THE FIRST PART OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ART MILITARY, Practised in the Warres of the United Netherlands, vnder the Commaund of his Highnesse the PRINCE Of ORANGE our Captaine Generall.

For so much as concernes the duties of a Souldier, and the Officers of a Companie of Foote, as also of a troupe of Horse, and the exercising of them through their severall Motions.


Composed by Captaine HENRY HEXHAM, Quartermaster to the Honourable Colonell GORING.

The Horse is prepared against the day of Battell, But safety is of the Lord,

Prover. 21. 31.

The second Edition newly corrected and amended.

Printed at DELF in HOLLAND, for the lovers of the noble ART MILITARY. ANNO 1642.

Cum Privilegio.

TO THE JLLUSTRIOUS WILLIAM. By the grace of God, borne Prince of Orange, Earle of Nassau &c. Marquis of Veere and Vlissing &c. Baron of Breda. AND Lord Generall of the Cavallrie, in the service of the high, and mighty Lords, the STATES GENERAEL of the Vnited Provinces.


AMong the manie Arts professed in the World, the Art Mili­tary practised in our moderne Warres of these Vnited Pro­vinces, (the Nurcerie of the Milita) ought not to be accounted the least: for what magnanimous, braue vailliant Generalls, Chieftaines, Commandours & Souldiers of all nations have bin bred, and brought vp in this Academia, and Sede belli is sufficiently knowne to the World, and what honorable Actions, and memorable services they have done and performed, returning victo­rious out of the Feild, I leaue to the testimonie of Historie. Especially, the Almighty God, the Lord of Hoasts hath so blessed your generous House, as namely, your grand-father Prince William, your vncle Prince Maurice, both of immortall memorie, and now your victorious Father, Prince Fredrick Henry our Captaine Generall, as in­struments for the defence of his afflicted Church, the true protestant Religion, & for the maintenance of the Privileges, & freedomes of the Land & hath crowned them with an never-dying name, against the violence plotts and subtill machinations of one of the mightiest Potentates of all Christendome. What glorious actions the Al­mighty God hath wrought by them, for the deliverance of his Church and people in this Land the Historigraphers of our times striue as with Trumpets to sound forth their fame. For if wee cast our eyes backward to times past, & the beginnings of our Warres, when this State consisted but in a handfull of people, and a few Townes and were in great distresse, and compare it with the State of the Land as it is now, we must acknowledg how wonder-fully God hath blessed, and protected these Countries against all the Tyrannie, and treacherie of the Duke of Alva, the Bishop Granvelle, and diverse other Spanish Gouvernours, & that he by his out stretched Arme, hath extenpsed the Limits, & bounds of these United Provinces, even (as it were) from the Sunne-rysing, to the Sunne setting, and what hath all the Peruvian Gold, and the Topazan Silver availed them, wee maye therefore truely say with the Apostle, If God be with vs, who can be against vs.

[Page] Againe, if wee consider what God hath done for this Land of later yeares, it is a wonder in our eyes how remarkeably & with what good successe he hath blessed the able Conduct, and dessignes of his highnesse your Father: for in the beginning of his Generallship did he not take in Groll, & Oldenzeel, and that heauen-blessed Surprisall of Wesel, even when the Ennemy was entred almost into the bowells of this Countrie & iust at that time, when his highnesse was engaged so deepely at the Seige of the Bosch, and carryed that invincible towne, against the expectation of all men? The yeare after Rhyenbergh, and then became master of the strong towne of Mastricht, & took it before the noses of two great armies, which lay betweene vs and home, then his and your owne citty of Breda, within seauen weekes & a day, after wee putt spade into the Earth, and brake ground towards it, whereas Marquis Spinola lay al­most a whole yeare before it. And last of all the strong Castle & Howse of Gennep, which did so much annoy these Countries; These victories and Lawrils I haue briesly related, to refresh your highnesse memorie withall, & to the ende, that wee may giue the glorie and praise vnto God for them.

As for my self, J haue seene these things, & haue serued this Land two and fortie yeares, and learned some experience in these Warres, which made me take penn in hand, to writ the Principles of the Art Militarie, practised in these Warres, first vnder the Conduct of your Uncle Prince Maurice of blessed memorie, as now also vnder your victorious Father for the instruction of such English Gentlemen, & Souldiers, who are willing to come into the States seruice, & for the informing of their Iudgments the better, & with a great deale of labour, charg, and paines haue represented this no­ble art by the waye of Figure, the word of Commaund and demonstration, & hauing once showne one of my three parts to his highnesse your Father, it pleased him in your presence to giue mee encouragement, to turne my English bookes into Netherdutch. In obedience whereof, I translated my first part for the exercising of a foote Com­panie, and a troupe of Horse (and God willing intend to doe the other two parts in time) & dedicated it to your highnesse, And now the warres of my native Coun­trie and Jreland which the Almighty compose, calling for them againe, as I dedica­ted my first part vnto your highnesse in Dutch: so now I most humbly beseech your highnesse, that vnder your gracious acceptance and patronage this second Edition maye come againe to the view of the World in my maternall tounge, both in these Countries and in England, and I shallbe bound not onely to pray vnto God for yow & her highnesse Royall your dearest consort to blesse yow being our future Hopes next vnder God hereafter, and a sprigg sprung from that noble howse of Nassaw, to giue you the like successe and victorie over our Ennemies as he hath done to your prede­cessours: but also to crowne you, and her highnesse Royall with everlasting felicity hereafter resting.

Your highnesses humble and submissiue servant, HENRY HEXHAM.

THE OFFICERS AND DVTIES BELONGING TO A FOOTE COMPAGNIE THROVGH ALL THEIR degrees, from a private Souldier to a Captaine as followeth, And first.

Of a Centinell, or a private Souldier.

A Centinell or a private Souldier ought to uuderstand well his duty, to come to his squadron, or company at seasonable times, at the drummes beating, or otherwise, or when they are to draw in armes, and to set the paradoe. To be very vigilent, and carefull upon his centinell-ship, & to have as many eyes about him as Argus had, suffring no man in the night to passe without crying Qui valá & calling his Corporall to take the word, un lesse he be cōmanded to come in silently. He must also take delight in the handling, & vse of his armes and see that he keepes them fixe, neate, and cleane, and goe handsomely in his cloathes. He must play the good husband, and menage well that little meanes he hath.

In marching or standing, he must have a singular care to keepe his ranke and file, & not to stirre out of it (without command) yea if he were sure to kill an enemy: hee ought also in fight, and in the day of battell, to hearken well to his officers command, that when his officer may fall, or cannot be heard in a charge: he may be acquainted with the sound of the drumme, when it beates a march, a charge, or a tetreate. He must not be given to sharking, and oppression, but as Saint Iohn Baptist teacheth us in the Gospell, Luk. 3. 14. to do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsly, & be cōtent with his wages, he must be no Drunkard, whoremaster, or theefe, knowing how honorable his profession is, & how deare his reputation should be vnto him; but ought rather to arme himsele with these christian vertues, the feare of God, praying morning and evening, and with Moses, to number his daies that he may apply his heart to wisedome, hee should of all men be prepared to welcome death, seeing that a bullet in a moment, may send him from earth to heaven. Morever, he must be diligent, active, sober, patient, couragious, discrete, and curteous. Carefull nesse and labour will exercise him, and fortitude, with valour wil teach him to execute, & suffer patiently all fategations of the warr.

To conclude, I would have a gentleman, and a souldier ambitions of his preferment, and advancement: knowing how many brave Generalls, and commanders, even from private souldiers (passing through all the degrees, & offices of a souldier) have raised their advancement, thinking that he may also come to the like height of honour, withal remembring how many worthies, Emperours, Kings, Princes, Dukes, Earles, Nobles, & gentlemen have been of this honourable profession, & what Heroick, & brave actions they have performed, how many brave Battells they have fought & what victoires they have gained, leaving in history Traphes of their memorable actions, to eternize their everliving memory to posterity.

Of a Gentleman of a Company.

IN a company of foot, there are also Gentlemen, especially in a Generalls, or Coronels company, they ought to haue many brave gentlemen of quality, valiant, and capable of perferment, when the Generall, or coronel shall find them worthy, and deserving.

The first duty then required in a gentleman, or private souldier is obedience, as appeared by the Centurion, in his answere to our Saviour in the holy Gospel, which teacheth us obedience, saying, I am a man under authority having souldiers under me, and I say to this man goe, & he goeth, & to another come, & he commeth, & to my servant do this, and he doth it, Math. 8. 9. For without this a whole army is worth nothing, & to this vertue also, he must joyne love, & respect to his Captaine, & superiour commandour.

A Gentlemans duty at his first entrance into the profession of a souldier, following a Generals, or coronels company, is to stand centinell for a moneth, to learne the first degree of a souldier, that he may be the better able to command others, when he is advanced. In places of danger, either in the field, or approaches he is to lye perdu, with his pistoll, and sword, & not to budge from his place, till he be relieved: not to retreate for one man, but in case of more, then to fall back to the fecond, & discovering an enemy comming off betimes & silently, hee must give the Alarme so, that the Corps de gard, or company may be provided to defend them selves.

A Gentleman also is to goe the Round with the captaine of the watch, or his fellow-gentlemen, either in field or in garrison, to give the corporall of the guard the word, and to charge the centinells to looke well about them.

Of a Barbier Chirurgian to a Company.

THere ought to be in a Company, a good Barber Chirurgian, both to trime the souldiers, & to have skill in Chi­rurgerie, that when the company watches in approaches, and guards, where there is danger, he may be at hand (in the absence of the Chirurgian of the Regiment) to bind up & dresse hurt, and wounded men, in doing there of, he is to be free from all other duties, belonging to the company, seing he is an officer allowed in the States list.

Of the Clarke of a Company.

THe Clarke of a Company ought to be an honest, and a sufficient man, whom his Captaine may entrust for the fetching of his months pay, & the due and seasonable payment of the company: his duty is to keepe the muster-roule, to have it upon all occasions in a readinesse, to enter his men, both into his muster-roule, and pay bill, to receive the service mony of the Company, to see the souldiers or their hostises where they lie duely paid it, & to deliver up every pay-day, a true pay bill unto his Captaine, or chiefe officer.

Of a Drumme Majour.

Every Regiment ought to have a Drumme-Majour, to whom when it is watch time, the other Drummes are to repaire, there to beat a call, and to march with his Company that is appointed for the guard. A Drum-ma­jour ought to be a grave man, able to instruct the other Drums to beat a true march, and other points of warre, to see the Drummes that beat upon a march to be duely relieved, and also to speake divers tongues, and to bee wise, and cautelous what he shall speake to an Enemy.

Of the Drummers.

