• 1. concerning A Petty-Schoole.
  • 2. concerning The Ushers Duty In a Grammar Schoole.
  • 3. concerning The Masters Method In a Grammar Schoole.
  • 4. concerning Scholastick Discipline In a Grammar Schoole.

Shewing how Children in their playing years may Grammatically attain to a firm groundedness in and exercise of the Latine, Greek and Hebrew Tongues. Written about Twenty three yeares a­go, for the Benefit of Rotherham School, where it was first used; and after 14. years trial by diligent practise in London in many particulars enlarged, and now at last published for the general profit, especially of young Schoole-Masters.

By Charles Hoole Master of Arts, and Teacher of a Private Grammar School in Lothbury Garden, London.

London, Printed by J. T. for Andrew Crook at the Green Dragon in Pauls Church-yard, 1660

To the Right Worshipfull, his most Reverend, constant, & truly loving Friend Robert Saunderson D. D. and Rector of Boothby-Pagnell. C. H. wisheth increase of Grace, and perfection of GLORY.


NOw I have by Gods blessing obtained (that which you can witnesse I have seriously laboured after) a thrice se­ven yeares experience in this despicable, but comfortable employment of teaching Schoole; I think it not amisse to disco­ver to the world, what method I have hitherto used, and which I resolve to continue, so long as God shall enable me to undergoe this profession of a Schoole-Master, which at first I undertook, and have ever since persisted in, by your encouragement.

How far this New Discovery is improved, since I made it at Rother­ham, and afterwards writ it out at lit­tle Humbie, whilest I lived more reti­redly in the house of that Noble Knight, Sir William Brownelwoe, (whom I [Page] think my self ever bound to honour for for his singular and undeserved favours to me in many particulars) I refer it to you to consider. For as you sometimes then perused it in Manuscript, so I hope you will (at your leisure) look upon it now in print, and not like it much worse, then formerly.

For I may truly say, that besides what I have observed by reading sundry Au­thours treating of this subjest, or gained by frequent and familiar converse with men of known abilities, both in City and Country. I have profited most in this Art of teaching, by my Scholars; who have been my daily instructers, how to suit my method to their several capaci­ties. And of all that ever I have taught either in publick Schoole, or in my own, or others houses, in more private manner, I have been beholding most to my Lon­don Scholars, who as they are generally quick-spirited, and forward to learn, where the way is easy to them; so are they soon apt to flag and be discouraged, when any difficulties appeare in their [Page] way. For their sakes therefore, (who by reason of many Schooles were sometimes occasioned to remove from one to ano­ther) I was enforced to facilitate the most common way of teaching, according to what you see, I have here endeavoured in these small Treatises.

In the publishing whereof I beseech you, that I may not offend in making use of your name, as well as my Masters; for as I was instructed by him at the School, so I was by your means sent, and provi­ded for in the Vniversity; and though I can never be able to requite your care and pains on my behalf, yet I have long desired, even whilest you are both living, to testify to the world, that I am not forgetful al­together of your great benefits. If what I have here done be liking to your selfe, I shall lesse need to care how others censure me, or it; Forasmuch as you have known me since my first studies, and are suffici­ently able to judge of a way to come by learning, as having been your self well methodized in your youth, and attained to that perfection in all kinde of know­ledge, [Page] which many do much admire, but few can hope to exceed. But I know to whom I write, and therefore I will not adventure into an Ocean of what may be said of your demerits, especially to mee wards, onely I commend this little work to your acceptance, as a Testimony of that unfeigned respect, which I think my self ever bound to shew towards you and yours; And I beseech God (that hath been pleased to exercise me in School-teach­ing, whilst you have been put upon exer­cises in School-Divinity, and so order­ed that something of what we have each done, is now labouring at the presse; to continue our earnest endeavours to serve him whilst we live, that when we dye, we may partake of that blessed reward, which is reserved in heaven for all those that attend the coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; to whose Grace I commend you and all yours, and rest

Your humbly observant Kinsman, CHARLES HOOLE.

To his most Experienced, and truly Honoured Master, Mr. ROBERT DOVGHTY, Head Schoole-Master at Wakefield, C. H. wisheth all health and happiness.


IT is yet a question amongst Schoole-boyes, and not likely to be hastily by them decided, whether K. Alexander was more bound to Philip his Father, that begat him, or his Master Aristotle that instructed him? for of both he had received unrequitable Benefits. Should I therefore not acknowledge that la­sting good, which with many co-partners I obtained by your care and industry, I should indeed be worse then ungatefull. And what token of thankfulnesse can I tender, more welcome to your self, then this small Manual, which most nearly concernes the profession of a Schoole-Master; a calling which hath all kinde of good attending it, to make it com­mendable, as well as others.

[Page] For 1. If we look at the benefit­ting of Church and Common­wealth; wherein can we better im­ploy our time and study, then in traing up of children to become ser­viceable instruments of much good in both? Nay, should a man but bare­ly respect himself, he may finde it very profitable to augment his learning, and not a little advanta­gious to the increase of his yearely Revenues.

2. What more pleasing variety can there be, then that of childrens dispositions and fansies? what better Recreation, then to read and dis­course of so many sundry subjects, as we meet with in ordinary Au­thours? Besides, the delight which is to be taken by our Scholars ready progresse in a constant even way, will far exceed all care and toyle that can be bestowed in helping them to profit.

3. Should I goe about by those millions of Arguments that con­curre [Page] (as Voluntiers) to maintain the lawfulnesse of this calling, as commanded by God, continued in all ages, practised by the well-learned and truly vertuous, com­mended by all good men, maintain­ed and encouraged by most noble Princes, and religiously disposed people; opposed onely by the ene­mies of Gods truth, and most dise­steemed by persons that are altoge­ther (for want of breeding) either debauched, or ignorant. I might write a larger Volume, and to lesser purpose.

Ob. But alas, we that wholly un­dergoe the burden of School-teach­ing, can tell by our own experience, how laborious it is both to minde and body, to be continually intent upon the work, and how irksome it is (especially to a man of a quiet temper) to have so many unwilling provocations unto passion; what good parts for learning, and right qualification in all points of beha­vour [Page] is required of us; how small our yearly stipend is, and how un­certain all our other incomes are. Again, we call to minde the too much indulgency of some Parents, who neither love to blame their childrens untowardnesse, nor suffer the Master to correct it; we remem­ber their generall ingratitude for the Masters well-doing, and their open clamour for his least doing amisse; we observe their common indiscretion in wholly imputing the Scholars lesse profitting to the Ma­sters more neglect, and their happy thriving to their own onely toward­linesse; not to mention their fond Ambition, in hastening them too fast. Besides, the small account which the vulgar have, the too cen­sorious eye which the more judici­ous cast, and the slight regard which our young Academians (for the most part) carry towards a poor Schoole-Master, make us sometimes judge our calling (as many do) too [Page] mean for a Scholar to undertake, or desire to stick too many yeares. We let passe childrens imperfections and untowardnesse, which are in­deed our daily torture; so that we could rather wish, our selves might leave our charge, then advise any friends we have to undertake it.

Answ. These we must acknow­ledge are very great discourage­ments, yet such as attend a most ne­cessary calling, and therefore must with Fortitude be conquered, or re­solutely undergone. Should the Mariner, because of danger, the Husband-man because of toyle, the Souldier because of hardship, the Magistrate because of interruption, the Minister, because of many mens disordered conversations, abandon their professions; it would then fare with a State, as (the Tale saith) it did once with the body, when the whole pin'd away, because no member would discharge its proper function.

[Page] Neither can I say to whom I should more properly dedicate this Subject, then to your selfe, who have now (as I suppose) for at least fifty yeares together, and with general applause, performed the Taske of a Schoole-Master, notwithstanding much opposition, and many discou­ragements of every kinde; who have had continually in your charge many scores of Scholars, and have yearly sent abroad, both to Trades, and Universities, great store of such as have been thorowly accomplished in their places. Nay, (give me leave to speak it) to commend your knowne Dexterity in this excellent calling, there have been (I think) as many, and those, as well-ap­proved Schoole-Masters your quon­dam Scholars, as have been trained up by any one man in England. Amongst others I help onely to fill up the number, who have some­times in publick, and sometimes in private, for nigh thirty years toge­ther, [Page] been exercised in teach­ing Scholars, and have at last for mine own ease, and the satisfaction of some friends, printed what Me­thod and Order you once saw I had writ out, and which upon your ap­probation, and my own further ex­periment, I have thought meet to observe constantly, reserving ever the liberty of varying in matters of of circumstance, as occasion shall re­quire. And for some things (it may be) you may rightly say (as I am ever bound most thankfully to ac­knowledge, that I was your Scholar, seeing in them I have so nearly seemed to track that method, ac­cording to which I was instructed by your self.

Daigne (I beseech you) to accept this small offer of a willing minde, and if you finde it helpful to you or yours, in any kinde, to use it freely; where you shall espie the least de­fect, I hope you will please to cen­sure it with impartial mildenesse▪ [Page] This Petition also I prefer to them of better judgement, as it happeneth to come into their hands.

The Lord continue you long in your eminent place, to doe the Church and Common-wealth most acceptable service, and to reap to your self much comfort thereby, that when at last you shall have fini­shed your course, you may receive at Gods hands an immortal Crown, through Jesus Christ our Saviour, in whom I rest

Yours, in all observancy, Charles Hoole.
Dec. 24. 1659.

To all favourers of good learning, but more especially, to the Teachers of GRAMMAR.

THere is no calling more ser­viceable to Church and Com­mon-wealth, then this of a Schoole-Master; none then it more perplexingly toylesome, where Art and Discretion, the two essentials of a Schoole-Master, are wanting. Seeing we have especially to deale with chil­drens imperfections, which are wari­ly to be observed and helped, not strictly to be censured.

That Constancy in a good Method is the mean to make a Scholar is by all affirmed; but which Method, of ma­ny that are used, is the best, is not easily determined. Sure we are, that the nea­rest, easiest, and plainest is most grate­ful, and the rather if it lye along with the common-rode, which men are generally loth to foregoe, though it be not alwayes the readiest way.

It hath therefore been mine endevour to set on and proceed in such a course o [...] teaching Grammar, and most useful [Page] and usually received Authours, with continued Exercises; so as children might from the beginning understand their present Taske, and that also further to the succeeding work. I labour so (ever as they learne) to acquaint them with the main matters, that in case of change­ing Masters, they may not sustain such discouragement and loss of time, as usu­ally betides, when children are not grounded in what they learn.

This I submit to more gentle cen­sures, requesting where I mistake to re­ceive some better directions, not enjoyn­ing any man to tread in my steps, though possibly some may like to follow me in this way, which I am resolved to keep (whether in more publick, or my private course of teaching) till I know a readier; which who so hath gone it, may do well to describe. Now the Lord of heaven give a blessing to these weak endevours, which if any man profit by, let him give God the Glory, whose alone power it is, that hath thus far enabled me to perform, (what from a child) I have seriously de­sired. Et v [...]niam per laude peto▪ &c.

A note of Schoole-Authours, most proper for every Form of Scholars in a Grammar-Schoole, wch are mentioned in this Book.

1. Authours useful for the first Form.
  • AN English Bi­ble, or Testa­ment.
  • The Accidents.
  • Sententiae Pueriles.
  • The principles of Christianity.
  • ORbis Pictus.
  • The common Rudi­ments of Latine Gram­mar.
  • A little Vocabulary Eng­lish and Latine by C. H.
2. Authours for the second Form.
1. Classical.
  • Lilies Grammar.
  • Cato.
  • Pueriles Confabula­tiunculae.
  • Corderii Collo­quia.
  • The Assemblies Catechisme.
  • A Construing-book.
  • Propria quae maribus, &c. Englished and ex­plained.
  • An easie entrance to the Latine Tongue, common­ly called the Grounds of Grammar, by C. H.
  • Englishes to be translated.
  • A little Paper-book. 8o.
3. Authours useful for the third Form.
  • Lilies Grammar.
  • The Latine Testa­ment.
  • Aesopi Fabulae.
  • Janua Linguarum.
  • Castalionis Dialogi.
  • Mantuanus.
  • Helvici Colloquia.
  • The Assemblies Ca­techism in Latine.
  • Perkins six princi­ples.
  • A construing-book.
  • A Paper-book in quarto.
  • A praxis of the Grammar Rules.
  • Gerards Meditations.
  • Thomas de Kempis.
  • Sancti Augustini Solilo­quia.
  • Stockwoods Figura con­strued.
  • Hamptons Prosodia con­strued.
4. Authours useful for the fourth Form.
  • The Latine Testa­ment.
  • Lilies Grammar.
  • Elementa Rheto­rices.
  • Camdeni Gram­matica.
  • Graecum Testa­mentum.
  • Nomenclatura.
  • [Page] Seidelius.
  • Posselii Dialogi.
  • Shirley's Introdu­ctorium:
  • Terentius.
  • Janua Latinae Lin­guae.
    • Sturmii
    • Textoris
  • Ovidius de Tristi­us.
  • Ovidii Metamor­phosis.
  • Buchanani Psalmi.
  • The Assemblies Catechisme, La­tine and Greek.
  • The Latine Grammar by C. H.
  • The posing of the Acci­dents.
  • Animadversions upon Li­lies Grammar.
  • Stockwoods Disputations.
  • Mr. Pooles English Acci­dents.
  • Hermes Anglo-Latinus.
  • [Page] Supplementa ad Gram­maticam
    • Mr. Birds
    • Mr. Shirleys
    • Mr. Burleys
    • Mr. Hawkins
    • Mr. Gregories
    • Mr. Danes
    • Mr. Farnabies
  • A Paper-book in quarto.
  • An English Rhetorick.
  • Index Rhetoricus.
  • Susenbrotus.
  • Compendium Rhetorices.
  • Passoris Lexicon.
  • Rudimenta Grammaticae Graecae.
  • Busbaei Grammatica Grae­ca.
  • Clavis, & fundamentum Graecae Linguae.
  • Fabritii elegantiae Pueri­les.
  • Dux Oratorius.
  • Erasmus de copia verborū
  • A little Dictionary Eng­lish and Latine in 80.
  • Walkers Particles.
  • Willis Anglicismes.
  • Phraseologia Puerilis.
  • Epistolographia by Mr. Clerk.
  • [Page] Erasmus de conscribendis Epistolis.
  • Buchlori Thesaurus con­scribendarū Epistolarū.
  • Verepaeus de conscriben­dis Epistolis.
  • Hardwicks Mantuan.
  • Sandys Ovid.
  • Herberts Poems.
  • Quarles's Poems.
  • Oweni Epigrammata.
  • Farnabii Epigrammata.
  • Alciati Emblemata.
  • Pools English Parnassus.
  • Clarks Dux Poeticus.
  • Wits Common-wealth.
  • Rosses English Mythologist.
  • Lord Bacon de Sapientia veterum.
  • Natales Comes.
  • Verderii imagines Deorū.
  • Lexicon Geographicū, &c.
  • Holy-oakes Dictionary.
  • Thomas Thomasius.
5. Authours useful for the fifth Form.
  • Lilii Grammatica.
  • Camdeni Gram­matica.
  • [Page] Elementa Rheto­rices.
  • Aphthonius.
  • Livii Orationes.
  • Isocrates.
  • Theognis.
  • Justinus.
  • Caesaris Commenta­rii.
  • Lucius Florus.
  • Erasmi Colloquia.
  • Janua Linguarum Graeca.
  • Virgilius.
  • Aeliani Historiae va­riae.
  • Epictetus.
  • Farnabii Epigram­mata.
  • Nowelli Catechis­mus.
  • Franklin de Orthotonia.
  • Scapula.
  • Screvelii Lexicon.
  • [Page] Vechneri Hellonexia.
    • Busbaei
    • Cleonardi
    • Scoti
    • Chrysolorae
    • Ceporini
    • Gazae
    • Vrbanii
    • Caninii
    • Gretseri
  • Posselii Syntaxis.
  • Demosthenis Sententiae.
  • Posselii Apothegmata.
  • Garthii Lexicon.
  • Rulandi Synonymia.
  • Morelii Dictionarium.
  • Billii locutiones.
  • Devarius de Graecis par­ticulis.
  • Posselii calligraphia.
  • Plutarchus.
  • Valerius Maximus.
  • Plinii Historiae.
  • Medulla Historiae.
  • Phoedri Fabulae.
  • N [...]tales Comes.
  • Adagia Selecta.
  • Erasmi Adagia.
  • Bibliotheca Scholastica.
  • Pierus.
  • Causinus.
  • [Page] Alciati Emblemata.
  • Reusneri Symbola.
  • Diodorus Siculus.
  • Tullii Sententiae.
  • Ethica Ciceroniana.
  • Gruteri Florilegium.
  • Orator extemporaneus.
  • Vossii partitiones oratoriae
  • Textoris Officina.
  • Lycosthenes.
  • Erasmi Apophthegmata.
  • Polyanthea.
  • Sylva Synonymorum.
  • Calliepia.
    • Huisse's
    • Winchester's
    • Lloyd's
    • Farnabie's
    • Manutii
  • Encheiridion Oratorium.
  • Clarks
    • Phraseologia.
    • English Adagies.
  • Willis Anglicismes.
  • Barrets Dictionary.
  • Parei calligraphia.
  • Walker's particles.
  • Cooperi Dictionarium.
  • Flores Poetarum.
  • Phrases Poeticae.
  • Aerarium Poeticum.
  • Encheiridion Poeticum.
  • [Page] Res Virgiliana.
  • Artis Poeticae compendiū.
  • Thesaurus Poeticus.
Authours useful for the sixth Form.
  • Lilii Grammatica.
  • Camdeni Gram­matica.
  • Elementa Rheto­rices.
  • Graecum Testamentū.
  • Buxtorfii Epitome.
  • Psalterium Hebra­icum.
  • Homerus.
  • Pindarus.
  • Lycophron.
  • Xenophon.
  • Euripides.
  • Sophocles.
  • Aristophanes,
  • Ant. de Laubegeois breviarium
  • Graecae Linguae.
  • Horatius.
  • Juvenalis.
  • Persius.
  • Lucanus.
  • Senecae Tragoediae.
  • [Page] Martialis.
  • Plautus.
  • Luciani selecti Dia­logi.
  • Tullii Orationes.
  • Plinii Panegyrica,
  • Quintiliani Decla­mationes.
  • Birketi Catechis­mus.
  • Catechismus parvus Hebraicus.
  • Authores Grammaticae an­tiqui.
  • Despauterius.
  • Linacer.
  • Melancthon.
  • Valerius.
  • Alvarez.
  • Rhenius.
  • Sulpitius.
  • Vossius.
  • Tresmari exercitationes
  • Rhetoricae.
  • Nie. Causinus.
  • Paiot de Eloquentia.
  • Turselinus.
  • Hawkins particulae Lati­nae Linguae.
    • Tullii
    • Plinii
    • Senecae
    • Erasmi
    • Lipsii
    • Manutii
    • Aschami
    • Politiani
    • Turneri.
  • [Page] Goclenii Analecta, & Pro­blemata.
  • Ausonius Popma.
  • Becman de Originibus.
  • Tossani Syllabus geminus.
  • Buxtorfii Lexicon.
  • Schindleri Pentaglotton.
  • Buxtorfii Thesaurus.
    • Pagnini
    • Crinesii
    • Torstii
  • Clavis Homerica.
  • Lexicon Homericum.
  • Eustathius.
  • Pontani Progymnasmata.
  • Goodwin's Antiquities.
  • Symmachi Epistolae.
  • Libanius Sophista.
    • Turneri.
    • Baudii.
    • Mureti.
    • Heinsii.
    • Puteani.
    • Rainoldi.
    • Lipsii.
    • Barclaii.
    • Salmatii.
THE Petty-Schoole.

THE Petty-Schoole. SHEWING A way to teach little Children to read English with delight and profit, (espe­cially) according to the New Primar. By C. H.

LONDON, Printed by J. T. for Andrew Crook, at the Green Dragon in Pauls Church Yard, 1659.

[Page] [Page] THE Petty-Schoole.

How a childe may be helped in the first pro­nounciation of his Letters.

MY aim being to discover the old Art of teaching Schoole, and how it may be improved in every part suteable to the years and capacities of such children as are now commonly taught; I shall first begin my discourse concern­ing a petty-Schoole, & here or else where I shall not busie my self or Reader about what a childe of an extraordinary to­wardliness, and having a teacher at home, may attain unto, and in how short a space, but onely shew how a mul­titude of various wits may be taught all together with abundance of profit and delight to every one, wch is the proper and main work of our ordinary Schooles.

Whereas then, it is usual in Cities and [Page 2] greater Towns to put children to Schoole about four or five years of age, and in Country villages, because of further di­stance, not till about six or seven; I con­ceive, The sooner a child is put to School, the better it is, both to prevent ill habits, which are got by play and idleness, and to enure him betimes to affect learning and well doing. Not to say, how the great un­certainty of parents lives, should make them careful of their Childrens early e­ducation, which is like to be the best part of their patrimony, what ever good thing else they may leave them in this World.

I observe that betwixt three and four years of age a childe hath great pro­pensity to peep into a book, and then is the most seasonable time (if conve­niences may be had otherwise) for him to begin to learn; and though per­haps then he cannot speak so very di­stinctly, yet the often pronouncia­tion of his letters, will be a means to help his speech, especially if one take no­tice in what organ or instrument he is most defective, and exercise him chie­fly in those letters which belong unto it.

Now there are five organs or instru­ments of speech, in the right hitting of which, as the breath moveth from with­in, [Page 3] through the mouth, a true pro­nunciation of every letter is made, viz. the lips, the teeth, the tongue, the roof of the mouth, and the throat; Accord­ing to which if one rank the twenty four letters of our English Alphabet, he shall find that A, E, I, O, V, proceed by degrees from the throat, along betwixt the tongue and the roof of the mouth to the lips contracted, and that Y is somewhat like I, being pronounced with other let­ters, but if it be named by it self, it re­quireth some motion of the lips. B, F, M, P, W, and V consonant, belong to the lips. C, S, X, Z, to the teeth. D, L, N, T, R, to the tongue. B, H, K, Q, to the roof of the mouth. But the sweet and natural pronunciation of them is gotten rather by imitation then precept, and therefore the teacher must be care­ful to give every letter its distinct and clear sound, that the childe may get it from his voice, and be sure to make the child open his mouth well as he uttereth a letter, lest otherwise he drown or hinder the sound of it. For I have heard some foreiners to blame us Eng­lish-men for neglecting this mean to a plain and audible speaking, saying, that the cause, why we generally do not speak so fully as they, proceeded from an ill [Page 4] habit of mumbling, which children got at their first learning to read; which it was their care; therfore to prevent or re­medy betimes, and so it should be ours, seeing Pronounciation is that that sets out a man, and is sufficient of it self to make one an Oratour.

Chap. II.
How a childe may be taught with delight to know all his letters in a very little time.

THe usual way to begin with a child, when he is first brought to Schoole, is to teach him to know his letters in the Horn-book, where he is made to run o­ver all the letters in the Alphabet or Christ cross-row both forwards & back­wards, until he can tel any one of them, which is pointed at, and that in the Eng­lish character.

This course we see hath been very ef­fectual in a short time, with some more ripe witted children, but others of a slower apprehension (as the most and best commonly are) have been thus learning a whole year together, (and though they have been much chid and beaten too for want of heed) could scarce [Page 5] tell six of their letters at twelve moneths end, who, if they had been taught in a way more agreeable to their meane apprehensions (wch might have wrought more readily upon the senses, and affe­cted their mindes with what they did) would doubtlesse have learned as cheer­fully, if not as fast as the quickest

I shall therefore mention sundry ways that have been taken to make a childe know his letters readily, out of which the discreet Teacher may chuse what is most likely to suit with his Learner.

I have known some that (according to Mr. Brinsl [...]y's direction) have taught lit­tle ones to pronounce all the letters; and to spell pretty well, before they knew one letter in a book; and this they did, by making the childe to sound the five vowels a, e, i, o, u, like so many bells up­on his fingers ends, and to say which finger was such or such a vowel, by chan­ges. 2 Then putting single consonants before the vowels, [leaving the hardest of them till the last] and teaching him how to utter them both at once, as va, ve, vi, ve, vu, da, de, di, do, du. 3. and a­gain, by putting the vowels before a consonant to make him say, as, es, is, os, us, ad, ed, id, od, ud. Thus; they have pro­ceeded from syllables of two or three, or [Page 6] more letters, till a child hath been pret­ty nimble in the most. But this is rather to be done in a private house, then a publick Schoole; how ever this manner of exercise now and then amongst little Scholars will make their lessons more fa­miliar to them.

The greatest trouble at the first en­trance of children is to teach them how to know their letters one from another, when they see them in the book altoge­ther; for the greatnesse of their number and variety of shape do puzle young wits to difference them, and the sence can but be intent upon one single object at once, so as to take its impression, and commit it to the imagination and memo­ry. Some have therefore begun but with one single letter, and after they have shewed it to the childe in the Alpha­bet, have made him to finde the same any where else in the book, till he knew that perfectly; and then they have proceed­ed to another in like manner, and so gone through the rest.

Some have contrived a piece of ivory with twenty four flats or squares, in eve­ry one of which was engraven a several letter, and by playing with a childe in throwing this upon a table, and shewing him the letter onely which lay uppermost, [Page 7] have in few dayes taught him the whole Alphabet.

Some have got twenty four pieces of ivory cut in the shape of dice, with a let­ter engraven upon each of them, and with these they have played at vacant hours with a childe, till he hath known them all distinctly. They begin first with one, then with two, afterwards with more letters at once, as the childe got knowledge of them. To teach him like­wise to spell, they would place conso­nants before or after a vowel, and then joyn more letters together so as to make a word, and sometimes divide it into syl­lables, to be parted or put together; now this kind of letter sport may be profitably permitted among you beginers in a School & in stead of ivory, they may have white bits of wood, or small shreads of paper or past-board, or parchment with a letter writ upon each to play withall a­mongst themselves.

Some have made pictures in a little book or upon a scroll of paper wrapt upon two sticks within a box of iceing-glass, and by each picture have made three sorts of that letter, with which its name be­ginneth; but those being too many at once for a childe to take notice on, have proved not so useful as was intended. [Page 8] Some likewise have had pictures and let­ters printed in this manner on the back side of a pack of cards, to entice children, that naturally love that sport, to the love of learning their books.

Some have writ a letter in a great cha­racter upon a card, or chalked it out up­on a trencher, and by telling a child what it was, and letting him strive to make the like, have imprinted it quick­ly in his memory, and so the rest one after another

One having a Son of two years and a half old, that could but even go about the house, and utter some few gibber­ish words in a broken manner; observ­ing him one day above the rest to be busied about shells and sticks, and such like toys, which himself had laid toge­ther in a chair, and to misse any one that was taken from him, he saw not how, and to seek for it about the house; became very desireous to make experiment what that childe might presently attain to in point of learning; Thereupon he devi­sed a little wheel, with all the Capital Romane letters made upon a paper to wrap round about it, and fitted it to turn in little a round box, which had a hole so made in the side of it, that onely one let­ter might be seen to peep out at once; [Page 9] This he brought to the childe, & showed him onely the letter O, and told him what it was; The childe being overjoyed with his new gamball, catcheth the box out of his Fathers hand, and run's with it to his play fellow a year younger then himself, and in his broken language tell's him there was an O, an O; And when the other asked him where, he said, in a hole, in a hole, and shewed it him; which the lesser childe then took such notice of, as to know it againe ever after from all the other letters. And thus by playing with the box, and en­quiring concerning any letter that ap­peared strange to him, what it was, the childe learnt all the letters of the Alpha­bet in eleven dayes, being in this Cha­racter A B C, and would take pleasure to shew them in any book to any of his acquaintance that came next. By this instance you may see what a propensity there is in nature betimes to learning, could but the Teachers apply them­selves to their young Scholars tenuity; and how by proceeding in a cleare & facil method, that all may apprehend, every one may benefit more or less by degrees. According to these contrivances to for­ward children, I have published a New Primar; in the first leafe, whereof I have [Page 10] set the Roman Capitalls (because that Character is now most in use, & those let­ters the most easie to be learn't and have joyned therewith the pictures or images of some things whose names begins with that letter, by which a childs memory may be helped to remember how to call his letters, as A, for an Ape, B. for a Bear, &c. This Hieroglyphicall devise doth so affect Children who are gene­rally forward to communicate what they know) that I have observed them to teach others, that could not so readily learn, to know all the letters in a few houres space, by asking them, what stands A. for? and so concerning other letters backwards and forwards, or as they best liked.

Thus when a childe hath got the names of his letters, & their several shapes with­all in a playing manner, he may be ea­sily taught to distinguish them in the fol­lowing leaf, which containeth first the greater, and then the smaller Roman Characters, to be learned by five at once or more, as the childe is able to re­member them; other Characters I would have forborn, till one be well acquain­ted with these, because so much variety at the first doth but amaze young wits, and our English characters, (for [Page 11] the most part) are very obscure, & more hard to be imprinted in the memory. And thus much for the learning to know letters; we shall next (and according to Order in Teaching) proceed to an easie way of distinct spelling.

Chap III.
How to teach a childe to spell distinctly.

THe common way of teaching a childe to spell, is, after he know's the let­ters in his Alphabet, to initiate him in those few syllables, which consist of one vowell before a consonant, as, ab, eb, ib, ob ub, &c. or of one vowel after a consonant, as, ba, be, bi, bo, bu, &c. in the Horn-book, & thence to proceed with him by little and little to the bottom of the book, here­ing him twice or thrice over till he can say his lesson, and then putting him to a new one.

In which course I have known some more apt children to have profited prety well, but scarce one often, when they have gone thorow the book, to be able to spell a word that is not in it; And some have been certaine years daily exercised in saying lessons therein, who after much endeavour spent, have been accounted [Page 12] meer block-heads, and rejected all toge­ther as uncapable to learn any thing; whereas some Teachers that have assayed a more familiar way, have professed, that they have not met with any such thing as a Dunse amid a great multitude of lit­tle Schollars.

Indeed it is Tullies observation of old, and Erasmus his assertion of latter years, that it is as natural for a childe to learn, as it is for a beast to go, a bird to fly, or a fish to swim, and I verily beleeve it, for the nature of man is restlessely desi­rous to know things, and were discou­ragements taken out of the way, and meet helps afforded young learners, they would doubtless go on with a great deal more cherefulness, and make more proficiency at their books then usually they do; And could the Maior have the discretion to make their lessions familiar to them, children would as much delight in being b [...]sied about them, as in any other sport, if too long continuance at them might not make them tedious.

Amongst those that have gone a readi­er way to reading, I shall onely mention Mr. Roe, and Mr. Robinson, the latter of whom I have known to have taught lit­tle children not much above four years old to read distinctly in the Bible, in six [Page 13] weekes time, or under; their books are to be had in print, but every one hath not the art to use them. And Mr. Cootes English-School-Master seem's rather to be fitted for one that is a Master indeed, then for a Scholar.

Besides the way then which is usuall, you may (if you think good) make use of that which I have set down in the new Primar to help little ones to spell readi­ly, and it is this.

1. Let a childe be well acquainted with his vowells, and made to pronounce them fully by themselves, because they are able to make a perfect sound alone.

2. Teach him to give the true va­lour or force of the consonants, and to take notice how imperfectly they sound, except a vowel be joyned with them. Both these are set apart by themselves. (p. 2.)

3. Proceed to syllables made of one consonant set before a vowel (Sect, 5.) and let him joyne the true force of the consonant with the perfect sound of the vowel, as to say, ba, be, bi, bo, bu, &c. Yet it were good to leave ca, ce, ci, co, cu, and ga, ge, gi, go, gu, to the last be­cause the valor of the consonant in the second and third sylables doth differ from that in the rest.

[Page 14] 4. Then exercise him in syllables made of one vowel set before one consonant, (Sect. 6.) as to say, ab, eb, ib, ob, ub, &c. till he can spell any syllable of two let­ters, backwards or forwards, as, ba, be; bi, bo, bu; ab, eb, ib, ob, ub; ba, ab; be, eb; bi, ib; bo, ob; bu, ub; and so in all the rest comparing one with another.

5. And if to any one of these syllables you adde a letter, and teach him how to joyne it in sound with the rest, you will make him more ready in spelling; as, if before a b you put b, and teach him to say bab; if after ba, you put d, and let him pronounce it bad, he will quickly be able to joyne a letter with any of the rest, as, nip, pin, but, tub, &c.

To enure your young-Scholar to any, even the hardest syllable, in an easie way.

1. Practise him in the ioyning of con­sonants that begin syllables (Sect. 7.) so as that he may give their joynt forces at once; thus,

Having shewed him to sound [...]l or br together, make him to pronounce them, and a vowel with them, bla, bra, ble, bre, and so in any of the rest.

2. Then practise him likewise in con­sonants that end syllables, (Sect. 8) make him first to give the force of the [Page 15] joyned consonants, and then to put the vowels before them; as, ble with the vow­els before them sound able, eble, ible, oble, uble, to all which you may prefix other consonants and change them into words of one syllable, as, fable, peble, bible, noble, bubble: (with a b inserted or the like. Where observe that e in the end of many words, being silent, doth qualifie the sound of the foregoing vowel, so as to make words different from those that have not e; as, you may see made, diffe­reth quite from mad, bete from bet, pipe from pip, sope from sop, and cube from cub. Whereby I think them in an error, that leave out e in the end of words, and them that in pronouncing it make two syllables of one, in stable, bible, people, &c. which judicious Mr. Mulcaster will not allow.

In this exercise of spelling you may do well sometimes to make all the young beginners stand together, and pose them one by one in all sorts of syllables, till they be perfect in any; and, to make them delight herein,

1. Let them spell many syllables toge­ther which differ onely in one letter; as, and, band, hand, land, sand.

2. Teach them to frame any word of one syllable, by joyning any of the con­sonants [Page 16] which go before vowels, with those that use to follow vowels, and put­ting in vowels betwixt them; as, black, bl [...]ck; clack, clock.

And this they may do afterwards a­mongst themselves, having severall loose letters made and given them, to com­pose or divide in a sporting manner, which I may rightly terme the Letter-sport.

When a childe is become expert in joyning Consonants with the vowels, then take him to the Diphthongs (Sect. 9.) and there,

1. Teach him the naturall force of a Diphthong (which consists of two vow­els joyned together) and make him to sound it distinctly by it self; as, ai, ei, &c.

2. Let him see how it is joyned with other letters, and learne to give its pro­nountiation together with them, mind­ing him how the same Diphthong differs from its self sometimes in its sound, and which of the two vowels in it hath the greatest power in pronouncation, as, in people e seemeth to drown the o.

And besides those words in the Book, you may adde others of your own, till by many examples the childe do well ap­prehend your meaning, and so, as that he can boldly adventure to imitate [Page 17] you, and practise of himself

Thus after a childe is throughly exer­cised in the true sounding of the vowels and consonants together, let him pro­ceed to the spelling of words, first of one syllable (Sect. 10.) then of two (Sect. 11.) then of three (Sect. 12.) then of four (Sect. 13.) in all which let him be taught how to utter every syllable by it self truly and fully, and be sure to speak out the last. But in words of more sylla­bles, let him learn to joyne and part them according to these profitable rules.

1. An English syllable may sometimes consist of eight letters, but never of more, as, strength.

2 In words that have many syllables, the consonant between two vowels be­longeth to the latter of them; as, Hu-mi-li-tie.

3. Consonants which are joyned in the beginning of words, are not to be par­ted in the middle of them; as, My-ste-ry.

4. Consonants which are not joyned in the beginning of words, are to be parted in the middle of them; as, for-get-ful-ness.

5. If a consonant be doubled in the middle of a word, the first belong's to the syllable foregoing, and the latter to the following; as, pos-ses-si-on.

[Page 18] 6. In compound words, every part which belongeth to the single words, must be set by it self; as, In-a-bi-li-ty.

And these rules have I here set down rather to informe the less skilful teacher, how he is to guide his learner, then to puzle a childe about them, who is not yet so well able to comprehend them.

I have also divided those words in the Book, to let Children see how they ought to divide other polysyllable words, in which they must alwayes he very carefull (as I said) to sound out the last syllable very fully.

To enable a child the better to pro­nounce any word he meets withall in reading, I have set down some more hard for pronuntiation; (Sect. 14) in often reading over which he may be ex­ercised to help his utterance; and the Master may adde more at his own dis­cretion, till he see that his willing Scho­lar doth not stick in spelling any, be it never so hard.

And that the child may not be amu­sed with any thing in his book, when he cometh to read, I would have him made acquainted with the pauses, (Sect. 15.) with the figures, (Sect. 16.) nume­rall letters, (Sect. 17.) Quotations (Sect. 18.) and Abbreviations (Sect. 19) which [Page 19] being but a work of few houres space, may easily be performed after he can rea­dily spell, which when he can do, he may profitably be put to reading, but not before; for I observed it a great de­fect in some of Mr. R. Scholars, (whose way was to teach to read presently with­out any spelling at all) that when they were at a losse about a word, they made an imperfect confused sound, in giving the force of the consonants, which if they once missed they knew not which way to help themselves, to find what the word was, whereas if after a childe know his letters, he be taught to gather them into just syllables, and by the joy­ning of syllables together to frame a word, (which as it is the most antient, so certainely it is the most naturall me­thod of teaching) he will soon be able, if he stick at any word in reading, by the naming of its letters, and pronouncing of its syllables to say what it is, and then he may boldly venture to read without spelling at all, touching the gaining of a habit whereof, I shall proceed to say somewhat in the next chapter.

Chap. IIII.
How a child may be taught to read any Eng­lish Book perfectly.

THe ordinary way to teach children to read is, after they have got some knowledge of their letters, & a smatter­ing of some syllables and words in the horn-book, to turn them into the A B C. or Primar, and therein to make them name the letters, and spell the words, till by often use they can pronounce (at least) the shortest words at the first sight.

This method take's with those of promp­ter wits, but many of more slow capa­cities, not finding any thing to affect them, and so make them heed what they learne, go on remissely from lesson to lesson, and are not much more able to read, when they have ended their book, then when they begun it. Besides▪ the A B C. being now (I may say) gene­rally thrown aside, and the ordinary Primar not printed, and the very fun­damentalls of christian Religion (which were wont to be contained in those books, and were commonly taught chil­dren at home by heart before they went to Schoole) with sundry people (almost [Page 21] in all places) slighted, the matter which is taught in most books now in use, is not so familiar to them, and therefore not so easie for Children to learn.

But to hold still to the sure foundation, I have caused the Lords Prayer (Sect. 20.) the Creed (Sect. 21.) and the ten Commandements (Sect. 23.) to be prin­ted in the Roman character, that a childe having learned already to know his letters and how to spell, may also be ini­tiated to read by them, which he will do the more cheerfully, if he be also instructed at home to say them by heart.

As he read's these, I would have a childe name what words he can at the first sight, and what he cannot, to spell them, and to take notice what pauses and numbers are in his lesson. And to go them often over, till he can tell any tittle in them, either in or without the book.

When he is thus well entered in the Roman character, I would have him made acquainted with the rest of the characters now in use (Sect. 23.) which will be easily done, by comparing one with another, and reading over those sentences, Psalms, Thankesgivings, and Prayers (which are printed in greater [Page 22] and lesse characters of sundry sorts) till he have them pretty well by heart.

Thus having all things which con­cerne reading English made familar to him, he may attaine to a perfect habit of it. 1. By reading the single Psalter. 2. The Psalmes in meeter. 3. The Schoole of good manners, or such like easie books, which may both profit and de­light him. All which I would wish he may read over at lest thrice, to make the mat­ter, as well as the words, leave an im­pression upon his mind. If any where he stick at any word (as seeming too hard) let him marke it with a pin, or the dint of his nayle, and by looking upon it againe, he will remember it.

When he can read any whit readily, let him begin the Bible, and read over the book of Genesis, (and other remark­able Histories in other places of Scrip­ture, which are most likely to delight him) by a chapter at a time; But acquaint him a little with the matter beforehand, for that will intice him to read it, and make him more observant of what he read's. After he hath read, aske him such generall Questions out of the Story, as are most easie for him to answer, and he will the better remember it. I have [Page 23] known some, that by hiring a child to read two or three chapters a day, and to get so many verses of it by heart, have made them admirable proficients, and that betimes, in the Scriptures; which was Timothies excellency, and his Grand­mothers great commendation. Let him now take liberty to exercise himself in any English book (so the matter of it be but honest) till he can perfectly read in any place of a book that is offered him; and when he can do this, I adjudge him fit to enter into a Grammar Schoole, but not before.

For thus learning to read English per­fectly, I allow two or three years time, so that at seven or eight years of age, a child may begin Latine.

Wherein children, for whom the Latine tongue is thought to be unnecessary, are to be em­ployed after they can read English well.

IT is a fond conceit of many, that have either not attained, or by their [Page 24] own negligence have utterly lost the use of the Latine Tongue, to think it alto­gether unnecessary for such children to learn it, as are intended for Trades, or to be kept as drudges at home, or em­ployed about husbandry. For first there are few children, but (in their playing-years, and before they can be capable of any serious employment in the meanest calling that is) may be so far grounded in the Latine, as to finde that little smattering they have of it, to be of sin­gular use to them, both for the under­standing of the English Authors (which abound now a dayes with borrowed words) and the holding discourse with a sort of men that delight to flant it in Latine.

Secondly, Besides I have heard it spoken to the great commendation of some Countries, where care is had for the well education of children, that eve­ry Peasant (almost) is able to discourse with a stranger in the Latine tongue; and why may not we here in England obtain the like praise, if we did but as they, continue our children at the Latine Schoole, till they be well acquainted with that language, and thereby better fitted for any calling.

[Page 25] Thirdly, And I am sorry to adde, that the non-improvement of childrens time after they can read English any whit well, throweth open a gap to all loose kinde of behaviour; for being then (as it is too commonly to be seen, especially with the poorer sort) taken from the Schoole, and permitted to run wildeing up and down without any control, they adventure to commit all manner of lewdnesse, and so become a shame and dishonour to their Friends and Coun­trey.

If these or the like reasons therefore might prevail to perswade them that have a prejudice against Latine, I would advise that all children might be put to the Grammar-Schoole, so soon as they can read English well; and suffered to continue at it, till some honest calling invite them thence; but if not, I would wish them rather to forbear it, then to become there an hinderance to others, whose work it is to learn that profitable Language. And that they may not squander away their time in idleness, it were good if they were put to a Writing-Schoole, where they might be, First helped to keep their English, by reading of a chapter (at least) once a day; and [Page 26] second. taught to write a fair hand; and thirdly afterwards exercised in Arith­matique, and such preparative Arts, as may make them compleatly fit to un­dergoe any ordinary calling. And be­ing thus trained up in a way of disci­pline, they will afterwards prove more easily plyable to their Masters com­mands.

