Epistolae Ho-Elianae …

Epistolae Ho-Elianae.

FAMILIAR LETTERS Domestic and Forren;

Divided into sundry SECTIONS, Partly Historicall, Politicall, Philosophicall, Vpon Emergent Occasions: By Iames Howell Esq One of the Clerks of His late Maties most Honble Privy Councell.

The second Edition, enlarged with divers supple­ments, and the Dates annexed which were wanting in the first, With an Addition of a third volume of new Letters.

Ut clavis portam, sic pandit Epistola pectus.

London, Printed by W. H. for Humphrey Moseley, and are to be sold at his Shop at the Princes Arms in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1650.

These ensuing Letters contain for their principal subject a faithfull relation of the privatest passages that happen'd at Court a good part of King Jame's reign, and that of His late Majesty. As also of such forren affairs which had reference to these Kingdoms;

Viz. Of
  • THe Wars of Germany, and the transactions of the Treaties about restoring the Pala­nat, with the House of Austria and Sweden.
  • The Treaty and traverses of the Match with Spain.
  • The Treaty of the Match with France.
  • An exact survey of the Netherlands.
  • Another of Spain, Italy, France, and of most Coun­treys in Europe, with their chief Cities and Governments.
  • Of the Hans Towns, and the famous quarrell twixt Queen Elizabeth and them.
  • Divers Letters of the extent of Christianity, and of other Religions upon Earth.
  • Divers Letters of the languages up and down the Earth.
  • [Page]Accounts of sundry Embassies from England to other States.
  • Som pieces of Poetry wherwith the Prose goes interlarded.
  • Divers new opinions in Philosophy descanted upon.
  • Passages of former Parlements, and of this pre­sent, &c.

Among these Letters ther goes along a Le­gend of the Authors life, and of his severall em­ployments, with an account of his Forren Tra­vells and Negotiations; wherin he had occasion to make his address to these Personages, and Persons underwritten.

Letters to Noblemen.
  • TO His late Majesty.
  • To the Duke of Buckingham
  • To the Erl of Cumberland
  • To the Erl of Dorset
  • To the Erl of Rutland
  • To the Erl of Leicester
  • To the Erl of Sunderland
  • To the Erl of Bristol
  • To the Erl Rivers
  • To the Erl of Strafford
  • To the Erl of Carberry▪
  • [Page]To the L. Vicount Con­way, Secr.
  • To the L. Vic. Savage
  • To the L. Herbert of Cherberry
  • To the L. Cottington
  • To the L. Mohun
  • To the L. Digby.
  • To the Lady Marchio­ness of Winchester
  • To the La. Scroope
  • To the Countess of Sun­derland
  • To the La. Cornwallis
  • To the La. Digby▪
  • To Bishop V sher, Lord Primat of Ireland
  • To B. Field
  • To B. Duppa
  • To the B. of London
  • To B. Howell.
To Knights, Doctors, Esquires, Gentle­men and Merchants.
  • TO Sir Robert Man­sell
  • To Sir Iames Crofts
  • To Sir Iohn North
  • To Sir Edward Spencer
  • To Sir Kenelme Digby
  • So Sir Peter Wichts
  • To Sir Sackvill Trever
  • To Sir Sackvill Crow
  • To Sir Arthur Ingram
  • To Sir Thomas Lake
  • To Sir Eubule Theloall
  • To Sir Alex. Ratcliff
  • To Sir Edward Savage
  • To Sir Iohn Smith
  • To Sir Will: Saint-Geon
  • To Sir Thomas Savage
  • To Sir Fran. Cottington
  • To Sir Robert Napier
  • To Sir Philip Manway­ring
  • To Sir Bevis Theloall.
  • To Doctor Mansell
  • To Dr. Howell
  • To Dr. Prichard
  • [Page]To Dr. Wicham
  • To Dr. I. Day.
  • To Mr. Alderman Cle­thero
  • To Mr. Alder. Moulson
  • To the Town of Rich­mond.
  • To Mr. R. Altham
  • To Mr. D. Calawall
  • To Cap. Fran. Bacon
  • To Mr. Ben. Iohnson
  • To Mr. End. and Cap. Tho. Porter
  • To Mr. Simon Digby
  • To Mr. Walsingham Gresley
  • To Mr. Thomas Gwyn
  • To Mr. Iohn Wroth
  • To Mr. William Blois
  • To Mr Robert Baron
  • To Mr. Thomas More
  • To Mr. Iohn Savage
  • To Mr. Hugh Penry
  • To Mr. Christoph. [...]
  • To Mr. R. Brown.
  • To Mr. William Martin
  • To Cap. Nicholas Leat
  • To Mr. R. Brownrigg.
  • To Mr. Iohn Batty
  • To Mr. Will. Saint-Geon
  • To Mr. Iames Howard
  • To Mr. Ed. Noy
  • To Mr. William Austin
  • To Mr. Rowland Gwyn
  • To Mr. Will. Vaughan
  • To Mr. Arthur Hop [...]on
  • To Mr. Thomas Iones
  • To Mr. I. Price
  • To Captain Ol. Saint-Geon.

With divers others.

To His Majesty.

SIR,

THese Letters address'd (most of them) to Your best de­grees of Subjects, do, as so many lines drawn from the Circumference to the Centre, all meet in Your Majesty, who, as the Law stiles You the Fountain of honour and grace, so You should be the Centre of our happines. If Your Majesty vouch­safe them a Gracious Aspect, they may all prove Letters of credit, if not credentiall Letters, which Soverain Princes use only to Authorize: They venture to go abroad into the vast Ocean of the World, as Let­ters of Mart, to try their Fortunes; and [Page] Your Majesty being the greatest Lord of Sea under Heaven, is fittest to protect them, and then they will not fear any hu­man power. Moreover, as this Royall Protection secures them from all danger, so it will infinitely conduce to the pros­perity of their voyage, and bring them to safe Port with rich returns.

Nor would these Letters be so familiar, as to presume upon so high a Patronage, were not many of them Records of Your Own Royall Actions; And 'tis well known, that Letters can tresure up, and transmit matters of State to posterity, with as much Faith, and be as authentic Registers, and safe repo [...]itories of Truth, as any Story whatsoever.

This brings them to ly all prostrat at Your Feet, with their Author who is

Sir,
Your Majesties most Loyall Subject and Servant, HOWELL.

To the knowing READER. OF Familiar Letters.

LOve is the life of Frendship, Letters are
The life of Love, the Load-stones that by rare
Attraction make souls meet, and melt, and mix,
As when by fire exalted gold we fix.
They are those wing'd Pestillions that can fly,
From the Anartic to the Artic sky,
The Heralds and swift Harbengers that move
From East to West on Embassies of Love;
They can the Tropics cut, and cross the Line,
And swim from Ganges to the Rhone or Rhine,
[Page]From Thames to Tagus, th [...]nce to Tyber run,
And terminat their journy with the Sun:
They can the Cabinets of Kings unscrue,
And hardest intri [...]acies of State unclue;
They can the the Tartar tell, what the Mogor
Or the great Turk doth on the Asian shore,
The Knez of them may know, what Prester John
Doth with his Camells in the torrid Zone:
Which made the Indian Inca think they wer
Spirits who in white sheets the A [...]r did tear.
The luckie Goose sav'd Joves beleagred Hill
Capi­toll.
Once by her noyse, but oftner by her Quill:
It twice prevented Rome, was not o▪re-run
By the tough Vandal, and the rough hewn Hun.
Liv. Pow­der-Plot.
Letters can Plots though mo [...]lded under ground
Disclose, and their fell complices confound,
Witnes that fiery Pile which would have blown
Up to the Clouds, Prince, Peeple, Peers, and Town,
Tribunalls, Church, and Chappell, and had dride
The Thames, though swelling in her highest prid [...],
And parboyl'd the poor Fish, which from her Sand [...]
Had been toss'd up to the adjoyning Lands.
Lawyers as Vultures had soar'd up and down,
Prelats like Magpi [...]s in the Ayr had flown,
Had not the Eagles Letter brought to light,
That Subterranean horrid Work of night.
Credentiall Letters, States, and Kingdoms tie,
And Monarchs knit in ligues of Amitie;
They are those golden Links that do enchai [...]
Whole Nations, though discinded by the Main;
They are the soul of Trade, they make Commerce,
Expand it self throughout the Univers.
Letters may more than History inclose,
[...] choicest learning, both for Vers and Prose;
[...]ey knowledg can unto our souls display,
[...] amore gentle, and familiar way,
[...]e highest points of State and Policy,
[...]e most severe parts of Philosophy
[...]ay be their subject, and their Themes e [...]rich
[...] well as privat businesses, in which
[...]nds use to correspond, and Kindred greet,
[...]rchants negotiat, the whole World meet.
[...]n Seneca's rich Letters is inshrin'd
[...] ere the Ancient Sages left behind:
[...]y makes his the secret symptomes tell
[...] those distempers which proud Rome befell,
[...] in her highest flourish she would make
[...] Tyber from the Ocean homage take.
[...]at Antonin the Emperor did gain
[...]re glory by his Letters, than his raign,
[...] Pen out-lasts his Pike, each golden lin [...]
[...]is Epistles do his name inshrine,
[...] clius by his Letters did the same,
[...] they in chief immortallize his fame.
[...]ords vanish soon, and vapour into Ayr,
[...]e Letters on Record stand fresh and fair,
[...] tell our Nephews who to us wer dear,
[...] our choice frends, who our familiars were.
[...]he bashfull Lover when his flammering lips
[...]er, and fear som unadvised slips,
[...] boldly court his Mistris with the Quill,
[...] his hot passions to her Brest [...]still;
Pen can furrow a fond Femals heart,
pierce it more than Cupide feigned dart:
[Page] Letters a kind of Magic vertu have,
And like strong Philtres human souls inslave.
Speech is the Index, Letters Ideas are
Of the informing soul, they can declare,
And shew the inward man, as we behold
A face reflecting in a Chrystall mould:
They serve the dead and living, they becom
Attorneys and Administers: In somm,
Letters as Ligaments the World do tie,
Else all commence and love 'twixt men would die.
J. H.

An Extract of the Heads of the choicest matters that goe inter­woven 'mongst the Letters of the first Volume.

The first Section.
  • OF Abusers of Familiar Letters. Page. 1
  • Of Somersets fall, and Buckinghams rise. 4
  • [...]listris Turner executed in yellow starch at Tyburn, and Sir Gervas Elwayes on Tower-hill, his memorable caution against swearing, and the Lo. Wil. of Pem­br [...]ks noble act to his Lady and children. 4
  • Sir Walter Rawleigh's sorry return from Guiana, Count Gondamars violent prosecution of him, and a faceti­ous Tale of Alphonso King of Naples, &c. 7
  • Of the study of our Common Law, and what Genius is aptest for it. 16
  • [...]he tru manner of the surrendry of the cautionary towns, Flishing and Brill. 18
  • The force of Letters. 20
  • A Letter of love. 26
  • Som choice Observations of Amsterdam. 9. 13, 14
  • Of the University of Leyden, and a clash 'twixt Arminius and Baudius. 14
  • [Page]Of Grave Maurice Prince of Orenge, and of his regul [...] cours of life. 1 [...]
  • Of Antwerp, and her Cittadell. 2 [...]
  • Of France, of Normandy, and th [...] City of Rouen. 2 [...]
  • Of Paris, and an odd mischance that befell a Secreta [...] of State there. 2 [...]
  • Of Luines the the Favorite. 2 [...]
  • An exact Relation from an eye-witnes of the assass [...] nat committed on the person of Henry the Grea [...] 3 [...]
  • His rare Perfections, and divers wittie Speeches [...] his. 3 [...]
  • An exact Relation of that Monstrous death of the Ma [...] quis of Ancre by an eye-witnes. 3 [...]
  • Of St. Malos, and the Province of Britany, the vicini [...] of their Language with the Welsh. 3 [...]
  • Of Rochell and the humors of the peeple. 3 [...]
  • The strong operations of love, and a facetious Tale [...] the Duke of Ossunas. 37
  • Of the Pyreney Hills. 38
  • Of the noble City of Valentia, and various effects [...] the Sun. 4 [...]
  • Of Alicant and the Grapes thereof. 4 [...]
  • Of Carthagena. 4 [...]
  • Of Scylla and Charybdis, Mount Aetna, and the vulga [...] Greek, &c. 4 [...]
  • Of the admirable City of Venice, her Glass Furnaces, with a speculation rays'd theron, her renowned Arse­nall and Tresury, her age and constitution, her famous Bucentoro, with a Philosophical notion arising thence, &c. from 45 to 6 [...]
  • Of the vertu of Letters. 52
  • A Letter of gratitude. 53
  • [Page]Some witty sayings of Spaniards. 60
  • Some witty Observations of Rome, the manner of crea­ting Cardinals. 61
  • Of forren Travell. 67
  • Of the gentle City of Naples. 65
  • A saying of King Iames. 68
  • A resemblance 'twixt the old Lombards and the Welsh. 68
  • A witty saying of Lewis the 11. 70
  • Of Florence, Genoa, Luca, &c. 70
  • Of Milan, and the Duke of Savoy. 73
  • Of the Italian Toung. 74
  • Of the humor of the Italian. 85
  • Of the hideous mountains the Alps, and of Lion in France. 77
  • Of Geneva, and a strange thing that happend at Lion. 79
  • The six famous Verses made of Venice. 59
  • A notable magnanimous Speech of a Turk. 56
The second Section.
  • MY Lord Bacons opinion of Monsieur Cadenet the French Ambassador about little men. 2
  • Two Letters of Endearments. 3
  • A notable saying of the La. Elizabeth. 4
  • Of Sir Robert Mansels return from Algier. 11
  • Queen Anns death and the last Comet. 7
  • M. of Buckingham made Lord Admirall, &c. 13
  • The beginning of the Bohemian Wars. 4
  • The Palsgraves undertaking that Crown. 4
  • Prague lost. 5
  • Spinola's going to the Palatinat, the manner of taking [Page] Oppenheim, and the unworthines of the Marq. of Ansbuck the German Generall. 9
  • The strange wonder in Holland, of a Lady that brought forth as many Children as days in the yeer, &c. 14
  • Of the sailing Waggon. 1 [...]
  • An elaborat survey of the seventeen Provinces, the ground of their quarrell with the Spaniard, the diffe­rence of Government, and humors of peeple, from 15 to 26
  • The difference 'twixt the Flemin, Walloon, and Hollan­der. 26
  • The last French Kings piety to his Mother. 29
  • Phlebotomy much used in France. 33
  • A congratulatory Letter for Marriage. 27
  • A Satyrical Play in Antwerp about the Prince Palsgraves proceedings. 28
  • Wars 'twixt the French King and the Protestants. 31
  • A famous Speech of St. Lewis. 33
  • Of the French Favorite Luines, and his two brothers Cadenet and Brand. 47
  • The strange story of the Maid of Orleans, and how the English wer reveng'd of her. 36
  • A facetious passage of the Duke of Espernon. 38
  • The opinion of a French Doctor of English Ale. 34
  • The French Polette. 37
The third Section.
  • GOndamars first audience about the Spanish Match, and the ill Augury that befell. 49
  • Sir Henry Montague made Lord Tresurer; a facetious [Page] question ask'd him. 41
  • Cautions for travelling Italy. 43
  • K. Iames his sharp answer to the Parlement from New­market about the Spanish Match, &c. His facetious Speech of my Lady Hatton. 44
  • Of the Synod of Dort. 54
  • Archb. Abbots disaster to kill a Keeper &c. 49
  • The French Kings proceedings against the Protestants, and the death of Luines. 56
  • Of the Infanta of Spain, and her two brothers. 51
  • The bold manner of Petitioning the King of Spain. 52
  • Som comendable qualities of the Spaniards. 54
  • Of the old Duke of Larma. 54
  • Materiall thinks of the Match. 55
  • The witty Speech of the Marquis of Montesclares. 57
  • Of Count Mansfields notable retreat to Breda, his chie­fest exploit. 58
  • Of our Prince his arrival at the Court of Spain, his usage there, and som passages of Gondamars. 60
  • Of his comportment in courting the Lady Infanta, &c. 64
  • A witty saying of a Spanish woman. 63
  • Of their baiting of Bulls with men. 64
  • Verses upon the Prince his wooing. 66
  • The monstrous manner of Osman the great Turks death, with som Observations theron. 70
  • Of his omino [...]s dream, and the grand Visiers Prediction to Sir Tho. Roe. 73
  • A Discours 'twixt our Prince and the King of Spain. 74
  • Of our Prince his departure thence. 76
  • How matters stood after his departure. 77
  • Preparations made for the wedding day. 79
  • [Page]The Earl of Bristolls Audience upon his receiving a new Commission. 80
  • Probabilities that the Spaniard intended a Match with England. 79
  • My Lo. Pagetts witty Speech in Parlement. 80
  • Of the Bishop of Halverstadt. 81
  • The notable Plot the two Spanish Ambassadors invented to demolish the Duke of Buck. 82
  • The high proffers that wer made the Earl of Bristoll, if he would stay in Spain. 97
  • Of the manner of the proceedings of the Spanish Match by way of comparison. 83
  • The breach of the Spanish Match by a Philosophical com­parison. 83
  • An Abstract of the Spanish Monarchy, of its growth, of the soyl, and the humor of the Inhabitants, from 87 to 93
  • Of things happen'd at the siege of Bergen op Zooma. A pleasant Tale of a lame Captain. 94
  • Of the vertu of Familiar Letters. 96
  • Of that stupendous Monument the Escurial. 96
  • Of the late famous Duke of Ossuna, divers passages. 98
  • Of writing by Cypher. 99
  • A memorable Passage of the Jesuits. 98
  • A facetious Tale of a Soldier. 100

This third Section contains divers intrinsecall Pas­sages more, of the Treaties both of Match and Pa­latinat.

The fourth Section.
  • [Page]OF the Jewels that were left in the Court of Spain, to be presented at the Betrothing day. 101
  • Of the fruitfulnes of frendship. 103
  • Of Count Mansfelt. 104
  • An exact Relation of his late Majesties death by an eye­witnes. 106
  • Of my Lo: Verulam after his fall. 108
  • Cautions for Marriage. 109
  • The disasterous death of young Prince Frederic. 110
  • Of the Treaty of a Match with France, and of Cardinal Richelieu. 111
  • How lively Letters represent the inward man. 112
  • The Capitulation of the Match with France. 114
  • Of Monsieurs marriage. 115
  • The rare perfections of the late Marchioness of Win­chester. 116
  • Of Grave Maurice's death, & of the taking of Breda. 117
  • The sorry success of our Fleet to Cales under the Lord Wimbledon. 119
  • Som advertisements to the Duke of Buckingham before the Parlement. 121
  • The tru nature of love. 12 [...]
  • Of Count Mansfelt. 124
  • Cardinall Richelieu's first rise. 111
  • A facetious saying of the Queen of France touching Co: Mansfelt. 124
  • A clashing 'twixt Buckingham and Bristoll. 124
  • A Comparison 'twixt the Infanta and the Daughter of France. 126
  • [Page]A facetious Pasquil in Rome. 125
  • The speedy conclusion of the French Match, and a face­tious tale of the Pope. 125▪
  • Her Majesties arrivall in England. 126
  • The dissolution of the Parlement at Oxon, and of the Lord Keeper Williams. 127
  • Of the Renvoy of her Majesties French servants, &c. 130
  • The reasons alleaged for Lone-monies. 131
  • A memorable example in the person of a Spanish Cap­tain, how strangely a sudden conceit may work with­in us. 132
The fifth Section.
  • A Northern Letter. 135
  • Our breach with France, and our ill success at the Isle of Rets. 139
  • The Lord Denbighs sorry return from before Rochell, 140
  • Of the Wars in Italy, about the Dutchy of Mantoua. 137
  • A circumstantiall relation of the D. of Buck death by an eye-witness. 141
  • The Lord of Lindseys return from before Rochel, the ta­king and dismantling of her by the French King. 143
  • Colonell Grayes quick device to save his life out of a saltpit. 139
  • A methodicall Incitement for an Oxford Student. 144
  • Of the taking the great Royall Ship, the Holy Spirit of the French, by Sir Sackvil Trever. 145
  • A dehortatory letter from swearing, with examples of all sorts. 147
  • A Hymn therupon. 149
  • [Page]The properties of a Foot-man. 151
  • Of Ben Iohnsons Genius. 154
  • Of tardy Courtesies. 156
  • Som amorous Sonnets of black eyes, &c. 158
  • A check against habit of drinking. 162
  • A Poem upon the British language. 164
  • A witty reply to Sir Ed: Coke by a Country man. 155
  • A character of Sir Posthumus Hobby. 156
  • The first rise of the Lord Strafford. 156
  • The King of Swedens first rushing into Germany. 165
  • The King of Denmarks ill success against Tilly, and the favourable peace he obtained. 165
  • Of a ragged illegible hand. 166
  • The proud inscription the French King left upon a tri­umphant Pillar, on one of the Alpian hills. 167
  • Of Sir Ken: Digbies Exploits against the Venetian Gal­leasses, &c. 168
  • A geere put upon Sir Tho. Edmonds being Ambassadour in France. 169
  • Another geere of the French Ambassadour. 169
  • Of Sir Tho. Wentworth's violent rising up. 170
  • Of the King of Swedens monstrous Progres, his clashing with the English and French Ambassadors. 173
  • A Letter of thanks. 172
  • A discription of an Ollapodrida. 174
  • Of the Spanish Inquisition. 178
  • The death of the Queen Dowager of Denmark, His Ma­jesties Grandmother, the richest Princess of Christen­dom, &c. 175
The sixth Section.
  • [Page]AN exact relation of the Erl of Leicesters Embassie to the King of Denmark and other Princes. 188
  • Som remarkable passages in the Danish Court. 183
  • Of Hamburgh and the Hans Towns, their beginning, and the famous quarrell they had with Queen Eliza. 184
  • The marvelous resemblance of Holsteyn men with the English, &c. 187
  • The King of Swedens related by an eye-witnes, his aver­sion to the English, &c. 193
  • The Palsgraves death. 193
  • The late Pope's compliance with him. 191
  • A strange apparition happened in the West, about a dy­ing Gentleman. 194
  • Of Noy the Atturney, and of ship-money. 196
  • Of the Lord Westons Embassie to Italy, and a clashing 'twixt my Lord of Holland and him. 196
  • The Queen Mothers, and Monsieurs retirement to Flan­ders. 195
  • A Christmas Hymn. 197
  • Of the condition of the Jewes squanderd up and down the World, how they came to be so cunning and hatefull, from whence they expect their Messias, &c. 202
  • [...]
  • The sudden comfort of Letters. 203
  • Of a strange Pattent given a Scotchman. 203
  • Of Atturney Noy's death, and the od wil [...] he made, &c. 204
  • [Page]The arrivall of the Prince Elector, and of Prince Rupert to England, their designes. 205
  • Monsieur steales from Brussells. 206
  • A Herald of Armes sent from France to denounce War against Spaine. 206
  • Of Mountmorencys death. 206
  • A memorable example of the force of affection in the person of a French Lady. 207
  • Of Peter van Heyns mighty Pla [...]e prize, &c. 210
  • Of judgements fallen upon disobedient children. 211
  • The Earl of Arondels return from the German Diet. 212
  • Lorain taken by the French. 212
  • Of Translations. 213
  • The young Prince Electors ill success in Germany, and Prince Rupert taken Prisoner, &c. 215
  • The most tragicall death of the Erl of Warfuzee at Liege. 216
  • Upon Ben Iohnsons death. 217
  • A method in devotion. 217
  • Razevil com from Poland Ambassador. 210
  • The Scots Comanders returning from Germany, flant at the English Court. 210
  • Of the Soveraign of the Sea, her dimensions, and charge. 222
  • Of King Edgar his mighty Navall power, and lofty title, &c. 222
  • Of the heat and medicinall virtu of the Bath. 225
  • The splendor of the Irish Court. 226
  • Of a memorable passage in Suidas touching our Saviour. 227
  • Of Edinburgh. 228
  • A dispute 'twixt a Vintner and a Shoomaker about Bi­shops. 229
  • [Page]Of that furious Navall fight 'twixt Oquendo and the Hol­landers in the Downes. 231
  • Of Chimistry. 232
  • The revolt of Catalonia, and the utter defection of Por­tugal from the Spaniard. 233
  • The dolefull casting away of Captain Limmery's ship va­lued at 400000▪ pounds. 234
  • Of a hideous Serpent found in a young Gentlemans heart in Holborn, and other ill-favoured auguries. 235
  • Of monstrous prophane Epithets given the French Car­dinall. 236
  • Som facetious passages of the old Duke of Espernon. 238
  • Of comfort in captivity. 240
  • Of a miraculous accident happen'd in Hamelen in Ger­many. 240
  • Of the calamities of the times, 241
  • Of self examination. 243
  • Of Merchant Adventurers. 245
  • Of the late Popes death, and the election of this by the Spanish faction, his propensity to Peace, and the im­possibility of it. 246
  • Marquis Pawlet his ingenious Motto. 248
  • Of the Ape of Paris applied to these times.
  • Of affliction. 249
  • Of a tru frend. 250
  • Of a strange peeple lately discovered in Spain. 251
  • Of Moderation and Equanimity▪ 253
  • Of the fruits of affliction. 253
  • Of Wiving. 254

Epistolae Ho-Elianae.

Familiar LETTERS:

I. To Sir J. S. at LEEDS Castle.

SIR,

IT was a quaint difference the Anci­ents did put twixt a Letter, and an Oration, that the one should be at­tird like a Woman, the other like a Man: The latter of the two is allowd large side robes, as long periods, pa­renthesis, similes, examples, and other parts of Rhetorical flourishes: But a [...]etter or Epistle, should be short­coated, and closely couchd; a Hun­gerlin becomes a Letter more hansomly then a gown▪ Indeed we should write as we speak; and that's a true familiar Letter which expresseth ones mind, as if he were discoursing with the party to whom he writes in succinct and short terms. The Toung and the P [...]n are both of them Interproters of the mind; but I hold [Page 2] the Pen to be the more faithful of the two: The Toung in udo po­sita, being seated in a moyst slippery place may fail and falter in her sudden extemporal expressions; but the Pen having a greater advantage of premeditation, is not so subject to error, and leaves things behind it upon firm and authentic record. Now, Letters, though they be capable of any subject, yet commonly they are either Narratory, Objurgatory, Consolatory, Monitory, o [...] Cougratulatory. The first consists of relations, The second of repre­hensions, The third of comfort, The last two of counsel and joy: There are some who in lieu of Letters write Homilies, they Preach when they should Epistolize; There are others that turn them to tedious tractats; this is to make Letters degenerat from their tru nature. Some modern Authors there are, who have ex­pos'd their Letters to the world, but most of them, I mean a­mong your Latin Epistolizers, go fraighted with meer Bartholo­mew ware, with trite and trivial phrases only, listed with pedan­dic shreds of Shool-boy verses. Others ther are among our next transmarin neighbours Eastward, [...], write in their own lan­guage, but their stile is so soft and [...] that their Letters may be said to be like bodies of lo [...]se slesh without sinews, they have nei­ther joyn [...] of art, nor [...] in them: They have a kind of sim­pering and [...]ank hectic expressions made up of a bombast of words and finical affected complement▪ only: [...] cannot well away with such sleazy stuff, with such cobweb-compositions, where there is no strength of matter, nothing for the Reader to carry away with him, that may enlarge the notions of his soul: One shall hardly find an apothe [...]m, example, simile, or any thing of Philo­sophy, History, or solid knowledg, or as much as one new created phrase, in a hundred of them; and to d [...]aw any observations out of them, were as if one went about to dis [...]il cream out of froth; In­somuch that it may be said of them, what was said of the Eccho, That she is a meer sound, and nothing else.

I return you your Balza [...] by thi [...] bearer, and when I found those Letters, wherein he is so familiar with his King, so flat, and those to Richelieu, so puff'd with prophane hyperboles, and larded up and down with such gross flatteries, with others besides which he sends as Urinals up and down the world to look into his water, for discovery of the c [...]azie condition of his body, I fo [...]bore him further: so I am

Your most affectionate servitor, J. H.

II. To my Father, upon my first going beyond Sea▪

SIR,

I Should be much wanting to my self, and to tha [...] obligation of Duty, the Law of God, and his Handmaid Nature hath imposed upon me, if I should not acquaint you with the course and qua­lity of my affairs and fortunes, specially at this time, that I am upon point of erossing the Seas to eat my bread abroad. Nor is it the common relation of a Son that only induc'd me hereunto, but that most indulgent and costly Care you have been pleased (in so extraordinary a manner) to have had of my breeding (though but one child of fifteen) by placing me in a choice me­thodicall School (so far distant from your dwelling) under a lear­ [...]ed (though lashing) Master; and by transplanting me thence [...]o Oxford, to be graduated; and so holding me still up by the [...]hin, untill I could swim without Bladders. This Patrimony [...]f liberall Education you have been Pleased to endow me withal, [...] now carry along with me abroad, as a sure inseparable Tre­ [...]ure; nor do I feel it any burden or encumbrance unto me at all: And what danger soever my person, or other things I have about [...]e, do incur, yet I do not fear the losing of this, either by Ship­ [...]rack or Pyrats at Sea, nor by Robbers, or Fire, or any other Casualty ashore: And at my return to England, I hope, at leastw [...] [...] shall do my endeavour, that you may finde this Patrimony im­ [...]roved somewhat to your comfort.

The main of my employment, is from that gallant Knight Sir Robert Mansell, who, with my Lord of Pembrook, and divers [...]ther of the prime Lords of the Court, have got the sole Patent [...]f making all sorts of Glass with Pit-cole, onely to save those [...]uge proportions of Wood which were consumed formerly in the Glasse Furnaces: And this Business being of that nature, that [...]e Workmen are to be had from Italy, and the chief Mate­rials from Spain, France, and other Forren Countries, there is need [...]f an Agent abroad for this use; (and better then I have offered [Page 4] their service in this kind) so that I believe I shall have Employ­ment in all these Countreys, before I return.

Had I continued still Steward of the Glasse-house in Broad­street, where Captain Francis Bacon hath succeeded me, I should in a short time have melted away to nothing, amongst those hot Venetians, finding my self too green for such a Charge; therefore it hath pleased God to dispose of me now to a Condition more su­table to my yeers, and that will, I hope, prove more advantagious to my future Fortunes.

In this my Peregrination, if I happen, by some accident, to be disappointed of that allowance I am to subsist by, I must make my addresse to you, for I have no other Rendevous to flee unto; but it shall not be, unlesse in case of great indigence.

Touching the News of the Time: Sir George Villiers, the new Favorit, tapers up apace, and grows strong at Court: His Prede­cessor the Earl of Somerset hath got a Lease of ninety years for his life, and so hath his articulate Lady, called so, for articling against the frigidity and impotence of her former Lord. She was afraid that Coke the Lord chief Justice (who had used extraordinary an and industry in discovering all the circumstances of the poisoning of Overbury) would have made white Broth of them, but that the Prerogative kept them from the Pot: Yet the subservient instru­ments, the lesser flyes, could not break thorow, but lay entangled in the Cobweb; amongst others, Mistris Turner, the first Inventress of yellow-Starch, was executed in a Cobweb Lawn Ruff of that co­lor at Tyburn, and with her I believe that yellow-Starch, which so much disfigured our-Nation, and rendered them so ridiculous an [...] fantastic, will receive its Funerall. Sir Gervas Elwayes, Lieutenan [...] of the Tower, was made a notable Example of Justice and Terr [...] to all Officers of Trust; for being accessory, and that in a passi [...] way only to the murder, yet he was hanged on Tower-hill: an [...] the Caveat is very remarkable which he gave upon the Gallow [...] That people should be very cautious how they make Vows [...] heaven, for the breach of them seldome passe without a Judge­ment, whereof he was a most ruthfull Example; for being in th [...] Low-Countreys, and much given to Gaming, he once made a so­lemn Vow, (which he brake afterwards) that if he played abov [...] such a sum, he might be hanged. My Lord (William) of Pembrook di [...] a most noble Act like himself; for the King having given hi [...] all Sir Gervas Elway's estate, which came to above 1000 pound [...]. he freely bestowed it on the widow and her children.

[Page 5]The later end of this week, I am to go a Ship-board, and first [...] the Low-Countreys. I humbly pray your Blessing may ac­company me in these my Travels by Land and Sea, with a con­ [...]uance of your prayers, which will be as so many good Gales to [...]ow me to safe Port: for I have been taught, That the Parents Be­ [...]udictions contribute very much, and have a kind of prophetic vertue [...]o make the childe prosperous. In this opinion I shall ever rest,

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

III. To Dr. Francis Mansell, since Principall of Jesus▪ Colledge in Oxford.

SIR,

BEing to take leave of England, and to lanch out into the world abroad, to Breath forren air a while, I thought it very [...]andsom, and an act well becoming me, to take my leave also of [...]ou, and of my dearly honoured Mother Oxford: Otherwise both [...]f you might have just grounds to exhibite a Bill of Complaint, or rather, a Protest, against me, and cry me up, you for a forgetfull friend; she, for an ingratefull Son, if not some spurious Issue. To [...]revent this, I salute you both together: you, with the best of my [...]ost candid affections; her, with my most dutifull observance, [...]nd thankfulnesse for the milk she pleased to give me in that Exuberance, had I taken it in that measure she offered it me while [...] slept in her lap: yet that little I have sucked, I carry with me [...]ow abroad, and hope that this cours of life will help to concoct [...] to a greater advantage, having opportunity, by the nature of [...]y employment, to study men as well as Books. The small time I [...]upervis'd the Glasse-house, I got amongst those Venetians some [...]atterings of the Italian Toung, which, besides the little I have, [...]ou know, of School-languages, is all the Preparatives I have made [...]or travell. I am to go this week down to Gravesend, and so [...]mbarque for Holland: I have got a Warrant from the Lords of [...]he Councell to travell for three years any where, Rome and S. [Page 6] Omer excepted. I pray let me retain some room, though never so little, in your thoughts, during the time of this our separation, and let our souls meet sometimes by intercours of letters; I pro­mise you that yours shall receive the best entertainment I can make them, for I love you dearly dearly well, and value your friendship at a very high ra [...]e: So with apprecation of as much happiness to you at home, as I shall desire to accompany me abroad, I rest ever,

Your friend to serve you, J. H.

IV. To Sir James Crofts, Knight, at S. Osith.

SIR,

I Could not shake hands with England, without kissing your hands also: and because, in regard of your distance now from London, I cannot do it in person, I send this paper for my depu­ty.

The News that keeps greatest noise here now, is the return of Sir Walter Raleigh from his myne of Gold in Guiana the South parts of America, which at first was like to be such a hopeful boon Voyage, but it seems that that golden myne is proved a meer Chymer [...] an imaginary ai [...]y myne; and indeed, his Majestie had never any other conceipt of it: But what will not one in Cap­tivity (as Sir Walter was) promise, to regain his Freedom? who would not promise not onely mynes, but mountains of Gold, for Liberty? & tis pity such a knowing well-weigh'd Knight had not had a better Fortune; for the Destiny (I mean that brave Ship which he built himself of that name, that carried him thither) is like to prove a fatall Destiny to him, and to some of the rest of those gal­lant Adventurers which contributed for the setting forth of thir­teen Ships more, who were most of them his kinsmen and young­er brothers, being led into the said Expedition by a generall con­ceipt the world had of the wisedom of Sir Walter Raleigh; and many of these are like to make Shipwrack of their estates by this [Page 7] Voyage. Sir Walter landed at Plymouth, whence he thought to make an escape; and some say he hath tampered with his body by Phisick, to make him look sickly, that he may be the more pitied, and permitted to lie in his own house. Count Gondamar the Spanish Ambassador speaks high language, and sending lately to desire Audience of his Majestie, he said he had but one word to tell him, his Majestie wondring what might be delivered in one word; when he came before him, he said onely, Pyrats, Pyrats, Pyrats, and so departed.

Tis true that he protested against this Voyage before, and that it could not be but for some praedatory designe: And that if it be as I hear, I fear it will go very ill with Sir Walter, and that Gon­damar will never give him over, till he hath his head off his shoul­ders; which may quickly be done, without any new Arraignment, by vertue of the old Sentence that lies still dormant against him, which he could never get off by Pardon, notwithstanding that he mainly laboured in it before he went; but his Majestie could ne­ver be brought to it, for he said he would keep this as a Curb to hold him within the bounds of his Commission, and the good be­haviour.

Gondamar cryes out, that he hath broke the sacred Peace twixt the two Kingdoms, That he hath fired and plundered santo Thoma a Colony the Spaniards had planted with so much blood, neer under the Line, which made it prove such a hot service unto him, and where, besides others, he lost his eldest son in the Action; and could they have preserved the Magazin of Tobacco onely, be­sides other things in that Town, something mought have bin had to countervail the charge of the Voyage. Gondamar alleadgeth further, that the enterprise of the myne failing, he propounded to the rest of his Fleet to go and intercept some of the Plate-Ga­leons, with other Designes which would have drawn after them apparent acts of Hostility, and so demands Justice: besides other disasters which fell out upon the dashing of the first designe, Cap­tain Remish, who was the main Instrument for discovery of the myne, pistol'd himself in a desperate mood of discontent in his Cabin, in the Convertine.

This return of Sir Walter Raleigh from Guiana, puts me in minde of a facetious tale I read lately in Italian (for I have a little of that Language already) how Alphonso King of Naples sent a Moor who had been his Captive a long time, to Barbary, with a consider­able sum of money to buy horses, and to return by such a time. [Page 8] Now there was about the King a kinde of Buff [...]n or Jester who had a Table-book, or Journall, wherein he was used to register any absurdity, or impertinence, or merry passage that happened about the Court. That day the Moor was dispatched for Barbary, the said Jester waiting upon the King at supper, the King call'd for his Journall, and askt what he had observed that day: thereupon he produced his Table-book, and amongst other things, he read how Alphons [...] King of Naples had sent Beltran the Moor, who had been a long time his Prisoner, to Morocco (his own Countrey) with so many thousand Crowns, to buy horses. The King asked him why he inserted that: Because, said he, I think he will ne­ver come back to be a Prisoner again, and so you have lost both man and money. But if he do come, then your Jest is marr'd, quoth the King: No Sir; for if he return I will blot out your name, and put him in for a Fool.

The Application is easie and obvious: But the world wonders extremely, that so great a wise man as Sir Walter Raleigh would return to cast himself upon so inevitable a Rock, as I fear he will; and much more, that such choice men, and so great a Power of Ships, should all come home, and do nothing.

The Letter you sent to my Father, I conveyed safely the last week to Wales. I am this week, by Gods help, for the Nether­lands, and then I think for France. If in this my forren employ­ment I may be any way serviceable unto you, you know what pow­er you have to dispose of me; for I honor you in a very high de­gree, and will live and die,

Your humble and ready Servant, J. H.

V. To my Brother, after Dr. Howell, and now Bp. of Bristol, from Amsterdam.

BROTHER,

I Am newly landed at Amsterdam, and it is the first forren earth I ever set foot upon. I was pitifully sick all the Voyage, for the Weather was rough, and the wind untoward; and at the [Page 9] mouth of the Texell we were surprised by a furious Tempest, so that the Ship was like to split upon some of those old stumps of trees wherewith that River is full; for in Ages passed, as the Skip­per told me, there grew a fair Forest in that Chanell where the Texell makes now her bed. Having bin so rocked and shaken at Sea; when I came ashore I began to incline to Copernicus his opi­nion, which hath got such a sway lately in the World, viz. That the Earth as well as the rest of her fellow Elements, is in perpetual motion, for she seem'd so to me a good while after I had landed He that observes the site and position of this Countrey, will never hereafter doubt the truth of that Philosophicall Problem which keeps so great a noise in the Schools, viz. That the Sea is higher then the Earth, because as I sail'd along these Coasts, I visibly found it true; for the Ground here which is all twixt Marsh and Moorish, lies not only levell, but to the apparant sight of the ey far lower then the Sea, which made the Duke of Alva say, That the Inhabitants of this Countrey were the neerest Neighbours to Hell (the great Abysse) of any people upon Earth, because they dwell lowest: Most of that Ground they tread, is plucked as it were out of the very Jaws of Neptun, who is afterwards pennt out by high Dikes, which are preserved with incredible charge, inso­much, That the chief Dike-grave here, is one of the greatest Offi­cers of trust in all the Province, it being in his power, to turn the whole Countrey into a Salt lough when he list, and so to put Hans to swim for his life, which makes it to be one of the chiefest part of his Letany, From the Sea, the Spaniard, and the Devil, the Lord deliver me. I need not tell you who preserves him from the last, but from the Spaniard, his best friend is the Sea it self, notwithstan­ding that he fears him as an Enemy another way; for the Sea stretching himself here into divers Arms, and meeting with some of those fresh Rivers that descend from Germany to disgorge themselves into him through these Provinces, most of their towns are thereby encompass'd with Water, which by Sluces they can contract or dilate as they list: This makes their Towns inaccessi­ble, and out of the reach of Cannon; so that Water may be said to be one of their best Fences, otherwise I beleeve they had not been able to have born up so long against the Gigantic power of Spain.

This City of Amsterdam, though she be a great Staple of News, yet I can impart none unto you at this time, I will defer that till I come to the Hague.

I am lodged here at one Mounsieur De la Cluze, not far from [Page 10] the Exchange, to make an Introduction into the French, because I beleeve I shall steer my cours hence next to the Countrey where that Language is spoken; but I think I shall sojourn here about two moneths longer, therefore I pray direct your Letter [...] accordingly, or any other you have for me: One of the prime comforts of a Traveller is to receive Letters from his friends, they be­get new spirits in him, and present joyfull objects to his fancy, when his mind is clouded sometimes with Fogs of melancholy; therefore I pray make me happy as often as your conveniency will serve with yours: You may send or deliver them to Captain Bacon at the Glasse house, who will see them safely sent.

So my dear brother, I pray God blesse us both, and send us af­ter this large distance a joyfull meeting.

Your loving brother, J. H.

VI. To Dan. Caldwall Esq. from Amsterdam.

My dear Dan.

I Have made your friendship so necessary unto me, for the con­tentment of my life, that happinesse it self would be but a kind of infelicity without it: It is as needfull to me, as Fire and Water, as the very Air I take in, and breath out; it is to me not onely neoessitudo, but necessitas: Therefore I pray let me injoy it in that fair proportion, that I desire to return unto you, by way of corre­spondencee and retaliation- Our first ligue of love, you know, was contracted among the Muses in Oxford; for no sooner was I matriculated to her, but I was adopted to you; I became her son, and your friend, at one time: You know I followed you then to London, where our love received confirmation in the Temple, and else-where. We are now far asunder, for no lesse then a Sea se­vers us, and that no narrow one, but the German Ocean: Di­stance sometimes endear's friendship, and absence sweetneth it, it much [...] the value of it, and makes it more precious: Let this be ve­rified [Page 11] in us, Let that love which formerly used to be nourished by personall communication, and the Lips, be now fed by Letters; let the Pen supply the Office of the Toung: Letters have a strong operation, they have a kind of art like embraces to mingle souls, and make them meet though millions of paces asunder; by them we may converse and know how it fares with each other, as it were by entercours of spirits. Therefore amongst your civill speculations, I pray let your thoughts sometimes reflect off me (your absent self) and wrap those thoughts in Paper, and so send them me over: I promise you they shall be very welcome, I shall embrace and hug them with my best affections.

Commend me to Tom Bowyer, and enjoyn him the like: I pray be no niggard in distributing my love plentifully amongst our friends at the Innes of Court; Let Iack Toldervy have my kind commends with this caveat, That the Pot which goes often to the water, comes home crack'd at last; therefore I hope he will be care­full how he makes the Fleece in Cornhill his thorowfare too often. So may my dear Daniel live happy, and love his

J. H.

VII. To my Father, from Amsterdam.

SIR,

I Am lately arrived in Holland in a good plight of health, and continue yet in this Town of Amsterdam, a Town I beleeve, that there are few her fellows, being from a mean Fishing Dorp, come in a short revolution of time, by a monstrous encrease of Comerce and Navigation, to be one of the greatest Marts of Eu­rop: Tis admirable to see what various sorts of Buildings, and new Fabrics, are now here erecting every where; not in houses onely, but in whole Streets and Suburbs; so that tis thought she will in a short time double her proportion in bigness.

I am lodg'd in a French-mans house, who is one of the Deacons of our English Brownists Church here; 'tis not far from the Syna­gog [Page 12] of Iews, who have free and open exercise of their Religion here: I beleeve in this Street where I lodg, ther be well near as many Religions as there be houses; for one Neighbour knows not, nor cares not much, what Religion the other is of, so that the number of Conventicles exceeds the number of Churches here. And let this Countrey call it self as long as it will, the united Provinces one way, I am perswaded in this point, there's no place so Disunited.

The Dog and Rag Market is hard by, where every Sunday morning there is a kind of public Mart for those commodities, notwithstanding their precise observance of the Sabbath.

Upon Saturday last I hapned to be in a Gentlemans company, who shew'd me as I walk'd along in the Streets, along Bearded old Iew of the Tribe of Aaron; when the other Iews met him, they fell down and kiss'd his Foot: This was that Rabbi, with whom our Countrey-man Broughton had such a dispute.

This City, notwithstanding her huge Trade, is far inferiour to London for populousnes; and this I infer out of their weekly Bills of Mortalitie, which come not at most but to fifty or thereabout; whereas in London, the ordinary number is twixt two and three hundred, one week with another: Nor are there such Wealthy­men in this Town as in London; for by reason of the generality of Commerce, the Banks, Adventures, the Common shares and stocks which most have in the Indian and other Companies, the Wealth doth'diffuse it self here in a strange kind of equality, not one of the Bourgers being exceeding rich or exceeding poor; Insomuch, that I beleeve our four and twenty Aldermen, may buy a hundred of the richest men in Amsterdam. It is a rare thing to meet with a Begger here, as rare, as to see a Horse, they say, upon the Streets of Venice, & this is held to be one of their best peeces of Government; for besides the strictnes of their Laws against Mendicants, they have Hospitals of all sorts for young and'old, both for the relief of the one and the employment of the other; so that there is no object here to exercise any act of cha­rity upon. They are here very neat, though not so magnificent in their Buildings, specially in their Frontispices, and first Rooms; and for cleanlines, they may serve for a pattern to all People. They will presently dresse half a dozen Dishes of Meat, without any noise or shew at all; for if one goes to the Kitchin, ther will he scarce apparance of any thing, but a few covered Pots upon a Turf-fire, which is their prime fuell; after dinner they fall a [Page 13] scowring of those Pots▪ so that the outside will be as bright [...] the inside, and the Kitchin suddenly so clean, as if no meat had bin dress'd there a month before: They have nei­ther Well or Fountain, or any Spring of Fresh-water, in, or about all this City, but their Fresh-water is brought unto them by Boats; besides they have Cesterns to receive the Rain-water, which they much use: So that my Laundresse bringing my Lin­nen to me one day, and I commending the Whitenesse of them, she answered, That they must needs be White and Fair, for they were washed in Aqua Coelestis, meaning Skie-water.

Twere cheap living here, were it not for the monstrous Accises which are impos'd upon all sorts of Commodities, both for Belly and Back; for the Retailer payes the States almost the one Moity as much as he payed for the Commodity at first, nor doth any murmur at it, because it goes not to any Favourit, or private Purse, but to preserve them from the Spaniard, their common Enemy as they term him; so that the saying is truely verified here, Desend me, and spend me: With this Accise principally, they maintain all their Armies by Sea and Land, with their Garrisons at home and abroad, both here, and in the Indies, and defray all other public charges besides.

I shall hence shortly for France, and in my way take most of the prime Towns of Holland and Zealand, specially Leyden (the Uni­versity) where I shall sojourn some days. So humbly craving a continuance of your Blessing and Prayers, I rest

Your dutiful S [...], J. H.

VIII. To Dr. Tho. Prichard, at Jesus Colledg in Oxford, from Leyden.

SIR,

IT is the Royall Prerogative of Love, not to be confined to that small Locall compasse which circumscribes the Body, but to make his Sallies, and Progresses abroad, to find out, and enjoy his desired object, under what Region soever: Nor is it the vast Gulph of Neptun, or any distance of place, or difference of Clime, can bar him of this priviledge▪ I never found the experiment here­of, so sensibly, nor felt the comfort of it so much, as since I shook hands with England: For though you be in Oxford, and I at Leyden, albeit you be upon an Island, and I now upon the Conti­nent, (though the lowest part of Europ) yet those swift Postillions my thoughts find you out daily, and bring you unto me: I be­hold you often in my Chamber, and in my Bed; you eat, you drink, you sit down, and walk with me▪ and my fantasie enjoyes you often in my sleep, when all my sences are lock'd up, and my soul wanders up and down the World, sometimes through plea­sant Fields and Gardens, sometimes through odd uncouth places, over Mountains and broken confused Buildings. As my love to you doth thus exercise his power, so I desire yours to me may not be idle, but rows'd up sometimes to find me out, and summon me to attend you in Iesus Colledge.

I am now here in Leyden, the onely Academy besides Franiker of all the United Provinces: Here are Nations of all sorts, but the Germans swarr [...] more then any: To compare their University to yours, were to cast New-Inne in counterscale with Christ-Church Colledge, or the Alms Houses on Tower Hill to Suttons Hospitall. Here are no Colledges at all, God-wot (but one for the Dutch) nor scarce the face of an University, onely there are generall Schools where the Sciences are read by severall Professors, but all the Students are Oppidanes: A small time and lesse learning, will suffice to make one a Graduate; nor are those Formalities of Ha­bits, and other Decencies here, as with you, much lesse those Ex­hibitions and Support for Schollers, with other encouragements; in so much, that the Oxonians and Cantabrigians—Bona si [Page 15] suae norint, were they sensible of their own felicity, are the happiest Academians on Earth: yet Apollo hath a strong influence here; and as Cicero said of them of Athens, Athenis pingue coelum, tenu [...] i [...]genia, The Athenians had a thick Air, and thin Wits; so I may say of these Lugdunensian [...], They have a grosse Ayr, but thin subtile Wits, (some of them) Witnesse else Hernsius, Grotins, Arminius, and Bandius; of the two last I was told a Tale, that Arminius meeting Baudius one day disguis'd with Drink (wherewith he would be of­ten) he told him, Tu Baudî dedecoras nostram Academiam, & tu Arminî nostram Religionem. Thou Baudius disgracest our Univer­sity; and thou Arminius our Religion. The Heaven here hath alwayes some Clowd in his countenance; and from this grosse­nesse and spissitude of Air proceeds the slow Nature of the Inha­bitants, yet this slownesse is recompenc'd with another benefit; it makes them patient and constant, as in all other actions, so in their Studies and Speculations, though they use

Crassos transire Dies, lucemque palustrem.

I pray impart my Love liberally amongst my Friends in Oxford; and when you can make truce with your more serious Meditati­ons, bestow a thought, drawn into a few Lines, upon

Your J. H.

IX. To Mr. Richard Altham, at his Chamber in Grayes-Inne.

Dear Sir,

THough you be now a good way out of my reach, yet you are not out of my remembrance; you are still within the Hori­zon of my Love: Now the Horizon of Love is large and spaci­ous, it is as boundlesse, as that of the imagination; and where the imagination rangeth, the memory is still busie to usher in, and present the desired object it fixeth upon: it is love that sets them both on work, and may be said to be the highest sphear whence they receive their motion. Thus you appear unto me often in these Forren Travels, and that you may beleeve me the better, I send you these Lines as my Ambassadors (and Ambassadors must [Page 16] not lie) to inform you accordingly, and to salute you.

I desire to know how you like Ployden; I heard it often said, That ther is no study requires patience and constancy more then the Common-Law, for it is a good while before one comes to any known perfection in it, and consequently to any gainfull prac­tise. This (I think) made Iack Chaundle [...] throw away his Lit­tleton, like him that when he could not catch the Hare, said, A pox upon her she is but dry tough meat, let her go: It is not so with you; for I know you are of that disposition, that when you mind a thing, nothing can frighten you in making constant pursuit after it, till you have obtained it: For if the Mathematics with their Crabbednesse, and intricacy, could not deter you, but that you waded through the very midst of them, and arriv'd to so ex­cellent a perfection; I believe it is not in the power of Ployden, to Dastardize or Cowe your Spirits, untill you have overcom him, at least wise have so much of him as will serve your turn. I know you were always a quick and pressing Disputant in Logic and Philoso­phy, which makes me think your Genius is fit for Law, (as the Ba­ron your excellent Father was) for a good Logitian makes alwayes a good Lawyer: and hereby one may give a strong conjecture of the aptnesse or ineptitude of ones capacity to that study and pro­fession; and you know as well as I, that Logitians who went under the name of Sophisters, were the first Lawyers that ever were.

I shall be upon incertain removes hence, untill I come to Roüe [...] in France, and there I mean to cast Anchor a good while; I shall expect your Letters there with impatience. I pray present my Service to Sir Iames Altham, and to my good Lady, your Mother, with the rest to whom it is due in Bishopsgate Street, and else­where: So I am

Yours in the best degree of Friendship, J. H.

X. To Sir James Crofts: from the Hague.

SIR,

THe same observance that a Father may challenge of his child, the like you may claim of me, in regard of the extraor­dinary care you have bin pleas'd to have alwayes, since I had the happines to know you, of the cours of my Fortunes.

I am now newly come to the Hague, the Court of the six (and almost seven) confederated Provinces; the Counsell of State with the Prince of Orange, makes his firm Residence here, unlesse he be upon a march, and in motion for some design abroad. This Prince (Maurice) was cast in a mould▪ suitable to the temper of this peo­ple: he is slow and full of warines, and not without a mixture of fear, I do not mean a pusillanimous, but politic fear: he is the most constant in the quotidian cours and carriage of his life, of any that J have ever heard or read of; for whosoever knows the customs of the Prince of Orange, may tell what he is a doing here evry hour of the day, though he be in Constantinople. In the morning he awaketh about six in Sommer, and seven in Winter; the first thing he doth, he sends one of his Grooms or Pages, to see how the wind sits, and he wears or leaves off his Wascot accordingly, then he is about an hour dressing himself, and about a quarter of an hour in his Closet, then comes in the Secretary, and if he hath any privat or public Letters to write, or any other dispatches to make, he doth it before he stirs from his Chamber; then comes he abroad, and goes to his Stables if it be no Sermon day, to see some of his Gentlemen or Pages (of whose breeding he is very carefull) ride the great Horse: He is very accessible to any that hath busines with him, and sheweth a winning kind of familiari­ty, for he will shake hands with the meanest Boor of the Coun­trey, and he seldom hears any Commander or Gentleman with his Hat on: He dines punctually about twelve, and his Table is free for all comers, but none under the degree of a Captain useth to sit down at it; after dinner he stayes in the Room a good while, and then any one may accost him, and tell his tale; then he re­ [...]res to his Chamber, where he answers all Petitions that were de­livered [Page 18] him in the Morning, and towards the Evening, if he goes not to Counsell, which is seldome; he goes either to make some visits, or to take the Air abroad, and according to this constant method he passeth his life.

Ther are great stirs like to arise twixt the Bohemians, and their elected King the Emperour, and they are com already to that height, that they consult of deposing him, and to chuse some Pro­testant Prince to be their King, som talk of the Duke of Saxony, others of the Palsgrave: J beleeve the States here, would rather be for the latter, in regard of conformity of Religion, the other being a Lutheran.

I could not find in Amsterdum a large Ortelius in French, to send you, but from [...] I will not fail to serve you.

So wishing you all happines and health, and that the Sun may make many progresses more through the Zodiac, before those comely Gray hairs of yours go to the Grave, I rest

Your very humble Servant, J. H.

XI. To Captain Francis Bacon, at the Glassehouse in Broad-street.

SIR,

MY last to you, was from Amsterdam, since which time I have travers'd the prime parts of the united Provinces, and [...] am now in Zealand, being newly come to this Town of Middl [...] borough, which is much crest-faln since the Staple of English Clo [...] was removed hence, a [...] is Flishing also her next Neighbor, since th [...] departure of the English Garrison: A good intelligent Gentle­man told me the manner how Flishing and the B [...]ill, our two Cau­tionary Towns here were redeem'd, which was thus: The nin [...] hundred and odd Souldiers at Flishing, and the Rammakins ha [...] by, being many weeks without their pay, they borrow'd diver [...] sums of Money of the States of this Town, who finding no hope [...] of supply from England, advice was sent to the States-Generall [...] the Hague, they consulting with Sir Ralph Winwood our Ambassa­dor [Page 19] (who was a favourable Instrument unto them in this busi­nes, as also in the match with the Palsgrave) sent Instructions to the Lord Caroon, to acquaint the Earl of Suffolk (then Lord Trea­surer) herewith; and in case they could find no satisfaction there, to make his addresse to the King himself, which Caroon did, His Majestie being much incens'd, that his Subjects and Souldiers should starve for want of their pay in a Forren Countrey, sent for the Lord Treasurer, who drawing his Majestie aside, and telling how empty his Exchequer was, His Majestie told the Ambassador, that if his Masters, the States, would pay the money they ow'd him upon those Towns, he would deliver them up; The Ambassador returning the next day, to know whether his Majestie persisted in the same Resolution, in regard that at his former audience, he per­ceived him to be a little transported, His Majesty answered, That he knew the States of Holland to be his good frends and confede­rats, both in point of Religion and Policy; therefore he apprehen­ded not the least fear of any difference, that should fall out between them, in contemplation whereof, if they desir'd to have their Towns again, he would willingly surrender them: Hereupon the States made up the sum presently, which came in convenient time, for it serv'd to defray the expencefull progresse he made to Scotland, the Summer following. When that Money was lent by Queen Elizabeth, it was Articled, that Interest should be payed upon Interest; and besides, that for evry Gentleman who should lose his life in the States Service, they should make good five pounds to the Crown of England: All this His Majestie remitted, and onely took the principall; and this was done in requitall of that Princely Entertainment, and great Presents, which my Lady Elizabeth had received in divers of their Towns, as she pass'd to Heydelberg.

The Bearer hereof, is Sigr. Antoni [...] Miotti, who was Master of a Crystall-Glasse Furnace here a long time, and as I have it by good intelligence, he is one of the ablest, and most knowing men, for the guidance of a Glasse-Work in Christendom; There­fore according to my Instructions, I send him over, and hope to [...]ave done Sir Robert good service thereby. So with my kinde respects unto you, and my most humble Service where you know [...]is due, I rest

Your affectionate Servent, J. H.

XII. To Sir James Crofts: Antwerp.

SIR,

I Presume that my last to you from the Hague came to safe hand: I am now come to a more cheerfull Countrey, and amongst a People somewhat more vigorous and mettald, being not so heavy as the Hollander, or homely, as they of Zealand. This goodly ancient City me thinks looks like a disconsolat Widow, or rather som superannuated Virgin, that had lost her Lover, being almost quite [...]erest of that flourishing Commerce, wherwith before the falling off of the rest of the Provinces from Spain, she abounded to the envy of all other Cities and Marts of Europ. Ther are few places this side the Alps better built, and so well Streeted as this, and none at all so well girt with Bastions and Rampasts, which in som places are so spacious, that they usually take the Air in Coa­ches upon the very wals, which are beutified with divers rows of Trees, and pleasant Walks. The Cittadell here, though it be an addition to the Statelines and strength of the Town, yet it serve [...] as a shrew'd Curb unto her, which makes her chomp upon the Bit, and Foam sometimes with anger, but she cannot help it. The Tumults in Bohemia now grow hotter and hotter, they write how the great Councell a [...] Prague fell to such a hurliburly, that so [...] of those Senators who adherd to the Emperour, were thrown ou [...] at the windows, wher som were maim'd, som break their Necks. [...] am shortly to bid a farewell to the Netherlands, and to bend m [...] cours for France, wher I shall be most ready to entertain an [...] commands of yours. So may all health and happines, attend yo [...] according to the wishes of

Your obliged Servant, J. [...]

XIII. To Dr. Tho. Prichard at Oxford, from Roüen.

I Have now taken firm footing in France, and though France be one of the chiefest Climats of Complement, yet I can use none towards you, but tell you in plain down right Language, That in the List of those friends I left behind me in England, you are one of the prime rank, one whose name I have mark'd with the whitest Stone: If you have gain'd such a place amongst the choi­cest friends of mine, I hope you will put me somwher amongst yours, though I but fetch up the rear, being contented to be the i [...]fima species, the lowest in the predicament of your friends.

I shall sojourn a good while in this City of Roüen, therfore I pray make me happy with the comfort of your Letters, which I shall expect with a longing impatience: I pray send me ample advertisement of your welfare, and of the rest of our friends, as well upon the Banks of Isis, as amongst the Brittish Mountains. I am but a fresh▪ man yet in France, therfore I can send you no news, but that all is here quiet, and tis no ordinary news, that the French should be quiet: But some think this Calm will not last long, for the Queen Mother (late Regent) is discontented being restrain'd from coming to the Court, or to the City of Paris, and the Tragicall death of her Favourit, (and Foster-Brother) the late Marquis of Ancre, lieth yet in her stomach undisgested: She hath the Duke of Espernon, and divers other potent Princes, that would be strongly, at her devotion (as 'tis thought) if she would stir. I pray present my service to Sir Eubule Theloall, and send me word with what pace, Iesus Colledg new Walls go up: I will borrow my conclusion to you at this time of my Countrey­man Owen.

Uno non possum quantum te diligo versu
Dicere, si satis est distichon, ecce duos.
I cannot in one Vers my love declare,
If two will serve the turn, to here they are.

Wherunto I will add this sirname Anagram.

Yours whole I. Howel.

XIV. To Daniel Caldwall Esq. from Roüen.

MY dear Dan. when I came first to this Town, amongst other objects of contentment which I found here, wherof ther are variety, a Letter of yours was brought me, and 'twas a Sh [...] Letter, for two more were enwomb'd in her Body, she had an easie and quick deliverance of that Twin; but besides them, she was big and pregnant of divers sweet pledges, and lively evidences of your own love towards me, whereof I am as fond as any Mo­ther can be of her child: I shall endeavour to cherish and foster this dear love of yours, with all the tendernes that can be, and warm it at the fuel of my best affections, to make it grow evry day stronger and stronger, untill it comes to the state of perfection, because I know it is a true and real, it is no spurious or adulterated love: If I intend to be so indulgent and carefull of yours, I hope you will not suffer mine to starve with you; my love to you needs not much tending, for it is a lusty strong love, and will not easily miscarry.

I pray when you write next, to sond me a dozen pair of the best White Kidskin Gloves, the Royall-Exchange can afford; as also two pair of the purest White Wosted Stockins you can get of Women size, together with half a dozen pair of Knifs. I pray send your man with them to Vacandary the French Post upon Tower-Hill, who will bring them me safely. When I go to Paris, I shall send you som curiosities, equivalent to these; I have here inclos'd re­turn'd an answer to those two that came in yours, I pray see them safely delivered. My kind respects to your Brother Sergeant at Court, to all at Batter say,' or any wher else, wher you think my Commendations may be well plac'd.

No more at this time, but that I recommend you to the never failing Providence of God, desiring you to go on in nourishing still between us, that love, which for my part,

No Traverses of Chance, of Time, or Fate,
Shall ere extinguish till our lives last date;
[Page 23]But a [...] the Vin [...] h [...] lovely El [...] [...] wire,
Grasp b [...]th our Hearts, and flame with fresh desire.
Yours J. H.

XV. To my Father from Roüen.

SIR,

YOurs of the third of August, came to safe hand in an inclos'd from my Brother; you may make easie conjecture how wel­com it was unto me, and to what a height of comfort it rais'd my spirits, in regard it was the first I received from you, since I cross'd the Seas; I humbly thank you for the blessing you sent along with it.

I am now upon the fair Continent of France, One of Natures choicest Master-peeces; one of Ceres chiefest Barns for Corn; one of Bacchus prime Wine-Cellars, and of Neptu [...]s best Salt-Pits; a compleat self-sufficient Countrey, wher ther is rather a super­fluity, then defect of any thing, either for necessity or pleasure, did the policie of the Countrey correspond with the bounty of Nature, in the equall distribution of the Wealth amongst the Inhabitants; for I think there is not upon the Earth, a richer Countrey, and poorer peeple. Tis true, England hath a good repute abroad for her fer­tility, yet be our Harvests never so kindly, and our Crops never so plentifull, we have evry yeer commonly som Grain from hence, or from Danzic, and other places imported by the Marchant: Besides, ther be many more Heaths, Commons, Bleak-b [...]rren-Hills, and waste Grounds in England, by many degrees, then I find here; and I am sorry our Countrey of Wales, should give more instances hereof, then any other part.

This Province of Normandy, once an Appendix of the Crown of England, though it want Wine, yet it yeelds the King as much desmeans as any one of the rest: The lower Norman hath Syder for his common drink; and I visibly observ'd, that they are more plump and replet in their bodies, and of a clearer complexion then those that drink altogether Wine. In this great City of [Page 24] Roüen ther be many Monuments of the English Nation yet extant. In the outside of the highest Steeple of the great Church ther is the word GOD engraven in huge Golden Characters, evry one almost as long as my self, to make them the more visible. In this Steeple hangs also the greatest Bell of Christendom, call'd d'Am­boise; for it weighs neer upon▪ fourty thousand pound weight. Ther is also here Saint Oen, the greatest Sanctuary in the Citie, founded by one of our Compatriots, as the name imports: This Province is also subject to Wardships, and no other part of France besides; but whither the Conqueror transported that Law to England from hence, or whither he sent it over from England hi­ther, I cannot resolve you. Ther is a marvailous quick trade beaten in this Town, because of the great Navigable River Sequana (the Seine) that runs hence to Paris, wheron ther stands a strange Bridge that ebbs and flows, that riseth and fall's with the River, it being made of Boats, whereon Coach, and Carts may passe over as well as men: Besides, this is the neerest Mercantil City that stands twixt Paris and the Sea.

My last unto you was from the Low-Countreys, wher I was in motion to and fro above four months; but I fear it miscarried in regard you make no mention of it in yours.

I begin more and more to have a sense of the sweetnes, and advantage of forren Travell: I pray when you com to London, to find a time to visit Sir Robert, and acknowledge his great fa­vours unto me, and desire a continuance thereof, according as I shall endeavour to deserve them. So with my due and daily Prayers for your health, and a speedy successefull issue of all your Law-businesses, I humbly crave your blessing, and rest.

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

XVI. To Cap. Francis Bacon, from Paris.

SIR,

I Received two of yours in Roüen with the Bills of Exchange, ther inclos'd, and according to your directions I sent you those things which you wrote for.

I am now newly com to Paris, this huge Magazin of men, the Epitome of this large populous Kingdom, and rendevouz of all Forreners. The structures here are indifferently fair, though the Streets generally foul all the four Seasons of the yeer, which I impute first to the Position of the Citie being built upon an Isle (the Isle of France, made so by the branching and serpentin cours of the River of Seine) and having som of her Suburbs seated high, the filth runs down the Channell, and settles in many places within the body of the Citie, which lieth upon a flat; as also for a world of Coaches, Carts, and Horses of all sorts that go to and fro perpetually, so that somtimes one shall meet with a stop half a mile long of those Coaches, Carts, and Horses, that can move neither forward nor backward by reason of some sudden encoun­ter of others coming a crosse-way; so that oftentimes it will be an hour or two before they can dis-intangle: In such a stop the great Henry was so fatally slain by Ravillac. Hence comes it to passe, that this Town (for Paris is a Town, a City, and an univer­sity) is alwayes dirty, and 'tis such a dirt, that by perpetual mo­tion is beaten into such a thick black onctious Oyl, that wher it sticks, no art can wash it off of some colours, insomuch, that it may be no improper comparison to say, That an ill name is like the Crot (the dirt) of Paris, which is indelible; besides the stain this dirt leaves, it gives also so strong a sent, that it may be smelt many miles off, if the wind be in ones face as he comes from the fresh Air of the Countrey: This may be▪ one cause why the Plague is alwayes in som corner or other of this vast Citie, which may be call'd as once S [...]ythia was Vagina Populorum, or (as mankind was call'd by a great Philosopher) a great Mole-hill of Ants: Yet I believe this Citie is not so populous as she seems to be, for her form being round (as the whole Kingdom is) the Passengers wheel about, and meet oftner then they use to do in the long [Page 26] continued Streets of London, which makes London appear lesse po­pulous then she is indeed; so that London for length (though not for latitude) including Westminster, exceeds Paris, and hath in Mi [...]hnelmas Term more souls moving within her in all places. Tis under one hundred yeers that Paris is becom so sumptuous, and strong in Buildings; for her houses were mean, untill a Myne of White Stone was discover'd [...]ard by, which runs in a continued Vein of Earth, and is digg'd out with ease being soft, and is between a White-Clay and Chalk at first, but being pullied up, with the open Air it receives a Crusty kind of hardnes, and so becomes perfect Freestone; and before it is sent up from the Pit, they can reduce it to any form: Of this Stone, the Louvre, the Kings Palace is built, which is a vast Fabric, for the Gallerie wants not much of an Italian mile in length, and will easily lodg 3000 men, which some told me, was the end for which the last King made it so big, that lying at the fag end of this great muti­nous Citie; if she perchance should rise, the King might powre o [...]t of the Louvre so many thousand men unawares into the heart of her.

I am lodg'd here hard by the Bastile, because it is furthest off from those places where the English resort; for I would go on to get a little Language as soon as I could. In my next, I shall im­part unto you what State-news France affords, in the interim, and alwayes I am

Your humble Servant, J. H.

XVII. To Richard Altham Esquire; from Paris.

Dear Sir,

LOve is the marrow of Friendship, and Letters are the Elixir of Love; they are the best fuell of affection, and cast a sweeter odour then any Frankincense can do; such an odour, such an A­romatic perfume your late Letter brought with it, proceeding from the fragrancy of those dainty Flowers of eloquence, which I found [Page 27] blossoming as it were in every Line; I mean those sweet expres­sions of Love and Wit, which in every period were intermingled with so much Art, that they seem'd to contend for mastery which was the strongest: I must confesse, that you put me to hard shifto to correspond with you in such exquisit strains and raptures of Love, which were so lively, that I must needs judg them to pro­ceed from the motions, from the Diastole and Systole of a Heart truly affected; certainly your heart did dictat every syllable you writ, and guided your hand all along: Sir, give me leave to tell you, that not a dram, nor a doze, not a scruple of this pretious love of yours is lost, but it is safely tresur'd up in my Brest, and an­swer'd in like proportion to the full, mine to you is as cordiall, it is passionat and perfect, as love can be.

