same Authour is discovered, in that he writes that the Marusius flows into the Danow. Nor are there wanting some (Iustus Lipsius, and Isaac Causabon) who expound that Marus in Taci­tus of this Marisus, by which name also Clu­verius understands Morava, as giving Name to Moravia.

Of these Nations as of Servile manners and Spirits, the Names of Slaves or Servants were borrowed, represented in Comedies (as they either personated true, or seeming-true Slaves) by Davus and Geta, as the Scholiast on Aristo­phanes witnesseth, and is further proved by the Authority of the Comical Apollodorus in one of his Fables, where they are both named, and whence Terence borrowed them, whence soon after the said Names were applied to unlearned and ignorant men. Hence the same Terence, Davus sum non Oedipus, of no capacity to re­solve Riddles.

This Danubius, The Da­nubius. since mention is to be fre­quently made of it and occurs here; Eustathi­us the Interpreter of Dionysus, out of Strabo and Stephanus reports to have been once called Matthoas; but when the Scythians in passing over it were sorely afflicted, it came to be cal­led Danusius or Danubius, [...] or Danum, in the Macedon Language signifying Death, as Plutarch witnesseth; between which River and [Page 11] Ister, Peolomy and Pliny so distinguish, that the upper part from Axiopolis, which the Pannoni­ans and Iazyges possesse, to its Springs be called the Danow; and the rest to the Sea-ward be na­med Ister; which difference at this day, is hardly or not at all observed. Some have fa­bled that this River fell from the Riphean Hills, and that one of its Arms disembogued it self into the Adriatick Sea.

Now that which afterwards more peculiarly was called Dacia, The De­scription of Dacia. Comprehends at this time, Transylvania, Moldavia, Valachia beyond the Alps; between the European Sarmatia, and the Rivers of Danubius and Tyra, and the Iazyg [...]s Metanastae: Moldavia stretcheth it self to the Euxine Sea. Transalpina along the Banks of the Danubius. Transylvania is bounded and Confined by the aforesaid Princi­palities, White-Russia and Hungary. To the Dacians between the Carpathian Mounrains and Ister, the Iazyges were conterminate, to these the Pannonians, being encompassed with two great Forrests, and three Rivers, the Sa­vus, Dravus, and Ister. The Grecians called them Paeones, but wherefore doth not appear; for that Paeonia, according to Iustin Ptolomy, is sited in Macedonia, whose Inhabitants (pas­sing by an ancienter fiction of Endymion's Son) are fabled by Lazius upon the Discomfiture given the Macedonians by Aemilius, to have retreated and Planted themselves by Ister.

But Dion Cassius oppugning this Errour, de­rives [Page 12] the Name of the Pannones from Pannus, a word signifying Cloth,Pannonia whence so called. of which they made themselves patcht Clothes of divers Colours and peices; which observation of Habit gave Names to several of the Ancient Nations. Greece was thereby termed Palliata, i. e. Cloaked. Rome, Togata, Gowned. France was divided into Togata & Braccata, Gowned and Breeched. But I do not understand how the excellent Isaac Causabon, by the words of Dion, can conceive that Pannus was a word of the Pannonian Mother Tongue as he largely shews, for the word [...] used by Dion is rather referrible to the Custome of wearing the garment, than to the Language of the Nation; nor is the word Pannus of so modern an Extraction but that it was well known to Polybius and other Grecians. By all which it may be supposed that by a small mutation from the word [...] or [...], the noted Name of [...] may a­rise, and be in use with the Grecians, as is a­bovesaid. But to their story.

THE first Captain that led the Huns into these parts of Hungary was Belamber, incited thereto by a Nobleman,The invi­tation of the Huns into Eu­rope. (who persuing a Deer that took the great River Tanais, (the supposed bound of Asia and Europe) to the other side, was ravished with the view of so delightful a Pro­spect, and fruitful Soil) and by his own Am­bition of rendring himself Famous and Ter­rible to the World.

His passage over the Tanais, lost him a mul­titude [Page 13] of Men (for Bridges and Boats were, the one impossible, and the convenient use of the other not known) yet not so disabled Him but that He continued his Expedition by the chearfulnesse of his People, and discomfited theor Roxo­lans now Russes. Alani; thence he turned his victorious Arms towards the Inhabitants of the Black Sea, and subduing them, perswaded them to take up Arms with him against the Mysians and Da­cians, the former Possessors of Servia, Rus­sia, Bulgaria, Moldavia, &c. who made stout opposition. When Melamber, aged and wearied out, left the Atchievement to his Son Mund­zuch alias Bendeguz, B [...]lam­ber their first Cap­tains Con­quest. who Defeated the Goths (after two unlucky and almost fatal Combats) then Conquerours of Pannonia and that Tract of the World, and in a mortal Battel slew the Terrour of the Huns, Alatheus and Saprax, the Guardians of Videricus King of the Goths, and stretched his Conquest over all the Terri­tory which lieth betwixt the River Ister and Borysthenes, which includes the Country they now possesse.

He dying left two Sons (the terrible) Atti­la and Bleda, Attila his Son suc­ceeds him. to the Tuition of his Brothers Hottar and Rugila, who having vanquished the Eastern parts and utterly expelled the Visi­goths from all Thracia, mastering also Macedon­ia, and Illyria, compelled or frighted the Romans to purchase their Peace with the present pay­ment of 700 l. of Gold, and 300 afterwards yearly, for pretended default whereof and o­ther [Page 14] piques, Attila marching through Germa­ny ruined Argentorate, which he re-edifying caused to be called Strasburg, and in the Ca­talaunian Fields, gave Battel to Aetius Lieu­tenant tonot Cha­alans in Burgundy as is mi­staken, by a place called Mau­rice neer the River Matrona or Marn in France. Valentinianus the Emperour, assisted by the Kings of the Goths and Gauls.

Attila had in his Army 50000. some say, 700 thousand men, but the Fate of Europe strugling with this Emergent and sudden dan­ger, and loth to resign her Glory to such a tu­multuous and barbarous enemy couragiously maintained her Title, and made the Hun retreat with the Common mutuall losse of 170 thousand men, to his Conquest of Hungary; to which he never had returned had the Goths, or Romans pursued their successe and victory.

Attila troubled with this his first Disap­pointment resolved to recover the reputa­tion of his Puissance, and therefore having pro­vided himself in five years vacancy from War of another Terrible Host, purposed by Tyrol to descend into Italy, but finding those difficult passes defended by Valentinian, he turned his Force upon Dalmatia, and conquering the Ro­man Army near the Tergestine Bay, beseiged, and after three years leagure took and sackt A­quileia.

From thence he passed to Vreona in Italy, but advancing further towards Ravenna was met in his way by Pope Leo; and by him dehor­ted and intreated from a further pursuit of his successe.

[Page 15] The event was not lesse wonderful then the former eruptions of this destroyer were unnex­pected, but the reverence meeknesse, Gra­vity and Humility of those Fathers of the Church were even attractives to those Savage Barbarians.

At the approach of them notwithstanding,The Origi­nal of the Venetians the Venetians then inhabiting the same Lands which yet belong to their Territory, fled to the Islands in which their Glorious Seignory now conti­nues, and laid the Foundation of their Great­nesse upon the fear of their ruine; That which then was their temporary shelter proving the impregnable Fortresse and Defyant Bulwork of Christendome against all other Invasions through a long duration of time and honour.

Attila at his return dyed in Hungary, Attila's Death. suffo­cated with blood which he used to excern by his Nostrills in some abundance, but now fal­ling into his mouth, whether by the Judgement of God in satisfaction of all that he had so inhu­manely spilt, or by practice of his brothers friends (whom he had caused to be killed upon suspicion of his aspiring to the sole Command) who made a violent advantage of that infirmity and diverted its course, is not certainly de­livered.

To sum up the story of this Attila for satis­faction of the Reader I have adjoyned his Ti­tle, not unlike that which the Turkish Sultans now use towards these very Hungarians, re­torting their own insolence and arrogance upon [Page 16] the impotent feeble remnant of that once mighty and most populous Nation; in haec verba;

ATTILA the Nephew of Nim­rod, His Title. nourished in Engaddi, by the Grace of God, King of Huns, Medes, Goths, and Dacians, The Terrour of the World, and Scourge of God.

Which last he added after his Conference with an Hermit.

This (however denied by some Hungarian Authors) is reported by so many others, that the Reader may give credit to it; for though Attila was not then a Christian profest, yet certainly he was not altogether a Pagan, as his assent to Leo before-mentioned will partly evince.

Attila Dying left two Sons Aladerick and Chaback, His two Sons suc­ceed. who (as the fortune of the World and War varies) lost all with the same career of Ruine as their Father gained Dominion by monstrous Accessions; for at his Death the Limits of his Territories were on the one part stretched to the Huns and Iugri in Scythia, and on the other to France, and Italy; so that this Empire laboured under its own weight [Page 17] and fell by unnatural and Intestine Divisions.

This same Aladerick is supposed by many to have been begotten by Attila upon Hono­ria the Daughter of the Emperour Valentinian, but this opinion is rejected by others,The inte­stine feuds of the Huns because they say Attila died before she arrived at his Camp. Whatever his Birth was, it was certain he was Favoured by the Princes of Germany, and Dieterick of Verona, and aided against his Elder Brother, advanced to the Supreme Power by the Huns, who notwithstanding as is usual in such fraternal and Civil Feuds, revolted soon after to Aladerick, Their De­struction▪ & so sheathing their Swords in their own Bowels, made easie way to their Enemies designes of revenge against them.

The first that engaged and Encountered them was Arderick King of the Gepidae, who vindi­cated his People from the slavery of the Huns, killing of them 30000 in one Battel, and so pursued his successe upon their frighted remains that they lost all their several Conquests at one breath (Aladerick himself coming to this Bloody end, as a victime and sacrifice to those infinite slaughters that had been committed by his Peo­ple) for hereupon Ardarick seized Dacia; the Goths, both the Pannonia's or Hungary; the A­lani or Russes Mysia; while Chaba the other Brother difficultly recovered his Countrey of Scythia; Uto and Ischalmus, with some others of his Huns diverted into Romania, whose Po­sterity is remaining to this day in the Town of Gala [...]z. Ermedzar and Uzindur Cousins of the [Page 18] said two Captains, sate down between the Rivers Marusius and Alutha, and by the ascents to the Mountainous places of Dacia, and to a­void the suspicion of the name of Huns, called themselvesNow cal­led Siculi. Szekeli, which term or word signi­fieth a fixed place and habitation, not vagabonds or Fugitives, for which their Nation was now so infamous.

The Roman Dominions being thus freed of the Successors of Attila, The Lom­bards pos­sesse Hun­g [...]y▪ was anew oppressed with the alternate and Vicissitudinary Power of the Rugi, Goths, and Lombards; who succes­sively by the crafty instigation of the feeble Ro­mans subdued one another; the Lombards assi­sted by Swain K. of Denmark, after other Con­quests seating themselves in Pannonia: whither the A [...]ARES (not the same but another Tribe of Huns) being beaten out of the Northern Scythia by the Euthalitae The O [...] ­ginal of the firrt Huns. who had themselves been beaten by the Turk [...], in the Year 500. af­ter the Incarnation, possessed themselves of the Country of Ister, having expelled the Goths from Taur [...]ca, and utterly extinguished the Name of the Gepidae. In their advance to Pan­nonia; Alboynus Captain of the Longobards, to prevent the fortune of War with so necessi­tous a People, made a friendly Composition with them, whereby it was agreed that the Ava­res should be possessed of Hungaria, upon Con­dition to restore it again if the Lumbards failed of their Enterprize & design upon Italy: but that succeeding, these Huns being quietly possessed, [Page 19] stayed not here but Invaded the Territories of the Romans; The A­VARES poss [...]sse themselves of Hun­gary. from whom (once defeated by them) their Leader under pretence of making Baths, borrowed some Carpenters, which he employ­ed in making Bridges over the Dauubius, that he might more easily Invade & infest their Domi­nions. His first Conquest by this means was of Syrmia, by which his Forces grew so terrible, that they were counted the avengers of the sins of the Eastern Europe; having compelled the Emperour Maurice to purchase a Peace of him with the sum of Fourscore thousand pound of Gold, which lasted no longer than two years; for the Barbarian regardlesse of his Faith, de­manded an increase of the Tribute,Afflict the Roman Dominions. and upon the denyal thereof seized Strigonium and Viminacum, and in several encounters greatly endamaged many of their Provinces and wast­ed and consumed more of their Legions.

Their Empire or Government continued af­ter that time with very various fortune, at first with great overthrows often weakening their Foster-friends the Lombards, until the time of Charles the Great, when they grew into a Coa­lition with the Bojarij, from whom now came the new name of the Bavarians, (hateful enough to the Boij or Bohemians) with whose King Tù­dun, Charles the Great and his Son, managed divers Wars, not with the Hungarians them­selves, as many have erroniously maintained. At which time (as nothing gained by humane power is durable) these Avares either lost their [Page 20] Name among other Nations,The Avares extinguish­ed. or else were whol­ly cut off and extinguished. Nicephorus saith the following Huns or Hungarians, dissolved their power and extirpated them; the German Wri­ters assign Charlemaigne to that work, as Suidas doth the Bulgarian's; whence most certain it is to be concluded, that they stuck in all the snares, and by one or all of their hands came to the period of their Name and Greatnesse.

But leaving them to that Final Suppres­sion, let us consider from the Premises, what Sad and Doleful Ages those were that brought up the Rear of the Roman Monarchy! On which like a Bear damned to the Stake, so ma­ny fierce Mastiffs were let fly together. But it is more wonderful how Christianity amidst such horrid and continual subversions of Things could ever get footing? nay, dilate it self with the Progresse of these Infidels? Which though a Diversion, I cannot but mind the Reader for the Honour and convincing verity of our Religion, to take notice of. There being now no visible foot-steps remaining of the Hunga­rian Nation in this Territory; it shamed a No­ble people to bear the Yoke of a Forreign Ru­ler, having been used themselves to Govern and Command others.The re­mains of the old Huns re­possesse themselv [...]s And hereupon those Huns who fled that great Defeat given to Attila's Sons, & were scattered into Transylva­nia & Russia (where now there is a Tribe of them yet remaining towards Siberia, called Iugri by Geographers) impatient of their retirement and [Page 21] obscure condition, invited their kinred & Coun­trey-men, who now had breathed from their expulsion out of Europe into Scythia, and Sibe­ria, and the Northermost parts of Europe, as aforesaid, to return again and make another venture with them for the Restauration of their Name and Honour by their former Conquests.

Little invitation served a penurious and war­like Nation made and designed for great things and addicted to Glory, besides that the dange­rous condition of their Europaean friends, who sculkt from the fury of the victorious Goths, did urgently call for their assistance. In the year 890. seven several Armies of them un­der seven Leaders all vested with equall power invaded Dacia again,Their Suc­cesses. and after some explorato­ry peace-pretending Messages to Suatopolugus then King of those Countries proceeded to attaque him, who making resistance was defeat­ed & driven beyond Danubius; thence pursuing their success they laid wast the whole Coun­try of Illyria, and peirced into Moravia and Bo­hemia, and subdued all Hungary, and as much more Territory as is contained between the Ri­ver Gran, the Swevian Hills & from Ister to the Sea, extending it thence also towards the East.

Yet so uneven and fluctuating was their For­tune, that though Arnulphus the Emperour was glad to seek and obtain Peace of them, yet Lu­ithpoldus the Emperours Generall after Ar­nulphus his Decease, upon their return from a new incursion under Chussales their King in­to [Page 22] Germany the length of 250 leagues on the North side of the Danow, where they destroy­ed all before them, encountred them near Vi­enna in Austria, The Huns defeated by Luithpol­dus. wearied with spoil and the length of the Journy & overthrew them, 12000 of them perishing in that river whose Banks had suffered so often by their bloudy & frequent In­undations; the rest were driven & pursued to Presburgh, having lost their K. whose generous spirit could not endure the fatal dishonour of that bloody Feild, wherein the Huns were like again to have run the same hazard of their for­mer ruine but that a mutiny amongst the victor Army opportunely stopt a further pursuit.

The news of this defeat did not long keep the Huns at home but grown strong with rest, and more robust by the divisions of the Ger­mans, and having newly substituted Dursack and Bugoth, to the Regal Dignity, they again resum [...]d their former design; which the next year they enterprised, possessing themselves of all Paninonia, exhausted already by continual spoil, carrying also Colonies, with them and placing them in the Countries of the Boii.

To oppose them, Lewis the Emperour ha­ving called a Counsell, and by their Concur­rence raised a great Army, encountred them at Auspurg seated neer the River Rhoda­num, on whose Banks this Feild was [...]ought. Augusta Vindelicorum, where he was worsted in a famous Battel; Luithpoldus the former suc­cesseful General, with Eysenrick His Arch-Sewer and 15 Counts, being slain on the place, together with most of the Army. Nor fared [Page 23] he better at his second Conflict, having for safety of Germany induced all the Provinces to take sudden Arms with him, being defeated by this Stratagem; the Huns had fought almost to a desperate Event, in the Fields neer the Leman Lake, when advised by imminet danger, they counterfeited a flight, and by th [...]t means drew the enemy into the Woods upon their Ambush­es,Lewis the Emperour defeated the second time by the Hun [...]. and there made a cruel and vast slaughter of them; and following their good fortune, made Havock of all the Countrey round about with fire and Sword in their usual manner, nei­ther Churches, Monasteries, Bishops, or Priests escaping their sacrilegious and destroy­ing hands.

No stop being like to be put to their fury, they burnt down Utinum, and passing the river Oenus, dispeopled the Canton of Zurick, and compelling Schleckdorp and Damasia, beyond the Iser, with other Towns by famine and thi [...]st to surrender, demolished and ruined them. Auspurg was served in the same manner, and numberless multitudes of men led Captives like beasts after them, which luggage with their other spoils invited the Boii to fall upon them, but they were so sharply entertained, that with the slaughrer there and in the whole Territory the Huns seemed to have made a final end at this one bout.

Ratisbone was now burnt by them,Their ra­vage and Devastati­ons. whence by Osterhof they passed the D [...]nubius, puttin [...] the Bohemians, Franconians, and the adjacent [Page 24] Nations to the Sword, So that most of the ri­vers of Germany were turned into blood, and Lewis broken with so many mischiefs, glad to make the Empire Tributary to the Huns, who leaving Germany (as prone to War, and enlarge­ment of Dominion, fell next upon the Gre­cian Empire (which they had only touched in the former War) by the beginning of the next Spring,They in­vade Grecia. when passing through the Mysia supe­riour and wasting Thracia infesting also the Macedonians, they conquered Bulgaria (which yet made some resistance) and all those stranger Countries, insomuch that Constantine the Col­league of Alexander his Uncle, refused not being terrified by these approach [...]s, the payment and Tribute imposed on his Cities.

The Huns being thus established and fixed in their former possession gained by their Sword in Hungary, The De­scription of Hungaria as then possessed by that Nati­on. it will be requisite to de­scribe that tract of ground, which came under the said appellation and was then a most ample and spacious Dominion. The Kingdome of Pannonia did not formerly exceed the Banks of the Danu­bius, and because it extended it self from the said River as far as the Carpathian Hills, which terminate the European Sarmatia, it was called the hither and the further Hungary. The upper part of the hither, contained Styria and Au­stria, the inferiour was all that tract of ground between the River Dravus, the Balaton Lake (which upon the coming of Christ broke out in the country of Gisa) the Desarts of Ver­tha [Page 25] and the Danubius. The further Hungary separated by the Carpathian Hills from Mora­via of the Marcomanni, Silesia and Poland con­tains that part of the Iazyges Metanastae, & Da­cia which is on this side the Hills, which the Ri­ver Tybiscus runs thorough, arising from the Maromorusian Hills above Zigeth not that in Lower Hungary. & between Zemlin and Salankien is mingled with the Da­nube. Between the Rivers Dravus and Savus, lyeth Sclavonia reaching as far as the River of Hun. Below Savus lies Croatia, both the Bos­nia's, Dardania, now Dalmatia; The Illyrians possesse the further parts, the same with the Liburnians, bounded with the Adriatick Sea, and Eastward with the River Bosna: To this Confine both the Mysia's, the Upper, in which is Servia and Rascia, and the lower now called Bulgaria: for the Bulgarians now comming from Asia, compelled the Bessi, e­jected out of the Lower Mysia, to seat them­selves in the Upper: Both of them lye be­tween the Danube, and mountain of Hun: The Danube emptying it self into the Euxine Sea. To the Eastward of Hither Hungary lieth Dacia betvveen the River Tyra, the Danube, and the Sea, comprehending Tran­sylvania, Moldavia, and Transalpina, or Va­lachia. Transylvania is compassed with Woods and Hills, in manner and form of a Crovvn.

These Countries being subdued by the Huns they contented themselves with Tribute for Germany, who soon disdaining that servile [Page 26] under Barbarians, under Conrade Duke of Franconia, saluted Caesar in place of Lewis, and Arnulphus the Son of Luithpoldus procla [...] ­med King of the Boii, took Arms again, but the B [...]ii were at the entrance of the War so consternated, that the Huns with universal spo [...]l passed as far as the River Oenus again: where Arnulphus having selected the ablest Souldiers,The Ger­mans arm against them. and secured the rest in the City, set upon them in their carlesse jollity, and encompassing them by surprize, made a great slaughter of some, and drove others into the River, and brought a general Fear, greater then any before upon their whole Army, which was freed thereof by the egregious Vertue and Valour of Dursach, who in the very instant of the danger, compel­led the Bohemian weakned by so [...]ierce a War, to strike a League and Agreement with him.

But the present Disaster was expiated with great Victories,Their se­cond Expe­dition into Italy. the Huns still hankered after Italy the Lady of so many Pleasures: The Dis­sentions between Leo the Fifth, Sergius the Third, and Christopher the Antipope, adding to their Hopes as if designed for Avengers of their Pride and Ambition; hereupon passing Friuli with spoiling and burning, they came as far as Pavia, and by the river Brenna, with a horrible Carnage overthrew Berengarius, who had amas­sed an innumerable Host of the Tuscans, Vols­cans, and other Nations of Italy. Which Defeat was occasioned meerly by their Con­tempt of the Enemy, who having in vain after [Page 27] many Prayers and intreaties voluntarily offered there delivery of their spoil, and a Covenant or Article of never invading Italy again, upon condition of Life and Departure on horseback, took advantage of the negligence of the Italians, and punished this their Arro­gance: for with three parties they surprized the secure Bodies of the Enemy, who staid expect­ing the return of their Commissioners, sent with their denyal to the Huns, and killed a great many with their drink in their Throats:The Itali­ans under Bereng­rius Van­quished. so those that could not be appeased with submission and Gifts were now destroyed with fury & cruelty.

All places now opened to their victorious Arms, which are reported to have been so po­ [...]ent at this time, that they overran likewise the Boiarij (contrary to their Agreement) Fran­conia and Saxony, with vast depopulations: nor did their rage stop here, for within two years they peirced as far as Basil, They Ma­ster all pla­ces. which having razed they wasted Alsatia and Lorrain, with so much [...]lerity, that Conrade who purchased his peace with money, seemed conquered before any E­nemy was at hand. And such was the horrour of this Defeat abovesaid, that the Huns en­ [...]aged, abstained not from the Flesh of the [...]ain, The Cause of which being asked of Le­ [...]el (a Hungarian Captain taken prisoner at Auspurg by Conrade) was thus declared. [...] are the Avengers of the sins of Mankind, appointed by God for your punishment; when we [...]sist from persecuting you, by the angry God, [Page 28] we are taken by you and destroyed.

Italy although so often chastised,The Divi­sions in I­taly and Rome. yet no­thing the wi [...]er, was distracted with various factions, Lewis the Son of [...]oson relying upon the Papal right, assumed to himself the Impe­rial Dignity, being assisted and encouraged by the Lumbards, who would have Berengarius devested of the Dignity; he being thu [...] between the Hammer and the Anvile, called in the Huns, the sworn Enemies of the Faith: they under pretence of Aid, undertake the Expedi­tion, and range through Italy, killing and bringing to obedience Lambert the Archbishop of Millan, Heydelbert the Captain of the Guard or Pretorium, with other Rebels. Be­rengarius not long surviving this Victory, his Son the second of that name succeeded him, against whom ro [...]e up Rodolph, Duke of Bur­gundy his Rival, to the Dominion of Italy, Berengarius therefore diffiding in his own for­ces, as the Heir of his Fathers Kingdome and manners, trod in the same Track of an Hungari­an Expedition, who in his cause wasting Italy, soon after overthrew Odelricus, the Count of the Place, or Major Domo, with his numerous Army, as afterwards they took the Marquiss A­delbert & Giselbert Prisoners, but they were no sooner departed, then Berengarius was o­vercome, The Huns third and fourth Ex­pedition into Italy. and persidiously slain, though justly in respect of his cruelties to his own blood; This Murder of the King, gave good occasion to the Huns to return into Italy, where they again [Page 29] burnt Ticinum, exercising cruelty as a virtue: and having plundered & undone the Provinces laded themselves home with a most rich spoil.

A German War followed this,The Ger­mans under Henry the Emperour, refuse the Tribute. Henry sirna­med the Fowler, Son of Conrade deceased, denied to pay the tribute now insolently and im­periously redemanded by the Huns, who there­upon keeping their faith religiously with the Boii, (Arnulph their King having fled to them in a­voydance of the designs and snares of Conrade but was afterwards brought back by the Pru­dence of Henry) wasted Transylvania, Swe­via, but cheifly Saxony, the Hereditary Coun­try of the Emperour, who unable to endure this their haughty & presumptuous behaviour, with a well composed Army surpriz'd them at Meers­burgh, Defeat the Huns at Meers­burgh. in the Confines of the Thuringian Saxons; having given Order to his Men to receive their first flight of Arrows upon their Sheilds, discreetly and conveniently placed, and while they were fitting and preparing for ano­ther volley, to rush in upon them; by which Military Policy the Huns were driven foul up­on one another and slain with a terrible slaugh­ter, and Germany thereby freed from a shameful and ignominious slavery.

The remains and reliques of those Hunga­rians which survived the Battel, were slain by one anothers Treachery and Discovery; the feigned and pretended reward whereof was impunity and pardon offered to such of them as should reveal their Comrades and Country­men; [Page 30] so that no more then Seven escaped to carry the news of this miserable Defeat and disaster to Pannonia and Dacia; the Horrour whereof so stupified this Nation, that during the Raign of Henry, they totally abstained from meddling with Germany.

Until the time of Otho the Great,The Hun­garians stunned & stupified withthe losse. the Hun­garians therefore continued at home within their own walls; but then it appear'd what pow­er and prevalence Shame hath over Fear, al­though things be never so hazardous or despe­rate; for having recruited themselves by a long quiet and cessation from War, with their former Courage and Force they Invaded the Limits of Bavaria, while other Parties of them wasted the Trani, Norici, and Chari­ni; for which Depredations they were to sa­tisfie soon after to the utmost; for Berchtoldus Duke of Bohemia, overcame them neer Va­lence, and with the Sword and the River Tra­nus, to which they fled, made an end of them all: with the same fortune they fought with the Charini, Their For­tune chan­geth. where having lost their Leaders and General they were forced to fly.

To revenge these Discom [...]itures Taxis (not yet advanced to the Regal Dignity) under­took two other Expeditions the one into Au­stria, and the other against the said Charini or Carinthi, in the Confines of Italy, which he miserably havocked, but him Berholdus his Son so worsted and routed, that he was for­ced to sculk and sneak for shelter; the cause of which Calamity was his feirce and brutish [Page 31] Valour ungovernable by any Art or policy; Being beaten here he turned his Fury upon Ita­ly, Huns In­vade Italy again. where he was appeased by [...]erengarius the third, Protector to Lotharius, with Ten Bushels of Money, which Tribute was imposed upon the heads of those that gave suck, being as much as [...]ugo had formerly paid.

The Cruelty of the Huns was not yet quite allayed, when Gerard the Bohemian, and Duke Conrade, not long before banished by Otho, fell a spoyling the Churches, and rob­bing the Monasteries, and distributed the Ec­clesiastical Treasure among the Hungarians, as yet Pagans, now intending an Irruption into Hungary; for Bulczko the Successor of Dur­sach, having considered the past Calamities, and the small ability of his present Condition, dispatcht away Embassado [...]s to Otho under pre­tence of Civility and good friendship; but indeed to enquire of his present state, whether or no, it offered any advantage to his necessitous Arms. These returned with an answer rather fitted to the flattery of the occasion, which Bulzko sought, than any thing of truth.

So that in the 50. year after Lewis was slain at Rhodanum; with a 100000 Men, Commanded by himself and the Tetrarchs, Laetius, Sura, Taxus, and Schaba; such a number of meer Hungarians being never seen before in those parts,As Ger­many also. he set upon Germany; when through fear of them as they passed, the whole Countrey was abandoned, the Cities either strongly Forti­fied or deserted, the People betaking them­selves [Page 32] to the inaccessible places of Mountains and Rocks for the safety of their lives.

The Huns in the mean while clambring over Hills and peircing through Woods, most horri­bly burnt and wasted all the Countrey, and ha­ving desolated Bavaria, passed beyond the Rhine and under the Conduct of Conrade, subverted Lorrain, wherein they violated all Humane and Divine things. Otho almost stupisfied with the danger, with eight Legions passed into Swit­zerland, having made Peace with the Venetians, at the same time as the Hungarians had defeat­ed the Bohemians in a sore Battel, who guarded the passes. It was now observed, that the first onset of these Barbarians was the most forcible and vehement, and that they raged because their time was short.The Huns totally and finally o­vercome by Otho the Great [...] The Germans therefore beset them on every side, cutting off their straglers and Foragers, and carried their Successe to the Camp, where the Huns tired with fight and plunder were wretchedly Vanquished, and the River Lycus filled with their slain; their Ge­neral being taken was hanged upon a Gibbet at Ratisbone with some of his Captains, the rest being dismaid, secured themselves in their entrench­ments. By this Battel the strength of the Hu [...]s was wholly broken; yet being made more tract­ble by this great slaughter, they were in a man­ner saved by this their Ruine.

The Second BOOK.

AS the precedent necessary requisite to con­version to Christianity, divine Providence was pleased by these frequent and ruinous losses and slaughters, upon the neck of one another, to bring these barbarous Huns to an humble sense of their calamitous and ruinous condition,Sense of misery the way to Christiani­ty. and by that prepare and soften their minds to the Reception of the great Evangelicall truth, against whose Innocent Doctrine, the applau­ses of their Triumphs and the noising loud Fame of their puis [...]ance and successe had out-dinn'd the Trumpets of the Prince of Peace, so that [...]he still voyce of the Redeemer could not be heard in the Thunder of their impetuous, pro­ [...]perous violences.

Taxis one of the Tetrarchs dying valiantly in this last unfortunate encounter, the Huns chose GEYSA his Son, either for his Fathers or [...]his own Piety's sake,Geysa the first King of Hun­gary. for their King and Gover­nour. For as there are, as in Time, so in all other things a kind of vicissitude; the 980th year from the Incarnation was not yet ended, when Geysa washed in the saving fount by Adelbert, began to propagate the worship of the true [...]od and renouncing his Idols to abolish all super­stition, [Page 50] studying to take off that fierce and bar­barous Nation from the desire of War, and by Christian marsuetude and sweetnesse to attem­perate their minds and sences. To this he was the more incouraged by Constantine the 7th. of that name Emperour of the East, and the Ger­mans who mainly promoted it, as being highly affected with such glad tydings; Next he ap­pointed Priests and Bishops, the untamed [...] ­ture of his people in vain resisting, and so reduced them, that abandoning Barbarisme, and the worship of Mars and Hercules, His zeal to Christiani­ty. they em­braced the Christian Faith. The Captives, (of which in such a long tract of time there could be no small multitude carryed away by them) industriously builded their Churches and brought their Children to be baptized. To the better effect of all which, Geysa used the help [...] a Pilgrim a very holy man who being invited by him into Hungary, chose to himself other Collegues; Geysa also by the aid and Arms o [...] the Saxons and Bavarians kept his Enemies within their limits, so that the people of Hun­gary found themselves obliged to him for their preservation, who like an auspicious star shined upon them in a night whose gloominesse porten­ded it for the last of their Existence, when sheathing their Swords he dispelled such an angry Tempest with a sudden Serenity.

He waged War in Austria against his will which unjustly taken away by Rodeger he restored to Leopold, whose [...]on being shortly [Page 51] after expelled, the Hungarians under the con­duct of Abas recovered and held it until Albert the Son of Henry the Emperour restored it to Germany. There were also other occasions of this Difference, Henry surnamed the Holy, [...]isseised his Brother Bruno of his Dominions in [...]amburg, who avoiding the danger fled to the Hungarians, by whom meeting with the Empe­rour then engaged in an expedition designed to the expulsion of Hardwick out of Lombardy, [...]runo was reconciled and re-invested in his Estate. And having thus setled this Hunga­rian Realm as part of Christendom, I shall not be oblig'd to so prolix a narrative of their future Actions as being better regulated and Marshal­ [...]ed to History,His Acti­ons. which hath registred them with that of their Neighbours: the rise and the fall of all powerfull things being that object which most men consider, because of most concern to the world, for all middle things the means of extremes are indifferent, and do not engage ordinary and common observation.

STEPHEN his Son succeeded him both in dignity and vertue,Stephen the second King. at the same time when both the English, Danes, Polonians and Hun­garians had forsaken their false Religions, Pope Boniface the 7th. was then also expelled by Pope Penedict, from Rome, whence Stephen was honoured with many presents, and a pri­viledge of conferring ecclesiastical preferments: His couragious zeal broke the many designs and attempts of his Pagan Subjects and Relations, [Page 52] as his fortune gained him Transylvania, then abounding with ancient wealth, and now sub­dued to a constant obedience and subjection to the Hungarian Scepter. He over came like­wise the Bulgarians a warlike and successeful people in the East,His At­chievments to whose Emperor Basilius, after this glorious defeat, they were forced to submit themselves. He had issue by his Wife Gisala the Sister of the Emperour, a Son cal­led Emerick, who dyed in his Minority, and to the great grief of his Father, and the perpetu­al disgust of his Mother; in his room Vazules Stephens Uncles Son, was appointed and rai­sed to the hopes of the Throne. Stephen dyed in the year of our Lord 1034. having reigned happily and prudently 37. years, a man of great humility and piety even unto Supersti­tion, in a very great and ample fortune, which is subject to presumption and pride, for which his Widow was much hated and abomina­ted.

PETER notwithstanding succeeded him,Peter the 3d. King. the Son of his Sister, who managed his power no better then he gained it, by the Murther of Vazules; scandalizing the Government by base Covetousnesse and Arrogance, from which Crimes it had hitherto been inviolate: not knowing that things lifted up on high are more conveniently raised for a fall; nor to be of more pernicious Consequence to any Fortune then the lest and supremest. He first banished Gisala, then took away her Dower, (reputed a just [Page 53] judgement on her) pillaged his people, and murthered his Nobles; whereupon ensued a Conspiracy against him, which prevailed so, that the Kingdome was transferred to Abas, and the Counsellors and Partakers of Peters exorbitances,Peter de­posed. slain by the popular rage. Pe­ter escaped to Henry the Emperour, who know­ing him guilty of the defection of the Bohemi­ans, forbad him his Presence, and cast him in­to Chains, but by the intercession of Albertus General of the Eastern limits, and Caesar's own generous Sentiments for a person descended of a Royal Family, He was soon after taken into favour.

ABAS was substituted in his place, by whom all Peter's Acts were rescinded,Abas the 4th. King. and the King­dome seemed to have recovered its former dig­nity, except that Peter claimed it as Heredita­ry, and Abas that would command others, was a Vassal to his own passions.

The first thing he did, was by an Embassie to explore the mind of the Emperour concerning Peter, but receiving dilatory answers, he made 2 invasions, the one into Bavaria where his Ar­my and General were defeated, the other in­to Styria and Carniola, whence he carried a­way a great many Captives. This gave occa­sion to the Princes of Germany to assemble at Colen, and by unanimous Resolution there ta­ken to invade Abas, which enterprise so suc­ceeded, that Abas beaten in two Battles, and having lost all his Country, as far as the River [Page 54] Gran beyond Pre burgh, was forced to a sub­mission, by which he was bound to receive Gi­sala the banished Queen, to restore Austria, and other places, with the late Captives: which Articles he stood not to, but spighting his No­bles, as the occasion of his Misfortunes, under the pretence of convening them for Advice, most treacherously flew them and their Chil­dren: but this the more incensed others just in­dignation, so that the remains of them esca­ping to the Emperor, engaged him and Peter against Abas. At Raab a signal Battel was commenced, where by the revolt of Abas his Army, by which they satisfied for their former Defection from Peter, Abas slain at Sh [...]ba. Abas was forced to fly and in the pursuit slain at Sheba, as a Victime and Sacrifice to the Ghosts of his murdered Nobility.

PETER was again restored by the Em­perour,Peter re­stored. who in triumphal progresse rounded all Hungary, and having received the Royal Dig­nity, by the election of the Bishops assembled at Alba, transferred it to Peter, who return­ing to the same vitious and cruel Excesses, nei­ther mindful of his past, nor provident of his future fortunes, provoked the Hungarians un­der two Captains Visca and Brunna, to another Combination and Rebellion against him, but the design being timely discovered, the chief Complices were most miserably tortured. Yet the Sedition abated not, for by another Con­spiracy inflamed by a general hatred against [Page 55] Christian Religion, scandalized by their Kings enormous lives, the Hungarians privily sent for Andrew and Leventa, according to the ad­vice of King Stephen, out of Poland, whither they had been banished; These lurking for a while at Newhausel, (now so called) by the ri­ver Nitre, and assisted by the inhabitants, wrea­ked their revenge designed against the King upon the Religion, massacring a great number of Bishops then assembled at Pesth. Peter presently thereupon being forsaken of his own,Deposed by Andre [...] & his eyes put out, &c. was drawn out of his hiding place in the Mos­sonian Grounds, and after his eyes were put out, had his privities cut off, which disgraceful maims he survived three years. So when pru­dence is wanting to the first fortune, the fu­ture is alwayes most dangerous.

ANDREW succeeded in the year of Christ 1047,Andrew the 5th. K. He repressed the innovated super­stition, and punished with the sword or banish­ment such as had assisted him to Victory in his irreligious Cruelty. Henry the Third, Em­perour, then engaged in a Papal War in Italy, (between Benedict the 9, and Sylvester the third, and Clement the Second, whom he pla­ced at last in St. Peters Chair) being no way at Leisure to attend Hungary; but that at last by his power determined, he resolved to re­venge the injury done to Peter, invading first the Southern parts of Hungary, but was forced to retreat by the overflowings of the Lakes and Rivers; the next expedition was by water, [Page 56] where he was worsted by a Stratagem, the last by water and land,His War with Ger­many. but with as had successe, having advanced so far, and streightned for pro­visions, that he was forced to desire license and leave to return. A peace ensued this kindnesse, and as a pledge thereof, the Emperour gave his Daughter in marriage to Solomon (the Son of Andrew) now confirmed in the succession to the Crown.

BELA (the brother of Andrew) by whom he was made Duke of Pomerania, Bela the 6th. King. and had hitherto lived in great Concord with him to the aggrandizing the Hungarian Felicity; and a little before appointed by him to the Kingly Government, could not brook this his Ne­phews advancement over his head: assisted therefore by many of the Hungarians, and aided by the Poles, as Solomon by Germany and [...]ohemia by the Interest of Andrew, besides his standing Legions, an engagement en [...]ed at the River Tibiscus, with various fortune, untill the Hungarians in detestation of the Christian Religion, and in revenge of the suppression of Paganisme by Andrew, revolted to Bela, who thereby became Master of the Field; Andrew flying was trod down in the pursuit.

Bela used his victory with great clemency, freely giving life to the Rebels, and dismissing the German Prisoners Ransome free; and ap­plying himself to the Government, appointed Markets and rates of things, lessened the Tax­es and Impositions; Money being not as yet [Page 57] known. He repaired and new built several places, suppressed the Peasants and Boores, tu­multing against the profession of the Christian Religion, by sudden force; and though he gained the Kingdome by violence and injury,His virtues yet he governed it with piety and justice; and in the year 1065. the Third year of his Reign, by a kind of Earthquake at the Town of Demes which disjointed every part and Member of him, he dyed.

SOLOMON within a month after his Death was seated in his Throne by the power of the Emperour;Solomon the 7th. K. Geysa and Ladislaus the Sons of Bela, despairing of equal resistance, flying for refuge into Poland; but the German Forces returning home, they resumed courage, pre­vailing with Boleslaus the King of Poland to derive the friendship contracted between their Father and himself to them his Sons; Boleslaus owing so much to the merit of the Father, en­tred Hungary with them, but by the Mediati­on of the Archbishop of Strigonium, Bela's sons pacified. a Peace was happily concluded between them, on con­dition that Geysa and Ladislaus should with the Title of two Dukes enjoy a third part of the Kingdome, but the Soveraignty should abide in Solomon; This agreement with some grudg­ing suspicions lasted till Solomon, by the As­sistance of the Dukes, took Belgrade, the rich spoils whereof, a fourth part being only allowed the Dukes by the advice of one Vidus, caused such a Rupture, that both had present recourse [Page 58] to Arms. The first Encounter proved disas­trous, but the second fortunate to the Bro­thers, who had to their assistance Twenty thou­sand Bohemians; this Battel was fought by the Vaccian Forrest, and with great resolution on both sides; Vidus was here slain, and Solomon thereby driven out of his Kingdome.

GEYSA, Geysa the 8th. King. now swayed the Hungarian Scepter, being busied in prosecuting his late victory, for that Solomon appeared in the con­fines towards Presburgh, endevouring the re­stitution of his Fortune by the aid of the Ger­mans, and other adjacent people; and in this Martial angry mood he lighted upon the Bessi, who had undertaken for their Liberty his final discomfiture, and severely chastised this their preingaged arrogance; yet he advantaged not his ovvn Affairs, till Henry the Emperour appeared in his quarrel, & first took Newhausel and advanced as far as Vacia, and seemed to threaten Geysa's Claim; but what he wanted in strength to oppose, he was supplied with in Craft and Policy, to impose upon the Germans, by a round sum of money sent them, upon which the Emperour retired, intent upon a re­vengeful design against Pope Hildebrand.

And here an end was put to the Tragedies of so many Kings,The Empe­rors of Germany no right in Hungary. wherein we may observe by the way, that the Emperours though superiour by power and victory, could never make good their pretended Title to Hungaria, nor those Kings vvho adhered to, or made use of their [Page 59] Arms to passe unpunished.Geysa dieth. Geysa dyed by a natural death, the third year of his Reign; on vvhose Affections Desideriue the Metrapoli­tan Bishop is said to have had so much influence that he was once thinking to have rendred the Scepter to Solomon; But bethinking himself that his privacy could not be without danger, and that it would be rashnesse to trust the will and pleasure of an enemy, he resolved to re­tain the Government.

LADISLAUS having gloriously pas­sed the Ducal Dignity conferred on him by his Brother,Ladislaus 9th. King his brother succeeds. had the Regal Honour unanimously bestowed on him, as reputed a Prince of very great Virtue and Piety, and though he refused the Crown because Solomon was yet alive, yet the pertinacious importunity of the Hungarians overcame his modesty. He first restored the true worship of God, & the good laws of his Ancestors then obliterated and disused. He was assisted by an opinion of the divine favour accompanying him in all his Actions, then which there is not a better Instrument and Engine to govern the multitude, who conceived that the Crown of Hungary, The reason why the Hungari­ans have such a ve­neration for that sacred Sym­bol of Ma­jesty. with which the Princes are to this day inaugurated, came down from Heaven upon the head of this Ladislaus.

He agreed with Solomon, for a certain yearly revenue, but he musing on his ambition, de­signed on pretence of a friendly conference to betray him, but that being discovered, He seized on him and imprisoned him at Visigrade, [Page 60] where being condemned, at the intercession of a Nun admonished by Heaven, as she boasted, he gave him Life and Liberty; which courtesy he strait abused, by engaging Cuteschus the King of the Cumani to take his part, but un­prosperously, his Army being overpowered and discomfited,The strange forlorn condition of Solo­mon. so that despairing of recovering the Kingdome, and weary of the World, he put on Sackcloth, and betook himself to the woods and Caverns, living upon Acorns and Berries, and drinking the water of the Lakes for his thirst, teaching the world the uncertainty of all worldly things, and that felicity can be pla­ced no where but in death. It is reported he was seen once in the time of Coloman the suc­ceeding King, in whose Reign he also ended his Life, in the Woods of Istria.

In the mean while, Ladislaus reduced Dal­matia, and made it a perpetual Appendix to the Hungarian Dominion, together with Cro­atia; There after followed a war with the Em­perour of Byzantium, or Constantinople, but it eveened with losse to the Hungarians, for which the Bulgarian Victory and Conquest soon after made amends. The Fury of the Cumani could nevertheless not be restrained, till after three overthrowes, the last whereof was most couragiously desended,Ladislaus his valour. at the banks of Ister, till Ladislaus with his own hands very difficultly slew Achus their General, whose death stroke and broke the Constancy of this valiant enemy, whose Confederates and Auxi­liaries [Page 61] the Roxolani fell under the same Fate,Russes. and precariously obtained their Peace.

Poland was the next Scene of his Successe, the cause of which Expedition was their Ex­pulsion of Boleslaus his great Friend and Fa­miliar, who flying into Hungary, tormented with an evil Conscience for the ills he had done, being become of a good, a very bad man, died there. The Armies joyned in the Confines of Sauromatia, His Suc­cesses. where he vigorously routed the Poles; nor desisted from his pursuit till he had Sacked Cracovia the Metrapolis of that Nati­on, when Vladislaus the Brother of Boleslaus, besought him Peace, which he obtained upon Condition that Miesco, Boleslaus his Son, should have the Second Dignity.