Now, forasmuch as few Grammar-Schooles of note will admit children in­to them, till they have learn't their Acci­dents; the teaching of that book, also be­cometh for the most part a work for a Pet­ty-Schoole, where many that undertake to teach it, being altogether ignorant of the Latine Tongue, do sorrily performe that taske, and spend a great deal of time about it to little or no purpose. I would have that book, therefore by such let a­lone, and left to the Grammar-School, as most sitting to be taught there onely, be­cause it is intended as an introduction of Grammar, to guide children in a way of reading, writing, and speaking Latine, and the Teachers of the Gram­mar-Art are most deeply concerned to make use of it for that end. And in stead of the Accidents, which they do neither understand nor profit by, they may be [Page 27] benefitted in reading Orthodoxal Ca­techismes and other Books, that may in­struct them in the Duties of a Christian, such as are The Practise of Piety, The Pra­ctise of Quietnesse, The whole duty of Man; and afterwards in other delightful books of English History; as, The History of Queen Elizabeth; or Poetry, as Herberts Poems, Quarl's Emblems; and by this means they will gain such a habit and delight in reading, as to make it their chief recreation, when liberty is afford­ed them. And their acquaintance with good books will (by Gods blessing) be a means so to sweeten their (otherwise sowr) natures, that they may live com­fortably towards themselves, and ami­ably converse with other persons.

Yet if the Teacher of a Petty-Schoole have a pretty understanding of the La­tine Tongue, he may the better adven­ture to teach the Accidents, and proceed in so doing with far more ease and profit to himself and learner, if he observe a sure method of grounding his children in the Rudiments of Grammar, and pre­paring them to speak and write familiar Latine, which I shall hereafter discover, having first set down somewhat how to remedy that defect in reading English, [Page 28] with which the Grammar-Schooles are very much troubled, especially, where there is not a good Petty-Schoole to dis­charge that work afore-hand. And be­fore I proceed further, I will expresse my minde in the two next chapters touch­ing the erecting of a Petty-Schoole, and how it may probably flourish by good Order and Discipline.

Of the founding of a Petty-Schoole.

THe Petty-Schoole is the place where indeed the first Principles of all Re­ligion and learning ought to be taught, and therefore rather deserveth that more encouragement should be given to the Teachers of it, then that it should be left as a work for poor women, or o­thers, whose necessities compel them to undertake it, as a meer shelter from beg­gery.

Out of this consideration it is (per­haps) that some nobler spirits, whom [Page 29] God hath enriched with an over-plus of outward means, have in some places whereunto they have been by birth (or otherwise) related, erected Petty-Schoole-houses, and endowed them with yearly salaries; but those are so inconsi­derate towards the maintenance of a Master and his familie, or so over-cloyed with a number of Free-Scholars, to be taught for nothing, that few men of parts will daigne to accept of them, or continue at them for any while; and for this cause I have observed such weak foundations to fall to nothing.

Yet if any one be desireous to contri­bute towards such an eminent work of charity, my advice is, that he erect a Schoole and dwelling house together, a­bout the middle of a Market-Town, or some populous Country-Village, and a­comodate it with a safe yard adjoyning to it, if not with an Orchard or Garden, and that he endow, with a salary of (at least twenty pounds, per annum, in consi­deration whereof all such poor boyes as can conveniently frequent it, may be taught gratis, but the more able sort of neighbours may pay for childrens teach­ing, as if the Schoole was not free; for they will find it no small advantage to [Page 30] have such a Schoole amongst them.

Such a yearly stipend and convenient dwelling, with a liberty to take young children to board, and to make what ad­vantage he can best by other Scholars, will invite a man of good parts to un­dertake the charge, and excite him to the diligent and constant performance of his duty; especially, if he be chosen into the place by three or four honest and discreet Trustees, that may have power also to remove him thence, if by his uncivil behaviour, or grose neglect he render himself uncapable to perform so necessary a service to the Church and Common-Wealth.

As for the Qualifications of one that is to be the Teacher of a Petty-Schoole, I would have him to be a Person of a pious, sober, comely and discreet behaviour, and tenderly affectionate towards chil­dren, haveing some knowledge of the Latine Tongue, and abilitie to write a fair hand, and good skil in Arithmetick, and then let him move within the com­passe of his own orb, so as to teach all his Scholars (as they become capable) to read English very well, and afterwards to write and cast accouts. And let him not meddle at all with teaching the Acci­dents, [Page 31] except onely to some more preg­nant wits, which are intended to be set forwards to learn Latine, and for such be sure that he ground them well, or else dismisse them as soon as they can read distinctly, and write legibly, to the Grammar School.

I should here have closed my discourse; and shut up this Petty-Schoole, were it not that I received a model for the maintain­ing of Students from a worthy friends hands (& one that is most zealously and charitably addicted to advance Learn­ing, and to help it in its very beginnings to come forwards to its full Rise) by which I am encouraged to addresse my remaining words to the Godly-minded Trustees and Subscri­bers for so good a work, (especially to those amongst them that know me, and my School-endeavours) and this I hum­bly request of them, that as they have happily contrived a Model for the edu­cation of Students, and brought it on a suddain to a great degree of perfection, so they would also put to their hands for the improvement of Schoole-learning, without which such choise abilities as they aim at in order to the Ministry can­not possibly be obtained. And for the [Page 32] first foundation of such a work; I pre­sume to offer my advise, that in some convenient places, within and about the City, there may be Petty-Schooles erected, according to the number of wards, unto which certain poor children out of every Parish may be sent, and taught gratis, and all others that please to send their children thither may have them taught at a reasonable rate, and be sure to have them improved to the ut­most of what they are capable. And I am the rather induced to propound such a thing, because that late eminent, Dr. Bathurst lately deceased, Mr. Gouge and some others yet living did out of their own good affection to learning, endea­vour at their own charge to promote the like.

Of the discipline of a Petty-Schoole.

THe sweet and orderly behaviour of Children addeth more credit to a Schoole then due and constant Teach­ing, because this speaketh to every one that the Childe is well taught, though (perhaps) he learn but little; and good manners indeed are a main part of good education. I shall here therefore take occasion to speak somewhat concerning the Discipline of a Petty-Schoole, leav­ing the further Discourse of Childrens Manners to Books that treat purposely of that subject: as, Erasmus de moribus, Youths Behaviour, &c.

1. Let every Scholar repair to Schoole before eight a clock in a morning, or in case of weaknesse before nine; and let him come fairly washed, neatly combed, and hansomly clad, and by commend­ing his cleannesse, and shewing it to his fellowes, make him to take pleasure be­times [Page 34] of himself to go neat and comely in his clothes.

2. Let such as come before Schoole-time take liberty to recreate themselves about the Schoole, yet so as not to be suffered to do any thing, whereby to harm themselves, or Schoole-fellowes, or to give offence, or make disturbance to any neighbour.

3. When Schoole-time calleth, let them all go orderly to their own places, and there apply themselves diligently to their books, without noyse, or running about.

4. When the Master cometh into the Schoole, let them all stand up, and make obeysance▪ so likewise when any st [...]anger cometh in) and after notice taken who are absent; let one that is most able read a chapter, and the rest attend, and give some little account of what they heard read; Then let him that read, say a short prayer fitted for the Schoole, and afterwards let every one settle to his present taske.

5. The whole Schoole may not unfit­ly be divided into four formes; whereof the first and lowest should be of those that learn to know their letters, whose lessons may be in the Primar. The se­cond [Page 35] of those that learn to spell, whose lessons may be in the Single-Psalter. The third of these that learn to read, whose lessons may be in the Bible. The fourth of those that are exercised in reading, writeing, and casting accounts, whose lessons may be in such profitable Eng­lish-Books as the Parents can best pro­vide, and the Master think fittest to be taught.

6. Let their lessons be the same to each boy in every form, and let the Ma­ster proportion them to the meanest ca­pacities, thus those that are abler may profit themselves by helping their weak­er fellowes, and those that are weaker be encouraged to see that they can keep company with the stronger. And let the two highest in every forme give no­tice to the Master when they come to say, of those that were most negligent in geting the lesson.

7. When they come to say, let them all stand orderly in one or 2 rowes, & whilst one sayeth his lesson, be sure that all the rest look upon their books, and give li­berty to him thats next to correct him that is saying if he mistake, and in case he can say better, let him take his place, and keep it till the same boy or another [Page 36] win it from him. The striveing for places (especially) amongst little ones, will whet them all on to more diligence, then any encouragement that can be gi­ven them; and the Master should be ve­ry sparing to whip any one for his book, except he be sullenly negligent, and then also I would chuse rather to shame him out of his untowardnesse by com­mending some of his fellowes, and ask­ing him why he cannot do as well as they, then by falling upon him with ra­ting words, or injurious blowes. A great care also must be had that those children that are slow witted and of a tender spi­rit, be not any way discouraged, though they cannot make so good performance of their task as the rest of their fel­lowes.

8 On Mundayes, Wednesdayes and Fridayes they may say two lessons in a forenoon and two in an afternoon; and on Tuesdayes and Thursdayes in the forenoons they may also say two lessons; but on Tuesdayes and Thursdayes in the afternoons, and on Saturday morn­ings I would have the time spent in ex­amineing, and directing how to spell and read a right, and hearing them say the Graces, Prayers, and Psalms, and espe­cially [Page 37] the Lords Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandements (which are for that purpose set down in the New-Pri­mar) very perfectly by heart. And those that can these well may proceed to get other Catechisms, but be sure they be such as agree with the Principles of Christian Religion.

9. Their lessons being all said, they should be dismissed about eleven a clock, and then care must be taken that they go e­very one orderly out of the Schoole, and passe quietly home without any stay by the way. And to prevent that too too common clamour, and crouding out of the Schoole door, let them rise out of their places one by one with their hat, and book in their hand, and make their honours to their Master as they passe be­fore his face, one following another at a distance out of the Schoole. It were fittest and safest that the least went out the foremost, that the bigger boyes fol­lowing may give notice of any misde­meanour upon the way.

10 Their return to Schoole in the after-noon should be by one of the clock, and those that come before that hour, should be permitted to play with­in their bounds till the clock strike one, [Page 38] and then let them all take their places in due order, and say their lessons as they did in the fore-noon. After les­sons ended, let one read a chapter, and say a Prayer, and so let them again go orderly and quietly home, about five a clock in the summer, and four in the winter season.

11. If necessity require any one to go out in the School time, let him not in­terrupt the Master by asking him leave, but let him leave his book with his next fellow above him, for fear he should else spoile it, or loose it, and in case he tar­ry too long forth, let notice be given to the Monitor.

12. Those children in the upper form may be monitors, every one a day in his turn, and let them every evening af­ter all lessons said, give a bill to the Ma­ster of their names that are absent and theirs that have committed any disor­der; and let him be very moderate in correcting, and be sure to make a differ­ence betwixt those faults that are viti­ously enormous, and those that are but childish transgressons; Where admoniti­ons readily take place, it is a needlesse trouble to use a rod, and as for a ferula I wish it were utterly banished out of all Schooles.

[Page 39] If one, before I conclude, should ask me, how many children I think may be well and profitably taught (according to the method already proposed) in a Petty-School; I return him answer, that I con­ceive fourty boyes will be enough throughly to employ one man, to hear every one so often as is required, and so many he may hear and benefit of him­self, without making use of any of his Scholars to teach the rest, which how­ever it may be permitted, and is practised in some Schooles, yet it occasioneth too much noyse and disorder, and is no whit so acceptable to Parents, or plea­sing to the children, be the work never so well done. And therefore I advise, that in a place where a great concours of children may be had, there be more Ma­sters then one employed according to the spatiousnesse of the room, and the num­ber of boyes to be taught; so that every fourty Scholars may have one to teach them; and in case there be boyes enough to be taught, I would appoint one sin­gle Master, to attend one single forme, and have as many Masters as there are forms, and then the work of teaching little ones to the height of their best improvement may be throwly done, [Page 40] esecially if there were a writeing-master employed at certain houres in the Schoole, and an experienced Teacher encouraged as a supervisor, or inspector, to see that the whole Schoole be well and orderly taught, and discipli­ned.

What I have here writ concerning the Teaching and ordering of a Petty-Schoole, was in many particulars expe­rienced by my self with a few little boyes, that I taught amongst my Gram­mar-Scholars in London, and I know those of eminent worth, and great learn­ing that upon tryal made upon their own children at home, and others at Schoole are ready to attest the ease and benefit of this method. Insomuch as I was resolved to have adjoyned a Petty-Schoole to my Grammar-Schoole at the Token-house in Lothbury London, and there to have proceeded in this familiar and pleasing way of Teaching, had I not been unhansomly dealt with by those whom it concerned, for their own pro­fit sake to have given me lesse discou­ragement. Neverthelesse, I think it my duty to promote Learning what I can, and to lay a sure foundation for such a goodly structure as learning is; And [Page 41] though (perhaps) I may never be able to effect what I desire for its advancement, yet it will be my comfort, to have im­parted somwhat to others that may help thereunto. I have here begun at the ve­ry ground work, intending (by Gods blessing) forthwith to publish The New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching, which doth properly belong to a Grammar-Schoole.

In the mean time I intreat those into whose hands this little work may come, to look upon it with a single eye, and whether they like or dislike it, to think that it is not unnecessary for men of greatest parts to bestow a sheet or two at leasure time upon so mean a subject as this seem's to bee. And that God which causeth immense rivers to flow from small spring-heads, vouchsafe to blesse these weak beginings in tender age, that good learning may proceed hence to its full perfection in riper years.

THE Usher's Duty, OR A Plat-forme of Teaching Lilies Grammar.

THE Usher's Duty, OR A PLAT-FORME of Teaching LILIES Grammar. By C. H.

LONDON, Printed by J. T. for Andrew Crook at the Green Dragon in Pauls Church Yard, 1659.

[Page] [Page 1] THE Usher's Duty, OR A Plat-forme of Teach­ing Lilies Grammar.

How to help Children that are imperfect in reading English, when they are brought to the Grammar-Schoole; and how to pre­pare them for more easie entrance upon Latine.

THE want of good Teachers of English in most places where Grammar-Schooles are erected, causeth that many Children are brought thither to learn the Latine Tongue, before they can read well. And this chiefly, to prevent their losse of [Page 2] time with those that can teach them no further.

Now such Scholars for the most part become the greatest disgrace to the Ma­ster of all the rest, partly because indis­creet and illiterate parents (I wil not say servants) that can scarcely read English themselves, become too severe judges of his work, and partly because he seem's to some to undervalue himself by ad­miting Petties into his Schoole. But for the toyl and trouble that he hath in teaching such, I rather seek how to re­medie it, then go about in words to ex­presse it.

To help therefore that defect of reading English aright, you may take this, as the most useful course.

1. Let them read a Chapter every morning, and every noon in the New-Testament, and at ten and four a clock, a piece of the Accidents, which will require (at least) a quarter of a year to be read over, in case the children be very im­perfect, but in case they be any whit ready, it may be gone over in six weeks time.

2. To exercise their slender memo­ries at their first coming to Schoole, and to find them some little task over-night [Page 3] (to which they should be inured at the first, that they may not take it more hardly afterwards) let them commit to memory some few staves of such Psalms in Meeter, as you in your discretion shall think best to sute with their shallow apprehensions: Psalm. 1. 4. 12. 15. 19. 25. 34. 67. 100. 103, 104 119. are excel­lent for this purpose.

That they may be more perfect in their lessons before they come to say;

1. It were good, if you did now and then read a piece for their imitation, ob­serving the just and full pronounciation of each syllable, and making pauses as they come.

2. But especially as they sit in their form, see that every one after another read the Lesson twice or thrice over (the highest, because the most able beginning to read first) and cause that every one attend diligently to what is read, look­ing constantly upon his book, and let them have liberty (who can soonest) to correct him that readeth any word a­misse, and to note it as his mistake. But in this a care must be had that they make no noise nor disturbance to the rest of the Schoole.

3. When they come to say, let eve­ry [Page 4] one in that order you shall appoint (beginning either with the highest or lowest, or otherwise) read the whole Lesson, or a piece of it, as the time will best permit you to hear them, and when the lesson is gone often enough over, you may propound a familiar and short que­stion or two out of it, thereby to make somewhat of its meaning stick in their memories, and dismisse them to their places to ask one another the like.

But because the Accidents as it is now Printed (especially that part of it which concerneth the conjugateing of verbs) is too full of difficult Abbreviations for the most Children to read, or some Masters (that undertake it) to teach; I have found a great advantage and ease by making use of the examination of the Acci­dents, before I put them to read the Ac­cidents it self, especially with some more dull-witted boyes, that I could not o­therwise fasten upon; and the way I used, it was this: I caused,

1. That Children should read over onely the first part of it, which concern­eth the Introduction of the eight parts of Speech, by taking so much at a time, as they could well be able to read, and be­longed to one or more particular heads [Page 5] of Grammar. Thus in the first going it over, I made them acquainted with the usual terms of Grammar-Art, so as to be able (at least) to turn to a Noun, Pronoune, Verb, &c. and to what belong to them, as, to the Numbers, Cases, Per­sons, Moods, &c. and to tell how many there are of each.

And in the second reading it over, I ta [...]ght them to take notice what every part of speech is, and how it differs from others, and what things belong to eve­ry one of them. And this I did by En­glish examples, which best help to in­struct their understandings in the mean­ing of what they read, and confirm their memories to keep it. Ex. gr. having shewed them in their Book, that a Noun is the name of a thing, and that it is sub­stantive, or Adjective, and hath Num­bers, Cases, Genders, Declensions, and Degrees of Comparison; I instance several words, as, a horse, of men, sweet honey, with sweeter words, and let the Children who can readiliest, tell me what belong to them. This is (as Mr. Woodward very well expresseth it in his Light to Grammar, chap. 2. To Teach a Child to carry a Torch or Lanthorn in his hand, that thereby the understanding may [Page 6] do its office, and put to memory to do hers; to slip into a Childes understanding before he be aware, so as he shall have done his task, before he shall suspect that any was imposed; he shall do his work playing, and play working; he shall seem idle and think he is in sport, when he is indeed seriously and well employed. This is done (saith he) by Praecognition, for it convey's a light in­to the understanding, which the childe hath lighted at his own candle.

Now forasmuch as the way of work­ing hereby is, when the inward senses of the Childe are instructed by the outward, and the more help one hath of the outward, the surer and firmer the instruction is with­in; I cannot but here give notice of Mr. Comm [...]nius's Orbis Pictus, as a most rare devise for Teaching of a Childe at once to know things and words by pictures, which may also serve for the more per­fect and pleasant reading of the English and Latine Tongues, and entering, a childe upon his Accidents; if the dear­nesse of the book (by reason of the brasse cuts in it) did not make it too hard to come by.

But where the book may be readily had (as who would not bestow four [Page 7] or five shillings more then ordina­ry to profit and please a Son?) I would advise that a child should bring it with him at his first coming to a Grammar-Schoole, and be employed in it together with his Accidents, till he can write a good legible hand, and then a Master may adventure to ground him well in Orthography, and Etymologie, by using that Book according to the directions already given in the Preface before it, and causing him every day to write a Chapter of it in English and Latine.

He that would be further instructed how by teaching English more Gram­matically, to prepare his Scholars for Latine, let him consult Mr. Pool's English Accidents, and Mr. Wharton's English Grammar, as the best books that I know at present, for that purpose.

How to teach Children in the first Forme, the Grounds or Rudiments of Grammar contained in the Accidents, and to prepare them for the Latine tongue with ease and delight.

BEing here to deliver my mind con­cerning entering little ones, by way of Grammar, to the Latine Tongue, (a matter which I may truly say hath (ever since▪ I began to teach) cost me more studie and observation, then any one point of my profession, and the more because I see few able Schoole-Masters vouchsafe so far to unman themselves as to minde it. I desire three things may be considered by all that goe about to enter children to Grammar-Learning, viz. that

1. There is a great difference betwixt a man that teacheth, and a Childe that is to be taught. For though I do not altogether hold with him that sayeth a man in his Childe-hood is no better then a bruit­beast, and useth no power but anger and concupiscence; nor take upon me [Page 9] here to dispute whether a Childe learn­eth more by rote then by reason, yet this I dare aver, that the more condescen­tion is made to a Childes capacity, by proceed­ing orderly and plainly from what he knoweth already, to what doth naturally and necessa­rily follow thereupon, the more easily he will learn. A man therefore that hath the strength and full use of reason, must conduct his young learner, to follow him in a rational way, though he must not expect him to goe aequis possibus, as fast as himself. And forasmuch as a childe is tender, a man must abate of his rough­nesse; seeing a childe is slow of appre­hension, he must not be too quick in his delivery; and seeing a childe is natural­ly aukward to his work, he must not be too passionate, if he do amisse. Tullies observation is that, Quo quis doctior est, eo iracundius docet; and Mr. Mulcaster gives notice that there is a number of dis­coursers that can say pretty well to a ge­neral Position, but shew themselves al­together lame in the particular applying it, which is a thing that attendeth one­ly upon experience and years. He would therefore (and that rightly) have a [...]rainer of youth reclaimed unto dis­cretion, whose commendation Aristotle [Page 10] placeth in the skil of specialities. And I would advise him that hath to deal with a childe, to imitate the nurse in helping him how to go forward, or the Gardiner in furthering the growth of his young plant. Est & hac summi in­genii maxima infirmitas non posse descendere, saith a Teacher of eloquence; Tall wits, like long backs, cannot abide to stoop, but whosoever is a Schoole-Master, and would do his duty as he ought, must account it a point of wisdom to condescend to a childes capaci­tie, be it never so mean. How have I de­lighted to see an Artist (I mean a watch­maker or the like) spend an hour or two sometimes in findeing a defect in a piece of work, which he hath afterwards re­medied in the turning of a hand; where­as a more hasty work-man hath been ready to throw the thing aside, and to neglect it as good for no use. Let the Master ever mind where a childe sticks, and remove the impediments out of his way, and his Scholar will take pleasure, that he can go on in learning.

2. There is a great disproportion betwixt a Childes capacitie, and the Accidents it self. Children are lead most by sense, and the Grammar-rules, consisting in general Doctrines are too subtile for [Page 11] them; Childrens wits are weak, active, and lively, whereas Grammar notions are abstractive, dull, and livelesse; boyes finde no sap, nor sweetnesse in them, be­cause they know not what they mean; and tell them the meaning of the same rule never so often over, their memo­ries are so waterish, that the impression (if any were made in the brain) is quick­ly gone out again. Roat runneth on a­pace and mindeth nothing so much as play; and it is very hard to teach a childe in doing of a thing to heed, much lesse to judge what he doth, till he feel some use of reason, in the mean time, he will profit more by continual practice and being kept still (as he loves to be) doing, then by knowing why, and being called upon to consider the causes wherefore he doth this or that.

Besides, it wil clearly appear to any that shall but minde the confused order (e­specially of the verbs) and the perplex­ity of some Rules and Examples, that, that book was rather made to informe those of riper years, who knew some­thing of Latine before, with the reasons of what they knew, then to direct lit­tle ones (as we do now) to use it as a rule about that, whereof they are ignorant altogether.

[Page 12] 3. It is one thing to learn the Latine Tongue, or any other Language, & another to learn the Grammar, as a guide to it, or a means to at­tain the reason of it; we see how readily children learn to speak true and proper English (and they may also do the same in Latine by daily use and imitation of others, long before they are able to ap­prehend a definition of what Grammar is, or any thing else concerning it. And the reason hereof is, because the first is a work of the imagination and memo­ry, which are apt to take and keep im­pressions, having the senses to help them, but the other belongs to the under­standing, which for want of the strength of reason to assist it, is hard to be wrought upon in a childe, and till the memory and understanding go hand in hand, a child learns nothing to any purpose. Hence it cometh to passe, that Grammar-learning (as it is generally now used) becometh a a work of more difficulty and discou­ragement both to Master and Scholar, then any studie or employment they un­dertake, and that many have striven to contrive more facill Grammars for their Scholars, whereas indeed the right and constant use of any one that is compleat, so as to handle the s [...]bctje­ctum [Page 13] totale of the Art, doth easily re­duce all others to its-selfe, especial­ly after the Language is somewhat gained.

These things thus premised, I con­ceive it very necessary for all such as un­dertake to teach Grammar to little chil­dren, to cherish and exercise those en­dowments which they see do shew them­selves most vigorous and prompt in them, be they memorie, phansie, &c. and to proceed orderly and by degrees (for so nature it self doth) that they may be able to hold pace with their Teachers, and to perceive how them­selves mount higher and higher, and at every asscent to know where they are, and how to adventure boldly to go for­ward of themselves. And forasmuch as the Accidents is generally made use of as an introduction to Latine Grammar, (which of it selfe is but a bare rule, and a very naked thing, as Mr. M [...]lchaster hath well observed) and it is one thing to speak like a Grammarian, and another thing to speake like a Latinist, as Quintilian hath noted) it is fit that both the Accidents and the Latine tongue together should be brought within Childrens reach, and made more familiar unto them then [Page 14] formerly. And how this may be done even with those of seven years of age, or under, I shall now go on to discover ac­cording to what I have tryed, and do e­very day still put in practise. But this I require aforehand (which Mr. M [...]lchaster also wisht for) that a childe may have his reading perfect, and ready in both the Eng­lish and Latine tongue, and that he can write a fair hand before ever he dream of his Grammar. For these will make him he shall never complain of after difficulties, but cheerefully make a wonderful rid­dance in the rest of his learning.

The commonly received way to teach chil­dren the first Rudiments of Latine-Speech is, to put them to read the Accidents once or twice over, and then to let them get it with­out book by several parts, not respecting at all whether they understand it, or not. Thus they spend two or three years (for the most part) in a wearisome toile to no purpose, not knowing all the while what use they are to make of their book, nor what the learning of such a multitude of Rules may tend to, and in the interim of getting the Accidents by heart (if great care be not taken) they loose that ability of Reading English, which they brought from the Petty-Schoole; and this makes [Page 15] the Parents cry out against Learning Latine, and complain of their Chil­drens not profiting at the Grammar-Schooles, whence they are therefore sometimes taken and sent back again to a Mistresse of Dame to learn English bet­ter. The conscientious Master all the while striveing to the uttermost of his strength and skil to preserve his credit, and not knowing well how to remedie this mischief otherwise, then by hastning on the Children in this common road, doth over-toyl (if not destroy) himself, and discourage (if not drive away) his Scholars, by his too much dili­gence.

Having therefore made sure that the little Scholars can read very well, and write plainly before-hand, put so many of them as are well able to hold pace together into one form, and begin to teach them their Accidents in an under­standing manner, thus,

1. Give them a glymps or insight into the introduction or first part of it, by dividing it into twelve parts, and making them to take notice of the chief heads in eve­ry one; whereof, The first may be, concerning the eight parts of speech, of a [Page 16] Noun and its kindes, of Numbers, Cases, and Genders.

The second of the Declensions of Nounes substantives.

The third, of the declining of Adje­ctives, and their comparison.

The fourth, of a Pronoune.

The fifth, of a Verb and its Kindes, Moodes, Gerunds, Supines, Tenses, Per­sons and conjugations.

The sixth, of the Conjugateing of Verbs in O.

The seventh, Of the Verb Sum.

The eighth, Of Verbs in OR.

The ninth, Of Verbs irregular, as Pos­s [...]m, &c.

The tenth, Of a Participle.

The eleventh, Of an Adverb.

The twelfth, Of a Conjunction, a Prae­position, and an Interjection.

By this means they shall know the general terms of Grammar, and where to turn to any Part of Speech, and to what belongs to it in the Book. As they get their Parts, make them one to hear another read it over in their seat as they sit orderly; as they say, let every one read a greater or lesser share, as you please to appoint, and make the rest at­tend to him that readeth; after they [Page 17] have said, one may take the examination of the Accidents, and out of it ask the questions belonging to their present Part, to which the others may make answer out of the words of their Acci­dents, which if they cannot readily do, he may tell them out of his Book; and if your selfe sometime examine them in the most familiar and general questions, it will help them to understand, and sharpen their memories very much for the getting of that by heart, whereof they already know somewhat.

2. When they get the Introduction memoriter, let them take but a very little at once, that they may get it more perfectly in a little time, and this will be a means still to hearten them on to a new lesson, but be sure that every lesson end at a full Period; and that none may seem to be overcharged or hindred, let alwayes the weakest childe appoint the task, and cause the stronger to help him to perform it as he ought.

Forasmuch as your Scholars memo­ries are yet very weak and slipperie, it is not amisse to help them by more fre­quent Repetitions, especially at the end of every part of speech, which they should examine so often over, till they [Page 18] can answer to any thing, that is in their book concerning it. Then let them proceed to the next in like manner, not forgetting to recall the more general and necessary points to memory from the very beginning, and this will be a meanes to make them keep all fresh in minde, and to be able to tell you what Part of Speech any word is which you shall name, either in English or Latine, and what belongs to it, which is one main end for which the introduction was made; you may now and then ex­ercise them in distinguishing the eight Parts of Speech, by giving them a Pe­riod, and after they have writ it out, making them to mark every word what part of Speech it by these figures, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

3. But as they get the introduction by heart, and learn to answer to the questi­ons raised out of it, an especial care and paines must be taken ever and anon, to make them very perfect in declining Nounes, and formeing Verbs. Let them therefore as it were by by-tasks, get the examples of the Nounes, and Verbs very per­fectly, which are set down in their Acci­dents.

Then, First let them decline the Arti­cles [Page 19] severally or joyntly, for by these they may know the Gender, Case, and Num­ber of a Noun, though many learned Grammarians of late do leave them off as uselesse. Harum Musarum was former­ly, as much as to say that Musarum is of the Feminine Gender, Genitive Case, and Plural Number; And whereas the Rule beginneth with the Genitive Case, do you supply the Nominative thus,

2. Cause them with every example to joyn the Rule of the Declension, and thereby to know the due Termination of every case in both Numbers, saying the Eng­lish sometimes before, and sometimes af­ter the Latine, the Nom. case singular of the first declension endeth in a, as No­minative Hac Musa a song; the Genitive in ae, as Hujus Musae of a song, the Da­tive in ae, as Huic Musae, to a song, &c.

3. Let them give you the bare Termina­tions of every declension in each case in both numbers, as to say, The Terminations of the first declension throughout all cases in both Numbers are, Singula­riter, Nom. a, Gen. ae. Dat. ae, Accu­am, &c.

The Terminations of the Nomina­tive [Page 20] case singular of the five Declensions are, of the first, a. of the second r, us, um- of the third a, c, e, i, l, n, o, r, s, t, x. of the fourth us. of the fifth es.

The Terminations of the Genitive case singular of the five Declensions are, Of the first ae, the second i, the third is, the fourth us, the fifth ei, &c. And let them take especial notice of the endings of the Genitive case sin­gular, because thereby they may know of what declension a Noun is, when they find it in a Vocabulary, or Dicti­onary.

4. Furnish them out of their Vocabularie or otherwise, with store of examples for e­very several Declension, till they can rea­dily decline any regular Noune; but then especially mind them of the Voca. singular of those Nounes that end in us of the second Declension, and of those that are of the neuter Gender, of the second, third, or 4th declension, and what cases they make all alike in both numbers.

5. Exercise them in declining Nounes so often, till they can tell you at once the ter­mination of any case in either number in one or all the declensions, and say on a suddain what any Noune you name to them doth make in any one case of each Number in English [Page 21] or Latine. As, if you ask them of what de­clension, case and number this termina­tion os is, they can presently answer, that os is of the second declension, Accu. case and plural number; or, if you ask them of what Declension, Case and Number virtute is, they can answer, that virtute is of the third declension, the Ablative case and singu­lar number. So in English, if you should say with a pen, they can tell you it is the Ablative case and singular num­ber, and therefore must be said in La­tine Penna. Or if in Latine you should say pennas, they can tell you it is of the accusative case plural number, and must be said in English pennes or the pen­nes.

6. In declining Adjectives cause them to minde to what declension their several gen­ders belong, and after they can parse every Gender alone by it self, teach them joyn it to a substantive of the same or a different declension, with the English either before or after the La­tine, thus; Singulariter Nominativo Pura charta, fair paper, Gen. purae char­tae, of fair paper, &c. Sing. nom. novus Liber a new Book, Gen. novi Libri of a new Book, &c. Sing. Nom. Dulcis conjux. [Page 22] a sweet wife, Gen Dulcis Conjugis, of a sweet wife, &c Edentula anus a tooth­less old-woman, Gen. edentulae anus, of a toothless old-woman, &c. Frigida glaci­es, cold ice, Genitivo, frigidae glaciei of cold ice, &c. Gravis Turba, a troublesome rout, Gen. Gravis Turbae of a troublesome, rout, &c. Magnum Onus, a great burthen, Gen. magni oneris, of a great burthen, &c.

7. Accquaint them well with the manner of forming the three degrees of comparison, by shewing them how the comparative and superlative are made of the posi­tive, according to the rules, and then let them decline an adjective in all the degrees together throughout all cases and Genders in both Numbers, as well English as Latine, thus; Sing Nom. durus hard, durior harder, durissimus ve­ry hard; dura hard, durior harder, du­rissima very hard; durum hard, durius harder, durissimum very hard; Gen. du­ri of hard, durioris of harder, durissimi of very hard, &c. Sing. Nom. felix happy, feli­cior more happy, felicissimus, most happy; felix happy, felicion more happy, felicissima most happy; felix happy, felicius more hap­py, felicissimum most happy. Gen. fe­licis of happy, felicioris of more happy, [Page 23] felicissimi of most happy, &c. then teach them to joyn a Substantive with any one or all of the Degrees, thus, Injustus pater, a harsh father, iujusta mater, an unjust mother, injustum animal, an unjust creature. Indoctus puer, an unlearned boy. Indoctior puella a more unlearned girle. Indoctissi­mum vulgus the most unlearned common people.

8. To help them the better to perform this profitable exercise of themselves, let them sometimes write a Noun, which you appoint them, at large, and distinguish be­twixt that part of it which is moveable, and that which is immoveable; I mean be­twixt the fore-part of the word, and its ter­mination, thus: Sing. Nom. Mens-a a Ta­ble, Gen. Mens-ae to a Table. Dat. Mens-ae, to a Table, &c. to the end.

Thus likewise they may be exercised in writing out Substantives, and Adje­ctives, and forming the degrees of com­parison, with which work they will be exceedingly much delighted, when once they can write, and by once writing, they will better discern what they do, then by ten times telling over; which makes me again presse hard, that either a child may be able to write before he be put to the Grammar Schoole, or else be put to learn [Page 24] to write so soon as he comes thither. For besides the confused disorder it will make in a Schoole, when some children are fitted to undergoe their taskes, and others are not, they that can write, shall be sure to profit in Grammar learning, where­as they that cannot, will do little but disturb the Schoole, and hinder their fellowes, and bring a shame upon their Master, and a blame upon themselves, because they do not learn faster. And, alas poor child, how should he be made to go that wants his legges? if he go upon crutches, it is but lamely. And how should he be taught Grammar, which is the Art of right wri­ting, as well as speaking, that cannot write at all? I wish they that take upon them to teach boyes Grammar before they can write, would but take upon them the trouble to teach one to speak well, that cannot speak at all. But I say no more of this subject, for though what I say have seemed to some a meer Paradox, yet upon triall, they have found it a plain reall Truth; and such as nay man in rea­son will assent to.

As for that which is generally objected, that whilst children are young, their hands are unsteady, and therefore they should go on at their books, till they [Page 25] grow more firm; it will quickly be found a meer idle phansie, when such objecters shall see lesse children then their own eve­ry day practise fair writing, and make more speedy progresse at their books by so doing.

Now touching verbs.

1. Be sure that children be well acquaint­ed with the different kinds of them, distin­guished, both by signification and termina­tion; as also with their Moods, Tenses, and Signes of them, and with the characteristical letters of the four conjugations (which are a long, and e long, and e short, and i long.) And as they con [...]ugate a verb, let them take more particular notice of its Present tense, Preterperfect tense, and first Su­pine, because of these, all other tenses are formed; and these therefore are spe­cified in every Dictionary.

2. Let them first repeat over the verb Sum, according to four Moods onely, (the Optative, Potential, and Subjunctive being the same in all verbs) because it hath a proper manner of declincing, and is most fre­quently used, and will be helpful to form the Pretertenses in the Passive voyce, which consist of a Participle joyned with it.

3. Let them get the Active voyce ve [...]y per­fectly [Page 26] by heart, and afterwards the Passive, (though they do it more leasurely, taking but one Mood at a lesson) and let them not now repeat the paradigmes as they stand confusedly together in their book, but sever them one from another, and go on with one at once, viz. Amo, by it self, Doceo, by it self, Lego by it self, and Audio by it self, thorow all Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons, giving the English with the Latine, sometimes putting the one before, and sometimes the other. And be sure to make them mind all the signes in English, and the terminations answering to them in Latine.

4. Then teach them to form only the first person singular of every conjugation severally, both with Latine before English, and English before Latine; as, Amo I love, A­mabam I did love, &c. or I love Amo, I did love Amabam, &c.

5. Cause them again to form onely the Present tense, with the tenses that depend more immediately upon it, and then the Pre­ter tense, with those that are formed of it. And give them here to observe the Rule in their Accidents touching the Formation of the Tenses, which is more easie to be delivered and remembred, thus; All ten­ses that end in ram, rim, ssem, ro, sse, are [Page 27] formed of the Preter tense, and all the rest of the Present tense, according to the La­tine verse.

Ram, rim, ssem, ro, sse; formabit caetera Praesens.

6. Make them to give you the terminati­ons of the first person singular throughout all Moods and Tenses, of each severall Conjuga­tion, as to say, The terminations of the first persons singular in the first Conjuga­tion are o, abam, avi, averam, abo, &c. Then let them run over the Terminations of all the Persons in both Numbers of every Mood and Tense in the severall Conju­gations, as to say; The Terminations of the Indicative Mood Present tense of the first Conjugation are, o, as, at, amus, atis, ant. Of the Preterimperfect-tense, abam, abas, abat, &c.

7. Let them joyn the Terminations of the first person, with the signes of every Tense in both voyces, thus, o do, bam, did, i have ram had bo shall or will, &c. or am, bar, was, us sum vel tui, have been, us eram vel fueram, had been, bor, shall be, &c. through­out all the Conjugations. And let them withall take notice how the three persons in both numbers differ both in significati­on and ending, as I o and r, thou s and ris, he t and tur, we mus and mur, ye tis [Page 28] and ni, they nt or ntur.

8. Let them repeat the Active and the Passive voyce together, and compare them one with another, as they form them in all persons throughtout each Mood and Tense of every Conjugation, thus; Amo I love, Amor I am loved. Amabam I did love, Amabar I was loved, &c.

9. Exercise them well in so many severall examples of the four Conjugations, as that on a suddain they can render you any Verb out of Latine into English, or out of English into Latine, with its right Mood, Tense, Number, and person, you telling them the first word of it, or they knowing it before-hand, as if you say we have run, they can answer cucurrimus; or if you say, I shall blot, they can answer maculabo, ha­ving learnt that Curro is Latine for to run; and that maculo signifieth to blot. To make them more fully acquainted with the variation of a verb, it were good some­times for them to write one out at full length, both in English and Latine, ma­king a line betwixt the alterable part of it, and the termination (which remaineth alike to all, thus, Voc-o I call, voc-as thou callest, voc-at he calleth, &c.

N. B. The Nouns and Verbs being thus perfectly gotten at the first, (till which [Page 29] be done, the Preface before the Grammar counteth not the Scholar ready to go any further, and saith it may be done with a quarter of a years diligence, or very lit­tle more) the difficulty of the Latine tongue will be quite over-past, and a childe will more surely and heedfully learn them thus singly by themselves, then by long practice in parsing and making Latine, be­cause then he is to attend many other things together with them, for the better observation whereof, these will abun­dantly prepare him.

And because all children are not so quick-witted, as fully to apprehend the va­rious alteration of the Nouns and Verbs, till after long and continued practice, it were good if a time were set apart once a week, wherein all the Scholars (especially of the three lower forms, and those in the upper that are less expert, as having perhaps come from a Schoole wherein they were never thus exercised) may be constantly employed in this most profita­ble exercise. And for more ready dis­patch, amongst a multitude, it is not amiss if they repeat them thorow in a round word by word, saying every one in order after another, thus: 1. Sing. Nom Musa, a Song, 2. Gen. Musae of a Song. 3. Dat. Musae [Page 30] to a Song, 4. Accus. Musam the song, &c. till they have gone thorow all the Declensions, and Conjugations, and the forementio­ned variety of practice upon them, ac­cording as we may observe Corderius in his Colloquies, to have given us a hint. And to stirre them all up to more atten­tiveness, the Master may (unexpectedly sometimes) aske the case of a Noun, or the Mood and Tense of a Verb, of one that he espieth more negligent in mind­ing, then the rest.

As an Help to the better performance of this necessary task, I provided a little book of one sheet, containing the Termi­nations and Examples of the Declensions, and Conjugations, which the less experienced may make use of, till they can exercise themselves without it; by the frequent im­pression, and ready sale whereof, I guess it hath not been unacceptable to those of my profession, for the purpose whereto I intended it: and I have sometimes in one afternoon made a thorow practice of all that hath here been mentioned touching Nouns and Verbs, without any weari­somness at all to my self, or irksomness to my Scholars, who are generally impa­tient of any long work, if it be not full of variety, and easy to be performed.

[Page 31] Some little paines would also be taken with the Pronounes, so as to shew their number, distinction, manner, of declining both in English and Latine, and their persons: and then with the Participles to mind how their four tenses are distin­guished both by their signification and ending, and how they are declined, like Adjectives.

Touching Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Interjections, they need only to tell of what signification they are; and touching Pre­positions, let them observe which serve to an Accusative case, which to an Ablative, and which to both.

Now for the more orderly dispatch of this first part of the Accidents and the better learning of every part of it, not by rote, but by reason; and to make chil­dren more cunning in the understanding of the things, then in rehearsing of the words, and to fasten it well in their me­mories; I have found it very profitable to set apart two afternoons in a week (com­monly Tuesdayes and Thursdayes) for the examination of it all quite thorow, causing one side of a Form to ask the que­stions out of the examination of the Acci­dents, and the other to answer according to the words of their book, and whether [Page 32] they do this exactly memoriter, or some­times looking upon the book, it makes no matter; for the often practise hereof, will be sure to fix it after a little while in their understanding and memories so fast, that they will have it ready for use, against they come to the second part of the Acci­dents, which concerneth Concordance and Construction.