EVery company also ought to have two good Drummers, that knoweth how to beate a call, a slow, or a swift march well, a charge, a retreat, and a Reveille: He should also be a linguist, because oftentimes he may be sent unto the enemy, for the ransoming of prisoners, his duty is comming to the campe, or garison of an enemy, hau­ing his Generalls passe in his hat, to beat a call, till he is fetcht in, and because he shall not discover the weaknesse of guards, workes, or trenches, he is led blindfold, and so carried to the Commander, and place where his prison­ers are, with whom after he hath ransommed them, he is to returne to the camp, or garison.

Of a Gentleman of the Armes.

THe next in degree is the Gentleman of the Armes, who ought to bee the eldest gentleman of a company, whose charge is to looke diligently to the armes, of the company, to marke and figure them, and to keep a list what number, and figure every souldier hath upon his Armes, to cause the souldiers to keepe their armes neat & cleane, and if any thing be amisse, or broken, to bring them to the Armorers to be repaired, and if any souldier have his pasport, be sick, dead, or run away, himsefe, or the corporall is to bring up his armes to his lodging, least they be lost, and to keepe them cleane, till he delivereth them to some souldier newly entertained. Moreover, he is to visit the gards, to see that their armes be in good trime, to keep the powder, bullets, and match, and to deli­ver them out to the corporalls and Lanspersadoes.

In divers companies, especially in great garisons, there is a corporall of the Gentlemen, who is to acquaint them in the field, when they are to lie perdues, and in garison to call them out in the round-house, to goe the round ac­cording to their sennority.

Of a Corporall.

EVery company is devided into three squadrons, and every squadron hath his Corporall and Lanspresado, hee is the head of the squadron, and ought to be an honest & able man, & sufficient to discharge his duty, sober, modest, and peaceable. He is first to have a squadron roule of all the gentlemen, and Centinels names of his squa­dron, and when any new souldiers are entertained, he is to instruct them in the use of their armes, and must not suffer the old souldiers to mock, or geere the yonger, if they do not their postures as they ought: seeing that every man in every science, & profession must have a time of learning, before he can be perfect: & if he doth not well he must goe over & over againe with them patiently, untill such time, as hee hath made him a good muskettier, or pike-man, for which he shall get commendations of his captaine, and his officers.

In marching either in his squadron, or company the eldest Corporall is to lead the right hand file of the mus­kettiers, the second corporall the left hand file, and the third in the midst of the devision.

Being with his squadron upon his guard, he is to provide them wood, coales, and candle light, to keep a con­tinuall fire day and night.

Having an outguard, he shall doe his best endeavour to strenghten as much as in him lieth, his little corps de guard, and set out his centinels according to the avenues, or commings on of the enemy: for the cutting off of a centinell, and the surprising of a corps of guard, is of a great imporrance, and may endanger sometimes the over­throw of an Army. And therefore it behoves a corporall to be very carefull and vigilant, and to visite his cen­tinels often, to give them charge to looke well about them, to relieve them duely, & not to suffer them to stand to long, especially in cold weather.

His duty also is not to forget the word, but to imprint it in his memory, when the Captaine of the watch goes the first round, he shall with his sword drawne against his brest give it him, and so receive such orders from him as he shall command him. And afterward when the round comes againe, he shall cause the rounder, or gentle­man with his sword drawne to give him the word, before he let him passe, and if upon his guard, himselfe, or his centinells should heare, see, or discover any men, or light-matches, to have his men in readinesse with bullets in their muskets, and their matches lighted, and to come in silently to give his superiour officers inteligence therof, that they be provided before the alarme be given, to resist an enemy, and to defend the guard. To conclude, he is to distribute powder, bullets, & match out of his squadron, and to have a care, that they keep their armes neat & cleane. And not suffer the holy name of God to be prophaned, or taken in vaine vpon his guard.

Of a Sarjant.

NExt unto the three chiefe officers of a company aboue mentioned, follows the Sarjants of a company, wher of there are two to a private company, and three to a Colonels or a double company. The word Sarjant is borrowed from the French, & signifieth a charge-bearer. A Sarjant then should be a man of experience, stirring, [Page] and vigilant, and to have these three qualities, a wise man, a man of spirit, and a man of courage, for a good Sarjant is a great help to his captaine, and other officers, in helping to execute their commands. He must be also able, & sufficient to teach the souldiers the true and perfect use of their armes, his duty is to march upon the flanke of the company or devision, to see that the souldiers keepes their rankes and files, and in the field or in garrison to lead the squadron to their guard, to carry to prison with his halbert (the signe of his authority) such offenders, as his captaine or superiour officer shall commit to the Provost marshall. In excercising of the company the Sarjants places are upon the right and left flankes, to looke that the souldiers stand right in their files and ranks, and to see that they performe the termes of direction in every motion given by the Captaine in the front, to cause the mus­kettiers to make ready by rankes and to lead them up to the place where they are to give fire. Moreover his duty is to attend on the Sarj'. maiour of the regiment, when he is to give out orders, & from him to receive the word, & other orders, to give it to his captaine, lieutenant, ensigne, & corporall, to fetch amunition, powder, & match, & other materialls for the company, also to set out perdues, & see them duely relieved, and thus much of the duty of a Sarjant.

Of an Ensigne.

AN ensigne ought to be a generous, able young man, above all things to be carefull of his honour, & reputa­tion, & not to meddle with the company, but onely his collours, which is recommended to his charge, nei­ther to command any thing to the souldiers, unlesse in the absence of his Captaine, and Lieutenant, having then full power, and command over them and to lead in the head of the company, with a Corslet and Pike. He ought to be beloved of all the gentlemen, and souldiers of the company, and to be kind, affable, and liberall unto them and to do them all curteous offices to their Captaine, which will gaine their love and affection towards him.

His place marching in a devision, or battaille (unlesse it be a Generalls or a Coronells Ensigne) is to march be­tween the third, and fourth ranke of the pikes, and when the Generall, or some Prince passeth by in marching, he is to vaile his collours, & if standing, to step up into the Front to do the like reverence, without moving of his hat. He ought to have a singular care, that his collours be garded, aswell to his lodging, as in other places.

Also in the day of battaile, seeing he carries the honour, and Ensigne of his country, rather then to loose them, hee ought to make them his winding sheet, and in the company, or in a body or devision, hee is to march with gravity, and modesty, and thus much of an Ensigne,

Of a Lieutenant.

FIrst, it may be demanded, why a Lieutenant is so called, and the reason wherefore this name is given him. A Lieutenant then is a French word compounded of Lieu a place, and tenant the participle of the present tense, which signifieth in English, holding, or keeping, from whence he taketh his name, and is as much, as if one shold say, a Lieutenant is he, which holdeth up, and supplieth the place of his Captaine or Governour. He is also called in the Germane tongue Lieutenampt, which is as much to say, as having the charge, or office over men: because that in the absence of his superiour, or his captaine, his office, and quality importeth as much, as if the Governour, or captaine were present himselfe, and therefore Lieutenant, being a name rightly imposed upon him, he is to take care, order, & governe the company, and ought to be honoured, obeyed, and respected, as if the captaine himselfe were present. Hence it is also that a King hath his Viceroy, a Prince his Administratour, a Potentate his Marshall, or Chancellour, a Lord his steward, and a Coronell, or Governour, his Lieutenant Coronell, or Lieutenant Governour.

A Lieutenant then must be an able, and sufficient man, capable of his charge, and experienced in the warrs, understanding the duty of a Captaine, because he is to execute it in his absence, and to be an ease unto him.

He is to receive all orders, charges, & commissions from his captaine, assuming no authority to himselfe, un­lesse in the absence of his captaine: for it is certaine that every military charge, ought to go by order, and to bee received from his superiour Commander.

When it is required, hee is to give his captaine wise counsell, and to advise, and consult with him for the good of the company, especially in the time of action, and in matters of importance.

He ought also by his command to appease quarrels, between souldier, and souldier, not to be partiall, or fa­vour one man more then another, for it is a point of iustice, to compose a quarrell, and to give satisfaction to the party interressed, in so doing, hee shall support his command and gaine himselfe reputation. But in a matter of importance he ought to acquaint his captaine therewith, that he may punish the offender, by committing him eitheir to prison, or causing him to give satisfaction to the gentleman or souldier wronged, and that for the avoi­ding of blood-shed.

A Lieutenant also must know how farre his authority extends in the presence of his captaine, and that his cap­taines honour and reputation ought to be as tender and as deare unto him as his owne.

In his captaines absence, he is to governe the company wel, to take care that it be duely exercised, to command the inferiour officers, as the sarjants, and corporals to do their duties, to make them teach the souldiers the perfect use of their armes, that when they shall come to be excercised by his capt, or himselfe, they may be in a readinesse.

When his captaine excerciseth his company himselfe, his place is then in the Reere of the company, to see that the words of command, which is given by his captaine in the Front, be duely performed, and executed by the souldiers in the reare: likewise in marching his captaine being present, he is to bring up the reere of the compa­ny, and in his absence to lead it, in the Front to the gards, and paradoe, and to see that every souldier do their duty upon their guards, and thus much briefly for a Lieutenant.

Of a Captaine.

EVery company hath a Head, (to wit,) a Captaine, who in the Allmaine tongue is rightly called a Haupiman, a head man from the word Haupt, which signifieth a Head, and from the Latine word caput, from whence the name of a Captaine is derived in French, English and Dutch. For, as the Head is the principall member that governes▪ and rules the body, and unto which all the other membres are subordinate; so likewise the officers, & souldiers of a company ought to governe, and carry themselues, according to the charge, and command of their Captaine.

A Captaine then having so honourable a place, as to be the chiefe of a company ought to be very capable of his charge, and as he ought to carry himselfe with austerity, and gravity in the point of his command, that he may be obeyed, feared, and respected of his souldiers; so should hee also carry himselfe towards them, as a loving, & kind father (seeing they must live and die together) in paying them duely, in helping, and relieving them in their wants, nesessities, and sicknesses, neither must he be giuen to coveteousnesse in keeping back from them, that which is their due.

And as he is to love, countenance, and to make much of such souldiers of his company, as carry themselves bravely and stoutly in the face of their enemy, which deserve well, seeking by all meanes to advance such, it will give encouragement to others to do the like: so ought he also to punish vice severely, quarrellers, and offenders, for the good and example of others.

A Captaine should also be religious, loyall to his Prince & country that he serves, just, temperate, liberall, wise and discreet, valliant in the field before the face of his enemy: valliant in townes and forts besieged, and for his honour, never to give consent in yeelding up any place, till it be past reliefe, & that there is no possibility to hold it out any longer.