The Sword being now sheathed, he built his Royal Seat of Varadin by the River Chry­sus. This City in our Times was the Chief and principal of the County of Bihor, famous of old for the Sepulture of Kings, and the San­ctity of the place; on the North are Hills planted with fruitful Vines, and watered with ever-running Rivulets; the East aspects the Baths and Medicinal Springs; the other part the plain and the woods encompasse. These great things effected, this zealous Religious Captain even to the report of certain mira­cles wrought at his Grave afterwards, received at Bodrogh, Ladislaus invited to the Holy Land war Embassadors from the Kings of England, France, and Spain, desiring his as­sistance in the Sarazen War, which he de­nied [Page 62] not, but the Embassie took not its effect, for he died in a new Expedition against Suato­pologus of Moravia, leaving by so much, a greater Name, by how much his Successors came behind him in prowesse and martial Atchie­vements.

COLOMANNUS, Coloman the tenth King. Ladislaus dying without Issue; succeeded his Uncle in the Throne, though otherwise designed by him, for he preferred Almus his younger Nephew Son of Geysa, as abler in body and mind, to Coloman the elder, whom he praedicted for a Bloody man; But the Nobles sending for Co­loman out of Poland, whither he had fled (for fear of his Uncles words) Crowned him their King, his Brother Almus being Titula­ded with a Dukedome, and invested in a fourth part of the Kingdom. Being thus advanced, as prosperous things do search the mind with sharper pricks, he did not consider himself as a Governour and his People as Citizens, but as an absolute Lord, aud they his Slaves and vas­sals. About the same time Peter the Hermit brought the Crusado into Hungary, The Cru­sado brought into Hun­gary. when Famin and the Plague throughout Christendome seem­ed to prevent his most Religious Negotiation. Neverthelesse in the Year 1096. Gualterus Sensavir was entertained by him, and passage given him, he paying such a certain rate for his provision, some of whose Souldiers stragling and committing some little spoyle about Bel­grade, were seized and most basely and igno­miniously [Page 63] handled, which Gualter thought good to dissemble, intent upon his Expedition; Peter the Hermit marching the same way upon the s [...]me Conditions, understanding at Malevill, what had happened to his fellows, flew pre­sently to his Arms, and breaking open the Gates of the City,Peter the Hermit's [...]verthrow entred and slew 4000. Hungari­ans; but being pursued by Coloman, to avoyd him, fell into the hands of the Soldan of Nicia, who had an Army of Forty thousand men, and lost more by his rashnesse and incogitance, than ever he could have gained with his greatest moderation.

Nor did Godschalk the Preist fare any bet­ter, for entring Hungary upon the former terms, his Souldiers from the affluence of pro­visions began to riot, & forgetting the Lawes of Hospitality, to abuse their Entertainers. To represse this Insolence,Godscalk [...] like For­tune by Coloman▪ Coloman made after them to Belgrade with a great Army, where ensued a Battel, but with such equal Fortune, that Coloman having recourse to Policy, pre­vailed upon them under pretences of civility and reconciliation, (desiring onely the Plunder­ers to be punished) that they confiding in his words disarmed themselves, and were instantly when they no way suspected such usage, horribly destroyed, not one of them being left alive to carry the news of this Massacre. The Rear of those Forces arriving at Meersburgh a place encamped with the Danow, Lynx, and Moras­ses; and ignorant of what had happned to their [Page 64] followes, and knowing the agreement made for their passage, did wonder to see the Straights shut to them, which, the King dread­ing the punishment of his perfidy had so com­manded; whereupon after a vain message to Coloman, they besiged M [...]ersburgh, slew 700. of the Hungarians; but just as the Town was brought to the utmost Extremity, a Panick-fear sei [...]ed on them, whereafter ensued a great slaughter of them, the rest saved themselves by [...]light.

But Godfrey of Bo [...]ign anxious of the losse of those Legions,Godfrey of Bollign his safe passage through Hungary. succeeded better; for ha­ving debated the businesse and received an ac­count of the late slaughter by Godfrey of As­cha, he easily perswaded the Hungarians to consent to another passage, at an enterview between them, to such a firm understanding, that Coloman while yet Godfrey was at the said Malevill on the Banks of Savi [...] having fur­nished him also with all manner of Provisions, delivered to him his Brother Baldwin, whom he had left as Hostage for the performance of the Agreement; though Bonfinus reports that the Duke having taken Zemlin, opened his way by the Sword, and compelled Coloman being too weak to oppose him, to consent at last to Passage through his Dominions. There follow­ed this Feud a Quarrel between Coloman and his Brother Almus. One part of the King­dome adhered to the King, the other to Almus; both Armies met at the River Tybiscus by a [Page 65] Town called Varkon, where a Truce being concluded on, it was further proposed, that the two Princes, to save the lives of others, should determine their own Quarrel by Duel, [...] Custome then much in use in that Warlike Nation, which Coloman refusing, the differ­ence was for a while respited and both parties laid down Armes, which presently were em­ployed against the Russes, but with ill Suc­cesse; He makes Peace thereupon with the Venetians, and in the mean time debaucheth the Fidelity of the Iadrenses their Subjects, whom to reduce, Ordephalus was Commissi­oned, who recovered Iadra with a bloody slaughter, and advanced his Successful Armes as far as Croatia, but was at last by Coloman, assisted by the Styrians in the saccage of the Coast of Dalmatia, engaged and overcome; and so all the places returned with Iadra a­gain to his obedience.

Hungary was now again divided by the Fa­ctions of the Brethren:Feud be­twixt the royal Bre­thren. Almas twice suspect­ed, and twice assisted by Forrainers, was once more restored by the Armes of Hen. 5. Emp. but such was the arrogance of Colomans fortune that seizing upon him, he caused his, and his Son Bela's Eyes to be put out, without any tryal or compearance afore Judges; whence several grudges and Conspiracies of the Nobles & secret seditious practises were occasioned & somented against him; the effect whereof he prevented by sudden Death, which happen­ed [Page 66] in the twenty fifth year of his Raign.

STEPHEN, Stephen the 10th. King. for his Sanguinous nature, as delighted in often seeing the punishments of the Condemned) by his Father Nick-named Thunder, was therefore placed under the Go­vernment and Tuition of the most Eminent Persons for Nobility and Vertue, under whom what he gained in Fame and Estimation, so freed from them, he lost it as fast; notwith­standing the first and longest part of his Raign was very prosperous. His first Enterprize was against the Russes, to restore Iarislaus to that Government, who fearing his Uncle Uladomirs designs against him, had fled into Poland; but he dying, the war ended as soon as it was be­gun; The next Expedition was against the Bo­hemians, where worsted at the first Encounter, he recruited his Army and overthrew them. Thrice he turned his Arms upon Bulgaria, Macedo­nia, and Greece; and taking Belgrade razed Zengminum; afterwards he fought with vari­ous successes against Calo Iohannes Emperour of Constantinople, Calo Jo­hannes defeated. but finally had the better of it, forcing him to sneak home by by wayes from his progression as far as Ister, and that not without a signal defeat given him in his retreat, at a Town called Mala Scala: though Bonfinius reports Stephen to have been beaten at the River of Carassus, and to have besought his peace.

A Polish War ensued this in favour of the Russes against another Iarislaus Duke of Ha­licia, [Page 67] whom Boleslaus King of Poland had resettled in his Estate, wherein the Pole, other­wise a very Fortunate Prince, was Defeated by a Stratagem of Stephens, joyning himself to the Rear of the Polish Army upon pretence of Friendship. And so when he had wearied his Cruelty abroad, he began to exercise it at home, vailing his sloth with severity, murdering his Nobles, and ravishing their Ladies: but in the twenty second year of his Raign,Stephen puts him­self into a Monastery, and resigns troubled in Conscience with the flagitiousnesse of his Facts, he put himself into a Monastery; though others write he onely designed such a retire­ment.

BELA, Bela the 11th. King his Cousin German, who had his Eyes put out as before, and flying was enter­tained at Constantinople (which was the cause of the Quarrel between Stephen and Calo Io­hannes) was by the wonderful inconstance of Fortune called to a Crown, from his banish­ment; he had gained to his Wife, Helena Daughter of Vr [...] Count of Augusta, by whom he had four Sons, Geysa, Ladislaus, Stephen, and Almus: His adverse Condition had so sweetned his Felicity to him, that he wholly intended his Repose, wherein he gave many signs of great abstinence and Equity, notwithstanding he was not altogether fault­lesse, for at an Assembly or Convention of the Estates at Arad, though he seemed to be averse to any Execution, yet he so wrought upon the affections of others, that most cruel [Page 68] punishments were inflicted on the Authours of his Fathers occaecation. Hereupon the Sons of the oppressed solicite Borichus, the Bastard Son of Coloman, Borichus the Bastard Son of Co­loman so­licited to invade the Govern­ment. to assume the Go­vernment, who with the assistance of some Poles and Russes, came as far as Sajus, a Ri­ver dividing both the Armies, where by the Discovery of the Extraction of Borichus, the Poles deserted him, who was constrained to fly for his Protection to Emanuel; Bela freed from this danger, by advice of his Courtiers, took away the lives of two of the Cheifest Noblemen of his Kingdome; and being giv­en to drunkennesse, in which he was full of promises, soon after dyed.

GEYSA presently took upon him the Kingdome,Geysa the 12. King. and managed his first Armes for the good of his Subjects: for Henry Duke of Austria, aided by the Saxons and Stirians, to whom were added the Forces of the Em­perour Conrade, by the means and endevour of Count Iulian took Presburg: All their Power he very gallantly first sustained, and then overcame in the desperation of the Event, killing Seven thousand of the Germans, and taking their Camp and Baggage. His next War was for his Confederates, for Lodomi­rus aided by the Cumani, attempted to de­throne Minoslaus, whose Sister Geysa had mar­ried; whom though with great losse by the Russes and the Cumani, he reinstated. The Dalmatian War attended this, one in name but [Page 69] many in the atrocity and fortune of the War; Manuel the Eastern Emperor invaded Dalma­tia as his Dominion,Manuel the Greek Emperors Exploits. took the Castle of Rasus, and laid waste the circumjacent Country, and upon the news of the advance of the Hunga­rians, came as far as the River Drina, which parts Bosnia and Servia, and devasted both the Provinces, and in a set Feild overcame the joynt Forces of the Confederates, who encouraged by fresh and choyce supplies, with the additions of the Bessi, by the Valour and presence of the Emperour, were foyled again, and the Despot (or as the Language terms him) the Archi-Zupan of the Country, was forced to submit to a Tribute, which Successe emboldned Manuel to a further attempt upon part of Hungary, where he re-took Zeugmi­ [...] repaired, after a most gallant resistance, and Captivated a great number of the Peo­ple, while Geysa was waging Wat with the Russians.

For Lodomir [...]enewing his Designs against Minoslaus, was ripe for the Revenge of Geysa, when this diversion brought the Hungarians back upon Iohn Cantacuzenus, whom they Fu­riously and desperately set upon and overcame; but another Army being dispatched by Manuel (retreating) under the Command of Boricza, dis-peopled a great Tract of ground, and slew three Brigades of Hungarians. This quarrel continued between them upon punctilio of Revenge, and maintainance of acquist, after [Page 70] three several Treaties concluded and violated, till Andronicus Duke of Naessa and Braniczobe, by treaty yeilded him those places, where­after followed many bickerings, concluded in a League.The Holy War re­sumed. The Holy War was now recom­menced by Conrade, and continued by Lewis of France, both of which passed through Hun­gary, but by the perfidiousnesse of Manuci suffered excceedingly. In whose Camp Bori­chus the Bastard, concealing himself, was ta­ken and killed: Geysa Died soon after in the Year 1160. and in the 20th. of his Raign.

STEPHEN the Eldest Son of Geysa possessed a peaceful Scepter,Stephen the 13th. King. which he indulg­ed the rather for his Subjects sake, and to con­ciliate the wavering affections of the Kingdom [...] His first Effort was against Pope Adrian, quar­relling about the Churches and Bishopricks of Istria and Liburnia. In this War Manu [...] assisted him, which sorted not very luckily by reason of the Hungarians intestine Divisions for the Uncles of Stephen insinuating them­selves into Manuel's favour, Ladislaus the el­der Uncle, by sundry artifices and collusions with that Emperour possessed himself of the Throne, vouchsafeing Stephen the Title of a Dukedome who wisely absenting himself, the common Fate of Usurpation befel Ladislaus, & restor'd Stephen again, after 5 months unjust detainer from the Regality, by Ladislaus and not much longer; after Stephen his second Uncle, substituted to his Brother by the same [Page 71] Faction, when the People weary of them both, willingly received their Exile King.

But this was not done without much damage and danger to the Kingdome by the Armes and Designs of Manuel, who now pretended to Hungary, so that after many Conflicts and Depopulations, Stephen was Invested in Syr­mia, without any Claim to be made by him to Hungary, which Articles being broken on Stephen, the Uncles part, and he af [...]esh inva­ding the Dominions of his Nephew, assisted a­gain by the said Emperour, was wholly outed of his Principality, as his Confederate Manuel from his part of Dalmatia. The Uncle Sur­vived not long, being poysoned by one of his Complices, who feared the Revenge of their practises & conspiration against their Soveraign.

Stephen being therefore fully Established, the Peace was Confirmed at home, but disquieted instantly from abroad; for Ma­nuel the Emperour with the old pretence of assisting Stephen, Arrived at the Banks of Ister, and from Belgrade marched to the Seige of Zeugminum which at last was yeilded to him, and with that also Dalmatia and Syrmia, as­signed by the Agreement for the Inheritance of Bela his youngest Uncle, who had Married a Kinswoman of the Emperours. But neither this dured long, for Stephen impatient of this Bargain sent an Army under Dionysius, to re­venge the injury, who was prosperous in one Encounter, but was fatally defeated in the next by the Emperour.

[Page 72] BELA by the Decease of Stephen possessed himself of the Kingdom,Bela the 14 King. which by his allyance with the Greek Emperour was composed and secured; In his person Dalmatia and Syrmia, were united to the Crown of Hungary, and made members thereof as of the same body. His Converse in Greece made him most excel­lent in the Arts of Government, he first divi­ded the Kingdome into Provinces, Cities, and Boroughs, and made that institution in reve­rence of Royal Dignity, that complaints should not be obtruded orally to them, but by way of humble Supplication and Petition. He warred with Casimirus King of Poland, up­on a quarrel supported by both of them, in re­ference to the Dutchy of Halicia, but being but an auxiliary feud it was soon ended: As he did compose those affairs of his Son in Law I­saac Angelus, the Constantinopolitan Emperor, a weak yet Sacrilegious person. He reigned 17. years, and left a most flourishing King­dome to his Son Emerick.

EMERICK was wholly indisposed to War,Emerick the 15. K. which the rather persued him; for the Venetians vex'd at, and disdaining the losse of Dalmatia, making use of the Land forces of Baldwin Earl of Flanders, and Boniface Mar­quiss of Montferrat, passing for the Holy Land in their shipping, as Leagued with them in the expedition, (notwithstanding the Thun­derbolt of Pope Innocents Excommunication at the instance of Stephen, who would have trans­ferred [Page 73] the War to its proper place) took Ia­dra and reduced all the Maritime part of Dal­matia.

But Emerick was more fortunate at home, having defeated a Conspiracy made against him by Andrew and most of the Nobility by a most innocent but Majestick device, coming of a sudden into their armed Company, with the Crown on his head, which the Hungarians do naturally reverence, whereupon they all sheath­ed their Swords and craved pardon, and were most magnificently and freely remitted. He deceased in the eighth year of his Reign, and was succeeded by Ladislaus the Third, who ap­plying himself to the Reformation of the Go­vernment, and the Lawes, unhappily dyed in the 6 month after his Inauguration.

ANDREW the second,Andrew the 16 K. for his vertue, was next advanced to the Regal Dignity. He sadly affected with the discomfitures of the Christians, went himself Generalissimo into the Holy Land, and passing into Asia overthrew the Sultan Abubeker, sirnamed Seyseddine, and the Successor of Saladine. He took also Damiata, and forced the Sultan to retreat, to Caire, where he breathed out his unhappy Soul: Nor was it doubted but that his victories would entitle him to the Holy Land the Christi­ans being both in the field, and in the Seige far superiour, until the Nile overcame them; for the Sultan breaking down the banks on both sides, the River swelling to its usual heigh, [Page 74] overflowed into their Camp, whereupon pres­sed with hunger, also & overwhelm'd with mise­ry, they capitulated for their permission of de­parture, with the surrender of Damiata; An­drew bringing thence instead of Victory the heads of St. Stephen and Margaret, His Expe­dition into the Holy Land. the right hands of benedict, Thomas, Bartholomew, part of the rod of Aaron, and one of the Water­pots wherein Christ wrought his miracle of Wine. These things the Hungarian Writers with intrusive Piety mainly defend. Others say that he passed no further then Iordan, and having washt himself thrice therein, as ac­counting himself disobliged from his vow, re­turned home.

His Justice was very remarkable, in that he justified Bancbanus (his Deputy in his absence) who had slain his Queen, for that she had pro­stituted his Wife to her vitious Brother, who came to visit her. He forgave the Venetian in­juries, made excellent Lawes, and vested a negative power in the Nobles, to what should be enacted without their Consent; By Gertrude he had three Sons, Bela, Coloman, and An­drew, and Elizabeth his Daughter, not to be passed, for her eminent Piety, without honou­rable mention, she was married to the Land­grave of Hesse, who dying in the Holy Land, she betook her self to a Monastery, and was five years after her death canonized by Pope Gregory the Ninth, at which Consecration was present at Marpurg, Frederick the Emperour [Page 75] with divers other Princes, vvith a Conflux of 12 nundred thousand persons.

BELA the 4th. of that name was saluted King,Bela the 17. King. while his Brother Coloman having expel­led Daniel seized the Government of Halicia and Lodomiria, himself being wholy addicted to Peace and quiet, but herein fortune failed him, for the Tartars, (whose original described something largely by my Author, but not to our present purpose we must here omit) with whom joyned the Cumani expelled by the same Tartars from their seats a [...]d habitations in 1238. (by humble intreaties and profession of Christian Religion, after they had been denyed entrance or entertainment in Russia) having been admitted into Hungary by the Kings single consent, proved the first part of the ruine of that Kingdom: for the Hungarians offended with their peremptory carriage and finding lit­tle redresse ar Court, fell [...]pon them of a sudden and killed their King Kuthenes, who being thus provok'd, kill slay and burn whatever they came near, and at last joyned themselves to the Tar­tars, whose Invasion being rumoured before, was imputed to some design of the Kings, to keep the Hungarians in peace with the Cumani.

Now whilest Peta one of the Tartarian Ge­neralls ravaged Poland, The Tar­tars Invade Hungary. Moravia, and Sile­sia, as Cadon another of their Captains did Russia, the Emperour Bathuy Chan overthrew the Palatine of Hungary deserted of his people at Russe-Port, and utterly crushed the Arch-Bishop [Page 76] of Colozza in a moorish ground, and laid wast all the Countrey as far as Vacia, and passing f [...]rther totally defeated and vanquished Bela, striving in vain with the discords, negli­gence and hatred of his Subjects.

Nothing remained to him in all Hungary, but Alba Regalis, Strigonium and the Monastery of St. Martins, nor was the multitude of the slain by weapons, smoak and clouds raised by Magick Art to be computed: Three years the Tartars continued this ruine, searching in the Woods and Caves for the miserable In­habitants, others with feigned letters they allured from their hiding places,The Tar­tar r [...]vage the Country all which they slew, so that the stench of the dead Carcasses caused a Plague and mortality, as a Famine was occasioned by the devastation of the Coun­trey.

By which means the Tartars were forced to abandon that Kingdome, carrying away with them an inumerable Company into intollerable slavery. The Pope endeavoured to Christianize this savage Nation, and Bathuy Chan did grant a Truce and Protection to the Monks, as Mango was converted, yet the other Leaders seeing the vices of the Christians chose rather the Mahometan Infidelity. The Tartars thus departed, Bela by the aid of the Knights of St. Iohn of Ierusalem who from the Faction of Rome had retired themselves into Illyria, where he had weathered this storm, & others of the Crusado, who were frequent in those parts [Page 77] of Croatia and Dalmatia, and the like assistance of the Frangipans received again his desolate Kingdome, with his four Sons whom he had deposited in the Fortresse of Clissa.

But no sooner was he seated, then a just occa­sion led him against Frederick the Emperour, who under pretence of sheltring him, had rob'd him of his Treasure, but expiated that fraud by a just force which vanquished him at Nova a City of Austria whereby Bela gained all his e­nemies wealth & began to revive the drooping spirits of the Hungarians; which while he in­tended by other alleviaments, the Bohemian War recalled him, for Primislaus that King the great friend of the Emperour Otho, so that he was called Ottho Ca [...]rus having married the Widow of [...]rederick attempted the recovery of Styria and Austria, not long possessed. A fierce and cruell Battel was thereupon joyned in Moravia, where the Hungarians inferiour in number and exhausted with the late War, were overthrown and a peace made upon these conditions that the Bohemians should enjoy Austria and the Hungarian stand seized of Styria.

STEPHEN the fifth swayed the Hunga­rian Scepter,Stephen the 18 K. though not long, yet very glori­ously, for he Revenged his Fathers discomfi­ture upon Ottocarus, though at first he vvas worsted, afterwards he made an expedition a­gainst the Bulgarians, people of the Dacia Au­reliana, (so called, for that Emperors Trans­planting them in Maesia from the new Dacia) & [Page 78] made them willing to pay that Tribute which was due to his Predecessors. He reigned but 2 years, leaving Hungary in a thriving conditi­on.

LADISLAUS the fourth,Ladislaus the 19th. King. the Son of Stephen succeeded, and was scarce 3 moneth [...] old in the Government, when a new War suc­ceeded the former, as if Fortune had so order­ed it, that the Bohemian having ill used the 2. Kings Bela and Stephens, should satisfie for his Injuries to the third King Ladislaus. Mora­via was the Cause of the War, wherein Ottoca­rus outstretched his bounds very immoderately. It was long consulted hereupon by the Hunga­rians, how they should coun [...]erplot or oppose these enc [...]oachments, when the Fates of them­selves opened a Way.

The Princes of the Empire vvhile they so­veraigned it themselves vvithout any Chief or Head,The Origi­nal of the House of Austria. were variously opprest with the Facti­ons of the Guelphs and Gibellines, by which means it came to passe that the Name of the Counts of Hapsburg, then obscure, igno [...]e, and unregarded, now exerted it self; and af­terwards augmented by riches and power in Germany, and chiefly by the Marriage of Mary of Burgundy, was thereby propagated far and wide, and became formidable to the whole World.

Rudolphus the Major Domo or Mayor of the Palace to Ottocarus, was by the perswasion of Venerus of Ments, declared and appointed [Page 79] Emperour, Ottocarus could not brook a supe­riour,Rudol­phus Em­perour. nor Rudolphus endure a peace, Ladislaus is therefore by him adopted and engaged as his Confederate in the War, by which Ottocarus was wholly routed and vanquished; and bea­ten out of Austria, shut up in the Fiefs of Bohemia and Moravia.

At the same time Lascus Niger the King of Poland, had for protection & assistance ad­drest himself to Ladislaus, being expelled his Kingdome by Conrade Duke of Massovia, which Ladislaus readily granted, and in his aid forthwith subdued his rebellious Subjects, This war was taken up by the revival of another by Ottocarus, who no way enduring the Dominion of Rudolphus formerly his Servant, stirred up Oldamir the Duke of the Cumani, to invade Hungary the Emperors Confederate, and for the better ligament of their new Friendship, took to Wife that Dukes Danghter Kunigunda, unlawfully repudiating his former Wife Mar­gareta; The Cumani aided by some Tartars, came as far as the Lake of Hood, burning and spoyling all the Country about. Against these Ladislaus fought successively, Ottocarus him­self after a total rout being slain in the Battel. Peace thereupon was granted to the Queen of Bohemia, on condition that her Son Wenceslaus should marry the Daughter of Caesar, and to hold Bohemia from the Emperour as his Bene­ficiary.

But though this last Battel was so prosperous­ly [Page 80] fought, yet was it the Cause of greater Evils, for the Tartars and Cumani that escaped, im­plored the assistance of their Countrymen, who following their unknown and bloody Tract in the year 1280, broke into Hungary, renewing and carrying the dismal slaughter of the former time as far as the Province of Pesth: The Tar­tars rein­vade Hun­gary. whosoever they met with (for the pleasure of the Tyrant) were consumed, others mancipated to perpetual slavery, very many with limbs cut off survived their punishment; such as were left in the High-ways, sometimes by sight, often by their groans and howlings, knew their Wives, Hus­bands, Children or Parents; by which barba­rity the Kingdome was so oppressed, that there were not Cattel enough to draw the Wains, and those the men drew, in contempt of the King, were called Ladislaus Chariots: For he having married the Daughter of Charles King of Sicily, grew so outragious in his lust, and voyd of all fear and shame, that he stuprated the Wifes of the Cumani, and most libidinously vitiated them; the which Cumani (as the friendship of Princes not conciliated by ver­tue is very temporary) at a large Treatment given him at Keretzegum, there slew him, and put an end to his flagitious Practises.

ANDREW the third,Andrew the 20 K. enjoyed the King­dome after Ladislaus the Nephew of Andrew the second, by the Daughter of the Marquesse of Este and Son of Stephen. Boniface the eighth, obtruded Charles Robert, a Youth of twelve [Page 81] years of age, the Great Grandchild of Charles Duke of Anjo [...], who at the sollicitation of Pope Clement the fourth, after many fruit­lesse Wars managed by the Papacy, deprived Manfred the Bastard of Conrade the Empe­rour, of the Kingdome of Sici [...]ia, and suffred the same Fortune by Peter of Arragon. This Andrew, as he gained the Kingdome by the love and affection of his Subjects, so he main­tained it by his own worth and Vertue.

He was in the beginning of his Raign taken Prisoner by Albert of Austria, Adolphus of Nassau then Emperour, and after his enlarge­ment at Vienna, Andrew established in the Go­vernment. contracted with Agnes the Daughter of the said Albert, which said Con­tract upon his return was annulled by the States of Hungary, as done in his Restraint, which occasioned a War with various Successes in Austria, until intestine Troubles forced Albert to make Peace, that he might bend his Arms against Adolph, whom he slew, and advanced himself (though not unpunished for his disloy­alty) into the Imperial Throne. Andrew in the mean while gently reduced the favourers of Charles and the Pontifical Authority, by which he was invested; but that len [...]i [...]y of his was abused to his Contempt and avilement; for the seditious practises of the same men, brought Charls, Andrew yet living, into Hungary, but the danger rendring King Andrew's Authority more acceptable to his other Subjects, restrained Charles his Advance. In the conclusion of his [Page 82] Raign the Venetians being Excommunicated by the Pope, for the seizure of Ferrara, the Ia­drenses revolted to the Hungarians, to reduce whom, Belletus Iustinianus was sent with a pow­er; but by the Stratagems of the Vaivod of Dalmatia, was presently repulsed.

Andrew Deceasing,Wence­ss [...]us cho­sen King by the No­bility. the Hvngarians being divided among themselves, one part of them acknowledged Charles for King, others blam­ed the Pope for meddling with a matter no way belonging to him, under pretence of Religi­on: The Generality therefore being of that opinion; the Arch-Bishop of Colozza, the Bishop of Varadin, and other their Complices, invited Wenceslaus (Son of Wenceslaus the King of Bohemia who refused) to accept and enter­tain the Crown; wherein the strangeness of For­tune is observable, that the Issue of Ottocar [...] (so odious to the Hungarians) should now be spontaneously desired of them. But that a [...]dent and sudden affection soon cooling, and Charles his Partisans, with the assistance of Albert of Austria▪ infesting Moravia with frequent in­cursions, Wenceslaus the Father mistrusting the levity of the Hungarians, made an Expedition into the Kingdom, where finding his Son neer Pesth (who came to meet him with his Crown on his head, [...]i [...]hly adorned) he carried him away presently with him, together with his Crown, into Bohemia; giving this reason to the De­mands of the Hungarians, that he did it to a­void an imminent storm: hence a Quarrel and [Page 83] hidden War: for Uladislaus L [...]ctius being re­moved from the Polonian Scepter, flying to Amadeus or Es [...]s, the Palatine of Hungary, watched an opportunity of recovering his Kingdome from Wenceslaus: whose Govern­ment, being too heavy for the Poles, the Pala­tine levying an Army soon re-settled his Guest, and Wenceslaus shortly after Deceased, so that this was a kind of Interregnum or Vacancy.

Boniface the eighth,Charles named for King, and imposed upon the Hungari­ans by the Pope. yet furiously persisting in Execution of his purpose and designation of Charles, by Nicholas Cardinal of Ostia, with the usual Anathema Excommunicated the Hungarians, who on the contrary declared the Pope guilty of disturbing the Peace, and in­terdicted his Bishops in the same manner (who at present seemed to acquiesce, awaiting a fitter opportunity the adverse party being too pre­valent, for their Revenge) and the rather provo­ked by this Papal thunder, proceeded to the E­lection of Otho the third Duke of Bavaria, to the Kingdome, in the Year of Christ 1305. He received the Crown gratis from Wenceslaus for which great sums had been offered by the Hungarians, Otho Duke of Bavaria chosen K. by the No­bility. and was inaugured at Alba Re­ [...]alis; and the better to win and insinuate him­self into the favour of the Nobles and People, he wore the Crown (which is had as before in the greatest veneration) constantly in his Pro­gresses and publique appearances. Once as he entered Transylvania he lost the Crown, being put up in a Case and tied to his Horses [Page 84] Saddle, which was not found till next day, and this was taken for an unlucky Omen of his Expulsion first into Russia, by which people he was for a while again restored, and his last final deprivation by Ladislaus Vaivod of the King­dome, who sided with Charles and the Papal pretences, though he had been one of the ad­vancers of Otho before. By this means much Blood was spilt by those intestine Divisions; the Cardinal Gentilis being sent again with new Curses and Bans against the Adversaries of Charles, which brought innumerable mischief [...] both upon Clergy, Nobility, and People, most unnaturally divided one against ano­ther.

These Factions having so long opprest this Nation, it was unanimously agreed to con­fer the Supreme Power upon a single person they chose thereupon in the Feilds of [...] Charles the Nephew of [...] [...]laudus King of▪ Sicily, Charles the 21 K. of Hungary. by Mary the Daughter of Stephen the fourth, and Son of Charles Martell; in whom the Discords and Feuds of the Nobility were by his Vertues reconciled. He was en­circled in the presence of his Father, with that Crown which Ladist [...]us had surrendred▪ His first Exploit and Enterprise was against Matthew Trinesiniensis; who had refused Alle­giance, whom he overcame in a bloody Battel at Cassovia; but with great hazzard and du­bious Event; his numerous Troops of Horse, among whom was a veterane tryed Band of the [Page 85] Knights of the Order of St. Iohn, turning their backs to a Brigade of 1700 Curassiers. Nor did the Conspiration cease here, for a bloody and [...]nefarious Design was laid at Visigrade, where Felicianus Sakanus a special Servant of the Kings with a drawn Sword, struck at him, who inclining his body, the blow cut off the Fingers of the Queen; nor had the King es­caped, had not the Souldiers of the Guard freed him (being mounted) from imminent Death. The Assassinate for terrour, was quar­tered, and his four quarters sent as a spectacle, through the Kingdome, and his Family and Posterity utterly extinguished.

Intending now an Expedition against the Sa­razens, a revolt of the Valachians withheld him, he advanced therefore against Bo [...]aradine the Vayvod thereof, and Compelled him with the Expence of the War, to pay the yearly Tri­bute; but returning he was set upon by that perfidious Nation in the abrupt and least passa­ble places, and Defeated, he himself changing his Habit for his easier Escape. Others say he undertook this War upon no ground, and there­fore they ascribe the Event to his wickednesse; Burying the Noble memorable Acts of this man in this Overthrow,The Virtues of Charles who was so Potent and Prudent a Prince, that most of the Kings of his Time were by his Force or Prudence ob­liged to him. He had to his Wives, Mary the Daughter of Casimir Duke of Poland; Beatrice Daughter of the Emperour, and Elizabeth the [Page 86] Daughter of Uladislaus of Poland; by the last he had Issue Charles, who died at the years, as Ladislaus at four months, end. His surviving Son Andrew had Apulia; Lewis, Hungaria for his Patrimony. Under this Charles the Realm re­covered its former Puissance, for he Ruled over Rama, Servia, Gallicia, Saler [...]a, L [...] ­d [...]miria, Cumania, and Naples; far Famed, had he not begotten his Son Lewis, although that also, be attributed to his Glory.

The Third BOOK.

LEWIS not inferiour to so great a Father,Lewis the 22. King. and skilled in martial Affairs, exercised his first Arms against the insolence of the Valachi­ans and Servians, who contemning his youth recoyled from the obedience they owed and performed to his Father, but were reduced to the same Conditions. Those being subjugated he solemnly dismiss'd his mother, whose San­ctity had procured her a veneration even unto Superstition, to Apulia, and thence to Rome, requesting of his brother Andrew the Loane of 44 thousand Marks of gold, (as the Covetous­nesse of the Times then required) for the price of his Confirmation in the Kingdom of Naples: which Affair concluded, he aided his adoptive Father Casimir (who before had designed Charls his Natural Son, but he survived not long af­ter) against Iohn of Bohemia and the Lithua­nians, whom he attempted to force to the belief of the Christian Religion, but found the difference betwixt Words and Swords. The Bohemian advanced as far as Cracovia, he again expelled out of that Dominion, from whence he was not yet retired, but the Tartars made another invasion into Hungary, but ne­verthelesse [Page 88] were so well received by Andrew the Vaivod, The Tart [...]rs beaten and expelled out of Hungary. Son of Ladislaus aforesaid, (who avoiding their Arrowes, came to handy blows with them, and the dint of Sword) that they were utterly overthrown, and their General A­tlamus taken prisoner, and the name of the Tartar after this defeat not heard of in Hun­gary for many years.

With the same fortune he prevailed against the Croats, in which expedition he was personally present, accompanyed with Stephen Neman Prince of Bosnia, whose Daughter he had mar­ried, for while as yet he stayed in the Confines of Croatia, they submitted themselves, and took the Oath of Fidelity and Allegiance: but the Venetian War was bloody, who in spight of Lewis, reduced Schodra to their subjection, after he had lost many men in the attempt of relieving it. While these things were doing; Ioan the Wife of Andrew new-invested in Apulia, for the love and lust of her Adulterer the Prince of Tarentum, The Histo­r [...] of J [...]an the v [...]ulte­r [...]us Qu▪ of Naples. designed to transfer that Kingdom with her self to his Embraces, by the death of her husband, whom she hung with a silken hal­ter. This Fact obliged Lewis to a just revenge, which to prosecute (having in vain received Letters from Ioan in Excuse thereof and by his answer declared her guilty of that and other precedent and subsequent Crimes) he marched into Italy, where he was assisted by Phillip of M [...]ntua, Malatesta of Ariminum, and other Princes, whose Governments by the sloth of [Page 89] Charles the Emperour were beco [...]e absolute Tyrannies.

By these Arms he drove Lewis Prince of Tarente the Adulterer,Lewis suc­cess against her. and Ioane his Wife out of Italy, to Marseilles and Avignion, and possessed himself of all the Dominion of Apulia, on that side the Sea, & taking the Duke of Dyrrachium beheaded him by the com­mon Executioner, as he sent the brothers of the said Lewis (with the Son of Andrew as his Ward) bound in Chains into Hungary, whe­ther, the Pest raging in Italy and depopulating many places, and whole Provinces, he soon after followed, and placed Stephen Laskus his Vaivod in Transylvania.

But the Neapolitans rebelling, as not endu­ring a forraign Government, the Hungarians left in that Kingdome, twice defeated them, once by a Salley made by Stephen the Gover­nour of Naples, whom they had blocked up, and the next time by Volphordus in plain Battel, though he lost his life as the price of the victo­ry; when Ioane having sollicited and obtained new Supplies, at the instances of the Pope, to whom as a Gratuity she consigned Avigni­on, Avignion how in­vested in the Pope. and to whose Arbitrement she submitted her Cause, attempted again the recovery of the Kingdome, whereupon Lewis returning with wonderful fortune, took Barletum, Car­nesium, where his life was neer endangered, Luceria and Salernum, (with most of all the Towns) and placing Garrisons therein in the [Page 90] year of Jubile came to Rome. The Papal seat was then at Avignion, wherefore the Prefect of Rome, Nicolaus Rentius, a man of eminent worth and virtue, meeting the King with the Estates of the City, proffered him the abso­lute supreme power thereof, but he refusing, it was tendred to Charles the fourth, out of fear of Clement the Pope, to whom, Charles being of an abject spirit, delivered the said Rentius Captive.

Ioan in the mean while never left urging of Clement to take her part, promising great ad­vantages to satisfie his Covetousnesse, if he would effect her Restitution, which in fine, by much intreaty to Lewis, who was religiously given, and could not be wrought upon any other way, was obtained at his hands. The Venetians fell by his next Arms, for Lewis con­federated with Leopold of Austria, and the Cr [...] ­atians invaded the Maritine part of Dalmatia, in two inroads by Friuli and Istria, Lewis's successe a­gainst the Venetians Tarvisia fru­strated his Conquest, but Spalatra, and other places opened their gates to the experience and Courage of his veterane Army, securing and confirming some places, and reducing o­thers, among whom were the inconstant Scho­drians. The Total of this expedition amoun­ted to the Acquists of that part of the Venetian Territory which extends it self from the Bay of Phanaticia, to Dyrrachium, and all Dal­matia, in lieu of those places taken in this War which by an agreement he surrendred.

[Page 91] But this agreement lasted not long, both parties taxing each other, as the manner is, for the breach of it, though the fault was in the Ve­netians, who engaging Charles the Emperour, invaded the Dalmatians and Croats, put by this Treaty under the protection of Lewis; These Invaders were encountred first successefully by Paul, the Son of Ladislaus the Vaivod, but unprosperously by Stephen of Transylvania, whose rashnesse and fury overthrew him, and made him a Prisoner to the Victor. Thereaf­ter many were the vicissitudes of fortune. Lewis by this Defeat, was perswaded by the Croats to a two years truce, which expired, Leopold growing insolent, was beaten by the Venetians and recruiting himself for another Encounter,The Geno­ese and Venetian Quarrel. was induced by Lewis to another two years Cessation, but he having underhand held in­telligence with the Genoese, privily prepared for a War, by the dread whereof the Venetians with Restitution of what they had got, were glad to descend and Consent to a Peace.

The Genoese nevertheless proceeding in their Enterprize, reduced the Venetians under the Conduct of Peter Auria to Extremity, but themselves afterwards puft up with successe, were subjected to the wheel of Fortune by the invention of Guns,Invention of Guns. and Engine found out then by Bertholdus Niger; in fine, Lewis by Land, and the Genoese by Sea, besieged and took Clo­dia, when all parties wearied with the many mi­series of the War, referred themselves to the [Page 36] arbitrement of the Duke of Savoy, who first of all ordered the razing of the Castle of Te­ned, as the occasion and continual foment of the quarrel, awarding also the Decennial pay­ment of 7 thousand Crowns, by the Venetians to Lewis, who content with the glory of his Actions, and this incompetent sum in respect of his Expences, ceased the War.

While these things were acting in Venice, Pope Urban excited Lewis against Ioane, be­cause she took part with Clement the seventh the Antipope, who forthwith dispatcht away Charles his Son (as some say) others his Ne­phew by Andrew, who with 8000 men passed into Italy, and was welcomed there with the Acclamations of Victory. He subdued seve­r [...]l Towns, and mulcted the Florentines in the sum of 40. thousand Crowns. At Rome, he was adorned with all the Regal Habiliments; Ioane placing her sole hope in the Duke of Anjou. She had intermarried for her fourth husband, Otho of Brundusium, the Tarentine du­ring in Custody, and the King of Sardinia her next husband dead in Spain. Otho though he took part with Urban against the inclination of Ioane, yet vvas constant to her against the Hungarians, vvho took in several other Tovvns. Charles being arrived and introduced into Na­ples, Joane ta­ken in Ca­stel Novo [...]n Naples. besieged Ioan, vvho had shut up her self in Castel Novo. Otho comes and besieges the City and the Besiegers, till Charles sallying out, he vvas after a gallant opposition by reason of [Page 92] a fall off his Horse taken Prisoner, and Ioane hereupon despairing of any relief forced to sur­render.

But Lewis of Anjou, Uncle and Regent of Charles the sixth of France, Lewis of Anjou in­vested in Naples. whom Clement had invested and [...]eoffed in the Realms of A­pulia and Sicilia (as purchased from Ioane) with 30 thousand Horse (the number of the Foot uncertain) passed into Italy, whom Charles inferiour in Strength, so bafled with delayes, that his great numbers proving bur­densome to him, and Lewis dying thereupon, either by disease or poyson, the Frenchmen two or three in Company were glad to beg their way and departure home.

Lewis in his return out of Italy to Hungary, enterprized by Nicholas the Palatine upon Bos­nia, which had revolted from him, but he wearied out with the Siege of Sebenico, was ea­sily overcome. Better Fortune attended him in his Expedition against Stratomirius, the Prince of the Bulgarians, who vanquished was taken Captive at Gemleick, but soon after by the good will of the King, and the liking of the Kingdome restored to his Principality.

The Family of the Piasti failing in Casimir, Lewis cho­sen King of Poland. Lewis was now crowned King of Poland, the first of foraign Princes that was chosen by them: the Administration of this Government he committed to his mother Elizabeth, the Customary delights of his native Countrey in­viting his return. Nor did she continue long [Page 94] there, having by her levity and flexibility gain­ed the love of some, but not the reverence of all persons; wearied therefore with new Commotions, she departed rather frighted then feared into Hungary, but prefer­ing the priviledge of absoluteness before the hu­mours of another, she was soon induced to re­tire back again.

In the mean while the Nobles of the greater Polonia created Vladislaus the Duke of Cusa­via, of a Monk, to their King, whom Sabinius though chief of the same Counsel and Combi­nation with other of the Nobility on the part of Lewis overcame, and sent him Captive to Lewis, who by his extraordinary Clemency, in which he was not superable, gave him an Abby as satisfied in having reduced him to his former Condition; the same Fate pursued the Rebel­lious Russes, who were now annexed to the Crown of Hungary, and several Lords or Vai­vods set over them. Hence Jealousies and sus­picions, and ill rumours among the Polanders, which Uladislaus Prince of Oppelon late Gover­nour of white Russia fomented; the reason of the Kings erecting this nevv Authority, vvas partly his propensity to his own blood & kindred, and partly because he believed that that Country under the name of Hallicia and Lodomiria did belong to Hungary.

This indisposition of Affairs, and the vvea­rinesse of those frequent journevs the King made into Poland, vvho loved his ease and was [Page 95] delighted with Home, caused him to appoint a Triumvirate of Polonian Noble men to the Ad­ministration of that Kingdom. He himself in­tending the Chastisement of the Vayvod of Va­lachia who had Revolted from him, received an overthrow by his Lieutenant Ladislaus of Transylvania, being shamefully beaten between the Rocks and abruptnesses of Novigrade, which loss he repaid to effect; meeting the same Enemy secure by reason of their late Victory in the Plains of Bulgaria, & making them there­by to submit to their former Tribute.His Ex­ploits a­ainst his Rebels. About this Time the Cumani received the Christian Faith, and Lewis upon the same Religious ac­count marched against the Lithuanians (who depredated Russia) and restrained, and upon their Submission pardoned them, and restored to them their Duke.

Lewis had Daughters Catharina, Mary, and Hedwiga; Catharine died young, Mary with the Succession to the Crown, was Married to Sigismund, whose Father was Charls the 4th Emperour; Hedwiga by the Consent of the Nobles of Poland was chosen Queen thereof, whom Iagello Great Duke of Lithuania after­wards Married, and converted his Kingdom to Christianity, and by the Name of Uladislaus was worthily Registred among the Kings of Polonia.

LEWIS died at Tyrnaw, His Death. to the great loss and detriment of Hungaria, a man of a Cou­ragious and courteous mind, bountiful to Learn­ed [Page 96] men, and very skilful in Astrology, for which he was stiled Ordongos Lajos by his Peo­ple. He used in Disguises to visit the Towns and places neer his Residence, inquiring into the lives and manners of his Magistrates and him­self, by which he might better correct what was amisse, and if report pleased him enjoy the Happinesse and Felicity thereof.

Mary the second Daughter of Lewis (her Sister Hedwiga being Married to the King of Poland and settled there,Mary not­withstand-ing her sex styled the 23. King. by which means a strict League and union was begun between both Nations) was saluted with the Title of King of Hungaria; she was betrothed to Sigismund of Brandenburg, but their minority hindred the present consummation of the Match. She Go­verned happily by the prudence of her mini­sters, and the beloved memory of her Father, but as soon as she entrusted the whole menage of the State into the hands of Nicholas Gara the then Palatine (who by his insolence was unsuf­ferable to the Nobles) a Civil dissention, in­flamed by the envy and hatred against him, a­rose in the Kingdome, the secret Design where­of was, the deposition of her from the Throne.

Some of the Grandees thereupon consulted to call in Charles Surnamed the Little Son, or as others, Nephew of Lewis (who had relieved and afterwards distressed Pope Vrban) and was now gloriously invested in the Kingdom of Naples (out of Italy,) delegating to him upon this Errand, the Bishop of Zagra­bia, [Page 97] who effected the businesse notwithstanding the disswasion of Charles his Wife. His pas­sage into Hungary, was by the way of Sipon­tus and Zagrabia, where unexpectedly Arrived, he pretended for his rapinous seizure of the Scepter, the Composure of those Tumults and Factions in the State.

