Englands Chronicle: OR, THE LIVES & REIGNS OF THE Kings and Queens From the time of JƲLIƲS CAESAR To the present Reign of K. WILLIAM and Q. MARY:

Containing The Remarkable Transactions and Re­volutions in Peace and War, both at Home and Abroad, as they relate to this Kingdom, with the Wars, Policies, Religion and Custom, Suc­cess and Misfortunes, as well of the Antient Britains, as Roman, Saxon, Danish, and Norman Conquerors, with Copper Cuts, and whatever else is conduceable to the Illustration of History.

By J. Heath.

LONDON: Printed for Benj. Crayle, at the Peacock and Bible at the West end of St. Pauls, N. Bodington in Duck-lane, and G. Conyers at the Ring on Ludgate-hill. 1689.

W: Conq:

K: Will: 2

K: Hen: 1

K: Ste:

K: Hen: 2

K: Ric: 1

K: Iosor:

K: Hen: 3

K: Ed: 1

K: Ed: 2

K: Ed: 3

K: Iames. 2.

K: Rich: 2

England's Cronicle.

K: Hen: 4:

Hen: 5

or the Lives & Reigns of all the KINGS & QUEENS To the present Reign of K. William & L. Mary &

K: Hen 6:

K: Ed: 4

K: Ed: 6

K: Hen: 8

K: Hen: 7

K: Ric: 3

K: Ed: 5

K: Ch: 2

K: Ch: 1

K: Iames

Q: Eliz:

Q: Mary

Englands fam'd Monarchs, thus pouri [...] behold Whose warlike Deeds, this vollume does unfold, For Wisdom and for Valour they were known▪ Each had their Triumphs on the Brittish Throne


July the 3d. 1689.

And Entred according to Order.



IN this Book you have the Recital of the past and present Glories of this famous Kingdom, from the time it was first dis [...]vered to this day, continued in the renowned Actions of its Kings and Princes, being a Series of History so remarkable and delightful, that no­thing material can be truly said to be omitted. Here you may find the Original Manners, Wars and Customs of the first Britains, their contending with the Romans, their Courage and various Success, and wh [...] and by what means this Nation became subject to the Ro­man, Saxon, Dane and Norman Conquerors, with the sundry Revolutions of Church and State, as well in Peace as War; Transactions at home and abroad, various Policies and Stratagems, &c. And indeed, those things hat have made this Island lift her Head a­bove other Nations, blessed by the plenteous [Page]hand of Heaven, and the Industry of her Na­tives, her Renown has travel'd with the Sun, scarce any corner of the habitable World, where Fame has not breathed her Glories: I need not much infist upon this, to those who are daily Spectators of her Riches and Plenty, as well of her own Product and Manufacture, as accruing by Navigation, &c. from the remotest Oriental Parts, nor of the Purity of Religion, or Tranquility we enjoy under the Auspicious Reign of our Gracious King and Queen; but it remains that I recommend to you the perusal of what cannot, but aford, as much satisfacti­on as any thing of this kind is capable of ren­dring: So hoping it may prove very useful to all Lovers of History:

I am, Reader,
yours to serve you, J. Heath.

Englands CHRONICLE: OR, The Lives and Reigns of all the Kings and Queens, from the time of JƲLIƲS CAESAR, to the present Reign of K. William & Qu. Mary, &c.

A Discription of the Island of Britain, with its Original Denomination, &c.

THE Island of Great Britain, whose Fame has travel'd with the Sun, and reached the remotest Kingdoms of the Earth, is bounded with Germany and Denmark on the East, or properly with the German Ocian, on the West with Ireland, or the Irish Seas on the North, with the Ducalidonian Seas; and on the South, with France and Normandy, scituate in the eighth Climate of the North Latitude, and placed in relation to Longitude between the Parrals of fourteen and sixteen, Containing in length from Strathy-Head in the Kingdom of Scotland, to the Lizard point in Corn­wal, Six Hundred Twenty Four Miles, and in Breadth, from the Isle of Thannet in Kent, to the Lands end in Cernwal, Three Hundred and Forty Miles, though for­merly its Limits were Fancied from the Orcad [...]s, to the [...] Mountain [...]

As for the time of its being peopled, (even the most curious Historians vary) some hold it to be inhabited long before the Flood, and that being a part of France, it was by the Rapid Inundation of the Universe, broken off from the Continent, where now the Channel parts Dover from Calais; and by that means, being left by the Flood, became an Island: But this I conceive only conjectural, without any warrantable Testimony; and is grounded upon the Pariety of the Soils, and Tem­prature of Air. Since that, there are others that will have it possessed by one Albion a Gyant, who beat out the Samotheans, whose Gigantick Race increased till the time that King Brute, Coasting these Seas with a powre of Trojans under his Command, observing its spaciousness and fertility, made a Descent, and sub­dued it; and of this latter Opinion, is the so much Ce­lebrate Antiquary and Historian, Jeffry of Monmouth; and from this Trojan Prince he would have us believe, the Island took its Name: But those, who have seri­ously enquired into the Date, he proposes for the Land­ing of Brute, viz. In the 2887 Year of the worlds Creation, find not any Foundation to Build a belief, that such a Man was ever in these Parts; but rather the Name was derived from the word Prith or Brith, signifying Painting, and probably the Greeks, who were then the greatest Navigators, Sailing along the Coast, and perceiving the painted People that inhabited it, might, from that signification, give it a Name, as in­deed they did to most Islands and Countries, that were not Civilized, where ever they came; or it might be from the word [...] Mettals, for its aboun­ding with Mettals, as it had done that of Albion, from Albis Rupibus, viz. White Rocks, that appear towards the Coast of France.