A Captaine also ought to instruct, & informe his souldiers in the point of their duties, to traine them up, & to exercise them well in the use of their armes, aswell himselfe as the officers that are under him, & to see that they readily obey, and execute his commands, which is the life of warre, and one of the principall things, required both in a Captaine and a souldier.

The scale. The arming of a pikeman 2 The arming if a muskettier

NEXT Followes the Postures of the Pike, and Musket, represented by fi­gure, having the word of command under every of them, with briefe observations on the first page, answering to the number of every figure.

THe postures of the Pike may be done, either standing or marching. In marching (as wel as in stan­ding) a pike-man may advance, shoulder, or charge his Pike, either to the Front; to the Reere, to the right, or left flanke, according to the terme of direction given him by his officer.

The postures likewise of a muskettier are also done, either marching, or standing, by himselfe, or in his squadron, company, or division.

A good muskettier that is ready, and well made by his officer, will fall naturally and gracefully to the doing of his postures, and will take delight in handling of his Musket, avoyding antique, and dancing po­stures, which hertofore haue been taught by some officers, but now is grown ridiculous, not beseeming and becomming the grave comportment, and carriage of a Souldier.

A Captaine then, having a commission given him to raise a company, ought to make choise of the tal­ler, and abler men for his pikes, and of the shorter, stronger, and well set with good legges, for his musket­teires: yea, such as may be able to endure both hardship, and labour. And thus much as a short preamble by the way, before we come to shew the figures of the postures them selves.

Briefe observations upon the postures of the Pike, answering to the number of every figure following.

1 SEt the but end of your Pike neere your right foot on the outside, holding it right up in your right hand, about the height of your eye, and your arme a litle bending, and your right foot forward.

2 With the right hand alone bring your Pike just before your body, bearing it directly right up, raising the but end from the ground, then take the Pike with your left hand about the height of your gridle,

3 Forsake the Pike with your right hand, and with the left hand alone raise vp the Pike, that the But end be about the height of your thigh, then take the But end in your right hand, without stooping to it.

4 Forsake the pike with the left hand, and with your right hand alone carry the pike right up locking the pike betweene your shoulder and arme, your right hand holding the but end of the pike, about the height of your hip.

5 Sink your right hand a litle, and with your left hand take the pike, as high as well you can reach, and bring the pike just before your body.

6 Forsake the pike with your right hand, and bring downe the pike in your left hand, that the but end be neere unto the ground, then with your right hand take the pike about the height of your head.

7 Forsake the pike with your left hand, and with the right hand onely set the but end on the ground, on the out side of your right foot, as in the third posture.

8 Bring the pike just before your body, & raise the but end from the ground, bearing it for­ward, then take it with your left hand a little beneath your right.

9 Bring forward the pike with your left hand, and take it in your right, reaching backeward as farre as well you may.

10 Forsake your pike with your left hand, & with the right onely lay it vpon your right shoul­der, bearing the but end about a foot from the ground, holding your thumb under the pike, the better to gouern it, carrying the pike forward.

11 Beare your right hand with the pike backward, as farr as well you can, with your left hand take the pike forward, and with the right beare the pike vpward.

12 Forsaking the pike with the right hand, cast the point forward, that the but end may conve­niently be taken in the right hand.

13 Take the but end of the pike in your right hand, holding it about your hip, and raising the pike with your left hand about the hight of your breast, carry the pike directly before you, your left foot tward.

14 Raise the right hand and stretch it backward, your left hand being at your breast, your left elbow against your hip.

15 Beare downe the but end of the pike with your right hand, and raise the pike with the left, and so advance, as in the sixth figure.

16 Sinke your right hand, and with your left take the pike as high as wel you may reach, brin­ing the pike just before your body.



[Page]17 Forsake the but end with your right hand, bearing forward your Pike in the left hand, and take the pike backward in the right hand, as farre as well you may reach.

18 Forsake the Pike with your left hand, and with your right onely lay it vpon your shoul­der, or as in the twelfth figure.

19 Beare the pike with your right hand backward, take it forward in your left hand as you may conveniently reach, bearing the pike with your right hand upward.

20 Forsaking the pike with your right hand, beare it over your head, and at the same instant turne your body to the left hand, that you may conveniently take the but end of the pike in your right hand.

21 Having the but end of your pike in your right hand, stretch your right arme backeward, and set your left hand at your brest, &c, as in the sixteenth figure.

22 Slip your left hand forward as farre as well you may, and lift the pike upwards to your head, and with the right hand beare the but end some what downeward.

23 Forsaking the but end of the Pike with your right hand, beare up the pike over your head with your left hand onely, at that instant turne your face to the right hand, and be ready with your right hand to take the Pike more backward.

24 Having the pike in the right hand, forsake it with your left, and with the right hand onely lay it upon your shoulder, as in the 12 and 20 figure.

35 This is to be done in three motions, as the contrary is showne in the ninth, tenth eleventh figures. Beare the pike with the right hand backward, with your left take it forward, bearing the but end downeward, then slip downe your right hand a little aboue your left, and set the but end on the ground, as in the ninth figure.

26 This is to be done by severall palming postures, with the right hand beare the but end of the pike backward, as farre as you can, and continue palming till you come to the head of your pike.

27 With yout left hand hold the pike a litle below the head, your right hand more backward, as farre as the cheekes, or arming reach, set your right hand upon your hip, your elbow stretch foorth, and your left hand more forward before your breast.

28 Remoue your right hand to your left, & in your right hand onely carry your pike, your hand being vpon your hip.

29 This is to be done by severall palming posturs backward, bringing forward your right hand as farre as well you can, and with the left hand gripe the pike backeward as farre as you can.

30 Forsake the pike with your right hand, bring forward the pike with the left, & take it back­ward with the right, and so cōtinue palming, until you have the but end of the pike in your right hand.

31 Stretch your right arme backward with the pike in your hand, your left hand at your breast, and your elbow upon your hip, as in the sixteenth figure.

32 This is to be done in three motions, first bearing the pike right up before the body, and so forward as from the advance in the 6, 7 and 8 figures, onely you must observe to set the but end of the pike at the inside of the right foot, which is your close order.

33 The but end of the pike resting against your right foot, take it in your left hand, abouthe heigh of your gridle, and step forward with your left foot, the knee bent, lay your left arme, vpon your knee couching downe low, and draw your sword over your left arme.

34 Raise your body right up, set your pike against your right shoulder with the left hand, the but end being stil upon the ground, then put up your sword.

[Page 9]


Briefe observations upon the postures of the Musket, answering to the number of every figure on the other page.

1 THis figure sheweth a muskettier marching with his musket on his left shoulder aslope holding the but end of it with his left hand, and his match between the two lesser fin­gers, with his rest in his right hand, and his right leg before.

2 How he carrieth his musket shouldred with the rest crosse, close to the inside of his musket his match between his two fingers, holding his thumbe upward to the forke of the rest, and his right leg before.

3 Draw the right leg to your left, and withall sink your musket, and then slip your rest, griping it with your right hand between the brich and the thumb-hole,

4 Hold the musket upright, in your right hand, and on your side, raise your left hand to the forke of your musket, and set your thumb against the Forke.

5 Sink your right hand, and gripe the musket fast in your left hand, with your rest on the out side, holding your thumb hard against the care of your Fork, to lock the rest fast to your mus­ket in your left hand, that you may have the use of your right hand, to do the posturs following.

6 Take your match from between your little finger, with your thumb, and the second finger of your right hand, being turned with the palme from you.

7 Bring the right hand with the match backward, and your left hand with the musket and rest forward, turning your face a little backward, and blow of your match with a good blast.

8. Holding your match between your thumb and second finger, then bring it to the cock, & presse it into the cocke with your thumbe.

9 Your thumbe and finger being upon the cock, and your second and third finger under the cock, pull the cock downe to the pan, and with your thumbe and middle finger, either raise or sinke it, that it may fall right into the pan.

10 Lay the two fore fingers of your right hand upon your pan, the thumb behind the schut­chin of the pan, the easier to lift up the musket, and so bringing up the musket with both hands toward your mouth and yet not stooping, blow againe your coale.

11 Open yonr pan with your two fingers, and withall bring backe your right hand to the thumbe-hole of your musket, your second finger to the tricker, and with your left hand fix the forke of the rest to your musket, your thumbe against the forke, and set the pick end of the rest vpon the ground.

12 Lye on, and lift up your right elbow, bringing the but end of your musket with in your shoulder, neere your breast, winding your shonlder to it, holding it fast from recoiling, present­ing a faire body, the small end appeareing a little aboue your shoulder, haveing the left legge before, bending a little with the knee, and resting stiffe upon your right legg, take your marke breast high.

13 First, sinke the but end of your musket, and with the rest bring it to your right side: then stepp forward with your right legge, and carrying your musket in your left hand, fall away.

14 Take the match out of the cocke with the thumbe, and second finger of your right hand, holding the musket and rest in the left hand onely.

15 Returne the match betweene the two lesser fingers of your left hand, from whence you had it.

16 Bring up the musket with the left hand onely towards your mouth, and withall, blow your pan stiffely, not stooping with your head, in the meane time take your touch boxe in your right hand, as this figure sheweth.



[Page]17 Hold your touch-boxe betweene the thumbe, and fore-finger of the right hand onely and so prime as sheweth the figure.

18 Lay the right thumbe over the barrell neere the pan, and with your two fore-most fin­gers shut the pan.

19 Hold your musket fast with the right hand at the breech, the left as before, turning the pan downewards, that the loose powder may fall off.

20 Hold your musket in both hands as before, heave it vp towards your mouth, not stooping blow off the loose dust, or cornes.

21 Hold your musket in both hands as before, beare it upright towards your left side, and with all step forward with your left leg, then holding the musket only in the right hand at the breech forsaken your rest.

22 Having forsake your rest, take the musket into your left hand, about the middle of the bar­rell, so as the but end touch not the ground, trailing your rest between your musket, and your body.

23 Take your charg in your right hand, with the thum, band fore finger there of, thrust of the cover.

24 Draw back your left hand with the musket, as far as conveniently you can, and with your right hand put powder in to the boore of the barrell, holding the charge between your thumb & fore-finger onely, as this figure showeth.

25 Take your bullet forth of your bag, or out of your mouth, and then put it into the muzzell of your musket.

26 VVith your right hand turning the palme from you, draw forth your scouring stick, bear­ing your body, and your left hand with your musket, so farre backe as you can.

27 Having drawne forth your scouring-sticke, set the rammer head against your brest, and slip your hand closse to your rammer, that you may the easier put it into the muzzel of your musket.

28 After your bullet, least it should fall out againe, either in skirmishing, or upon a slooping trench, put in some Harts haire, or some other stopping, and then with your scouring-sticke ramme home your powder, bullet, and stopping twice or thrice.