This caused Sigismund (whom his Father in his Life time had sent into Hungary to be educated and fashioned according to the Hun­garian manners) to fly into Bohemia, while Charles being honourably received evey where, surprized the Castle of Buda, and in presence of the Queen and her Grandmother (who wise­ly tempered and dissembled their resentments) caused himself to be Crowned at Alba Regalis; and not long after, was so inveagled and blinded by his Parasites (with whom he most delighted) that he could not foresee the danger of his unjust Usurpation. For the Generality and the Nobles being estranged in their affections, Elizabeth the Queen-mother, and the above-named Palatine, under Colour of a private Conference at the House of Blasius Forgatz, there by a private hand Assassinated him, upon the rumour whereof,Charles assassinated the Italians that came with him, Covenanting for their safety, obtain­ed a dismission into their own Countrey.

The Queens were now in hopes of a plena­ry Restitution, when the Banus or Prince of Croatia took upon him the Revenge of Charles his Death, assisted therein by some of his Favour­ers, [Page 98] by whom Elizabeth was Drowned in the River of Bruszula, and Mary with somewhat better fortune preserved in Custody; The Pa­latine and Forgatz were both cruelly slain. Si­gismund having notice of Charles his Fate, and sensible likewise of the danger the Queens were in, levyed a great Army, for the Ex­pence whereof he pawned the Marquisate of Brandenburg to Iodocus and Procopius, his Cou­sin Germans.

His Fortune in this Expedition was answer­able to his strength;Sigismund Husband of Mary undertakes and effects her Resti­tutio [...]s. for intent against the Cro­atian, (who frighted with the danger had Arti­cled for his Indempnity with Mary, whom he had set at liberty) he possessed himself of that Countrey with Bosnia, and at Quinque Ecclesiae, put him to Death with thirty of his partakers and Conspirators against the Queens. The Bishop of Zagrabia, in respect to his qua­lity, had his goods onely Confiscated. Thus Charles expiated his prodigious Lust by the Queens, as the Queens for the ungovernance and breach of Faith by the Banus, and he for his Cruelty by Sigismund, whom Hungary now acknowledged as their new and rightful Sove­raign, as the Kingdome of Naples did Lewis the Son of Charles.

Sigismund maintaining his Kingdome by the same Prudence with which he recovered it,Sigismund his [...]. made an Expedition against the Valachians and Moldavians, and slew their Vaivod, Stephen; and annex [...]d them by Oath of Subjection to the [Page 99] Crown of Hungary. But War ceased not here, for Alexander indevoured to restore the Valachians to their Liberty; and being too weak and inferiour in force, called in the Turks to his assistance, whom also Sigismund put to a most shameful flight, and pursuing them as far as Thrace, Mary dies, the Title to the Succes­sion dispu­ted. took in Nicopolis. But the Death of Mary sowered the sweetnesse of this Victory; for Uladislaus of Poland now pre­tended a Right to the Kingdome, by vertue of the Agreement made betwixt Mary and his Wife Hedwiga.

But Iohn Canysa the Arch-Bishop of Strigo­nium, possessing the abrupt passages and diffi­culries of the Mountains, kept out Uladislaus, though the Turks, far more dangerous, could not be repressed. Their Design was the reco­very of Nicopolis, in order whereunto they laid waste the adjoyning Dominions of Hungary, (whither their Arms in the minority of their Empire had not yet reached) but Bajazet the fourth King,Bajazet's great Suc­cesses. having vanquished Mark the Prince of Bulgaria and Lazarus the Despot of Servia, as on the Asian side he had Conquered the Kindome of Armenia; thereafter infested Phocis and Thessaly, and now threatned with the Siege of Nicopolis, a further progresse of his Victories.

To avert this storm, Sigismund dealt with him by Ambassadors, but words not availing, he prepared with force to Encounter this Ene­my, levying to that end a very select Army [Page 100] of Hungarians, Germans, and French, re­solving to crush and suppresse the rising great­nesse of the Turk, before he grew too potent with so many additions, which his successful Scy­mitar had annexed to his first mean and incon­siderable Patrimony. In this Expedition he was accompanied with Iohn the Hardy, Son of Phi­lip Duke of Burgundy, who joyntly retook in many Towns seized by the Turks in Bulgaria, and in one great Battel carried away the Victo­ry, when the French-men according to the light humour of their Nation, were so dissolved by Lust and Luxury, and became so arrogant withal, that they boasted they could sustain and support the falling Heaven with their Spears.

Bajazet having failed of his design upon Constantinople, and risen from the Seige there­of, was now in person before Nicopolis, whi­ther Sigismund being also come,The Battle of Nico­polis most fatal to the Christians. he put his Army into Battalia, giving the Van to his Hungarians, as best skilled in the Turkish man­ner of fighting, and placing the French as his Rear-guard; who taking this for a disgrace, be­fore Sigismund had opened his Battel, fell su­riously open the Turk, whose Arrowes so gal­led and terrified their Horses, that their Riders being forced to alight, they ran soul upon the Hungarians, who misgiving this for a rout; fell into a present dismay, & thence to flight, where­in numbers of them perished in the Danow, Iohn of Burgundy with abundance of other Nobles, was taken Prisoner and was ransomed with the sum [Page 101] of 200 thousand Crowns. Sigismund doubt­ful of his life in a light Galley escaped to Con­stantinople, whence by Rhodes, and so to Dai­matia, and by the help of the Archbishop of Serigonium, he recovered his Kingdome. Ba­jazet fortunated with this Victory, not long af­ter became far more miserable then the van­quished, (so deceitful is the greatest assurance of humane things) being overcome by Tamer­lane (by my Author called Temir) the great Cham of Tartary, Bajaze [...] a sad Spe­ctacle of humane Frailty. and enclosed in an Iron Cage, made his Footstool when he took Horse, and wherein betwixt rage and impatient indig­nation he brained himself against the Grates.

The misfortune of this Field, opened a way to the revenge of those persons who were rela­ted to the 30. Noblemen, put to death by him at Quinque Ecclesiae, for by a potent Conspira­cy, in which Ladislaus the King of Poland was concerned (by their invitation of him to assume the Scepter) Sigismund was seized on a sudden,Sigismund seized and made a Prisoner. and put into the Custody of the sons of Nicholas the late Palatine in the Castle of Soklos (Buda and the places confining with Germany adhering to him notwithstanding) which gave opportunity to Ladislaus, to per­sue his design upon the Kingdome of Naples, (newly transferred by Pope Alexander from Lewis the Son of Charles aforesaid for his en­croachment upon the Church Territory, to Lewis of Anjou) which he reovered in his own right. He was now besieging the often mentioned [Page 102] The City of Z [...]ra. Iadra, and had forced it from the Venetians, when news was brought him that Sigismund ha­ving over-perswaded, and by promises pre­vailed on the Mother of the Sons of Nicholas the Palatine,Sigismund [...]reed. had obtained his liberty, and having privily passed into Moravia and Bohe­mia, had openly resumed His Title and the Government, and had put to Death Stephen the Vaivod of Transylvania, with some few others as the Authors of the late Treason against him.

Hereupon Ladislaus thought best for the pre­servation of his own (for another defection of the Neapolitans was likewise suspected) to part with Iadra and his pretences upon the Veneti­ans for a sum of money, and to return: But Sigismund had setled himself sure in the Go­vernment, and was now engaged in a War a­gainst the people of Bosnia, who had during these late Troubles, renounced their Allegiance to the Crown of Hungary.

Nor did he engage with better fortune a­gainst the Turks, although weakned by a civil War between the Five Sons of Bajazet, his Lieutenant Stephen [...] Lossontius, The Hun­garians [...]orsted by the Turks. aiding Mark the Vaivod of Mold [...]via, who had shook off the Turkish yoak, being discomfited, and the said Vaivod deposed by Mahomet the fift King of Turky. Who to prosecute this quarrel com­manded Isaac the Bassa of Bosnia, to invade Hungary; where notwithstanding he was defeat­ed twice by Nicholas Pe [...]ri, yet by the negli­gence [Page 103] and divisions among the Hungarians, he had at last the better of it, destroying by fire many Towns and Villages.

Rupert the Emperour being deceased, Pope Iohn the 22. dealt with the German Princes to elect Sigismund in his place, as a person whose regal Majesty, Magnificence, and Virtue, the skill and readinesse of many Languages, did excellently adorn and prefer before all the Princes, his Cotemporaries, as inferiour likewise to none of his Predecessors, if successe in Battel, and chastity in Bed had not been want­ing. Soon after his Assumption to this Dignity, he threatned a War against Uladislaus of Poland, but it was superseded by a Truce,Belgrad [...] put into the possessi­on of Si­gismund. which a Peace ensued. The Turks busie encroachments disturbing and disseising his Neighbours, he had Belgrade consigned him by George Bulchus the Despot of Servia, who had other places in Hungary in exchange thereof: by which means the Turks being put to a stand, he had leisure to employ his Army against the Veneti­ans, aided by the Florentines, who had seized several places, but after some bickerings this difference was also composed, for that Sigis­mund was now engaged in a Bohemian War in maintenance of his new Title to that Crown: About this time the Councel of Constance was held, and Pope Iohn convicted of 40. Crimes, committed to the Custody of Lewis Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Otho Colon­n [...] by the name of Martin the Fifth, placed in [Page 104] the Papal Chair. At this same Councel Iohn Hus and Hierome of Prague were Condemned and Burnt for Heretiques, whose death was revenged by Iohn Zisca and Procopius, to the great losse and detriment of Sigismund, the great and professed Enemy of the Reformati­on. And that it might appear there was more than humane direction in the infliction of the Defeats given him by Zisca, 15000. Hun­garians that followed Sigismund perished by the breaking of the Ice in one Expedition.

His Raign was concluded with a rebellious Insurrection of the Boors and Peasants, re­solving to assert their Liberty or perish rather than endure slavery; and in this mood they ra­ged with Fire and Sword, but their ungovern­ed and undisciplined Multitude rendred them an easie Conquest to a small Party of Experi­enced Soldiers. Sigismund departing from Pra­gue commended his Son in law Albertus to the Nobles,The Death of Sigis­mund. and at his arrival at Znoyma in Mo­ravia, departed this life, aged 70. years. He was a very active person, but little beholding to Fortune, and by her means deceived in the Constancy of his Friends. He was a great fa­vourer of Learned men, affirming that Prece­dency was justly due to them; for that Riches and Regal Pompe happen meerly by Fate. He connived at and forgave Barbara his Wife, ta­ken often in the act of Uncleannesse, being himself a most infamous Adulterer.

ALBERT, from Duke of Austria in [Page 105] a few months was made Duke of Luxenburg, Albert of Austria succeeds. the 25. K. Marquiss of Moravia, King of Bohemia, and Hungary (though the latter complaining of the Spoil and havock made by the Turks in that Kingdome during the absence of Sigismund busi­ed in the Affairs of Germany and Italy, did with much reluctancy consent to his Election) as also of the Romans. He swayed the Scep­ter but two years, and was a notable Evidence of the inconstancy of the World in his sudden Advancement and as speedy Fall. He was Crowned at Alba, whence coming to Buda, the Germans took upon them the Civil administra­tion of the City, together with the placing of Officers, as more allied to him than the Hun­garians; and in maintainance of this their In­trusion, caused a Chief Noble man that stoutly opposed them to be put to Death. This so enraged the Hungarians that they flew to their Arms, and killed all the Germans they met or could tell where to find them, which Bloody Fury lasted till a certain Monk prevailed them to surcease it.

At this time the Turks wasting Rassia, and having subdued Synderovia, George Bulch [...]s the Despot of the Province, commiting the Guard of the Castle which was the Chief Residence of his Government, to his two Sons, betook himself with his third Son Lazarus for succour and aid into Hungary, but Albert intent up­on his Covetousnesse suffered the two Princes to be taken, when although Amurath (as the [Page 106] Turkish Annals have it) had Married their Sister some three years before,Rascia subdued by the Turks. he caused their privities to be cut off, and their Eyes to be put out, upon pretence that they assisted their Father as then Designing War against him. Albert was upon his March when he understood of the taking of the Castle; which dismaying him, he encamped betwixt the River Tybiscus and the Danow, suf­fering Amurath after the attainment of his Design to retire unmolested.Albert Dies. During which idling his Soldiers got the Flux, by inordinate eating of Fruit, which same disease at the Town of Nesmel, took him also away at his return to Hungary.

ELIZABETH his Wife, being left big with Child, was urgent with the Nobles that they would regard the Issue of the King her Husband she then went with; and in the mean time to her delivery to create an Interrex or Protector; to which motion those that were present agreed; but others would have the Scep­ter translated to Uladislaus the third, King of Po­land, Son of Iagello aforesaid, by Hedwyga a Daughter of Hungary, to whom the Queen should be inter-married, and the Posthume Child to be instated in Austria and Bohemia. This counsel, the Infancy of the Prince and the Noyse of the Turkish Arms did then advise; whereupon a hasty Embassy was dispatched to Cracovia, Divisions in Hun­gary about a new King but as speedily followed with the news of her being delivered of a Son.

The Nobles at home now repented of their [Page 107] forwardnesse, but the Ambassadors conscious to themselves how far they had gone, persisted in their Errand, and notwithstanding the Turks instances to the Contrary, prevailed upon Ula­dislaus to accept the Crown. Upon his ap­proach into Hungary, Elizabeth, who had newly brought out the Crown she had secretly purloyned from its place, and Crowned her Son Ladislaus therewith (for whose good and just Government she and Zecchius, with the Count of Cillia had pledged their Oaths) fore­seeing the danger, conveyed the Crown and her self and Son, to Frederick the third, Em­perour.

Soon after Uladislaus arrived at Buda, Uladislaus of Poland Innaugura­ted. and having modestly declined the Government, gently taxing the Hungarians of their Dissen­tions as the cause of so many Changes, was the more unanimously Complemented with the Regal Title; Zecchius and Ladislaus Gara, the friends of the Orphan Prince, being set at liberty performing their Offices at his Corona­tion, solemnized with the Diadem taken from off the Image of St. Stephen. His great friends to this Advancement were Nicholas Vylach Governour of Chroatia, and Iohn Huniades, who appeared like an auspicious star amidst the many Factions in Hungary: For the Queen assisted by some Castellanes and Governours of strong Holds, did cause great Troubles to the King, especially Ladislaus Gara her former Par­taker, waged War and tryed the Fortune of [Page 108] Battel in her Sons Cause,Albert's Relict wa­ges war in right of her Son. but was Defeated with great losse by Huniades and Vylach, as were afterwards Zechi and Gisera; but to the common and great losse and diminution of the Strength of the Kingdome, notwithstanding that, Iulian the Pope's Legate interposed the Papal Authority, by which no more than a Ces­sation for a time, could be obtained. The Death of the Queen which now happned, serving ra­ther as an incentive then allay to the passions of those who studied her deprived Orphans right and Interest.

By this opportunity Amurath the second,Belgrade in vain Be­seiged by Amurath. had enlarged his Conquests in the extremest parts of Hungary, and was now in person be­fore Belgrade, Defended by Iohn Aurane Bro­ther of the Prince, or Lord of Croatia, and so resolutely maintained by him, that after a Seige of seven months in which all manner of Force by assault and mines were tryed (but by the Valour and vigilance of the besieged repulsed and Countermin'd to the losse of Thirty thou­sand Men) the proud Turk was constrained to dislodge, when Invading the other parts of Hungary, he took in Novigrod in the Confines of Servia, abandoned upon his coming by the De­fendants, from whence also he dispatched Isaac Bassa of Semendria to make a further Incur­sion; the Hungarians by their Discords being in no condition to withstand him, till at his return loaden with Booty and innumerable Christian Captives, Huniades having privily Collected [Page 109] an Army and passed the Danow, met with him in the Province of Alba, Huniades his Ex­ploits and Atcheive­ments. neer to Synderovia, and there vanquished him. To redresse this Discomfiture Mesithes Bassa was employed to open a Passage into Transylvania by Valachia, which at the instance of Huniades had newly Revolted, which he effected, havocking and laying wast the Countrey, and having worsted Huniades at the first Encounter, was again by him engaged with a sudden raised Army, and totally routed, Himself, and his Son, with Twenty thousand Turks being slain upon the place.

A Treaty was now with very unequal terms propounded; which Vladisla [...]s rejecting, A­bedin Beg was sent by Amurath to prosecute the same Design upon Transylvania and Hungary, with an Army of Fourscore thousand Men, at whose approach the Valachians being in no ca­pacity to resist him, by the advice of Hunia­des, secured themselves in the inaccessible Mountains and Hills of the Countrey, while the Turk raged with all extremity upon what ever he found, till suddenly set upon by Huniades with no more then Fifteen thousand Men at Vaskapa, he was miserably overthrown, with the losse of Thirty thousand Men, and his own life. For this Victory a three dayes Thanks­givins was appointed, and the Ensigns and Spoils of the Enemy hung up in Churches, and Huniades Proclaimed and extolled as the Bul­wark and Defence of Christendome.

[Page 110] Hereby also the King was encouraged to make an Invasion into the Turkish Territory,Uladislaus his Succes­ful Invasi­on of the Turkish Territory. accompanyed by Iulian the Pope's Legate, and a multitude of Crusado's. At Buda he passed the Danow, Huniades and George the Despot, ad­vancing before him, who by light skirmishes drove the Enemy back, until the whole Army was arrived to the very tops of Mount Haemus, where there are two passes into Macedon and Thrace, the one made by Trajan, the other by the River Saltiza, called by the Turks, Clis­sira Isladina to this day; other parties of the Hungarians reducing most of the Towns in Bulgaria.

Against them Amurath dispatcht Casa [...]n Bassa or Caram Beg, with Turchan Beg, with all the Forces of Romania and the Achanzes, (Sol­diers serving without stipend) who were by the desperate Valour of the Hungarians utterly Defeated,His Victo­ry over the Turks. and Casan himself taken Prisoner. The Report of this disaster reaching Amurath he summoned and amassed the whole Force of his Empire; but Winter being far in, and the Earth bound up with Ice, while the King was upon his return, he retreated likewise, having effected nothing Considerable, when percei­ving by the calamity of so many misadventures, that his Provinces must needs be exhausted by the Continuance of the War, he submitted to the intreaty of a Peace,Amurath begs a Ces­sation. using thereto the Medi­ation of George the Despot to Huniades, and his to the King, who being newly at Enmity [Page 111] with the Emperour Frederick, and his Pater­nal Kingdome of Poland then in Faction and Troubles, consented to a Ten years Cessation, upon this Condition, that George the Despot should be restored to his Principality of Ser­via, his two Sons enlarged, and Prisoners freed on both sides, that the Turk should quit Claim to Moldavia, but should retain Bul­gary.

Amurath having thus avoided the danger that threatned him in those Quarters, carried it with him upon Ibrahim the Caramanian King, in Asia the lesse, whom he subdued and Vanquished but soon after received into favour. In the mean while Eugenius the Pope, the Venetians and Greek Emperour, by many perswasions had induced Uladislaus (a young Man not skill'd in the affairs of Fortune) to break the Truce made with an Infidel:Uladislaus perswaded by the Pope to break his Truce with the Tu [...]k. And though Huniades protested against it, as best able to judge of what would happen, by infor­ming the King that his Life and Scepter might be taken away, but his Truth and plighted Faith was in his own keeping; and that the space of life was short, but a blot of Perfidiousnesse e­verlasting; Yet the King relying upon the Pope's Dispensation, (as Religion is the only Governour of our Affections) and deceived with vain Auguries, and the advantages of his Puissance, armed himself to his own Destru­ction.

For having embodyed his Pol [...]nian and Hun­garian [Page 112] Forces he passed the Danow and Bet­grade, where Dracula the Prince of Molda­via having in vain laboured his desistance from the enterprise, joyned also 4000. men with him. Of this Expedition Amurath having intelli­gence sent him by Mahomet Beg Governour of Nicopolis, to his Residence at Magnesia, streightwayes crossed over into Europe, and at an obscure Village named Varna, but famous for this great overthrow, joyned Battel.

In the left Wing of the Christian Army Hu­niades, and one Michael Niger the Duke of Scylagy, and Brother of Huniades, were pla­ced.The fatal Battel of Varna. In the right wing stood Bobricius a Polo­nian Knight, in the main Battel the King. The Turks first onset with great noise was upon the right wing, where they opposed Camels and Dromedaries to the Horse, who being there­with affrighted, and the Riders no lesse ama­zed, they were easily put to the rout: but in the left wing, and the main body, the King and Huniades, had better fortune, utterly dis­comfiting both the wings of the Infidels; only Amurath himself with his Janizaries stood yet unmoved, who seeing the presentnesse of the danger, calling Christ to be the Avenger of this Perfidy (Mr. Knols in his Turkish History re­lates, that he pulled the Instrument of the Truce out of his bosome, and held it up towards hea­ven) with great fury prest upon the Hungarians and made a very great slaughter, wherein Ula­dislaus against the Disswasion of Huniades, [Page 113] rushing upon the Enemy, by the Fall of his Horse that was run through, had his Head cut off by Cheser Beg; the rest of the Army being disordered, and so hindering one anothers flight were for the most part slain on the place. Hu­niades himself escaped by Valachia, into Tran­sylvania, although for a while detained by Dracula. There were reckoned to be slain of the Kings side 9000, and of the Turks 30▪ thousand. This was the end of Uladislaus, whom because Religion could not rule, the de­spiser of that Religion did destroy. The E­pitaph on him was this.

Romulidae Cannas, ego Varnam clade not avi
Discite Mortales non temerare fidem;
Me nisi Pontifices jussissent rumpere foedus,
Non ferret Scythicum Pannonis or a Iugum.

The Hungarians being thus deprived of their King,Ladislaus the 26. K. conferred the Kingdome upon LADIS­LAUS the Son of Albert, whom they had so long with-held from his right of Inheritance, entrusting the Government with Huniades (sir­named Corvinus) with the Administration of it, both as to War and Peace; who to be re­venged of Dracula for his Detainer of him in his Flight, seized him and his two Sons. He dispatched likewise an Embassy to Caesar, con­cerning the Redelivery of the King and Crown which the Mother of the present King had de­posited with him, but neither intreat [...]es nor [Page 114] Force afterwards, by incursions into Austria, prevailed any thing. In the mean while the Turk prosecuted his Successe in Hungary with a Revenge worthy of so odious a perjury, when Huniades in no Condition to oppose him, by hidden wayes Rendezvouzed an Army in Ser­via to recall the Enemy to the preservation of his own Countrey. To his Assistance he invi­ted first George the Despot; who pretending the late Agreement, he drew in the Beg of Scho­dra (who was the Famous George Castriot, cal­led by the Turks, Scander­beg. Scanderbeg, the Son of Iohn King of the Epirots or Triballi & had by fained Letters of Amurath's Hand, possessed him­self of Croja the Capital City, as by his Va­lour and vigilance soon after, of most of the Kingdome; and maintained it in a War of 24. Years) and encamped in the Plains of Cossova, where he engaged the Turks three whole dayes together: the first two dayes he had the better of them, but their Numbers prevail­ed in the third: he himself flying was taken Prisoner by George the Despot, Huniades defeated in the Plains of Cosso­v [...]. as an Infringer of his Oath; but upon the Hostage of his Son Ladislaus, set at Liberty; which the Turk re­senting, dispatched away Frigez Beg to Invade Servia; to whose Releif Huniades seemingly reconciled to their Despot (now abominated) but out of hatred to the name of the Turks, speedily advanced, and with a great slaughter Vanquished the Enemy, taking the Beg himself. A Bo­hemi [...] Scuffle followed this, but was presently [Page 115] Composed by the Victorious Fortune of Hu­niades. At length the Emperour restored La­dislaus, whom the States of Hungary comple­mentd thereupon at Vienna, and Huniades re­nounced the Administration.

LADILAUS to auspiciate his Reign, came to Presburgh, but would trust himself no further within the Kingdome, for Jealousies were fomented against Huniades by Ulrick Count of Cilia, formerly Praefect of Austria; but ejected thence by the Nobles, and recei­ved into favour by this King, who to compose the businesse was at last induced to come to Buda. While he staid there Amurath vext with his repulse at Croja, had retired himself into a Monastery, and Mahomet his Son and Successor, after a Seige of 50. dayes, took and Sacked Constantinople, Constan­tinople taken by Mahomet. to the shame and ter­rour of Christendome: and having seized Ser­via, with the Silver-Mine Towns therein, from George the Despot, bent his Force upon Bel­grade; which Furiously attaquing, and thun­dring against the Walls with his Canons, Hu­niades came in hast by Water, to the Releif of it; and having made his way into the Town, by a vigorous Saley beat the Enemy out of his Entrenchments which they fired,Belgrade besieged by him, Defeat­ed there by Huniades. and cloyed and nailed his great Guns; whereupon Mahomet retired to his main Camp, and thence next mor­ning tormented & sick with the disappointment, fled in hast towards Macedonia, but was not pursued, because Huniades suspecting like­wise [Page 116] some Stratagem, contented himself with the Slaughter of Forty thousand Turks. In this Conflict Huniades received a Wound whereof he Died;His [...]amen­ted Death. others say, of a Feaver. He was by Birth a Valachian, and from the place of it called Corvinu; as for the national glo­ry of his Atchievements he was called Huni­ades: A person that with small power alwayes worsted great Armyes.

Ladislaus who terrified with the Turk's ap­proach, had fled to Vienna, came forward now to Belgrade, to see the back-steps of the Ene­my: where resenting the slaughter of the Count of Cilia by Ladislaus the Son of Hu­niades, though often provok'd thereunto, he caus­ed him (by the Councel of some ill men) to be b [...]headed, and his Brother Matthias to be im­prisoned. But the Year after, on the very Anniversary of the said Fact, as he was So­lemnizing his Marriage in Bohemia, he Died there, and left another Vacancy or Interregnum in Hungaria.

In the beginning whereof Michael Szylagyi the Kinsman of Huniades (supplied with good store of Money by his Sister Elizabeth) levy­ed an Army in Title of Matthias (who was newly sent by Ladislaus, A [...] Inter­regnum in Hungaria. in Custody, to George Pogyb [...]ad King of Bohemia) as King of Hun­gary, having in Ladislaus's Life time procured many Friends that secretly favoured Huniades and his Family: Others also, for fear of his Power consented to his Election, at an Assem­bly [Page 117] of the States held at Rakos, where his Army Guarded them.Matthias saluted the King. Pogybrad certified hereof, in­viting his Prisoner to Dinner, and setting him uppermost, aquainted him with the matter; and having Contracted his Daughter to him, con­ducted him to Moravia, where he was Saluted King; and thence in great Pomp and Magni­ficence conveyed to Buda, where he confirm­ed and restored all former Priviledges; and by his Care, Felicity, Vertue, and the Majesty of his Name, united all Parties into a perfect Peace; which effected, he sent Iohn Vitesius the Bishop of Varadin, his adopted Father, to Frederick the Emperour, to demand the Crown; which he, pretending the Kingdome due to himself, and scorning the Youth of Mat­thias, refused; and hereupon ensued a German War, enforced by the predatory eruption of Iohn Gisera or Zisca the Bohemian, who had twice worsted Huniades himself.

Frederick, Frederick the Em [...]e­rour mal [...]s War against him. animated and incited by the Lord or Banus of Croatia, Invaded the Sa­barian Province, taking the Rebels to his Assi­stance, and wasted the Countrey far and near, till Simon Magnus Commissioned and spirited by the King's early Courage, met him in the Upper Hungary, where he Discomfited him; permitting and conniving at the flight of the Rebels, who afterwards proved Caesar's worst and most dangerous Enemies. By this successe Caesar was at last constrained to yeild to the Demands of Matthias, who persisted in a pro­secution [Page 118] of them by delivering the Crown, a­dopting also Matthias to his Son, upon Conditi­on that if he died without Issue, the Emperour should succeed to the Crown of Hungary. The Bohemian War was ended with the same felicity, by Sebastian Rozgonius, who hunted those predatory Thieves out of their lurking places, amidst Rocks, Lakes, and other fast­nesses; yet so that some years passed before Ziscra their Chief Captain, could be engaged (several strong Holds and passes being maintai­ned by them) till driven to the Mountaines of Poland, Matthias his War with the Band [...]ts of the Mountains whence he addrest himself by humble supplication to the King, and was received by him into favour and Preferment. Telephus his Associate had not the same hap, but prolong­ed a wretched life, in a Begging starving Con­dition. This is the larger mentioned for that it lasted almost Five years before it was finish­ed, and obliged the utmost endevours of the King, to the extirpation of so villanous a race of Men, that disturbed the Peace and securi­ty of his Subjects.

The Turk during these Wars, had put in for his share by Invading the Eastermost parts,The Turks make war against Matthias. in Revenge of his Belgrade Defeat; but was so well received by Michael Szylagy (somewhile before in disgrace with his Beneficiary the King his Nephew, by usual Court detraction and Envy, and newly restored to all his Honours and Com­mands) neer to the Banks of Savus, by a Town called Tutach, that it was a question whether [Page 119] there was more blood or water in that reach of the River. Haly Beg who was then Bassa of Mysia and commanded that Army, flying to Synderovia endevoured to repair his losse by a re-inforcement of his enterprise upon Transyl­vania, but was overthrown again by Pancratius neer Temeswar. Matthias in pursuit of this Victory, seized Dracula Prince of Valachia, the Tributary of the Turk: for by the Articles between Amurath the second,An Expe­dition into Bosnia. and U­ladislaus, that investiture was to be sole right of the Kings of Hungary; and detained him 10. years a Prisoner. From thence he march­ed to Bosnia, the King whereof, Stephen, being also Despot of Servia, in right of his Wife the Daughter of Lazarus deceased, Mahomet had caused as perfidiously as inhumanely to be flead alive, the just reward however of his base and prodigious lust, which divided his Sons a­gainst Him. Matthias proceeded as far as the Superiour [...]osnia, and those parts which stretch themselves towards Zara and Epidaurus, and by the taking of Iaycia, reduced the whole Kingdome to his Hungarian Scepter; Maho­met with thirty thousand men came to relieve it, but hearing of Matthias his Approach sneaked cowardly home. Hereupon the Ve­netians (with other Princes, by their Am­bassadors) were instant, for the prosecution of the War offering 50000. Crowns yearly, for the maintenance of it; which being according­ly recommenced; Matthias frighted in the [Page 120] same manner at Mahomet's appearance, re­passed the Savus out of R [...]scia, where he had taken Streverich by Emerick Sepusius, and tur­ned his Army upon the Frangepanes, who being fortified in the Alpes of Croatia, refused o­bedience, but assoon as the King was arrived at Zagrabia, they thought best to comply. He tamed also the revolting Transylvanians, as he quieted the Seditious in Moldavia and Vala­chia, by the slaughter of 7000 of them: But his Lieutenant Michael Scylagii, fought un­prosperously with the Turk, after a most bloo­dy Battle, himself being captivated, and al­though a Prisoner of War, yet put to death by those savage Infidels.

A Bohemian War ensued,Matthias [...]alous for the Pope. fomented and en­flamed by Pope Paul the second, who instigated Matthias against George Pogybrad his Father in Law, as an Heretick, for owning the Doctrines of Iohn Husse, &c. while an excellent opportu­nity against the Turk engaged in a Syrian & E­gyptian War, was by this means pretermitted. Matthias in this war had the better of it, zeal­ously executing the Edicts & Anathema's of the Pope, against the Bohemians, Silesians, and Moravians; Nor would a Treaty of Peace be hearkned to, the Papists giving out, that no Faith or Communion was to be held with such Heretiques. Whereupon Victorinus the Son of Pogybrade made new Levies, but was un­happily worsted and imprisoned at Vissigrade, while Matthias having subdued Spilberg and [Page 121] Olmitz was Master of Moravia, and Silesia at his devotion, and was solemnly also decla­red King of Bohemia.

Pogybrad soon after dying, and by his mis­fortunes induced to favour Matthias his succes­sion to that Crown (his Son having been gra­tis set at liberty a little before, upon the Com­posure of the troubles in Moravia) he trans­acted with the States of Bohemia for his inve­s [...]iture in that Kingdom, but they had disposed of it to Uladislaus Son of Casimir King of Poland. In revenge whereof he issued like a Tempest out of Moravia into Bohemia: but the Pope being neutral in the Concernments of two Catho­lick Princes, and the Turks upon the banks of Savus at the Siege of Sabaczium, besides (which was worst of all) a Conspiracy was hatch­ing at home, he effected nothing.

This Coniuration was so general,A Treaso­nable con­spiracy a­gainst Matthias. by which Casimir was designed to this Crown, that but 9. of 70. Peers, or Senators, were true to their Allegiance, among these Plotters the chief were Vitesius the Archbishop, Ianus Pannonius, and Emericus Scepusius the former favourers of, and reciprocally favoured by, Matthias: the pretence of the defection was, that the Church Revenues, and other profits of secu­lar Offices, were employed solely in the carry­ing on of War. Ladislaus at their invitation came and encamped between Nitre and Vacia, and was magnificently received by his Parta­kers, but Matthias upon the News of it speed­ing [Page 122] from Buda to Strigonium, prepared for an Encounter, where by Scepusius, whom he re­claimed,Ladislaus Defeated. he so wrought upon Vitesius the Life of the Faction, that upon his reconciliation, and indempnity promised to those that should return to their Allegiance within three dayes, his Competitor was pre­sently abandoned, and left to reflect, and inveigh against the Levity of the Hungarians: nor was that all, but being circumvented at Nitra, he hardly escaped with 700. of all his number, the pursuit not being given over, till his Father by timely dispatches, interposed his requests for his dismission. Notwithstanding Matthias was not satisfied with this revenge, but continuing in the mountainous part of Po­land, watched an opportunity of further satis­faction; as he punished Vitesius and Ianns, with other of the Complices in the Treason. While he staid hereabouts Uladislaus stomaching the spoil of his Countrey, with a just Army op­posed himself; and so the businesse came to o­pen War,Matthias his War in Poland. which determined neverthelesse by a private Stratagem in the most covert places and ambushes of that hilly Country, in favour of Matthias, who by his Lieutenants Iohn Scepusius and Paul Kinifi, had also depopula­ted all the Provinces as far as Cracovia, and brought a miserable desolation thereabouts. By which means the Pole was glad to quit his pre­tences to Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, and to part with his Claim to the Crown of Bohe­mia.

[Page 123] During this Agreement, Solyman the Beg­lerbeg of Romania with a Hundred thousand Men, having in vain attempted Scodra, came with an Army into Moldavia, whom Stephen the Valiant Vaivod thereof overcame with so great a slaughter,Schodra in vain be­sieged. that scarce a sign remained of so vast a Multitude. To requite this victory, Matthias besiged Sabarium, whereat happned divers Encounters, the besieged being Potent and Couragious, and the besiegers Resolute and adventurous; He himself for better view, pas­sing in a common habit within the reach of their small shot, in a Boat, accompanyed but with one Soldier who was kill'd with a Bullet; For­tune by a peculiar care of him (as is her con­stant respect to such persons) preserving him from the danger. In fine, by dissembling to rise from the Siege,Sabarium taken by Matthias. he lulled the Garrison into security and then surprized them; and for the better fortification of the Castle, drew the River Savus round about it; and thereafter sup­plied with money from the Pope for the better prosecution of the War, laid all waste as far as Synderovia; and in order to an opportune and commodious Siege thereof built three strong Castles, as a bridle to curb and represse their forraging for provisions.

He was yet intent of carrying his Successes fnrther, having embarqued to that purpose on the Danow (Alibeg with a plundering Party a­bout Temeswar, having been also newly defeat­ed, so that there appeared no rub to his Design) [Page 122] [...] [Page 123] [...] [Page 124] when the arrival of his Queen Beatrice (who by Venice, Dalmatia, and Carniola had been Honourably conveyed to Alba, and there Crowned, and the Marriage Celebrated at Bu­da in the presence of all the Nobles) foftned and emasculated his Spirit, and corrupted the Souldiery, by idling amidst the vanity and Luxu­ry of the Court, now addicted to sport and pleasure. Nor could the Calamitous Conditi­on of Moldavia (the Noble Vaivod whereof had in vain struggled against the Potent and o­ver-bearing Force of Mahomet, and saw his Country Vassaliz'd to that Cruel Enemy) a­waken Matthias out of this sensual stupidity;Matthias war a­gainst the Emperor Frederick. the Queen proving as another Capua to Vi­ctorious Hanibal, till such time as it was al­most too late to resist, being on a sudden atta­qued by Frederick the Emperour from the old grudge, although most ungratefully and unhand­somely, and the Event was according. For Mat­thias rousing himself followed the Enemy into Austria (where the Rascians in his service most cruelly raged) and took in several Towns, and was now before Vienna, when the Emperour (of no Martial disposition) desired an accom­modation, which Matthias condescended to, so Austria was again restored to Frederick. In this War the Pope and Venetians withdrew their subsidy from Matthias as engaged against a Chri­stian Prince, whereupon ensued an aversness a­gainst that State, whose danger had linked their Concern with his for some space of time before; [Page 125] and by that means they lost Scodra, Croja, and the Promontory of Taenarus to the Turk upon very base Conditions, or very Calamitous Conquest; that of Schodra especially.

The Peace was now to be confirmed, which was agreed upon before betwixt Uladislaus and himself; and therefore both Kings appointed an Enterview at Olmitz in Moravia, where they appeared with a most Splendid and pomp­ous Train, several Theatres and other august Temporary Edifices being Erected for the So­lemnity, where they treated one another most Magnificently, and gave great Largesses to the People: Matthias not willing to be behind hand in State and Grandeur upon such an Il­lustrious occasion: But whilest he diverted himself here, Solyman the Beglerbeg of Greece being advantaged by a dry Summer, passed his Army over the Fords of the Rivers Savus and Dravus, and coming as far as Castle-Iron, laid wast the whole Countrey. The news of this made Matthias quit his Court-ship, and with all Expedition to follow the Enemy,Solyman the Beg­lerbeg of Romania defeated by him. who making hast away, he gave order to 16000. of his readiest Troops to pursue him; the which Forces over-took him laden with Thirty thou­sand Captives, at Verbos in Illyria, and so rout­ed him, that the remains of his flying Army durst not face about to Three hundred Croats, who alone pursued them; by which Victory, Illyria was in a fair way to have been wholly assigned to this Triumph, had not the Empe­rour [Page 126] by an Inroad towards Raab recall'd him; which Injury so incensed Matthias that he pre­sently laid Seige to Mariaburg, and would hardly desist from the Enterprize at the earnest entreaties of the Pope, and Frederick's Am­bassadors.

Mahomet the Great, having taken Scodra as aforesaid, was now returned to Constantinople, and vext with the disgrace of Solyman's De­feat, had Commissioned Ali Beg, Isa Beg, and Balam Beg, with Sixty thousand Men for Transylvania, who proceeded with Fire and Sword as far as Alba Iulia; within five miles whereof Stephen Bathori, the Vayvod of Tran­sylvania, and Paul Kinisi Count of Temeswar, wtth a new levyed Army of Hungarians, Va­lachians &c. encountered them, and after a long dispute in which the River Marusus was filled with Blood of both parties,Defeats the Turks in Tran­sylvania. by the Va­lour and encouragement of Kinisi totally over­threw them, Thirty thousand Turks being slain upon the place. The fame of this Atchieve­ment made the Pope (Apulia in Italy being sorely infested by the Turks) to intreat Mat­thias as the onely competent Help against those Infidels, to undertake the Defence of those parts, when at the same time he ungratefully inter-medled beyond his Authority, in the pla­cing and preferring Bishops in Hungaria; Mat­thias having substituted Iohn the Cardinal of Arragon to be Arch-Bishop of Strigonium in place of Iohn of Alemannia, his Enemy and Rebel.

[Page 127] About this time Died Mahomet, leaving his two Sons Bajazet and Zemes to strive for the Empire; the latter being discomfited in two Battels, wherein he was assisted by the Sultan of Aegypt, fled to the Grand Master of the Rhodes who sent him to Rome, where at the instance and great Bribes of Bajazet, he was most un­worthily poysoned by Pope Alexander the sixt; Matthias purposing to make good use of this occasion, had solicited Caesar for a Confirma­tion and security of the late Peace, which be­ing delayed till the opportunity was lost, and the Turks in motion this way, he Invaded Austria and possessed himself of many Towns again (while Bajazet had terribly ruined and wasted Moldavia, His sucesse in Austria. and in requital thereof was Defeated by Lupus (the Noble and valiant De­spot of what remained in those parts) in two Battels:) and after a six months regular Seige took in Vienna the Capital City thereof; as Iohn Scepuusis his Leiutenant mastered Neu­stria and other Fortresses.

The five years that Matthias lived after­wards he wholly employed in Reforming the manners of his Subjects, now addicted to Luxu­ry and prone to all other Vices; and in pro­viding for the future Glory and Magnificence of the Succeeding Kings,His Ver­tues and Commen­dations. converting his Iron into a Golden Palace; and Designing to Build the City of Buda after the Italian way. He also highly fa [...]oured Learned Men, and resol­ved, upon the settlement of Austria by a lasting [Page 128] Peace, to employ all his power against the Turks; whereto he was encouraged by many Princes, more especially by the Snltan's of Aegypt, who had lately Vanquished Ferhates Bassa, the Beglerbeg of Caramania, & afterwards Cheser Beg, and Achmet the Mahumetanized Son of Stephen of Bosnia aforesaid, with such a slaughter that it was credited to have exceeded that of Tamerlane. But while he prepared for those things Death prevented him, by the in­creasing pains of the Gout.His Death. A person of great Authority with all Princes, and worthy to be extolled for his Military Experience, and his Acts of Peace; and so much the more Famed and desired by Posterity, by how much his Successors were inferiour to him in point of Courage and vigilant Prudence.

Upon the Death of the King,Corvinus his bastard claims the Crown. Corvinus the Bastard Son of Matthias, having been fed with hopes of his Succession to the Crown, en­devoured to effect it, while 3 great Competitors were transacting their interest with the States of Hungary, viz. Ladislaus King of Bohemia, Albert Prince of Poland, both Brothers and Sons of Cassimir and and Maximilian King of the Romans; but in conclusion Ladislaus carri­ed it by the major voyces, and by the instance and interest of Beatrice the Dowager Queen, who had loved him in her Husbands Life time, and hoped now to be Married to him, although she was by the Judgement of God disapointed of her Expectation. Corvinus not brooking [Page 129] this, although he had articled upon the Cession of his claim and delivery of the Crown, which he had got into his custody, for an investiture as Lord of Bosnia, Chroatia, and Sclavonia, raised an Army by the help of the Governours of those Provinces, but opposed at Sarviza by Stephen Bathori and Kinisi, Corvinus defeated. commissioned by the States then assembled in great fear at Pesth, he was worsted after a dismall encoun­ter (wherein brother engaged against brother) and fled to Quinque Ecclesiae, where his Souldiers broke open his Treasure and carried it away.

By this means the Kingdome was setled in those parts,His sub­mission and agreement. and (Corvinus submitting upon in­dempnity to his partakers, and the restoring of what had been taken from him) Uladislaus was Crowned at Alba Regalis, but presently engaged in a War against his Competitor and brother Albert,who had seized Cassovia, Herman­staet.Cibi­nium, and other places, and in fine joyned battel, wherein by the prowesse of Vladislaus and the defection of the Cassovians, he was overcome, and striving to renew the War, was thrice afterwards beaten out of the field. Maximilian's Enterprize was more powerfull and fortunate,Vienna restored to Maximili­an with other pla­ces in Austria. auspicated also by the Viennians, who weary of a Forraigners Yoak, admitted his forces into the City, which Scepusius the Go­vernour perceiving, he thought it most advisa­ble to depart secretly out of the Castle: and thereupon the other places of Austria, return­ed to their former Lord, who proceeded and [Page 130] reduced Vesprinium and Alba Regalis in Hun­gary, and had finished the conquest but that his Germans not enduring the Climate and other discommodities of the Country, muti­ned for their pay: in the interim Uladislaus had collected his Army and was upon his march after Maximilian, recovering the Towns he had lost, and being bent upon a further revenge was diverted by a horrid Invasion of the Turks as far as the Territories of Varadin (then in di­vision by civil broyles) having endangered Belgrade by mastering two of the Bulwarks. For which reasons Vladislaus was induced to make peace with Maximilian, Uladislaus makes peace with Maximili­an. though upon very dishonourable terms, by yielding Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Styria, seized and pos­sessed by Matthias, and delivering some Castles of Croatia, and Sclavonia; in lieu whereof Caesar restored him unto places taken this war in Hungary, upon condition of his succession, as was accorded with Matthias.

At the dyet held thereafter at Buda, the Kings marriage with Beatrice was debated, but because of her sterility and in submission to the Pontificall Authority, she was put by, and Ann the Daughter of the Prince of Anjou, pre­ferred to his bed. In the mean while Bajazet made great preparations both by Land and upon the Ister, for an Invasion of Hungary, which caused double Garrisons to be put into the fron­tier Towns of Severinum, Sabaczia, and Iay­cia, and an Army of 60 Thousand men under [Page 131] the conduct and supreme command of Kinisius, to be instantly levyed; Bajazet came first to Sophia, then to Hadrianople by leisure, but dared not enter Hungary, Bajazet dareth not enter Hun­gary. whither he dispatched Dandes Bassa to Uscopia, while he diverted to Maxastinum designing upon Albania, and me­ditating a Truce with Uladislaus, which was accorded to; neverthelesse respecting more the utility then the faith of the agreement, he sent away two Bassa's, the one into Valachia, the other to beseige Severinum, the former was vanquished by that Vayvod, and the other▪ by Kinisius, who also horribly slaughtered those ravenous pillaging Bohemians, whom he had appointed for the guard of the Confines against that Enemy.His Bassa's defeated. Iohannes Corvinus likewise vali­antly repulsed the Turk from Iaycia, but wea­ried with the refractory pride of the Frange­panes, and other Noblemen, resigned his Govern­ment of Bosnia, Chroatia, and Dalmatia, in whose place Emericus Drencenus was substituted by the King, who repressed the insolence of those Grandees, now seeking for protection from the Turks: which occasion being welcome to Iacup Aga, he presently made an Incursion into the limits of Carinthia, and Carniola, and carried away a great prey and spoil by the Con­fines of Germany, when Drencenus having re­conciled Frangepanes, Dience­nus de­feated by Jacup A­ga. with a sufficient Army for number encountred him, but Frangepanes again revolting, the Hungarians were totally routed, and Drencenus himself taken Prisoner.