I thank you for the desire you have to know how it fares with me abroad; I thank God I am perfectly well, and well contented with this wandring cours of life a while, I never enjoyed my health better, but I was like to endanger it two nights ago; for being in som joviall company abroad, and coming late to our lodging, we were suddenly surprized by a crue of Filous of night Rogues, who drew upon us, and as we had exchang'd some blow [...], it pleas'd God, the Chevatieur de Guet, an Officer, who goe [...] up and down the Streets all night a horseback to prevent disorders, pass'd by, and so rescued us; but Iack White was hurt, and I had two thrusts in my Clock. Ther's never a night passeth, but some robbing or murther is committed in this Town, so that it is not safe to go late any where, specially about the Pont-Neuf, the New Bridg, though Henry the Great himself [...]ies Centinell ther in Arms, upon a huge Florentine horse, and sits bare to every one that passeth, an improper posture me thinks to a King on horse­back: not longsince, one of the Secretaries of [...] (wherof ther are here always four) having bin invited to the Suburbs of Saint Germains to supper, left order with one of his Laquays, to bring him his horse about nine, it so happen'd, that a mischance befell the horse, which lam'd him as he went a watring to the Seine, insomuch, that the Secretary was put to beat the hoof himself, and Foot it home; but as he was passing the Pont-Neuf with his La­quay carrying a Torch before him, he might ore hear a noise of clashing of Swords, and Fighting, and looking under the Torch, [...]d perceiving they were but two, he bad his Laquay go on; they had not made many paces, but two armed men with their Pistols cock'd, and swords drawn, made puffing towards them, whereof [Page 28] one had a paper in his hand, which he said, he had casually took up in the streets, and the difference between them was about that Paper; therefore they desir'd the Secretary to read it, with a great deal of complement, the Secretary took out his spectacles, and fell a reading of the said Paper, whereof the substance was, That it should be known to all men, that whosoever did passe over that Bridge after nine a Clock at night in Winter, and ten in Summer, was to leave his Cloak behind him, and in case of no Cloak, his Hat. The Secretary starting at this, one of the Camerades told him; That he thought that Paper concern'd him, so they unmantled him of a new Plush Cloak, and my Secretary was content to go home quietly, and en Cuerpo. This makes me think often, of the excel­lent Nocturnall Government of our City of London, wher one may passe and repasse securely all hours of the night, if he give good words to the Watch. Ther is a gentle calm of Peace now throughout all France, and the King intends to make a progresse to all the Frontier Towns of the Kingdom, to see how they are fortified. The Favourit Luines strengthneth himself more and more in his minionship, but he is much murmured at in regard the accesse of Suiters to him is so difficult, which made a Lord of this Land say, That three of the hardest things in the world were, To quadrat a Circl [...], to find out the Philosophers Stone, and to speak with the Duke of Luines.

I have sent you by Vacandary the Post, the French Bever and Tweeses you writ for: Bever-hats are grown dearer of late, be­cause the Iesuits have got the Monopoly of them from the King.

Farewell dear child of Vertue, and Minion of the Muse [...], and continue to love

Your J. H.

XVIII. To Sir James Crofts; from Paris.

SIR,

I Am to set forward this week for Spain, and if I can find no com­modity of embarcation at Saint Malos, I must be forc'd to jour­ney it all the way by Land, and clammer up the huge Pyreney­hills, but I could not bid Paris adieu, till I had conveyed my true and constant respects to you by this Letter. I was yesterday to wait upon Sir Herbert Croft at Saint Germains, where I met with a French Gentleman, who amongst other curiosities, which he pleased to shew me up and down Paris, brought me to that place where the late King was slain, and to that wher the Marquis of Ancre was shot, and so made me a punctuall relation of all the circumstances of those two acts; which in regard they were rare, and I beleeve two of the notablest Accidents that ever happen'd in France, I thought it worth the labour to make you partaker of som part of his discours.

France as all Christendom besides (for ther was then a truce twixt Spain and the Hollander) was in a profound Peace, and had continued so twenty yeers together, when Henry the fourth fell upon some great Martiall design, the bottome whereof is not known to this day; and being rich (for he had heap'd up in the Bastile a mount of Gold that was as high as a Lance) he levied a huge Army of 40000 men, whence came the Song, The King of France with fourty thousand men, and upon a sudden he put this Army in perfect equippage, and some say he invited our Prince Henry to come unto him to be a sharer in his exploits: But going one afternoon to the Bastile, to see his Tresure and Ammunition, his Coach stopp'd suddenly, by reason of some Colliers and o­ther Carts that were in that narrow street; whereupon one Ra­villac a lay Jesuit (who had a whole twelve month watch'd an op­portunity to do the act) put his foot boldly upon one of the wheels of the Coach, and with a long Knife stretch'd himself over their shoulders who were in the Boot of the Coach, and reach'd the King at the end, and stab'd him right in the left side to the heart, and pulling out the fatall Steel, he doubled his thrust; the [Page 30] King with a ruthfull voice cryed out, Ie suis blesse (I am hurr) and suddenly the bloud issued at his mouth: The Regicide villain was apprehended, and command given, that no violence should be offered him, that he might be reserv'd for the law, and som exquisit torture. The Queen grew half distracted hereupon, who had been crown'd Queen of France the day before in great tryumph; but a few days after she had something to countervail, if not to overmatch her sorrow; for according to Saint Lewis law, she was made Queen Regent of France during the Kings Minori­ty, who was then but about years of Age: Many consultations were held how to punish Revillas, and ther were some Italia [...] Physitians that undertook to prescribe a torment, that should last a constant torment for three days, but he scap'd onely with this, His body was pull'd between four horses, that one might hear his Bones crack, and after the dislocation, they were set again, and so he was carryed in a Cart standing half naked, with a Torch in that hand which had committed the murrher; and in the place where the act was done, it was cut off, and a Gauntlet of hot Oyl was clap'd upon the stump, to stanch the bloud, whereat he gave a dolefull shrike, then was he brought upon a stage, wher a new pair of Boots was provided for him, half fill'd with boyling Oyl, then his body was pincer'd, and hot Oyl powr'd into the holes; in al the extremity of this torture, he scarce shew'd any sense of pain, but when the Gauntlet was clap'd upon his Arms to stanch the Flux at which time he of reaking bloud, gave a shrike onely; He boar up against all these torments about three hours before he dyed: all the confession that could be drawn from him, was, That he thought to have done God good service, totake away that King, which would have embroil'd all Christendom in an endlesse War.

A fatall thing it was, that France should have theee of her Kings com to such violent deaths, in so short a revolution of time. Henry the second running at Tilt with Monsieur Montgomery, was kill'd by a Splinter of a Lance that pierc'd his eye: Henry the third, not long after, was kill'd by a young Fryer, who in lieu of a Letter which he pretended to have for him, pull'd out of his long sleeve a Knife, and thrust him into the Bottom of the belly, as he was coming from his Close stool, and so dispatcht him, but that Regicide was hack'd to peeces in the place by the Nobles: The same destiny attended this King by Ravillac, which is becom now a common name of reproach and infamy in France.

Never was King so much lamented as this, ther are a world not onely of his Pictures, but Statues up and down France, and ther's [Page 31] scarce a Market Town, but hath him erected in the Market place, or ore some Gate, not upon Sign-posts, as our Henry the eight; and by a publick Act of Parliament which was confirmed in the Consistory at Rome, he was enti [...]led, Henry the Great, and so plac'd in the Temple of Immortality. A notable Prince he was, and of in admirable temper of body and mind, he had a gracefull faceti­ous way to gain both love and aw, he would be never transported beyond himself with choler, but he would passe by any thing with some repartie, som witty strain, wherein he was excellent: I will instance in a few which were told me from a good hand. One day he was charg'd by the Duke of Bovillon to have chang'd his Reli­gion, he answer'd, No cosin, I have chang'd no Religion, but an Opi­nion; And the Cardinall of Perron being by, he injoyn'd him to write a Treatise for his Vindication, the Cardinal was long about the work, and when the King ask'd from time to time where his Book was, he would still answer him, That he expected som Manu­scripts from Rome before he could finish it: It happen'd, that one day the King took the Cardinall along with him to look on his Workmen, and new Buildings at the Louvre; and passing by one corner which had bin a long time begun but left unfinished, The King ask'd the chief Mason, why that corner was not all this while perfected? Sir, it is because I want som choice Stones; no, no, said the King, looking upon the Cardinall, It is because thou want' [...] Manuscripts from Rome. Another time, the old Duke of Main, who was us'd to play the drol with him, coming softly into his Bed-Chamber, and thrusting in his Bald-head, and Long-neck, in a posture to make the King merry, it happen'd the King was com­ing from doing his Ease, and spying him, he took the round Cover of the Close-stool, and clap'd it on his Bald-Sconce, saying, A [...] Cousin, you thought once to have taken the Crown off of my head, and wear it on your own; but this of my Tail shall now serve your turn. Another time, when at the siege of Ami [...]ns, he having sent for the Count of Soissons (who had 100000 Franks a yeer Pension from the Crown) to assist him in those wars, and that the Count excused himself, by reason of his yeers, and poverty, having exhausted himself in the former wars, and all that he could do now, was to pray for his Majesty, which he would do heartily: This answer being brought to the King, he replied, Will my Cousin, the Count of Soissons, do nothing else but pray for me, tell him that Prayer without Fasting, is not available; therefore I will make my Cousin Fast also, from his Pension of 100000. per annum.

He was once troubled with a fit of the Gout, and the Spanish [Page 32] Ambassador coming then to visit him, and saying he was sorry to see his Majesty so lame, he answered, As lame as I am, if ther were occasion, your Master the King of Spain, should no sooner have his foot in the stirrop, but he should find me on Horseback.

By these few you may guesse at the Genius of this spritfull Prince, I could make many more instances, but then I should ex­ceed the bounds of a Letter. When I am in Spain you shall hear further from me, and if you can think on any thing wherin I may serve you, beleeve it Sir, that any imployment from you, shall be welcom to

Your much obliged Servant. J. H.

XIX. To my Brother Dr. Howell.

BROTHER,

BEing to morrow to part with Paris, and begin my journey for Spain, I thought it not amisse to send you this, in regard I know not when I shall have opportunity to write unto you a­gain.

This Kingdom since the young King hath taken the Scepter into his own hands doth flourish very much with quietnes and Commerce; nor is there any motion or the least tintamar of trou­ble in any part of the Countrey, which is rare in France. Tis true, the Queen Mother is discontented since She left her Regency, being confin'd, and I know not what it may com unto in time, for she hath a strong party, and the murthering of her Marquis of Ancre will yet bleed as som fear.

I was lately in societie of a Gentleman, who was a Spectator of that Tragedie, and he pleas'd to relate unto me the particulars of it, which was thus: When Henry the fourth was slain, the Queen Dowager took the Reins of the Government into her hands during the young Kings Minority; and amongst others whom she advanc'd Signor Conchino, a Florentin, and her Foster-Brother was one; Her countenance came to shine so strongly up­on him, that he became her onely confident and favourit, inso­much, that she made him Marquis of Ancre, one of the twelve [Page 33] Marshals of France, Governour of Normandy, and conferr'd di­vers other Honours, and Offices of trust upon him, and who but he; The Princes of France could not endure this domineering of a stranger, therefore they leagu'd together, to suppresse him by Arms; The Queen Regent having intelligence hereof, sur­priz'd the Prince of Conde, and clap'd him up in the Bastile; the Duke of Main fled hereupon to Peronne in Pycardie, and other great men put themselves in an Armed posture, to stand upon their guard: The young King being told, that the Marquis of Ancre was the ground of this discontentment, commanded Mon­sieur de Vitry, Captain of his Guard, to Arrest him, and in case of resistance, to kill him: This busines was carried very closely till the next morning, that the said Marquis was coming to the Louvre with a ruffling train of Gallants after him, and passing over the Draw-Bridge at the Court-Gate, Vitry stood there with the Kings Guard about him, and as the Marquis entred, he told him, that he had a Commission from the King to apprehend him, therefore he demanded his Sword; the Marquis hereupon put his hand upon his Sword, some thought to yeeld it up, others to make opposition; in the mean time Vitry discharg'd a Pistoll at him, and so dispatch'd him: The King being above in his Gal­lery, ask'd what noise that was below, one smilingly answer'd▪ nothing Sir, but that the Marshall of Ancre is slain; who slew him? The Captain of your Guard; why? Because he would have drawn his Sword at Your Majesties Royall Commission, then the King replied, Vitry hath done well, and I will maintain the act: Presently the Queen Mother had all her Guard taken from her, except six men and sixteen Women, and so she was banish'd Pa­ris, and commanded to retire to Blois: Ancre's Body was buried that night in a Church hard by the Court, but the next morning, when the Laquays and Pages (who are more unhappy here then the Apprentises in London) broke up his Grave, tore his Coffin to peeces, rip'd the Winding-Sheet, and tied his Body to an Asses Tail, and so dragg'd him up and down the Gutters of Paris, which are none of the sweetest; they then slic'd off his Ears, and nail'd them upon the Gates of the City, they cut off his Genito­ries (and they say he was hung like an Asse) and sent them for a present to the Duke of Main, the rest of his Body, they carried to the New-Bridg, and hung him his Heels upwards, and Head downwards upon a new Gibbet, that had bin set up a little before to punish them who should speak ill of the present Government, and it was his chance to have the Maiden-head of it himself: His [Page 34] Wife was hereupon apprehended, imprisond, and beheaded for a Witch som few dayes after upon a surmise, that she had enchanted the Queen to dote so upon her Husband; and they say the young Kings Picture was found in her Closet in Virgin-Wax, with one Leg melted away; a little after a processe was form'd against the Marquis (her Husband) and so he was condemn'd after death. This was a right act of a French popular fury, which like an angry torrent is irresistible, nor can any Banks, Boundaries, or Dike [...] stop the impetuous rage of it. How the young King will prosper after so high, and an unexampled act of violence, by beginning his Raign, and embr [...]ing the Walls of his own Court with blood in that manner, ther are divers censures.

When I am settled in Spain, you shall hear from me, in the in­terim, I pray let your Prayers accompany me in this long jour­ney, and when you write to Wales, I pray acquaint our frends with my welfare. So I pray God blesse us both, and send us a happy enterview.

Your loving Brother, J. H.

XX. To my Cousin W. Vaughan Esq from Saint Malo.

Cousin,

I Am now in French Britany, I went back from Paris to Roüen, and so through all low Normandy, to a little Port call'd Gran­ville, wher I embark'd for this Town of Saint Malo, but I did purge so violently at Sea, that it put me into a Burning Feavour for some few dayes, wherof (I thank God) I am newly recovered, and finding no opportunity of shipping here, I must be forc'd to turn my intended Sea voyage to a long land journey.

Since I came to this Province, I was curious to converse with some of the lower Bretons who speak no other Language but our Welsh, for their radicall words are no other, but 'tis no wonder for they were a Colony of Welsh at first, as the name of this Pro­vince doth imply, as also the Latin name▪ Armorica, which though [Page 35] it passe for Latin, yet it is but pure Welsh, and signifies a Coun­trey bordring up the Sea, as that arch Heretick was call'd Pelagius, a Pelago, his name being Morgan. I was a little curious to peruse the Annals of this Province, and during the time that it was a Kingdom, ther wer four Kings of the name Hoell, whereof one was call'd Hoell the Great.

This Town of Saint Malo hath one rarity in it, for ther is here a perpetuall Garrison of English, but they are of English Dogs, which are let out in the night to guard the Ships, and eat the Gar­dens up and down the Streets, and so they are shut up again in the morning.

It will be now a good while before I shall have conveniency to send to you, or receive from you; howsoever, let me retain still some little room in your memory, and somtimes in your medita­tions, while I carry you about me perpetually, not onely in my head, but in heart, and make you travell all along with me thus from Town to Countrey, from Hill to Dale, from Sea to Land, up and down the World; and you must be contented to be Sub­ [...]ect to these incertain removes and perambulations, untill it shall please God to fix me again England; nor need you, while you are thus my concomitant through new places evry day, to fear any ill usage as long as I farewell,

Yours [...], J. H.

XXI. To Sir John North Kt. from Rochell.

SIR,

[...] Am newly com to Rochell, nor am I sorry that I went somwhat out of my way to see this Town, not (to tell you true) out of [...]ny extraordinary love I bear to the people; for I do not find [...]em so gentle and debonnair to strangers, nor so Hospitable a [...] [...]e rest of France, but I excuse them for it, in regard it is com­ [...]only so with all Republic and Hans Towns, wherof this smels [...]ery rank▪ nor indeed hath any Englishman much cause to love [...] Town, in regard in Ages pass'd, she played the most treche­rous [Page 36] part with England of any other place of France. For the Story tells us, That this Town having by a perfidious stratage [...] (by forging a counterfeit Commission from England) induc'd the English Governour to make a general Muster of all his Forces ou [...] of the Town; this being one day done, they shut their Gate [...] against him, and made him go shake his ears, and to shift for his lodging, and so rendred themselves to the French King, who sen [...] them a blank to write their own conditions. I think they have the strongest Ramparts by Sea of any place of Christendom; no [...] have I seen the like in any Town of Holland, whose safety de­pends upon Water. I am bound to morrow for Bourdeaux, then through Gascogny to Tholouse, so through Languedoc ore the Hill [...] to Spain; I go in the best season of the yeer, for I make an Au­tumnall journey of it. I pray let your Prayers accompany me all along, they are the best Offices of Love, and Fruits of Friendship▪ So God prosper you at home, as me abroad, and send us in good time a joyfull conjuncture,

Yours, J. H.

XXII. To Mr. Tho. Porter, after Cap. Porter, from Barcelone.

MY dear Tom, I had no sooner set foot upon this Soyl, and breath'd Spanish ayr, but my thoughts presently reflected upon you: Of all my frends in England, you were the first I met here, you were the prime object of my speculation; me thought the very Winds in gentle whispers did breath out your name, and blow it on me; you seem'd to reverberat upon me with the Beams of the Sun, which you know hath such a power­full influence, and indeed too great a stroke in this Countrey: And all this you must ascribe to the operations of Love, which hath such a strong virtuall force, that when it fastneth upon a pleasing subject, it sets the imagination in a strange fit of work­ing, it imployes all the faculties of the Soul, so that not one Cell in the Brain is idle, it busieth the whole inward man, it af­fects the heart, amuseth the understanding, it quickneth the fancy, [Page 37] and leads the will as it were by a silken thred to cooperat with them all: I have felt these motions often in me, specially at this time, that my memory fixed upon you: But the reason that I fell first upon you in Spain, was, that I remembred I had heard you often discoursing how you had received part of your educati­on here, which brought you to speak the Language so exactly well: I think often of the Relations I have heard you make of this Countrey, and the good instructions you pleas'd to give me.

I am now in Barcelona, but the next week I intend to go on through your Town of Valencia to Alicant, and thence you shall be sure to hear from me further, for I make account to Winter there. The Duke of Ossuna pass'd by here lately, and having got leave of Grace to release some slaves, he went aboard the Cape-Gallie, and passing through the Churm [...] of slaves, He ask'd di­vers of them what their offences were, evry one excus'd himself, one saying, That he was put in out of malice, another by bribery of the Judge, but all of them injustly; amongst the rest, ther was one sturdy little black man, and the Duke asking him what he he was in for, Sir, said he, I cannot deny but I am justly put in here, for I wanted money, and so took a Purse hard by Tarragona to keep me from starving; The Duke with a litte staff he had in his hand, gave him two or three blows upon the shoulders, saying, You Rogue what do you do amongst so many honest innocent men, get you gone out of their company; so he was freed, and the rest remain'd still in statu quo prius, to tugg at the Oar.

I pray commend me to Signor Camillo, and Mazalao, with the rest of the Venetians with you, and wher you go aboard the Ship behind the Exchange, think upon

Your J. H.

XXIII. To Sir James Crofts.

SIR,

I Am now a good way within the Body of Spain, at Barcelona, a proud wealthy Citie, situated upon the Mediterranean, and is the Metropolis of the Kingdom of Catalunia, call'd of old Hispania [...]raconensis: I had much ado to reach hither, for besides the monstrous abrup [...]es of the way, these parts of the Pyreneys that border upon the Mediterranean, are never without Theeves by Land (call'd Ba [...]doleros) and Pyrats on the Sea side, which li [...] sculking in the Hollows of the Rocks, and often surprize Passen­gers unawares, and carry them slaves to Barbary on the other side. The safest way to passe, is to take a Bordon in the habit of a Pil­grim, wherof ther are abundance that perform their vows this way to the Lady of Monserrat, one of the prime places of pilgri­mage in Christendom; It is a stupendous Monastery, built on the top of a huge Land Rock, whither it is impossible to go up, or come down by a direct way, but a path is cut out full of windings and turnings; and on the Crown of this Craggy-hill, ther is a fl [...], upon which, the Monastery and Pilgrimage place is founded, wher ther is a Picture of the Virgin Mary Sunburnt, and Tann'd, it seems when she went to Egypt; and to this Picture a marval­lous confluence of people from all parts of Europe resort.

As I pass'd between so [...] of the Pyrency Hills, I observ'd the poor Labradors, som of the Countrey people live no better then bruit Animals in point of food, for their ordinary commons is Grasse and Water, onely they have alwayes within their Houses a Bottle of Vinegar, and another of Oyl, and when Dinner or Supper time comes, they go abroad and gather their Herbs, and so cast Vinegar and Oyl upon them, and will passe thus two or three dayes without Bread or Wine, yet are they, strong lusty men, and will stand stiffly under a Musket.

Ther is a Tradition, that ther were divers Mynes of Gold in Ages pass'd amongst those Mountains: And the Shepherds that kept Goats then, having made a small fire of Rosemary stubs, with other combustible stuff to warm themselves, this fire graz'd along, and grew so outragious, that it consum'd the very Entrails [Page 39] of the Earth, and melted those Mynes, which growing fluid by liquefaction, ran down into the small Rivelets that were in the Valleys, and so carried all into the Sea, that monstrous Gulph which swalloweth all, but seldom disgorgeth any thing; and in these Brooks to this day som small Grains of Gold are found.

The Viceroy of this Countrey hath taken much pains to clear these Hills of Robbers, and ther hath bin a notable havock made of them this yeer; for in divers Woods as I pass'd, I might spie som Trees laden with dead Carcases, a better Fruit far then Dio­genes Tree bore, wheron a Woman had hang'd her self, which the Cynic cryed out to be the best bearing Tree that ever he saw.

In this place ther lives neither English Marchant or Factor, which I wonder at, considering that it is a Maritim Town, and one of the greatest in Spain; her chiefest Arsenal for Gallies, and the Scale by which she conveys her Moneys to Italy; but I believe the reason is, that ther is no commodious Port here for Ships of any burden, but a large Bay. I will inlarge my self no further at this time, but leave you to the guard and guidance of God, whose sweet hand of protection hath brought me through so many un­couth places and difficulties to this Citie: So hoping to meet your Letters in Alicant, wher I shall Anchor a good while, I rest

Yours to dispose of,
J. H.

XXIV. To Dr. Fr. Mansell, from Valentia.

SIR,

THough it be the same glorious Sun that shines upon you in England, which illuminats also this part of the Hemi­sphear; though it be the same Sun that ripeneth your Pippins, and our Pomgranets, your Hops, and our Vineyards here, yet he dis­penseth his heat in different degrees of strength; those Rays that do but warm you in England, do half roast us here; those Beams that irradiat onely, and guild your Honey-suckled fields, do scorch and parch this chinky gaping soyl, and so put too many wrincles [Page 40] upon the face of our common Mother the Earth. O blessed Clime, O happy England, wher ther is such a rare temperature of hear and cold, and all the rest of Elementary qualities, that one may passe (and suffer little) all the yeer long without either shade in Summer, or fire in Winter.

I am now in Valentia, one of the noblest Cities of all Spain, situ­at in a large Vegue or Valley, above threescore miles compasse; here are the strongest Silks, the sweetest Wines, the excellenc'st Almonds, the best Oyls, and beutifull'st Femals of all Spain, for the prime Courtisans in Madrid, and else-where are had hence: The very bruit Animals make themselves Beds of Rosmary, and other Fragrant Flowers hereabouts; and when one is at Sea, if the Wind blow from the shore, he may smell this soyl before he come in sight of it many leagues off, by the strong odoriferous sent it casts; As it is the most pleasant, so is it also the temperat'st Clime of all Spain, and they commonly call it the second Italy, which made the Moors, whereof many thousands were disterr'd and banish'd hence to Barbary, to think that Paradise was in that part of the Heavens which hung over this City. Some twelve miles off, is old Sagun [...]o, call'd now Morvied [...]e, through which I pass'd, and saw many Monuments of Roman Antiquities there, amongst others, ther is the Temple dedicated to Venus, when the Snake came about her Neck, a little before Hannibal came thither. No more now, but that I heartily wish you were here with me, and I beleeve you would not desire to be a good while in England. So I am

Your J. H.

XXV. To Christopher Jones Esq at Grays-Inne.

I Am now (thanks be to God) come to Alicant, the chief Rende­vouz I aym'd at in Spain; for I am to send hence a commodity call'd Barillia to Sir Robert Mansell, for making of Crystall-Glasse, and I have treated with Signor Andriotti a Genoa Marchant for a good round parcell of it, to the value of 2000 pound, by Let­ters of credit from Master Richant, and upon his credit, I might [Page 41] have taken many thousand pounds more, he is so well known in the Kingdom of Valentia. This Barillia is a strange kind of Ve­getable, and it grows no wher upon the surface of the Earth, in that perfection, as here: The Venetians have it hence, and it is a commodity wherby this Maritim Town doth partly subsist, for it is an ingredient that goes to the making of the best Castile-Soap: It grows thus, 'tis a round thick Earthy shrub that bears Berries like Barbaries, but twixt blew & green, it lies close to the ground, and when it is ripe, they dig it up by the roots, and put it toge­ther in Cocks, wher they leave it dry many days like Hey, then they make a Pit of a fadom deep in the Earth, and with an In­strument like one of our Prongs, they take the Tuffs and put fire to them, and when the flame comes to the Berries they melt, and dissolve into an Azure Liquor, and fall down into the Pit till it be full, then they dam it up, and som days after they open it, and find this Barillia-juyce turn'd to a Blew stone, so hard, that it is scarcc Mall [...]able, it is sold at one hundred Crowns a Tun, but I had it for lesse; ther is also a spurious Flower call'd Gazull that grows here, but the Glasse that's made of that is not so resplendent and cleer. I have bin here now these three Months, and most of my Food hath bin Grapes and Bread, with other Roots, which have made me so fat, that I think if you saw me, you would hardly know me, such nourriture this deep Sanguin Alicant Grap gives. I have not receiv'd a syllable from you since I was in Antwerp, which transforms me to wonder, and engenders odd thoughts of Jealousie in me, that as my body grows fatter, your love grows lanker towards me; I pray take off these scruples, and let me hear from you, else it will make a schism in friendship, which I hold to be a very holy league, and no lesse then a Piacle to infringe it, in which opinion I rest

Your constant Friend, J. H.

XXVI. To Sir John North, Knight.

SIR

HAving endur'd the brunt of a whole Summer in Spain, and tryed the temper of all the other three Seasons of the yeer, up and down the Kingdoms of Catalunia, Valentia, and Murci [...], with som parts of Aragon, I am now to direct my cours for Italy; I hoped to have embark'd at Carthagena, the best Port upon the Mediterranean, for what Ships and Gallies get in thither, are shut up as it were in a Box from the violence and injury of all Wea­thers, which made Andrea Doria being ask'd by Philip the second, which were his best Harbours? He answer'd, Iune, Iuly, and Car­thagena, meaning, that any Port is good in those two months, but Carthagena was good any time of the yeer. Ther was a most ruth­full accident had happen'd ther a little before I came, for wheras five ships had gone thence laden with Souldiers for Naples, a­mongst whom ther was the Flower of the Gentry of the Kingdom of Murcia; those Ships had hardly sail'd three leagues, but they met with sixteen fails of Algier, men of War, who had lain skulk­ing in the Creeks therabouts, and they had the winds, and all things else so favourable, that of those five ships they took one, sunk another, and burnt a third, and two fled back to safe Harbor; the report hereof being bruited up and down the Countrey, the Gentlewomen came from the Countrey to have tydings, som of their Children, others of their Brothers, and Kinred, and went [...]earing their Hair, and houling up and down the streets in a most piteous manner: The Admiral of those five ships, as I heard afterwards, was sent for to Madrid, and hang'd at the Court gate, because he did not fight: Had I com time enough to have taken the opportunity, I might have bin made, either food for Hadocks, or turn'd to Cinders, or have bin by this time a slave in the Ban­nier at Algier, or tugging at an Oa [...]; but I hope God hath reserv'd me for a better destiny; so I came back to Alicant, where I light­ed upon a lusty Dutchman, who hath carried me safe hither, but we [Page 43] were neer upon fourty days in voyage; we pass'd by Mallorca, and Minorca, the Baleares Insulae, by som Por [...]s of Barbary, by Sardinia, Cor [...]ica, and all the Islands of the Mediterranean Sea; we were at the mouth of Tyber, and thence forc'd our cours for Sicilie; we pass'd by those Sulphureous fiery Islands, Mongibel, and Str [...]mbolo, and about the dawn of the day we shot through Scylla and Charybdis, and so into the Phare of Messina, thence we touch'd upon som of the Greek Islands, and so came to our first intended cours, into the Venetian Gulph, and are now here at Malamocca, wher we re­main yet aboard, and must be content to be so, to make up the month before we have pratic, that is, before any be permitted to go a shore and negotiat, in regard we touch'd at some infected pla­ces: For ther are no people upon Earth so fearful of the Plague, as the Italians, specially the Venetian, though their Neighbors the Greeks hard by, and the Turks, have little or no apprehension at all of the danger of it, for they will visit and commerce with the sick without any seruple, and will fix their longest finger in the midst of their fore-head, and say, their destiny and manner of death is pointed there. When we have gain'd y' [...]n Maiden City, which lieth before us, you shall hear farther from me: So leaving you to his holy protection who hath thus graciously vouchsaf'd to preserve this ship, and me, in so long and dangerous a voyage, I rest

Yours J. H.

XXVII. To my Brother Dr. Howell, from a Shipboard before Venice.

BROTHER,

IF this Letter fail, either in point of Orthography or Style, you must impute the first to the tumbling posture my body was in at the writing hereof being a shipboard, the second to the muddi­nesse of my Brain, which like Lees in a narrow Vessell, hath been shaken at Sea in divers Tempests neer upon fourty days, I mean naturall dayes, which include the nights also, and are compos'd of four and twenty hours, by which number the Italian computes his [Page 44] time, and tells his Clock, for at the writing hereof, I heard one from Malamoeca strike one and twenty hours: When I shall have saluted yonder Virgin City that stands before me, and hath tantaliz'd me now this sennight, I hope to cheer my spirits, and settle my Pericranium again.

In this voyage we pass'd thorow, at least touch'd, all those Seas, which Horace and other Poets sing of so often, as the Iornian, the Aegean, the Icarian, the Tyrrhene, with others, and now we are in the Adrian Sea, in the mouth whereof, Venice▪ stands like a Gold Ring in a Bears Muzzle: We pass'd also by Aetna, by the Infames Scopules, Acroceraunia, and through Scylla and Charybdis, about which the ancient Poets, both Greek, and Latin, keep such a coyl, but they are nothing so horrid or dangerous, as they make them to be; they are two white keen-pointed Rocks, that lie under water diametrically opposed, and like two Dragons defying one a­nother, and ther are Pylots, that in small Shallops, are ready to steer all ships that pasle: This amongst divers other, may serve for an instance, That the old Poets used to heighten and hoise up things by their ayrie fancies above the reality of truth: Aetna was very furious when we pass'd by, as she useth to be somtimes more then other, specialy when the wind is Southward, for then she is more subject to belching out flakes of fire (as Stutterers use to flammer more when the wind is in that hole) som of the sparkles fell aboard of us; but they would make us beleeve in Syracusa now Messina, that Aetna in times pass'd, hath eructated such huge gob­bets of fire, that the sparks of them have burnt houses in Malta, above fifty miles off, transported thither by a direct strong wind: We pass'd hard by Corinth, now Ragusa, but I was not so happy as to touch there, for you know

Non cuivis homini contingit adire corinthum:

I convers'd with many Greeks, but found none that could un­derstand, much lesse pratically speak any of the old Dialects of the Latin-Greek, it is so adulterated by the vulgar, as a Bed of Flowers by Weeds; nor is ther any people, either in the Islands, or on the Continent, that speaks it conversably, yet there are in the Merea seven Parishes call'd Zacones, wher the Originall Greek is not much degenerated, but they confound divers Letters of the Alphabet with one sound; for in point of pronunciation ther is no difference 'twixt Upsilon, Iota, and Eta.

The last I received from you was in Latin, wherof I sent you [Page 45] an answer from Spain in the same Language, though in a courser Dialect: I shall be a guest to Venice a good while, therfore I besire a frequency of correspondence between us by Letters, for ther will be conveniency evry week of receiving and sending; when you write to Wales, I pray send advise, that I am come safe to Italy, though not landed there yet: So my dear Brother, I pray God blesse us both, and all our friends, and reserve me to see you again with comfort, and you me, who am

Your loving brother,
J. H.

XXVIII. To the Honourable Sir Robert Mansell, Vice-Admirall of England, from Venice.

SIR,

AS soon as I came to Venice, I applyed my self to dispatch your businesse according to instructions, and Mr. Seymor was ready to contribute his best furtherance: These two Italîans who are the Bearers hereof, by report here, are the best Gentle­men-Workmen that ever blew Crystall, one is allied to Antoni [...] Miotti, the other is Cousin to Mazalao; for other things they shall be sent in the Ship Lion, which rides here at Malamocca, as I shall send you account by conveyance of Mr. Symns: Herewith I have sent a Letter to you from Sir Henry Wotton, the Lord Am­bassador here, of whom I have receiv'd som favours, He wish'd me to write, that you have now a double interest in him; for wheras before he was only your Servant, he is now your Kins­man by your late marriage.

I was lately to see the Arsenall of Venice, one of the worthiest things of Christendom; they say ther are as many Gallies, and Galeasses of all sorts, belonging to Saint Mare, either in Cours, at Anchor, in Dock, or upon the Carine, as ther be dayes in the yeer; here they can build a compleat Gally in half a day, and put her a float in perfect Equippage, having all the ingredients fitted before hand, as they did in three hours, when Henry the third pass'd this way to France from Poland, who wish'd, that besides [Page 47] P [...]is, and his Parliament Towns, he had this Arsenal in ex­change, for three o [...] his chiefest Cities: Ther are three hundred people perpetually hero at Work, and if one comes young, and grows old in Saint M [...]es service, he hath a Pension from the State during life: Being brought to see one of the Clarissimos that governs this Arsenall, this huge Sea Store▪ House, amongst other matters reflecting upon England, he was saying, That if Cavaglier Don Roberto Mansell were now here, he thought verily the republic would make a proffer to him to be Admirall of that Fleet of Gallies, and Galeons, which are now going against the Duke of Ossuna, and the Forces of Naples, you are so well known here▪

I was, since I came hither, in Murano, a little Island, about the distance of Lambeth from London, wher Crystall-Glasse is made, and 'tis a rare sight to see a whole Street, where on the one side ther are twenty Furnaces together at work; They say here, that although one should transplant a Glasse-Furnace, from Murano to Venice her self, or to any of the little assembly of Islands about her, or to any other part of the Earth besides, and use the same Materials, the same Workmen, the same Fuell, the self same In­gredients every way, yet they cannot make Crystall Glasse in that perfection, for beauty and Iustre, as in Murano; som impute into the qualitie of the circumambient Ayr, that hangs ore the place, which is purified and attenuated by the concurrence of so many fires that are in those Furnaces night and day perpetually, for they are like the Vestall fire which never goes out; And it is well known, that some Ayrs make more qualifying impressions then others, as a Greek [...]old me in Sicily, of the Ayr of Egypt, wher ther be huge common Furnaces to hatch Eggs by the thousands in Came [...]s Dung; for during the time of hatching, if the Ayr happen to come to be overcast, and grow cloudy, it spoyls all; if the Skie continue still serene and clear, not one Egg in a hundred will misca [...]ry.

I met with Camillo your Consaorman here lately, and could he be sure of entertainment, he would return to serve you again, and I believe for lesse-salary.

I shall attend your commands herein by the next, and touching other particulars, wherof I have written to Captain Bacon: So I rest

Your most humble and ready Servant, J. H.

XXIX. To my Brother, from Venice.

Brother,

I Found a Letter of yours that had lain dormant here a good while in Mr. Symns hands, to welcom me to Venice, and I thank you for the variety of news wherwith she went sreighted; for she was to me, as a Ship richly laden from London useth to be to our Marchants here, and I esteem her Cargazon at no lesse a va­lue, for she inrich'd me with the knowledg of my Fathers health, and your own, with the rest of my Brothers, and Sisters, in the Countrey, with divers other passages of content­ment; besides, she went also ballasted with your good instructi­ons, which as Marchants use to do of their commodities, I will turn to the best advantage, and Italy is no ill Market to improve any thing; the onely procede (that I may use the mercantil term) you can expect, is thanks, and this way I shall not be wanting to make you rich returns.

Since I came to this Town I dispatch'd sundry businesses of good value for Sir Robert Mansell, which I hope will give content: The art of Glasse-making here is very highly valued, for whoso­ever be of that profession, are Gentlemen ipso facto, and it is not without reason, it being a rare kind of knowledg and chymistry, to transmute Dust and Sand (for they are the onely main Ingre­dients) to such a diaphanous pellucid dainty body as you see a Crystal-Glasse is, which hath this property above Gold or Silver or any other minerall, to admit no poyson; as also, that it never, wastes or loseth a whit of its first weight, though you use it ne­ver so long: When I saw so many sorts of curious Glasses made here, I thought upon the complement which a Gentleman put upon a Lady in England, who having five or six comly Daughters, said, He never saw in his life, such a dainty Cupboard of Crystall-Glasses; the complement proceeds it seems from a saying they have here, That the first handsom Woman that ever was made, was made of Venice-Glasse, which implies Beuty, but brittlenes withall (and Venice is not unfurnish'd with som of that mould, for no place abounds more with Lasses and Glasses) but considering the brittlenes of the Stuff, it was an odd kind of melancholly in him, [Page 48] that could not be perswaded, but he was an Urinal, surely he de­serv'd to be piss'd in the mouth: But when I pried into the Ma­terials, and observ'd the Furnaces and the Calcinations, the Transubstantintions, the Liquefactions that are incident to this Art, my thoughts were rais'd to a higher speculation; that if this small Furnace-fire hath vertue to convert such a small lump of dark Dust and Sand into such a specious clear Body as Crystall, surely, that gran Universall-site, which shall happen at the day of judgment, may by its violent-ardor vitrifie and turn to one lump of Crystall, the whole Body of the Earth; nor am I the first that fell upon this conceit.

I will in large my self no further to you at this time, but conclude with this Tetrastic which my Brain ran upon in my Bed this mor­ning.

Vistrea sunt nostrae comissa negotia curae,
Hoc oculis speculum mittimus ergo luis:
Quod speculum? Est instar speculi mea littera, per quod
Vivida fraterni cordis imago nitet.

Adieu my dear Brother, live happily, and love

Your Brother, J. H.

XXX. To Mr. Richard Altham at Grayes-Inne, from Venice.

Gentle Sir,
—O dulcior illo Melle quod in ceris Attica ponit apis.
O thou who dost in sweetnesse far excell,
That Iuycc the Attic Bee store's in her cell.

My dear Dick,

I Have now a good while since taken footing in Venice, this ad­mired Maid [...] Citie, so call'd, because she was never deflour'd [Page 49] by any enemy since she had a being, not since her Rialto was first erected, which is now above twelve Ages ago.

I protest unto you at my first landing, I was for som dayes ra­vish'd with the high beuty of this Maid, with her lovely counte­nance, I admir'd her magnificent buildings, her marvailous situ­ation, her dainty smooth neat streets, wheron you may walk most dayes in the yeer in a Silk-Stockin, and Sattin-Slippers, without soiling them, not can the Steets of Paris be so foul, as these are fair. This beutious Maid hath bin often attempted to be vitiated, som have courted her, som brib'd her, som would have forc'd her▪ yet she hath still preserv'd her chastity intire; and though she hath liv'd so many Ages, and pass'd so many shrew'd brunts, yet she continueth fresh to this very day without the least wrinkle of old Age, or any symptomes of decay, wherunto political bodies, as well as naturall, use to be liable. Besides the hath wrestled with the greatest Potentats upon Earth; The Emperour, the King of France, and most of the other Princes of Christendome in that famous league of Cambray would have sunk her, but she bore up still within her Lakes, and broke that league to peeces by her wit; The gran Turk hath bin often at her, and though he could not have his will of her, yet he took away the richest Jewell she wore in her Cornet, and put it in his Turban, I mean the Kingdom of Cypres the onely Royall Gem she had; he hath set upon her skirts often since, and though she clos'd with him somtimes, yet she came off still with her Maiden-head, though some that envy her happines, would brand her to be of late times a kind of Concu­bin to him, and that she gives him ready money once a yeer to lie with her, which she minceth by the name of present, though it [...] indeed rather a tribut.

I would I had you here with a wish, and you would not desire in haste to be at Grayes-Inne, though I hold your walks to be the pleasant'st place about London; and that you have there the choi­cest society. I pray present my kind commendations to all there, and my service at Bishops-gate-street, and let me hear from you by the next Post: So I am

Intirely yours, J. H.

XXXI. To Dr. Fr. Mansell, from Venice.

GIve me leave to salute you first in these Sapphics.

In [...] tendens iter ad Britannam
Ch [...]ta▪ te paucis volo, [...] gressum,
Verba Mansello, bene noscis illum,
talia perfer.
Finibus longè patriis Hoellus
Di [...], quantis Venetium superb [...]
Civitas [...]
distat ab urbe
Plurimam mentis tibi vult salutem,
Plurimum cordis tibi vult vigorem,
Plurimum sortis tibi vult favorem
Regis & Aulae.

These wishes com to you from Venice, a place wher ther is no­thing wanting that heart can wish: Renowned Venice, the ad­miredst City in the World, a City that all Europ is bound unto, for she is her greatest Ram part against that huge Eastern Tyrant the Turk by Sea, else I beleeve he had over-run all Christendo [...] by this time: Against him this City hath perform'd notable ex­ploits, and not only against him, but divers other: She hath re­stor'd Emperours to their Throne, and Popes to their Chairs, and with her Gallies often preserv'd Saint Peters Bark from sinking: for which, by way of reward, one of his Suceessors espo [...]s'd her to the Sea, which marriage is solemnly renew'd evry yeer in solemn Profession by the Doge, and all the Clarissunos, and a Gold Ring cast into the Sea out of the great Galeasse, call'd the [...], wherin the first Ceremony was perform'd by the Pope himself, a­bove three hundred yeers since, and they say it is the self-same Vessell still, though often put upon the Carine, and trim'd▪ This made me think on that famous ship at Athens; nay, I fell upon [...] abstracted notion in Philosophy, and a speculation touching the body of man, which being in perpetuall Flux, and a kind of suc­cession of decayes, and consequently requiring ever and anon, a [Page 51] restauration of what it loseth of the vertue of the former alim [...]nt, and what was converted after the third concoction into bloud and fleshy substance, which as in all other sublunary bodies that have internall principles of heat, useth to transpire, breath out, and wast away through invisible Pores by exercise, motion, and sleep, to make room still for a supply of new nourriture: I fell, I say, to consider whither our bodies may be said to be of like condition with this Bucentore; which though it be reputed still the same Vessell, yet I beleeve ther's not a foot of that Timber remaining which it had upon the first Dock, having bin as they tell me, so of­ten plank'd and ribb'd, caulk'd and peec'd: In like manner our bodies may be said to be daily repaired by new sustenance, which begets new bloud, and consequently new spirits, new humours, and I may say new flesh, the old by continuall deperdition and insen­sible transpirations evaporating still out of us, and giving way to fresh; so that I make a question, whither by reason of these perpe­tuall reparations, and accretions, the body of man may be said to be the same numericall body in his old age that he had in his manhood, or the same in his manhood, that he had in his youth, the same in his youth that he carried about him in his childhood, or the same in his childhood which he wore first in the Womb: I make a doubt, whither I had the same identicall, individually nu­mericall body, when I carried a Calf-Leather Sachell to School in Hereford, as when I woar a Lamskin Hood in Oxford, or whither I have the same masse of bloud in my Veins, and the same Flesh now in Venice which I carried about me three yeers since, up and down London streets, having in lieu of Beer and Al [...], drunk Wine all this while, and fed upon different Viands; now the stomach is like a crusible, for it hath a chymicall kind of vertue to transmute one body into another, to transubstantiat Fish and Fruits into Flesh within, and about us; but though it be questionable, whither I wear the same Flesh which is fluxible, I am sure my Hair is not the same, for you may remember I went flaxen-hair'd out [...]of Eng­land, but you shall find me return'd with a very dark Brown, which I impute not onely to the heat and ayr of those hot Coun­tries I have eat my bread in, but to the quality and difference of food; but you will say, that hair is but an excrementitious thing, and makes not to this purpose; moreover, me thinks I hear yon say, that this may be true, onely in the bloud and spirits, or such fluid parts, not in the solid and heterogeneall parts: But I will presse no further at this time this Philosophical notion which the [...]ght of Bucentor [...] infus'd into me, for it hath already made me ex­ceed [Page 52] the bounds of a Letter, and I fear me to trespasse too much upon your patience; I leave the further disquisition of this point to your own contemplations, who are a far riper Philosopher then I, and have waded deeper into, and drunk more of Aristotles Well; but to conclude, though it be doubtfull whither I carry a­bout me the same body or no, in all points that I had in England, I am well assur'd, I bear still the same mind, and therein I verif [...] the old vers.

Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
The Ayr, but not the mind they change,
Who in Outlandish Countreys range.

For what alterations soever happen in this Microcosm, in this little World, this small bulk and body of mine, you may be confi­dent, that nothing shall alter my affections, specially toward you, but that I will persever still the same,

The very same, J. H.

XXXII. To Richard Altham, Esquire.

Dear Sir,

I Was plung'd in a deep fit of melancholly, Satum had cast his black influence ore all my intellectuals, me thought I felt my heart as a lump of Dow, and heavy as Lead within my Brest; when a Letter of yours of the third of this month was brought me, which presently begot new Spirits within me, and made such strong impressions upon my Intellectuals, that it turn'd and transform'd me into another man. I have read of a Duke of Milan, and o­thers, who were poyson'd by reading of a Letter, but yours pro­duc'd contrary effects in me, it became an antidot, or rather [...] most Soverain Cordial to me, more operative then Bezar, of more vertue then Potable Gold, or the Elixir of Ambar, for it wrought a [Page 53] sudden cure upon me: That fluent and rare mixture of love, and wit, which I found up and down therein, were the Ingredi­ents of this Cordiall; they were as so many choice Flowers, strw'd here and ther, which did cast such an Odoriferous sent, that they reviv'd all my sence [...], and dispell'd those dull fumes which had formerly ore clouded my brain: Such was the operation of your most ingenuous and affectionat Letter, and so sweet an en­tertainment it gave me: If your Letter had that vertue, what would your person have don; and did you know all, you would wish your person here a while; did you know the rare beuty of this Virgin-Clty, you would quickly make love to her, and change your Royall Exchange for the Rialto, and your Grayes-Inne. Walks for Saint Marks place for a time. Farewell dear child of Vertue, and minion of the Muses, and love still

Your J. H.

XXIII. To my much honoured frend Sir John North Kt. from Venice.

Noble Sir,

THe first office of gratitude is, to receive a good turn civilly, then to retain it in memory and acknowledg it, thirdly, to endeavour a requitall, for this last office, it is in vain for me to attempt it, specially towards you, who have laden me with such a variety of courtesies, and weighty favours, that my poor stock comes far short of any retaliation; but for the other two, reception and retention, as I am not conscious to have bin wanting in the first act, so I shall never fail in the second, because both these are within the compasse of my power; for if you could pry into my memory, you should discover there a huge Magazin of your favours (you have bin pleas'd to do me present and absent) safeiy stor'd up and coacervated, to preserve them from mouldring away in oblivion, for courtesies should be no perishable commodity: Should I attempt any other requitall, I should extenuat your fa­vours, and derogat from the worth of them▪ yet if to this of the memory, I can contribut any other act of body or mind, to en­large my acknowledgments towards you; you may be well [Page 54] assured, that I shall be ever ready to court any occasion, wherby the world may know how much I am

Your thankfull Servitor, J. H.

XXXIV. To Dan. Caldwall Esq from Venice.

My dear D.

COuld Letters flie with the same Wings as Love useth to do, and cut the Ayr with the like swiftnes of motion, this Letter of mine should work a miracle, and be with you in an instant; nor should she fear interception, or any other casualty in the way, or cost you one penny the Post, for she should passe invisibly: but 'tis not fitting, that paper which is made but of old Ragg's wherwith Letters are swadled, should have the same priviledg as Love, which is a spirituall thing, having somthing of Divinity in it, and partake [...] in [...]elerity with the Imagination, then which ther is not any thing more swift you know, no not the motion of the upper sphere the [...] mobile, which snatcheth all the other mine after it, and indeed the whole Macrocosm all the world be­si [...]es, except our Earth (the Center,) which upper sphere the Astronomers would have to move so many degrees, so many thou­sand miles in a moment; fince then, Letters are denied such a velocity, I allow this of [...]ine twenty dayes, which is the ordinary time allow'd twixt Venice and London, to com unto you, and thank you a thousand [...] over for your last of the tenth of Iune, and the rich Venison Feast you made, as I understand not long since, to the remembrance of the, at the Ship Tavern: Believe it Sir, you shall find that this love of yours, is not ill imployed, for I esteem it at the highest degree, I value it more then the Treasury of Saint Mark, which I lately saw, wher amongst other things, ther is a huge Iron Chest as tall as my self, that hath no Lock, but a Crevice, through which they cast in the Gold that's be­queath'd [Page 55] to Saint Mark in Legacies, wheron ther is ingraven this proud Motto.

Quando questo scrimio S' Aprirá,
Tutto'l mundo tremera.

When this Chest shall open, the whole World shall tremble; the Duke of Ossuna, late Vice-Roy of Naples, did what he could to force them to open it, for he brought Saint Mark to wast much of this Tresure in the late Wars, which he made purposely to that end, which made them have recours to us, and the Hollander for Ships, not long since.

Amongst the rest of Italy, this is call'd the Maidin Citie (not­withstanding her great number of Courtisans) and ther is a Pro­phecy, That she shall continue a Maid untill her Husband for sake her, meaning the Sea, to whom the Pope married her long fince, and the Sea is observ'd not to love her so deeply as he did, for he be­gins to shrink, and grow shallower in som places about her; not doth the Pope also, who was the Father that gave her to the Sea, affect her as much as he formerly did, specially since the exter­mination of the Jesuits; so that both Husband, and Father, begin to abandon her.

I am to be a guest to this Hospitable Maid, a good while yet, and if you want any commodity that she can afford (and what can­not she afford for humane pleasure or delight?) do but write, and it shall be sent you.

Farewell gentle soul, and correspond still in pure love with

Your J. H.

XXXV. To Sir James Crofts Kt. from Venice.

SIR,

I Receiv'd one of yours the last week, that came in my Lord Am­bassador W [...]ttons Packet, and being now upon point of parting with Venice, I could not do it without acquainting you (as far as the extent of a Letter will permit) with her Power, her Policy, her Wealth, and pedigree: She was built of the ruines of [...] and Padoüa, for when those swarms of tough Northern pee­ple overran Italy, under the conduct of that Scourge of Heaven Attila, with others, and that this soft voluptuous Nation after so long a desuetude from Arms, could not repell their fury, many of the ancient Nobility and Gentry fled into these Lakes and lit­tle Islands, amongst the Fishermen for their security; and finding the Ayr good and commodious for habitation, they began to build upon these small Islands, wherof ther are in all threescore, and in tract of time, they conjoyn'd and leagu'd them together by Bridges, wherof ther are now above 800. and this makes up the Citie of Venice; who is now above twelve Ages old, and was contemporary with the Monarchy of France; but the Signory glo­rieth in one thing above the Monarchy, that she was born a Chri­stian, but the Monarchy not. Though this Citie be thus hem'd in with the Sea, yet she spreads her Wings far and wide upon the shore; she hath in Lombardy six considerable Towns, Padova, Ve­rona, Vicenz [...], Brescia, Cromo, and Bergamo; she hath in the Mar­quisat, Bassan and Castelfranco; she hath all Friuli and Istria; she commands the shores of Dalmatia and Slavonia; she keeps under the power of Saint Mark, the Islands of Corfù (anciently Corcyria) Ceptalonia, Zant, Cerigo, Lucerigo, and Candy (Ioves Cradle;) she had a long time the Kingdom of Cypres, but it was quite rent from her by the Turk, which made that high spirited Bassa, being taken prisoner at the battle of Lepanto, wher the gran Signor lost above 200 Gallies, to say, That that defeat to his great Master was but like the s [...]aving of his Beard, or the pairing of his Nails; but the ta­king of Cypres was like the cutting off of a Lim, which will never grow again: This mighty potentat being so neer a Neighbour to her, she is forc'd to comply with him, and give him an Annuall [Page 57] present in Gold: She hath about thirty Gallies most part of the yeer in cours to scowre and secure the Gulph; she entertains by land in Lombardy, and other parts 25000. Foot, besides some of the Cantons of Suisses whom she gives pay unto; she hath also in constant pay 600. men of Arms, and evry of these must keep two Horses a peece, for which they are allowed 120. Duckats a yeer, and they are for the most part Gentlemen of Lombardy: When they have any great expedition to make, they have alwayes a stranger for their Generall, but he is supervis'd by two Prov [...] ­ditors, without whom he cannot attempt any thing.

Her great Counsell consists of above 2000 Gentlemen, and some of them meet evry Sunday and Holyday, to chuse Officers, and Magistrates; and evry Gentleman being pass'd 25. yeer [...] of Age, is capable to sit in this Counsell: The Doge or Duke (their Soverain Magistrate) is chosen by Lots, which would be too te­dious here to demonstrat, and commonly he is an Aged man who is created, like that cours they hold in the Popedom. When he is dead ther be Inquisitors that examin his actions, and his mis­demeanors are punishable in his Heirs: Ther is a surintenden [...] Counsell of ten, and six of them may dispatch busines without the Doge, but the Doge never without som of them, not as much as open a Letter from any Forrain State, though address'd to him­self, which makes him to be call'd by other Princes, Testadi legno, Ahead of Wood.

The wealth of this Republic hath bin at a stand, or rather decli­ning since the Portugall found a road to the East-Indies by the Cape of good Hope; for this City was us'd to fetch all those Spi­ces, and other Indian Commodities, from the gran Cayro down the Nile, being formerly carried to Cayro from the Red Sea, upon Ca­mels and Dromedaries backs, threescore dayes journey; And so Venice us'd to dispence those Commodities through all Christen­dom, which not onely the Portugall, but the English, and Hollan­der, now transport, and are Masters of the Trade. Yet ther is no outward appearance at all of poverty, or any decay in this City, but she is still gay, flourishing, and fresh, and flowing with all kind of bravery and delight, which may be had at cheap rates. Much more might be written of this ancient wi [...]e Republic, which cannot be comprehended within the narrow inclosure of a Letter. So with my due and daily Prayers, for a continuance of your health, and increase of honour, I rest

Your most [...]umble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXXVI. To Robert Brown Esquire, at the Middle-Temple, from Venice.

Robin,

I Have now enough of the Maiden Citie, and this week I am to go further into Italy; for though I have bin a good while in Venice, yet I cannot say I have bin hitherto upon the Continent of Italy, for this Citie is nought else but a knot of Islands in the Adriatic Sea, joyn'd in one body by Bridges, and a good way di­stant from the firm Land: I have lighted upon very choice com­pany, your Cousin Brown, and Master Web, and we all take the R [...] of Lombardy; but we made an order amongst our selves, that our discours be alwayes in the Language of the Countrey, under penalty of a for [...]iture, which is to be indispensably payed [...] Sy [...]s made us a curious feast lately, wher in a Cup of the richest Greek we had your health, and I could not tell whi­ther the Wine or the remembrance of you was sweeter; for it was naturally a kind of Aromatic Wine, which left a fragrant perfu­ming kind of farewell behind it. I have sent you a Runlet of it in the Ship Lion, and if it com safe and unprick'd, I pray bestow som Bottles upon the Lady (you know) with my humble Service. When you write next to Master Simns, I pray acknowledg the good Hospitality, and extraordinary civilities I received from him: Before I conclude, I will acquaint you with a common say­ing that is us'd of this dainty Citie of Venice.

Venetia, Venetia, chi non te vede non te Pregia,
Ma chi t'há troppo veduto te Despreggia.

English'd and Rim'd thus (though I know you need no Translati­on, you understand so much of Italian,)

Venice, Venice, none Thee unseen can prize,
Who hath seen thee too much will Thee despise.

[Page 59]I will conclude with that famous Hexastic which Sanz [...] made of this rare Cite, which pleaseth me much better.

Viderat Hadriatis Venetam Neptunus in undis
Stare urbem, & toti ponere jura Mari;
Nunc mihi Tarpeias quantum vis Jupiter Arces
O [...]ice, & illa tui moenia Martis, ait,
Sic Pelago Tibrim praefers, urbem aspice utramque
Illam homines dices, hanc posuisse Deos.
When Neptun saw in Adrian Surges stand
Venice, and give the Sea Laws of command:
Now Jove said he, Object thy Capitoll,
And Mars proud Walls: This were for to extoll
Tyber beyond the Main▪ both Towns behold,
R [...] men thou'lt say, Venice the Gods did mould.

Sanz [...] had given him by Saint Mark a hundred [...], [...] evry one of these Verses, which amounts to about 300 pounds. It would be long before the [...] of London would do the like: Witne [...] that [...]old reward, or rather those cold drops of W [...] which were cast upon my Countreyman Sir Hugh Middleto [...], for beinging Ware River through her Streets, the most serviceable and [...] sor [...]est benefit that ever she received.

The parcell of Italian Books that you writ for, you shall receive [...] Master Leat, if it please God to send the Ship to safe Port; and I take it as a favour, that you imploy me in any thing that m [...]y [...]nduce to your contentment; because

I am your serious Servitor, J. H.

XXXVII. To Cap. Thomas Porter, from Venice.

My dear Captain,

AS I was going a Shipboard in Alicant, a Letter of yours in Spanish came to hand: I discovered two things in it, first, [Page 60] what a master you are of that Language, then how mindfull you are of your frend; for the first, I dare not correspond with you yet; for the second, I shall never com short of you, for I am as mindfull of you, as possibly you can be of me, and som hours, my Puls doth not beat more often, then my memory runs on you, which is often enough in conscience; for the Physitians hold, that in evry well dispos'd body, ther be above 4000 Pulsations evry hour, and some Pulses have bin known to beat above 30000 times an hour in acute Feavours.

I understand you are bound with a gallant Fleet for the Medi­terranean, if you com to Alicant, I pray commend me to Francisco Marco my Land-lord, he is a merry drole, and good company: One night when I was ther he sent his Boy with a Borracho of Lea­ther under his Cloak for Wine, the Boy coming back about ten a clock, and passing by the Guard, one ask'd him whither he car­ried any Weapons about him (for none must wear any Weapons there after ten at night,) No quoth the Boy being pleasant, I have but a little Dagger; the Watch came and search'd him, and find­ing the Barracho full of good Wine, drunk it all up, saying, Sirrah, You know no man must carry any Weapons so late: but because we know whose Servant you are, ther's the Scabbard of your Dagger again, and so threw him the empty Borracho; but another passage pleas'd me better of Don Beltran de Rosa, who being to marry a rich Labra­dors (a Yeomans) daughter hard by, which was much importun'd by her parents to the match, because their Family should be there­by ennobled, he being a Cavalier of Saint Iago; the young Maid having understood that Don Beltran had bin in Naples, and had that disease about him, answered wittily, En verdad pro adobar mi la sangre, no quiero danar mi la carne; Truely Sir, To better my blood, I will not hurt my flesh. I doubt I shall not be in England be­fore you set out to Sea, if not, I take my leave of you in this Paper, and wish you a prosperous voyage and an honourable return; It is the hearty Prayers of

Your J. H.

XXXVIII. To Sir William Saint John Knight, from Venice.

SIR,

HAving seen Ant [...]nors Tomb in Padoiia, and the Amphithea­ter of Flaminius in Verona, with other brave Towns in Lom­bardy, I am now co [...] to Rome, and Rome they say is evry mans Countrey, she is call'd Communis Patria, for evry one that is with­in the compasse of the Latin Church, finds himself here as it were at hom, and in his Mothers house, in regard of interest in Religi­on, which is the cause, that for one Native, ther be five strangers that sojourn in this City, and without any distinction, or mark of strangenes, they com to preferments and offices, both in Church and State, according to merrit, which is more valued and sought after here, then any where.

But whereas I expected to have found Rome elevated upon se­ven Hills, I met her rather spreading upon a Flat, having humbled her self since she was made a Christian, and descended from those Hills to Campus Martius, with Trasteren, and the Suburbs of Saint Peter she hath yet in compasse about fourteen miles, which is far short of that vast circuit she had in Claudius his time; for Vopiscu [...] writes she was then of fifty miles circumference, and she had five hundred thousand free Citizens in a famous cense that was made, which allowing, but six to evry Family in Women, Children, and Servants, came to three Millions of souls, but she is now a Wilder­nes in comparison of that number: The Pope is grown to be a great Temporall Prince of late yeers, for the state of the Church extends above 300. miles in length, and 200 miles in breadth, it contains Ferrara, Bologna, Romagnia, the Marquisat of Ancona, um­bria, Sabina, Perugia, with a part of Toscany, the Patrimony, Rome her self, and Latium: In these ther are above fifty Bishopricks, the Pope hath also the Dutchy of Spoleto, and the exarchat of Raven­na; he hath the Town of Beneventa in the Kingdom of Naples, and the County of Venisse call'd Avignon in France; he hath title also good enough to Naples it self, but rather then offend his Cham­pion the King of Spain, he is contented with a white Mule, and [Page 62] Purse of Pistols about the neck, which he receives evry yeer for a heriot or homage, or what you will call it; he pretends also to be Lord Paramount of Sicily, [...]rbin, Par [...]a, and Masser [...], of Norway, Ireland, and England, since King Iohn did prostrat our Crown at Pandelfo his Legat's Feet.

The State of the Apostolie See here in Italy lieth twixt two Seas, the Adriati [...], and the Tyrrh [...], and it runs through the midst of Italy, which makes the Pope powerfull to do good or harm, and more capable then any other to be an Umpire or an Enemy: His authority being mixt twixt Temporall and Spirituall disperseth it self into so many members, that a young man may grow old here, before he can well understand the form of Government.

The Consistory of Cardinals meet but once a week, and once a week they solemnly wait all upon the Pope. I am told ther are now in all Christendom but sixty eight Cardinals, wherof ther are six Cardinall Bishops, fifty one Cardinall Priests, and eleven Car­dinall Deacons: The Cardinall Bishops attend and sit neer the Pope, when he celebrats any Festivall: The Cardinall Priests assist him at Masse, and the Cardinall Deacons attire him. A Car­dinall is made by a short Breve or Writ from the Pope in these words, Creamus te Socium Regibus, superiorem ducibus & fratrem [...]ostrum: We creat thee a Companion to Kings, Superior to Dukes, and our Brother: If a Cardinall Bishop should be questioned for any offence, ther must be twenty four Witnesses produc'd against him.

The Bishop of O [...]ia hath most priviledg of any other, for he consecrats and instals the Pope, and goes always next to him: All these Cardinals have the repute of Princes, and besides other in­comes, they have the Annats of Benefices to support their great­nesse.

For point of power, the Pope is able to put 50000 men in the field, in case of necessity, besides his navall strength in Gallies. We read how Paul the third sent Charles the fifth twelve thousand Foot, and 500. Horse. Pius the fifth sent a greater ayd to Charles the ninth▪ and for riches, besides the Temporall Dominions he hath in all the Countreyes before named, the Datary or Dis­patching of Bulls, the Trienniall Subsidies, Annats, and other Ec­clesiastic Rights, mount to an unknown sum; and it is a common saying here. That as long as the Pope can finger a pen, he can want no pence. Pius the fifth, notwithstanding his expences in Buil­dings left four Millions in the Castle of Saint Angelo, in lesse then five yeers, more I beleeve then this Gregory the fifteenth will, for [Page 63] he hath many Nephews; and better it is to be the Popes Nephew, then to be favorit to any Prince in Christendom.

Touching the Temporall Government of Rome, and Oppidan Affairs; ther is a Pretor, and som choice Citizens which [...]it in the Capitoll: Amongst other peeces of policy, ther is a Synagog of Jews permitted here (as in other places of Italy) under the Popes nose, but they go with a mark of distinction in their hats, they are tolerated for advantage of commerce, wherin the Jews are won­derfull dextrous, though most of them be only Brokers and Lom­ [...]rdeers; and they are held to be here, as the Cinic held Women to be [...]alum necessarium. Ther be few of the Romans that use to pray heartily for the Popes long life, in regard the oftner the change is, the more advantagious it is for the City, because com­monly it brings strangers, and a recruit of new people. This Ayr of Rome is not so wholsom as of old, and amongst other reasons one is because of the burning of Stubble to fatten their fields; For her Antiquities, it would take up a whole Volumn to write them, those which I hold the chiefest are Vespasia [...]s Amphitheater, wher fourscore thousand people might sit; The Stoves of Anthony, di­vers rare Statues at Belveder and Saint Peters, specially that of Laocoon, the Obelisk; for the genius of the Roman hath alwayes bin much taken with Imagery, Limming, and Sculptures, inso­much, that as in former times, so now, I beleeve the Statues and Pictures in Rome, exceed the number of living people: One an­tiquity among other, is very remarkable, because of the change of Language; which is an ancient Column erected as a Trophey for Duillius the Consull, after a famous Navall Victory obtain'd against the Carthaginians in the second Punic War, wher these words are ingraven and remain legible to this day. Exemet leciones Maci­ [...]rates Castreis exfocient pugnandod cepet enque [...]avebos marid Con­sull, &c. And half a dozen lines more it is call'd Columna restrata, having the Beaks and Prores of ships ingraven up and down, wherby it appears, that the Latin then spoken was much differing from that which was us'd in Ciceros time 150. yeers after. Since the dismembring of the Empire Rome hath run through many Vieissi­tudes, and turns of Fortune; and had it not bin for the residence of the Pope, I beleeve she had becom a heap of [...]tones, a mount of Rubbish by this time; and howsoever that she bears up indifferent well, yet one may say,

[Page 64]
Qui miseranda videt veteris vestigia Romae,
Ille potest meritò dicere Roma suit.
They who the ruines of first Rome behold,
May say, Rome is not now, but was of old.

Present Rome may be said to be but the Monument of Rome pass'd, when she was in that flourish that Saint Austin desired to see her in: She who tam'd the world, tam'd her self at last, and falling under her own weight, fell to be a prey to Time; yet ther is a providence seems to have a care of her still; for though her Ayr [...]e not so good, nor her circumjacent Soyl so kindly as it was, yet she hath wherwith to keep life and soul together still, by her Ec­clesiastic Courts, which is the sole cause of her peepling now: So that it may be said, When the Pope came to be her head, she was reduc'd to her first principles; for as a shepherd was founder, so a shepherd is still her Governour and preserver. But wheras the French have an odd saying, that

Iamais cheval ny homme,
S'amenda pour aller a Rome.
Ne're Horse, or Man did mend,
That unto Rome did wend.

Truly I must confesse, that I find my self much better'd by it; for the sight of som of these ruines did fill me with symptoms of Mortification, and made me more sensible of the frailty of all sublunary things, how all bodies, as well inanimat as animat, are subject to dissolution and change, and evry thing else under the Moon, except the love of

Your faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXXIX. To Sir T. H. Kt. from Naples.

SIR

I Am now in the Gentle City of Naples, a Citie swelling with all delight, Gallantry and Wealth; and truely, in my opinion, the King of Spains greatnes appears here more emminently, then in Spain it self: This is a delicat luxurious Citie, fuller of true-bred Cavaliers, then any place I saw yet. The Clime is hot, and the constitutions of the Inhabitants more hot.

The Napolitan is accounted the best Courtier of Ladies, and the greatest embracer of pleasure of any other peeple: They say ther is no lesse here then twenty thousand Courtizans registred in the office of Savelli. This Kingdom with Calabria, may be said to be the one Moytie of Italy, it extends it self 450. miles, and spreds in bredth 112; it contains 2700 Towns, it hath 20 Arch­bishops 127 Bishops, 13 Princes, 24 Dukes, 25 Marquisses, and 800 Barons. Ther are three Presidiall Castles in this Citie; and though the Kingdom abound in rich Staple commodities, as Silks, Cottons, and Wine, and that ther is a mighty Revenue comes to the Crown; yet the King of Spain when he casts up his account at the yeers end, makes but little benefit therof, for it is eaten up twixt Governours, Garrisons, and Officers. He is forc'd to main­tain 4000 Spanish Foot, call'd the Tercia of Naples, in the Castles he hath 1600 in perpetuall Garrison; he hath 1000 men of Arms, 450 Light-Horse; besides ther are five Footmen enroll'd for evry hundred Fire; And he had need to do all this, to keep this voluptuous people in aw; for the Story musters up seven and twenty famous Rebellions of the Neapolitans in lesse then 300 yeers: But now they pay soundly for it, for one shall hear them groan up and down under the Spanish yoak; And commonly the King of Spain sends som of his Grandes hither, to repair their decayed fortunes, whence the saying sprung, That the Viceroy of Sicily gnaws, the Governour of Milan Eats, but the Viceroy of Naples devoures. Our English Merchants here, beat a considerable Trade, and their Factors live in better Equippage, and in a more splen­did manner, as in all Italy besides, then their Masters and Prin­cipalls in London, they ruffle in Silks and Sattins, and wear good Spanish Leather-Shooes, while their Masters-Shooes upon our [Page 66] Exchange in London shine with Blacking. At Puzzoli not far off amongst the Grotts, ther are so many strange stupendous things, that nature her self seem'd to have studied of purpose how to make her self there admir'd: I reserve the discoursing of them with the nature of the Tarantola, and Manna which is gatherd'd here and no wher else, with other things, till I shall see you, for they are fitter for discours then a Letter. I will conclude with a Proverb they have in Italy of this people.

Napolitano,
Largo di bocca, stretto di mano.
The Neapolitans
Have wide mouths, but narrow hands.

They make strong Masculin promises, but Femal performances (for deeds are men, and words are women) and if in a whole floud of complements one find a drop of reality, tis well. The first ac­ceptance of a Courtesie is accounted the greatest incivility that can be amongst them, and a ground for a quarrell, as I heard of a German Gentleman that was baffled for accepting one onely in­vitation to a dinner. So desiring to be preserv'd still in your good opinion, and in the rank of your seravants, I rest alwayes most ready

At Your disposing, J. -H.

XL. To Christopher Jones Esq at Grayes-Inne, from Naples.

Honoured Father,

I Must still stile you so, since I was adopted your Son, by so good a Mother as Oxford: My mind lately prompted me, that I [...]ould commit a great Soloecisme, if amongst the rest of my frends [...] England, I should leave you unsaluted, whom I love so dearly [...]ell, specially having such a fair and pregnant opportunity, as [...]e hand of this worthy Gentleman, your Cousin Morgan, who [...] now posting hence for England: He will tell you how it fares [...]ith me; how any time these thirty and odd months I have bin [...]ss'd from shore to shore, and pass'd under various Meridians▪ [...]d am now in this voluptuous, and luxuriant City of Naples: [...]nd though these frequent removes and tumblings under climes [...] differing temper, were not without som danger, yet the de­ [...]ght which accompanied them was far greater; and it is impossi­ [...]e for any man to conceive the true pleasure of Peregrination, [...]t he who actually enjoyes, and puts it in practise: Beleeve it [...], that one yeer well employed abroad by one of mature judg­ment (which you know I want very much) advantageth more in [...]int of usefull and solid knowledge, then three in any of our [...]iversities: You know Running Waters are the purest; so they [...]t traverse the VVorld up and down, have the cleer [...]st under­ [...]ndings; being faithfull ey-witnesses of those things which [...]her receive but in trust, whereunto they must yeeld an intuitive [...]nsent, and a kind of implicit faith. VVhen I pass'd through [...] parts of Lombardy, amongst other things, I observ'd the Phy­ [...]gnomies, and Complexions of the peeple, men and women, [...]d I thought I was in VVales, for divers of them have a cast of [...]untenance, and a neerer resemblance with our Nation, then [...]y I ever saw yet: And the reason is obvious, for the Romans [...]ing bin neer upon three hundred yeers amongst us, where [...]ey had four Legions (before the English Nation, or Language [...]d any being) by so long a coalition and tract of time, [...] two Nations must needs copulat and mix: Inso­much, [Page 68] that I beleeve ther is yet remaining in Wales many of [...] Roman race, and divers in Italy of the Brittish. Amongst [...] resemblances, one was in their prosody, and vein of [...] or riming, which is like our Bards, who hold agnominations, a [...] enforcing of consonant words or syllables, one upon the other [...] be the greatest elegance: As for example in Welsh, Tewgris, [...] dyrris ty'r derrin gwillt, &c. So have I seen divers old rimes Italian running so; as Donne, O danno, [...]he Febo affranto [...] In selva salvo a me Piu caro cuore, &c.