29 VVith your right hand turned, draw your scouring stick out of your musket, as before.

30 Your scouring stick being drawn forth of your barrell, turne it, and bring the scouring-stick end to your breast, and so slip your hand within a handfull of the end.

31 Beturne the scouringstick into its socket; from whence you had it.

32 Bring forward your musket with your left hand, and beare it right up, take it into the right hand at the breech, and so hold it in your right hand onely, either to showlder it or to lock yt to your rest and so much for your marching postures.



The standing postures of the Musket, and how to make ready upon the rest. in a squadron, Company, or division.

1 BRing up your left hand, with the forke of the rest to the musket, and pick your rest upon the ground, your left leg, some-what bending, as in this figure.

2 Take the match betweene the thumbe, and second finger, as in the 16 figure marching.

3 Turne a little with your head behind your pan, and blow your match with a good blast.

3 Holding your match betweene your thumbe and second finger, cok it, as in the eight figure marching.

5 Your thumbe and fore finger being vpon the cock, and your second, and third finger under the eock, pull your cocke to the pan, and raisiug, or depressing it looke that it fals right into the pan.

6 Hold the two fingers of your right hand upon your pan, and the thumbe behind the scutchian.

7 In presenting draw backe first your left leg to your right, and withall stooping a little with your head to your pan being guarded, blow off your coale.

8 Lying on (as in the 12 posture marching) opening your pan, fal backe with your right leg, bring your right hand to the thumbe-hole of your musket, presenting a faire body, hold your musket hard and closse betweene your brest and your shoulder blade, and pulling your tricker with your fore finger give fire.

9 Having given fire, bring up your right leg againe to your left as in the 7 figure, and withall vn cock your match.

10 Set forward your left leg againe to your first stand, and returne your match betweene the two lesser fingers of your left hand, and after that doe these postures following, as in the figures marching, viz Cleare your pan, prime your pan, and shut your pan, as in the 17, 18, and 19, posture marching.

11 In taking up the rest, hold your musket right up, cast off your loose cornes, and falling backe with your left leg somewhat stradling, bring vp the pan even against your mouth.

12 First blow off your loose dust, or cornes with a stiffe blast, and then cast about yout musket to your left side, falling a little backe with your left leg.

13 Having forsaken your rest, hold the musket fast in your left hand, about the middle of the barrell, so as the but end touch not the ground, and bringing forward the muzile of your mus­ket to charge, your right hand being at liberty, do these postures following namely, Open your charge, Charge with powder, draw forth your scouring stick, shorten charge with bullet put in stoping ramme home, with draw your scovreing sticke, shorten, and returne as in the 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30 figurs marching.

14 Bring forward your musket with your left hand, bearing it upright, taking it into your right hand at the brich, withall bring forward your left leg even with your right, as in the 11 figure.

15 Hold the musket bolt vpright in your right hand, and having, the rest in your left hand, slip your right hād, and your thumbe vpward to the forke, as in the marching posture number foure.

Note by the way, that from this poizing posture, you may either joyn your rest to your mus­ket, es in the fift posture marching, or rest your musket as in the first figure standing, or else shoulder your musket, as in the next figure following.

16 Having your musket poized, hold the rest a hand full under the forke, then bring the mus­ket, before your body, and your rest crosse over it behind your thumb-hole, and so with both hands lay it gently on your shoulder, having the rest a crosse your body, drawing in your right leg to your left, and then falling back againe with your right leg to your stand, either stand or march away. And thus much for the standing postures of the musket.



Briefe observations for a Muskettier.

VVHen a Muskettier is to be excercised in his squadron, Company, or devision, all postures both marching, and standing are readily done, and reduced to these three words of command, to wit.

  • Make ready.
  • Present.
  • Give Fire.

For first a good Muskettier, which hath all his postures perfectly, hearing his officer give the first terme of direction make ready, will quickly run them over, even from vnshouldring of his Musket, to the guarding of his panne, which is the sixth posture standing, and the eleventh marching before he comes to present.

Secondly, in presenting he wilbe fure to blow his match well, open his panne, and fall backe with his right hand to the thumbe-hole of his musket, & having his fore-finger vpon the tricker, setting forward his left legge, will attend the next word of direction.

Thirdly, lying on before he comes to give fire, bending his left knee, will fall back with his right legge, bringing the butt end of his musker, close betweene his brest and shoulder, raising his musket fast, and hard to his shoulder will keepe it fast from recoyling, & resting firme vpon his right legge will give fire.

Having given fire, he takeeth up his musket, and rest gracefully, and bringing up his right legge againe, falls away in his ranke, returnes his match, cleares his panne, prims his panne, & doth quickly all his postures standing, or marching, as hath been taught, and which shall bee showne more at large by figure, when wee come to the excercising of muskettiers in grosse.

Practised in the warrs of the united Netherlandt.

NOw followes the true forme of exercising of a Foot Company of 40 pikes and 40 musket­tiers besides officers, represented by figure, the words of Command and demonstration: but before we come to the particular motions, it is necessary for a yong souldier to know first what a File and a Ranke is.

  • number
    • 1 The Leader of the right hand file.
    • 2 The leader of the left hand file.
    • 3 The middle file on the right hand.
    • 4 The middle file on the left hand.
    • 5 The second file next the right hand.
    • 6 The second file next the left hand.
    • 7 The third file from the right hand.
    • 8 The third file from the left hand.
The Demonstration. Rankes.
  • Letter.
    • a The first Rank of Leaders.
    • b The last Rank of Bringers up.
    • c The Rāks of the Leaders of half files to the front.
    • d The Rank of the leaders of half files to the Reere.
    • e The second Rank next the front.
    • f The second Rank next the Reere.
    • g The fourth Rank from the front.
    • h The fourth Rank from the Reere.
    • i The third Rank from the front.
    • k The third Rank from the Reere.

[Page 18] THirdly, to vnderstand well the three distances, namely, Open order, order & close order.

The Definition.

Open order then, or the first distance is, when the souldiers both in Ranke, and File, stand sixe foot removed one from an other, as the scale, and this figure following shewe.



BEcause the measure of these distances cannot be taken so exactly by the eye, we take the di­stance of sixe foote between File and File, by commanding the souldiers, as they stand, to stretch foorth their armes, and stand so remoued one from an other that their hands may meete.

And for the Rankes, we make account we take the same distance of sixe foot, when the butt end of the pikes doe almost reach their heeles, that march before them.

[Page 19] THe second distance, or your Order is, when your men stand three foot remoued one from an other both in Ranke and File, and this order is to be vsed when they are embattailled, or march in the face of an Enne­my, or when they come to stand, or when you will wheele, as this next figure represents.



VVEe take the second order, or distance betweene File and File, by bidding the souldiers sett their armes a Kenbowe, and put themselves so closse; that their elbowes maye meete. And wee reckon wee take the same distance betweene the Rankes, when they come vp almust to the swords point.

Note, that when you march throw any countrie, you most observe three foote onely from File to File, and sixe from Ranke to Ranke.

The third distance, or your close order is commanded by this word Close which is, when there is one foote and a halfe from File to File, and three from Ranke to Ranke, as this Figure demonstrates.


OBserve that though this figure stands but at a foote and a halfe distance: yet this is for the pikes onely, and must never be used, but when you will stand firme to receive the charge of an Ennemy. The mus­kettiers must never be closer, then the second distance of three foote in square, because they are to have a free vse of their Armes.

[Page 20] THis figure represents the 40 pikes, and 40 muskettiers, standing in their order because the page will not beare the first foure motions in their open order.


Here begins the words of Command.

  • 1 Stand right in your Files.
  • 2 Stand right in your Rankes,
  • 3 Silence.

Here begins the first motion. 5. To the right hand.

IT is to be noted, when you are commanded to be As you were, you are ever to turne to the contrary hand from whence you came, As for example, if you did turn to the right hand, you are to return to the left hand, and so in the rest.

As you were, that is, as you stand in your order in the figure aboue marked with the letter I.

  • [Page 21]9. To the right hand about
  • 10. As you were.
  • 11. To the left hand about.
  • 12. As you were.

An Observation.

These turnings to the right or left hand, or to either hand about serue for the given or receiving of a charge vpon the right or left Flank, or in the Reere about.

As you were,

Because there is now roome enough this figure showes them standing in their open order of sixe foote distance one from an other both in rank and file from which standing they are to doe these motions following.

13. Ranks to the right hand double. The Demonstration.

The 2. 6: 8 & 10 rancke from the front marked with the Letters. b. d. f. h. & k. moues all together and doubles into thier order on the right hand of the files numbred 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. & 8. making 5. rankes at thier double open order of 12. foot, & 16. men in each rancke as is seen in this figure aboue.

[Page 22]


[Page 23]


The Demonstration.

This motion differs not from the former, but onely that the vtmost man of the second Ranke, and subsequently al the other ranks which moued before comes now vp together to their order on the left hand of the files numbred, 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. & 1.

[Page 24]


[Page 25]


17. Files to the right hand double. The Demonstration.

The 2. file (next the right hand) moues & fals back betweene the right hand fiile, the 4th file betweene the 3. The 6. betweene the 5. & the 8. (or left hand file) betweene the 7 fiile all to thier order, making foure fiiles, 20. men deepe, and 12 foote distance betwixt file and file, as in this figure.

[Page 26]


[Page 27]


The Demonstration.

The files which moued before stand now still. and the 2. file next the left hand file fals back betweene the left hand file the 5 file betweene the 6 the 3 betweene the 4 and the 1 (or right hand file) betweene the 2 file makeing 20 men deepe, and 12 foote distance be­twixt file and file as before.

[Page 28]


[Page 29]


19. Half files to the right hand double your front. The Demonstration.

The leader of the halfe file on the right hand, (noted f) steps to his order beyond the right hand file number 1. and also all the rest of the files stepping to their order on their right hand, comes vp together betweene the files numbred, 1. & 2. 2. & 3. 3. & 4. 4. & 5. 5. & 6. 6. & 7. 7. and 8. into the Rankes marked a. b. c. d. & e. at their order of three foot di­stance in file, and 6. in ranke, as this figure aboue showes.

[Page 30]


[Page 31]


20. Half files to the right hand double your front. The Demonstration.

This motion differs not from the other, but that the leader of the halfe-file on the left hand & consequenitly al the rest of the files, steps to their order on the left hand, & comes vp together betweene the files numbred 8. & 7. 7. & 6. 6. & 5. 5. & 4. 4. & 3. 3. & 2. 2. & 1. into the rankes marked (as before) with the letters a. b. c. d. and e.

[Page 32]


[Page 33]


The demonstration.