[Page 132] This losse as is usuall in such cases, was im­puted to the sloth of the King by the Nobles, when their base covetousnesse was the onely cause of it; the Kings revennue being hardly able to maintain the expence of his Family as became the Dignity of a King, which poverty proceeded meerly from his honesty, and begat such a contempt of his Authority, that he could not make the Palatine desist from the seige of one of Corvinus his Castles, till the noble youth himself revenged the injury, and he was the ra­ther thus slighted because of his ignorance in the Hungarian tongue, answering nothing butDobrse the same with the Russes. Well well to what ever story.

In the mean while Kinisius repaired this late losse by an expedition with 10000. men into Mysia, where he took two Castles the one of them by the exemplary courage of a Chroat who alone maintained the rampire against the Enemy till his Fellows came to his assistance; as by another Irruption into Servia; Kin [...]sius successes. having animated the King to a more vigorous prosecu­tion of the War, and brought him upon that account to Petri Varadin; whence Kinisi with 14000 men, wasted and harrassed all the Turks Country as far as the Suburbs of Synderovia, with such a terrour that even Constantinople it self trembled for fear of his approach. This noble person survived not long after, being in reference to the present state of affairs another Huniades, His death. dying also like him of a Feaver. He so abhominated and resented the Turkish barba­barities [Page 133] that he always retaliated upon them in a severer manner of Torture and punishment. At last the King took courage by the good advice of his friends and Councellors, and by force of Arms reduced and tamed those Seditious Gran­dees of Chroatia, The King punisheth his sediti­ous Gran­dees. the chief of whom were Pe­ter Arch-bishop of Colocza, and Laurence Duke of Syrmia, in whose Country the Kings Ste­ward had been killed, this last he dispossessed of all his Castles, and imprisoned at Buda, newly before pardoned at the dyet there, by which means all those troubles were composed, and a three years Truce confirmed by Selymus, who had wrested the Turkish Empire from his father Bajazet, which added something more to the Kingdomes Welfare.

About this time dyed Iohn Corvinus, (his Widdow intermarrying with George Marquesse of Brandenburgh) followed by Peter Gereb the Palatine (in whose Place came Emericus Perenyi) and Stephen Vayvod of Moldavia, a person famous next Matthias, for his services against the Turk and Tartars; in whose room succeeded Bogdanus. At Buda a consult was managed by the Faction of Zapolianus or Iohn Scepusius the Vayvod, and the Eloquence of Verbeczius of forbidding the Crown to be ever conferred on Forraigners; as the Siculi rebelled the same time and killed the Collector of their dues to the King, but the Authors were severely punished by Paulus Tomoraeus. Nor ever were the Hungarians more deceived then in this [Page 134] Truce made with Selymus, relying whereon they became defencelesse, for on a sudden all the Country as far as the River Dravus where it joyns with the Danow, was laid wast and deso­late: To second this Calamity the Countrey­men and Boors rebelled against the Nobility,Insurrecti­ons and Outrages in Hunga­ry by the Clergy Souldiers. and for the greater enforcement of their designs joyned themselves with the Forces raised by Thomas the Arch-bishop of Strigonium, against Bajazet's Invasion, at the instinct of the Pope, to keep the War out of Italy at the charge of Hungary. There being now upon the Peace again, no use for these religious Souldiers, they began to be burdensome to the Noblesse, and admitted of the Peasants as their Associates: by, and of, these no lesse then 70000 are report­ed to have been slain in the space of four moneths, by which the sanctity of these Cru­sado men may be guessed at. At last Iohn the Vayvod tamed this wicked Crew by intollerable Famine, and gave them the head of their Cap­tain one George Szekheli (notable formerly for his Valour) for food and victual.

Vladislaus to make up a stricter League with the House of Austria, journyed now to Vienna, where he had conference with Sigismund of Poland, and Maximilian, by whom, Mary his Neice by Philip, was betrothed to Lewis, La­dislaus his Son, and Mary his Daughter to Charles or Ferdinand with a Condition of suc­cession in case of no Issue; against this contract and this last clause Perinyi objected and though [Page 135] lame caused himself to be carried through the Streets of Presburg, where he noysed his Dis­sent and refusal, and the Invalidity of the Match, as done without his (principally) and the Nobles Consent; but being won by the grant of the Office of Crown-keeper, just as he should have subscribed the Instrument, he Died. In the interim Iohn the Vayvod ele­vated by his Successe against Szekelehi, besieg­ed Sarno a Garrison of the Turks, but was so cowardly frighted that he fled and forsook his Great Guns, at the news of the approach of Baly Beg, neverthelesse by the Valour of Michael Praxius who sustained the Van of the Enemy,The death of King Ladislaus. they were recovered. King La­dislaus lived not long afterwards, fitter indeed for ease and quiet, then the Rule of the stub­born and Eff [...]ene Hungarians; but whether out of Grief and vexation of mind, or the Common course of Nature, is uncertain.

LEWIS his Son succeeded him,Lewis suc­ceeds his Father La­dislaus & is the 29. King. having according to the late Agreement, Married Mary the Sister of Charles the fifth, by their Father Philip the first of Spain. In this Prince all things, as his Birth, Succession, Beard, Wed­lock, and Death, were praeproperous and Ear­ly. At the same time died Maximilian, to whom, chiefly by the suffrage of Frederick of Saxony, succeeded Charles the fifth, as did Solyman just after the ratification of an eight years Truce succeed his Father Selymus: Di­vine Providence so ordering it that those two [Page 136] great Potentates should Govern the World to­gether, and restrain each other by a mutual dread of one anothers Power and Vertues.

Yet Solyman was so great an esteemer of his own Glory, and so unbounded in his Conceits of it, that he demanded of Lewis the purchase of a Peace with him at a certain Tribute, which being denyed, he Invaded Hungary, and wrest­ed Moldaviae, and Valachia from that Domi­nion, together with the greatest part of Scla­vonia. Nothing withstanding his Arms there but Iaycia, Defended by the signal Valour of Peter Keglevitius. These victorious proceed­ings caused Lewis to levy an Army of 60000. Men;Belgrade taken by Solyman. but his Exchequer not being sufficient to bear the Expence, they were as soon dissolved. In the mean while Belgrade (so often maintain­ed against the Turkish power) was now gain­ed by the Fortune of Solyman, and the Trea­chery of the Governours, who would not ad­mit the succour and Assistance, brought by An­drew Bathori, into the Town. Hence the Con­querour having received a losse from Stephen Bathori the Palatine, who defeated Pyrhus Bassa, then wasting Syrmia, and contented with his former Success,The bar­barous per­fidy of Lewis dispatched a Chiaux with of­fers of Peace to the King; but his Youthful mind swayed by evil Counsel and corrupted with the luxury of George Marquisse of Brandenburgh, was debauched into that perfi­dious basenesse, that he Commanded the En­voy to be privily put to Death at Tata, and [Page 137] for the concealment of the murther, his body to be cast into the Fish-pond.

Solyman was then returned home to the En­terprize of Rhodes, and Lewis his Leiutenant had had some successes against the Turks, espe­cially Christopher Frangepanes not onely re­pulsed them from Iaycia, but beat them out of their Trenches and took their Camp; as Tomori defeated Ferhates Begogli, while Se­verinum was also reduced; but the Dissentions and Divisions that arose in Hungary among the Nobility for the Title of Palatine, between Verbeczius, Zobius, and their Party of the Mul­titude against Bathori legally so Created;Divisions and Inno­vations a­bout Reli­gion in Hungary. Be­sides that, the Reformed Religion now took footing in this Kingdome, although endevour­ed by fire to be suppressed, but maintained by Prynius in the County of Bodrogh and by Nada­nyi at Chrysus; These concurrent mischeifs I say, brought Solyman back into Hungary, de­claring his intention of revenge for the Death of his Messenger, which sudden appearance of his caused much dread and terrour, for that no present remedy could be thought on. Notwith­standing Lewis, without any Aid from abroad resolved to encounter him with an Army of twenty four thousand men,Lewis his unadvised rashnesse. Commanded by the Arch-Bishop of Colocza, and George Za­polianus, although disswaded by Iohn Scepu­sius and Frangepanes, who would have had him withdrawn his person at least, which however would save the Kingdome, and to have staid [Page 138] till he had Collected the whole Force of his Kingdome; but such was his Heat and Teme­rity, and the like proud humour of the Nobi­lity (though it proved their Common Destru­ction) the sign often of a great,The fatal Battel of Mohacz: Lewis killed. but now of an unhappy Resolution, that an Engagement en­sued at Mohacz, where the Hungarians were vanquished and put to a total rout. The King with his Prelates and Nobles (to whom it was ignominous to fly and to survive their Prince) being killed on the place.

At the news of this overthrow Buda was a­bandoned, the Queen with her best moveables flying to Presburg, whence she retired to Charles the fifth, her Brother; who Deputed her to the Government of the Low Countreys, where she presided thirty years, and afterwards weary of the World (like him) betook her­self to a Monastery, and was joyned with him in Death.Buda ta­ken by So­lyman. Solyman entring Buda, abstained from the Usurpation of the Regality, guessing that a Kingdome so slightly gained, might as slightly be lost; but forbore not the plunder of the Countrey, asmuch as lyes betwixt the Ba­laton Lake, the Danow, and Tybiscus, being miserably depopulated.

As to this Tragedy, and the Death of the King, there were many things that portended it; as that he was Born without any Skin, which was supplied by the Art of the Physicians. Be­sides a Spectrum appeared before the Gate of the Castle of Buda demanding Conference [Page 139] with the King, which being not much regard­ed, vanished without any presage. And now when as yet the safety of the Kingdome was not dispaired of, Civil Wars subserved Fate and helped on the general Ruine.Civil Wars ensue this Calamity. The Su­preme Power was unsociable, and Interest would not be joyned by the presentnesse of the danger. Armies were presently gathered, and as soon dismissed; Fortune not admitting two to the Supremacy, & while all men stood still at gaze, the Enemy took advantage to disperse them.

The Fourth BOOK.

VVHile this Battel was fought at Mo­hacz, Iohn Zapolyai Scepusius the Vayvod of Transylvania, stayed at Szeged, and Cajoling the remains of the Nobility, came to Buda, where he perswaded Perenyi the keep­er of the Crown,John na­med King by a Con­vention of the Hun­garan Nobi­lity at Alba Regalis. to deliver it to him (con­ferring upon him therefore the Praefecture of Transylvania) and thence speeded with them to Alba Regalis. A Convention being here held, Verbeczius opened the present state of Af­fairs in favour of Iohn, who was by the As­sembly accepted and styled King, having pas­sed [Page 140] by Ferdinand; who as well by the favour and good will of many, as by the Marriage of Ann the Sister of Lewis, had a good Claim and Title to the Kingdome; wherefore Iohn was advised to begin the War against him, but he following milder then safer Counsel, and the opinion of Frangepanes, dismissed his Forces, hoping to gain the Kingdome by Largesse and Bounty.

At the same, Bathori the Palatine, the per­petual Enemy of Iohn, held a Convention at Presburgh, where he maintained the Title of Ferdinand, by whom Perenyus at the solicita­tion of Thurzo, and the Confirmation of his former Title was brought over, and the Crown with the other Royal Ensigns conveyed into his hands. Hereupon Ferdinand was Pro­claimed and Inaugurated by Paul Vardanus, and Encouragement given by the Hungarians readinesse to assist him. By which means Iohn being forced to withdraw, Convocated his faithfullest Friends to Gubaczium; but not judging it safest to rely upon them, fled to Toc­kay, intending to call the Janizaries to his Aid▪ but while that was in agitation,John bea­ten and dispossessed by Ferdi­nand. Caczianerus an [...] Felsius Discomfited his Captains with a most cruel slaughter neer the same Town, as others of his party were the second time vanquishe [...] at Hernad by the same Hand; where the Camp Royally stored fell into the Victors hands, so that Tockay, Agria, Hatvanum, and all places as far as Buda acknowledged [Page 141] Ferdinand; which mutation of affairs made Iohn betake himself to the Protection of Iohn Tarnovius the Castellan of Cracovia; John flyes for shelter into Po­land. at whose entertainment of him, Sigismund of Poland Connived, but by no means would assist him with Men and Money although his Brother in law, as Consciencious of that League which was between Ferdinand and himself. Caczi­nerus carying in the mean time all places before him.

Nor was Frangepanes, Iohn's firm Friend, much more prosperous in Illyria, although he made potent opposition and bestirred himselfe vigourously in his Cause, for being shot at the siege of Varasdin, which Paul Caprarius re­solutely Defended, he there with grief expired, and left that Province without any further a­doe, in the Possession of Ferdinand. These lamen­table distractions gave occasion to the neigh­bouring Garrisons of the Turks to Invade the same Region and besiege Iaycia, which they reduced with many other places; the Proprie­tor whereof Carlovitius, the last of the Tor­quati, dying at Medvevarium greatly enriched the Family of the Noble Serini.

Iohn thus turmoiled and stript of his King­dome,John com­plyes with the Turks and joyns Interests. by the mediation of Lascus the Pala­tine of Siradia proffered to joyn Interest with the Turk, having used also the diligent endea­vours of Andrew Griti Son of the Duke of Venice, for the accomplishment of this De­sign; a person of a narrow Fortune, but vast [Page 142] hopes, who between Flattery and Crafty diligence, had gained favour at the Port. At his instance Solyman (ambitious of Glory) by Conferring a Crown he had won, and obliging such an Interest to his Service,Solyman undertakes his Cause and Quar­rel. consented to the assertion of Iohn's Quarrel, rather inclined thereto by the unreasonable peremptorynesse of Hoberdanschus a rash man, Ferdinand's Em­bassador, who demanded restitution of all pla­ces, even Belgrade it self; to which Solyman answered, that he would reply to this haughty Demand at the Walls of Vienna. Iohn was neverthelesse not idle of himself, but having collected an Army, for the furniture of which he pawned his Jewels, appointed Simon Athinensis for his General, to whom adhered many Nobles. These Defeated Liscanus and Revayus, Fer­dinand's Captains, while Iohn progressing to Lippa, met the Grand Seigniour at Mohacz, who proceeded and came to Buda, yeilded un­to him by the Treachery of the Germans. This City the Turk put into Iohns possession, who now carried himself openly as King.Vienna besieged Strigo­nium was next yeilded by Varadanus commend­ed to Iohns Clemency by some friends: And now all Hungary resounded with the noyse of these Victories as far as Vienna, 1529. whither So­lyman was come and laid Formall siege thereunto; but by the Valour of Philip Count Palatine, and Nicholas Count of Salms, and the Policy of Ibrahim Bassa, who favoured the Christians, and therefore retarded the great [Page 143] Guns,The siege raised. He was forced to rise after a month, with the losse of 80000 men; and thence (ha­ving established Iohn the Crown as it was carried up and down from its depository at Vi­sigrade, being taken with Perenyus, who by the Hostage of his Son (Mahumetanized after) was hardly set at liberty: Solyman departed home) when Rogendorf soon besieged K. Iohn and Griti in Buda, but they were at last relieved; Solyman also again returned into Hungary the next year and besieged Guntzium, but prevailed not a­gainst the Courage and resolution of the Gover­nour: so that while he was engaged here, Charles the Emperour, and Ferdinand, with an Army of 130000 men, came to fight him; but he terrified with their approch, by two wayes, ha­sted back again, the same Ibrahim advising it for the destruction of one or both of the parties thus divided; but Charles glad to see him gone made no use of the advantage; Solyman left Casnes with 15000 Horse behind him to plun­der the Confines of Germany, but Frederick Count Palatine, General of the Ayds of the Empire, met him, and put every man of them to the Sword.

After this inglorious Retreat, K. Iohn, whe­ther indeed a Christian, or awed by fear percei­ving the Potency of Ferdinand, by Lascus be­sought his Peace, which was suspended by a pre­sent Truce. The Commissioners of the two Kings (to ascertain the Limits of their Domini­ons) met at Strigonium, which Town was se­questred [Page 271] into the hands of the King of Poland, and Frederick of Saxony. Peace con­cluded be­twixt John & Ferdi­nand. This good work took its desired effect, while new storms arose in Hungary about establishing a person in the place of the Palatine Banfi newly Deceased, which Dignity under the Title of Governour by the advice of Lascus to K. Iohn, was con­ferred on Griti, who with great Largesses had scrued himself into the Esteem of the People; but was so hateful to the Nobles, and he Consci­ously obnoxious to them, that by several Arti­fices he made the cheif of them away. Where­upon he returned to Constantinople in hast,Griti's Designs. upon pretence of making way to a Peace there, where his practises and concealed reserved designs, peices of which he had brokenly imparted, ren­dred him suspect to Iohn for his intimacy with the Divan. In the mean while Solyman incited by his Dreams to an Expedition against the Per­sians, dispatcht away a Chiaux with the heads of the Peace,Solyman's terms of Peace. which were, That Clement the Pope should be his Father; Charles and Ferdinand his Brothers; John shall stand to equal Conditions, Corone, Bala, and Badra, taken by the Valour of Andrew Doria, shall be recompensed to Charl [...] by other places. But while the Emperour delay­ed to render those Towns, a most ignomini­ous Discomfiture of the Coronenses by Cayr [...] ­dine the Turks Admirall, broke off the frustra­ted League; and so that agreement which might have been easily purchased, rose to the price of the ruine of Hungary.

[Page 145] Griti was come back to Transalpina by Selistria accompanyed with 3000. Men,Griti's End. and every where proclaimed his Title of Govern­our, vapouring of his Vertues which from a private Person had raised him to a Prince, and that to make Peace betwixt Emperours, could be nothing less than a Divine and immor­tal action. As he passed the Alps at Corona, he was accosted by Lascus with additional for­ces out of Podolia, by whose assertion he was eve­ry where acknowledged as Governour. In­vested with this force & Power he sent for Ciba­cus, who was one of those Nobles that had disal­lowed his Title, as vain and injurious while the K. was living; who being betrayed by his Servant (corrupted by one Docius an Instrument of Griti's by a silver Cup, the reward of his Trea­son,Cibacus murdered by him. who told him there was no danger if he went) npon his arrival the same night, as he was fast asleep in his Tent, had his Head se­vered from his Body, aud carried to Griti to feed and satisfie his most Bloody and scelerate Revenge. But Divine Justice was not far be­hind, for Stephen Maylat, and other Noble­men, within eight dayes raising an Army of Sixty thousand Men, pursued Griti, who con­scious of his Vilanies and his Usurped rackt Authority, was upon the first news of their Arming fled to Meggyesium, where by the de­fection of the Townsmen, the Turks that were with him were all put to the Sword; his Agent Docius Executed by the Axe, and Gri­ti [Page 146] in his intended Escape taken by the Valachi­ans, and offered by them as a Victime to the Ghost of Cibacus.

King Iohn being required by Solyman to Aid Griti, A Rupture between K. John and Ferdinand was nothing troubled when he heard of the news of this his Rivals Death; for Griti's Design and last intendment was his Substitution to the Crown of Hungary. He likewise for better security of the Peace, Imprisoned Las­cus, but put in mind of his former good Of­fices converted his restraint into Banishment. And here followed a Rupture between Iohn and Ferdinand, Leonard Cackei delivering Cas­sovia in the Upper Hungary which was assigned to Ferdinand, to King Iohn; to requite which losse, the German attempted Transylvania; the Szekelii, the reliques of the old Huns, and theSiculi. Szaszii, a Colony of the Saxons, Seated in a Province of that Principality, being prone to Revolt from the H [...]ngarian. But when the Governours Nyari and Bamfi by their plun­dering of Sacmar, had discovered the Con­spiracy, the Design came to nothing and Iohn soon recovered that Town, with the losse o [...] Gothard Kunus his fast Friend, and a Tame white Hart which (like Sertorius) he had alwayes in his Company; the Death of whom made him so furiously revengeful, that he put all the Prisoners to the Sword: while Felsius, Ferdi­nand's General, successfully proceeded, and threatned Cassovia; to secure which Iohn dis­patcht away George Monachus, Peter Pere­nes, [Page 147] and Francis Debecus, with equal power and Commission, whom Felsius by Delayes (which begat a Discord between the Captains as is natural in Competitions) so necessitated,Felsius the Emperours General's successe. that forced to retire, he advantagiously set up­on them, killing some and driving other some into the River Tybiscus, aad together surpri­zed Tokay. That he gained not Cassovia, the Peace struck up at Vaccia was the onely hinder­ance, whereby both Kings were to hold what they then had in possession; the Issue of Iohn to enjoy Transylvania, John and Ferdinand Friends. Opulia, and Ratibor; the League to be Offensive and Defensive, the one's Enemies to be the others, and so contrarily, and to be obliged in the prosecution of one a­nothers Designs; so that the Peace with the Turk was as good as broken, or not at all regarded.

Hereupon Ferdinand to represse the incursi­ons of Mahomet Bassa of Belgrade (who had taken Posegum, Boczo, and Beriszlone in Scla­vonia, and designing the Siege of Clissia, had erected two Castles at Salonas for obstruction of relief) sent away Peter Crusitius into Dal­matia, and Cackzianerus to Posega. Peter was so fear stricken with Amurath Verbosanus, that many of his men dyed with meer appre­hension of the danger:The lamen­table De­feat of Cacziane­rus and Lodronius nor did Cackzianerus come off much more gloriously, being accom­panied with Lodowick Pecri, Lodronius, Al­bert Sliccus, Lodowick Rhaetus, Iohn Ungna­dius, Bakitius, and other Commanders, with [Page 142] [...] [Page 143] [...] [Page 271] [...] [Page 145] [...] [Page 146] [...] [Page 147] [...] [Page 148] 8000 Horse, and 16000 Foot, all which he led to Destruction. He was come as far as Val­pone, and had laid Seige to Essecum, not aware that he was included betwixt Posega the Ene­mies Garrison, and the Danow, when Ma­homet, Amurath, and Cassonus, guessing rightly that they were distressed for Victual, invented a new way of Victory without fighting. For when Cackzianerus perceived that neither the Governour of Zagrabia, no [...] the spoil of Her­man Castle could afford a competence of victu­al, he resolved to retreat to Valpone, in which march the way being before laid, and passes made good against him, he was set upon by the Turks; Bakitius was killed in the Streights, others pined with hunger, were wholly conster­nated. Cackzianerus, Pecri, and Vngua­dius, as a most shameful example, first flying away;The noble Valour of Lodroni­us. Lodronius onely stood bravely to it, and fought to the last man; the rest having no Com­manders, either confused or pent up in narrow places, were slain or taken Prisoners, the Camp and the Kings great Guns falling likewise into the possession of the Enemy.

This unhappy Encounter and a designed Re­volt thereupon stood Cackzianerus at the price of his Head; for with the same successe Maho­met and Amurath, took in Dubicia, Iasseno­cium, and Soboczia, and brought a great dread upon both Kings, besides that Solyman exaspe­rated against Peter the cruel and feral Vaivod of Moldavia, had at the same time by his arms [Page 149] substituted his Brother Stephen in his place, Pe­ter being fled to Csikium in Transylvani [...]. Here­upon Ferdinand and Iohn joyned [...]orces, the Germans amounting to 50, and the Hungari­ans to 30 thousand men; at the news whereof, Solyman by Letters upbraided Iohn with his perfidie,Solyman accuseth J [...]hn of perfidy & Ingrati­tude. and Arms taken against him his Father, and so known a Benefactor; that he had aggravated his Defection by a War, and multiplied one wickednesse by another; on the other side Iohn partly by words, and partly by gifts, endevoured to excuse the fact, consci­ous to himself also of the slaughter of Griti, although not yet charged to him.His Excuse He preten­ded that he took Arms only to assist him his pa­tron against Peter, who [...] he had besieged in Csikium, and to make good this particular d [...]d upon the surrender send him Prisoner, to pacifie Solyman, to Constantinople

Yet was not Moldavia thus setled, for Ste­phen being a like Tyrannical was destroyed by a Conspiracy, and one Alexius the Son of E­lias, formerly Prince, was inducted in his place, but he out of Fear of the Turks, in­tending a revolt to Ferdinand, was driven out by Peter, now restored again by Solyman to his former Dignity, who being more sanguinous then before (punishing and torturing his inno­cent Subjects, preventionally by the direction of this Politique, that no wise Prince afflicts his People because they have, but because they should not offend) His savage Government [Page 150] lasted not long, being succeeded therein by A­lexander.

About the same time King Iohn married I­sabel Daughter of the King of Poland, New Trou­bles be­twixt both Kings. but while he mancipated himself to the pleasures of her bed, Stephen Maylat, and Balassi, Go­vernours of Dacia, quitted their Allegiance, and revolted to Ferdinand, whom notwith­standing, by the sudden assistance of Valenti­nus Tercock, he so quickly reduced, that they seemed to be engaged in the Plot, and the de­feat of it at the same instant. He dispossessed Balassius of several Castles, but at this suppli­cation gave him his Life; for either revenge or oblivion follow punishment, and he that spares and is merciful, shews not only his Clemency, but confirms His Dominion: He besieged also Forgarasse a Castle of Maylats, The Death of John. but being ta­ken with a pain in his head, and gtown frantick therewith, at a Town called Szar Sebessum, he died suddenly, having just before solemni­zed the Birth-day of his onely Son Iohn Sigis­mund.

The civil War which had been laid by the in­tervention of Treaties, now by the death of one of the Treating parties broke out again; Es­secius and Verbeczius the Administrators, ha­ving recommended their Pupil to the Tu­ition and Guardianship of Solyman, Solyman invited to be Guardi­an to his Son. brought forth a Banner, the Staff of Honour, and Scy­mitar, the Ensignes of his Investiture in the Kingdome, when they were indeed the Badges [Page 151] of Slavery, and so counted and derided by o­ther men. As to Ferdinand, he now thought it seasonable, while yet the Peace was observed, by his Ambassadors and Heraulds to try the mind of the Turk and the Queen, will­ing rather to reduce the Kingdom by fair means, than by blood-shed and War.Ferdi­nand's Intrigues. But understanding that Lascus his Orator with Solyman, was by him Imprisoned, and nothing to be effected there, and that the Count of Salms was meer­ly delayed by Isabel the Queen, he proceeded to open Hostility, Leonard Felsius his Gene­ral reducing Vissegrade, Vaccia, and Pesth; but his attempt upon Buda (the discord arisen between his Germans and Hungarians, and their private Conferences with their Country-men) unluckily disappoynted. More effectual was the Eloquence of Perenyus, who being brought over to Ferdinand's side by Szegessus his Ambassa­dor at the Wedding of King Iohn, where he set forth the Power and Fortune of Charles the Emperour, now carried with him Alba Rega­lis to the German party.

Nor was the Turk lesse active and stirring, Mahomet, Amurath, and Usref, coming in the depth of Winter to the Assistance of George Mona [...]hus (who from the King's Fire-maker or [...]eweller, was advanced to the highest Dig­nities) and Peter Petrovitius (assigned Guardi­ans by the Testament of Iohn to his Son Si­gismund) and presently attaqued Pesth; but by the Valour of Fotiscus▪ and Speciacassius, [Page 152] whose vigorous Salleys the Turkish Camp could not endure, they were repelled with great Losse. This so encouraged Ferdinand that Ro­gendorf was sent to besiege Buda, Buda be­sieged by Rogen­dorf. which Mo­nachus and his adherents had re-fortified and made good the Walls and Bulwarks with needful reparations, and now Countermined the besiegers, when Thomas Bornemisza the Provost of the Town, and Peter Palcianus proffered to deliver it to Revayus▪ the time and place appointed, none but Hungarians for the bet­ter concealing the Designe to be engaged in it. All things thus fairly laid, and the General cocksure of the Town, Fortune shewed him what presumption and mistrust can do in the juncture of the greatest Military Affairs▪ For he diffident of the Hungarians, and rely­ing upon the constancy of the Germans, a [...] the hour and place agreed on, clapt them into the City, who being betrayed by their Tongue, were fallen upon by those who would have been their friends in Peace;Defeated there. & so numbers of them slain, and the rest repulsed. Nor did their ill fortune stay here, for Mahomet and Ulumas Bassa of [...]osnia, after a Naval Encounter, while he loytered before Buda, landed upon him and over-threw his Army, when Specia [...]a­cassius from Pesth fell upon the Victors, and abated the dishonour of the Day by a like slau­ghter and terrour brought upon the Enemy, but yet so that the fame of Solyman arrogated to it self the Victory; for that Rogendorf wounded [Page 153] with a Pole and flying for fear, died with grief and heartlesse; his Fleet made shift to escape, but his Land Forces were wholly lost.

Solyman was now in person again in Hunga­ry, Solyman in person again in Hungary. & as a token of his affection to the young King, presented his Mother with a Babylonish Garment, and Jewells of inestimable value, as he did her Son with Horses richly Trapped, desiring him to be brought into his Camp, which request was observed as a Command: whither being come, Valentinus Tercock one of his prime Councellors, a man of a various and in­constant mind,Caeesses the Q. and her Son. was secured; the Child and the rest of his retinue was returned to his Mo­ther. Verbeczius Authour of this Counsel of Solyman's Protection, survived not long after, but troubled in Conscience with the evil thereof, gave notable proof of his hearty repentance. In conclusion, Solyman by an Instrument con­ferred Transylvania, Lippa, and Temeswar, to the Queen and his Pupil; when he swore by God, Mahomet, his own Head and Sword, that he would render Buda to the Young Prince; in which City he now placed Solyman Bassa for Governour in his own Right and Title.

The Queen guided by the necessity of the Times,Buda put into the Turks possession. or afraid to dispute the businesse, ac­cepted of the Conditions and quitted Buda, ever since remaining in the Turkish power, as the Metrapolis of what they hold in Hungary, where Solyman gave Audience to the Counts of Salms, & Herbensteyn, Ferdinand's Ambas­sadors, [Page 154] of whom he insolently, demanded, that their Master should presently yeild Hungary to him as his Benefactour,Solyman's insolent De­mands to Ferd [...]nand and pay him a Tri­bute for Austria. It was bootlesse to make any reply to [...]uch a formidable Neighbour, for that the Hungarians being deceived with this ostentation and Shew of their King, and by their own means disabled from resistance, were not to be considered or relyed upon. The Po­licy of Solyman being herein agreeable to that of other Potentates; who to dissolve the pre­sent State, pretend the Interest of the natu­ral and rightful Princes, not that they should Govern or have any Authority; but themselves having once gained the People by such Arts, make not nice to retain them in subjection by the extremest rigour and Violence, as having a pretended good Right by their former volun­tary Complyance and addresse to their auxilia­ry Arms.

The losse of Buda put all Germany into a Trepidation as apprehending the vicinity of the danger.Aids offer­ed Ferdi­nand. At Spire and Ratisbone, two Aids were readily decreed; Maurice the young Duke of Saxony, offering his Service with some voluntier Troops at his own Charge and raising: Perenyus had got together Fifteen thousand Hungarians; and Paul the third, sent Three thousand Men under the Command of Medigius afterward Pope Pius the fifth, and Alexander Vitellius. Nor were Ferdinand's Forces of his own levying fewer in number; [Page 155] Ioachim of Brandenburg being Constituted Generalissimo. This was in the Year of our Lord 1542.1542. when Solyman by his Generals Ulumas, Amurath and others, timely oppo­sed his Arms. Pesth was the first place of En­counter, which Vitellius, & Sforza Palavicinus having besieged by a Stratagem of a sudden flight thence, the Turks were brought by the ambuscadoes of Perenyus, into an inclosure. Here the Turks desperation show'd its victorious Effect, though repressed by Maurice, and the Courage of Count Nicholas Serini's Men▪ Pesth was hereupon reattempted, & upon the point of Surrender when the Germans failed Vitellius; and through the ill Conduct, or faint-hearted­nesse of Ioachim were upon their retreat and departure. Perenyus was at the same time se­cured in Neustria, as well for his present ambition upon the Crown, as his former designs of revolting to the Enemy.

This Enterprize upon Pesth, Solyman vowed to revenge; to gratifie which, his Chief Com­manders resolutely took in several Towns,Solyman's Su [...]cesses. and among other Prisoners upon Surrender, at the delivery of Nana, Moreus the great Bandit, who to save his life renounced his Religion. Other places, particularly Valpone, bravely Defended by Michael Archius against his said Generals, he in person reduced, as he did also Quinque Ecclesiae or 5 Kerchen, Socklosiae, and Strigonium; Strigoni­um taken. although such was the presumptu­ous Confidence of Lascanus, and Salamanca [Page 156] two Spaniards, the Governours thereof, that they defied the joynt Force of both Emper­ours Armies, if engaged against the Town; but their brag and vapour was well recompen­sed by Solyman, who kept his word of quarter for Life, no more than they did their duty and Courage.Alba Re­galis yeild­ed to him. Tata was next taken, and Alba Re­galis, a very Defensible place, as standing in a Morasse, and sacred for the Sepultures of the Kings of Hungary, which should have spirited the Garrison; but by the Death of Varcocius the Governour and the firing of the Suburbs, which against his advice were left standing to the E­nemies advantage, it came by storm & the pres­sing of the Turks upon the Christians flying out of the said Suburbs into the City, into his hands: Most of the Souldiers escaped over the Bogs: to the Burghers he shewed himself a fair and benign Conquerour:; while Ferdinand was employed among the Marcomanni in raising of new Levies, a too late remedy to the bad estate of his Affairs.

And as if this had been the destined period of the Kingdome,Visigrade taken. Mahomet Iahiogli the Bassa of Buda, and Ussan of Strigonium, having distressed Visigrade for want of water, took in that town with many other places, which ti­red out with the Calamity of the War, recei­ved the Turkish Yoke, as did several places in Illyria from Ulamas enforced by the same Bassa, and the rather for that Ferdinand had displaced Peter Keglevitius the Governour. In whose [Page 175] room Count Serini was deputed as Bildensteyu for Styria, both of whom at the Plain of Sel­nicia mee [...]ing with the Van of the Turks, had terms of a Truce offered them, and agreed; but Ulumas coming in the very Juncture, the Enemy took heart and treacherously Engaged them.Count Se­rini defea­ted by U­lumas. Serini fled to Conscha, Bildensteyn in danger of drowning in his flight, was preser­ved by the Gallantry and Valour of Stephen Balletitius. This Losse was recompensed by the Defeat of the Garrison Forces of Strigoni­um, under Cufates and Nasuff their Colonels, who having taken Leva (the Castle being yet notably maintained by Melchior Balassi) in the arrogance of their Victory were set upon by Nyari and put to the slaughter, a number of Captives being thereby also redeemed out of their hands.

Yet by this never so unequal Ballance of af­fairs,A Peace procured Ferdinand did Ferdinand obtain a Peace of Soly­man, being intent upon a more unjust design, byassed thereto by the Court of Rome: For he was now Famous for the Smalchaldick war, which he managed with great renown to his Vertues, by which he highly obliged those persons that suffered by the Council of Trent's peremptory Decrees, and had no open or avowed patron, but Maurice the Elector of Saxony. That War ended, Ferdinand held an Assembly of the States at Tyrnaw, memo­rable for no other thing then the prosecution of two Noble Out-lawes, who had licensed to [Page 158] themselves a power and Authority of Mischief by fortifying of Advantagious places; their Names were Matthias Baso, who was taken at Muranum by the Count of Salms (who built the Fortresse of Szolnoc) and beheaded, and Balassi his Son in law, who escaped into Tran­sylvania.

And thither the next story leads us,George Monachus his designs for George Monachus, the raised Favourite of K. Iohn per­ceiving how inconsiderable the Queens and her Sons Interest was like to prove in that pent and precarious Principality, had privily ingrati­ated himself with Ferdinand, renouncing his Master to the Count of Salms, and abjuring the Turk before Andrew Bathori at Opulia, a grea­ter Infidel & more perfideous himself.

The Queen and Petrovitius his Collegue were not ignorant of these his practises, but could not remedy them; she therefore design­ed a Journey into Poland, which George put by; but hasty of his Enterprize, seized the Trea­sury and plundered it, and forced away the Queen from Cibinium, having Collogued the Siculi and Saxons to be of his party. To the Nobles oposing themselves against this upstart, as a person of a most sordid Extraction, Ma­homet Bassa joyned his Troops; but he and his Confederates were soon vanquished, and George thereby made Paramount in the Government, when by a temporary Peace he settled all things in Statu quo; but diffiding and conscious of his demerits towards his Pupil Prince, made [Page 159] an Agreement with Ferdinand, who thereby drew a War upon himself, greater than the advantage of his present Acquist.

George was hereupon presently assisted by Ioh. Baptista Castaldus, Isabel the Q. resigns her right and Inte­rest. Famous in the German war; Bathori the future Vaivod, Sirotinius, and Na­dasdi, and took in Alba, but restored the Q. her Treasure and rich movables, whom Szasz Sebessius advised to quit the Crown and Tran­sylvania, and to accept of Opulia and an Hun­dred thousand Guilders in name of a dower; which the Queen not daring to refuse, neither having command of her Person, her mind, or her Kingdome, consented to; and so the Re­gal Ensigns were by her delivered to Castaldus, while Petrovitius yeilded Temeswar, Lippa, and other Towns, to the same prevailing E­nemy.

Solyman enraged at these proceedings,Solyman's resentment of these proceed­ings. im­prisoned Ferdinands Ambassadour at Constanti­nople, and sent away an Army under Mahomet, Beglerbeg of Romania, Vlumas, Achomet and Cassonus into Transylvania, with orders to reinstate the Queen and her Son, but under colour of their assistance to reduce the King­dome and that Province to his own obedience, who without any considerable opposition took in most of the Towns between Temesus and Marusius, while George and Castaldus with other Commanders, kept their posts about Va­radin and those parts, although not inferiour to the enemy, by which means Lippa through the [Page 160] inconstancy of the Citizens, came into the Turkish possession, Vlumas being placed Go­vernour there: Temeswar was likewise at­tempted but valiantly defended, for that George beseiged Lippa, and St. Demetrius day was at hand, beyond which usually the Janizaries will not continue in the feild. At Lippa a Cardinals hat procured by Ferdinand was pre­sented to George, The fatal End of George. who by distressing Vlumas for Provision, and repressing his Salleys, had brought him to a Surrender, upon terms of free departure, which Castaldus dissented from, gr [...]dging that George should arrogate the su­preme Command to himself: Neverthelesse Vlumas having had some private conference with George was dismist with those terms, whom Balassi and Horvar contrary to Articles set up­on in his way, but so ineffectually that Vla­mas made shift to bring his broken forces to Adrianople to the provocation of Solyman, whom George would by no means have so incensed: and hence Castaldus weary of a com­petitor took occasion to inject suspicions into the head of Ferdinand, that George held intelli­gence with the Turk, for which reason it was concluded between them that he should be removed. To effect which, Sforza Palavicinus Andreas Lopez, Marcus Ferrarus, with other Spaniards were appointed, Marcus in the morning twilight, (as George quartered at Alwi­nez where he was underwriting some Petitions of his Souldiers) rushing into his Chamber, ran [Page 161] him through, when Sforza with ten others seconded that wound, and with the points and edges of their swords made an end of him,George Monachus assassina­ted. cry­ing upon the name of Christ: a deserved end for the betrayer and deserter of his Prince and Pupill, from whose Father he had received such benefits, although the Assassinates them­selves came after to very untimely ends. Pope Iulius heard this Fact with very great indigna­tion, although palliated with his defection, &c. nor would admit of those excuses, nor be paci­fied with bribes, made and issued from that e­state which George had left, and of which the Assassinates were possessed,

The Turk being in a readinesse for a War,The at­tempt of the Hun­garians upon Sege­dine. Michael Toth imparted a design upon Segedine to Castaldus, who warned all the Governours thereabouts to be assistant to the Enterprize, which succeeded with good effect, the Town being taken, and the Castle standing upon its last defence by the resolution of Hederbeg the Governour, when the Hayducks drunk with the excellent Wines of Syrmia and Baronya with which the Town abounded, were in their drunkennesse surprized by notice given to Haly Bassa of Buda, by a Pidgeon sent from Heder, and all the Heyducks put to the Sword, the Chief Commanders who did all they could to prevent that excesse (among whom was Aldana Governour of Lippa, 1553. and Berezus) hereby es­caping, in lieu of whom the Turks light upon another party under Nagy and Ter [...]ock, igno­rant [Page 162] of what had happened, and captivated them all, as they further enlarged this successe by the taking of Vesprinium, Vesprini­um yeilded to the Tu [...]ks. delivered by Michael Ferreus (the chief Governour Peteone being excluded by him) after a mutiny of the Garrison caused by his covetousnesse.

At the same time Elias (Son of Peter) Vayvod of Moldavia by these Alps, invaded Hungary, and fa [...]ling into the richest and luxuriant parts of the Country, was packing up a very great spoil, when Banfius and other Noblemen sur­prized him, and stripped him of his booty. But a greater danger was feared from Achomet, who took Temeswar, Lozoncius after a forward defence, by the discord of the Germans, being forced to yeild it upon terms, which in remem­brance of that perfidy used towards Vlumas were not at all regarded,Their fur­ther suc­cesses. and the Garrison put to the Sword. Twenty several other places were either taken or yeilded, which had been formerly in their possession, and all the tract of ground between Temesus and Chrysus Niger, reduced to their obedience. Lippa also, although Aldana the Governour had boasted of the strength of the place, and his own resolution, was out of fear fired by himself, for which he had lost his head, but for the intercession of Mary the Empresse. Dregelum was also taken, though so nobly defended by Sondius, that they gave his dead body most honourable Sepulchre. Not to mention many other places, among the rest Salgon, by a stratagem of a great Log from [Page 163] the next hill, which the Garrison were made believe for a great Gun, so that it was with the Turks the same thing to come and to Conquer.

At length Erasmus Theuffelus and Sforza Pallavicinus newly returned out of Italy with 10000. men,Theuffe­lus and Pallavici­nus de­feated. opposed themselves to this Tor­rent, but by their hastinesse and impatience in not staying for the Nobility at Fileek, and all the Elements conspiring their Ruin (their Powder and Ammunition being blown up at Palastus) they were beaten out of their Camp, and both Generalls taken prisoners, Theuffelus denying himself was sowed in a sack and drowned after­wards in the Thracian Bosphorus, and Sforza ransomed with 15000. Crowns, the other cap­tives being set at so cheap a rate, that a German was sold for a Peck of Barley. Szolnock was next attaqued by Haly and Achomet, and not­withstanding either the promises or Threats of Laurentius Nyari delivered to them by the faint hearted Garrison. Thence the Enemy with a hundred and twenty five Thousand men came before Agria, Agria no­bly defend­ed by Do­bo and Neskeyus. wherein were Governours Dobo and Neskeyus, who had in vain implored aid and supplies from the Emperour, assisted by some Noblemen and 2000. Souldiers. It was a sharp and daring Seige of both sides, the Defendants in a bravery opening the Bolikian Gate and there after a fierce encounter slaying 3000. Turks, which courage of theirs so disheartned Achomet that having lost 12000. great shot against the Town he broke up from before it, Duke Maurice [Page 164] Ferdinands General having spent a whole sum­mer in his Station near Raab, without any thing of moment effected against the Enemy. The Messengers of this successe at Agria were richly rewarded, and Dobo made Prefect of Transylvania, Nekessius by an untimely and ungratefull accident was killed in a rustick Tu­mult by an Axe.

Ferdinand notwithstanding more afraid of fortune then desirous of Conquest, preferred Peace,1555. to which purpose he commissioned An­tony Veranczius, and Francis Zayus to the Port, by whose means Malvezius the former Ambas­sadour was set at liberty, but he survived it not long, dying in his journey back again thither with a new Commission. In his place Augerius Gislenius Busbequius was substituted,Count Se­rini his Successes. but nothing more then a truce of six months could be ob­tained. The War being therefore continued, it was the good fortune as the valour of Count Nicholas Serinus (Zrynyi by the Hungarians) to defeat Vlumas and Amurath of Clissa by Toploczia, who bearing up from this discomfi­ture plundered and spoiled several Towns at their retreat; while Hameza the Governour of Sezeserinum by a surprize gained Filek.

Busbequius was now returned re infecta from Constantinople, without that Ferdinand would relinquish Transylvania; and Alys a Chiaux being sent to Bathori the Vayvod, commanded him to expell the Germans, a new Prince of Hungary to be chosen, or the Queen restored; [Page 165] to which demands Bathori by the connivence of Castaldus answered by the promise of a Tri­bute in the name of the States, but for their wresting places out of the hands of those that had them in possession it was not in their power. Hereupon Aly Bassa formerly Governour of Buda, but now prime Vizier, beseiged Sigeth most nobly even to admiration defended by Stansitius, and preferved by a diversion given the Enemy by the Palatine Nada [...]di who beseiged some Towns of the Enemy which Toy­gon of Buda had taken from the Heyducks, Ene­mies to both parties.