These are the Conjecturals, and we might run on in a maze of uncertainty, till we tired the Reader; con­sidering, that, before the Landing of the Romans, th [...] People were uncivilized, keeping no Writings or R [...] cords of their Country or Actions, to Druids or Priests [Page 3]themselves being a kind of Magicians, or such as dealt in Spells and Charms, preserving their Religious Rites and Ceremonies in Hieroglipicks and Figures, after the manner of Egypt, the better to create an Awe and Dread upon the more ignorant, and raise an esteem and vene­ration of themselves, which otherwise must have much abated the Credit they had gained: But leaving things that are doubtful, and have never been fully cleared by the most curious and industrious Writers, we come to what is more warrantable, and for what we have sure [...] grounds (laying aside the Story of the Samothes, sprung from the [...] Son of Japhat, perhaps as Fabulous as the rest) and that is to the Year of the Worlds Creati­on, 3873. Viz.

Caius Julius Caesar, by the prevailing Arms of the Roman Commonwealth, having subdued Gallia, now France, and a great part of Germany, thirsty of new Glory, by Conquest, being invited hither by Andragi­us, one of the Sons of King Lud, upon a Quarrel that happened between him and his Uncle Cassibelan. King of the Trinobantes, he, from the Shoars of Gallia, view­ing the Coast, and finding, by Report and Scituation, that it was fair and fruitful, in a temperate Climate; and that its Conquest would highly redound to his Honour, and the Advantage of the Roman People, he setled, as well as the shortness of the time, would permit the new Conquests, and prepared an extraord [...] ­nery Fleet of Ships, and smaller Vessels, for the Trans­portation of his Army; yet had he much ado to mak [...] the Legions Imberque, who perceiving the dreadful Rocks on the distant Shore, together with the rough­ness and danger of the Sea, complained, That after all the Toiles and Hardships they had indured, he was now a­bout to carry them into another World; for so they estee­med this great Island.

Caesar, notwithstanding the speed that attended his Expeditions, was not so silent in his Preparation, but the Britains had notice of it from such of the Gauis, as had made their escapes in small Barques; and upon his at­tempting [Page 4]to land, he found the Shores between Dover and Sandwich covered with the armed Britains, under Casib [...]lan and other Kings, who disputed his landing with great resolution and sury, beating him twice from the Shore, with the loss of his Sword, and the no small danger of his Person, which constrained him to put his Archers on board small Vessels, whose Shot (to which the Britains were not accustomed) made them retire, whilst under that Favour he landed part of his Legions, yet long was it before he could make good his ground, with the loss of his huge Fleet broken to pieces by the fury of the Tempest, and a great number of his Men slain in divers Conflicts and Skirmishes, for the Natives sighting partly in hook-armed Waggons, or their fa­shion'd Chariots of War, and partly on foot with Spears, small imboss'd Shields, and large Swords, being excee­ding nimble, charged and retired in Parties as they saw it convenient, and when in any Battel they were wor­sted, they betook themselves to fortified Woods, which served them in the nature of Castles: So that in the end this great Conquerour, tired with continual Alarums, thought it convenient to make a Peace with those Kings that had opposed him, and taking Hostages, he returned to France, there to quiet some new Commotions that were arisen.

The People, in the condition Casar found them, were tall, big-bodied, strong, and greatly addicted to hardship, having few Towns, unless such as were the Capitals of their Kings, but lived in fortified Woods, the Men being allowed as many Wives as they could keep, fierce and cruel, yet sparing in Dyet, and not much ad­dicted to Labour, so that the Ground lay mostly until­led; and when they sowed their Corn, they only strew­ed it on the Earth, and harrowed it over with Bushes, on which they laid considerable weights; and being carried away with a notion of the Pythagorians, they for­bore very much to kill or destroy the Creatures lest they should unhouse the Souls of their Friends and nearest Relations, which they concluded at their deaths had [Page 5]passed by Transmigration into them; so that Hares, Hens, and Geese especially, were found in such plenty, and so same, that it was admirable, with great store of delicious Fruits, which Nature of her own accord had produced.

The Trade of the Britains, if any abroad, was very inconsiderable; for, as Casar observes, their Boats were for the most part Leather drawn over Wicker of Osiers, or such as were fewed together with Thongs, so that they durst not venture far from the shore, nor did they trouble themselves with any store of Provision when they Sailed. The better sort were clad, but they most­ly with Skins, which they had not the art to dress; taking a [...] of pride in Nakedness, for as much as be­ing Young, they Raised and S [...]arrified their Skins into Carved Works, of B [...]rds, B [...]asls, Tr [...]es, Flowers, Fist, Sun [...], Mcon [...], S [...]rs, and the like; it b [...]ing a Trade o [...] Imployment, to persons well versed in i [...] as well as Pai [...]ting or Carving at this Day; and in there Sears they suppled the Juice of Would or Wo [...]d, which not only coulo [...]red their Bod [...], [...] sinking in where the Skin gave way, left a lasting Stain that grew up with them to Maturity, fortifying their Bodys by shutting up the [...] against heat or cold; and though they lived in a sind of a state of Innocency, sequ [...]stered from the hur­ry and business of more Civiliz'd Mations, yet being under many Governours, they frequently Wared up­on each other through Emulation; though their Riches were inconsid [...]rable, their Coyn, or what was Courant amongst them, being only Brass or Irsn, Ring [...], Boxes, O [...]nches, at a certain Sieze or Weight, though afterward, by the Example of the Romans, they stamped Silver and Gold, with sundry Devices, Imbos [...] Shield ways. They made their Drink of Barly, boiled in Water, but took little account of Milk, and less of their Cattle, taking great pride in shaving themselves all but the up­per Lip, which they did in imitation of the Gauls, wearing Iron Chains about their Necks and Wasts, with Brass Rings on their Fingers, as Ornaments; and [Page 6]they had Women in common, amongst Brothers and Parents, and the Issue was attributed to him who first gathered her Virginity.