When you will Countermarch to the right hand, the first Ranke of Leaders numbred 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. and 8. onely must advance one stepp forward with the right legg, and then turne, and all the other Rankes must march first up to the place, from whence the first Ranke did coun­termarch, before they turne, where the Sariant stands marked with a starre. This figure shewes that betweene the rankes a and d there are 8 rankes mett at their order, and the Captaine coun­ter marching to the Reere, with the first Ranke of Leaders, to the 6 ranke marked f. and the Lieu­tenant, with the ranke of bringers up noted K. towards the front to the ranke noted e. which re­presents the Countermarch incompleate, as is seene in this figure aboue.

[Page 38] This figure showes the Countermarch compleate, when the Captaine (or Officer) is come with the first Ranke of Leaders to the place, where the bringers up, & the Lieutenant stood, and the Lieutenant with the bringers up to the Captaines place, standing in their open order in ranke and file, as this figure demonstrates.


Observe likewise, if you will now Countermarch to the left hand, the first ranke must stepp forwards one stepp with the left legge: and then turne, and all the other Rankes behinde, must come up to that place before they turne, where the Sariant with his Halbart stands as before. 25. Rankes to the left hand countermarch.

[Page 39]


Note that this figure (as the first) showes the Countermarch incompleate as before.

[Page 40]


This figure showes, that the Captaine is countermarcht up with the first ranke of leaders into that place, where the front stood before, and every ranke, and file in their open order.

The like countermarch is performed, either on the right, or left flanke by giving first this word of command, To the right, or left hand, omitting the naming, either of Rankes or files, in saying onely, To the right, or left hand countermarch, which you lift.

Observations before yow wheele.

  • First
    • Files to the right, or left hand, or to the middle.
  • Close to your Order.
    • To 3. foote betweene File and File.

If you would close your files to the right hand, the outermost file on that hand stands still, and the next on the right hand, (numbred 2▪) moues first to their order, and then all the files ciphred, 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. & 8. the left hand file closes in all to their order. And if you would have them close to the left hand, the outermost file also on that hand stands still, and then the file next the left hand (numbred 7) moves first, and after­ward all the other files, noted 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. & 1. (or the right hand file) close all to their order.

But if you desire to have your files close to the middle, then the two middle most files numbred 4. & 5. close first to their order of three foote, and having their distance, the other files numbred 2. 3. and 1. on the right hand, and the files, 8. 7. and 6. on the left hand closes both waies into their order.

  • Secondly
    • Rankes to your Order Close.
  • that is
    • To three foote betweene Ranke and Ranke.

Note, that in this motion also the Rankes, which stand in their open order on the other page, marked with the Letters, bc defghi and k moving all to gether in an even front, comes up to their order, or distance of three foote, as this figure demonstrates, where both files & rankes stand in their order of 3 foote distance


Observe, that when you exercise a company single, you double your front before you wheele, in regard the body is smal: but in a devision, or a greater body, you close both your rankes and files to your order (as aboue) omitting the doubling, and then wheele: but being a single company when you wheele to the right hand, then double your front to the left hand: for so the leader of the right hand file will keepe his place on that corner towards which you wheele.


This figure before you wheele shews your men to stand in their close order in file, and their order in ranke, as [...].

[Page 42]


[Page 43] Againe when you wheele to the left hand, double your front to the right hand, and then the two leaderson the left hand, doe but onely turne their bodies like the point of a Compasse, to that hand whereto they wheele, while the body comes about with a faster motion and an even front.


[Page 44] Note also, that after you have wheeled to which hand you list, and as often as you will, you give in a single company this word of command, Halfe files as you were, that is, as they stood in their order both in ranke and file before; but in greater bodies where the doubling is omitted, you first open your rankes, by giving this terme of direction. Rankes backward to your open order, and then likewise your files by commanding. Files open (both waies) to your open order of six footes as this figure both in ranke, and file represents.

In opening of Rankes and Files, you must make all the Files or Rankes, saving the outermost on that hand from whence you meane to open (which must stand) to moue altogether, till the se­cond Ranke or File from that which standeth, haue gotten its distance, and consequently all the rest.

[Page 45] Having performed the former Motions you may afterward exercise your company of Pikes, and Muskettiers together, or if you pleafe each a part.

To beginne then with the Pikes you may commaund them to doe these motions stan­ding, to wit.

  • Advance your Pikes.
  • Order your Pikes.
  • Shoulder your Pikes.
  • Charge your Pikes.
  • Order your Pikes.
  • Traile your Pikes.
  • Checke your Pikes.

But these Motions are to be performed, both standing, and marching, namely.

  • Charge your Pikes.
  • Shoulder your Pikes.
  • To the right hand Charge.
  • Shoulder your Pikes.
  • To the left hand Charge.
  • Shoulder your Pikes.
  • To the Reere Charge.
  • Shoulder your Pikes.
  • Stand.
  • Order your Pikes.

First, note that in charging halfe the Rankes onely must charge their Pikes, the other hindermost halfe of the Ran­kes, doe but port their Pikes that is, they cary them so couched, over the Heads of the foremost as may giue them no offence, either in charging, or retyreing. Besides, this way the Pikes are not so subject, to be broken by the shot of the E­nemy, as when they are advanced.

Secondly, they must likewise obserue, when they charge standing, to fall back with the right legge, and marching to steppe forwards with the left. Standing,

Thirdly, the exercising of your Muskettiers is likewise performed either or Marching.

That is, either by Rankes, or by Files after three manner of waies, to wit, first having an Enemy in your front. Second­ly in your Reere, and thirdly vpon your right, or left flanke, as these figures following in exercising of 260 Pikes & Mus­kettiers (besides Officers will demonstrate, whereof the first showes the manner of giving fire standing, vpon an Enemy in your front, by commanding these three termes or direction) vnderneath.


This figure aboue shewes, that the first, and second rank of both the wings of Musket­tiers, having given fire are fallen away, and are a doing their postures, till they come in the vacant Rankes in the Reere noted, i & k, while the third and fourth Rankes (on both flankes) make ready, and advances up to the same ground where the first were: even with the front of the Pikes:

Note also, that the first Ranke falling backe with their right legges, bending their left knee, lies on and giues fire (as hath bin taught) and the first Ranke falling away, the se­cond Ranke in presenting, having their pannes garded, blowes their matches, opens their pannes, and steps forward with their left legs into the place of the first ranke, lies on, gi­ues fire, and fall away while the rest of the body of muskettiers mooues up to their place, and so two rankes at a time, making ready, you may giue fire as often as you list.

You must observe likewise, that the muskettiers in all these motions, do turne to the right hand, & so to have a cingular care, to carry the mouthes of their muskets aloft, aswell when they are shouldred, as in priming, as also when they keepe their pannes garded and come vp to give fire.

[Page 42] Moreover, if an Enemy should appeare on either your right, or left flank, and that you resolue to maintain your ground, and would gaule him from either flank: it is performed by giving first this word of command To the right or left hand, which you please, and then making an interval of 6 foot distance between the two middlemost leaders of the halfe files, e &, for the halfe rank on the left hand, marked a b c d and e do fall away between the files to the Reere before the pikes and the half rank on the right hand k i g h & f, on the right flank likewise, you may giue fire from either, or both flankes, as you list.

Again if an Enemy should shew himself in your Reere, the like is done by giving this term of derection, To the right hand about, and having given fire upon them, fall away to the place, where the front stood, even in the same manner as you did before.

The manner of giving fire marching and advancing towards an Enemy is performed, as this figure following represents.


In advancing towards an Enemy, two Rankes must alwaies make ready together, & advance ten paces forwards: before the bodies, at which distance, a Sarjant (or when the body is great some other Officer) must stand, to whom the Musketteirs are to come up before present, and giue fire. First, the first ranke, and whilest the first Ranke giues fire, the second Ranke keeps their muskets close to their pannes guarded: and assoone as the first are falne away, the second presently presents giue fire, and fall after them. Now, assoone as the two first rankes do moue from their places in the front, the two rancks next it must unshoulder their muskets, and make ready: so as they may advance forward ten paces, as before, assoon as ever the first two rankes are fallen away, and are to doe in all pointes as the fmorer. So all the other rankes through the whole company, or division must doe the same by two one after an other.

[Page 43] A way how to giue fire retreating from an enemy, which is performed after this sort as this figure following shows


As the troupe marcheth, the hindermost rank of all, keeping still with the troupe maketh ready: and being ready the souldiers in that ranke turne altogether to the right hand, and giue fire, marching presently away a good round pace to the front & their place themsel­ves in a Ranke together iust before the front. Assoone as the first Ranke turneth to giue fire, the Ranke next makes ready and doth as the former and so all the rest.

Last of all the troupe, or whole wing of Muskettiers makes ready altogether standing and the first Ranke without advancing, giues fire in the place it standts in & speedily as may be yet orderly falles away the Rankes doing the same successiuely, one after another.

[Page 44] A manner how to giue fire, either from the right or left hand flanke, as these 6 files of 60 Muskettiers demonstrates.


To the right hand, present, giue fire, Captaine, to the left hand, present, giue fire.

The Demonstration.

The company or division marching, the outermost file next the enemy are commanded to make ready, keeping still along with the Bodie, till such time, as they be ready, & they turne all to the right, or left hand, according to the fight of their Enemy, either upon their right or left flanke, and giue fire all together: when thy haue discharged they stirre not, but keepe their ground, and charge their peeces againe in the same place they stand. Now assoone as the aforesaid file doth turne to give fire, the outmost next it makes ready, alwaies keepeing along with, the troupe, till the bringers vp be past a little beyond the Leader of that file that gave fire last, and then the whole file must turne and giue fire an doe in all points, as the first did, and so all the rest one after another. A Sarjant or (if the troupe be great) some better qualified Officer must stand at the head of the first file, and assoone as the second file hath given fire, and hath charged, he is to lead forwards the first file vp to the second file, and so to the rest one after an other till he hath gathered again the whole wing, and then he is to ioyne them againe in equall front with the pikes.