Being lately in Rome, amongst other Pasquills I met with [...] that was against the Scot, though it had som gawl in't, yet it [...] a great deal of wit, specially towards the conclusion; so that think if King Iames saw it, he would but laugh at it.

As I remember som yeers since, ther was a very abusive [...] in Vers brought to our King; and as the passages were a [...] before him, he often said, That if ther were no more men England, the rogue should hang for it; at last being com to [...] conclusion, which was (after all his railing)

Now God preserve the King, the Queen, the Peers,
And grant the Author long may wear his Ears.

This pleas'd His Majesty so well, that he broke into a [...] and said, By my Sol so thou shalt for me: Thou art a bitter, [...] thou art a witty Knave.

When you write to Monmouthshire, I pray send my respects my Tutor, Master Moor Fortune, and my service to Sir [...] Williams; and according to that relation which was 'twixt us Oxford, I rest

Your Constant Son to serve you, J. H.

XLI. To Sir J. C. from Florence.

SIR,

THis Letter comes to kisse your hands from fair Florence, a Citie so beutifull, that the great Emperour (Charls the fifth) said, That she was fitting to be shewn, and seen onely upon Ho­lidayes: She marvailously flourisheth with Buildings, with Wealth and Artisans; for it is thought that in Serges, which is but one commodity, ther are made two millions evry yeer: All de­grees of people live here not onely well, but splendidly well, not­withstanding the manifold exactions of the Duke, upon all things: For none can buy here Lands or Houses, but he must pay eight in the hundred to the Duke; none can hire or build a House, but he must pay the tenth penny; none can marry, or commerce suite in Law, but ther's a Fee to the Duke; none can bring as much as an Egg or Sallet to the Market, but the Duke hath share therinna: Moreover, Ligorn which is the Key of Toscany, being a Maritim, and a great Mercantil Town, hath mightily inrich'd this Countrey by being a Frank Port to all comers, and a safe rende­vouz to Pyrats, as well as to Marchants. Add hereunto, that the Duke himself in som respect is a Marchant, for he somtimes ingrosseth all the Corn of the Countrey, and retails it at what rate he pleaseth. This inables the Duke to have perpetually 20000 men inroll'd, train'd up, and payed, and none but they can carry Arms; he hath 400 Light-Horse in constant pay, and 100 men at Arms besides; and all these quartered in so narrow a compasse, that he can command them all to Florence in twenty four hours. He hath twelve Gallies, two Galeons, and six Ga­leasses besides, and his Gallies, are call'd, The black Fleet, be­cause they annoy the Turk more in the bottom of the Straits, then any other.

This State is bound to keep good quarter with the Pope, more then others; for all Toscany is fenc'd by Nature her self, I [Page 70] mean with Mountains, except towards the Territories of the Apostolic See, and the Sea it self, therfore it is call'd a Countrey of Iron.

The Dukes Palace is so spacious, that it occupieth the Room of fifty Houses at least; yet though his Court surpasseth the bounds of a Duke's, it reacheth not to the Magnificence of a King's: The Pope was sollicited to make the gran Duke a King, and he answer'd, That he was content he should be King in Tos­cany, not of Toscany; wherupon one of his Counsellors replied, That it was a more glorious thing to be a gran Duke, then a petty King.

Among other Cities which I desi [...]'d to see in Italy, Genoa was one wher I lately was, and found her to be the proudest for buil­dings of any I met withall, yet the people go the plainest of any other, and are also most parsimonious in their diet: They are the subtillest, I will not say the most subdolous dealers; they are wonderfull wealthy specially in Money: In the yeer 1600 the King of Spain owed them eighteen millions, and they say it is double as much now.

From the time they began to finger the Indian Geld, and that this Town hath bin the Scale by which he hath conveyed his Tre­sure to Flanders, since the VVars in the Netherlands for the sup­port of his Armies, and that she hath got som priviledges for the exportation of VVools, and other commodities (prohibited to others) out of Spain, she hath improv'd extremely in riches, and made Saint George's Mount swell higher then Saint Marks in Ve­nice.

She hath bin often ill favouredly shaken by the Venetian, and hath had other enemies, which have put her to hard shifts for her own defence, specially in the time of Lewis the eleventh of France; at which time, when she would have given her self up to him for Protection, King Lewis being told that Genoa was con­tent to be his, he answerd, She should not be his long, for he would give her up to the devill, and rid his hands of her.

Indeed the Genowaies have not the Fortune to be so well be­lov'd, as other people in Italy, which proceeds I beleeve from their cunningnes, and over-reachings in bargaining, wherin they have somthing of the Iew. The Duke is there but Bienni­al, being chang'd evry two yeers: He hath fifty Germans for his Guard; ther be four Centurion [...] that have 100 men a peece, which upon occasions, attend the Signory abroad in Velvet [Page 71] Coats; ther be eight chief Governours, and 400 Counsellours, amongst whom ther be five Soverain Syndics, who have autho­rity to censure the Duke himself, his time being expir'd, and pun­ish any Governour else, though after death, upon the Heir.

Amongst other customs they have in that Town, one is, That none must carry a pointed Knif about him, which makes the Hol­lander, who is us'd to Snik and Snee, to leave his Horn-sheath and Knif a Shipboard when he comes a shore: I met not with an Englishman in all the Town; nor could I learn of any Factour of ours that ever resided there.

Ther is a notable little active Republic towards the midst of Toscany, call'd Luca, which in regard she is under the Empe­rours protection, he dares not meddle withall, though she lie as a Partridg under a Faulcons Wings, in relation to the gran Duke; besides ther is another reason of the State, why he meddles not with her, because she is more beneficiall unto him now that she is free, and more industrious to support this free­dom, then if she were becom his vassall; for then it is probable, she would grow more carelesse and idle, and so could not vent his commodities so soon, which she buyes for ready money, wherin most of her wealth consists: Ther is no State that winds the peny more nimbly, and makes quicker returns.

She hath a Counsell call'd the Discoli, which pryes into the profession and life of evry one, and once a yeer they rid the State of all Vagabonds: So that this petty, pretty Republic, may not be improperly parellell'd to a Hive of Bees, which have bin al­wayes the emblems of industry and order.

In this splendid City of Florence, ther be many rarities, which if I should insert in this Letter, it would make her swell too big, and indeed they are fitter for Parol Communication. Here is the prime dialect of the Italian spoken, though the pronunciation be a little more guttural, then that of Siena, and that of the Court of Rome, which occasions the Proverb,

Lingua Toscana in boca Romana.
The Toscan toung sounds best in a Roman mouth.

The peeple here generally seem to be more generous, and of a higher comportment then elsewhere, very cautious [Page 72] and circumspect in their negotiation; whence ariseth the Pro­verb,

Chi há da far con Tosco,
Non bisogna chi sia Losco.
VVho dealeth with a Florentine,
Must have the use of both his Ey'n.

I shall bid Italy farewell now very shortly, and make my way are the Alps to France, and so home by Gods grace, to take a re­view of my frends in England, amongst whom, the sight of your self will be as gladsom to me, as of any other; for I professe my self, and purpose to be ever

Your thrice affectionat Servitor, J. H.

XLII. To Cap. Francis Bacon, from Turin.

SIR

I Am now upon point of shaking hands with Italy; for I am com to Turin, having already seen Uenice the rich, Padoua the learned, Bologna the fat, Rome the holy, Naples the gentle, Genoa the proud, Florence the fair, and Milan the great; from this last, I came hither, and in that City also appears the Grandeur of Spains Monarchy very much: The Governour of Milan is alwayes Captain Generall of the Cavalry to the King of Spain thorowout Italy: The Dnke of Feria is now Gover­nour, and being brought to kisse his hands, he us'd me with extraordinary respect, as he doth all of our Nati­on, being by the maternall side a Dormer. The Spaniard entertains there also 3000 Foot, 1000 Light-Horse, and 600 men at Arms in perpetuall pay; so that I beleeve the benefit of that Dutchy also, though seated in the richest Soyl of Italy, hardly countervails the charge. Three things are admir'd in Milan, the Dome or great Church (built all of white Marble, within and without) the Hos­pitall, and the Castle, by which the Cittadell of Antwerp was trac'd, and is the best condition'd Fortresse of Christendom: Though Nova Palma a late Fortresse of the Venetian would go beyond it, which is built ac­cording to the exact Rules of the most modern Engin­ry, being of a round form with nine Bastions, and a street levell to evry Bastion.

[Page 74]The Duke of Savoy, though he passe for one of the Princes of Italy, yet the least part of his Territories lie there, being squander'd up and down amongst the Alps; but as much as he hath in Italy, which is Piemont, is a well peepled, and passing good Countrey.

This Duke of Savoy Emanuel, is accounted to be of the ancient'st and purest extraction of any Prince in Eu­rop, and his Knights also of the Anunciade, to be one of the ancient'st Orders; though this present Duke be little in Stature, yet is he of a lofty spirit, and one of the best Souldiers now living; and though he be valiant enough, yet he knows how to patch the Lions-skin with a Fox-Tail; and whosoever is Duke of Savoy, had need be cunning, and more then any other Prince, in regard, that lying between two potent Neighbours, the French and the Spaniard, he must comply with both.

Before I wean my self from Ital [...], a word or two touch­ing the genius of the Nation. I find the Italian a de­gree higher in complement then the French, he is longer and more grave in the delivery of it, and more prodigal of words, insomuch, that if one were to be worded to death, Italian is the fittest Language, in regard of the flu­ency and softnes of it; for throughout the whole body of it, you have not a word ends with a consonant, except som few Monosyllable Conjunctions and Propositions, and this renders the Speech more smooth; which made one say, That when the confusion of toungs happen'd at the building of the Tower of Babel▪ if the Italian had bin there, Nimrod had made him a Playsterer. They are gene­rally indulgent of themselves, and great embracers of pleasure, which may proceed from the luscious rich Wines, and luxurious Food, Fruits, and Roots, wherwith the Countrey abounds, Insomuch, that in som places, Na­ture [Page 75] may be said to be Lena sui, A Baud to her self. The Cardinal de Medici's Rule, is of much authority amongst them, That ther is no Religion under the Navill. And som of them are of the opinion of the Asians, who hold, that touching those naturall passions, desires, and moti­ons, which run up and down in the bloud, God Almigh­ty and his Handmaid Nature, did not intend they should be a torment to us, but to be us'd with comfort and de­light. To conclude, in Italy, ther be Virtutes magnae, nec minora Vitia, Great vertues, and no lesse vices.

So with a tender of my most affectionat respects un­to you, I rest

Your humble Servitor, J. H.

XLIII. To Sir I. H. from Lions.

SIR,

I Am now got ore the Alps, and return'd to France; I had cross'd and clammer'd up the Pyreneans to Spain before, they are not so high and hideous as the Alps; but for our Mountains in Wales as Eppint and Penwinm [...]ur, which are so much cry'd up amongst us, they are Mole­hills in comparison of these, they are but Pigmeys com­par'd to Giants, but blisters compar'd to Impostumes, or Pimples to Werts: Besides, our Mountains in Wales bear always somthing usefull to man or beast, som grass at least; but these uncouth huge monstrous excrescences of Nature, bear nothing (most of them) but craggy Stones: The tops of som of them are blanch'd over all the yeer long with Snows, and the people who dwell in the Valleys drinking, for want of other, this Snow-water, are subject to a strange swelling in the Throat, called Goytre, which is common amongst them. As I scal'd the Alps, my thoughts reflected upon Hannibal, who with Vinegar & Strong-Waters, did eat out a passage through those Hills, but of late yeers they have found a speedier way to do it by Gun-Powder.

Being at Turin, I was by som disaster brought to an extreme low ebb in money, so that I was forc'd to foot it along with som Pilgrims, and with gentle pace and ea­sie journeys, to clime up those Hills till I came to this Town of Lions, where a Countrey man of ours, one Mr. [Page 77] Lewis, whom I knew in Alieant lives Factour, so that now I want not any thing for my accommodation.

This is a stately rich Town, and a renowned Mart for the Silks of Italy, and other Levantin commodities, and a great bank for mony, and indeed the greatest of France. Before this Bank was founded, which was by Henry the first, France had but little Gold and Silver, insomuch, that we read how King Iohn their Captive King, could not in four yeers, raise sixty thousand Crowns to pay his Ransome to our King Edward; And Saint Lewis was in the same case when he was pri­soner in Egypt, wher he had left the Sacrament for a gage; But after this Bank was erected, it fill'd France full of money; They of Luca, Florence, and Genoa, with the Venetian, got quickly over the Hils, and brought their moneys hither to get twelve in the hundred profit, which was the interest at first, though it be now much lower.

In this great Mercantil Town, ther be two deep na­vigable Rivers, the Rhone and the Sone, the one hath a swift rapid cours, the other slow and smooth: And one day as I walk'd upon their Banks, and observed so much difference in their cours, I fell into a contemplation of the humors of the French and Spaniard, how they might be not improperly compar'd to these Rivers; the French to the swift, the Spaniard to the slow River.

I shall write you no more Letters untill I present my self unto you for a speaking Letter, which I shall do as soon as I may tread London stones:

Your affectionate Servitor, J. H.

XLIIII. To Mr. Tho. Bowyer, from Lions.

BEing so neer the Lake of Geneva, curiosity would carry anyone to see it: The Inhabitants of that Town, me thinks, are made of another past differing from the affable nature of those peeple I had convers'd withall formerly; they have one policy, lest that their pretty Republic should be pester'd with fugitives, their Law is, That what stranger soever flies thither for sanctua­ry, he is punishable there, in the same degree, as in the Country wher he committed the offence.

Geneva is govern'd by four Syndncs, and four hundred Senators: She lies like a Bonetwixt three Mastiffs, the Emperour, the French King, and the Duke of Savoy, they all three look upon the Bone, but neither of them dare touch it sing­ly, for fear the other two would flie upon him: But they say the Savoyard hath the justest Title, for ther are Imperiall Records extant, That al­though the Bishops of Geneva were Lords Spiri­tuall and Temporall, yet they should acknowledge the Duke of Savoy for their Superiour: This man's Ancestors went frequently to the Town, and the Keys were presently tender'd to him. But since Calvins time, who had bin once ba­nish'd, [Page 79] and then call'd in again, which made him to apply that speech unto himself, The stone which the builders refused, is becom the head stone of the corner; I say, since they were refin'd by Cal­vin, they seem to shun and scorn all the World besides, being cast as it were into another mould, which hath quite alter'd their very naturall dis­position in point of Morall Society.

Before I part with this famous City of Lions, I will relate unto you a wonderfull strange ac­cident that happen'd here not many yeers ago: Ther is an Officer call'd Le Chevalier du Guet (which is a kind of Night-guard) here as well as in Paris, and his Lieutenant call'd Iaquette, ha­ving supp'd one night in a rich Marchants house, as he was passing the round afterwards, he said, I wonder what I have eaten and drunk at the Mar­chants house, for I find my self so hot, that if I met with the Divels Dam to night, I should not forbear using of her; hereupon, a little after he overtook a young Gentlewoman mask'd, whom he would needs usher to her lodging, but discharg'd all his Watch, except two: she brought him, to his thinking, to a little low lodging hard by the City Wall, wher ther were only two Rooms: and af­ter he had enjoyed her, he desir'd, that according to the custom of French Gentlemen, his two Camerads might partake also of the same plea­sure; so she admitted them one after the other: [Page 82] And when all this was don, as they sat together, she told them, if they knew well, who she was, none of them would have ventur'd upon her; thereupon she whissel'd three times, and all va­nish'd: The next morning, the two souldiers that had gon with Lieutenant Jaquette were found dead under the City Wall, amongst the ordure and excrements, and Iaquette himself a little way off half dead, who was taken up, and coming to himself, confess'd all this, but died presently af­ter.

The next week I am to go down the Loire to­wards Paris, and thence as soon as I can for Eng­land, wher amongst the rest of my frends, whom I so much long to see after this Trienniall sepa­ration, you are like to be one of my first objects; In the mean time, I wish the same happinesse may attend you at home, as I desire to attend me hom-ward; for I am

Truly yours, I. H.

Familiar Letters.
SECTION II.

I. To my Father.

SIR,

IT hath pleased God after almost three year [...] peregrination by Land and Sea, to bring me back safely to London, but although I am com safely, I am com sickly: for when I landed in Venice, after so long a Sea-voyage from Spain, I was afraid the same defluxion of salt rheum which fell from my Temples into my throat in Oxford, and distilling upon the uvula im­peached my utterance a little to this day, had found the same chan­ [...]ell again, which caused me to have an Issue made in my left [...]rm for the diversion of the humour. I was well ever after till I came to Rouen, and there I fell sick of a pain in the head, which, with the Issue, I have carried with me to England. Doctor Harvy who is my Physitian, tells mee that it may turn to a Consumpti­on, therfore he hath stopped the Issue, telling me there is no dan­ger at all in it, in regard I have not worn it a full twelvemonth: My Brother I thank him hath been very carefull of me in this my sicknes, and hath come often to visit me; I thank God I have pass'd [...]he brunt of it, and am recovering, and picking up my crums [...]pace. Ther is a flaunting French Ambassador com over lately, and I believe his errand is nought else but Complement, for the King of France being lately at Calais, and so in sight of England, [...]e sent his Ambassador Monsieur Cadenet expresly to visit our King; [...]e had audience two dayes since, where he with his Train of ruffling [Page 2] long-haird Monsieurs, carried himself in such a light garb, that af­ter the audience, the King askd my Lord Keeper Bacon what he thought of the French Ambassador, he answer'd, that he was a tall proper man; I, his Majesty replied, but what think you o [...] his head-peece? is he a proper man for the Office of an Am­bassador? Sir, said Bacon; Tall men are like high Houses of four or five Stories, wherin commonly the uppermost room is worst fur­nished.

So desiring my brothers and sisters, with the rest of my [...] and friends in the Countrey, may be acquainted with my safe re­turn to England, and that you would please to let me hear from you by the next conveniency, I rest,

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

II. To Rich. Altham Esqr. at Norberry.

SAlve pars animae dimidiata me [...]ae; Hail half my soul, m [...] dear Dick, &c. I was no sooner returned to the sweet bosom of England, and had breath'd the smoak of this Town, but my memory ran suddenly on you, the Idea of you hath almost ever since so fill'd up and ingroft my imagination, that I can think on nothing els, the Iove of you swells both in my breast and brain with such a pregnan­cy, that nothing can deliver me of this violent high passion but the sight of you: Let me despair if I lye, ther was never [...] long'd more after any thing by reason of her growing [...] than I do for your presence: Therfore I pray you make [...] to save my longing, and Tantalize me no longer (tis but three hours riding) for the sight of you will be more precious to me than any one Object I have seen, (and I have seen many rare ones) in all my three year [...] T [...]vell; and if you take this for a Complemen [...] (because I am newly com from France) you are much mist [...] ­ken in

Your J. H.

III. To D. Caldwall Esqr. at Battersay.

MY dear Dan. I am com at last to London, but not without som danger, and through divers difficulties, for I fell sick in France, and came so over to Kent; And my journey from the Sea side hither, was more tedious to me than from Rome to Rouen, where I grew first indisposed; and in good faith, I cannot remem­ber any thing to this hour how I came from Gravesend hither, I was so stupified, and had lost the knowledg of all things; But I am com to myself indifferently well since, I thank God for it, and you cannot imagin how much the sight of you, much more your society, would revive me: your presence would be a Cordi­all unto me more restorative than exalted Gold, more precious than the powder of Pearl, wheras your absence if it continue long, will prove unto me like the dust of Diamonds, which is incu­rable poyson: I pray be not accessary to my death, but hasten to comfort your so long weather beaten friend,

J. H.

IV. To Sir James Crofts at the L. Darcy's in St. Osith.

SIR, I am got again safely this side of the Sea, and though I was in a very sickly case when I first arriv'd, yet thanks be to God I am upon point of perfect recovery, wherunto the sucking in of English air, and the sight of som friends conduc'd not a little.

Ther is fearfull news com from Germany; you [...] how the Bohemians shook off the Emperors yoak; and how the great Coun­sell of Prague fell to such a hurly b [...]rly, that som of the Imperiall Counsellors were hurld out at the windows; you heard also I doubt not, how they offer'd the Crown to the D [...]ke of Saxony, [Page 4] and he waving it, they sent Ambassadors to the [...], whom they thought might prove par negotio, and to be able to go through­stitch with the work, in regard of his powerfull alliance, the King of great Britain being his Father in Law, the King of Denmark, the Prince of O [...]nge, the Marq. of Brandenburg, the Duke of Bo [...]illon his Uncles, the States of Holland his Confederates, the French King his friend, and the Duke of Bavaria his near allye: The Prince Palsgrave made some difficulty at first, and most of his Counsellors opposed it, others incited him to it, and amongst other hortatives, they told him, That if he had the courage to venture upon a King of Englands sole Daughter, he might very well venture upon a Soveraign Crown when it was tendered him. Add hereunto that the States of Holland did mainly advance the worke, and ther was good reason in policy for it; for their twelve years Truce, being then upon point of expiring with Spain, and finding our King so wedded to Peace, that nothing could divorce him from it, they lighted upon this design, to make him draw his Sword▪ and engage hi [...] a­gainst the House of Austria for the defence of his sole Daughter, and his Gran-Children. What his Majesty will do hereafter I will not presume to foretell, but hitherto he hath given li [...]tle counte­nance to the busines, nay, he utterly misliked it at first▪ for wher­as Doctor Hall gave the Prince Palsgrave the Title of King of Bo­hemia in his Pulpit Prayer, he had a check for his pains; for I heard his Majesty should say, that ther is an implicit tie amongst Kings, which obligeth them, though ther be no other interest or particular engagement▪ to stick unto, and right one another up­on insurrection of Subjects; Therfore he had more reason to be against the Bohemians than to adhere to them in the deposition of their Soveraign Prince: The King of Denmark sings the same note, nor will he also allow him the appellation of King. But the fearfull news I told you of at the beginning of this Letter, is, that ther are fresh tidings brought how the Prince Palsgrave had a well appointed Army of about 25000 horse and foot near Prague, but the Duke of Bavaria came with scarce half the number, and notwithstanding his long march, gave them a sudden Battell, and utterly routed them; Insomnch that the new King of Bohemia, ha­having not worn the Crown a whole twelvemonth, was forced to flie with his Qu [...]n and children; and after many difficulties they write, that they are come to the Castle of Castrein, the Duke of Branden­burghs Countrey his Uncle: T [...]is news affects both Court and City here with much heavines.

I send you my humble thanks for the noble correspondence you [Page 5] pleased to hold with me abroad, and I desire to know by the nex [...], when you come to London, that I may have the comfort of the sight of you, after so long an absence.

Your [...] true Servitor, J. H.

V. To Dr. Fra: Man [...]ell, at All▪ Soules in Oxford.

I Am returned safe from my forain employment, from my three years travell, I did my best to make what advantage I could of the time though not so much as I should; for I find that Peregri­nation (wel us'd) is a very profitable school▪ it is a running Academy, and nothing conduceth more to the building up and perfecting of a man. Your honorable Uncle Sir R [...]rt Mansell who is now in the Med [...]erranean hath been very noble to me, and I shall ever ac­knowledg a good part of my education from him. He hath mel­ted vast sums of money in the glass busines, a busines indeed more proper for a Merchant, than a Courtier. I heard the King should say, that he wondred Robin Mansell being a Sea-man, wherby he hath got so much honour, should fall from Water to tamper with Fire, which are two contrary Elements: My Father fears that this glass-employment will be too brittle a foundation for me to build a Fortune upon, and Sir Robert being now at my comming back so far at Sea, and his return uncertain; my Father hath advised me to hearken after some other condition. I attempted to goe Secretary to Sir Iohn Ayres to Constantinople, but I came too late: You have got your self a great deale of good repute by the voluntary resignation you made of the Principality of Iesus College, to Sir Eubule Theloall, in hope that he will be a considerable Benefactor to it: I pray God he perform what he promiseth, and that he be not over-partiall to North-wales men. Now that I give you the first summon, I pray you make me happy with your correspondence by Letters, ther is no excuse or impediment at all left now, for you are sure where to find me, wheras I was a Landloper as the Dutch-man saith, a wanderer, and subject to incertain removes, and short so­journs in divers places before. So with apprecation of all happines to you here and hereafter; I rest,

At your friendly dispose, J. H.

VI. To Sir Eubule Theloall, Knight, and Principall of Jesus Coll. in Oxford.

SIR, I send you most due and humble thanks, that notwithstan­ding I have played the Truant, and been absent so long from Oxford, you have been pleas'd lately to make choice of me to be Fellow of your new Foundation in Iesus College, wherof I was once a Member: As the quality of my Fortunes, and cours of life run now, I cannot make present use of this your great favour, or promotion rather, yet I do highly value it, and humbly accept of it, and intend, by your permission, to reserve and lay it by, as a good warm garment against rough weather if any fall on me. With this my expression of thankfulnes, I do congratulate the great honour you have purchas'd both by your own beneficence, and by your painfull endeavor besides, to perfect that Nationall College, which hereafter is like to be a Monument of your Fame, as well as a Se­minarie of Learning, and will perpetuat your memory to all Po­sterity.

God Almighty prosper and perfect your undertakings, and pro­vide for you in Heaven those rewards which such publick works of Piety use to be crown'd withall; it is the apprecation of

Your truly devoted Servitor, J. H.

VII. To my Father.

SIR, according to the advice you sent me in your last, while I sought after a new cours of employment, a new employment hath lately sought after me; My Lord Savage hath two young Gentlemen to his son [...]es, and I am to goe travell with them: Sit Iames Croftes (who so much respects you) was the main Agent in this busines, and I am to goe shortly to Longm [...]ford in Suffolk, and [...]hence to Saint Osith in Essex to the Lord Darcy. Queen Anne is [Page 7] lately dead of a Dropsie in Denmark house▪ which is held to be one of the fatall events that followed the last fearfull Comet that rose in the tail of the Constellation of Virgo, which som ignorant Astronomers, that write of it, would fix in the Heavens, and that as far above the Orb of the Moon, as the Moon is from the Earth: but this is nothing in comparison of those hideous fires that are kindled in Germany, blown first by the Bohemians, which is like to be a war without end; for the w [...]ole House of Austria is interes­sed in the quarrell, and it is not the custome of that House to sit by any as [...]ront, or forget it quickly. Queen Anne left a world of brave Jewells behind, but one P [...]ero an outlandish man who had the keeping of them embeazled many, and is run away; she left all she had to Prince Charles, whom she eve [...] loved best of all her Children▪ nor do I hear of any Legacie she left at all to her daughter in Germany; for that match some say lessened somthing of her affecti­on towards her ever since, so that she would often call her goody Palsgrave, nor could she abide Secretary Winwood ever after, who was one of the chiefest instruments to bring that match about, as also for the rendition of the cautionary Towns in the Low-Coun­tries Flushing and B [...]ill, with the Rammakins. I was lately with Sir Iohn Walter and others of your Counsell about your Law-busines, and som of them told me that Master I. Lloyd your adversary, it one of the shrewdest Sollicito [...]s in all the thirteen Shires of Wales, being so habituated to Law-sutes and wrangling, that he knows any the least starting hole in every Court: I could wish you had made a fair end with him, for besides the cumber and trouble▪ spe­cially to those that dwell at such a huge distance from Westminster Hall as you doe, Law is a shrewd pickpu [...]s, and the Lawyer as I heard one say wittily not long since, is like a Christmasse box which is sure to get whosoever loseth.

So with the continuance of my due and daily prayers for your health, with my love to my brothers and sisters, I rest,

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

VIII. To Dan. Caldwall Esqr. from the Lord Savages House in Long-Melford.

My deare D.

THough considering my former condition of life I may now be called a Countreyman, yet you cannot call me a Rusti [...], (as you would imply in your Letter) as long as I live in so civill and noble a Family, as long as I lodg in so vertuous and regular a House as any▪ I beleeve in the Land both for oeconomicall govern­ment, and the choice company▪ for I never saw yet such a dainty Race of Children in all my life together, I never saw yet such an orderly and punctuall attendance of servants▪ nor a great House so neatly kept; here one shall see nor dog, nor cat, nor cage to cause any nastines within the body of the House: The kitchin and gutters and other offices of noise and drudgery are at the [...]ag end, ther's a back gate for beggars and the meaner sort of swains to come in at; The stables butt upon the Park, which for a chearfull rising ground, for groves and browsings for the Deer, for rivulets of water may compare with any for its bignes in the whole land; it is opposite to the front of the great House, whence from the Galle­ry one may see much of the game when they are a hunting. Now for the gardning and costly choice flowers, for ponds, for stately large walks green and gravelly, for orchards and choice fruits of all sorts, ther a [...]e few the like in England: here you have your [...]on Cr [...]en pear and [...] [...]n perfection, your Muscadell grapes in such plenty that ther are som bottles of wine sent every year to the King; And one Mr. Daniel a worthy Gentleman hard by, who hath [...]in long abroad, makes good store in his vintage. Truly this House of Long-Melford though it be not so great, yet it is so well compa­cted and contrived with such dainty conveniences every way, that if you saw the Landskip of it, you would be mightily taken with it, and it would serve for a choice pattern to bu [...]ld and contrive a house by: If you come this Summer to your Mannor of Sheriff in Essex, you will not be [...]ar off hence; if your occasions will per­mit, it will be worth your coming hither, though it be only to see him, who would think it a short journey to go from Saint Davids [Page 9] head to Dover cliff [...] to see and serve you, were ther occasion▪ if you would know who the same is, ' [...]

Your J. H.

IX. To Robert Brown Esqr.

Sir▪

THanks for one [...]rtesie, is a good Vsher to bring on another, Ther­fore it is my policie at this time to thank you most heartily for your late [...]opious Letter to draw on a second: I say, I thank you a thousand times over for yours of the third of this present, which abounded with such vari [...]tie of news, and ample well-couch [...] relations, that I made many friends by it; yet I am sory for the qualitie of som of your news, that Sir Robert Mansell being now in the Mediterranean with a considerable [...]avall strength of ours a­gainst the Moors, to do the Spaniard a pleasure, Marquis Spinola should in a h [...]gling way, change his Master for the time, and ta­king Commission from the Emperour, becom his servant for inva­ding the Palatinat with the Forces of the King of Spain, in the Ne­therlands▪ I am sory also the Princes of the Union should [...]e so stu­pid as to suffer him to take Oppenheim by a Parthian kind of back stratagem, in appearing before the Town, and making semblance afterwards to go for Worms, and then perceiving the Forces of the United Princes to go for succouring of that, to turn back and take the Town he intended first, wherby I fear he will be quickly ma­ster of the rest. Surely I beleeve ther may be some treachery in't, and that the Marquis of An [...]back the Generall was orecom by pistol [...] made of Indian ingots, rather than of steel, else an Army of 40000. which he had under his command might have made its par­ [...]y good against Spinola's lesse than 10000. though never such choice Veterans. But what will not gold do? it will make a Pigmey too hard for a Gyant, ther's no fence or [...]ortres against an Asse laden with gold: It was the saying you know of His Father, whom par­tiall and ignorant Antiquity cries up to have conquerd the World, and that [...]e sigh'd ther were no more worlds to conquer, though he had never one of the three old parts of the then known World [Page 10] entirely to himself. I desire to know what is become of that hand­full of men his Majesty sent to Germany under Sir Horace Vere, which he was bound to do as he is one of the Protestant Princes of the Union, and what's become of Sir Arthur Chichester, who is gon Ambassador to those parts.

Dear Sir, I pray make me happy still with your Letters, it is a mightie pleasure for us Countrey folks to hear how matters passe in London and abroad; you know I have not the opportunity to correspond with you in like kind, but may happily hereafter when the tables are turnd, when I am in London, and you in the West. Wheras you are desirous to hear how it fares with me, I pray know, that I live in one of the noblest Houses, and best Air of England: Ther is a daintie Park adjoyning wher I often wander up and down, and I have my severall walks, I make one to represent the Royall Exchange, [...]he other the middle Isle of Pauls, another, West­minster Hall; and when I passe through the herd of Deer methinks I am in [...]apside. So with a full return of the same measure of love, as you pleas'd to send me, I rest

Yours J. H.

X. To R. Altham Esqr. from Saint Osith.

SIR,

LIfe it self is not so dear unto me as your friendship, nor Ver­tue in her best colours a [...] precious as your Love, which was lately so lively pourtraied unto me in yours of the fifth of this pre­sent: Me thinks your letter was like a peece of Tissue richly em­broderd with rare flowers up and down, with curious representati­on [...], and Landskips: Albeit I have as much stuff as you of this kind (I mean matter of Love) yet I want such a Loom to work it upon, I cannot draw it to such a curious web, therfore you must be con­tent with homely Polldavie ware from me, for you must not expect from us Countrey folks such urbanities, and quaint invention, that you, who are daily conversant with the wits of the Court, and of the Inns of Court, abound withall.

Touching your intention to travell beyond the Seas the next Spring, and the intimation you make how happy you would be in [Page 11] my company; I let you know, that I am glad of the one, and much thank you for the other, and will think upon it, but I cannot re­ [...]olve yet upon any thing. I am now here at the Earl Rivers, a [...]oble and great knowing Lord▪ who hath seen much of the World [...]broad; My Lady Savage his Daughter is also here with divers of [...] children: I hope this Hilary Term to be merry in London, and amongst others to re-enjoy your conversation principally, for I e­steem the societie of no soul upon Earth more than yours: till then I bid you Farewell, and as the season invites me, I wish you a mer­ry Christmas, resting

Yours while J [...]m. Howell.

XI. To Captain Tho: Porter upon his return from Algier voyage.

Noble Captain,

I Congratulat your safe return from the Streights, but am sory you were so streigh [...]ned in your Commission, that you could not attempt what such a brave navall power of [...]o▪ men of War, such a gallant Generall and other choice knowing Commanders might have performed, if they h [...]d had line enough; I know the lightnesse and nimblenesse of Algier ships, when I lived lately in Alicant and other places upon the Mediterranean, we should every week hear som of them chas'd, but very seldom taken; for a great ship following one of them, may be said to be as a Mastiff dog running after a hare; I wonder the Spaniard came short of the promised supply for furtherance of that notable adventurous design you had to fire the Ships and Gallies in Algier road; And according to the relation you pleased to send me▪ it was one of the bravest enterprises, and had prov'd such a glorious exploit, that no story could have paralleld; But it seems their Hoggies, Magitians and Maribotts, were tampring with the ill Spirit of the Air all the while, which brought down su [...] a still cataract of rain water [...] suddenly upon you to hinder the working of your fire-works; such a disaster the story tells us b [...]fell Charles the Emperour, but far [Page 12] worse than yours, for he lost ships and multitudes of men, wh [...] were made slaves, but you came off with losse of eight men only, and Algier is another gets thing now, than she was then, being I beleeve a hundred degrees stronger by Land and Sea, and for the latter strength we may thank our Countreyman Ward, and [...] the butterbag Hollander, which may be said to have bin two of the fatallest and most infamoust men that ever Christendom b [...]ed; for the one taking all Englishmen, and the other all Dutchmen, and bringing the Spips and Ordnance to Algier, they may be said [...]o have bin the chief Raysers of those Picaroons to be Pirats, which are now come to that height of strength, that they daily endam­mage and affront all Christendom. When I consider all the cir­cumstances and successe of this your voyage, when I consider th [...] narrownes of your Commission, which was as lame as the Cl [...] that kept it; when I find that you secured the Seas, and [...]rafick all the while, for I did not hear of one Ship taken while you were abroad; when I hear how you brought back all the Fleet without the least disgrace or damm [...]ge by foe or [...]oul weather [...]o any ship▪ I conclude, and so doe far b [...]ter judgements than mine, that you did what possibly could be done: let those that repine at the one in the hundred (which was impos'd upon all the Levant [...] for the support of this Fleet) mutter what they will, that you went first to Gravesend, then to the Lands end, and after to no end.

I have sent you for your welcome home (in part) two barrells of Colchester oysters, which were provided for my Lord of Colchester himself, therfore I pre [...]ume they are good, and all green finnd; I shall shortly follow, but not to stay long in England, for I thin [...] I must over again speedily to push on my fortunes: so my dear Tom▪ I am de todas m [...]s entran [...]s, from the center of my heart I am

Yours, J. H.

XII. To my Father upon my secona going to Travell.

SIR,

IAm lately returned to London, having been all this while in a ve­ry noble Family in the Countrey, where I found far greater re­pects than I deserv'd; I was to go with two of my Lord Savag [...] [Page 13] Sons to travell, but finding my self too young for such a charge, and our Religion differing, I have now made choice to go over Camerade to a very worthy Gentleman Baron Althams Son, whom I kn [...]w in S [...]anes, when my brother was there. Truly I hold him to be one of the hopefullest young men of this Kingdom for parts and person, he is full of excellent solid knowledg, as the Mathe­matics, the Law and other materiall studies; besides I should have beed tied to have staid three years abroad in the other imployment at least, but I hope to go back from this by Gods grace before a twelvemonth be at an end, at which time I hope the hand of Provi­dence will settle me in some stable home-fortun [...].

The news is that the Prince Palsgrave with his Lady and Chil­dren are come to the Hague in Holland, having made a long pro­gres or rather a pilgrimage about Germany from Prague. The old Duke of Bavaria his Uncle is chosen Elector and Arch▪s [...]wer of the Roman Empire in his place (but as they say in an imperfect Diet) and with this proviso, that the transferring of this Election upon the Bavarian, shall not prejudice the next heir. Th [...]r is one Count Mansfelt that begins to get a great name in Germany, and he with the Duke of Brunswick who is a temporall Bpp. of Halverstade, have a considerable Army on foot for the Lady Elizabeth, which in the low Countreys and som parts of Germany is called the Queen of Boheme, and for her winning Princely comportment, th [...] Queen of Hearts: Sir Arthur Chichester is come back from the Pala­tinate, much complaining of the small Army that was sent thither under Sir Horace Vere, which should have been greater, or none at all.

My Lord of Buckingham having been long since Master of the Horse at Court, is now made Master also of all the wood [...]n Horses in the Kingdom, which indeed are our best Horses, for he is to be High Admirall of England, so he is becom Dominus Equorum & Aquarum. The late Lord Thre [...]Cranfield grows al [...]o very powerfull, but the City hates him for having betrayed their greatest secrets which he was capable to know more than another, having been for­merly a Merchant.

I think I shall have no opportunity to write to you again till I bet other side of the Sea; therfore I humbly take my leave, and ask your blessing, that I may the better prosper in my proceedings: So I am,

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

XIII. To Sir John Smith Knight.

SIR,

THe first ground I set foot upon after this my second transma [...] voyage was Trevere (the Scots Staple) in Zeland, thence [...] sail'd to Holland, in which passage we might see divers Steeples and Tur [...]ets under water, of Towns that as we were told were swallow­ed up by a D [...]luge within the memory of man: we went afterwards to the Hague, where ther are hard by, though in severall places, two wonderfull things to be seen, one of Art, the other of Nature; That of Art is a Waggon or Ship, or a Monster mix [...] of both, like the Hippocentaure who was half man, and half horse; this Engin hath wheels and sayls that will hold above twenty people, and goes with the wind, being drawn or mov'd by nothing els, and will run, the wind being good, and the sayls hois'd up, above fifteen miles an hour upon the even hard sands: they say this in­vention was found out to entertain Spinola when he came hither to treat of the last Truce. That wonder of Nature is a Church-Mo­nument, where an Earl and a Lady are engraven with 365 Chil­dren about them, which were all delivered at one birth; they were half male, half femal; the Bason hangs in the Church which carried them to be Christned, and the Bishops Name who did it; and the Story of this Miracle, with the year and the day of the month mentioned, which is not yet 200 years ago; and the S [...]ory is this: That Countesse walking about her door after dinner, ther came a Begger-woman with two children upon her back [...] beg alms, the Countesse asking whether those children were her own, she answered, she had them both at one birth and by one father, who was her husband; The Countesse would not onely give her a [...]y alms, but revil'd her bitterly, saying, it was impossible for one man to get two children at once: The begger-woman being thus provok'd with ill words and without alms fell to imprecations, that it should please God to shew his judgment upon her, and that she might bear at one birth a [...] many children as ther be dayes in the year, which she did before the same years end, having never born child before. We are now in North Holland, where I never saw so many, amongst so few, sick of L [...]prosies; and the reason is, because they commonly eat abundance of fresh Fish. A Gentleman told [Page 15] me, that the women of this Countrey when they are delivered, ther comes out of the womb a living creature besides the child call'd Zu [...]chie, likest to a Bat of any other creature, which the Mid­wi [...]s throw into the [...], holding sheets before the chimney lest i [...] should fly away. Master Altham desires his service be presented to You and your Lady, to Sir Iohn Franklin and all at the Hill; the like doe I humbly crave at your hands: the Italian and French Manuscripts you pleas'd to favour me withall I le [...] at Mr. Seiles the Stationer, whence if you have them not already, you may please to send for them. So in all affection I kisse your hands and am

Your humble Servitor, J. H.

XIV. To' the Right Honble, the Lord Vicount Colchester, after Earl Rivers.

Right Honble,

THe commands your Lopp. pleas'd to impose upon me when I left England, and those high favors wherin I stand bound to your Lopp. call upon me at this time to send your Lopp. [...]om small fruits of my forren Travell: Marquis Spinola is return'd from the Palatinat, where he was so fortunat, that like Caesar [...] came, saw and overcame, notwithstanding that huge Army of the Princes of the Union, consisting of forty thousand men, wheras his was under twenty, but made up of old [...]ough blades, and ve­teran Commanders. He hath now chang'd his coa [...], and taken up his old Commission again from Don Philippo, wheras during that expedition, he call'd himself Caesars servant. I hear the Empe­ror hath transmitted the upper Palatinat to the Duke of Bavaria, as caution for those moneys he hath expended in these wars: And the King of Spain is the Emperors Commissary for the lower Pala­tinat: They both pretend that they were bound to obey the Impe­riall summons to assist Caesar in these wars; the one as he was Duke of Burgundy, the other of Bavaria, both which Countreys are [...]eu­detarie to the Empire, els they had incurr'd the Imperiall bun▪ It is'fear'd this German war will be as the Frenchman saith, de lon­gue halaine, long breath'd, [...]or ther are great powers on both sides, and they say the King of Denmark is arming.

[Page 16]Having made a leasurely so journ in this Town, I had spare hou [...] to couch in writing a survay of these Countreys which I have now traversd the second time; but in regard it would be a great bulk for a Letter, I send it your Lopp. apart, and when I return to England, I shall be bold to attend your Lopp. for correction of my faults; In the interim I rest

My Lord,
Your thrice humble Serviv. J. H.

XV, A survey of the seventeen Provinces.

My Lord,

TO attempt a precise description of each of the seventeen Pro­vinces, and of its Progression, Privileges and Primitive government, were a task of no lesse confusion than labour: Let it suffice to know, that since Flanders and Holland were erected to Earldoms, and so left to be an apendix of the Crown of France▪ som of them have had absolut and supreme Governors, som subaltern and subject to a superior Power. Amongst the rest the Earls of Flanders and Holland were most considerable, but of them two he of Holland being homegeable to none, and having Friestand and Ze­land added, was the more potent: In processe of time all the se­venteen met in one; som by conquest, others by donation and legacie, but most by alliance: In the House of Burgundy this union receivd most growth, but in the House of Austria it came to its full perfection; for in Charles the fifth they all met as so many lines drawn from the circumference to the centre, who Lording as supreme head not only over the fifteen Temporall, but the two Spirituall, Liege and V [...]recht, had a def [...]in to reduce them to a Kingdom, which his Son Philip the second attempted after him, but they could not bring their intents home to their aym, the cause is imputed to that multiplicitie and difference of privileges which they are so eager to maintain, and wherof som cannot stand with a Monarchie without incongruity. Philip the second at his inauguration was sworn to observe them, & at his departure he ob­lig'd himself by oath, to send still one of his own bloud to govern them: Moreover, at the request of the Knights of the golden [Page 17] Fleece, he promised that all Forren souldiers should retire, and that he himself would come to visit them once every seventh year, but being once gon, and leaving in lieu of a Sword a Distaff an unweldy woman to govern, he came not only short of his pro­mise, but procur'd a Dispensation from the Pope to be absolv'd of his Oath, and all this by the counsell of the Cardinall Granvill, who, as the States Chronicler writes, was the first firebrand that kindled that lamentable and longsome war wherein the Nether­lands have traded above fifty years in bloud: For intending to encrease the number of Bishops, to establish the decrees of the Counsell of Trent, and to clip the power of the Counsell of State compos'd of the natives of the Land, by making it appealable to the Counsell of Spain, and by adding to the former Oath of Alle­geance, (all which conduc'd to settle the inquisition, and to curb the conscience) the broyls began; to appease which, Ambassa­dors were dispatch'd to Spain, wherof the two first came to vio­lent deaths, the one being beheaded, the other poysond: But the two last Egmont and Horn were nourish'd still with hopes, untill 'Phi­lip the second had prepar'd an Army under the conduct of the Duke of Alva, to compose the difference by arms▪ For as soon as he came to the government, he established the Blo [...]t-rad, as the com­plainants term'd it, a Counsell of Bloud, made up most of Spani­ards, Egmont and Horn were apprehended, and afterwards behea­ded; Cittadells were erected, and the Oath of Allegeance, with the Politicall government of the Countsey in divers things alter'd: This powr'd oyl on the fire formerly kindled, and put all in com­bustion; The Prince of Orenge retires, therupon his eldest son was surpriz'd and sent as Hostage to Spain, and above 5000. Fa­milies quit the Countrey, many Towns revolted, but were after­wards reduc'd to obedience, which made the Duke of Alva say, that the Netherlands appertain'd to the King of Spain not only by descent but conquest, and for cumble of his victories when he at­tempted to impose the tenth peny for maintenance of the Garrisons in the Cittadels he had erected at Grave, V [...]echt, and Antwerp, (where he caus'd his Statue made of Canon brasse [...]o be erected, trampling the Belgians under his feet) all the Towns withstood this imposition, so that at last matters succeeding ill with him, and ha­ving had his cosen Pacecio hang'd at Flushing gates after he had trac'd out the platform of a Cit [...]dell in that Town also, he receiv'd Letters of revocation from Spain; Him succeeded Don Luys de Re­quiseus, who came short of his predecessor in exploits, and dying suddenly in the field, the government was invested for the time in [Page 18] the Counsell of State; The Spanish soldiers being without a head, gather'd together to the number of 16 [...]0. and committed such outrages up and down, that they were proclamed enemies to the State: Hereupon the pacification of Cant was transacted, wher­of amongst other Articles one was, that all forren soldiers should quit the Countrey: This was ratified by the King, and observ'd by Don Iohn of Austria who succeeded in the government; yet Don Iohn retaind the Landskneghts at his devotion still, for some secret deffein, and as som conjectur'd for the invasion of England, he kept the Spaniards also still hovering about the Frontiers ready up­on all occasion: Certain Letters were intercepted that made a discovery of some projects which made the war to bleed afresh; Don Iohn was proclam'd enemy to the State; so the Archduke Matthias was sent for, who being a man of small performance and improper for the times was dismiss'd, but upon honourable terms. Don Iohn a little after dies, and as som gave out of the pox; Then comes in the Duke of Parma, a man as of a different Nation being an Italian, so of a differing temper, and more moderat spi­rit and of greater performance than all the rest, for wheras all the Provinces except Luxenburg and Henault had revolted, he re­duc'd Gant, Tourney, Bruges, Malins, Brussells, Antwerp, (which three last he beleagerd at one time) and divers other great Towns to the Spanish obedience again: He had sixty thousand men in pay, and the choicest which Spain and Italy could afford. The French and English Ambassadors interc [...]ding for a peace, had a short answer of Philip the second, who said, that he needed not the help of any to reconcile himself to his own subjects, and reduce them to conformity, but the difference that was he would refer to his co [...]en the Emperor: Hereupon the busines was agitated at Colen, where the Spaniard stood as high a tipto as ever, and notwithstanding the vast expence of treasure and bloud he had bin at for so many years, and that matters began to exasperat more and more, which were like to prolong the wars in infinitum, he would abate nothing in point of Ecclesiastic government: Hereupon the States perceiving that King Philip could not be wrought either by the sollicitation of other Princes, or their own supplications so often rei [...]erated, that they might enjoy the freedom of Religion, with other infranchise­ments, and finding him inex [...]rable, being incited also by that ban which was published against the Prince of Orenge, that whosoever killd him should have 5000. crowns, they at last absolutely re­nounced and abjur'd the King of Spain for their Soverain; They bro [...]k his Seals, chang'd the Oath of Allegeance, and fled to [Page 19] France for shelter; they inaugurated the Duke of Aniou (recom­mended unto them by the Queen of England to whom he was a sut [...]r) for their Prince, who attempted to render himself absolute, and so thought to surprize Antwerp, where he receivd an illfavord repuls; yet nevertheless, the united Provinces, for so they termd themselfs ever after, fearing to distast their next great neighbor France, made a second proffer of their protection and Soverainty to that King, who having too many irons in the fire at his own home, the Ligue growing stronger and stronger, he answerd them that his shirt was nearer to him than his dublet; Then had they re­cours to Queen Elizabeth, who partly for her own securitie, part­ly for interest in Religion reacht them a supporting hand, and so sent them men, money and a Governor the Earl of Leicester, who not symbolizing with their humor, was quickly revokd, yet with­out any outward dislike on the Queens side, for she left her Forces still with them but upon their expence: She lent them afterwards some considerable sums of moneys, and she receivd Flushing and the Brill for caution: Ever since the English have bin the best si­news of their war, and Achievers of the greatest exploits amongst them. Having thus made sure work with the English, they made young Count Maurice their Governor, who for five and twenty years together held rack with the Spaniard, and during those tra­verses of war was very fortunat: an overture of Peace was then propounded, which the States would not hearken unto singly with the King of Spain, unlesse the Provinces that yet remaind under him would engage themselfs for performance of what was Articled, besides they would not treat either of Peace or Truce, unless they were declar'd free States, all which was granted, so by the inter­vention of the English and French Ambassadors, a Truce was con­cluded for 12 years.

These wars did so drain and discommodat the King of Spain, by reason of his distance (every Soldier that he sent either from Spain or Italy, costing him nere upon a hundred crowns before he could be rendred in Flanders,) that notwithstanding his mines of Mexico and Peru▪ it plung'd him so deeply in debt, that having taken up moneys in all the chief banks of Christendom he was forcd to pub­lish a Diplo [...]a wherein he dispens'd with himself (as the Holland Story hath it) from payment, alleging that he had employed those moneys for the public Peace of Christendom: this broak ma­ny great Banquers, and they say his credit was not current in Se­vill or Lisbon his own Towns: and which was worse, while he stood wrastling thus with his own Subjects, the Turke took his op­portunity [Page 20] to get from him Tunis and the Goletta the Tropheys of Charles the fift his Father. So eager he was in this quarrell that he imployd the utmost of his strength and industry to reduce this peo­ple to his will, in regard he had an intent to make these Provinces his main Randevous and Magazin of men of war, which his neigh­bors perceiving, and that he had a kind of aym to be Western Mo­narch, being led not so much for love as reasons of State, they stuck close to the revolted Provinces, and this was the bone that Se­cretary Walsingham told Queen Elizabeth, he would cast the King of Spain that should last him 20 years, and perhaps make his teeth shake in his head.

But to return to my first discours whence this digression hath snatchd me, The Netherlands who had bin formerly knit and con­centred under one Soverain Prince, were thus dismembred; And as they subsist now, They are a State and a Province: The Pro­vince having ten of the 17. at least, is far greater, more populous, better soyld, and more stor'd with Gentry. The State is the rich­er and stronger, the one proceeding from their vast Navigation and Commerce, the other from the qualitie of their Countrey, be­ing defensible by Rivers and Sluces, by meanes wherof they can suddenly overwhelm all the whole Countrey, witnes that stupen­dious siege of Leyden and Haerlam, for most of their Towns the marks being taken away are inaccessible by reason of shelfs of sands. Touching the transaction of these Provinces which the King of Spaine made as a dowry to the Archduke Albertus, upon marri­age with the Infanta (who therupon left his red Hat, and Toledo Miter the chiefest spirituall Dignity in Christendom for revenue after the Papacy) it was fringd with such cautelous restraints, that he was sure to keep the better end of the staff still to himself: for he was to have the tutele and ward of his children, that they were to marry with one of the Austrian Family recommended by Spain, and in default of issue, and in case Albertus should survive the Infanta, he should be but Governor only: Add hereunto that King Philip reserv'd still to himself all the Cittadells and Castles, with the order of the golden Fleece, wherof he is Master, as he is Duke of Burgundy.

The Archduke for the time hath a very princely command, all Coyns bear his st [...]mp, all Placarts or Edicts are publishd in his name, he hath the election of all civill Officers, and Magistrats; he nominats also Bishops and Abbars, for the Pope hath only' the Confirmation of them here, nor can he adjourn any out of the Countrey to answer any thing, neither are his Bulls of any [Page 21] strength without the Princes placet, which makes him have alwayes som Commissioners to execute his Authority. The people here grow hotter and hotter in the Roman Cause, by reason of the mix­ture with Spaniards and Italians; as also by the example of the Archduke, and the Infanta, who are devout in an intense degree. Ther are two supreme Counsells, the Privy Counsell, and that of the State; this treats of confederations and intelligence with for­ren Princes, of Peace and War, of entertaining or of dismissing Co­lonells and Captains, of Fortifications, and they have the surinten­dency of the highest affairs that concern the Prince and the policy of the Provinces. The privat hath the granting of all Patents and Requests, the publishing of all Edicts and Proclamations, the prising of Coin, the looking to the confines and extent of the Pro­vinces, and the enacting of all new Ordinances. Of these two Counsells ther is never a Spaniard, but in the actuall Counsell of War their voices are predominant: Ther is also a Court of Finan­ces or Exchequer, whence all they that have the fingring of the Kings money, must draw a discharge. Touching matters of Ju­stice, their Law is mixt between Civill and common with some clau­ses of Canonicall: The high Court of Parliament is at Maline, whither all Civill Causes may be brought by appeal from other Towns, except som that have municipall Privileges, and are soverain in their owne jurisdictions, as Mons in Henalt, and a few more.

The prime Province for dignity is Brabant, which amongst many other privileges it enjoyeth, hath this for one, not to appear upon any summons out of its owne precinct, which is one of the reasons why the Prince makes his residence there: but the prime for extent and fame is Flanders the chiefest Earldom in Chri­stendom, which is three dayes journey in length; Ghent, its Me­tropolis, is reputed the greatest town of Europe, whence arose the Proverb, Les flamen tient un gan, qui tiendrá Paris dedans. But the beautifullest, richest, strongest, and most privileg'd City is Ant­werp in Brabant, being the Marquisat of the holy Empire, and drawing nere to the nature of a Hans Town, for she payes the Prince no other Tax but the Impost. Before the dissociation of the seventeen Provinces, this Town was one of the greatest Marts of Europe, and greatest bank this side the Alpes, most Princes having their Factors here, to take up, or let out moneys, and here our Gre­sham got all his wealth, and built our Royall Exchange by modell of that here. The Merchandise was brought hither from Germany, France and Italy by Land, and from England, Spain, and the Hans [Page 22] towns by Sea, was estimated at above twenty Millions of Crowns every year; but as no violent thing is long lasting, and as tis fatall to all Kingdomes, States, Towns and Languages to have their pe­riod, so this renown'd Mart hath suffer'd a shrewd eclipse, yet no utter downfall, the Exchange of the King of Spains money and some small land trafic, keeping still life in her, though nothing so full of vigor as it was. Therfore there is no town under the Arch­duke where the States have more conceal'd friends than in Antwerp, who would willingly make them her Masters in hope to recover her former commerce which after the last twelve years truce began to revive a little, the States permitting to passe by Lillo's sconce which cōmands the river of Skeld and lyeth in the teeth of the Town som small cross-saild ships to passe hither: There is no place hath been more passive than this, and more often pillag'd; amongst other times she was once plunder'd most miserably by the Spaniards un­der the conduct of a Priest, immediatly upon Don Iohn of Au­stria's death, she had then her Stat-house burn'd, which had cost a few years before above twenty thousand Crowns the building, and the spoils that were carried away thence amounted to forty Tuns of gold: Thus she was reduc'd not only to poverty, but a kind of captivity, being commanded by a Citadell, which she preferr'd be­fore a Garrison; this made the Merchant retire and seek a more free Randevous, som in Zeland, som in Holland, specially in Amster­dam which rose upon the fall of this Town, as Lisbon did from Ve­nice upon the discovery of the Cape of good Hope, though Venice be not nere so much crestfall'n.

I will now steer my discours to the united Provinces as they term themselves, which are six in number, viz. Holland, Zeland, Frisland, Overyssell, Gronninghen and Utrecht, three parts of Gilderland, and some Frontire Towns and places of contribution in Brabant and Flanders: In all these ther is no innovation at all introduc'd, not­withstanding this great change in point of Government, except that the College of States represents the Duke or Earl in times pass'd, which College consists of the chiefest Gentry of the Coun­trey, surintendants of Towns, and the principall Magistrates: E­very Province and great Town choose yearly certain Deputies, to whom they give plenary power to deliberat with the other States of all affairs touching the public welfare of the whole Province, and what they vote stands for Law. These being assembled consult of all matters of State, Justice and War, the Advocat who is prime in the Assembly propounds the busines, and after collects the suf­frages, first of the Provinces, then of the Towns, which being put in [Page 23] form he delivers in pregnant and moving speeches, and in case ther be a dissonance and reluctancy of opinions, he labors to accord and reconcile them, concluding alwayes with the major voyces.

Touching the administration of Justice, the President, who is monthly chang'd, with the great Counsell have the supreme ju­dicature, from whose Decrees ther's no appeal, but a revision, and then som of the choycest Lawyers amongst them are appoin­ted.

For their Opidan Government they have variety of Officers, a Scout, Bourgmasters, a Balue, and [...]: The Scout is chosen by the States, who with the Balues have the judging of all criminall matters in last resort without appeal, they have also the determining of Civill Causes, but those are appealable to the Hague. Touching their chiefest Governor (or Generall rather now) having made proof of the Spaniard, German, French and Eng­lish, and agreeing with none of them, they lighted at last upon a man of their own mould Prince Maurice now their Generall, in whom concurr'd divers parts suitable to such a charge, having been train'd up in the wars by his Father, who with three of his Uncles and divers of his kindred, sacrific'd their lives in the States quar­rell: he hath thriven well since he came to the Government; hee clear'd Friesland, Overyssell and Groninghen, in lesse than 18 months: He hath now continued their Governor and Generall by sea and land above 33 years; he hath the election of Magistrats, the pard­ning of Malefactors, and divers other Prerogatives, yet they are short of the reach of Soverainty, and of the authority of the anci­ent Counts of Holland: Though I cannot say 'tis a mercenary em­ployment, yet he hath a limited allowance, nor hath he any impli­cit command when he goes to the field, for either the Coun­sell of War marcheth with him, or els he receives daily dire­ctions from them: moreover the States themselves reserve the power of nominating all Commanders in the Army, which being of sundry Nations deprive him of those advantages he might have to make himself absolut. Martiall-Discipline is no where so regu­lar as amongst the States, no wher are ther lesser insolencies com­mitted upon the Burger, no [...] robberies upon the Countrey Boors, nor are the Officers permitted to insult ore the common soldier: When the Army marcheth, not one dares take so much as an apple off a tree, or a root out of the earth in their passage; and the reason is, they are punctually paid their pay, els I believe they would be insolent enough, and were not the pay so certain I think [Page 24] few or none would serve them. They speak of sixty thousand they have in perpetuall pay by Land and Sea, at home and in the In­dies: The King of France was us'd to maintain a Regiment, but since Henry the Greats death the paiment hath been neglected. The means they have to maintain these Forces, to pay their Governor▪ to discharge all other expence, as the preservation of their Di [...]es which comes to a vast expence yearly, is the ancient revenue of the Counts of Holland, the impropria [...] Church living, Imposts upon all Merchandise which is greater upon exported than imported goods▪ Excise upon all commodities, as well for necessity as pleasure, taxes upon every Acre of ground, which is such, that the whole Coun­trey returns into their hands every three years: Add hereunto the Art they use in their bank by the rise and fall of money, the fishing upon our Coasts, whither they send every Autum [...] above 700 Hulks or Busses, which in the voiages they make, return above a Million in Herings; moreover their fishing for Greenfish and Sal­mon amounts to so much more, and for their Cheese and Butter, 'tis thought they vent as much every year as Lisbon doth spices. This keeps the common Treasury always full, that upon any extraordi­nary service or dessein ther is seldom any new tax upon the people. Trafic is their generall profession, being all either Merchants o [...] Ma­riners, and having no land to manure, they furrow the Sea for their living; and this universality of trade and their banks of adven­tures distributes the wealth so equally, that few amongst them are exceeding rich or exceeding poor: Gentry amongst them is very thin, and as in all Democraties little respected, and comming to dwell in Towns they soon mingle with the Merchant, and so dege­nerat: Their soyl being all 'twixt marsh and medow is so fat in pasturage, that one Cow will give eight quarts of milk a day, [...]o that as a Boor told me, in four little dorps near Herlam, 'tis thought ther is as much milk milk'd in the year, as ther is Rhenish wine brought to Dort, which is the sole Staple of it. Their towns are beautifull and neatly built, and with uniformity, that who sees one, sees all: In some places, as in Amsterdam, the foundation costs more than the superstructure, for the ground being soft, they are con­strain'd to ram in huge stakes of timber (with wooll about it to pre­serve it from pu [...]rifaction) till they com to a firm basis; so that as one said, whosoever could see Amsterdam under ground, should see a huge winter Forrest.

Amongst all the confederat Provinces, Holland is most predomi­nant, which being but six hours journey in breadth, contains nine and forty wall'd Towns, and all these within a days journey one [Page 25] of another. Amsterdam for the present is one of the greatest mer­cantill Towns in Europ: To her is appropriated the East and West Indie trade, whether she sends yearly 40. great ships, with another fleet to the Baltick Sea, but they send not nere so many to the Mediterranean as England: Other towns are passably rich, and stor'd with shipping, but not one very poore, which proceeds from the wholsom policy they use, to assign every Town som firm Staple commodity, as to (their maiden Town) D [...]rt the German wines and corn, to Midlebourgh the French and Spanish wines, to Trevere (the Prince of Orenge his Town) the Scots trade, Leyden in recom­pence of her long siege was erected to an University, which with Franiker in Fris [...]land is all they have; Haerlam for knitting and weaving hath som privilege, Rotterdam hath the English cloth, and this renders their Towns so equally rich and populous. They al­low free harbor to all Nations with liberty of Religion, (the Ro­man only excepted) as far as the Iew who hath two Synagogs al­lowd him but only in Amsterdam, which peece of policy they bor­row of the Venetian with whom they have very intimat intelligence, only the Iew in Venice, in Rome and other places go with som out­ward mark of distinction, but hear they wear none: and these two republicks, that in the East and this in the West, are the two re­mora's that stick to the great vessell of Spain, that it cannot sayl to the Western Monarchy.

I have been long in the survay of these Provinces, yet not long enough, for much more might be said which is fitter for a Story than a Survay; I will conclude with a mot or two of the people, wherof som have been renownd in times past for feats of war: a­mongst the States, the Hollander or Batavian hath been most known, for som of the Roman Emperors have had a selected guard of them about their persons for their fidelity and valeur, as now the King of France hath of the Swisse: The Frisons also have bin famous for those large privileges wherwith Charlemain endowd them; The Flemins also have bin illustrious for the martiall exploits they a­chiev'd in the East where two of the Earls of Flanders were crownd Emperors. They have all a genius inclin'd to commerce, very inventive and witty in manufactures, witnes the Art of Printing, painting and colouring in glasse; those curious quadrants, chim's and dialls, those kind of waggons which are us'd up and down Christendom were first us'd by them; and for the Mariners Com­pas, though the matter be disputable twixt the Neapolitan, the Portugall and them, yet ther is a strong argument on their side, in regard they were the first that subdivided the four cardinall [Page 26] winds to two and thirty, others naming them in their Lan­guage.

Ther is no part of Europ so hanted with all sorts of Forrener [...] as the Netherlands, which makes the Inhabitants as well women as men so well vers'd in all sorts of languages, so that in Ex­change time one may hear 7. or 8. sorts of toungs spoken upon their Bourses: nor are the men only expert herein, but the wo­men and maids also in their common hostries, and in Holland the wif's are so well vers'd in bargaining, cifring and writing, that in the absence of their Husbands in long Sea voyages they beat the trade at home, and their words will passe in equall credit: These women are wonderfully sober, though their Husbands make com­monly their bargains in drink, and then are they most cau [...]elous. This confluence of Strangers makes them very populous, which was the cause that Charles the Emperor said, that all the Netherlands seemd to him but as one continued Town. He and his Grandfa­ther Maximilian, notwithstanding the choice of Kingdoms they had, kept their Courts most frequently in them, which shewd how highly they esteemd them, and I beleeve if Philip the second had visited them somtimes matters had not gon so ill.

Ther is no part of the Earth considering the small circuit of Countrey which is estimated to be but as big as the fist part of Ita­ly, where one may find more differing customs, tempers and hu­mors of people, than in the Netherlands: The Walloon is quick and spritfull, acostable and full of Complement, and gawdy in appa­rell like his next neighbor the French: The Flemin and Braban [...]r, somwhat more slow and more sparing of speech: The Hollander slower than he, more surly and respectles of Gentry and strangers, homely in his cloathing, of very few words, and heavy in action, which may be well imputed to the quality of the soyl, which works so strongly upon the humors, that when people of a more vivaci­ous and nimble temper com to mingle with them, their children are observ'd to partake rather of the soyl than the syre: And so it is in all Animalls besides.

Thus have I hudled up som observations of the Low Countreys, beseeching your Lopp▪ would be pleas'd to pardon the imperfecti­ons, and correct the errors of them, for I know none so capable to do it as your Lopp. to whom I am

A most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XIV To my Br [...]sher, Master Hugh Penry upon his mariage.

SIR,

YOu have had a good while the interest of a Friend in me, but you have me now in a streighter tie, for I am your brother, by your sate mariage which hath turnd friendship into an alliance; you have in your arms one of my dearest sisters, who I hope, nay I know will make a good wife: I heartily congratulate this ma­riage, and pray that a blessing may descend upon it from that place where all mariages are made which is from Heaven, the Fountain of all felicitie: to this prayer I think it no prophaness to add the saying of the Lyric Poet Horace, in whom I know you delight much, and I send it you as a kind of Epithalamium, and wish it may be ve­rified in you both.

Foelices ter & amplius
Quos irrupta tenet copula, nec malis
Divulsus querimoniis
Suprema citius solvet amor die.

Thus English'd.

That Couple's more than trebly blest
Which nuptiall bonds do so combine,
That no distast can them untwine
Till the last day send both to rest.

So dear brother, I much rejoyce for this alliance, and wish you may encrease and multiply to your hearts content.

Your affectionat brother, J. H.

XVII. To my brother Doctor Howell from Brussels.

SIR,

I Had yours in Latin at Roterdam, whence I corresponded with you in the same Language; I heard, though not from you, since I came from Brussells, that our sister Anne is lately maried to Mr Hugh Penry, I am heartily glad of it, and wish the rest of our fisters were so well bestowd; for I know Mr Penry to be a Gentle­man of a great deal of solid worth and integrity, and one that will prove a great Husband, and a good O [...]conomist.

Here is news that Mansfel [...] hath receiv'd a foyl lately in Germa­ny, and that the Duke of Brunswick, alias Bishop of Halverstadt hath lost one of his arms: This maks them vapor here extremely, and the last week I heard of a play the Jesuits of Antwerp made, in dero­gation or rather derision of the proceedings of the Prince Palsgrave, where amongst divers other passages, they feignd a Post to com puffing upon the stage, and being askd what news, he answerd how the Palsgrave was like to have shortly a huge formidable Army, for the King of Denmark was to send him a hundred thousand, the Hollanders a hundred thousand, and the King of great Britaine a hundred thousand; but being asked thousands of what? he re­plied the first would send 100000. red Herings, the second 100000. Cheeses, and the last 100000. Ambassadors; alluding to Sir Ri­chard Weston, and Sir Edward Conway, my Lord Carlile, Sir Ar­thur Chichester, and lastly, the Lord Digby, who have bin all im­ploy'd in quality of Ambassadors in lesse than two years, since the beginning of these German broils: touching the last, having bin with the Emperor and the Duke of Bavaria, and carried himself with such high wisdom in his negotiations with the one, and stout­nes with the other, and having preserv'd Count Mansfiel [...]s troups from disbanding, by pawning his own argentry and Jewells, he pass'd this way, where they say the Archduke did esteem him more than any Ambassador that ever was in this Court, and the report is yet very fresh of his high abilities.

Wee are to remove hence in coach towards Paris the next week where we intend to winter, or hard by; when you have opportuni­ty to write to Wales, I pray present my duty to my Father, and my [Page 29] love to the rest; I pray remember me also to all at the Hill and the Dale, specially to that most vertuous Gentleman, Sir Iohn Frank­lin. So my dear brother, I pray God continue and improve his blessings to us both, and bring us again together with comfort.

Your brother, J. H.

XVIII. To Dr. The: Prichard at Worcester House.

SIR,

FRiendship is that great chain of human societie, and intercours of letters is one of the chiefest links of that chain: you know this as well as I, therfore I pray let our friendship, let our love, that na­tional ty of British love, that vertuous ty of Academi [...] love be still strengthned (as heretofore) and receive daily more and more vigor. I am now in Paris, and ther is weekly opportunity to re­ceive and send; and if you please to send, you shall be sure to re­ceive, for I make it a kind of Religion to be punctuall in this kind of payment. I am heartily glad to hear that you are becom a do­mestic member to that most noble Family of the Worcesters, and I hold it to be a very good foundation for future preferment; I wish you may be as happy in them, as I know they will be happy in you. F [...]ance is now barren of news, only there was a shrewd brush lately twixt the young King and his Mother, who having the Duke of Espernon and others for her Champions met him in open field a­bout pont de Ce, but she went away with the worst; such was the rare dutifulnes of the King, that he forgave her upon his knees, and pardon'd all her complices; And now ther is an universall Peace in this Countrey, which tis thought will not last long, for ther is a war intended against them of the reformd Religion; for this King though he be slow in speech, yet is he active in spirit, and loves motion: I am here camrade to a gallant young Gentleman my old acquaintance who is full of excellent parts, which he hath ac­quir'd by a choice breeding, the Baron his Father gave him both in the University, and the Inns of Court, so that for the time, I [Page 30] envy no mans happines. So with my hearty commends, and [...] [...]ndear'd love unto you, I rest

Yours whiles Jam. Howell.

XIX. To the Honble. Sir Tho. Savage, (after Lord Savage,) at his House upon Tower-Hill.

Honble. SIR,

THose many undeserved favors for which I stand oblig'd to your self and my noble Lady, since the time I had the hap­pines to com first under your roof, and the command you pleas'd to lay upon me at my departure thence, call upon me at this time to give you account how matters passe in France.