Aly thus necessitated to rise from Zigeth passed the Rinnia and came to meet Nadasdi, Aly the Bassa of Buda De­feated. but by the valour of Serini and Polbaylerus and the Auxiliary's of Telekessius and Ruberius, and which is the main, the prudence and conduct of the Generall, he was totally routed: when the Palatine suspecting reinforcement of the Ene­my or contenting himself with the rescue of Zigeth, returned to Chorgond, where he joyn­ed his forces with young Ferdinand, who had obtained leave of his Father to make Tryall of his first Arms in this War. The same hereof bred so great terrour among the Turks, 1556. it being also rumoured that the Christians overspread the whole plain, that Aly Bassa was preparing for a flight, having with all earnestnesse summoned Mahomet the Beglerbeg of Romania to his assistance, but when upon Nadasdi's retreat, it was conceived that he fled, Aly returned to his [Page 158] [...] [Page 159] [...] [Page 160] [...] [Page 161] [...] [Page 162] [...] [Page 163] [...] [Page 164] [...] [Page 165] [...] [Page 166] Seige of Zigeth, but with worse fortune; losing 10 Thousand men in the Trenches, the fruit of his vain contempt of the Christians. His departure young Ferdinand by the advice of Nadasdi suffered without any molestation, em­ploying his Army to the reduction of Corone, and afterwards burnt down Graeco-galla, St. Martins and many other places, in which the avarice of the Germans was so prodigious, that they searched the very entrayls of their Enemy's for Gold, which they supposed they might have swallowed.

But affairs went not on so prosperously in Transylvania, Dissentions [...]n Tran­ [...]ylvania between the Gover­nours. by reason of the misunderstand­ing between Dobo and Kendius the Governours thereof, (for Castaldus either foreseeing the mischief or being called away by Charles the fift had quitted that Command) Dobo was con­stant to the King, Kendi enclined to Isabel and out of that respect and fear of the Turks power alwayes impending, with a great party publique­ly rebelled, and called in the Queen (who pretended to be unsatisfied of her agreement made with Ferdinand) out of Poland, as he did likewise move Solyman for assistance who, com­manded Cassonus and the Vayvod of Moldavia to that service; but such was the diligence of Dobo and his Partisans Tahy and Zaberdini that the Confederates were glad to sue for a 15. dayes truce at the expiration whereof upon par­don they rendred themselves: but their Incon­stancy upon the next advantage, under new [Page 167] pretences engaged them in the same designes; for upon the departure of the Imperial forces, Kendi and Balassi call in the Queen, and now their businesse was ripe for Execution: for Huztum was at last yeilded to Andrew Bathory, as Varadinum at the Command of Ferdinand, being wearied out with these Troubles, with Tockay by the revolt of Francis Nemeth to Isabel, were likewise delivered; And now the rebellion was so far spread, that it was high time for Ferdinand to apply some excellent hand to the Government, but the persons he named to it, proved very insufficient by their personall evils. During this dispute it proved Dobo's hard fortune, when things were past re­medy,The Empe­rours [...]os­ses in Transyl­vania. to be seized (at such time as he had news of his brothers captivity by, the Turks, as calamity seldome comes alone) by Perenyi, with whom he had a controversie about the Dignity of the Crown keeper, in which restraint he was hardly used, to a very just but most envious imputati­on upon the faith of Isabel, who had engaged for his Liberty. These losses were a little allevi­ated by the good conduct of Emerius Telekessius deputed in the place of Puchamus the former Governour, who reduced many places, and maintained others against Isabel standing near the Tibiscus, but all was to no other effect then by those struglings to strengthen the common Enemy against their Country.

For though the Enemies Effort in this juncture was distant as far as Illyria, yet had [Page 168] it the better and facile execution, and although revenged at last by Erd [...]edius the Successour of Serini to the Government; yet did it not a­ny what allay those Feuds at home, whereby Tata was gained by Hameza by stratagem, and Komora, and Austria exposed to their Armes. The Princes of Germany were therefore pray­ed to assist Ferdinand, who agreed to a double aid, the levying of Forty eight thousand Men, who by the Turks cunning mention of a Peace presently to be concluded,1560. squandred away a whole Summers time in their Quarters, at Raab to the great burden of those whom they came to releive, and did nothing worthy the noise of the very preparation.

Transylvania altogether as unhappy, now groaned under the oppression of its own Prin­cesse. Bebecus her great Friend and Councel­lor was now delegated to Solyman at Constanti­nople, The Queens admini­stration in Transyl­vania. by whom he was favourably received, and honoured with the Title of Governour; and the Moldavian, and Valachian Vayvods subjected to him; by which his Power became suspect to the Queen, as upon this account al­so, for that Petrovitius and others, would have the young Prince conveyed to Varadin an Uni­versity (Cambray the French Ambassador urg­ing the motion) for that it would be dangerous to breed him to the Distaff, lest Effeminacy and Luxury should corrupt his manners. Here­upon the Queen troubled, consulted with Ni­sovius a Polonian, to put the Noble men to [Page 169] death,She puts sundry No­blemen of her party to death. which was agreed on: Petrovitius esca­ped a violent (by hasting to a sudden and natu­ral) end, having named the Queen and her Son, his Heirs. But Bebecus, Francis, and Antonius Kendy, who had stickled so much for her Interest and party, payed for their fond­nesse with the losse of their lives, their Execu­tioners being prepared by Balassius, who for this Service was invested with the Supreme Power of the Army; so sad and Calamitous was the face and State of this Principality.

Soon after died Isabel, & Ioh. Sigism. her Son endevoured the procuring of a Peace,The Death of Q. Isa­bel. but his Ambassadors taunting oration, wherein they said that the King of Hungary, meaning Iohn, desired but the Bounds of the River Tibisous, (denoting no more then Transylvania) frustrated that impertinent solicitation; and in the mean while Balassius (who in divers Encounters had received some brushes from Telekessius, and had incurred the hatred of Transylvania) with the money received for the payment of the Army, ran away to Caesar, bringing over with him Sacmar, Rivulinum, and other Towns; with the person and Interests of Nicholas Ba­thori. Iohn made Complaints of this to the Port, that Peace was pretended while War was prosecuted; but by the Sagacity and diligence of Busbequius his Addresse and Intrigues was dis­mist without remedy. Not to mention the War in Moldavia betwixt Iacob Heraclides, Alexander, Visnovecsius, and Thomsa, Com­petitors [Page 170] for that Vayvodship, wherein both Iohn, and Ferdinand, and Solyman were Con­cerned, for that it would be too large a Di­gression.

The Affairs of Iohn grew worse and worse, for that Solyman had consented to an Eight years Truce, after almost as many years soli­citation. Stephen Bathori yet stuck firm to his part, with Francis Nemethi, who now joynt­ly Besieged Hadad, the Town belonging to one Sulyoccus, a Noble man designing the part of Ferdinand; John Si­gismund worsted in Transyl­vania. Zayius and Balassi came to the re­leif of it, when Bathori advised against any Encounter; but Nemethi disdaining the name of a Coward would needs perswade him; though to the losse of the whole Army, 24 Great Guns, with a Camp excellently stored, and fifty three Ensigns, being taken from the Tran­sylvanians: The subjects whereof awaiting the Event of this Battel took advice of Fortune. The whole Province was now in trepidation, and their security designed in Poland, whither Iohn Sigismund was upon his departure, had not Christopher Bathori comforted him with the hopes of the Turks Assiastnce, by whom he might one day gain Hungary also.

Accordingly Ibrahim Bassa of Buda, and Malchoczius of Temeswar, came with Forces and freed Nemethum of the siege, but not from the fire which the South Wind blew crosse the water to the other part of the Town. At the same time Zajus having carried away all the [Page 171] spoil and what was worth any thing set fire to Zacmar which neverthelesse defended it self a­gainst the Turks by the obstinacy of Balassi shut up therein; whose Brother Iohn com­ing to his releif with a Thousand Men, Hasanes Beg so suddenly routed, as putting his hopes of carrying the Town in this Exploit, that of the one side it would have been judged there were no other than Beasts, as on the other side none but Men. Not to passe by the Insolence of Arslanes Governour of Posega in Illyria for the Turks, Arslanes defeated by Count Se­rini. who having plundred all about Mono­zlone, had now pitch'd his silk and Golden Tents under the soft murmur of the Confluents, & as if the Enemy were to be Vanquished by his plea­sures, was now diverting himself in all manner of Luxury, when Serini a [...]d Tahi fell upon him, and without any difficulty took his Tent furnished rather for Entertainment than Fight, and divided it among their Souldiers.

So that this civil Conflagration, and the in­termedling of the Turks, had already ruined the People; in the Feilds was vastitude, in the Camp want and penury,The cala­mitous con­dition of Transyl­vania and Hungary. and the minds of men by their habitude to War, brutalized and trans­formed into Savage Principles. A Peace therefore as the only and last remedy to this pe­rishing State, was procured by Busbequius, at the rate of the yearly Tribute of Thirty thou­sand pound: while Ferdinand caused his Son Maximilian to be Crowned King of Bohe­mia, and Elected Emperour, to confirm that [Page 172] Dignity in his Family, as he did of Hungary likewise; the vanity of which Solemnity Ibrahim Solyman's Ambassador beheld and derided, as a Prince Vassaliz'd and engaged to his Master and deprived of so much of his Dominions,1562. although the Pomp was no way equal to the for­mer Triumphs on that occasion. At this In­augauration the Hungarians were highly dis­contented that a Palatine was not first Created according to Custome, a [...]d that the Germans were not dismissed out of the Kingdome▪ but in vain: as was also the neer Conclusion of a Peace by the Embassy of Stephen Bathori from Iohn to Ferdinand, the young man being perswaded by bad Council,The death of Ferdi­nand. to continue the War in Tran­sylvania, the issue whereof was very unprospe­rous. And now died Ferdinand of a Consum­ptive Feaver. A Prince of a very singular Mo­desty, Justice, and tendernesse, having rescin­ded all the Edicts of Charles the fifth, a­gainst the Protestants, and decreed to them Li­berty of Conscience. His unhappinesse in war was rather imputable to the vast Power of his Enemies and the inconstancy of his own Sub­jects, than his own insufficiencies, the lesse ob­servable, from the vertues and Imperial Endow­ments of his Son and Successour Maximilian in his Kingdomes and the German Empire,Maximili­an succeeds in the Kingdome to his Father Ferdinand which he adorned with his Justice and constant tenour of life as much as any of his Predeces­sors in that Dignity.

Nor was he lesse studious of the Peace and [Page 173] Tranquility of his Realms, agreeing to the con­tinuation of it at the instance of Sabanus the Envoy of Solyman intent upon another War; but Iohn disturbed this serenity by his Arms in Transylvania, Stephen Bathori alluring the Zac­marians to his side, while he himself recovered Hadad, Bathor, and St. Martin and forced other places to Condition for a Truce of sixty dayes, as Zayus and Balassius being too weak to encounter him were mustering at Cassovia, where they had been surprized and Supprest by Iohn, 1564. but for a storm of rain which hindred any possibility of marching, and sunk his Carriages. Maximilian being informed of his Power,Maximili­an's Suc­cesses in Transyl­vania. dispatcht away Lazrus Suendius and Andrew Bathori to oppose him, Valuing the Reputati­on of his first Enterprize as of great moment to his future Actions: And at the same time sent Ambassadors with presents to Solyman. Su­endius by the advantage of the Ice,1565. took Toacky surrounded like a Peninsula, by the Confluence of the Tybiscus and Bodrogh; Sacmar submit­ted it self as Erdoedium yeilded; the like did Szerenczium, and Rivulinum to Balassius, for that no releif was to be had from the Turks, Solyman being engaged by Sea at the Seige of Malta, with a Fleet of 205 Sail. In fine by the humble Instances of Bathori Somlianus and Nisovius, Suendius, was intreated to a Peace, but with very hard Conditions. Iohn to con­tent himself with the County of Bihor, and to quit his pretences to the Regal Title, and [Page 174] to yeild Munkacksum and Marmorussa. In Sclavonia, A Peace concluded between John and Maximili­an. Mustapha the Bassa of Bosnia, having taken Crupa in sight, and to the ignominy of Auspurgerus, who dared not to Encounter him, proceeded and stormed Novia, and was thence prosecuting his Fortune with Fifteen thousand Men, when Petrus Erdaedius but with Fifteen hundred so lustily accosted him, that he put him to the Rout, and slew the Turks like so many sheep.

Nor did the Peace in Hungary stand firm and inviolable, for Hidajetes a new Envoy or Chiaux Solyman, had demanded Tockay to be restored to Iohn, by which encouragement Bekessius and George Bebecus (the Son of him that was put to death by Isabel, New trou­bles in Transyl­vania by the Turks. who flying to Ferdinand was intercepted by the Turks, and begged of Solyman by Iohn, whom as his Be­nefactour he was obliged to serve) confer Counsels and contrive a War; so that the Con­clusion made between Suendius, Somlianus, and Cracsianerus of Poland (who negotiated the ac­comodation by his Kings order) although rati­fied, took not its Effect: Somlianus (for his prevarication with Iohn) in that Treaty, being committed to Custody. The War being com­menced, the Bassa of Buda, and Hasan Beg of Fueleck, assisted the Transylvanian, who recovered Ieneon, Desvium, Vilagosvarum, Pancota, and lastly, after a difficult siege, the strong Town of Zacmar; upon the Surrender whereof, Hasanes enraged for the losse of [Page 175] Curtus his Major slain during the Seige, com­manded the Garrison to be put the Sword, af­ter Articles of Life and Liberty. Swendius although equal to the Enemy yet delayed en­gagement, proffered by Hasanes, knowing a new Treaty was managed at Vienna, which new stated the Agreement,Composed again. viz. Iohn to have all places taken from him restored, and to be honoured with some present from the Empe­rour.

But Caesar forbearing the the restitution of Tockay, and lingering in other points to be per­formed on his part,Solymans last Expe­dition into Hungary. Solyman now 80 years old, undertook his last Expedition into Hun­gary, and when disswaded thereto by Albert Vicius, and Hoszutothius, Maximilian's Am­bassadors,1566. alleadging there was no mischief in­tended by their Masters delay, he answered in a juvenile heat, That the End of his Life was measured out to him, not by his length of Years, but the Extent of Dominion. He was now arrived at Belgrade (where the news of the Defeat of Arslanes and his dislodge­ment from the Siege of Palotta by Thurn, met him) and there gave reception to Iohn Sigismund, having fetcht him from the other side of the Danow in his own Barge, and pre­sented him with a stately Horse, richly set out, on which he was brought through his Guard of Ianizaries to his own person;His enter­view with John Si­gismund. Sigismund him­self had the Honour of his right hand joyned with his, the rest of his Train kissed Soly­man's [Page 176] knee or the hem of his Vest. After some discourse and thanks rendred for his many Kindnesses, and his Aid and assistance anew im­plored against the Germans, he drew out a Pe­titionary paper containing the Oath that Soly­man had took concerning the redelivery of Bu­da, John re­quests Bu­da to be delivered to him but in vain. betwixt hope and fear of what would en­sue such an Addresse. But such was the gene­rous freedome and clearnesse of Solyman's na­ture, that to rid him of the anxiety he present­ly Commanded his Vizier Mahomet to con­forme in all things with the desire and request of his Beneficiary. But Mahomet taxing the Ingratitude of Iohn, upbraiding him with his own tendernesse, as having been more a Father to him than Solyman, and taking it in scorn that he should keep equal State with him before Company, so wrought upon Solyman by setting before him how many Musselmens lives his Quarrel and that Place had cost him; and that it was against the Law of Mahomet to yeild it to the Christians; that not onely the City was not rendred to him, but he dismist with a prohibition of any further speech or sight of the Grand Seigniour. At the same time Portau Bassa took Gyula which Ladislaus Kereczsenius for a while resolutely Defended; but being cor­rupted by the Enemy against the advice and intimation given him of the necessity of the Turks departure,Gyula be­trayed to the Turks by the Go­vernour Kerecse­nius. by Stephen Bathori, delivered it upon terms, which the perfidious Enemy ob­served not, how ever by the favour of the [Page] [Page] [Page 177] Night, and the Reeds growing thereabouts, some few escaped. He himself, as a just reward for his Treason, was by the Command of the Sultan, rolled down a Hill in a Barrel stuck full with Nails.

Whose first attaque was upon the Town of Sigeth, Count Ni­cholas Se­rini besieg­ed in Si­geth. wherein was Governour Count Nicho­las Serini, with Two thousand five hundred Men; an incompetent number to the Defence of the place, which diverted the storm from Agria (at a Town neer to which called Soklos the Bassa of Bosnia had been slain) upon it self. All Military Experiments were practised in this Seige, the continual discharge of the Cannons so rarefying the Air,1566. that the noyse of the Leagure was heard as far as Canisa. Aly Portau the General of the Ordinance doing the part of a valourous and skilful Commander, as well by diverting the Course of the River, as bringing his Men in person to the breaches. Nor was Serini lesse active and Couragious filling the Grafts with the slaughtered Carcas­ses of the Enemy; from the shame whereof a­rose Indignation and resentment of their losse,Solyman in the 47. year of his Reign dieth at Quinque Ecclesiae three dayes before the surrender of Sigeth. by which both Towns the old and the new were taken and Sacked. Aly Portau surviving not that Effort, committed the prosecution of the Castle to Seysedin Bassa now destitute of provision and wanting men the few Defendants being tired out with constant duty. Three dayes before the Castle fell into the hands of the Turk died Solyman, labouring with an anxious [Page 178] Expectation of its reduction, and wearied with old Age, made more irksome by a pain in his Leg and accelerated by the Flux. His Death was concealed by the Policy of Mah [...]met, un­til Selym his Son should be seated in the Impe­rial Throne, and several menacing Edicts fain­edly given out to make the Turks desperate in the next Assault; when Serini being disabled to hold out longer, opening the Gates and en­couraging his Souldiers to die with him (ha­ving put on a rich Sute with a Hundred peices of Gold in his Pocket, the reward of him that should kill him) sallyed out with fury upon the Enemy,Zigeth ta­ken. and died nobly revenged in the midst of them,The Death of the No­ble Count Serini. having slain during the Siege no lesse than Twenty some say Thirty thousand men. The Head of this Famous person, was made a publique spectacle one whole day; and the next by Mustapha Bassa of Buda sent to the Count of Salms, and interred at Csaktornya, but by the Imperial Army in veneration of his great and admirable Actions solemnly attended to Abdua, and there deposited.

The said Army, consisting with the aydes of the Empire, of 25 Thousand Horse, and 80 Thousand Foot, paid chiefly with the money of Pope Pius the 5th. lay encamped about Raab (where a sad Fire happened about this time) not offering to stir to the relief of Sigeth, John Si­gismund aided with an Army of Tartars. nor to the suppression of Iohn Sigismond who aided with a great body of Tartars (his own Army amount­ing to 15000 men) had ruined the Ter [...]itories [Page 179] of Patach Munkacks, and Bereckshez, sparing neither age nor Sex. Tockay was defended against him by the valour of Iacob Ranuger, and Matthias Calvasius; the same Tartars conti­nued this their ravage of both sides the Tibiscus to the County of Bodroch and Samosch, intend­ing the like upon [...]ihor, to such a desolation of the Country,Their cruel rapine makes him engage and vanquish them. that Iohn afflicted with the sight of it, when he could neither regain the Cap­tives nor perswade them to desist their cruelty, near to Debreczinum gave them battel, and victoriously freed his people of these Locusts and Destroyers; as, while Maximilian retired to Vienna having fortified Canisa, and there­after disbanded his Army, Mahomet took in Babozza, and with the honour of the Campania retired to Belgrade, having met Selymus, in his return, at Valkovar, who followed his Fathers Corps (meanly attended in sign of humane frailty) to Constantinople, where it was interred in a most magnificent Mosque built by himself in his life time.

The War in Transylvania was yet maintained betwixt Maximilian and Iohn by their Generals Swendius, and Bebecus, who being inferiour in strength to Swendius thought by pretences of his Revolt to the Emperour to gain time, but the sagacity of Swendius disappointed his Plot, several Towns being taken from Iohn by Seige during this Intrigue which we may not here enumerate; Iohn therefore joyned his Army with Hasan Bassa of Temeswar, who turned [Page 180] the Scale of fortune and retook as many places, but in the midst of this successefull progesse he was violently afflicted with an arthritical distem­per,Various success [...]s in Tran [...]yl­vania. which like a Civil war in his Microcosme imperseded his bent to the prosecution of his Quarrel: nor did Hasan at his departure meet with better luck at his arrival at Dedesla, in the plunder whereof, his powder took fire and blew up 400 Turks into the Air: by this means all parties were willing to a composure, which Caesar (the equallest esteemer of fortune, as preferring the commendation of his humanity, before the pleasure of revenge) had by his Ambassadors Veranczius and Tieffenbach effected at the Port, Selym being intent upon the Con­quest of Cyprus.

It was now the year 1567. when this out­ward peace was blemished with a foul and most nefarious design against the life of Max [...]milian, Sig [...]s­munds soul Practises. with the seizure of Hungary, by Dobo and Ba­lassius (men highly obliged to him, and who had done him also many signal services) at the instigation of Iohn Sigismund but motioned to them by George Boscay. 1567. It was discovered by George Rakoczi, and Ruberus by the divine pe­culiar protection of Kings: of this Treason they were both by a publick Solemn Tryal convicted and left to the disposall of Caesar, who (although Bal [...]ssius broke prison and incited the Turks to new troubles, adding wickednesse to wicked­nesse) pardoned them both with admirable clemency. So that neither way of open War, [Page 181] nor close Treachery advantaging Iohn, he ran into an extreme hardly suppo [...]able, clapping up an offensive and defensive league against the Turk, and to be managed as Caesar should upon occasion direct, thereby renouncing to the friend­ship protection and favour he had received all along from the Ottoman Family,1570. which caused divers discourses and reflections upon him, (but to be a Christian or not a Christian is of no concernment to the Law of Nations) although Maximilian at the same time being urged by the Venetians and the Pope to joyn with them in their league a while before the battel of Le­panto (when the Turk lost 250 Sail of Ships and Galleys, and 25000 men, Vluzales dexterously escaping with 30, and afterwards by his Fabian delayes, restored their naval power) most religiously refused.

By this Peace it was concluded that Iohn should enjoy with the Title of most Serene Prince of Transylvania, The Peace betwixt Maximi­lian and Sigis­mund. the Provinces of Bihor, Carasna, Marmarosse, and the exteriour Szolnoc, to have the same friends and enemies with Cae­sar, Selymus to be held in amity, and this Treaty to be concealed; but if it should happen that Iohn should be expelled by the Turks out of Transylvania, he should then be invested in Opulia; all former differences to be put in Oblivion and himself to be under the Clientele of Maximilian.

With the confirmation hereof Bekessius was sent to the Emperour, where understanding by [Page 182] Blaudrata that Iohn could not live long, he designed the Government to himself, delaying the ratification by pretences of his indisposition and grief (and thereby his incapacity) for the languishing condition of his Prince; who being a Batchelor, and disappointed of the marriage of Ioan Daughter of Albert of Bavaria, added that grief to his other distempers; which having horribly tortured him 54 dayes together brought him to his death at Georgyen, The death of Sigis­mund. and was the last accumulation of the ruines of this Family. A man of a sharp and quick spirit, but infected with the Company of sordid and base people of both Sexes,1571. and thereby prone to all vices, but of all those his contempt of Religion, was the greatest and most noto­rious.

By his death Bekessius took courage to pursue his ambitious designs,Bekessius his ambi­tious de­signes upon the succes­sion, but conferred on Stephen Bathori. relying on the Turk, and his interest in the Souldiery, but Selymus with the good liking of Caesar also, having preferred Stephen Bathori, a man famous both for war and peace to that Principality; Bekessius mad with rage and shame, that he should be deceived in the opinion he cherished of the Souldiery (which he had boasted abroad) who concurred with Fortune against him, posted to Fogarasse and there laid up and secured Iohn's Treasure, endevouring all wayes and means to raise Ene­mies against Stephen; but the troubles of Mol­lavia by another change of their Vayvods defer­red the publick eruption of the intended hosti­lity [Page 183] in which interval happened this Phanatick Story.

One Gregory Carachondius of Rivulinum, 1572. Sirnamed Black from the event of his exploit, under the specious vail of sanctity and pretence of revelations had inveigled the vulgar in the head that God would by him expell the Turk out of Hungary, A Phana­tick story in Hungary. hereupon having collected a rabble of 5000 men, (who admired him not on­ly for his spirit of Prophesie, but his strength of Arm, by which he would streighten a Horse­shooe) he marched to the Seige of Miklosum, where he said it was revealed him that either the Walls would fall down of themselves, or the Turks be b [...]rnt by Fire from heaven, which the Turks counterfeiting by setting Fire to bun­dles of straw and reeds about the Castle, these mad Fellowes took it for fulfilling of his prae­diction, but when they perceived near at hand, that the Walls and Castle stood, they drew off very melancholly, and were in that mood set upon by Sazvares Governour of Szolnoc and miserably slaughtered: notwithstanding their Captain would not desist, but pretending this losse to have happened for their sins, he laid Seige to Zolnoc, where he was disappointed in the same manner; from thence to Debreczinum where for contempt of his authority, he com­manded the Mayor to be hanged, but a Tumult preventing the Execution, he was taken by the multitude and his Head chopt off, and shewed for a spectacle of whimsicall ambition. Yet was [Page 184] even this wild fellowes death (such the madnesse of the infected herd) endevoured to be revenged though after a short politique connivence sup­pressed by Nicholas Bathori.

The like Scene almost was acted in Illyria by the Boors there,1574. who rebelled against the Nobility and Gentry,The same acted in Illyria. who had held them indeed in very hard servitude; their number was Ten Thousand, who proclaimed one Matthew Geu­becz for the King, and unmercifully handled their former Masters, tearing like Dogs those that resisted them. But 800 men easily routed them. And their K. being taken, had his flesh pulled off with burning Pincers, and a red hot Iron Crown put upon his head, expiating by that regall em­bleme his affront to the Regall Dignity.

Maximilian was now intent upon gaining the good will and favour of the Estates towards the settling his Family in the Supreme Power,The seeds of new troubles in Hungary. having in his own sight caused his Son Rudolph to be crowned King at Presburgh, notwithstanding that the Burghers generally grudged that the Ger­mans were not removed out of the Kingdome, nor a Palatine created according to custome, besides that their liberties were infringed, &c. which inflamed at last into Tumults and uproars.

Nor was Stephen Bathori's Government quiet or composed,As also in Transyl­vania. for Bekessius neither reducible by his menacing edicts, nor the intreaties and per­swasions of the Nobility, was now beseiged in Fogarasse, which being ill manned, he privately [Page 185] upon a swift Asian horse escaped to Caesar, the Castle was after delivered by Paul Giula after­wards Secretary to Stephen, and with it all the Treasure Bekessius had hoarded,Bekessius ruined. Fortune and Prudence deserting him together, for while he coveted Titles beyond his reach, he lost an ample estate, in his power to have preserved it.

Amurath the 3d. Succeeded Selymus in the Ottoman Throne, having seen five of his Bro­thers strangled in his presence, but more hu­manely inclined to a Peace with Christendom, as being by Dream admonished to a War a­gainst the Heretique Persians. This Tranqui­lity stirs in Poland succeeded; for Charles the ninth of France, dying, his Brother Henry newly made King of Poland, Affairs of Poland re­lating to Hungary. withdrew sud­denly thence, and left the Poles in an Inter­regnum and vacancy, as after they decreed at Warsaw, but could not agree about the Succes­sour. The Competitors were Caesar, Iohn of Sweden, and Ivan Vasilowich Duke of Mosco, for as yet Stephen Bathori minded not the mat­ter, thinking it above his reach; but Samuel Sborovius then in Exile in Transylvania, for the slaughter of Vapovius Castellan of Primislaw, having every where proclaimed the worth of the person, drew Peter Sborovius then Palatine of Cracovia, to his opinion; Stephen by their Counsel therefore put in his Name and stood for the Election, by an unusual felicity being in a short time a Baron, Prince, and King. Nor [Page 186] was he unworthy of his Advancement. To detain him in Transylvania, Caesar Commi­ssioned Bekessius to attempt it, who came with such sudden secrecy as far as Radnot, that Ba­thori knew not of an Enemy, although in the middle of his Principality, and had been easi­ly Conquered if Bekessius had not lost by de­layes what he had gained by his good speed; for while he argued with Bathori about Arti­cles of a new Agreement, the form where of Bathori, Bathor [...]'s Successes. thus surprized, desired to be mended and mitigated onely, he called in Mahomet the Governour of Lippa with his Forces to his Assistance, with which Couragiously he Van­quished Bekessius. The Hungarian Prisoners he released freely, but his Transylvanian Re­bels were thralled to the Turks. 1575. Such the Calamity of Victory, even when it favours good men, whose natural Clemency it perverts by its Revenge.

Bathori departing for Poland, quitted Tran­sylvania to his Brother Christopher, Elected K. of Poland His Gene­rosity to Bekessius. having Married neer this time with Anne the Daugh­ter of Sigismund Augustus his late Predeces­sour in that Kingdome, whither Bekessius (fled from his Discomfiture to Scepusium) with an admired Confidence soon after followed, and in a prostrate manner addressed himself to the King, whose Generosity not only forgave him, the most implacable of all his Enemies, but preferred him to the Command of the Hun­garian Forces then serving him against the [Page 187] Dantzickers quarrelling for their Priviledges, and the Muscovites, against both whom he was very successful, driving the last of the two out of Livonia. In the mean time a Quarrel and rupture happened betwixt the Turks and the Emperour about certain Prisoners taken by a Stratagem of Balassi, in revenge whereof, Aly Beg of Alba, A new Rup­ture with the Turks. seized several Towns be­longing to Balassi; and though Istuanfi the Emperors Agent would have perswaded the Bassa of Buda that the League was still in force and those particular actions not to be construed as a breach thereof, yet the Turks prone to a new War, Invaded Illyria and brought a great Cala­mity upon it, Defeating Auspergerus the Empe­rour's General with all his Army neer Radonia, and after took in and burnt Businium Czasi­um, Suacicium, and Szrinyum, as he had be­fore seized Topusca, Bonitium, and all the pla­ces between the Rivers of Colapis, Dobra, and Meresnicia.

This Year 1576. Died Maximilian the Emperour,The Death of Maxi­milian. worthily renowned to Posterity for his Moderation and Justice, to whose Supreme Greatness, nothing was wanting but Fortune. Al­though he was very constant to the Religion of his Ancestors, yet was he not therefore se­vere to the Protestants, as requiring Piety onely: That Speech of his to the Bishop of Olomucza leing very memorable, That Chri­stian Religion teacheth rather to suffer killing, than to kill; and that it is a grievous Impi­ety [Page 188] to lord it over mens Consciences, which is the same insolence as to Invade Heaven.

RUDOLPHUS the second of that Name Emperour,Rudol­phus the second suc­ceeds his Father Maximili­an. Succeeded his Father to a trouble­some and more unquiet Government; for the Turks playing fast and loose with the late Trea­ty of Peace, had made an Irruption into Scla­vonia, and taken Gonsdansc in Sclavonia, and spoyled their silver Mines, and had opened a way for their Excursions into Carniola. To stop which danger lest his patience might em­bolden the Enemy, Rudolphus dispatcht away his Uncle Charles to that Government (as he did delegate his Brother Ernestus to the Care of Hungary) while he intended some respite from businesse in Bohemia. 1579. This Viceroyship the Hungarians highly stomached, requiring their Election of a Palatine, and their Lawes, and inveighing against the intrusion of this new Example. Charles being arrived in Illyria, quietly reduced all the places taken three years before by Ferhates of Bosnia, and founded Carolostad in memory of his Victorys; the like Successe had Battyani against Aly Beg of Sygeth, who designing to disturbe his Fortifi­cations at Barcai in the very nick of the At­chievement of his Design, was by the Policy of Battyani encouraging his flying Souldiers with the shout of The Enemy runs, wrested out of a compleat Triumph and made a Sacri­fice to the Vindictive Sword. The same E­vent attended Scanderbeg the Son of the Fa­mous [Page 189] Ulumas Governour of Posega, by whose overthrow Illyria was reduced in a manner to Rudolphus.

And as if Fate had treasured up her wrath against the Turk for this time, Sasvares the Sanjack of Szolnoc, thinking to have trapt Colonitz and Bathori, was caught himself; for having surrounded the Christians and opprest them with Multitudes, even to desperation of any escape, just as they were yeilding to the Sword of the Enemy, came in to their rescue Rajbicius sent from Andrew Barbelius the Go­vernour of Agria, who flanking the Turks with his Musqueteers hem'd in Three hundred of them and slew them,The Turks vanquished and took Prisoners Four hundred more, with thirteen Ensigns; which indignity Sasvares proudly resenting as Dishonourable for a Musselman to be beaten by a Christian, revengefully burnt and levelled several Towns,1583. and with a full prey was return­ing home when Serinus and Raibicius gave him the second Course of the same Entertain­ment, He himself stript of his Vainglorious humour disguised in a Horse-rubbers habit hard­ly escaping to Tybiscus.

The news of this overthrow was soon carri­ed to Constantinople, whereat Sinan Bassa the Prime Vizier, was transported into a most violent rage, encreased by another defeat gi­ven to Ferhates Bassa of Bosnia, who with Nine thousand Men Invading Carniola, had been pitifully overthrown by the Count of [Page 182] [...] [Page 183] [...] [Page 184] [...] [Page 185] [...] [Page 186] [...] [Page 187] [...] [Page 188] [...] [Page 189] [...] [Page 190] Thurn & Erdoedius falling on his Reer, and with the losse of Four men,1584. killing Four thousand: But these objections at the Port (as being done by way of Reprizal and Defence, the Tucks being taken out of their bounds w [...]th Christian Booty) Paulus Eyzingarus and Henry Lich­tensteyn the Emperours Ambassadours so solved and satisfied, that Amurath declared that they suffered in their own wrong, nor would he support them therein, to the disturbance of the Peace.

Soon after dyed Christopher Bathori Prince of Transylvania, who had enjoyed his Govern­ment the quiettest of all his Predecessors, leaving his young Son Sigismund to his Brother Stephen, who committed him to the Tuition of three Noblemen, but they rivalling the power thereof to the detriment of the publique good, the Governance of the Prince was conferred upon Iohn Geczi the Provost of Varadin, 1585. a person eminent for his wisdome and integrity of life: at which time an Epidemicall Disease raged gradually through all the Parts of Europe, and in the month of September infested Germa­ny and Hungary, Prodigies in Hunga­ry. it was called the Morbus Ver­vecinus, for that like sheep, the diseased were seized with a Cold and a Cough, there were also several Earthquakes at Presburgh, Vienna, and Zagrabia. At Bihigium in Chroatia in the middle of the night, a multitude of Ducks and Geese fought in the air,1586. and next morning some Thousands of them were found slain with mu­tuall [Page 191] wounds upon the grounds, affording plen­ty of good chear to the Inhabitants.

These portents signified the frequency of military actions; Hasan Governour of Sigeth depopulated all that hitherto untouch'd plat of Territory,Frequent Military actions in Hungary. lying between the river Mura and Dravus, and through the easie pursuit of Count Serinus escaped with a great Booty over the Arrhabon to his Garrison. Palfi requited this by counter-designing against Isaac of Alba, whom missing in the dark, by day break he found and put to the rout. Nadasdi, Speciacassus, Hussarus, and others took Coppanum from the Turks, and puft up with the fortune of the atchievement would needs beseige Bnda, driv­ing the Cattell away from about the Town, but Ferhates now Bassa of Buda, so repayed their arrogance, that with the Losse of 22 Ensignes, they fled for their lives.

But a greater war impended out of Poland, 1586. Stephen Bathori being deceased,Affairs in Poland. Decemb. 2. Anno Reg­ni 10. equally lament­ed by the Poles and Transylvanians; for the Sborovian Faction, whom Stephen for their Crimes had depressed, (although his Raisers) had deprived Iohn Samoiscius (who had married Grisel the Kinswoman of Stephen) of his Chan­cellorship in that Kingdome. At the next diet there appeared these Competitors, Piestas, one of the Nobles, Theodor Duke of Musco, Maximilian the Brother of Caesar, Sigismund Son of Iohn the third King of Sweden, and the son of the Tartar Cham, who pretended his pow­er [Page 192] and sufficiency of Defending Poland, his fru­gality and Continence; as to Religion, their Pope should be his Pope, their Luther his Lu­ther. In fine, Sigismund by the endevour and Interest of Samoyscius carried it from them all, the Sborovians labouring for Maximilian, the Lithuanians contrarily proposing the decision might be by Lot; but the Sborovians would by no means consent to it. In the mean while Zamoyschus aided by Iohn Geczi out of Tran­sylvania took Cracovia and therein the Regalia; Maximili­an, Ru­dolph's Brother ta­ken prisoner and civilly treated by Samoysci­us the Chan­cellour of Poland. and lighting upon Maximilian at Clepardia, with the slaughter of a Thousand, and three hun­dred prisoners, made him run to Bicini, where being in vain perswaded to a safer re­fuge he was besieged and taken and Custoded in Rodlone; his Brother a most unactive Prince regarding neither his Honour nor the danger. The Pope was therefore intreated to take the Cause into his hands by his Nuncio Aldobran­dinus afterwards Clement the eighth, who so ma­naged the businesse, that Maximilian for his Liberty with the further ransome of fourty thou­sand Dollars, quitted his pretences to that Crown, to which by the vanity of Sborovius and Stanislans, he had been a year so fondly wedded.

To return to Sazvares the busie Governour of Zigeth, 1587. now upon another Excursion be­tween the Rivers Mur and Cernicia, where he ravaged with such insolence, that his Officers suspecting his Interception by some Ambush [Page 193] or Engagement, advised him to some private way of retreat, which he resecting and vapour­ing that he would Face Serini before his Gar­rison of Canysa, was encompassed at Pauli­num by the conjoyned Forces of Nadasdi Trautmansdorff, Battyani, and Serini, and there with the slaughter of Two thousand, and as many Prisoners put to flight, he himself difficulty escaping, and respiting a Death by the honour of the Sword to a glasse of Poyson,S [...]svares defeated, poysons himself. which to prevent Strangling at Constantinople, he took in his way thither, as he was Command­ed by the Grand Seigniour. The same Fate besel Ferhates Bassa of Buda, who having rais­ed the Contribution of the County to excessive rates, thereby to satisfie his Rapine, and over and above to bribe out his oppression, which the poor Peasants were unable to pay, was in his forcible levying of it (though accompany­ed with Twelve thousand men) totally routed by Two thousand five hundred Hungarians, un­der the Command of Sigismund Racockzi, Stephen Homonai and other,Fe [...]hates Bassa De­feated by Racockzi. between Hernad and Barsonyos, Two thousand killed and Four hundred taken, with the losse of Six hundred. This Defeat cost Ferhates his Life, the just price of his too eager Covetousnesse, as the Victory ascribed to the Hungarians was parti­cularly referred to those Liberties and Privi­ledges they lately enjoyed by the Concession of Rudolph at a late diet sometime before held in Presburgh.

[Page 194] But these were but pastime velitations and praeludia to the open War which ensued, [...]or Sinan & Osman Bassa having after many ill suc­cesses and losses especially in the late fight at Masul in Persia, 1590. Concluded a Peace with Mahomet Hodaband the King thereof, sought to peice up in the West what was diminished from their Empire in the East, by transferring the War into Europe, on which Sinan was so resolutely bent, that to remove all opposition, he caused the Mufti zealously inclined against the Persian, to be poysoned ata Banquet; and Hasanes of Bosnia was ordered to seek an occa­sion of the Rupture, which he expiated with his own life.Military Actions in Illyria by the rupture begun by Bassa Hasanes. The Dance was begun by him in Illyria, where between Czisium and Ivanicia, he committed terrible spoil, and took-several Towns; but upon his retreat to Gradisca, La­bohatius, and Michael Szekely, set upon a Re­giment newly passed the River Colapis, and cut it off in the view of Hasanes, who durst not make to their relief. In the same havocking manner, Hasanes surnamed the Little, the Governour of Sigeth, took Kiskamaromum by a sudden scalado, while the Other mad with Revenge, and assisted by Rustan and Erdeogli, encamping near Colapis, took Ranovicia and Gara, and founded Petrinia by a River of that name, which he afterwards finished. He storm­ed Siscia, but was beaten off by the Valour of N [...]cholas Micacius, who incensed him yet fur­ther by a Stratagem, for pretending a rendition [Page 195] of the Town, he received by Articles Five hundred Turks who were to take possession, all of whom he put to the Sword. All these out­rages did Erdoedius the Emperours Governour, bear with till now, when taking Arms he re­duced Monozlone, and hence occasion was ta­ken by the Turks to declare a War.

For Amurath being of himself sufficiently exasperated, was more enflamed by Sinan, and therefore Commands were sent away to Ha­sanes to provide that the Grand Seigniours Pro­vinces received no damage, and if any were offered, to revenge it; hereupon he besieged and tookThe place where the Prodigy of the Ducks and Geese lately hap­pened. Bihigi [...]m, and by private wayes making towards Erdoedius, surprized him, in his expe­ctation of supply and assistance, with his Camp and Great Guns. This losse Charles the Uncle of Rudolph, the next Governour no way re­medied, things growing worse and worse every day in that Province, no lesse then Five thou­sand Christians being trodden down & surcharg­ed by numbers neer Petrinia; Sciscia was the second and third time attempted by Hasanes, such his thirst of Revenge and the arrogance of his mind, with a battery of 24 Great Guns. When Fortune changed her Countenance,The Ex­ploits of Hasanes for although the abundance of Rain that fell of a sudden saved him the first of these times from an Engagement by Palfi and Nadasdi, 1592. which was attributed to his Conduct, yet the next bout he escaped not so, for having newly passed Co­lapis and arrived at Selinum, Erdoedius with [Page 196] other of the Nobility, and 8000 Men, fell Couragiously on him and shamefully Vanquish­ed him, 12000 Turks being slain (so that Ordera and Colapis were discoloured with Blood) a­mong whom was Mahomet the [...]on of a Sister of Amuraths (whose Death at her solicitation did not a little put forward the intended Expe­dition) many Spahi, Hasanes rowed and drowned, 12000 Tur [...]s slain Officers, and men of Note. Hasan himself thinking to have esca­ped over the Bridge, already thronged with the flying remains, was with some of his vali­entest Souldiers forced off the Bridge into the River and there drowned. The Camp and rich Tents with all the Great Guns, Bag and Baggage came intirely into the Conquerours hands. So God arose in the Revenge of this perfideousnesse, being most wise to know, most equal to discern, and most just to punish. Petri­nia had been at the same time demolished by Erdoedius, but that his Collegue having a long­ing eye upon a Peace, diswaded him.

Amurath the more incensed by Sinan and his Sister, swore by God and Mahomet, he would be revenged, and thereupon denounced War against the Emperour, who first depreca­ted the same by his Oratour Poppelius whom with Presents he dispatched to the Port, al­leadging that Invaders are justly punishable; but he perceiving the Turks bent, openly decla­red, that if the War were brought upon his Master, the Perpetual Law of Nature had directed and principled Men to resist and [Page 197] repel Force and injury by any manner of De­fence. To which the matter being left, the money designed for the Tribute was staid at Vi­enna for better uses, as on the other side the Embassador was confined to a private house. The War thus opened; Hasan now Beglerbeg of Gree [...]e, dislodged Serini and Ekenperg obsti­nately bent upon the reduction of Petrinia, and by his peculiar fortune took the often mentio­ned Siscia, the besieged being in no hope of relief.

Sinan being arrived in person, took Vespri­nium yeilded by Speciacassius sor want of water, amidst so many Springs, but possessed by the E­nemy: as Palotta by the fear of Ornandius was rendred to him likewise. To obviate his fur­ther progresse Count Palfi, Serini, and Count Hardeck with 10000 Foot and 1000 Horse of Veterane Soldiers made up instantly to 40000. by the Confluence of Voluntiers from all the Towns hastned to engage him,Sinan Bassa arrives in Hungary. but he retreating before them, and having stored his Garrisons, they set down before Alba Regalis, the outward Town whereof was taken from Isaac the Go­vernour, by the valour of Peter Hussar, but while for want of great Guns the Seige was protracted, Mehemet and Hasanes with 20000. select men came before the Town un­expectedly, and there made a stand: Mohemet in contempt of the Enemy, as of an undisci­plined and rude multitude, declaring, that they should have fair play for they Lives; but when [Page 198] both Armies came to be ranged in Battalia, they were so afraid of each others Aspect and Order, that they stood two hours gazing upon one another, without advancing a foot forward. At last Palfi vigorously began upon the Janiza­ries (to whose valour encouragement is given,Has [...]nes & Mehemet Bassa de­feated at Alba Re­galis. both by Provision in their youth, and happi­nesse hereafter if slain in Battel the only in­centive to great actions, as rewards and pen­sions are allowed to prolifick parents according to the number of their Sons, who succed like­wise to their pay and stipend when deceased, by which means there ariseth a Love of generation, and a vehement desire of dying) who so stifly maintained their Ground, that they covered it with their dead bodies rather then to flinch from it living Serinus and Hardeck did likewise so presse upon their Horse, that in fine, 4000 of them, with 6000. of their foot were slain upon the place. The news hereof being brought to Sinan he hasted away back to Constantinople, but the reason of his sudden Departure was not to be guessed at. Nor did Christopher Teiffen­bach, Bathori, and Homonnai lesse bestir themselves, prompted thereunto by Palfi, first re­ducing Sabaton by Rinia, then besieging Filek the Garrison whereof troubled with a new dis­ease of the Vertigo, at Palsi's approach yeilded themselves, as did ten strong places more, the last of which was Palanka: all of them with Ca [...]sar's fortune, he came, see, and overcame.

[Page 199] Matthias being made Governour of Hun­gary, 1594. at which time also to the Duke of Parma succeeded Ernestus in the Government of the Low Countries; Palfi and Hardeck to hold fortune by the Forehead, resolutely and secretly attempted Novigrad, Novigrad and other places re­duced by the Hun­garians & the Turks defeated. the Governour Mehe­neth seeing as soon as hearing of them, who notwithstanding manfully defended the place, till Matthias came into the Camp, to whom it was honourably rendred the 42. year after its revulsion from the Hungarian Crown. With the same Current of successe Serini recovered Bersencia, Segusdium in Illyria; and Tieffen­bach forced Iasbrynium, and besieged Hat­van, which Hasan of Buda attempting to re­lieve with ten thousand men, was there van­quished, and 25 Ensigns, with 17. great Guns left to the Victor.