N. B. When children first begin their Introduction, they may provide a little vocabulary (if the Orbis Pictus be too dear, out of which they should be made to read over a Chapter every day, at one or four a clock, and when it is read over you may see who can give you the most names of things under one head, both English and Latine, and let him that tells you the most, have some little reward for encourage­ment, to draw on others in hope of the like, to do as well as he. This profita­ble exercise was often used by Corderius, and is an excellent mean to help children to store of words, which are indeed the subject about which Grammar is conver­sant, so that to teach one Grammar with­out giving him some knowledge of words, is to teach him to tye a knot, that hath not a string to tye it upon. They may say the In­troduction for parts, and the Vocabulary for [Page 33] lessons, (as you please) and when ever they go out about necessitous business, be sure they say (at least) four words of those which they have learnt, and let them alwayes carry their Vocabulary about with them, to be looking into it for words.

Thus then I allow one half year for boyes in the lowest form, that can read and write before hand, to learn the first part of the Accidents, and how to call things by their Latine names, making use of a Vocabulary.

And then I would have them divide the whole Introduction into twelve parts, (as they did at the first reading of it over) and repeat constantly every morning one by heart, to fix it well in the memory: and for fore-noon lessons (to be said about ten of clock) they may proceed to the se­cond part of the Accidents, commonly cal­led the English Rules, for the perfect know­ledge and exercise whereof, they may profitably spend the succeeding halfe year.

In getting whereof, because custome hath every where carried it (contrary to those excellent directions given in the Preface to the Reader, of which Mr. Hayne mentioneth Cardinal W [...]lsey to have been [Page 34] the Authour) for children first to read them over, and afterwards to con them by heart as they stand in the book, (ma­king it a work meerly for the memory, which some children are good at, though they understand nothing at all; and there­fore many unskilful Masters, not knowing how to do otherwise, especially with boyes that cannot write, let them run on by rote, presuming that when they have got the Rules thus, they may be afterwards made to understand them by practise in parsing) I will go along with the stream, and allow my Scholars to get them by heart, saying two or three Rules at a time, as they do in most schooles; and as they do this, I would have them chiefly to take notice of the Titles, or Heads, and which are the general Rules, and which are the Observations, and Exceptions made concerning it, that by this meanes they may learn to turn readily to any one of them that shall be called for. But that children may best understand, and soonest conceive the reason of the Rules, and thereby be made acquainted with the f [...] ­shion of the Latine Tongue, (which is the main scope that this part of the Accidents aimeth at) I would have them daily exer­cised in the practice of Concordance and Con­struction [Page 35] (which will also confirm and ready them in the Introduction) after this manner.

1. Let them mark out the more generall and necessary Rules (as they go along) with their examples, and after they have got them perfectly by heart, let them con­strue and parse the words in the Exam­ple, and apply the Rule to the words to which it belongeth, and wherein its force lyeth.

2. Let them have so many other examples besides those that are in their book, as may clearly illustrate and evidence the mean­ing of the Rule, and let them make it whol­ly their own by practising upon it, either in imitating their present examples, or propounding others as plain. Thus that examples to the Rule of the first Concord may be first imitated; Praeceptor legit, vos vero negligitis. The Master readeth; and ye regard not. The Pastors preach, and people regard not. I speak, and ye hear not. We have read, and thou mindest not. And the like may be propounded, as, whilest the Cat sleepeth, the Mice dance. When the Master is away, the boyes will play. Thou neglectest, when I write. And these the children should make out of English into Latine, unto which you should still adde more, [Page 36] till they be able by themselves to practise according to the Rule.

3. After they have thus gone over the general Rules, Let them together with one Rule get its exceptions, and observations, as they lie in order, and learn how they differ from the Rule, and be sure that they construe and parse every example, and imitate, and make another agreeable to the Rule, ob­servation or exception, as is shewed be­fore.

N. B. Now forasmuch as little ones are too too apt to forget any thing that hath been told them concerning the mean­ing of a rule and the like, and some in­deed are of more leasurely apprehensions then others, that require a little considera­tion of a thing before they can conceive it rightly, they may be helped by making use of the second part of the Accidents ex­amined; wherein,

1. The Rules are delivered by easie and short questions and answers, and all the examples are Englished, and the words wherein the force of the example lyeth are applyed to the rule.

2. The examples are Grammatically construed, and all the first words in them set down in the margent, and referred to an Index, which sheweth what part of [Page 37] Speech they are, and how to be declined or conjugated. This I contrived at the first as a means to prevent Childrens gadding out of their places, under a pretence of ask­ing abler boyes to help them in constru­ing and parsing these examples, but upon tryal I found it a great ease to my self for telling the same things often over, and a notable encouragement to my Scholars to go about their lessons, who alwayes go merrilier about their task, when they know how to resolve themselves in any thing they doubt.

4. When they have got the second Part of the Accidents well by heart, and understand it (at least) so far as to be a­ble to give you any rule you call for, you may divide it also into eight parts, accord­ing to the heads set down in the book, whereof, the

First, May be concerning the first, second, and third Concord.

The second, concerning the case of the re­lative, and the Construction of Substantives.

The third, concerning the Construction of Adjectives, and of a Pronoune.

The fourth, concerning the construction of Verbs with a Nominative, and Genitive Case.

The fifth, concerning the construction of [Page 38] Verbs with a Dative, Accusative and Abla­tive Case.

The sixth, concerning the construction of Passives, Gerunds and Supines.

The seventh, concerning time, space, place and impersonals.

The eighth, concerning the Participle, the Adverb, the Conjunction, the Praeposition, and the Interjection; which being added to the foregoing twelve, the whole Accidents may be easily passed over at twenty Parts, and kept surely in mind by repeating it once a moneth for morning Parts, and examining it every Tuesday and Thursday in the afternoon.

As they made use of the Vocabulary, toge­ther with the first part of the Accidents, so may they joyn Sententiae Puerilis, with the second; which book I would have them to provide both in English and Latine.

1. Because it renders the Book more grateful to Children, who by reading their Lessons in their Mothers tongue, know better what to make of them.

2. Because they are apt to mistake what they have been construed, especially in words that have various significations.

3. Their memories being short, they must be told the same word as oft as they ask it ere they come to say, and when they come (perhaps) they cannot construe [Page 39] one Sentence to any purpose.

As they learn this book, let them but take three or four lines at once, which they should,

1. Construe out of Latine into Egn­lish, and then out of English into Latine.

2. Decline the Nounes and form the Verbs in it throughout, and give the rules for the concordance and construction of the Words.

3. Bring their lessons fair writ out both in English and Latine in a little pa­per book, which will exceedingly further them in spelling and writing truly.

4. To fix their Lessons the better in their memorie, you may ask them such plain questions, as they can easily answer by the words in the Sentence.

5. Let them also imitate a Sentence sometimes by changing some of the words, and sometimes altering their Ac­cidents.

6. Give them sometimes the English of a Sentence to make into Latine of themselves, and then let them compare it with the Latine in the book, and see wherein they come short of it, or in what Rule they faile.

For though the main end of this Book, which is full of plain lessons, both of ho­nesty, [Page 40] and godliness, be to instill those grave sayings into childrens minds▪ (some of which notwithstanding are too much beyond their reach) and it be not per­haps so useful as some others are for the speedy gaining of Latine, yet by being thus made use of, it may be very much improved to both purposes.

Here I think it no digression to tell, how I and some School-fellowes (yet li­ving, and eminent in their Scholar-like professions) were nusled two or three years together in learning this book of Senten­ces. After we had gone over our Accidents several times by heart, and had learned part of Propria quae maribus, we were put into this Book, and there made to construe and parse two or three Sentences at once out of meer Latine, and if in any thing we missed, we were sure to be whipt. It was well, if of 16. or 20. boyes two at any time could say, and that they did say right, was more by hap-hazard, then any thing that they knew; For we knew not how to apply one rule of Grammar to any word, nor could we tell what part of Speech it was, or what belonged to it; but if the Master told us it was a Noun, to be sure we said it was of the Nominative case, and singular number, and if a Verb, [Page 41] we presently guessed it to be of the Indi­cative Mood, Present tense, singular num­ber, and third person; because those coming so frequent, we erred the lesse in them. And an ignorant presumption that we could easily say, made us spend our time in idle chat, or worse employment; and we thought it in vain for us to labour about getting a lesson, because we had no help at all provided to further us in so do­ing. Yet here and there a Sentence, that I better understood then the rest, and with which I was more affected, took such im­impression, as that I still remember it, as Gallus in suo stirquilinio plurimum potest. Vbi dolor, ibi digitus, &c.

This I have related by the by, to manifest by mine own sense and experi­ence what severity children for the most part undergo, and what loss of time be­falls them in their best age for learning, when they are meerly driven on in the common rode, and are not (rather) guid­ed by a dexterous, diligent, and discreet Teacher, to understand what they learn in any book they are put into.

Now because all our teaching is but meer trifling, unlesse withall we be carefull to in­struct children in the grounds of true Religion, let them be sure to get the Lords Prayer, the [Page 42] Creed, and the ten Commandements; First in English, and then in Latine, every Satur­day morning for Lessons, from their first entrace to the Grammar Schoole; and for their better understanding of these Funda­mentals of Christianity, you may (accord­ing to Mr. Bernards little Catechisme) re­solve them into such easy questions, as they may be able to answer of themselves, and give them the Quotations, or Texts of Scriptures, which confirm or explain the doctrinal points contained in them, to write out the following Lords day, and to show on Monday mornings, when they come to Schoole. In short then, I would have this lowest Form employed one quarter or half a year in getting the Introduction for Parts and Lessons, and as long in repeating the Introduction at Morn­ing Parts, and reading the Vocabulary, for After-noons Parts; saying the English Rules for Fore-noon Lessons. The little Vocabulary for After-noon Parts; and Sen­tentiae Pueriles for Afternoon Lessons, and the Principles of Christianity for Saturday Lessons. So that in one years time this work may be fully compleat, of preparing them for the Latine tongue, by teaching them the perfect use of the Accidents, and helping them to words, and how to vary them.

How to make children of the second Form per­fect in the Rules of the Genders of Nouns, and of the Preterperfect tenses, and Su­pines of Verbs, contained in Propria quae maribus, Quae genus, and As in P [...]ae­senti; and how to enter them in writing, and speaking familiar and congruous Latine.

THe general course taken in teaching the Rules of the Genders and Nouns, and Conjugating Verbs, is, to make children to patter them over by heart, and sometimes also to construe and parse them; but seldom or never are they taught the meaning of a Rule, or how to apply it readily to the words they meet with elsewhere.

The volubility of the Verse doth in­deed help some quicker wits for more rea­dy repeating of them; but others of more slow pace, (that learn better by under­standing what they say) are apt to miscall every word in their Lesson, because they cannot tell what it meaneth; and let them, take never so much pains about it, very little of what they are to learn, [Page 44] will stick in their memories.

Some therefore have decryed this patching of Rules into a cobling verse; others have thought it better to denote the Genders of Nouns, and the Preter­perfect tenses of Verbs by the Termina­tions of the first words, and some have quite altered these Rules by expunging some words, and inserting others, which they thought might better agree with them; But for my part, I like his judge­ment well, that said it was impossible for any Grammarian to make better Rules then these in Propria quae maribus, and As in praesenti; for though in some things they may be faulty, as Quae genus is in very many, yet (as Mr. Brinsley saith of the Accidents) a wise Master is not to stand with his children about mending of it, but only to make them understand the Rules, as they are set down in the Book, which that they may well do, I propound this expe­dient.

1. Let them for Fore-noon Lessons be­gin with Propria quae maribus, and then proceed to As in praesenti, leaving Quae ge­nus to the last, because it is of lesse use, and harder for children to understand.

2. In getting these Rules at first, let them read them all distinctly over, and [Page 45] take notice of the Titles or Heads, and mark out the most general Rules, which they may learn before any of the rest; And to make them the better to understand themselves, you may allow them an Eng­lish Propria quae maribus, &c. which they may compare all along with that in their Grammar, and if at any time you per­ceive they do not well apprehend the meaning of a Rule, do you illustrate it by instancing some words, that they have had in their Vocabulary, or elsewhere. This will make them somewhat ready to turn to any Rule.

3. At the next going them over, they will be able to say four or six lines at a time, memoriter. And then you may let them get all before them, and make them after they have said a Lesson by heart, to construe it by the help of a Construing-book, and to decline every Noun, and Conjugate every verb, by the help of the Indexes annexed to the Propria quae mari­bus, &c. Englished, and explained.

4. You may exercise them in this man­ner, by repeating more and more at a time, till they can decline Nouns, and con­jugate Verbs, and apply the Rules readily to them; & having thus gained them, you may keep them, by dividing the whole [Page 46] into ten parts, according to the Common-place Heads; thus, the First may be at Propria quae maribus, &c. De Regulis gene­ralibus Propriorum, De Regulis generalibus Appellativorum, De prima speciali Regula, & ejus exceptionibus Masculinis, Neutris, Dubiis, & Communibus. The Second at Momen [...]rescentis penultima, &c. Syllaba acuta sonat, &c. De secunda speciali Regu­la, & ejus exceptionibus Masculinis, Neu­tris, Dubiis, & Communibus. The third at Nomen crescentis—Sit gravis, &c. De ter­tia speciali Regula & ejus exceptionibus Fae­mininis, Neutris, Dubiis, Communibus, & de Regulis Adjectivorum generalibus. The Fourth at Quae genus, de variantibus genus, de defectivis casu, Aptotis, Diptotis, Tripto­tis, & Vocativo carentibus. The Fifth, at Propria cuncta notes, &c. de defectivis nu­mero, plurali, & singulari. The Sixth, at Haec quasi luxuriant, &c. de Redundantibus. The seventh at As in praesenti, De Simplici­um verborum praeterito primae, secundae ter­tiae, & quartae Conjugationis. The eighth, at Praeteritum dat idem, & de Compositorum verborum praeteritis. The ninth, at Nunc ex praeterito, &c. De Simplicium verborum, & Compositorum Supinis. The tenth, De Praeteritis verborum in OR. De geminum praeterium habentibus, De neutro passivi, [Page 47] De verbis praeteritum mutuantibus, de prae­terito carentibus, & de Supinum raro ad­mittentibus. If you adde these ten to the twenty parts in the Accidents, they may run over the whole thirty in six weeks; saying every morning one, except on Saturdays, which are reserved for other occasions. Their Noon-parts may be in the larger Vocabulary (which is com­monly printed with the grounds of Grammar, in an easie entrance to the Latine Tongue, in which they may peruse a whole Chapter at once, and afterwards strive who can tell you Latine for the most things mentioned in it. And if at any time the words be not so obvious to their understanding, because (per­haps) they know not the things which they signify; do you tell them what the thing is, and explain the word by ano­ther that is more familiar to them.

Their After-noons Lessons on Mon­dayes and Wednesdayes, may be in Qui mihi, which containeth pretty Precepts of good manners, much befitting chil­dren to observe, and which are so com­mon in every mean Scholars mouth, that a childe would blush to seem igno­rant of them. In getting this,

1. Let them repeat two distichs at [Page 48] once memoriter, and if withall, you let them get the English verses answerable to the Latine, and printed with the Grounds of Grammar, they will fix the Latine better in their memories.

2. Let them construe the Lesson Grammatically, and to help themselves in that more difficult work, let them make use of the construction made them at the end of their Construing-Book.

3. Let them read the Latine in the Grammatical order, and sometimes in­to meer English, and then let them parse every word according to that or­der, giving the Rules for the Genders of Nouns, and the Preterperfect tenses, and Supines of verbs; and applying those of Concordance and Constructi­on, as they come in their way.

4. To exercise them in true writing, it were good if they had a little paper-book, wherein to write first the Latine, and then the English distichs at full length, which they may shew, when they say their Lesson.

5. To finde them some employment after the Lesson, you may give them some easie dictate out of it to turn into Latine; sometimes by way of Question [Page 49] and Answer, and sometimes more posi­tively; thus, What shall that Scholar do that desireth to be taught? He shall conceive the Masters sayings in his minde. Quid faciet ille discipulus, qui cupit doceri? dicta prae­ceptoris animo suo concipiet, or thus; A boy that is a Scholar, and desireth to be taught, ought to conceive the Masters sayings in his minde, and so as to understand them well-Puer qui discipulus est & cupit doceri, dictae praeceptoris animo suo concipere debet, atque ita ut eadem recte intelligat. And this you may cause any one of them to read, and let the rest correct him in any word he hath made amisse, and be sure they can all give a rule for what they do.

After they have repeated these verses of Mr. Lilies so often over, that they can say them all at once pretty well by heart, they may continue their After­noons Lessons in Cato, saying two or three Distichs at once, according to the directions already given in the Preface to that Book in English and Latine verse; and when they have gone tho­row a book of it, let them try amongst themselves who can repeat the most of it by heart, as we see Corderius did sometimes exercise his Scholars, as it appeareth by his Colloquies.

[Page 50] Now forasmuch as speaking Latine is the main end of Grammar, and there is no better expedient to help children in the rea­dy exercise thereof, then frequent perusal of Vocabularies for common words, and Collo­quies for familiar phrases, and such as are to be used in ordinary discourse; I think it very convenient to make use of Pueriles Confabi latiunculae, both in English and Latine, on Tuesdayes and Thurs­dayes in the Afternoons instead of Les­sons, thus,

1. Let them read a whole Colloquie (if it be not too long) at once both in Eng­lish and Latine, not minding to con­strue it verbatim at the first going it over, but to render the expressions wholly as they stand, and are answera­ble one to another, and this will ac­quaint them with the matter in the book, and enable them to read both the Languages more readily.

2. At a second going over, let them construe it Grammatically, and then take any phrase or sentence in the pre­sent Lesson, and make such another by it, changeing either the words, or some of their Accidents, as the present occasion requireth; ex gr. As they say in the singular Number: God save [Page 51] you, Salve, Sis salvus, jubeo te salvere, or ave; so make them say in the plural num­ber, God save you, Salvete, sitis salvi, jube­mus vos salvere, or avete. So likewise when they can say, I thank you, Habeo tibi gratiam, or habetur tibi a me gratia, let them imitate, and alter it by saying, We thank your Father. Habemus Patri tuo gratiam. My Mother thanks you, Sir. Ma­ter habet tibi gratiam, Domine; or Habetur tibi, Domine, a matre mea gratia.

When they have gone this book so often over, as to be well acquainted with its phrases, Let them proceed to Corderius Colloquies, which they have al­so in English and Latine, and which they may construe Grammatically, and cull the phrases out of it, to make use of them, in common speaking La­tine.

Let them have a little paper-book, wherein to gather the more familiar phrases, which they finde in every Les­son printed in a different character, and let them by often perusal at spare times, and bearing them alwayes about them, get them so readily by heart, as to be able to expresse themselves in La­tine by them upon any meet occasion. And this way of exercising them to speak [Page 52] according to their Authours expressions from their first entrance upon Latine, is the best expedient that can be taken to avoyd Angli­cismes, which otherwise they are very prone to, so long as they are directed only by Grammar-Rules, and enfor­ced to seek words in the Dictionary, where commonly they light upon that which is most improper.

And that they may now do some­thing of themselves by way of night ex­ercise, let them every evening tran­slate a verse at home out of the 119. Psalm, which I conceive is the most ea­sie for the purpose of making the three Concords, and some of the more neces­sary Rules of construction familiar to them. In making their Translations,

1. Let them be sure to write the English very fair and true, observing its just pauses, and let them also make the like notes of distinction in their Latine.

2. When they come to shew their Latines,

1. Let one read and construe a verse.

2. Let another tell you what part of speech every word is, as well English as Latine, and what the English Signes do note.

[Page 53] 3. Let the rest in order give you the right Analysis of every word one by one, and the Rules of Nouns and Verbs, and of Concordance, and Constructi­on. And because these little boyes are too apt to blur and spoyle their Bibles, and to make a wrong choyce of words out of a Dictionary, which is a great maime and hinderance to them in ma­king Latine (and caused Mr. Ascham to affirm, that making of Latines marreth children) I think it not amisse to get that Psalm, and some other Englishes printed by themselves, with an Alphabe­ticall Index of every word which is proper for its place. Right choyce of words be­ing indeed the foundation of all elo­quence.

On Saturdayes, after they can say the Lords Prayer, the Creed, and the ten Commandements in English and Latine, they may proceed to the Assem­blies Catechisme, first in English, and then in Latine, or the like. This second form then is to be exercised,

1. In repeating the Accidents for morning parts.

2. In saying Propria quae maribus, Quae genus, As in praesenti, for Fore-noon Lessons.

[Page 54] 3. In reading the larger Vocabulary for Noon parts.

4. In learning Qui mihi, and after­wards Cato, for Afternoons Lessons on Mondayes and Wednesdayes, and Pue­riles Confabulatiunculae, and afterwards Corderii Colloquia on Tuesdayes, and Thursdayes. And

5. Translating a verse out of Eng­lish into Latine every evening at home, which they may bring to be corrected on Fridayes, after all the weeks Repe­titions ended, and return written as fair as possibly they can write, on Sat­turday mornings, after examinations ended. And thus they may be made to know the Genders of Nouns, and Preter-perfect tenses, and Supines of Verbs, and ini­tiated to speak and write true Latine in the compasse of a second yeare. So that to children of betwixt seven and nine years of age, in regard of their reme­dilesse inanimadvertency, I allow two whole years to practise them well in the Rudiments or Grounds of Grammar, in which I would have the variation of Nouns and Verbs to be specially min­ded, for till they be very ready in those, their progress in other things will be full of uncertainties, and trou­blesomely [Page 55] tedious, but if those be once well got, all other rules which have not (perhaps) been so well understood, will more easily (as age increaseth) be better apprehended and put in use.

How to make Children of the third Forme per­fect in the Latine Syntaxis commonly called Verbum Personale; as also to acquaint them with Prosodia; and how to help them to construe and parse, and to write, and speak true and elegant Latine.

CHildren are commonly taught the Latine Syntaxis before they be put to make use of any Latine book besides it; and so they but can say it readily by heart, construe it, and give the force of its rules out of the examples, they are thought to learn it well enough. But the very doing thus much, is found to be a work too te­dious with many, and therefore some have thought good to lessen the number of the Rules, & others to dash out many examples, as if more then one or two were needlesse; so that when a Childe [Page 56] hath with them run over this part of the Grammar, it is well if he have learnt the half of it, or know at all what to do with any of it.

I think it not amisse therefore to shew, how it may be all gotten under­standingly by heart, and settled in the memory by continual practise, which is the life of all learning;

1. Let those then of this third forme divide their Accidents and Rules of Nounes and Verbs into ten parts, whereof they may repeat one every Thursday morning, and make way for the getting of the Syntaxe on Mundaies, Tuesdaies & Wednes. for morning parts.

2. Let them repeat as many Rules memoriter, as they are well able, to­gether with all their examples; and to help their understanding therein, you may do well to shew the meaning of eve­ry rule & exception beforehand, and to make them compare them with those in the English rules under the same head, & to see which are contained in the Latine which are not in the English, and which are set down in the English, which are left out in the Latine.

3. To help them to construe well be­fore they come to say, let them make [Page 57] use of their Construeng books, and that they may better mind what they con­strue, you may cause them sometimes, when they come to say, to read the part out of Latine into English.

4. In parsing, let them give you the word governing, and apply the word governed according to the rule, and tell-you wherein the exceptions and ob­servations differ from the General rule.

5. Let them have a Paper-book in Quarto, in the margent whereof they may write the first words of every rule, and exception; and let them have as many familiar examples (some in Eng­lish onely, and some in Latine onely) as may suffice to illustrate the rule more clearly to them, and do you help them extempore, to turn their English ones in­to Latine, and their Latine ones into English; and having a space left under every head, let them fill it up with praeg­nant Examples, which they meet with as they read their Latine Authors, or as they Translate English Sentences into Latine.

I observe Melancthon and Whittington of old, and Mr. Clarke, Mr. Comenius and others of late, to have made subsi­diaries of this nuture, which because [Page 58] they seem some what to overshoot the capacities of children, who (as Mr. As­cham observes) are ignorant what to say properly and fitly to the matter, (as some Masters are also many times) I have taken the paines to make a praxis of all the English and Latine Rules of Construction and Syntaxis, as they lie in order, and to adde two Indexes▪ The first of English words, and the Latine for them; The second, Of Latine words and the English for them, with figures directing to the examples wherein they are to be used.

And for more perspicuity sake, I take care that no example may touch upon any rule, that is not already learned, for fear of pussing young beginners in this necessary and easie way of transla­ting with the rule in their eye, which doth best direct the weakest understand­ings.

Now forasmuch as the daily reading of Latine into English is an especiall means to increase the knowledge of the Tongues, and to cause more heed to be taken to the Grammar Rules, as they are gotten by heart; I would have those in this form to read every morning after prayers, four or six vers­es out of the Latine Testament, which [Page 59] they will easily do, having beforehand learned to construe them word by word, with the help of their English Bible. In this exercise, let them be all well pro­vided, and do you pick out onely one boy to construe, and then ask any of the others the Analysis of a Noune, or Verb here or there, or some rule of constru­ction, which you think they have not so well taken notice of as to understand it fully. Hereby you may also ac­quaint them with the rule and way of construing, as it is more largely touched in the following part of this chapter.

N. B. Those Children that are more industriously willing to thrive, may ad­vantage themselves very much by peru­sal of Gerards Meditations, Thomas de Kem­pis, St. Augustins Soliloquies, or his Me­ditations, or the like pious and profit­ing Books, which they may buy both in English and Latine, and continually bear about in their pockets, to read on at spare times.

Their forenoone lessons may be in Ae­sopes Fables, which is indeed a book of great antiquity and of more solid learn­ing then most men think. For in it ma­ny good lectures of morality, which [Page 60] would not (perhaps) have been listened to, if they had been delivered in a plain and naked manner, being handsomly made up and vented in an Apologue, do insinuate themselves into every mans minde.

And for this reason perhaps it is that I finde it, and Gesta Romanorum which is so generally pleasing to our Countrey people) to have been printed and bound up both together in Latine, even when the Latine was yet in its drosse. And to let you see what Latine Aesop was there translated into out of Greek by one Romulus, I will give you the first Fable, in his words;

De Gallo & Jaspide.

IN sterquilinio quidam pullus gallinatius, dum quaereret escam, invenit margari­tam in loco indigno jacentem, quam cum vi­deret jacentem, sic ait; O bona res, in ster­core hic jaces. Si te cupidus invenisset, cum quo gaudio rap [...]isset, ac in pristinum decoris tui fratum redisses? Ego frustra te in hoc lo­co invenio jacentem. Vbi potius mihi escam quaero; & nec ego tibi prosum, nec tu mihi.

Haec Aesopus illis narrat, qui ipsum legunt & non intelligunt.

[Page 61] No sooner did the Latine Tongue endeavour to recover its pristine pu­rity, by the help of Erasmus and o­ther eminent men of learning in his time, but the Greek Coppy of Aesop is translated by him and his Contempo­raries, every one striving to outstrip a­nother in rendering it into good Latine; and it is observable, that the Stationers Coppy (which is generally used in Schooles) is a meere Rapsodie of some frag­ments of these several mens Translations; whence it is that one and the same Fa­ble is sometimes repeated thrice over in several words, and that the stile of the Book is generally too lofty in it self for Children to apprehend on a suddain; I have for their sakes therefore turned the whole Book, such as I found it, in­to proper English, answerable to the La­tine, and divided both into just periods, marked with figures, that they may more distinctly appear, and be more easily found out for use or imitation; and though I observed some words and phrases scarce allowable in many places of the book, yet I was loath to make a­ny alteration, except in a few grosse er­rors, and especially one that quite per­verted the sense of the Fable, and ap­peareth [Page 62] to be a mistake in the Transla­tor from the Greek Coppy, which is thus; [...] which is well latinized by one thus, Aper & Vulpes. Aper quum cuidam adstaret arbori, dentes accue­bat. But the unknown Translator of this Fable (and the rest that yet passe sub incerto interprete) reading perhaps [...] in stead of [...] or finding that [...] doth sometimes signifie like an ad­jective, solitarius, solitudines captans, &c. renders it into pure non-sence, and in other words also differing from the Greek, thus; Singularis animal, & vulpes. Singularis agrestis, super quadam sedens ar­bore, dentes acuebat. Which one having lately translated into English verse, with the Picture before it, hath prettily de­vised a Rhinocerate to stand by a tree, and to whet his teeth against it; where­as the Latine hath it, super quadam sedens arbore, which is impossible for such an huge beast to do. I have therefore put out the word Singularis, and made it A­per agrestis, according to an ancient Greek Coppy which I have, and I Eng­lish the clause thus; Lib 2. Fab. [...]3. A wilde Boar standing by a tree whetted his tushes. This I have noted obiter, to ac­quaint [Page 63] the more judicious with my rea­son of altering those words, and to save the lesse experienced, some labour in searching out the meaning of them, see­ing they passe yet uncorrected in the Latine Booke.

Let them procure Aesops Fables then in English and Latine, and the rather be­cause they will take delight in reading the Tales, and the moral in a Language which they already understand, and will be helped thereby to construe the Latine of themselves. And herein I would have them to take a whole Fable and its moral at one Lesson (so that it do not exceed six periods) which they should first read distinctly; secondly, construe Grammatically, and then render the proper phrases; thirdly, parse according to the Grammatical order as they con­strued, and not as the words stand. And then be sure they can decline all the Nounes, and conjugate the Verbs, and give the Rules for the Genders of the one, and the Preterperfect tenses and Supines of the other; as also for the concordance and construction, either out of the English Rules, or Latine Syn­taxe, or both, as they come to have learn­ed them.

[Page 64] Let them sometimes write a Fable fair and truly over, according to the printed Book, both in English and La­tine, and sometimes translate one, word by word in that order, in which they construed it; and this will inure them to Orthography.

That they may learn to observe and get the true Latine order of placing words, and the purity of expression either in English or Latine style, let them imitate a period or more in a les­son, turning it out of English into La­tine, or out of Latine into English, thus; whereas they read in English. A Cock, as he turned over a dung-hill found a pearl, saying; why do I finde a thing so bright? and in Latine, Gallus gallinaceus, dum vertit stercorarium offendit gemmam; Quid, inquiens, rem sic nitidam reperio? they may imitate it by this or the like ex­pression; As a beggar raked in a dung­hill, he found a purse, saying; why do I finde so much money here? Mendicus, dum vertit stercorarium, offendit crumenam; quid inquiens, tantum argenti hic reperio? By thus doing, they may learn to joyne Ex­amples out of their lessons to their Grammar Rules (which is the most lively and perfect way of teaching them) and to fetch a Rule [Page 65] out of their Grammar for every Ex­ample, using the Grammar to finde Rules, as they do the Dictionary for words, till they be very perfect in them.

Their Afternoons Parts may be to construe a Chapter in Janua linguarum, which will instruct them in the Nature, as well as in the Names of things; and after they have construed, let them try who can tell you the most words, espe­cially of those, that they have not met with, or well observed in reading else­where. For Afternoon lessons on Mondayes, and Wednesdayes, let them make use of Mantuanus, which is a Poet both for style and matter, very fami­liar and gratefull to children, and therefore read in most Schooles. They may read over some of the Eclogues, that are less offensive then the rest, take­ing six lines at a lesson, which they should first commit to memory, as they are able. Secondly, Construe. Third­ly, Parse. Then help them to pick out the Phrases and Sentences, which they may commit to a paper-book; and afterwards resolve the matter of their lessons into an English period or two, which they may turn into proper and elegant Latine, observing the placing [Page 66] of words, according to prose. Thus out of the five first verses in the first Ec­logue,

Fauste, precor, gelida quando pecus omne sub umbra
Ruminat, antiquos paulum recitemus amo­res.
Ne si forte sopor nos occupet [...]lla ferarum,
Quae modo per segetes tacite insidiantur adultas.
Saeviat in pecudes. Melior vigilantia somno.

One may make such a period as this; Shepherds are wont sometimes to talke of their old loves, whilest the cattel chew the cud under the shade; for fear, if they should fall asleep, some Fox, or Wolf, or such like beast of prey, which either lurk in the thick woods, or lay wait in the grown corn, should fall upon the cattel. And indeed, watching is farre more commendable for a Prince, or Magistrate, then immoderate, or unseasona­ble sleep.

Pastores aliquando, dum pecus sub umbra ruminat, antiquos suos amores recitare solent; ne, si sopor ipsos occupet, vulpes, aut lu­pus, aut aliqua ejus generis fera praedabunda, quae vel in densis sylvis latitant, vel per adul­tas [Page 67] segetes insidiatur, in pecudes saeviat; Imo enimvero, Principi vel Magistratui vigi­lantia somno immodico ac intempestivo mul­to laudabilior est. And this will help to prepare their invention for future exercises, by teaching them to suck the marrow both of words and matter out of all their Au­thours.

The reason why I desire children (especially those) of more prompt wits, and better memories, may repeat what they read in Poets by heart (as I would have them translate into English what they read in Prose) is, partly because the memory thrives best by being often exercised, so it be not overcharged; and partly because the roundnesse of the verses helpeth much to the remem­brance of them, wherein boyes at once gain the quantity of syllables, and abundance of matter for phansie, and the best choyce of words and phrases, for expression of their minde.

On Tuesdayes and Thursdayes in the after-noon (after they have done with Corderius) they may read Helvici Collo­quia (which are selected out of those of Erasmus, Ludovicus Vives, and Schottenius) and after they have construed a Collo­quie, and examined some of the hardest [Page 68] Grammar-passages in it, let them all lay aside their books, save one, and let him read the Colloquie out of Latine into English, clause by clause, and let the rest give it him again into Latine, every man saying round as it comes to his turn. And this will make them to mind the words and phrases before hand, and fasten many of them in their memories. Help them afterwards to pick out the phrases, and let them write them (as they did others) in a pocket paper-book. Cause them sometimes to imitate a whole Colloquie, or a piece of one; and let them often strive to make Colloquies amongst themselves, talking two, three, or more together about things familiar to them, and inserting as many words and phrases as they can well remember to be proper for the pre­sent, out of any of their Authours; and these they should shew you fair written, with a note of the page and line, where they borrowed any expression not used before, set down in the Margent of their exercise. And this will make them in­dustriously to labour every day for va­riety of expressions, and encourage them much to discourse, when they know themselves to be certain in what [Page 69] they say, aud that they can so easily come by Latine, to speak their mindes upon any occasion.

But if instead of Mantuan, you think good sometimes to make use of Castali­ons Dialogues, you may first make them read the history in the Bible by them­selves apart, & then hear them construe it Dialogue-wise, pronouncing every sentence as pathetically as may be After­wards. One may read it in English, and the rest answer him in Latine, clause by clause, as is already mentioned con­cerning the Colloquies.

And to help them somewhat the bet­ter to construe of themselves, you may direct them (according to the golden Rule of construing, commended, and set down at large by industrious Mr. Brinsley, in the 93. and 94. pages of his Grammar Schoole) to take

1. The Vocative case, and that which dependeth upon it.

2. The Nominative case of the prin­cipal verb, and that which dependeth upon it.

3. The Principal verb, and that which serveth to explain it.

4. The Accusative case, and the rest of the cases after it. And herein, cause [Page 70] them to observe, that Interrogatives, Relatives, and Conjunctions, use to go before all other words in construing; and that the Adjective, and the Sub­stantive, the Adverb, and the Verb, the Preposition, and its casual word, go for the most part together. But be sure to teach them often, to cast the words of a period into their natural or Gramma­tical order; according to which, they must construe; and to know the signifi­cation of every word and phrase proper for its place; and withall, let them have in mind the chief matter, drift, and cir­cumstances of a place, according to the verse.

Quis, cui, causa, locus, quo tempore, prima, sequela.

Which biddeth one to heed, who speaks, what is spoken, to whom he speaks, upon what occasion, or to what end he speaks; at what time a thing was done or spoken, what went immediately before, and what follow­eth next after. And if either the con­struing be against sense, or Grammar Rule, let them try again another way.

[Page 71] To exercise them in something (be­sides the getting of Grammar parts) at home, let them every night turn two ver­ses out of the Proverbs of Solomon into Latine, and write out two verses of the New Testament Grammatically con­strued; and let them evermore take heed to spell every word aright, and to marke the Pauses, or notes of distinction in their due places, for by this meanes they will profit more in Orthography, then by all the Rules that can be given them; and they will mind Etymologie, and Syntaxis, more by their own daily practice, then by ten times repetition without it.

On Saturdayes, after they can say the Assemblies Catechisme in English & Latine, you may let them proceed with Perkins six Principles, and when they have repea­ted as much as they can well by heart, you may cause them to read it out of English in­to Latine, your self ever & anon suggesting to them the propriety of words and phra­ses, where they are at a losse, and direct­ing them, after they have once made it Grammatically, to cast it into the artifici­all order of Latine style. And then let them go to their places, and write it fair and truly in a little Paper book for the purpose.

[Page 72] If out of every Lesson as they passe this little Catechisme, you extract the Doctri­nall points, by way of Propositions, and annex the Proofs of Scriptures to them, which are quoted in the Margent, as you see Mr. Perkins hath done in the beginning of the book, and cause your Scholars to write them out all fair and at large, as they finde them in their Bibles; it will be a profitable way of ex­ercising them on the Lords day, and a good means to improve them in the reall knowledge of Christianity.

Now forasmuch as I have observed, that children about nine years of age, and few till then, begin to relish Grammar, so as of themselves to seek into the meaning of Rules, thereby to conceive the reason of Speech; I now judge it requisite for this form to be made throughly acquaint­ed with the whole body of it. Therefore, after they have gone over the plain Syn­taxis, two or three times by morning parts, as is shewed, and have got it pretty well by heart, (for which I judge three quarters of a year will be time sufficient) you may let them divide the whole Syn­tax into 12 parts; reckoning them accord­ing to the severall Heads of it; thus: The first, De Concordantia Nominativi & verbi, [Page 73] Substantivi & Adjectivi, Relativi, & Ante­cedentis. The second, de Constructione Sub­stantivorum, & Adjectivorum cum Genitivo. The third, de constructione Adjectivorum cum Dativo, Accusativo, & Ablative. The fourth, de constructione Pronominum. The fifth, de constructione verborum cum Nomina­tivo & Genitivo. The sixth de constructione verborum cum Dativo, & Accusativo. The seventh, de constructione verborum cum Abla­tivo. The eighth, de Gerundiis & Supinis, & de Tempore & Loco. The ninth, de constructione Impersonalium & Participiorum. The tenth, de constructione Adverbiorum. The eleventh, de constructione Conjunctionum. The twelfth, de constructione Praepositionum, & Interjectionum. All which twelve you may adde to the thirty parts in the Acci­dents, and Propria quae maribus, &c. and let your Scholars bestow a moneths time together in repeating, and examining the Accidents, and thus farre of the Grammar, (both for Parts and Lessons) till they have thorowly made it their own; and that they may the better conceive how it hangeth together, and what use they are to make of its severall parts, you should often make them run over the Heads of it, and give them an Analysis of their dependency one upon another.

[Page 74] After this, they may more understand­ingly proceed to the Figures of words and construction; the definitions whereof, and their Examples they need onely get by heart; and for that purpose do you note them out with a pen, and in explain­ing of them, give as many examples as may make them fully to apprehend their meaning. But when they have said the Definition of one or more Figures at a part by heart, you may cause them to construe all they finde concerning it; and to help them in so doing, (they that are otherwise lesse able) may make use of Mr. Stockwoods little book of Figura construed. Then let them go on to Prosodia; for their more easie understanding of which, as they proceed in it: you may tell them the meaning of it in brief, thus;

Prosodia, being the last part of Gram­mar, teacheth the right pronunciation of words, or the tuning of Syllables in words, as they are pronounced; and there­fore it is divided into a Tone, or Accent, a Spirit, and a Time, whereof a Tone order­eth the tune of the voyce, shewing in what syllables it is to be lifted up, and what to be let down, & in what both to be lifted up, and let down; So that there are three Tones, a Grave, which is seldome or never made, but in the last syllable of such words [Page 75] as ought to have had an Acute in the last syllable, & that in the contexture of words in this manner; Nè si forte sopor nos occupet. an Acute, which is often used to difference some words from others, as uná, together, seduló, diligently, remain acuted at the end of a Speech, and in continuation of speech have their acute accents turned into a Grave, to make them differ from una, one, and sedulo, diligent. A Circumflex which is often marked to de­note a lost syllable, as amârunt, for ama­verunt. A spirit ordereth the breath in uttering syllables, shewing where it is to be let out softly, and where sharply; as, in ara an Altar, and hara a swine coate. The milde Spirit is not marked, but the weak letter n being used as a note of as­piration only, and not reckoned as a Con­sonant, serveth to expresse the sharp Spirit. There are three Rules of Accents, which are changed by Difference, Transposition, Attraction, Concision, and Idiome. Time sheweth the measure, how long while a syllable is to be in pronouncing, not at all regarding the Tone. A long syllable is to be a longer while, and a short, a shorter while in pronouncing. Of long and short syllables, put together orderly, feet are made, and of feet, verses.

[Page 76] 4. Now to know when a syllable is long or short, there are Rules concerning the first, the middle and last syllables, so that if one minde in what part of a word the syllable stands, he may easily finde the Rule of its quantity.

The summe of Prosodia being thus hinted to them, they may get it by heart at morn­ing Parts; & if they cannot construe it well by themselves, they may be helped by a lit­tle book made by Barnaby Hampton, called Prosodia construed. But be sure that they can read you every part into English, and tell you the true meaning of it. Your own frequent examination will be the best way to know whether they understand it or not. And to prepare them for the pra­ctice of it in making verses, I would first let them use it in learning to scan and prove Hexamiter verses onely, out of Ca­to, or Mantuan, or such Authours as they have read, thus;

1. Let them write a verse out, and di­vide into its just feet, giving a dash or stroke betwixt every one; and let them tell you what feet they are, and of what syllables they consist; and why they stand in such or such a place; as,

Si Deus-est ani-mus no-bis ut-carmina-dicunt.
Hic tibi-praecipu-è sit-pura-mente co-lendus.

[Page 77] 2. Let them set the mark of the Time or Quantity over every syllable in every foot, and give you the reason (according to the Rules) why it is there noted long, or short; as,

Sī Dĕŭs ēst ănĭ-mūs nō bī, ūt-cārmĭnă-dī cūnt.
Hīc tĭbĭ-praēcĭipŭ-ē sīt-pūi-mēntĕ cŏ-lēndŭs.