That which for the present affords most plenty of news, is Rochell, which the King threatneth to block up this Spring with an army by sea, under the comand of the D. of Nevers, and by a land army under his own conduct: both sides prepare, he to assault, the Rochellers to defend. The King declares that he proceeds not against them for their Religion which he is still contented to tolerat, but for holding an Assembly against his Declarations. They answer that their As­sembly is grounded upon his Majesties royal Warrant, given at the dissolution of the last Assembly at Lodun, wher he solemnly gave his word to permit them to re-assemble when they would six months as­ [...]er, if the breaches of their liberty, and grievances which they then propounded wer not redressed; and they say this being unperform'd, it stands not with the sacred Person of a King to violat his promise, being the first that ever he made them. The King is so incens'd a­gainst them, that their Deputies can have neither accesse to his Per­son, nor audience of his Counsell, as they stile themselves the De­puties of the Assembly at Rochell; but if they say they com from the whole body of Them of the pretended reform'd Religion, he will hear them. The breach between them is grown so wide, that the King resolves upon a fiege. This resolution of the Kings is much [Page 31] somented by the Roman Clergy, specially by the Celestines, who have 200000 Crowns of gold in the Arsenal of Paris, which they would sacrifice all to this service, besides the Pope sent him a Bull to levy what sums he would of the Gallican Church, for the ad­vancement of this design: This resolution also is much push'd on by the Gentry, who besides the particular emploiments and pay they shall receive hereby, are glad to have their young King train'd up in Arms to make him a Martiall man; But for the Merchant and poor Peasan, they tremble at the name of this War, fearing their teeth should be set on edge with those soure grapes their fa­thers tasted in the time of the League, for if the King begin with Rochell, 'tis fear'd all the four corners of the Kingdom will be set on [...]re.

Of all the Towns of surety which They of the Religion hold, Rochell is the chiefest; a place strong by nature, but stronger by Art; It is a Maritim town, and landward they can by sluces drown a leagues distance: 'tis fortified with mighty thick walls, bastions, and counters [...]arps, and those according to the modern rules of Engin­ry. This amongst other cautionary Towns, was granted by Henry the fourth, to them of the Religion for a certain term of years, which being expir'd, the King saith they are devolv'd again to the Crown, and so demands them. They of the Religion pretend to have divers grievances; first they have not been paid these two years the 160000 Crowns which the last King gave them annually to maintain their Ministers and Garrisons: They complain of the Kings carriage lately at Bearn (Henry the greats Countrey) which was merely Protestant, where he hath introduc'd two years since the public exercise of the Masse, which had not bin sung there fifty years before; he alter'd also there the Government of the Countrey, and in lieu of a Viceroy, left a Governor only: and wheras Navarrin was formerly a Court of Parlement for the whol Kingdom of Navar, (that's under France) he hath put it down and published an Edict, that the Navarrois should com to Tolo [...]se, the chief town of Lan­guedoc; and lastly, he left behind him a Garrison in the said Town of Navarrin. These and other grievances they of the Religion pro­pos'd to the King lately, desiring his Majesty would let them enjoy still those privileges his Predecessor Henry the third, and his Father Henry the fourth afforded them by Act of Pacification: But he made them a short answer, that what the one did in this point, he did it out of fear; what the other did, he did it out of love; but he would have them know that he neither lov'd them, nor fear'd them: so the busines is like to bleed sore on both sides; nor is ther yet any apea­rance of prevention.

[Page 32]Ther was a scuffle lately here 'twixt the Duke of Navers and the Cardinal of Guise, who have had a long sute in law about an Abbey, and meeting the last week about the Palace, from words they fell to blows, the Cardinall struck the Duke first, and so were parted, but in the afternoon ther appear'd on both sides no lesse than 3000 horse in a field hard by, which shews the populousnes and sudden strength of this huge City, but the matter was taken up by the King himself, and the Cardinall clapt up in the Bastile, wher the King saith he shall abide to ripen; for he is but young, and they spake of a Bull that is to come from Rome to decardinalize him. I fear to have trespas'd too much upon your patience, therfore I will conclude for the present, but will never cease to profess my self

Your thrice humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XX. To D. Caldwall Esqr. from Poyssy.

My dear D.

TO be free from English, and to have the more conveniency to fall close to our busines, Mr. Altham and I are lately re [...]'d from Paris to this Town of Poyssy, a pretty gentile place at the [...]oot of the great Forrest of Saint German upon the River Sequana, and within a mile of one of the Kings chiefest standing Houses, and a­bout 15 miles from Paris. Here is one of the prime Nunneries of all France. Lewis the ninth, who in the Catalog of the French Kings is call'd St. Lewis, which Title was confirm'd by the Pope, was baptiz'd in this little Town, and after his return from Egypt and o­ther places against the Saracens, being ask'd by what Title he would be distinguish'd from the rest of his Predecessors after his death, he answer'd, that he desir'd to be call'd Lewis of Poyssy: reply being made that ther were divers other places and cities of renown, wher he had perform'd brave exploits, and obtain'd famous vi­ctories, therfore it was more fitting that som of those places should denominat him: no, said he, I desire to be call'd Lewis of Poyssy, because there I got the most glorious victory that ever [Page 33] I had, for there I overcame the Devill: meaning that he was Christ­ned there.

I sent you from Antwerp a silver Dutch Table-book, I desire to hear of the receit of it in your next: I must desire you (as I did once at Rouen) to send me a dozen pair of the whitest kidskin glov's for women, and half a dozen pair of knit's, by the Merchants post, and if you want any thing that France can afford, I hope you know what power you have to dispose of

Your J. H.

XXII. To my Father, from Paris.

SIR,

I Was afraid I should never have had ability to write to you a­gain, I had lately such a dangerous fit of sicknes, but I have now pass'd the brunt of it, God hath been pleas'd to reprieve me, and reserve me for more days which I hope to have grace to num­ber better; Mr. Altham and I having retired to a small Town from Paris for more privacy, and sole conversation with the na­tion; I tyed my self to a task for the reading of so many books in such a compasse of time, and therupon to make good my-word to my self, I us'd to watch many nights together, though it was in the depth of Winter, but returning to this Town, I took cold in the head, and so that mals of rheum which had gather'd by my former watching turn'd to an impostume in my head, wher­of I was sick above forty days, at the end they caute [...]is'd and made an issue in my check to make vent for the impostume, and that sav'd my life: At first they let me bloud, and I parted with above fi [...]y ounces in lesse than a [...]ortnight, for phlebotomy is so much practis'd here, that if ones little finger ake, they presently open [...] vein, and to ballance the bloud on both sides, they usually [...]et bloud in both arms. And the commonness of the thing▪ [...]eems to take away all fear, insomuch that the very women when [...]hey find themselves indispos'd, will open a vein themselves, for [...]hey hold that the bloud which hath a circulation and fetcheth a [...]ound every 24 hours about the body is quickly repair'd again; I [Page 34] was eighteen dayes and nights that I had no sleep but short im­perfect slumbers, and those too protur'd by potions; the tumor at last came so about my throat that I had scarce vent left for res­piration, and my body was brought so low with all sorts of Phy­sic, that I appeard like a meer Skeleton. When I was indifferent­ly well recover'd, som of the Doctors and Chirurgions that ten­ded me, gave me a visit, and amongst other things they fell in discours of wines which was the best; & so by degrees they fell upon other beverages, and one Doctor in the company who had bin in England, told me that we have a drink in England cal'd Ale, which he thought was the wholsomst liquor that could go into ones guts, for wheras the body of man is supported by two columns, viz. the naturall heat, and radicall moysture, he said, ther is no drink conduceth more to the preservation of the one, and the encrease of the▪ other than Ale, for while the Englishmen drank only Ale, they were strong brawny able men, and could draw an arrow an ell long, but when they fell to wine and beer, they are found to be much impaird in their strength and age; so the Ale bore away the bell among the Doctors.

The next week we advance our course further into France to­wards the river of Loire to Orleans, whence I shall continue to con­vey my duty to you. In the mean time I humbly crave your bles­sing, and your acknowledgment to God Almightie for my recove­rie; be pleas'd further to impart my love amongst my brothers and sisters withall my kinsmen and friends in the Countrey, so I rest

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

XXII. To Sir Tho. Savage Knight and Baronet.

Honble SIR.

THat of the fifth of this present which you pleasd to send me, was receiv'd. and I begin to think my self somthing more then I was, that you value so much the slender endevors of my pen to do you service. I shall continue to improve your good opinion of me as opportunity shall serve.

Touching the great threats against Rochell, wherof I gave you [Page 35] an ample relation in my last, matters are becom now more calm and rather inclining to an accommodation, for 'tis thought a sum of money will make up the breach; and to this end som think all these bravado's were made. The Duke of Luynes is at last made Lord high Constable of France the prime Officer of the Crown, he hath a peculiar Court to himself, a guard of a 100. men in rich liveries, and a hundred thousand livers every year Pension: The old Duke of Lesdiguieres, one of the ancientst soldiers of France, and a Protestant, is made his Lieutenant.

But in regard all Christendom rings of this Favorit, being the greatest that ever was in France since the Maires of the Palace, who came to be Kings afterwards, I will send you herein his Legend. He was boru in Province, and is a Gentleman by descent, though of a pettie extraction, in the last Kings time he was preferr'd to be one of his pages, who finding him industrious, and a good wai­ter, allow'd him 300. Crowns pension per annum, which he hus­banded so well, that he maintaind himself and his two brothers in passable good fashion therwith. The King observing that, doub­led his Pension, and taking notice that he was a serviceable in­strument and apt to please, he thought him fit to be about his son, in whose service he hath continued above fifteen years, and he hath flown so high into his favor by a singular dexteri [...]ie and Art he hath in [...]aulconrie, and by shooting at birds flying, wherin the King took great pleasure, that he hath soard to this pitch of honor. He is a man of a passable good understanding and forecast, of a mild comportment, humble and debonnair to all, and of a winning con­versation, he hath about him choice and solid heads who prescribe unto him rules of policie, by whose Compas he steers his course, which is likely will make him subsist long: He is now com to that transcendent altitude, that he seems to have mounted above the reach of envy, and made all hopes of supplanting him frustrate, both by the politic guidance of his own actions, and the powerfull alliances he hath got for himself and his two brothers: he is maried to the Duke of Montbazons daughter, one of the prime Peers of France. His second brother Cadanet (who is reputed the wisest of the three) maried the heiress of Picardy, with whom he had 9000 l. lands a year. His third brother Brand to the great heiress of Luxemburg, of which house ther have bin five Emperor; so that these three brothers and their allies would be able to coun­ter balance any one faction in France, the eldest and youngest be­ing made Dukes, and Peers of France, the other Marshall. Ther are lately two Ambassadors extraordinary com hither from Venice [Page 36] about the Valtolin, but their negotiation is at a stand, untill the re­turn of an Ambassador extraordinary which is gone to Spain: Ambas­sadors also are com from the Hague for payment of the French Re­giment there, which hath bin neglected these ten years, and to know whether his Majesty will be pleasd to continue their pay any longer; but their answer is yet suspended: They have brought news that the seven ships which were built for his Majesty in the Tess [...]ll are ready, to this he answerd, that he desires to have ten more built; for he intends to finish that design which his Father had a foot a little before his death to establish a royall company of Merchants.

This is all the news that France affords for the present, the re­lation wherof if it prove as acceptable as my endeavors to serve you herein are pleasing unto me, I shall esteem my self happy: So wishing you and my noble Lady continuance of health, and en­crease of honor, I rest

Your most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXIII. To Sir John North, Knight,

SIR,

I confesse you have made a perfect conquest of me by your late favors, and I yeeld my self your cap [...]if, a day may com that will enable me to pay my ransom, in the interim let a most thank­full acknowledgment be my bail and mainprise.

I am now remov'd from off the Sein to the Loire to the fair Town of Orleans: there was here lately a mixt Procession twixt military and ecclesiasti [...] for the maid of Orleans, which is performd every year very solemnly, her Statue stands upon the bridg, and her cloths are proserv'd to this day, which a young man wore in the Procession; which makes me think that her story though it sound like a romance is very true: And I read it thus in two or three Chroni­cles; when the Engl [...]sh had made such firm invasions in France, that their Armies had marchd into the heart of the Countrey, be­siegd Orleans, and driven Charles the seventh to Bourges in Berry, which made him to be calld, for the time, King of Berry; there [Page 37] came to his Armie a Shepheardesse one Anne de Arque, who with a confident look and language told the King that she was design'd by heaven to beat the English, and drive them out of France. There­fore she desired a command in the▪ Army, which by her extraor­dinary confidence and importunity she obtain'd, and putting on mans apparell she prov'd so prosperous, that the siege▪ was raisd from before Orleans, and the English were pursued to Paris, and for­ced to quit that, and driven to Normandy: she usd to go on with mar­vellous courage and resolution, and her word was hara ha: But in Normandy she was taken prisoner, and the English had a fair revenge upon her, for by an arrest of the Parliament of Rouen she was burnt for a Witch. Ther is a great busines now a foot in Pa­ris calld the Polette, which if it take effect will tend to correct, at least wise to cover a great error in the French Government: The custom is that all the chief places of Justice throughout all the eight Courts of Parliament in France, besides a great number of other offices, are set to sale by the King, and they return to him unless the buyer liveth fourty dayes after his resignation to another: It is now propounded that these casuall offices shall be absolutly heredi­tary, provided that every officer pay a yearly revenue unto the King, according to the valuation and perquisits of the o [...]ice: this busines is now in hot [...]gitation, bu [...] the issue is yet doubtfull.

The last you sent, I receivd by Vacandary in Paris: so highly honoring your excellent parts and me [...]it, I rest, now that I under­stand French indifferently well, no more your (she) Servant, but

Your most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXIV. To Sir James Crofts, Knight.

SIR,

VVEre I to fraight a Letter with Complements, this Coun­trey would furnish me with variety, but of news a small store at this present, and for Complement it is dangerous to use a­ [...]y to you, who have such a piercing judgment to discern semblan­ [...]es from realities,

[Page 38]The Queen Mother is com at last to Paris, where she hath not been since An [...]e's death: The King is also return'd post from Bo [...] ­deaux, having travers'd most part of his Kingdom, he setled peace every where he pas'd, and quash'd divers insurrections, and by his obedience to his mother, and his lenity towards all her partisans a [...] pont de C [...] where above 400 were slain, and notwithstanding that he was victorious, yet he gave a generall pardon, he hath gain'd much upon the affections of his people: His Counsell of State wen [...] ambulatory always with him, and as they say here, never did men manage things with more wisdom. Ther is a war questionless a fer­menting against the Protestants, the Duke of Espernon in a kind of Rodomontado way, desired leave of the King to block up Rochell, and in six weeks he would undertake to deliver her to his hands, but I beleeve he reckons without his Host. I was told a merry passage of this little Gascon Duke, who is now the oldest soldier of France; Ha­ving come lately to Paris he treated with a Pander to procure him a [...]urtesan, and if she was a Damoisell (a Gentlewoman) he would give so much, and if a Citizen he would give so much: The Pande [...] did his Office, but brought him a Citizen clad in Damoisells ap­parell, so she and her Maquerell were paid accordingly; the ne [...] day after, som of his familiars having understood hereof began to be pleasant with the Duke, and to jeer him, that he being a vis [...]il Routier an old tried soldier, should suffer himself to be so co [...]end, as to pay for a Citizen after the rate of a Gentlewoman; the lit­tle Duke grew half wild hereupon, and commenc'd an action of fraud against the Pander, but what became of it I cannot tell you, but all Paris rung of it. I hope to return now very shortly to England, where amongst the [...]est of my noble friends I shall much rejoyce to see and serve you whom I honour with no vulgar affecti­on, so I am

Your true Servitor, J. H.

XXV. To my Cosen Mr. Will. Martin at Brussells from Paris.

Dear Cosen,

I Find you are very punctuall in your performances, and a pre­cise observer of the promise you made here to correspond with Mr. Altham and me by Letters. I thank you for the variety of German news you imparted unto me, which was so neatly couch'd and cu­riously knit together, that your Letter [...]ight serve for a pattern to the best Intelligencer. I am sorry the affairs of the Prince Palsgrave go so untowardly, the wheel of War may turn, and that Spoke which is now up may down again. For French Occurrences, ther is a War certainly intended against them of the Religion here; and ther are visible preparations a loot already; Amongst others that shrink in the shoulders at it the Kings servants are not very wel pleas'd with it, in regard besides Scots and Swissers, ther are divers of the Kings Servants that are Protestants. If a man go to [...]' di s [...]ato to reason of State, the French King hath somthing to justifie this des­sein, for the Protestants being so numerous, and having neer up­on fifty presidiary wall'd Towns in their hands for caution, they have power to disturb France when they please, and being abetted by a forren Prince to give the King Law; and you know as well as I how they have been made use of to kindle a fire in France: Therfore rather than they should be utterly supprest, I believe the Spaniard himself would reach them his ragged staff to defend them.

I send you here inclos'd another from Master Altham who respects you dearly, and we remembred you lately at la pomme du pin in the best liquor of the French Grape. I shall be shortly for Lon­don, where I shall not rejoyce a little to meet you; that English air may confirm what forren begun, I mean our friendship and affe­ctions, [Page 40] and in Me (that I may return you in English the Latin Ver­ses you sent me)

As soon a little little Ant
Shall bib the Ocean dry,
A Snail shall creep about the world,
Ere these affections dye.

So my dear Cosen▪ may Vertue be your guide, and Fortune your Companion.

Yours while Jam. Howell.

Familiar Letters.
SECTION III.

I. To my Father.

SIR,

I Am safely return'd now the second time from beyond the Seas, but I have yet no employ­ment; God and good friends I hope will shortly provide one for me.

The Spanish Ambassador Count Gondamar doth strongly negotiat a Match 'twixt our Prince, and the Infanta of Spain, but at his first audience ther happen'd an ill favor'd accident (I pray God it prove no ill augury) for my Lord of A­rundell being sent to accompany him to White Hall, upon a Sunday in the afternoon, as they were going over the Tarrasse, it broke un­der them, but onely one was hurt in the arm; Gondamar said that he had not car'd to have dyed in so good company: he saith ther is no other way to regain the Palatinate, but by this match, and to settle an eternall Peace in Christendom.

The Marquis of Buckingham continueth still in fulnes of grace and favor; the Countess his Mothes sways also much at Court, she brought Sir Henry Montague from delivering law on the K. Bench, to look to his bags in the Exchequer, for she made him Lord high Trea­surer of England▪ but he parted with his white staff before the years end, though his pu [...] had bled deeply for it (above 20000 l.) which made a Lord of this Land to ask him at his return from Court, whe­ther he did not find that wood was extreme dear at New-market, for there he receiv'd the white staff. Ther is now a notable stirring man [Page 42] in the place, my Lord Cranfield, who from walking about the Ex­change, is com to sit chief Judge in the Chequer Chamber, and to have one of the highest places at the Counsell Table: He is maried to one of the Tribe of Fortune, a kinswoman of the Marquis of Buckingham. Thus ther is rising and falling at Court, and a [...] in our naturall pace one foot cannot be up, till the other be down, so is it in the affairs of the world commonly, one man riseth at the fall of the other.

I have no more to write at this time, but that with tender of my duy to you, I desire a continuance of your blessing and pray­ers.

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

II. To the Honble, M. John Savage (now Earl Rivers) at Florence.

SIR,

MY love is not so short but it can reach as far as Florence to find you out, and further too if occasion requir'd, nor are those affections I have to serve you so dull but they can clammer ore the Alps and Apennin to wait upon you, as they have adven­tur'd to do now in this paper. I am sorry I was not in London [...] kiss your hands before you set to Sea, and much more sorry that I had not the happines to meet you in Holland or Brabant, for we went the very same road, and lay in Dort and Antwerp in the same lodgings you had lain in a fortnight before. I presume you have by this time tasted of the sweetnes of Travell, and that you have wean'd your affections from England for a good while, you must now think upon home (as one said) good men think upon heaven, aiming still to go thither, but not till they finish their cours; and yours I understand will be three years, in the mean time you must not suffer any melting tendernes of thoughts, or longing desires, to distract or interrupt you in that fair road you are in to vertue, and to beautifie within that comly Edifice which nature hath built without you. I know your reputation is precious to you, as it should be to every noble mind, you have expos'd it now to the hazard, [Page 43] therfore you must be carefull it receive no taint at your return by not answering that expectation which your Prince and noble Pa­rents have of you: You are now under the chiefest clime of wis­dom, fair Italy, the Darling of Nature, the Nurse of Policy, the Theater of Vertue; But though Italy give milk to Vertue with one dug, she often suffers Vice to suck at the other, therfore you must take heed you mistake not the dug; for ther is an ill favourd say­ing, that Inglese Italionato, è Diavolo incarnato; An Englishman Ita­lianat, is a Devill incarnat. I fear no such thing of you, I have had such pregnant proofs of your ingenuity, and noble inclination [...] to vertue and honor: I know you have a mind to both, but I must tell you that you will hardly get the good will of the latter, unless the first speak a good word for you: when you go to Rome, you may haply see the ruines of two Temples, one dedicated to Vertue, the other to Honor, and ther was no way to enter into the last, but through the first. Noble Sir, I wish your good very seriously, and if you please to call to memory, and examin the circumstance of things, and my carriage towards you since I had the happines to be known first to your Honorable Family, I know you will conclude that I love and honor you in no vulgar way.

My Lord, your Grandfather was complaining lately that he had not heard from you a good while: By the next shipping to Ligorn, amongst other things he intends to send you a whole Brawn in col­lers. I pray be pleasd to remember my affectionat service to Mr. Tho. Savage, and my kind respects to Mr. Bold: for English news I know this packet coms fraighted to you, therfore I forbear at this time to send any. Farewell noble Heir of Honor, and com­mand always

Your true Servitor, J. H.

III. To Sir James Crofts Knight, at Saint Osith in Essex.

SIR,

I had yours upon tuesday last, and wheras you are desirous to know the proceedings of the Parliament, I am sorry I must write to you [Page 44] that matters begin to grow boysterous. The King retir'd not long since to New market not very well pleasd, and this week there went thither twelve from the House of Commons, to whom Sir Richard▪ Weston was the mouth; the King not liking the Message they brought, calld them his Ambassadors, and in the large answer which he hath sent to the Speaker, he saith that he must apply un­to them a speech of Queen Elizabeths to an Ambassador of Po­land, Legatum expectavimus, Heralaum accepimus? We expected an Ambassador, we have receivd a Herald; he takes it not well that they should meddle with the match twixt his Son and the Infan­ta, alleging an example of one of the Kings of France, which would not marry his Son without the advice of his Parliament, but afterwards that King grew so despicable abroad, that no Forren State would treat with him about any thing without his Parlia­ment. Sundry other high passages ther were as a caveat he gave them not to touch the honor of the King of Spain, with whom he was so far ingag'd in a matrimoniall treaty that he could not go back: he gave them also a check for taking Cognisance of those things which had their motion in the ordinary Courts of Iustice, and that Sir Edward Coke, (though these words were not inserted in the answer) whom he thought to be the fittest instrument for a Tyrant that ever was England) should be so bold as to call the Pre­rogative of the Crown a great monster. The Parliament after this was not long liv'd but broak up in discontent, and upon the point of dissolution, they made a Protest against divers particulars in the aforesaid answer of his Majesties. My Lord Digby is preparing for Spain in qualitie of Ambassador Extraordinary, to perfect the match twixt our Prince and the Lady Infanta, in which business Gondamar hath waded already very deep, and bin very active, and ingratiated himself with divers persons of qualitie, Ladies espe­cially, yet he could do no good upon the Lady Hatton, whom he desird lately that in regard he was her next neighbor (at Ely House) he might have the benefit of her back gate to go abroad into the fields, but she put him off with a Complement, wherup­on in a privat audience lately with the King amongst other passa­ges of merriment, he told him that my Lady Hatton was a strange Lady, for she would not suffer her Husband Sir Edward Coke to com in at her foredore, nor him to go out at her back dore; and so related the whole business: He was also dispatching a l'ost lately for Spain, and the Post having receivd his packet, and kisd his hands, he calld him back and told him he had forgot one thing, which was, that when he came to Spain he should commend him to the Sun, [Page 45] [...] he had not seen him a great while, and in Spain he should be sure to find him: So with my most humble service to my Lord of Colchester, I rest

Your most humble Servitor, J. H.

IV, To my brother Mr Hugh Penry.

Sir,

THe Welsh nag you sent me, was deliverd me in a very good plight, and I give you a thousand thanks for him; I had occasion lately to try his mettle and his lungs, and every one tells me he is right, and of no mong [...]ell race, but a true Mounta­neer, for besides his toughness, and strength of lungs up a hill, he is quickly curried, and content with short Commons: I be­leeve he hath not been long a highway traveller, for wheras other horses, when they pass by an Inne or Alehouse use to make towards them to give them a friendly visit, this n [...]g roundly goes on, and scornes to cast as much as a glance upon any of them, which I know not whether I shall impute it to his ignorance, or height of spirit, but conversing with the soft horses of England, I beleeve he will quickly be brought to be more courteous.

The greatest news we have now is the return of the Lord BPP▪ of Landass, Davenant, Ward, and Belcanquell, from the Synod of Dort, where the Bishop had precedence given him according to his Ep [...]s­copall dignity, Arminius and Vorstius were sore baited there con­cerning Predestination, Election, and Reprobation; as also touch­ing Christs death, and mans Redemption by it; then concerning mans Corruption, and Conversion; lastly, concerning the per­severance of the Saints: I shall have shortly the transaction of the Synod. The Jesuits have put out a gee [...]ing libell against it, and these two verses I remember in't.

Dordrecti Synodus? nodus; chorus integer? aeger;
Conventus? ventus; S [...]ffio stramen, Amen.

But I will confront this Distich with another I read in France of [Page 46] the Iesuits in the Town of Dole, towards Lorain; they had a great house given them calld L'ar [...] (arcum) and upon the river of L [...], Henry the fourth gave them la fleche, sagittam in [...]atin, where they have two stately Convents, that is, Bow and Arrow; wherupon one made these verses:

Arcum Dola dedit, dedit ill is alma sagittam
Francia; quis chordam, quam meruere, dabit?
Faire France the Arrow, Dole gave them the Bow,
Who shall the String which they deserve bestow?

No more now but that with my dear love to my Sister I rest.

Your most affectionate brother J. H.

V. To the Lord Vicount Colchester.

My good Lord,

I receivd your Lopps▪ of the last week, and according to your com­mand, I send here inclos'd the Venetian gazet: for forren avi­so's, they write that Mansfelt hath bin beaten out of Germany, and is come to Sedan, and 'tis thought the Duke of Bouillon will set him up again with a new Army: Marquis Spinola hath newly sat down▪ before Berghen op zoom; your Lopp▪ knows well what consequence that Town is of, therfore it is likely this will be a hot Summer in the Netherlands. The French King is in open war against them of the Religion, he hath already cleard the Loire by taking Ier seau and Saumur, where Mon [...]r. du Plessis sent him the keys, which are pro­misd to be deliverd him again, but I think ad Graecas Calenda [...]. He hath bin also before Saint Iohn d' angeli, where the young Car­dinall of Guyse died, being struck down by the puffe of a Canon bullet, which put him in a burning [...]eaver, and made an end of him: the last Town that's taken was Clerac, which was put to 50000. Crowns ransom; many were put to the sword, and divers Gentlemen drownd as they thought to scape; this is the fifteenth cautionary Town the King hath taken, and now they say he mar­cheth [Page 47] towards Montauban, and so to Montpelli [...]r and Nism [...], and then have at Rochell. My Lord Hayes is by this time 'tis thought with the Army; for Sir Edward Harbert is return'd, having had som clashings and counterbuffs with the Favorite Luynes, wherin he comported himself gallantly: ther is a fresh report blown over, that Luynes is lately dead in the Army of the Plague, som say of the Purples, the next cousen german to it; which the Protestants give out to be the just judgement of Heaven [...]aln upon him, be­cause he incited his Master to these wars against them. If he be not dead, let him dy when he will, he will leave a fame behind him, to have bin the greatest Favorit for the time that ever was in France, having from a simple Faulkner com to be high Constable, and made himself and his younger brother Brand Dukes and Peers; and his second brother Cadenet Marshall, and all three maried to Princely Families.

No more now, but that I most humbly kiss your Lopps▪ hands, and shall be alwaies most ready and chearfull to receive your com­mandments, because I am

Your Lordships obliged Servitor, I. H.

VI. To my Father, from London.

SIR,

I was at a dead stand in the cours of my Fortunes, when it pleas'd God to provide me lately an employment to Spain, whence I hope there may arise both repute and profit. Som of the Cap [...] Merchants of the Turky Company, amongst whom, the chiefest were Sir Robert Napper, and Captain Leat, propos'd unto me, that they had a great business in the Court of Spain in agitation many yeers, nor was it now their busines but the Kings, in whose name it is followed: they could have Gentlemen of good quality that would undertake it; yet if I would take it upon me, they would em­ploy no other, and assur'd me that the employment should tend both to my benefit and credit. Now the business is this: Ther was a great Turky ship call'd the Vineyard, sailing through the Streights towards Constantinople, but by distress of weather she was [Page 48] forc'd to put into a little Port call'd Milo in Sardinia: The sear­chers came aboard of her, and finding her richly laden, for her cargazon of broad cloth was worth the first peny neer upon 30000 l. they cavell'd at some small proportion of lead and tin, which they had only for the use of the ship, which the Searchers alleged to be ropa de contrabando prohibited goods; for by Article of Peace no­thing is to be carried to Turky that may arm or vittle. The Vice-Roy of Sardinia hereupon seizd upon the whole ship and all her goods, landed the Master and men in Spain, who coming to Sir Charls Corawalles then Ambassador at the Cour [...]; Sir Charles could do them little good at present, therfore they came to England, and com­plaind to the King and Counsell: his Majesty was so sensible hereof that he sent a particular Commission in his own royall Name, to demand a restitution of the ship and goods, and justice upon the Vice-Roy of Sardinia, who had so apparently broke the Peace, and wrongd his Subjects: Sir Charles (with Sir Paul Pi [...] ­dar a while) labourd in the business, and commenc'd a sute in Law, but he was calld home before he could do any thing to pur­pose. After him Sir Iohn Digby, (now Lord Digby) went Ambassa­dor to Spain, and amongst other things, he had that particular Commission from his Majesty invested in him, to prosecut the sute in his own royall Name: Therupon he sent a well qualified Gen­tleman, Mr Walsingham G [...]sley to Sardinia, who unfortunately meeting with som men of War in the passage, was carried prisoner to Algier: My Lord Digby being remanded home▪ left the busi­ness in Mr Cotingtons hands then Agent, but reassum'd it at his re­turn: yet it prov'd such a tedious intricate sute, that he return'd again without finishing the work; in regard of the remoteness of the Island of Sardinia, whence the witnesses and other dispatches were to be fetchd. The Lord Digby is going now Ambassador ex­traordinary to the Court of Spain, upon the business of the match, the restitution o [...] the Palatinate, and other high affairs of State; therfore he is desirous to transmit the Kings Commission to ching this particular business to any gentleman that is capable to follow it, and promiseth to assist him with the utmost of his power, and he saith he hath good reason to do so, in regard he hath now a good round share himself in it. About this busines▪ I am now preparing to go to Spain, in company of the Ambassador, and I shall kiss the Kings hands as his Agent touching this particular Commission. I humbly intreat that your blessing and prayers may accompany me in this my new employment, which I have undertaken upon very good terms touching expences & reward: So with my dear love to [Page 49] my brothers and sisters, with other kindred and friends in the coun­trey, I rest

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

VII. To Sir Tho: Savage Knight and Baronet, at his house in Long-Melford.

Honble SIR,

I Receivd your commands in a Letter which you sent me by Sir Iohn North, and I shall not fail to serve you in those particu­lars. It hath pleased God to dispose of me once more for Spain, up­on a business which I hope will make me good returns: ther have two Ambassadors and a royall Agent follow'd it hitherto, and I am the fourth that is employed in it: I defer to trouble you with the particulars of it, in regard I hope to have the happiness to kiss your hand at Tower hill before my departure; which will not be, till my Lord Digby sets forward. He goes in a gallant splen­did Equipage, and one of the Kings ships is to take him in at Plymouth, and transport him to the Corunnia, or Saint Ande­ [...]as.

Since that sad disaster which befell Archbishop Abbot, to kill the man by the glancing of an arrow as he was shooting at a Deer, (which kind of death befell one of our Kings once in new For­rest:) ther hath bin a Commission awarded to debate whether up­on this fact, wherby he hath shed human bloud, he be not to be depriv'd of his Archbishoprick, and pronounc'd irregular; som were against him, but Bishop Andrews, and Sir Henry Martin stood stifly for him, that in regard it was no spontaneous act, but a meer contingencie, and that ther is no degree of men but is subject to misfortunes and casualties, they declar'd positively that he was not to fall from his dignity or function, but should still re­main a regular and in statu quo prius; during this debate, he pe­titioned the King that he might be permitted to retire to his Almes­house at Guilford where he was born, to pass the remainder of his life; but he is now come to be again rectus in curia, absolutely quitted and restor'd to all things: But for the wife of him which [Page 50] was killd, it was no misfortune to her, for he hath endowed her­self, and her children with such an Estate, that they say her Hus­band could never have got: So I humbly kisse your hands and rest

Your most obliged Servi [...]. J. H.

VIII. To Captain Nich: Leat from Madrid, at his house in London.

SIR,

I Am safely com to the Court of Spain, and although by reason of that misfortune which befell Mr Altham and me, of wounding the Sergeants in Lombardstreet, we staied three weeks behind my Lord Ambassador, yet we came hither time enough to attend him to Court at his first audience.

The English Nation is better lookd on now in Spain than ordi­nary, because of the hopes ther are of a match, which the Mer­chant and comunalty much desire, though the Nobility and Gen­try be not so forward for it; so that in this point the puls of Sp [...] beats quite contrary to that of England, where the people are [...] ­vers to this match, and the Nobility with most part of the Gentry inclinable.

I have perusd all the papers I could get into my hands, touching the business of the ship-Vineyard, and I find that they are higher than I in bulk, though closely prest together; I have cast up what i [...] awarded by all the sentences of view and review, by the Counsell of State & War, and I find the whole sum as wel principall, as interest upon interest, all sorts of damages, and processall charges, com to a­bove two hundred and fifty thousand Crowns. The Conde del Real quondam Viceroy of Sardinia, who is adjudged to pay most part of this money, is here▪ and he is Mayordomo Lord steward to the In­fante Cardinall; if he hath wherwith, I donbt not but to recover the money, for I hope to have com in a favorable conjuncture of time, and my Lord Ambassador who is so highly esteemd here, doth assure me of his best furtherance. So praying I may prove as suc­cesfull, as I shall be faithfull in this great busines, I rest

Yours to dispose of, J. H.

IX. To Mr Arthur Hopton from Madrid.

SIR,

SInce I was made happy with your acquaintance, I have receivd sundry strong evidences of your love and good wishes unto me, which have tied me unto you in no common obligation of thanks: I am in despair ever to cancell this bond, nor would I do it, but rather endear the engagement more and more.

The treaty of the match twixt our Prince and the Lady Infante is now strongly a foot, she is a very comely Lady, rather of a Flemish complexion than Spanish; fair haird, and carrieth a most pure mixture of red and white in her face: she is full and big lipd, which is held a beautie rather than a blemish or any excefle in the Austrian Family, it being a thing incident to most of that race: she goes now upon 16, and is of a talness agreable to those yeers. The King is also of such a complexion, and is under twen­tie; he hath two brothers, Don Carlos, and Don Herna [...]do, who though a youth of twelve, yet is he Cardinall and Archbishop of Toledo, which in regard it hath the Chancelorship of Castile annex­ed to it, is the greatest spirituall dignity in Christendom after the Papacy, for it is valued at 300000. Crowns per annum: Don Carlos is of a differing complexion from all the rest, for he is black haird, and of a Spanish hue, he hath neither Office, Command, Dignitie or Title, but is an individuall companion to the King, and what cloaths soever are provided for the King, he hath the ve­ry same, and as often, from top to toe; he is the better belov'd of the people for his complexion, for one shall hear the Spaniard sigh and lament, saying, O when shall we have a King again of our own colour!

I pray commend me kindly to all at your house, and send me word when the young gentlemen return from Italy. So with my most affectionat respects to your self, I rest

Your true friend to serve you, J. H.

X. To Captain Nic. Leat, from Madrid.

SIR,

YOurs of the tenth of this present I receiv'd by Mr. Simon Dig­by, with the inclosed to your son in Alicant, which is safely sent. Since my last unto you I had access to Olivares the Favorit that rules all; I had also audience of the King, to whom I deliver'd two memorialls since, in his Majesties name of great Britain, that a par­ticular Iunta of some of the Counsell of State and War, might be appointed to determin the business: the last memoriall had so good success that the Referees are nominated, wherof the chiefest is the Duke of Infantado. Here it is not the stile to claw and complement with the King, or Idolize him by Sacred, Soverain, and most Ex­cellent Majesty; but the Spaniard when he petitions to his King, gives him no other Character but Sir, and so relating his business, at the end he doth ask and demand Justice of him. When I have done with the Vice-roy here, I shall hasten my dispatches for Sardinia: since my last I went to liquidat the account more particularly, and I find that of the 250000 Crowns, ther are above forty thou­sand due unto you; which might serve for a good Aldermans estate.

Your son in Alicant writes to me of another mischance that is be­faln the ship Amitie about Mallorca, wherof you were one of the proprietaries; I am very sorry to hear of it, and touching any dispat­ches that are to be had hence, I shall endeavor to procure you them according to instructions.

Your cosen Richard Altham remembers his kind respects unto you, and sends you many thanks for the pains you took in freeing us from that trouble which the scuffle with the Sergeants brought up­on us. So I rest

Yours ready to serve you, J. H.

XI. To the Lord Vicount Colchester from Madrid.

Right Honble.

THe grand busines of the match goes so fairly on, that a speci­all Iunta is appointed to treat of it, the names wherof I send you here inclos'd: they have proceeded so, far that most of the Ar­ticles are agreed upon: Mr. George Gage is lately come hither from Rome, a polite and prudent gentleman, who hath negotiated som­things in that Court for the advance of the busines with the Cardi­nalls Bandino, Lodovisie, & la Susanna, who are the main men there to whom the drawing of the dispensation is referr'd.

The late taking of Ormus by the Persian from the Crown of Por­tugall keeps a great noise here, and the rather because the exploit was done by the assistance of the English ships that were then ther­abouts; my Lord Digby went to Court and gave a round satisfacti­on in this point; for it was no voluntary, but a constrain'd act in the English, who being in the Persians Port were suddenly embarqu'd for the service: And the Persian herein did no more than what is u­suall amongst Christian Princes themselves, and which is oftner put in practice by the King of Spain, and his Vice-roys, than by any other, viz. to make an embargue of any strangers ship that rides within his Ports upon all occasion. It was fear'd this surprisall of Ormus which was the greatest Mart in all the Orient for all sorts of jewells, would have bred ill bloud, and prejudic'd the preceedings of the match, but the Spaniard is a rationall man, and will be satis­fied with reason Count Olivares is the main man who sways all, and 'tis thought he is not so much affected to an alliance with England as his Predecessor the Duke of Lerma was, who set it first a foot 'twixt Prince Henry, and this Queen of France: The Duke of Ler­ma was the greatest Privado, the greatest Favorit that ever was in Spain since Don Alvaro de Luna, he brought himself, the Duke of U­zeda his son, and the Duke of C [...]a his grand-child to be all Grandes of Spain, which is the greatest Title that a Spanish Subject is capa­ble of, they have a privilege to stand cover'd before the King, and at their election ther's no other Ceremony but only these three words by the King, Cobrése por Grande, cover your self for a Grande, and that's all: The Cardinall Duke of Lerma lives at Valladolid, [Page 54] he officiats and sings Mass, and passeth his old age in Devotion and exercises of Piety: It is a common and indeed a commendable cu­stom amongst the Spaniard, when he hath pass'd his gran climacteric, and is grown decrepit, to make a voluntary resignation of Offices, be they never so great and profitable, (though I cannot say Ler [...] did so) and sequestring and weaning themselves as it were from all mundan negotiations and encombrances, to retire to som place of devotion, and spend the residue of their days in meditation, and in preparing themselves for another world: Charles the Emperor shew'd them the way, who left the Empire to his brother, and all the rest of his Dominions to his son Philip the second, and so ta­king with him his two sisters, he retir'd into a Monastery, they into a Nunnery: this doth not suit well with the genius of an English­man, who loves not to pull off his cloaths till he goes to bed. I will conclude with some Verses I saw under a huge Rodomontado picture of the Duke of Lerma, wherin he is painted like a Giant bearing up the Monarchy of Spain, that of France, and the Popedom upon his shoulders, with this Stanza,

Sobre les ombros d'este Atlante
Yazen en aquestos dias,
Estas tres Monarquias.
Upon the shoulders of this Atlas lies,
The Popedom and two mighty Monarchies.

So I most humbly kiss your Lordships hands, and rest ever most ready

At your Lordships command, J. H.

XII. To my Father.

SIR,

ALL affairs went on fairly here, specially that of the match; when Master Endymion Porter brought lately my Lord of B [...]i­stoll a dispatch from England of a high nature, wherin the Earl is commanded to represent unto this King how much his Majesty of [Page 55] great Britain since the beginning of these German wars hath labourd to merit well of this Crown, and of the whole House of Austria, by a long and lingring patience, grounded still upon assurances hence, that care should be had of his honor, his Daughters joyn­ture, and grand-childrens patrimony; yet how crosly all things had proceeded in the Treaty at Bruxells, manag'd by Sir Richard Weston, as also that in the Palatinat by the Lord Chichester: how in treating time the Town and Castle of Heidelberg were taken, Man­beim besieg'd, and all acts of Hostility us'd, notwithstanding the fair professions made by this King, the Infanta at Bruxells, and other his Ministers: How meerly out of respect to this King, he had neg­lected all Martiall means which probably might have preserv'd the Palatinat: those thin Garrisons which he had sent thither being ra­ther for honors sake to keep a footing untill a generall accommoda­tion, than that he relyed any way upon their strength: And since that there are no other fruits of all this but reproach and scorn▪ and that those good Offices which he us'd towards the Emperor on the behalf of his Son in law, which he was so much encouraged by Letters from hence should take effect, have not sorted to any other issue, than to a plain affront and a high injuring of both their Ma­jesties, though in a different degree; The Earl is to tell him that his Majesty of great Britain hopes and desires that out of a true ap­prehension of these wrongs offerd unto them both, he will as his dear and loving brother faithfully promise and undertake upon his honor, confirming the same under his hand and seal, either that Heidelberg shall be within seventy days rendred into his hands; as also that ther shall be within the said term of seventy days a su­spension of arms in the Palatinat, and that a Treaty shall recom­mence upon such terms as he propounded in November last, which this King held then to be reasonable: And in case that this be not yeelded unto by the Emperor, that then this King joyn forces with his Majesty of England, for the recovery of the Palatinat, which upon this trust hath been lost; or in case his forces at this time be o­therwise employ'd, that they cannot give his Majesty that assistance he desires and deserves, that at least he will permit a free and friendly passage through his Territories, for such Forces as his Me­jesty of great Britain shall employ into Germany: Of all which, if the Earl of Bristoll hath not from the King of Spain a direct as­surance under his hand and Seal ten days after his audience, that then he take his leave, and return to England to his Majesties pre­sence, els to proceed in the negotiation of the match according to former instructions.

[Page 56]This was the main substance of his Majesties late letter, yet there was a postill added, that in case a rupture happen 'twixt the two Crowns, the Earl should not com instantly and abruptly [...]way, but that he should send advice first to England, and carry the busines so, that the world should not presently know of it.

Notwithstanding all these traverses, we are confident here, that the match will take, otherwise my Cake is Dow. There was a great difference in one of the capitulations 'twixt the two Kings, how long the children which should issue of this marriage were to continue sub regimine Matris, under the tutele of the Mother. This King de­manded 14 years at first, then twelve, but now he is come to nine, which is newly condescended unto. I receiv'd yours of the first of September in another from Sir Iames Crofts, wherin it was no small comfort to me to hear of your health. I am to go hence shortly for Sardinia, a dangerous voyage, by reason of Algier Pirats. I humbly desire your prayers may accompany

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

XIII. To Sir James Crofts Knight.

SIR,

YOurs of the second of October came to safe hand with the in­clos'd; you write that there came dispatches lately from Rome, wherin the Pope seems to endevour to insinuat himself into a di­rect treaty with England, and to negotiat immediatly with our King touching the dispensation, which he not only labours to e­vade, but utterly disclaims, it being by Article the task of this King to procure all dispatches thence: I thank you for sending me this news. You shall understand there came lately an express from Rome also to this Court, touching the business of the match which gave very good content; but the dispatch and new instructions, which Mr. Endymion Porter brought my Lord of Bristoll lately from England touching the Prince Palatinat, fills us with apprehensions of fear: Our Ambassadors here have had audience of this King already about those Propositions, and we hope that Master Porter will carry back such things as will satisfie. Touching the two points [Page 57] in the Treaty wherin the two Kings differ'd most, viz. about the education of the children, and the exemption of the Infanta's Ec­clesiastic servants from secular jurisdiction: both these points are clear'd, for the Spaniard is com from fourteen years to ten, and for so long time the Infant Princes shall remain under the mothers go­vernment. And for the other point, the Ecclesiasticall Superior shall first take notice of the offence that shall be committed by any spirituall person belonging to the Infanta's family, and according to the merit therof either deliver him by degradation to the secular justice, or banish him the Kingdom according to the quality of the delict, and it is the same that is practis'd in this Kingdom, and o­ther parts that adhere to Rome.

The Conde de Monterrey goes Vice-roy to Naples, the Marquis de Montesclaros being put by, the gallanter man of the two. I was told of a witty saying of his, when the Duke of Lerma had the vogue in this Court: for going one morning to speak with the Duke, and having danc'd attendance a long time, hee peep'd through a slit in the hanging, and spied Don Rodrigo Calderon, a great man (who was lately beheaded here for poisning the late Queen Dowager) delivering the Duke a Paper upon his knees, wherat the Marquis smil'd and said, Voto a tal, aqu [...]l hombre sube mas a las rodillas, que yo no hago a los pics, I swear that man climbs higher upon his knees, than I can upon my feet: Indeed I have read it to be a true Court rule, that descendendo ascendendum est in Aula, de­scending is the way to ascend at Court. Ther is a kind of hu­mility and compliance, that is far from any servile baseness or fordid flattery, and may be term'd discretion rather than adula­tion. I intend God willing to go for Sardinia this Spring, I hope to have better luck than Master Walsingham Gresley had, who some few years since in his passage thither upon the same business that I have in agitation, met with some Turksmen of war, and so was carried slave to Algier. So with my true respects to you▪ I rest

Your faithfull Servant, J. H.

XIV. To Sir Francis Cottington, Secretary to his Highnesse the Prince of Wales, at Saint James.

SIR,

I Believe it will not be unpleasing unto you to hear of the proce­dure and successe of that business wherin your self hath been so long vers'd in: I mean the great sute against the quondam Vice-roy of Sardinia the Conde del Real: Count Gondamars comming was a great advantage unto me, who hath don me many favors; besides a confirmation of the two sentences of view and review, and of the execution against the Vice-roy, I have procur'd a Royall cedule which I caus'd to be printed, and wherof I send you here inclos'd a Coppy, by which Cedule I have power to arrest his very person, and my Lawyers tell me ther was never such a cedule granted be­fore: I have also by vertue of it priority of all other his Credi­tors: He hath made an imperfect overture of a composition, and shewd me som triviall old fashion'd jewells, but nothing equiva­lent to the debt. And now that I speak of jewells, the late surpri­sall of Ormus by the assistance of our ships sinks deep in their sto­macks here, and we were afraid it would have spoild all procee­dings; but my Lord Digby, now Earl of Bristoll (for Count Gon­damar brought him ore his Patent) hath calmd all things at his last audience.

Ther were luminaries of joy lately here for the victory that Don Gonzalez de Cordova got over Count Mansfelt in the Nether­lands with that Army which the Duke of Bouillon had levied for him, but some say they have not much reason to rejoyce, for though the Infantery suffer'd, yet Mansfelt got clear with all his horse by a notable retreat, and they say here it was the greatest peece of service and Art he ever did, it being a Maxim, that ther is no­thing so difficult in the Art of War, as an honourable retreat. Be­sides, the report of his comming to Breda, caus'd Marquis Spinola to raise the siege before Berghen, to burn his tents, and to pack away suddenly; for which he is much censur'd here:

Captain Leat and others have written to me of the favourable [Page 59] report you pleas'd to make of my endeavors here, for which I re­turn you humble thanks: and though you have left behind you multitude of servants in this Court, yet if occasion were offerd, none should be more forward to go on your errand, then

Your humble and faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XV. To the Honble. Sir Tho: Savage, Knight and Baronet.

Honble SIR,

THe great busines of the match was tending to a period, the Articles reflecting both upon Church and State, being ca­pitulated, and interchangeably accorded on both sides, and ther wanted nothing to consummate all things, when to the wonder­ment of the world the Prince and the Marquis of Buckingham ar­riv'd at this Court a friday last, upon the close of the evening▪ they lighted at my Lord of Bristols house, and the Marquis (Mr Thomas Smith) came in first with a Portmantle under his arm, then (Mr Iohn Smith) the Prince was sent for, who staid a while the to'ther side of the street in the dark, my Lord of Bristoll in a kind of astonishment brought him up to his bed chamber, where he pre­sently calld for pen and ink, and dispacht a Post that night to Eng­land to acquaint his Majesty how in lesse then sixteen daies he was come safely to the Court of Spain; that Post went lightly laden, for he carried but three letters: the next day came Sir Francis Co­tington and Mr Porter, and darke rumors ran in every corner how som great man was com from England, and som would not stick to say amongst the vulgar, it was the King, but towards the evening on saturday the marquis went in a close coach to Court, where he had privat audience of this King, who sent Olivares to ac­company him back to the Prince, where he kneeld and kisd his hands, and hugd his thighs, and deliverd how unmeasurably glad his Catholic Majesty was of his coming, with other high comple­ments, which Mr Porter did interpret. About ten a clock that night, the King himself came in a close coach with intent to visit [Page 60] the Prince, who hearing of it, met him halfway, and after salu­tations and divers embraces which past in the first interview they parred late: I forgot to tell you, that Count Gondamar being sworn Counseller of State that morning, having bin before but one of the Counsell of War, he came in great hast to visit the Prince saying, he had strange news to tell him, which was that an English­man was sworn privy Counseller of Spain, meaning himself, who he said was an Englishman in his heart. On Sunday following, the King in the afternoon came abroad to take the air with the Queen, his two brothers and the Infanta, who were all in one coach, but the Infanta sat in the boot with a blew riband about her arm, of purpose that the Prince might distinguish her: ther were above twenty coaches besides of Grandes, Noble men and Ladies that at­tended them. And now i [...] was publicly known amongst the vul­gar, that it was the Prince of Wales who was com, and the con­fluence of people before my Lord of Bristolls house was so great and greedy to see the Prince, that to clear the way, Sir Lewis Div [...]s went out and took coach, and all the crowd of people went after him: so the Prince himself a little after took coach, wherin there were the Earl of Bristoll, Sir Walter Ashton, and Count Gondamar, and so went to the Prado, a place hard by, of purpose to take the air, where they stayed till the King past by: as soon as the In­fanta saw the Prince her colour rose very high, which we hold to be an impression of love and affection, for the face is often times a true Index of the heart. Upon Monday morning after the King sent som of his prime Nobles, and other Gentlemen to attend the Prince in qualitie of Officers, as o [...]e to be his Mayordom (his Steward) another to be Master of the Horse, and so to inferior Officers, so that ther is a compleat Court now at my Lord of Bri­stolls house: but upon Sunday next the Prince is to remove to the Kings Palace, where ther is one of the chief quarters of the house providing for him. By the next opportunity you shall hear more, In the interim I take my leave and rest

Your most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XVI. To Sir Eubule Theloall Knight, at Grayes-Inne.

SIR,

I Know the eyes of all England are earnestly fixd now upon Spain, her best jewell being here; but his journey was like to be spoild in France, for if he had stayd but a little longer at Bayon the last Town of that Kingdom hitherwards, he had bin discoverd, for Monsieur Gramond the Governor had notice of him not long after he had taken Post. The people here do mightily magnifie the gallantry of the journey, and cry out that he deserv'd to have the Infanta thrown into his arms the first night he came: He hath bin entertaind with all the magnificence that possibly could be devis'd. On Sunday last in the morning betimes he went to Saint Hieroms Monastery, whence the Kings of Spain use to be fetchd the day they are crownd; and thither the King came in person with his two Brothers, his eight Counsells, and the flower of the Nobility: He rid upon the Kings right hand through the heart of the Town under a great Canopy, and was brought so into his lodgings to the Kings Palace, and the King himself accompanied him to his very bedchamber. It was a very glorious sight to behold, for the custom of the Spaniard is, though he go plain in his ordinary ha­bit, yet upon som Festivall or cause of triumph, ther's none goes beyond him in gaudiness.

We daily hope for the Popes Breve or Dispensation to perfect the busines, though ther be dark whispers abroad that it is com al­ready, but that upon this inexpected coming of the Prince, it was sent back to Rome, and som new clauses thrust in for their further advantage. Till this dispatch comes, matters are at a kind of stand; yet his Highnes makes account to be back in England about the latter end of May. God Almighty turn all to the best, and to what shall be most conducible to his glory. So with my due respects unto you, I rest

Your much obliged Servitor, J. H.

XVII. To Captain Leat.

SIR,

HAving brought up the Law to the highest point against the Vice-roy of Sardinia, and that in an extraordinary manner, as may appear unto you by that Printed cedule I sent you in my last, and finding an apparent disability in him to satisfie the debt▪ I thought upon a new design, and fram'd a memoriall to the King▪ and wrought good strong means to have it seconded, that in rega [...] that predatory act of seizing upon the ship Vinyard in Sardi [...] with all her goods, was done by his Majesties Vice-roy, his sove­rain Minister of State, one that immediatly represented his own Royall Person, and that the said Vice-roy was insolvent; I desir'd his Majesty would be pleas'd to grant a Warrant for the releef of both parties to lade so many thousand Sterills o [...] mea­sures of corn out of Sardinia and Sicily custom-free. I had gonf [...] in the business when Sir Francis Cottington sent for me, and re­quir'd me in the Prince his name to proceed no further herei [...], till he was departed: so his Highness presence here hath tur [...] rather to my disadvantage, than otherwise. Amongst other Gran­dezas which the King of Spain conferr'd upon our Prince, one was the releasment of Prisoners, and that all Petitions of grace should com to him for the first month, but he hath been wonder­full sparing in receiving any, specially from any English, Irish, or Scot. Your son Nicolas is com hither from Alicant, about the ship Amity, and I shall be ready to second him in getting satisfa­ction, so I rest,

Yours ready to serve you, J. H.

XVIII. To Captain Tho. Porter.

Noble Captain,

MY last unto you was in Spanish, in answer to one of yours in the same language, and amongst that confluence of English gallants, which upon the occasion of his Highness being here, are com to this Court; I fed my self with hopes a long while to have seen you, but I find now that those hopes were impd with false fea­thers. I know your heart is here, and your best affections, ther­fore I wonder what keeps back your person: but I conceive the reason to be that you intend to com like your self, to com Comman­der in chief of one of the Castles of the Crown, one of the ships Royall: If you com so to this shore side, I hope you wil havetime to come to the Court, I have at any time a good lodging for you, and my Landlady is none of the meanest, and her husband hath many good parts; I heard her setting him forth one day, and giving this Character of him, Mi marido ei buen musico, buen esgrimidor, buen eserivano, excellente Arithmetico, salvo que no multiplica: My husband is a good Musitian, a good Fencer, a good Horse-man, a good Pen-man, and an excellent Arithmetician, only he cannot multiply. For outward usage, there is all industry us'd to give the Prince and his servants all possible contentment, and som of the Kings own servants wait upon them at Table in the Palace, where I am sorry to hear som of them jeer at the Spanish fare, and use other slighting speeches and demeanor. Ther are many excel­lent Poems made here since the Princes arrivall, which are too long to couch in a Letter, yet I will venture to send you this one stanza of Lope de Vegas.

Carlos Estuardo Soy
Que siendo Amor mi guia,
Al cielo d'España voy,
Por ver mi Estrella Maria.

There are Comedians once a week com to the Palace, where un­der a great Canopy, the Queen and the Infanta sit in the middle, our Prince and Don Carles on the Queens right hand, the King and [Page 64] the little Cardinall on the Infanta's left hand. I have seen the Prince have his eyes immovably fixed upon the Infanta half an hour together in a thoughtfull speculative posture, which sure would needs be tedious, unless affection did sweeten it: it was no handsom comparison of Olivares, that he watcht her as a cat doth [...] mouse. Not long since the Prince understanding that the Infan­ta was us'd to go som mornings to the Casa de campo, a summer house the King hath tother side the river, to gather May dew, he did rise betimes and went thither, taking your brother with him, they were let into the house, and into the garden, but the Infanta was in the orchard, and there being a high partition wall between, and the door doubly bolted, the Prince got on the top of the wall, and sprung down a great hight, and so made towards her, but she spy­ing him first of all the rest, gave a sh [...]eck and ran back; the old Marquis that was then her gardien, came towards the Prince, and fell on his knees, conjuring his Highnesse to retire, in regard he hazarded his head, if he admitted any to her company; so the door was open'd and he came out under that wall over which he had got in: I have seen him watch a long hour together in a close Coach in the open street to see her as she went abroad: I cannot say that the Prince did ever talk with her privatly, yet publickly often my Lord of Bristoll being Interpreter, but the King always sat hard by, to over-hear all. Our cosen Archy hath more privilege than any, for he often goes with his fools coat where the Infanta is with her Meninas and Ladies of honor, and keeps a blowing and blustering amongst them, and flu [...]ts out what he list.

One day they were discoursing what a marvellous thing it was, that the Duke of Bavaria with lesse then 15000 men, after a long toylsom March, should dare to encounter the Palsgraves army, con­sisting of above 2500 [...], and to give them an utter discomfiture, and take Prague presently after. Wherunto Archy answered, that he would tell them a stranger thing than that: was it not a strange thing, quoth he, that in the year 88, ther should com a Fleet of one hun­dred and forty sails from Spain, to invade England, and that ten of these could not go back to tell what became of the rest? By the next opportunity I will send you the Cordovan pockets and gloves you writ for of Francisco Morenos persuming. So may my dear Cap­tain live long and love his

J. H.

XIX. To my Cosen Tho. Guin Esqr. at his house Trecastle.

Cosen,

I Received lately one of yours, which I cannot compare more pro­perly than to a posie of curious flowers, ther was therin such variety of sweet strains and dainty expressions of love: And though it bore an old date, for it was forty days before it came to safe hand, yet the flowers were still fresh, and not a whit faded, but did cast as strong and as fragrant a sent, as when your hands bound them up first together, only ther was one flower that did not savor so well, which was the undeserved Character you please to give of my smal abilities, which in regard you look upon me through the prospective of affection, appear greater unto you than they are of themselvs; yet as smal as they are I would be glad to employ them all to serve you upon any occasion.

Wheras you desire to know how matters pass here, you shall un­derstand that we are rather in assurance, than hopes that the match will take effect, when one dispatch more is brought from Rome which we greedily expect. The Spaniards generally desire it, they are much taken with our Prince, with the bravery of his journey, and his discreet comportment since, and they confess ther was never Princess courted with more gallantry. The wits of the Court here, have made divers Encomiums of him, & of his affection to the L Infanta. Amongst others, I send you a Latin Poem of one Marnieri [...]s a Valenciano, to which I add this ensuing Hexastic, which in regard of the difficulty of the Verse consisting of all Ternaries (which is the hardest way of versifying) and of the exactness of the translation, I believe will give you content.

Fax grata est, gratum est vulnus, mihi grata catena est,
Me quibus astringit, laedit & urit Amor,
Sed flammam extingui, sanari vulnera, solvi
Vincla, etiam ut possem non ego posse velim:
Mirum equidem genus hoc morbi est, incendia & ictus
Vinclaque, vinctus adbuc laesus & ustus, amo.
[Page 66]
Gratefull's to me the fire, the wound, the chain
By which love burns, love binds and giveth pain,
But for to quench this fire, these bonds to loose,
These wounds to heal, I would not could I choose:
Strange sickness, where the wounds, the bonds, the fire
That burns, that bind, that hurt, I must desire.

In your next, I pray send me your opinion of these verses, for I know you are a Critic in Poetry. Mr Vaugham of the Golden-grove and I were Camerades and bedfellows here many moneths toge­ther, his father Sir Iohn Vaughan the Prince his Controuler, is lately com to attend his Master. My Lord of Carlile, my Lord of Holland, my Lord of Rochfort, my Lord of Denbigh, and divers others are here, so that we have a very flourishing Court, and I could wish you were here to make one of the number. So my dear co­sen, I wish you all happiness, and our noble Prince a safe and suc­cessfull return to England.

Your most affectionate Cosen, J. H.

XX. To my noble friend, Sir John North.

SIR,

THe long look'd-for Dispensation is come from Rome, but I hear it is clogg'd with new clauses; and one is, that the Pope who allegeth that the only aim of the Apostolicall See in granting this Dispensation, was the advantage and case of the Ca­tholics in the King of great Britaines Dominions, therfore he de­sir'd a valuable caution for the performance of those Articles which were stipulated in their favor; this hath much puzled the busi­nes, and Sir Francis Cotington comes now over about it: Besides ther is som distast taken at the Duke of Buckingham here, and I heard this King should say he will treat no more with him, but with the Ambassadors, who he saith, have a more plenary Com­mission, [Page 67] and understand the busines better. As ther is som dark­nes hapned twixt the two Favorits, so matters stand not [...]ight twixt he Duke and the Earl of Bristoll; but God forbid that a busines of so high a consequence as this which is likely to tend so much to the universall good of Christendom, to the restitution of the Pa­latinat, and the composing those broils in Germany, should be ran­versd by differences twixt a few privat subjects, though now pub­lic Ministers.

Mr Washington the Prince his Page is lately dead of a Calenture, and I was at his buriall under a Figtree behind my Lord of Bristols house. A little before his death one Ballard and English Priest went to tamper with him, and Sir Edmund Varney meeting him coming down the stairs out of Washingtons chamber, they fell from words to blows; but they were parted. The busines was like to gather very ill bloud, and com to a great height, had not Count Gonda­mar quasht it, which I beleeve he could not have done, unles the times had bin favorable; for such is the reverence they bear to the Church here, and so holy a conceit they have of all Ecclesi­astics, that the greatest Don in Spain will tremble to offer the mean'st of them any outrage or affront: Count Gondamar hath also helpt to free som English that were in the Inquisition in Toledo and Sevill, and I could allege many instances how ready and chearfull he is to assist any Englishman whatsoever; notwithstan­ding the base affronts he hath often receivd of the London buys as he calls them. At his last return hither, I heard of a merry saying of his, to the Queen, who discoursing with him about the great­nesse of London, and whether it was as populous as Madrid, yes Madame, and more populous when I came away, though I beleeve ther's scarce a man left there now but all women and children; for all the mem both in Court and City were ready booted and spurd to go away. And I am sorry to hear how other Nations do much tax the English of their incivility to public Ministers of State, and what ballads and pasquils, and fopperies and plays, were made against Gondamar for doing his Masters busines. My Lord of Bristoll coming from Germany to Brussells, notwithstanding that at his arrivall thither, the news was fresh that he had reliev'd Frankindale as he past, yet was he not a whit the less welcom, but valued the more both by the Archdutchess her self and Spino [...] with all the rest; as also that they knew well that the said Earl had bin the sole adviser of keeping Sir Robert Mansell abroad with that Fleet upon the coast of Spain till the Palsgrave should be restord. I pray Sir when you go to London wall, and Tower hill, be pleas'd [Page 68] to remember my humble service, where you know it is due. So I am.

Your most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

V. To the right Honble, the Lord Vicount Colchester.

My very good Lord,

I Receiv'd the letter and commands your Lopp. pleas'd to send me by Mr Walsingham Gresley; and touching the Constitutions and Orders of the Contratation House of the West Indies in Sevill, I cannot procure it for love or money, upon any terms, though I have done all possible diligence▪ therin: And som tell me it is dangerous, and no less then Treason in him, that gives the copy of them to any, in regard 'tis counted the greatest Mystery of all the Spanish government.

That difficulty which hapned in the busines of the match of gi­ving caution to the Pope, is now overcome; for wheras our King answer'd that he could give no other caution than his Royall word and his sons, exemplified under the great Seal of England, and confirm'd by his Counsell of State, it being impossible to have it done by Parliament, in regard of the aversnes the common peo­ple have to the alliance; And wheras this gave no satisfaction to Rome, the King of Spain now offers himself for caution, for put­ting in execution what is stipulated in behalf of the Roman Catho­lics throughout his Majestie of great Britain's Dominions; but he desires to consult his ghostly fathers to know whether he may do i [...] without wronging his conscience; hereupon there hath bin a I [...] ­ta form'd of Bishops and Iesuits, who have bin already a good while about it, and the Bishop of Segovia, who is as it were Lord Threasurer, having written a Treatise lately against the match, was outed of his Office, banisht the Court, and confin'd to his Diocess. The Duke of Buckingham hath bin ill dispos'd a good while, and lies sick at Court, where the Prince hath no public exercise of devotion, but only bedchamber prayers, and some thin [...] that his lodging in the Kings house is like to prove a disadvantag [...] [Page 69] to the main business, for wheras most sorts of people here hardly hold us to be Christians, if the Prince had had a Palace of his own, and bin permitted to have us'd a room for an open Chappell to ex­ercise the Liturgy of the Church of England, it would have brought them to have a better opinion of us; And to this end ther were som of our best Church plate, and vestments brought hither, but never us'd. The slow place of this Iunta troubles us a little, and to the Divines ther are som Civilians admitted lately, and the quae­re is this, whether the King of Spain may bind himself by oath in the behalf of the King of England, to perform such and such Arti­cles that are agreed on in favour of the Roman Catholics by vertue of this match, whether the King may doe this salva conscientia.

Ther was a great show lately here of baiting of bulls with men for the entertainment of the Prince; it is the chiefest of all Spanish sports, commonly ther are men killd at it, therfore ther are Priests appointed to be there ready to confess them: It hath hapned often­times that a Bull hath taken up two men upon his horns with their guts dangling about them; the horsemen run with lances and swords, the foot with goads. As I am told the Pope hath sent di­vers Bulls against this sport of bulling, yet it will not be left, the Nation hath taken such an habituall delight in it. Ther was an ill favord accident like to have hapned lately at the Kings house, in that part wher my Lord of Carlile, and my Lord Denbigh were lodg'd; for my Lord Denbigh late at night taking a pipe of To­bacco in a Balcone which hung over the Kings garden, he blew down the ashes, which falling upon som parchd combustible mat­ter, began to flame and spread, but Master Davis my Lord of Carliles Barber leapt down a great height, and quencht it. So with continuance of my most humble service, I rest ever ready

At your Lopps. commands, J. H.

XXI. To Sir James Crofts, from Madrid.

SIR,

THe Court of Spain affords now little news, for ther is a Remo­ra sticks to the busines of the match, till the Iunta of Di­vines [Page 70] give up their opinion: But from Turky ther came a Letter this week wherin ther is the strangest and most tragicall news, that in my small reading no Sory can parallell, or shew with more pregnancie the instability and tottering estate of human greatnes, and the sandy foundation wheron the vast Ottoman Em­pire is reard upon: For Sultan Osman the grand Turk. a man ac­cording to the humor of that Nation, warlike and fleshd in bloud, and a violent hater of Christians, was in the flower of his yeers, in the heat and height of his courage, knockt in the head by one of his own slaves, and one of the meanest of them, with a battle axe, and the murtherer never after proceeded against or questi­oned.

The ground of this Tragedy was the late ill success he had a­gainst the Pole, wherin he lost about 100000. horse for want of forrage, and 80000. men for want of fighting, which he imputed to the cowardize of his Ianizaries, who rather than bear the brunt of the battell, were more willing to return home to their wives and merchandizing, which they are now permitted to do contrary to their first institution, which makes them more worldly, and less venturous. This disgracefull return from Poland stuck in Osmans stomach, and so studied a way how to be revengd of the Ianiza­ries; therfore by the advice of his grand Visier (a stout gallant man who had bin one of the chief Beglerbegs in the East) he inten­ded to erect a new Soldiery in Asia about Damasco, of the Coords a frontier people, and consequently hardy and inur'd to Arms. Of these he purpos'd to entertain 40000. as a lifegard for his pe [...] ­son, though the main design was to suppress his lazie and lust­full Ianizaries, with men of fresh new spirits.

To disguise this plot, he pretended a pilgrimage to Mecha, to visit Mahomets Tomb, and reconcile himself to the Prophet, who he throught was angry with him, because of his late ill success in Poland: but this colour was not specious enough, in regard he might have performd this Pilgrimage with a smaller train and charge; therfore it was propounded that the Emir of S [...]dm should be made to rise up in arms, that so he might go with a greater power and treasure, but this plot was held disadvantagious to him, in regard his Ianizaries must then have attended him: so he pre­tends and prepares only for the Pilgrimage, yet he makes ready as much treasure as he could make, and to that end he melts his plate, and furniture of horses, with divers Church lamps; this fomented som jealousie in the Ianizaries, with certain words which should drop from him, that he would find soldiers shortly should [Page 71] whip them. Hereupon he hath sent over to Asias side his pavili­ons, many of his servants, with his jewells and treasure, resolving upon the voyage, notwithstanding that divers petitions were deli­vered him from the Clergy, the civill Magistrate and the Soldi­ery that he should desist from the voyage, but all would not do: therupon upon the point of his departure, the Ianizaries and Sp [...]ies came in a tumultuary manner to the Seraglio, and in a high insolent language disswaded him from the Pilgrimage, and demanded of him his ill counsellors. The first he granted, but for the second, he said that it stood not with his honor, to have his neerest servants torn from him so, without any legall proceeding, but he assur'd them that they should appear in the Divan the next day, to answer for themselves; but this not satisfying, they went away in a fury and plunderd the Grand Visiers Palace, with divers others; Osman hereupon was advis'd to go from his private gardens that night to the Asian shore, but his destiny kept him from it: so the next morning they came armd to the Court, (but having made a cove­nant not to violate the Imperiall Throne) and cut in peeces the Grand Visier with divers other great Officers, and not finding Os­man, who had hid himself in a small lodge in one of his gardens, they cried out they must have a Musulman Emperor; therfore they broke into a Dungeon, and brought out Mustapha Osmans Unkle, whom he had clapt there at the beginning of the tumult, and who had bin King before, but was depos'd for his simplicity, being a kind of santon or holy man, that is, twixt an Innocent and an Idi­ot: This Mustapha they did reinthronize and place in the O [...]toman Empire.

The next day they found out Osman, and brought him before Mustapha, who excus'd himself with tears in his eyes for his rash at­tempts, which wrought tendernes in som, but more scorn and fu­ry in others, who fell upon the Capi Aga, with other Officers, and cut them in peeces before his eyes: Osman thence was carried to Prison, and as he was getting a horsback, a common soldier took off his Turban, and clapt his upon Osmans head, who in his pas­sage begd a draught of water at a Fountain: The next day the new Visier went with an Executioner to strangle him, in regard ther were two younger brothers more of his to preserve the O [...]to­mans race, where after they had rushd in, he being newly awakd, and staring upon them, and thinking to defend himself, a robust boysterous rogue knockt him down, and so the rest fell upon him and strangled him with much adoe.