As for the Religion of the Antient Britains (if so I may term it, and not rather a Diaboliea [...] Delusion) it was Superstitious and Barbarous for the Druids or Priests, whom they held to be very Oracles, gave them­selves up to Witchcrasts and Inchantments, mutte­ring horrid Charms, pretending to raise Sto [...]ms and Tempests, to call for Lightning and Thunder: Nor was their Idolatry less, for they had Images, almost without number, to which they prayed, and made Sacrifice under certain Names and Figures, as the Priests directed, not sparing to offer the Flesh of their Enemies taken in War, and amongst them, even Priest-craft reigned in those days; for Excommunica­tion was of great Force, and the Theologie they held, was, that the Soul being Immortal, lost not, nor les­sened in its Existence by the dying of the Body, but passed in its Existence by the dying of the Body, but passed into another, either rational or irrational Crea­ture, and their Pxiests were Judges in all Civil Contro­versies.

This was the state of the Britains, when the Romans same first acquainted with the Island and those of En­gland, so named since that time, from a place in Den­mark called Engelon, or from the East Augles, were di­stinguished by their Cantons or Tribes, in the following order and possession, viz. The Cantij possessed Kent; the Regni, S [...]ssex and Surry; the Durotriges, Dorset-shire; the Damnoni, Devon-shire and Cornwal; the Belg [...]e, Somer­set-shire, Wilt-shire, and Sonthampton-shire; the Atrebati, Bark-shire; the Dubuni, Oxford-shire and Glocester-shire; the Catieuclani, Warwick-shire, Buckingham-shire, and [...]edford-shire; the Trinobantes, Hartford-shire, Essex, and Middl sex; the Icenij, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge-shire and Huntington-shire, the Conitani, Lincoln-shire, Rutland­sh [...]re, Northampton-shire, Leicester-shire, D [...]rby-shire, and Nottingham-shire; the Cornaby, Stafford-shire, Worcester-shire, Cheshire, and Shropshire.

The Cantons of Wales had likewise their order and division, viz. The Ordovices possessed Flintshire, Car­narvan-shire, Denby-shire, Mountgomery-shire, and Me­rionoth-shire; the Silures Hereford-shire, Radnor-shire, Brecknock, Monmouth, and Glamorgan-shire; The Dimet [...]e Car [...]marden-shire, Pembrook-shire, and Car­digan-shire; the Ottodini & Brigantes Parisi were accoun­ted separate from the former, and possessed themselves of York-shire, Lancashire, Durham, Richmond, Coun­ty Westmorland, Cumberland, North [...]mberland; and the latter, sometimes of March, Teifidale, Tw [...]edale and Louthian: These Divisions had their respective Heads or Governours, to whom they made Acknowledgment, and payed some inconsiderable Tribute; though most of that kind fell to the share of the Priests; and indeed their Riches was but small, for Cesar, when he found he had a considerable Advantage over the Southren part of this Island, layed no greater Tax upon them, than three hundred pounds a year, as a Tributary Acknow­ledgment to Rome: We might insist on the Tribes that were possessed of Scotland, and the Island, belonging to Great Britain, but not being much to the purpose, it is convenient to pursue the more materialpart of History.

This part of Great Britain, is the most plentiful, a­bounding with all Things necessary for the pleasure and Support of Humane Life, and was named (as is said) England, from Englone, a place in Denmark; or as some will have it, from a People, called East Angles, who placed themselves in the Eastern part of it, in the time of the Saxons; which name, neither the Danes nor Nor­mans, in their Conquests, thought fit to Change or Al­ter; so that it contained it for the space of eight hun­dred seventy three years, when King James united it with Scotland, 1602. and restored the Ancient Name of Great Britain; and such Reputation it all along had, a [...] to gain the fifth place in General Councils, and was stiled (for the abundance of Plenty it afforded, to Supply the Neighbour Nation) the Store-house of the Western world, for from hen [...]s, even in early days, [Page 8]the Romans were wont yearly to Lade eight hundred Ves­sels with Corn, for the supply of their Armies in other Countries; so that it has been often taken for the For­tunate Island, mentioned by antient W [...]iters, especi­ally the Gr [...]cians: But above all, it has been the pecu­liar Care of Heaven, in that the Christian Faith was planted here, in the sixty third year of our S [...]viours In­carnation; and it is held (not without good ground [...]) that Jos [...]ph of Aramathca, was sent hither by Philip, the Apostle of France, and that he was Buried at Gl [...]ss [...]nbury; and some will have it, and shew much Reason for it, that St. Paul was here, and Preached the Gospel: How­ever, this is certain, It enjoyed the first Christian King, in the person of King Lucius, and gave birth to that Glorious Propagator of Christianity, Constantine, the great Emperor of Rome: But thus much for History in General, from whence we proceed to what is more particular.

Thus Fame, to breath our Nations Glory's proud:
Hark! How her Golden Trumpet sounds aloud!
From Pole to Pole, the Mighty [...]las [...] is gone,
To fill all Nation [...], circl'd by the [...].

An Historical Account of the British Princes, that opposen the Romans, in their attempting to Settle in th [...]se parts.

THE Romans, under Casar, first taking the Advan­tage of the Divisions and Animosities, riegning amongst the petty Princes of the Britains, made no o­ther account, but to Gain a full Possession, with little trouble or hazard; but found themselves mistaken, e­ven in barbarous Valour, as they Termed it; for so it fell out, That King Lud, who built the W [...]st-Gate of the City of London; and was the first Founder of the City it self, calling it Carelud, tho' not in extent, as at present, dying, and leaving two Son [...], viz. Andragius and T [...]mantius, their Uncle Cassibelane (by the Fathers [Page 9]direction) took upon him the Government, till they should be of Age, stiling himself Prince of the Trin [...] ­bants, or new Troy, as some will have it; being the most powerful of all the Princes of the Britains, and when his Nephews were capable of Rule, he gave to Andragius Trinovant, the Dukedom of Kent; and to Temantius the Dukedom of Cornwal, reserving to himself the City of Verilum, now St. Albons, and other [...]ependances: But Andragius being dissatisfied with his Uncle, and hearing the Fame of Caesars great Actions, [...]mplored his Assistance against him; and so far pre­vailed, that he came over, and Overcame this Prince, after a long and obstinate Resistance, wherein eighty thousand were slain on both sides, at sundry times, and the Country's Amerced for breaking the Truce; and when he left the Island, Andragius, with a great many British Souldiers, went along with him, to help him in his Wars against Pompey the Great, whom he Over­threw in the Pharsalian Fields. So that, after the death of Cassibelan, who expired at York: Temantius possessed both his Father's and Uncle's Dominions; nor had Caesar only this Prince to Contend with, but like­wise Cingitorix, Taximagul, and Caravil, petty Kings of Kent; but his Fortune prevailing against them, their Men slain, and they routed; the first was taken, and the two last fled: So that the Roman Arms growing dreadful to the rest of the Princes, after they had lent what Assistance they could, and found themselves too weak to Oppose a prevailing Conqueror, Senimagues, Ancalites, Bibroses, and the rest of the States of Icenij laid down their Arms, and submitted, as did many o­thers: However, C [...]esar rather shewed the Romans this Island, than subdued it, or knew the Extent of it; for neither by Arms, or Intelligence, could he discover, whether it was an Island, or Continent.