[Page 45]

A BRIEFE, Index of the points, postures, and severall motions, contained in this first part of the Principles of the Art Militarie.
  • THe first is the duties of a private Souldier, a Gentleman of a Companie, and of all the Officers belonging to a Companie of Infanterie or Foote, pages 1. 1. 3.
  • 2. The Armes belonging to a Pike-man, & a Muskettier represented by figure 4.
  • 3. The directions and the Postures of a Pike-man pages 5. 6. 7. 8. & 9.
  • 4. The directions & postures of a Muskettier marching, pages 10. 11. 12. & 13.
  • 5. The direction & the Centinell postures standing, pag. 14. & 15.
  • 6. Briefe observations for a Muskettier pag. 16.
  • 7. The beginning of the exercising of a Companie of Foote, consisting of 40. Pikes & 40. Muskettiers, and the definition what a File and a Ranke is, with the Demon­stration of the dignity of Files and Ranks, pag. 17.
  • 8. Of the three distances, obserued in exercising of a Companie to wit Open-order, Order, & Closse-order,, with the definition thereof, & observations there-vpon pag. 18. & 19
  • 9. Of conversions & turnings with the words of Commaund pages 20. & 20.
  • 10. The standing in open order, fit for the doubling of Ranks & Files pag. 21.
  • 11. The doubling of Rankes pages 21. 22. & 23.
  • 12. The doubling of Files pages 24. 25. 26. 27.
  • [Page 46] 13. The doubling of the Front by half files pages 28. 29. 30. & 31.
  • 14. The Countermarchings, either to the right or left hand pages 32. 33. 34. 35.
  • 15. Observations before wheelings pag. 36.
  • 16, The wheelings to the right or left hand, or about pages 37. 38. & 39.
  • 17. The opening of Ranks and Files pag. 40.
  • 18. The posture; of the Pikes, commaunded either marching or standing, & the several givings of fire pages 41. 42. 43. & 44.
For the Cavallrie.
  • 19. Secondly, the duties of a private Horse, a Gentleman, & the severall charges, and Officers belonging to a troupe of Horse, beginning with letter A. pages 1. 2. & 3.
  • 20. The Armes belonging to a Curassier & a Harquebusier, pag. 4. & of the managing of his Horse, and their Armes represented by figure pag. 5.
  • 21. The directions & postures of a Curassier, & a Harquebussier, represented with their words of Commaund in two great plates pages 6. 7. & 8.
  • 22. The exercising of a Esquadron of Cavallrie, according to his Highnesse the Prince of Orange, by the way of figure, the word of Commaund & directions pag. 9. 10. & 11
  • 23. His Highnesse order for filing and marching of Horse pag. 12.

Thirdly an Appendex of Marshall discipline enacted and statuated by the Lords the States Generall & his Highnesse, for the Militia of the Vnited Provinces, beginning with letter A. B. C. D.

THe Book-binder is to follow in this first part in binding it, first the Tytle and Dedi­cation, sheete then letter A. B. C. D. E. E2. (and the half sheete for turning pages 21. & 21. because a half sheete comes in here.) E3. F. G. H. I. K. L. L2. and this half sheete which makes L3. and so ends this first part: for the Printer according to the fi­gures of the pages, hath committed an errour in not figuring the pages right.


BRIEFE Instructions of the Duties of a Horseman, and the severall Officers be­longing to a Troupe of Horse, practised in the service of the Lordes the States Generall of the united Provinces, vnder the Com­maund of his highnesse the Prince of Orange.

FIrst, the Cavallrie, or Horse are ordered into two Troupes, namely, either a Troupe of Curaissiers, which are heavelie armed, consisting of able and lustie men, and the highest and strongest horses, or a Companie of Harquebussiers, or Carabines, which are more lightly armed, as shalbe discribed in the States list following.

The Officers then of a Troupe of Horse, and the dutie of a Horseman, or a centinell, through their severall degrees are these, 1 A Horseman 2 A Good-Smith, or Farrier. 3 A Clark or Fourrier. 4 Two Trumpetters. 5 Three Corporals. 6 A Quartermaster. 7 A Cornet. 8 A Lieu­tenant, and 9 A Captaine, & of these in order.

Of a private Horseman, and a Gentleman of a Troupe of Horse.

His dutie consisteth chiefely herein, First, that he feares God, Secondly, that he respects, honours and obeys his superiour officers. Thirdly, that he doth noe violence, outrage, or wrong to any man, Fourthly, that he mannage well his horse, and bring him to readinesse, Fifthly, that he keepes his ar­mes, and pistolls neate and trime. Sixtly, and lastlie, that he carries him self vailliantly vpon service in the face of his ennemie, and to be carefull vpon his march in keeping his order in rank and file, and to be vigilent vpon his watch, and sentinelship, and to doe all other duties belonging to an honest souldier, whereby he shall gaine the loue of his Captaine, and Officers, and so by his good carriage, and deserts make himself capable of better advancement.

Of the Smith, or a Farrier.

His dutie is as occasion serves, to drench and lett bloude the Horse of the Troupe, and allwaies, either vpon a march, or in a quarter, to have in a readinesse his buggett of tooles, horse shooes, and nailes, whensoever he shalbe called vpon by his Officers, or when any Gentleman, or souldier of the Troupe shall have use of him, and for this reason, that he must duely attend vpon the Troupe, he is freed from other duties, and hath a greater paye then an ordinarie Horseman.

Of a Trumpetter.

Everie Captaine of a Troupe of Horse, ought to have two good Trumpetters, who cannot onely founde the Bouteselle, that is, a call to horseback, a march, a charge, and a retreate: but also to speake diverse languages, to be wise discreete and circumspect, especially whensoever his Generall, Captayne and Commaundour shall have occasion to send him to the Ennemie vpon a message, or for the ranso­ming of prisoners, and that when he is with the ennemie, he must be wary & cautelous what he spea­kes, and to lett noe words slipp, which maye be disadvantagious to the service of his prince and Coun­trie, and that he observes, and markes well, how and in what manner the Ennemes workes and tren­ches lie, that he maye make report thereof to his Generall, or Captayne at his returne, and give him intelligence of whatsoever he hath heard or seene. A Trumpetter also ought to be lodged neere his Cor­nett to be in a readinesse vpon all occasion, to sound an Allarm, that the Troupe maye betimes putt on their armes, and gett a Horseback.

Of the Clarke to a Troupe of Horse.

The next degree to a Trumpetter is the Clarke of the Troupe, or as some calls him the Fourier, whose dutie is to fetch moneys, to pay the Officers, and Souldiers duelie, to keepe a perfect Musterrolie of all the names, and Surnames of the horsemen of the Troupe, and to procure their Billers, and their lodging moneys, when they lie in guarrison, and to deale vprightly and justly with the Companie.

Of a Corporall.

As a Compaigne of foote, so also is a Troupe of Horse devided in to three esquadrons, or Corporal­ships, over which a Corporall commaundeth, whose dutie is tokeepe a perfect roole, of the Names and Surnames of everie Horseman of his esquadron, and to cause them to have their horses in a readi­nesse, to see that their armes, pistols, and Carabines be fixe, and kept in good trime, whensoever they shall have occasion to vse them, and that they be carefull and vigilent vpon their watch, that the sen­tinels performe their duties well, that he relieves them in due time, and that now and then he exer­cise them in the vse of their armes upon their guards, and other places. Seing he also is a good helpe, and an Assistant to his Lieutenant by preventing of disorders and disputes, and by composing of quarrels which maye arise amonge the souldiers of his esquadron. yea and to doe whatsoeuer else belongs to a worthy Corporall, that he maye gaine the loue of his Officers, and attaine vnto better ad­vancement.

Of the Quartermaster.

Everie Troupe hath also a Quartermaster, whose dutie is to see that the Troupe be well lodged and quartered both in feild and in Garrison, especially, when they are separated and quartered apart from the Armie in villages and houses, more ouer his dutie is likewise to attend the Quarterma­ster Generall, and to receiue from him such houses for his Captaine and the Troupe as he shall ap­point him, after which he distributes those houses to the esquadrons and Troupe, acconding to their seignori [...]es, Also he is often employed in ferching of the word and orders. If the Regiment or Troupe be quartered about the armie in Campaignie, then he is to observe, and keepe that forme, which the Generall hath ordayned for a Regiment of Horse, and as the Quarter-master Generall shal shew him.

Of a Cornet.

A Cornet ought to be a brave young Gentleman, full of spirit and courage and though he be young, and hath noe great experience, yet time and service will teach it him, and afterward make him am­bitious of greater advancement. He is chosen soe, because he maye be capable of his place, and that charge which is committed to him from his Generall and Captayne, and rather vpon any peece of ser­vice to loose his life, then his honour, & reputation. He ought also to carrie him self amiable, loving, and affable to the Gentlemen and Souldiers of the Troupe, where by he shall gaine their loues, and af­fections, and who will gladlie vpon any occasion hazard their lives for him and that badge of hon­nour which he carries. To conclud, a Cornet in the absence of his Captaine, and Lieutenant hath absolute Command over the Troupe. The Cornet Sometimes marches in the head of the Troupe, but when the Troupe is to be embattailled, his place is betweene the third and fourth rank, for the better safegard of his Cornett.

Of a Lieutenant.

It is necessarie that the Lieutenant to a Troupe of Horse be an old able Souldier, and well experi­enced in the warres, and who vpon divers peeces of service hath showne his worth and valour, and for his deserts hath raised himself from inferiour degrees as from a Corporall & a Corner, to this charge wherein he is now, and from it to make himself fitt for higher preferment. He is a great helpe and an Assistant to his Captaine, and therefore beares the name of Lieutenant, who supports and keepes vp his Captaines place and authority, and who in his Captaines absence hath absolure commannd over the Troupe. It is his office also to prevent, and compose quarrels and disputes, arising among the Horse­men of the Troupe, to carrie a severe hand over the willfull, and obstinate offendours by punishing them toundlie for the exsample of Others, and to countenance favour, and encourage those that carrie them selves worthely, and to discountenance malefactours, till they are sorrie for their disorders and offences. Moreover he is to giue charge to the Corporals that every man manages, and keepes his horse in a readinesse, that they keepe their armes neate and cleane, and their Pistols, and Carrabins sixe, and to exercise the squadron himself in the feild or vpon their guards. Hee ought also to be a good Guide, and to know well the passages, and avenues of a Countrie for the expediting of a sudden surprize.

His place when his Captaine is present, is to bring op the Reere of the Troupe, causing the Horsemen to follow their Captaine and Cornett in good order, and that they keepe duelie their Rankes, and files, and to have an eye, that none of them straggles out of his ranke or file.

[Page 3] Comming to fight either in Battell, skirmish, or ortherwise, when his Captaine and Cornet is to give a charge vpon an Ennemie, he keepes him self alwaies in the Reere with his sword drawne, to animate, and encourage the Souldiers to fall on; and if any one of them should play the Coward, break out of his rank, or run away, if he should kill him, he hath the mends in his owne hand, and the Lieutenant maye wel answere it to his chiefe: for such a coward, or faint hearted souldier, by his euill exsample showes others to runaway, which maye not onely be the overthrouw of the Troupe, but also of a whole Regiment. His dutie is also to visite the guards, and to see that the centinels discharge well their duties, and to give Commaund to the Corporals that they be duely relieved. That vpon the sight of an Ennemie they come in orderlie, and guie the alarme betimes, that the Troupe maye draw into armes, and be in a readinesse to entertaine the Ennemie, or else have leisure to reteate unto stronger forces for their defence.