Thus fell one of the greatest Potentats upon earth by the hands [Page 72] of a contemptible slave, for ther is not a free born subject in all that vast Empire: Thus fell he that Entitles himself most puissant and highest Monarch of the Turks, King above all Kings, a King that dwelleth upon the earthly Paridise, son of Mahomet, keeper of the grave of the Christian God, Lord of the Tree of Life, and of the River Flisky, Prior of the earthly Paridise, Conqueror of the Macedonians, the seed of great Alexander, Prince of the Kingdoms of Tartary, Mesopotamia, Media, and of the martiall Mammaluck [...], Anatolia, Bithynia, Asia, Armenia, Servia, Thracia, Morta, Valachi [...], Moldavia, and of all warlike Hungary, Soverain Lord and Com­mander of all Greece, Persia, both the Arabia's, the most noble king­dom of Egypt, Tremisen and African, Empire of Trab [...]sond and the most glorious Constantinople, Lord of all the white and black Seas, of the holy City Mecha and Medina, shining with divine glory, com­mander of all things that are to be commanded, and the strongest and mightiest Champion of the wide world, a Warrior appoin­ted by Heaven in the edge of the sword, a Persecutor of his Enemies, a most perfect jewell of the blessed Tree, the chie­fest keeper of the crucified God, &c. with other such bombar­dicall Titles.

This Osman was a man of goodly Constitution, an amiable as­pect, and of excesse of courage, but sordidly covetous, which drove him to violat the Church, and to melt the Lamps therof, which made the Mufti say that this was a due judgment faln upon him from Heaven for his Sacrilege. He us'd also to make his person too cheap, for he would go ordinarily in the night time with two men after him like a petty Constable, and peep into the Cauph­houses and Cabarets, and apprehend Soldiers there. And these two things it seems was the cause, that when he was so assaulted in the Seraglio, not one of his Domestic servants, wherof he had 3000, would li [...]t an Arm to help him.

Som few days before his death, he had a strange dream, for hee dreamt that he was mounted upon a great Camell, who would not go neither by fair nor foul means, and lighting off him, and thin­king to strike him with his Cimitier, the body of the beast vanisht, leaving the Head and the bridle only in his hands; when the Muf­ti and the Hoggies could not interpret this dream, Mustapha his Uncle did it, for he said, the Camell signified his Empire, his moun­ting of him his excesse in Government, his lighting down his depo­sing. Another kind of Prophetic speech dropt from the Grand Vi­sier to Sir Thomas Roe our Ambassador there, who having gone a little before this Tragedy to visit the said Visier, told him what [Page 73] whisperings and mutterings there were in every corner for this A­siatic voyage, and what ill consquences might ensue from it; ther­fore it might well stand with his great wisdom to stay it; but if it held, he desir'd him to leave a charge with the Chimacham his De­puty, that the English Nation in the Port, should be free from out­rages: wherunto the Grand Visier answer'd, Trouble not your self about that, for I will not remove so far from Constantinople, but I wil leave one of my legs behind to serve you, which prov'd too true, for he was murther'd afterwards, and one of his legs was hung up in the Hippodrome.

This fresh Tragedy makes me to give over wondring at any thing that ever I heard or read, to shew the lubricity of mundan great­nes, as also the fury of the vulgar, which like an impetuous Torrent gathereth strength by degrees as it meets with divers Dams, and being come to the hight, cannot stop it self: for when this rage of the soldiers began first, there was no design at all to violat or hurt the Emperor, but to take from him his ill Counsel­lors, but being once a foot, it grew by insensible degrees to the ut­most of outrages.

The bringing out of Mustapha from the Dungeon, where he was prisoner, to be Emperor of the Musulmans, puts me in mind of what I read in Mr. Camden of our late Queen Elizabeth, how she was brought from the Scaffold, to the English Throne.

They who profess to be Criticks in policy here, hope that this murthering of Osman may in time breed good bloud, and prove advantageous to Christendom; for though this be the first Empe­ror of the Turks that was dispatcht so, he is not like to be the last, now that the soldiers have this precedent: others think that if that design in Asia had taken, it had been very probable the Con­stantinopolitans had hoisd up another King, and so the Empire had been dismembred, and by this division had lost strength, as the Ro­man Empire did, when it was broken into East and West.

Excuse me that this my Letter is become such a Monster, I mean that it hath past the sise and ordinary proportion of a Letter, for the matter it treats of is monstrous, besides it is a rule that Histori­call Letters have more liberty to be long than others: In my next you shall hear how matters pass here, in the mean time, and always I rest

Your Lordships most devoted Servitor, J. H.

XXII. To the Right Honble. Sir Tho. Savage, Knight and Baronet.

Honble. SIR,

THe procedure of things in relation to the grand busines the match, was at kind of a stand when the long winded Iunta deliver'd their opinions, and fell at last upon this result, that his Catholic Majesty for the satisfaction of St. Peter, might oblige him­self in the behalf of England, for the performance of those capitu­lations which reflected upon the Roman Catholics in that Kingdom; and in case of non-performance, then to right himself by war; since that, the matrimoniall Articles were solemnly sworne unto by the King of Spain and his Highness, the two Favorits, our two Ambas­sadors, the Duke of Infantado and other Counsellors of State being present; hereupon the eighth of the next September, is appoin­ted to be the day of Desposorios, the day of affiance, or the be­trothing day; ther was much gladnes exprest here, and lumina­ries of joy were in every great street throughout the City: but there is an unlucky accident hath interven'd, for the King gave the Prince a solemn visit since, and told him Pope Gregory was dead, who was so great a friend to the match, but in regard the bu­sines was not yet com to perfection, he could not proceed further in it till the former Dispensation were ratified by the new Pope Vr­ban, which to procure he would make it his own task, and that all possible expedition should be us'd in't, and therfore desir'd his pati­ence in the interim. The Prince answer'd, and prest the necessity of his speedy return with divers reasons, he said ther was a generall kind of murmuring in England for his so long abseuce, that the King his Father was old and sickly, that the Fleet of shipe were already, he thought, at Sea to fetch him, the winter drew on, and withall that the Articles of the match were sign'd in England, with this proviso, that if he be not com back by such a month they should be of no validity. The King replyed, that since his Highness was resolv'd upon so suddain a departure, he would please to leave a Proxy be­hind to [...]ish the marriage, and he would take it for a favor if he would depute Him to personat him, and ten days after the ratifica­tion shal come from Rome the busines should be don, and afterwards [Page 75] he might send for his wife when he pleas'd. The Prince rejoyn'd, that amongst those multitudes of royall favors which he had re­ceiv'd from his Majesty, this transcended all the rest, therfore hee would most willingly leave a Proxy for his Majesty and another for Don Carlos to this effect; so they parted for that time without the least ombrage of discontent, nor do I hear of any engendred since. The last month 'tis true the Iunta of Divines dwelt so long upon the busines, that ther were whisperings that the Prince intended to go away disguis'd as he came, and the question being ask'd by a per­son of quality, ther was a brave answer made, that i [...] love brought him thither, it is not fear shall drive him away.

There are preparations already a foot for his return, and the two Prexies are drawn and left in my Lord of Bristolls hands. Notwith­standing this ill favord stop, yet we are here all confident the busi­nes will take effect: In which hopes I rest

Your most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXIII. To Captain Nich: Leat at his house in London.

SIR,

THis Letter comes to you by Mr. Richard Altham, of whose sud­den departure hence I am very sorry, it being the late death of his brother Sir Iames Altham. I have been at a stand in the busines a gond while, for his Highness comming hither was no advantage to me in the earth: He hath done the Spaniards divers courtesies, but he hath been very sparing in doing the English any: It may be perhaps because it may be a diminution of honor to be beholden to any forraign Prince to do his own Subjects favors: but my busines requires no favor, all I desire is justice, which I have not obtain'd yet in reality.

The Prince is preparing for his jorney, I shall to [...] again closely when he is gone, and make a shaft or a bolt of it. The Popes death hath retarded the proceedings of the match, but we are so far from despairing of it, that one may have wagers thirty to one it will take effect still. He that deals with this Nation must have a great deal [Page 76] of phlegme, and if this grand busines of State, the match, suf­fer such protractions and puttings off, you need not wonder that private negotiations, as mine is, should be subject to the same in­conveniences. Ther shall be no means left unattempted that my best industry can find out to put a period to it, and when his High­nesse is gon, I hope to find my Lord of Bristoll more at leasure to continue his favour and furtherance, which hath been much alrea­dy: So I rest

Yours ready to serv [...] you, J. H.

XXIV. To Sir James Crofts.

SIR,

THe Prince is now upon his jorney to the Sea side, where my Lord of Rutland attends for him with a royall fleet: Ther are many here shrink in their shoulders, and are very sensible of his departure, and the Lady Infanta resents it more than any; she hath caus'd a Mass to be sung every day ever since for his good Voyage: The Spaniards themselves confess ther was never Princes so bravely wooed. The King and his two Brothers accom­panied his Highnes to the Escurial some twenty miles off, and would have brought him to the Sea side, but that the Queen is big and hath not many days to go; when the King and he parted, there past wonderfull great endearments and embraces in divers postures be­tween them a long time; and in that place there is a Pillar to be erected as a Monument to Posterity. Ther are some Grandes; and Count Gondamar with a great train besides gone with him to the Marine, to the Sea side, which will be many days journey, and must needs put the King of Spain to a mighty expence, besides his seven months entertainment here: we hear that when he past through Valladolid, the Duke of Lerma was retired thence for the time by speciall command from the King, left he might have discours with the Prince, whom he extremely desir'd to see: This sunk deep into the old Duke, insomuch that he said that of all the acts of malice which Olivares had ever done him, he resented this more than any: He bears up yet very well under his Cardinalls habit, [Page 77] which hat [...] kept him from many a foul storm that might have faln upon him els from the temporall power. The Duke of Uzeda his son finding himself to decline in favor at Court, had retir'd to the Countrey, and dyed soon after of discontentment: During his sickness the Cardinall writ this short weighty Letter unto him: Dizen me, que Mareys de necio, por mi, mas temo mis anos qué mis E­ [...]igos. Lerma. I shall not need to English it to you who is so great a Master of the Language. Since I began this Letter, wee understand the Prince is safely embarqu'd, but not without som danger of being cast away, had not Sir Sackvill Trever taken him up: I pray God send him a good voyage, and us no ill news from England. My most humble service at Tower-hill, so I am

Your humble Servitor, J. H.

XXV. To my Brother, Doctor Howell.

My Brother,

SInce our Prince his departure hence, the Lady Infanta stu­dieth English apace, and one Mr. Wadsworth and Father Bo­niface two Englishmen, are appointed her teachers, and have access to her every day. We account her as it were our Princess now, and as we give, so she takes that Title: Our Ambassadors my Lord of Bristoll, and Sir Walter Ast [...]n, will not stand now covered before her when they have audience, because they hold her to be their Princess: she is preparing divers suits of rich Cloaths for his Highness of persum'd Amber leather, some embroder'd with Pearl, some with Gold, some with Silver; her Family is a setling apace, and most of her Ladies and Officers are known already; we want nothing now but one dispatch more from Rome, and then the marriage will be solemnizd, and all things consummated; yet there is one Mr. Clerk (with the lame arm) that came hither from the Sea side, as soon as the Prince was gon, hee is one of the Duke of Buckinghams creatures, yet he lies at the Earl of Bristols house which we wonder at, considering the darknes that hapned twixt the Duke and the Earl: we fear that this Clerk hath brought somthing that may puzzle the busines. Besides having occasion to make my ad­dress [Page 78] lately to the Venetian Ambassador, who is interressed in som part of that great busines for which I am here, he told me confi­dently it would be no match, nor did he think it was ever inten­ded. But I want faith to believe him yet, for I know Saint Mark is no friend to it, nor France or any other Prince or State besides the King of Denmarck, whose Grandmother was of the house of Austria being sister to Charles the Emperor. Touching the busi­nes of the Palatinate, our Ambassadors were lately assur'd by Oli­vares, and all the Counsellors here, & that in this Kings name, that he would procure his Majestie of great Britain entire satisfaction herein, and Olivares, giving them the joy, intreated them to as­sure their King upon their honor, and upon their lives of the re­ality hereof; for the Infanta her self (said he) hath stird in it, and makes it now her own busines; for it was a firm peace and amity (which he confest could never be without the accommodati­on of things in Germany) as much as an alliance, which his Ca­tholic Majesty aimd at. But wee shall know shortly now what to trust to, we shall walk no more in mists, though som give out yet that our prince shall embrace a cloud for Iuno at last. I pray pre­sent my service to Sir Iohn Franklin, and Sir Iohn Smith, with all at the Hill and Dale, and when you send to Wales, I pray con­vey the inclos'd to my Father. So my dear brother I pray God bless us both, and bring us again joyfully together.

Your very loving Brother, J. H.

XXVI. To my noble friend, Sir John North Knight.

SIR,

I Receiv'd lately one of yours, but it was of a very old date: we have our eyes here now all fixd upon Rome, greedily expecting the Ratification, and lately a strong rumor ran it was com, in so much Mr Clerk who was sent hither from the Prince being a ship­board, (and now lies sick at my Lord of Bristolls house of a Calen­ture) hearing of it, he desired to speak with him, for he had som­thing [Page 79] to deliver him from the Prince, my Lord Ambassador being com to him, Mr Clerk delivered a letter from the Prince; the con­tents wherof were, that wheras he had left certain Proxies in his hand to be deliverd to the King of Spain after the Ratification was com, he desir'd and requir'd him not to do it till he should re­ceive further order from England; my Lord of Bristoll hereupon went to Sir Walter Aston, who was in joynt Commission with him for concluding the match, and shewing him the Letter, what my Lord Aston said I know not, but my Lord of Bristoll told him that they had a Commission Royall under the broad Seal of England to conclude the match; he knew as well as he how earnest the King their Master hath bin any time these ten years to have it don; how ther could not be a better pawn for the surrendry of the Palatinat, than the Infanta in the Prince his arms, who would never rest till she did the work to merit love of our Nation: He told him al­so how their owne particular fortunes depended upon't, besides if he should delay one moment to deliver the Proxy after the Ratifi­cation was com according to agreement, the Infanta would hold her self so blemish'd in her honor, that it might overthrow all things. Lastly, he told him that they incurr'd the hazard of their heads if they should suspend the executing his Majesties Commission upon any order but from that power which gave it, who was the King him­self; hereupon both the Ambassadors proceeded still in preparing matters for the solemnizing of the mariage: the Earl of Bristoll had caus'd above thirty rich Liveries to be made of watchet Vel­vet, with silver lace up to the very capes of the Cloaks, the best sorts wherof were valued at 80 l. a Livery: My Lord Aston had also provided new Liveries, and a fortnight after the said politic re­port was blown up, the Ratification came indeed complete and full; so the mariage day was appointed, a Terrass cover'd all over with Tapestry was rais'd from the Kings Palace to the next Church, which might be about the same extent, as from White-Hall to West­minster Abbey, and the King intended to make his sister a Wife, and his daughter (wherof the Queen was deliver'd a little before) a Christian upon the same day; the Grandes and great Ladies had been invited to the mariage, and order was sent to all the Port Towns to discharge their great Ordnance, and sundry other things were prepar'd to honor the solemnity: but when wee were thus at the hight of our hopes, a day or two before; there came Mr. Killegree, Gresley, Wood and Davies, one upon the neck of another with a new Commission to my Lord of Bristoll immediatly from his Majesty, countermanding him to deliver the Proxy aforesaid, untill a full [Page 80] and absolut satisfaction were had for the surrendry of the Palatinat under this Kings hand and Seal, in regard he desir'd his Son should be married to Spain, and his Son in law remarried to the Palatinat at one time; hereupon all was dasht to peeces; and that frame which was rearing so many years, was ruin'd in a moment. This news strook a damp in the hearts of all people here, and they wisht that the Postillons that brought it, had all broke their necks in the way.

My Lord of Bristoll hereupon went to Court to acquaint the King with his new Commission, and so propos'd the restitution of the Palatinat, the King answer'd 'twas none of his to give, 'tis true he had a few Towns there, but he held them as Commissioner only for the Emperor, and he could not command an Emperor; yet if his Majesty of great Britain would put a Treaty a foot, hee would send his own Ambassadors to joyn; In the interim, the Earl was commanded not to deliver the foresaid Proxy of the Prince, for the desposorios or espousall untill Christmas: (And herein it seems his Majesty with you was not well inform'd, for those powers of Proxies expir'd before) the King here said further that if his Uncle the Emperor, or the Duke of Bavaria would not be conformable to reason, he would raise as great an Army for the Prince Palsgrave▪ as he did under Spinola when he first invaded the Palatinat; and to secure this, he would ingage his Contratation House of the West Indies, with his Plate Fleet, and give the most binding instrument that could be under his hand and Seal. But this gave no satisfa­ction, therfore my Lord of Bristoll I beleeve hath not long to stay here, for he is commanded to deliver no more Letters to the Infan­ta, nor demand any more audience, and that she should be no more stiled Princess of England, or Wales. The foresaid Caution which this King offer'd to my Lord of Bristoll, made me think of what I read of his Grandfather Philip the second, who having been maried to our Queen Mary, and it being thought she was with child of him, and was accordingly prayed for at Pauls Cross, though it proved af­terward but a tympany, King Philip prepos'd to our Parliament that they would pass an Act that he might be Regent during his or her minority that should be born, and he would give good caution to surrender the Crown, when he or she should com to age: the motion was hotly canvas'd in the house of Peers, and like to pass, when the Lord Paget rose up and said, I, but who shall sue the Kings bond? so the busines was dasht. I have no more news to send you now, and I am sory I have so much, unless it were better; for we that have busi­nes to negotiat here are like to suffer much by this rupture: [Page 81] welcom be the will of God, to whose benediction I commend you, and rest

Your most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXVII. To the Right Honble the Lord Clifford.

My good Lord,

THough this Court cannot afford now such comfortable news in relation to England as I could wish, yet such as it is, you shall receive. My Lord of Bristoll is preparing for England, I waited upon him lately when he went to take his leave at Court, and the King washing his hands took a Ring from off his own finger, and put it upon his, which was the greatest honor that ever he did any Ambassador as they say here; he gave him also a Cupbord of Plate, [...]alued at 20000 Crowns: There were also large and high promi­ses made him, that in case he [...] feard to fall upon any rock in Eng­land, by reason of the power of those who malignd him, if hee would stay in any of his Dominions, he would give him means and honor equall to the highest of his enemies. The Earl did not only wave, but disdaind these Propositions made unto him by Olivares; and said he was so confident of the King his Masters justice and high judgment, and of his own innocency, that hee conceiv'd no power could be able to do him hurt. Ther hath occurd nothing lately in this Court worth the advertisement: They speak much of the strange carriage of that boisterous Bishop of Halverstad, (for so they term him here) that having taken a place where there were two Monasteries of Nuns and Friers, he caus'd divers feather­beds to be rip'd and all the feathers to be thrown in a great Hall whither the Nuns and Friers were thrust naked with their bodies [...]ld and pitchd, and to tumble among these feathers, which makes them here presage him an ill death. So I most affectionately kiss your hands and rest

Your very humble Servitor, J. H.

XXVIII. To Sir John North.

SIR,

I Have many thanks to render you for the favor you lately did to a kinsman of mine, Mr. Vaughan, and for divers other which I defer till I return to that Court, and that I hope will not be long. Touching the procedure of matters here, you shall understand that my Lord Aston had speciall audience lately of the King of Spain, and afterwards presented a Memorial wherin ther was a high complaint against the miscarriage of the two Spanish Ambassadors now in England the Marquis of Inopifa and Don Carlos Coloma, the substance of it was that the said Ambassadors in a privat audience his Majesty of great Britain had given them, informd him of a perni­cions plot against his Person and royall authority, which was that at the beginning of your now Parliament, the Duke of Bucking­ham with others his complices often met and consulted in a clan­destin way, how to break the treatie both of Match and Palatinat: and in case his Majesty was unwilling therunto, he should have a Countrey house or two to retire unto for his recreation and health, in regard the Prince is now of years & judgment fit to govern. His Majesty so resented this, that the next day he sent them many thanks for the care they had of him, and desird them to perfect the work, and now that they had detected the treason to discover also the trai­tors, but they were shy in that point, the King sent again desiring them to send him the names of the Conspirators in a paper, seald up by one of their own confidents, which he would receive with his own hands, and no soul should see it els; advising them with­all, that they should not prefer this discovery before their own ho­nors, to be accounted false Accusers: they replied that they had don enough already by instancing in the Duke of Buckingham, and it might easily be guest who were his Confidents, and Creatures. Hereupon his Majesty put those whom he had any grounds to sus­pect to their oaths: And afterward sent my Lord Conway, and Sir Francis Cotington, to tell the Ambassadors that he had left no means unassaid to discover the Conspiration, that he had sound upon oath such a clearness of ingenuity in the Duke of Buckingham, th [...] satisfied him of his innocency: Therfore he had just cause to [Page 83] conceive that this information of theirs, proceeded rather from ma­lice and som politicall ends then from truth, and in regard they would not produce the Authors of so dangerous a Treason, they made themselves to be justly thought the Authors of it: And therfore though he might by his own royall justice, and the law of nations punish this excesse and insolence of theirs, and high wrong they had done to his best servants, yea to the Prince his Son, for through the sides of the Duke they wounded him, in regard it was impossible that such a design should be attempted without his privi­ty, yet he would not be his own Judge herein, but would refer them to the King their Master whom he conceiv'd to be so just, that hee doubted not but he would see him satisfied, and therfore hee would send an express unto him hereabouts to demand Justice, and repara­tion: this busines is now in agitation, but we know not what will become of it. We are all here in a sad disconsolat condition, and the Merchants shake their heads up and down out of an apprehen­sion of som fearfull war to follow: so I most affectionatly kiss your hands and rest

Your very humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXIX. To Sir Kenelme Digby Knight.

SIR,

YOu have had knowledge (none better) of the progression and growings of the Spanish match from time to time; I must acquaint you now with the rupture and utter dissolution of it, which was not long a doing; for it was done in one audience that my Lord of Bristoll had lately at Court, whence it may be inferr'd, that 'tis far more easie to pull down, than reare up, for that stru­cture which was so many years a rearing, was dasht as it were in a trice: Dissolution goeth a faster pace than Composition. And it may be said, that the civill actions of men, specially great af­fairs of Monarchs (as this was) have much Analogie in degrees of progression with the naturall production of man. To make man there are many acts must procede, first a meeting and copulation [Page 84] of the Sexes, then Conception, which requires a well-disposed womb to retain the prolificall seed, by the constriction and occlusi­on of the orifice of the Matrix, which seed being first bloud, and af­terwards cream, is by a gentle ebullition coagulated, and turnd to a crudded lump, which the womb by vertue of its naturall heat pre­pares to be capable to receive form, and to be organiz'd; wherup­on Nature falls a working to delineat all the members, beginning with those that are most noble: as the Heart, the Brain, the Liver; wherof Galen would have the Liver, which is the shop and source of the bloud, and Aristotle the Heart to be the first fram'd, in re­gard 'tis primùm vivens, & ultimùm moriens: Nature continues in this labor untill a perfect shape be introduc'd, and this is call'd For­mation which is the third act, and is a production of an organicall body out of the spermatic substance, caus'd by the plastic vertue of the vitall spirits: and somtimes this act is finisht thirty days after the Conception, somtimes fifty, but most commonly in forty two, or forty five, and is sooner don in the male. This being done, the Em­bryon is animated with three souls; the first with that of Plants call'd the vegetable soul, then with a sensitive, which all brute A­nimals have, and lastly, the Rationall soul is infus'd, and these three in man are like Trigonus in Tetragono; the two first are gene­rated ex Traduce, from the seed of the Parents, but the last is by im­mediat infusion from God, and 'tis controverted 'twixt Philosophers and Divines, when this infusion is made.

This is the fourth act that goeth to make man, and is called A­nimation: and as the Naturalists allow Animation double the time that Formation had from the Conception, so they allow to the ripe­ning of the Embryo in the womb, and to the birth therof treble the time that Animation had, which hapneth somtimes in nine, somtimes in ten months. This Grand busines of the Spanish match, may be said to have had such degrees of progression; first there was a meeting and coupling on both sides, for a Iunta in in Spain, and som select Counsellors of State were appointed in England; After this Con­junction the busines was conceiv'd, then it receiv'd form, then life, (though the quickning was slow) but having had nere upon ten years in lieu of ten months to be perfected, it was infortunately strangled when it was ripe and ready for birth; and I would they had never been born that did it, for it is like to be out of my way 30: ol, And as the Embryo in the womb is wrapt in three mem­branes or tunicles, so this great busines, you know better than I, was involv'd in many difficulties, and died so intangled before it could break through them.

[Page 85]There is a buzz here of a match 'twixt England and France; I pray God send it a speedier Formation and Animation than this had, and that it may not prove an abortive.

I send you herewith a letter from the Paragon of the Spanish Court Doña Anna Maria Man [...]ique, the Duke of Maquedas sister, who re­spects you in a high Degree; she told me this was the first Letter she ever writ to man in her life, except the Duke her brother: she was much sollicited to write to Mr. Thomas Cary, but she would not. I did also your Message to the Marquesa d' Inososa who put me to sit a good while with her upon her Estrado which was no simple favor: you are much in both these Ladies Books, and much spoken of by divers others in this Court. I could not recover your Diamond has­band which the Picaroon snatched from you in the coach▪ though I us'd all means possible, as far as book, bell and candle in point of Excommunication against the party in all the Churches of Madrid, by which means you know divers things are recover'd: So I most affectionatly kiss your hands and rest

Post.

Yours of the 2. of March came to safe hand.

Your most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXX. To my Cosen, Mr J. Price, (now Knight) at the middle Temple, from Madrid.

COsen suffer my Letter to salute you first in this Distich,

A Thamisi Tagus quot leucis flumine distat,
Oscula tot manibus porto, Pricaee, tuis.
As many miles Thames lies from Tagus Strands,
I bring so many kisses to thy hands.

My dear Jack,

IN the large Register or Almanack of my friends in England, you are one of the chiefest red Letters, you are one of my Festi­ [...]all Rubriques; for whensoever you fall upon my mind, or my [Page 86] mind falls upon you, I keep Holy day all the while, and this hap­pens so often that you leave me but few working days throughout the whole year, fewer far than this Countrey affords, for in their Calender above five Months of the twelve are dedicated to som Saint or other, and kept Festivall; a Religion that the London Apprenti­ces would like well.

I thank you for yours of the third Current, and the ample Re­lations you give me of London Occurrences, but principally for the powerfull and sweet assurances you give me of your love, both in Verse and Prose. All businesses here are off the hinges, for one late audience of my Lord of Bristoll pulld down what was so many years a raising. And as Thomas Aquinas told an Artist of a costly curious Statue in Rome, that by som accident while he was a trim­ming it, fell down and so broke to peeces, Opus triginta annoram destruxisti, thou hast destroy'd the work of thirty years; so it may be said that a work nere upon ten years is now suddenly sha [...]terd to peeces. I hope by Gods grace to be now speedily in England, and to re-enjoy your most dear society: In the mean time may all hap­pines attend you.

Ad Litteram,
Ociùs ut grandire gradus oratio, possis
Prosa, tibi binos jungimus ecce pedes.
That in thy jorney thou maist be more fleet,
To my dull Prose I add these Metric feet.
Resp.
Ad mare cum venio quid agam? Repl. tùm praepete penna
Te ferat, est lator nam levis ignis, Amor,
But when I com to Sea how shall I shift?
Let Love transport thee then, for Fire is swift.
Your most affectionat Cos. J. H.

XXXI. To the Lord Vicount Col. from Madrid.

Right Honble.

YOur Lopps. of the third Current, came to safe hand, and being now upon point of parting with this Court I thought it worth the labor to send your Lopps a short survey of the Monarchy of Spain; a bold undertaking your Lopp. will say, to comprehend within the narrow bounds of a Letter such a huge bulk, but as in the bosse of a small Diamond ring one may discern the image of a mighty mountain, so I will endeavour that your Lopp. may behold the power of this great King in this paper.

Spain hath bin alwaies esteemd a Countrey of ancient renown, and as it is incident to all other, she hath had her vicissi [...]udes, and turns of Fortune: She hath bin thrice orecome; by the Romans, by the Goths, and by the Moors▪ the middle conquest continueth to this day; for this King and most of the Nobility proses themselves to have descended of the Goths; the Moores kept here about 700. years, and it is a remark­able Story how they got in first; which was thus upon good record. There raignd in Spain Don Rodrigo, who kept his Court then at Malaga; He emploid the Conde Don Julian Ambassador to Barbary, who had a Daughter, (a young beautifull Lady) that was maid of Honor to the Queen: The King spying her one day refreshing her self under an Ar­bour, sell enamour'd with her, and never left till he had deslowrd her: She resenting much the dishonor, writ a letter to her Father in Barbary under this Allegory, That there was a fair green Apple upon the table, and the Kings poignard fell upon't and clest it in two. Don Iulian apprehending the meaning, got letters of revocation, and came back to Spain, wher he so complied with the King, that he became his Favorite: Amongst other things he advis'd the King that in regard he was now in Peace with all the world, he would dismisse his Gallies and Garrisons that were up and down the Sea coasts, because it was a su­perfluous charge. This being don and the Countrey left open to any In­vader, he prevaild with the King to have leave to go with his Lady to see their friends in Tarragona, which was 300. miles off: Having bin there a while, his Lady made semblance to be sick, and so sent to pe­tition the King, that her daughter Donna Cava (whom they had left at Court to satiat the Kings lust) might com to comfort her a while; [Page 88] Cava came, and the gate through which she went sorth is call'd af [...] her name to this day in Malaga: Don Iulian having all his chief kin­dred there, he saild over to Barbary, and afterwards brought over the King of Morocco, and others with an Army, who suddenly invaded Spain, lying armles and open, and so conquer'd it. Don Rodrigo di­ed gallantly in the field, but what became of Don Iulian, who for a particular revenge betrayed his own Countrey, no Story makes men [...]. A few yeers before this happend, Rodrigo came to Toledo, where un­der the great Church ther was a vault with huge Iron doors, and none of his Predecessors durst open it, because ther was an old Prophesie, That when that vault was open'd Spain should be conquered; Rodrigo slighting the Prophesie, caus'd the doors to be broke open, hoping to find there som Treasure, but when he entred, there was nothing sound but the pictures of Moores, of such men that a little after fulfilled the Pro­phesie.

Yet this last conquest of Spain was not perfect, for divers parts North­west kept still under Christian Kings, specially Biscay, which was ne­ver conquer'd, as Wales in Britanny, and the Biscayners have much Analogy with the Welsh in divers things: They retain to this day the originall Language of Spain, they are the most mountainous people, and they are reputed the ancientst Gentry; so that when any is to take the order of Knighthood, ther are no Inquistors appointed to find whether he be cleer of the bloud of the Moors as in other places. The King when he comes upon the confines, pulls off one shoo before he can tread upon any Biscay ground: And he hath good reason to esteem that Province, in regard of divers advantages he hath by it, for he hath his best timber to build ships, his best Mariners, and all his iron thence.

Ther were divers bloudy battells 'twixt the remnant of Christians, and the Moors for seven hundreth yeers together, and the Spaniards getting ground more and more, drive them at last to Granada, and thence al­so in the time of Ferdinand and Isabella quite over to Barbary: their last King was Chico, who when he fled from Granada crying and wee­ping, the people upbra [...]ded him, That he might well weep like a wo­man, who could not defend himself and them like a man. (This was that Ferdinand who obtaind from Rome the Title of Catholic, though some Stories say that many ages before Ricaredus the first Ortho­dox King of the Goths, was stil'd Catholicus in a Provinciall Synod held at Toledo, which was continued by Alphonsus the first, and then made hereditary by this Ferdinand.) This absolute conquest of the Moors hapned about Henry the sevenths time, 'when the soresaid Fer­dinand and Isabella had by alliance joynd Castile and Aragon, which with the discovery of the West Indies, which happend a little after, [Page 89] was the first foundation of that greatnes wherunto Spain is now moun­ted. Afterwards ther was an alliance with Burgundy and Austria, by the first House the seventeen Provinces fell to Spain, by the second Charles the fifth came to be Emperor: and remarkable it is how the House of Austria came to that height from a mean Earl, the Earl of Hasburgh in Germany. who having bin one day a hunting, he over­took [...] Priest who had bin with the Sacrament to visit a poor sick body, the Priest being tyr'd, the Earl lighted off his horse, helpt up the Priest, and so waited upon him afoot all the while till he brought him to the Church: The Priest giving him his benediction at his going away, told him that for this great act of humility and piety, His Race should be one of the greatest that ever the world had, and ever since, which is som 240. yeers ago, the Empire hath continued in that House, which afterwards was calld the House of Austria.

In Philip the seconds time the Spanish Monarchy came to its highest cumble, by the conquest of Portugall, wherby the East Indies, sun­dry Islands in the Atlantic Sea, and divers places in Barbary were ad­ded to the Crown of Spain. By these steps this Crown came to this Grandeur; and truly give the Spaniard his due, he is a mighty Mo­narch, he hath Dominions in all parts of the world (which none of the four Monarchies had) both in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, (which he hath solely to himself) though our Henry the seventh had the first proffer made him: So the Sun shines all the foure and twenty houres of the naturall day upon som part or other of his countreys, for part of the Antipodes are subject to him. He hath eight Viceroys in Eu­rope, two in the East Indies, two in the West, two in Afric, and about thirty provinciall soverain Commanders more; yet as I was told lately, in a discours twixt him and our Prince at his being here, when the Prince sell to magnifie his spacious Dominions, the King answer'd, Sir, 'tis true, it hath pleas'd God to trust me with divers Nations and Countreys, but of all these ther are but two which yeeld me any clear revenues, viz. Spain, and my West Indies, nor all Spain neither, but Castile only, the rest do scarce quit cost, for all is drunk up twixt Governors and Garrisons; yet my advantage is to have the opportunity to propagate Christian Religion, and to employ my Subjects. For the last, it must be granted that no Prince hath better means to breed brave men, and more variety of commands to heighten their spirits with no petty but Princely employments. This King besides hath other means to oblige the Gentry unto him, by such a huge number of Commendams which he hath in his gift to bestow o [...] whom he please of any of the three Orders of Knighthood; which Eng­land and France want. Som Noble men in Spain can despend 50000 l. [Page 90] some forty, some thirty, and divers twenty thousand pounds per annum. The Church here is exceeding rich both in revenues, plate, and buildings; one cannot go to the meanest Countrey Chappell, but he will find Chalices, lamps and candlesticks of silver. There are some Bishopricks of 30000l. per annum, and divers of 10000 l. and Toledo is 100000 l. yearly re­venue. As the Church is rich, so it is mightily reverenced here, and very powerfull, which made Philip the second rather depend upon the Clergy, than the secular Power: Therfore I do not see how Spain can be call'd a poor Countrey, considering the revenues aforesaid of Princes and Pre­lats; nor is it so thin of People as the world makes it, and one reason may be that ther are sixteen Universities in Spain, & in one of these there were fifteen thousand Students at one time when I was there, I mean Salamanca, and in this Village of Madrid (for the King of Spain cannot keep his constant Court in any City) there are ordinarily 600000 souls. Tis true that the colonizing of the Indies, and the wars of Flan­ders have much drain'd this Countrey of people: Since the expulsion of the Moors, it is also grown thinner, and not so full of corn; for those Moors would grub up wheat out of the very tops of the craggy hills, yet they us'd another grain for their bread, so that the Spaniard had nought els to do but go with his Ass to the Market, and buy corn of the Moon. Ther liv'd here also in times past a great number of Jews, till they were expell'd by Ferdinand, and as I have read in an old Spanish Legend, the cause was this; The King had a young Prince to his son, who was us'd to play with a Jewish Doctor that was about the Court, who had a Ball of gold in a string hanging down his brest, the little Prince one day snatcht away the said gold Ball, and carried it to the next room, the Ball being hollow, opend, and within there was painted our Savi­our kissing a Iews tail: Hereupon they were all suddenly disterr'd and exterminated, yet I beleeve in Portugall there lurks. yet good store of them.

For the soil of Spain, the fruitfulnes of their vallies recompences the sterillity of their hills, corn is their greatest want, and want of rain is the cause of that, which makes them have need of their neighbors; yet as much as Spain bears is passing good, and so is every thing else for the quality, nor hath any one a better horse under him, a better cloak on his back, a better sword by his side, better shooes on his feet, than the Spa­niard, nor doth any drink better Wine, or eat better fruit than he, nor flesh for the quantity.

Touching the People, the Spaniard looks as high, though not so big a [...] a German, his excesse is in too much gravity, which som who know him not well, hold to be a pride, he cares not how little he labours, for poor Gascons and Morisco slaves do most of his work in field and vineyard; [Page 91] he can endure much in the war, yet he loves not to fight in the dark, but in open day, or upon a stage, that all the world might be witnesses of his valor; so that you shall seldom hear of Spaniards employed in night service; nor shall one hear of a Duell here in an age: He hath one good quality, that he is wonderfully obedient to Government: for the prou­dest Don of Spain when he is prancing upon his Ginet in the streets, if an Alguazil (a Sargeant) shew him his Vare, that is a little white staff he carrieth as badge of his Office; my Don will down presently off his horse, and yeeld himself his prisoner. He hath ano­ther commendable quality, that when he giveth Alms, he puls off his Hat, and puts it in the beggars hand with a great deal of humility. His gravity is much lessned since the late Proclamation came out against ruffs, and the King himself shewd the first example, they were come to that hight of excess herein, that twenty shillings were us'd to be paid for starching of a ruff: and som, though perhaps he had never a shirt to his back, yet would be have a toting huge swelling ruff about his neck. He is sparing in his Ordinary diet, but when he makes a Feast he is free and bountifull. As to Temporall Authority, specially Martiall, so is be very obedient to the Church, and beleeves all with an implicit faith: he is a great servant of Ladies, nor can he be blam'd, for as I said be­fore he coms of a Gotish race; yet he never brags of, nor blazes a­broad his doings that way, but is exceedingly carefull of the repute of any woman, (A civility that we much want in England) Hee will speak high words of Don Philippo his King, but will not endure a stranger should do so: I have heard a Biscayner make a Rodomonta­do, that he was as good a Gentleman as Don Philippo himself, for Don Philippo was half a Spaniard, half a German, half an I­talian, half a Frenchman, half I know not what, but he was a pure Biscayner, without mixture. The Spaniard is not so smooth and oyly in his Complement as the Italian, and though hee will make strong protestations, yet he will not swear out Complements like the French and English, as I heard when my Lord of Carlile was Ambassador in France, there came a great Monsieur to see him, and having a long time banded, and sworn Complements one to another who should go first out at a dore, at last my Lord of Carlile said, ô Mon­seigneur ayez pitie de mon ame, O my'. Lord have pity upon my soul.

The Spaniard is generally given to gaming, and that in excesse; he will say his prayers before, and if he win he will thank God for his good fortune after; their common game at cards (for they very seldom play at dice) is Primera, at which the King never shews his game, but throws his cards with their faces down on the Table: He is Merchant [Page 92] of all the cards and dice through all the Kingdom, he hath them made for a penny a pair, and he retails them for twelve pence; so that 'tis thought he hath 30000 l. a year by this trick at cards. The Spaniard is very devout in his way, for I have seen him kneel in the very dirt when the Ave Mary bell rings: and som if they spy two straws or sticks lie cross-wise in the street, they will take them up and kisse them, and lay them down again. He walks as if he marcht, and seldom looks on the ground, as if he contemnd it. I was told of a Spaniard who having got a fall by a stumble, and broke his nose, rose up, and in a disdainfull manner said, Voto a tal esto es caminar por la tierra, This is to walk upon earth. The Labradors and Countrey Swains here are stur­dy and rationall men, nothing so simple or servile as the French Peasan who is born in chains. Tis true, the Spaniard is not so con­versable as other Nations; (unlesse hee hath travel'd) els hee is like Mars among the Planets, impatient of Conjunction: nor is he so free in his gifts and rewards: as the last Summer it hapned that Count Gon­damar with Sir Francis Cotington went to see a curious house of the Constable of Castiles, which had been newly built here; the keeper of the house was very officious to shew him every room with the garden, grotha's, and aqueducts, and presented him with some fruit; Gondamar having been a long time in the house, comming out, put many Complements of thanks upon the man, and so was going away, Sir Francis whis­per'd him in the ear and askd him whether he would give the man any thing that took such pains, Oh quoth Gondamar, well remembred Don Francisco, have you ever a double Pistoll about you? If you have, you may give it him, and then you pay him after the English man­ner, I have paid him already after the Spanish. The Spaniard is much improv'd in policy since hee took footing in Italy, and there is no Nation agrees with him better. I will conclude this Character with a saying that he hath▪

No ay bombre debaxo d'el sol,
Como el Italiano y el Español.

Wherunto a Frenchman answerd,

Dizes la verdad, y tienes razon,
El uno es puto, el otro ladron.

Englished thus,

Beneath the Sun ther's no such man,
As is is the Spaniard and Italian.

[Page 93]The Frenchman answers,

Thou tell'st the truth, and reason hast,
The first's a Theef, a Buggerer the last.

Touching their women, nature hath made a more visible distinction twixt the two sexes here, than else where; for the men for the most part are swarthy and rough, but the women are made of a far finer mould, they are commonly little; and wheras there is a saying that to make a com­pleat woman, let her be English to the neck, French to the wast, and Dutch below; I may add for hands and feet let her be Spanish, for they have the least of any. They have another saying, a French-woman in a dance, a Dutch-woman in the kitchin, an Italian in a window, an English-woman at board, and the Spanish a bed. When they are ma­ried they have a privilege to wear high shooes, and to paint, which is ge­nerally practised here, and the Queen useth it her self. They are coy e­nough, but not so froward as our English, for if a Lady go along the street, (and all women going here vaild and their habit so generally like, one can hardly distinguish a Countess from a Coblers wife) if one should cast out an odd ill sounding word, and ask her a favour, she will not take it ill, but put it off and answer you with some wittie retort. After 30 they are commonly past child- [...]earing, and I have seen women in England look as youthfull at 50, as some here at 25. Money will do miracles here in purchasing the favor of Ladies, or any thing els, though this be the Countrey of money, for it furnisheth well-near all the world besides, yea their very enemies, as the Turk and Hollander; insomuch that one may say the Coyn of Spain is as Catholic, as her King. Yet though he be the greatest King of gold and silver Mines in the world, (I think) yet the common currant Coin here is Copper, and herein I beleeve the Hollander hath done him more mischief by counterfeiting his Copper Coins, than by their armes, bringing it in by strange surreptitious waies, as in hollow Sows of Tin and Lead, hol­low Masts, in pitcht Buckets under water and other waies. But I fear to be injurious to this great King to speak of him in so narrow a com­pass, a great King indeed, though the French in a slighting way com­pare his Monarchy to a Beggars Cloak made up of patches, they are patches indeed, but such as he hath not the like: The East Indies is a patch embroyder'd with Pearl, Rubies, and Diamonds: Peru is a patch embroider'd with massie gold, Mexico with silver, Naples and Milain are patches of cloth of Tissue, and if these patches were in one peece, what would become of his cloak embroyderd with flower deluces?

[Page 94]So desiring your Lopp. to pardon this poor imperfect paper▪ considering the high quality of the subject, I rest

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXXI. To Mr Walsingham Gresly, from Madrid.

Don Balchasar,

I Thank you for your Letter in my Lords last packet, wherin among other passages, you write unto me the circumstances of Marques Spinola's raising his Leaguer, by flatting and firing his works before Berghen. He is much tax'd here, to have attempted it, and to have buried so much of the Kings tresure before that town in such costly Trenches: A Gentleman came hither lately, who was at the siege all the while, and he told me one strange passage, how Sir Ferdinando Cary a huge corpulent Knight, was shot through his body, the bullet entring at the Navell, and comming out at his back kill'd his man behind him, yet he lives still, and is like to recover: With this miraculous accident, he told me al­so a merry one, how a Captain that had a Woodden Leg Booted over, had it shatterd to peeces by a Cannon Bullet, his Soldiers crying out a Surgeon, a Surgeon, for the Captain; no, no, said he, a Carpenter, a Carpenter, will serve the tu [...]n: To this pleasant tale I'le add another that happen'd lately in Alcala hard by, of a Do­minican Fryer, who in a solemn Procession which was held there upon Ascension day last, had his stones dangling under his habit cut off insteed of his pocket by a cut-purse.

Before you return hither, which I understand will be speedily, I pray bestow a visit on our friends in Bishopsgate-street: So I am

Your faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXXIII. To Sir Robert Napier Knight, at his house in Bishops-gate-street, from Madrid.

SIR,

THe late breach of the Match, hatch broke the neck of all busi­nesses here, and mine suffers as much as any: I had ac­cess lately to Olivares, once or twice; I had audience also of the King, to whom I presented a memoriall that intimated Letters of Mart, unless satisfaction were had from his Vice-roy the Conde del Real; the King gave me a gracious answer, but Olivares a churlish one, viz. That when the Spaniards had justice in England, we should have justice here: So that notwithstanding I have brought it to the highest point and pitch of perfection in Law that could be, and procur'd som dispatches, the like wherof were never granted in this Court before, yet I am in dispair now to do any good: I hope to be shortly in England, by God grace, to give you and the rest of the proprietaries, a punctuall account of all things: And you may easily conceive how sorry I am, that matters succeeded not according to your expectation, and my endeavours: but I hope you are none of those that measure things by the event. The Earl of Bristoll, Count Gondamar, and my Lord Ambassador Aston, did not only do courtesies, but they did cooperate with me in it, and contributed their utmost endeavours▪ So I rest

Yours to serve you, J. H.

XXXIV. To Mr. A. S. in Alicant.

MUch endeared Sir: Fire, you know, is the common emblem of love, But without any disparagement to so noble a passion, me thinks it might be also compar'd to tinder, and Letters are the proper'st matter wherof to make this tinder▪ Letters again [Page 96] are fittest to kindle and re-accend this tinder, they may serve both for flint, steel, and match. This Letter of mine comes therfore of set purpose to strike som sparkles into yours, that it may glow and burn, and receive ignition, and not lie dead, as it hath don a great while: I make my pen to serve for an instrument to stir the cin­ders wherewith your old love to me hath bincover'd a long time; therfore I pray let no covurez-f [...]u Bell have power hereafter to rake up, and choak with the ashes of oblivion, that cleer slame wherwith our affections did use to sparkle so long by correspon­dence of Letters, and other offices of love.

I think I shall sojourn yet in this Court these three moneths, for I will not give over this great busines while ther is the least breath of hope remaining.

I know you have choice matter of intelligence somtimes from thence, therfore I pray impait som unto us, and you shall not fail to know how matters pass here weekly. So with my b [...]sa manos to Francisco Imperiall, I rest

Yours most affectionately to serve you, J. H.

XXXV. To the Honble. Sir T. S. at Tower-Hill.

SIR,

I Was yesterday at the Escuriall to see the Monastery of Saint Laurence, the eight wonder of the World; and truly conside­ring the site of the place, the state of the thing, and the symmetry of the structure, with divers other raritles, it may be call'd so; for what I have seen in Italy, and other places, are but bables to it. It is built amongst a company of Craggy-barren-hills, which makes the air the hungrier, and wholsommer; it is all built of Free-stone and Marble, and that with such solidity and moderat height, that surely Philip the seconds chief design was to make a sacrifice of it to eternity, and to contest with the Meteors, and Time it self. It cost eight Millions, it was twenty four yeers a building, and the Founder himself saw it finish'd, and injoy'd it twelve yeers after, and carried his Bones himself thither to be bu­ried.

[Page 97]The reason that mov'd King Philip to wast so much tresure, was a vow he had made at the battell of Saint Quentin, where he was forc'd to batter a Monastery of Saint Laurence Friers, and if he had the victory, he would erect such a Monastery to Saint Laurence, that the world had not the like; therfore the form of it is like a Gridiron, the handle is a huge Royall Palace, and the body a vast Monastery or Assembly of quadrangular Cloysters, for ther are as many as ther be moneths in the yeer. Ther be a hundred Monks, and every one hath his man and his mule, and a mul­titude of Officers; besides, ther are three Libraries there, full of the choisest Books for all Sciences. It is beyond expression, what Gro [...]s, Gardens, Walks, and Aqueducts ther are there, and what curious Fountains in the upper Cloysters, for ther be two Stages of Cloysters: In fine, ther is nothing that's vulgar there. To take a view of every Room in the House, one must make account to go ten miles; ther is a Vault call'd the Pantheon, under the highest Altar, which is all pav'd, wall'd, and arch'd, with Marble; ther be a number of huge Silver Candlesticks, tal­ler than I am; Lamps three yards compas, and divers Chalices and Grosses of massie Gold: Ther is one Quire made all of bur­nish'd Brass: Pictures and Statues like Giants, and a world of glorious things that purely ravish'd me▪ By this mighty Monu­ment, it may be inferr'd, that Philip the second, though he was a little man, yet had he vast Gigantic thoughts in him, to leave such a huge pile for posterity to gaze upon, and admire his memo­ry. No more now, but that I rest

Your most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXXVI, To the Lo: Vicount Col. from Madrid.

My Lord,

YOu writ to me long since, to send you an account of the Duke of Ossuna's death, a little man, but of great fame and fortunes, and much cried up, and known up and down the World. He was revok'd from being Vice-roy of Naples (the best employ­ment [Page 98] the King of Spain hath for a Subject) upon som disgust; And being com to this Court, when he was brought to give an ac­count of his government, being troubled with the Gout, he car­ried his Sword in his hand in steed of a staff; the King misliking the manner of his posture, turn'd his back to him, and so went a­way; therupon he was over-heard to mutter, Esto es para serv [...] muchach [...]s; This it is to serve boys: This coming to the Kings [...]are, he was apprehended, and committed prisoner to a Monastery, not far off, wher he continued som yeers, untill his Beard came to his girdle, then growing very ill, he was permitted to com to his House in this Town, being carried in a bed upon mens shoulders, and so died som yeer ago. Ther were divers accusations against him, amongst the rest, I remember these, That he had kept the Marquis de Campolataros wife, sending her husband out of the way upon employment; That he had got a bastard of a Turkish woman, and suffer'd the child to be brought up in the Mahumetan religion; That being one day at High Masse, when the host was elevated, he drew out of his pocket a p [...]ece of Gold, and held it up, intimating that that was his god: That he had invited som of the prime Courtisans of Naples to a Feast, and after dinner made a banquet for them in his Garden, wher he commanded them to strip themselves stark naked, and go up and down, while he shot Sugar-Plums at them out of a Trunk, which they were to take up from off their high Chapins; and such like extra­vagancies. One (amongst divers other) witty passage was told me of him, which was, That when he was Vice-roy of Sicily, ther died a great rich Duke, who left but one Son, whom with his whole estate, he bequeath'd to the Tutele of the Iesuits, and the words of the Will were, When he is pass'd his minority (Dar [...]te al mio figli­volo quelque voi volete) you shall give my son what you will. It seems the Iesuits took to themselves two parts of three of the estate, and gave the rest to the heir, the young Duke complaining hereof to the Duke of Ossuna, (then Vice-roy) he commanded the Iesuits to appear before him; he ask'd them how much of the estate they would have, they answer'd, two parts of three, which they had almost employed already to build Monasteries, and an Hospitall, to erect particular Altars, and Masses, to sing Dirges and Refrigeriums, for the soul of the deceased Duke: Hereupon, the Duke of Ossuna caus'd the Will to be produc'd, and found therin the words afore recited, When he is pass'd his minority, you shall give my son (of my estate) what you will; Then he told the Iesuits, you must by vertue and tenor of these words, give what you will to the son, which by your own confession is two parts of three; and so he determin'd the bu­sines.

[Page 99]Thus have I in part satisfied your Lordships desire, which I shall do more amply, when I shal be made happy to attend you in person, which I hope will be ere it be long: In the Interim, I take my leave of you from Spain, and rest

Your Lordships most ready and humble Servitor, J. H.

XXXVII. To Simon Digby Esq.

SIR,

I Thank you for the severall sorts of Cyphers you sent me to write by, which were very choice ones and curious. Cryptology, or Epistolizing in a Clandestin way, is very ancient: I read in Agel­lius, that C. Caesar in his Letters to Cajus Oppius, and Balbus Cor­ [...]lius, who were two of his greatest confident'st in managing his privat affairs, did write in Cyphers by a various transportation of the Alphabet; wherof Probus Grammaticus de occulta litterarum significatione Epistolarum C. Caesaris, writes a curious Commentary: But me thinks, that certain kind of Hieroglyphics, the Caelesti­all Signes, the seven Planets, and other Constellations might make a curious kind of Cypher, as I will more particularly demon­strate unto you in a Scheme, when I shall be made happy with your conversation. So I rest

Your assured Servitor, J. H.

XXXVIII. To Sir Iames Crofts, from Bilbao.

SIR,

BEing safely come to the Marine, in convoy of his Majesties Iewells, and being to sojourn here som dayes, the conveni­ency of this Gentleman (who knows, and much honoureth you) [Page 100] he being to ride Post through France, invited me to send you this. We were but five horsemen in all our seven daies journey, from Madrid hither, and the charge Mr. Wiches had is valued at four hun­dred thousand Crowns; but 'tis such safe travelling in Spain, that one may carry Gold in the Palm of his hand, the government is so good. When we had gain'd Biscay ground, we pass'd one day through a Forrest, and lighting off our Mules to take a little repast under a tree, wee tooke down our Alforjas, and som bot­tles of wine (and you know 'tis ordinary here to ride with ones victualls about him) but as we were eating, we spied two huge Woolfs, who star'd upon us a while, but had the good manners to go a way: It put me in minde of a pleasant tale I heard Sir Thomas Fair [...]ax relate of a Soldier in Ireland, who having got his Passe­port to go for England, as he pass'd through a Wood with his Knapsac upon his back, being weary, he sate down under a Tree, wher he opened his Knapsack, and fell to som Victualls he had; but upon a sudden he was surpriz'd with two or three Woolfs, who comming towards him, he threw them scraps of Bread and Cheese, till all was don, then the Woolfs making a neerer approach unto him, he knew not what shift to make, but by taking a pair of Bag-Pipes which he had, and as soon as he began to play upon them, the Wolves ran all away as if they had bin scar'd out of their wi [...]s; wherupon the Soldier said, A pox take you all, if I had known you had lov'd music so well, you should have had it before dinner.

If ther be a lodging void at the three Halbards-Heads, I pray be pleas'd to cause it to be reserv'd for me. So I rest

Your humble Servitor, J. H.

Familiar Letters.
SECTION IV.

I. To my Father from London.

SIR,

I Am newly returnd from Spain, I came over in Con­voy of the Prince his jewells, for which, one of the Ships Royall with the Catch were sent under the Command of Captain Love; We landed at Plimouth, whence I came by Post to Theobalds in less then two nights and a day, to bring his Majesty news of their safe arrivall: The Prince had newly got a fall off a Horse, and kept his Chamber; the jewells were valued at above a hundred thousand pounds; som of them a little before the Prince his depar­ture had bin presented to the Infanta, but she waving to receive them, yet with a civill complement, they were left in the hands of one of the Secretaries of State for her use upon the wedding day, and it was no unworthy thing in the Spaniard to deliver them back, notwithstanding, that the Treaties both of Match, and Palatinat, had bin dissolv'd a pretty while before by Act of Parliament, that a war was threatned, and Ambassadors revok'd. Ther were jewells also amongst them to be presented to the King and Queen of Spain, to most of the Ladies of Honour, and the Grandees. Ther was a great Table Diamond for Olivares of eighteen Carrats Weight, but the richest of all was to the Infanta her self, which was a Chain of great Orient Perl, to the number of 276. weighing nine Ounces. The Spaniards notwithstanding they are the Masters of the Staple of jewells, stood astonish'd at the beuty of these, and confess'd them­selves to be put down.

[Page 102]Touching the employment, upon which I went to Spain, I had my charges born all the while, and that was all; had it taken effect, I had made a good busines of it; but 'tis no wonder (nor can it be I hope any disrepute unto me) that I could not bring to pass, what three Ambassadors could not do before me.

I am now casting about for another Fortun, and som hopes I have of employment about the Duke of Buckingham, he sways more than ever; for wheras he was before a Favorit to the King, hee is now a Favorit to Parliament, People, and City, for breaking the match with Spain: Touching his own interest, he had reason to do it, for the Spaniards love him not: but whether the public interest of the State will suffer in it, or no, I dare not determine, for my part, I hold the Spanish Match to be better than their Powder, and their Wares better than their Wars; and I shall be ever of that mind, That no Countrey is able to do England less hurt, and more good than Spain, considering the large Trafic and Treasure that is to be got thereby.

I shall continue to give you account of my courses when oppor­tunity serves, and to dispose of matters so, that I may attend you this Summer in the Countrey: So desiring still your Blessing and Prayers, I rest,

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

II. To R. Brown Esq.

Dear Sir,

THer is no seed so fruitfull as that of Love, I do not mean that gross carnall Love which propagats the World, but that which preserves it, to wit, Seeds of Friendship, which hath little commerce with the Body, but is a thing Divine an [...] Spi­rituall; Ther cannot be a more pregnant proof hereof, then those Seeds of Love, which I have long since cast into your Brest, which have thriven so well, and in that exuberance, that they have been more fruitfull unto mee, then that field in Sicily, call'd Le trecente cariche [...], The field of three hundred Loads, so call'd, because it returns the Sower three hundred for [Page 103] one yearly▪ So plentifull hath your love been unto me, but amongst other sweet fruits it hath born, those precious Letters which you have sent me from time to time, both at home and abroad, are not of the least value; I did always hugg and highly esteem them, and you in them, for they yeelded me both profit and pleasure.

That Seed which you have also sown in me, hath [...]ructified som­thing, but it hath not been able to make you such rich returns, nor afford so plentifull a Crop, yet I dare say [...], this Crop how thin soever, was pure and free from Tares, from Cockle or Darnell, from flattery or fashood, and what it shall produce hereafter, shall be so; nor shall any injury of the Heavens, as Tempests, or Thunder and Lightning (I mean no cross or affliction whatsoever) be able, to blast and smutt it, or, hinder it to grow up, and fructifie still.

This is the third time God Almighty hath been pleas'd to bring me back to the sweet bosom of my dear Countrey from beyond the Seas; I have been already comforted with the sight of many of my choice friends, but I miss you extremely, therfore I pray make haste, for London streets which you and I have trod together so of­ten, will prove tedious to me els. Amongst other things, Black-Friers will entertain you with a Play Spick and span new, and the Cock-pit with another; nor I beleeve after so long absence, will it be an unpleasing object for you to see,

Your
J. H.

III. To the Lord Vicount Colchester.

Right Honble,

MY last to your Lordship was in Italian, with the Venetian Gazetta inclos'd. Count Mansfelt is upon point of parting, having obtain'd it seems the sum of his desires, he was lodged all the while in the same Quarter of Saint Iames, which was appointed for the Infanta; he supp'd yestrnight with the Counsell of War, and he hath a grant of 12000 men, English and Scots, whom hee will have ready in the Body of an Army against the next Spring; and they say, that England, France, Venice, and Savoy, do contribut for [Page 104] the maintenance therof 60000 pound a month; ther can be no conjecture, much less any judgment made yet of his design; Most Sthink it will be for relieving Breda, which is straightly begirt by pinola, who gives out, that he hath her already as a Bird in a Cage, and will have her maugre all the opposition of Christendom; yet ther is fresh news com over, that Prince Maurice hath got on the back of him, and hath beleaguer'd him, as he hath done the Town, which I want faith to beleeve yet, in regard of the huge circuit of Spinola's Works, for his circumvallations are cry'd up to be neer up­on twenty miles. But while the Spaniard is spending Millions here [...]or getting small Towns, the Hollander gets Kingdomes of him els where, for he hath invaded and taken lately from the Por­tugall part of Brasil, a rich Countrey for Sugars, Cottons, Balsams, Dying-wood, and divers commodities besides.

The Treaty of mariage 'twixt our Prince, and the yongest daugh­ter of France, goes on a pace, and my Lord of Carlile and Holland are in Paris about it, we shall see now what difference ther is 'twixt the French and Spanish pace: The two Spanish Ambassadors have been gon hence long since, they say, that they are both in prison, one in Burges in Spain, the other in Flanders, for the scandalous in­formation they made here against the Duke of Buckingham, about which, the day before their departure hence, they desir'd to have one privat audience more, but his Majesty denyed them; I beleeve they will not continue long in disgrace, for matters grow daily worse and worse 'twixt us, and Spain: for divers Letters of Mart are granted our Merchants, and Letters of Mart are commonly the fore-runners of a War: Yet they say Gondamar will be on his way hither again, about the Palatinat, for the King of Denmark appears now in his Necces quarrell, and Arm's apace.

No more now, but that I kiss your Lordships hands, and rest

Your most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

IV. To my Cos: Mr. Rowland Gwin.

Cousin,

I Was lately sorry, and I was lately glad, that I heard you were ill, that I heard you are well.

Your affectionat Cousin, I. H.

V. To Thomas Iones Esq.

Tom,

IF you are in healt [...], 'tis well, we are here all so, and wee should be better had wee your company; therfore I pray leave the smutty Ayr of London, and com hither to breath sweeter, wher you may pluck a Rose, and drink a Cillibub.

Your faithfull friend, J. H.

VI. To D. C.

THe Bearer hereof hath no other errand, but to know how you do in the Countrey, and this paper is his credentiall Letter; Therfore I pray hasten his dispatch, and if you please send him back like the man in the Moon, with a basket of your fruit on his back.

Your true friend, J. H.

VII. To my Father, from London.

SIR,

I Received yours of the third of February, by the hands of my Cou­sin Thomas Gwin of Trecastle.

It was my fortune to be on Sunday was fortnight at Theobalds, wher his late Majestie King Iames departed this life, and went to his last rest upon the day of rest, presently after Sermon was don: A little before the break of day, he sent for the Prince, who rose out of his bed, and came in his Night-Gown; the King seem'd to have som earnest thing to say unto him, and so endea­vour'd to rowse himself upon his Pillow, but his spirits were so spent, that he had not strength to make his words audible. He di­ed of a Feaver which began with an Ague, and som Scotch Doctors mutter at a Plaster the Countess of Buckingham applied to the outside of his stomack: Tis thought the last breach of the march with Spain, which for many yeers he had so vehemently de­fir'd, took too deep an impression in him, and that he was forc'd to rush into a war, now in his declining Age, having liv'd in a con­tinuall uninterrupted peace his whole life, except som collaterall aydes he had sent his Son in Law: as soon as he expir'd, the Pri­vy Counsell sate, and in less then a quarter of an hour, King Charls was proclaimed at Theobalds Court Gate, by Sir Edward Zouch Knight Marshall, Master Secretary Conway dictating unto him, That wheras it hath pleas'd God to take to his mercy, our most gracious Soveraign King Iames of famous memory, We proclaim Prince Charles, His rightfull and indubitable Heir, to be King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, &c. The Knight Marshall mi­stook, saying, His rightfull and dubitable Heir, but he was rectified by the Secretary. This being don, I took my Horse instantly, and came to London first, except one, who was com a little before me, insomuch, that I found the Gates shut. His now Majesty took Coach, and the Duke of Buckingham with him, and came to Saint Iames; In the evening he was proclaim'd at White-Hall Gate, in Cheapside, and other places, in a sad showre of Rain; and the Weather was sutable to the condition wherin he finds the King­dome which is Cloudy; for he is left engag'd in a War with a po­tent [Page 107] Prince, the peeple by long desuetude unapt for Arms, the [...]leet Royall in quarter repair, himself without a Queen, his Si­ser without a Countrey, the Crown pittifully laden with debts, and the Purse of the State lightly ballasted, though it never had better opportunity to be rich then it had these last twenty yeers: But God Almighty, I hope will make him emerge, and pull this Island out of all these plunges, and preserve us from worser times.

The Plague is begun in White-Chappell, and as they say in the same house, at the same day of the moneth, with the same num­ber that died twenty two yeers since, when Queen Elizabeth de­parted.

Ther are great preparations for the Funerall, and ther is a de­sign to buy all the Cloth for Mourning White, and then to put it to the Dy [...]rs in gross, which is like to save the Crown a good deal of mony; the Drapers murmur extremely at the Lord Cranfield for it.

I am not setled yet in any stable condition, but I lie Windbound at the Cape of good Hope, expecting som gentle gale to launch out into an imployment.

So with my love to all my Brothers and Sisters at the Bryn, and neer Brecknock, I humbly crave a continuance of your Prayers, and Blessing to

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

VIII. To Dr. Prichard.

SIR,

SInce I was beholden to you for your many favours in Oxford, I have not heard from you, (ne gry quidem) I pray let the wonted correspondence be now reviv'd, and receive new vigor be­tween us.

My Lord Chancellor Bacon is lately dead of a long languishing weaknes; he died so poor, so that he scarce left money to bury him, which though he had a great Wit, did argue no great Wisdom, it being one of the essentiall properties of a Wiseman to provide for the main chance. I have read, that it hath bin the fortunes of all [Page 108] Poets commonly to die Beggars; but for an Orator, a Lawyer, and Philosopher, as he was, to die so, 'cis rare. It seems the same fate befell him, that attended Demosthenes, Seneca, and Cicero, (all great men) of whom, the two first fell by corruption; the falrest Diamond may have a flaw in it, but I beleeve he died poor out of a contempt of the pelf of Fortune, as also out of an exeess of genero­sity, which appear'd, as in divers other passages, so once when the King had sent him a Stag, he sent up for the Underkeeper, and having drunk the Kings health unto him in a great Silver. Guilt-Bowl, he gave it him for his fee.

He writ a pittifull Letter to King Iames, not long before his death, and concludes, Help me dear Soverain Lord and Master, and pity me so far, that I who have bin born to a Bag, be not now in my age forc'd in effect to bear a Wallet; nor I that desire to live to study, may be driven to study to live: Which words, in my opinion, argued a little abjection of spirit, as his former Letter to the Prince did of prophanes, wherin be hoped, that as the Father was his Creater, the Son will be his Redeemer. I write not this to derogat from the no­ble worth of the Lord Viscount Verulam, who was a rare man, a man Reconditae scientiae, & ad salutem literarum natus, and I think the eloquentst that was born in this Isle. They say he shall be the last Lord Chancelor, as Sir Edward Coke was the last Lord Chief Iustice of England; for ever since they have bin term'd Lord Chief Iustices of the Kings Bench; so hereafter ther shall be onely Ket­pers of the Great Seal, which for Title and Office, are deposable; but they say the Lord Chancelors Title is indelible.

I was lately at Grayes-Inne with Sir Eubule, and he desir'd me to remember him unto you, as I do also salute Meum Prichardum ex imis praecordiis, Vale [...].

Yours most affectionately while, I. H.

IX. To my welbeloved Consin Mr. T. V.

Cousin,

YOu have a great work in hand, for you write unto me, that you are upon a treaty of mariage; a great work indeed, and [Page 109] a work of such consequence, that it may make you or marr you; it may make the whole remainder of your life uncouth, or comforta­ble to you; for of all civill actions that are incident to man, ther's not any that tends more to his infelicity or happines; therfore it concerns you not to be over-hasty herein, not to take the Ball before the Bound; you must be cautious how you thrust your neck into such a yoke, whence you will never have power to withdraw it a­gain; for the toung useth to tie so hard a knot, that the teeth can never untie, no not Alexanders Sword can cut asunder among us Christians. If you are resolv'd to marry, Choose wher you love, and resolve to love your choice; let love, rather than lucre, be your guide in this election, though a concurrence of both be good, yet for my part, I had rather the latter should be wanting than the first; the one is the Pilot, the other but the Ballast of the Ship which should carry us to the Harbour of a happy life: If you are bent to wed, I wish you another gets wife then Socrates had; who when she had scoulded him out of doors, as he was going through the Portall, threw a Chamber pot of stale Urine upon his head, wherat the Philosopher having bin silent all the while, smilingly said, I thought ofter so much Thunder we should have Rain: And as I wish you may not light upon such a Xantippe, (as the wisest men have had ill luck in this kind, as I could instance in two of our most eminent Lawyers, C. B.) so I pray that God may deliver you from a Wife of such a generation, that Strowd our Cook here at Westminster said his Wife was of, who, when (out of a mislike of the Preacher) he had on a Sunday in the Afternoon, gon out of the Church to a Tavern, and returning towards the Evening pretty well heated with Canary, to look to his Roast, and his Wife falling to read him a lowd lesson in so furious a manner, as if she would have basted him insteed of the Mutton, and amongst other revi­lings, telling him often, Thut the devill, the devill would fetch him, at last he broke out of a long silence, and told her, I prethee good Wife hold thy self content, for I know the devill will do me no hurt, for I have married his Kinswoman: If you light upon such a Wife (a Wife that hath more bene then flesh) I wish you may have the same measure of patience that Socrates and Strowd had, to suf­fer the Gray-Mare somtimes to be the better Horse. I remember a French Proverb:

La Maison est miserable & Meschante,
Où la Poule plus haut que le Coc chante,
[Page 110]
That House doth every day more wretched grow,
Wher the Hen lowder than the Cock doth crow.

Yet we have another English Proverb almost counter to this▪ That it is better to marry a Shrew then a Sheep; for though silence be the dumb Orator of beuty, and the best ornament of a Woman, yet a Phleg­matic dull wife is fulsom and fastidious.

Excuse me Cousin, that I Jest with you in so serious a busines: I know you need no counsell of mine herein, you are discreet enough of your self; nor, I presume, do you want advice of Pa­rents, which by all means must go along with you: So wishing you all conjugall joy, and a happy confarreation, I rest

Your affectionat Cousin, J. H.

X. To my Noble Lord, the Lord Clifford from London.

My Lord,

THe Duke of Buckingham is lately return'd from Holland, ha­ving renewed the peace with the States, and Articled with them for a continuation of som Navall forces, for an expedition against Spain; as also having taken up som moneys upon privat jewells (not any of the Crowns) and lastly, having comforted the Lady Elizabeth for the decease of his late Majesty her Father, and of Prince Frederic her eldest Son, whole disasterous manner of death, amongst the rest of her sad afflictions, is not the least: For passing over Haerlam Mere, a huge Inland Lough, in compa­ny of his Father, who had bin in Amsterdam, to look how his bank of money did thrive, and coming (for more frugality) in the common Boat, which was oreset with Merchandize, and other passengers, in a thick Fog, the Vessell turn'd ore, and so many perish'd; the Prince Palsgrave sav'd himself by swimming, but the young Prince clinging to the Mast, and being intangled among the Tacklings, was half drown'd, and half frozen to death: A sad de­stiny.

[Page 111]Ther is an open rupture twixt us and the Spaniard, though he gives out, that he never broke with us to this day: Count Gonda­mar was on his way to Flanders, and thence to England (as they say) with a large Commission to treat, for a surrender of the Pa­lainat, and so to peece matters together again; but he died in the journey, at a place call'd Bunnol, of pure apprehensions of grief, as it is given out.

The match twixt his Majesty and the Lady Henrietta Maria, youngest Daughter to Henry the great (the eldest being maried to the King of Spain, and the second to the Duke of Savoy) goes roundly on, and is in a manner concluded; wherat the Count of Soissons is much discontented, who gave himself hopes to have her; but the hand of Heaven hath predestin'd her for a far higher condi­tion.

The French Ambassadors who were sent hither to conclude the busines, having privat audience of his late Majesty a little before his death, he told them pleasantly, That he would make war against the Lady Henrietta, because she would not receive the two Letters which were sent her, one from himself, and the other from his son, but sent them to her Mother; yet he thought he should easily make peace with her, because he understood she had afterwards put the latter Letter in her bosome, and the first in her Coshionet, wherly he gather'd, that she intended to reserve his son for her Affection, and him for Coun­sell.