Caesar, (after having waded through the World, at a Sea of Blood, and reached the very Pinacle of hu­mane Greatness) being slain in the Senate House in Rome, by the Conspiracy of the Senators; Augustus [Page 10] Caesar coming to the Imperial Throne, the Britains b [...] ­gan to bethink themselves of casting off the Roma [...] Yoke, under Cunobeline, who held his Regal Seat [...] Malden in Essex, and had been Kinghted by Julius G [...] ­sar; and indeed they went a great way in it; A [...] ­gustus prepared three times, utterly to Subdue him, an his Dominions, but was diverted by other Affairs: [...] that in the twenty third Year of this King's Reign, th [...] PRINCE of Peace, our Blessed Lord and Saviour, bein [...] Born, the Lyon lay down with the Lamb: An Univers [...] Peace ensued, according as it had been foretold b [...] the Prophets. This was the first of the British King that stamped his Image upon his Coyn; and Dying ful [...] of years, he was succeeded by Guiderius his Son, wh [...] was no less desirous than his Father, to shake off th [...] Roman Tribute: When he heard Augustus C [...]sar wa [...] Dead: and Caligula, who was Emperor in his stead [...] being denied the Payment, made great preparation against him, but being an Emperor of little Conduct, an [...] less Courage; coming to the Belgick shore, he made h [...] Souldiers gather Shells in their Helmets, whilst th [...] Trumpets sounded a Charge, as to the Battle, and [...] returned in a foolish kind of Triumph, proud to ha [...] taken the Spoils of the Ocean; but Claudius Drusius, wh [...] succeeded him, overthrew Guiderius, and his Britain under the Conduct of his Deputy; and in the Figh [...] the King was slain by the Treachery of one Hamo, wh [...] (pretending friendship) in a Disguise got near his Pe [...] son; but being pursued by Arviragus, the King's B [...] ­ther, to the shore of the Sea, himself was there di [...] ­patched, from whose Fall some Antiquaries affir [...] the Place took the Name of Hamo's Haven, now t [...] Town of Southampton.

The Father and Son thus Dead, Catacratus, a seco [...] Son to Cunobeline, assumed the Throne; when follow­ing his Predecessors, in opposing the Romans, he was a great and mortal Battle, overthrown with the loss almost all his People; and himself being taken Pri [...] ­ner, was carried to Rome, where he was led throu [...] [Page 11] [...]he streets in a triumph of Derision, to honour Aulus [...]lautinus his Conqueror; yet Togodumnuis the third [...]on of Cunobeline, succeeded him, but with as bad for­ [...]une; for after he had harazed their Camp, and slain many of them, in such a manner, that Plautinus was obliged to send for the Emperor Dr [...]sius, who [...]rought with him a great Power, a Mortal Battle was [...]ought, in which the British King was slain; yet Ar­ [...]iragus, the last of the Brothers, had leave to Succeed [...]im; and he, for a while, held a fair Correspondency with the Romans, but finding his opportunity fell off, [...]nd joyning with some petty Neighbours, gave the [...]mperor such Apprehensions of Danger, that he [...]hought it best for his Repose, and the Securing the Roman Interest in this Island, to give him his Daugh­er Genissa in Marriage. This Assinity calmed Affairs for a time, and the Britains having learned the Roman Customes, became much civilized, forgetting their Barbarous Nature, cloathing themselves, and building Houses; so that the Island extreamly Flourished, and [...]ested from War, during the Life of Arviragus, and was very little troubled in the time of Cogid [...]nus: But Characticus, a Prince of the Silures, growing po­werful, by the contracted Forces of his Neighbours, drew into the Field, and beat the Roman Souldiers from their Strenghts, making great Slaughter of them; yet in the end, being Overthrown, he fled to Cart [...]smandua for shelter and protection; but she, desirous to ingra­tiate her self with the Emperor, caused him, contra­ty to her Faith plighted, to be delivered up to his Ene­mies, who, the better to keep their new Acquiessitions in Peace, sont him to Rome, where, beholding the Magnificence of that Luxurant City, he reproved the Roman Covetousness and Ambition, saying, He adm [...] ­red, that they, being Master, of such glor [...]ous T [...]mples, Structures, and Riches, should neverthe [...]ss crave after the Cottages, and poor Poss [...]ssions of the Britains: And altho' this Prince was removed, another stood up in his stead, Pr [...]sutagus King of the Icenij; yet [Page 12]finding himself in no good Condition to Resist, h [...] made Peace, and growing near his end, left Quee [...]-Boduo, and his two Daughters, in the Protection of the Emperor Nero, whom he had made his Heir; but the Ladies being of Incomparable Beauty, and contrary to the Trust reposed, Ravished; the valiant Queen cal­led together her Friends and Commanders, acquain­ting them with the Treachery, and desiring their assistance, telling them, That the Romans were infeble [...] by Ease and Luxury; and therefore being resolutely so [...] upon, they would fly like a timorous Hare; and at that word (opening her Lap, she let go a Hare, which so the purpose she had concealed.