Let them now divide Figura and Pro­sodia into six parts; The first, de Figuris Dictionis, & Constructionis. The second, de Tonis & Spiritibus. The third, de Car­m num ratioue▪ & generibus. The fourth, de quantitate primarum syllabarum. The fifth, de mediis syllabis. And the sixth, de ultimis syllabis; which they may adde to the forty two parts afore mentioned, and keep by constant repetition of one of them every day, till they can say them all very well by heart, and give a perfect account of any thing in them.

Then let them begin the Accidents, and go thorow it, and the whole Latine Grammar at twelve parts, onely constru­ing and giving an account of the by-Rules, but saying all the rest by heart; so that the first part may be The Introduction. The second, The Construction of the eight parts of Speech. The third Orthographia. The fourth, Etymologia, so farre as con­cerns [Page 78] the Species, Figure, Number, Case, and Gender of Nounes. The fifth, concern­ing the Declensions (including Quae genus) and the comparison of Nounes. The sixth, concerning a Pronoun and a Verb. The seventh, concerning a Participle, an Ad­verb, a Conjunction, a Praeposition, and an Interjection. The eighth, Syntaxis, so far as concerns the Concords, and the Construction of Nounes. The ninth, concerning the construction of Verbs. The tenth, concern­ing the Construction of Participles, Ad­verbs, Conjunctions, Praepositions and Inter­jections. The eleventh concerning Fi­gures, Tones, and Spirits. The twelfth, concerning the manner of Verses, and the quantity of Syllables.

Now in repeating these parts, I do not enjoyn that onely one boy should say all, though I would have every one well pre­pared to do so; but that one should say one piece, and another another, as you please to appoint either orderly through­out the Form, or picking out here and there a boy at your own discretion. Ac­cording to this division, the whole Acci­dents and Grammar may be run over once in a moneths space, and continued in the upper Formes, by repeating one part onely, and constantly in a week, so as [Page 79] it may never be forgotten at the Schoole.

This Form in short, is to be employed about three quarters of a year.

1. In reading four or six verses out of the Latine Testament every morning, im­mediately after Prayers.

2. In repeating Syntaxis on Mon­dayes, Tuesdayes, and Wednesdayes, and the Accidents, and Propria quae maribus, &c. on Thursdayes for morning parts.

3. In Aesops Fables for fore-noone Lessons.

4. In Janua Linguarum for After-noone Parts.

5. In Mantuan for Afternoons Lessons on Mondayes and Wednesdayes; and in Helvicus's Colloquies on Tuesdayes, and Thursdayes.

6. In the Assemblies Latine Catechisme, on Saturdayes for Lessons.

7. In translating every night two ver­ses out of the Proverbs into Latine, and two out of the Latine Testament into English, which (with other dictated Exercises) are to be corrected on Fridayes, after re­petitions ended, and shewed fair written on Saturday mornings; but, because their wits are now ripened for the better understanding of Grammar, and it is ne­cessary [Page 80] for them to be made wholly ac­quainted with it, before they proceed to the exact reading of Authors, and ma­king Schoole-exercises, I would have them spend one quarter of a yeare, chiefly in getting Figura, and Pro­sodia, and making daily repetition of the whole Accidents and Common-Grammar. So that this third year will be well bestowed in teaching chil­dren of betwixt nine and ten yeares of age the whole Grammar, and the right use of it in a method answera­ble to their capacities, and not much differing from the common rode of teaching.

How to try children to the utmost, whether they be well grounded in the Grammar; and how to go more expeditiously to work in Teaching the Latine Tongue, to those that are at years of discretion.

IT is an ordinary course in most of our Grammar-Schooles, for the Vsher to turn over his Scholars to the higher Master, after they have gone through the Grammar, and (with some) been exercised in construing and parsing here and there a piece of the fore­mentioned lower Authours, and in turning English Sentences or dictates into Latine; but oft-times it cometh to passe, that partly through the Ushers want of skill or care to insist upon those things chiefly, and most frequently, which are the most necessary to be kept in minde, and partly through childrens want of heed, who are apt to huddle over all Parts and Lessons alike, not observing what use they are to make of any one in particular, more then other; there is no sure foundation laid for the Master to build safely upon, which causeth him (if he be not very discreet) [Page 82] to cast off many boyes as unfit by him to be further wrought upon, or continually to fret, and grieve himself to see his Scho­lars so often mistake themselves in any Taske or Exercise that he setteth them about. And the poor children, being all this while sensible of their own imperfect­ness in the first Grounds, are daunted to see their Master so often angry with them, and that they are no better able to per­form their work to his better satisfaction, which they would gladly do, if they did but a little understand how to go about it. Some also preconceiting a greater difficulty to be in learning, then they have hitherto met withall, and not knowing how to encounter it, become utterly dis­couraged with the thoughts of a new change, and chuse rather to sorsake the School, then proceed to obtain the Crown of their by-past labours; I mean the sweetness of learning, which they are now to gain under the Master; For after children are once well grounded by the Vsher, they will go on with ease & cheerfulness under the Master, delighting to read pure Lan­guage, and variety of matter in choyce Au­thours, and to excercise their wits in curious phansies: and it will be an extraordinary comfort to the Master, to see his Scholars [Page 83] able to run on of themselves, if he but once show them the way to perform any Task that he propoundeth to them. It is necessary therefore for the Master, before he take Scholars to his onely charge, to see first, that they understand the Rudiments, or Grounds of Grammar, and then the whole Grammar it self, and that they can thorowly practise them; but especially, to help those in the understanding and exercise thereof, that by reason of sickness, or the like ac­cident have bin oftner absent, or that have not been so long at the School as their fel­lowes, or who by reason of their age or stature, will quickly think it a shame to be left under the Usher behinde the rest. Now to try whether a childe be well grounded or not, this course may be taken;

1. Let him take some easie Fable in Aesop, or any other piece of familiar La­tine, and let him construe it of himself ac­cording to the directions given in my Grounds of Grammar, l. 2. c. 13.

2. Then let him write down the Eng­lish alone, leaving a large space betwixt every line, wherein he should afterwards write the Latine words answerable to the English; ex gr.

De sene vocante mortem.

Of an old man calling Death.

[Page 84] AnNote: Quidam old-man,Note: senex carryingNote: partans a bundleNote: faescem of sticksNote: lignorum uponNote: super his shoulders,Note: humoros out ofNote: ex a Forest,Note: nemore, whenNote: cum he was wearyNote: defessus esset with the long way,Note: longa via, calledNote: vocavit death,Note: mortem, the bundleNote: fasco being laid downNote: deposito on the ground.Note: humi. Behold!Note: Ecce! deathNote: mors cometh,Note: advenit, andNote: & askethNote: rogat the causeNote: causam whyNote: quamobrem he had calledNote: vocaverat him;Note: se. Thē Note: Tunc the old mā Note: senex saith,Note: ait, thatNote: ut thou migh­test layNote: impo­neres thisNote: hunc bundleNote: fascem of sticksNote: lignorum▪ uponNote: super my shoulders.Note: hu­meros.

3. Let him next tell you what part of speech every word is as well English as Latine, and write them down (as I have also shewed formerly) under so many fi­gures, joyning the English signes to the words to which they belong; beginning to reckon, and pick up first all the Nouns, and then the rest orderly, after this manner.

  • [Page 85]Senex an old man.
  • Fascem a bundle.
  • Lignorum of sticks.
  • Humeros shoulders.
  • Nemore a forest.
  • Longa long.
  • Via a way.
  • Mortem death:
  • Fasce the bundle.
  • Humi on the ground.
  • Mors death.
  • Causam the cause.
  • Quidam an or one:
  • Se him
  • Hunc this.
  • Defessus esset, was weary.
  • Vocavit, called.
  • Advenit cometh.
  • Vocaverat, had called.
  • Rogat, asketh.
  • Imponeres thou mightest lay.
  • Ait saith.
  • Portans carrying.
  • Deposito being laid.
  • Que and.
  • Quamobrem wherefore.
  • Vt that.
  • Super upon.
  • Ex out of.

4. Let him decline any one or more Nounes, and Conjugate any one or all the Verbs throughout; and then write them down at large, according to what I have formerly directed, and is practised in part in Merchant-Tailors Schoole, as is to be seen in the Probation Book lately printed by my noble friend, and most actively able Schoole-master, Mr. W. Dugard; onely I would have him joyne the Eng­lish together with the Latine.

5. Let him give the Analysis of any word first at large by way of question and answer, and then summe it up in short, as to say, or write it down thus;

The Analysis of a Noun Substantive.

What part of Speech is Lignorum of sticks.

Lignorum of sticks, is a Noun.

Why is lignorum a Noun?

Because lignum a stick is the name of a thing that may be seen.

Whether is lignorum a noun Substan­tive, or a noun Adjective?

Lignorum is a noun Substantive, because it can stand by it self in signification, and requireth not another word to be joyned with it, to shew its signification.

Whether is lignorum a noun Substan­tive proper, or a noun Substantive common.

Lignorum is a noun Substantive com­mon, because it is common to more sticks then one.

Of what number is lignorum?

Lignorum is of the plurall number, be­cause it speaketh of more then one.

Of what case is lignorum?

Lignorum of sticks, is of the Genitive case, because it hath the token of, and an­swereth to the question whereof, or of what?

Of what Gender is lignorum?

Lignorum is of the Neuter Gender, be­cause it is declined with this Article Hoc.

[Page 88] Why is lignorum declined with this Ar­ticle Hoc?

Because all nounes in um, are Neuters, according to the Rule in Propria quae ma­ribus, Omne quod exit in um, &c. or Et quod in on vel in um fiunt. &c.

Of what Declension is lignorum?

Lignorum is of the second Declension, because its Genitive case singular end­eth in i.

How is lignorum declined?

Lignorum is declined like regnorum; thus.

Sing Nom. Hoc lignum, Gen. hujus ligni, &c.

Lignorum is a noun Substantive com­mon, of the Plurall number, Genitive case, Neuter Gender, and second Declension, like Regnorum.

The Analysis of a Noun Adjective.

What Part of Speech is Longâ long?

Longâ is a Noun.

Why is longâ a Noun?

Because it is the name of a thing that may be understood.

Whether is longâ a noun Substantive, or a noun Adjective?

Longâ is a noun Adjective, because it [Page 89] cannot stand by it self in signification, but requireth to be joyned with another word, as, longâ viâ, with the long way.

Of what number is longâ?

Longâ is of the singular number, because its Substantive vià is of the singular number.

Of what case is longâ?

Longâ is of the Ablative case, because its Substantive viâ is of the Ablative case.

Of what Gender is longâ?

Longâ is of the Feminine Gender, be­cause its Substantive viâ is of the Femi­nine Gender.

Of what Declension is Longâ?

Longâ is of the first Declension. How is longâ declined?

Longâ is declined like Bonâ. Sing. Nom. Longus, a, um.

By what Rule can you tell that longâ is of the Feminine Gender?

By the Rule of the Genders of Adje­ctives, At si tres variant voces, &c.

Longâ is a noun Ajective, of the singular number, Ablative case, and Feminine Gender, declined like Bonâ.

The Analysis of a Pronoun.

What part of Speech is Se him.

Se is a Pronoun, because it is like to a noun, or put insted of the noun mortem, death.

What kinde of Pronoun is se;▪

Se is a Pronoun Primitive, because it is not derived of another.

Of what number is se?

Se it of the singular number, because it speaketh but of one.

Of what case is se.

Se is of the Accusative case, because it followeth a verb, and answereth to the Question whom?

Of what Gender is se?

Se is of the Feminine Gender, because the noun mortem, that it is put for, is of the Feminine Gender.

Of what Declension is se?

Se is of the first declension of Pro­nounces, and it is thus declined. Sing. & Plur. Nom caret. Gen. sui, &c.

Of what person is se?

Se is of the third person, because its spoken of:

Se is a Pronoun Primitive, of the Sin­glur number, the Accusative case, Fe­minine [Page 91] Gender, first declension, and third person.

The Analysts of a Verb.

What part of Speech is imponeres, thou mightest lay upon?

Imponeres is a verb, because it signify­eth to do.

What kinde of verb is imponeres?

Imponeres is a verb Personal, because it hath three persons.

What kinde of verb Personal is imponeres?

Imponeres is a verb Personal Active, be­cause it endeth in o, and betokeneth to do, and by putting to r it may be a Passive.

Of what Mood is imponeres?

Imponeres is of the Subjunctive Mood, because it hath a Conjunction joyned with it, and dependeth upon another verb going before it.

Of what tense is imponeres?

Imponeres, is of the Preterimperfect tense, because it speaketh of the time not perfectly past.

Of what number▪ is imponeres?

Imponeres, is of the singular number be­cause its nominative case is of the singu­lar number.

Of what person is imponeres?

[Page 92] Impnoeres is of the second person, be­cause its nominative case is of the second person.

Of what Conjugation is imponeres?

Imponeres is of the third Conjugation, like legeres, because it hath e short before re and ris.

How do you conjugate imponeres?

Impono, imponis, imposui, imponere; imponendi, imponendo, imponendum; impos­tum, impositu; imponens, impositurus.

Why doth impono make imposui? Because Praeteritum dat idem, &c. Why doth imposui make impositum?

Because Compositum ut simplex forma­tur, &c.

Imponeres is a verb Personal Active, of the Subjunctive Mood, Preterimperfect tense, Singular number, Second Person, and third Conjugation, like legeres.

The Analysis of a Participle.

What part of Speech is Deposito, being laid down?

Deposito is a Participle, derived of the verb Depono to lay down.

Of what number is deposito?

Deposito, is of the Singular number, be­cause its Substantive fasce is of the Singular number.

[Page 93] Of what Gender is deposito?

Deposito is of the Masculine Gender, be­cause its Substantive fasce is of the Mascu­culine Gender.

By what Rule can you tell that deposito is of the Masculine Gender?

At si tres variant voces, &c.

Of what case is deposito?

Deposito is of the Ablative case, because its Substantive fasce is of the Ablative case.

How is deposito declined?

Like Bonus a Noun Adjective, of three diverse endings; Sing. Nom. Depositus, de­posita, depositum.

Of what Tense is Deposito?

Of the Preter tense, because it hath its English, ending in d, and its Latine in tus.

How is depositus formed?

Of the latter Supine Depositu, by put­ting to s.

Deposito is a Participle, of the Singular number, Masculine Gender, Ablative case, and is declined like Bonus, being of the Preter tense, and formed of the Later Su­pine, of the verb Depone.

The Analysis of an Adverb.

What part of Speech is Cùm when? Cùm is an Adverb, because it is joyned to the verb defessus esset, to declare its signi­fication. What siginification hath Cùm?

Cùm hath the signification of Time.

But why is not Cùm a Preposition in this place?

Because it hath not a casuall word to serve unto.

Cùm is an Adverb of time.

The Analysis of a Conjunction.

What part of Speech is que and? Que is a Conjugation, because it joyneth words together.

What kinde of Conjunction is que?

Que is a Conjunction Copulative, be­cause it coupleth both the words and sense.

Que is a Conjunction Copulative.

The Analysis of a Praeposition.

What Part of Speech is ex out of? Ex is a Praeposition, because it is set before [Page 95] another part of Speech in Apposition, as ex nemore out of a Forest.

What case doth ex serve to? Ex serveth to the Ablative case.

Ex is a Preposition serving to the Ab­lative case.

6. Having thus tried your young Scho­lar, how he understandeth the Introduction or first part of his Accidents, (for whom, if you finde him expert therein, one exam­ple may serve, but if not, you may yet make use of more, untill he can perfectly and readily give you an account of any word) you may further make triall, how he understandeth the Rules of Concordance, and construction in the second part of the Ac­cidents, by causing him to apply the Rules to every word, as he meeteth with it in the Grammatical order, thus;

Quidam is of the Nominative case, Sin­gular number, and Masculine Gender, and agreeth with its Substantive Senex, because the Adjective, whether it be a Noun, Pronoun, or Participle, agreeth with its Substantive, &c.

Senex is the Nominative case coming before vocavit, (which is the Principal verb) because the word that answereth to the question who, or what? shall be the Nominative case to the verb, and shall be set before the verb.

[Page 96] Portans is of the Nominative case, Sin­gular number, and Masculine Gender, and agreeth with its Substanlive senex, because the Adjective, whether it be a Noun, &c.

Fascem is of the Accusative case go­verned of Portans, because Participles go­vern such cases, &c.

Lignorum is of the Genitive case, go­verned of fascem, because when two Sub­stantives come together, &c.

Super is a Preposition, which serveth to both the Accusative and the Ablative case; but here it serveth to the Accusative.

Humeros is of the Accusative case, go­verned of the Preposition super.

Ex is a Preposition, which serveth to an Ablative case.

Nemore is of the Ablative case, governed of the Preposition ex.

Cùm is an Adverb of Time. Defessus esset is of the Singular number, and third person, and agreeth with its Nomi­native case ill [...] understood, because, A verb Personal agreeth with, &c.

Longâ is of the Ablative case, Singular number, and Feminine Gender, and agreeth with its Substantive viâ, because the Adjective whether it be, &c.

Viâ is of the Ablative case governed of [Page 97] defessus esset, because All verbs require an Ablative case of the instrument, &c.

Vocavit is of the singular number, and third person, and agreeth with its Nominative case senex, because A verb Personal, &c.

Mortem is of the Accusative case, and followeth the verb vocavit, because verbs transitives are all such, &c.

Fasce is of the Ablative case absolute, because a Noun or Pronoun Substantive joyned with a Participle, &c.

Deposito is of the Ablative case, Singu­lar number, and Masculine Gender, and agreeth with its Substantive fasce, because The Adjective whether it be, &c.

Humi is of the Genitive case, because These Nouns Humi, domi, &c.

Ecce is an Adverb of shewing.

Mors is the Nominative case coming before the verb advent, because The word that answereth to the question who or what? &c.

Advenit is of the singular number and third person, and agreeth with its Nominative case mors, because A verb Personal, &c.

Que is a Conjunction Copulative.

Rogat is of the Indicative Mood, and Present tense, because Conjunctions Co­pulatives [Page 98] and Disjunctives most commonly, &c.

Causam is of the Accusative case, and followeth the verb rogat, because verbs Transitives are all such, &c.

Quamobrem is an Adverb of asking.

Vocaverat is of the singular number, and third person, and agreeth with its Nominative case ille understood, be­cause A verb Personal agreeth, &c.

Se is of the Accusative case, and fol­loweth the verb vocaverat, because verbs Transitives are all such, &c.

Tunc is an Adverb of Time.

Senex is the Nominative case coming before the verb ait, because the word that answereth to the question who or what? &c

Ait is of the singular number, and the third person, and agreeth with its No­minative case senex, because a Verb Per­sonal, &c.

Vt is a Conjunction causal

Imponeres is of the Singular number, and second person, and agreeth with its Nominative case tu understood, because A verb Personal, &c.

Hunc is of the Accusative case, Singu­lar number, and Masculine Gender, and agreeth with its Substantive fascem, be­cause [Page 99] the Adjective whether it be, &c.

Fascem is of the Accusative case, and followeth the verb imponeres, because verbs Transitives, &c.

Lignorum is of the Genitive case go­verned of fascem, because When two Sub­stantives, &c.

Super is a Preposition, which here ser­veth to an Accusative case.

Humeros is of the Accusative case, be­cause super is a Preposition serving to an Accusative case.

7. Try him yet a little further, by cau­sing him to turn an English into Latin in imitation of this Fable, and to observe the Artificial order in placing all the words, ex. gr.

A woman bearing a basket of plums upon her head out of a garden, when she was wea­ry with the heavie burden, sate down, ha­ving set her basket upon a bulke. Behold! a boy came to her, and asked her, if she would give him any plums. Then the woman said; I will give thee a few, if thou wilt help me to set this basket upon my head.

Quaedam mulier prunorum calathum super caput ex horto portans, cum gravi onere de­fessa esset, calatho super scamnum posito, dese­dit. Ecce! Puer advenit, numque daret sibi pruna rogavit. Tunc mulier pauca tibi dabo, [Page 100] siquidem opem mihi feres, ut hunc calathum super caput meum imponam, ait.

When you have found a childe suffi­ciently expert in the Rudiments, go on also to try how far he understandeth the whole Art of Grammar by this or the like Praxis.

1. Let him take a piece of one of Ca­stalions Dialogues, or the like easie piece of Latine, and write it down according to his book, but as he writeth it, let him divide every word of more syl­lables, according to the Rules of right spelling, and give you an ac­count of every letter, and syllable, and note of distinction, according to the Rules of Orthography, and of every Accent that he meeteth withall, as also of the Spirits and Quantities of Sylla­bles, according to the Rules in Proso­dia, ex. gr.

Serpens. Eva.

S. Cur ve-tu-it vos De-us ve-sci ex o-mni-bus ar-bo-ribus po-ma-ri-i? E. Li-cet no-bis ve-sci fru-cti-bus ar-bo-rum po-ma-ri-i; tan-tum De-us no-bis in-ter-di-xit e-a ar-bo-re, quae est in me-di-o po-ma-ri-o, ne ve-sce-re-mur fru-ctu e-jus, ne-ve e-ti-am at-tin-ge-re-mus, ni-si vel-le-mus [Page 101] mo-ri. S. Ne-qua-quam mo-ri-e-mi-ni pro-pte-re-a, sed scit De-us, si com-e-de-ri-tis de e-o, tum o-cu-los vo-bis a-per-tum i-ri, at-que i-ta vos fo-re tan-quam De-os, sci-en-tes boni, at-que ma-li. I-ta pla-ne vi-de-tur, & fru-ctus i-pse est pul-cer sa-nè vi-su: ne-sci-o an sit i-ta dul-cis gu-sta-tu; ve-run-ta-men ex-pe-ri-ar.

Now if you ask him, why he writeth Serpens, Eva, Cur, Deus Nequaquam, and Ita with great letters, and all the other words with little letters; he can tell you (if he ever learned or minded his Rules) that Proper names, beginnings of Sentences, and words more eminent then o­thers, are to begin with a great letter, and in other places small letters are to be used. If you ask him, why he spelleth ve-tu-it and not vet-u-it, he will say, because a consonant set betwixt two vowels, be­longeth to the latter.

If you ask him why he spelleth ve-sci, and not▪ ves-ci; he will answer you, be­cause consonants which can be joyned in the beginning of a word must not be parted in the middle of it.

If you ask him why he spelleth ar-bo-ri-bus, and not a-rbo-ri-bus, he will tell you, because consonants which cannot be [Page 102] joyned in the beginning of a word, must be parted in the middle of it.

If you ask him why he spelleth vel-le-mus, and not ve-llemus, nor vell-emus, he will tell you, because if a consonant be doubled, the first belongeth to the fore-going, and the latter to the following syllable.

If you ask him why he spelleth com-e-de-ri-tis, and not co-me-de-ri-tis, he will tell you because in words compounded, every part must be separated from another; and if you again ask him concerning the same syllable, why it is com and not con, seeing the verb is compounded of con and edo; he will answer you, be­cause in words compounded with a Preposi­tion, we must respect the ear, and good sound.

Likewise if you proceed to examine him touching the notes of distinction, why one is made, and not another; he will tell you, that a Comma (,) distingui­sheth the shorter parts of a sentence, and stay­eth the breath but a little while in reading; that a Colon (:) divideth a Period in the middle, and holdeth the breath somewhat long; that a Semicolon (;) stayeth the breath longer then a comma, but not so long as a Colon; that a Period (.) is made at the end of a per­fect sentence, where one may give over [Page 103] reading, if he will; and that an Interroga­tion (?) denoteth that there is a question to be asked.

If you examine him touching the Ac­cents, why there is a grave Accent in tan­tùm, he will tell you, it is to make it being an adverb, to differ from a noun; and that because of contexture of words, the ac­cent which ought to have been an acute, is turned into a grave.

If you ask him, why there is a cir­cumflex accent in eâ, he will tell you, it is to denote that eâ, is of the Ablative case singular, which hath â long.

And if you ask him why ne've hath an acute accent; he will tell you that ne' hath changed its grave accent into an accute, because the Participle ve hath inclined its own accent into it.

If you ask him why omnibus arboribus are not sharply uttered; he will tell you, because they do not begin with h, which is the note or letter of Aspera­tion.

He will quickly shew you whether he understandeth his Rules touching the Quantities of Syllables, or not, by writing out a sentence or two, and marking the syllables of every word, in this manner;

[Page 104] Cūr vĕŭuit vōs Dĕūus vēscī ēx ōmnĭbŭs ārbŏrĭ­būs pōmāĭī? lĭcēt nōbīs vēscī frūctĭbŭs ārbŏ­rūm pōmārĭī tāntūm Dĕūs nōbī, ĭintērdīxĭt ĕā ā bō [...]ĕ, qūae ēst īn mĕdĭō pōmārĭō, nē ve­scĕ ēmūr f [...]ūctu ēūs, nēvĕ ĕtĭam ātrīngĕ ēmūs, nĭ [...]ĭ vēllēmus mŏri.

2. Let him cast the words of his Au­thour into the Grammatical order, and analyse every one of them exactly ac­cording to Etymology, and Syntaxis which is the usuall way of parsing) after this manner.

Cur Deus vetuit vos vesci ex omnibus ar­boribus pomarii? licet nobis vesci fructibus arborum pomarii; tantùm Deus interdixit nobis eâ arbore, quae est in medio pomario, ne vesceremur fructu ejus, ne've etiam attinge­remus, nisi vellemus mori.

Cur is an Adverb of asking.

Deus is a Noun Substantive Common, of the Singular number, Nominative case, Masculine Gender (because Mascu­la in er, &c.) of the second Declension, Sing. Nom. hic Deus, Gen. hujus Dei. &c.

It maketh its Vocative case o Deus, and wa [...]teth the Plural number, because De­us verus caret plurali. It cometh before the verb vetuit.

Vetuit is a verb personal neuter, of the [Page 105] Indicative mood, Preterperfect tense, singular number, and third person, be­cause it agreeth with its Nominave case Deus, by the Rule Verbum Personale cohaeret, &c. It is of the first Conjugation, Veto, vetas, vetui; (veto quod vetui dat) vetare; vet­andi, vetando, vetandum, vetitum, ve­titu; (Quod dat ui dat itum) vetans veti­turus.

Vos is a Pronoun Primitive, of the Plurall number, the Accusative case, the Masculine Gender, and the first Declen­sion. Sing. Nom Tu, Gen. tui, &c. It hath the Vocative case, Et Praenomina prae­ter &c. It is the Accusative case after ve­tuit, because verba Transitiva, &c.

Vesci is a verb Deponent like legi. Ves­cor, vesceris, vel vescere, pastus sum vel fui, vesci pastus vescendus; because Sic Poscunt vescor, medeor, &c. It is of the Infinitive mood, and Present Tense, without num­ber and Person, and is governed of v [...]tuit, because Q [...]ibusdam tum verbis, &c.

Ex is a Preposition serving to the Ab­lative case.

Omnibus is a Noun Adjective of three Articles, like Tristibus Hic, & haec om­nis, & hoc omne, because sub geminâ, &c.

It is of the plural number, the Abla­give [Page 106] case, and Feminine Gender, and agreeth with its Substantive Arboribus, because Adjectivum cum Substantivo, &c.

Arboribus is a Noun Substantive Com­mon, like Lapidibus, Sing. Nom. haec Ar­bor, Gen. hujus arboris, &c. Grando, fides, &c. It is of the Ablative case, Singular num­ber, Feminine Gender, and third De­clension, governed of ex the Preposition, which requireth an Ablative case.

Pomarii is a Noun Substantive Com­mon, like Regni. Sing. Nom. hoc Poma­rium, Gen. hujus pomarii, &c. Omne quod exit in um, &c. It is of the Singular num­ber, the Genitive case, the Neuter Gen­der, and second Declension, and is go­verned of the Substantive Arboribus, be­cause Quum duo Substantiva, &c.

Licet is a verb Impersonal declined in the third person singular only, Licet, licebat, licuit & licitum est, &c. Et licet adde, Quod licuit, licitum. It is of the In­dicative mood, Present tense, singular number, and third Person, and hath no Nominative case, because Impersonalia praecedentem, &c.

Nobis is a Pronoun Primitive, of the Plural number, Dative case, Masculine Gender, and first Declension. Sing. Nom. Ego, Gen. mei, It wants the Vo­cative [Page 107] case, because Et Pronomina, &c. and is governed of licet, because In Da­tivum feruntur, &c.

Vesci, ut supra.

Fructibus is a Noun Substantive Com­mon, like manibus. Sing. Nom. hic Fru­ctus, Gen. hujus Fructus, &c. Mascul [...] in er, &c. It is of the Ablative case, Plural number, Masculine Gender, and fourth Declension, governed of vesci, because Fungor, fruor, utor, &c.

Arborum ut supra in Arboribus, It is of the Genitive case plural, governed of fru­ctibus, because Quum duo Substantiva, &c.

Pomarii ut suprá.

Tantùm is an Adverb of quantity, made of an Adjective of the Neuter Gen­der, because Aliquando neutra Adjecti­va, &c▪

Deus ut suprá, but here it cometh be­fore the verb interdixit.

Interdixit is a verb Personal Active, compounded of inter and dico, conjuga­ted like legit, Interdico, is, xi, because Pr [...]teritum dat idem, &c. interdixi, inter­dictum, because Compositum ut simplex, &c. It is of the Indicative mood, Preter­perfect tense, Singular number, and third person, and agreeth with its No­minative [Page 108] case, Deus, because Verbum Personale, &c.

Nobis, ut suprá, but here it is the Dative case governed of interdixit, because Da­tivum postulant, &c.

is a Pronoun Primitive of the se­cond Declension, Sing. Nom is, ea, id. Gen, ejus, &c. It is of the Singular number, Ablative case, and Feminine Gender, and agreeth with its Substan­tive arbore, because Ad eundem modum, &c.

Arbore ut suprá, but here it is the Abla­tive case singular governed of interdixit, which verb doth often govern a Dative case with an Ablative, though we have no expresse Rule for it in our Gram­mar.

Quae is a Pronoun Relative, of the se­cond Declension. Sing. Nom. Qui, quae, quod. Gen. cujus, &c. It is of the singular number, Femine Gender, and third Person, and agreeth therein with its Antecedent arbore, because Relativum cum Antecedente, &c. It is of the Nominative case, and cometh before the verb est, because Q [...]oties nullus Nominativus, &c.

Est is a verb Personal neuter Substan­tive, having a proper manner of de­clining, Sum, es, fui, &c. because, Et à [Page 109] fuo sum fui. It is of the Indicative mood Present tense, singular number, and third person, and agreeth with its No­minative case Quae, because Verbum Per­sonale, &c.

In is a Praeposition serving to the Ab­lative case.

Medio is a Noun Adjective of three terminations, like Bono; Sing. Nom Medius, media, medium, &c.

At si tres variant voces, &c. It is of the Ablative case, Neuter Gender, and Sin­gular number, and agreeth with its Sub­stantive, Pomario because Adjectivum cum Substantivo. Pomario ut suprá, but here it is of the Ablative case, because in is a Pre­position serving to the Ablative case.

Ne is an Adverb of forbidding, and governeth a Subjunctive mood. Ne pro­hibendi, &c▪

Vesceremur, [...]t suprá in vesci; but here it is of the Subjunctive mood, preter­imperfect tense, plural number, and first person, like legeremur, and agreeth with its nominative case nos, which is not expressed, because Nontinativus pri­mae vel secundae personae, &c.

Fructu, ut suprá; but here it is of the Ablative case singular, governed of vesce rem [...]r, because Fungor, fruor, &c.

[Page 110] Ejus, ut suprà in eâ; but here it is of the Genitive case singular, and Femi­nine Gender, governed of fructu, be­cause Quum duo Substantiva, &c. Here note that ejus is a Relative, and agree­eth with its Antecedent Arboris, under­stood.

Ne've consisteth of two words, whereof ne is an Adverb of forbidding, and ve is an inclinative conjunction.

Etiam is a Conjunction copulative.

Attingeremus is a verb Personal Active, like legeremus It is compounded of Ad and tango, and maketh at for ad for bet­ter sound sake, and tingo for tango, be­cause Haec habeo, lateo, &c. It maketh the Preterperfect tense attigi and not atteti­gi because Sed syllaba semper &c. and the Supines attactum, attactu, because Compo­positum ut simplex, &c. It is of the Subjun­ctive mood, Preterimperfect tense, plu­ral number, and first person, and agree­eth with its Nominative case nos, which is understood, because Nominativus primae vel secundae person [...], &c.

Nisi is a Conjunction exceptive, and serveth to a Subjunctive mood, Ni, nisi, si, siquidem, &c.

Vell [...]mus is a verb Personal neuter ir­regular, Volo, vis, volui, because lo fit, [Page 111] ui, &c. Supinis care [...], because, Psallo, volo, nolo, &c. It is of the Subjunctive mood, Preterimperfect tense, plural number, and first person, and agreeth with its Nominative case nos, which is under­stood, because Nominativus primae, &c.

Mori is a verb Personal Deponent of the third Conjugation, like legi. Morior, moreris vel morere, mortuus sum vel fui, (mo­riórque mortuus) mori, moriens, mor­tuus, moriturus. It is of the Infinitive mood, having neither number, nor person, nor nominative case, and is governed of Vellemus, because Quibusdam tum verbis, &c.

Thus let every particular boy in a form, practise a while by himself upon a several piece of Latine, and it will shew you plainly what he is able to do, and make that the most negligent and heed­lesse amongst them, shall know how to make perfect use of his whole Grammar, though (perhaps) for all you could do to him, he never heeded it before.

What I have hitherto mention­ed touching the well gounding of children, hath chiefly respect unto Lilies Grammar, which is yet constantly made use of in most Schools in England; and from which I think it not good for [Page 112] any Master to decline, either in a pri­vate or publique course of Teaching, for these reasons following.

1▪ Because no man can be assured, that either his Scholars will stick to him, or that he shall continue with them, till he have perfectly trained them up by another Grammar.

2 Because, if children be made to change their Grammars, as often as they use to change their Masters (espe­cially in a place where many Schooles are) they will be like those that runne from room to room in a Labyrinth, who know not whether they go back­ward or forward, nor which way to take towards the door; I mean, they may be long conversant in Grammar books, and never understand the Art it self.

3. Because I have known many, and those men of excellent abilities for Grammar-learning, who having endea­vored to proceed by an easier way, then Lilies is, have been quite decried by the generality of them that hold to the Common-Grammar, and have had much adoe to bear up the credit of their School, though their Scholars have been found to make very good Profici­ency, and more then others.

[Page 113] 4. Because, when a Master hath grounded a Scholar never so well, if he (in hopes of an exhibition or Scholar­ship, or other preferment to be had) be removed from him to one of our greater Schooles, he shall be made pro formâ, to get Lilies Grammar by heart, and to neglect what he hath formerly learned, as unnecessary and uselesse.

5. Because children in their tender age are generally like leaking vessels, and no sooner do they receive any in­structions of Grammar, but they forget them as quickly, till by frequent repe­titions and examinations, they be rev [...] ­ted into them, and by assiduity of long practice brought to an habit, which cannot be bred in them under two or three yeares time; in which space they may be as well habituated and per­fected by Lilies Grammar as any other, according to the Plat-form of teaching it, which I have already shewed, and by means of those helps which I have published for the better explication of some parts of it.

Yet I do not deny, but a far easier way may be taken to teach children; First the grounds and Rudiments, and afterwards the whole Systeme of Gram­mar, [Page 114] then that which is generally now in use according to Lilie, whom after I had observed many eminent School-masters (who have published Grammars of their own) to condemn of many Tautologies, defects, and errours; and withall, to endevour to retain the sub­stance of his Grammar, I essayed my self to see what might be done in that kinde, with an especiall eye upon the slender capacities of children, with whom I had to do. And after triall made, that such instruments would for­ward my work, I was bold to publish first An easie entrance to the Latine tongue, and then The Latine Grammar fitted for the use of Schooles, which, how I have for sundry yeares taught, together with Lilies Grammar, I shall now briefly de­clare.

1. As children are going over the Accidents, and that part of the Grammar, which concerneth the Genders of nouns, and the Preterperfect tense, and Su­pines of verbs, I make them one day to peruse that part of the Grounds of Grammar, which concerneth the eight parts of Speech severally handled, and another day to read that which con­cerneth their construction, and every [Page 115] Saturday morning to run over their examination, which being but a Task of about half an hour, doth exceedingly help their understanding and memory in getting their every dayes parts, and keeping them in minde; especially if they be made sometimes to look upon their Synopsis's, and thereby to take no­tice how handsomely and orderly the Rules hang together.

2. Likewise, as children proceed in Lilies Grammar (which commonly is but very slowly, because it being all in Latine is hard to be understood, and be­ing somewhat long in learning, boyes are apt to forget one end of it, before they can come to another) I cause them to make use of the Latine Grammar, which I fitted to the use of Schooles together with it. This I usually divide into twelve or sixteen parts, (letting the Appendix alone till they understand all the rest) in read­ing of which I cause them to spend half an hour for the most part every day, and by comparing what they read with that in Lilies Grammar, I make them to ob­serve how what they learn in Lily, ought rightly to be placed, according to the true method of Grammar Art, which they see analysed in the Synopsis. They may first [Page 116] read it over in English only, and then in Latine and English together, and af­terwards only in Latine. And because frequent examination is a main expedient to fasten what is taught, I cause them every Saturday morning, to make use of Exa­minatio Latinae Grammaticae, (which is now lately printed) and let one boy ask the questions out of the Book, and the rest answer him orderly out of the Gram­mars in their hands. And this I finde, that a natural and clear method of teaching Grammar, is the best means that can be de­vised to open the understanding for the recei­ving, or to strengthen the memory for the re­taining of any instructions that can be given concerning it. And I judge that method to be most natural and easie, which doth at once lay open the subject that it trea­teth of, and enlighten a mean capacity to apprehend it on a suddain; and which hath withall a power in it self, that whether the discourse upon the matter be more contracted or enlarged, it can bring all that can be said of it un­der a few certain and general Heads, by way of Common-place; which being sure­ly kept in minde, all other documents depending on them, as particulars, will easily be remembred.

[Page 117] Thus have I freely imparted my thoughts touching the most familiar way that I have hitherto known (either by my Masters, or my own practice, or any thing that I have observed by read­ing, or converse with experienced School-masters) of teaching the Com­mon Grammar, and making use of these ordinary School-books in every form, which are taught in most Schooles in England. And because it belongs chiefly to the Vsher in most of our Grammar-Schools, to teach children to understand and make use of their Grammar, and by degrees to furnish them with proper words or good phrase, that they may be able of themselves to write or speak true Latine, or translate either way pretty elegantly, before they come under the Master; I call this part of my disco­very The Vshers duty, wherein he may plainly see how he ought to respect the end, the means, and the manner how to use every help or mean for the better dispatch of that which he is continually imployed about; viz. the well grounding of Children in Grammar learning: which may be done in three yeares, with the ordinary sort of boyes, even those of the meanest ca­pacity, if Discretion in every particular be used, which is beyond any directions that [Page 118] can be given. So that under the Usher I admit of three forms; The first of Enter­ers, The second of Practitioners, The third of Proficients in the knowledge of Grammar.

Having done therefore with ground­ing children, (whose inanimadvertency is the Teachers daily trouble (and not to mention their other infirmities) requi­reth, that they be held long in one and the same work, and be made ever and anone to repeat again what they former­ly learned) I shall next adde somewhat concerning teaching men at spare hours in private, with whom (by reason of their stronger capacities, and more use of reason) a far speedier course may be taken, and greater Proficiency may be made in half a year, then can be expe­cted from children in three years space. And what I shall here deliver is confirm­ed by that experiment which I have made with many young Gentlemen, for these eleven or twelve years together last past, in London; who being very sensi­ble of their own want of the Latine tongue, and desirous (if possibly) to at­tain it, have thought no cost nor pains too little to be employed for gaining of it, and yet in few moneths, they have [Page 119] either been so grounded, as to be able to help themselves in a plain Authour, in case they knew nothing before; or so perfected, as to grapple with the most difficult and exactest Authours, in case they had formerly but a smattering of the Language; and this they have ob­tained at leisure time, and at far lesse expense, then they now prize the jewel at, which they hav. In teaching of a man then, I require none of those helps, which I have provided for childrens uses, (though perhaps he may find bene­fit to himself by perusing them in pri­vate) only I desire him at the first to get an easie entrance to the Latine tongue, and by it I shew him as briefly, orderly and plainly as I can,

1. How he ought to distinguish words, so as to know what part of Speech any word is.

2. To tell what belongeth to every several Part of Speech.

3. To get the Examples of the Declen­sions & Conjugations very exactly, so as to know what any Noun or Verb signifi­eth, according to its Termination: and to store him with words, I advise him to peruse a Chapter in the Vocabulary (at least) once every day, and to observe the [Page 120] Latine names of such things as are com­mon in use, and better known to him.

4. Then I acquaint him with the most ge­neral Rules of Concordance and Constru­ction, and help him to understand them by sundry short examples appliable thereunto.

5. Last of all, I cause him to take some of the Collectanea, and help him to con­strue, parse, imitate, and alter them, untill he be able to adventure upon some easy Authour.

After he be thus made well acquainted with the Grounds of Grammar, I bid him to procure the Latine Grammar fitted for his use, as well as for Schooles; and toge­ther with it a Latine Testament, or Bible, and then I cause him to read over his Grammar (by as much at once as he can well peruse in halfe an houre) and be sure that he thorowly understand it; and after every one of the foure Parts of Gram­mar, I give him a Praxis of it; by exerci­sing whereof, he may easily know how to use his Rules, and where to find them.

When by this meanes he can tell what to do with his Grammar, I turn him to the La­tine Testament, (beginning with the first Chapter of Saint Johns Gospel, because it is most easy) and there I make him (by giving him some few directions, which he [Page 121] hath, together with his Grounds of Gram­mar) to learn to construe of himselfe six, eight, or ten verses, with the help of his English Bible; and to parse them exactly according to his Grammar, and by going over three or four Chapters, he will be able to proceed understandingly in his Latine Bible without help.