The Bishop of Lucon, now Cardinall de Richelieu, is grown to be the sole Favorit of the King of France, being brought in by the Queen-Mother, he hath hin very active in advancing the match, but 'tis thought the wars will break out afresh against them of the Religion, notwithstanding the ill fortune the King had be­fore Mountauban few yeers since, wher he lost above 500 of his No­bles, wherof the great Duke of Main was one; and having lain in person before the Town many months, and receiv'd som af­fronts, as that inscription upon their Gates shew, Roy sans foy, vil­le sans peur, a King without faith, a town without fear; yet he was forc'd to raze his works, and raise his siege.

The Letter which Mr. Ellis Hicks brought them of Mountauban from Rechell, through so much danger, and with so much gallan­try, was an infinit advantage unto them; for wheras ther was a politic report rais'd in the Kings Army, and blown into Mountau­ban, that Rochell was yeelded to the Count of Soissons, who lay [...]hen before her, this Letter did inform the contrary, and that Rochell was in as good a plight as ever; wherupon, they made a sally the [Page 112] next day upon the Kings Forces, and did him a great deal of spoil.

Ther be summous out for a Parliament, I pray God it may prove more prosperous than the former.

I have been lately recommended to the Duke of Buckingham, by som noble friends of mine that have intimacy with him, about whom, though he hath three Secretaries already, I hope to have som employment; for I am weary of walking up and down so idly upon London streets.

The Plague begins to rage mightily, God avert his judgments, that meance so great a Mortality, and turn not away his face from this poor Island: So I kiss your Lordships hands in quali­ty of

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XI. To Rich. Altham Esqr.

SIR,

THe Eccho wants but a face, and the Looking-Glass a voice, to make them both living creatures, and to becom the same body they represent; the one by repercussion of sound, the other by re­flection of sight: Your most ingenious Letters to me from time to time, do far more lively represent you, than either Eccho or Cry­stall can do; I mean, they represent the better and nobler part of you, to wit, the inward man; they clearly set forth the notions of your mind, and the motions of your soul, with the strength of your imagination; for as I know your exterior person by your linea­ments, so I know you as well inwardly by your lines, and by those lively expressions you give of your self, insomuch, that I beleeve, if the interior man within you were so visible as the outward (as once Plate wish'd, that vertue might be seen with the corporeal eyes) you would draw all the world after you; or if your well-born thoughts, and the words of your Letters were eccho'd in any place, wher they might rebound and be made audible,, they are compos'd of such sweet and charming strains of ingenuity and eloquence, that all the Nymphs of the Woods and the Valleys, the Dryades, yea, [Page 113] the Graces and Muses', would pitch their Pavillions there; nay, Apollo himself would dwell longer in that place with his Rays, and make them reverberat more strongly, than either, upon Pindus, or Parnassus, or Rhodes it self▪ whence he never removes his Eye, as long as he is above this Hemispher. I confess my Letters to you, which I send by way of correspondence, com far short of such vertue, yet are they the true Idaeas of my mind, and of that reall and inbred affection I bear you; one should never teach his Letter or his Laquay to lie, I observe that rule: but besides my Letters, I could wish ther were a Crystall Casement in my Brest, thorow which you might be­hold the motions of my heart,

Utinam (que) oculos in pectore pesses Inserere, then should you clearly see without any deception of sight, how truely I am, and how intirely

Yours
J. H.

And to answer you in the same strain of Vers you sent me.

First, Shall the Heavens bright Lamp forget to shine,
The Stars shall from the Azurd skie decline;
First, Shall the Orient with the West shake hand,
The Center of the world shall cease to stand:
First, Wolves shall ligue with Lambs, the Dolphins flie,
The Lawyer and Physitian Fees deny,
The Thames with Tagus shall exchange her Bed,
My Mistris locks with mine, shall first turn red;
First, Heaven shall lie below, and Hell above,
Ere I inconstant to my Altham prove.

XII. To the R. Honble my Lord of Calingford, after Earl of Carberry, at Colden Grove, 28 May. 1625.

My Lord,

VVE have gallant news now abroad, for we are sure to have a new Queen ere it be long; both the Contract and mariage was lately solemniz'd in France; the one the second [Page 114] of this month in the Louvre, the other the eleventh day following in the great Church of Paris, by the Cardinall of Rochefoucand; ther was som clashing 'twixt him, and the Archbishop of Paris, who alleg'd 'twas his duty to officiat in that Church, but the dignity of Cardinall, and the quality of his Office, being the Kings great Almner, which makes him chief Curat of the Court, gave him the prerogative. I doubt not but your Lordship hath heard of the Capitulations, but for better assurance, I will run them over briefly.

The King of France oblig'd himself to procure the Dispensation; the mariage should be celebrated in the same form as that of Queen Mar­garet, and of the Dutchess of Bar; her Dowrie should be 800000 Crowns six shillings a peece, the one moitie to be paied the day of the Contract, the other a twelvemonth after. The Queen shall have a Chap­pell in all the Kings Roiall houses, and any wher else, where she shall recide within the Dominions of his Majestie of great Britain, with free exercise of the Roman Religion, for her self, her Officers, and all her Houshold, for the celebration of the Mass, the Predication of the Word, Administration if the Sacraments, and power to procure Indulgen­ces from the Holy Father. That to this end, she shall be allow'd 28 Priests or Ecclesiasticks in her House, and a Bishop in quality of Al­moner, who shall have jurisdiction over all the rest, and that none of the Kings Officers shall have power over them, unless in case of Treason; therfore all her Ecclesiastics shall take the Oath of fidelitie to His Ma­jestie of great Britain; ther shall be a Cymitier or Church-yard clos'd a­bout, to burie those of her Family. That in consideration of this mariage, all English Catholics, as well Ecclesiastics as Lay, which shall be in any prison meerly for Religion, since the last Edict, shall be set at libertie.

This is the eighth Alliance we have had with France, since the Conquest; and as it is the best that could be made in Christen­dom, so I hope it will prove the happiest. So I kiss your hands, being

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XIII. To the Honble Sir Tho. Sa [...]

SIR,

I Convers'd lately with a Gentleman that came from France, who amongst other things, discours'd much of the Favourit Richelieu, who is like to be an active man, and hath great designs. The two first things he did, was to make sure of England, and the Hollander; he thinks to have us safe enough by this mariage; and Holland by a late League, which was bought with a great sum of money; for he hath furnish'd the States with a Million of Liures, at two shillings a peece in present, and six hundred thousand Liures every year of these two that are to com; provided, That the States repay these sums two years after they are in peace or truce: The King press'd much for Liberty of Conscience to Roman Catholics a­mongst them, and the Deputies promis'd to do all they could with the States Generall about it; they Articled likewise for French to be associated with them in the trade to the Indies.

Monsieur is lately maried to Mary of Bourbon, the Duke of Mon­pensiers Daughter, he told her, That he would be a better Husband, than he had been a Suter to her, for hee hung off a good while: This mariage was made by the King, and Monsieur hath for his apennage 100000 Liures, annuall Rent from Chartres and Blois, 100000 Liures Pension, and 500000 to be charg'd yearly upon the generall receipts of Orleans, in all about 70000 pounds. Ther was much ado before this match could be brought about, for ther were many opposers, and ther be dark whispers, that ther was a deep plot to confine the King to a Monastery, and that Monsieur should govern; and divers great ones have suffered for it, and more are like to be discover'd. So I take my leave for present, and rest

Your very humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XIV. To the Lady Jane Savage, Marchioness of Winchester.

Excellent Lady,

I May say of your Grace, as it was said once of a rare Italian Princess, that you are the greatest Tyrant in the World, because you make all those that see you your slaves, much more them that know you, I mean those that are acquainted with your inward dis­position, and with the faculties of your soul, as well as the Phisno­my of your face; for Vertue took as much pains to adorn the one, as Nature did to perfect the other; I have had the happines to know both, when your Grace took pleasure to learn Spanish, at which time, when my betters far had offer'd their service in this kind, I had the honor to be commanded by you often. Hee that hath as much experience of you, as I have had, will confess, that the hand­maid of God Almighty was never so prodigall of her gifts to any, or labour'd more to frame an exact modell of Femal perfection; nor was dame Nature onely busied in this Work, but all the Gra­ces did consult and co-operat with her, and they wasted so much of their Tresure to in rich this one peece, that it may be a good reason why so many lame and defective fragments of Women-kind are daily thrust into the world.

I return you here inclos'd the Sonnet, your Grace pleas'd to send me lately, rendred into Spanish, and fitted for the same Ayr it had in English, both for cadence, and number of feet: With it I send my most humble thanks, that your Grace would descend to command me in any thing that might conduce to your content­ment and service; for ther is nothing I desire with a greater Am­bition (and herein I have all the World my Rival) than to be ac­counted

Madame
Your Grace's most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

X. To the Right Honble the Lord Clifford.

My Lord,

I Pray be pleas'd to dispence with this slownes of mine in answe­ring yours of the first of this present:

Touching the domestic occurrences, the Gentleman who is Bea­rer hereof, is more capable to give you account by discourse, than I can in paper.

For forrain tidings, your Lordship may understand, that the Town of Breda hath bin a good while making her last will and testament, but now ther is certain news com, that she hath yeel­ded up the Ghost to Spinalo's hands after a tough siege of thirteen months, and a circumvallation of nee [...]r upon twenty miles com­pas.

My Lord of Southampton and his eldest son sickned at the siege, and died at Berghen; the adventrous Earl Henry of Oxford, see­ming to tax the Prince of Orange of slacknes to fight, was set upon a desperat Work, wher he melted his grease, and so being carried to the Hague, he died also: I doubt not but you have heard of Graye Maurice's death, which happen'd when the Town was pass'd cure, which was his more than the States, for he was Marquis of Breda, and had neer upon thirty thousand dollars annual rent from her: Therfore he seem'd in a kind of sympathy to sicken with his Town, and died before her. He had provided plentifully for all his Naturall children, but could not, though much importun'd by Doctor Roseus, and other Divines upon his death bed, be induc'd to make them legitimat by marying the mother of them, for the Law there is, That if one hath got children of any Woman, though unmaried to her, yet if he mary her never so little before his death, he makes her honest, and them all legitimat; but it seems, the Prince postpos'd the love he bore to his woman and chil­dren, to that which he bore to his brother Henry; for had he made the children legitimat, it had prejudic'd the brother in point of command and fortunes; yet he hath provided very plentifully for them and the mother.

Grave Henry hath succeeded him in all things, and is a gallant Gentleman, of a French education and temper; he charg'd him [Page 118] at his death to marry a young Lady, the Count of Solms Daughter, attending the Queen of Bohemia, whom he had long courted, which is thought will take speedy effect.

When the siege before Breda had grown hot, Sir Edward Vere being one day attending Prince Maurice, he pointed at a rising place call'd Terbay, wher the enemy had built a Fort, (which might have bin prevented) Sir Edward told him, he fear'd that Fort would be the cause of the loss of the Town; the Grave spatter'd and shook his head, saying, 'twas the greatest error he had com­mitted since he knew what belong'd to a Soldier; as also in mana­ging the plot for surprising of the Cittadell of Antwerp, for he re­pented that he had not imployed English and French, in lieu of the slow Dutch who aym'd to have the sole honour of it, and were not so fit instruments for such a nimble peece of service. As soon as Sir Charls Morgan gave up the Town, Spinola caus'd a new Gate to be erected with this inscription in great Golden Characters.

Philippo quarto regnante,
Clara Eugenia Isabella Gubernante,
Ambrosio Spinola obsidente,
Quatuor Regibus contra conantibus
Breda capta fuit Idibus, &c.

Tis thought Spinola now, that he hath recover'd the honor he had lost before Berghen op Zoon three yeers since, will not long stay in Flanders, but retire.

No more now but that I am resolv'd to continue ever,

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XVI. To Mr R. Sc. at York.

SIR,

I Sent you one of the third Current, but twas not answer'd; I sent another of the thirteenth like a second Arrow to find out the first, but I know not what's become of either; I send this to find out the other two, and if this fail, ther shall go no more out [Page 119] of my Quiver: If you forget me, I have cause to complain, and more▪ if you remenber me; to forget, may proceed from the frailty of memory, not to answer me when you minde me, is pure neglect, and no less than a piacle. So I rest

Yours easily to be recover'd, J. H.
Ira furor brevis est, brevis est mea littera, cogor, Ira correptus, corripuisse stylum.

XVII. To Dr. Field, Lord Bishop of Landaff.

My Lord,

I Send you my humble thanks for those worthy Hospitable fa­vours you were pleas'd to give me at your lodgings in Westmin­ster. I had yours of the fifth of this present, by the hands of Mr. Ionathan Field. The news which fills every corner of the Town at this time, is the sorry and unsuccessfull return that Wimbledons Fleet hath made from Spain: It was a Fleet that deserv'd to have had a better destiny, considering the strength of it, and the huge charge the Crown was at; for besides a squadron of sixteen Hol­landers, wherof Count William one of Prince Maurice's naturall Sons was Admirall, ther were above fourscore of ours; the grea­test joynt navall power (of Ships without Gallies) that ever spred sail upon Salt-Water, which makes the World abroad to stand a­stonish'd how so huge a Fleet could be so suddenly made ready. The sinking of the long Robin with 170 souls in her, in the Bay of Biscay, erc she had gon half the voyage was no good augury; And the Critics of the time say, ther were many other things that pro­mis'd no good fortune to this Fleet; besides they would point at divers errors committed in the conduct of the main design; first, the odd choice that was made of the Admirall, who was a meer Land-man, which made the Sea men much slight him, it belonging [Page 120] properly to Sir Robert Mansell, Vice-Admirall of England, to have gon in case the High-Admirall went not; then they speak of the incertainty of the enterprize, and that no place was pitch'd upon to be invaded, till they came to the height of the South Cape, and to sight of shore, where the Lord Wimbledon first cal'd a Coun­sell of War, wherin som would be for Malaga, others for Saint Ma­ry-Port, others for Gibraltar, but most for Cales, and while they were thus consulting, the Countrey had an alarum given them; Add hereunto the blazing abroad of this expedition ere the Fleet went out of the Downs, for Mercurius Gallobelgicus had it in print, that it was for the Streights mouth; Now 'tis a rule, that great designs of State should be mysteries till they com to the very act of per­formance, and then they should turn to exploits: Moreover, when the locall attempt was resolv'd on, ther wer seven ships (by the ad­vice of one Captain Love) suffer'd to go up the River, which might have bin easily taken, and being rich, 'tis thought they would have defrayed well neer the charge of our Fleet, which ships did much infest us afterwards with their Ordnance, when we had ta­ken the Forr of Puntall: Moreover, the disorderly carriage and excess of our Land-men (wherof ther were 10000) when they were put a shore, who broke into the Fryers Caves, and other Cellers of Sweet-Wines, wher many hundreds of them being surprizd, and found dead-drunk, the Spaniards came and toar off their Ears, and Noses, and pluck'd out their Eies: And I was told of one merry fellow escaping, that kill'd an Asse for a Buck: Lastly, it is laid to the Admiralls charge, that my Lord de la Wares Ship being in­fected, he should give order, that the sick men should be scatter'd in o divers ships, which dispers'd the contagion exceedingly, so that som thousands died before the Fleet return'd, which was don in a confus'd manner without any observance of Sea Orders: Yet I do not hear of any that will be punish'd for these miscarriages, which will make the dishonour fall more fouly upon the State: but the most infortunate passage of all was, that though we did nothing by Land that was considerable, yet if we had stayd but a day or two longer, and spent time at sea, the whole Fleet of Ga­leons, and Nova Hispania, had faln into our mouths, which came presently in, close along the Coasts of Barbary, and in all likeli­hood, we might have had the opportunity to have taken the rich­est prize that ever was taken on salt-water. Add hereunto, that while we were thus Masters of those Seas, a Fleet of fifty sail of Bra­sil men got safe into Lisbon, with four of the richest Cara [...]ks that e­ver came from the East-Indies.

[Page 121]I hear my Lord of Saint Davids is to be remov'd to Bath and Wells, and it were worth your Lordships comming up, to endeavor the succeeding of him. So, I humbly rest

Your Lordships most ready Servitor, J. H.

XVIII. To my Lord Duke of Buckinghams Grace at New-Market.

MAy it please your Grace to peruse and pardon these few Ad­vertisements, which I would not dare to present, had I not hopes that the goodnes which is concomitant with your greatnes, would make them veniall.

My Lord, a Parliament is at hand, the last was boisterous, God grant that this may prove more calm: A rumor runs that ther are Clouds already ingendred, which will break out into a storm in the lower Region [...], and most of the drops are like to fall upon your Grace: This, though it be but vulgar Astrology, is not altogether to bee contemn'd, though I believe that His Majesties coun­tenance reflecting so strongly upon your Grace, with the brightnes of your own innocency, may be able to dispell and scat­ter them to nothing.

My Lord, you are a great Prince, and all eyes are upon your actions, this makes you more subject to envy, which like the Sun beams, beats alwayes upon rising grounds. I know your Grace hath many sage and solid heads about you; yet I trust it [...] will prove no offence, if out of the late relation I have to your Grace, by the recommendation of such Noble personages, I put in also my Mite.

My Lord, under favor, it were not amiss if your Grace would be pleased to part with som of those places you hold, which have least relation to the Court, and it would take away the mutte­rings that run of multiplicity of Offices, and in my shallow ap­prehension, your Grace might stand more firm without an Anchor: The Office of High Admirall in these times of action requires one whole man to execute it, your Grace hath another Sea of busi­nesses [Page 122] to wade through, and the voluntary resigning of this Of­fice would fill all men, yea even your enemies, with admirati­on and affection, and make you more a Prince, than detract from your greatnes: If any ill successes happen at Sea (as that of the Lord Wimbledons lately) or if ther be any murmur for pay, your Grace will be free from all imputations, besides it will afford your Grace more leasure to look into your own affairs, which lie con­fus'd, and unsetled: Lastly, (which is not the least thing) this act will be so plausible, that it may much advantage His Majesty in point of Subsidy.

Secondly, it were expedient (under correction) that your Grace would be pleas'd to allot som set hours for audience and access of Suters, and it would be less cumber to your Self, and your Ser­vants, and give more content to the World, which often mutters for difficulty of access.

Lastly, it were not amiss, that your Grace would settle a stan­ding Mansion-house and Family, that Suters may know whither to repair constantly, and that your Servants evry one in his place, might know what belongs to his place, and attend accordingly; for though confusion in a great Family carry a kind of state with it, yet order and regularity gains a greater opinion of vertue and wisdom. I know your Grace doth not (nor needs not) affect popu­larity: It is true, that the peoples love is the strongest Cittadell of a Soveraign Prince, but to a great subject, it hath often prov'd fatall; for he who pulleth off his Hat to the People, giveth his Head to the Prince; and it is remarkable what was said of a late infortunat Earl, who a little before Queen Elizabeths death, had drawn the Ax upon his own Neck, That he was grown so popular, that he was too dangerous for the times, and the times for him.

My Lord, now that your Grace is threatned to be heav'd at, it should behove evry one that oweth you duty and good will, to reach out his hand som way or other to serve you; Amonst these, I am one that presumes to doe it, in this poor impertinent Paper; for which I implore pardon, because I am

My Lord,
Your Grace's most humble and faithfull Servant, J. H.

XIX. To Sir J. S. Knight.

SIR,

THer is a saying which carrieth no little weight with it, that Parvus amor loquitur, ingens stapet; Small love speaks, while great love stands astonish'd with silence: The one keeps a tatling, while the other is struck dumb with amazement, like deep Ri­vers, which to the eye of the beholder seem to stand still, while small shallow Rivulets keep a noise; or like empty Casks that make an obstreperous hollow sound, which they would not do were they replenish'd, and full of Substance: Tis the condi­tion of my love to you, which is so great, and of that pro­foundnes, that it hath been silent all this while, being stupified with the contemplation of those high Favours, and sundry sorts of Civilities, wherwith I may say, you have overwhelm'd me. This deep Foard of my affection and gratitude to you, I intend to cut out hereafter into small currents (I mean into Letters) that the cours of it may be heard, though it make but a small bub­ling noise, as also, that the clearnes of it may appear more vi­sible.

I desire my Service be presented to my noble Lady, whose fair hands, I humbly kiss; and if shee want any thing that London can afford, she need but command her and

Your most faithfull and ready Servitor, J. H.

XX. To the Right Honble the Earl R.

My Lord,

ACcording to promise, and that portion of obedience I ow to your commands, I send your Lordship these few Avisos, som wherof I doubt not but you have received before, and that by [Page 124] [...]bler pens than mine, yet your Lordship may happily find herein, somthing which was omitted by others, or the former news made clearer by circumstance.

I hear Count Mansfelt is in Paris, having now receiv'd three routings in Germany; 'tis thought the French King will peece him up again with new recruits. I was told that as he was seeing the two Queens one day at Dinner, the Queen-Mother said, they say, Count Mansfelt is here amongst this Croud, I do not believe it quoth the young Queen; For whensoever he seeth a Spaniard he runs away.

Matters go untowardly on our side in Germanie, but the King of Denmark will be shortly in the field in person; and Bethlem Ga­bor hath been long expected to do somthing, but som think he will prove but a Bugbear. Sir Charls Morgan is to go to Germanie with 6 [...]00 Anxiliaries to joyn with the Danish Army.

The Parliament is adjourn'd to Oxford, by reason of the sick­nes which increaseth exceedingly; and before the King went out of Town ther dyed 1500 that very week, and two out of White-Hall it self.

Ther is high clashing again 'twixt my Lord Duke, and the Earl of Bristoll, they recriminat one another of divers things; the Earl accuseth him amongst other matters, of certain Letters from Rome; of putting His Majesty upon that hazardous jorney of Spain, and of som miscarriages at his being in that Court: Ther be Ar­ticles also against the Lord Conway, which I send your Lordship here inclosed.

I am for Oxford the next week, and thence for Wales, to fetch my good old Fathers blessing, at my return, if it shall please God to reprieve me in these dangerous times of Contagion, I shall continue my wonted service to your Lordship, if it may be done with safety. So I rest

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXI. To the Honble the Lord Viscount C.

My Lord,

SIr Iohn North delivered me one lately from your Lordship, and I send my humble thanks for the Venison you intend me.

I acquainted your Lordship as opportunity serv'd with the nimble pace the French Match went on by the successfull negoti­ation of the Earls of Carlile and Holland (who outwent the Monsieurs themselves in Courtship) & how in less than nine Moons this great busines was propos'd, pursued, and perfected, wheras the Sun had leasure enough to finish his annuall progres, from one end of the Zodiac to the other so many years, before that of Spain could com to any shape of perfection: This may serve to shew the dif­ference 'twixt the two Nations, the Leaden-heeld pace of the one, and the Quick-silver'd motions of the other; It shews also how the French is more generous in his proceedings, and not so full of scruples, reservations, and jealousies, as the Spaniard, but deales more frankly, and with a greater confidence and gal­lantry,

The Lord Duke of Buckingham is now in Paris accompanied with the Earl of Montgomerie, and hee went in a very splendid equipage. The Venetian and Hollander with other States that are no friends to Spain, did som good offices to advance this Alli­ance; and the new Pope propounded much towards it; But Ri­chelieu the new Favorit of France was the Cardinall instrument in it.

This Pope Urban grows very active, not onely in things pre­sent, but ripping up of old matters, for which ther is a select Committee appointed to examin accounts and errors pass'd, not only in the time of his immediat Predecessor, but others. And one told me of a merry Pasquill lately in Rome; that wheras ther are two great Statues, one of Peter, the other of Paul, opposit one to the other upon a Bridge, one had clapt a pair of Spurs upon Saint Peters Heels, and Saint Paul asking him whither hee was bound, he answered, I apprehend som danger to staie now in Rome, because of this new Commission, for I fear they will questi­on me for denying my Master. Truly brother Peter, I shall not staie long [Page 126] after you▪ for I have as much cause to doubt, that they will question me for persecuting the Christians, before I was converted. So I take my leave and rest

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXII. To my Brother, Master Hugh Penry.

SIR,

I Thank you for your late Letter, and the severall good tydings you sent me from Wales; In requitall I can send you gallant news, for we have now a most Noble new Queen of England, who in true beuty is beyond the Long-Woo'd Infanta; for she was of a fa­ding Flaxen-Hair, Big Lipp'd, and somwhat heavy Ey'd; but this Daughter of France, this youngest Branch of Bourbon (being but in her cradle when the great Henry her Father was put out of the World) is of a more lovely and lasting complexion, a dark brown, shee hath eyes that sparkle like Stars; and for her Physiog­nomy she may be said to be a mirror of perfection: She had a rough passage in her transfretation to Dover Castle, and in Can­terbury the King Bedded first with her; ther were a goodly train of choice Ladies attended her coming, upon the Bowling-green on Barram-Down upon the way, who divided themselves into two rows, and they appear'd like so many Constellations; but me thought that the Countrey Ladies out-shin'd the Courtiers: She brought over with her, two hundred thousand Crowns in Gold and Silver, as halt her portion, and the other Moitie is to be payed at the yeers end. Her first suit of servants (by Article) are to be French, and as they die English are to succeed; shee is also allowed twenty eight Ecclesiastics of any Order, except Iesuits; a Bishop for her Almoner, and to have privat exercise of her Religion, for her and her servants.

I pray convey the inclosed to my Father by the next convenien­cy, and present my dear love to my Sister; I hope to see you at Dyvinnock about Micha [...]mas, for I intend to wait upon my Fa­ther, and will take my Mother in the way, I mean Oxford, in the interim, I rest

Your most affectionat Brother, J H.

XXIII. To my Unkle Sir Sackvill Trever, from Oxford.

SIR,

[...] Am sorry I must write unto you the sad tydings of the dissoluti­on of the Parliament here, which was don suddenly: Sir Iohn E [...]liot was in the heat of a high speech against the Duke of Buching­ [...]m, when the Usher of the Black-Rod, knock'd at the door, and signified the Kings pleasure, which strook a kind of consternation in all the House: My Lord Keeper Williams hath parted with the Broad-Seal, because as som say, he went about to cut down the Scale, by which he rose; for som it seems did ill offices 'twixt the Duke and him: Sir Thomas Coventry hath it now, I pray God he be tender of the Kings conscience, wherof he is Keeper, rather than of the Seal.

I am bound to morrow upon a journey towards the Mountains to see som Friends in Wales, and to bring back my Fathers bles­sing; for better assurance of Lodging wher I pass, in regard of the Plague, I have a Post Warrant as far as Saint Davids, which is far enough you'l say, for the King hath no ground further on this Island. If the sicknes rage in such extremity at London, the Term will be held at Reding.

All your friends here are well, but many look blank because of this sudden rupture of the Parliament; God Almighty turn all to the best, and stay the fury of this contagion, and preserve us from [...]urther judgements, so I rest

Your most affectionate Nephew, J. H.

XXIV. To my Father, from London.

SIR,

I Was now the fourth time at a dead stand in the cours of my fortunes, for though I was recommended to the Duke, and re­ceiv'd many Noble respects from him, yet I was told by som who are neerest him, that som body hath don me ill offices, by whispe­ring in his ear, that I was two much Digbified, and so they told me positively, that I must never expect any imployment about him of any trust: while I was in this suspence, Mr. Secretary C [...] ­way sent for me, and propos'd unto me, that the King had occasion to send a Gentleman to Italy, in nature of a moving Agent, and though he might have choice of persons of good quality that would willingly undertake this employment, yet understanding of my breeding, he made the first proffer to me, and that I should go as the Kings Servant, and have allowance accordingly; I hum­bly thank'd him for the good opinion he pleas'd to conceive of me, being a stranger to him, and desir'd som time to consider of the proposition, and of the nature of the imployment; so he granted me four daies to think upon't, and two of them are pass'd alrea­dy. If I may have a support accordingly, I intend by Gods grace (desiring your consent and blessing to go along) to apply my self to this cours; but before I part with England, I intend to send you further notice.

The sicknes is miraculously decreas'd in this City and Suburbs; for from two and fiftie hundred which was the greatest number that died in one week, and that was som fourty daies since, they are now fallen to three hundred. It was the violent'st [...]t of con­tagion that ever was for the time in this Island, and such as no sto­ry can parallell, but the Ebb of it was more swift than the Tide. My brother is well, and so are all your friends here, for I do not know any of your acquaintance that's dead of this furious infection: Sir Iohn Walter ask'd me lately how you did, and wish'd me to re­member him to you. So with my love to all my Brothers and Sis­ters, and the rest of my friends which made so much of me lately in the Countrey, I rest

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

XXV. To the right Honble the Lord Conway, Princi­pall Secretary of State to his Majesty, at Hampton Court.

Right Honble,

SInce I last attended your Lopp. here, I summond my thoughts to Counsell, and canvas'd to and fro within my self, the busi­nes you pleas'd to impart unto me, for going upon the Kings Service to Italy; I considered therin many particulars, First the weight of the imployment, & what maturity of judgement, discreti­on, and parts are requir'd in him that will personat such a man; next, the difficulties of it, for one must send somtimes light out of dark­nes, and like the Bee suck Honey out of bad, as out of good Flow­ers; thirdly, the danger which the undertaker must convers with­all, and which may fall upon him by interception of Letters or o­ther cross casualties; lastly, the great expence it will require, being not to remain Sedentary in one place, as other Agents, but to be often in itinerary motion.

Touching the first, I refer my self to your Honours favourable opinion, and the Character which my Lord S. and others shall give of me▪ for the second, I hope to overcom it; for the third, I weigh it not, so that I may merit of my King and Countrey; for the last, I crave leave to deal plainly with your Lopp. that I am a Cadet, and have no other patrimony or support, but my bree­ding, therfore I must breath by the imployment; And my Lord, I shall not be able to perform what shall be expected at my hands, under one hundred pounds a quarter, and to have bills of credit accordingly. Upon these terms, my Lord, I shall apply my self to this Service, and by Gods blessing hope to answer all expecta­tions. So referring the premisses to your Noble consideration, I rest

My Lord,
Your very humble and ready Servitor, J. H▪

XXVI. To my Brother (after) Dr. Howell, now Bishop of Bristoll.

My brother,

NExt to my Father, 'tis fitting you should have cognisance of my affairs and fortunes. You heard how I was in agitation for an employment in Italy, but my Lord Conway demurr'd upon the salary I propounded; I have now wav'd this cours, yet I came off fairly with my Lord; for I have a stable home emploiment proffer'd me by my Lord Scroop, Lord President of the North, who sent for me lately to Worcester House, though I never saw him before, and there the bargain was quickly made, that I should go down▪ with him to York for Secretary, and his Lordship hath promis'd me fairly; I will see you at your House in Horsley be­fore I go, and leave the particular circumstances of this busines till then.

The French that came over with Her Majesty, for their petulan­cy, and som misdemeanors, and imposing som odd penancy's up­on the Queen, are all casheer'd this week, about a matter of sixscore, wherof the Bishop of Mende was one, who had stood to be Steward of Her Majesties Courts, which Office my Lord of Hol­land hath; It was a thing suddenly don, for about one of the clock as they were at dinner, my Lord Conway, and Sir Thomas Ed­monds, came with an Order from the King, that they must instant­ly away to Somerset House, for there were Barges, and Coaches staying for them; and there they should have all their Wages paied them to a peny, and so they must be content to quit the Kingdom: This sudden, undream'd of Order, struck an astonishment into them all, both men and women; and running to complain to the Queen, His Majesty had taken her before into his Bed-chamber, and lock'd the doors upon them, untill he had told her how mat­ters stood; the Queen fell into a violent passion, broke the Glass-Windows, and tore her Hair, but she was calm'd afterwards: Just such a destiny happen'd in France som years since to the Queens Spanish Servants there, who were all dismiss'd in like manner for som miscarriages; the like was don in Spain to the French, therfore 'tis no new thing.

[Page 131]They are all now on their way to Dover, but I fear this will breed ill bloud 'twixt us and France, and may break out into an ill-fa­vour'd quarrell.

Master Mountague is preparing to go to Paris as a Messenger of Honour, to prepossess the King and Counsell there, with the truth of things.

So with my very kind respects to my Sister, I rest

Your loving brother, J. H.

XXVII. To the Right Honble the Lord S.

My Lord,

I Am bound shortly for York, wher I am hopefull of a profitable imployment. Ther is fearfull news com from Germany, that since Sir Charls Morgan went thither with 6 [...]00 men for the assistance of the King of Denmark, the King hath receiv'd an utter over­throw by Tilly, he had receiv'd a fall off a Horse from a Wall five yards high, a little before, yet it did him little hurt.

Tilly pursueth his Victory strongly, and is got ore the Elve to Holsteinland, insomuch that they write from Hamburgh, that Den­mark is in danger to be utterly lost: The Danes and Germanes seem to lay som fault upon our King, the King upon the Parliament, that would not supply him with Subsidies to assist his Uncle, and the Prince Palsgrave, both which was promis'd upon the rupture of the Treaties with Spain, which was done by the advice of both Houses▪

This is the ground that His Majesty hath lately sent out privy Seals for Loan Moneys, untill a Parliament may be calld, in re­gard that the King of Denmark is distress'd, the Sound like to be lost, the Eastland Trade, and the Staple at Hamborough in danger to be destroied, and the English Garrison under Sir Charls Morgan at Sto [...]d ready to be starv'd.

These Loan moneys keep a great noise, and they are imprison'd that deny to conform themselves.

I fear I shall have no more opportunity to send to your Lord­ship, till I go to York, therfore I humbly take my leave, and kiss your hands, being ever,

My Lord,
Your obedient and ready Servitor, J. H▪

XXVIII. To Mr. R. L. Merchant.

I Met lately with I. Harris in London, and I had not seen him two years before, and then I took him, and knew him to be a man of thirty, but now one would take him by his Hair to be near three­score, for he is all turnd gray. I wonderd at such a Metamorpho­sis in so short a time, hee told me 'twas for the death of his Wife, that nature had thus antidated his years, 'tis true that a weighty setled sorrow is of that force, that besides the contraction of the Spirits, it will work upon the radicall moisture, and dry it up, so that the Hair can have no moisture at the Root. This made me remember a Story that a Spanish Advocat told me, which is a thing very remarkable. When the Duke of Alva was in Brussels, about the beginning of the tumults in the Netherlands, he had sat down before Hulst in Flanders, and ther was a Provost Marshall in his Army, who was a Favorit of his; and this Provost had put som to death by secret Commission from the Duke: Ther was one Captain Bolea in the Armie, who was an intimat friend of the Provosts, and one evening late, he went to the said Captains Tent, and brought with him a Confessor, and an Executioner, as it was his custom; He told the Captain, that he was com to execut his Excellencies Commission, and Marshall Law upon him; the Captain started up suddenly, his hair standing at an end, and being struck with amazement, ask'd him wherin he had offended the Duke; the Provest answer'd, Sir I com not to expostulat the busines with you, but to execut my Commission, therfore I pray prepare your self, for ther's your Ghostly Father and Executioner: so he fell on his knees before the Priest, and having don, the Hangman going to put the Halter about his neck, the Provost threw it away, and breaking into a laughter, told him, ther was no such thing, and that he had don this to try his courage, how be could bear the terror of death, the Captain look [...] ghastly up [...] him, and said, then Sir get you out of my Tent, for you have don me [...] very ill office: The next morning the said Captain Bolea, though [...] young man of about thirtie, had his hair all turnd grav, to the admira­tion of all the world, and of the Duke of Alva himself, who questio [...] him about it, but he would confess nothing. The next year the Du [...] was revok'd, and in his journey to the Court of Spain, he was to pas [...] by Saragossa, and this Captain Bolea, and the Provost went alon [...] [Page 133] with him as his Domestics: The Duke being to repose some days in S.. ragossa, the young▪ old Captain Bolea told him, that ther was a thing in that Town worthy to be seen by His Excellency, which was a Casa de Locos, a Bedlam-house, for ther was not the like in Christendom: Well said the Duke, go and tell the Warden I will be there to morrow in the afternoon, and wish him to be in the way. The Captain having obtaind this, went to the Warden and told him, that the Duke would com to vi­sit the House the next day, and the chiefest occasion that mov'd him to it, was, that he had an unruly Provost about him, who was subject often­times to fits of frenzie, and because he wisheth him well, he had tried divers means to cure him, but all would not do, therfore he would trie whether keeping him close in Bedlam for som days, would do him any good: The next day the Duke came with ar [...]ffling train of Captains af­ter him, amongst whom was the said Provost, very shining brave; being entred into the house, about the Dukes person, Captain Bolea told the Warden, pointing at the Provost, that's the man; so hee took him aside into a dark Lobby, wher he had plac'd som of his men, who muffled him in his Cloak, seiz'd upon his gilt Sword, with his Hat and Feather, and so hurried him down into a Dungeon: My Provost had lain there two nights and a day, and afterwards it happen'd that a Gentleman com­ming out of curiosity to see the house, peep'd in at a small grate where the Provost was; The Provost conjur'd him as he was a Christian, to go and tell the Duke of Alva, his Provost was there clap'd up, nor could be imagin why. The Gentleman did the Arrand, wherat the Duke being astonish'd, sent for the Warden with his prisoner; so he brought my Provost en cuerpo Madman like, full of straws and Feathers before the Duke, who at the sight of him, breaking out into a laughter, ask'd the Warden, why he had made him his Prisener; Sir, said the War­den, 'twas by vertue of your Excellenci [...]s Commission brought me by Cap­tain Bolea: Bolea step'd forth and told the Duke; Sir, you have ask'd me oft, how these hairs of mine grew so suddenly gray, I have not re­veal'd it yet to any soul breathing, but now Ile tell your Excellency, and so sell a relating the passage in Flanders. And Sir I have been ever since beating my Brains how to get an equall revenge of him, and I thought no revenge to be more equall or corresponding, now that you see he hath made me old before my time, than to make him mad if I could, and had he staied som days longer close Prisoner in the Bedlam House, it might haply have wrought som impressions upon his pericranium: The Duke was so well pleas'd with the Story, and the wittines of the re­venge, that he made them both friends; and the Gentleman who told me this passage, said, that the said Captain Bolea was yet living, so that he could not be less than ninety years of age.

[Page 134]I thank you a thousand times for the C [...]phalonia Muscadell, and Botargo you sent me; I hope to be shortly quit with you for all courtesies, in the interim, I am

Your obliged friend to serve you, J H.
Postscript.

I Am sorry to hear of the trick that Sir Iohn Aires put upon the Company by the Box of Hailshot, sign'd with the Ambassadors Seal, that he had sent so solemnly from Constantinople, which he made the world beleeve to be full of Chequins and Turky gold.

Familiar Letters.
SECTION V.

I. To Dan. Caldwall Esqr, from York.

My dear D.

THough I may be tearmed a right Northern man, being a good way this side Trent, yet my love to you is as Southern as ever it was, I mean it continueth still in the same degree of heat, not can this bleaker air, or Boreas chilling blasts cool it a whit; I am the same to you this side Trent, as I was the last time we cross'd the Thames to­gether to see Smugg the Smith, and so back to the Still-yard: But I fear that your love to me doth not continue in so constant and in­tense a degree, and I have good grounds for this fear, because I never receiv'd one syllable from you, since I left London; if you ridd me not of this scruple, and send to me speedily, I shall think, though you live under a hotter clyme in the South, that your former love is not only coold but frozen.

For this present condition of life, I thank God, I live well con­tended, I have a fee from the King, diet for my self and two ser­vants, livry for a horse, and a part of the Kings house for my lodg­ing, and other privileges which I am told no Secretary before me had▪ but I must tell you the perquisits are nothing answerable to my expectation yet. I have built me a new study since I came, wherin I shall amongst others meditat somtimes on you, and whence this present Letter coms. So with a thousand thanks for the plentifull [Page 136] Hospitality and Joviall farewell you gave me at your House in Es­sex, I rest

Yors, yors, yors, J. H.

II. To Mr. Richard Leat.

SIgnor io, it is now a great while me thinks since any act of friendship, or other interchangeable offices of love hath pass'd between us, either by Letters, or other accustomed ways of corre­spondence; And as I will not accuse, so I go not about to clear my self in this point, let this long silence be tearm'd therfore a cessati­on rather than neglect on both sides: A bow that lies awhile unbent, and a field that remains fallow for a time, grow never the worse, but afterwards the one sends forth and arrow more strongly, the other yeelds a better crop being recultivated: Let this be also verified in us, let our friendship grow more fruitfull after this pawse, let it be more active for the future: you see I begin and shoot the first shaft. I send you herewith a couple of red Dear pies, the one Sir Arthur Ingram gave me, the other my Lord Presidents Cook, I could not tell where to bestow them better; In your next let me know which is the best season'd; I pray let the Sydonian Merchant Io. Bruck­burst be at the eating of them, and then I know they will be well soak'd. If you please to send me a barrell or two of Oysters which we want here, I promise you they shall be well eaten, with a cup of the best Clarret, and the best Sherry, to which Wine this Town is altogether adicted, shall not be wanting.

I understand the Lord Weston is Lo. Treasurer, we may say now, that we have Treasurers of all tences, for ther are four living, to wit, the Lord Manchester, Middlesex, Malborough, and the newly chosen; I hear also that the good old man (the last) hath retir'd to his lodgings in Lincolns Inn, and so reduc'd himself to his first principles, which makes me think that he cannot bear up long, now that the staff is taken from him. I pray in your next send me the Venetian Gazetta. So with my kind respects to your Father, I rest

Yours, J. H.

III. To Sir Ed. Sa. Knight.

SIR, 'Twas no great matter to be a Prophet, and to have foretold his rupture 'twixt us and France upon the sudden renvoy of her Majesties servants, for many of them had sold their estates in France, given money for their places, and so thought to live and die in Eng­land in the Queens service, and so have pittifully complained to that King, therupon he hath arrested above 100 of our Merchant men that went to this Vintage at Bourdeaux. We also take som straglers of theirs, for ther are Letters of Mart given on both sides.

Ther are Writs issued out for a Parliament, and the Town of Richmond in Richmond shire hath made choise of me for their Burgess, though Master Christopher Wansford and other powerfull men, and more deserving than I, stood for it. I pray God send fair weather in the House of Commons, for ther is much mur­muring about the restraint of those that would not conform to loan-moneys. Ther is a great Fleet a preparing, and an Army of Land-men, but the design is uncertain whether it be against Spain or France, for we are now in enmity with both those Crowns. The French Cardinall hath been lately tother side the Alpes, and setled the Duke of Nevers in the Duchy of Mantoua, notwith­standing the opposition of the King of Spain and the Emperor, who alleg'd that he was to receive his investiture from him, and tha [...] was the chief ground of the War; but the French Arms have d [...] the work, and com triumphantly back over the Hills again. No more now, but that I am as always

Your true friend, J. H.

IV. To the Worpll Mr Alderman of the Town of Richmond, and the rest of the worthy Mem­bers of that ancient Corporation.

SIR,

I Receiv'd a public Instrument from you lately, subscrib'd by your self, and divers others, wherin I find that you have made choice of me to be one of your Burgesses for this now neer-approa­ching Parliament; I could have wish'd that you had not put by Master Wandesford, and other worthy Gentlemen that stood so ear­nestly for it, who being your neighbors, had better means, and more abilities to serve you. Yet since you have cast these high respects upon me, I will endeavor to acquit my self of the trust, and to an­swer your expectation accordingly: And as I account this Election an honor unto me, so I esteem it a great advantage, that so wor­thy, and well experienc'd a Knight as Sir Talbot Bows is to be my Collegue and fellow Burgess; I shall steer by his compas, and follow his directions in any thing that may concern the welfare of your Town, and of the Precincts therof, either for redress of any grievance, or by proposing som new thing that may conduce to the further benefit and advantage therof, and this I take to be the true duty of a Parliamentary Burgess, without roving at ran­dum to generalls. I hope to learne of Sir Talbot what's fitting to be don, and I shall apply my self accordingly to joyn with him to serve you with my best abilities: So I rest

Your most assured and ready friend to do you service, J. H.

V. To the Right Honble the Lo: Clifford at Knasbrugh.

My Lord,

THe news that fill all mouths at present, is the return of the Duke of Buckingham from the Isle of Ree, or as so [...] call it the Ile of Rue, for the bitter success wee had there; for we had but a [...]t entertainment in that sal [...] Island. Our first invasion was mag­nanimous & brave, wherat neer upon 200 French Gentlemen peri­shed, and divers Barons of quality. My Lord Newport had ill luck to disorder our Cavalry with an unruly Horse he had: His brother Sir Charls Rich was slain, and divers more upon the retreat, amongst others, great Golonell Gray fell into Salt-pit, and being ready to be drownd he cryed out Cens mill escus pour ma rançon, a hundred thousand Crowns for my ransom, the French-men hearing that, pre­serv'd him, though he was not worth a hundred thousand pence. Another merry passage a Captain told me, that when they were rifling the dead bodies of the French Gentlemen after the first in­vasion, they found that many of them had their Mistresses favors tyed about their genitories. The French do much glory to have re­pell'd us thus, and they have reason, for the truth is, they compor­ted themselves gallantly; yet they confess our landing was a no­table piece of courage, and if our Retreat had been answerable to the Invasion, we had lost no honor at all. A great number of gal­lant Gentlemen fell on our side, as Sir Iohn Heyden, Sir Io. Bur­rowes, Sir George Blundell, Sir Alex. Brett, with divers Veteran Com­manders, who came from the Netherlands to this service.

God send us better success the next time, for ther is another Fleet preparing to be sent under the Command of the Lord Denbigh; so I kiss your hands, and am

Your humble Servitor, J. H.

VI. To the Right Honble the Lord Scroop, Earl of Sunderland, Lord President of the North.

My Lord,

MY Lord D [...]nbigh is returned from attempting to relieve Ro­chell, which is reduc'd to extreme exigent; And now the Duke is preparing to go again, with as great power as was yet rais'd: notwithstanding that the Parliament hath flown higher at him than ever; which makes the people here hardly wish any good success to the Expedition, because he is Generall. The Spaniard stands at a gaze all this while, hoping that we may do the work, o­therwise I think he would find som way to relieve that Town, for ther is nothing conduceth more to the uniting and strengthning of the French Monarchy than the reduction of Rochell. The King hath been there long in person with his Cardinall, and the stupen­dious works they have rais'd by Sea and Land, are beyond belief, as they say. The Sea-works and booms were traced out by Marquis Spinola, as he was passing that way for Spain from Flanders.

The Parliament is prorogued till Michaelmas term; ther we [...] five Subsidies granted, the greatest gift that ever Subjects gave their King at once; and it was in requitall that his Majesty pass'd the Petition of Right, wherby the liberty of the free-born subject is so strongly and clearly vindicated. So that ther is a fair corre­spondence like to be 'twixt his Majesty and the two Houses. The Duke made a notable Speech at the Counsell Table in joy hereof, amongst other passages, one was, that hereafter his Majestie would please to make the Parliament his Favorit, and he to have the honor to remain still his servant. No more now but that I continue

Your Lordships most dutifull Servant, J. H.

VII. To the Right Honble the La: Scroope Countess of Sunderland, from Stamford.

Madam,

I Lay yesternight at the Post House at Stilton, and this morning betimes the Post-master came to my beds head and told me the Duke of Buckingham was slain; my faith was not then strong e­nough to believe it, till an hour ago I met in the way with my Lord of Rutland (your Brother) riding Post towards London, it pleas'd him to alight, and shew me a Letter, wherin ther was an exact relation of all the circumstances of this sad Tragaedy.

Upon Saturday last, which was but next before yesterday being Bartholmew yeeve, the Duke did rise up in a well disposed hu­mor out of his bed, and cutt a Caper or two, and being rea­dy, and having been under the Barbers hands (wher the Murtherer had thought to have don the deed, for hee was lea­ning upon the Window all the while) hee went to breakfast at­tended by a great Company of Commanders, where Monsieur Soubize came unto him, and whispered him in the ear that Ro­chell was relieved, the Duke seem'd to slight the news, which made som think that Soubize went away discontented; After Breakfast the Duke going out, Colonell Fryer stepped before him, and stopping him upon som busines, one Lieutenant Fel­ton being behind, made a thrust with a common tenpeny knife over Fryers arm at the Duke, which lighted so fatally, that hee slit his heart in two, leaving the knife sticking in the body; The Duke took out the knife, and threw it away, and laying his hand on his Sword, and drawn it half out said, the Villain hath killd me (meaning as som think Colonell Fryer) for ther had been som difference 'twixt them, so reeling against a Chimney hee fell down dead; The Dutchess being with child hearing the noise below, cam in her night geers from her Bed Chamber, which was in an upper room, to a kind of Rayl, and thence beheld him weltering in his own bloud. Felton had lost his Hat in the croud, wherin ther was a Paper sowed, wherin he declared that the reason which mov'd him to this act was no grudg of his own, though hee had been far behind for [Page 142] his pay, and had bin put by his Captains place twice, but in re­gard he thought the Duke an enemy to the State, because he was branded in Parliament, therfore what he did was for the public good of his Countrey. Yet he got clearly down, and so might have gon to his horse which was tied to a hedg hard by, but he was so amazed that he missd his way, and so struck into the pastry, where though the cry went that som Frenchman had don't, he think­ing the word was Felton, he boldly confessed twas he that had don the deed, and so he was in their hands, Iack Stamford would have run at him, but he was kept off by Mr. Nicholas, so being carried up to a Tower Captain Min [...]e toare off his spurrs, and asking how he durst attempt such an act, making him beleeve the Duke was not dead, he answerd boldly that he knew he was dispatchd, for [...]was not he, but the hand of heaven that gave the stroak, and though his whole body had bin coverd over with armour of proof he could not have avoyded it. Captain Charles Price went Post presently to the King four miles off, who being at prayers on his knees when it was told him, yet he never stirrd, nor was he di­sturbd a whit till all divine service was don. This was the relation as far as my memory could bear, in my Lord of Rutlands Let­ter, who willd me to remember him unto your Ladyship, and tell you that he was going to comfort your neece (the Dutches) as fast as he could: and so I have sent the truth of this sad story to your Ladyship, as fast as I could by this post, because I cannot make that speed myself, in regard of som busines I have to dispatch for my Lord in the way; So I humbly take my leave, and rest

Your Lapps most dutifull Servant, J. H.

IX. To the right Honble Sir Peter Wichts his Majesties Ambassador at Constantinople.

My Lord,

YOurs of the 2. of Iuly came to safe hand, and I did all those particular recaudos, you enjoyned me to do to som of your [...]ends here.

[Page 143]The Town of Rochell hath bin fatall and infortunat to England, for this is the third time that we have attempted to releeve her, but our fleets and forces returnd without doing any thing. My Lord of Linsey went thither with the same Fleet the Duke inten­ded to go on, but he is returnd without doing any good, he made som shots at the great Boom and other baricadoes at sea, but at such a distance, that they conld do no hurt. Insomuch that the Town is now given for lost, and to be passd cure, and they cry out, we have betrayd them: At the return of this Fleet two of the Whelps were cast away, and three ships more, and som five ships who had som of those great stones, that were brought to build Pauls, for ballast and for other uses within them, which could promise no good success, for I never heard of any thing that pros­pered which being once designed for the honor of God was alie­nated from that use. The Queen interposeth for the releasement of my Lord of Newport and others who are prisoners of War, I hear that all the colours they took from us are hung up in the great Church Nostredame as tropkeys in Paris. Since I began this letter ther is news brought that Rochell hath yeelded, and that the King hath dismantled the Town, and razd all the fortificati­ons landward, but leaves those standing which are toward the Sea. It is a mighty exploit the French King hath don, for Rochell was the cheifest propugnacle of the Protestants there, and now questi­onles all the rest of their cautionary Towns which they kept for their own defence will yeeld, so that they must depend hereafter upon the Kings meer mercy. I hear of an overture of Peace twixt us and Spain, and that my Lord Cottington is to go thither, and Don Carlos Coloma to com to us. God grant it, for you know the saying in Spanish Nunca vi tan mala paz, que no fuera mejor, (que) la mejor guerra. It was a bold thing in England, to fall out with the two greatest Monarchs of Christendom, and to have them both her enemies at one time, a [...]d as glorious a thing it was to bear up a­gainst them. God turn all to the best, and dispose of things to his glory; So I rest

Your Lordships ready Servitor, J. H.

X. To my Cosen Mr. Stgeon, at Christ-Church College in Oxford.

COsen, though you want no incitements to go on in that fair road of vertu▪ wher you are now running your cours, yet be­ing lately in your noble Fathers company, he did intimat unto me, that any thing which cam from me would take with you very much. I hear so well of your proceedings, that I should rather commend than encourage you. I know you wer remov'd to Ox­ford in full maturity, you wer a good Orator, a good Poet, and a good Linguist for your time; I would not have that fate light upon you, which useth to befall som, who from golden Students, becom silver Bachelors, and Leaden Masters, I am far from enter­taining any such thought of you, that Logic with her quiddities, and Quae la vel Hipps, can any way unpolish your human studies: As Logic is clubfisted and crabbed, so she is terrible at first sight, she is like a Gorgons head to a young student, but after a twelve months constancy and patience, this Gorgons head will prove a meer buggbear; When you have devour'd the Organon, you will find Philosophie far more delightfull and pleasing to your palat: In feeding the soul with knowledge, the understanding requireth the same consecutif acts which nature useth in nourishing the bo­dy. To the nutrition of the body, ther are two Essentiall conditions requir'd assumption and retention, then ther follows two more, [...] and [...], concoction and agglutination or adhaesion; So in feeding your soule with Science, you must first assume, and suc [...] in the matter into your apprehension, then must the memory re­tain and keep it in, afterwards by disputation, discours, and medi­tation, it must be well concocted; then must it be agglutinate [...] and converted to nutriment; All this may be reduc'd to these [...] heads, tencre fideliter, & uti faeliciter, which are two of the happi­est properties in a student; ther is an other act requir'd to goo [...] concoction call'd the act of Expulsion, which puts off all that is un­found and noxious, so in study ther must be an expulsive vert [...] to shun all that is erroneous, and ther is no science but is full [...] such stuff, which by direction of Tutor, and choice of good Book [Page 145] must be excernd: Do not confound your self with multiplicity of Authors, two is enough upon any Science, provided they be plena­ry and orthodox; Philosphy should be your substantiall food, Poe­try your banqueting stuff; Philosophy hath more of reality in it than any knowledge, the Philosopher can fadom the deep, mea­sure Mountaines, reach the Starrs with a staff, and bless Heaven with a girdle.

But amongst these studies you must not forget the unicum necessa­rium, on Sundaies and Holy-dayes, let Divinity be the sole object of your speculation, in comparison wherof all other knowledg is but cobweb learning; prae qua quisquiliae coetera.

When you can make truce with study, I should be glad you would employ som superfluous hour or other to write unto me, for I much covet your good, because I am

Your affectionat Cosen, J. H.

XI. To Sir Sackvill Trevor Knight.

Noble Onkle,

I Send you my humble thanks for the curious Sea-chest of glas­ses you pleas'd to bestow on me, which I shalbe very chary to keep as a Monument of your love. I congratulat also the great honor you have got lately by taking away the Spirit of France, I mean by taking the third great Vessell of her Sea-Trinity, Her Ho­ly Spirit, which had bin built in the mouth of the Texell for the service of her King; without complementing with you, it was one of the best exploits that was perform'd since these warrs began, and besides the renown you have purchas'd, I hope your reward will be accordingly from his Majesty, whom I remember you so happi­ly preserv'd from drowning in all probability at St. Anderas road in Spain. Though Princes guerdons com slow, yet they com sure; And it is oftentimes the method of God Almighty himself to be long both in his rewards and punishments.

As you have berest the French of their Sain-Esprit, their Holy Spirit, so ther is news that the Hollander have taken from Spain, all her Saints; I mean todos los santos, which is one of the chie­fest [Page 146] staples of Sugar in Brasill. No more but that I wish you all health, honor, and hearts desire.

Your much obliged Nephew and Servitor, J. H.

XII. To Captain Tho. B. from York.

NOble Captain, Yours of the first of March was deliverd me by Sir Richard Scott, and I held it no profanation of this Sunday evening considering the quality of my subject, and having (I thank God for it) performed all Church duties, to employ som hours to meditat on you, and send you this frendly salute, though I confess in an unusuall monitory way. My dear Captain, I love you perfectly well, I love both your person and parts which are not vulgar, I am in love with your disposition which is generous, and I verily think you wer▪ never guilty of any Pusillanimous act in your life: Nor is this love of mine conferr'd upon you gra­tis, but you may challenge it as your due, and by way of corre­spondence, in regard of those thousand convincing Evidences you have given me of yours to me, which ascertain me, that you take me for a true frend: Now I am of the number of those, that had rather commend the vertue of an enemy, than soeth the vi­ces of a friend; for your own particular, if your parts of vertue, and your infirmities were cast into a ballance, I know the first would much out-poise the other; yet give me leave to tell you [...] ther is one frailty, or rather ill favor'd custom that reigns in you, which weighs much, it is a humor of swearing in all your discour­s [...]s, and they are not slight, but deep, far fetch'd Oathes that you are wont to rap out, which you use as flowers of Rhetoric to en­force a [...]aith upon the hearers, who beleeve you never the more, and you use this in cold bloud when you are not provok'd, which makes the humor far more dangerous; I know many, (and I can­not say I my self am free from it God forgive me) that being trans­ported with choler, and as it were made drunk with passion, by som sudden provoking accident, or extreme ill fortune at play will let fall Oaths and deep Protestations▪ but to belch out, [...] [Page 147] send forth, as it were, whole volleys of Oaths and Curses in a calm humor, to verifie every triviall discours is a thing of horror. I knew a King that being cross'd in his game would amongst his Oaths fall on the ground, and bite the very earth in the rough of his passion; I heard of another King (Henry the fourth of France) that in his highest distemper would swear but Ventre de Saint Gris, by the belly of Saint Gris; I heard of an Italian, that having been much accustomed to blaspheme, was wean'd from it by a pretty wile, for having been one night at play, and lost all his money, after many execrable Oathes, and having offerd money to another to go out to face heaven and defie God, he threw himself upon a Bed hard by, and there fell asleep; The other Gamsters plaid on still▪ and finding that he was fast asleep, they put out the can­dels, and made semblance to play on still, they fell a wrangling, and spoke so loud, that he awaked, he hearing them play on stil fell a rubbing his eyes, and his conscience presently prompted him that he was struck blind, and that Gods judgment had deservedly fallen down upon him for his blasphemies, and so he fell to sigh and weep pittifully, a ghostly Father was sent for, who undertook to do som acts of penance for him, if he would make a vow never to play again or blaspheme, which he did, and so the candles were lighted again, which he thought were burning all the while; so he becam a perfect Convert. I could wish this Letter might produce the same effect in you; Ther is a strong Text, that the curse of heaven hangs always over the dwelling of the swearer, and you have more fearfull examples of miraculous judgments in this particular, than of any other sin.

Ther is a little town in Languedoc in France that hath a multitude of the Pictures of the Virgin Mary up and down, but she is made to carry Christ in her right arm contrary to the ordinary custom, and the reason they told me was this, that two gamsters being at play, & one having lost all his money, and bolted out many blasphemies, [...]e gave a deep Oath that that whore upon the wall, meaning the pi­cture of the blessed Virgin▪ was the cause of his ill luck, hereup­on the child removed imperceptibly from the left arm to the right, and the man fell stark dumb ever after' [...], thus went the tradition there; This makes me think upon the Lady Southwells news from Utopia that he who sweareth when he playeth at dice, may challenge his damnation by way of purchase. This in [...]andous custom of Swearing I observe reigns in England lately more than any wher els, though the German in his highest puff of pas [...]ion swear by a hundred thousand Sacraments, the Italian by the whore of God, [Page 148] the French by his death, the Spaniard by his flesh, the Westiman by his sweat, the Irish man by his five wounds, though the Scot com­monly bids the devill hale his soule, yet for variety of Oaths the English Roarers put down all: Consider well what a dangerous thing it is to tear in pieces that dreadfull name which makes the vast fabric of the world to tremble, that holy name wherein the whol Hierarchy of Heaven doth triumph, that blisful name wher­in consists the fulnes of all felicity. I know this custom in you yet, is but a light disposition, tis no habit I hope, let me therfore con­jure you by that power of frendship, by that holy ligue of love which is between us, that you would suppress it before it com to that, for I must tell you that those who could find in their hearts to love you for many other things, do disrespect you for this, they hate your company, and give no credit to whatsoever you say, it being one of the punishments of a swearer as well as of a lyar not to be beleeved when he tells truth.

Excuse me that I am so free with you, what I write proceeds from the clear current of a pure affection, and I shall heartily thank you, and take it as an argument of love, if you tell me of my weaknesses, which are (God wot) too too many, for my body is but a Cargazon of corrupt humors, and being not able to overcome them all at once I do endeavor to doe it by degrees, like Sertorius his soldier who when he could not cut off the Horse tayl with his sword at one blow, fell to pull out the hair one by one: And touch­ing this particular humor from which I disswade you, it hath rag'd in me too often by contingent fits, but I thank God for it I find it much abated, and purg'd. Now the only Physic I us'd was a precedent fast and recours to the holy Sacrament the next day, of purpose to implore pardon for what was pass'd, and power for the future to quell those exorbitant motions, those ravings and fea­vourish fits of the soul, in regard ther are no infirmities more dangerous, for at the same instant they have being they becom im­pieties. And the greatest symptom of amendment I find in mee is, because whensoever I hear the holy name of God blasphem'd by any other, it makes my heart to tremble within my brest: Now it is a penitentiall Rule that if sins present do not please thee, sins pass'd will never hurt thee. All other sins have for their object, ei­ther pleasure or profit, or some ayme and satisfaction to body or mind, but this hath none at all, therfore fie upon't, my dear Cap­tain t [...]e whether you can make a conquest of your self in subdu­ing this execrable custom. Alexander subdued the World, Caesar his Enemies, Hercules▪ Monsters, but he that o [...]ecomes himself [Page 149] is the true valiant Captain. I have herewith sent you a Hymn consonant to this subject; because I know you are Musicall and a good Poet.

A gradual Hymn of a double cadence, tending to the Honor of the Holy Name of GOD.
1.
LEt the vast universe,
And therein ev'ry thing,
The mighty acts rehearse
Of their immortall King,
His Name extoll
what to Nadir
from Zenith stir
Twixt Pole and Pole.
2.
Yee Elements that move,
And alter every hower,
Yet herein constant prove,
And symbolize all sower,
His praise to tell,
mix all in one
for aire and tone
To sound this peale.
3.
Earth which the center art
And only standest still,
Yet move, and bear thy part,
Resound with ecchos shrill,
Thy Mines of gold,
with precious stones,
and unions,
His fame uphold.
4.
Let all thy fragrant flowers
Grow sweeter by this [...],
Thy tallest trees and bowers
Bud forth and blossom sair,
Beasts wild and tame,
whom lodgings yield▪
House dens or field,
Collaud his Name.
5.
Yet Seas with Earth that make
One globe flow high and swell,
Exalt your Makers name,
In deep his wonders tell,
Leviathan,
and what doth swim
neer bank or brim,
His glory fcan.
6.
Yet airy Regions all
Ioyn in a sweet concent,
Blow such a Madrigall
May reach the Firmament:
Winds, hail, Ice, snow,
and perly drops,
that hang on crops,
His wonders show.
7.
Pure element of fire
With holy sparks inflame
This sublunary quire,
That all one Consort frame.
Their spirits raise,
to trumpet forth
their Makers worth,
And sound his praise.
8.
Yee glorious Lamps that roul [...]
In your celestiall Sphears
All under his controule,
Who you on poles up bears
Him magnifie,
yet Planets bright,
and fixed lights
That deck the skie.
9.
O Heaven Chrystalline,
which by thy watry but
Do'st temper and refine
the rest in azurd blue,
His glory sound
thou first Mobile,
which makst all w [...]el
In circle round.
10.
Yee glorious souls who raign
In sempiternall joy,
Free from those cares and pain
which here did you annoy,
And him behold
in whom all bliss
concentred is
His laud unfold.
11.
Blest maid which dost surmount
all Saints and Seraphins,
And raignst as Paramount,
And chief of Cherubins,
Chant out his praise
who in thy womb,
nine months took room,
Though crownd with rayes.
12.
Oh let my soul and heart,
my mind and memory
Bear in this Hymn a part,
and joyn with earth and sky.
Let every wight
the whole world ore
làud and adore
The Lord of light.

All your friends heer are well, Tom Young excepted, who I fear hath not long to live amongst us, so I rest,

Your true friend, J. H.

XIII. To Will: Austin, Esqr.

SIR,

I Have many thanks to give you for that excellent Poem you sent me upon the Passion of Christ, surely you wer possess'd with a very strong spirit when you penn'd it, you wer becom a true Enthusiasist; for, Iet me despair if I lye unto you, all the while I was perusing it, it committed holy rapes upon my soul, me [...]ought I felt my heart melting within my brest, and my thoughts [Page 151] transported to a true Elysium all the while, ther were such flexa­nimous strong ravishing strains throughout it. To deal plainly with you, it wer an injury to the public good, not to expose to open light such divine raptures, for they have an edifying power in them, and may be tearm'd the very quintessence of devotion; you discover in them what a rich talent you have, which should not be buried within the walls of a privat study, or pass through a few particular hands, but appear in public view, and to the sight of the world, to the enriching of others, as they did me in reading them. Therfore I shall long to see them pass from the Bankside to Pauls Churchyard, with other precious peeces of yours, which you have pleas'd to impart unto me

Your most affectionate Servito [...], J. H.

XIV. To Sir I. S. Knight.

SIR,

YOu writ to me lately for a Footman, and I think this bearer will fit you; I know he can run well, for he hath run a­way twice from me, but he knew the way back again, yet though he hath a running head as well as running heels, (and who will expect a footman to be a stayed man?) I would not part with him, were I not to go [...]ost to the North. Ther be som things in him that answer for his waggeries, he will com when you call him, go when you bid him, and shut the door after him; he is faithfull and stout, and a lover of his Master; He is a great enemy to all doggs, if they bark at him in his running, for I have seen him confront a huge mastif, and knock him down: When you go a Countrey journey, or have him run with you a hunting, you must spirit him with liquor, you must allow him also somthing extraordinary for socks, els you must not have him to wait at your table; for when his grease melts in running hard tis subject to fall into his toes. I send him you but for tryall, if he be not for your turn, turn him over to me again when I com back,

The best news I can send you at this time, is, that we are like to have peace, both with France and Spain, so that Harwich men your [Page 152] Neighbours, shall not hereafter need to fear the name of Spino­la, who struck such an apprehension into them lately, that I under­stand they begin to fortifie.

I pray present my most humble service to my good Lady, and at my return from the North, I will be hold to kiss her hands, and yours, so I am

Your much obliged Servito [...], J. H.

XV. To my Father.

SIR,

OUr two younger brothers, which you sent hither, are disposed of; my brother Doctor hath placed the elder of the two with Mr. Hawes, a Mercer in Cheapside, and he took much paines in't, and I had plac'd my brother Ned, with Mr. Barrington, a Silk▪man in the same street, but afterwards for som inconveniences, I remov'd him to one Mr. Smith at the Flower-de-Luce in Lum­bard-street, a Mercer also; Their Masters are both of them very wel to pass, and of good repute; I think it will prove som advantage to them hereafter, to be both of one trade; because when they are out of their time, they may joyn s [...]ocks together; So that I hope, sir, they are wel plac'd as any two youths in London, but you must not use to send them such large tokens in money, for that may corrupt them. When I went to bind my brother Ned apprentice in Dra­pers Hall, casting my eyes upon the Chimney peece of the great room I might spy a picture of an ancient Gentleman, and under­neath Thomas Howell, I asked the Clerk about him, and he told me that he had bin a Spanish Merchant in Henry the eighths time, and coming home rich, and dying a Bachelor, he gave that Hall to the Company of Drapers, with other things, so that he is accoun­ted one of their chiefest Benefactors. I told the Clerk, that one of the sons of Thomas Howell came now thither to be bound, he answe­red that if he be a right Howell, he may have when he is free three hundred pounds to help to set up, and pay no interest for five yeers. It may be hereafter wee may make use of this. He told me [Page 153] also, that any Maid that can prove her Father to be a true Howell may com and demand fifty pounds towards her portion of the said Hall. I am to goe post towards Yorke to morrow, to my charge, but hope, God willing, to be here againe the next Terme; So with my love to my brother Howell, and my sister his wife, I rest

Your dutifull Son, I. H.

XVI. To my brother Dr. Howell at Iesus College in Oxon.

BRother, I have sent you here inclosed; Warrants for four brace of Bucks, and a Stag, the last Sir Arthur Manwaring pro­cur'd of the King for you, towards the keeping of your Act, I have sent you also a Warrant for a brace of Bucks out of Waddon Chace; besides, you shall receive by this Carrier a great Wicker Hamper, with two Geoules of Sturgeon, six barrells of pickled Oysters, three barrells of Bologna Olives, with som other Spanish comodi­ties.

My Lord President of the North hath lately made me Patron of a living hard by Henley, call'd Hambledon, it is worth five hundred pounds a year communibus onnis, and the now Incumbent Dr. Pil­kington is very aged, valetudinary, and corpulent; My Lord by legall instrument hath transmitted the next Advouson to me for satisfaction of som arrerages; Dr. Dommlaw and two or three more have bin with me about it, but I alwayes intended to make the first proffer to you, therfore I pray think of it, a sum of money must be had, but you shall be at no trouble for that, if you only will secure it (and desire one more who I know will do it for you) and it shall appear unto you that you have it upon far better t [...]rms than any other. It is as finely situated as any Rectory can be, for it is a­bout the mid-way twixt Oxford and London, it lies upon the Thames, and the Glebe-land house is very large and fair, and not dilapida­ted, so that considering all things it is as good as som Bishopricks; I know his Majesty is gracious unto you, and you may well expect som preferment that way, but such livings as these are not to be [Page 154] had every where. I thank you for inviting me to your Act, I will [...]e with you the next week, God willing; and hope to find my Father there; So with my kind love to Dr. Mansell, Mr. Watkins, Mr. Madocks and Mr. Napier at Allsoules, I rest

Your loving Brother, J. H.

XVII. To my Father Mr. Ben: Johnson.

FAther Ben. Nullum fit magnum ingenium sine mixtura demen­ti [...], thers no great wit without som mixture of madnes, so saith the Philosopher, nor was he a fool who answered, nec parvum, sine mixtura stultiti [...], nor small wit without som allay of foolish­n [...]. Touching the first it is verified in you, for I find that you have bin oftentimes mad, you were mad when you writ your Fox, and madder when you writ your Alchymist, you were mad when you writ Catilin, and stark mad when you writ Sej [...]us; but when you writ your Epigrammes, and the Magnetic Lady you were not so mad; Insomuch that I perceive ther be degrees of madnes in you; Excuse me that I am so free with you. The mad­nes I mean is that divine fury, that heating and heighning Spirit which Ovid speaks of,

Est Deus in nobis agitante calescimus illo, that true enthusiasm which transports, and elevates the souls of Poets, above the middle Region of vulgar conceptions, and makes them soar up to Hea­ven to touch the starrs with their laurelld heads, to walk in the Zodiac with Apollo himself, and command Mercury upon their er­rand.

I cannot yet light upon Doctor Davies his Welsh Grammer, be­fore Christmas I am promiss'd one; So desiring you to look better hereafter to your charcole fire and chimney, which I am glad to be one that preserv'd from burning, this being the second time that Vulca [...] hath threatned you, it may be because you have spoken ill of his wise and bin too busy with his hornes; I rest

Your Son, and contiguous Neighbour, J. H.