This so animated the rest, that they immediatel [...] took Arms, and falling upon the Romans, in their to [...] much Security, under the Conduct of this Queen, pu [...] eighty thousand of them to the Sword; but in the en [...] New Forces arriving, she was forced to lay down her Arms, and seek for Safety: And next to he Venutius, King of the Brigantes Warred upon them but by the Trechery of his Queen, the faithless Cart [...] mandua, he was Overthrown; so that the Roman having pierced into Scotland, Overthrew, in a grea [...] Battle, Galgacius, Prince of the Callidonians; an [...] finding none to Oppose them, they became absolut [...] Masters of the Famous Island of Great Britain: No [...] was it known, that they discovered it, till this time t [...] be an Island, which was about one hundred thirty six years after the Landing of Caesar, when, in a far less [...] time they Subdued all France, Germany, and othe [...] Countrys insinitely larger, by which we may per­ceive,

The Early Valour of the British Race,
Who boldly durst the worlds prou'd Conquerors Face,
And put even Rome her self to soul disgrace.

An Historical Account of the Roman Emperors, who were personal in this Island, or Ruled by their Lieute­nants.

CAius Julius Caesar (as you have heard) was the first Roman that set footing in this Island, lan­ding in the Year of the worlds Creation, 3873. But he did little more than show it the Romans, laying a small Tribute of 300 pounds upon it, not having passed with Armed Forces (as many hold) beyond St. Albans, then call'd Verillum, finding by the great Resistance he experienced, he had to deal with a stubborn People, over which he had no other advan­tage; but being better Armed, and somwhat more expert in the Trains of War; yet, after three Expe­ditions, he came no more; but proceeded to put the project, of gaining the Soveraignty of the World, in practice, wherein he was Successful, after the Fatal Battles of Pharsalia, Philipi, and Munda; yet his Aspiring cost him his Life, as has been Related.

Octavian Augustus Caesar, succeeded Julius, after many Troubles, and much difficulty, but came not into this Island, though he thrice intended it; and in this Golden Reign, the SAVIOUR of the World was Born: To this Great Emperor Succeeded Ti­berius; in the eighteenth year of whose Reign, The LORD of LIFE was put to Death, to Rise more G [...]o­rious, and Triumph over Death and Hell, and the pro­digious Defects in Nature, that attended his Passion; being ob [...]erved by Dionisus Areopagita, as the Ecclipse of the Sun and Moon, &c, He cryed out, that The God of Nature suffered, or the Frame of the world was about to be dissolved: To this Emperor, Caligula Suc­ceeded; but the most memorable Act he did, was, the Banishing Pontius Pilate, who, thereupon, grew desperate, & Slew himself: Then came Claudius Dru­sius, under whom, Aulus Plautinius was Deputy in Britain, who was put so hard to i [...], that the Empe­ror [Page 14]was obliged to come over; and, by the Marri­age of his Daughter, put an end to the Troubles Nero succeeded him in the Imperial Throne, whose wickednesses are too many to be related in this place: Amongst other things, he Crucified St. Peter, and caused St. Paul to be Beheaded, Burnt the City of Rome, Killed his Wife, Ripped up his Mother, and Perse­cuted the Christians with new invented Torments; he did great Injuries to the Britains, by his Lieute­nants, for which Queen Boduo slew Eighty Thousand of his Romans. Sergius Galba began his Reign Anno Dom. 70. But being a Cruel and Desolute Prince, he was Killed by his Souldiers, after he had continued seven Months in the Throne; So that Maximus being then Deputy, the Britains felt not the Effects of his Anger; and thus, Rome wanting a Head, Marcus Sylvius Otho entred upon the Stage, yet Reigned but three Months and five Days, before he made way for Aulus Vitellus, who, after eight Months Reign, was Killed by the Souldiers, and Elavius Vespatian, made Emperor in his stead: So that, in these short Revolu­tions, the Britains had Peace; yet, in this last Reign, the Brigantes and Silures, were up in Arms, but Juli­us Frontius over-powered them. Petilius being De­puty, the Famous City of Jerusalem, after an obsti­nate and bloody Siege, was Taken by the Romans, un­der the L [...]ading of Titus Vespatian, who succeeded his Father in the Empire, after he had Reigned about nine Years: and Reigned two years, and three months; yet we find not that he had any War with the Britains, but left the Empire to Domitian, his Brother, who raised a Persacution against the Chri­stians, by the Example of Nero: Insomuch, that Christianity then beginning to Flourish in this Island, many were cut off, for the Testimony they bore to their Lord and Master: And Julius Agricola, being Deputy, he, upon the Revolt of the Britains, gave them [...] and in a fearful Overthrow, slew Ten Thousand of them, with the Loss of Three Bundred [Page 15]and Forty of his own Men; and this is he that first discovered this Country to be an Island, and Domi­tian, after about fifteen years Reign, dying, Coc­ [...]eius Nerva came to the Throne of Empire, being a very Charitable Prince; but after ten Months he gave place to Trajan, who raised the Third Persecuti­on, and Overthrew the Revolting Britains, by Spar­tia [...]us his Lieutenant: Leaving the Stage of Honour, after Twenty One Years Six Months, when Adrianus was Proclaimed Emperor; and although he had no War with the Britains, he nevertheless raised a Persecuti­on against the Christians, and made the Church of Christ weep Tears of Blood in all Lands, whither his Power extended; yet he Reigned twenty two years: But at length Antonius Pius, who Succeeded him, re­strained, & re-called his Cruel Edicts; yet in his time the Britains (rising in Arms) were Overthrown by Lollius Urbicus: Marcus Aurelius taking next upon him the Administration of the Imperial Power, re­vived the Persecution, but had no War with the Bri­tains; and giving place, after nineteen years Reign, Commodius took upon him the Sway of the Empire; and now the Almighty smiling upon this Land (with the brightest Rays of Divine Love) raised up a Chri­stian King, and the first that the World had seen, viz. King Lucius, Son to King Ceilus, and Great Grand Child to Arviragius, who Married the Empe­ror Drusius's Daughter; and he being more mindful of Religion, (that dearest part of Government) than of any other Consideration, the better to Establish the Work, so prosperously begun, sent two Learned Men to Elutherus, then Bishop of Rome, to be further Instructed in the FAITH; who thereupon sent him Fagarius and Damianus, with his Letter, in the fol­lowing words:

You have received, in the Kingdom of Britain, by GOD's Mercy, both the Law and Faith of Christ; you have both the Old and New Testament, out of the [Page 16]same (through God's Grace) by the Advice of your Realm take a Law; and by the same, through God's Sufferance Rule your Kingdom of Britain; for in that Kingdom you are God's Vicar.

This I have mentioned, to shew, The honesty and plainness of the Bishops of Rome, before they came to be Debauched, and Corrupted with Pride and Avarice: And this good King so far improved the Ad­vice, that he immediately Changed the Seats of the three Arch-Flamens, and twenty-eight Flamens, into so many Archiepiscopal, and Episcopal Sees, appointing for the first three, London, York, and Gloucester; and thereupon the Christian Religion, in spite of the Op­pressors, grew up like a stately Cedar, and overspread the Land.

Helvius Pertinax, the next Emperor, did nothing of note, having but a short Reign, not exceeding eight Months; and was Succeeded by Didius Julianus who continued not above two Months; neither o [...] them having any War with the Britains: Yet in the Reign of Septimus Severius, the Calledonians were up in Arms, and Heraclionus his Deputy, not being able to Quell them, the Emperor came over in Per­son, yet could not Effect it, by reason of the Fortres­ses and Marshes, where they usually Fortified them­selves, with less than the Loss of fifty thousand o [...] his men; and the better to Bridle them, he caused a mighty Wall, with Towrs, to be run from Shor [...] to Shore; but being come over a second time, (upon new Commotions) he fell Sick, and dyed at York and in his Reign, the fifth Persecution was raised a­gainst the Christians. Bassianus Caracala Reigne [...] after him six years, and being made Co-Emperor with his Brother Geta, he slew him; yet the Britains wer [...] not molested, during his Reign; and then he gave place to Opilius Maerinus, who reigned about one year two months; and was Succeeded by Heliogabilus a Lude, Debauched, and Luxurious Emperor, wh [...] [Page 17]had been formerly Priest to the Son, yet he held the imperial Seat four years, and then gave Place to Alexander Severus, who gave Liberty to the Christi­ [...]ns, to live peaceably and quiet, without oppression or persecution; but when he had reigned six months [...]nd seven days, he was killed by the Mutiny of the Almain Souldiers, and made way for Maximinus, who [...]aised the sixth Persecution; yet in his time the Bri­ [...]ains were in Peace, but three Years put a period to his Reign, and Julius Varius Maximus mounted the Throne; but he soon after was slain by the Souldiers. And Gordianus, who succeeded him, Reigned but for­ty days: For now the Petorian Souldiers began to commit all manner of Disorders, setting the Empire to Sale, raising any one to it for Money; and then, either Killing or Deposing them, made room for more Gain; and instead of One, they sometimes set up Two in Co-partnership, as Claudius Puppienus, and Celius Balbinus, who Reigned only a Year, then Antonius Gordianus Reigned; and after him, Julius Philippus; the one Reigning Four, and the other Five Years: Which short continuance, and the Care they had to Secure themselves, made them little mind what was done abroad; and Lieutenants of Provinces perceiving things go thus unfortunately, did not so much trouble themselves, in Gathering the publick Taxes, as to ingratiate in the Peoples Favour, and enrich themselves by Presents and Offerings, which were daily made them, without runing the hazard of forcing them to Rebel. And now Decius coming to the Imperial Seat, stirred up by the Enemies of the Church of Christ, he raised the seventh Persecu­tion; but his Fury continued not, for he reigned but two years, e're he gave way to Trebonianus and Vo­ [...]usianius, who stayed the Persecution, and had Peace with the Britains: But in two years they gave way to Aelmelianus, who reigned not above two months; and though Valerianus, that succeeded him, held not the Dignity above a year, yet being of a Cruel Tem­per, [Page 18]he gave vent to his Anger on the Christians, wh [...] now, in all places, began to Multiply; so that agai [...] the Church was forced to wear the bloody Scars of eight Persecution; and under him St. Laurence, an [...] St. Cyprian suffered Martyrdom.

Thus went on the course of things, in these earl [...] times; and as the Wealth of Britain increased, so th [...] Romans raised their Taxes to a higher pitch; yet th [...] people, by this time, being better used to their Guest and interchanged Marriages amongst them, the were not easily to be drawn into Insurrections, espe­cially when they considered, they (by the Arts an [...] Manufacture the Romans taught) were greatly impro­ved.

And now came Galienus to the Imperial Seat, who notwithstanding his fifteen years Reign, had no Wa [...] with the Britains; and though Flavius Claudius wa [...] a great hater of Christians, and studied for Torment to destroy them, yet he liv'd not to effect it; but ha­ving reigned two years without molesting this King­dom, he gave place to Quintilius, who, rather desi­rous of Death than Rule, (as it appeared by the con­sequence) opened his own Veins and Dyed, withou [...] one way other troubling the Britains.