Of a Captaine.

The Commaund, and charge of a Captaine of a Troupe of Horse is very honorable, and it ought to be given to a man of respect, and qualitie, and one that is descended of a noble birth, whose valour, and worth maye be answerable thereunto. He ought also aboue althings to be religious, fearing God, temperate, moderate, just, Continent, wise, and discreete, curious in the choise of his men, and horse, and to see that they be well managed, readie, and his Troupe well exercised, That they carrie themselves vaillantly vpon service, in the face of the ennemie, and to be carefull, and vigelent vpon their watch, Countenancing the good, and puinshing the badd. In doeing where of, these Christian vertues will gaine him honour, loue, and respect, not onely amonge those of his Troupe, whome he Commaunds, but also of his Chiefs, and all other men besieds.

But if a Captaine either of Horse, or foote be debauched, leads an intemperate, and a disorderlie life, giuen to covetousnesse, lucre, and gaine, he gives an ill exsample to those, whome he commaunds: for if he himself doth commit such vices, how can he fasten a reproofe vpon a Souldier, or how can he with a good conscience, punish that fault in his souldier, whereof he is guilty himself? for surely a Cap­taine being the head of a Compaine (from whence his name is derived) who governes him self well, and leads an vn blame able life, guies a good exsample to his inferiour officers, and the souldiers of his Compaine, who lives vnder his Commannd.

He ought likewise to observe, and keepe punctually all the orders and Commaunds given him by his Generall, to be with his Troupe at the Rendevous vpon the time appointed. To respect and obey his Chiefes, and Superiour Officers. He is vpon all occasions to be first on Horseback, and vpon all ser­vices to carrie himself couragiouslie in the face of his Ennemie, to showe noe signe of feare in the greatest danger, least he should give discouragement to his souldiers. He ought to take notice of those souldiers vnder his Commannd, who carrie them selves vailliantlie, and couragioustie before their Ennemies, to encourage them, and to reward them according to their deserts, and to take notice of the names and surnames of everie Gentlemen aud Souldier of his Troupe, and sometimes to take the advise of some old experienced souldiers of his Compagine. He ought not to suffer the Horsemen of his Troupe to ravage, and spoile the Countrie, nor to pillage, and plunder the poore husbandmen and Contributaire pesants, contrarie to the orders, and proclamations of the Generall, for obedience is the first Christian vertue required in a souldier, and thus a Captaine by his valour, worth, wisedome, and discretion maye aspire and attaine to a higher degree of honour and Commaund as his service and me­rit shall deserue, and thus much in briefe for the souldiers, Gentlemen, and Officers appertayning to a Troupe of Horse.

OF THE ARMES Belonging to a Curassier, and a Harquebussier, according to the Placcard of the Lords the Statee Generall of the vnited Provinces.

HAving showne the severall duties of a souldier, a Gentleman, and the Officers belonging to a Troupe of Horse, it resteth now that wee come to the arming of them as followeth. In a Cuirassier then is required, that he be a man of an able bodie, who is mounted vpon a strong, and a lustie horse, that he hath on a good buff-gerkin, a short sword, or Coutlase by his side, a skarff about his armes, and bodie of his princes coullour, to distin­guish him from his Ennemie coullour vpon any service, or in the daie of battell.

He ought to be mounted upon a stronge, and a lustie horse, or Gelding, which is fiueteene palmes high, according to the measure there of ordayned by the States Edict, namelie, to meate his height with a cord of that length, beginning from his fore-hoofe vpwards to his shoulder blade, and soe to the lower part of his maine, and likewise to be provided with a good Sadle, and Bridle, with two good pistolls hanging at his sadle bowe, in two strong pistoll Cases, the length of the pistoll barrils, being at the least foure and twenly ynches long, carrying a bullet of twentie in the pound, and of 24. which will roule in to his pistoll.

For his Armes about his bodie, he is first armed with a close helmet or a Cask pistoll proofe vpon his head, 2. with a Gorget about his neck, 3. His brest and back peeces, which ought to be pistoll proofe, 4. His Pouldrons and vambrases his Guard de reines, 5. his gandes, 6 his Cassets or thigh peeces reaching from his girdle beneath his knees, and (as is said) two pistolls hanging at his saddle, and thus a Curassier is armed decap en pied at all points even from the head to the foote.

The armes of a Harqut bussier, is lighter, to wit, first with a Cask open before. 2 with a gorgett brest and back peeces, which ought also to be pistoll proofe, a good Carabine hanging at his belt about his bodie, where of the length of the barrill ought to be at the least three foote longe, which will carry a rowling bullett of 17 in the pound, haveing his Touchboxe, and Cartouch all in a readinesse, provided also with a good Horse 15 palmes high & well managed, with a good Sadle, Bridle, Coutlace, and a skarff as the Figure on the other sijde demonstrates.

Of the managing of his Horse.

A Cuirassier, and a Harquebussier being thus armed, It is very needefull, that a horseman be skillfull in the well managing, and makeing or his horse readie for service, and to bring him to his commaund and obedience, namely, to teach him to pace, trott, gallop, and to runne a full Careere, how he is to ad­vance, to stopp, and goe backward, and to turne and wheele with readinesse, to which hand his Rider shall please. Now to bring his horse to this, and to learne him to turne and wheele with dexteritie, he must often vse him to ride the ring, first with a greater circumference, and then litle and litle by lesser degrees▪ as first vpō his pace, then vpon his trot, and so to the gallop and Careere. These things he maye be taught by using the hand, legg, and voice. For the hand (observing not to move the arme, but onely the wrist) if yow would have him to face to the left hand, then a litle motion of the litle finger on that rein, and a touch of the left legg (without vsing the spurr) doth it, but if to face or turne to the left about, a harder, &c. If yow would have him to trott, then yow are to move both your leggs a litle for­wards, if for the gallop to move them more forward, and to move your bodie by litle & litle forward with it. After everie motion performed, it were good to keepe him a while in that motion, as when yow bid him stand to stand a while &c. Also it were not a misse after every thing well done, to give him some bread, or grasse as a reward. For the voice yow maye vse the words Advance, Hold, Turne, or the like, but because the voice cannot alwaies be heard, it were good to use him chiefly to the motions of the hand and legg. It wilbe also very vsefull to teach him to goe side waies: this he maye be brought vnto, by laying his Provender some what farre from him in the manger, and by keeping him from tur­ning [Page 5] his head towards it. He must also be often vsed to the simell of Gun powder, the sight of fire, and armour, and the heareing of short, drumms and Trumpetts, &c. and that by degrees and with dis­cretion. When he is at his oates (a prettie distance from him) a litle powder maye be fired, and so neerer to him by degrees, yow maye also shoote of a pistoll some distance off, and so neerer and neerer. In like manner, ye may use him to a Drumme or Trumpet. The groom maye some times dresse him in armour, and he maye be vsed (now and then) to eate his oates from the drumme head. It will also be very vsefull to cause a muskettier to stand at a convement distance, and both of yow to give fire vpon each other, and there vpon to ride vp closse to him, also to ride him against a compleate armour, so set vpon a stake, that he maye over throw yt, and trample it vnder his feete: that so and by such other meanes your horse (finding that he receiveth noe hurt) maye become bolde to approach any obiect. He maye also be used to mountanous and uneven waies, and be exercised to leap, Swimme, and the like. Thus farr Captayne Cruso who hath wrote worthely of this subject in his 27 Chapter pag. 34 & 35. And he that desireth further directions for the art of rydings and managing his horse, let him read Monsieur Pierre de la Noüe in his Cavallerie Françoise & Italienne, also the Instruction du Roy de France en l'exercice de monter a Cheval, par Antoine de Plurier, Francisco Melzo, and diverse others to whome, referre the Reader for brevitie sake.


NEXT Followes the Postures of a Curassier, and a Harquebussier, with the words of Commaund, and the demonstration answering to the number of everie figure, as they are sett downe by Captaine Cruso in his 29 chapter, and represented by figure.

IT is to be supposed, that noe Cuirassier or Harquebussier, will presume to mount on horseback, or repaire to his Cornet, before his pistoll, Harquebuse, or Carabine be spanned, primed, and laden: and his Cases furnished with Cartouches, and all other Equipage belonging to himself, his horse, and armes made fixe and in a readinesse. The first figure then showes a horseman how he is to mount on horseback, and takes both reins hanging in a loose position over the Horse neck, & vpon the pum­mell of the Saddle, and first laies hould on the ends of the reins aboue the button in his right hand, and with the thumbe, and the two first fingers of that hand, draws them to an even length. Then putting the litle finger of his left hand, betwixt both reins vnder the button, with the other three fingers of the same hand on the further rein, and his thumbe on the neere side of the button to graspe both reins, that so (before he endeavour to mount) he maye have his horse head in ballance and at commaund: then grasping the pummel of the sadle with his left hand, and standing with his full bodie to the horse side, and just betwixt the bolster, and cantle of the sadle, alwaies on the neere side of the horse, with the help of his right hand, he shall putt his left foote into the left stirop, & with his right hand takeing fast hold on the highest part of the Cantle behinde, he shall (with the help of both hands) gently (yet stronglie, and in a right posture without inclyning his bodie to either hand) raise himself untill he maye stand Perpendicular vpon his left foot, and then putting over his right legge cast and place himself in the sadle.

2. VVith the right-hand he is to turne downe the Caps of the pistoll cases.

3. He is to drawe the pistol out of the Case with the right hand, and alwaies the left pistoll first) and to mount the muzzle of it, as in posture 15.

4. He is to sink the pistoll into his bridle-hand, and to remove his right-hand towards the muzzle, and their to rest the butt end vpon his thigh.

5. He is to sink the pistoll into his bridle-hand, and takeing the key, or spanner into his right-hand, puts it into the Axletree, and windes about the wheele till it stick, and so to returne the Spanner to its place, being vsually fastned to the side of the case.

6. Holding the pistoll in the bridle-hand (as before) he is to take his priming boxe into his right-hand, and pressing the spring with his fore finger, puts poudre into the pann.

7. He is to presse in the pan-pin with his right thumbe, & so shuts the pan.

8. VVith the bridle-hand he is to cast about his pistoll, and to hold it on his left side, with the muzzle vpwards.

9. VVith the right hand take forth your cartouch out of your pistoll case: for now flasks are growne out of use amongst vs.

10. Put your cartouch into the bore of your pistol.

11. He is to draw his rammer out with his right-hand turned, and to hold it with the head downe­ward.

12. Holding the rammer head in his right hand (as before) he is to take the bullett out of his mouth, or out of his bullett-bagg at the pistoll case, with the thumb and fore finger, & putt it into the muzzle of the pistoll, and the Rammer immediatly after it, & then rammes it home.