XVIII. To Sir Arthur Ingram at his House in York.

SIR,

I Have sent you herewith a hamper of Melons, the best I could find in any of Tothillfield gardens, and with them my very hum­ble service and thanks for all favors, and lately for inviting me to your new noble House at Temple Newsam when I return to York­shire; To this I may answer you as my Lord Coke was answerd by a N [...]folk Countryman who had a sute depending in the Kings-Bench against som neighbours touching a River that us'd to an­noy him, and Sir Edward Coke asking how he call'd the River, he answerd, my Lord I need not call her, for she is forward enough to com of her self. So I may say that you need not call me to any house of yours, for I am forward enough to com without cal­ling.

My Lord President is still indispos'd at Dr. Nappiers, yet he writ to me lately that he hopes to be at the next sitting in York: So with a tender of my most humble service to my noble good Lady, I rest

Your much obliged servant, J. H.

XIX. To R. S. Esq.

SIR,

I Am one of them, who value not a curtesie that hangs long be­twixt the fingers, I love not those viscosa beneficia, those bird­l [...]m'd kindnesses which Pliny speaks of; Nor would I receive mo­ney in a durty clowt, if possibly I could be without it; Ther­fore I return you the courtesie by the same hand that brought it, [Page 156] it might have pleasur'd me at first, but the expectation of it hat [...] prejudic'd me, and now perhaps you may have more need of it than

Your humble Servitor, J. H.

XX. To the Countess of Sunderland at York.

Madame,

MY Lord continues still in cours of Physic at Dr. Nappiers, I writ to him lately, that his Lordship would please to com to his own house here in St. Martins lane, wher ther is a greater ac­commodation for the recovery of his health, Dr. Ma [...]ern being on the one side, and the Kings Apothecary on the other, but I fear ther be som Mountebanks that carry him away, and I hear he in­tends to remove to Wickham to one Atkinson, a meer Quacksalver that was once Dr. Lopez his man.

The little Knight that useth to draw up his breeches with a shoo­inghorn, I mean Sir Posthumus Hobby, slew high at him this Par­lement, and would have incerted his name in the scrowl of Recu­sants, that's shortly to be presented to the King, but I produc'd a Certificat from Linford under the Ministers hand that he received the Communion at Easter last, and so got his name out; Besides, the Deputy-Lieutenants of Buckinghamshire would have charg'd Big­gin Farme with a light horse, but Sir Will. Allford, and others joyn'd with me to get it off.

Sir Thomas Wentworth, and Mr. Wansford, are grown great Courtiers lately, and com from We [...]stminster-Hall to White-Hall: (Sir Iohn Savill their Countrey-man having shown them the way with his white staff) The Lord Weston tamperd with the one, and my Lord Cottington took paines with the other, to bring them about from their violence against the Prerogative: And I am told the first of them is promis'd my Lords place at York, in case his sick­nes continues.

We are like to have peace with Spain and France; and for Germa­ny, they say the Swedes are like to strike in to her, to try whether they may have better fortune than the Danes.

[Page 157]My Lady Scroope (my Lords Mother) hath layn sick a good while, and is very weak. So I rest

Madame,
Your humble and dutifull Servitor, J. H.

XXI. To Dr. H. W.

SIR,

IT is a rule in friendship, When distrust enters in at the foregate, love goes out at the Postern; It is as true a rule, that [...], dubitation is the beginning of all knowledge; I confess this is true in the first election and co-optation of a friend, to com to the knowlege of him by quaeres and doubts; but when ther is a perfect contract made, confirm'd by experience, and a long tract of time, distrust then is meer poison to friendship; Therfore if it be as I am told, I am unfit to be your friend, but

Your servant, J. H.

XXII. To Dr. H. W.

SIR,

THey say in Italy, that deeds are men, and words are but wo­men; I have had your word often to give me a visit; I pray turn your semal promises, to masculin performances, els I shall think you have lost your being, for you know 'tis a rule in law, Id [...]m [...]st non esse, & non apparere.

Your faithfull Servitor, J. H.
[Page 158]To Mr. B. Chaworth: On my Valentine Mrs. Francis Metcalf (now Lady Robin­son) at York.A Sonnet.
COuld I charm the Queen of Loves,
To lend a quill of her white Doves;
Or one of Cupids pointed wings
Dipt in the fair Castalian springs,
Then would I write the all-divine
Perfections of my Valentine.
As 'mongst all flowrs the Rose excells,
As Amber 'mongst the fragrantst smells,
As 'mongst all mineralls the gold,
As Marble 'mongst the finest mold,
As Diamonds 'mongst jewells bright,
As Cynthia 'mongst the lesser lights;
So 'mongst the Northern beauties shine,
So far excells my Valentine.
In Rome and Naples I did view
Faces of Celestiall hue,
Venetian Dames I have seen many,
(I only saw them, touch'd not any)
Of Spanish beauties, Dutch and French,
I have beheld the quintessence,
Yet saw I none that could out-shine,
Or parallell my Valentine.
Th' Italians they are coy and quaint,
But they grosly daube and paint,
The Spanish kind, and apt to please,
But sav'ring of the same disease,
Of Dutch and French som few are comly,
The French are light, the Dutch are homely.
Let Tagus, Po, the Loire and Rhine
Then vaile unto my Valentine.
Heer may be seen pure white and red,
Not by feign'd Art, but Nature wed,
No simpring smiles, no mimic face,
Affected gesture, or forc'd grace,
A fair smooth front, free from least wrinkle,
Her eyes (oy me) like stars do twinkle;
Thus all perfections do combine,
To beautifie my Valentine.

XXIII. To Mr. Tho. M.

NOble Tom, You desir'd me lately to compose som lines upon your Mistresses black eyes, her becomming frowns, and up­on her Mask. Though the least request of yours be a command unto mee, the execution of it a contentment, yet I was hardly drawn to such a task at this time, in regard that many businesses puzzle my pericranium.—aliena negotia centum per caput & circa saliunt latus. Yet lest your Clorinda might expect such a thing, and that you might incur the hazard of her smiles (for you say her frowns are favors) and that she may take off her Mask un­to you the next time you go to court her, I send you the inclosed Verses Sonet-wise, which happly may please her better, in regard I hear she hath som skill in Music.

Vpon black Eyes, and becomming Frowns, A Sonnet.
BLack eyes, in your dark Orbs dothly
My ill, or happy destiny,
If with cleer looks you me behold,
You give me Mines and Mounts of Gold▪
If you dart forth disdainfull rayes,
To your own dy you turn my dayes.
Black eyes, in your dark Orbs by changes dwell,
My bane or bliss, my Paradise or Hell.
That Lamp which all the stars doth blind,
Yeelds to your lustre in som kind,
Though you do wear to make you bright
No other dress but that of night,
He glitters only in the day,
You in the dark your beams display.
Black eyes, in your two Orbs by changes dwell,
My bane or bliss, my Paradise or Hell.
The cunning thief that lurks for prize,
At som dark corner watching lies,
So that heart-robbing God doth stand
In your black lobbies, shaft in band,
To rifle me of what I hold
More precious far than Indian Gold.
Black eyes, in your dark Orbs by changes dwell,
My bane or bliss, my Paradise or Hell.
O powerfull Negromantic eies,
Who in your circles strictly pries,
Will find that Cupid with his dart
In you doth practise the black art,
And by th'enchantment I'me possest,
Tries his conclusions in by brest.
Black eyes, in your dark Orbs by changes dwell,
My bane or bliss, my Paradise or Hell.
Look on me, though in frowning wise,
Som kind of frowns becom black eies,
As pointed Diamonds being set,
Cast greater lustre out of Iet,
Those peeces we esteem most rare,
Which in night shadows postur'd are:
Darknes in Churches congregats the sight,
Devotion straies in glaring light;
Black eyes, in your dark Orbs by changes dweil,
My bane or bliss, my Paradise or Hell.
[Page 161]
Touching her Mask, I will not be long about it.
Upon Clorinda's Mask.
SO have I seen the Sun in his full pride
Orecast with sullen clouds, and lose his light,
So have I seen the brightest stars denied
To shew their lustre in som gloomy night,
So Angels pictures have I seen vaild ore,
That more deuoutly men should them adore;
So with a Mask saw I Clorinda hide
Her face more bright than was the Lemnian Bride.

Whether I have hit upon your fancy, or fitted your Mistresse I know no [...] ▪ I pray let me hear what success they have; So▪ wi­shing you your hearts desire, and if you have her, a happy con­ferreation, I rest in Verse and Prose,

Yours, J. H.

XXIV. To the Right Honble my La: Scroop Countess of Sunderland at Langar.

Madam,

I Am newly return'd from Hunsdon, from giving the Rites of bu­riall to my Lords Mother; She made my Lord sole Executor of all. I have all her Plate and houshold stuff in my custody, and unles I had gon as I did much had been embezeld. I have sent herewith the coppy of a Letter the King writ to my Lord upon the [...]esignation of his place, which is fitting to be preserv'd for posteri­ty amongst the Records of Bolton Castle. His Majesty expresseth [...]herin that he was never better serv'd nor with more exactnes of fi­delity and Justice by any▪ therfore he int [...]nds to set a speciall mark of his [...] upon him, [...]hen his health will [...]erve him to co [...] to [Page 162] Court, my Lord Carlet [...]n deliver'd it me, and told me he never re­membred that the King writ a more gracious Letter. I have late­ly bought in fee Farm Wanless Park of the Kings Commissioners for my Lord, I got it for six hundred pound doubling the old rent, and the next day I was offer'd five hundred pound for the bargain, ther were divers that put in for' [...], and my Lord of Angle­sey thought himself sure of it, but I found means to frustrat them all. I also compounded with her Majesties Commissioners for re­spit of homage for Rabbi Castle, ther was 120 pound demanded, but I cam off for 40 shillings. My Lord Wentworth is made Lord Deputy of Ireland, and carries a mighty stroak at Court, ther have been som clashings 'twixt him and my Lord of Pe [...]brock lately with others at Court, and divers in the North, and som as Sir Da­vid Fowler with others have been crush'd.

He pleas'd to give me the disposing of the next Attorneys place in York, and Iohn Lister being lately dead, I went to make use of the favor, and was offer'd three hundred pound for it, but som got 'twixt me and home, so that I was forc'd to go away contented with one hundred pecces Mr. Ratcliff deliver'd me in his Chamber at Grays Inn, and so to part with the legall instrument I had, which I did, rather than contest.

The Dutchess your Necce is well, I did what your La: com­manded me at York House. So I rest

Madame,
Your Lapps ready and faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXV. To D. C. Esqr. at his House in Essex.

My D. D.

I Thank you for your last Society in London, but I am sorry to have found Iack T. in that pickle, and that hee had so fa [...] transgres [...]'d the Fannian Law, which allows a chirping cup to satiat, not to sur [...]t., to [...]irth, not to madnes, and upon som ex­traordinary occasion of som rencounters, to give Nature a [...] [Page 163] but not a knock as Iack did, I am afraid he hath taine such a habit of it, that nothing but death will mend him, and I find that he is po­sting thither apace by this cours. I have read of a King of Navarr (Charles le mauvais) who perishd in strong waters, and of a Duke of Clarence that was drownd in a but of Malmesey, but Iack T. I fear will die in a butt of Ca [...]ary. Howsoever comend me unto him, and desire him to have a care of the main chance. So I rest

Yours, J. H.

XXVI. To Sir Thomas Lake Knight.

SIR,

I Have shewd Sir Kenelme Digby both our translations of Marti­alls, Vitam quae faci [...]nt beatiorem, &c. and to tell you true he adjudg'd yours the better, so I shall pay the wager in the place ap­pointed, and try whether I can recover my self at giocod' amore, which the Italian sayth is a play to cosen the devill: If your pulse beats accordingly I will wayt upon you on the River towards the evening, for a floundring fit to get som fish for our supper, so I rest

Your true Servitor, I. H.

XVII. To Mr. Ben. Johnson.

FAther Ben, you desir'd me lately to procure you Dr. Davies Welsh Grammer to add to those many you have, I have ligh­ted upon one at last, and I am glad I have it in so seasonable a time that it may serve for a New-years gift, in which quality, I send it you; and because 'twas not you, but your Muse that desir'd it of me, [...]or your letter runs on feet, I thought it a good correspon­dence with you to accompagne it with what follows.

[Page 164]
Vpon Dr. Davies Brittish Grammer.
T'was a tough task beleeve it, thus to frame
A wild and wealthy language, and to frame
Grammatic toiles to curb her, so that shee
Now speaks by rules, and sings by prosodie;
Such is the strength of Art rough things to shape',
And of rude Comons rich inclosures make.
Doubtles much oil and labour went to couch
Into methodic rules the rugged Dutch;
The Rabbies pass my reach, but judg I can,
Somthing of Clenard and Quintilian;
And for those modern Dames I find they three
Ital. Spanish. French.
Are only lopps cut from the Latian tree,
And easie t [...]as to square them into parts,
The Tree it self so blossoming with Arts.
I have bin shewn for Irish and Bascuence
Imperfect rules couchd in an Accidence:
But I find none of these can take the start
Of Davies, or that prove more men of art,
Wh [...] in exacter method, and short way,
The Idioms of a language do display.
This is the toung, the Bards sung in of old,
And Druids their dark knowledg did unfold,
Merlin in this his prophesies did vent
Which through the world of fame bear such extent:
This spoak that son of Mars, that Britain bold
Who first mongst Christian worthies is inrolld:
Arthur.
This Brennus, who, to his desire and glut,
The Mistress of the world did prostitut.
This Arviragus, and brave Catarac
Sole free, when all the world was [...]n Romes rack,
This Lucius who on angells wings did so [...]r
To Rome, and would wear diadem no more;
And thousand Heroes more which should I tell
This new-year scarce would serve me, so farewell▪
Your son and servitor, J. H.

XXVIII. To the right Honble the Earl of Bristol at Sherburn Castle.

My Lord,

I Attended my Lord Cottington before he went on his journey to­wards Spain and put him in mind of the old busines against the Vice-roy of Sardinia, to see whether any good can be don, and to learn whether the Conde or his son be Solvent; He is to land at [...], one of the Kings ships attends him, and som Merchant men take the advantage of this Convoy.

The news that keeps greatest noise now is, that the Emperour hath made a favourable peace with the Dane, for Tilly had cross'd the Elve, and entred deep into Holstein land, and in all probabi­lity might have carried all before him, yet that King had honora­ble termes given him, and a peace is concluded (though without the privity of England.) But I beleeve the King of Denmarc far'd the better, because he is Granchild to Charles the Emperours sister. Now it seems another spirit is like to fall upon the Emperour, for they write that Gustavus King of Sw [...]thland is struck into Ger­many, and hath taken Meclenburgh; the ground of his quarrell as I hear is, that the Emperour would not acknowledg, much less give audience to his Ambassadors, he also gives out to com for the assistance of his Allies, the Dukes of Pomerland and Meclenburgh, nor do I hear that he speaks any thing yet of the Pr. Palsgraves business.

Don Carlos Coloma is expected here from Flanders about the sam [...] time, that my Lord Cottington shall be arriv'd at the Court of Spain, God send us an Honourable peace, for as the Spaniard saies, Nun­ [...]avi tan mala paz que no fuesse mejor, que la mejor guerra.

Your Lordships most humble and ready Servant, J. H.

XXX. To my Cosen I. P. at Mr. Conradus.

Cousin,

A Letter of yours was lately deliverd me, I made a shift to read the superscription, but within, I wonderd what language it might be, in which 'twas written, at first I thought 'twas He­brew, or som of her Dialects, and so went from the liver to the heart, from the right hand to the left to read it, but could ma [...]e nothing of it; then I thought it might be the Chineses language, and went to read the words perpendicular, and the lines were so crooked and distorted, that no coherence could be made; Greek [...] perceiv'd it was not, nor Latin or English; So I gave it for meere gibbrish, and your characters to be rather Hieroglyphicks then Let­ters. The best is, you keep your lines at a good distance, like those in Chancery-bills, who as a Clerk said, were made so wide of purpose, because the Clients should have room enough to walk between them without justling one another; yet this widenes had bin excusable if your lines had bin streight, but they were full of odd kind of Undulations and windings; If you can write no other­wise, one may read your thoughts as soon as your characters. It is som excuse for you, that you are but a young beginner, I pray let it appear in your next what a proficient you are, otherwise som blame may light on me that placed you there; Let me receive no more Gibbrish or Hieroglyphicks from you, but legible letters, that I may acquaint your friends accordingly of your good procee­dings, So I rest

Your very loving Cosen, J. H.

XXXI. To the Lo. Viscount Wentworth Lo. President of York.

My Lord,

MY last was of the first current, since which I receiv'd one from your Lordship, and your comands therin, which I shall ever entertain with a great deal of cheerfulnes. The grea­test news from abroad is, that the French King with his Cardinal are com again on this side the Hills, having don his business in Italy and Savoy, and reserv'd still Pignerol in his hands, which will serve him as a key to enter Italy at pleasure; Upon the highest Mountain 'mongst the Alps he left this ostentous inscription up­on a great Marble piller;

A la memoire eternelle de Lovis treiziesme,
Roy de France & de Navarre,
Tres-Auguste, tres-victorieux, tres-heureux,
Conquerant, tres-juste:
Lequel apres avoir vaincu toutes les Nations
de l'Europe,
Il à encore triumphé les elements
Du ciel & de la terre,
Ayant passé deux fois ces-monts au mois
de Mars avec son Armee
Victorieuse pour remmettre les Princes
d'Italie en leurs estats,
Defendre & protegerses Alliez.

To the eternall memory of Lewis the thirteenth King of France and Navarr, most gracious, most victorious, most happy, most just, a Conquerer; who having orecom all Nations of Europ, he hath also triumph'd over the Elements of Heaven and Earth, having twise pass'd ore these hills in the month of March with his victorious Army, to restore the Princes of Italy to their estates, and to de­fend [Page 168] and protect his Allies. So I take my leave for the present and rest,

Your Lopp▪ most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXXII. To Sir Keneime Digby Knight.

SIR,

GIve me leave to congratulat your happy return from the Levant, and the great honour you have acquir'd by your gallant comportment in Algier in reescating so many English slaves; by bearing up so bravely against the Venetian Fleet in the bay of Scanderoon, and making the Pantaloni to know themselves and you better. I do not remember to have read or heard, that those huge Galleasses of Saint Mark were bea­ten afore. I give you the joy also, that you have born up against the Venetian Ambassadour here, and vindicated your self of those foule scandalls he had cast upon you in your absence; Wheras you desire me to joyne with my Lord Cottington and o­thers to make an Affidavit touching Bartholomew Spinola, whither he be, Vezino de Madrid, viz. free Denison of Spaine, I am rea­dy to serve you herein, or to do any other office that may right you, and tend to the making of your prize good. Yet I am very sor­ry that our Aleppo Merchants suffer'd so much.

I shall be shortly in London, and I will make the greater speed, because I may serve you. So I humbly kiss my noble Ladies hand, and rest

Your thrice-assured Servitor, J. H.

XXXIII. To the Right Honble Sir Peter Wicths Ambr. at Constantple.

SIR,

MAster Simon Digby delivered me one from your Lordship of the first of Iune; and I was extremely glad to have it, for I had receav'd nothing from your Lordship a twelvemonth before. Mr. Controuler Sir Tho. Edmonds is lately return'd from France, having renew'd the peace which was made up to his hands before by the Venetian Ambassadors, who had much labour'd in it, and had concluded all things beyond the Alps when the King of France was at Susa to relieve Casal. The Monsieur that was to fetch him from Saint Denis to Paris, put a kind of jeering complement up­on him, viz. that his Excellency should not think it strange, that he had so few French Gentlemen to attend in this service to accom­pany him to the Court, in regard ther were so many killd at the Isle of [...]hee. The Marquis of Chasteau neuf is here from France, and it was an odd speech also from him reflecting upon Mr. Controuler, that the King of great Britain us'd to send for his Ambassadors from abroad to pluck Capons at home.

Mr. Bu [...]lemach is to go shortly to Paris to recover the other moity of her Majesties portion; wherof they say my Lord of Holland is to have a good share; The Lord Treasurer Weston is he who hath the greatest vogue now at Court, but many great ones have clash'd with him: He is so potent, that I hear his eldest Son is to marry one of the bloud Royall of Scotland, the Duke of Lenox Sister, and that with his Majesties consent.

Bishop La [...]d of London is also powerfull in his way, for hee sits at the helm of the Church, and doth more than any of the two Arch bishops, or all the rest of his two and twenty brethren besides.

In your next I should be glad your Lordship would do me the fa­vor, as to write how the grand Signor is like to speed before Bag­da [...], in this his Persian expedition.

No more now but that, I always rest

Your Lordships ready and most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXXIV. To my Father.

SIR,

SIr Tho. Wentworth hath been a good while Lord President of York, and since is sworn Privy Counsellor, and made Baron and Vicount, the Duke of Buckingham himself flew not so high in so short a revolution of time; Hee was made Vicount with a great deale of high ceremony upon a Sunday in the afternoon at VVhite-Hall; My Lord Powis (who affects him not much) being told that the Heralds had fetch'd his Pedigree from the bloud Roy­all, viz. from Iohn of Gaunt, said, Dammy if ever he com to be King of England I will turn Rebell. When I went first to give him joy, he pleas'd to give me the disposing of the next Attorney's place that falls void in York, which is valued at three hundred pounds. I have no reason to leave my Lord of Sunderland, for I hope hee will bee noble unto me; the perquisits of my place, taking the Kings see away, ca [...] far short of what he promis'd me at my first comming to him, in regard of his non-residence at York, therfore I hope he will consider it som other way. This languishing sicknes still hangs on him, and I fear will make an end of him; Ther's none can tell what to make of it, but he voided lately a strange Worm at VVickham; but I fear ther's an impostume growing in him, for he told me a passage, how many years ago my Lord VVilloughby, and he, with so many of their servants (de gayete de c [...]ur) played a match at foot-ball against such a number of Countrey men, where my Lord of Sunderland being busie about the ball, got a bruise in the brest, which put him in a swond for the present, but did not trouble him till three months after, when being at Bever Castle (his brother-in-laws house) a quaume took him on a sudden, which made him retire to his bed-chamber, my Lord of Rutland following him, put a Pipe full of Tobacco in his mouth, and he being not accustomed to Tobacco, taking the smoak downwards, fell a ca­sting and vomiting up divers little impostumated bladders of con­geal'd bloud, which sav'd his life then, and brought him to have a better conceit of Tobacco ever after; and I fear ther is som of that clodded bloud still in his body.

Because Mr. Hawes of Che [...]p-side is lately dead, I have remov'd [Page 171] my brother Griffith to the Hen and Chickens in Pater Noster Row, [...]o Mr. Taylors, as gentile a shop as any in the City, but I gave a peece of Plate of twenty Nobles price to his Wife. I wish the York­shire horse may be fit for your turn, he was accounted the best sad­dle Gelding about York, when I bought him of Captain Phillips the Mustar-master; and when he carried me first to London, there was twenty pounds offered for him by my Lady Carlile. No more now but desiring a continuance of your blessing and pray­ers, I rest

Your dutifull Son, J. H.

XXXV. To the Lord Cottington, Ambassador Extraor­dinary for his Majesty of great Britain in the Court of Spaine.

My Lord,

I Receiv'd your Lordships lately by Harry Davies the Correo San­to, and I return my humble thanks, that you were pleas'd to be mindfull (amongst so many high negotiations) of the old bu­sines touching the Viceroy of Sardinia, I have acquainted my Lord of Bristoll accordingly. Our eyes here look very greedily after your Lordship, and the success of your Embassie, and we are glad to hear the busines is brought to so good a pass, and that the capi­tulations are so honorable (the high effects of your wisdom.)

For News: The Sweds do notable feat [...] Germany, and we hope they cutting the Emperour and Bavarian so much work to do, and the good offices we are to expect from Spain upon this redintegra­tion of Peace, will be an advantage to the Prince Palatin, and fa­cilitat matters for restoring him to his Country.

Ther is little news at our Court, but that ther fell an ill-favou­red quarrell 'twixt Sir Kenelm Digby, and Mr. Goring, Mr. Iermin, and others at St. Iames lately about Mrs Baker the Maid of honor, and Duells were like to grow of it, but that the busines was taken up by the Lord Treasurer, my Lord of Dorset, and others appoin­ted by the King. My Lord of Sunderland is still ill dispos'd; he [Page 172] will'd me to remember his hearty service to your Lordship, and so did Sir Arthur Ingram, and my Lady, they all wish you a happy and honorable return, as doth

Your Lopps most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXXVI. To my Lo: Vicount Rocksavage.

My Lord,

SOm say, the Italian loves no favor, but whats future; though I have convers'd much with that Nation, yet I am nothing infected with their humor in this point: for I love favors pass'd as well, the remembrance of them joyes my very heart, and makes it melt within me; when my thoughts reflect upon your Lordship. I have many of these fits of joy within me, by the pleasing specula­tion of so many most noble favors, and respects; which I shall dai­ly study to improve and merit.

My Lord,
Your Lopps most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXXVII. To the Earl of Bristol.

My Lord,

I Doubt not but your [...]ordship hath had intelligence from time time what firm invasions the King of Sweds hath made into Germany, and by what degrees he hath mounted to this height, ha­ving but six thousand foot and five hundred horse, when he entred first to Meclenburg, and taken that Town while Commissioners stood treating on both sides in his tent; how therby his Army much encreas'd, and so rush'd further into the heart of the Countrey, but passing neer Magdenburg, being diffident of his own strength he suffer'd Tilly to take that great Town with so much effusion of bloud, because they would receive no quarter; your Lordship [Page 173] hath also heard of the battell of Leipsick, where Tilly notwithstan­ding the Victory he had got ore the Duke of Saxony a few daies be­fore, receav'd an vtter discomfiture, upon which victory the King sent Sir Thomas Roe a present of two thousand pounds and in his letter calls him his strenuum consultorem, he being one of the first who had advis'd him to this German war after he had made peace 'twixt him and the Polander. I presume also your Lordship heard how he met Tilly again neer Auspurg, and made him go up­on a woodden leg wher of he died, and after soundly plunder'd the Bavarian, and made him flee from his own house at Munchen, and rifled his very Closets.

Now your Lordship shall understand, that the said King is at Mentz, & keeps a Court there like an Emperour, there being above twelve Ambassadors with him. The King of France sent a great Marquis for his Ambassador to put him in mind of his Articles, and to tell him that his Christian Majesty wondred he would cross the Rhine without his privity, and wondred more that he would invade the Church-lands, meaning the Archbishop of Mentz, who had put himself under the protection of France; The Swed answer'd, That he had not broke the least title of the Articles agreed on, and touching the said Archbishop, he had not stood Neutrall as was promised, therfore he had justly set on his skirts. The Ambassa­dor replied, in case of breach of Articles, his Master had eighty thousand men to pierce Germany when he pleas'd; The King an­swer'd that he had but twenty thousand, and those should be soo­ner at the walls of Paris, then his fourscore thousand should be on the frontiers of Germany. If this new Conquerer goes on with this violence, I beleeve it will cast the pollicy of all Christendom into another mould, and be get new maximes of State, for none can foretell wher his monstrous progress will terminat; Sir Henry Vane is still in Germany, observing his motions, and they write that they do not agree well; as I heard the King should tell him that he spoke nothing but Spanish to him: Sir Robert Anstruther is also at Vienna, being gon thither from the Diet at Ratisbon.

I hear the Infante Cardinal is design'd to com Governor of the Netherlands, and passeth by way of Italy, and so through Ger­many: his brother Don Carlos is lately dead. So I humbly take my leave, and rest

My Lord,
Your Lopps most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXXVIII. To my noble Lady, the Lady Cor.

Madam,

YOu spoke to me for a Cook, who had seen the world abroad, and I think the bearer hereof will fit your Ladiships [...]urn. He can marinat fish, make gellies, he is excellent for a pickant sawce, and the Haugou; besides Madame, he is passing good for an ollia; He will tell your Ladiship that the reverend Matron the olla podri­da hath intellectualls and senses; Mutton, Beef, and Bacon, are to her, as the will, understanding, and Memory, are to the soule; Cabbage, Turnips, Artichocks, Potatoes and Dates, are her five senses, and Pepper the common sense; she must have Marrow to keep life in her, and som birds to make her light, by all meanes she must go adorn'd with chaines of Sausages; He is also good at Larding of meat after the mode of France. Madame, you may make proof of him, and if your Ladyship find him too sawey, or wastfuli, you may return him whence you had him, So I rest

Madame,
Your Lapps most humble Servitor, J. H,

XXXIX. To Mr. E. D.

SIR,

YOu write to me that T. B. intends to give money for such a place, if he doth, I feare it will be verified in him that a fool and his money is soon parted, for I know he wilbe never a­ble to execut it, I heard of a la [...]e secretary of State that could not read the next morning his own hand writing, and I have read of Caligulas horse that was made Consull, therfore I pray tell him from me, (for I wish him well) that if he thinks he is fit for that Office, he looks upon himself through a fals glass, a trotting [Page 175] hors is fit for a coach, but not for a Ladies saddle, and an ambler is proper for a Ladies saddle, but not for a coach. If Tom under­takes this place, he wilbe as an ambler in a coach, or a trotter under a Ladies saddle, when I com to town, I will put him up­on a far fitter and more feasable busines for him, and so comend me to him, for I am his and

Your true friend, J. H.

XL. To my Father.

SIR,

THer are two Ambassadors extraordinary to go abroad shortly, the Earl of Leycester, and the Lord M'eston, this latter goes to France, Savoy, Venice, and so returns by Florence a pleasant jour­ney, for he carrieth presents with him from King and Queen: The Earl of Leycester is to go to the King of Denmark, and other Princes of Germany. The maine of the Embassy is to condole the late death of the Lady Sophia Queen Dowager of Denmark our Kings Grandmother: She was the Duke of Meclenburgs daughter, and her husband Christian the third dying young, her portion which was forty thousand pound was restor'd fier, and living a Widdow forty four years after, she grew to be so great a huswife setting three or four hundred people at worke, that she died worth neer two millions of dollars, so that she was reputed the richest Queen of Christendom: By the constitutions of Denmark this estate is di­visible amongst her children wherof she had five, the King of Denmark, the Dutchess of Saxony, the Dutchess of Brimswick, Queen Ann, and the Dutchess of Holftein, the King being Male is to have two shares, our King and the Lady Elizabeth is to have that which should have belong'd to Queene Anne, so he is to returne by the Hague: It pleas'd my Lord of Leycester to send for me to Baynards Castle, and proffer me to go Se­cretary in this Ambassage, assuring me that the journey shall tend to my profit and credit; So I have accepted of it, for I hea [...] very nobly of my Lord, so that I hope to make a boon voyage of it. [Page 176] I desire as hitherto your prayers and blessing may accompany me, so with my love to my Brothers, and Sisters, I rest,

Your dutifull son, I. H.

XLI. To Mr. Alderman Moulson Governor of the Merchant adventurers.

SIR,

THe Earl of Leicester, is to go shortly Ambassador extraordi­nary to the King of Denmark and he is to pass by Hamburgh; I understand by Mr. Skinner that the Staple hath som grievances to be redress'd. If this Ambassage may be an advantage to the Com­pany I will solicit my Lord that he may do you all the favor that may stand with his honor, so I shall expect your instructions ac­cordingly, and rest,

Yours ready to serve you J. H.

XLII. To Mr. Alderman Clethero, Governor of the Eastland Company.

SIR,

I Am inform'd of som complaints that your Company hath against the King of Denmarks Officers in the Sound. The Earl of Lei­cester is nominated by his Majesty to go Ambassador extraordina­ry to that King and other Princes of Germany; If this Embassy may be advantagious unto you, you may send me your directions, and I will attend my Lord accordingly, to do you any favor, that may stand with his honor, and conduce to your benefit, and redress of grievances, so I take my leave and rest,

Yours ready to do you service, J. H.

XLIII. To the Right Honble the Earl of Leicester at Pettworth.

Mr Lord,

SIR Iohn Pennington is appointed to carry your Lordship and your company to Germany, and he intends to take you up at Margets. I have bin with Mr Bourlamach, and receiv'd a bill of exchange from him for ten thousand dollars payable in Hamburgh. I have also receiv'd two thousand pounds of Sir Paul Pinder for your Lordships use, and he did me the favor to pay it me all in old gold, your allowance hath begun since the twenty five of Iuly last at eight pound per diem, and is to continue so till your Lordship return to his Majesty. I understand by som Merchants to day up­on the Exchange that the King of Denmark is at Luckstadt, and staies there all this somer, if it be so, 'twill save half the voyage of going to Copenhagen, for in lieu of the Sound we need go no further then the River of Elve, so I rest,

Your Lopps most humble and faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XLIIII. To the Right Honble the Lord Mohun.

My Lord,

THough any comand from your Lordship be welcom to me at all times, yet that, which you lately injoynd me in yours of the twelfth of August, that I should inform your Lordship of what I know touching the Inquisition, is now a little unseasonable, be­cause I have much to do to prepare my selfe for this employment to Germany, therfore I cannot satisfie you in that fulnes as I could do otherwise. The very name of the Inquisition is terrible all Christendom over, and the King of Spaint himself, with the chie­fest [Page 178] of his Grandes tremble at it. It was sounded first by the Ca­tholic King Ferdinand (our Henry the eighths Father-in-law) for he having got Granada, and subdued all the Moors, who had had firm sooting in that Kingdom about 700. years, yet he suffer'd them to live peaceably a while in point of conscience; but afterwards he sent a solemn Mandamus to the Jacobin Fryars to endeavour the conversion of them by preaching, and all other meanes; They finding that their paines did little good, (and that those whom they had converted turn'd Apostats) obtain'd power to make a re­search, which afterwards was call'd Inquisition, and it was rati­fied by Pope S [...]xtus, that if they would not conform themselves by fai [...]e m [...]anes, they should be forc'd to it. The Jacobins being sound too severe herein, and for other abuses besides, this Inquisition was taken from them, and put into the hands of the most sufficient Ec­clesiasticks. So a Counsell was established, and Officers appoin­ted accordingly: Whosoever was found pendulous and branling in his Religion was brought by a Serjeant call'd Familiar, before the said Counsell of Inquisition, His accuser or delator stands be­hind a peece of Tapistry, to see whether he be the party, and if he be, then they put divers subtill and entrapping interrogatories unto him, and whether he confess any thing or no, he is sent to prison. When the said Familiar goes to any house, though it be in the dead of night (and that's the time commonly they use to com, or in the dawn of the day) all doors and trunks and chests fly open to him, and the first thing he doth he seizeth the parties breeches, searcheth his pockets, and take his keyes, and so rum­mageth all his closets and trunks: and a public Notary whom he carrieth with him, takes an Inventory of every thing, which is sequestred and despositated in the hands of som of his next neigh­bours; The party being hurried away in a close Coach, and clap [...] in prison, he is there eight daies before he makes his appearance, and then they present unto him the Cross, and the Missall book to swear upon; if he refuseth to swear, he convinceth himself, and though he sweare, yet he is remanded to prison: This Oath commonly is presented before any accusation be produc'd; His Goaler is strictly comanded to pry into his actions, his deport­ment, words, and countenance, and to ser spies upon him, and whosoever of his fellow prisoners, or others can produce any thing against him, he hath a reward for it: At last after divers appa­rances, examinations, and scrutinies, the Information against him is read, but the witnesses names are conceal'd, then is he appoin­ted a Proctor and an Advocat, but he must not confer or advise [Page 179] with them privatly, but in the face of the Court; The Kings At­torney is a party in't, and the accusers commonly the solé witnes­ses. Being to name his own Lawyers oftentimes others are disco­vered and fall into trouble: while he is thus in prison, he is so abhor'd, and abandoned of all the world, that none will, atleast none dare visit him. Though one cleer himself, yet he cannot be freed, till an Act of [...]aith pass; which is don seldom, but very so­lemnly; Ther are few who having fallen into the gripes of the In­quisition do scape the rack; or the Sambenito which is a streight yellow coat without sleeves, having the pourtrait of the Devill painted up and down in black, and upon their heads they carry a Mi [...]er of paper, with a man frying in the flames of hell upon't, they gag their mouths, and tie a great cord about their necks: The Iudges meet in som uncouth dark dungeon, and the Executi­oner stands by, clad in a close dark garment, his head and face cover'd with a Chaperon, out of which ther are but two holes to look through, and a huge Link burning in his hand: When the Ecclesiastic Inquisitors have pronounced the Anathema against him, they transmit him to the secular Iudges to receave the sen­tence of death, for Church-men must not have their hands imbru'd in bloud, the King can mitigat any punishment under death, nor i [...] a Noble-man subject to the rack.

I pray be pleas'd to pardon this rambling imperfect relation, and take in good part my Conformity to your Commands, for I am

Your Lopps most ready and faithfull Servitor, J. H.

Familiar Letters.
SECTION VI.

I. To P. W. Esq at the Signet Office, from the English House in Hamburgh.

WE are safely com to Germany, Sir Iohn Penington took us aboard in one of His Majesties Ships at Margets; and the Wind stood so fair, that wee were at the mouth of the Elve upon Munday fol­lowing. It pleas'd my Lord I should Land first with two Footmen, to make haste to Glukstad, to learn wher the King of Denmark was, and he was at Rensburgh, som two daies journey off, at a Richsdagh an As­sembly that corresponds our Parliament: My Lord the next day Landed at Glukstad, wher I had provided an accommodation for him, though he intended to have gon for Hamburgh, but I was bold to tell him, that in regard ther were som ombrages, and not only so, but open and actuall differences 'twixt the King and that Town, it might be ill taken, if he went thither first, before he had attended the King. So I left my Lord at Glukstad, and being com hither to take up 8000 rich Dollars upon Mr. Burlamac [...] Bils, and fercht Mr. Avery our Agent here; I return to morrow to attend [...] Lord again. I find that matters are much off the Hinges [...] King of Denmark, and this Town.

The [...] Sweden is advancing apace to find out Wallestein, and Wallestein [...] and in all apparance they will be shortly engag'd.

[Page 181]No more now, for I am interpell'd by many businesses; when you write, deliver your Letters to Mr. Railton, who will see them safely convey'd, for a little before my departure, I brought him acquainted with my Lord▪ that he might negotiat som things at Court. So with my service and love to all at Westminster, I rest

Your faithfull servitor, J. H.

II. To my Lord Viscount S. from Hamburgh.

My Lord,

SInce I was last in Town, my Lord of Leicester hath attended the King of Denmarke at Rensburg in Holsteinland; he was brought thither from Glukstad in indifferent good equipage, both for Coaches and Waggons; but he stayed som dayes at Rensburg for Audience; we made a comly, gallant shew in that kind, when we went to Court, for wee were neer upon a hundred all of one peece in mourning: It pleas'd my Lord, to make me the Orator, and so I made a long Latin Speech, alta voce, to the King in La­tin, of the occasion of this Ambassie, and tending to the praise of the deceased Queen; and I had better luck then Secretary Nan­ton had, som thirty yeers since, with Roger Earl of Rutland; for at the beginning of his Speech, when he had pronounc'd Serenissime Rex, he was dash'd out of countenance, and so gravell'd, that he could go no further: I made another to Christian the fifth, his el­dest Son, King elect of Denmark; for though that Crown be purely electif, yet for these three last Kings, they wrought so with the people, that they got their eldest Sons chosen, and de­clar'd before their death, and to assume the Title of Kings elect▪ At the same Audience, I made another Speech to Prince Frederic, Archbishop of B [...]eme, the Kings third Son, and he hath but one more (besides his naturall Issue) which is Prince Ulri [...], now in the Warrs with the Duke of Sax; and they say ther is an alliance contracted already, 'twixt Christian the fifth, and the Duke of Sax his Daughter. This ceremony being perform'd, my Lord desir'd [...]o find his own diet, and then he fell to divers businesses, which is [...]ot fitting for me to forestall, or impart unto your Lordship now; [...] wee staied there neer upon a moneth: The King feasted my [Page 182] Lord once, and it lasted from eleven of the clock, till towards the Evening, during which time, the King began thirty five healths; the first to the Emperour, the second to his Nephew of England, and so went over all the Kings and Queens of Christendom, but he never remembred the Prince Palsgraves health, or his Neece's all the while: The King was taken away at last in his Chair, but my Lord of Leicester bore up stoutly all the while, so that when ther came two of the Kings Guard to take him by the Arms, as he was going down the stairs, my Lord shook them off and went alone.

The next morning I went to Court for som dispatches, but the King was gon a hunting at break of day; but going to som other of his Officers, their servants told me, without any apparance of shame, That their Masters were drunk over night, and so it would be late before they would rise.

A few daies after we went to Gothorp Castle in S [...]eswickland, to the Duke of Holsteins Court, where at my Lords first audience, I made another Latin Speech to the Duke, touching his Gran-Mo­thers death; our entertainment there was brave (though a lit­tle fulsom) my Lord was log'd in the Dukes Castle, and parted with Presents, which is more then the King of Denmark did; thence we went to Husem in Ditzmarsh, to the Dutchess of Holsteins Court (our Queen Anns youngest Sister) wher we had also very ful enter­tainment, I made a speech to her also, about her Mothers death, and when I nam'd the Lady Sophia▪ the tears came down her cheeks. Thence we came back to Rhensburg, and so to this Town of Ham­burgh, where my Lord intends to repose som daies after an ab­rupt, odd journey wee had through Holsteinland, but I beleeve it will not be long, in regard Sir Iohn Pennington stayes for him up­on the River. We expect Sir Robert Anstruther to com from Vi [...] hither, to take the advantage of the Kings Ship.

We understand that the Imperiall and Swedish Army have made neer approaches one to the other, and that som skirmishes and blows have bin already twixt them; which are the forerunners of a battle. So my good Lord I rest

Your most humble and faithfull S [...]vitor, J. H.

III. To the Right Honble the Earl R. from Hamburgh.

My Lord,

THough your Lordship must needs think, that in the imploy­ment I am in (which requires a whole man) my spirits must be distracted by multiplicity of businesses; yet because I would not recede from my old method, and first principles of travell, when I came to any great City, to couch in writing what's most observ­able, I sequestred my self from other Affairs, to send your Lordship what followeth touching this great Hans-Town.

The Hans or Hansiatic l [...]gue is very ancient, som would de­rive the word from hand, because they of the society plight their faith by that action: Others derive it from Hansa, which in the Gothic toung is Counsell: Others would have it com from Han der see, which signifies neer or upon the Sea, and this passeth for the best Etymology, because their Towns are all seated so, or upon som navigable River neer the sea. The extent of the old Hans was from the Nerve in Livonia to the Rhin, and contain'd 62 great Mercantil Towns, which were divided to four Precincts: The chiefest of the first Pr [...]cinct was Lub [...]ck, wher the Archiss of their ancient Records, and their prime Chancery is still, and this Town is within that Verge: Cullen is chief of the second Precinct: Erurs­wic of the third: and Danzic of the fourth. The Kings of Pe­land and Sweden have sued to be their Protector, but they refus'd them, because they were not Princes of the Empire; they put off also the King of Denmark with a Complement, nor would they ad­mit the King of Spain when he was most potent in the Netherlands, though afterwards when 'twas too late, they desir'd the help of the Ragged Staff; nor of the Duke of Anjou, notwithstanding that, the world thought he should have married our Queen, who interce­ded for him, and so 'twas probable, that therby they might reco­ver their privileges in England; so that I do not find they ever had any Protector, but the great Master of Prussia; and their want of a Protector did do them som prejudice in that famous difference they had with our Queen.

The old Hans had extraordinary immunities given them by our Henry the third, because they assisted him in his wars with so ma­ny [Page 184] ships, and as they pretend, the King was not only to pay them for the service of the said Ships, but for the Vessells themselves if they miscarried: Now it happen'd, that at their return to Germa­ny, from serving Henry the third, ther was a great Fleet of them cast away; for which, according to Covenant, they demanded re­paration; Our King in lieu of money, amongst other Acts of Grace, gave them a privilege to pay but one per cent, which con­tinued untill Queen Mories reign; and she by advice of King Phi­lip her husband, as 'twas conceiv'd, enhanc'd the one to twenty per cent. The Hans not onely complain'd, but clamor'd loudly for breach of their ancient Privileges confirm'd unto them, time out of mind, by thirteen successive Kings of England, which they pre­tended to have purchased with their money. King Philip undertook to accommode the busines, but Queen Mary dying a little after, and he retiring, ther could be nothing don▪ Complaint being made to Queen Elizabeth, she answerd, That as shee would not innovat a­ny thing, so she would maintain them still in the same condition she found them: hereupon their Navigation and Trafic ceas'd a while: Wherfore the English tryed what they could do themselves, and they thrive so well, that they took the whole trade into their own hands, and so divided themselves (though they bee now but one) to Sta­plers, and Merchant Adventurers, the one residing constant in one place, wher they kept their Magazin of Wool, the other stirring and adventuring to divers places abroad with Cloth, and other Manufactures; which made the Hans endevor to draw upon them all the malignancy they could from all Nations: Moreover the Hans Towns being a body politic incorporated in the Empire, com­plain'd hereof to the Emperor, who sent over persons of great quality to mediat an accommodation, but they could effect nothing. Then the Queen caus'd a Proclamation to be punish'd, that the Easterlings or Merchants of the Hans, should be intreated and us'd as all other strangers were within her Dominions, without any mark of difference, in point of commerce. This netled them more, therupon they bent their Forces more eagerly, and in a Diet at Ratisbon, they procurd, that the English Merchants who had associ­ated themselves into Fraternities in Embd [...]n, and other places, should bee declar'd Monopolists; and so ther was a Comitiall Edict publishd against them, that they should be exterminated, and ba­nisht out of all parts of the Empire, and this was don by the acti­vity of one Suderman a great Civilian; Ther was there for the Queen Gilpin, as nimble a man as Suderman, and he had the Chan­celor of Embden to second and countenance him, but they could [Page 185] not stop the said Edict wherin the Society of English Merchants Ad­venturers was pronounc'd to bee a Monopoly; yet Gilpin plaid his game so well, that he wrought under hand, that the said Imperiall Ban should not be publish'd till after the dissolution of the Diet, and that in the interim, the Emperor should send Ambassadors to England, to advertise the Queen of such a Ban against her Mer­chants: But this wrought so little impression upon the Queen, that the said Ban grew rather ridiculous than formidable, for the Town of Embden harbour'd our Merchants notwithstanding, and after­wards Stode, but they not being able to protect them so well from the Imperiall Ban, they setled in this Town of Hamburgh: After this, the Queen commanded another Proclamation to be divulg'd, that the Easterlings or Hansiatic Merchants should bee allowed to Trade in England upon the same conditions, and payment of duties, as her own Subjects; provided, Tha [...] the English Merchants might have interchangeable privilege, to reside and trade peace­ably in Stode or Hamburgh, or any wher els, within the precincts of the Hans: This incens'd them more, therupon they resolv'd to cut off Stode and Hamburgh from being members of the Hans, or of the Empire; but they suspended this dessein, till they saw what success the great Spanish Fleet should have, which was then preparing in the yeer eighty eight, for they had not long before had recours to the King of Spain▪ and made him their own, and he had don them som materiall good Offices; wherfore to this day the Spanish Counsell is tax'd of improvidence, and imprudence, that ther was no use made of the Hans Towns in that expedi­tion.

The Queen finding that they of the Hans would not be con­tented with that equality she had offer'd 'twixt them and her own Subjects, put out a Proclamation, that they should carry neither Corn, Victualls, Arms, Timber, Masts, Cables, Mineralls, nor any other materialls or Men to Spain or Portugall. And after the Queen growing more redoubtable and famous, by the over­throw of the Fleet of Eighty eight, the Osterlings fell to despair of doing any good: Add hereunto another disaster that befell them, the taking of sixty sailes of their Ships about the mouth of Tagus in Portugall, by the Queens Ships that were laden with Ropas de contrabando, viz. Goods prohibited by her former Proclamation into the dominions of Spain: And as these Ships were upon point of being discharg'd, she had intelligence of a great Assembly at Lub [...]ck, which had met of purpose to consule of means to be reveng'd of her; therupon she staid and seiz'd upon [Page 186] the said sixty Ships, only two were freed to bring news what became of the rest. Hereupon the Pole sent an Ambassador to her, who spake in a high tone, but he was answer'd in a higher.

Ever since our Merchants have beaten a peacefull and free un­interrupted Trade into this Town, and elswhere within and with­out the Sound, with their Manufactures of Wool, and found the way also to the White-Sea to Archangel and Mosco: Insomuch, that the premisses being well considered, it was a happy thing for Eng­land, that that clashing fell out 'twixt her and the Hans, for it may be said to have been the chief ground of that Shipping and Mer­chandising, which she is now com to, and wherwith she hath flou­rish'd ever since: But one thing is observable, that as that Impe­riall or Comitial Bat, pronounc'd in the Diet at Ratisbon against our Merchants and Manufactures of Wooll, incited them more to industry: So our Proclamation upon Alderman Cockeins project of transporting no white Cloths but Died, and in their full manufa­cture, did cause both Dutch and German to turn necessity to a ver­tue, and made them far more ingenious to find ways, not only to Die, but to make Cloth, which hath much impair'd our Markers ever since; for ther hath not been the third part of our Cloth sold since, either here or in Holland.

My Lord, I pray be pleas'd to dispense with the prolixity of this Discours, for I could not wind it up closer, nor on a lesser bottom; I shall be carefull to bring with me those Furrs I had instructions for: So I rest

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

IV. To Cap. J. Smith at the Hague.

Captain,

HAving so wishfull an opportunity as this Noble Gentleman, Mr. Iames Crofts who coms with a Packet for the Lady Eli­zabeth from my Lord of Leicester, I could not but send you this frendly salute. We are like to make a speedier return than we expe­cted from this Ambassie; for we found the King of Denmark in He [...] ­stein, [Page 187] which shortned our voyage from going to the Sound: The King was in an advantagious posture to give audience, for ther was a Parlement then at Rhensburg, wher all the Younkers met. A­mongst other things, I put myself to mark the carriage of the Hol­stein Gentlemen, as they were going in and out at the Parlement House; and observing well their Physiognomies, their Complexi­ons, and Gate, I thought verily I was in England, for they resemble the English more, than either Welsh or Scot, (though cohabiting up­on the same Island) or any other peeple, that ever I saw yet; which makes me verily believe, that the English Nation came first from this lower circuit of Saxony; and ther is one thing that strength­neth me in this belief, that ther is an ancient Town hard by, call'd Lunden, and an Island call'd Angles; whence it may well be that our Country came from Britannia to be Anglia.

This Town of Hamburgh from a Society of Brewers, is com to be a huge wealthy place, and her new Town is almost as big as the old; Ther is a shrewd jar 'twixt her and her Protector, the King of Denmark.

My Lord of Leicester hath don som good Offices to accommode matters: She chomps extremely, that ther should be such a Bit put lately in her mouth, as the Fort at Luckstadit, which commands her River of Elve, and makes her pay what Toll he please.

The King begins to fill his Chests apace, which were so emptied in his late marches to Germany: He hath set a new Toll upon all Ships that pass to this Town; and in the Sound also ther be som ex­traordinary duties impos'd, wherat all Nations begin to murmure, specially the Hollanders, who say, that the old Primitive Toll of the Sound was but a Rose-noble for evry Ship, but by a new Sophistry, it is now interpreted for evry Sail that should pass thorow, insomuch, that the Hollander though he be a Low-Countrey man, begins to speak high-Dutch in this point, a rough language you know; which made the Italian tell a German Gentleman once, That when God Almigh­ty thrust Adam out of Paradise, he spake Dutch; but the German re­torted wittily, Then Sir, if God spake Dutch when Adam was eje­cted, Eve spake Italian when Adam was seduced.

I could be larger, but for a sudden auvocation to busines; so I most affectionatly send my kind respects unto you, desiring, when I am rendred to London, I may hear from you: So I am

Your faithfull Frend to serve you, J. H.

V. To the Right Honble the Earl of Br.

My Lord,

I Am newly return'd from Germany, whence ther came lately two Ambassadors extraordinary in one of the Ships Royall, the Earl of Leicester, and Sir Robert Anstruther; the latter came from Vien­na, and I know little of his negotiations; but for my Lord of Leicester, I beleeve ther was never so much busines dispatch'd in so short a compas of time, by any Ambassador, as your Lordship, who is best able to judg, will find by this short relation: When my Lord was com to the King of Denmarks Court, which was then at Rhensberg, a good way within Holstein: The first thing he did, was to condole the late Queen Dowagers death (our Kings Gran-Mother) which was don in such an equipage, that the Danes con­fess'd, ther was never Queen of Denmark so mourn'd for: This cere­mony being pass'd, my Lord fell to busines; and the first thing which he propounded, was, That for preventing of further effusion of Christian blood in Germany, and for the facilitating a way to re­store peace to all Christendom, His Majesty of Denmark would joyn with his Nephew of great Britain, to send a solemn Ambassie to the Emperour, and the King of Sweden, (the ends of whose pro­ceedings were doubtfull) to mediat an accommodation, and to appear for him, who will be found most conformable to reason. To this, that King answer'd in writing (for that was the way of proceeding) that the Emperour and the Swede were com to that height, and heat of war, and to such a violence, that it is no time yet to speak to them of peace; but when the fury is a little pass'd, and the times more proper, he would take it for an Honour to joyn with his Nephew, and contribut the best means he could to bring about so good a Work.

Then ther was computation made, what was due to the King of great Britain, and the Lady Elizabeth, out of their Gran-Mothers Estate,: which was valued at neer upon two Millions of Dollars, and your Lordship must think it was a hard task to liquidat such an account: This being don, my Lord desird that part which was due to his Majesty (our King) and the Lady his Sister, which appear'd to amount unto eightscore thousand pounds sterling: [Page 189] That King answer'd, That he confess'd ther was so much money due, but his Mothers Estate was yet in the hands of Commissio­ners; and neither he, nor any of his Sisters, had receiv'd their portions yet, and that his Nephew of England, and his Neere of Holland, should receive theirs with the first; but he did intimat besides, that ther were som considerable accounts 'twixt him and the Crown of England, for ready moneys he had lent his Brother King Iames, and for the thirty thousand pounds a moneth, that was by Covenant promis'd him for the support of his late Army in Germany. Then my Lord propounded, That His Majesty of Great Britains Subjects were not well us'd by his Officers in the Sound: for though that was but a Transitory passage into the Bal­tic Sea, and that they neither bought nor sould any thing upon the place, yet they were forc'd to stay there many daies to take up money at high interest, to pay divers Tolls for their Merchandize, before they had expos'd them to vent: Therfore it was desired, that for the future, what English Merchant soever should pass through the Sound, it should be sufficient for him to Register an invoice of his Cargazon in the Custom-House Book, and give his Bond to pay all duties at his return, when he had made his Mar­ket. To this my Lord had a fair answer, and so procur'd a pub­lic Instrument under that Kings Hand and Seale, and sign'd by his Counsellors, which he had brought over, wherin the Propo­sition was granted; which no Ambassador could obtaine before. Then 'twas alledg'd, that the English Merchant Adventurers who trade into Hamburgh▪ have a new Toll lately impos'd upon them at Luckstad, which was desir'd to be taken of [...]. To this also, ther was the like Instrument given, that the said Toll should be levied no more, Lastly, my Lord (in regard he was to pa's by the Hague) desir'd that Hereditary part which belong'd to the Lady Eliza­beth out of her Gran-Mothers Estate, because His Majesty knew well what Crosses and Afflictions she had pass'd, and what a nu­merous Issue she had to maintain; And my Lord of Leicester would ingage his Honour, and all the Estate he hath in the World, That this should no way prejudice the accounts he is to make with his Majesty of Great Britain. The King of Denmark highly extoll'd the Noblenes of this motion; but he protested, that he had bin so drain'd in the late Wars, that his Chests are yet very empty. Here­upon my Lord was feasted, and so departed.

He went then to the Duke of Holstein to Sleswick, wher he found him at his Castle of Gothorp, and truly I did not think to have found such a magnificent building in these bleak parts; Th [...]e [Page 190] also my Lord did condole the death of the late Queen that Dukes Gran-Mother, and he receiv'd very Princely entertain­ment.

Then he went to Husem, where the like ceremony of Condole­ment was perform'd at the Dutchess of Holsteins Court, His Maje­sties (our Kings) Ant.

Then he came back to Hamburgh, wher that instrument which my Lord had procur'd, for remitting of the new Toll at Gluckslad, was deliver'd the Company of our Merchant Adventurers; and som other good offices don for that Town, as matters stood twixt them and the King of Denmark.

Then we came to Stode, wher Lesly was Governour, who carried his foot in a scarfe for a wound he had received at Bucks [...]obo, and he kept that place for the King of Sweden: And som busines of con­sequence was don there also.

So we came to Broomsbottle, wher we staid for a Wind som daies; and in the midway of our voyage, wee met with a Hol­land ship, who told us, the King of Sweden was slain; and so we return'd to London in less then three moneths: And if this was not busines enough for such a compass of time, I leave your Lord­ship to judg.

So craving your Lordships pardon for this lame account, I rest,

Your Lordships most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

VI. To my Brother Dr. Howell, at his House in Horsley.

My good Brother,

I Am safely return'd from Germany, thanks be to God, and the news which we heard at Sea by a Dutch Skipper, about the midst of our voyage from Hamburgh, it seems proves too true, which was of the fall of the King of Sweden. One Ierbire, who saies that he was in the very action, brought the first news to this Town, and e­very corner rings of it; yet such is the extravagancy of som, that they [Page 191] will lay wagers he is not yet dead, and the Exchange is full of such peeple. He was slain at Lutzen field battle, having made the Im­periall Army give ground the day before; and being in pursuance of it, the next morning in a sudden Fog that fell, the Cavelry on both sides being engag'd, he was kill'd in the midst of the Troops, and none knows who kill'd him, whether one of his own men or the enemy; but finding himself mortally hurt, he told Saxen Way­mar, Cousin, I pray look to the Troops, for I think I have enough: His body was not only rescued, but his forces had the better of the day; Papenheim being kill'd before him, whom he esteem'd the greatest Captain of all his enemies; for he was us'd to say, that he had three men to deal withall, a Pultron, a Iesuit, and a Souldier; by the two first, he meant Walstein, and the Duke of Ba­varia, by the last Papenheim.

Questionles this Gustavus (whose anagram is Augustus) was a great Captain, and a gallant man, and had he surviv'd that last victory, he would have put the Emperour to such a plunge, that som think he would hardly have bin able to have made head against him to any purpose again. Yet his own Allies confess, that none knew the bottom of his designes.

He was not much affected to the English, witnes the ill usage Marquis Hammilton had with his 6000 men, wherof ther return'd not 600, the rest died of hunger and sicknes, having never seen the face of an enemy; Witnes also, his harshnes to our Ambassadors, and the rigid terms he would have tied the Prince Palsgrave unto. So with my affectionat respects to Mr. Mouschamp, and kind com­mend [...] to Mr. Bridger, I rest

Your loving Brother, J. H.

VII. To the R. R. Dr. Field, Lord Bishop of St. Davids.

My Lord,

YOur late Letter affected me with two contrary passions, with gladnes, and sorrow; the beginning of it dilated my spirits [Page 192] with apprehensions of joy, that you are so well recoverd of your late sicknes, which I heartily congratulat; but the conclusion of your Lordships Letter, contracted my spirits, and plung'd them in a deep sense of just sorrow, while you please to write me news of my dear Fathers death. Permulsit initium, percussit finis. Truly my Lord, it is the heaviest news that ever was sent me; but when I recollect my self, and consider the fairnes and maturity of his Age, and that it was rather a gentle dissolution than a death: When I contemplat that infinit advantage he hath got by this change and transmigration, it much lightens the weight of my grief; for if ever human soul entred heaven, surely his is there; such was his constant piety to God, his rare indulgence to his children, his cha­rity to his neighbors, and his candor in reconciling disterences; such was the gentlenes of his disposition, his unwearied cours in actions of vertue, that I wish my soul no other felicity, when she hath shaken off these Rags of Flesh, than to ascend to his, and co­injoy the same bliss.

Excuse me my Lord, that I take my leave at this time so ab­ruptly of you; when this sorrow is a little disgested, you shall hear further from me, for I am

Your Lordships most true and humble Servitor, J. H.

VIII. To the Earl of Leicester at Penshurst [...]

My Lord,

I Have deliverd Mr. Secretary Coke an account of the whole lega­tion, as your Lordship inordred me, which contain'd neer upon twenty sheets; I attended him also with the Note of your extra­ordinaries, wherin I find him somthing difficult and dilatory yet. The Governor of the Eastland Company, Mr. Alderman Clethero, will attend your Lordship at your return to Court, to ac­knowledge your favor unto them. I have delivered him a Copy of the transactions of things that concern'd their Company at Rhensberg.

[Page 193]The news we heard at Sea of the King of Swedens death is con­firm'd more and more, and by the computation I have been a little curious to make, I find that he was kill'd the same day your Lord­ship set out of Hamburgh. But ther is other news com since, of the death of the Prince Palatin, who as they write, being return'd from visiting the Duke De deux Ponts to Mentz, was struck there with the Contagion; yet by speciall ways of cure, the malignity was ex­pelld, and great hopes of recovery, when the news came of the death of the King of Sweden, which made such impressions in him, that he dyed few dayes after, having overcom all difficul­ties by concluding with the Swede, and the Governor of Frankin­dall, and being ready to enter into a repossession of his Countrey: A sad destiny.

The Swedes bear up still, being somented and supported by the French, who will not suffer them to leave Germany yet. A Gentle­man that came lately from Italy, told me, that ther is no great joy in Rome, for the death of the King of Sweden: The Spaniards up and down, will not stick to call this Pope Lutherano, and that he had intelligence with the Swede. Tis true, that he hath not been so for­ward to assist the Emperor in this quarrell, and that in open Con­sistory, when ther was such a contrasto 'twixt the Cardinalls for a supply from Saint Peter, he declard, That he was well satisfied that this war in Germany was no war of Religion; which made him dis­miss the Imperiall Ambassadors with this short answer, That the Emperor had drawn these mischiefs upon himself; for at that time when he saw the Swedes upon the Frontires of Germany, if he had imployed those men and moneys, which he consum'd to trouble the peace of Italy, in making war against the Duke of Mantova against them, he had not had now so potent an enemy. So I take my leave for this time, being

Your Lordships most humble, and obedient Servitor, J. H.

IX. To Mr. E. D.

SIR,

I Thank you a thousand times for the Noble entertainment you gave me at Berry, and the pains you took in shewing me the An­tiquities of that place. In requitall, I can tell you of a strange thing I saw lately here, and I beleeve 'tis true; As I pass'd by St. Dunstans in Fleet street the last Saturday, I stepp'd into a Lapi­dary or Stone-cutters shop, to treat with the Master for a stone to be put upon my Fathers Tomb: and casting my eyes up and down, I might spie a huge Marble with a large Inscription upon't, which was thus to my best remembrance:

Here lies John Oxenham, a goodly young man, in whose Chamber, as he was strugling with the pangs of death, a Bird with a white brest was seen fluttering about his Bed, and so vanish'd.
Here lies also Mary Oxenham, the sister of the said John who died the next day, and the same Apparition was seen in the Room.

Then another Sister is spoke of.

Then, Here lies hard by James Oxenham, the son of the said John, who died a child in his Cradle a little after, and such a Bird was seen fluttering about his head, a little before he expir'd, which va­nish'd afterwards.▪

At the bottom of the Stone ther is,

Here lies Elizabeth Oxenham, the Mother of the said John, who died sixteen years since, when such a Bird with a white brest was seen about hex Bed before her death.

To all these ther be divers Witnesses, both Squires and Ladies, whose names are engraven upon the Stone: This Stone is to be sent to a Town hard by Exeter wher this happen'd.

Were you here, I could raise a choice Discours with you here­upon. [Page 195] So hoping to see you the next Term, to requite som of your favors, I rest

Your true frend to serve you▪ J. H.

X. To W. B. Esq.

SIR,

THe upbraiding of a courtesie is as bad in the Giver, as ingra­titude in the Receiver (though which you think I am loath to believe) be faulty in the first, I shall never offend in the se­cond, while

J. Howell.

XI. To Sir Arthur Ingram at York.

SIR,

OUr greatest news here now, is, that we have a new Attorney Generall, which is news indeed, considering the humor of the man, how hee hath been always ready to entertain any cause wherby he might clash with the Prerogative; but now as Judg Ri­chardson told him, his head is full of Proclamations, and Divices, how to bring money into the Exchequer. Hee hath lately found out a­mongst the old Records of the Tower, som precedents for raising a tax cald Ship-money, in all the Port Towns, when the Kingdom is in danger: Whether we are in danger or no, at present 'twere pre­sumption in me to judg, that belongs to his Majesty, and his Pri­vy Counsell, who have their choice Instruments abroad for Intel­ligence; yet one with half an eye may see, wee cannot be secure, while such huge Fleets of men of War, both Spanish, French, Dutch, and Dunk [...]rkers, som of them laden with Ammunition▪ Men, Arms, [Page 196] and Armies, do daily [...]ail on our Seas, and confront the Kings, Chambers; while we have only three or four Ships abroad to guard our Coasts and Kingdom, and to preserve the fairest Flower of the Crown, the Dominion of the Narrow-Seas, which I hear the French Cardinall begins to question, and the Hollander lately would not vail to one of his Majesties ships that brought over the Duke of Lenox and my Lord Weston from Bullen, and indeed, we are jeer'd abroad, that we send no more ships to guard our Seas.

Touching my Lord Ambassador Weston, he had a brave journey of it, though it c [...]st dear; for 'tis thought 'twill stand his Majesty in 25000 pounds, which makes som Criticks of the times, to censure the Lord Tresurer, That now the King wanting money so much, hee should send his son abroad to spend him such a sum only for delivering of Presents and Complements; but I believe they are deceiv'd, for ther were matters of State also in the Am­bassie.

The Lord Weston passing by Paris, intercepted, and open'd a Packet of my Lord of Hollands, wherin ther were some Letters of Her Majesties, this my Lord of Holland takes in that scorn, that he defied him since his comming, and demanded the combat of him; for which he is confin'd to his House at Kensinton: So with my hum­ble service to my Noble Lady, I rest,

Your much obliged Servitor, J. H.

XII. To the Lord Vicount Wentworth, Lord De­puty of Ireland, and Lord Precedent of York, &c.

My Lord,

I Was glad to apprehend the opportunity of this Packet to con­vey my humble service to your Lordship.

Ther are old doings in France, and tis no new thing for the French to be always a doing, they have such a stirring genius. The Queen Mother hath made an escape to Brussells, and Monsieur to Lorain wher they say, he courts very earnestly the Dukes sister, a young [Page 197] Lady under twenty; they say a Contract is pass'd already, but the French Cardinall opposeth it; for they say that Lorain Milk sel­dom breeds good bloud in France: Not only the King, but the whole Gallican Church hath protest [...] against it in a solemn Synod; for the Heir apparant of the Crown of France, cannot marry without the Royall consent. This aggravats a grudg the French King hath to the Duke, for siding with the Imperialists, and for things refle­cting upon the Dutchy of Bar; for which he is hommogeable to the Crown of France, as he is to the Emperor for Lorain: A hard task it is to serve two Masters; and an unhappy situation it is, to lie 'twixt two puissant Monarchs; as the Dukes of Savoy and Lorain do: So I kiss your Lordships hands, and rest

My Lord,
Your most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XIII. To my most Noble Lady, the Lady Cornwallis.

Madam,

IN conformity to your commands, which sway with me, as much as an Act of Parlement, I have sent your Ladiship this small Hymn for Christmas day, now neer approaching; if your Ladiship please to put an Air to it, I have my reward.

1.
Hail holy T [...]de,
VVherin a Bride,
A Virgin (which is more)
Brought forth a Son,
The like was don,
Ne're in the world before.
2.
Hail spotless Maid,
Who thee upbraid,
To have been born in sin,
Do little waigh,
What in thee lay,
Before thou didst Lie-in.
3.
Three months thy Womb,
Was made the Dome
Of Him, whom Earth nor Air,
Nor the vast mould
Of Heaven can hould,
'Cause he's Ubiquitair.
4.
O, would [...]e daign
To rest and raign
I'th centre of my heart:
And make it still
His domicill,
And residence in part.
5.
But in so foul a Cell
Can he abide to dwell?
Yes when he please to move
His Herbenger to sweep the Room,
And with rich Odors it perfume,
Of Faith, of Hope, of Love.

So I humbly kiss your hands, and thank your Ladiship, that you would command in any thing that may conduce to your con­tentment.

Your Lapps most humble Servitor, J. H.

XIV. [...] the Lord Clifford at Knasburgh.

My Lord,

I Receiv'd your Lordships of the last of Iune, and I return m [...] most humble thanks for the choice Nagg you pleas'd to send me, which came in very good plight. Your Lordship desires me to lay down what in my Travells▪ abroad I observ'd of the present condition of the Iews, once an Elect peeple, but now grown con­temptible, and strangely squander'd up and down the World. [Page 199] Though such a Discours, exactly fram'd, might make up a Vo­lume, yet I will twist up what I know in this point, upon as nar­row a Bottom as may be shut up within the compass of this Let­ter.

The first Christian Countrey that expell'd the Iews, was Eng­land; France followed our example next, then Spain, and after­wards Portugall; nor were they exterminated these Countreys for their Religion, but for Villanies and cheatings; for clip­ping Coins, poisning of Waters, and counterfeiting of Seals.

Those Countreys they are permitted to live now most in amongst Christians, are Germany, Holland, Bohemia, and Italy; but not in those parts where the King of Spain hath to do. In the Levant and Turkey, they swarm most, for the gran Vizier, and all other great Boshawes, have commonly som Iew for their Counsellor or Spie, who inform them of the state of Christian Princes, possess them of a hatred of the Religion, and so incense them to a war against them.

They are accounted the subtill'st and most subdolous peeple up­on Earth; the reason why they are thus degenerated from their primitive simplicity, and innocence, is their often [...]ptivities, their desperat fortunes, the necessity and hatred to which they have been habituated, for nothing depraves ingenuous spirits, and cor­rupts cleer wits more than want and indigence. By their profession they are for the most part Broakers, and Lombardeers, yet by that base and servile way of Frippery trade, they grow rich whersoever they nest themselves; and this with their multiplication of Chil­dren, they hold to be an argument that an extraordinary providence attends them still. Me thinks that so cleer accomplishments of the Prophecies of our Saviour, touching that peeple, should work up­on them for their conversion, as the destruction of their City and Temple; that they should becom despicable, and the tail of all Nations; that they should be Vagabonds, and have no firm ha­bitation.

Touching the first, they know it came punctually to pass, and so have the other two; for they are the most hatefull race of men up­on earth; insomuch, that in Turkie where they are most valued, if a Musulman com to any of their houses, & leave his shoos at the door, the Iew dare not com in all the while, till the Turk hath don what he would with his Wife: For the last, 'tis wonderfull to see in what considerable numbers they are dispers'd up and down the World, yet they can never reduce themselves to such a coalition and unity as may make a Republic, Principality, or Kingdom.

[Page 200]They hold that the Iewes of Italy, Germany, and the Levant, are of Benjamins Tribe; ten of the Tribes at the destruction of Ieroboams Kingdom were led Captives beyond Euphrates, whence they never return'd, nor do they know what became of them ever after; yet they beleeve they never became Apostats and Gen­tiles. But the Tribe of Iuda, whence they expect their Messias, of whom one shall hear them discours with so much confidence, and self-pleasing conceit, they say, is setled in Portugall; wher they give out to have thousands of their race, whom they dispense withall to make a semblance of Christianitie, even to Church de­grees.

This makes them breed up their children in the Lusitanian Lan­guage; which makes the Spaniard have an odd saying, that El Portuguez se criò del pedo de un Iudia. A Portugues was engendred of a Iews Fart; as the Mahu [...]ans have a passage in their Alcaro [...], That a Cat was made of a Lions breath.