Aurelianus succeeded Quintilius, and reigned five years, without concerning himself with the Affair of this Island; yet he put out severe Educts against the Christians: so that we may reckon under him the ninth Persecution. Tacitus succeeded him; yet reign­ed but six Months, e're he gave place to Florianus and he having a shorter Reign, was succeeded by [...]robus, who held the Imperial Seat five years: These [...]ad no War with the Britains; but Marcus Aurelius Carus, hearing they were in Arms to Recover their [...] Liberty, sent Carantius his Lieutenant, to Quiet them, but he joyned with them; so that the Tribute was denied, during this Emperors Reign: However, Carancius was slain by Alectus, a succeeding Lieute­ [...]ant. Dioclesian coming to the Throne, greatly [Page 19]Persecuted the Christians; but God (considering [...]he Distress of His People) put an end to his Reign, [...]fter three Years; and so gave Rest to his Church. This Emperor made great Wars in this Island, by his Lieutenant, but with various success; and was [...]ucceeded by Constantius Clorus, who continued the War, and came in Person against the Calledonians and [...]ists: And it was this Emperor, that, finding King Coilus (his Trusty Friend) dead, upon his Arrival Married Helena, his beautiful Daughter; and reign­ing about thirteen Years, dyed at York, leaving his Son Constantine the Great, to Succeed him; but he being in his Non-Age, the Throne was Usurped Alter­nately by Constantius Galerus, Maximus Severus, Ma­ [...]entius Lucinus, and Martinianus; But at length these were Overcome by the good Fortune of Con­stantine the Great, a Britain by Birth, and half so by Parentage; he Alotted part of his Empire to his Sons, and was the first Christian Emperor the world beheld. Some hold, That being about to Persecute the Christians, he was smitten with a Leprosie, and had it Revealed to him in a Vision, That unless he called home Bishop Sylvester, and the rest of the Ba­nished Clergy, he might dispair of Cure; which ac­cordingly [...]e did, and found himself in perfect Health, which obliged him to embrace the True Religion: O­thers hold, That being about to give Battle, and doubting the Success, he, all on a sudden, beheld, in the Air, a bright shining Cross, with this Motto, In boc vinces, In this thou shalt overcome: And taking thereupon the Cross for his device, he, accordingly became Victorious; but however it happened, no doubt, God (in Compassion to His bleeding Church, which had undergone ten Cruel Persecutions) raised up this Emperor to Heal her Wounds; and indeed, being Baptized, and Received into the Church, he lest nothing undone that might tend to her Welfare, and the Propagation of the True Religion. Some Wars he had with the Britains, but they not consi­derable, [Page 20]when after a long Reign, he dyed [...] Peace.

Julian, called the Apostate, succeeded this goo [...] Emperor, begining his Reign Anno Dom. 356. Th [...] man, before he came to the Throne, professed Chri­stianity, and seemed Zealous to promote it, being person of great Cunning, and much Learning; bu [...] with the Change of his Condition, his Conscienc [...] altered, which made many believe, he made Religion but a Stirrup, to Mount the Imperial Throne; fo [...] then he became their professed Enemy, using all th [...] Policy he could, to baffle and destroy their Interest and although he did not violently Persecute them himself, yet he gave way to such as spared no Affront or Indignities; and Writ, with his own hand, a Book to Ridicule the Gospel, calling our Blessed Saviour Gallilean, in derision: When preparing for the Wan [...] of Persia, as he Rod forth, he asked one of the Chri­stians, What the Carpenters Son was doing at that time He is (replied the good Man, with an holy Anger making a Coffin for your self: At this Julian smiled but whether prophetically spoke, or by chance, it so [...] fell out: That riding at the Head of his Army, an [...] Arrow, none knowing from what hand it came, Mor [...] tally wounded him; whereupon, perceiving hi [...] Death certain, he drew forth the Arrow, and throw­ing up handfuls of his own Blood in defiance to Hea­ven, he cried out; Vicisti Galilee, thou haft Over­come me O Galilean; and so expired: After whose Death, Jovinianus took the Rule, and had so grea [...] a liking to the Christian Religion, that he easily­embraced it, causing the Souldiers and People to do the same; and would often Express himself in these terms: O that I might govern wise men; and wise men [...] govern me! His Reign was but short, not exceeding a Year, when he gave place to Valentinianus, in whose Reign the Roman Empire was threatned by the barbarous Nations, who made great Spoil and Desolation; insomuch, that the Legions in Britain, [Page 21]were drawn off to Assist nearer home; which gave [...]e Picts and Irish an opportunity to Invade and [...]arrass this Kingdom, with great Spoil, and Slaugh­ [...]r of the People, which made them beseech the Em­ [...]ror for Aid; and Theodosius was sent with a Po­ [...]er that Repelled the Invaders, and left the Bri­ [...]ins in Peace, but no longer, than till the Romans [...]ere departed: He was moreover a great Favourer [...]f the Christians, restored their Temples, and for­ [...]id Idolatrous Worship, and Mid-night Sacrifice; and [...]aving found some treacherous dealing amongst his [...]en of War, he was wont to say; Gold was tryed [...]ith the Touch stone, and Men with Gold: And to him [...]ucceeded Gratianus and Valence, the former behaving himself with all due Respect to the Christians, but [...]he latter closed with the Arian Hereticks against them; causing eighty of the Christians to be sent [...]o Sea in a Ship, and there set it on Fire, giving them [...]he choice, either to Drown themselves, or Perish in [...]he Flame: Yet, after a Reign of Six Years, full of Trouble, Maximus, and Valentinianus, took place; but the first held it so short a time, that, in many Authors, he is not mentioned; they had no War with the Britains, and had indeed enough to do, to De­fend themselves; and were succeeded by Theodosius, who began his Reign Anno Dom. 379. under whom the Christian Religion flourished; and Damassus be­ing Bishop of Rome, the Second General Councel was held, and now, for the space of six Months, the World was so troubled with Earth-quakes, that the Dissolation, and Ruine they occasioned, is not coun­table.