[Page 8] 13. He is to drawe forth his Rammer with the right hand turned, and to returne it to its place.

14 With the bridle-hand he is to bring the pistoll towards his right side, and placing the butt end vpon his thigh, pulls downe the Cock.

15 He is to take the Pistoll into his right hand, mounting the muzzle vpward.

16. Having the Pistoll in his right-hand (as in posture 15) with his forefinger vpon the tricker, he is to incline the muzzle (with a fixed eye) towards his mark, not suddenlie but by degrees (quic­ker or slower according to the space he rideth) and that not directly forward towards the horse head, but towards the right, turning his right hand so as the lock of the pistoll maye be vpward, and having gotten his marke he is to draw the tricker, and so give fire.

17. He is to returne his pistoll into the Case, and then drawes out his other pistoll (as occasion maye serve) and doeth as before, and thus much for the postures of the fire lock pistoll.

Now concerming the Snap-hane pistoll, or Snap-hane Carabine (more vsual in England then in these Countries) those postures, wherein they differ from the fire-lock pistoll are these following, which beginn with the 18 Figure.

18. Holding the pistoll in the bridle-hand as before hath bin shewed in Figure 14. with the right-hand he is to bend the Cock.

19. VVith the right hand he is to pull downe the back lock, and to secure the cock from going of.

20. With the right hand he is to draw downe the hammer vpon the pan.

21. With the right thumbe he is to thrust back the back-lock, and so to give the Cock libertie. The 22. the 23. & the 24. figures shew the marching postures of a Harquebussier or a Carabine.

The Postures for the Snap-hane Carabine vsed in England, are some thing differing from the fire-lock pistols, which Captaine Cruso hath sett downe in his 30 Chapter, and Follio 43. & are these.

  • 1. Order your Carabine.
  • 2. Sink your Carabine into your bridle hand.
  • 3. Bend your Cock.
  • 4. Guard your Cock.
  • 5. Prime.
  • 6. Shutt your pann.
  • 7. Cast about your Carabine.
  • 8. Take forth your Cartouch.
  • 9. Lade your Carabine.
  • 10. Draw your rammer.
  • 11. Shorten your Rammer.
  • 12. Lade your bullet & ramm home.
  • 13. With draw your Rammer.
  • 14. Shorten your Rammer.
  • 15. Returne your Rammer.
  • 16. Recover your Carabine,
  • 17. Order your hammer.
  • 18. Free your Cock▪
  • 19. Present.
  • 20. Give fire.
  • For the vse of his sword he is to demeane him self as the Cuirassier

Observations for the makeing of Cartouches.

SEing that flasks are now growne out of use amonge our Horsemen, for the gaining of time, and the quicker giving of fire, especially vpon a skirmish, or in a battell, it is needefull for to make Car­touches. Now the Cartouch is to be made of white paper, cutt out of a convenient breadth, and length, and rowled vpon a stick (or the Rammer if it be not too litle) fit (according to the bore of the barrell) to containe the due charge of powder and the bullett. The proportion of powder vsually required is half the weight of the Bullett: but being strong & fine pistoll powder, it is held too much in the opi­nion of some men. Having moulded then the paper to fitt the Calibre, or boore of your pistoll (as is said) the one end of it is to be turned in (to keepe in the powder) and the due charge of powder to be putt into it at the other end, which powder is to be clossed in by tying a litle thred about the paper, then the bullett is to be putt in, and that also to be tyed in with a litle thred, and when the Curassier, or Harquebussier is to vse his Cartouch, he must bite of the paper at the head of it at the powder and, and so putt it into the barrell of his pistoll with the bullet vpward, and then ramme it home for a readinesse vpon any peece of service.



Briefe observations touching the exercising of Cavallerie, through their severall motions, as it is commaunded amongst vs by the Prince of Orange, and what a young Horseman ought to know before the exercising of his Esqadron, or troupe begins.

FIrst as amonge the foot Companies, so the Horse troupes are ranged into Files & Ranks, and their choisest men are made Leaders of files, and bringers vp.

Secondlie, Distance is also observed, namely, Closse Order, and Open Order. The Closse order is taken at three foot distance, and the open order at six foote distance, betweene rank and ranke, and file & file, yea, noe more then a Horse can wel turne about, & in the standing of sixe foote, or open order in rank and file they are to doe their motions.

Thirdly, it is necessarie, that a Horsman vnderstand wel the severall motions vsed in the exercising of a troupe, or Battaillon of Horse, which are these three observed amongst vs. 1. Facings. 2. Countermarching. 3. Wheelings.

  • 1. The vse of Facing, either to the right, or left hand, or to the Reere, is to make a Troupe, or Battaillon of Horse perfect to be suddainly prepared for a charge on either Flank or in the Reere.
  • 2. Countermarches serve either to reduce the File-leaders into the place of the Brin­gers vp, and so to have the best men readie to receive the charg of an Ennemie in the Reere, or to bring one flank into the place of an other.
  • 3. Amonge the Horse Wheelings, either to the right, or left hand, or to the Reere a­bout, is of excellent vse to bring the Front which consist of the ablest men to be readie to receiue a charge, or to give a charge vpon an Ennemie on either Flank, or in the Reere.

Note that doubling of Ranks, doubling of files, as also doubling of halfe files, and halfe Ranks is ommitted amongst our Horse, because according to his highnesse Commaund, the files of the Horse are but fiue deepe, in regard whereof there is al­waies an odd ranke.

The Demonstration of the figures on the other side, answering to every Number of the words of Commaund videlizet.

  • 4 Showes the forme of a Squadron of Horse, consisting of 30 men standing first in their close order, at three foore distance one from another both in Rank and file.
  • 5 Showes that their rankes are opened backward to six foote distance, or their open order in ranke and file.
  • 6 Showes that their files are also opened to six foote distance, & now stands in their open order both in rank and file. Note that in opening of their files, the two middlemost Files open first to their distance of 6 foote, and the other files both to the right and left hand also, till they are in their open order.
  • 7 Showes the clossing of their files to their closse order, observing also that first the two middlemost files, take their distance first of 3 foote, and consequently the rest, clossing both to the right and left hand.
  • 8 Showes that the rankes are also closed to their closse order, and that both rankes & files stand three foote distance one from another as Number 4 demonstrates.
  • Number 9 This motion is performed by turning and facing all to the right hand.
  • Number 10 This is done by bringing them againe to the first forme in turning all to the left hand.
  • Number 11 To face them to the Reere, is done by turning all to the right hand, till their faces front in that pla­ce, which was before the Reere.
  • 12 Is to reduce them to their first forme by turning all to the right hand.
  • 13 This is performed by turning all at an instant to the left hand.
  • 14 This serves to reduce them to their first forme, number 6 by turning to the right hand.
  • 15 Is to face them to the Reere, by turning all to the left hand, till their faces front in that place, which was before the Reere.
  • 16 This is done by turning all to the right hand, standing in their first forme as number 6 showes.
  • 17 Showes the Counter march from the right flank by turning all to the right hand.
  • 18 Is to bringe them againe to the right flanke, by turning to the left flanke.
  • 19 Showes the Countermarch from the left flank, by turning to the left hand.
  • 20 This reduces them againe to the left flank in turning all to the right hand and by giving the word of Commaund As ye were, & then they stand in the first forme, as number 4 demonstrates before they come to wheeling.
  • 21 Showes the vse of wheeling, eitheir to the right hand, or the left hand, & is to bring the front which is supposed to consist of the ablest men, to give or receive a charge eitheir vpon the right or left flank, or in the Reere, as hath bin said.



THE ORDRE, Which his Highnesse the PRINCE OF ORANGE, will have duely kept and observed by the Captaines of the troups of Horse vpon their March, without any alteration therein, vnlesse by expresse Commaund.

EVerie troupe shalbe devided into three Corporallships, & in filing them, they shall alwaies follow this order, to wit, that before everie Corporallship an Officer shall ride. The Captaine of the troupe first, the Cornet before the second, a Corporall before the third, and the Lieute­nant in the Reere of the Troupe. And if any of these Officers should be wanting as the Captaine of the Troupe, the Lieutenant shall march in his place, and if the Lieutenant be wanting, a Corporall shall march in the place of the said Lieutenant. And if they have any Bedets, a principall Souldier shalbe appointed over them, to see that they keepe their closse order in marching. The Quartermasters place is to march with the Lieutenant in the Reere.

2. The Files shall never be made noe deeper then fiue horses, how great or small so ever the troupe bee: so that if the troupe consist of a hundred Horse, everie Cor­porallship shall haue fiue, or sixe horse in a rank, and fiue in a file. And the Officer shall be carefull when he is to draw out the files in a narrow waye, which is long & that there can passe but three Horses in a rank, then they shall devide the Corporall­ship into two parts: but if the waye will permit it, then they shall not devide the Corporalship, but march with fiue or sixe in a Ranke as abouesaid.

3. The Officers shall commaund the Souldiers expresly that in marching, they al­waies keepe the distance of three foot betweene file and file, & sixe foote betweene rank and rank, and that they never ride noe faster then the pace, vnlesse they becom­maunded to the contrarie.

4. There shalbe noe more distance left, betweene each Corporallship, then is neede­full for an Officer to march betwixt them.

5. The Lieutenant and Quartermaster, which brings vp the Reere of the Troupe, shall take care that the Souldiers in the Reere shall begin to march, assoone as those in the front moue, and that they observe well their distance, and see that they doe not straggle out of their ranks & files.

6. A Troupe of Horse standing in Battaille, the Lieutenant and the Quartermaster shall haue their place in the Reere of the Troupe.

7. In marching and filing of the Troups, they shall follow one another so closse, that there shall be noe more place left, but as will serue iust for the Trumpetters Horses, and the Captaines.

In the yeere 1635. his Highnesse ordered the Lords the States Horse consisting of eighte troups of Curassiers & Harquebussiers into Regiments, to wit foure troups of Curassiers into one division, or Battaillon, and foure Troupes of Harquebussiers into an other Battaillon, both which made a Regiment, over which a Colonell Com­maunded. Note also that comming to march over a Heath, or a Compagnie. As the foote, so may the troups and Regiments of Horse be embattelled, and ranged in­to three Brigades, as the Avantguard, the Battell and the Reere, which is a goodle sight. And thus much in briefe, of the Officers, of the Arming, of the managing, of the ex­ercising, and marching of our Cavallrie and Horse, Practized in the Warres of the United Provinces, vnder the charge and commaund of his Highnesse the PRINCE of ORANGE our Victorious Generall.


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