As they are the most contemtiblest peeple, and have a kind of fulsom sent, no better then a stink, that distinguisheth them from others, so are they the most timorous peeple on earth, and so, utterly incapable of Arms, for they are made neither Souldiers nor Slaves: And this their Pusillanimity and cowardise, as well as their cunning and craft, may be imputed to their various thral­do us, contempt, and poverty, which hath cow'd and dast [...]rdiz'd their courage▪ Besides these properties, they are light and giddy headed, much symbolizing in spirit with our Apolalypticall ze­lots, and fiery interpreters of Daniel and other Prophets, wherby they often sooth, or rather fool themselves into som illumination, which really proves but som egregious dorage.

They much glory of their mysterious Cabal, wherin they make the reality of things to depend upon Letters, and Words: but they say that Hebrew onely hath this priviledg: This Cabal, which is nought else but Tradition, they say, being transmitted from one age to another, was in som measure a reparation of our knowledge lost in Adam, and they say [...]was reveal'd four times; First to Adam, who being thrust out of Paradise, and sitting one day very sad, and sorrowing for the loss of the knowledg he had of that dependance the creatures have with their Creator; the An­gell Raguel was sent to comfort him, and to instruct him and repair his knowledg herein: And this they call the Caball, which was lost the second time by the Floud, and [...]abell▪ then God discover'd it to Moses in the bush. The third time to Solomon in a dream, wherby he came to know the beginning, m [...]diety, and coasummati [...] [Page 201] of times, and so wrote divers Books, which were lost in the gran captivity The last time they hold, that God restor'd the Cabal to Esdras (a Book they value extraordinarily) who by Gods command withdrew to the Wildernes forty daies with five Scribes, who in that space wrote two hundred and four Books: The first one hundred thirty and four, were to be read by all; but the other seventy were to pass privatly amongst the Levites, and these they pretend to be Cabalistic, and not yet all lost.

Ther are this day three Sects of Iews; the Africans first, who besides the holy Scriptures, embrace the Talmud also for authen­tic; the second receive only the Scriptures; the third, which are call'd the Samaritans (wherof ther are but few) admit only of the [...], the five Books of Moses.

The Iews in generall drink no Wine, without a dispensation; when they kill any creature, they turn his face to the East, say­ing, Be it sanctified in the great name of God; they cut the throat with a knif without a gap, which they hold very prophane.

In their Synagogs they make one of the best sort to read a Chap­ter of Moses, then som mean Boy reads a peece of the Prophets; in the midst, ther's a round place arch'd over, wherin one of their Rabbies walks up and down, and in Po [...]tuguez magnifies the Messias to com, comforts their captivity, and rails at Christ.

They have a kind of Cupboard to represent the Tabernacle, wherin they lay the Tables of the Law, which now and then, they take out and kiss; they sing many Tunes, and Adonai, they make the ordinary name of God: Iehovah is pronounc'd at high Fe­stivalls; at Circumcision Boys are put to sing som of Davids Psalms so lowd, as drowns the Infants cry: The Synagog is hung about with Glass. Lamps burning; every one at his entrance puts on a Linnen-Cope, first kissing it, else they use no manner of reve­rence all the while; their Elders sometimes fall together by the ears in the very Synagog, and with the Holy Utensiles, as Candlesticks, Incense-Pans, and such-like, break one anothers Pates.

Women are not allow'd to enter the Synagog, but they sit in a Gallery without, for they hold they have not so divine a soul as men, and are of a lower creation, made only for sensuall pleasure and propagation.

Amongst the Mahumetans, ther is no Iew capable of a Turkish habit, unless he acknowledg Christ as much as Turks do, which is to have bin a great Prophet, wherof they hold ther are three onely, Moses, Christ, and Mahomet.

[Page 202]Thus my Lord, to perform your commands, which are very pre­valent with me, have I couch'd in this Letter, what I could, of the condition of the Iews, and if it may give your Lordship any satisfa­ction, I have my reward abundantly. So I rest

Your Lordships most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XV. To Mr. Philip Warrick, at Paris.

SIR,

YOur last unto me was in French of the first current, and I am glad you are com so safe from Swisserland to Paris; as also, that you are grown so great a Proficient in the Language: I thank you for the variety of news you sent me so hansomly couch'd and knit together.

To correspond with you, the greatest news wee have here, is, that we have a gallant Fleet-Royall ready to set to sea, for the security of our Coasts and Commerce, and for the Soverainty of our Seas. Hans said the King of England was asleep all this while, but now he is awake; nor do I hear, doth your French Cardinall tamper any longer with our Kings Title and Right to the Dominion of the Narrow-Seas. These are brave fruits of the ship­moneys.

I hear that the In [...]ante Cardinall having bin long upon his way to Brussells, hath got a notable Victory of the Swedes at Nordling­hen, where 8000 were slain, Gustavus Horn, and other of the prime Commanders taken prisoners. They write also that Mon­sieurs marriage with Madame of Lorain, was solemnly celebrated at Brussels; she had follow'd him from Nancy in Pages apparell, because ther were forces in the way. It must needs be a mighty charge to the King of Spain, to maintain Mother, and Son in this manner.

The Court affords little news at present, but that ther is a Love call'd Platonick love, which much swayes there of late; It is a love abstracted from all corporeall gross impressions, and sensuall ap­petit, but consists in contemplation and Idaeas of the mind, not [Page 203] in any carnall fruition: This love sets the wits of the Town on work; and they say there will be a Masko shortly of it, whereof Her Majestie, and her Maids of Honour will be part.

All your friends here in Westminster are well, and very mindfull of you, but none more often then

Your most affectionate Servitor, J. H.

XVI. To my brother Mr H. P.

Brother,

MY brain was ore cast with a thick clowd of melancholy, I was becom a lump I know not of what, I could scarce find any palpitation within me on the left side, when yours of the first of September was brought me, it had such a vertue, that it begot new motions in me, like the Load-stone, which by its attractive occult quality, moves the dull body of Iron, and makes it active; so dull was I then, and such a magnetic property your Letter had to quicken me.

Ther is som murmuring against the Shipmon [...]y, because the tax is indefinit; as also by reason, that it is levied upon the Countrey Towns, as well as Maritim, and for that, they say N [...] himself cannot shew any record: Ther are also divers Patents granted, which are mutter'd at, as being no better then Monopolies: A­mongst others a Scotchman got one lately upon the Statute of levy­ing twelve pence for every Oath, which the Justices of Peace, and Constables had power to raise, and have still: but this new Pa­tentce is to quicken and put more life in the Law, and see it ex­ecuted. He hath power to nominat one or two, or three, in som Parishes, which are to have Commission from him for this Public Service, and so they are to be exempt from bearing Office, which must needs deserve a gratuity; And I beleeve this was the main drift of the Scot Patentce, so that he intends to keep his Office in the Temple, and certainly, he is like to be mighty gainer by it; for who would not give a good peece of money to [Page 204] be freed from bearing all cumbersom Offices? No more now, but that with my dear love to my sister, I rest

Your most affectionat Brother, J. H.

XVII. To the Right Honble the Lord Vicount Savage, at Long-Melford.

My Lord,

THe old Steward of your Courts, Master Attorney-Generall Noy, is lately dead, nor could Tunbridg-waters do him any good: Though he had good matter in his brain, he had, it seems, ill materialls in his body, for his heart was shrivelled like a Leather peny-purse when he was dissected, nor were his lungs sound.

Being such a great Clerk in the Law, all the World wonders he left such an odd Will, which is short, and in Latin: The sub­stance of it is, that having bequeathd a few Legacies, and left his second son 100 Marks a year, and 500 pounds in Money, e­nough to bring him up in his Fathers Profession; he concludes, Reliqua meorum omnia progenito meo Edoardo, dissipanda (nec me­liùs unquam speravi) lego. I leave the rest of all my goods to my first-born Edward, to be consum'd or scatterd (for I never hoped better.) A strange, and scarce a Christian Will, in my opini [...], for it argues uncharitablenes. Nor doth the World wonder less▪ that he should leave no Legacie to som of your Lordships chil­dren, considering what deep Obligations he had to your Lordship; for I am confident he had never bin Attorney Gene­rall els.

The Vintners drink Carowses of joy that he is gon, for now they are in hopes to dress Meat again, and sell Tobacco, Beer, Sugar and Fagots, which by a sullen Capricio of his he would have restraind them from. He had his humors, as other men; but cer­tainely he was a solid rational man; and though no great Ora­tor, yet a profound Lawyer, and no man better versd in the Re­cords of the Tower. I heard your Lordship often say with what [Page 205] infinit pains and indefatigable study he came to this knowledge: And I never heard a more pertinent Anagram then was made of his name, William Noye, I moyle in law. If ans be added, it may be applied to my Country-man Judge Iones, an excellent Lawyer too, and a far more Gentile man. William Iones, I moile in laws. No more now, but that I rest,

Your Lopps most humble and obliged Servitor, J. H.

XVIII. To the Right Honble the Countess of Sunderland.

Madam,

HEre inclos'd I send your Ladiship a Letter from the Lord Deputy of Ireland, wherin he declares that the disposing of the Attorniship in York, which he passed over to me, had no re­lation to my Lord at all, but it was meerly don out of a particu­lar respect to me: your Ladyship may please to think of it accor­dingly, touching the accounts.

▪It is now a good while the two Nephew-Princes have bin here, I mean the Prince Elector, and Prince Robert. The King of Swe­dens death, and the late blow at Norlingen hath half blasted their hopes to do any good for recovery of the Palatinat by land; Ther­fore I hear of som new designes by Sea. That the one shall go to Madagascar, a great Island 800 miles long in the East Indies, never yet coloniz'd by any Christian, and Captain Bo [...]d is to be his Lieutenant; the other is to go with a considerable Fleet to the West Indies, to seize upon som place there that may countervail the Palatinat, and Sir Henry Mervin to go with him: But I hear my Lady Elizabeth opposeth it, saying, that she will have none of her sons to be Knights-errant. Ther is now professed actuall en­mity twixt France and Spain, for ther was a Herald at Arms sent lately to Flanders from Paris, who by sound of Trumpet denoun­ced and proclaimed open War against the King of Spain and all his Dominions; this Herald left and fixed up the Defiance in all the Townes as he passed: so that wheras before, the War was [Page 206] but collaterall and auxiliary, there is now proclaim'd Hostility between them, notwithstanding that they have one anothers sister [...] in their beds evry night: What the reason of this War is, truly Madame I cannot tell, unlesse it bee reason of state, to preve [...] the further growth of the Spanish Monarchy; and ther be mul­titude of examples how Preventive Wars have been practis [...] from all times. Howsoever it is too sure that abundance of Chri­stian bloud will be spilt. So I humbly take my leave, and rest,

Madame,
Your Ladiships most obedient and faithfull Servitor, I. H.

XIX. To the Earl of Leicester at Penshurst.

My Lord,

I Am newly returned out of France, from a flying Journey as far as Orleans, which I made at the request of Mr. Secretary Wind [...]. bank, and I hope I shall receive som fruits of it hereafter. Ther is yet a great resentment in many places in France, for the behea­ding of Montmorency, whom Henry the fourth was us'd to say to be a better Gentleman than himself, for in his Colors he carry'd this Motto, Dieu ayde le premier Chevalier de France: God help the first Knight of France. Hee dyed upon a Sca [...]told in Tholouze, in the flower of his years, at 34, and hath left no Issue behind, so that noble old Family extinguish'd in a snust: His Treason wa [...] very foul, having received particular Commissions from the King to make an extraordinary Levy of men and money in Languedoc, which he turn'd afterwards directly against the King, against whose per­son he appear'd arm'd in open field; and in a hostile posture, for fo­menting of Monsieurs Rebellion.

The Insante Cardinall is com to Brussells at last, thorow many dif­ficulties: and som few days before, Monsieur made semblance to go a Hawking, and so fled to France, but left his mother behind, who since the Arch-Dutchess death is not so well look'd on as formerly in that Countrey.

Touching your busines in the Exchequer, Sir Robert Pye we [...] [Page 207] with me this morning of purpose to my Lord Tresurer about it, and told me with much earnestnes and assurance, that ther shall be a speedy cours taken for your Lordships satisfaction.

I deliverd my Lord of Lins [...]y the Manuscript he lent your Lord­ship of his Fathers Embastie to Denmark: and herewith I present your Lordship with a compleat Dia [...]y of your own late legation, which hath cost me som oil and labor. So I rest always,

Your Lopps most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XX. To my Honored Frend and Fa. Mr. Ben: John [...]n.

Fa. B [...]n,

BEing lately in France, and returning in Coach from Paris to Roüen, I lighted upon the Society of a knowing Gentleman, who related unto me a choice Story, wher [...]f peradventure you may make som use in your way.

Som hundred and odd yeers since, ther was in France one Cap­tain Coucy a gallant Gentleman of an ancient extraction, and▪ Kee­per of Coucy▪ Castle, which is yet standing and in good repair. He fell in love with a young Gentlewoman, and courted her for his wife: ther was reciprocall love between them, but her parents understan­ding of it, by way of prevention they shuffled up a forced Match twixt her and one Monsieur Fai [...]l, who was a great Heir: Captain Coucy hereupon quitted France in discontent, and went to the wars in Hungary against the Turk, where he received a mortall wound, not far from Buda. Being carried to his lodging, hee languished som days; but a little before his death, he spoke to an ancient Ser­vant of his, that he had many profs of his fidelity and truth, but now he had a great busines to intrust him with, which hee conjur'd him by all means to do, which was, That after his death, he should get his body to be opened, and then to take his heart out of his brest, and put it in an earthen Pot to be bak'd to powder, then to put the powder into a hansome Box, with that Bracelet of hair he had worn long about his left wrist, which was a lock of Madamois [...]lle Faiels hair, and put it amongst the powder, together with a little Note he had written with his own bloud to her; and after hee had [Page 208] given him the Rites of Buriall, to make all the speed he could to France, and deliver the said box to Madamoiselle Faiel. The old Ser­vant did as his Master had commanded him, and so went to France, and comming one day to Monsieur Faiels house, he suddenly met him with one of his servants, and examin'd him, because he knew he was Captain Coucy's servant, and finding him timerous, and faltering in his speech, hee search'd him, and sound the [...]aid Box in his pocket, with the Note which expressed what was therin: He dismiss'd the Bearer with menaces that he should com no more neer his house. Monsieur Faiel going in, sent for his Cook and deli­ver'd him the Powder, charging him to make a little well-relish'd dish of it, without losing a jot of it, for it was a very costly thing; and commanded him to bring it in himself, after the last cours at Supper. The Cook bringing in the Dish accordingly, Monsieur Faiel commanded all to void the room, and began a serious discours with his wife, how ever since he had married her, he observ'd she was always melancholly▪ and he feared she was inclining to a Consumption, therfore he had provided for her a very precious Cordiall, which he was well assured would cure her: Therupon he made her eat up the whole dish; and afterwards much importu­ning him to know what it was, he told her at last she had eaten Coucy's heart, and so drew the Box out of his pocket, and shewed her the Note and the Bracelet: in a sudden exultation of joy, she with a far-fetch'd sigh said, This is a precious Cordiall indeed, and so lick'd the Dish saying, It is so pretious, that tis pity to put ever any meat upon't. So she went to bed, and in the morning she was found stone-dead.

This Gentleman told me that this sad story is painted in Coucy-Castle, and remains fresh to this day.

In my opinion, which vails to yours. this is choice and rich stuff for you to put upon your Loom, and make a curious Web of.

I thank you for the last regalo you gave me at your Musaeum, and for the good company. I heard you censur'd lately at Court, that you have lighted too foul upon Sir Inigo, and that you write with a Porcupins quill dipped in too much Gall. Excuse me that I am so free with you, it is because I am in no common way of frendship,

Yours, I. H.

XXI. To Captain Thomas Porter.

Noble Captain,

YOu are well returned from Brussels, from attending your Brother in that noble employment of congratulating the In­fante Cardinalls comming thither. It was well that Monsieur went a Hawking away before to France, for I think those two young spirits would not have agreed. A French-man told me lately, that was at your Audience, that he never saw so many compleat Gen­tlemen in his life, for the number, and in a neater equipage. Before you go to Sea I intend to wait on you, and give you a fro­lick. So I am,

De todas mis entranas.

Yours to dispose of, I. H.

To this Ile add the Duke of Ossuna's Complement,

Quisiere aunque soy chico
Ser, enserville Gigante.
Though of the tallest I am none you see,
Yet to serve you I would a Giant be.

To my Cousin Captain Saintgeon.

Noble Cousin,

THe greatest news about the Town, is of a mighty Prize that was taken lately by Peter van Heyn of Holland, who had met som stragling Ships of the Plate-fleet, and brought them to the [...]exel: they speak of a Million of Crowns. I could wish you had been there to have shared of the Booty, which was the greatest [...]n money that ever was taken.

One sent me lately from Holland this Distic of Peter van Heyn, [...]hich savors of a little profaness.

[Page 210]
Roma sui sileat posthàc miracula Petri,
Petrus apud Batavos plura stupenda facit.
Let Rome no more her Peters Wonders tell,
For Wonders, Hollands Peter bears the bell.

To this Distic was added this Anagram, which is a good one▪

PETRUS HAINU'S.
HISPANUS RUET.

So I rest,

Totus tuus, Yours whole, I. Howell.

XXIII. To my Lord Viscount S.

My Lord,

HIs Majesty is lately return'd from Scotland, having given that Nation satisfaction to their long desires, to have him com thi­ther to be Crownd: I hear som mutter at Bishop Lauds carriage there, that it was too haughty and Pontificall.

Since the death of the King of Sweden, a great many Scotch Com­manders are com over, and make a shining shew at Court, what trade they will take hereafter, I know not, having been so inur'd to the Wars; I pray God keep us from commotions at home, 'twixt the two Kingdoms, to find them work: I hear one Colonell Lesley is gon away discontented because the King would not [...] him.

The old rotten Duke of Bavaria, for he hath divers Issues abo [...] his body, hath married one of the Emperors Sisters, a young La­dy little above twenty, and he neer upon fourscore; ther's another remaining, who they say is intended for the King of Poland, notwith­standing his pretences to the young Lady Elizabeth; about which Prince Razevill, and other Ambassadors have been here lately but that King being Electif must mary as the Estates will have him His Mother was the Emperors sister, therfore sure he will not offe [...] to mary his Cousin German; but tis no news for the House [...] [Page 211] Austria to do so, to strengthen their race. And if the Bavarian hath Male-Issue of this young Lady, the Son is to succeed him in the Electorship, which may conduce much to strengthen the continuance of the Empire in the Austrian Family. So with a con­stant perseverance of my hearty desires to serve your Lordship, I rest,

My Lord,
Your most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXIV. To my Cousin Mr. Will. Saint Geon, at St. Omer.

Cousin,

I Was lately in your Fathers Company, and I found him much discontented at the cours you take, which he not only protests a­gainst, but he vows never to give you his blessing, if you perseve [...] in't; I would wish you to descend into your self, and seriously ponder, what a weight a Fathers blessing, or curse, carries with it; for ther is nothing conduceth more to the happines or infelicity of the child: Amongst the ten Commandements in the Decalog, that which enjoyns obedience from Children to Parents, hath only a benediction (of Longaevity) added to it: Ther be Clouds of examples for this, but one I will instance in; When I was in Valentia in Spain, a Gentleman told me of a miracle which hap­pen'd in that Town; which was, That a proper young man under twenty, was executed there for a crime, and before he was taken down from off the Tree, ther wer many gray and white Hairs had budded forth of his Chin, as if he had been a man of sixty. It struck amaze­ment in all men, but this interpretation was made of it, That [...]he said young man might have liv'd to such an age, if hee had been dutifull to his Parents, unto whom he had been barbarously disobedient all his life-time.

Ther coms herwith a large Letter to you from your Fa­ther, let me advise you to conform your courses to his Counsell, otherwise it is an easie matter to bee a Prophet what misfortunes [...]il inevitably befall you, which by a timely obedience you may [Page 212] Prevent, and I wish you may have grace to do it accordingly: So I rest

Your loving, well-wishing Cousin, J. H.

XXV. To the Lord Deputy of Ireland.

My Lord,

THe Earl of Arundell is lately return'd from Germany, and his gallant comportment in that Ambassie deserv'd to have had better success; He found the Emperor conformable, but the old Ba­varian froward, who will not part with any thing, till he have moneys reimbours'd, which he spent in these wars, and for which he hath the upper Palatinat in deposito; insomuch, that in all proba­bility all hopes are cut off of ever recovering that Countrey, but by the same means that it was taken away, which was by the Sword▪ Therfore they write from Holland of a new Army, which the Prince Palatin is like to have shortly, to go up to Germany, and push o [...] his fortunes with the Swedes.

The French King hath taken Nancy, and almost all Lorain lately, but he was forc'd to put a Fox-tail to the Lions-skin, which his Car­dinall help'd him to, before he could do the work. The quarrell is, that the Duke should marry his sister to Monsieur, contrary to promise; that he sided with the Imperialists, against his confederan [...] in Germany, that hee neglected to do homage for the Dutchy o [...] Bar.

My Lord Vicount Savage is lately dead, who is very much li [...] mented by all that knew him; I could have wish'd, had it pleas'd God, that his Father in law, who is riper for the other worl [...] had gon before him. So I rest

Your Lopps most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXVI. To his honoured Friend Mis C. at her House in Essex.

THer was no sorrow sunk deeper into me a great while, than that which I conceiv'd upon the death of my dear friend your Husband: The last Office I could do him, was to put him in his grave; and I am sorry, to have met others there, (who had better means to come in a Coach with six horses, than I) in so mean equipage to perform the last act of respect to so worthy a Frend. I have sent you herewith an Elegy, which my melancho­ly muse hath breath'd out upon his Herse. I shall be very care­full about the Tomb you intend him, and will think upon an Epi­raph. I pray present my respects to Mris Anne Mayne. So wishing you all comfort and contentment, I rest

Yours most ready to be commanded, J. H.

XXVII. To Mr. Iames Howard, upon his Banish'd Virgin, translated out of Italian.

SIR,

I Received the Manuscript you sent me, and being a little curi­ous to compare it with the Originall, I find the version to be ve­ry exact and faithfull: So according to your Frendly request I have sent you this Decastic.

Som hold translations not unlike to be,
The wrong-side of a Turky Tapistry.
Or Wine drawn off the Lees, which fill'd in Flask,
Loose somwhat of the strength they had in Cask.
Tis true, each language hath an Idiome,
Which in another couch'd comes not so home:
Yet I ne're saw a peece from Venice come,
Had fewer thrums set on our Countrey Loome.
This Wine is still one-eard, and brisk, thought put
Out of Italian Cask in English Butt.
Upon your Eromena.
Fair Eromena in her Toscan tyre
I view'd, and lik'd the fashion wondrous well,
But in this English habit I admire,
That still in her the same good grace should dwell:
So I have seen trans- Alpin Cions grow,
And bear rare fruit, remov'd to Thames from Po.
Your true Servitor and Compatriot, J. H.

XXVIII. To Edward Noy Esq at Paris.

SIR,

I Receiv'd one of yours lately, and I am glad to find the delight that Travell begins to instill into you.

My Lord Ambassadour Aston reckons upon you, that you will be one of his train at his first Audience in Madrid, and to my know­ledg he hath put by som Gentlemen of quality: Therfore I pray let not that durty Town of Paris detain you too long from your in­tended journey to Spain, for I make account my Lord Aston will be there a matter of two months hence. So I rest

Your most affectionat Servitor, J. H.

XXIX. To the right Honble Sir Peter Wicks, Lo: Ambassador at Constantinople.

My Lord,

IT seems ther is som angry Star that hath hung over the busines of the Palatinat from the beginning of these German Wars to this very day; which will too evidently appear, if one should mark and deduce matters from their first rise.

You may remember how poorly Prague was lost: The Bishop of Halverstat and Count Mansfelt shuffled up and down a good while, and did great matters, but all came to nothing at last. You may remember how one of the Ships-Royall was cast away in car­rying over the last, and the 12000 men he had hence perish'd many of them very miserably, and he himself, as they write, di­ed in a poor Hostrey with one Laquay, as he was going to Venice to a bank of money he had stor'd up there for a dead lift. Your Lordship knows what success the King of Denmark had (and our 6000 men under Sir Charles Morgan) for while he thought to make new acquests, he was in hazard to lose all that he had, had not he had favorable Propositions tendred him. Ther were▪ never poor Christians perished more lamentably than those 6000 we sent under M. Hamilton for the assistance of the King of Sweden, who did much, but you know what became of him at last: How disa­strously the Prince Palatin himself fell, and in what an ill conjun­cture of time, being upon the very point of being restor'd to his Country.

But now we have as bad news as any we had yet; for the young Prince Palatin, and his Brother Prince Rupert, having got a jol­ly considerable Army in Holland, to try their fortunes in Germa­ny with the Swedes, they had advanc'd as far as Munsterland, and Westphalia, and having lain before Lengua, they were forc'd to raise the siege; and one Generall Ha [...]zfield pursuing them, ther was a fore battell fought, wherin Prince Rupert, my Lord Craven, and others were taken prisoners. The Prince Palatin himself, with Major King, thinking to get over the Weser in a Coach, the Water being deep and not sordable, he sav'd himself by the help [Page 216] of a Willow, and so went a foot all the way to Minden, the Coach and the Coach-man being drown'd in the River: Ther wer neer upon 2000 slain on the Palsgraves side, and scarce the twentieth part so many on Ha [...]zfields, Major Gaeuts, one of the chiefe Com­manders, was kil'd.

I am sorry I must write unto you this sad story; yet to counter­vail [...]t somthing, Saxen Weymar thrives well, and is like to get B [...]i­sac by help of the French forces. All your frends here are well, and remember your Lordship often, but none more oft than

Your most humble and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXX. To Sir Sackvill C. Knight.

SIR,

I Was as glad that you have lighted upon so excellent a Lady, as if an Astronomer by his Optics had found out a new Star; and if a wi [...]e be the best or worst fortune of a man, certai [...] you are one of the fortunat'st men in this Island.

The greatest news I can write unto you is, of a bloody Banquet that was lately at Liege; wher a great faction was a somenting 'twixt the Imperialists, and those that were devoted to France, a­mongst whom, one Ruelle a popular Bourgue-master was chief: The Count of Warfuzée a vassall of the King of Spains, having fled thither from Flanders for som offence, to ingratiat himself again into the King of Spains favour, invited the said Ruelle to a Feast, and after brought him into a privat Chamber, wher he had pro­vided a ghostly-father to confess him, and so som of the Souldiers whom he had provided before to guard the House, dispatch'd the Bourgue-master; The Town hearing this, broke [...]nto the House, cut to peeces the said Count, with som of his Souldiers, and dragg'd his body up and down the Streets. You know such a fate befell Walstein in Germany of late yeers, who having got all the Emperours Forces into his hands, was found to have intelli­gence with the Swede, therfore the Imperiall Ban was not onely pronounc'd against him, but a reward promis'd to any that should dispatch him; som of the Emperours Souldiers at a great Wedding [Page 217] in Egra, of which Band of Souldiers, Colonell Buttler an Irish­man was chief, broke into his lodging when ho was at din­ner, kill'd him, with three Commanders more that were at Table with him, and threw his body out at a Window into the streets.

I hear Buttler is made since Count of the Empire. So humbly kissing your noble Ladies hand, I rest

Your faithfull servitor, J. H.

XXXI. To Dr. Duppa, L. B. of Chichester, his High­nes Tutor at St. Iames.

My Lord,

IT is a welbecoming, and very worthy work you are about, not [...] suffer Mr. Ben. Iohnson to go so silently to his grave, or rot so su [...]ly: Being newly com to Town, and understanding that your Iohnsonus Virbius was in the Presse, upon the solicitation of Sir Thomas Hawkins, I suddenly fell upon the ensuing De­castic, which if your Lordship please, may have room amongst the rest.

Upon my honoured Frend and F. Mr. Ben. Iohnson.
ANd is thy Glass run out, is that Oyl spent
Which light to such strong Sinewy labours lent?
Well Ben; I now perceive that all the nine,
Though they their utmost forces should combine,
Cannot prevail 'gainst Nights three Daughters, but
One still must spin, one wind, the other cut.
Yet in despight of distaff, clue, and knife,
Thou in thy strenuous lines hast got a life,
[Page 218]Which like thy Bays shall flourish ev'ry age,
While [...]oc or bu [...]kin shall ascend the Stage.
—Sic vaticinatur Hoellus.

So I rest with many devoted respects to your Lordship, as being

Your very humble Servitor, J. H.

XXXII. To Sir Ed. B. Knight.

SIR,

I Receiv'd yours this Maunday-Thursday: and wheras amongst other passages, and▪ high endearments of love, you desire to know what method I observe in the exercise of my devotl­ons, I thank you for your request, which I have reason to be­lieve doth proceed from an extraordinary respect unto me; and I will deal with you herein, as one should do with his Confessor.

Tis true, though ther be rules and rubrics in our Liturgy suf­ficient to guide evry one in the performance of all holy duties, yet I beleeve evry one hath som mode and modell or formula­ry of his own, specially for his privat cubicular devotions.

I will begin with the last day of the week, and with the latter end of that day, I mean Saturday evening, on which I have fasted ever since I was a youth in Venice, for being delivered from a very great danger: This yeer I use som extraordinary acts of devotion to usher in the ensuing Sunday in Hymns, and various prayers of my own penning, before I go to bed. On Sunday Morning I rise earlier than upon other dayes, to prepare my self for the Sancti­fying of it; nor do I use Barber, Tailor, Shoo-maker, or any o­ther Mechanick that morning; and whatsoever diversions, or lets, may hinder me the week before, I never miss, but in case of sicknes, to repair to Gods holy House that day, wher I com before prayers begin, to make my self fitter for the work by some praevious Me­ditations, and to take the whole Service along with me; nor do I love to mingle speech with any in the interim about news or world­ly negotiations. In Gods holy House I prostrat my self in the hum­blest [Page 219] and decent'st way of genuflection I can imagin; nor do I be­leeve ther can be any excess of exterior humility in that place; therfore I do not like those squatting unseemly bold postures upon ones tail, or muffling the face in the Hat, or thrusting it in so [...] hole, or covering it with ones hand; but with bended knee, and an open confident face, I fix my Eyes on the East part of the Church, and Heaven. I endeavour to apply evry tir [...]le of the Service to my own Conscience and Occasions; and I believe the want of this, with the huddling up, and careless reading of som Ministers, with the commoness of it, is the greatest cause that many do undervalue and take a Surfet of our pub­lic Service.

For the reading and singing Psalmes, wheras most of them are either Petitions or Eucharisticall ejaculations, I listen to them more attentively, and make them mine own: When I stand at the creed, I think upon the custom they have in Poland, and else-where, for Gentlemen to draw their Swords all the while, intimating therby, that they will defend it with their lives and bloud; And for the Decalog, wheras others use to rise, and sit, I ever kneel at it in the humblest and trembling'st posture of all, to crave re­mission for the breaches pass'd of any of Gods holy Command­ments (specially the week before) and future grace to observe them.

I love a holy devout Sermon, that first checks and then cheers the Conscience, that begins with the Law and ends with the Gos­pell; but I never prejudicat or censure any Preacher, [...]aking him as I find him.

And now that we are not only Adulted but ancient Christians, I beleeve the most acceptable Sacrifice we can send up to Heaven, is prayer and praise, and that Sermons are not so essentiall as either of them to the tru practice of devotion. The rest of the holy Sab­bath, I sequester my body and mind as much as I can from worldly affairs.

Upon Monday morn, as soon as the Cinq-ports are open, I have a particular prayer of thanks, that I am reprieved to the be­ginning of that week; and evry day following, I knock thrice at Heavens gate, in the Morning, in the Evening, and at Night; besides, Prayers at Meals, and som other occasionall ejaculations, as upon the putting on of a clean Shirt, washing my hands, and at lighting of Candles, which because they are sudden, I do in the third person.

Tuesday morning I rise Winter and Summer as soon as I awake, [Page 220] and send up a more particular sacrifice for som reasons; and as I am dispos'd, or have busines, I go to bed again.

Upon Wensday night, I always fast, and perform also som ex­traordinary acts of Devotion, as also upon Friday night; and Saturday morning, as soon as my senses are unlock'd I get up. And in the Summer time, I am oftentimes abroad in som privat field, to attend the Sun-rising: And as I pray thrice evry day, so I fast thrice evry week, at least I eat but one meal upon Wens­days, Fridays, and Saturdays, in regard I am jealous with my self, to have more infirmities to answer for, than other.

Before I go to bed, I make a scrutiny what peccant humors have reign'd in me that day, and so I reconcile my self to my Crea­tor, and strike a tally in the Exchequer of Heaven for my quie­ [...]us est, ere I close my eyes, and leave no burden upon my Con­science.

Before I presume to take the Holy Sacrament, I use som ex­traordinary acts of Humiliation to prepare my self som days be­fore, and by doing som deeds of Charity; and commonly I compose som new Prayers, and divers of them written in my own bloud.

I use not to rush rashly into prayer without a trembling prece­dent Meditation, and if any odd thoughts intervene, and grow upon me, I check my self, and recommence; and this is incident to long prayers, which are more subject to mans weaknes, and the devils malice.

I thank God I have this fruit of my forrain Travels, that I can pray unto him evry day of the week in a severall Language, and upon Sunday in seven, which in Orisons of my own I pun­ctually perform in my privat Pomeridian devotions.

Et sic aeternam contendo attingere vitam.

By these steps I strive to clime up to heaven, and my soul prompts me I shall thither; for ther is no object in the world delights me more, than to cast up my eyes that way, specially in a Star-light night; and if my mind be overcast with any odd clouds of me­lancholly, when I look up and behold that glorious Fabric, which I hope shall be my Countrey heerafter, ther are new spirits begot in me presently, which make me scorn the World, and the plea­sures thereof, considering the vanity of the one, and the inanity of the other.

Thus my soul still moves East-ward, as all the Heavenly bo­dies [Page 221] doe; but I must tell you, that as those bodies are over-ma­ster'd, and snatch'd away to the West, raptu primi mobilis, by the generall motion of the tenth sphere, so by those Epidemicall infir­mities which are incident to man, I am often snatch'd away a clean contrary cours, yet my soul persists still in our own pro­per motion: I am often at variance, and angry with my self (nor do I hold this anger to be any breach of charity) when I con­sider, That wheras my Creator intended this body of mine, though [...] lump of Clay, to be a Temple of his holy Spirit, my affections should turn it often to a Brothell-house, my passions to a Bedlam, and my excesses to an Hospitall.

Being of a Lay profession, I humbly conform to the Constitu­tions of the Church, and my spirituall Superiors; and I hold this obedience to be an acceptable Sacrifice to God.

Difference in opinion may work a disaffection in me, but not a detestation: I rather pity, than hate, Turk or Insidell, for they are of the same metall, and bear the same stamp as I do, though the Inscriptions differ. If I hate any, 'tis those Scismatics that puzzle the sweet peace of our Church, so that I could bee content to see an Anabaptist go to Hell on a Brownists back?

Noble Knight, now that I have thus eviscerated my self, and dealt so clearly with you, I desire by way of correspon­dence that you would tell me, what way you take in your journey to Heaven; for if my Brest lie so open to you, 'tis not sitting yours should bee shut up to mee; therfore I pray let me hear from you when it may stand with your Conveni­ence.

So I wish you your hearts desire here, and Heaven hereafter, because I am

Yours in no vulgar way of friendship, J. H.

XXXIII. To Simon Digby Esquire, at Mosco, the Em­peror of Russia's Court.

SIR,

I Received one of yours by Mr. Pickhurst, and I am glad to find, that the rough clime of Russia agrees so well with you; so well, as you write, as the Catholic ayr of Madrid, or the Imperiall ayr of Vienna, where you had such honorable employments.

The greatest News we have heer is, that we have a Bishop Lord Tresurer, and 'tis News indeed in these times, though 'twas no news you know in the times of old to have a Bishop Lord Tresurer of England. I beleeve he was meerly passive in this busines; the active instrument that put the white Staff in his hands, was the Metrapolitan at Lambeth.

I have other News also to tell you, we have a brave new Ship, a Royall Galeon, the like, they say, did never spread Sail upon Salt-water, take her true and well compacted Symmetry, with all dimensions together; for her burden, shee hath as many Tuns as ther were yeers since the Incarnation, when she was built, which are sixteen hundred thirty and six; she is in length one hundred twenty and seven foot; her greatest breadth within the planks, is fourty six foot, and six inches; her depth from the breadth is nineteen foot, and four inches: she carrieth a hundred Peeces of Ordnance wanting four, wherof shee hath three tyre; half a score men may stand in her Lantern; the charges His Majesty hath been at in the building of her, are computed to be fourscore thou­sand pounds, one whole years Ship-money: Sir Robert Mansell launc'd her, and by his Majesties command call'd her, The Sove­rain of the Sea: Many would have had her to be nam'd the Edgar; who was one of the most famous Saxon Kings this Island had, and the most potent at sea: Ranulphus Cestrensis writes, that he had four hundred ships, which evry yeer after Easter, went out in four Fleets to scour the Coasts. Another Author writes, that he had four Kings to row him once upon the Dee. But the Title he gave himself, was a notable lofty one, which was this▪ Altitonantis Dei largiflua clementia qui est Rex Regum, Ego Edgarus Anglorum Basileus, omnium Regum Insularum Oceanique Britanniam circum [...]acent is, cuncta­rumque Nationum quae infra eam includūtur, Imperator & Dominus, &c. [Page 223] I do not think your gran Emperour of Russia hath a loftier title; I confess the Sophy of Persia hath a higher one, though prophane and ridiculous in comparison of this▪ For he calls himself, The Star high and mighty, whose head is cover'd with the Sun, whose mo­tion is comparable to the aethereall Firmament, Lord of the Mountaines, Caucasus and Taurus, of the four Rivers, Euphrates, Tygris, Araxis and Indus; Bud of honour, Mirrour of vertue, Rose of delight, and Nutmeg of comfort; It is a huge descent methinks to begin with a Star, and end in a Nutmeg.

All your friends here in Court and City are well, and often mindfull of you, with a world of good wishes, and you cannot be said to be out of England, as long as you live in so many noble memories: Touching mine, you have a large room in't, for you are one of my chief inmates: So with my humble Service to your Lady I rest

Your most faithfull Servitor while J. H.

XXXIV. To Dr. Tho: Prichard.

Dear Dr.

I Have now had too long a supersede as from employment, having engag'd my self to a fatall man at Court (by his own seeking) who I hoped, and had reason to expect (for I wav'd all other wayes) that he would have bin a Scale towards my rising, but he hath rather prov'd an instrument to my ruine: it may be he will prosper accordingly.

I am shortly bound for Ireland, and it may be the Stars will cast a more benign Aspect upon me in the West; you know who got the Persian Empire by looking that way for the first beams of the Sun-rising, rather than towards the East.

My Lord Deputy hath made often professions to do me a plea­sure, and I intend now to put him upon't,

I purpose to pass by the Bath, for a pain I have in my Arm, pro­ceeding from a Defluxion of Rheum, and then I will take Breck­nock in my way, to comfort my Sister Penry, who I think hath lost one of the best husbands in all the thirteen shires of Wales.

So with apprecation of all happines to you, I rest

Yours while J. H.

XXXV. To Sir Kenelme Digby Knight, from Bath.

SIR,

YOur being then in the Country, when I began my journey for Ireland, was the cause I could not kiss your hands, therfore I shall do now from Bath, what I should have don at London.

Being here for a distillation of Rheum that pains me in one of my Arms, and having had about three thousand stroaks of a pump upon me in the Queens Bath: ▪And having bin here now divers daies and view'd the severall qualities of these Waters, I fell to contemplat a little what should be the reason of such an extraordi­nary actuall heat, and medicinall vertue in them. I have seen and read of divers Baths abroad, as those of Caldanel and Avinian in agro Senensi, the Grotta in Viterbio, those between Naples and Puteolum in Campania; And I have bin a little curious to know the reason of those rare Lymphaticall properties in them above other waters. I find that som impute it to Wind, or Ayr, or som Exha­lations shut up in the Bowels of the Earth, which either by their own nature, or by their violent motion and agitation, or attrition upon Rocks, and narrow passages do gather heat, and so impart it to the Waters.

Others attribut this balneal heat unto the Sun, whose all­searching Beams penetrating the Pores of the Earth, do heat the Waters.

Others think this heat to proceed from quicklime, which by com­mon experience we find to heat any Water cast upon't, and also to kindle any combustible substance put upon't.

Lastly, ther are som that ascribe this heat to a subterranean fire kindled in the bowels of the Earth upon sulphury and bituminous matter.

'Tis true, all these may be generall concurring causes, but not the adaequat proper and peculiar reason of balneal heats; and herein truly our learned Countryman Dr. Iorden hath got the start of any that ever writ of this subject, and goes to work like a solid Philosopher; for having treated of the generation of mine­ralls, he finds that they have their Seminaries in the Womb of the Earth replenish'd with active spirits; which meeting with apt [Page 225] matter and adjuvant causes, do proceed to the generation of se­verall species, according to the nature of the efficient, and fitnes of the matter: In this work of generation, as ther is generatio uni­us, so ther is corruptio alterius; and this cannot be don without a superiour power, which by moysture dilating it self, works upon the matter like a leav'ning and ferment, to bring it to its own purpose.

This motion 'twixt the agent spirit, and patient matter, produ­ceth an actuall heat; for motion is the fountain of heat, which serves [...]s an instrument to advance the work; for as cold dulls, so heat quickneth all things: Now for the nature of this heat, it is not a destructive violent heat, as that of fire, but a generative gentle heat joyn'd with moysture, nor needs it ayr for eventilation: This naturall heat is daily observ'd by Digg [...]n in the Mynes; so then while Mineralls are thus engendring, and in solutis principiis, in their liquid formes, and not consolidated into hard bodies, (for then they have not that vertue) they impart heat to the neighbou­ring Waters. So then it may be concluded, that this soyl about the Bath is a minerall vein of earth, and the fermenting gentle temper of generative heat that goes to the production of the said Mineralls, do impart and actually communicat this balneal vertue and medicinall heat to these Waters.

This subject of Minerall Waters would afford an Ocean of mat­ter, wer one to compile a solid discours of it: And I pray excuse me, that I have presum'd in so narrow a compas as a Letter, to com­prehend so much, which is nothing I think, in comparison of what you know already of this matter.

So I take my leave, and humbly kiss your hands, being all­wayes

Your most faithfull and ready Servitor, J. H.

XXXVI. From Dublin, to Sir Ed: Savage Knight, at Tower-Hill.

SIR,

I Am com safely to Dublin, over an angry boysterous Sea; whe­ther 'twas my voyage on Salt-water, or change of Ayr, being now under another clime, which was the cause of it, I know not, but I am suddenly freed of the pain in my Arm; when neither Bath, nor Plasters, and other remedies could do me good.

I deliver'd your Letter to Mr. Iames Dillon, but nothing can be don in that busines till your brother Pain coms to Town. I meet heer with divers of my Northern frends, whom I knew at York: Heer is a most splendid Court kept at the Castle, and except that of the Vice-roy of Naples, I have not seen the like in Christendom, and in one point of Grandeza, the Lord Deputy heer goes beyond him, sor he can confer honours and dub Knights, which that Vice-roy cannot, or any other I know of. Trafic encreaseth heer wonderful­ly, with all kind of bravery, and buildings.

I made an humble motion to my Lord, that in regard busines­ses of all sorts did multiply here daily, and that ther was but one Clerk of the Counsell (Sir Paul Davis) who was able to dispatch busines, (Sir Will. Usher his Collegue being very aged and bed­rid) his Lordship would please to think of me, My Lord gave me an answer full of good respects to succeed Sir William after his death.

No more now, but with my most affectionat respects unto you, I rest

Your faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XXXVII. To Dr. Vsher Lo: Primat of Ireland.

MAy it please your Grace to accept of my most humble Ac­knowledments for those Noble favours I receiv'd at Drog­hedah, and that you pleas'd to communicat unto me those rare Manuscripts in so many Languages, and divers choice Authors in your Library.

Your learned Work, De primordiis Ecclesiarum Britannicarum which you pleas'd to send me, I have sent to England, and so it shall be conveyd to Iesus College in Oxford, as a gift from your Grace.

I hear that Cardinal Barberino, one of the Popes Nephews, is setting forth the works of Fastidius a British Bishop, call'd, De vita Christiana. It was written 300 yeers after our Saviour, and Holsteni­us hath the care of the Impression.

I was lately looking for a word in S [...]idas, and I lighted upon a strange passage in the name [...]: That in the Reign of Iustini­an the Emperour, one Theodosius a Jew, a man of great Authori­ty, liv'd in Ierusalem, with whom a rich Goldsmith, who was a Christian, was in much favour, and very familiar. The Gold­smith, in privat discours, told him one day, that be wondred, [...]e being a man of such a great understanding, did not turn▪ Christian, con­sidering how he found all the Prophecies of the Law so evidently accom­plish'd in our Saviour, and our Saviours Prophecies accomplish'd since. Theodosius answered, That it did not stand with his security and con­tinuance in Authority to turn Christian, but he had a long time a good o­pinion of that Religion; and he would discover a secret unto him which was not yet com to the knowledg of any Christian: It was, That when the Temple was founded in Ierusalem, ther wer 22 Priests, ac­cording to the number of the Hebrew letters, to officiat in the Temple; and when any was chosen, his name, with his fathers and mothers, wer us'd to be registred in a fair Book. In the time of Christ, a Priest died, and he was chosen in his place; but when his name was to be entred, his father Ioseph being dead, his mo­ther was sent for, who being ask'd who was his father, she answe­red, that she never knew man, but that she conceiv'd by an An­ [...]: So his name was registred in these words: IESUS CHRIST [Page 228] THE SON OF GOD, AND OF THE VIRGIN MARY. This Record at the destruction of the Temple was pre­served, and is to be seen in Tyberias to this day. I humbly desire your Graces opinion heerof in your next.

They write to me from England of rare news in France, which is, that the Queen is delivered of a Daulphin, the wonderfull'st thing of this kind that any Story can parallel; for this is the three and twentieth yeer since she was married, and hath continued child­les all this while; so that now Monsieurs cake is dough, and I be­leeve he will be more quiet heerafter. So I rest

Your Graces most devoted, Servitor, J. H.

XXXVIII. To my Lord Clifford, from Edenburgh.

My Lord,

I Have seen now all the King of Great Britain's Dominions; & he is a good Traveller that hath seen all his Dominions. I was born in Wales, I have bin in all the four corners of England; I have tra­ve [...]sed the Diameter of France more than once, and now I am com thorow Ireland into this Kingdom of Scotland. This Town of Edin­burgh is one of the fairest streets that ever I saw (exepting that of Palermo in Sicily) it is about a mile long, coming sloping down from the Castle (call'd of old the Castle of Virgins, and by Pliny, Castrum alatum) to Holy-Rood-House, now the Royall Palace; and these two begin and terminat the town. I am com hither in a ve­ry convenient time, for heer's a Nationall Assembly and a Parlement, my Lord Traquair being His Majesties Commissioner. The Bi­shops are all gon to w [...]ack, and they have had but a sorry Fune­rall; the very name is grown so contemptible, that a black Dog, if he have any white marks about him, is call'd Bishop. Our Lord of Canterbury is grown heer so odious, that they call him common­ly in the Pulpit The Priest of Baal, and the son of Belial. I'll tell your Lordship of a passage which happened lately in my lodging▪ which is a Tavern: I had sent for a Shoo-maker to make me a pair of Boots, and my Landlord, who is a pe [...]t smart man, brought up a chopin of Whitewine (and for this particular, ther are bette [...] [Page 229] French-wines heer than in England, and cheaper; for they are but at a Groat a quart; and it is a crime of a high nature, to min­gle or sophisticat any Wine heer.) Over this Chopin of White wine, my Vintner and Shoo-maker fell into a hot Dispute about Bishops: The Shoo-maker grew very furious, and call'd them The firebrands of hell, the Pamlers of the Whore of Babilon, and the In­struments of the d [...]vill, and that they were of his institution, not of Gods. My Vintner took him up smartly, and said, Hold, neighbour, there; Do not you know, as well as I, that Titus and Timothy were Bishops, that our Saviour is entitled The Bishop of our souls, that the word Bishop is as frequently mentioned in Scripture as the name Pastor, Elder, or Deacon? then why do you inv [...]igh so bitterly against them? The Shoo-maker answered, I know the Name and Office to be good, but they have abused it. My Vintner replies, Well then, you are a Shoo-maker by your Prefession, imagine that you, or a hundred, or a thousand, or a hundred thousand of your Trade should play the knaves, and sell Caltskin-leather Boots for Neats-leather, or do other cheats; must wee therfore go barefoot? must the Gentle-cra [...]t of Shoo-makers fall therfore to the ground? It is the fault of the Men, not of rhe Cal­ling. The Shoo-maker was so gravell'd at this, that he was put to his Last; for he had not a word more to say: so my Vintner got the day.

Ther is a fair Parlement-house built heer lately, and 'twas ho­ped His Maiesty would have tane the maiden-head of it, and com hither to sit in person; and they did ill who advis'd him other­wise.

I am to go hence shortly back to Dublin, and so to London, wher I hope to find your Lordship, that, according to my accustomed boldnes, I may attend you: In the interim I rest

Your Lordships most humble Servitor, J. H.

XXXIX. To Sir K. Digby Kt.

SIR,

I Thank you for the good opinion you please to have of my fan­cy of Trees: It is a maiden one, and not blown upon by any yet: But for the merits you please to ascribe unto the Author, I ut­terly disclaim any, specially in that proportion you please to give them me. 'Tis you that have parts enough to compleat a whole Jury of men. Those small perquisits that I have, are thrust up into a little narrow lobby; but those perfections that beautifie your noble soul, have a spacious Palace to walk in, more sumptuous than either the Louvre, Seralio, or Escuriall. So I most affectionat­ly kiss your hands, being always

Your most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XL. To Sir Sackvill Crow, His Majesties Ambassador, at the Post of Constantinople.

Rigl [...] Honble Sir,

THe greatest news we have heer now, is a notable navall fight that was lately 'twixt the Spanierd and Hollander in the Downes; but to make it more intelligible, I will deduce the busi­nes from the beginning.

THe King of Spain had provided a [...] Fleet of Galeons, wherof the Vice-Admiralls of Naples and Portugall wer two, (wher­of he had sent advice to England long before.) The design was to meet with the French Fleet, under the command of the Arch­bishop of Bourdeaux, and in default of that, to land som treasure at Dunkirk, with a recruit of Spaniards which wer grown very thin in Flanders. These recruits wer got by an odd trick; for som of [Page 231] the Fleet being at Saint Anderas, a report was blown up of pur­pose, that the French were upon the Coasts; heerupon all the youngmen of the Country came to the Sea-side, and so a great number of them were tumbled a shipboard, and so they set sai [...]e to­wards the Coasts of France; but the Archbishop it seems had drawn in his Fleet: Then striking into the Narrow-Seas, they met with a Fleet of about sixteen Hollanders, wherof they sunk and took two, and the rest got away to Holland, to give an alarum to the States, who in less than a moneth, got together a Fleet of a­bout one hundred sail, and the wind being a long time Easterly, they came into the Downes, where Don Antonio d' Oquéndo, the Spanish Admirall had stayed for them all the while. Sir Iohn Pen­nington was then abroad with seven of His Majesties Ships: and Don Antonio being daily warn'd what forces were preparing in Zea­land and Holland, and so advis'd to get over to the Flemish Coasts: in the interim with a haughty spirit, he answer'd, Tengo de quedar­me aqui para castigar estos Rebeldes: I will stay here to chastise these Rebels. There were ten more of His Masties Ships appointed to go joyn with Sir Iohn Pennington, to observe the motions of these Fleets, but the wind continuing still East, they could not get out of the River.

The Spanish Fleet had Fresh-waters, Victualls, and other neces­saries from our Coasts for their money, according to the capitula­tions of peace, all this while; at last, being half surprized by a cloud of Hollanders, consisting of one hundred and fourteen ships, the launc'd out from our Coasts, and a most furious fight began, our ships having retir'd hard by all the while: The Vice-Admi­rall of Portugall, a famous Sea Captain, Don Lope de Hozes, was engag'd in close fight with the Vice-Admirall of Holland, and after many tough rancounters they were both blown up, and burnt to­gether. At last, night came and parted the rest; but six Spanish ships were taken, and about twenty of the Hollanders perish'd. O­quendo then cross'd over to Nardic, and so back to Spain, where he died before he came to the Court; and 'tis thought, had he liv'd, he had bin question'd for som miscarr [...]ages; for if he had suffer'd the Dunkerkers, who are nimbler and more fit for fight, to have had the Van and dealt with the Hollander, 'tis thought matters might have gon better with him; but his ambition was, that the great spa­ [...]ish Galeons should get the glory of the day.

The Spaniards give out that they had the better, in regard they did the main work, for Oquendo had conveyed all his recruits and tresure to Flanders, while he lay hovering on our Coasts.

[Page 232]One thing is herein very observable, what a mighty Naviga­ble power the Hollander is com to, that in so short a compas of time, he could appeare with such a numerous Fleet of one hun­dred and fourteen Sails of Men of War, in such a perfect equip­page.

The times afford no more at present, therfore with a tender of my most humble service to my noble Lady, and my thankfull acknowledgment for those great favours which my Brother Ed­ward writes to me he hath receiv'd from your Lordship in so singu­lar a manner, at that Port, desiring you would still oblige me with a continuance of them; I rest, amongst those multitudes you have left behind you in England,

Your Lopps most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XLI. To Sir J. M. Knight.

SIR,

I Hear that you begin to blow the cole, and offer sacrifice to De­mogorgon, the God of Mineralls: Be well advis'd before you en­gage your self too deep; Chymistry, I know, by a little experience, is wonderfull pleasing for the tryall of so many rare conclusions it carries with it, but withall 'tis costly, and an enchanting kind of thing; for it hath melted many a fair Mannor in crusibles, and turn'd them to smoak▪ One presented Sixtus quintus (Sice-cinq, as Queen Elizabeth call'd him) with a Book of Chymistry, and the Pope gave him an empty purse for a reward.

Ther be few whom Mercury the father of miracles doth favour: The Queen of Sbeba, and the King Crown'd with fire, are not pro­pitious to many: He that hath water turn'd to ashes, hath the Ma­gistery, and the true Philosophers stone; ther be few of those: Ther be som that commit fornication in Chymistry, by Heterogent­ous and Sophisticall citrinations; but they never com to the Phoe­nix nest.

I know you have your share of wisdom, therfore I confess it a pre­sumption in me, to give you Counsell. So I rest

Your most faithfull Servitor, J. H

XLII. To Simon Digby Esquire, at the gran Moseo in Russia.

SIR,

I Return you many thanks for your last of the first of I [...]ne, and that you acquaint me with the state of things in that Coun­trey.

I doubt not but you have heard long since of the revolt of Ca­tala [...]nia from the King of Spaine; it seems the sparkles of those fires are flown to Portugall, and put that Countrey also in combusti­on. The Duke of Braganza, whom you may well remember about the Court of Spaine, is now King of Portugall, by the name of El Rey Don Iuan, and he is as generally obey'd, and quietly setled, as if he had bin King these twenty yeers there; for the whole Coun­trey fell suddenly to him, not one Town standing out. When the King of Spain told Olivares of it first, he slighted it, saying, That he was but Rey de Havas, a Bean-cake King. But it seems strange to me, and so strange, that it transforms me to wonder, that the Spaniard being accounted so politic a Nation, and so full of pre­caution, could not foresee this; specially, ther being divers in­telligences given, and evident symptoms of the generall discon­tentment of that Kingdom (because they could not be protected a­gainst the Hollander in Brasil) and of som designes a yeer before, when this Duke of Braganza was at Madrid. I wonder I say, they did not secure his person by ingaging him in som employment out of the way: Truly, I thought the Spaniard was better sighted, and could could see further off than so. You know what a huge lim the Crown of Portugall was to the Spanish Monarchy, by the Islands in the Atlantic Sea; the Towns in Afric; and all the East-In­dies, insomuch, that the Spaniard hath nothing now left beyond the Line.

Ther is no offensive war yet made by Spain against King Iohn, she only stands upon the defensive part, untill the Catalan be re­duc'd; and I beleeve, that will be a long-winded busines; for this French Cardinall stirs all the devills of Hell against Spain, in­somuch, that most men say, that these formidable fires which are [Page 234] now raging in both these Countreys, were kindled at first by a G [...]anado hurl'd from his brain: Nay, som will not stick to say, that this breach 'twixt us and Scotland is a reach of his.

Ther was a ruthfull distaster happen'd lately at Sea, which makes our Merchants upon the Exchange hang down their heads very sadly. The Ship Swan, wherof one Limery was Master, ha­ving bin four yeers abroad about the Streights, was sailing home with a Cargazon, valued at eight hundred thousand pounds, wher­of four hundred and fifty thousand was in Money, the rest in Je­wells and Merchandise; but being in sight of shore, she sprung a leak, and being ballasted with Salt, it choak'd the Pump, so that the Swan could swim no longer: Som sixteen were drown'd, and som of them with ropes of Pearl about their necks, the rest were sav'd by an Hamburgber not far off. The King of Spain loseth little by it (only his affairs in Flanders may suffer) for his Money was insur'd, and few of the Principalls, but the Insurers onely, who were most of them Genowayes and Hollanders: A most infortunat chance, for had she com to safe port, she had bin the richest ship that ever came into the Thames; so that Neptun never had such a morfell at one bit.

All your frends here are well, as you will understand more par­ticularly by those Letters that go herewith. So I wish you all health and comfort in that cold Countrey, and desire that your love may continue still in the same degree of heat towards

Your faithfull servitor, J. H.

XLIII. To Sir K. D. Knight.

SIR,

IT was my fortun to be in a late communication wher a Gentle­man spoke of a hideous thing that happen'd in High Holborn, how one Iohn Pennant a young man of 21, being dissected after his death, ther was a kind of Serpent with divers tails found in the left Ventricle of his heart, which you know is the most defen­ded part, being thrice thicker than the right, and in the Cell which holds the purest and most illustrious liquor, the arteriall blood, [Page 235] and the vitall spirits. This Serpent was it seems three yeers in­gendring, for so long time he found himself indisposed in the brest; and it was observ'd, that his eye in the interim grew more sharp▪ and firy, like the eye of a Cock, which is next to a Ser­pents eye in rednes; so that the symptome of his inward Disease might have been told by certain exterior Rays and Sig­natures.

God preserve us from public calamities; for Serpentin Monsters have been often ill favoured presages. I remember in the Roman story, to have read how, when Snakes or Serpents wer found neer the statues of their gods, as one time about Iupiters neck, another time about Minerva's thigh, ther follow'd bloudy Civill War after it.

I remember also, few yeers since, to have read the relation and deposition of the Carrier of Tewxbury, who, with divers of his servants, passing a little before the dawn of the day with their packs over Cots-hill, saw most sensibly and very perspicuously in the air, Muskettiers, harnassed men, and horse-men, moving in Bat­tell-aray, and assaulting one another in divers furious postures. I doubt not but that you heard of those fiery Metcors and Thun­derbolts that have fallen upon sundry of our Churches, and don hurt. Unless God be pleas'd to make up these ruptures 'twixt us and Scotland, we are like to have ill days. The Archb. of Canterbu­ry was lately out-rag'd in his House by a pack of common peeple: and Captain Ma [...]un was pittifully massacred by his own men late­ly; so that the common peeple, it seems, have strange principles infus'd into them, which may prove dangerous: for I am not of that Lords mind who said, That they who fear any popular Insurre­ction in England, are like boys and women, that are afraid of a Turnip [...] like a Deaths head with a candle in't.

I am shortly for France, and I will receive your Commands be­fore I go. So I am

Your most humble Servitor, J. H.

XLIV. To my Lord Herbert of Cherbery, from Paris.

My Lord,

I Send herewith Dodonas Grove couch'd in French, and in in the newest French, for though the main version be mine, yet I got one of the Academie des beaux Esprits heer to run it over, to correct and refine the language, and reduce it to the most mo­dern Dialect. It took so heer, that the new Academy of wits have given a public and far higher Elogium of it than it deserves. I was brought to the Cardinall at Ruelle, wher I was a good while with him in his privat Garden, and it were a vanity in me, to insert here what Propositions he made me. Ther be som sycophants heer that idolize him, and I blush to read what profane Hyperboles are Printed up and down of him; I will instance in a few.

Cedite Richelio mortales, cedite Divi,
Ille homines vincit, vincit & ille Deos.

Then

Et si nous faisons des ghirlandes,
C'est pour en couronner un Dieu,
Qui soubs le nom de Richelieu,
Resoit nos [...]oeus & nos offrandes.

Then

Richelii adventu Rupellae porta patescit,
Christo Infernales ut patuere fores.

Certainly he is a rare man, and of a transcendent reach, and they are rather miracles than exploits that he hath don, though those miracles be of a sanguin Dy (the colour of his habit) steep'd in bloud; which makes the Spaniard call him the gran Caga-fuego of Christendom. Divers of the scientific all'st, and most famous win here, have spoken of your Lordship with admiration, and of your great work De veritate; and wer those excellent notions and theoricall precepts actually applyed to any particular Science, it would be an infinit advantage to the Common-wealth of lear­ning [Page 237] all the▪ World over. So I humbly kiss your hands, and rest

Your Lordships most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XLV. To the Right Honble M Elizabeth Altham, now Lady Digby.

Madam,

THer be many sad hearts for the loss of my Lord Robert Dig­by; but the greatest weight of sorrow falls upon your Ladi­ship. Amongst other excellent vertues, which the world admires you for, I know your Ladiship to have that measure of high discre­tion, that will check your passions; I know also, that your pati­ence hath been often exercis'd, and put to triall in this kind: For besides the Baron your Father, and Sir Iames, you lost your Bro­ther, Master Richard Altham, in the verdant'st time of his age, a Gentleman of rare hopes, and I beleeve this sunk deep into your heart; you lost Sir Francis Astl [...]y since, a worthy vertuous Gentleman: And now you have lost a noble Lord. We all owe nature a debt, which is payable som time or other, whensoever she demands it; nor doth Dame Nature use to seal Indentures, or pass over either Lease or Patent for a set term of yeers to any; For my part I have seen so much of the world, that if she offer'd me a lease, I would give her but a small fine for't; specially now that the times are grown so naught, that peeple are becom more than half mad: But Madam, as long as ther are men, ther must be malignant humors, ther must be vices, and vicissitudes of things; as long as the world wheels round, ther must be tossings and tumblings, distractions and troubles, and bad times must be recempenc'd with better. So I humbly kiss your Ladiships hands, and rest,

Madam,
Your constant Servant, J. H.

XLVI. To the Honorable Sir P. M. in Dublin.

SIR,

I Am newly return'd from France, and now that Sir Edw. Ni­cholas is made Secretary of State, I am put in fair hopes, or rather assurances to suceed him in the Clerkship of the Coun­sell.

The Duke de la Valette is lately fled hither for sanctuary▪ having had ill luck in Fonta-rabia, they say his Proces was made, and that he was executed in Effigie in Paris. Tis true, he could never square well with his Eminency, the Cardinall, (for this is a peculiar Title he got long since from Rome, to distinguish him from all othér) nor his father neither, the little old Duke of Espernon, the anci­ent'st Soldier in the world, for hee wants but one yeer of a hun­dred.

When I was last in Paris, I heard of a faceti [...]us passage ' [...] him, and the Archbishop of Bourdeaux, who in effect is Lord High Admirall of France, and 'twas thus: The Archbishop was to go Generall of a great Fleet, and the Duke came to his House in Bourdeaux one morning to visit him; the Archbishop sent som of his Gentlemen to desire him to have a little patience, for hee was dispatching away som Sea-Commanders, and that he would wait on him presently: The little Duke took a pett at it, and went a­way to his house at Cad [...]llac som fifteen miles off: The next mor­ning the Archbishop came to pay him the visit, and to apologize for himself; being com in, and the Duke told of it, he sent his Chaplain to tell him, that he was newly fallen upon a Chapter of Saint Austins de civitate Dei, and when he had read that Chapter, hee would com to him.

Som yeers before, I was told he was at Paris, and Richelieu came to visit him, he having notice of it, Richelieu found him in a Cardinals Cap, kneeling at a Table Altar-wise, with his Book and Beads in his hand, and Candles burning before him.

I hear the Earl of Leicester is to com shortly over, and so over to Ireland to be your Deputy. No more now, but that I am

Your most faithfull Servitor, J. H.

XLVII. To the Earl of B. from the Fleet.

My Lord,

I Was lately com to London upon som occasions of mine own, and I had bin divers times in Westminster-Hall, wher I convers'd with many Parlement men of my acquaintance; but one morning be­times, ther rush'd into my Chamber five armed men with Swords, Pistolls and Bills, and told me they had a Warrant from the Parle­ment for me; I desir'd to see their Warrant, they denyed it, I desired to see the date of it▪ they denied it, I desired to see my name in the Warrant, they denied all, at last one of them pull'd out a greasie Paper out of his Pocket, and shew'd me only three or four names subscrib'd, and no more; so they rush'd presently into my Closet, and seiz'd on all my Papers, and Letters, and any thing that was Manuscript, and many Printed Books they took also, and hurl'd all into a great Hair Trunk, which they carried away with them: I had taken a little Physic that morning, and with very much ado, they suffer'd me to stay in my Chamber with two Guards upon me till the Evening; at which time they brought me before the Committee for Examination, wher I confess I found good respects; and being brought up to the close Committee, I was order'd to be forth-coming, till som Papers of mine were perus'd, and Mr. Corbet was appointed to do it: Som days after, I came to Mr. Corbet, and he told me he had perus'd them, and could find nothing that might give offence; heerupon, I desir'd him to make a report to the House accordingly; which (as I was told) he did very fairly, yet such was my hard hap, that I was committed to the Fleet, wher I am now under close restraint: and as far as I see, I must lye [...]t dead anchor in this Fleet a long time, unless som gentle gale blow thence to make me la [...]nce out. Gods will be don, and amend the times, and make up these ruptures which threaten so much ca­lamity. So I am

Your Lopps most faithfull (though now afflicted) Servitor, J. H.

XLVIII. To Sir Bevis Thelwall Knight (Petri ad vin­cula) at Peter-House in London.

SIR,

THough we are not in the same prison, yet are we in the same predicament of suffrance; therfore I presume you are subject to the like fits of melancholly as I: The fruition of liberty is not so pleasing, as a conceit of the want of it is irksom, specially to one of such free-born thoughts as you. Melancholly is a black noxious humor, and much annoys the whol inward man; if you would know what cordiall I use against it in this my sad condition, Ile tell you, I pore somtimes on a Book, and so I make the dead my companions, and this is one of my chiefest solaces: If the humor work upon mee stronger, I rouze my spirits, and raise them up towards Heaven, my future Countrey; and one may be on his journy thither, though shut up in Prison, and happly go a straighter way, than if hee wer abroad: I consider, that my soul while shee is coop'd up within these walls of flesh, is but in a kind of perpetuall prison. And now my body corresponds with her in the same condition; my body is the prison of the one, and these brick-walls the prison of the o­ther: And let the English peeple flatter themselves as long as they will, that they are free, yet are they in effect, but prisoners, as all other Islanders are; for being surrounded and clos'd about with Salt-water (as I am with these Walls) they cannot go where they list, unless they ask the Winds leave first, and Neptun must give them a pass.

God Almighty amend the times, and compose these wofull divisi­ons, which menace nothing but public ruin, the thoughts wherof drown in me the sense of mine own privat affliction.

So wishing you courage (wherof you have enough, if you put it in practise) and patience in this sad sad condition, I rest

Your true Servant and Compatriot, J. H.

LIX. To Mr. E. P.

SIR,

I Saw such prodigious things daily don these few yeers, that I had resolv'd with my self to give over wondering at any thing; yet a passage happen'd this week, that forc'd me to wonder once more, because it is without parallel. It was, that som odd fellows went skulking up and down London-streets, and with Figs and Reasons allur'd little Children, and so pourloyn'd them away from their Parents, and carried them a Ship-board for beyond Sea, where by cutting their hair, and other devises, they so dis­guis'd them, that their Parents could not know them. This made me think upon that miraculous passage in Hamelen, a Town in Germans, which I hop'd to have pass'd through when I was in Ham­burgh, had we return'd by Holland; which was thus, (nor would I relate it unto you wer ther not som ground of truth for it.) The said Town of Hamelen was annoyed with Rats and Mice; and it chanc'd, that a Pied-coated Piper came thither, who covenanted with the chief Burgers for such a reward, if he could free them quite from the said Vermin, nor would he demand it, till a twelve-month, and a day after: The agreement being made, he began to play on his Pipes, and all the Rats, and the Mice followed him to a great Lough hard by, where they all perish'd; so the Town was in­fected no more. At the end of the yeer, the Pied-Piper return'd for his reward, the Burgers put him off with slightings, and neg­lect; offring him som small matter, which he refusing, and stay­ing som dayes in the Town, on Sunday morning at High Mass, when most peeple were at Church, he fell to play on his Pipes, and all the children up and down, follow'd him out of the Town, to a great Hill not far off, which rent in two, and opened, and let him and the children in, and so clos'd up again: This happen'd a matter of two hundred and fifty yeers since; and in that Town, they date their Bills and Bonds, and other Instruments in Law, to this day, from the yeer of the going out of their children: Besides, there is a great piller of stone at the foot of the said Hill, wheron this story is ingraven,

[Page 242]No more now, for this is enough in conscience for one time: So I am

Your most affectionat Servitor, J. H.

L. To my Lord G. D.

My Lord,

THer be two weighty sayings in Seneca, Nihil est infaelicius [...]o, cui nil unquam contigit adversi: Ther is nothing more unhappy than he, who never felt any adversity: The other is, Nullum est ma­jus malum, quàm non posse ferre malum: Ther is no greater cross, than not to be able to bear a cross. Touching the first, I am not capable of that kind of unhappiness; for I have had my share of adversity, I have bin hammer'd, and dilated upon the Anvill, as our Countrey­man Breakspear (Adrian the fourth) said of himself; I have b [...]n strain'd through the limbic of affliction. Touching the second, I am also free of that cross; for, I thank God for it, I have that portion of Grace, and so much Philosophy, as to be able to endure, and confront any misery: Tis not so tedious to me, as to others to be thus immur'd, because I have bin inur'd, and habituated to trou­bles. That which sinks deepest into me, is the sense I have of the common calamities of this Nation; ther is a strange Spirit hath got in amongst us, which makes the Idaea of holines, the formality of good, and the very facultie of reason to be quite differing from what it was. I remember to have read a tale of the Ape in Paris, who having got a child out of the cradle, & carried him up to the top of the tiles, and there sat with him upon the ridg; The parents behol­ding this ruthfull spectacle, gave the Ape fair and smooth language, so he gently brought the child down again, and replac'd him in the cradle. Our Countrey is in the same case this child was in, and I hope ther will be sweet and gentle means us'd to preserve it from precipitation.

The City of London sticks constantly to the Parlement, and the Common-Councell swayes much, insomuch, that I beleeve, if the Lord Chancelor Egerton were now living, he would not be so plea­sant with them, as he was once to a new Recorder of London, whom [Page 243] he had invited to dinner to give him joy of his office, and having a great Woodcock▪ Pyserv'd in about the end of the repast, which had bin sent him from Cheshire, he said, Now Master Recorder you are welcom to a Common-Councell.

Ther be many discreet brave Patriots in the City, and I hope they will think upon som means to preserve us and themselves from ruin: Such are the prayers, early and late, of

Your Lopps most humble Servi [...]or, J. H.

LI. To Sir Alex. R. Kt.</