But so speeded not Matthias, who with an Army of 50. thousand men besieged Strigoni­um, Strigoni­um in vain besieged by Matthias. for although he had intercepted their re­lief by the Danow, by the valour of Francis Balassius, and was by the Treason of the Thra­cian Soldiers, possessed of the old Town, as of the Mount of St. Thomas, by the fall of Caralibeg, and Isaac the Governours yet by a supply of 500. Janizaries, who by negligence of the guards slipt into the Town, and the news of the approach of Sinan the Vizier from Constantinople, he broke up his Siege; although Maximilian in Trial of his better fortune a­gainst the Turkish power in Illyria, had razed [Page 200] Petrinia, and had recovered Rastowitz, Gora, and Siscia.

Sinan followed with a 100 thousand Turks, Raab be­sieged and taken by Sinan Bassa. and 60 thousand Tartars, having reduced Tata and St. Martin, came and beleagured Raab, by the ancienter name called Iaurinum, go­verned by Count Hardeck, who gloried that such a singular opportunity was afforded him, wherein he might give proof of his Virtue: but these proved but magnificent words: for Perliny's Mounts being taken by the resolute Courage of the Enemy, wherein (for that Perlini was famous for fortification) the Gar­rison mainly confided, and Valentinus Torus his Bulwark subverted by mine; the Defendants who had no relyance now but upon Matthias, attending the Enemy neer at hand,The bold­nesse and Courage of the Tartars grew faint­hearted. In the interim Cazy General of the Tar­tars, swimming the river over against St. Vitus, was bravely received by Palfius on the other shore, supplied with fresh men by Mat­thias, who at the same instant gave notice to Hardeck to make a brisk Salley; He himself making so vigorous an impression upon Sinan's Camp, reduced now to the number of 60 thou­sand, that without doubt had not Palfi recei­ved a dangerous wound, and could have been assisted with some naval power, the Turks had been overthrown; but being thus disappointed, he drew off in some disorder to Ovarum, which Sinan made advantage of, and slew a number of his men in his passing his bridge laid over the [Page 201] Danow. Hereupon Hardeck and Perlinius not willing to wait two dayes longer for relief from Matthias, Co [...]nt Har­deck the Governour & Perlini beheaded at Vienna. delivered Raab, for which being seized, they were both condemned and be­headed at Vienna. There were found in this well stored City 150 Guns; of the Garrison 6000 were slain, and 3000 dismissed. There­after Sinan forced Papa, but from Commorra he was repulsed with a vast slaughter of his men,1595. in the opposite Isle of Czallok [...]es by the valour of Praunius and Starcitius, and obliged to rise thence by the fear of the approach of Mat­thias; notwithstanding at his return to Constan­tinople he boasted that he had reduced Caesar to the necessity of intreating a Peace.

Indeed the Emperour sent Stanislaus Pau­lovius, and Wenceslaus Berca his Embassadors to the King of Poland, requesting him to take Arms with him against the Enemy of the name of Christ; but Samoiscius the great Chancel­lor, and only Minister of State, put them off contemptuously, telling them that his King was in League with the Turks, and that Christ re­quired he should observe it: nor could they be ignorant what punishment both Divine and Humane attended the breach of the Law of Na­tions.1594. Novemb. Sigismund Bathori was more pliable. Geczi his Tutor was newly dead, leaving him at the age of 17. years under the protection of the Turks, (by which his Provinces had flou­rished in all Prosperity) and a full Exchequer, but his youthful mind transporting him to the [Page 202] desire of Martial Employment, restrained on­ly by his Faith given to Infidels, His Confes­sors perswaded him to send to Rome to Pope Vrban the Seventh for Satisfaction of his Con­science,Young Si­gismund the Prince of Tran­sylvania headily en­gages a­gainst the Turks. whether he were bound to pay them Tribute or no? when by the Jesuits Oracle, who are never without a new device to perplexe and interrupt the general Commerce of the World, he was easily solved and freed from all manner of Obligation. After this discharge or dispensation, to colour his taking up Arms, he objects against Sinan Bassa, his Pride, Arro­gance, and several injuries sustained from him by his people, and therewith summons a Diet or Assembly at Sebessum, where he opened his purpose, but the Estates generally dissenting, and objecting the just defeat of Vladislaus at Varna, though absolved by Pope Eugenius, and that if Glory were the incentive to the War, he should remove all impiety with which Glory could not consist: but if wealth was aimed at the Enemy was more potent, nor could it advantage any man when gained by infamy; He dissolved this Convention,His Decla­ration thereof to the estates; & their disallow­ance. and called another at Thorda, where he declared that he believed in the Roman Catholick Church, by which being set at liberty, he was ignorant how he could yet be obliged to his Conditions with the Turks; but perceiving the same party to be too potent here also, he withdrew his presence, and ha­ving packt up his rich moveables, and commit­ted the Administration to his Uncle Balthasar, [Page 203] withdrew out of the Principality with Iosica his Chancellor to Kuevara.

Transylvania streight multiplied into Divi­sion, for Sigismund protested he would renounce the Government unlesse the Turk were abando­ned by the Estates, bidding the people to follow some few factious persons, and see what would come of it; whereupon the vulgar in a rage, by a brute instinct readily complied with this Princes will, none daring so much as to mutter against it, and sent away Gabriel Kendi with two other Nobles to bring him back to Claudia­nopolis, where by the instigation of Stephen Bockskay Governour of Varadin, and Gasper Cornissius Governour of Marmorusse, His cruel proceedings with the refractory Nobility. he was highly incensed against the chief of the refracto­ry Noblemen, whose blood he thirsted and li­berally shed. Their Names were Stephen La­zar, and Michael Kalmandi, Captains of his Guard, Alexander one of his former Tutors, and Prince of the Senate, Gabriel Kendi, Iohn Ifju, Gregory Barnomiza, the Son of him who was so renowned for his Service at Agria, and Iohn Forro the heads and Ornaments of the Kingdome, all of them (such the rash fury and cruelty of Sigism [...]nd) of a sudden, and without any Tryal or Cause shown, beheaded in the Market place of the said City. They all suffered with exemplary Constancy, ra­ther gratulating then grudging at their fortune, not a word coming from, though reproached by Sigismund as they went to execution, in any [Page 196] [...] [Page 197] [...] [Page 198] [...] [Page 199] [...] [Page 200] [...] [Page 201] [...] [Page 202] [...] [Page 203] [...] [Page 204] unseemly regestion or Complaint. Not long after to satisfie his blood thirstinesse,Strangles his own Uncle Bal­thasor with others. his own Uncle Balthasor Bathori, Lupus Kovasoczi, once his Tutor, Francis Kendi, and Iohn Bor­namisza, were strangled at Gyula, whose large and inestimable Revenues he seized to himself; Lonyas, Salanczi, Szylvasi, Gerendi, obtain­ed pardon for the same fault. Sigismund boa­sted of this cruel fact as his Justice, and while all other men trembled at the sight of it, he with a dire Countenance unmoved beheld their Tragedies.

This perpetration over, by Stephen Booskay, he confirmed the League with the Emperour against the Turks, having engaged Aaron and Michael the Vayvods of Moldavia and Vala­chia, in the same confederacy. By that con­clusion betwixt the Emperour and him, it was agreed that Sigismund should hold and enjoy all Dacia without any tribute by the Title of High and Mighty Prince,His League with the Emperour. as also what he should recover and take from the Turks in Hungary, without any pretensions by the Emperour, but his Family extinguished Transylvania should be united to Hungary; He should Marry Maria Christina Daughter of Charles the Arch-Duke; & if it should happen that he were beaten by the Turks, that he should have a retreat into Bohemia or Silesia.

While this was transacting, Amurath the grand Signior dyed, and Mahomet his eldest Son succeeded, having solemnized his Fathers [Page 205] Funeralls with the death of 18 of his Brethren strangled by a Bow string,Mahomet the 3d. succeeds his Father Amurath. which scelerate be­ginning of his Raign the Christians successe noted to the world: for Caesar having implored aid throughout Germany and Italy, was supplied after this large manner. The Pope sent 1000. Horse, and 12000.The large supplies given the Emperour. Foot under his Generall Sigismund Francis Aldobrandin, Florence 1000 Horse, and 3000. Foot, Ferrara 1500. Man­tua 1000. Tyrol 4000. Bavaria 3000. Foot, Bohemia 2000. Horse, 600. Dragoons, and 6000. Foot, Sile [...]ia 1500. Horse, 2000. Foot, Austria 2000. Horse, 6000. Foot, Franconia 1000 Horse, Suevia 4000 Foot, the Nobility of the two last places and of the Rhine by themselves 4000 Foot, which were numerously increased by the Hungarian Army under Count Palfi. Count Mansfield Gene [...]all. Matthias was made by the Emperour Generalissimo, and under him Charles Count Mansfield (upon this occasion created a Prince) who had lately done the King of Spain excellent Service under Ernestus in the Low Countries; Nor was he himself unfurnished of an Army, carrying with him under his own Ensigns, by the Conduct of Adolph Swartzenburgh, &c. a 1000. Curassiers, 1000. Dragoons, and 6000. Walloon Foot out of Flanders.

With this noble Army (and most strictly di­sciplined) sufficient to terrifie the world, hav­ing traversed the County about Alba to amuse the Enemy, he came at last and clapt down before Strigonium, & presently erected Castles [Page 206] a futlong distant from one another on the Mount of St. Thomas for the security of his Camp.1584. Twice by the tumultuary onset of the Hungarians and Walloons, were the Walls at­tempted and they repelled, but the Walloons enraged with the repulse,Strigoni­um besie­ged by Count Manfeld. The Cou­rage of the Walloons renewed it of them­selves singly, possessed the rampire and drove the Enemy into the Inner Town, while Palfius took the Fort of Parcanum, on the other side the Water opposite to Strigonium and razed it, and with the same Successe defeated their re­leif under Hasan the Beglerbeg, and the Bassa of Buda amounting to Thirty thousand men, his own Forces making no more than the tenth part of them. He was engaged in an Ambus­cade, but desperation not onely saved his own Men but put the Enemy to flight, neverthe­lesse he must have fallen by their fresh numbers but that the Walloons came readily and unex­pectedly to his assistance.

But the Turks through very fear,The Turks at­tempting the releif of the Town de­feated, 14000. slain. and the consideration of the losse of the Town, came on very boldly (Mansfeld having taken the Charles Bulwark) and engaged the besiegers in a most terrible and bloody fight; but such was the chearful readynesse of the Christians, advantaged by those Castles aforesaid, which grivously annoyed the Turke with shot, that 14000 of them were slain and their Camp ta­ken. Immediately after which glory accrued to those other felicities and accomplishme [...]ts of the Noble Mansfeld, he fell sick of a surfeit [Page 207] by too greedy eating of Melons a common Disease among the Germans in Hungary) and died before the Town,Mansfeld dies of a Surfeit. much lamented and honoured by all men. The Seige was never­thelesse continued by Matthias, who had new­ly welcomed the Duke of Mantua to the Camp, and the water-Town gained when the same defeated Turks endevoured again its releif (their Life and Honour being concerned in it) but were routed by the Walloons again under Oberenprucius, Turks a­gain de­feated. who came opportunely to the Relief of Nadasdi beset with their whole Pow­er, and too late expecting the Succour of Charles Burgrave: which being told Maho­met the Governour of Strigonium, distressed also for Water,Strigoni­um yeilded he yeilded the City the fifty second year after its Captivity by Solyman; and now Vissigrade, Vaccia, and all the Towns as far as Pesth, resounded with this Victory, which dismissed Matthias to Vienna, having pla­ced Palfi Governour of Strigonium, and sent Maximilian with part of the Army into Up­per Hungary to have an eye to the Affairs with Triffenbach in those parts.

In Illyria, Serinus and Hebberstain took Ba­bocza; Erdoedius, &c. Petrinia, restored to the Turks with Rastowitz and Gara. Greater was the Effort as greater was the Power of Si­gismund, who having solemnized his Nupti­als at Alba Iulia, with the two Vayvods had shook off the Turkish Yoke, and had ignomi­niously treated his Envoy. For his General [Page 208] George Barbelius and his united Nobility, took in a great number of Towns;Sigis­mund's Enterprises and Suc­cesses con­joyned with the two Vayvods of Vala­chia and Moldavia. Michael the Vayvod of Valachia, and Albertus Kyrali sent him as his Assistant by Sigismund carrying the War further to prevent Sinan's Design upon them at home. By them Floccium neer Nico­polis was seized, Arsena burnt, and Selistria plundred; Achomat the Eunuch sent by Sinan to their seizure with Twenty five thousand men, they engaged and totally routed, so that Thrace seemed to be joyned to Germany, and probably enough, if there had been as much Prudence in retaining as there was Valour in getting of it. Michael returned to Bucore­stum, but Kyrali sliding over the Danow now frozen, warmed his fingers with the fire of several noted [...]owns in Bulgaria.

Sinan like a Tempest departed from Con­stantinople with menaces and curses against these Revolters,Sinan In­vades Hungary. took Bucor [...]st, and Fortified Ter­gowist the Metropolis of Valachia; Michael and Kyrali as unable to resist, passing over the untrodden Alps [...]o Novigrad. In whose pur­suit, Sinan being himself engaged, sent away Twelve thousand men to make an Invasion up­on his Countrey, Ten thousand of whom were presently slain, and a Consternation brought upon the whole Turkish Camp; even Sinan himself was meditating of a flight, and hardly retained by the memory of his past actions, for he was so far forward, that he was crowd­ed off the Bridge, straitned with runnawayes, [Page 209] and two▪ of his teeth beaten out; the shame whereof converted into Desperation, where­by he drove Michael into his furthest retreats amongst Rocks and Precipices: to which streights reduced, he experimented the present deliver­ance of Almighty God,Michael the Vayvod distressed. being rescued by the advance of Sigismund with an Army of Twen­ty thousand Horse and thirty thousand Foot, en­forced by the Siculi, Cosacks, and Valachians, upon promise of Liberty. By the notable Va­lour of these Siculi, Tergovist was regained, it being not advisable to leave any place possessed by the Enemy in their Reer. The news of this recovery made Sinan fly to Bucorestum, which Town he burned, and destroyed all man­ner of Provision, thinking want and Hunger would have stopt Sigismund's pursuit, and in great hast passed the Danow, but not with such speed; for Sigismund being at his heels surpri­zed Eight thousand Turks, Sinan Bassa defeated as he in flight pas­sed over the Danow Sinan's Death. the Reer-guard of those Christians he was carrying into Captivity, of this side the River, every man of whom were presently put to the Sword and killed in a moment. Sinan hereupon partly with Greif and old Age, and not without suspicion of poy­son, breathed out his unhappy Soul, obnoxious to the revenge of the Bassa's for the arrogance and insolence of his great Fortune, which is subject not onely to others Envy, but mens own miscarriages and misdemeanours. Sigis­mund entrusting the reduction of the Army to Boczkay, arrived at Stephanopolis, where he dis­placed [Page 210] Aaron from his Vayvodship of Molda­via as suspect of Perfidy, and settled Stephen Resvan; Revoluti­ons in Moldavia. but him, Iohn Samoiscius provoked by the slaughter & cruel usage of some Podolians, overcame and Vanquished after two or three successful Encounters, and having taken him drove a Stake through his Groyns and set him aloft for a spectacle, substituting in his place Ieremy Mogilla, 1594. as Tributary to the Turk, O [...]ob. but Beneficiary to the Kingdome of Poland. Nothing is to be mentioned of Maximilian, but that he in vain besieged Szolnoc, being de­stitute of firing in a very cold and unseasonable Autumne, followed by a most rigorous Win­ter.

This February, 1596. Sigismund disquieted with the Care of the future, as the hatred of his past affairs, journyed to Prague to the Em­perour, where he was honourable received; but during his stay there was seized with a Fea­ver which turned to the Small pox; at which time the Siculi Rebe [...]led, pretending they were deceived of their promised Liberty, but were by Boczkay soon reduced and severely punished. Dalmatia had a share of these Troubles, Ber­thusius a Knight of Rhodes, having intelligence that Ibrahim Bassa Governour of Clissa, was at the Mart of Drilon, having acquainted Len­covitius with his Design, with Five hundred Segnians by a Hole in the precipice of the Rock not observed by the Turks, crept into the For­tresse, and mastered the Turks, whom they [Page 211] slew betwixt sleeping and waking. Ibrahim mad at this losse, came and besieged it with Apardi Bassa of Bosnia, whom Lencovitius with 5000 men drawn out of the adjacent Garrisons drove with much gallantry out of their Trench­es and Leagure, with a total rout; but too se­cure of an unfledged victory, was by the un­expected return of Ibrahim (who had collected his scattered dispersed remnants among the Hills and Woods) himself discomfited,The Chri­stians un­successful attempt on Clissia. remem­bring nothing of the Encounter but the Prey they had lost: Lencovitius got into Clissia, whence fearing the want of water, he escaped with 200 men, leaving the rest to the Sword or Captivity; and Clissia fainting with thirst lost to the Bargain.

While Caesar was busied at his Diets held at Prague, Vienna, Presburgh, and Ratisbone, as Sigismund at Claudianopolis, Clausen­burg. the noise of Mahomets vast preparations had terrified all those parts of Christendome. To be before hand with him therefore, Herbersteyn, and Dracovitius the Successor of Erdoedius (a man whose noble Acts had raised him beyond all Accessions of Felicity, so that he had no­thing to fear but Fortune) invested Constani­cia, attempted to be relieved by Apardis of Bosnia, but he was beaten and the Town taken; with the like Fate Achomet the Eunuch with 20 noised to be a 100 thousand men, coming too late to his Assistance, besieged Petrinia joyntly with him; to the relief hereof Dras­covitius, [Page 212] Lencovitius, Erdeodus, and Heberstayn, assayed to passe the Colapis, but neither Ford nor Bridge being feasible, they retreated toward the head of the River,The Turks defeated before Pe­trin [...] in Illyria. which the Enemy mista­king for a Flight, suddenly by swimming and wading passed over in pursuit of them, but was so gauled in his passage by Musquet shot, and so well received at his Landing, that happy was he could get back again, in which endevour ma­ny of them perished.

At Siscia [...] the Christians found passage, and the Enemy besieging it, whose Scouts they put to flight, sending with them the terror and rumor of a numerous Army, with which they advanced and besieged the besiegers, who valorously at­tempted to break through, or to carry the place, but were at last, what by the Bullets from the Castle, and the Sword from the Camp, redu­ced to the Discretion of the Victor. Onely Aphus and Odaverdus, Achomet's Assistants escaped away.

In Hungary the ballance of ill Fortune we [...] equal,The Affairs o [...] Hunga­ry. Solyman Bassa of Temeswar, and En [...]nehan of Belgrade, besieged Lippa, whence the obstinacy of the besieged, and the fame [...] Barbelius had repulsed them, and Sigismun [...] subdued Nagylachum at the same time, toge [...]ther with the Tartar Cham, (who in mo [...] savage manner destroyed the Countrey) in th [...] great plain betwixt Belgrade and Temeswar, a [...] pursued him almost 30. miles: Maximili [...] also besieged Hatvanum aided by Swartzr [...]burgh, [Page 213] his forces amounting to 20000. Foot, and 15000. Horse: the Governour of this place was Arslanes the Son of Saralibeg [...], a youth of great virtue above his Age, who by a fortunate and vigorous Salley so terrified the General of the Ordnance that he abandoned his Battery.The Siege of Harva­num, taken by M [...]xi­milian. He was incited the more to this Gallantry, by his Mother Fatima, a Woman of a virile and noble Spirit, who set before him the reward of Victory or an Honourable glorious Death, if vanquished; but such was his fatal oversight, that while his men wearied with toyle and an­guished with wounds, were taking their repose by his order, and had abandoned their Stations, the Christians entred, and with Turkish Cruelty put them all to the Sword. Arslanes making a resolute opposition fell not unrevenged.

This Slaughter at Ha [...]vanum, Agria expia­ted; for Sultan Mahomet with 200 thousand men, a greater number then Solyman e're brought into Christendome, being arrived at Belgrade sent away Gyaffer Bassa an Eunuch before him to that place, the Christians as accustomed to the War, being no way daunted at his approach.Agria yeil­ded to Sul­tan Maho­met in person. His first Assault was with great constancy and courage repelled, and the maintenance of the Town resolved on by Tersco, Nyari, and Kinski the Commanders, but the Germans and Walloons being afraid of their Lives, articled and delivered it, although they saved not their lives thereby, being first stripped and then put to the Sword. Nyari hiding [Page 214] himself in their Camp, as Barisonius and Kin­nski in the Belgrade Tower, escaped away in the night. At length Maximilian came to Ri­maszombathum, and at Rimaszecsum Sigis­mund Bathori joyned his Forces with him, a­mounting to 32 thousand Horse, and 28 thou­sand foot.

At Keresture both Armies engaged, and the Turks by the valour of the Fronteers of Swar­zemburgh's,The Battel of Kere­sture be­twixt Ma­homet and Maximili­an. Palfi's, and Kyrali's Brigades, with the losse of 8000. men, and 43. great Guns, were driven back to the Camp, which Mahomet opposed to the Christians; Maximi­lian seeing the presentnesse and heat of the Souldiers,1596. 26. Oct. passed over the Morasse before him, and came to succour his Companions. Here­upon ensued in the Turks Camp, great lamen­tation and fear, Mahomet himself flying to Szolnoc, while the slaughter was continued up­on his men. And now without dispute the Turk had been totally routed, when the Chri­stians neglecting the pursuit, and disorderly rifling their Camp, were themselves put to flight. It is reported that there were not above 500. Turks that made this first resistance, by whose hardnesse Cicala Bassa streight collected 40. thousand more, and furiously prosecuted this turn of Fortune, slaying these Camp pillagers like sheep: of whom (by meer fear only) 10. others say 20 thousand were missing, with all the Baggage which fell to the Enemy: so that a brave victory was slot by Covetousnesse. Nor [Page 215] did the Enemy carry away an unbloodyed Con­quest, leaving behind him twenty, others write, fifty thousand slain.Mahomet returns to Constan­tinople. Mahomet to Constanti­nople, and Maximilian troubled in mind (and having gathered his dispersion) to Vienna, while Serini worsted the Governour of Zigeth (puft up with this Event) at his siege of Ba­bocza, and Palfi confirmed the wavering Towns of Strigonium and Vacia.

Sigismund to be installed and honoured with the Order of the Godlen [...]leece, took a jour­ny to Prague, appearing much troubled at this unhappy issue of the War,Sigis­munds de­spondencies and fluctu­ations. and the Conscience of his Facts, being by nature more difficile to blot out the memory of them, than to commit them in his anger; and therefore now he resign­ed his Principality for fear of the Turk, and his own Concerns to Maximilian, although advised by Caesar that the affections of the Peo­ple were more enclined to a Prince of their own Nation, and that the present exigence of affairs could not but cause some discontents in the State; notwithstanding he persisted in his Humour, and gave a Divorce to his Wife, Conditioning for the Principality of Opulia, fifty thousand pounds, and a Cardinals Hat to be obtained for him by the Emperour; he seem­ing to loath the unstable state of Greatnesse, be­ing yet himself the ficklest of all.

Maximilian stood more firmly to his busi­nesse resolving to recompence his late losse; and suddenly (accompanyed by Palfi and his other [Page 216] Generals) forced Tata with a Petard, and besieged Papa; the Governour whereof Se­mendrus had sent him word to know, whether he that had dared to fight with Mahomet would try his force upon his Castle? if so, let him but come and give him liberty to draw his sword given him by the Sultan; and to a person of such Valour and boldnesse as him, the Gates should be opened. This Garrison being forced at last to render, the Walloons in Revenge slew most of them, the rest were saved by the means of the above-named Commanders. Maxi­milian likewise beleagured Raab; but such was the Confidence of Aly Bassa the Governour thereof,Vascia's suuccesses in Hun­gary. that he set open the Gates and drove the Cattel out of the Town to graze, shewing much jollity at the businesse; for soon after came Mahomet the Vizier, with 80000 Men, and took Vacia and Tata, after a siege of five weeks, & Maximilian being of no Competent Force to oppose, having done sufficiently by Defeating the Tartars a little while before, re­treated to Csallokena, where he encamped, and built several Castles to secure his Entrench­ments which Mahomet attempting, was by the Courage of Colonitzius and Nadasdi, with losse disappointed; as was Sigismund Bathori with 14 thousand before Temeswar, from whence he was dislodged by a numerous Multitude of Turks and Tartars; but yet so easily that he took Chanada in his return home.

The Estates being assembled at Presburgh, [Page 217] Stephen Szulai, Nicholas Istua [...]fi, and Bar­tholomew Pecfi, were delegated to receive the Government from Sigismund, as being fully re­solved for a Private Life, by the Examples of Dioclesian, who retired to Salonas, and Charles the fifth, to the Monastery of Iustus; but with greater Moderation than Constancy: passing now from Kovasockzium thorough Hungary into Silesia: So the Hungarians, Siculi, and Saxons, swore Allegiance to the Emperour, against whom the Turk having effected nothing by his Chiauxes,Palfi's & Swarzem­burgh's Successful Enterpri­ze upon Raab. threatned an Army of Three hundred thousand Men; but Fortune had other­wise disposed a kindnesse for him at hand, by prompting Swarzemburg and Palfi to the reco­very of Raab, by the Device of a Petard and the secret close conveyance of the Design. Swarzemburg to this purpose chose out 2050 of his most daring Souldiers, and Palfi 3000; these without Drum or Trumpet passed over the Memphon Woods in the silence of the night being guided by Felnemeth newly discharged out of the Prison of that place: but nothing contributed so much to the Successe of this En­terprize as the Confidence of the Enemy, who boasted, that When the Weather-co [...]k upon one of the Towers should crow out, then Raab should be regained by the Christians. Being thus arrived unseen or unheard, to the Walls of the Town, Babacurtus to whom the lesser Petard was entrusted, found the outward Gate, and that leading to Albae (by the fatal negli­gence [Page 218] of the Enemy) not locked up, which he straightwayes opened, when they all took it for an Omen that the Presence of God was with them, and that he had been by Prayers interessed in the attempt. To the inward Gate the Petard was applied which shivered it in peices, and broke the Bars and Hinges, ma­king way for Babacurtus and Oberenpruccus, to enter and gain the Market place. Swarzem­burgh staied at the Gate careful of the Event, as to avoyd Confusion among one another, and to secure them of Aid; and now the Enemy half naked ran to Arms; but as if cold water had been poured upon them,Raab sur­prized & taken after a sharp & bloody Dis­pute. were assoon stu­pified and amazed; yet at the last raged with such fury in revenge of their unavoidable death, that three Ianizaries put five hundred to flight. In this hazzardous juncture Palfius came to the succour of Swarzenburgh, and one of his Horsemen refusing to alight, dis­mounted first himself, and by his example ani­mated the rest to follow him. A Bloody fight being now renewed, Haly Bassa was slain, and the opened-day discovered an entire Victory to the Christians. A very great spoil was here divided; an Hundred eighty eight Great Guns sent to the Emperour, by whom Babacurtus the messenger was rewarded with 4000 Gulders, & a 1000 anually; Swarzemburgh with a hundred thousand Gulders, and the Town of Husto­pecsium and Government of Raab; Palfius be­cause it was a service due to his Countrey, was [Page 219] very well content with a Cup worth a thousand pound.

But in Transylvania Fortune shewed her self partial in respect to this her indulgence at Raab. Michael the Vayvod of Valachia, a Valiant Prince, had voluntarily embraced the present state of the Emperours Affairs, by a League ratified with his Commissioners at Ter­govistium, by which the Sons of Michael were to succeed their Father in the Principality; to acknowledge the Emperour without any Tri­bute; his Family failing, the Estates shall have the power of Election; the League to be of­fensive and defensive. This affair so happily transacted in Valachia, was crossed by another in Transylvania. Sigismund resumes [...]be Princi­polity of Transyl­vania by means of B [...]zkay. Sigismund with his usual inconstancy (his Crimes suffering him no where to be at quiet, but hurrying him from place to place) in a disguise arrived in Transylvania, and came to Claudianopolis, pretending non­payment of his Pension, and other dis-satisfa­ction; and was there by the Magistrates re­ceived as their Prince, as to whose Govern­ment they had been accustomed. The like did Stephen Bosskay Captain of the Guards, who partly with perswasions, and partly with ter­ro [...]r, Awed his Collegue Cornisius and Moses Szekely Governour of the Siculi, to a Com­plyance with the Faction; the Force and arm­ed Power whereof constrained the Commissi­oners above-named, who had in vain expected Sigismund Racockzi the Emperours General, [Page 220] to swim with the present Current of Affairs, and to Complement his return to the Govern­ment; which the Vulgar so madly entertained that they were ready to limb Cornisius for put­ting them in mind of their Oath to the Em­perour. The Commissioners were soon after summoned to appear before Sigismund, which as necessity required they obeyed, to whom he (as his Custome was) excused the business,Sigis­mund's Excuses. complaining that the Principality of Opulia answered not the promises made concerning it: but neverthelesse he would continue his faith to the Emperour; and so dismissed them to Cassovia.

The Province thus in Commotion,The Turks intermed­dle and be­siege Va­radin but repulsed. Mehe­meth Satergis Bassa with 60000 Men, came to fish in those troubled waters; and although deprecated by Sigismund, laid Siege to Varadin; the Governour whereof George Kyraly main­tained it in the Right of the Emperour, who sent to him with supplies Nyari and Rederus. Thirty dayes the City was besieged, at the Ex­piration whereof the Turks incommodated with Rain and tempestuous weather were forced to rise: as did Matthias the same day, and by the same intemperance of the Weather from Buda, having besieged it just so many dayes together; but he lost not the whole Ex­pedition as did the Turk, for in the beginning thereof he took Palotta, Vesprinium, and o­ther places.

Sigismund thus Established endevoured his [Page 221] reconciliation with the Emperour, and recei­ved his Wife again, so that there was again a right understanding, by the Clemency and good nature of Rudolphus, established between them; insomuch that he sent Basta with an Ar­my to aid him against the Turks. But another Freak taking him in the head, while he seemed to intend a firmer and stricter Union, having sub­stituted his Uncle, Cardinal Andrew Bathori, and the Bishop of Varmia (by the Policy of Samoiscius, Sigis­munds new practises. who designed upon these Provin­ces) to the Government, he himself again re­pudiated his Wife, and breaking off the Trea­ty with Caesar, privily fled into Poland. by which means the Principality was engaged in great Troubles; for the Cardinal presently possessed himself of the whole Country, where­upon ensued Hostility betwixt him and Maxi­milian; Basta with his Army moving from Cassovia to the Expulsion of Bathori, having obliged Michael the Vayvod of Valachia to be constant to his late League; who the better to conceal his Design, pretended to take part with the Cardinal, buying Powder and Bullets in his Countrey which he intended to use against him; and first took Corona, and drew the Si­culi to his party, and in a sudden encounter, (but obstinately maintained) put Andrew to flight, who hoping to escape over the Oytozian Alps into Poland, was there torn in peices by the Siculi. This Event determined the Alle­giance of the Transylvanians to Maximilian, [Page 222] by his Commissioners Michael the Vayvod, and Basta

Mahomet the Grand Seigniour being de­terred by his Mother and his Cheif Sultana, from going any more in person to the War, having been so neerly endangered at Keresture, that in his flight for hast he lost his Turbant, committed the Expedition to Ibrahim his Chief Vizier. To be ready prepared against this In­vasion, Zwarzemburg, Palfi, and Nadasdi, reduced Tata, Alba Re­galis at­tempted by Petards in vain. and attempted Alba Regalis by Petards clapt to the Gates; but their Designe being discoverd, the Garrison salleyed out and routed the Frenchmen that had the orders of the Engine, and seized one of the Petards, which was carried to Buda, where the Barbarians, not daring to discharge it, Bastinadoed the Frenchmen they had taken to the Experiment, when it flew into peices and miserably mang­led and killed the standers by.

Ibrahim being arrived,Ibrahim the cheif Viziers Expediti­on into Hnngary. pretended peace and gave notice thereof to Palfi, whereupon De­puties met in the Island of Vizze, equally di­stant between Strigonium and Buda. The Turk demanded Fileck, Strigonium, Novi­grad, Raab, with future security; the Chri­stians stand to their just possession of them; that Peace would be welcome, but not upon such terms. Ibrahim perceiving no advantage could be expected this way, the Christians also declining Battel, made an Irruption into the Countrey, and most barbarously laid wast all [Page 223] that Tract of Ground which lies betwixt the Rivers Waegh, Nitre and Ippolus; multitudes of Sick and Diseased persons at the Pesthenian Bathes, were abandoned to the Cruelty of the Enemy, and crawling in the Roads made most horrible lamentations. Nor spared he any place Sacred, or Profane, or Condition of men; of whom with Children and Infants crying after their Parents,His ravag­ing Crueltys he carried 3000 away into Cap­tivity. This Desolation Swarzemburg help­lessly beheld, although instigated by Palfi to set upon those ravenous Miscreants; but he was loth to hazzard his Army. Palfi himself therefore impatient of the Insolence, set upon a Party of Six thousand at Palankin, and de­stroyed them; and upon the retreat of Ibra­him, with the highest rage burnt down, & took in several Towns, and among the rest Coppan, and Dombo.

It was now the Year 1600. famous for the great Jubile of Clement the eighth,The end of Michael the vali­ant Vayvod of Vala­chia. when Mi­chael the Vayvod of Transylvania, elated with his prosperous Successes, ambitiously af­fected the Soveraignty of all Dacia, and by keeping Transylvania in his Power began to be suspected by the Emperour, as he was likewise hated by other of his Neighbours for his Inva­sion of Moldavia, in prosecution of his Quar­rel against Sigismund; who to revenge his Un­cles Death, did now instigate Samo [...]schus to send Aid to Ieremy of Moldavia, and to fur­nish him with an Army for an Expedition into [Page 224] Transylvania, in which he was assisted by Moses Sz [...]kely, Francis Vas, and Gabriel Beth­len (better known to the English by the name of Bethlehem Gabor) Michael having timely notice of their Embodying (leaving his Wife and his Son Peterschones in Transylvania) speedily passed over the Alps, and at Nester fell unexpectedly upon Ieremy and Sigis­mund, and made a great slaughter of the Poles and Cossacks, with the Discomfiture of thirty thousand of his Enemies. By this Victory he possessed himself of Suchava and all Moldavia▪ and horribly havocked Bessarabia, Russia, and Podolia.

Samoyscius impatient of this Insolence,Samoysci­us his re­venge a­gainst him. ha­ving Collected an Army at Bosorum, wrest­ed the Victory out of the Victors hands, and drove him out of Moldavia iuto the abrupt­nesses of the Mountains by the River Sereczi­num, whither having also pursued him by the incess [...]nt diligence of the Cossacks, he thence drove him round into Transylvania from whence he first began the War; when judging it neither safe nor necessary to engage his Po­lish Army in an Enemies Countrey, he Depu­ted Michael Szekhely to follow him & to seize the Principality. This Basta opposed, sending Csaka as from the Emperour, to bid them desist from Invasion of his Dominions; to which when Samoyscius answered that there was no other Design, but to prosecute Mi­chael as the Common Enemy and onely Cause [Page 225] of these Troubles by the Turks; Basta enough offended against Michael, offered his own Ar­my to his suppression, upon the same account as Csaki managed his Commission to Samoy­scius, Michael defeated flyes to Prague. to gain the Principality to himself. The Vayvod understanding this Conjunction, sent to desire leave that he might be heard in his own defence, which being denyed, he levyed an Army of Twenty thousand men; but was again Defeated and forced to fly to Tergovi­stia, whence (being betwixt the Hammer and the Anvile, Basta & Moses Szekeheli) he escaped over the Severine Alps to Prague, where he hoped to vindicate and clear his actions, as Csaki foolishly,Csaki's Intrigues. yet impudently laboured, in the absence of Maximilian, for his Investi­ture in Transylvania; not Considering that ‘Dignity is not hastily to be desired & prosecu­ted, although by a person of great Merits: Time must be attended in which it may appear that by such preferment a man hath rather gi­ven then received a benefit.’

As the distempers of the Great ones were monstrous,The French mutiny at Papa. so was the malign dispositions of the Souldiery. The French Garrison of Papa mutyning for their Pay, had seized and secu­red the Governour Michael Marochi, and slew all that opposed them, Conditioning with the Turk, for their Arrears, to deliver them the Castle; but the Turk, either mistrusting them, or too tenacious of his money, made no use of the advantage. News hereof being brought [Page 226] to Swarzemburg, he laid Siege to them, losing a great many men by a fierce Eruption of the French, who knew what they might trust to if taken, wherein himself also was slain by a Bul­let. Rederus succeeded him in the Supreme Command, who beat the French back into the Town and there closely shut them up; but he also died of a sudden Disease before the surren­der, and left the Atchievement to Nadasdi; who having reduced them to a dog-hunger, and starved them to skin and bone,Their pu­nishment. made them yeild the place; at which time some few were by the pittyful Souldiers knockt on the head, the rest were tortured to death with most Ex­quisite Cruelties, some of them Choaked to death upon the Wheels of a Water-mill, after many Descents and Ascents; some Roasted with a slow Fire; and others given to the Dogs.

Transylvania is our next Stage,Sigismund resumes his Princi­pality. troubled with a smatch of the same disloyalty to the Empe­rour; who delaying his answer to their Com­missioners, Sigismund again stept in and re­covered the Principality, vacating those Pow­e [...]s and Instructions given them to treat. Next he imprisoned Cornifius, Pancratius, Se­negus, and others, who favoured the Empe­rours Title. This afforded an occasion to Mi­chael's Restitution, who being dismist from Prague with a substitutory Command and Pow­er, and seemingly reconciled with Basta by th [...] mediation of Gonzaga Governour of Va­radin, [Page 227] joyntly engaged Sigismund and his Ge­nerals Barbelius (lame with the Gout and Cramp) and Moses Szekehely, as their Army (in a Confusion and without any care) was descending from the Mountain of Doroslone, Sigismund Defeated. and soon put them to flight. Here were slain Ten thousand, and a hundred and thirty Ensigns taken. This new Successe so Exalted the mind of the Vayvod that he could in no wise brook Basta's Superiority (by so many prosperous accidents transported indeed from a just and moderate man, to very ungoverned and rapi­nous actions.) They were both at Claudiopolis where the old Grudge seemed to have been wholly forgotten, when Basta by a crue of bloody Walloons caused him to be assassinated;The Vay­vods assas­sinated. and his Companions and followers to be dis­persed and to fly for their lives; by which Ar­tifice and impudence together, he imposed on the Emperour that he was killed in a fair man­ner and upon a just Quarrel, which the Em­perour was glad to dissemble, while from this impune and flagitious fact he took courage to proceed to greater and more dedecorous and base practises.

For now under colour of Heresy and Schism and the care of the Emperour's Revenue; whatever Silver or other moneys could be dis­covered was seized by him, so that the Peo­ple when they looked for a protection, percei­ved their was no such thing meant them by this Stork, who pilled and fleeced them to their skin; [Page 228] ‘Glory is cherished by industry; when there is no room for that, Vertue her self is very un­pleasant, and where rewards attend the vici­ous, scarce any will be good gratis. Bistricia had refused to open the Gates to him, which he forced and basely plundred, seizing all their best wealth in money and attire to his own use, and then gave it a spoyl to his Souldiers, who left not a Covering to the Women. Nay, so miserable was the Calamity of the Transyl­vanians at this time, that they were neer fami­shed, all their Cattel being driven into Silesia; and one measure of Wheat sold at 25 Guilders, which money would have bought formerly two hundred.Sigis­mund's & the Tran­sylvanians Breach of League with the Turks se­verely pu­nished. Thus by leisurable degrees did the Divine Justice and indignation proceed to punish and revenge the breach of their League with the Turks, the heavynesse of the infliction computing for the delay of it. Sigismund fled to Brassone to excite and engage the Turks, in which affair after he had fruitlesly employ­ed Moses Szekelehy, he began to sink and des­pond and finally cast himself upon the Empe­rour, of whom after a Truce condescended to by Basta, he obtained pardon, and a yearly Re­venue of 50000 Guilders, with the Principality of Lobkowitz which maintained him among the Bohemians to an old & unreverenced Age.

But the stirs in Transylvania ceased not with him: for another intestine War was kindled by Moses Szekelehi and Bethlen Gabor, in pre­tence of asserting their Countrey, but really, [Page 229] it was a Turkish Design: these two Basta en­countered between Alba Iulia and Varadgya, & after a Bloody dispute put them to flight: both the Captains escaped, but whither? to Be­ctessus the Bassa of Temeswar, as more humane then the German Christians; whose outrages and their Generals uncontrolled power and in­solence was solely imputable to the sloth and degenerous idlenesse of Rudolph. Basta used this Victory with all extremity of Fire▪ and Sword, to such a ruine and destruction of the Commonalty, Gentry and Nobility, that they wished for Turkish and Tartarian Sla­very.

The State of Styria in the Western parts of Hungary was alike Calamitous,Affairs in Illyria. groaning un­der the Tyranny of the Enemy and the pres­sures of their lawful Soveraign. Ibrahim Bassa with the Aga of the Janizaries with a body of them amounting to twenty four thousand, ar­rived at Mohacz intending the siege of Strigo­nium; but at the intreaty of Nasaff Gover­nour of Sigeth, whose Contributaries Herben­steyn had severely handled; they first blocked up and took Babocza, and then besieged Ca­nysa, where George Paradyser was Governour (the same who perswaded the surrender of Clis­sia in Illyria) who with the heighth of Courage maintained it against the Turks, after he had sustained great losse by the blowing up of his Powder, which was supplied to him by George Serinus; and at the same time came Matthias [Page 230] the Arch-Duke, and Philip Emanuel Duke of Mercoeur, with 25, others say but Fourteen thousand to his releif. This Duke did excel­lent service against the Enemies Horse, and in his last Encounter with them gave them so no­table a Defeat, that it was not doubted but that the Enemy would rise & be glad to be gone; but Provision being scarce in their Camp (of which the Turks are alwayes frugal and yet better provided) they were forced to forsake the Town, and that in such haste and disorder, that Paradyser daunted therewith (although he knew the necessity of the Turks departure) for that the Horse had nothing but a few Leaves to feed up­on, and was encouraged to hold out till their return,Canysa yeilded to the Turks by Parady­ser for which he lost his head at Vienna. delivered the place to the Enemy, upon Condition of a free departure, which brought him to Vienna, where being publiquely Con­victed he lost his head upon a Scaffold, Ibra­him after this Acquist was very solicitous about a Peace, but while it was negotiated he died.

Ferdinand, afterwards Emperour, the Ne­phew of Rudolphus by Charles his Brother, was at this time Governour of Styria, Car­niola, and Carinthia; he in the Year 1660. had Married Mariana the Daughter of Will. Duke of Bavaria, which Lady being a zealous Catholick, would not enter the Limits of his Dominions until purged of Haeresie, & the Li­bertys granted to those of the Augustan Confes­sion were taken away; which the Arch-Duke at the instance of the Jesuits rescinded, and by [Page 231] Oath obliged himself to the Pope that he would severely handle the Professors of the Prote­stant Religion within his Dominions, and hereupon they were either banished and forced from their Houses,Ferdi­nands out­rages a­gainst the Protestants or plundred and killed, with such inhumanity that the Papists blowing up their Churches with Gun-powder, raged against the bones of the dead and the graves of them, common and allowed to all men; insomuch that what the Turks had spared, was not spared by them.

To these outrages, the Protestants opposed the Treaty at Passaw▪ and challenged the assu­rance and faith plighted by the Arch-Duke himself, by which in 1581. he confirmed his Fathers Agreement with the States, during which space of eighteen years and upwards, he had received the sum of Nine hundred thousand Florens of the Rhine, the price of their Li­berty of Conscience; but notwithstanding this manifesto they were commanded to depart, and those that stayed spoyled and undone. No hopes of redresse appearing, and the rumour of Bozckay's proceeding in Hungary in favour of the Religion inviting them thither, they for­sook their Countrey and prosperously Seated themselves there. To omit the barbarity pra­ctised on the inhumed Corps (as the demo­lishing of their Churches at Gratz) of William Zimmerman the Protestant and an eminent Mi­nister of the place, which they threw into the River Mur.

[Page 232] But Ferdinand's successe was answerable to this injustice,Canysa besieged by Ferdinand he was engaged in the siege of Canysa (assisted therein by Aldobrand the Popes Legate with his Italian Forces) where­in none but Roman Catholicks by the advice of Sigismund Count of Thurn, afterwards drown­ed, were suffered to be listed, lest the impi­ety of the Protestants might cause the Enter­prise to miscarry. The Governour of the Town was Hasanes, who with 800 men and as many more received from Zigeth and Buda, (by the negligence of Orphus Gallonius the Ge­neral of the Ordinance) resolutely maintain­ed it; this Orphus in filling the ditches with Wood from the adjoyning Forrest (which work went slowly forward) was shot with a Culverin bullet and killed. Nor did Caesar Porta his Successour make much more haste or speed, being tired out with the Enemies salleys: no more then the relief from Matthias to ani­mate his cousin, which consisted of 6000 men led by Christoph. Roseworm, and the Duke of Mer­coeurs Leiutenant General: for by the unex­perience of the General and Officers (who failing of their reinforced attempts had no mind to venture again) they protracted so long, till cold Winter with storms and frosts made them desert their stations (a thousand Horse­men being frozen stiff in one nights time) being also surcharged with snow,The siege broken up. hunger, wearinesse, and which is worst of all, over-watching in at­ [...]nding the industrious Enemy; who now by their [Page 233] departure gained their Ordinance; and satisfied their Cruelty upon the sick and wounded per­sons left behind. Thus the Protestants, who were scandalized from being present, were saved from the ruine that involved the Papists.