Which when he can do, I advise him to get Corderius English and Latine, where he is chiefly to take notice of the phrases, how they differ, in both languages, and to imitate here and there a Colloquie, to try what good Latine he can write or speak of himself. And now I commend to his own private reading, Dialogi Gallico Anglo-Latini, by D [...]gres, Dictionarium octo-lin­gue, or the Schoolmaster, Printed formerly by Michael Sparks, and Janua Linguarum, or rather Janua Latinae linguae, and the like; by perusal of which, together with Corde­rius, he may be furnished with copy of words and phrases, for common discourse in Latine. Afterwards I help him in reading Aesop's Fables, to consture and parse, and imitate a Period, or more in [...] of them, thereby to acquaint himself [...] the artificial manner of placing words. And when I see he dare adven­ture upon the Latine alone, I make him [Page 122] read Terence over and over, and to observe all the difficulties of Grammar that he meets in him, and after he is once Master of his stile, he will be pretty well able for any Latine Book, of which I allow him to take his choice.

VVhether he will read Tully, Pliny, Se­neca, or Lipsius for Epistles. Justin, Salust, Lucius Florus, or Caesar for History. Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, or Horace for Poetry.

And when I see he can read these un­derstandingly, I judge him able to peruse any Latine Authour of himself, by the help of Coopers Dictionary, and good Commentators, or Scholiasts.

These Authors which I have mentioned▪ are most of them in English; as also Livie Plinies natural History, Tacitus, and othe [...] excellent Books, which he may peruse to­gether with the Latine, and by comparing both Languages together, he may become very expert in both. Yet I would advis [...] him to translate some little Books of him­self; First out of Latine into English, and then out of English into Latine, which will at once furnish him with all points o [...] Grammar, and the right use and orderi [...] of words, and in a short time bring [...] to the like eloquence.

Mr. Ascham commendeth Tully de sen­ctute, [Page 123] and his Epistles. Ad Quintum Fratrem, & ad Lentulum, for this purpose.

If he would exercise himself in Ora­tory or Poetry, I suppose his best way is to imitate the most excellent pieces of ei­ther, that he findes in the best and purest Authors, (especially Tully and Virgil) till he can do well of himself Horace and Buchanan's Psalms will sufficiently store him with variety of Verses.

And now if one should ask me before I conclude this Book, and begin with the next, whether it be not possible for men or children to learn Latine, as well as English, without Grammar-Rules.

I answer. First, that it is hardly possi­ble, because the Latine tongue is not so fa­miliarly spoken, as English; which is gotten only by hearing and imitation.

2. That it is not the better way, partly because they that are well acquainted with Grammar, know when they or others speak well, and when they speak ill; where­as they that are ignorant of the Rules, take any Latine for good, be it never so barba­rous, or full of Solaecismes, and partly, be­cause they that are skilful in Grammar, are able to doe something in reading Au­thours, or translating, or writing Epistles, [Page 124] or the like, by themselves; whereas they that learne Latine without any Rule, are able to do nothing surely if their Teacher be away. Besides, if the Latine be once well gotten by Rule, it is not so apt to be forgotten; as if it be learned only by rote, be­cause the learner is at any time able to re­cover what he hath lost by the help of his own intellect, having the habit of Gram­mar in his mind. Yet (I conceive) it is the readiest way to the gaining of this Language; to joyn assiduity of speaking and reading, and writing, and especially double translating to the Rules; for as the one affordeth us words and phrase, and the other directs us how to order them for a right speech; so the exercise of both will at last beget such an Habit in us, that we may increase our ability to speak and understand pure Latine, though (perhaps) the Rules of Grammer, be forgotten by us.

Having here done with the Vshers Duty, I shall (God willing) go on to discover the Masters Method in every particular, according to what I have either practised my self, or observed from others of my profession. And I hope this my slender discovery will excite some of greater pra­ctise and experience, to commit also to [Page 125] publick their own observations; by whom if I may be convinced, that I have any where gone in an erroneous way, I shall willing­ly retract my course, and endevour to stere by any mans Chart, that I finde more caste and sure, to direct me. In the mean time, I commit my little vessel to the waters all alone, and desire God, that whatever Dangers attend it, he would so protect and prosper it, that it may safely arrive to the Port which I chiefly aim at; viz. the honour and service of his divine Majesty, and the benefitting of both Church and Common wealth, in the good education of children.


THE MASTERS METHOD, OR THE Exercising of Scholars In GRAMMARS, Authours, and Exercises; GREEK, LATINE, and HEBREW. By C. H.

LONDON, Printed by J. T. for Andrew Crook, at the Green Dragon in Pauls Church-yard; 1659.

CHAP. 1.

How to make the Scholars of the fourth Form very perfect in the Art of Grammar, and E­lements of Rhetorick; & how to enter them upon Greek in an easy way. How to practise them (as they read Terence, and Ovid de Tristibus, and his Metamorphosis, and Janua Latinae linguae, and Sturmius, and Textor's Epistles) in getting Copy of words, and learning their Derivations and Differences, and in varying phra­ses. How to shew them the right way of double translating, and writing a most pure Latine style. How to acquaint them with all sorts of English and Latine verses, and to enable them to write faimi­liar and elegant Epistles either in Eng­lish or Latine, upon all occasions.

THe Vsher having throughly per­formed his Duty, so as to lay a sure foundation by teaching Gram­mar, and lower Authours and using other helps for mentioned, to acquaint his Scholars with the words, and order of the La­tine tongue, as well for speaking, as writing [Page 130] it: The Master may more cheerfully pro­ceed to build further, and in so doing, he should be as carefull to keep what is well got­ten, as diligent to adde thereunto. I would advise therefore, that the Scholars of this fourth form may,

1. Every morning read six or ten verses (as formerly) out of the Latine Testament into English, that thus they may be become well acquainted with the matter, and words of that most holy Book; and after they are acquainted with the Greek Testa­ment, they may proceed with it in like manner.

2. Every Thursday morning repeat a part out of the Latine Grammar, according as it is last divided, that by that meanes they may constantly say it over once every quar­ter. And because their wits are now ripe for understanding Grammar notions, where ever they meet with them, I would have them every one to provide a Paper-book of two quires in Quarto, in the beginning whereof, they should write the Heads of Grammar by way of common place, as they see it in my Latine Grammar, and ha­ving noted the pages, they should again write over the same Heads, (leaving a larger or lesse distance betwixt them, as they conceive they may finde more or lesse [Page 131] matter to fill them withall) in the leaves of their Book, and insert all niceties of Gram­mar that they finde, either in their daily lessons, or in perusing other Books at spare houres, especially such as either me­thodically, or critically treat of Grammar; amongst which I commend Mr. Brinsley's posing of the Accidents. The Animadversi­ons upon Lilies Grammar, Stockwoods dispu­tations, Mr. Pooles English Accidents, Hermes Anglo-Latinus, Phalerii Supplementa ad Grammaticam, Mr. Birds, Mr. Shirleyes, Mr. Burleyes, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Gregories, Mr. Haynes, Mr. Danes, Mr. Farnabies, and other late printed new Grammars, (which they may read in private one after another) will afford them several observations. As for Authores Grammaticae Antiqui, which are commonly printed together; Dispauterius, Linacer, Melancthon, Valerius, Alvarez, Rhe­mus, Sulpitius, Vossius, and the like, either ancient or modern, they may take the opportunity to read them, after they come to higher Forms, and pick out of them such pretty notes, as they have not for­merly met withall, and write them in their Common-place-booke. And because it may seem a needlesse labour for every Scholar to be thus imployed, and it is (almost) im­possible for one alone to procure so many [Page 132] Grammars, it were to be wished, that in eve­ry Schoole of note, there might be a Library, wherein all the best Grammars that can be gotten, might be kept, and lent to those boyes, that are more industriously addicted to Gram­mar Art, and which intend to be Scholars, that they may read them over, and refer what they like in them to its proper Head. And to en­courage them in so doing, the Master may do well at the first to direct them, and af­terwards at leisure times to cast an eye up­on their Books, and see what they have collected of themselves. But be sure that they keep their Paper-book fair, and that they write constantly in it, with a legible and even hand.

3. Thus they may have liberty to learn Rhetorick on Mondayes, Tuesdayes, and Wednesdayes, for morning Parts. And to enter them in that Art of fine speaking, they may make use of Elementa Rhetorices, lately printed by Mr. Dugard, and out of it learn the Tropes and Figures, according to the definitions given by Talaeus, and after­wards more illustrated by Mr. Butler. Out of either of which books, they may be helped with store of examples, to explain the De­finitions, so as they may know any Trope or Figure that they meet with in their own Authours. When they have throughly [Page 133] learnt that little book, they may make a Synopsis of it, whereby to see its order, and how every thing hangs together, and then write the Common place heads in a Paper-book (as I have mentioned before touching Grammar) unto which they may referre; whatever they like in the late English Rhetorick, Mr. Farnabies Index Rhetoricus, Susenbrotus, Mr. Hornes Compendium Rhe­torices, or the like, till they be better able to peruse other Authours, that more fully treat of the Art; as, Vossius's Partitiones Oratoriae. Orator extemporaneus, Tesmari exercitationes Rhetoricae, Nic. Caussinus. Paiot de elequentiâ, and many others; with which a School-Library should be very well furnished for the Scholars to make use on, accordingly as they increase in ability of learning.

These Elementa Rhetorices in their first going over, should be explained by the Master, and construed by the Scholars, and every example compared with its Defini­tion. And the Scholars should now be di­ligent of themselves to observe every Trop and Figure, that occurre in their present Authours, and when they say, to render it with its full definition, and if any be more eminent and worthy observation then others, to write it down in their Com­mon-place-book, [Page 134] and by this means they will come to the perfect understanding of them in a quarter of a yeares time, and with more ease commit it all to memory by constant parts, saying a whole Chapter together at once; which afterwards they may keep by constant Repetitions, as they do their Grammar.

4. When they have passed their Rheto­rick, you may let them bestow those hours, which they spent about it, in getting the Greek Grammar for morning parts. And because in learning this Language, as well as the Latine, we are to proceed by one Rule, which is most common and certain; I preferre Camdens Greek Grammar before any that I have yet seen, (though perhaps it be not so facill, or so compleat as some latelier printed, especially those that are set out by my worthy friends, Mr. Busbie of Westminster, and Mr. Dugard of Mer­chant Taylors Schoole) in the first going over of which, I would have them to re­peat onely the Greek letters, and their divisions, the Accents, and eight Parts of Speech, the Articles, Declensions, and Con­jugations, the Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Prepositions by several parts, as they are best able to get them, and to write down so much as they say at once in a fair Paper-book, [Page 135] very exactly observing and marking every Accent, and note of distinction. And this will quickly enable them to write or read Greek very truly, especially if they minde the abbreviated characters, which are now lately printed at the end of most of these Grammars. This work will take up about a quarter of a years time.

In the next half year, they may get over the whole Grammar in that order, as it is printed. And in the interim thereof, they may make use of their Greek Testament every morning after prayers, in like man­ner as they formerly used their Latine one. They may begin with the Gospel of S. John, which at the first you may help them to construe and parse verbatim, but after a while when they have gather­ed strength to do somewhat of themselves, you may let them make use of Pasors Le­xicon, which they will better do, by help of the Themes, which I caused to be printed in the Margent of the Greek Testament, which will lead them to Pasor, to see the Analy­sis of any word in the Testament. Mr. Dugard hath lately compleated his Lexi­con Graeci Testamenti Alphabeticum, unâ cum explicatione Grammaticâ vocum singula­rum in usum Tironum; nec non concordantia singulis vocibus apposita, in usum Theologiae [Page 136] canditatorum; which were it once com­mitted to the presse, as it now lyeth ready in his hand, would be a most excellent help to young Scholars, to proceed in the Greek Testa­ment of themselves, in an understanding and Grammatical way. And I hope it will not be long ere he publish it for common use. When they have gone over the Declensi­ons and Conjugations, and are able to write Greek in a very fair and legible character, let them write out the Para­digmes of every Declension and Conjuga­tion, and divide the moveable part of the words, from the Terminatious, as you may see it done in Mr. Dugards Rudi­menta Grammaticae Graecae. After they are thus acquainted with every particular example, they may write out all the De­clensions one by another, and the three voyces of the Verbs throughout all moods and tenses in all Conjugations, that so they may more readily compare them one by another, and see what Tenses are alike, or which are wanting in every voyce. If these things were drawn into Tables, to be hanged up in the Schoole, they would help the weaker boyes.

And to supply them with store of Nouns & Verbs, you may let them repeat as many nouns as they can wel get at once, out of Mr. [Page 137] Gregories Nomenclatura; and afterwards as many Sentences as they can wel say at once, out of Seidelius, or the latter end of Clavis Graecae linguae, by the repeating, construing and parsing, whereof they will learn all the Primitive words of the Greek Tongue, and be able to decline them. And thus they will be very well fitted to fall upon any approved Greek Authour, when they come into the next Form. But if you would have them learne to speak Greeke, let them make use of Posselius's Dialogues, or Mr. Shirleyes Introductorium, in English, Latine, and Greek. I commonly appoin­ted Tuesdayes and Thursdayes after­noones for this employment, before or af­after my Scholars had performed their other Tasks.

5. Terence, of all the School-Authours that we read, doth deservedly challenge the first place, not onely because Tully himself hath seemed to derive his elo­quence from him, and many noble Ro­mans are reported to have assisted him in making his Comedies; but also because that Book is the very quintessence of familiar Latine, and very apt to expresse the most of our Anglicismes withall. The matter of it is full of morality, and the several Actors therein, most lively seem to personate the [Page 138] behaviour and properties of sundry of the like sort of people, even in this age of ours. I would have the Scholars, therefore of this form to read him so thorowly, as to make him wholly their own. To help them in so doing, I have rendred a good part of it into English, answerable to the Latine line by line, in the adverse page, and I intend (God willing) ere long to compleat the whole, according to what I have formerly undertaken, and pro­mised.

This Authour I would have the Scholars to read constantly every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, for fore-noon Lessons, taking about half a page at once, till they begin to relish him, and then they will easily take more, and delight to be exercised in him in this manner.

1. Let them write out every Lesson very fair and exactly, as they see it printed be­fore them both in English and Latine. And this will be a means to perfect them in Orthography, and to imprint what they learn in that Authour in their mindes. They should have a Quarto Paper-book for this purpose, wherein nothing else should be written.

2. Let them translate about four or six lines Grammatically in a loose paper, that [Page 139] by this means they may better take no­tice of the way of construing.

3. Let them construe the whole Les­son both Grammatically, and accord­ing to the phrase, and this will acquaint them with the proprieties of both Tongues.

4. Let them parse it according to the Grammatical order, examining every word to the utmost of what Grammar teacheth concerning it, and this will make them thorowly to understand Lilie, and sometimes to consult other Grammars, where he comes short in a Rule.

5. Let them cull out the most signifi­cant words, and phrases, and write them in a Pocket-book, with figures re­ferring where to finde them in their Au­thour; and set them ever and anon be conning these by heart, because these (of all others) will stand them in most stead for speaking Latine, or writing Colloquies and Epistles.

In reading of this book, it is not amisse for the Master to minde his Scholars of the true decorum of both things and words, and how fitting they are for such persons to do or speak, as are there represented, and [Page 140] upon such occasions as they did, and spake them. As in Andria, they may observe not onely in generall, how apt young men are to be enticed, old men to chide, servants to deceive, &c. but more particularly they may see how some men are more apt to be carri­ed away by passion then others are, and how different their natures are some­times, though their age and breeding may be the same. Thus they shall finde Simo and Chremes, two old Citizens, the one pettish and apt to overshoot himself in many things, the other more cal me and circumspect, and therefore better able to pacify and advise others. Like­wise, they shall meet with two young Gentlemen, Pamphilus and Charinus, the one whereof, being very towardly and hopefull, was drawn away by ill com­pany, and thereby brought into much trouble of mind, betwixt a fear to of­fend his Father, and a care to make amends for his fault committed; but the other being rash and childishly dis­posed, is set upon what he desireth with such eagernesse, that he will have it, though it be impossible for him to ob­tain it, and he be utterly ignorant of using any meanes to come by it. But [Page 141] above all, they will laugh at the knave Davus, to read how he presuming upon his own cunning wit, displeaseth Sim [...], & ensnareth Pamphilus, and at last brings himself within the compasse of the lash. And, in this and other comedies, they may observe many remarkable sayings and actions, which will hint much to abundant matter of invention for fu­ture exercises. As when they hear Da­vus cry Hem astutias! Fie upon craft! they may take an occasion to enlarge upon the matter, as to say; One may quickly, perceive by Davus in Terence, what a mis­chievous wit will come to, that doth alwayes busie it self to circumvent and entrap others; for this fellow, after he had cozened his old Master, and unhappily taught his Masters son to tell his father a lie, and intangle himself in a double marriage, and saw his knavery could not help him to escape his own danger, was ready at last to hang himself; and though he came off pretty well with his young Master, by condemning himself, and asking forgive­nesse, and promising to amend the matter he had utterly spoyled; yet in the height of his jollity, the old man catcheth him at una­wares, and without hearing him to speak a word for himself, calleth for Dromo, and makes him hoise him up, and carry him away [Page 142] to the house of correction, and there to tye him neck and heels together, and whip him smartly for the roguery he had done. Such Dictates as these, the Master may give his Scholars sometimes to turn into pure Latine, till they be able to make the like of themselves. And this is indeed to make a true use of this excellent Au­thour, according to what Erasmus di­rects in his golden little book, de Ratione instituendi Discipulos, which is worth ones perusal, that is exercised in teaching youth.

When you meet with an Act or Scene that is full of affection, and action, you may cause some of your Scholars, af­ter they have learned it to act it, first in private amongst themselves, and after­wards in the open Schoole before their fellowes; and herein you must have a main care of their pronunciation, and acting every gesture to the very life. This acting of a piece of a Comedy, or a Colloquy sometimes, will be an excel­lent means to prepare them to pro­nounce Orations with a Grace, and I have found it an especiall remedy to ex­pell that subrustick bashfulnesse, and unresistable timorousnesse, which some children are naturally possessed withall, [Page 143] and which is apt in riper yeares to drown many good parts in men of sin­gular endowments.

6. Their after-noon parts, on Mon­days and Wednesdays, may be in Janua Latinae linguae; which book should be of­ten read over, because it will at once furnish them with the knowledge of words and things, into the reasons of which, they will now be more industri­ously inquisitive, then furmerly; because their present years do teach them to be more discursive in their understanding, as growing more towards men. And therefore in this book they should not onely first minde the signification, and Grammatical construction of words, but Secondly, endeavour to gain a Copy of good and proper words for expression of one and the same thing, as that they may not only tell you that domus but also aedes is Latine for a house, & that decor, and pulchritudo are Latine for beavty as well as forma; and in finding such Sy­nonyma's as these, they may be helped as well by Dictionaries, as by frequent reading. Thirdly, They may with eve­ry part bring a piece of the Index tran­ [...]ated into English. Fourthly, Because [...]hey must now begin to use their judge­ment [Page 144] in the right choyce of words, (when they finde many heaped toge­ther) it were not amisse to let them en­quire the Original out of Rider's Latine Dictionary, or Beckman do Originibus La­tinae linguae; and to consider the differen­ces that are betwixt words of the same signification; which they may learn out of Ausonius Popma, Laurentius Valla, Cornelius Fronto, Varro de linguâ Latinâ, and the like books fit to be kept in the Schoole Library.

7. On Tuesdaies and Thursdaies in the after-noons, I would have this Form employed in some of Tullies Epistles, (either those collected formerly by Stur­mius, or those of late made use of in Westminster Schoole) but Sturmius's I ra­ther prefer as more easie to begin with­all, the others may be used afterwards, together with Textors Epistles. And▪

1. I would have them be exercised in double translating these Epistles, so as to render many of them into good Eng­lish, and after a while to turn the same again into Latine, and to try how near they can come to their Authour in the right choice, and orderly placing of words in every distinct Period. And because the Authours style and expres­sion [Page 145] will in many particulars seem hard to those that have not formerly read some of his Epistles, I have thought good at first to give my Scholars a taste of an Epistolary style, by translating a Century of select Epistles, out of Tully and other choice Authours, making the English answer to the Latine, Period, by Period. And these I cause them to write over, and in so doing, to take notice of the placing of every word, and its manner of signification. By this means they both better themselves in Orthography, and easily become so acquainted with Tullies expressions, that they can adventure to construe any of his Epistles of themselves, and turn them into English, as they see I have done the like before them.

2. Then do I cause them (as I said) to make double translations of them­selves; one while writing down both the English and Latine together, as they construe it, (which some call Meta­phrasis, an example or two whereof you may see in Merchant Taylors School Probation) and another while, and most frequently, writing the English out of the Latine by it self, which within ten dayes after, they try how to turn into the like good Latine again. And [Page 146] this is the way that Mr Brinsley so much commendeth, and Mr. Aseham was moved to think to be onely, or chiefly the fittest, for the speedy and perfect at­taining of any Tongue.

3. After they are grown pretty quick in translating both wayes, you may write them down a little English Epistle of like matter & words to that in their book, directed to some of their own ac­quaintance, which they may turn into La­tine, Period after Period, by themselves. To begin therefore with the first Epistle in Sturmius, which may be writ down translated thus.

M. T. C. Terentiae, Salutem plurimam dicit.

Mark Tully Cicero, sendeth hearty commendations to (his wife) Terentia.

SI vales, bene est, ego val [...]o.

If you be in good health, it is well: I am in good health.

Nos quotidie tabellarios vestros expecta­mus, qui si venerint, fortasse erimus certiores, quid nobis faciendum sit, faciemusque te sta­tim certiorem.

We everyday expect your Letter-posts: [Page 147] who if they come, we shall be perhaps more certain, what we are to do, and we will certifie you forthwith.

Valetudinem tuam cura diligenter, vale.

Look diligently to your health, farewell.

Calendis Septembris.

The first day of September.

And you may shew them how to imi­tate it, (observing our English manner of writing Letters) thus;

To his very loving Friend Mr. Stephen Primato at the Seven Stars neer New­gate, LONDON, these.

Amantissimo suo amico Domino Stephano Primatae ad insigne Septentrionum juxta novam Portam Londi­nensem, hasce dabis.

Most sweet Stephen,

IF you be all in good health at London, it is very well; we are all very well at Barnet: The Lord God be praised.

Stephane mellitissime,

Si vos omnes Londini valetis, optime est: [Page 148] nos quidem omnes Barnetae valemus: Lau­detur Dominus Deus.

I have every day expected a Letter from you, for this whole week together, which if it come, is like to be very welcome to me, I pray you therefore write to me, and let me know what you do, and I will write back again to you forth­with.

Ego quotidie literas tuas, per hanc totam hebdomadem expectavi; quae si venerint gra­tissimae mihi futurae sunt; oro igitur ut ad me scribas, & certiorem me facias, quid agis, & ego statim ad te rescribam.

Give your minde diligently to learn­ing: Farewell heartily.

Studio literarum diligenter incumbe. Vale feliciter.

Your most loving friend Robert Burrows.
Amantissimus tuus amicus Robertus Burrowes.

[Page 149] They may imitate the same Epistle again in framing an answer to the parti­culars of the foregoing letter after this manner; observing the form of compo­sition, rather then the words.

To his very much respected friend Mr. Robert Burrows neere the Mitre at Barnet, these deliver.

Observantissimo suo amico Roberto Burrows haud ita procul a Mitrâ Barnetae, hasce dabis.

Deare Robert,

I Am very glad, I am certified by your Letter, that you and all our friends are in good health. Lo, I have now at last sent you my letter, which I am sorry, that I have made you so long to look for, before it came to your hand. And forasmuch as you desire to know what I do, I thought good to certify you, that I am wholly busied at my book, insomuch as I could willingly finde in my heart to die at my studies: [Page 150] so true is that which we sometimes learned in our Accidents, To know much is the most pleasant and sweetest life of all. You need not therefore tru­ly (to speak plainly) perswade me fur­ther to give my mind to learning, which I had much rather havee then all, even the most precious jewels in the world. Farewell, and write as often as you can to

Your very loving friend Stephen Primate.
Charissime Roberte,

QVòd ex tuis literis certior fiam, te, & omnes nostros bene valere, magnopere gaudeo. Ecce, nostras, jam tandem ad te misi. Quas, quoniam in causâ fui, ut diutiùs expectes, priusquam ad vos venerint, vehe­menter doleo. Cùm autem quid ego agam, scire cupias; certiorem te facere velim, me totum in libris esse occupatum; usque adeò, ut vel emori studiis mihi dulce erit: Ita ve­rum est, quod è Rudimentis Grammatices olim ebibimus; Multum scire est vita jucundis­sima. Non igitur opus est, ut ulteriùs mihi [Page 151] suadeas, studio literarum & doctrinae incum­bere, quae quidem (ut planè loquar) omnibus gemmis, vel pretiosissimis cupidissimè malim. Vale, & literas quam sepissime mitte ad

Amantissimum tui Robertum Burrows.

THus you may help them to take so much as is needfull and fit for their purpose out of any Epistle, and to alter and apply it fitly to their several oc­casions of writing to their friends; and where Tully's expressions will not serve them, let them borrow words and phrases out of the books that they have learn't, (but especially out of Te­rence) and take care to place them so, that they may continually seem to imi­tate Tullie's form in writing Epistles, though they be not altogether tyed to his very words. And this I give as a Cau­tion both in speaking and writing La­tine, that they never utter or write any words or phrases, which they are not sure they have read or heard used in the same sense, that they there intend them.

[Page 152] It were necessary for them, as they proceed in reading Epistles, to pick out all such familiar expressions, as are inci­dent to be used in writing letters, and to note them in a paper book, kept for the purpose, digested into certain places, that they may help themselves with them as they have occasion, you may see a President hereof in Fabritius's Ele­gantiae Pueriles. And because the same phrase, is not often to be repeated in the same words, they should now strive to get more liberty of expressing their mindes by learning to vary one and the same phrase both in English and Latine, sometimes ex tempore, before the Ma­ster, and sometimes amongst themselves by writing them down, & then appeal­ing to the Master to judge, who hath done the best. To enter them upon this work, you may first begin with Mr. Clarks Dux oratorius, and then make use of that excellent book of Erasmus de cop â verborum, which was purposely by him intended, and contrived for the be­nefit of Pauls Schoole, and I am sorry to see it so little made use of in most of our Grammar Schooles in England.

To encourage them to begin to write of themselves, and to help their inven­tion [Page 153] somewhat for inditing Epistles, you may take this course at once with a whole form together, which I have ex­perienced to be very easie, and gene­rally pleasing to young Scholars.

1. Ask one of your boyes, to whom, and for what, he is minded to write a letter; and, according as he shall return you an answer, give him some general instructions how to do it.

2. Then bid him and all his fellows let you see which of them can best in­dite an English letter upon that occa­sion, and in how short a time.

3. Let them every one bring his own letter fairly written, that you may shew them how to amend the imperfections you finde in it

4. Take his, that hath done the best, and let every one give you an expression of his own gathering, for every word and phrase that is in it, and let it be dif­ferent (if it may be) from that which another hath given already before him.

5. As they give in their expressions, do you, or an able Scholar for you, write them all down in a paper, making a note that directeth to the place to which they belong.

[Page 154] 6. Then deliver them the paper, and let every one take such words or phrase, as is most agreeable to the com­position of an Epistolary style (so that he take not the same that another useth) and bring the letter writ fair, and turned out of English into Latine. And thus you shall finde the same Epi­stle varied so many several wayes, that every boy will seem to have an Epistle of his own, and quite differing in words from all those of his fellowes, though the matter be one and the same.

To help the young beginners to a­void Barbarismes, and Anglicismes, (to which they will be very subject, if not timely prevented) you may make use of a little Dictionary English and Latine in Octavo, which resolve's the difficulties of Translating either way and Mr. Walkers useful Book of Particles, which is lately printed; As a so Mr. Willis Anglicismes Latinized, [...]nd Mr. Clerks Phraseologia Puerilis; not mention to Turselinus, or Do­ctor Hawkins particulae Latinae orationis, which may be afterwards made use of, when Scholars grow towards more per­fection in the Latine Tongue, and can read them without your help. But for their further assistance in this most p [...]o­fitable [Page 155] and commendable kinde of exer­cise; I commend unto you Mr. Clerks Epistolographia, and Erasmus de conscriben­dis Epistolis; to which you may adde Buchleri Thesaurus conscribendarum Episto­larum, Verepaeus de conscribendis Epistolis, and others, fitting to be reserved in the School-Library, for your Scholars to peruse, and collect notes out of, at their leasure hours. He that will be excellent in any Art, must not onely content him­self with the best Presidents, which in many particulars may (perhaps) exceed a [...]l others; but also now and then take notice what others have attempted in that kinde, and sometimes he shall finde the meanest to afford him matter of good use. And therefore I would advise that the Scholars in the upper Forms may often imploy themselves in perusal of all Tullies Epistles, and sometimes in those of Pliny, Seneca, Erasmus, Lipsius, Manutius, Ascham, Politianus, and what­ever they finde in the Schoole Library, (which should indeed be very well fur­nished with Epistolary books) that out of them they may learn to expresse their mindes to the full, upon any subject or occasion, to whomsoever they write, and to use a style befitting both the [Page 156] mat [...]er and persons, be they never so lofty and mean.

After this Form is once well entered to write Epistles of themselves, they may make two Epistles every week, (one in answer to the other) to be shewed fair on Saturdaies, so they do not exceed a quarter of a sheet on one side, because great heed should be taken in the com­posing of them.

And let this Rule be observed in per­forming these and all manner of exer­cises; that they never go about a new one, till they have finished that they began. It were better for Scholars some­times to do one and the same exercise twice or thrice over again, that in it they may see and correct their own er­rours, and strive to outdoe themselves; then by slipping from one work to ano­ther, and leaving that in their hands incompleat, to get an ill habit of posting over businesse to little or no purpose Non quàm multùm sed quàm bene, should be remembred in Scholars exercises.

8. Their afternoon Lessons on Mon­dayes and Wednesdayes, for the first halfe year (at least) may be in Ovids lit­tle book de tristibus, wherein they may proceed by six or eight verses at a Lesson; [Page 157] which they should first repeat memoriter as perfectly as they can possibly, because the very repetition of the verses, and much more the having of them by heart, will imprint a lively pattern of Hex­ameters and Pentameters in their minds, and furnish them with many good Au­thorities.

2. Let them construe verbatim, and if their Lesson be harder then ordinary, let them write it down construed.

3. Let them parse every word most accurately, according to the Gramati­cal order.

4. Let them tell you what Tropes and figures they finde in it, and give you their Definitions.

5. Let them scan every verse, and af­ter they have told you what feet it hath in it, and of what syllables they consist, let them give the Rule of the quantity of each syllable, why it is long or short; the scanning and proving verses, be­ing the main end of reading this Au­thour, should more then any thing be insisted upon, whilst they read it. And now it will be requisite to try what in­clination your young Scholars have towards Poetry: you may therefore let them learn to compose English verses, [Page 158] and to inure them so to do, you should 1. Let them procure some pretty de­lightful and honest English Poems, by perusal whereof they may become ac­quainted with the Harmony of English Poesie. M. Hardwicks late Translation of Mantuan, Mr Sandys of Ovid, Mr. Ogleby's of Virgil, will abundantly sup­ply them with Heroick Verses; which after they can truly and readily make, they may converse with others, that take liberty to sport it in Lyrick verses. Amongst all which, Mr. Herberts Poems are most worthy to be mentioned in the first place, and next to them (I con­ceive Mr. Quarles divine Poems, and his di­vine Fansies; besides which, you may allow many others full of wit and elegancie; but be sure you admit of none which are stuff't with drollary or ribauldry, which are fitter to be burnt, then to be sent abroad to corrupt good manners in youth

2. After they are thus become ac­quainted with variety of meeter, you may cause them to turn a Fable of Aesop into what kinde of verse you please to appoint them; and sometimes you may let them translate some select. Epigrams out of Owen, or those collected [Page 159] by Mr. Farnaby or some Emblemes out of Alciat, or the like Flourishes of wit, which you think will more delight them and help their fansies. And when you see that they begin to exercise their own wits for enlargement, and inven­tion, you may leave them to them­selves, to make verses upon any occasi­on or subject; yet to furnish them with Rhymes, Epithites, & varietie of elegant expressions, you may let them make use of the pleasant English Parnassus, com­posed by the true lover of the Muses, Mr. Josuah Poole, my quandam School-fellow at Wakefield, who like another Daphnis, may truly be said (what I now sigh to write) to have been at the Blew house in Hadley Parish, now daily in my sight, ‘Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse.’

When you have taugt them truly to scan and prove any kinde of Latine verse, and made them to taste the sweet­nesse of poetizing in English; you may prepare them them further for making Latine verses out of their present Au­thours thus;

1. Take a Distick or two, which they know not where to finde, and transpose [Page 160] the words, as different as may be from a verse, and when you have made one to construe them, dismisse them all to their seates, to try who can return them first into true verses, without one ano­thers suggesting. When they have all dispatched, cause him whom you con­ceive to be the weakest, to compare what he hath done with his Authour, and to prove his verses by the Rules of Prosodia.

2. You may sometimes set them to varie one and the same verse, by trans­posing the same words, as many several wayes as they can. Thus this verse may be turned 104. waies.

Est mea spes Christus solus qui de cruce pendet.

And sometimes you may cause them to keep the same sense, and alter the words. Thus this Distick is found in Mr. Stockwoods Progymnasma Scholasticum to be varied 450. waies.

Linque cupido jecur, cordi quoque parcito, si via Figere, fige alio, tela cruenta loco.

To direct and encourage your young Scholars in turning verses, you may make use of the book last mentioned, [Page 161] and for further instructions concerning making verses, I refer you to Mr. Clerks Dux Poeticus.

9. To enable your Scholars yet more to write good Latine in prose, and to prepare them further for verses by rea­ding Poetical books, which abound with rich expressions of fansie, I would have them spend the next halfe year in Ovids Metamorphosis; out of which Authour you may make choice of the most pleasing and profitable Arguments, which it is best for you your self to construe and explain unto them, that they may dis­patch the more at a Lesson, and with more ease. When they come to say,

1. Let them repeat four or six ver­ses, (which you judge most worthy to be committed to memory) by heart.

2. Let them construe the whole lesson venbatim, minding the proprietie of the words, and the elegancie of every phrase.

3. Let them parse every word Gram­matically, as they have used to do in other Authours.

4. Let them give you the Tropes and Figures, the Derivations and Differen­ces of some words, and relate such Hi­stories as the proper names will hint at, [Page 162] which they may peruse before hand in their Dictionarie. And let them not forget to scan and prove every verse, and to note more difficult quantities of some syllables.

5. Let them strive (who can best) to turn the Fable into English prose, and to adoru and amplifie it with fit Epithetes, choice Phrases, acute Sentences, wittie Apophthegmes, livelie similitudes, pat examples, and Proverbial Speeches; all agreeing to the matter of moralitie therein couched; all which they should divide into several Periods, and return into proper Latine, rightlie placed ac­cording to the Rules of Rhetorical com­position.

6. Let them exercise their wits a lit­tle in trying who can turn the same into most varietie of English verses.

Mr. Sandy's Translation of this book, in Folio, and Mr. Rosse's English Mytho­logist, will be very delightfull helps to your Scholars for the better understand­ing thereof; and if to these you adde Sir Francis Bacon's little book de Sapien­tiâ veterum, Natales comes, and Verderius's Imagines Deorum, Lexicon Geographicum, Poeticum, & Historicum; and the like fit­ting to be reserved for your Scholars [Page 163] use in the Schoole-librarie) it will invite them like so many bees to busie them­selves sucking up matter and words to quicken their invention and expression; And if you would have those in this form acquainted with variety of Latine verses, and how to change them one in­to another, you may sometimes exer­cise them in Buchan's Psalms, and part­lie out of Vossius's, partlie out of Mr. I loyd's Grammar latelie printed, you shall find sufficient store, and several kinds of verses to delight and profit them withall.

Whereas Wits Common-Wealth is gene­rally imposed upon young Scholars to tranaslte out of English into Latine, and I observe it very difficult to be done by reason of the many uncouth words and meere Anglicismes that are in it, con­cerning which they cannot any way help themselves by common Dictiona­ries or phrase-books; I have thought good to frame an Alphabetical Index of e­very English word and phrase therein contained, with figures pointing to the Chapter and verse where it is used, and shewing what Latine or Greek expres­sion is most proper to be made in that place.

[Page 164] And this I would have annexed to that useful book, that by help thereof the Scholars may of themselves be able to translate those pretty Sentences out of English into Latine orderly compos­ed, and afterwards with the same ease out of Latine into Greek. If the Sta­tioners do not accord, that they may be printed together, know, that the Index may be had single by it self, as well as the book, and he that buyeth one can­not well be without the other; they are both so necessary and neerly related to one another.

They in this Forme may learn the As­semblies lesser Catechisme in Latine and Greek, which is elegantly translated into those Languages, by Doctor Har­mar.

Thus then in short, I would have them employed. 1. In reading out of the Latine Testament every morning, till they be able to go on with the Greek which may then take place. 2. In re­peating a Grammar part every Thurs­day morning. 3. In Learning the Rheto­rick when they have done that. 4 Cam­dens Greek Grammer on Mondaies, Tues­daies, and Wednesdaies for morning parts. 5. In using Terence on Mon­daies, [Page 165] Tuesdaies, Wednesdaies and Thursdaies for fore-noon lessons. 6. In Janua Latinae Linguae for after-noon parts on Mondaies and Wednesdaies. 7. In some of Sturmius, or Textor's E­pistles, on Tuesdaies and Thursdaies af­ter-noons, and Shirley's Introductorium after taxes ended. 8. In Ovid de Tri­stibus on Mondaies and Wednesdaies in the after-noons for the first, and in O­vids Metamorphosis for the second half Year; They may translate four Verses every night out of Wits Common-wealth, and say lessons on Saturdaies in the As­semblies Catechisme; and by the diligent improvement of these books to their several uses, they may first become perfectly readie in the Latine and Greek Grammar, and the Elements of Rheto­rick. 2. They may get Coppy of words and learn to know their derivations and differences, as also how to varie phras­es. 3. They may gain the right way of double translating and writing a pure Latine stile. 4. They may be helped in their invention, and easily taught to make all sorts of English and Latine Verses, and to write familiar and elegant Epistles upon all occasions; for the performance of all which works [Page 166] though more then ordinary care and pains may seem to be required in the Master, and a great deal of studie and diligence may be thought to be exacted of the Scholars, above what is usual in many Schools; Yet a little experience will evidence that all things being or­derly and seasonably done, will become easie and pleasing to both after a very little while. And if the master do but consider with himself, and inform his Scholars, that they shall all ere long reap the sweet of their present labours, by a delightful and profitable perusal of the choisest Authors both Greek and Latine, whom as they must strive to i­mitate, so they may hope to aequalize in the most noble stile and lofty strains of Oratorie, and Poesie; it will encourage them to proceed so chearfully, that they will not be sensible of any toil or diffi­cultie, whilest in a profiting way they pass, this form, and endeavour to come to the next, which we intend to treat of in the following Chapter.


How to teach Scholars in the fifth form to keep and improve the Latine and Greek Grammars, and Rhetorick. How to ac­quaint them with an Oratory, stile and pronunciation. How to help them to trans­late Latine into Greek, and to make Greek verses, as they read Isocrates and The­ognis. How they may profit well in read­ing Virgil, and easily learn to make good Theams and elegant Verses with delight and certainty. And what Catechismes they may learn in Greek.

THough it may seem a needlesse la­bour to prescribe directions for the Teaching of the two upper forms, partly, because I finde more written concerning them then the rest, and partly because ma­ny very eminent and able Schoole-masters [...]mploy most of their pains in perfecting [...]hem, every one making use of such Au­ [...]hors, and such a Method as in his own [...]iscretion he judgeth meetest to make [...]hem Scholars; not to say, that the Scho­ [...]rs themselves (being now well acquaint­ed [Page 168] with the Latine and Greek Grammar, and having gotten a good understanding (at least) of the Latine Tongue, by the frequent exercise of translating and speaking Latine, and writing Colloquies, Epistles, Historical and Fabulous narrati­ons and the like, besides reading some Schoole Authors, and other helpful and profitable books, will be able in many things to proceed without a guide, addict­ing their mindes chiefly to those studies, which their natural Genius doth most prompt them to, either concerning Orato­ry or Poetry: Yet I think it requisite for me to go on as I have begun, and to shew what course I have constantly kept with these two forms, to make them exactly compleat in the Greek & Latine Tongues, and as perfect Orators, and Poets in both as their young years and capacities will suffer; and to enter them so in the He­brew, as that they may be able to pro­ceed of themselves in that holy Language, whether they go to the University, or are otherwise disposed on to some necessary calling, which their Parents or Friends think fitting for them.

And first, I most heartily intreat those (especially that are my loving Friends and acquaintance) of my profession, [Page 169] whose years and experience are far beyond mine, that they would candidly peruse and kindely interpret what I have writ­ten, seeing I desire not by any means to impose any thing too magisterially upon them or others, but freely to communi­cate to all men what I have for many years kept private to my self, and hath by some (whose single judgement may sufficiently satisfie me) been importunately thus ha­led to the Press; and if in any particular I seem to them to deviate from, or fall short of what I aime at, viz. a facilitating the good old way of teaching by Grammar, Au­thors, and exercises; I shall take it as a sin­gular token of love, that they acquaint me with it, and if by this rush-candle of mine, they please to set up their own Tapers, I shall rejoyce to receive greater light by them, and be ready to walk in it more vigo­rously. In the interim, I go on with my dis­covery, touching the fifth Forme, which I would have employed in this manner;

1. Let them and the forme above them read daily a dozen verses out of the Greek Testament before the saying of parts.

2. Let them reserve the Latine and Greek Grammars and Elementa Rhetorices for weekly parts, to be said only on Thurs­day mornings, and so divided that they [Page 170] may be sure to go over them all once e­very quarter. By this means they will keep them in constant memory, and have more time allotted them for perusing Au­thors and dispatch of exercises. You must not forget at every part to let them have your help of explication of the most obscure and difficult places before they say, and af­ter they have said to make such diligent examination, as that you may be sure they understand what they learn.

And to make them more fully acquain­ted with the Accents and Dialects of the Greek Tongue, you may (besides those few Rules in their Grammar) let them daily peruse a Chapter in Mr. Franklin's little book De [...] which is excellent­ly helpful to young Graecians, and when they grow stronger, that Appendix de Di­alectis at the end of Scapula, will be worth their reading and observing. It would be good sometimes to make them compare the Latine and Greek Grammar together, and to see wherein they agree, & wherein they differ, but especially in the Rules of Syntaxis, and for this purpose Vechneri Hellonexia wil be of excellent use.