Far more renownedly did the Duke of Mer­coeur deport himself at Alba, which he be­sieged with twenty thousand Men; Christopher Roseworm with great labour and diligence pas­sing a thousand men over the Bog to the Sub­burbs, two whereof the Insulary and the Desti­acan were easily gained, others being encoura­ged by the adventure to follow them.Alba Re­galis taken by the D. [...] Merc [...]ur. The Enemy having nothing but the City to defend made a resolute resistance, but was in fine bea­ten off the Walls, and the Town regained in the 58 year after it had been taken by Solyman. This Victory the licentiousnesse of the Souldi­ers greatly blemished, the City being ran­sacked by them, where they spared not the bones of the Kings from which the Turks had Re­ligiously abstained. The new Garrison consi­sting of a thousand German Foot, and six hun­dred Hungarians, was committed to the Go­vernment of Marcus Insulanus, famous for his Defence of Varadin, and Michael Va­tai.

The report of this losse being brought to Ha­sanes, he joyned with the Vizier Bassa, resol­ving to attempt Mercoeurs Camp, to whose rescue very opportunely came Matthias; the fight was managed with equal spirit and strength [Page 234] till the Hungarians began to flinch, at which time Amurath Bassa of Buda, with Maho­met Beg were slain with a Bullet, which chan­ged the fortune of the day, and put the Turks to flight. There were slain 5000. of them, but yet they gave not over their design, for the next year, the noble Duke of Mercoeur being dead at Norimberg, Hasanes returned to Alba, and before the Governors had repaired the ruins of the Fortifications, was close at the Walls, whereupon the Germans basely betrayed the Town. The Garrison was dismissed, but In­sulanus and Vatai being interrogated, if the Delivery was made with their Consent, [...] re­gained by the Turks. to which they answered peremptorily in the Nega­tive, were both of them laid hold on, and made Captives, the Turks saying, That their promise was made to the willing, nor were they obliged to them with whom they had made no Contract.

To maintain this violent Turkish War the Estates of Germany proffered 80 months pay to the Emperour, whose General Roseworm, to recompence the losse of Alba, besieged Buda, while Althamius who succeeded Palfi in the Government of Strigonium valiantly gained Pesth; Buda being hereby hard put to it, Ha­san with 30 thousand men came to besiege it,The Sieges of Buda & Pesth. and had beaten Roseworm, who passed the Da­now to encounter him, to the very walls of Pesth, when Matthias came in and rescued him: but they parted so equally that both Sieges were carried on at the same time, in which no­thing [Page 235] was memorable but an Engagement of Craczius, the General of the Horse, with the Turks, in which he was worsted, until Hasan for want of Provision departed for Belgrade, and left Roseworm in his old leagure.

The Christians were much animated at the sight of it, taking in after him Colocza, Paxus, and other places 60. miles below Buda, by the Heyducks; and the Budenses the more spirited and quickned to a resistance, as they made ap­pear in their Salleys and resolute Eruptions, seizing their very Cannons, and nailing up their touch holes, which was acted while Roseworm was playing at Cards, and carelesse of the matter; This dishonour was seconded with a greater danger, Oner and Ibrahim Beg having drained the Garrisons of Alba, Sygeth, and Canysa, came afresh to their relief, but after a sharp Conflict they were overthrown by Na­dasdi, &c. While Collonicz sustained and re­pelled the besieged.Buda's Seige broke up. Notwithstanding such was the unclemency of the weather, by show­ers, frost, and snow, that Matthias cursing the place where he had been so often unfortu­nate, was forced to draw off to Winter quar­ters, leaving Albert Princestayn to the defence of Pesth.

The Plague and Earthquakes in H [...]ngary and Austria this year denoted the ensuing mutations in the Kingdome;1603. for the Tartars and Turks by a most sudden irruption laid wast all the Coun­try, extending Westward to Papa, the Moun­tain [Page 236] of Camenesum, and what ground lyes be­tween the rivers Dravus and the Mur to Per­latum, not without the indignation of Count George Serini, then lying on his death bed. Transylvania was in the usual variable conditi­on, there was a general famine, with a scar­city of money, and all other mischiefs arising thence; the Soldier demanded his pay and pro­vision, which being not to be had, a defecti­on followed, and the Army marched to Zac­mar. Upon their departure, Moses Szekhe­lij was constituted Prince, and did Homage to Mahomet, and aided by Bectessus the Bassa of Temeswar, and the affections of the people took in Caransebesse, Alba Inlia, Claudia­polis, Herman­stad. Cibinium, and soon after possessed him­self of all Transylvania, but this good fortune lasted not long,Radulo the Vay­vods Suc­cesses a­gainst the Rebels in Transyl­vania. for Radulo the Successor of Michael in the Vaivodship of Valachia a friend of the Emperours, and who made good his pre­decessors League, surprized him by night, routed his Turks and Tartars, and sent 30. Standards to Prague. There were slain in this Fight Moses himself, with many Nobles, and 4000. others, revenged in part soon after by the defeat of the Count of Solms who was sent Prisoner to Constantinople, the reciprocation of which ill fortune, befel the aforesaid Bassa of Temeswar, and Albertus Nagii, whom Henry Duval Count of Tampyrium, and Lewis Ra­koczi totally vanquished, and again reco­vered Transylvania to the Emperour, who by [Page 237] the advice of Iohn Molard, and Nicholas [...]ruk­hayser, appointed a Decemvirate for the Go­vernment of the Province, which continued till annulled by Boczkay.

Things succeeded as prosperously in Hunga­ry, but the Covetousnesse of the Governours spoiled all; Nadasdi and Collonicsius subdued Laccu [...] and Bolondvarum, and cruelly wast­ed the Country in revenge of the late irruption, and before Amurath of Buda could joyne with Hasanes, forced him to fight and routed him, at last came Hasanes, and faced Roseworm en­camped at Strigonium, who no way declining the Encounter, which lasted till Evening with great fury, put the Infidels to the run, (the great Guns having peppered the Janizaries) with the losse of 7000 men.

The fruit of this victory was the reduction of Hatvanum, newly restored to the Turk, and the firm Munition and strengthning of Pesth. This year Sultan Mahomet, Sultan Mahomet dies. unable to go or scarce stand upon his Legs by reason of his fatnesse, died among his Concubines, Pathick boyes, and Troops of Eunuchs,1603 leaving his Son Ach­met a stripling to the Succession in the Govern­ment, who presently applied himself to Peace. In order whereto Commissioners met in the Fields neer to Rakos, but the Turks insisting on the Restitution of Strigonium and Raab, and the Emperour demanding Canysa, the Treaty came to nothing.

The year 1604. began with the old grievan­ces [Page 238] in Transylvania concerning Religion, and the great Church of Cassovia, that had been granted by Basta to the Cannennicks of Amna, Persecuti­on against the Prote­stanes in Transyl­vania. besides that Iohn Barbianus the Count of Bel­giocosa and the Emperours Governour in that Town by his Jesuiticall and most severe inqui­sition was horribly dreaded by the Protestants, an infinite number of whom he had banished out of their Countrey: About this time came an Ambassadour from Hodabanda King of Persia, offering his assistance against the Turk, in this j [...]ncture of the minority of Achmet, and ad­vising the Christians to Unity, which so encou­raged Rodolph, that he resolved to employ all his Forces against that Enemy. Basta was therefore placed in the Command of Roseworm, thought too slow in the service, Barbianus made Governour of Transylvania, and Collonicz in the Room of Thurzo of that part of Hungaria which lyes beyond the Danow to Dravus. Ha­sanes hearing of these preparations took the feild and frighted the Governour out of Pesth and the Garrison out of Hatvanum, Strigonium was by him in vain beseiged, & thereby the Tur­kish power had in Contempt, for that the Hun­garians perceived they were more oppressed by their own Souldiers and the feuds of their Com­manders, then they were by their Enemies.

This, and some other Instigations and instincts concerning their privileges, the inso­lence of the Germans and the late Inquisitions, caused them to adhere to Stephen Bocskay, then [Page 239] appearing in Transylvania, to which Province the Turks had preferred Gabriel Bethlen, but he modester in prosperous then adverse fortune, had passed it to Bocskay, Bocskay appears in Transyl­vania. and made himself a Partisan to his Designs, having with Bectessus of Temeswar, attempted Lippa: but while he lingred there, Lewis Racokzi, and the Count of Tampirium, surprized their Camp and made a great slaughter, the Bassa and Bethlen made a shift to escape half naked and half a sleep; Be­thlen leaving his Cloaths to be ransacked; where were found some Letters with the Heads of the Conspiracy agreed upon between Bocskay and himself, which were afterwards confirmed by some of the Prisoners.

Barbianus, the matter being so full of danger, instantly hasted to the Camp at Rokomaza, and put the Souldiers in readinesse, and summoned Bocskay, The Impe­riallists worsted by Bocskay. who made many tergiversations and delayes but denyed the Confederacy. This encreased the suspition, and advised Barbianus to put it to a speedy decision by battel. The Heyducks were at first induced to take up arms with him, but understanding the peril of their Religion, although their Commanders had been newly ensnared by an Oath of fidelity to Caesar, they revolted to the Confederates. Thereafter ensued a fight at Adorjanyum, where Bocskay prevailed against Becsius one of the Emperours Generalls, by a casuall firing of his Train of Powder, and took his Camp richly furnished, which ill successe so ferretted Barbiani shut [Page 240] up by forces on every hand, and informed likewise that Valentine Homonnai was declared for Bocskay, Bocskay's appearance in Tran­sylvania [...] assisted by the Nobi­lity. that he departed from Tockay, as he fled before from Varadin (mistrusting the defence of both places) and came to Cassovia where Iohn Bocacius the Mayor of the City being a Lutheran denyed him entrance, whose examples Eperjessum, Cibini [...]m the lesse and other places soon after followed. Bocskay departing for Cassovia, sent before him Blasius Lippai (whom for his brute valour he raised from a sordid degree to a great Command, and afterward for his insolence beheaded him, and reduced his Wife to her former condition) who was well­comed and the Magazines and Treasures after­wards opened to Bocskay, soon after saluted and presented there with all the Princely Ensignes and Ornaments by Rako [...]zi, Homonnai, Nyari and other the chieif Noblemen; In the mean while Blasius Lippai befieging Barbianus in Scepusium, was repelled by the valour of Thur­zo, as Blasius Nemethus the Captain of the Heyducks ranging for prey, was intercepted by Basta, defeated, and his head struck off.

Basta with 15000 men shook the confidence of the confederates, whereupon they strength­ened themselves with the assistance of Mahomet the Grand Vizier, and encountred the Impe­riallists at the River Moldava, where although they stood the first shock yet were they not able to endure the firm constancy of the Germans; who thereupon recovered Szendreira and freed [Page 241] Ruberus beseiged in Tockay: Basta being thus eve­ry day victorious admonished Bocskay, to lay down his Arms, and frame and compose his sedi­tious mind to his Duty and Aleigeance; to which Bocskay answered, that war was better than Peace unlesse Transylvania were left wholly to him; and the Generals, Governours, and Castella­nes of Hungary be all of that Nation, that the forraign Souldiery be put out of the Realm, and the free Exercise of Religion allowed. But this Confidence of Basta was soon blasted, for his Coveteousnesse having made him odious to his Souldiers who were without pay,Basta de­serted by his Souldi­ery for want of Pay. they fell into a Mutiny and assaulted him in his Quarters (the Convoy of twenty nine Waggons laden with money and Cloth for the Souldiery, them­selves having stollen and carried them away, part into Poland, and part to Bocskay:) neverthe­lesse having something pacified the Souldiers he attempted Cassovia but in vain, & thence retrea­ted to Leuchovia, his Army deserting him in the way; insomuch that Francis Redei with a small party of 2000 Heyduhks, and the bent of the People, took in twenty Towns: besides many Castles betwixt the Rivers Sayon, Ippolus, and Waegh, revolted to him.

These Successes caused the Emperour to send away the Bishop of Vesprinium, and Si­gismund Forgacz his Ambassadors to Bocskay, to whom (the Turk being very observant and intent upon his actions) he at the first audi­ence publickly profest, that if they were sent [Page 242] from the Hungarian Nobility, their Embassy was welcome and acceptable to him; but o­therwise,Bockskays [...]nswer to the Empe­rours Am­bassadours. if they came from the Emperour it was to no purpose, for that he had engaged so far that he could not possibly recede. At a Diet held at Szerencsium soon after, he laid down the Causes of his present undertaking, namely, the Defence of Religion, the Liberty and safety of the People. At the end of which Oration he was confirmed by the Estates in the Principality, and the Roman, Lutheran, and Calvinian Doctrines received promiseu­ously. The Cheif Praefecture of Transylva­nia, and the Supreme Command of the Army was conferred, the first on Sigismund Ra­koczi, the latter on Valentine Homonn [...]

From this Diet in [...] he returned into Transylvania, where he was met with a Turk­ish Chiaux, who presented him with the usual Ensigns of the Investiture from the grand Sei­gniour, to whom he dispatched [...]way Stephes Corlatus, and George Kikedi, his Ambassadors with the Homage and Presents, the more en­vious, for that some German Youths were ad­ded thereunto. From Cassovia, Rocskay in­vited Stephen Illyeshazi (fled for his Treason) out of Poland, His suc­cess [...]s. and by the valour of the Hey­duckes took Trincinum, F [...]eleck, Zackmar; as Nitria by the inconstancy of the Garrison was delvered to Francis Redei by Sigismund Forgacz the Bishop of the place. Which losses with want of money so disabled Basta, besides [Page 243] that he was in great danger of his life, that he fled to Presburgh, where Collonitz endevour­ed to relieve him, but his Souldiers turned sides; Tyrnaw hereupon yeilded, and Stanislaus and Christopher Thurzo submitted to Redejus.

Hence the War was carried into Moravia by Eight thousand Heyducks and a thousand Turks, Commanded by Dengelegius who brought away 4000 Captives thence; and Tockay was at the last extremity delivered by Reuberus, whose Fidelity and Valour Bocskay himselfe commended. The Revolt of the Isle of Csa­llockoes followed this rendition,Presburgh attempted and Au­stria inva­ded by Bockskay [...] Partys. and gave ad­vantage to 6000 of the Confaederates (so were Bocskay's party called) to make an at­tempt upon Presburgh (burning in their way thither St. George and other Towns) whence being rejected by Basta, they turned their In­vasion upon Austria, which they destroyed as far as Prinquelia. At the same time Neme­thus to enlarge this Devastation passed the Da­ [...]bius at Sabaria, to whom Nadasdi and other Noblemen for fear of their own Territories, joyned themselves; and even to the wonder of the Barbarians, sacked all that Tract of ground lying betwixt Layla and Arrhabon, pretending Religion as the incentive to this im­ [...]ane Cruelty; although they unmercifully tortured the reformed Ministers, and sold very Infants for Slaves to the Turks, to such a de­testation, that God caused Blood to drop out of Gold paid by a Turk to a Christian for one of those Captives.

[Page 244] This Countrey Desolated, he fell next into Styria, The like ravage made in Styria by Nemethus and others. and barbarously used the Town, situa­ted betwixt Arrhabon, Pingua, and Lappinicia; and had almost shook the Allegiance of Dras­covitius the Governor of Illyria; but he recover­ing himself, and assisted by: Trautsmandorf, raised an Army of ten thousand men and drove Nemethus out of Sclavonia together with his Partakers, among whom were some Tartars, to Zigeth, Coppan, and other their respe­ctive Holds and Garrisons: by which mean [...] Drascovitius gained to himself great Authori­ty and Renown. But these most horrid Di­visions hastned the Common Ruin; for Maho­met the now prime Vizier, who had deliver­ed Strigonium himself to the Christians, be­sieged it in person, which Bocskay quarrelled, alleadging that by his League with them no Ci­ty in Hungary ought to be taken by the Turks; but being not Master of himself, he sent Ho­monnai either at the request or Command of Mahomet with 6000 men:S [...]rigoni­um [...] again to th [...] Tu [...]ks 1605. in the th [...]d year of the reign of [...] and not long af­ter the Town within ten years of its reducti­on, was delivered by William Oetingensis and his Germans; who diffiding in the Hungarians dismist them out of the Town, not to this onely disadvantage, for they presently thereupon joyn­ed with Redejus against the Emperour, to whom Ersek [...]yvarum was yeilded by the con­sent of Matthias, upon the promise of Rode­jus that it should not come into the Tark [...] [...]ands, but be restored when ever the Wa [...] should be composed.

[Page 245] Mahomet the Vizier now summoned Bocz­kay to Buda, to the Solemnization of the Marriage of the Bassa of that City, who met him on his way as far as Rakos, and introducted him in State,Boczkay doth Ho­mage to the great Vizier at Buda for Transyl­vania. where Boczkay did Homage for Transylvania, and submitted it under the pro­tection of the Turks: whereupon he was presen­ted with a Crown as King also of Hungary (supposed to have been the Constantinopolitan Emperours, or the Despots of Thrace) and a Sword embellished with Gold, Jewels, and other Ornaments; all which (except the Crown) Boczkay accepted, but that he refused, ac­knowledging Caesar to have been duly crowned, for which his modesty was worthily praised, however he may be justly taxed of Sedition and Rebellion. By reason of this fealty the Vizier made him Tribute free for ten years, those ex­pired, the yearly Tribute of ten thousand Guilders to be paid at the Port for the Upper Transylvania, at which agreement the Janiza­ [...]es made great acclamations of Felicity, as expecting a Donative and Gratuity.

A Diet was soon after held by Boczkay at Corpona, whither came Sigismund Forgacz from Caesar, with Conditions of Peace, to which the Turk engaged by the Rebel Bassa's of A­leppo and Caramania, was inclinable also in his own behalf, having first seen Boczkays Pro­positions. This Overture came to a Conclusion at Vienna, managed by Illyeshazi and Mlasodo­ [...]itius, on the part of the Transylvanian [Page 246] Caesar consenting to whatsoever Propositions, as knowing Boczkay must ere long dye without Is­sue.The Empe­ror makes Peace with Bocskay, the reason thereof. The Terms were, a general and mutu­al Amnesty and Oblivion, a Toleration of the Roman, Lutheran, and Calvinian Professions, a Palatine to be elected by the Votes of the Hungarians; the Chambers and new Courts to be abolished; The Treasury to be regulated by new Commissioners, the Hungarians to redeem the Castles pawned to the Germans; The Go­vernment to be administred by Hungarians; but Raab and Comorra may be governed by deser­ving Germans; All Transylvania, with that part of Hungary which Sigismund Bathori en­joyed, to belong to Boczkay, together with the Lordships of Tockay, Sacmar, &c. Which for want of Issue,The Arti­cles of the Peace. shall revert to Caesar: if the Peace be not concluded with the Turk they shall joyn Arms; Bishops descended of the Nobility to have Voyce and place in Counsel, others not. This was ratified by the Dep [...]ties of all the upper Hereditary Provinces of the Emperour and firmed by the eminentest Nobi­lity of both sides. Varadin was herewith yeil­ded to Bocskay, having all along been stoutly defended against him by Baptista Pecsius, as St. George and B [...]zinium were rendred to Illyesha­zi.

The Peace was also concluded with the Turk for 20. years.Peace with the Turk also. Achmet the Sultan to call Cae­sar Father, he Achmet Son, both to be salu­ted by the name of Caesars; all differences ari­sing [Page 247] to be composed by the Governours of Ra­a [...] and Buda. The Castles and Fortresses to stand,The Condi­tions of it. but no new ones to be built, only the Hungarians may repair Vaccia; Caesar shall pay this year 200 thousand Imperials, but no­thing afterwards; every three years the Empe­rours shall interchange Presents, and a faithful friendship shall be consolidated between them. This Transaction was followed by the Death of Boczkay, who professed himself willing to dye, so that he had had the opportunity of purging himself, before the World and the Empire, of Sedition. He declared Valentine Homonnai by his last Will, for Prince of Transylvania, which Homonnai gaped after, but the Transyl­vanians chose Sigismund Rakoczi, Bocskay dyeth and appointeth Homonnai for his suc­cessor but the people chuse Ra­koczi. and although he made great reluctancy pretending several Ex­cuses, yet at last they compelled him to Clau­senburgh, and made him assume the Principa­lity, while Homonai mad with rage, having plundered Boczkay's treasures committed to him, retired to Ungnade; by whose Example Szecfi and Paul Nyari shared the like entrust­ments among themselves, the deserved and desired End of Goods got by Violence and Op­pression.

Just before the Confirmation of this Turkish Peace, an Embassador from Persia, came to Prague, and there by extolling his Mast­ers power, and his resolution of destroying the O [...]toman Name and Nation, put a demur to the ratification, which passed not till somewhat [Page 248] after, when Matthias the Brother of the Em­perour, was possessed of the Crown of Hun­gary; The Turk was instant to have it finished, and stormed exceedingly at the delay, for that Serdar Bassa who had possessed himself of A­leppo, Damascus, and Tripoli, with a formi­dable power, under smooth & dutiful pretences threatned Constantinople.

In the mean while (and the licentious ra­pines of the Heyducks upon all such Intervalls) Matthias, Matthias gains to himself the Crown of Hungary. his Brothers Viceroy, prepared his way to the Crown of Hungary, urged there­unto by Illyeshazi, whose interest Rudolphus had used at the Diet at Ratisbone to prefer Fer­dinand the Nephew of Charles his Brother; Hereupon Souldiers were listed by Matthias, to obviate the designs of the Spaniards, who would advance Ferdinand as more Catholick then himself: with these, under pretence of re­pressing the Heyducks, he came suddenly to Presburgh, and was received into the Castle by the Archbishop and Cardinal Pazman and Il­lyezhazi, at whose instances he possessed himself of the Crown. By him the late Articles of Vienna were confirmed (the Hungarians be­ing obstinate to those terms) and upon that score Austria and Moravia also joyned with him, and vowed to live and dye in his Cause.

Having from hence raised an Army of 20. thousand men, he marched to Prague, where the Emperour delaying of his Grants to the Bo­hemians, [Page 249] (who had armed themselves in vindica­tion of their Religion, and the same Pri­viledges with the Papists) found himself so dis­appointed, that he condiscended to the Inaugu­ration of Matthias, Matthias allows the Hungari­ans their Privileges. in the kingdome of Hun­gary. He arrived at Presburgh the 22. of October, where he allowed the priviledges afore­said, the Election of a Palatine within a year after the others Decease, which Dignity had been vacant 46. years, ever since Nadasdi, together with the expulsion of the Jesuits. From thence he went to Cassovia, at which Diet held there, Sigismund Racockzi, as Prince of Transylvania did him Fealty, and soon after resigned the Principality to Gabriel Bathori, ha­ving gained the Confirmation from Achmet, and an uninteressednesse from Matthias. In all things,Rakoczi's Modesty. he shewed himself a person of great Justice and Modesty, in declining his as­sistance of the Rebels in Poland, and transfer­ring this Soveraignty to another, when he was so beloved and courted by the people.

To passe by new commotions and discontents of the Hungarians about their Religion now invaded and infringed, but vindicated by the Elector of Saxony, and other Protestant Prin­ces, who by arming themselves over-ruled Matthias; we return to matters of State: Il­lyezhazi the new Palatine, built a new Fabrick in the Castle of Presburgh, for the Conserva­tion of the CROWN; and Collonicsius was ad­vanced to a higher Dignity in that Kingdome, [Page 250] which had hitherto been in no condition to re­spect his merit. As to war it had its divertise­ment in Transylvania; Radulo the noble Vay­vod of Valachiae, refused Homage to Bathori, who incensed thereat (and designing the Seizure of all Dacia which the Turks had promised to Boczkay) raised a puissant Army such as was hardly seen there before,Prince Ba­thori de­feated by Radulo Vayvod of Valachia. and gave him Battle at Brassovia, where he was totally routed by the valour of the said Vayvod; which opportunity Matthias in Confederacy with that gallant per­son, so improved, that he possessed himself of Clausenburgh, and other chief Holds by his General Forgacz, while Bathori betook him­self to the Mountains.

This Enterprize was the more easily carried on against him, for that his prodigious Lust made him odious to his Subjects, whose beau­tifullest Wives and Daughters he frequently and most openly vitiated. Notwithstanding such was his Fortune,He reco­vers his Losses a­gain. His infa­mous lust. that he beat Forgacz out of his Dominions, and forced him to hide himself in the Woods of Bohemia, after he had suffer­ed very great Extremities. Yet the same Vi­cissitudinary fortune undid Bathori, betrayed by his Embassador Andrew Geczi to the Grand Se­igniour, who designed the Principality to him­self, and whom the Bassa of Buda would have confirmed, but that Bathori betook himself (such the Reciprocation of these Interests) to the Protection & Friendship of Matthias, now elected Emperour of Germany, by whose assistance [Page 251] the at instance of Thurzo the Palatine in the room of Illyeshaeci Geczi was overthrown, & at the same time Bethlen Gabor substituted by the Turks to the same Dignity, at the price which Bathori had payed for it.

He enraged with this affront (besides that he was a man of a most incredible strength) ravage­ly fell upon his poor Subjects, who yet again bore with him while he renewed his debauche­ries, whose vengeance every one of the Nobles incited. At this Juncture Bethlen made use of the Turks power and subdued Lippa, Aradum, and other places, whose rendition made Bathori, suspectfull of all people, to betake himself by a speedy flight from Clausenburg toWhich he rode in one day being distant 150 Eng­lish miles. Varadin, where admitted into the Castle, consultation was held concerning him by the Nobles, who advised Gregory Nadanyj, and George Szylasi to assassinate him, and they after some reluctan­cies of Conscience animated by the mortall jealousie of Decsius a Preacher of the Calvinist Faction,Prince Ba­thori assassinated by some of the Nobles. whose Wife Bathori most leudly loved, at the second resolution assaulted & slew him in the street of Varadin called Velenze, as he was going to the Baths.

Bethlen was immediately acknowledged by the Transylvanians, and confirmed for his presents & acknowledgments, both by the Turk and Emperour. His first Act was the vindication of Bathori's death, by the popular fury permit­ted upon his Assassinates, whom he summoned to the dyer (with a salvo statu) then held at Medgy­sium. [Page 252] Achmet in preparation for War in Hunga­ry dies 1617.At the same time Achmet was ready at Adrianople with an Army to invade Hun­gary, but the Emir of Sidon (who derives him­self from Godfrey of Bu [...]loyn) gave him a diver­sion; as did the Cossacks plague him in the Euxine Sea, by burning 24 of his Galleys, and infesting Thracia also by Land, but the chief remora of all was His death in the year 1617. Mustapha his brother succeeded him, but was presently deposed, and Osman Achmets Son aged 16 years was saluted Em­perour,Sultan O [...] ­man strang­led. who survived not long after, being strangled by Daout Bassa. Not to mention the War now commenced between the Emperour and the Venetians about Pyracies committed by the Uschock [...] and Chroats upon their Maritine Territories, as publick in a discourse by it self, which war was managed with great resolution by both parties in Dalmatia and Friuli.

The event of this unkind war, redounded to a good and amicable understanding between Matthias and Ferdinand, who was now adopted to the Crown, provided that he intermedled not during the life of the Emperour; and the next year he was Crowned King of Hungary, at which time three Suns appeared denoting the mischeifs (if they may be so construed) that befell his Dominions in the ensuing War of Bohemia, The Empe­rors Mat­thias dieth. first managed by Ernest Count Mansfeld for the reformed, and Count Bucquoy for the Emperour Matthias, who wearied with a lingring and continual distemper having lived [Page 253] 62 years, and governed Hungary 12, as Ger­many 7 years, deceased with the blessings of a Peace to his Subjects.

FERDINAN the 2d. by the endevours of Matthias being elected King,Ferdinand the 2d. K. of Hunga­ry. administred the Government Government by many altera­tions, the cause of which changes was the same with the usuall excesses of arbitrary Innovation, for he recalled the Jesuits in hatred of the Pro­testants, and very much infringed the Articles of Bocskay, which made them have recourse to the Count of Thurn then in Arms near Vienna.

At the same time the Bohemian Estates pre­vailing no more as to Liberty of Conscience,The Bohe­mian War in Brief. conferred the Kingdome on Frederick Count Elector Palatine, who animated by his Wife the only Daughter of Iames King of England, (of whose assistance together with the Dutch, he was made confident, as assured of a nearer help from Bethlen Gabor upon the same account of Religion) accepted thereof: The Hungarians raised hereupon by Teiffenback, thrust them­selves into Silesia, more intent upon the prey then studious of the cause, while Bethlen having repulsed Homonnai, who had introduced the Jesuits into Claudiopolis, either hung or banished them, publishing a Proclamation against the entertainment or reception of any of that Society.Bethlen Gobor takes part with Fre­derick K. of Bohe­mia.

And now in pursuance of his Confederacy with Frederick the Count Palatine, he rushed into Hungary, with an Army of 18000 men, [Page 254] and 18 great Guns, where meeting with a discontented part of the Nobles by the infring­ment of the abovesaid Articles, and strengthned by them, he took in Cassovia by his Lieutenants Redei and Szecsi, and by fair words cajoled Andrew Docrius the Generall of Upper Hun­gary by pretence of peace-making into a Capti­vity in Transylvania wherein he dyed.Bethlen's successes in Hungary. This proceeding so frighted the Jesuits and Friers, that they made what hast they could out of his way, so many places rendring themselves (led by the examples of the Mine Towns, of which Rosnoboyana was the first) as Fileck, V [...]zia, Tyrnaw, Nitria, Posing, &c. that they knew not where to be secure, only Comorra and Raab firmly Garrisoned by Austrians withstood his Fortune.

Part of the Army therefore was employedin an irruption into Moravia, the other being joyned with Thurn beseiged Presburgh, wherein was the Palatine of Hungary with a small Garrison, and some Troops of Bucquoy in the Suburbs, the which he presently cut off, and thereupon the City yeilded it self with the Crown & other regal Ornaments, and gave him liberty by the seizure of some interjacent pla­ces, as Viscetus and Eberstorph to carry the terrour, with the sight of his Arms, to Vienna.

But here the misfortune that befell George Rakoczi, whom he had left his Vicegerent in Transylvania, impeded his further Progresse: George Honnonnai a firm adherer to the House [Page 255] of Austria, having fled from his late defeat into Poland, with a fresh supply thence, returned and encountred Rakoczi, by whom he was worsted; but recruited with present supplies engaged him again, which fight had lasted two dayes, when Homonnai by the counterfeit of a flight drew him into his ambushes and there dis­comfited him,Rakoczi his Vice Roy defeat­ed by Ho­monnai. the foot were all of them slain, Rakoczi and the Horse escaped by flight. This emergency recalled Gabor from Vienna, after he had caused himself to be proclaimed King of Hungary in defyance of Ferdinand, and contracted a firmer league with the Bohemians, to the designation of higher matters.

Ferdinand was absent at the diet at Franck­furt, when the Bohemians revolted, where having complained, as also to the Kings of France and England of their insolence, he ap­pointed Maximilian of Bavaria his Generall the Duke of Saxony and the Catholick Elector being also made sure to his Interest, and besides a truce was concluded on with Gabor to Michael­masse. And now ready for a war in Germany, the French suspended it by their interposition at Ulms.

That not proving durable, Ioachim Ernestus the Marquesse of Anspach, The Mar­quesse of Anspach his Trea­chery. was entrusted by Frederick with the charge of the Palatinate and the Government of Heydelberg, who being ready to engage with Maximilian, was not only diverted and recalled by Spinola's arrivall, who took in Oppenheim, Baccharach, and other [Page 256] places, but corrupted also by his Gold, although the Prince of Aurange had engaged to his assistance.The Trea­chery of the Marquiss of An­spuch. Maximilian freed of this Enemy, marched to Prague with an Army of 25 Thou­sand men, attended with Count Bucquoy, whose Troops in the night surprized the Hungarians, sent to aid the Palatine by Bethlen, that were quartered upon the White-hill and carried away 1500 Horses after a great slaughter committed on the Riders. This ominous defeat so height­ned Maximilian that he dared the Enemy to an engagement, against the advise of Bethlen, who would have had the Bohemians temporize till he could personally assist them, but such was the Palatines fate, that a battel ensued, wherein at first by the rout of the young Prince of Anhalt, the Bohemians seemed to be fortunate, but the sudden flight of 8000. Hungarians altered the Case,The King of Bohemia defea­ted at Prague. and gave the Imperiallists a compleat victory. Frederick with his Princesse fled to Vratislavia, and Bohe­mia as not long after Moravia and Silesia ac­cepted of the Emperours Conditions.

Bethlen summoned a Diet in Hungary at Ersekuyvarum, Bethlen stiled King of Hun­gary. where partly betwixt Force and good will he was again Proclaimed King, the Majesty of which Title his Valour (as ha­ving been two and forty times present in Bat­tel) Magnificence and Popularity very well suited, and now he began to Act as a King▪ Tampirius Generalissimo of Hungary there­fore opposed his Army consisting of ten thou­sand [Page 257] men, and by Water and Land laid Siege to Presburgh, and took the Suburbs and the Fort before them;Tampiri slai [...]. but while he unwarily view­ed the Castle he was slain with a Dart. The Fall of the General made the Souldiers desert the siege, and suffer Bethlen to Ravage Au­stria, where he had effected great matters, but that the over-throw of his Confederates at Prague spoyled his Designs. The Elector Pa­latine being yet at Uratislavia in the Marquisate of Silesia, did very much urge him to proceed and to continue his Successes, for that speedily he would bring an Army out of Eng­land and Denmark to his Assistance. And in­deed Ernestus Count Mansfield, Brother of Charles that was so Famous for the Siege of Strigonium, having gained Pilsa and Taborum, was advanced into the Palatinate, and had reduced things there to some better Conditlon;Bohemia lost. but in the mean while Bohemia was quite lost, the Palatine proscribed, the Jesuits restored, and the Reformists driven out of the King­dome.

The French King endevoured a Peace be­tween the Emperour and Bethlen at Ham­burg, 1621. but with no successe; for Gabriel would neither renounce his Regal Title nor give way to the Estates of Hungary to transact with Ferdinand, but called in an Army of Turks and Tartars, by which means he drew Envy upon himself, and the Estates grew eager a­gainst his Government and returned to their [Page 258] former Allegiance. George Szecsi was first received into favour, who drew a great many with him; and took Francis Redei away per­force, who languished away for greif not long after. As to matter of Action, Charles [...]ongae­vall Count of Bucquoy, having subdued and tamed the Moravians, with an Army of 2200 men, and 22 Great Guns marched directly a­gainst Bethlen, who retreating into Transylva­nia, and the German and Hungarian Garrisons diffe [...]ing among themselves, recovered Pres­burg, with Tyrnaw, Ovarum, Schutt, and all that Tract of Ground as far as Newhausel, Newhau­sel besie­ged by Bucq [...]oy. which he also besieged, and brought it to ex­tremity; when Stanislaus Thurzo salleyed out upon the Foragers, and lighting upon Bucquoy, who too rashly engaged in their assistance kil­led him after sixteen wounds, his Horse being shot under him; his dead body with the slaugh­ter of many Imperialists, was brought off and redeemed from the Hungarians, Bucquoy slain. and in the beginning of Iuly enterred at Vienna.

By his Death the Affairs of Caesar were shaken,1621. for the Walloons refusing another Ge­neral, gave opportunity to the Enemy of re­ducing many places; Gabriel having raised a new Army and overthrown the Nobles of Hun­gary; Ersekuyvarum was also abandoned by the Garrison: so that finding the Kingdome naked and destitute of Defence,Gab [...]iel's new Later [...] prises in Hungary. he joyned with the Count of Thurn and the Marquisse of I [...]gerendorf and forced Tyrnaw; Presburg he [Page 259] in vain attempted; whence by the Invitation of Iagerendorf he made an Irruption into Mo­ravia, and seized and pillaged several places; but being opposed here by the Emperours new Generals, Esterhasius, Wallensteyn and Hanibal Donaw, who set upon him on every side, (and Iagerendorf departed from Silesia, as his Tran­sylvanians for want of Provision were privily slipt home) he bethought himself of a Peace, which at the instance of his Ambassadors was first treated of at Oedinburg, but Conc [...]uded at Szentmicklosium, A Peace betwixt Gabor & the Empe­rour. whereby Bethlen retaining Tockay and Cassovia, with seven other Lord­ships in Hungary, was to yeild up and resign the Crown with all other places and Cities in that Kingdome;1622. to forbear the Regal Title and be content with the Name of Roman Prince, should enjoy Opulia and Ratibor, the State of Religion, and the Jesuites to be restored to the places they were in before. Thus the Elector Palatine was disappointed here also, as Mansfield, and Christian Duke of Brunswick had been unsuccessful against Tilly, so that dri­ven out of his Haereditary Countreys, he fled into Holland; The Electoral Dignity was con­ferred on Maximilian of Bavaria; when, the Estates of the Empire perceived that the Pow­er they had given the Emperour was used by him against themselves.

Iagerendorf being expelled out of Silesia, again implored Bethlen to the assistance and Support of the Churches; whereupon the flame [Page 260] of the but newly quenched Conflagration broke out again. Bethlen delivered Vaczia to the Turks, with whom and the Tartars to the num­ber of eighty thousand excited by the Count of Thurn, A new Rupture on the part of Beth­len G [...]b [...]r he Invaded Hungary; pretending first Religion, then the Money not paid, nor the Conditions of the Treaty at Oedinburg performed. At Tyrnaw he defeated the Regi­ment of Tieffenbach, and falling into Moravia drove Swarzemburg before him and besieged him in the Metropolis, building four great Bul­warks before that part of the City where the onely Egresse was, and keeping strong Guards on that side where it was Fenced with the Lake and Woods: neverthelesse Swarzemburg by a frugal apportioning of the Allowance of Pro­vision, held out the place till the Winter, when the Grand Seigniour being rightly informed of the Quarrel by Caesar, with the menace of his Scymitar, recalled Bethlen; and the Turks and Tartars impatient of the delay and the Cold, refused to obey him, altho [...]gh some of them were therefore hanged up:Gabor deserted by the Turk renews the Peace with disadvan­tage. Besides the aids out of Germany appeared not, so that he was compelled to make a Truce, and the Garrison (almost famished) delivered from the Siege. His Title of The Roman Prince, or Prince of the Romans, was abolished; his Coadjutors the Turks, left to get home as well as they could, in which return many were stripped and slain, and satisfied for their fellows cruelty, and plunder.

[Page 261] In the beginng of May this year the Peace was confirmed,1624. and redintegrated: Iageren­dorf quite disseised of Silesia, & Thurn expell'd out of Moravia, and Bethlen deprived of that part he held in Hungary, but restored to Opu­lia, and Ratibor taken from him in the begin­ning of these Troubles: And lastly, the King­dome of Hungary acknowledged her old So­veraign, Ferdinand Ernestus Eldest Son of Ferdinand the second,Ferdinand the 3d. K. of Hun­gary. being Crowned at Ova­rum, where were present his Father, his Queen and Children, Caraffa the Popes Nuncio, and the Spanish and Florentine Ambassadors; Beth­len also sent his thither, being taken up with the Solemnity of his Nuptials with Catharine the Daughter of Iohn Sigismund Marquiss of Brandenburgh, who was Married at Alba Iu­lia. 1626. At this Diet at Ovarum, great was the Unanimity and Concord of the Estates, by whose resolutions the Guards and Forts against Canysa were strongly fortified, the License of Poly­gamy restrained, the Road secured, and the Tribute and Tax duely settled, and other things enacted which concerned the safety of the Kingdome. Ezterhesius was substituted to the Dignity of Palatine in the room of Thurzo.

Next succeeded the Coronation it self: The Regal Diadem, Robes, Sword, and Globe, with the noyse of the Cannon, and the gladsome Acclamation of the People (wishing all happi­nesse to the King and Kingdome thus restored) were conveyed from Presburg in this Order; [Page 262] First went the German Trumpeters, then th [...] Barons, the Masters of the Horse with their Squadrons Armed Cap a pe; next followed the Hungarian Noblemen, the Deputies or Go­vernours of Dalmatia, The Coro­nation of Ferdinand the third. Sclavonia, and Croatia; then the Servants of the Palatine covered with the skins of Leopards and Tigers, then the Pa­latine himself in the middst between the Ger­man and Hungarian Barons, the Crown and the other Royal Ensigns being laid upon a Chariot. The Cardinal Peter Pazman, and Arch-Bishop of Strigonium, put the Crown on the King's Head in the Great Church; where were pre­sent a great Confluence of Schollars to attend the Cardinal, from the Colledges of Vienna, and Tyrnaw, and elsewhere; the Hungarians being here asked if they did accept him for their King, with one Voice answered, We do; We will and require it, let the King live and Reign long, and Govern us. The King (the Divine Service performed) turned his Chair towards the People, and laying the Sword of St. Stephen upon their shoulders, Created four Knights; when mounting his Horse, in an Hungarian Ha­bit he galloped up a little Hill, and there bran­dishing his Sword four times to the four Quar­ters of the World, thereby declared his Majesty and his Empire: Medals of Gold and Silver being at the same time thrown among the People. For Conclusion, he was Nobly treated at a most sumptuous Royal Feast by the Nobles.

[Page 263] A new Storm over-clouded this Serenity: Bethlen instigated by Count Mansfield in the Month of Iuly, New stirs and an In­vasion into Hungary by Bethlen invaded Hungary again, whi­ther the said Count joyned with the Duke of Weymar (being beaten out of Germany, the Netherlands and Bohemia) was bending his for­ces, but both of them although additioned by forces from Bethlen, who resented his losse of Opulia and Ratibor, were vanquished by Wal­lensteyn. Who being afterwards recoyled by the Turks about Nitria, fought with dubious fortune against the said Mansfeldians, still re­cruiting upon every Disaster, as if they had been the Sons of Antaeus.

But upon the news brought to Bethlen that 40. thousand Tartars his Confederates were slain in Poland, 1627. he found it high time to be­think of Peace, by which on shameful Condi­tions he departed out of Hungary, & quitted his Confederates Mansfield and Weymar, renoun­cing also his Tartarian friendship, with an Ob­ligation to free all Christian Captives with the Turks. Mansfield suspecting this Collusion, with his most expedite and nimble Troops hast­ed to the Venetians, leaving the rest of his for­ces to Weymar, The Death of Count Mansfeld. but taken in Bosnia with a Flux, proceeding (as some report) from poyson he took into his bowells, he expired his busie and versatile Soul there. Weymar also having possessed himself of Hohenwold and Iabelunca, and designing his Efforts upon Hungary, dis­contented with those practises of the Transyl­vanian, [Page 264] And of the Duke of Weymar.soon wasted away, aged 32. years, much beloved and lamented by his party for his moderate, yet valiant actions and deport­ment in Silesia. Him Bethlen followed, tortured with such an excessive pain in his feet, that he commanded the soles of them to be lanced, to give passage to the fluid humour; to this was added the Disease of the Holy Fire, Sacer Ignis which gave occasion to the Papists Invectives, that all the Elements conspired against him, being persecuted with fire,And of Bethlen Gabor. water, iron, &c. and that his end was worthy of his Actions. He bequeathed to each of the Emperours a Horse, with Jewells,Anno 1628. Trappings, and Furniture, worth 40. thousand Guilders, to his Wife a 100 thousand Guilders and as many thousand Im­perials, and Florens, with 3 Royalty's, to hold and enjoy for her life; having given this testimony of Caesar, that it was a very hazzar­dous thing to war with him, as a person who was neither deprest with adverse nor lifted up with prosperous fortune.

By his Death Cassovia, Tockay, and all the places granted to him for his Life, reverted to the Emperour; and his Widow, although proclaimed Prince of Transylvania, yet want­ing Title and Right as being a Stranger, whether spontaneously, or against her Will, quitted the Administration, having procured Stephon Cza­kius whom she loved, to be named for Prince, and indevoured at the Ottoman Port to have him invested; but the Transylvanians rejecting the [Page 265] Princesse, were divided into two other parts, some would have Stephen Bethlen, the Brother of the deceased Gabriel; Divisions in Tran­sylvania about Ele­ction of a new Prince others stood for George Rakoczi, whose fortune and wonderful felicity, carried it from all his Competitors, Catharius the Agent at Constantinople, prevari­cating and acting for Rakoczi, as did several Ca­stellans by the liberality of the Princess granted unto Csakius, who took fortune to their Coun­sellour, Csakius speeds thither; and comes to Muncacksum, given him by the same hand and desired admission, but Iohn Balling the Go­vernour of the Place presenting the Ordnance against him, told him he had delivered it to Ra­koczi, and had received the Hereditary Go­vernment of it for his rendition.

Bethlen at the same time possessed himself of most of the other places in Transylvania, 1631. but by the detestable disloyalty of his Son Stephen, and his Son in Law David Zolyomi, and the disaffection of all forraign Princes, he was for­ced to abandon his pretensions, for Rakoczi invi­ted by those two persons came to Varadin, where by their Suffrage and Advancement, he wrested the Principality from Stephen, Rakoczi established Prince of Transyl­vania. crea­ted Prince thereof, who being of a mild and quiet disposition, and more desirous of a pri­vate Life, by his own Interest promoted Ra­koczi, against Czakius, and forgave his Son and Son in Law, not forgiven by God the just Avenger of their unnatural offence, (he him­self receiving the name of Governour:) for not [Page 266] long after his Son Stephen, Unnatural Disloyalty punished. a youth otherwise of great learning and virtue, having been bred up with his brother Peter at Leyden, dyed at Ec­sedium, his body being horribly eaten up with Worms: David Zolyomi was committed to per­petual Imprisonment by Rakoczi, whom he had helped to prefer.

Caesar likewise had dispatcht Esterhasius the Palatine of Hungary, with a strong Army to possesse himself of Transylvania, but before his Arrival Rakoczi had setled himself; and by Stephen Bethlen the Governour of Dacia, pro hac vice, in an Irruption into Hungary, over­threw him and took several Cities; the Sultan himself, while yet the Peace was in force betwixt him and the Emperor, of his own accord sending 10000. men to Ersekuyvarum to his assistance, in testimony of his affection to, and approba­tion of Rakoczi, who wasted the Countrey on purpose to divert Esterhasius; wherefore the Emperour not willing to bring a greater War upon himself,Rakoczi incensed a­gainst the Emperour. by designing upon others, pre­sently acquiesced. But this provocation deter­mined not so on the part of Rakoczi, whose of­fence thereat, the Swede by an Embassy to him, so aggravated (finding the German War like to rest upon his own single Shoulders) by other fetches of the common Cause of Religion, &c. that Rakoczi began to arm, intending at once to be revenged of Caesar, Esterhausius, and Cszakius together, and to that purpose made sure of the protection and favour of the grand [Page 267] Seigniour, who assented to his proposed Enter­prise, and Commanded the Bassa of Buda and the Moldavians to assist him therein.

Csakius no lesse vigilant in his affairs, being supplied with mony by Gabors Widdow, pressed an Engagement with Rakoczi, and continued and renewed it five several times by the indiffe­rence of Fortune,Csakius forceth his peace from Rakoczi. yet so distastful to Rak [...]czi, that he was willing to a Peace, whereby Csakius was to enjoy what he held in Transylvania with­out any molestation.

This Province thus settled, arose another intestine Feud; Stephen Bethlen with Peter his Son, had killed a Kinsman of Rakoczi's, and suspecting his Revenge, had gathered an Army of Turks and Tartars, and brought them to Gyula, out of meer fear intending to take upon him the Government, which he had for quiet­nesse before resigned. Rakoczi detesting this wavering faith of the Turks submitted to the Austrians, from whom he was supplied out of Silesia with three Regiments of Foot and one of Horse; against those the Turks opposed them­selves, but by the cunning and Policy of Iames Gyori (a person skilled in their Langu­age who pretended to be faithful to Bethlen, Turks as­sist against R [...]koczi and are defeated. and betrayed his and their Designs to Rakoczi) and by the valour of Sigismund Cornicsius, twenty five thousand of them were slain at Szalcula.

Soon after David Zolyomi having leavyed 2000. Horse to the assistance of the King of [Page 268] Sweden, to whose War in Germany the Tran­sylvanians were very much affected, Rakoczi either true to the Emperour, or suspecting this as [...]ome design for his Father in law, disbanded all his Troops. This injury stuck so close to Zolyomi that he resolved to kill him as he was a hunting,The venge­ance that pursued David Zolyomi. but his Conscience reclaiming, he warned Rakoczi that he should forbear hunting on his prefixed day, but to send some armed men, to such places, where they should find the Assassinates prepared for the Execution, who being accordingly discovered and slain,1633. Solyomi, bound in Chains of the weight of 50 pound was cast into a most squalid and dolefull dungeon, which had one onely prospect against a Wall by a Window, of a Cubits length and bredth, where he was kept from any humane converse the whole course of his life: so that in what he sinned by advancing Rakoczi before his Father in law in that he was thus severely punished, alleviated onely by the honourable respects shewed him by Vrbanus Reoti the Governour of the Castle, who laboured all he could for his Enlargement; but neither Caesars intreaties could prevail in that point.

Bethlen, Bethlen raiseth a new war against Rakoczi when he could neither obtain Ob­livion and indempnity for his late actions, nor procure his Son in law's deliverance, invited the Turks again, who had excused their late Ex­pedition in behalf of Bethlen, protesting their ex­act observation of the Peace; but the Palatine versed in those frauds of the Infidel listed the [Page 269] Heyducks, and watched every event. Many Encounters happned betwixt Rakoczi and beth­len, and oftentimes with losse to the Turks, which so vexed the Sultan that he Commanded the Vizier to be flead alive. But at last the businesse was composed by the mediation of Friends, and Bethlen restored acknowledge Rakoczi, whom the Turk again Confirm­ed.

Ferdinand the second,1637. being now Deceased, his eldest Son the third of that name, succeed­ed him in all his Dominions, and seemed to have restored to Hungaria and Transylvania, a most blessed Peace; had it not been for the Jesuites who raised new Troubles: For the Ca­tholick Nobles grudged that the Protestants by the former War had extorted some things in favour of their Religion, and the Lutherans had built a very beautiful Church at Presburg, Troubles about Re­ligion in Hungary. which Caesar resenting had sent his inhibition, and disallowed his former concessions. The Protestants hereupon addressed themselves to Rakoczi as their Sanctuary and Anchor, who had been also offended with the Emperour upon this account: There was found at Varadin in the Vault of Ladislaus and Sigismund, a Trea­sure, with a Crown, Scepter, and Jewells, one of which being a Diamant (as my Authour hath it) was as big as a Hens Egg set in a lock­et, which glittered and shone like a lighted Torch, there being an Anathema added that no man presumed to meddle with them, while the [Page 270] necessity of the Castle should require it: These Ferdinand demanded, but Rakoczi refused them. Add to this a worser Evil; It happned that so ne Hungarian Nobles, as Forgaczi, Illyeshazi, Maintain­ed and a­betted by Rakoczi. and others, turned Roman Catholicks, and some Catholicks obtained Lordships where the Protestant Religion was before exercised, which they took upon them to restrain,1639. and converted their Churches to Catholick uses.

These innovations and the force that obtru­ded them, Rakoczi desired the Emperour to remove, and to observe those Immunities and Priviledges which he and the Estates had con­firmed to the Protestants; but the Emperour, either not valuing Rakoczi, or secure of Hun­gary (for that the Turk engaged in the East,1642. had Concluded a Peace for twenty years) put him off with continual delayes;Rakoczi sl [...]ghted by the Empe­rour. and raised an Army of Hungarians against the Swede, who neverthelesse would not stir out of their Coun­trey. Rakoczi on the other side held Intelli­gence with General Torstenson then in Silesia, and resolved to Arm, having in vain mediated but for the restitution of three hundred Pro­testant Churches shut up by the Emperour; be­sides that there was a present Pique and grudge between him and Homonnai, who had driven away all the Protestants out of his Govern­ment, and had seized the Wines of Tockay, which were to be sent as the Annual present to the Grand Seigniour.

There was at this time at the Transylvannia Court,1644. the Ambassadors of Poland, Sweden, [Page 271] France, and Austria; the last of whom being slightly dismissed, Rakoczi Proclaimed open War against Ferdinand the third,War pro­claimed by Rakoczi against Ferdinand and with 70000 men Invaded Hungary; the Reasons of which, published in a Manifesto were these; That since the last nineteen years, Hungary had been reckoned among the Hereditary Provinces, That Civil and secular Offices were conferred upon Ecclesiastical Persons, and Lands of main­tainance assigned them; and Protestants put by from all places, and Iesuites introduced, a­gainst their Consent and Will. His mani­fest and successes. His first Effort was upon the Castles of Homonnai, which he ruined and demolished, committing great slaughter and rapine, using F [...]re and Sword to Extremity. Next he compelled Cassovia to a surrender, in vain defended by Count Forgacz. To oppose his further progresse the Emperour dispatched away Count Buchain with twenty thousand men, while the Palatine was employed in raising Eight Thousand Hungariaus; the first Encounter proved not so prosperous to the Transylvanian; but the continual revolt of the Hungarians was cheaper then Victory, which now favoured him in his repulse of Adam Forgacz, from Rimaszombathum; Buchain was advised by Nadasdi to make a diversion by the way of Agria into Transylvenia, and so hem him in by getting below him; but in this he onely trifled away time, while Rakoczi (most of the strong places being possessed by the Catholick party) besieged Tyrnaw, which at [Page 272] last opened its Gates to General Douglasse and his Son Sigismund, where the Bishops and Noblemen (now Crest-fallen) humbly intreat­ed Canysius the Protestant Preacher of the place, to mediate with the Victor that he would take them into his Clemency; which was grant­ed at his intercession.

And now Rakoczi distrusting this eager fa­vour of Fortune,Rakoczi yeilds to a Peace with the Empe­rour. inclined to a Composure, which Caesar more desirous of, both for that the Climate agreed not with his forrain Souldie­ry, and the huge price of grain, the unsuc­cessful siege of Cassovia, 1645. with the forced re­treat of Bouchain to Presburgh, readily con­sented to, and hastily concluded, to the great vexation and anger of the Swede. This Peace was Proclaimed on St. Bartholomew's Day, by which seven Lordships in Hungary were confirmed to the Transylvanian, 90 Churches restored to the Protestants, and the rest of their Priviledges confirmed to them.

Torstenson thus forsaken of his Confederate was abandoned by his Fortune,General Torsten­son aban­doned by Rakoczi. and forced to rise from the siege of Prunna. In the mean while died the Palatine▪ to whom Drascovi­tius was substituted, and the Instrument of the Transylvanian Pacification was made publick,Ferdinand the 4th. K. of Hun­gary. notwithstanding both parties in Hungary were as imbittered as ever about the Extermination of the Jesuits, and ready to draw one upon a­nother. The next year Ferdinand the fourth, was Crowned King of Hungary, 1646. the Peace [Page 273] continuing with the Turks, but so fallaciously that three hundred of them were got privily in­to Raab, Raab de­signed upon by the Turks. where being discovered by a Woman, they were all of them slain and the City pre­served by the Divine favour and protection.

In the Year 1648 died Prince Rakoczi, to whom Succeeded his Son George; as Ferdinand the fourth, Crowned King of the Romans, Rakoczi's and Fer­dinands Death. a Prince of more Hopes then Glory, after he had lived to the age of 22 years, Deceased in the Year 1653. and Leopold Ignatius his Brother succeeded him in all his Dignities, Kingdomes, and Dominions

In the Year 1656 the Swede having Invad­ed Poland, The Swedes invade Po­land. and almost Conquered the hither part (so that the many Garrisons he was for­ced to Man, had almost drayned his Army) by his Ambassadors invited Prince Rakoczi to the Spoyl and his Assistance; and such was the evil Fate of Transylvania, and Rakoczi in particular, that allured by the great advanta­ges the Ruin of that Kingdom promised him, he Confederated himself with the Swede, Rakoczi joyns with him. main­taining Correspondencies and intrigues with all his Allyes, particularly, with the pretended Protector of England, to whom he sent an Envoy to transact his Concerns of Money; to the payment whereof the King of Sweden had by pact obliged the said Usurper, the con­sideration and satisfaction whereof, are of no great moment to this discourse.

The Transylvanians betaking themselves to [Page 274] their Arms, from which they had been longer disused than throughout the whole series of their History (the Turks having been sometime before engaged against the Persians, and lately against the Venetians, and labouring with their own mis-carriages and errours of Government) little imagined they should wear them so long (if ever it be their hap to put them off with­out parting with their Liberty and Religion) and to such a Calamitous Defence of their own Countrey. In fine, an Army of 16000 men was presently raised and put under the Command of Backos Gabor, which were the Van of those Forces that Rakoczi intended for this Expedition,The Tran­sylvanians ravage Poland. himself following in person with another Army; who as soon as they were entered Poland in most horrible manner fell a ravaging and Sacking the Towns, and pillaging the Churches, and defacing the beauties there­of in hatred of the Roman Catholick Religi­on; so that a fearful Desolation was made as they passed.

To passe by other occurrents of his procee­dings in this Kingdome,Cracovia taken by the Swedes and Ra­koczi. after he had joyned with the Swedes, the Enterprize of Cracovia may suffice for instance of his Hostility in this Kingdome, which he besieged, and after a short Defence had it surrendred to him (the Swedes and he, demolishing almost the City of Casi­mir, built on the other side the Weysel) it be­ing one of those places which was to be assign­ed him with the Palatinate thereof, for his [Page 275] share, in recompense of his Service. This place in the ballance of the Swedish Fortune being besieged by Feild Marshal Lubomirsky, Rakoczi came to its relief, and gave a notable Defeat to the Pole, Rakoczi's actions in Poland. who raised his siege and fled before him. The said Prince afterwards embodying with the Swedes in Lithuania, took in the strong City of Biscia Litinsky being there personally present with the King of Sweden, and where he took his last leave of him, returning to Samoysch, to secure his footing and maintain what he had gotten; but the Da­nish War interveening and calling the King of Sweden away to the Defence of his own King­dome; and the Duke of Brandenburgh falling off likewise, and renouncing that Kings Inte­rest; besides that, the Pole had newly made a League with the House of Austria, who upon Caution and Articles were to supply him with an Army of 16000 men, then upon their March out of Silesia; Deserted by the Swede. Rakoczi perceived that the whole brunt of the War was like to fall upon him, now deserted and abandoned by all his Partakers.

And therefore he thought it high time to ap­ply himself to the wayes of Peace (the Turk having also countermanded him sometime be­fore at the instance of the Polish Ambassador at Constantinople, Rakoczi command­ed by the Grand Seigniour to retire out of Poland. who it was thought, had bri­bed Rakoczi into that disfavour and hatred with the Grand Seignior, who now peremptorily Commanded him, he having delayed to com­ply [Page 276] with his first Orders of return, so surrender his Principality to his Cousin Reada or Radus) and in tendency thereunto made offer of a sur­render of all those places he had taken during this War,And to surrender his Princi­pality. thinking thereby also to have satisfi­ed the Tukish Emperour, provided he might have safe egresse out of that Kingdome, which was now very hazzardous, for that the Poles and Austrians had way-laid him in the moun­tainous passages by which he must needs re­turn.

But the Poles so stomached the loss & preju­dice they received from him causelesly, especi­ally his Church-robberies, that they delayed him with an answer to this effect: ‘That being tied to such Articles with the House of Austria, and the King of Hungary, they could make no A­greement without them:’ which artifice being understood by Rakoczi, more Forces drawing likewise against him; besides that, another party of 12000. of them had Invaded his Do­minions in Hungary, and in Revenge burnt down thirty six Villages; he resolved to make his way with his Sword while there was a possi­bility of effecting it, which with much diffi­culty and hazard,Fights his way out of Poland. being several times set upon, and forced to fight his way; by good Guides and happy Conduct he atchieved, but brought a sorry Army home in Comparison of what he marched out with.

This same year Died the Emperour Ferdi­nand the third,1657. leaving behind him two Sons, [Page 277] Ignatius Leopol [...]us, and Charles Ioseph; the eldest of whom being a minor, The death of Eerdi­nand the 3d. Empe­rour [...] much canvasing there was about the Election of a Caesar; for that by the Custome and Golden Bull of the Empire no person under the Age of eighteen years (of which he lacked one) is Capable of being chosen to that Dignity. Notwith­standing he had been Crowned King of Hun­gary soon after the Death of his Brother Fer­dinand (who as was mentioned before Decea­sed in 1653.) with the usual Solemnities, which we forbear to recite, because mentioned at large before.

Prince Rakoczi being thus retreated into Transylvania, was there again by a Chiaux Commanded to resign the Principality to Ra­dus; but he, hoping either to make his Peace at the Port with the usual Purchase, and so countermine his Enemies, or trusting at last to his Interest in the Souldiery, and his People, and his own Abilities (as indeed he was a Prince very well skilled in Military Affairs, and of personal Valour, and great Spirit) delayed a­ny such surrender, but strengthned himself all that he could, and dispatcht away Embassa­dors to crave Aid of the Neighbouring Princes against this threatned Encroachment of the T [...]rks, but the Pole and the Austrians had con­ceived such rancour against him, the first for his Invasion, and the other for his League with the Swede, that they abandoned him to his Fortune.

[Page 278] Neverthelesse the Princes of Moldavia, and Valachia, promised their assistance, as their Common Cause; while the Turk disturbed at home this Year 1658. by the Mutininies of the Janizaries and the Insurrections of the Bassa of Aleppo, The Vay­vod of Valachia worsted in his Quar­rel. permitted Rakoczi to be quiet; but the next year he thrust in an Army by way of Valachia, against whom that Vayvod ma­king opposition was by them totally routed, and eight thousand of his men slain, and he forced by a timely submission and great Pre­sents and promises of Hostility against Rakoczi, to purchase his Peace and Establishment in his Dignity.

Soon after the Bassa of Buda being Com­manded upon the same service, marched to Lippa, and thence to Arad Town and Castle, whose Suburbs the Transylvanians fired, which the Turks Officers who had the Avantgurd perceiving and supposing the Enemy had de­serted the Place, in great hast and disorder marched to the quenching of the Flame; but the Transylvanian and Hungarian Forces not far distant, making advantage of this Rout, and falling upon them in the smoke,Turks De­feated at Arad. so routed them that they were driven back to their Body with great losse, where being received in with their Waggons with which they were barricado'd, the whole Army of Rakoczi advanced, and with their Great Cuns so shivered them, that they were compelled to forsake their Camp, and to fly, in which many of them perished [Page 379] in the River Mor. There were here taken Prisoners, Mustapha Beg, the Bassa of Agria, the Coll. Aga of the Janizaries, the Aga of Buda, and Aga of Lippa, the Beg of Waitzen was drowned, with many other men of note. For this defeat the grand Seignior threatned to flea the Bassa of Buda, if he did not presently bring him Rakoczi's head, and forthwith Im­prisoned the Emperours and the French Kings Ambassadours.

In 1660. the Turk sent a greater Force then before, into Transylvania. In the mean while Prince Rakoczi march'd with a considerable Force before Hermanstad, and it came to a Bloody Encounter,The Turks again de­feated at Herman­stadr. wherein Rakoczi deported himself valiantly, killing 17 men with his own hand; and so the Infidels for That Bout were forced to quit the Field, and leave the Victory to the Transylvanians, leaving likewise upon the Place, 6 or 7000 Turks, and Tartars. Rakoczi in the persuit received five wounds, and five dayes after this Fight (Iune the sixth) he was brought to Great-Waradiu, The death of Rakoc­zi. where he de­parted this Life.

The fall of this Prince ballanced the Advan­tage of the Tictory, and exceedingly animated the Turks, who pressing more and more eagerly upon the Transylvanians, drove them every where to their strong Holds: Whereupon Ge­neral Souches had Order from Vienna, to draw toward Transylvania, and make it good against the Turks; and he forthwith march'd thither [Page 280] with a considerable Body, and possessed himself of several Holds.

Iuly the 14 of the same year, the Turk with 100000 Men laid close Siege to Great-Wara­din, which was stoutly defended by one Collonel Gaude a Scotchman, the Governour of the Town. During the Siege, the Turk sent abroad strong Parties to subdue smaller Towns, forcing the People unto several works, as the building of Bridges, and the Like, putting them to the Sword at last for their Reward: At one time killing 150 Christians, and at another, Loading 20 Wagons with Christians Heads which they carried away.

On the 6 of August, That brave Souldier and Governour Collonel Gaude was slain by a shot,Varadin yeilded. and (the Besieged being left without any hope of Relief) This strong place surren­dred unto the Turk upon Accord; being a passage into Transylvania, Hungary, and Po­land.

After the death of Rakoczi, his Cousin Ra­dus being disliked of by the Turk as unfit for his designs, there started up one Barckay a [...]reature of the Turks, making himself Prince of Transylvania, whom the Turk protected and supplyed with Forces, whereby he under­took to reduce several places, siding in pretence with General Souches (who well understood this violence of the Turks, to be a design not only upon Transylvania, but also upon the Em­pire it self,) and making large promises under [Page 281] hand, that whatsoever he got by the Turkish Ayd, was meant for the good of the Emperour, to whom he intended a just and Honourable Restitution, reserving only Waradin to remain under the Power of the Prince of Ttransyl­vania; but the matter proved otherwise in the end.

Toward the end of this Year, a Blazing-Starre appeared with the Tayl toward Dalma­tia, and the Head toward Transylvania, which the ensuing Calamities portended sadly of the War.

Soon after This, the Labolizish Peasants Re­belled against the Christians in Transylvania, whom they partly put to the sword, some they took Prisoners, and others they sold to the Turk, the right Successour of Rakoczi was Remini Ianos (by many Transylvanians receiv­ed and entertained for such) who was bitterly persecuted by Barckay and the Turks.

In 1661. Ianos fought them at Thassabat, Remini Janos the successor of Rakoczi oppressed with num­bers. and made a great slaughter: but at last, op­pressed with Numbers, he left Transylvania, and retreated to Tockay. And now it appeared that the Turks Businesse was not to stop there, but to fall also upon Hungary. Whereupon his Imperial majesty granted Commissions for the raising of an Army, which was dispatched part of it into Transylvania. In the Interim; Count Nichola Serini began to look to himself, and raised a strong Fort on the Wall over against Canischa Naming it Serinswar: getting [Page 282] together a strong Body of Croats, and other Nations, that lay heavy upon the Quarters thereabout: which the Turks stomach'd not a little, however they carried it fair at present, and a while they talk'd of nothing but Peace, but at last they brake out into high expressions, that they would have Serinswar demolished, Count Serini punish'd, and Transylvania subjected to the Power of the Turk by way of Reparation. None of which followed; but the Christians lookt upon it as every mans Interest to do his best to defend himself against the Ambition and Outrages of This common Enemy;A Warbe­gun in Hungary. and there being nothing now to be expected but a great Turkish Warre, which was already begun by Parties; the Christians entred upon the Bor­ders of Turky, drawing toward Stul-Weissen­burg, and Offen: and they subdued Zamock, Warda, Erzy, and Hirr: all these being inconsiderable Houses, and Castles, which with their Defenders were blown up, and fired.

While this was doing, the Turks gathered together a Mighty Army consisting of Asiatick, African, and Europaean people. To this nu­merous Army, they had likewise provided an incredible proportion of Victuals, Ammunition, and Artillery. Neverthelesse, several Treaties were set a foot, which the Turk so long insisted upon, till he had gained his End, and drawn a formidable Power into the Field, to break in upon the Christians, who laboured as much as [Page 283] in them lay, to preserve the Peace; seeming to take small notice of the Turks hostile preparations. The Army of the Christian: in Hungary co [...]sisted of 38000 German Sol­diers, who had the Turks for their Open, and the Hungarians for their Private Enemies (the Animosity being so great, that many times it came to Blowes betwixt the Germans and the Hungarians.) These Troups finding them­selves under many inconveniencies, partly from the Hungarians, who denyed accommo­dation to the Germans, and partly from Disea­ses arising from the disagreement of the Cli­mate, were much weakned and diminished. Hungary is questionlesse a very brave Country, and abounds in Wine and other Fruits; which taken to Excesse, breed dangerous Surfeits. The Hungarians in their deportment are gene­rally Grave, and Modest, but being Affornted by the Germans, and others not of their own Religion, they are Apt to Revenge, and hard to be Reconciled.

Toward the Month of October, The Ger­man Army moulders away. the Dutch Army was exceedingly pester'd with Surfeits, so that betwixt those that dyed; a Number that lay sick, and others that were carried out of the Country, it fell to a low Ebbe: and moreover; being then as far as Clausenburg, in Transyl­vania, they were put to some distresse for Vi­ctuals and Forage: the Enemy increasing daily more and more against them for in those Parts the Turkish Power was strongest. About [Page 284] this time, the Upstart Prince Barckay fell in­to disgrace, and the Turk preferred one A­paffi to that dignity in his stead. Against Him, Remini Ianos bore up, Opposing him, and his Promoters in the head of 8000 men, and fortune so far befriended him in the first En­gagement, as to deliver his great Enemy Bar­kay into his hands, whose Head he caused to be struck off, and then for a while the people flocked in to him, and Augmented his Army; yet neither their aid nor his valor availed him when being surrounded on all sides, and striving to clear his passage, he seemed only careful how he might fall with Honour: for his Army through many skirmishes, Diseases, and great Scarcity of Provision, was melted away, and hope of Succour there was none left; the Ger­man Army by the like Accidents being weak­ned and put to a Retreat. Upon these Terms it was, that he committed himself to places of more security,J [...]mes for­ced to de­sist from his Claime. and in Sakmar, He with o­thers, expected the Issue of the Treaty. But the Turks, (as has been said already) making use of a Treaty only for their own advantage, put themselves into a stronger posture: In the mean time discharging their Choler with great indignation, as well against the Valiant Ve­netians, (that have held them tack so long in Candia) as against the neutral Vala­chians; and now and then against the half-con­quered Transylvanians; but not a word all this while, nor so much as a look of displeasure a­gainst Hungary.

[Page 285] This Deceit of a Treaty lasted till the Year 1663. and then the Fury of these Infidels brake out, not only upon Transylvania, and Hungaria; but upon some of the Emperours Hereditary Countries also.

Upon Iuly the 17. the Grand Vizier came in great Pomp and Magnificence to Offen, The Turks appear with a for­midable Army in Hungary. en­camping himself in the Pesterfield, being four German miles in Compass. His Army was upward of a hundred thousand men, above one hundred great Guns, and of Wagons, and Beasts, a number not to be believed. His first work was to lay two Ship-bridges over the Da­nube; the one near to Gran, and the other not far from Parkham. His forces being quarter'd about those parts in Prodigious Multitudes, it was as yet doubtful, whether he would fall up­on Newhausel, or Raab; having his eye indif­ferently upon both, and lying still for a good while without action. But the design had shew'd it self much sooner, if a continual fall of Rain, and the Overflow of the Danube had not hindred him: However at length, he passed some Thousands of his Army over the Bridge near Parkham toward the side of New­hausel; when immediately a Report was spread by some of the Pesants that were turn'd to the Turk, that the River had torn their Ship­bridges, and that those 4000 Turks that had passed over, were now Cut off from the Main body. This Rumor it was that inveigled the Governour of Newhausel (Count Forgatz) [Page 286] into a Couragious but an unhappy Resolution, which was to fall upon those 4000. Turks, upon the supposition, that the Miscarriage of the Bridge had cut off their Retreat. It is very true, that he was earnestly disswaded form that Attempt,Count For­gatz de­feated. and told, that the Body was greater then he imagined, but still persisting in his Re­solve to fight them, upon the 28 of Iuly, with his Hungarians, Hussars and Heyducks, and 11 Troups of Germans, and 500 Musque­tiers (in all 6000 strong) he marched up to them, and finding the Enemy four times stron­ger then he expected, became sensible of the Abuse although alas! for the Infidels having gotten certain Intelligence of the Christians design, and of their coming, caused the Brid­ges presently to be repaired, which they had purposely disordered, and marching over with a strong power surrounded them. The Hun­garians and Hussars, that were appointed to stand for a Reserve, seeing the Enemy come on so strong, betook themselves to flight; but the Germans and Heyducks that gave the Onset behaved themselves stoutly, and sold a dear Victory to the Turks. At last by Multitudes they were overcome, and those that could not get away were miserably Cut, and Mangled. Forgatz, and some few others escaped to New­hausel. This Combat lasted about three hours, and about 3000 of the Germans, and Heyducks were put to the Sword.

[Page 287] After this Victory, the Turks being there­with encouraged, and the Christians not a little dejected, the Enemy made ready to lay a For­mal Siege unto Newhausel: which after many Attempts and Approaches they Battered so fu­riously,The Siege of New­hausel. that Frederick and Serin-Sconces were beaten to the ground, and with incredible La­bour and delving, raised a Mount of Earth so high that from thence, they could command the Town, and beat the besieged from the Walls.

Whereupon the Hungarians whispered one another to Surrender, (out of a fear to dispute it any longer) which moved the Garmans like­wise to speak of an Accord, and sent to the Grand Vizier demanding honourable Condi­tions, whose Answer was, that they should set down their own Terms, leaving only their Great Guns in the Fort.

On the 26' of September the Christians mar­ched out with 2422 Sound,An Inva­sion into Moravia. and Armed men, and four Peice of Ordnance. At this Surren­der, the Enemy got seventy Piece of Ord­nance; great store of Arms, Powder, Wine, Meal, and Corn. In the mean while, some 1000 of Tartars, Moldavians, and Va­lachians, as bad Brutes as the worst of the In­fidels, drawn hither in hope of plunder, made their way over the Waegh by force, put­ing those Christians to the Sword that Guarded the Pas [...], and so crossing the Mountains, they entred into Moravia, and the parts about Ol­mitz, [Page 288] which Towns, together with a great number of the neighbouring Villages, they burnt to the Ground. Their Guides and Lea­ders they had from among the Boors of the Country, who most unnaturally and treache­rously shewed them the wayes and passes, and had therefore for their pains some share of the booty.

This Havock lasted in Moravia 10 dayes, and then they pass'd over the March-stream in­to Austria (at which time, the Country Peo­ple with their best moveables were fled to Vi­enna.) At length, having laden themselves with all manner of Booty, they return'd to the Camp at Newhausel, where they exposed the Men and Beasts, which they had taken up in several places, to common-sale in the Market: While these things were doing, the Turks bu­sied themselves against the Fort Serinswar, and by way of Stratagem attempted Clausenburgh in Transylvania; but at both Places they were repuls'd with losse and shame. At which time Count Serini with a considerable Body of Cro­atians, Count Seri­ni made Generalis­simo. and other neighbouring People; made a sudden Incursion into Turky, to the great dammage of the Infidels. At his Return the said Count was made Generalissimo of all the Em­perors forces, then rendezvouzed at Presburgh under their former General Montecuculi.

Newhausel being reduced, which was sup­posed, and vainly hoped, would have disap­pointed the Turks progresse, and successe for [Page 289] this year (being declined so far as the depth of Winter) the Grand Vizier undertook some farther Conquest; and with his Army, leaving a sufficient Garrison, and other numbers to repair and better fortifie the Fort, by bringing the River Niutre round about it, marched to­wards Presburgh, the Capital City or Mehro­polis of Lower Hungary, and with his ap­proach gave out [...]umours of his resolution to attaque it, relying on his first Fortune, and those popular insinuations he had spread abroad of his reality, justice, and tendernesse to such places as should come into his Masters Protection, with which thriving Artifice he had already gained upon the credulity of most of the Pesants and indefensible places.

Besides the Honour of the place,The Grond Vizier's aspect up­on Pres­burgh. as the Repository of the Crown of Hungary (which the Hungarians most Religiously reverence, as placing the safety and Glory of their Nati­on therein, and which being seized, would have Intituled the winner and wearer to the King­dome) the convenience thereof as freeing his way to Vienna, on one part; and to Commor­ra, Raab, or Newhausel on the other; and contrarily incomodating his attempt upon the Island of Schut, by its Neighbourly Corre­spondence and Assistance in case of Danger, where at present the General Count Serini was enquartered, was a great motive and enticement to an Attempt against it. But such had been the Vigilance and Care of Count Strozzi, a [Page 290] Famous and experienced Souldier, in provi­ding and furnishing the City, wherein the hope of the Kingdome was concerned, and his Cou­rage, and all other excellent qualities of a Governour, so known and believed by this Discreet Vizier, that contenting himself with the submission of Modern, St. George, Po­sing, and other places that lay open and ex­posed to his Power, and the bravery and gal­lant Designment of so high an Enterprise, with the unimpeded conduct of the Affair; he retreated honourably: and as if he had pro­ceeded so far meerly upon a plot and Designe to surprize some places by his sudden Return,Niutra taken by the Vizier. he presently invested Niutra, a place neer Newhausel, and as well Fortified, and more respected, because of its Ecclesiastical Con­cernment, as being a Bishops See; and by terrifying Menaces and preparations for a storm, soon wrought upon the Defendants to a Surrender, who by the Articles thereof were conveyed to Presburgh.

The speedy and lucky Event of this renditi­on,Tyrnaw likewise and other places. was effectual to his practises on other places; for upon the same score Tyrnaw, and some o­ther Towns thereabouts, opened their Gates and submitted to him, upon his Common terms of Religion and Liberty; which Successe in­vited him to the siege of Schinta, a very strong and considerable Fortresse, and a Ma­gazine of a great and the best quantity of the Emperours Artillery; but by the Fidelity and [Page 291] Valour of the Governour and his men, was repulsed thence, and glad to abandon the En­terprize, for that October was more than half spent, and the Climate did much incommo­date his Asian and African Souldiery.

Therefore to provide them of warmer Win­ter Quarters,Comes be­fore Schin­ta in vain. to keep them well and in health against the Spring, he repassed his Great Guns with some of his Army, over his Ship-bridge to Gran or Strigonium, rum ouring that when he had disposed of those unuseful peices in the depth of Winter, he would return himself with his Europeans to prosecute the War; but in fine, he passed over his whole Army, being followed in his Rear, in expectation of advan­tage,The Vizier departs out of Hungary. by General Serini, who having parted with General Montecuculi (conjoyned in at­tendance of the Newhausel Design upon the Island of Schut) did at last cut off some six hundred Janizaries, with two hundred Pesonio's, or Baggage people, engaged in the defence thereof, which they resolutely maintained, by barricadoing themselves among the Waggons, so that Serini's Hussars were forced to alight and follow them a foot in their advantages, and there Couragiously slew them. This was some expiation of that Defeat given to Count For­gaz very near the same place,His rear attaqued. as a fortnight before his Brother and he had Defeated two great parties, but not with so great successe. This happned about the last of October, and so those parts of this side the Danow, concei­ved [Page 292] some joyful hopes of a respit till the com­ing of the Spring.

But the Vizier by those other after accessi­ons had so strongly fixt himself, by leaving a Garrison of 4000. men in Newhausel, and 1500 in Niutre, besides a body of 10000. men to be ready to assist upon all occasions, that the Christians are still kept to their Arms, to attend their motion and to Guard themselves. And to increase the Danger, Apaffi the Prince of Transylvania, Apaffi ap­pears for the Turks. whom they looked upon as under a Constraint of Compliance with the Turks, and a secret well-wisher to the Chri­stian Cause, discovered himself a Declared and profest Enemy, being inveigled with an in­vestiture of those places taken this Campagnia, and upon the total Conquest, with the Crown of Hungary▪ For as soon as they were rid of the Infidels, he wi [...]h his half Christians, Va­lachians, Moldavians, intermixed with Tar­tars, and his own plundering Transylvanians, undertook the Lieutenant-ship of the Winter War; those Nations being better able, as inu­red to the Climate, to undergo the extremities of the weather.

Apaffi's first Designe was upon the Berg Towns, [...] Actions or Mine-Hills, whence the Hunga­rian Gold is fetcht, which as soon as he had parted with the Grand Vizier, then retreat­ing to Belgrade, he attempted, and this the easier for that there was no resistance in readi­nesse to oppose him; the Forces that were [Page 293] raised by the Counts of Cochary and Tekelly, in the Vpper Hungary, for the most part (for that the Lower was already joyned with Serini, He At­tempts the Mine Towns. or awed by the Turks) were a little before (maugre the Enemys Design of impe­ding them) already arrived to the grosse of the Army; which also for want of necessaries for Man and Horse, devoured by the Turks was now dispersed into Quarters.

The two first obstacles of his Design upon the Mine-Towns; and which barred his en­trance, were the two Towns of Levents and Novigrad, reputed one of the prime places of Upper Hungary; Levents was also well appointed,Novigrad and Le­ventz yeilded to Apaffi. having in it a Castle Manned with Couragious Souldiers, and firmed with thick Walls, flankers, and Turrets, that according­ly gave the Enemy a rude and unwelcome en­tertainment, but their numbers being not to be wearied, and no Relief to be expected by the besieged, it was yeilded by Agreement, and the Articles, according to the modern Policy of the Turks, punctually obser­ved.

From thence Apaffi marched to Novigrad, lying further in Upper Hungary, which after a stout but short resistance not without suspi­cion that the Governour was of Apaffi's party (more obvious now by his retreat into the Enemies Countrey, and the neutrality or ra­ther assistance of the whole Province, as to the generality, towards Apaffi) was rendred [Page 294] likewise and the Garrison dismist, but not into Christian quarters, being set to work, and en­joyned to be in a readinesse to assist their late Besiegers.

The Enemy encroaching thus upon the Mine Towns, some Regiments which could be best got together, were sent to enforce them, and to hinder the enemy from settling their Winter Quarters in those places, which were never­thelesse much despaired of, for that Apaffi with his Aids threatned Cass [...]via the Metropo [...]is of Vpper Hungary with a present siege,Apaffi sei­zeth some of the Mine Towns. as he did in effect beleagure Fillek, some ten miles distant, prejudging that: the Christians▪ if once able to take the Field, would carry the War into these Quarters, of which therefore they would betimes possesse themselves; and therefore notwithstanding the prevention a­foresaid, they soon after seised on Shoninitz, Cre [...]nitz, and other Towns of the Mines; and by threatning Letters and Summons ter­rified the People thereabouts to an acquies­cence and submission under their Command: They faced likewise Tockay (the strongest Hold of all) with Parties; but neither their Courage, Multitudes, Practises, or Hopes, served them to the Adventure of a siege.

Naverthelesse to countenance such resoluti­ons, they spread rumours abroad, as if the Grand Vizier would presently return, and Or­ders were indeed to that purpose dispatcht to the Magistrates of [...] Frystad to make ready two [Page 295] Bridges over the Waegh, so broad as that whole Squadrons might passe over there a breast, upon the design of another Irruption into Moravia.

This news caused Count Serini, who till then continued in the Island uf Schut▪ obser­ving the Designs of them at Newhausel, to put himself into motion, which presented him with some considerable booties (but inconsi­derable parties) designed for Constantinople; Count Se­rini moves from his Quarters. and that was all he was able to do; the Auxi­liaries of the Empire amounting in all not to above 8000. men, under the Command of the Count of Hohenlo, (whose Ancestors were famous in the Low Country War) by their sur­feits upon the Fruits of the Countrey, which are in great abundance in the Hereditary Do­minions, being so Diseased that they were in no condition or capacity for any field service; to increase these Auxiliaries the Swedes were neer their arrival from Bremen, with seven hundred Horse well mounted; but now like to have met with some danger at Erford, as the Hessen Darmsted Ayds perished with a greater misfortune upon the Danubius in their passage to Vienna.

Neither were the Frontire Garrisons better Conditioned, by want of many necessaries, even Raab, and Commorra, where the Officers that surrendred Newhansel had ben newly acquitted, so that amidst so many exigences and streights every thing was feared to excesse. The Em­perour himself was at this time departing from [Page 296] Vienna to the Diet he had summoned at Re­genspurgh, The Empe­rour to the diet at Regens­burg. to Consider with the Princes of Germany of some quick expedient to redresse those evils, leaving the Arch-Duke Charles Ioseph, to Govern in his absence, who (to add affliction to misery) is since Deceased,The Death of the Arch-Duke Charles Joseph. and the direct Line of the Imperial Family (save in the Person of the present Emperour) totally extinguished; a matter of no small moment to some Designs in the world, especially since the Pope and the French were so neer a Rupture; yet to alleviate the present distresse, Providence was pleased to bestow on the Vi­gilance and Conduct of Count Serini, a very remarkable successe. Some Forces of Apaffi intermingled with Tartars, and many Turks, pursuing their Design of another Invasion into Moravia; having also an eye upon the Island of Schut, had privily laid a Bridge over the River Mur, and had passed two thousand Horse already over it; of which Serini having good and timely notice by a discharge of a Cannon, he rose from his post, and with his Troops so fiercely charged them, that betwixt surprized and dismaid, and fairly worsted, they betook themselves back to the Bri [...]ge, where rancoun­tring with numbers of their fellows passing o­ver in great haste to them, they could neither go forward, nor backward, but were forced to take the River, which spared none: there es­caped very few of those two thousand. This was done in the morning, Novemb. 27. when [Page 267] Serini brought two field peices and 300. of his Foot to face the Enemy,The Turks defeated in their pas­sage over the Mur, by Count Serini. who stood on the other side the Water and managed a revengeful Skirmish all the day long, and then retreated towards Canisia, from whence they are dread­ed to reinforce this their first attempt, being exceedingly enraged at this disgraceful disap­pointment.

There was mention made in the Diet, of Mars. Turenne to succeed in the Supreme Com­mand in Hungary, by means of an Invitation and request to the French King, but it was more out of complement to oblige that King, then any such resolution of the States of the Empire, who have found it the greatest difficulty of the whole affair as to the Ricks aid, to satisfie the Pretensions and Ambitions of their own Princes to that Command, and in fine have concluded without constituting any Genera­lissimo, but left the Army to their distinct Ge­neralls of Horse and Foot. The Emperours General is Count Mountecuculi, the Feild Marshalls are the Paltsgrave of Sultzbach for Horse, and General Spar a Subject of the Mar­quesse of Brandenburg, of Foot. Over the Ayds, the Generall of Horse is Leopold Mar­quesse of Baden; of Foot, Vlrick Duke of Wit­tenberg, with Count Fugger M. Gen. of Horse, Duke Adolph of Holstein, Duke Gustave of Durlach, (the Younger House of Baden) and Baron de Souches Major General of Foot.

[Page 298] The Ayds of the four Circles of the Rhine without their Auxiliaries will amount to 28000 men,The force of the Em­pire sum­ [...]ed up. the other circles out of which the heredi­tary Provinces of Austria, Bohemia, and are to be excepted will make as many more, which with the 13000 advanced by the Pope, and the French Forces, and the aforenamed Auxiliaries will make up a body of 80000 men, besides the Emperours own Army, which will amount and is to be made up to 40000 men Effectif.

In the mean time of these consultations at Regensburg, Apaffi the Prince of Transyl­vania, was driving on his designs in that Pro­vince,Severall places re­volt in Transyl­vania to Ap [...]ffi. working upon the Emperours necessities and the discontents of the Garrisons of Zekel­keyt and Clausenburg, which in conclusion for want of pay, dismist their Officers and submit­ted the Towns to Him, having been held by the Emperour ever since the Troubles and death of Prince Rakoczi. Zacmar also wavered, but was happily reclaimed by some moneys that came opportunely, to satisfie the Souldiers.

The year proving very mild and gentle in the depth of winter, had frustrated many designes of the Tartars, who had taken up their Quar­ters in Hungary to be ready for some Invasion, whereupon overburdening the places and Gar­risons they were in, and provisions growing scarce, after some quarrels 'twixt the Turks and them for victuall, they dispersed themselves for better accommodation. At the same time [Page 299] Count Nicholas Serini the Emperours General took advantage of this their separation, and the benefit of a sudden Frost, and with his Army consisting of between 30 and 35000 men, among whom were the German ayds under Count Hohenlo, made an Invasion into the Turks Countrey,Count Seri­ni's expe­dition into the Turks Country. in the lower Hungary and parts of Croatia, as far as Esseck near the con­junction of the Danow and the River Dravus, a place infamous for the descent of Caczianerus King Ferdinand's the First's Generall, and the noble Lodr [...]us, defeated there hard by, by the policy of the Turks, as mentioned before.

This Bridge it the onely passage the Turks have, besides sudden shifts by boats, &c. for conveyance from Belgrade, otherwise called Greek We [...]ss [...]nburg, and those parts possessed by the Turk, both for Waggon and Artillery, so that the [...] Count well knowing what disad­vantage the breaking down thereof would cause to the Turks designs at the approaching Cam­pagnia, resolved to destroy it or render it un­serviceable to the Enemy; and fortune so fa­voured the Enterprize,The Bridge of Esseck burnt by him. that Maugre all oppo­sition made by the Enemy, he in one night and day had so maimed and disjoynted it, that a great part of it fell into the Dravus, the rest being set on Fire towards the Turks side, but hastily quenched by them; since when they have been very busie in repairing it, the Grand Vizier storming exceedingly, that it was no better de­fended, and (for which he hath called the Officers [Page 300] appointed to maintain it, into question for their lives) but it is judged impossible, that it can be reedifyed this Summer, so as to be made able to bear Carriages, which will be a great stop to the Turks progresse by way of lower Hun­gary.

Count Serini having finished this exploit with so good successe,Count Se­rini layes waste the Country round a­bout. laid waste all the Countrey round about of this (that is) the Nor­thern side of the Dravus, betwixt that and the Danow, among which were many places for­merly the possessions of his noble Ancestors (who enjoyed a [...] and plentifull reven [...]ue in those parts, encreased by the additions of the patrimony of the Carlovitii and Torquati, which fell-likewise to them) but now thralled to those Infidels; insomuch that some have reckoned [...]1000 Vil [...]ages burnt by him, but the Turk [...]sh desolation hath scarse left so many for him to destroy.

This work being over, and having thus re­venged himself for the spoil of his Fortunes, he thought it time to return; for that there were severall confident rumours that the Enemy with a great body was marching after him, although it proved a meer lye raised and industriously spread by the Turks for fear of further mischief to be done them by his staying in those parts, where h [...]s name was grown most formidable, and the effects of his conduct highly dreadful.

[Page 301] But yet he made not such hast, but that in his way home he made a halt at Quinque Ecclesiae and summoned it,The Town of Quin­que Ec­clesiae stormed and sacked by him. which the Tow [...]men seem­ed to entertain, and by that means drew some of his Forces not suspecting Hostility under reach of their Cannon, which they furiously discharged upon them, and killed some Emi­nent Officers and men of valour; which Action so incensed Serini, that he gave order for a pre­sent storm, by which the Town was mastered and entred, and the plunder thereof given to the Souldiers, and soon after sack'd and set on Fire, the Souldiers and such as escaped, flying into the Castle, which held out and was in pru­dence given over by the Genera [...]l, whose men having been so much toyled and wearied already were in no condition for a Seige, and a sudden attempt was improbable of successe. Here were slain many Officers, the greatest number whereof was of the Germans under Count Holenlo.

From hence, passing by Zigeth (the Town and Castle whereof were so famously defended by his Grandfather as too tite and tedious a peice of work) he fell upon Segess a Town distant Westward two Hungarian miles (18 English) from Zigeth, S [...]gess taken and Garrisoned by him. which he took by assault, with the losse of more Officers of note, requited upon the Turks by a promiscuous slaughter of them all (as for Tartars no quarter was any where allowed them) and there he left a Gar­rison in the very midst of the Enemies Country [Page 302] and came home by Canysia, Count St­rini's ho­nourable Return. which place he had designed to besiege, but his Army being much diminished, the Enterprize is laid aside, till he shall be recruited with new Levyes, answera­ble to so great an undertaking, in which affair he is at present employed; but it is feared the sudden appearance of the Grand Seignior who will open this Campagnia in person, will put him on other Councels and designes.


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