And as I have directed before, how Scholars should have a Common-place­book for the Latine Grammar, so I do here [Page 171] also for the Greek, desire, that after it is learnt, it may be drawne into a Synop­sis, and that digested into Common­place heads, to which they may easily re­fer what ever they read worth noting, out of any Greek Grammar they pe­ruse. And that they may more freely expatiate in such Books, it were good if they had Mr. Busbie's Grammar, Cleonard, Scotus, Chrysolora, Ceporinus, Gaza, Vrba­nius, Caninius, Gretserus, Posselii Syntaxis, & as many as can be gotten both ancient and modern, laid up in the Schoole Librarie, to collect Annotations out of, as their leisure will best permits, & you will scarce imagine to what exactnesse a boy will attain, and what a treasure of good notes he will have heaped up in these two years time, if he be moderately industrious, and now and then imploy himself in collect­ing of his own accord; and I may adde, that Scholars of any ordinarie ingenuitie, will delight more to be doing something at their book, which they well understand, then to be trifling and rambling up and down about idle occasions.

3. Forasmuch as it is usual & commen­dable to bring on children towards perfe­ction in the Greek Tongue, as they pro­ceed in Oratorie and Poetrie in the La­tine, [Page 172] I think it not amisse to exercise these two Forms in such Authours as are com­monly received, and may prove most advantagious to them in all these; yet herein I may seem to differ from some others, that in stead of Grammar parts, (which I reserve to be constantly repeated every Thursday) I would have this Form to learn some lively patterns of Oratory, by the frequent and familiar use whereof, and the knowledge of the Histories them­selves, to which they relate; they may at last obtain the Artifice of gallant expression, & some skil to mannage future affairs, It being requisite for a Scholar, more then any man, [...], to be expert in speaking, and doing.

At first therefore for morning parts on Mondaies, Tuesdaies, and Wednesdaies, I would have them exercised in Apththonius (if it can be gotten, as I desire it may be reprinted) both in Greek and Latine. Out of which book, I would have them trans­late the Fables and Themes (so as to fi­nish at least every week one) into pure English, and to repeat them (being trans­lated) in both Languages, that by that means they may gain the Method of these kinde of exercises, and inure themselves to Pronunciation. When they have gone [Page 173] over them, they may next translate Tullies six Paradoxes, and pronounce them also in English and Latine, as if they were their own-And afterwards they may proceed in those pithy Orations which are purposely collected out of Salust, Livy, Tacitus, & Quin­tus Curtius, having the Histories of their oc­casions summarily set down before them. And of these I would have them constantly to translate one every day into English, be­ginning with those that are the short­est, and once a week to strive amongst themselves, who can best pronounce them both in English and Latine. I know not what others may think of this Task, but I have experienced it to be a most effe­ctual mean to draw on my Scholars to emulate one-another, who could make the best exercises of their own in the most Rhetorical style, and have often seen the most bashfull, and least-promising boyes, to out-strip their fellowes in pronouncing with a courage, and comely gesture; and for bringing up this use first in my School, I must here thank that modest and ingeni­ous Gentleman Mr. Edward Perkins, who was then my Usher, for advising me to set upon it. For I found nothing that I did formerly to put such a spirit into my Scholars, and make them, like so many Nightingales, to contend, who could [Page 174] [...] most melodiously tune his voyce and frame style, to pronounce and imitate the forementioned Orations.

4. Their forenoon Lessons on Mondays and Wednesdays, may be in Isocrates, and to make them more attend the Greek,

1. Let them (at first especially) tran­slate every Lesson by way of interlineary writing according to the Grammaticall order.

2. Let them parse the whole Lesson in that order, and give you the Variation and derivation of the most difficult Nouns and Verbs throughout, and the Rules of Syntaxe, and of the Accents.

3. Let them pick out the phrases, and more elegant words as they go along, and write them in a Paparbook; and transcribe what Sentences they meet withall into their Common-place-book. After they are well entered, you may cause them to translate the Greek into elegant Latine, and on Fridayes, when they come to re­peat, to render their own Latine into Greek, which they should endeavour to write down very true and fair without a­ny help of their Authour, who is then to be thrown aside, but afterwards compared with what they have done.

Three quarters of a year (I conceive) [Page 175] will be sufficient to exercise them in Iso­crates, till they get a perfect knowledge of Etymologie and Syntaxe in Greek; which they will more easily attain to, if out of this Authour (especially) you teach them to translate such examples most frequent­ly, as may serve to explicate those Rules, which are not to be found in their Latine Grammar, and very seldom occurre in the Greek one, which they commonly read. And then you may let them translate a Psalme out of English into Latine, and out of Latine into Greek, and compare them with the Septuagint Psalter. Afterwards you may give them some of Demosthenes's Sentences or Similies (collected by Loinus) or of Posselius Apophthegmes in Latine only; and let them turn them into Greek, which when they have done, you may let them see the Authours, that by them they may discover their own failings, and endea­vour to amend them.

Their Lessons then for the fourth quarter on Mondaies and Wednesdaies should be in Theognis, in which most pleasing Poet, they may be taught not onely to construe and parse, as formerly, but also to minde the Dialects, and to prove and scan, and to trie how to make Hex [...]meter, and Penta­meter Greek verses, as they formerly did [Page 176] Latine ones, out of Ovid de Tristibus. And here I must not forget to give notice to all that are taken with this Authour, that Mr. Castilion's Praelectiones (which he some­times read at Oxford, in Magdalene Col­ledge; and Mr. Langley late School-Master of Pauls transcribed, when he was Student there) are desirous to see the light, were they but helped forward by some Stationer, or Printer, that would a little consider the Au­thours paines. I need give the work no more commendations then to say, that (besides Mr. Langley that writ it long agoe) Mr. Busbie, Mr. Dugard, Mr. Singleton, and some others of note, have seen the Book, and judged it a most excellent piece, not onely to help young Scholars in the under­standing of Theognis, but also to furnish them with abundant matter of invention, and to be a President to Students in the Universities, whereby they may learne to compose such kind of Lectures upon other Poets, either for their own private re­creation, or more publick reading. Scre­velii Lexicon Manuale, will be very usefull to this Form for parsing their Lessones and Garthii Lexicon (which is annexed to it) Rulandi Synonymia, Morelii Dictionari­um, Billii Locutiones, Devarius de Graecis particulis, Posselii Calligraphia, for transla­ting [Page 177] Latine into Greek, but nothing is more availeable to gain a good style, then frequent imitation of select pieces out of Isocrates and Demostenes, and translating one while out of the Greek into Latine, and another while out of Latine into Greek.

5. For forenoon Lessons on Tuesdayes and Thursdayes, I make choyce of Justin as a plain History, and full of excellent examples, and morall observations, which for the easiness of the style the Scholars of this Form may now construe of them­selves, and as you meet with an Historical Passage that is more observable then the rest, you may cause every one of them to write it down in English, as well as he can possibly relate it without his book, and to return it again into good Latine. By this meanes they will not onely well heed the matter, but also the words, and phrases of this smooth Historian. And after halfe, or three quarters of a yeare, you may make use of Caesars Commentaries, or Lucius Florus, in this manner; intermixing some of Erasmus Colloquies now and then, for varieties sake.

6. Their afternoones Parts on Mon­dayes and Wednesday [...]s, may be in Ja­nua Linguarum Graeca, translated out [Page 178] of Latine by Theodorus Simonius, which they may use as they formerly did the Janua Latinae Linguae; viz. after they have construed a Chapter, and analy­sed some harder Nounes and Verbes, you may let them try who can recite the most Greek names of things, and tell you the most Greek words for one Latine word, and shew their Deriva­tions and differences, and the Rules of their severall Accents. And to acquaint them the better with all the Greek and Latine words, comprized in that book, you may cause them at every part to write out some of the Latine Index in­to Greek, and some of the Greek Index into Latine, and to note the manner of declining Nouns and Verbes, as the Dictionaries, and Lexicons will shew them.

7. Virgil the Prince and purest of all La­tine Poets doth justly challenge a place in Schoole-teaching, and therefore I would have him to be constantly and throughly read by this form on Mondaies and Tues­daies for after-noon lessons. They may begin with ten or twelve verses at a lesson in the Eclogues, which they may first repeat memoriter, as well as they can pos­sibly.

[Page 179] 2. Construe and parse, and scan and prove exactly.

3. Give the Tropes and Figures with their definitions.

4. Note out of the Phrases and Epi­thites, and other Elegancies.

5. Give the Histories or descriptions belonging to the proper Names, and their Etymologies.

But after they are well acquainted with this excellent Poet, let them take the quantity of an Eclogue at once, not mind­ing so much to con their lessons by heart, as to understand and examine them well and often over, according to the directi­ons which Erasmus gives de modo repetendae lectionis, which Mr. Langley caused to be Printed at the end of Lillies Grammar by him corrected, and Mr. Clark hath wor­thily inserted in his Dux Grammaticus. There are several Translations of Virgil in­to English verse, by the reading whereof young Scholars may be somewhat helped to understand the Latine better, but of all the rest Mr. Ogilby hath done it most com­pleatly, and if his larger book may be procured to the Schoole-Library, the lively pictures will imprint the Histories in Scholars Memories, and be a means to heighten their phansies with conceits an­swerable [Page 180] to the Authors gallant expressions. After they have passed the Georgicks by the Masters help, he may leave them to read the Aenead's by themselves, having Cerda, or Servius at hand to resolve them in places more difficult for them to con­strue; though Mr. Farnabies notes upon Virgil will assist them ever and anon.

As they read this Author, you may cause them sometimes to relate a pleasing story in good English prose, and to try who can soonest turn it into elegant Latine, or into some other kinde of verses which you please for the present to appoint them, either English or Latine, or both.

8. On Tuesdaies in the after-noones you may cause them sometimes to trans­late one of Aesops Fables, and sometimes one of Aelians Histories, or a Chapter in Epictetus out of Greek into English, and then to turn its English into Latine, and out of Latine into Greek. And on Thurs­daies in the after-noons they may turn some of Mr. Farnabies Epigrammata selecta out of Greek into Latine and English vers­es, and some of Aesops Fables or Tullies Sentences into Latine and afterwards into Greek verses.

You need not alway let your Scholars have these Greek Books, but sometimes [Page 181] dictate to them what you would have them write, and afterwards let them com­pare their own doings with their author, to espie their own failings, and this will be a means to help them to write Greek truly of themselves; you may sometimes dictate a Colloquie, or Epistle, or a Sen­tence, or a short History in English, and let them write it in Latine or Greek as you spake it, and by this you may try their strength at any time, and ready them for extemporary exercises.

9. Now forasmuch as this form is to be employed weekly in making Theams and Verses, which they can never well do, except they be furnished with matter aforehand; I would have them pro­vide a large Commox-place book, in which they should write at least those heads which Mr. Farnabie hath set down in his Index Rhetoricus, and then busie them­selves (especially) on Tuesdaies and Thursdaies in the after-noons, after other tasks ended, to collect, 1. Short Histories out of Plutarch. Valerius Maximus. Justin. Cae­sar Lucius Florus. Livie. Plinie. Paraeus Me­dulla Historiae, Aelianus, &c.

2. Apologues and Fabies out of Aesop. Phae­drus. Ovid. Natales Comes, &c.

3. Adagies out of Adagia Selecta. Erasmi Adagia, Drax's Bibliotheca Scholastica, &c.

[Page 182] 4. Hieroglyphicks out of Pierius and Causinus, &c.

5. Emblems and Symbols out of Al­ciat. Beza. Quarles. Reusenerus. Charta­rius, &c.

6. Ancient Laws and Customs out of Diodorus Siculus. Paulus Minutius, Plu­tarch, &c.

7. Witty Sentences out of Golden Grove. Moral Philosophie. Sphinx Philoso­phica. Wits Common Wealth. Flores Docto­rum. Tullies Sentences. Demosthenis Senten­tiae. Enchiridion Morale. Stobaeus. Ethica Cireroniana. Gruteri Florilegium, &c.

8. Rhetorical exornations out of Vos­sius, Farnaby, Butler, &c.

9. Topical places, out of Caussinus. Tresmarus. Orator Extemporaneus. &c.

10. Descriptions of things natural and artificial, out of Orbis Pictus. Caussinus. Plinius, &c. that I may not forget Textors Officina. Lycosthenes. Erasmi Apophthegma­ta, Carolina Apophthegmata, and Polyanthea, which, together with all that can be got of this nature, should be laied up in the Schoole Library for Scholars to pick what they can out of; besides what they read in their own Authours,

Now the manner I would have them use them, is thus;

[Page 183] Having a Theme given then to treat of, as suppose, this;

Non aestas semper suerit, componite nidos.

Let them first consult what they have read in their own Authours, concerning, Tempus, Aetas, occasio, or opportunitas, and then,

2. Let every one take one of those books forementioned, and see what he can finde in it for his purpose, and write it down under one of those heads in his Common­place book; but first let the Master see whe­ther it will suit with the Theme.

3. Let them all read what they have written, before the Master, and every one transcribe what others have collected, in­to his own book; and thus they may al­wayes have store of matter for invention ready at hand, which is far beyond what their own wit is able to conceive. Now to furnish themselves also with copy of good words and phrases, besides, what they have collected weekly, and what hath been already said of varying them, they should have these and the like Books re­served in the Schoole-Library; viz. Syl­va Synonymorum, Calliepia. Huisse's phrases, Winchesters phrases, Lloyds phrases, Farna­bies phrases, Enchiridion Oratorium, Clarkes Phraseologia, and his English Adagies; [Page 184] Willis Anglicismes, Barrets Dictionary, Hulaet, or rather Higgins Dictionary; Drax Biblio­theca, Parei Calligraphia, Manutii phrases, A little English Dictionary, 160. and Wal­kers Particles: and if at any time they can wittily and pithily invent any thing of their own brain; you may help them to express it in good Latine, by making use of Cooper's Dictionary, either as himselfe directeth in his preface, or Phalerius will more fully shew you, in his Supplemen­ta ad Grammaticam

And to draw their words and matter into the Form of a Theme with ease, let them have sound Patterns to imitate, be­cause they in every thing prevaile to do it soonest, and sureliest.

First therefore let them peruse that in Merchant Taylors School Probation book, and then those at the end of Winchesters phra­ses, and those in Mr. Clarks Formulae Orato­riae; and afterwards they may proceed to those in Aphthonius, Rodulphus Agricola, Catineus, Lorichius, and the like; and learne how to prosecute the severall parts of a Theme more at large, by intermixing som of those Formulae Oratoriae, which Mr. Clark and Mr. Farnaby have collect­ed, which are proper to every part; so as to bring their matter into handsome and [Page 185] plain order, and to flourish and adorne it neatly with Rhetorical Tropes and Fi­gures, alwayes regarding the composure of words; as to make them run in a pure and even style, according to the best of their Authours, which they must alwayes observe, as Presidents.

But the best way (as I conceive) to en­courage children at the first, against any seeming difficulty in this exercise of ma­king Themes, is this; After you have shewed them how to finde matter, and where to help themselves with words, and phrases, and in what order they are to dispose the Parts, and what Formula's they are to use in passing from one to another; propound a Theme to them in English and Latine, and let them strive who can soon­est return you the best Exordium in English, and then who can render it into the best Latine, and so you may proceed to the narration, and quite thorow every part of a Theme, not tying them to the words of any Authour, but giving them liberty to contract, or enlarge, or alter them as they please; so that they still contend to go beyond them in purity of expression. This being done, you may dismisse them to adventure to make every one his own ex­ercise in English and Latine, and to bring [Page 186] it fair written, and be able to pronounce it distinctly memoriter at a time appointed. And when once you see they have gained a perfect way of making Themes of them­selves, you may let them go on to attain the habit by their own constant practice, ever and anon minding them what places in their Authours (as they read) are most worthy notice and imitation, and for what purposes they may serve them.

10. Touching learning to scan and prove, and make all sorts of verses, I have spoken in the former Chapter; now for diligent practise in this kind of exercise, they may constantly comprise the sum of their Themes in a Distich, Tetrastich, Hexastich, or more verses, as they grow in strength. For invention of further mat­ter upon any occasion or subject they are to treat upon, they may sometimes imitate places out of the purest Poets, (which Mr. Farnabies Index Poeticus will point them to, besides what they finde in Flores Poetarum, & Sabinusde Carminibus ad veterum imitatio­nem artificiose componendis, at the beginning of Textors Epistles, will further direct them) and sometime paraphrase, or (as some term it) metaphrase upon a piece of an Historian or Oratour, endeavouring more lively to express in verse what the Au­thour [Page 187] hath written in prose, and for this Mr. Horne hath furnished you with two ex­amples in his excellent [...], de usu Authoris.

For variety and copy of Poetical phra­ses, there are many very good helps; viz: Phrases Poeticae, besides those of Mr. Farna­bies. Aerarium Poeticum, Enchiridion Poe­ticum, Res Virgiliana, Artis Poeticae compen­dium, Thesaurus Poeticus, and others, wor­thy to be laid up in the Schoole-Library. Textor will sufficiently supply choyce Epi­thites, & Smetii Prosodia, will afford Autho­rities; (which is lately comprized, and printed at the end of Lilies Grammar) But for gaining a smooth way of versifying, and to be able to expresse much matter in few words, and very fully to the life, I conceive it very necessary for Scholars to be very frequent in perusing and rehearsing Ovid and Virgil, and afterwards such kind of Poete, as they are themselves delighted with all, either for more variety of verse, or the wittinesse of conceit sake. And the Master indeed should cause his Scholars to recite a piece of Ovid or Virgil, in his hearing now and then, that the very tune of these pleasant verses may be imprinted in their mindes, so that when ever they are put to compose a verse, they make it [Page 188] glide as even as those in their Authours, Mr. Rosse his Virgilius Euangelizans will easily shew how a young Scholar may imi­tate Virgil to the life.

From this little that hath been said, they that have a natural aptness & delight in Po­etry, may proceed to more exquisite perfecti­on in that Art, then any rules of teaching can reach unto: & there are very few so meanly witted, but by diligent use of the directi­ons now given, may attain to so much skill, as to be able to judge of any verse, and upon a fit occasion or subject, to com­pose a handsome copy; though not so fluently or neatly as they that have a na­tural sharpnesse and dexterity in the Art of Poetry.

11. When they in this Form have gone thrice over the Assemblies Catechisme in Greek and Latine, they may proceed in Nowels Catechisme, or the Palatinate Cate­chisme in Greek.

And now to summe up all concerning the fifth Form.

1. Let them read constantly twelve verses at least in the Greek Testament, be­fore parts.

2. Let them repeat the Latine and Greek Grammars, and Elementa Rhetorices, on Thursday Mornings.

[Page 189] 3. Let them pronounce Orations on Mondayes, Tuesdayes, and Wednesdayes, in stead of parts, out of Livie, &c.

4. Let their fore-noons Lessons on Mon­dayes and Wednesdayes be in Isocrates, for three quarters of a years space, and for the fourth quarter in Theognis.

5. Let their fore-noon Lessons on Tuesdaies and Thursdaies be in Ju­stin's History, and afterwards in Caesars Commentaries, Lucius Florus, or Erasmus Colloquies.

6. Let their after-noon parts on Mon­dayes and Tuesdaies be in Januâ lingua­rum Graecâ, and

7. Their after-noons Lessons in Virgil.

8. Let them on Tuesdaies in the after­noons translate out of Greek Aesops Fables, Aelian's Histories, Epictetus, or Farnabies Epigrammata.

9. Let them be imployed weekly in making a Theme, and

10. In a Copy of verses.

11. Let them say Nowels Catechisme, or [...]he Palatinate Catechisme on Saturdaies. By this meanes they will become fami­liarly acquainted with the Latine and Greek Tongues, and be able to peruse [...]ny Orator or Poet in either Language; and to imitate their expressions, and apply [Page 190] what matter they finde in them to their own occasions. And then they may cou­ragiously adventure to the sixth and highest Forme.


How to enter the Scholars of the sixth Forme into Hebrew; How to employ them in read­ing the best and most difficult Authours in Latine and Greeke, and how to acquaint them with all manner of Schoole-Exercises, Latine, Greek, or Hebrew.

THis sixth Form is looked upon as the main credit of a Schoole, & the Master commonly delighteth most in teaching it, because therein he seems to reap the fruit of those labours, which he hath bestowed formerly. His care therefore is to exercise them in every thing that may compleat a Scholar, that whether they be privately examined, or upon any publick solemnity required to shew their parts, they may sa­tisfy them that desire an account, and gain to themselves applause. And whereas I observe more variety in teaching this Form then the rest, because every Master [Page 191] almost observes a several Method in reading such Authours as himselfe best liketh, I will not much trouble my self to declare what others do, but as plain­ly as I can discover what course I have hitherto taken to enable these highest Scholars to shift for themselves.

1. Make them read (at least) twelve verses out of the Greek Testament, into Latine or English; or out of the Eng­lish, or Latine Testament into Greek eve­ry morning, before they say parts.

2. Let them repeat Parts (as they did before) out of the Latine and Greeke Grammars, and Elementa Rhetorices, eve­ry Thursday morning, and give ac­count what Grammatical or Rhetorical notes, they have collected and writ fair in their Common place Bookes for those Arts. Besides the Bookes which I for­merly mentioned, I desire that Goclenii observationum ling [...]ae Latinae Analecta & Problemata Grammatica, may he made use of for this purpose.

3. Their parts on Mondaies, Tues­dayes, and Wednesdaies, may be to learn the Hebrew tongue, which is very necessary for all such as would be ac­quainted with the Original of the Bible, and is not very difficult to attain to, [Page 192] because it goeth word for word with our English, and is not so copious in words as the Greek and Latine. And whereas many defer the Hebrew to be learned at the University, I may say it is rarely attained there by any that have not gotten (at least) the Rudi­ments of it before hand, at a Grammar Schoole.

Now for the entering of them upon this holy Language, I conceive Buxtorf's Epitome is the best Introduction of He­brew Grammar; partly because it is the most used in Schooles, and partly be­cause most easie for young Scholars to apprehend. Though some prefer Mar­tinius others Bellarmine, others Amoma, others Blebelius, and others Horologium Hebreae linguae, before it. Now in teach­ing Buxtorfe, you may read your Scho­lars a part of it, and cause them againe to read it over perfectly in your hear­ing, and then let them get it by heart, as they did other parts, and when they say, be sure to examine how well they understand it. As they go over this Grammar, they should write out the letters, and chiefest Rules; but espe­cially the declining of Nouns and Pro­nounes, and all the Paradigmes, of the [Page 193] Conjugations both in Hebrew and La­tine Characters, with their proper signi­fications; and this will cause them to minde the different shape of the Conso­nants and Vowels, and Accents, and help to strengthen their memory in get­ting the Rules by heart. They may get every day a certain number of Hebrew roots, together with their Grammar Parts out of some Nomenclator or Lexicon.

After they have learnt the Grammar, you may exercise them in those Texts of Scripture annexed as a Praxis at the end of it, which they must exactly con­strue and parse, and write faire, by way of interlineary.

As they go over the Psalter, they may sometimes translate their lessons into La­tine, and read them out of Latine into Hebrew in a Paper-book. Then they may with facility run along the Psalter, ha­ving Tossani syllabus geminus, to help them in every word. Afterwards they may proceed in the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job, of themselves; but be sure they be well acquainted with the Rules of find­ing a Radix in Buxtorfe, or Pagnine, or the like useful Lexicon, which are fit to be reserved in the Schoole-Library. Though it be found a thing very rare, [Page 194] and is by some adjudged to be of little use, for School-boyes to make Exercises in Hebrew; yet it is no small ornament, and commendation to a Schoole, (as Westminster-Schoole at ptesent can evi­dence) that Scholars are able to make Orations and Verses in Hebrew, Arabick, or other Oriental Tongues, to the a­mazement of most of their hearers, who are angry at their own ignorance, be­cause they know not well what is then said or written. As for Orations, they may be translated out of Latine into Hebrew by help of Schind leri Pentaglotton, Buxtor­sius, Pagnine Crinesius, or Trostius's Lexi­con; and for Verses Buxtorf's Thesaurus will afford some Rules and Presidents, and Aviani Clavis Poeseos Sacrae, all sorts or Rithmes.

They that are more industriously stu­dious in the Hebrew, may profit them­selves very much by translating Janua Linguarum, into that language.

This that I have said may seem e­nough to be learnt at Schoole, but if one desire to learne those Oriental Tongues, in which the great Bible is now happily printed, (by the great vi­gilancie and industrie of Doctor Walton, who hath carried on the Work to the [Page 195] honour of this Nation, the comfort of the poor Church of England, and the encouragement of good literature, in the midst of distracting times) he may make use of Introductio ad lectionem Lin­guarum Orientalium, and of the Lexicon (which I conceive ere this time is well­nigh finished) made of purpose to ex­plicate the words of the Bible according to their several Languages; viz. He­brew Chaldi, Samaritane, Syriack, Arabick, Persian, Aethiopick, Armenian, and Coptick, which is a kinde of Aegyptian Tongue.

4. Their forenoons Lessons on Mon­daies and Wednesdaies, may be in He­siods, [...], which they may now construe and parse of themselves, by help of the Latine translation, and Pasor opon it; or Screvelii Lexicon. One­ly your self may now and then illustrate, some harder places out of Cerapine & Me­lanctthon's Commentarie published by Jo­hannes Frisius Tigurinus. And cause them to paraphrase in Greek upon such Les­sons as are full of excellent matter, and which are worth getting by heart.

When they have gone this over, they may proceed in like manner to Homer, in which they may help themselves out of Clavis Homerica, or Lexicon Homericum, [Page 196] or those Quorundum verborum Themata, at the end of Scapulae Lexicon. You may illustrate the difficult places in him out of Eustathius's his Commentary, and let your Scholars write some of his narrations in good Latine and Greek phrase. Chapman's English tran­slation of Homer will delight your Scho­lars to read in at leasure, and cause them better to apprehend the series of his Poetical discourses. When they are well acquainted with this Father of Poetry, (which will be after they have read two Books, either of his Iliads, or Odisseus) you may let them proceed to Pindar, and after they have tested some of his Odes, by the help of Benedictus his Com­mentary; you may at last let them make use of Lycophron, which they will better do, having Canterus or Zetzius to unfold his dark meaning; and Longolii Lexicon to interpret and analyse most of his un­couth words.

5. Their forenoone Lessons on Tues­daies and Thursdaies, may be in Zeno­nophon [...], for the first quarter, or somewhat longer, and af­terwards in some of Euripides, and So­phocles Tragedies, which you please to pick out, to enable them for the rest; [Page 197] and if to these you adde a few of Aristo­phanes Comedies which they may better understand by the help of Bisetus upon him, I suppose, you may turn them to any other Greek Authour, and they will give you a reasonable account thereof, having but a little time allowed them, to deliberate upon it, and necessary Sub­sidiaries at hand to help themselves withall, in case they be put to a stand.

6. Their afternoons parts on Mon­dayes and Wednesdayes, may be in Ant. de Laubegeois Breviarium Graecae Linguae, partly because the perusal of that book will help them to retain all the Greek Vocabula's in minde, and partly because those excellent Sentences being pickt out of many Authours, will ac­quaint them with most of the hard words, that they are like to find in them.

7. Their afternoons Lessons may be in Horace, wherein they should be emploied.

1. In commiting their Lessons to me­mory, as affording a rich mine of in­vention.

2. In construing and parsing, and giving the Tropes and Figures.

3. In scanning and proving verses.

4. Sometimes in turning an Ode, or Epistle, into other kind of verses, Eng­lish, [Page 198] Latine, or Greek; sometimes in pa­raphrasing or enlarging the words in an Oratorial style, as Mr. Horne doth give some Examples in his little golden book De usu Authoris.

Mr. Farnabie or Mr. Bonds Notes upon this Poet will encourage your Scholars to proceed in him: And after they have read what you best approve (for he that feeds cleanly, will pare his apple) in this Authour, you may let them proceed to Juvenall, and read some select Satyres, by help of Farnabies notes, or Lubines Com­mentarie, and then let them read Per­sius quite through, which besides the notes upon him, Mr. Holydaies English Translation will help them well to un­derstand. As for Lucan, Seneca's Tra­gedies, Martiall, and the rest of the finest Latine Poets, you may do well to give them a taste of each, and show them how and wherein they may imi­tate them, or borrow something out of them. Mr. Farnabies Notes upon them will be helpful to understand them, and Pareus, or Taubman upon Plautus, will make that some merry Comedies of his, may be easily read over.

8. They may read some of Luciani se­lecti mortuorum dialogi, on Tuesdaies in [Page 199] the afternoons, and if those printed at Paris by Sebastian and Gabriel Cramoisy, cum interpretatione Latinâ & Grammaticâ singularum vocum explanatione were to be had, they might easily run them over, but (I suppose) they will now be able to go on of themselves in perusal of those lately printed by Mr. Dugard. After Lessons ended, they may benefit themselves by reading Jacobi Pontani Pro­gymnasmata Latinitatis, which will fur­nish them with good expressions for speaking Latine, and acquaint them with some patterns for exercises, which are not elsew here usually found.

9. On Thursdaies they may be im­ployed in reading some of Tullies Ora­tions, especially those pro Archia contra Catalinam, and Philippicae; and afterwards they may peruse Pliny Panegyrica, and Quintilian's Declamationes. After Lessons ended, they may busie themselves in pe­rusing Goodwin's Antiquities, or the like. And here I do heartily wish, as Mr. Horne hath done formerly, that some of bet­ter leisure and abilities, would make an Index Oratorius, like that Index Poeticus of Mr. Farnabies, which may point at the marrow of matter & words, in all the pu­test Orators that are extant, either an­cient [Page 200] or modern, & that those Authours might be reserved in the Schoole Libra­rie, whereunto Scholars may have re­course touching any subject, whereof they have occasion to treat in their Schoole Exercises.

10. In the meane time this Forme should continue to make Themes and Verses, one week in Greek, and another in Latine; and ever and anon they may contend in making Orations & Declama­ons, for which exercise the may find Helps and Patterns in Mr. Clerks Formu­le Oratoriae, and Mr. Horne de usu Authoris. Likewise to bring themselves to an ha­bituated perfection of a good style, they should be frequent in perusing and ex­cerpting passages that may serve for their occasions out of Tully, Quintilian, Livie, Salust, Tacitus, Quintus Curtius, or the like ancient Orations; and acquaint themselves with those moderne Ora­tors, whose eloquence we admire; viz. Turnerus, Baudius, Muretus, Heinsius, Pu­reanus, Rainoldus, Lipsius, Barclaius, Sal­matius, and others, to be laid up in the Schoole Library. Tesmarus, and Orator ex­temporaneus, will shew them how to dispose their matter so, as to make an Oration of any subject in Latine, ex tempore; [Page 201] and Aphthonius, and Libanius Sophista, will furnish them with patterns in Greek. For learning to write Greek Epistles, they may consult Isocrate's Epistles, and Sym­machus.

They should often also vie wits a­mongst themselves, and strive who can make the best Anagrams, Epigrams, Epi­taphes, Epithalamia, Eclogues, Acrosticks, and golden verses, English, Latine, Greek, and Hebrew; which they will easily do, after a while, having good patterns be­fore them to imitate, which they may collect out of Authours, as they fansie them, for their owne use and de­light.

11. When they have done with Now­ell, they may proceed to Birkets Cate­chisme in Greek, or our common Church-Catechisme in Hebrew, which was printed for the company of Stationers in four Languages, A. D. 1638.

Thus have I at last done with my School-Discovery, in which I have proceeded so far as to make any Authour seem easie to young Scholars, in their future pro­gresse at the Universities, where I would advise them (that have purses especial­ly) to provide themselves of all the La­tine and Greek Orators, and Poets, and [Page 202] what they cannot understand without a Commentary or Scholiast, to procure those whereby they may best help them­selves, and to have Stephani Thesaurus, Greek and Latine; Suidas, Hesychius, Bu­daeus Commentaries, and the like, ever at hand; that they may be sure to im­prove themselves in the Latine and Greek Tongues, as well as to minde the daily study of Arts and Sciences, which are delivered in them.

1. And would some able Tutour take the paines to describe a Right me­thod of study and in what Authours Stu­dents may best bestow their time for the first four years; it would doubtlesse be a means to encourage them to go on to that height of perfection, which we see few attain to, and those not untill they he ready to drop into their graves; and then they wish they could once run over again their former studies, and tell how easily they could cope-gaine that little measure of knowledge, which they have so industriously sought for all their life.

The constant employment of this sixth Form is,

1. To read twelve verses out of the Greek Testament every morning before Parts.

[Page 203] 2. To repeat Latine and Greek Gram­mar Parts, and Elementa Rhetorices every Thursday morning.

3. To learn the Hebrew Tongue on Mondaies, Tuesdaies, and Wednes­daies, for morning Parts.

4. To read Hesiod, Homer, Pindar, and Lycophron, for forenoon lessons on Mon­daies, and Wednesdaies.

5. Zenophon, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes, on Tuesdaies, & Thursdaies.

6. Laubegeois's Breviarium Graecae lin­guae, for afternoons Parts on Mon­daies, and Wednesdaies.

7. Horace, Juvenal, Persius, Lucan, Se­neca's Tragedies, Martial and Plautus, for afternoons lessons on Mondaies, and Wednesdaies.

8. Lucian's select Dialogues, and Pon­tani Progymnasmata Latinitatis, on Tuesday afternoons, and

9. Tullies Orations, Plinies Panegryicks, Quintisians Declamations on Thursday af­ternoons, and Goodwins Antiquities at leisure times.

10. Their exercises for Oratory, should be to make Themes Orations, and Decla­mations, Latine, Greek, and Hebrew; and for Poetry, to make Verses upon such Themes, as are appointed them every week.

[Page 204] 11. And to exercise themselves in A­nagrauis, Epigrams, Epitaphs, Epithalamia's, Eclogues, and Acrosticks, English, Latine, Greek, and Hebrew.

12. Their Catechismes are Nowell, and Birket, in Greek, and the Church Catechisme in Hebrew. So that in six (or at the most seven) yeares time (which children commonly squander away, if they be not continued at the Schoole, after they can read Eng­lish, and write well) they may easily at­tain to such knowledge in the Latine, Greek, and Hebrew Tongues, as is re­quisite to furnish them for future stu­dies in the Universities, or to enable them for any ingenuous profession or employment, which their friends shall think fit to put them upon, in other places.

But having somewhat to say further, touching the well-ordering of a Grammar Schoole, (for I have here insisted chiefly concerning Teaching) I shall endeavour to proceed in my next Treatise, with Schoole-Discipline.

In the mean time you may observe, that the Method which I have here disco­vered, is for the most part contrived ac­cording to what is commonly practised in [Page 205] England and foreign countries; and is in sundry particulars proportioned to the ordinary capacities of children under fifteen yeares of age. The subject matter which is taught, is the same with that which is generally used by Grammars, Authours, and Exercises: Touching Grammars, I prefer Lilies for Latine, Camdens for Greek, and Buxtorf's Epitome for Hebrew, not excluding any other that may con­duce to the compleating of Grammar Art. The Authours which I prescribe to be used, are partly classical which eve­ry Scholar should provide for himselfe; and because these are constantly learnt in most Grammar Schooles, I appoint them to be read at such times as are usu­ally spent in Lessons.

The Subsidiary Books are those which are helpful to children in performing their tasks with more ease and benefit; and, because all the Scholars will not have like need of them, and they are more then any one will desire to buy: these should be laid up in the Schoole Library, for every Form to make use on, as they shall have occasion. Some of these serve chiefly to the explication of Grammar, and are applyed to it; some are needful for the better under­standing [Page 206] of classical Authours, and are appropriated to them; and others are very requisite for the gaining of words, and phrases, and an ability for speak­ing or writing elegantly, and such times are set apart for perusing of them, as are commonly truanted away in idlenesse, or needlesse sport. Now by the joynt using of these together, I endevaour that a Scholar may have a pretty knowledge of the Language which he learneth, as well as of his bare Grammar Rules, which without it signifie nothing. And therefore to help children more easily to gain the Latine, I have translated such books as they learn whilest they get the Grammar, into their own mo­ther-tongue, that by comparing, and using both together, they may be able after good acquaintance with the La­tine, to waine themselves quite from English. He that desires further satisfa­ction concerning the Translations which I have already made, may peruse that Advertisement, that I caused to be print­ed before Cato's Distichs English and Latine.

And if any man shall think to tell me, that I seem to trouble my Scholars with too many books at once, because a [Page 207] few, if well learned, will suffice to make a Grammarian; I will give him here to consider;

1. That I have to deale with children who are delighted and refreshed with variety of books, as well as of sports, and meats.

2. That a Schoolmasters aim being to teach them Languages, and Oratory, and Poetry, as well as Grammar, he must necessarily employ them in many Books which tend thereunto.

3. That the classical Authours are the same with other Schooles, and Subsidi­aries may be provided at a common charge, as I shall afterwards shew.

The Scholars in a Grammar Schole may be fitly divided into six formes, whereof the three lowest, which are commonly under an Usher, may be termed.

1. Rudimentaries, that learne the Grounds.

2. Practitioners, that exercise the Rules.

3. Proficients, that can speak and write true Latine. The three highest Formes, are employed by the Master to learne the Greek and Hebrew Tongues, together with the Latine, and to gaine [Page 208] some skill in Oratory and Poetry, and matters of humanity; and of these I may name the lowest Tertiani, the mid­dlemost Secundani, and the highest Pri­mani, because they seem to differ one from another in ability of learning, as these Roman legionary souldiers did in strength and use of Armes.

This division I have purposely made, that whether one Master alone be put to teach the whole, or have one, two, or more Ushers to assist him, he may con­stantly train up his Scholars by one and the same Way of teaching, (altering now and then onely some circumstan­ces, as his own Discretion shall better direct him,) and, that every Scholar may from his first entrance to the Schoole, proceed with cheerfulnesse in learning when he seeth plainly what he is to do from year to year, and how o­thers before him in a playing manner, overskip those seeming difficulties, which he imagineth in his minde. And con­ceive it will be no small satisfaction to Parents, and a mean to cease the indis­creet clamors of some against School-masters, to see what method they ob­serve in teaching, and how their chil­dren profit by degrees, according to [Page 209] their present apprehensions, and growth in years.

And now the God of heaven & earth, in whose alone power it is to give in­crease; vouchsafe to bestow such a bles­sing upon our planting and watering, that our young plants may grow up in all godlinesse and good learning, and abound in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom onely to know, is eternal life. Amen.

SCHOLASTICK DISCIPLINE: OR, The VVAY of ordering a Grammar-Schoole, Directing the not experienced, how he may profit every par­ticular Scholar, and avoyd Confusion amongst a multitude. By C. H.

LONDON, Printed by J. T. for Andrew Crook, at the Green Dragon, in Pauls Church-yard, 1659.

Of the Founding of a Grammar Schoole.

THe most of the Grammar Schools which I have yet taken notice of in England, are of two sorts; The first I may call mixt Schooles, where a structure is made, and an allowance given of ten, twenty, or thirty pounds per annum, onely to one man to teach children freely, that inhabit within the pre­cincts of one Parish, or of three or four neighbouring Hamlets, adjoyning. And such Schooles as these very seldom or never improve Scholars further, then to teach them to read and write, and learne some little (they know not what it meaneth) in the common Grammar; partly because the Master is overburden­ed with too many petty Scholars, and partly because many parents will not spare their children to learne, if they [Page 214] can but finde them any employment a­bout their domestick or rureall affairs, whereby they may save a penny. In some places more populous, an allow­ance is made to a Master of about twen­pounds per annum to attend Grammari­ans onely, and ten pounds to an Usher, whose work it is to teach the Petties: in such Schooles as these, I have knowne some boyes more pregnant witted then the rest, to have proved very good Grammarians, and to have profited so in the Latine and Greek Tongues, as to come to good maturity in University studies, by a Tutors guidance. But the Masters of such Schooles for the most part, either weaken their bodies by ex­cessive toyle, and so shorten their dayes; or as (soon as they can fit themselves for a more easie profession, or obtain a more profitable place) after a few years quit their Schoole, and leave their Scho­lars to anothers charge, that either hath his method to seek, or else traines them up in another, quite different from that which they had been used to. And thus thorow the change of Masters the Scholars are either dispersed, or hinder­ed from going on with that alacrity and profit, which otherwise they might.

[Page 215] The second sort of Schooles are those which are purely Grammatical, being espe­cially conversant in teaching the Art of Grammar. Now some of these have yearely salaries for a Master and one Usher, where the Master is employed in perfecting those Scholars, which the Usher hath already grounded. And ma­ny of these Schooles, (especially if they be situate in places where accommoda­tion is to be had for Tabling) do happi­ly train up many Scholars, which about sixteen or seventeen years of age, are fit to besent to the University. But in regard there is no preferment attending these Schooles, the most pregnant witted children are commonly taken thence, after they are well grounded, and dis­posed on to other places, where they may gain it. So that of all others our collegiate Schooles or those that come nea­rest them, have the greatest advantage of making most Scholars. For these having commonly large revenues be­longing to them, do not onely pro­vide sufficiently for a Master and one Usher at lest, but also for a certaine number of Scholars, which being for the most part of the choycest wits, pickt out of other Schooles, and such as de­pend [Page 216] upon hopes of advancement, do industriously bestirre themselves to at­tain what learning they can, and sub­mit themselves orderly to such Disci­pline as is there exercised. But foras­much as these greater Schooles rather intend the forwarding of such children as are already grounded, then busie themselves about meere Rudiments; it ca [...]seth many parents to disperse their little ones abroad to Tabling-Schooles, where (for the most part) there is but one man to teach a few promiscuously hand-over-head, without any setled Method, and these changing and remo­ving ever and anon, as cause is of­fered, do seldome attain any stable pro­ficiencie in Grammar-learning. Yet in some of these, where an able Schoole-Master is well seated, and provided with all fitting accommodations, so as to entertain many Gentlemens sonnes of good quality, and an able Usher to as­sist him in Teaching. I have observed children to make double profiting, in respect of other Schooles, because they have the advantage to spend much of that time at their bookes, which others trisle away, in running up and down about home; not to say, that the con­stant [Page 217] eye of the Master is an especiall means to regulate them in point of be­haviour.

Now comparing all the Schooles which we have in England, with some that I read of in other countries, (that I may speak freely, and without offence to any man, submitting my self herein also to the judgement of those of my Profession) I do not know one that is so compleated, as (perhaps) many might easily be, with all necessary accom­modations, and advantages to improve children to what they are capable of, in their playing years, and wherein we evidently see, how many places of edu­cation beyond the Seas, do quite out­strip us.

And therefore from what I have here­tofore read in Mr. M [...]leasters Positions concerning the training up of children, in ch. 40. (which he writ when he had been twenty years Schoole-master at Merchant Tailors Schoole, which was erected 1561. being afterwards head Master of Pauls, in 1600.) and what I have been informed touching Mr. Farnabies improvement of a private Grammar Schoole in Gold-Smiths Alley, now called New street, also Jew [...]n Street; and what I my self have [Page 218] experienced for about fourteen years toge­ther, both in that place, and in Lothbury Garden, I am induced to think, that it is a matter very feaseable to raise many of our Grammar-Schooles to a far higher pitch of learning, then is ordinarily yet attained to in England. For whereas in most of our Grammar-Schooles (as I have no­ted) there is but one, two, or three Ush­ers besides a Master, imployed in teaching the Latine and Greek Tongues, and some smattering of the Hebrew, together in one room, to six or seven Forms of Scholars, who by reason of the noise of one ano­ther, (not to mention the clamour of chil­dren) and the multiplicity of their Work, with several boyes in each Form, do both over-tire themselves, and many times leave things to the halves; I conceive a course may be taken (especially) in Ci­ties, and Townes of greater concourse, to teach a great multitude of Scholars (as Corderius professeth to have taught 500. and I have been informed, that in some places beyond Seas, 2500. are taught in one Schoole) without any noise, in a pleasing & profiting manner, & in their playing years; not onely the English, Latine, and Greek Tongues, (together with the Duties of Pi­ety, and civil behaviour) but also the Ea­sterne, [Page 219] and other needful forreign Langua­guages, besides fair writing, Arithme­tick, Musick, and other Preparatory Arts and Sciences, which are most obvious to the Senses; and whereof their younger yeares are very capable; that thereby they may be throughly fitted for ingenu­ous Trades, or to prosecute higher studies in the Universities, and so be able (when they come to mans estate) to undertake the due management of private or publick Affaires, either at home, or in other countries.

He that shall but consider the low ebbo that learning was brought to (by reason of the Danish barbarisme) in England, in King Alfred's dayes, who could not finde a Master in all his dominions, to teach him the Latine Tongue, (which he began to learn at thirty six years of age, having begun to read English at twelve, which his elder brethren, because less stu­dious, could not attain to) and the paucity of them that understood Greek, not much above threescore yeares agoe, when a Scho­lar yet living of thirteen years old from the Schoole, was owned as a better Gre­cian, then most of the Fellowes of the Colledge to which he went; he that, I say, shall consider the former rareness of [Page 220] the Latine and Greek Tongues in Eng­land, and now see how common they are (especially since Queen Elizabeths dayes, in whose time, more Schooles were built, then there were before in all her Realm) and withall, take notice what an excellent improvement that noble-spirited Mr. Busbie hath of late made at Westminster Schoole, where the Easterne Languages are now become familiar to the highest sort of Scholars, will undoubtedly think (as I do) that our children may be brought on to far more knowledge of Language and things, then hitherto they have been, and that also in a more easie manner.

And forasmuch as I observe it as a great Act of Gods mercy towards his Church, that, in this jangling age of ours, wherein too many decry learning, he hath raised up the Spirit of some, that know better what it is, to endeavour heartily to advance it, I shall here addresse my words to such whosoever they are, but more espe­cially to the Honourable and Reverend Trustees for the maintenance of Students. And as before I have hinted somewhat touching the erecting of Petty-Schooles (whereof there is great need, especially) in London; so I will here presume (and I hope it will prove no offence) to publish what I [Page 221] have often seriously thought, and some­times spoken with some mens approbati­on, touching the most convenient found­ing of a Grammar-Schoole; that if it shall please God to stirre up any mans spirit to perform so pious a Work, he may do it, to the best advantage for the improvement of Piety and learning. For when I see in many places of this land, what vast summes have been expended (even of late) in ere­cting stately houses, and fencing large par­cels of ground for Orchards and Gardens, and the like; and how destitute for the most part they stand, and remain without inhabitants; I am too too apt to think, that those persons which have undergone so great a charge, to so little purpose, would willingly have disbursed as much money upon a publick good, did they but rightly know how to do it; since thereby their name and memory will be more preser­ved; especially, if they have no chil­dren or posterity of their own to pro­vide for.

But to return to the contrivance of a Schoole, which is to be in many things (as I have mentioned) above the ordinary way of Schooling, yet gradually distant from, and subordinate to University Col­ledges, which would thence also take a [Page 222] further rise towards perfection in all kinds of Study and Action, For the better groun­ded a Scholar is in the principles of useful matters, when he comes to the University, the greater progress he will make there in their superstructures, which require more search and meditation; so that at last he will be able to discover many particulars, which have not yet been found out by o­thers, who (perhaps) have not gone so ra­tionally to work, as he may do, having obtained the whole Encyclopoedia of learn­ing, to help him in all sorts of Books.

Such a Schoole then as may be fit for the education of all sorts of children (for we have seen the very poorest to have come to dignities of preferment by being learn­ed) should be situated in a City or Town of great concourse and trading, whose inhabitants are generally addicted, and sufficiently accommodated to entertain Tablers, and are unanimously well-affe­cted towards Piety, Learning, and Ver­tue. The place should be healthfully and pleasantly seated in a plentifull country, where the wayes on all sides are most commonly faire, and convenient passage to be had from remoter parts, both by land and by water.

The Schoole-house should be a large [Page 223] and stately building, placed by it selfe about the middle of the outside of a Town, as near as may be to the Church, and not far from the fields, where it may stand in a good aire, and be free from all annoy­ances. It should have a large piece of ground adjoyning to it, which should be divided into a paved Court to go round about the Schoole, a faire Orchard and Garden, with Walks and Arbors, and a spacious green close for Scholars recrea­tions; and to shelter the Scholars against rainy weather, and that they may not in­jure the Schoole in times of play, it were good if some part of the Court were shed­ed, or cloystered over.

This Schoole-house should be built three stories high, whereof the middle­most, for more freedome of the aire, should be the highest above-head, and so spacious, that it may contain (at least) 500. Scho­lars together, without thronging one ano­ther. It should be so contrived with folding doors made betwixt every Form, as that upon occasion it may be all laid open into one roome, or parted into six, for more privacie of hearing every Form without noyse, or hinderance one of another. There should be seats made in the Schoole, with Deskes before them, [Page 224] whereon every Scholar may write, and lay his book, and these should be so pla­ced, that a good space may be left in the middle of the Schoole, so as six men a breast may walk up and down from Form to Form. The Ushers Pues should be set at the head ends of every Form, so as they may best see and hear every particular boy. And the Masters Chaire should be so raised at the upper end of the Schoole, as that he may be able to have every Scholar in his eye, and to be heard of all, when he hath occasion to give any common charge, or instruction. There may be shelves made round about the Schoole, and boxes for every Scholar to put his books in, and pins whereon they may hang their hats, that they be not trodden (as is usual) un­der feet. Likewise every Form should have a Repository near unto it, wherein to lay such Subsidiary books as are most pro­per for its use. The lowest story may be di­vided into several rooms, proportioned ac­cording to the uses for which they are in­tended, whereof one should be for a wri­ting-Schoole, another for such Langua­ges as are to be taught at spare houres; and a third as a Petty-Schoole for such chil­dren as cannot read English perfectly, and are intended for the Grammar-Schoole. [Page 225] A fourth room may be reserved for laying in wood and coales, aud the rest made use on for Ushers or Scholars to lodge in, or the like occasion, as the Master shall think best to dispose of them to the furtherance of his Schoole. In the uppermost story, there should be a faire pleasant Gallery where­in to hang Maps, and set Globes, and to lay up such rarities as can be gotten in presses, or drawers, that the Scholrs may know them. There should likewise be a place provided for a School-Library, and the rest may be made use of as Lodging roomes, for Ushers and Scholars. But the whole Fabrick should be so contrived, that there may be sufficient lights and chimneys to every Form and roome. As for an house of Office, it should be made a good di­stance: from the Schoole, in some corner of the close, where it may be most out of sight, and least offensive.

The Masters dwelling-house should be high the Schoole, and should contain in it all sorts of roomes convenient for enter­tainment and lodging, and necessary offi­ces that pertain to a great family. It should have a handsome Court before it, and a large yard behind it, with an Or­chard and Garden, and some inclosure of pasture ground. And there should be two [Page 226] or three roomes made a little remote from the dwelling house, to which Scholars may be removed and kept apart, in case they be sick, and have some body there to look to them.

Now that every Scholar may be impro­ved to the utmost of what he is capa­ble, the whole Grammar Schoole should be divided into six Forms, and those pla­ced orderly in one roome, which (as I have described) may be so divided into six, that the noyse of one form may not at all disturb or hinder another. There should also be six able Ushers, for every par­ticular form one, whose work should be to teach the Scholars according to the me­thod appointed by the Master, and (that every one may profit in what he learneth) to be sure to have respect to the weakest, and afford them the most help.

The Master should not be tyed (as is ordinary) to a double work, both to teach a main part of the Schoole himselfe, and to have the inspection and govern­ment over all; but his chief care should be (and it wil be businesse enough for one) to prescribe Taskes, and to examine the Scholars in every form, how they profit, and to see that all exercises be duely per­formed, and good order constantly ob­served, [Page 227] and that every Usher be dexterous and diligent in his charge, and moderate in executing such correction, as is neces­sary at any time to be inflicted for vitious enormities, but seldome or never, for er­rours committed at their Books.

As for the maintenance of such a School, it should be so liberal, that both Master and Ushers may think their places to be preferment sufficient, & not to be enforced to look for further elsewhere, or to direct their spare houres studies towards other Callings. It were to be wished therefore, that a constant Salary of (at least) 100. l. per annum might be allowed to the Master, and 30. l. 40. l. 50. l. 60. 70. l. 80. l. per an­num to his six Ushers. The raising of which maintenance, (to use Mr. Mulcasters words) as it will require a good minde, and no meane purse; so it needs neither the conference of a countrey, nor yet the Re­venue of a Romane Emperour. Besides, the Master for his encouragement, should have liberty to make what benefit he can by tabling in strangers; and every of the abler sort of inhabitants in the Town, should pay him (at least) 10. s. per quarter, for a sons teaching, but all the poorer children should be taught gratis, on condition they be sent constantly to the Schoole, and that [Page 228] their Parents do engage they shall keep good order, and be cleanly and neat in their apparel; that they may not seem to disgrace their fellowes, or to be disdain­ed by them for their poverty.

It would withall be a great encourage­ment to these poorer sort of children to learn, if some whom God hath enriched with more then enough, would spend the supererrogation of their wealth, (as Mr. Mulchaster terms it) in affording exhibiti­ons of 8. or 10. l. per annum towards keep­ing them at the Schoole, or sending them abroad as they are fit, to Trades, or Uni­versities. They that go thither, should have larger exhibitions allowed them, up­on condition that they employ more time then others in the study of Tongues, and critical learning; for the promoting where­of I shall onely propound Mr. Mulcaster's question in his own words, which are these; If there were one Colledge, where no­thing should be professed but Languages one­ly, (as there be some people which will proceed no further) to serve the Realme abroad, and studies in the Vniversitie, in that point excel­lently & absolutely were it not convenient? nay, were it not most profitable, &c. As for what he writes further, (in Chap. 41. of his Posi­tions) touching the division of Colledges by [Page 229] professions and faculties; And Mr. John Drury hath lately published (in his refor­med Schoole) and his Supplement thereto, concerning the bringing together into one Society, such as are able to exercise themselves in any, or all kinde of Studies, that by their mu­tuall Association, Communication, and assi­stance in reading, meditating, and confer­ring about profitable matters, they may not onely profit their own abilities, but advance the superstructures of all learning to that per­fection which by such meanes is attainable; I refer the more judicious to their Books, and leave it to the consideration of those that endevour to promote Schoole-teach­ing, whether such a Schoole as I have now delineated, would not be of great con­cernment to the Church and Common-wealth, where-out to pick more able Schoole-masters, that by degrees have been exercised in teaching all sorts of Scholars, for (at least) seven years toge­ther, then many men that have scarce sa­luted, or are newly come from the Uni­versities, can suddenly prove to be. For I think it one thing to be a good Schoole-master, and another thing to be a good Scholar, though the former cannot well do his duty as he ought, except he be also the latter.

[Page 230] I might here bewayle the unhappy di­vertment of Jesus Colledge in Rotherham, in which Town, one Thomas Scot, alias Ro­therham, (a poor boy in Ecclesfield Parish) having had his education, and being ad­vanced to the Arch-bishoprick of York, in the time of Edward the fourth, did out of love to his country and gratitude to the Town, erect a Colledge as a Schoole, for a Provost who was to be a Divine, and to preach at Ecclesfield, Laxton, and other places (where the Colledge demeanes lay;) and three Fellowes, whereof one was to teach Grammar, another Musick, and the third Writing; besides a number of Scholars; for some of whom he also pro­vided Fellowships in Lincolne Colledge in Oxford. But in the time of Henry the eighth, the Earle of Shrowesbury (who as I have heard, was the first Lord that gave his vote for demolishing of Abbies) having obtained Roughford Abbey in Nottingham­shire, (to the Prior whereof the Lordship of the Town of Rotherham belonged) took advantage also to sweep away the Rev­nues of Rotherham Colledge, (which accor­ding to a rentall that I have seen, amoun­ted to about 2000. l. per annum) and after a while (having engratiated himself with some Townsmen, and Gentlemen there­about [Page 231] by erecting a Cock-pit) he remo­ved the Schoole out of the Colledge into a sorry house before the gate, leaving it de­stitute of any allowance, till Mr. West (that writ the Presidents) in the time of Queen Elizabeth (and when Mr. Snell was School-master) obtained a yearely Salary of tenne pounds per annum, which is since Paid out of the Exchequer, by the Auditor of ac­counts. I remember how often, and ear­nestly Mr. Francis West, who had been Clerk to his Uncle, would declaime against the injury done to that Schoole, which in­deed (as he said) ought still to have been kept in the Colledge, and how when I was a Schoole-master there, he gave me a Copy of the Foundation, and showed me some rentalls of Lands, and told me where many Deeds and Evidences belonging thereunto were then concealed, and other remarkable passages, which he was loth to have buried in silence.

But I onely mention thus much touch­ing that worthy Foundation, to shew how charitably some men have been addicted to cherish the roots of learning, and how co­vetously others have been bent to destroy the whole body of it, even in former ages; And I hope none will be discouraged from Pious undertakings, for feare least [Page 232] his benevolences should in these, or after times be perverted, when he considereth that God looketh upon the sincerity of his ends, and will accordingly reward him, though what he religiously intended, may unhappily be abused by others, contrary to his minde.

I shall now to end this Chapter, recite some remarkable passages of Mr. Mulcasters out of his Positions (Ch. 40.) which I leave to the consideration of others, to think how far they concurre with what I have said, as well concerning the foundation of a Petty, as a Grammar-Schoole.

If any well-disposed wealthy man, for the honour that he beareth to the murthered infants (as all our erections have some respect that way) would begin some building, even for the little yong ones which were no increase to Schooles, but an help to the elementary degree, all they would pray for him, and he himself should be bound to the memo­ry of the young infants, which put him in remembrance of so vertuous an act.

The opportunity of the place, and the commodity of able Trainers, whereof a small time will bring forth a great many, will draw many on, and procure good Exhibitours, to have the thing go forward.

[Page 233] I could wish we had fewer Schooles, so they were more sufficient, and that upon consideration of the most convenient seats for the Countries, and Shires, there were many put together, to make some few good.

The use of under-teachers is not, as we now practise it in Schooles, where indeed Ushers be Masters of themselves, but to assist the Master in the easier points of his charge, which ought to have all under his own teaching, for the chief points, and the same under the Ushers, for the more usual, and easie.

How the Master should maintain his Authority amongst his Scholars.

AVthority is the true mother of all due or­der, which the Master must be care­ful in every thing to maintain, otherwise he may command what he pleaseth, but withall, he must give the Scholars liberty to do what they list. Which what an hor­rible confusion in their places, what in­sufferable [Page 234] neglect of their tasks, what un­rulinesse in point of behaviour, what per­petual torment to the painful Master, and his Ushers, and what unavoydable dis­grace it bringeth upon a Schoole, let them that are Actors, or Spectators thereof, give testimony. 1. That therefore the Ma­ster may have all his lawful commands put in execution with due alacrity, and his decent orders deligently observed, I con­ceive it requisite, that,

1. He be sure in all things to behave as a Master over himself, not only by refraining those enormities and grosser faults, which may render him scandalous to every one, but checking his own Passions, especially that of Anger; and if at any time he seem to have cause to be provoked to it, and feel it to come too violently upon him, let him rather walk aside a while out of the Schoole to divert it, then expresse it openly amongst his Scholars by unseemly words or gesturs. He should indeed endeavour to behave himself unblameably in all Christian-like conversation before all men, but so amongst his Scholars, that they may have much wherein to imitate him, but nothing whereby to disgrace him. And to­wards his neighbours, his affability should be such, as to win their love and respects, [Page 235] so that they may be ready at all times to countenance the Masters well-doing, and to vindicate the credit of him and his Schoole, when they hear it unjustly traduced.

2. When he commands, or forbids any thing to be done, he should acquaint his Scholars with the end intended, and the benefits or inconveniences which attend such, or such a course. For children have so much use of reason as to delight to heare perswasive arguments of reason, though the declivity of corrupt nature makes, that they do not much minde them, where there is no feare or a rod for doing amisse. Yet sometimes it may be best to say onely, Do this, or do it not, where you think it of no concernment to them to know the rea­son, and would make trial of their readi­nesse to obey, without asking why or wherefore.

3. One main way to bring Scholars to a loving and awfull respect of their Ma­ster, is for him to shew himselfe at all times pleasing and chearful towards them, and unwilling to punish them for every er­ror; but withall to carry so close an eye upon all their behaviour, that he can tell them privately, betwixt himself and them alone, of many faults they commit, when [Page 236] they think he knowes nothing, and let them see how he dare correct them for the like offences when they presume to commit them again, and especially if they behave themselves stubbornely be­fore their fellowes. Yet to win a boy of a more stubborne spirit, it is better some­times to forbeare blowes, when you have him submit to the rod, then to punish him so for a fault, as to make him to hate you, and out of a despight to you to do the like, or a worse mischiefe. And when any general misdemeanour is com­mitted, the Master should shew himselfe impartial towards all, so as either to pardon or punish all. Bu in afflicting punishments, as he should let none escape, so he should let the most untoward feele the most smart; but beware he deal not rigorously, much le [...]e cruelly with any; for that will cause an utter dislike in all the Scholars towards the Master, fearing he will deale so with them, in case they so offend, and thinking it to be no argu­ment of love, where severity of correction is used.

4. But nothing works more upon good natured children, then frequent encou­ragements and commendations for well-doing; and therefore, when any taske [Page 237] is performed, or order observed accord­ing to his minde, the Master should com­mend all his Scholars, but especially the most observant, and encourage the weak, and timerous, and admonish the perversest amongst them to go on in imi­tating their example, in hopes of finding as much favour at his hands, as they see them to have.

5. In some places a Master is apt to be molested with the reproachfull clamours of the meaner sort of people, that cannot (for the most part) endure to have their children corrected, be the fault never so heinous, but presently they must come to the Schoole to brave it out with him; which if they do, the Master should there in a calme manner admo­nish them before all his Scholars, to cease their clamour, and to consider how rash they are to interrupt his businesse, and to blame him for doing that duty to which he is entrusted by themselves, and others, their betters: But if they go about to raise scandalous reports upon him, he may do well to get two or three judicious neighbours to exa­mine the matter, and to rebuke the parties for making so much adoe up­on little or no occasion. Thus we [Page 238] shall see Scholars abundantly more to re­spect the Master, when they know how grossely he is apt to be wronged by in­considerate persons, and that wise men are ready to vindicate his cause. Where­as if they once see their Master liable to every bodies censure, and no man take his part whatever is said of him, they themselves will not care what tales they make to his utter disgrace, or ruine; especially, if he have been any whit harsh towards them, and they be desi­rous to out-slip the reines of his Teach­ing and Government.

Of Schoole-times. Of Scholars going forth of the Schoole, and of Play dayes.

THough in many Schooles I observe six a clock in the morning to be the hour for children to be fast at their Book, yet in most, seven is the constant time, both in Winter and Summer, against which houre, it is fit every Scholar should be rea­dy at the Schoole. And all they that come before seven, should be permitted to play [Page 239] about the Schoole, till the clock strike, on condition they can say their parts at the Masters coming in; else, they are not to play at all, but to settle to their books, as soon as they come.

But here the Master is to take heed, that he be neither too rigorous with those of weaker age or constitution for coming somewhat tardy; nor indulgent towards those, who through manifest sloth, and frequent loytering, neglect the houre. For in the one it will breed a daily timerousnesse, and in the other it will make way to licentiousnesse; and on the one side Parents will cla­mour, on the other side the Schoole will receive disgrace. However the best is to be as strict as possibly may be, in seeing that every Scholar come at the just houre, and to note it as a punisha­ble fault in him that cometh late; ex­cept he bring a note of excuse from his Parents, or Host's hand, and a promise withall, that he shall not offend often in that kind.

It is not amisse for every Scholar in every Form to put down his name in a book (kept common for that purpose) so soon as he comes to Schoole every day, that it may be upon record, whe­ther [Page 240] he used to come with the foremost or the hindmost, and how often he was absent from the Schoole; likewise eve­ry Scholars name should be called over according to the Bill every Schole hour, and they that are present should an­swer for themselves, by saying Adsum, and his next fellow should give notice of him that is absent, by saying Abest.

The common time of dismissing Scho­lars from Schoole in the fore-noons, is eleven a clock every day, and in the af­ter-noons, on Mondaies, Wednesdaies, and Fridaies, five a clock, but on Tues­day after-noons, foure; and on Thurs­dayes, three. Touching which, a care would be taken that the taskes of every Form may be fully dispatched rather a little before those houres then after; that then the Scholars which intend writing or cyphering, or the like, may go to the Writing-schoole, as they yet use to doe about London. Neither would I have the Scholars to be so pre­cisely observant of the clock, as just upon the first stroke of it to rush out of the Schoole: but notice being given to the Master that it is stricken, and he having given the word for dismissing the Schoole, all the Scholars should come [Page 241] one by one orderly out of their seats ac­cording to their Forms (the lowest begin­ning first, because they are commonly next the doore) and salute him with their hats in their hands, and so quiet­ly depart out of the Schoole without thrusting, or striving one to get out be­fore another. It were good if there were hour-glasses in the School, to give notice how the time goes on.

And for their ready going home, or to the writing Schoole, there should be private Monitors appointed to inform the Master, so soon as they return to the Schoole again, who they are that neglected their duty therein.

That space of intermission about nine and three a clock, which is used at West­minster Schoole, and some others, and is so much commended by Mr. Brinsley (Chap. 33. of his Grammar Schoole) cannot so well be observed, nor is it so requisite in those Schooles, in which Scholars meet not till seven in the morning; for the variety of their several tasks, will take away that tediousnesse that seems to accurre by the length of time, and those Subsidiary Books provided for the lower Formes, will prevent the over-toyling of themselves by their [Page 242] present work. And that those disorders which usually befall in Scholars running forth in Schoole-time, may be some­what remedied, this or the like course may be taken.

1. Let it not be lawful for above one boy in twenty to go forth at once; and at his going forth, let every one come to the Master, or that Usher to whose charge he belongs, and in his hearing repeat four or six Vocabula's or phrases, which he hath not said before, and then lay down his book, with his name writ in it in a place appointed within the Masters view, that so it may be knowne at once, both how many, and who are out of doores, and how long they tarry abroad. At their coming in, they should again repeat the like number of Voca­bula's and Phrases, as they did at their going fo [...]th.

The Master should do well now and then to send a privie spie, who may truly observe and certifie him, how every scholar spendeth his time a­broad, and if any be found to go forth upon no occasion, or to truant it with­out doors, let him be censured or re­proved, according to his demerits.

3. The granting of a Play-day, is to [Page 243] be referred wholly to the discretion of the Master, who must in this be as fear­full to work his Scholars hinderance, and the Schooles discredit, as willing by such a courtesie to gratify his deser­ving friends; who if they be any whit reasonable, will be easily satisfied with a just excuse of denial; but if they be un­reasonably importunate, they ought to be served with as unreasonable a nay­say; so that Play-dayes should be rarely granted, except to such as may seem to claime more then ordinary interest in the Schoole, and to whom the Master is bound to shew his due respects, especi­ally before his Scholars.

In places of great resort, and where often sollicitation is used to be made for play (especially by mothers that come to visit their children which are tabled at Schoole) it were good that a piece of an afternoon were designed constantly afore-hand, on which (in case any suit should be made) the Scholars might have leave to play; but if not, that [...]hey be held to their Books. Yet if [...]here have not a Play-day been granted, [...]or a Holy day intervened for some weeks together, the Master may of him­ [...]elf propound to his Scholars, that in [Page 244] case they performe all their Tasks very well and orderly, so as to dispatch them by such an hour on such a day, they shall play the remainder thereof, & then (as at other times also when a Play-day is intended) ore of the upper Form (at least) should make a Petitory Oration to the Master, or them that come to crave play; and another, a Gratulatory speech, after leave is obtained.

Where both Thursdayes and Satur­dayes in the afternoons are halfe Ho­ly-dayes, I think Tuesdayes the fittest, on which to grant play; in other places, Thursdayes may seem the best. But this I leave to the discretion of the Master, who knoweth what is most convenient for his own Schoole.

Now in granting a Play-day, these directions may be useful.

1. That there be never more then one Play-day granted in one week, and that onely when there is no Holy-day in that week, and when the weather also is clear and open, and the ground some­what dry.

2. That no Play be granted till one a clock (at the soonest) when all the Scho­lars are met, and Orations have been said.

3. That all the Scholars be dismissed [Page 245] orderly into some close (or other place appointed for such a purpose) near the Schoole, where they may play together, and use such honest and harmlesse re­creations, as may moderately exercise their bodies, and not at all endanger their health.

And because some boyes are apt to sneak home, or straggle from the rest of their fellowes out of their bounds, pre­scribed them to play in; you may do well to give order to him that hath the Bill of all the names, to call it over at any time amid their sport, and to take notice of all such as have absented them­selves, & to give you an account of them, when they return into the Schoole; which should be upon Play-daies before five of the clock, that they may blesse God for his provident hand over them that day, and so go home. And that the Master may sometimes see into the various disposition of children, which doth freely discover it selfe by their company, and behaviour at play; he may now and then take occasion to walk at a distance from them, or (if he come nearer) to stand out of their sight, so as he may behold them in the throng of their recreations, and observe their [Page 246] gesture and words, which if in any thing they be not as becometh them, he may afterwards admonish them in private to behave, or speak otherwise.

But an especial care must be taken, and a charge accordingly often given, that your Scholars do at no time play with any but their own Schoole-fel­lowes, or other ingenuous children about home; which their Parents or Friends know, and whom they are willing should be admitted into their company; for besides the evil which may be contracted by learning corrupt dis­course, and imitating them in many shrewd turns: boyes that are under little or no command, will be very subject to brabble and fight with Scholars, and the rather because they know the Master will not allow his Scholars at all to quarel, and if they can do them any maime, they will attempt it, that the Master may have occasion to call them to account for it. So perverse is our corrupt nature (especially) where edu­cation hath no sway.

Of Admission of Scholars; of Election of Forms and of Scholars orderly sitting, and de­meanour in their seats, when they are at Schoole.

1. NO children should (as I have for­merly said) be admitted into a Grammar Schoole, but such as can readily read English, and write a legible hand or at least be willing to learn to write, and to pro­ceed in learning Latine. And it is there­fore best to try, in the presence of their Parents or friends that bring them, what they can do, by causing them to read or write if they can) before them, that themselves may be Judges of their present strength or weaknesse, expect proficiencie from them according as they see their capacity, not hastening them on too fast, and rating at them daily, because (perhaps) in their judge­ments they do not learn so well as their neigbours children

The best is to admit of young begin­ners [Page 248] onely once every year, and then to take in all that can be gotten from the Petty-Schooles; for company will encourage children to adventure upon an uncouth course of learning, seeing the more the merrier; and any discreet Parent will be easily perswaded to for­bear his son a while, when he consider­eth it will be more for his profiting to have company along with him, as he learneth, and he may be daily better­ed in reading English, and forwarded by learning to write, before he come from the Petty-Schoole.

The fittest season of the year for such a general admission of little ones into the Grammar-Schoole, doth seem to be about Easter; partly because the higher boyes are usually then disposed of to Trades, or the Universities, and partly, because most children are then removed from one Schoole to another, as having the Summer coming on for their encou­nagement.

When you have thus admitted a com­pany of boyes together, you may let those that can read best, obtain the higher places, till they come to get the Rudiments of Latine without book, and then you may ranke them into a [Page 249] Form. Because,

2. It is a main help to the Master, and a furtherance to all the Scholars, that the whole Schoole be reduced into Formes, and those also as few as may be, respecting the different years, and capacity of each Scholar. And if there were six hundred Scholars or more in a Schoole, they might all sitly be ranked into six Forms, by putting those of equal age and abilities together, and the toyle in hearing Parts, or Les­sons, and perusing Exercises, (as I will shew anon) would not be much more with an hundred orderly placed, and well behaved in a room to them­selves apart, then with three or foure single boyes in several employments. Not onely because the Master or Ushers do thus at once impart themselves to all alike, and may bestow more time a­mongst them in examining any Task; but also because by this means Aemula­tion (as a main quickner of diligence) will be wrought amongst them, inso­much as the weakest Scholar amongst them will be loth to lagge alway be­hinde the rest; and there is none so stupidly blockish, but by help of com­pany will learn that which he would not [Page 250] obtain being alone, and I have seen the very hindmost oftentimes to help all his fellowes at a dead lift. The Teachers constant care should be in every Form, as to direct and examine every particu­lar boy, so to help forward the weakest, that in every thing he doth, he may un­derstand himself, and it is not to be said, with what alacrity they will all strive to out-doe one another, so that sometimes he that cometh behinde all the rest, will be as fit to make a leader of the Forme, as those that are the foremost in it.

To provoke them all therefore to e­mulation, and that none may com­plain, or think himself injured by being left behinde; use constantly once at the end of a moneth, and when all your Scholars are together to ma [...]e a free new choyce in every Forme, after this manner.

1. Let every Scholar in the Forme give his own voyce, concerning which boy he thinketh to be the best profici­ent, and ablest for the present to lead the company; and having set him a­side, let them all passe their voyces a­gain, concerning whom they judge fit­test to stand the next to him.

2. Then set these two opposite [Page 251] one to another, so as the better Scholar may take the leading of the upper side, on your right hand, and the other, the leading of the lower side, on your left hand.

3. And that there may not be much inequality in the sides, let the lower leader have the first call, and liberty to take what boy he thinketh the strong­est, out of all the rest, and then let the higher leader have the next call, and liberty to take whom he liketh; and so let them proceed to call by course, till they have (like ball players) ranked all their fellowes to their sides, and so strongly and evenly set themselves in a posture one side against another, that it may be hard for any one to judge, whe­ther is the stronger.

By thus choosing amongst themselves, they will be all so well pleased, that the Master shall never be blamed for endea­vouring to preferre one boy before ano­ther, or keeping of any back, that would seem to go faster then his fellowes at his Book. And indeed I have sometimes admired to observe the impartiality and judgement of children in placing one another according to their abilities and parts, waving all other by-respects by [Page 252] which men would be inclined to set one higher, and another lower. Yet if sometimes they seem to mistake in their judgement concerning a boy, that is but newly come amongst them; or to be too partial against any other upon some general splene, which is but very rare; The discreet Master may after the ele­ction, correct the error by giving such a one a place to his own liking, which he may keep till the next choyce, except some of his inferiours have a list to dis­pute with him for his place, and then he must put it to the hazard, having a lawful time given him to provide be­fore-hand for the contest.

3. Let all the Scholars take their pla­ces in the Schoole, according to their several Formes, and let every one sit in his Form in that order in which he was elected. It were good that the seates were so equally set on both sides the Schoole, as that the higher side of each Form, might keep the higher side of the School, I mean, that on the Masters right hand; and the lower side of the Form, the lower side of the Schoole, which is that on the Masters left hand. However, let the upper side take alwayes the up­per, and the lower, the lower seats.

[Page 253] This placing of Scholars in an oppo­site manner, side against side, is good in many respects, as,

1. To know on a suddain who is un­ruly in, or absent out of his place.

2. To have them ready paired at all times for Examinations, Disputations, or Orations, or the like.

3. To keep order in going in and out of their seats to say, or in going home from Schoole, or the like.

4. To increase courage in the Scho­lars, who are delighted to let their friends see, what place they keep a­mongst the rest, when they come to vi­sit them.

As they sit in their seats, be sure to keep them continually imployed, by proportionating every taske to the time and their strength, with respect to the capacity of the weakest; for by this means, the strongest boyes will have more leisure to help, and see the weak­est can do their work, for which purpose they should be appointed sometimes to sit in the middle amongst the rest, that they may more readily be consulted with, & heard of all. These should some­times construe, and sometimes examine over their Lessons, having their Gram­mars, [Page 254] and Dictionaries, and other Sub­sidiary books to help them, out of which they should appoint others to find what they enquire after; and this will be so far from hindering their own progresse, that it will-encourage them to go faster onward, when they see how readily they can lead the way, and incite their fellowes to follow after them.

When in getting Lessons, the whole Form shall be at a Non-plus, let one of the leaders have recourse to the Master or Ushers, or to whom they shall appoint him to go for resolution. But I have found it a continual provoking of Scho­lars, to strive who should learn the fast­est, to let both the sides of one Form, as they sit a part, so to look to provide their Lessons apart; and when they come to say Parts or Lessons, or to perform Exercises, to bicker one with another, and propound those things to be resolved in by their oppo­sites, which they observe the Master to have omitted, and they think they can­not tell. And let it be constantly noted which side hath the better all the week, that when afterwards▪ they come to a ge­neral dispute at the weeks end, for places or sides, it may be considered.

Of saying Parts, and Lessons and of perusing Translations, and all other kind of Ex­ercises.

1. THe best time for saying Gram­mar Parts, or the like, is the morning, partly because the memory is then the freshest; and partly, because children may take the opportunity over night to get them perfectly at home. But forasmuch as Vocabula's are more ea­sie to be impressed in the mind, and re­quire lesse paines in getting, I conceive it not amisse, that children be continu­ally exercised in saying them for after­noons parts at one a clock, before which hour they may prepare themselves a­fore-hand (even) amid their play.

After parts said, the Master or his Ushers should immediately give Lessons to every Form, or appoint a boy out of an upper Form to give Lessons to that which is next below him, in his hear­ing; which he should distinctly construe [Page 256] once or twice over, and note out all the Words, wherein the most difficulty of parsing seems to lye, and name the Tropes and Figures, the Phrases, and other elegancies that are to be found (especially) in higher Authours.

The Lessons should be got ready to be said against ten a clock in the fore­noon, and four in the after noon; at which time the Scholars should come all orderly and quietly out of their Form, and taking their places where they ought to stand, (so as one side may be opposite to another) they should all make their salutes, and then say one af­ter another, except they be appointed otherwise.

For sometimes when you have occa­sion to make more hastie dispatch with a Form, you may cause any one or more to say the whole Lesson, or by pieces; but be sure that they all come very well provided, and that every one be intent upon what another is saying, for which purpose you may note him that hath been most negligent in his seat, and ask him ever and anon, what it was that his fellow said last.

To save your own lungs in asking many questions, and telling Rules, or [Page 257] the like, you may let every two boyes examine one another, and your self onely help them, when they are both at a mistake.

You may easily amend that common and troublesome fault of indistinct and muttering speaking, by calling out a bold spirited little boy, that can speak with a grace, and encouraging him to give the other an higher note for the elevation of his voyce: for this will at last enforce the boy you are troubled with, to speak louder, and with a better grace; and to strive to pronounce his words more distinctly, then the other did before him.

After Lessons are ended, you may let every one propound what questions he pleaseth, for his opposite to answer, and this will be a means to whet them on to more diligence in getting them, before they come to say.

In the three lowest Forms, or in others, where all have the same Transla­tions, or Dictates, you may cause onely him whose performance you most doubt of, to read what he hath written both in English and Latine, and help him, as you finde his errour, to correct it, and see that all the rest amend their own [Page 258] faults accordingly. Afterwards, you may let one parse it both in English and Latine, and order them all to write it over again fair in a Paper-book for themselves, and to give you also a copy of it neatly written in a loose paper, every Saturday. And thus you shall have every one begin to leane to his own strength, a thing very necessary in all kinde of Exercises, though they doe the lesse. If you once take notice of any boyes strength, you may easily judge of what he bringeth, whether it be his own, or anothers doing.

But in the upper Formes, and where they have all several Exercises, it is ne­cessary that you peruse what every Scholar hath done. And for this work, you may set apart Saturday fore-noons, after Grammatical Examinations are ended, and before they say their Cate­chismes. And that they may write them fair, you should sometimes compare them with their Copy-Books, or such pieces as they writ last, at the Writing-Schoole. Before they bring them to you to read, let them peruse one ano­thers Exercise amongst themselves, and try what faults they can finde in it; and as you read them over, where you see a [Page 259] grosse mistake, explode it; where you espie any over-sight, note it with a dash, that they may amend it; but where you see any fault, which is beyond their pow­er to avoyd, or remedy, do you mildely correct it for them, and advise them to observe it for the future. However, for­get not to commend him most that hath done the best, and for his encourage­ment to make him read over his exercise aloud, that others may heare it, and then to hang it up in an eminent place, that they may imitate it; and if any one can afterwards out-doe it, let his exercise be hanged up in its stead. But if any one hath lazily performed his exercise, so that it be worse then all the rest, let it be cut in fashion of a leg, and be hanged up by the heel, till he make a better, and deserve that that may be taken down. It is not amisse also, to stirre them up to more diligence, to have a Common-paper-Book, wherein the names of all in every Form that have optimè and pessimè per­formed their weekly exercises may be written, and that the one may have the priviledge to beg a Play-day once a moneth, or to obtain pardon for some of his fellows; and the other may be confined to some task, when a Play-day is granted.

Of weekly Repetitions: Of Grammaticall Examinations, and Disputations. Of col­lecting phrases, and gathering into Com­mon-place-Bookes. Of pro [...]ouncing Orati­ons, and Declamations.

I Have not in either of the foregoing Treatises made mention of any thing to be done on Fridaies, because that day is commonly spent in most Schooles, in repeating what hath been learned in the fore-going part of the week; which custome, because it is a mean to confim childrens memories in what they learn, I willingly conform thereunto.

After Chapter's therefore read in a morning, let them repeat their wonted Parts, and afterwards their Lessons, all which they will be able to say together, out of their several Authours, so that some be made to repeat out of one book, and some out of another.

For if due care be but had afore­hand, that Scholars be very ready and [Page 261] perfect in their daily taskes, it will take away all coyle and timerousnesse, which usually attends these Repetitions, and make that this day will become the ve­ryest play-day in all the week; when boyes shall see that they have nothing to do, but what they can do already, (at least) with a little looking of it over on Thursdaies towards evening at home, what they have translated out of any Authour in Prose, should be read out of English into Latine, and what they learn in Poets, should be said (as well as can be) by heart, both for the verse and the matters sake, which will furnish them with Authorities, and sharpen their invention for versifying.

After Repetitions ended, the Ma­ster should note all the Phrases and Sen­tences, and other things observable in their Lessons, which they should tran­scribe into Phrase-bookes, and Common-place-Bookes, for their constant use in writing or speaking, or making Exerci­ses, as we have mentioned already before.

And because the most leisure is gain­ed on Friday afternoones, it will not be amisse about three a clock to let eve­ry Form to dispute side with side, one [Page 262] after another, after this manner.

1. Let every one propound to his op­posite two or three questions, which he thinks most difficult out of his weeks work, which if the other cannot answer readily before he count six, or ten in La­tine, let him be Captus, and the questi­ons be propounded to his next fellow. The lowest in the Form may begin the dispute, and so go on to the highest on either side, who should keep reckoning of those that are capt, and how often.

2. Besides their weeks works they may try, who can most perfectly repeat me­moriter, a part of the Grammar, or any Authour which they read, or who can recite the most Vocabula's under one head, or who can vary a phrase the best, or imitate any piece of an Oratour or Poet.

3. Some time would also be spent in Capping Latine verses amongst the lower Forms, and Greek verses amongst the highest; for which they may provide themselves out of a Capping-book, which seems to be made on purpose by Bartho­lomaeus Schonborn or Gnomologicon Poeticum, made lately by Mr. Rosse, besides which, they may contrive a little Book of their own, wherein to write verses Al­phabetically [Page 263] out of the best Poets.

Let that side which appeareth to be the Victor have the upper seat in the Schoole, till a new choice be made, except the o­ther can win it from them before, and bring them back with a hissing disgrace.

Amid these disputes, the Master must have a great care to suppresse noise and tu­multuous clamour, and see that no boy stirre out of his appointed place. For they are apt to heighten their spirits he­yond moderation, if the Masters discre­tion doe not settle them.

Let it be now lawful for any lower boy in a Form, to dispute with one above him for his place. Mr. Stockwoods Disputations will be helpfull to the upper Scholars.

Now, that all your Scholars may be tho­rowly grounded in their Grammar, so as not to be apt to forget what they have learnt in it; let them all be exercised in the examination of a part of it every Sa­turday morning thus;

1. Let the fi [...]st and lowest Form exa­mine the two next above them out of the examination of the Accidents, asking them the Questions as they are in the Book, and causing them to answer with­out book, and according to the Acci­dents.

[Page 264] 2. Then let all those three Forms run over the Examples of the Declensions and Conjugations, as I formerly shewed, & try, who can pusle one another in declining any hard Noun, or Conjugating and Form­ing any Verb, and give the Rule of the Genders of the one, or Preterperfect tense, or Supin of the other; when these have done,

3. Let the fourth Form examine the two highest Forms in Examinatio Latinae Grammaticae, and sometimes in Elementa Rhetorices, and then

4. Let all these three Forms run over the Paradigmes of the Greek Declensions and Conjugations.

5. Afterwards the two upper Forms may bicker with one another touching Gram­mar niceties, either Latine or Greek, which they have taken notice of, and collected into a Common-place-book, as I mentioned before. But a principal care must be had to bring all your Scholars to an habit of speaking Latine, and therefore a strict Law should be made and observed, that every Scholar (especially after he hath been one quarter of a year at Schoole) should either learn to speak in Latine, or be enforced to hold his tongue. And to help the little ones in so doing, besides those Phrasiuncula at the end of the [Page 265] Grounds of Grammar, they should have Formulae loquendi quotidianae, such expressi­ons as are every day used (especially a­bout the Schoole) writ down in a little book, that they may get them by heart at by-times. As for the other boyes, they will be better guided how to speak by the Rules of Grammar, and the con­stant use and imitation of approved Au­thours. I conceive, the penury of proper words and good phrase, with many Teach­ers, is a main reason why children are not as well trained up to speak Latine in Eng­land, as they are in many places beyond Seas, and the ready & frequent use of their Mother-tongue causeth, that they are hard­ly reclaimed from it to make use of another Language. Whereas, if whilest they are at the Schoole, they might hear little or no English spoken, nor be suffered to speak it, they would quickly conforme themselves to discourse in Latine. As I have known French boyes that under­stood not a word in English, to be able in two or three moneths to talk it as readily, as they that were English borne. Onely at the first, one must wink at their im­proprieties, and harshnesse in pronun­ciation of some words and phrases, and take their meaning by what they speak, [Page 266] and after a while by custome and imita­tion of others, they will speak in Latine, as properly as the best; especially after they have gained the knowledge of Gram­mar, accustomed themselves to observe the style of Latine Authours.

No day in the week should passe on which some Declamation, Oration, or Theme should not be pronounced, about a quarter of an hour before the Schoole be broken up, and after Lessons are all ended in the forenoon. That by assiduity in these exercises, the Scholars may be emboldened to perform them with a grace before whomsoever, and upon oc­casion of any solemnity, or coming of Friends into the Schoole. There should be two standing desks set opposite in the midst of the Schoole, for boyes to stand a [...] when they pronounce.

Of exercising Scholars in the Scriptures. Of using daily prayers, and singing Psalms. Of taking notes at Sermons, and Exami­nation after Sermons.

1. BEsides that course which we have prescribed afore to every Form, of [Page 267] reading part of a Latine or Greek Chapter before parts; it is necessary for childrens more profiting in the Scriptures, to cause that an English Chapter he read every morn­ing at the beginning, and every night at the giving over Teaching. And in this, every boy throughout the Schoole should take his turn, that it may be known how per­fect he is in reading English readily, and distinctly. Let him that is to read, take his place at a desk in the middle of the Schoole, and be sure he speak aloud, and let every one reverently attend to what is read, the lower boyes looking upon their English, and the higher upon their Latine Bibles. Those also that are able to make use of the Septuagint in Greek, may doe well to procure them to look upon, especi­ally seeing they are now to be had at a far cheaper rate then formerly, bring but late­ly printed. When the Chapter is ended, you may demand of one in each Form what he observed, and let any one that is disposed, take the liberty to ask his oppo­site a question or two concerning some passage in it. Mr. Pagets History of the Bible will assist them herein, so they look upon it, before the Chapter be read; you your self may do well sometimes to tell them what things are most remarkable in [Page 268] that present Chapter. The Scholars of the upper Formes may do well to carry Me­moriale Biblicum constantly in their pocket, by which they may be put in minde at all times, what passages they may finde in any Chapter.

2. After the Chapter is ended, they may sing the first, threescore and second, the hundred, or hundreth and thirteenth Psalm in Latine out of a little book for­merly printed at Oxford, which one of the head Scholars should distinctly read unto them.

3. When the Psalm is done, the same Scholar should repeat those admonitions at the end of Nowels Catechisme, and then the whole Schoole should rehearse those Hymnes, which are there, the higher side of the Schoole saying one verse, and the lower the next alternatum & conjunctis vo­cibus; and at last conclude with one of those prayers for a blessing upon your en­deavours.

These Prayers and Psalmes would be all writ together both in English and Latine in a little book, which would be necessary to be kept in the Schoole, for continuall, and daily use.

Some course would be taken that the Master may have notice what Scholars o­mit [Page 269] the reading of a Chapter at home eve­ry night after supper; but for this pious exercise (I hope) every Christian Parent will be ready to call upon and encourage their own Children, or others that are under their charge, as Tablers.

Now that the good Schoolmaster may more fully discharge his duty towards God and his Church (who have both en­trusted him with the education of their children) to nurture and bring them up in the fear of the Lord; it were expedient, if a course could be taken, that he might meet them all at the Schoole every Lords day in the morning, about an hour afore Church-time, where he may take the op­portunity, to instruct them in Catecheti­call doctrines, according to what he may read in many excellent Books, that are as Expositions of the Lords prayer, the Creed, and the ten Commandements, and not wilde it in a tedious, unmethodized discourse, concerning things unnecessary to be taken notice of, and unmeet for children to be pusled with. And after a Psalme sung, and a Prayer said, he may see them go all before him orderly by two and two to the Church, where it is requisite that they should have a convenient place appointed to sit in together by themselves, and all [Page 270] within the Masters view. This would be an especiall means to prevent that unreve­rent behaviour in the Church, which is too usuall amongst Scholars, when they are glad to wander into by-corners to sit down to rest (or rather chat) in, or are ever and anon molested with quarrelsome lads, or unmannerly fellowes, that are apt to disquiet them, and thrust them out of their places. I have heretofore observed how the ninth Canon of our Church religi­ously enjoynes every Schoole-master to see his Scholars quietly and soberly behave themselves in the Church, and examine them at times convenient after their return, what they have borne away of any Sermon, which he cannot well doe, except he have them all confined to one place, where himself may sit near them.

After Church-time ended in the after­noon, the Master may doe well to see all his Scholars go before him in like order to the Schoole, where he should examine them, what they have heard or writ at the Sermon. Now in repeating Ser­mons, this course may be taken;

1. Let every one of the lower Scholars repeat the Te [...]t, or a Proof, or some little pious Sentence, which was then delivered. And these he should get either by his own [Page 271] attention at the Church, or by the help of his fellowes afterwards. For there should be no stirre made in the Church, upon pretence of getting notes there.

2. Those in the four middle most Forms should mind to write the Text, Doctrines, Reasons, Uses, Motives, and Directions, with the Quotations of Scripture places, as they are best able.

3. These in the highest Form should strive to write as much, and in as good or­der as possibly may be; your self now and then hinting to them some direction, what method they should observe in writing Sermons, and that may disgest what they have written into that order, wherein they heard it deliver'd; let them have a lit­tle time of respit amongst themselves, to compare their notes one with another, and to supply their defects, and amend what they have mistaken. Then

4. You may first cause one of your higher Scholars to read distinctly what he hath written, and afterwards two or three of other Forms, whom you please to pick out; and last of all, let every one of the lowest Form tell you what he hath observed of the Sermon.

These things being orderly done, you may enlarge a little upon what point you [Page 272] think most necessary for them to remem­ber, and practise, and conclude this holy dayes exercise, with singing of a Psalm and devout prayers, and charging your Scholars to spend the rest of the time in reading the Scriptures, and such reli­gious books as tend to their farther pro­fiting in Christian piety, you may comfor­tably dismisse them to their several homes, and expect Gods blessing upon your en­devours for the week following.

Of the Monitors Bill; and of rewards and punishments in a Grammar-Schoole.

THat no disorder or vice committed either at Schoole, Church, or else­where, may passe un-noted by the Master; he may cause his Scholars in the two up­per Forms, to play the Monitors in their weekly turns, from Friday to Friday.

They may make one Bill to serve for all the week, proportionable to the num­ber of Scholars of every Form, after this manner.


Nov. 1659 F.S.S.MT.W.TH.
1.G. C.       
 J. O.       
 T. P.       
2.R. B.       
 T. S.       
 R. M.       
 S. M.       
3.C. N.       
 T. C.       
 R. W.       
 J. C.       
 H. P.       
4.R. B.       
 L. S.       
 N. R.       
 B. F.       
5.H. L.       
 S. S.       
 R. H.       
 P. B.       
6 [...]. S.       
 W. T.       
 S. D.       
 H. R.       

[Page 274] Wherein you see the letters above deno­ting the dayes of the week, the letters on the side shew the place where every Scho­lars name should be written, and the pricks within the lines, how every default may easily be marked with a pin, or a pen. So that,

1. This Bill may serve as a Catalogue to be called over every day at Schoole-houres to know who are absent, and may save a deale of trouble in making little notes of Scholars frequent misdemeanours.

2. If you cause every Bill to be dated, and keep them by you, you may know at any time who is the shrewdest, or most orderly boy amongst the rest, and give publick notice accordingly, that the one may be admonished to amend his man­ners, and the other encouraged to go on in well-doing.

3. Besides, it will work the greater awe among all the Scholars, when they shall know every fault they commit whilst they are at the Schoole will be upon Re­cord, though the Master doth never pu­nish it.

4. You shall finde it a meanes of much ease to your selfe, when you shall need onely to bid the Monitor t [...]ke no­tice of a neglect, or fault committed and let it so remaine, till some fitter [Page 275] opportunity or just occasion invite or or (rather) enforce you to call to a reckoning.

5. For when you perceive any generall disorder, or some grosse thing is done, which ought not to escape correction. you may call for the Bill, and then censure those onely for example, whom you finde to be most often, and notori­ously peccant, suffering the rest (that you called forth) to escape with an admoni­tion to beware for the future.

Thus you shall gain your Scholars affe­ctions, when they shall see you unwil­ling to punish any without great cause; & avoid that common out-cry which is wont to be made against a Schoole-master, upon report of a multitude of boyes being whipt at once.

6. So many pricks as are found upon any boyes name, may be said to deserve so many jerks; but herein much discretion is to be used, that you seem not too severe, nor prove too partial. You may sometimes tell your Scholars what faults deserve more or fewer pricks; as idlenesse one, wandring forth one, fighting three; swearing, four, or the like: which are to be noted in the Bill more or lesse, according to the nature of the faults themselves.

He that is publick Monitor in one of the [Page 276] two highest Forms may appoint two pri­vate Monitors to himself in every other Form, which may give him secret infor­mation of every mismedeanour committed in any place; and this will be an especial meanes to keep all in very good order, with seldome and moderate correction; a thing to be desired by every Schoole-Master for his own e{ase, and his Scholars better en­couragement.

Those Scholars in every Form, which are indeed the most studious and diligent in their taskes, and constantly observant to keep good order, should often be com­mended to their fellowes, as patterns for them to imitat; and when any one hath performed any task or exercise better then ordinary, he should receive some small gift at his Masters hand, as a new pen-knife, or a paper-book, or the like signal Testimony of the Masters appproba­tion of what he hath done. Those Parents which are of more ability, may do well to allow the Master a small sum of mo­ney to reward their sonnes diligence now and then, and to excite them to the bet­ter performances of their taskes and exer­cises, which will invite them to go faster on in learning, then a rod can drive them.

As for inflicting punishments even upon the meanest & worst of children, it should [Page 277] ever be the most unwilling piece of work that a Master can take in hand; and there­fore he should not be hasty to punish any fault, whereof the Scholar hath not been praemonished, except it be such a notorious crime, as a boy cannot but know before-hand; that he ought not to have done it. As for the Ferula, I wish (& as I have already done) for many reasons, which it is need­less to commit to paper, that it might be utterly banished out of all Schooles. A good sharp birchen rod, and free from knot [...]; (for willow wands are unsufferable, and fitter for a Bedlam then a School) as it will break no bones, nor endanger any limbs, so it will be sufficient wherewith to cor­rect those that shall deserve it in the low­er forms, and for the higher Scholars, that will not behave as they ought to do, without blowes; a good switch about their shoulders would (in Quintilian's judge­ment) seem fitter then a rod else­where; and his reason is so modestly agree­able to nature, that as I am loth to menti­on it, so I wonder that it hath not more prevailed with many discreet Schoole-Masters, who (I perswade my selfe) have often read it, & cannot but approve of it as most Christian, however it dropt from a Heathens pen, But Nobilis equus umbra virgae regitur. Ingenuous and towardly [Page 278] Scholars will not need so much as the sha­dow of a rod. And towards others that seem to extort a rod from the Master, whe­ther he will or not, and (as I may say) will enforce him to fight, he should gene­rally use such clemency in his hand, as not to exceed three lashes; in the laying on of which, he may contribute more or less weight, with respect to the demerits of the fault. But of this he should alway make sure, that he never let the offender go from him with a stubborn look, or a stomachful gesture, much less with a squeal­ing out-cry, or muttering to himselfe; all which may be easily taken off with ano­ther smart jerk or or two: but you should rather let him stand aside a little, and see how his stomach will settle.

That a boy may at once know you dare adventure to whip him, and withall, how little you delight in his skin; you may at some time, when he hath cause to think that he hath well deserved a whip­ping, and when you have him ready for the rod, pass him over with an admonition to beware another time; and if he again be peccant in the same kinde, you may give him more cause at present to remem­ber both his faults together, and for the future to avoid them.

This even and indifferent carriage in [Page 279] rewards and punishments, will make these Scholars that have any ingenuity in them, less willing to offend, and incline the rest to behave more dutifully, because they see their Master beare such a loving minde towards them all, and to be sharp in pu­nishing none, but those that know they well deserved what blowes they had.

As for those boyes that do slight good order, and are apt to stirre up others to re­ject them, (which are usually those of big­ger stature,) that perhaps, have n [...]t been acquainted with your Teaching or Govern­ment, or know they shall shortly remove from under your command) or those that without any cause love to truant it abroad, or by other licentious demeanor bring dis­grace to your Schoole, or offer any affronts to your selfe; I conceive your best way is (at a fitting opportunity) to send for their Parents, or friends, with 1 or 2 Judicious neighbours to be by (where there are no Go­vernours of the School) & to let them justly know the fault, and adjudge what punish­ment such a boy deserveth; but if the Pa­rents be unwilling to have him corrected for his peremptory disorders, choose ra­ther to send him home with them, then re­tain him any longer to the disturbance of the Schoole or your own unquiet. This you shall finde as an especial remedy to [Page 280] prevent such clamorous out-cries of sup­posed Tyranny, when every jerk that is given to a notorious unhappy boy for his insolent misbehaviour, shall chance to be multiplyed in the relating, (like Scoggins Crowes) from three to thirty. Which base obloquie and mis-report, what hinderance it bringeth to the flourishing of a Schoole, and what unseemly disgrace to a worthy Master, I need not mention.

But, because such boyes as these some­times are apt to take it as an argument of the Masters pusillanimity, thus to send for their Parents, who generally do not love to heare of their childrens faults; the Master may take an occasion, where he sees ad­amonitions will not prevaile, to watch them more strictly at every turn, and ha­ving found them to have committed some grosse enormity, to chastise them more smartly then ordinarily, yet so as to shew no rigour. And if after that he perceive them wilfully to rush into the same acts of lewdnesse, let him fairly turne them out of his Schoole, and signify the cause to their friends: at whose entreaties he should never take them again, except they will en­gage to forfeit a sum of money to be be­stowed in publick Books, in case they of­fend in that nature again.

As for the lesser sort of children, that [Page 281] are apt to reiterate the same fault too of­ten, for which they have sometimes been already corrected; your surest way to re­claim them is, after you have once given them warning, to whip them for a fault, and if that will do no good, to double your strokes the second time; but if a third time they come under the rod, and beg heartily for pardon, (as commonly then they will do, fearing lest their punishment should be tripled) you should not let them pass, except they can procure two of your more or­derly boys, or one that is in your favour for his constant well-doing, to give their words for them, and to engage to be whipt for them, if ever they do the like. If you see they get sureties to your likeing, you may let them escape so; but if they cannot, you may adventure to take their own single words; and the care of their sureties, and fear to displease you again, will so work upon them, that they will seldom or never do the like afterwards.

Such faults as are vitiously enormous, are to be duely punished with a rod, ac­cording as the obliquity of the will appea­reth in them, more or less; as for such as are committed for want of understanding, they are to be remedied by due instruction, but those that seem to offend through lazi­ness, and careless neglect, should be abridg­ed [Page 282] of desired liberty, when others have leave to play. The shutting of children up for a while into a dark room, and de­priving them of a meals meat, or the like (which are used in some Tabling Schools) as they are not of good report, so they cannot be commendably or conveniently used in our greater Schooles.

But these things I leave to the discretion of every prudent Master, who is able to judg of every particular action by its seve­ral circumstances, & to take such course as he sees best availeable for the orderly ma­nagement of his own Schoole, especially where he is not tied to any Rules of Go­vernment.

Of Scholars writing their exercises fair, and of keeping their books handsome. And of erecting a Schoole-Library for the Ma­sters Recreation therein, at vacant houres.

THough the teaching of children to write a fair hand, doth properly be­long to writing-Masters, as professors of that Art; yet the care of seeing that all they write in Paper-books, and loose pa­pers, by way of Exercises be neatly done, doth pertain to every Schoole-Masters and [Page 283] therefore we shall here touch a little con­cerning that, and also shew what heed is to be taken about keeping their Books.

The usual way for Scholars learning to write at the Country Grammar-Schooles, is to entertain an honest and skilful Pen-man, that he may constantly come and continue with them about a moneth or six weeks together every year, in which time commonly every one may learn to write legibly. The best season for such a mans coming is about May-day, partly because the dayes are then pretty long, and partly because it will be requisite for such as are then getting their Grammar Rudiments, to learne to write before they come to Translations. The Parents of all other children would be advised to let them take that opportunity to improve their hands, forasmuch as the benefit thereof will far exceed the charge, & it will be a means of better order to have all employed together about a thing so necessary. The Master of the Schoole should often have an eye upon them, to see what they do, and how they profit, and that they may not slack in their other learning, he may hear them a part at morn, and a lesson at noon before their Copies be set, or their books can be provi­ded for them; and proportion their week­ly exercises accordingly, And that the [Page 284] stock which they then get, may be better increased against the next year, the Pen-man should cause them to write a piece, a day or two before he leave them, as fair as they can, with the date above it, and their names subscribed underneath, which the Schoole-Master may safely keep by him as a Testimony of what they can perform, & take care to see that their writing for the future be not much worse, This Pattern or Copy I formerly received from that indu­strious pen-man Mr. Roger Evans, who had sometimes taught me to write; being a Scholar at Wakefield, and afterwards yearly taught my Scholars, whilest I was School-Master at Rotherham.

A man cannot any way enter into the cano­nized rule, to come to Gods holy will and kingdome, except he reform, and become ac­quainted with vertuous manners, in most pru­dent sort that may be, &c.

Roger Evans.

But in London, (which of all places I know in England, is best for the full im­provement of children in their education, because of the variety of objects which daily present themselves to them, or may easily be seen once a year, by walking to Mr. [Page 285] John Tradescants, or the like houses or gardens, where rarities are kept, a Book of all which might deserve to be printed, as that ingenuous Gentleman hath lately done his by the name of Musaeum Trades­cantianum, a Collection of Rarities; could Parents at home but halfe so well look to their behaviour, as the Masters do to their learning at Schoole) it is ordinary for Scholars at eleven and five a clock to go to the Writing-Schooles, and there to benefit themselves in writing. In that City there­fore, having the opportunity of the neigh­bourhood of my singular loving friend Mr. James Hodder, (whose Coppy bookes of late printed, do sufficiently testify his abi­lity for the profession he hath undertaken, and of whose care and pains I have had a­bundant triall by his profiting of my Scho­lars for (at least) twelve years together; who had most of them learned of him to write a very fair hand; not to speak of A­rithmetick, or Merchants Accounts, which they gained also by his teaching at spare times) In the Token-house garden in Loth­bury, somewhat near the Old-Exchange; I so ordered the business with him, that all my lower Scholars had their little Paper-books ruled, wherein they writ their les­sons fair, and then their Translations, and other Exercises in loose papers in his [Page 286] sight, untill they were able to do every thing of themselves in a handsome man­ner. And afterwards it is not to be ex­pressed, what pleasure they took in wri­ting and flourishing their Exercises, all the while they continued with me at the Schoole. This or a better course (perhaps) may be taken at other Schooles, where they have a Writing-Master constant and ready to attend them every day through­out the year, as I have heard Mr. Farnaby made use of Mr. Taylor a famous Pen-man, for the teaching his Scholars to write. If at any time a Scholar doth not write his Exercises in the fairest manner that he is able, his punishment may be to write them over again, whilest others play. I have been told of a Porter, that could neither write nor read, who if at any time he had seen his son write his Exercises at home, in a worse hand then he thought he was able to do, would teare them to pieces, and thus at last enforced the young Scholar upon a very good hand of writing; which rude kinde of dealing with a childe, though I would have no Parents to imitate, yet I would advise them sometimes to look upon their childrens writing at home, and to encourage them to do it in the neatest fashion. For as it will be an ornament to them in their learning, and an especiall [Page 287] furtherance of their Studies, or future employments elsewhere, so it will be a great ease to the Master in the perusal of what they have written; I, with some others, have bin sorry to see some of that reverend and learned Mr. Hookers Ser­mons come in manuscript to the presse, and not to have been possible to be prin­ted, because they were so scriblingly written, that no body could read three words together in them. It is commonly objected to the best Scholars in any of the three Professions, that they write the worst hands, and therefore I wish that care may be taken to prevent that ob­jection at the Schoole, to a future gene­ration.

Now to train up Scholars as well in Calligraphy as Orthography, whilst they write their Translations in a Paper-book, they should often be admo­nished,

1. To keep a large Margent on both [...]des, & to leave the space of a long letters [...]ength betwixt every line, and of a small [...]tters breadth, betwixt every word: [...]nd to regard the Proportion of every particular letter, and the difference be­twixt j and i, and v and u, and above [...]l to beware of blotting or soyling their [...]ooks.

[Page 288] 2. To make every Comma, Colon, Se­micolon, Period, notes of Interrogation, Pa­renthesis, and notes of Admiration, &c. in their due places.

3. To write all their words in an even line with the tops, bellies, and bot­tomes of the letters of an even size, and when they have an occasion to divide any word, to part it by its just syllables, making this mark Hyphen (-) at the end of the line. And

4. In Latine to give an Adverb, or other word its note of difference, & the like, as the Grammar will further di­rect them. But for directions in fair wri­ting, I refer him to that sheet which Mr. Hodder hath caused to be printed before his Copy-book, which will sufficiently commend its Authour.

After they have once got an habit of these things, they wil more easily observe them in future Exercises, the neglect whereof will be harder to remedie after­wards, which I have seen too grosse in some mens letters that have come from the Universities.

As for Books; a care would be first had to procure those of a faire print in good paper, and strongly bound; then the Master may more easily see that his Scholars keep them all fafe and cleanly, [Page 289] and free from scribling or rending, by cau­sing them at a time unexepcted to bring all their books before him, and to shew their names, together with a note of the price, fair­ly writ in the middle of every one of them, as well as at the beginning or end. And that none may squander his own or pilfer away anothers book, or have it carelesly thrown about, or to seek, when he should use it, the Master may do well to make every Scholar once a quarter to deliver him a Catalogue of his Books, with the day of the moneth and his name subscribed, which he may lay by him, so as at any time to call him whom he suspecteth to be negligent of his books, to a private and particular account of them. That the Schoole may be furnished with all kind of Subsidiary books for the general use of all the Scholars (to be laid up in Repositories or Presses, as so many little Libraries belong­ing to every Form, and to be safely kept under lock and key) whereof the headst boy in each Form should take the charge to de­liver them out, and see they be brought in e­very night without being abused; it would not be amisse, that every Scholar which is admitted into the Schoole, should give 12. pence (besides what is accustomed to be paid to the Master) and every one at his removeal into a new Form should give 12. pence lik­wise, towards the procuring of common [Page 290] books. The Master also may do well to stir up his friends that come to visit the Schoole, or especially such as prevaile with him for a Play-day, to contribute somewhat to­wards the furtherance of childrens learn­ing, as well as to be earnestly importunate for that which may hinder it. But where a Schoole is liberally endowed, it would be good that a considerable stock of mony were appointed to be laid out yearly in all kinde of Schoole-books, whereby the poorer sort of children may have whereon to learn, and they, & all other Scholars, wherewith to help themselves in their Lessons and Exercises.

And might I become a Petitioner to the forementioned Trustees, for the maintenance of Students, or any that are both willing & able to promote the growth of good learning, I should desire, that towards the better compleat­ing of a Grammar-Schoole, there might be a lit­tle Library well furnished with all sorts of Gram­mars, Phrase-books Lexicons, Dictionaries, Ora­tors, Poets, Histories, Herbals, Commentators, Scholiasts, Antiquaries, Criticks, and some of the succinciest and choycest Authours for mat­ters of Humanity, Divinity▪ Medicine and Law; besides those which treat of every Art and Sci­ence, whether Liberal, or Mechanical, that he that is employed as a professed School-Master may throughly stock himself with all kinde of learning, and be able to inform his Scho­lars [Page 291] in any thing that shall be necessary for them to know. For every new Master cannot at the first be provided of a good study of books, for his own private use, and his Scholars benefit, neither indeed at any time can he procure them, without great trouble and charge, especially, if he live at a place far distant from London. I have observed it therefore as a great point of discretion, as well as a matter of charity, in Mr. Calfe, that in founding his Grammar-Schoole at Lewin­ham, he provided a Library for the Masters use, as well as a house for him to dwell in. And I took notice of that charitably dispo­sed Gentleman, and Citizen Deputy Adams; that when he went about to erect a School in his native country of Shropshire (if I mistake not) he consulted with Mr. Langley, and brought him along with him to Sion Colledge, to see what books he judged most convenient to furnish a Library withall for the Schoole-Masters use, and I heard since he bestowed (at le [...]) 100. l. in choice books for that purpose. I onely mention these two wor­thy persons (the former whereof is dead, and the latter living in Lawrence Lane London) to let others see, that in this present age of ours, we want not patterns of well doing, if any be desirous to imitate them in their pious actions; and I hope God hath already inclined the hearts of many, as [Page 292] he hath given them store of riches, to en­deavour to distribute and do good in this kind, even now whilest they live, in their generation.

I will conclude this Chapter with that which I heard lately related, of a cheap, easy, profiting, and pious work of charity, which one did, in bestowing 40. 8. per annum, to­wards buying English Bibles, which were to be given to those children in the Parish, that were best able to read in them; and I do ve­rily believe, that were an annuall summe laid out in procuring a certain number of books, for such as should best deserve them in every Form at a Free Schoole, it would be a grea­ter incitement to provoke children to learn, then any perswasions or enforcements which are commonly yet used.

Of Exclusion, and breaking up Schoole, and of Potations.

I Should here adde something touching those usual customes which are yet on foot in most places, of Scholars excluding, or shutting out the Master once a year, and capitulating with him about orders to be ob­served, or the like; but forasmuch as I see they differ very much, and are of late disconti­nued [Page 293] in many Schooles, I will onely mention how they may be carried on, where they yet remain, without any contest, or distur­bance, till at last they dye of themselves.

1. Therefore there should be no Exclusion, till after Saint Andews day, and that the Master know of it before-hand, that all things may be ordered handsomely to the credit of the Schoole.

2. That at the time of Exclusion, the Scholars behave themselves merrily and ci­villy about the Schoole, without injuring one another, or making use of any weapons, whereby to endanger themselves, or doe harm to any thing in the Schoole.

3. That the Heads of each Form consult with their fellowes, what things they would desire of the Master, and that they bring their suites to the highest Scholar in the Schoole, that he may prefer them to the Master writ fairly in Latine, to receive his approbation or dislike of them, in a milde way of argu­ing.

4. That the Master doe not molest, or come amongst his Scholars, all the while they are drawing up their Petition about Schoole-orders, nor trouble himself con­cerning them, more then to hear that they keep good rule.

5. That every Scholar prepare all his Ex­ercises, according to his Form, to be ready [Page 294] to be hanged out before the Schoole doors, or windowes (or rather to be hanged over his place within the Schoole, against the Masters coming.

6. That the Master upon notice that all things are prepared for his coming, goe quietly to the Schoole, being accompanied with some of the Scholars Parents, and after he have before witnesse subscribed to their Petition at the door, to enter into the School in a peaceable and loving manner, and re­ceive from his Scholars, (and also make to them) a short congratulatory Oration, and so dismisse them to play.

By thus doing, a Master shall both pre­vent his Scholars, behaving themselves a­gainst him, in such rude and tumultuous manner, as hath formerly been used; and give them and their Parents no occasion to grudge at him, for seeming to take upon him too abruptly to break old use and custome; which so long as it becometh an encourage­ment to their learning, may the better be indulged to young Scholars, whilest no evill consequences attend it. It is yet a custome retained in some Schooles in the Countrey, for Scholars to make a Potation or generall Feast once a yeare; (and that commonly before Shrovetide) towards defraying the charge whereof, every one bringeth so much money, as his Parents think good to allow [Page 295] him, and giveth it to the Master to be ex­pended in a dinner orderly provided for them, or in some kinde of banquetting man­ner, which children are commonly more delighted withall; and for this there need­eth no further direction then to say, that it concerneth the Master at such times to be cheerfull and free in entertainment of his Scholars (whether at his own house or else­where) and to see that they keep such order and moderation (especially in drinking) that it may rather be a refreshment and en­couragement to them (as it is indeed in­tended) then any occasion of distemper or debauched behaviour amongst them. And after thanks given to God for his mercy to­wards them, in that particular expression of joy and rejoycing one with another, the Scholars should all goe together into the fields to take a little more liberty of Recre­ation, then ordinary; yet with an especial regard had, that they catch no cold, or otherwise endanger their bodies.

In London, and most other places, the usu­all manner remaineth of Breaking up Schooles (for a time of intermission of Studies, and visiting of friends) about a week before Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide, till the week following those holy dayes begin, at which time every Scholar bringeth some­thing to the Master as a token of his own, [Page 296] and his Parents gratitude, for his care and love towards him. Now that the Master may also then testify his forwardnesse to requite their courtesies, and encourage his Scholars, he should every Breaking up day,

1. Provide some fitting Collation to be imparted and distributed by himselfe to his Scholars, who will thankfully take a small gift, as a token of more singular fa­vour at his hands, then anothers.

2. Invite his Scholars Parents, together with such Gentlemen and Ministers, as he is better acquainted withall, as well to take no­tice of what his Scholars in every Form are able to doe, as to grace him with their com­pany.

3. Let the Scholars in each Form be fur­nished with such Exercises as belong to them, in loose papers, and have all their Translations writ fairly in their books, to be ready to shew to any one that shall desire to look upon them. The higher Forms should entertain the company with some elegant Latine Comedy out of Terence or Plautus, and part of a Greek one out of Aristophanes, as also with such Orations, and Declama­tions, and Coppies of several sorts of verses, as are most proper for celebrating the so­lemnity of the time at hand, and to give satisfaction to the present meeting. The les­ser boyes should remain orderly in their [Page 297] formes, to be ready to give answer to any one that shall examine them in what they have learnt, or would know what they are able to perform.

This, as it will be an encouragement to the Scholars to go on cheerfully at their books, so will it be an endearment of their friends to the Master, and a meanes to pre­serve the credit of the Schoole against all virulous aspersions, that are apt causelesly, and too often to be cast upon it, by unwor­thy and illiterate persons.

It were necessary that such orders as you would have your Scholars duely to observe, and the mulct to be undergone for every particular default, were fairely written in a Table, and hanged up in some eminent place in the Schoole, that every one may at any time take notice of them, and learn more readily to conform to your Discipline. I had thought here to have added another sheet or two concerning Schoole-orders, and Scholars more decent Behaviour; but consi­dering the present haste of the press in finish­ing the work, and fearing lest this little Book should swell to too great a Bulke, I choose rather to deferre them till another opportunity. For, whilest I intended onely to give a few directions to the lesse experi­enced for the better ordering of Grammar Scholars; I have run over most of the most [Page 298] considerable matters which concern the ma­naging of a Schoole. Which, a man that is constant to his employment, loving towards children, discreet in his behaviour, a well grouuded Scholar, and an honest Christian, desirous to serve God cheerfully in the cal­ling of a Schoole Master, may undoubtedly perform without any extraordinary toyle or disturbance, either of minde or body. God in mercy enable me, and all that labour in this necessary profession to persevere in our duty, whatever discouragements may seem to attend it.

Of the Method of Teaching, which was used in Rotherham Schoole by Mr. Bonner, an ex­perienced Schoole-Master there, who was thence chosen to Chesterfield, where he died.

THat none may censure this Discovery which I have made to be an uncouth way of Teaching, or contrary to what had been aforetime observed by my Predecessors at Rotherham Schoole (which is the same that most Schoole-Masters yet use) I have hereto annexed their method, just as I recei­ved it from the mouth of some Scholars, who [Page 299] had been trained up therein all their time at that Schoole, and thence sent to the Uni­versity; before I came thither to be Master,

The custome was,

1. To enter boyes to the Schoole one by one, as they were fit for the Accidents, and to let them proceed therein severally, till so many others came to them, as were fit to be ranked with them in a form.

These were first put to read the Accidents, and afterwards made to commit it to me­mory; which when they had done, they were exercised in construing and parsing the examples in the English Rules, and this was called the first form: of which it was requi­red to say four Lessons a day; but of the o­ther forms, a part and a Lesson in the fore-noons, and a Lesson onely in the after.

2. The second form was,

1. To repeat the Accidents for Parts.

2. To say fore-noons Lessons in Propria quae maribus, quae genus, and As in praesenti, which they repeated momoriter, construed and parsed.

3. To say an after-noons Lesson in Sen­tentiae Pueriles, which they repeated by heart, and construed and parsed.

4. They repeated their tasks every Fri­day memoriter, and parsed their Sentences out of the English.

3. The third form was enjoyned first to [Page 300] repeat two parts together every morning, one out of the Accidents, and the other out of that forementioned part of the Grammar, and together with their parts, each one was made to form one person of a verb Active in any of the four Conjugations.

2. Their fore-noons Lessons were in Syntaxis, which they used to say memoriter, then to construe it, and parse onely the words which contain the force of the Rule.

3. Their fore-noons Lessons were two dayes in Aesops Fables, and other two dayes in Cato; both which they construed and persed, and said Cato memoriter.

4. These Lessons they translated into English, and repeated all on Fridayes, con­struing out of their Translations into Latine.

4. The fourth forme having ended Syn­taxis, first repeated it, and Propria quae mari­bus, &c. together for parts, and formed a person of a verb Passive, as they did the Active before.

2. For Lessons, they proceeded to the by-rules, and so to Figura and Prosodia.

3. For after-noon Lessons, they read Te­rence two dayes, and Mantuan two dayes, which they translated into English, and re­peated on Fridayes, as before.

5. The fifth forme said one part in the Latine, and another in the Greek Grammar together.

[Page 301] 2. Their fore-noones Lessons was in Butler's Rhetorick, which they said memori­ter, an [...] then construed, and applyed the ex­ample to the definition.

3. Their after-noons Lessons were 2 days in Ovids Metamorphosis, & 2 days in Tullies Of­fices, both which they translated into English.

4. They learned to scan and prove ver­ses in Flores Poetarum, and repeated their weeks works on Fridayes, as before.

6. The sixth forme continued their parts in the Greek Grammar, and formed a verb Active at every part.

2. They read the Greek Testament for fore-noones Lessons, beginning with Saint Johns Gospel.

3. Their after-noones Lessons were two dayes in Virgil, and two dayes in Tullies Ora­tions. They construed the Greek Testament into Latine, and the rest into English.

7. The seventh forme went on with the Greek Grammar, forming at every part a verb Passive, or Medium.

2. They had their fore-noones Lessons in Isocrates, which they translated into Latin.

3. Their after-noon lessons were 2 dayes in Horace, and 2 days in Seneca's Tragedies; both which they translated into English.

8. The eighth forme still cont [...]nued their parts in the Greek Grammar.

2. They said fore-noones Lessons in [Page 302] Hesiod; which they translated into Latine, and afternoones Lessons in Juvenal, and af­terwards in Persius, which they translated into English.

9. The ninth and highest forme said morning parts in the Hebrew Grammar, forenoons Lessons in Homer, and afternoons Lessons in some Comical Authour.

Thus when I came to Rotherham, I found two or three sorts of boyes in the Accidents, and nine or ten several formes, whereof some had but two or three Scholars in it; and one of these formes also was not very far from that which was below it. So that I being to teach all my self alone, was necessi­tated to reduce them to a lesser number, and to provide such helps for the weaker boyes, as might enable them to go on with the stronger. Besides, observing how barren the Scholars were of proper words and good phrases, with which their present Authours did not sufficiently furnish them for speak­ing or writing Latine, I was enforced to make use of such books amongst the rest, as were purposely made for that end, and ha­ving at last brought the whole Schoole into a good method and order, so as the Scho­lars learned with profit, and I taught them with much ease and delight; I was per­swaded to write over what I had done, that I might leave it as a pattern for him that [Page 303] succeeded me; and this was the ground-work of my Discovery.

The manner of giving Lectures before I came was,

1. For the two highest boyes in the eighth forme, to give Lectures to all the lower formes, each his week by turnes.

2. The highest Scholar in the Schoole, gave Lectures to the second form.

3. Those in the highest form were com­monly left to shift for themselves.

The manner of the Masters hearing Les­sons was this;

1. The highest boy in the form at their coming to say, construed his Lesson two or three times over, till he was perfect in it, that his fellowes might all learn by him, to construe as well as he; then every one construed according to the order in which he stood.

2. They parsed their Lessons in that or­der, that they had construed it in.

3. They translated every day after the Lesson, and shewed it altogether fair writ­ten on Fridayes.

Their Exercises were these;

1. The four lowest formes translated at vacant times, out of some English book.

2. The higher formes, having a subject given them every Saturday, made Themes & Verses upon it, against that day seven night.

[Page 304] The manner of collecting phrases was that every Friday in the afternoon, the boyes in the highest form collected phrases for the lowest formes, out of their severall Authours, which they writ, and commited to memory against Saturday morning.

The set times for Disputations, were Fridayes, and Saturdayes at noon, and the manner thus; one boy answered his day by course, and all his fellowes posed him out of any Authour, which he had read before.

A part of Thursday in the afternoon, was spent in getting the Church Catechisme, and the six principles of Christianity made by Mr. Perkins.

Finding this method (which is used also in most Grammar Schooles) to concurre in the main grounds with that which I had been taught at Wakefield, but not to be so plain and easie, as that was to chil­dren of meaner capacities: I began to seek (not so much to alter any thing, as) to supply what I saw defective in it; having these and such like considerations often in my mind,

1. Though every man liketh his own me­thod best, yet none ought so far to be con­ceited of his own, as not to search after a better for the profiting of his Scholars.

2. Though one constant method must di­ligently be observed, yet triall may be made [Page 305] of another at fit times, so it be done without any distraction to the Master, or hinderance to his Scholars.

3. A new course of teaching must not be brought in suddenly upon Scholars, that have been long trained in a worse, but by degrees.

4. Some modern Schoole-masters, seem to have gained a far more easie, and nearer way of teaching, then many of the more ancient seemed to have.

5. Mr. Brinsley seemeth to have made a Discovery of a more perfect method, then was in his time used, or is yet generally re­ceived. Mr. Farnaby, Mr. John Clerke and some others, have facilitated the way fur­ther; but Mr. John Comenius hath lately contrived a shorter course of teaching, which many of late endeavour to follow; and others have more contemplatively written what they have thought of learning the La­tine tongue in the easiest manner.

6. That for me it would not be amisse, by imitating these and others, of whose learn­ing and dexterity in teaching I had got some little experience, and observing the severall tempers and capacities of those I taught, to endeavour to finde out, and con­trive such helps, as might make the most generally received method of teaching by Grammar, Authours, and Exercises, more [Page 306] briefe in it self, and more easie and delight­full to the Teacher and Scholar. And for what I have done in this kinde these Argu­ments were especiall inducements. That,

1. It is not only possible, but necessary to make children understand their tasks, from their very first entrance into learning; seeing they must every one bear his own burden, and not rely upon their fellowes altoge­ther in what they doe.

2. It is possible and meet for every teach­er so to ground his Scholars, as that change of Masters may not much hinder their pro­gress in learning.

3. Things most familiar and obvious to the senses are first to be learned, and such as may be an easie step towards those which are next to be attained.

4. The most vocabula's, and phrases of ordinary discourse, may and ought to be taught together with the Latine Grammar, and the lowest sort of Schoole-Authours.

5. Boyes ought to know the meaning, and how to make use of each Rule, as they learne, yet so as not they be forced upon un­derstanding of it.

6. The most useful books ought to be read, and may be taught after one manner in every Grammar-Schoole.

7. Children must be furnished with store of matter, and able to write a good style, [Page 307] and shewed how to imitate their Authours, for making Exercises, before they be put to use their own invention.

8. It is tyranny in the Master to beat a Scholar for not doing that which he know­eth not how to goe about; so that he must first know him to be well able, and then he may more justly punish his neglect.

9. Many young Schoole-masters are more pusled about frameing to themselves a good method, then toyled in the exercise of teaching Schoole.

10. No man ever had such an acute and direct method, but another able Scholar might observe and follow it.

11. Many Masters that are excellent in perfecting Scholars, have not the patience to ground them, and many that have the skill to ground a Scholar well in his Rudi­ments, are not of ability to bring him on to perfection in Grammatical Exercises.

12. In many Schooles, one Master alone beareth the whole burden of teaching, with­out any help of an Usher.

13. Every one that teacheth a Grammar Schoole, is not able to make a right choyce, nor knoweth he the true use of our best clas­sical Authours.

14. It is a prime part of a Schoole-master, to instruct his Scholars well in the principles of Christian Religion, and [Page 308] to make them acquainted with the holy Scriptures.

15. It is an utter undoing to many Scho­lars, to be sent ungrounded to the Univer­sities; and Parents are generally unwilling to have their children tarry long at the Schoole, and therefore it is good for Ma­sters to make use of the shortest and surest way of teaching.

16. It is very necessary, and hath been ever wished, that some of our most famous, and best Schoole-masters, would for the be­nefit of others set themselves on work, to finde out, and publish the exactest method of teaching, which might be generally re­ceived, till a better were knowne; for by that meanes they should doe much good to the Church and Common­wealth, and somewhat herein advantage themselves, seeing every Parent will be wil­ling to have his son taught, by one whom he knoweth to be constantly diligent in a good way of teaching.

And the hopes that I conceived hereby to provoke my betters, hath especially en­couraged me (at last) to yield to my friends importunity, in setting down this Method of Teaching, and writing down also this for me of Schoole-Government, which I heartily commend to Gods heavenly blessing, and the candid censure of the more judicious, [Page 309] hoping that as I intend chiefly the generall good, so none will requite me with malici­ous obtrectation, which if any shall doe, I charitably pray for them before hand, that God would for Christs sake forgive them, and grant that I may not heed what they write or say concerning me, or my labours, so as to be discouraged in my honest endeavours for the publick service.


This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.