Arcadius, and Honorius, next took place, viz. 402. In whose Reign a marvellous Thing happened at Constantinople, viz. About Noon, a Fire entering the Great Church, fastned upon the Bishops Seat, and Consumed it; thence growing up like a Pyramid, seized the Roof, and Burnt it, not doing the People, then Assembled, any harm, though it passed through [Page 22]them; leaving the Church, it passed directly [...] Senate-House, and reduced it to Ashes: This ma [...] looked upon, as a Divine Presage of those Miseri [...] that soon after befel the Church and State; for no [...] the Roman Greatness growing to a period, the Bra [...] ches being too ponderous for the Bole, to Suppo [...] the Storms of War, that came thundring from sev­ral Quarters, rent and tore them in pieces; ins [...] much, that we may say, The Red Horse, and h [...] Rider were sent forth, about this time, To take pea [...] from the earth: and now the Britains groaned under the weight of their Enemies, the Picts, Scots, an [...] Wild Irish, who came upon them in great Swarm laying waste all their pleasant places, which mad [...] them again Address the Romans (who had so lon [...] been their Masters) for speedy Succour; but ha [...] word sent them: That their hands were full of En [...] ­mies, and that they could not spare any of their Forces [...] However, Theodosius Junior, and Valentinianus, com­ing to the Thrones of the West and East; for now th [...] Roman Eagle was double headed, a Legion wa [...] ordered for Britain; upon whose approach, and after some Skirmishes, the Barbarous People reti­red; and the Romans, before their departure, taught the Britains the more perfect Exercise of Arms, ad [...] monishing them to renew, strengthen, & fortifie their Wall from Sea to Sea, and keep Watchmen o [...] the Towers to defend them, and give notice of the Enemies approach, seeing they might be confident this was the last time they could expect any Succou [...] from Rome; so that after a possession of 597, years the Romans of their own accord left the flourishing Island of Britain, carrying with them, at sundry times, the Flower and Strength of the Land to assist them in [...] their Foreign Wars, by which the Britains lay more easie and open to the Inroads and Incursions of their Enemies.

[...]us [...], whom balfe the world obey'd, [...]r conquering [...] spread [...]ve hundred ninety seven years, and then [...]fatal times [...] the Isle again: [...]en blood and [...] rag'd in every place, [...]d Crimson Seas had delug'd Natures Face; [...]en 'twas, Great Kingdom, thy sad Woes came on, [...]us plagues o'er took thee, that thou thoughts't to shun, [...] friendly seeming Saxons more undone.

[...] what means the Saxons came to Conquer this King­dom, and divide it into a Hepterchie, with their Succession of Kings, and Discription of their re­sprective Kingdoms, till it was reduced to a Monarchy, and from thence till conquered by the Danes.

THE Romans, as we have said, by a voluntary re­linquishment having left this famous Island in­ [...]mbered with restless Enemies, whose Ravages and [...]oils are too many to count, and the poor defence­ [...]ss Britains quite wearied out with continual Ala­ [...]ms, Slaughters, Burnings, and the Ravishment of [...]eir Wives and Daughters, heartless to defend [...]emselves, and out of all hopes of Assistance from [...]eir old Masters the Romans; they at last understand­ [...]g the Saxons were a powerful and prevailing Peo­ [...]e in Germany, who had inlarged their Borders, and one great Actions, resolved to apply themselves to his People for Succour; and hereupon Vertigern [...]e King, with the consent of his Nobles, sent Am­ [...]ssadors to the Heads of the Saxons, and Jutes, ordering upon the Rhine, laying before them the [...]plorableness of the Kingdoms condition, and how was at a point to be lost, the Enemy having al­ [...]ady advanced as far as Stamford in Lincolnshire, [...]ith dreadful Spoil and Devastion, intreating a [Page 24]speedy Succour and Protection, promising large Re [...] wards for the Service. The Saxons having well [...] weighed the thing, upon certain notice of the [...] Fruitfulness of the Country, and finding their own [...] Borders to streight and scanty for their numbers, [...] immediately closed with the request of the Britains [...] dismissing their Ambassadors with a very obliging [...] Letter, and instantly drew out 9000 Men, under the [...] leading of Hengist and Horsus, two Brothers of a [...] noble Family, who with expedition, suitable to the [...] imergency of this occasion, landed at Ebsfleet in [...] the Island of Thanet, where they were received by [...] the King's Order with Songs and congratulations o [...] Joy, and then joyning with them such Forces as he [...] had drawn together, gave the Enemy Battle with [...] great slaughter, defeating and overthrowing them so that they were obliged not only to repass th [...] Wall that was drawn from Sea to Sea, as a defence [...] against Scotland, but to leave the Kingdom in en­tire peace: So the face of things seemed very much [...] changed, but long this tranquility had not lasted before the two Brothers (the first having married his Daughter Rawena to the doting King, who had fal­len in love with her, upon a Complement she passed in drinking to him) gave their Soldiers so much li­berty, that the People found themselves greatly op­pressed, of which reitered Complaints were made and the King used his interest with the Captains [...] to restrain them, but they connived at it, and demand­ed larger Pay, giving out, That they would lay th [...] Kingdom iu Ashes, if it were denyed them; seizing upon sundry Towns and Castles; so that the No­bles perceiving the King blindly carried away by the couns [...]ls of his young Wife, on whom he infinitely doated; they consulted with Vortimer his Son, [...] Prince of great Hope and Courage, when drawi [...] together what Forces they could, without th [...] knowledge of the King, they sell so unexpectedl [...] upon the Saxons, that having overthrown them in [...] [Page 25]bloody Battle, they resolved to drive them out of the Land, which accordingly they did, forcing the re­mainder, with their Captains, to take shipping and be gone.

This defeat, and disappointment, so perplext the Brethren, that gathering greater Forces they came a­gain, coasting the Country in their Ships and Barks, and under pretence of friendship, and desire to have the Daughter with them, they were permitted quiet­ly to Land; but here their treachery appear'd, for it being agreed, that so many of theirs should hold a conference, with a like number of the British Nobles, about setling Affairs, and reconciling the Differences between them and the Saxons, under their long Coats they hid short Swords, & during the Treaty, & upon and watch-word given by Hengest, fell upon the un­armed Nobles, who expected no such matter, killing all but one Earl, who geting a Hedgestake, made his passage through them, and alarumed the Country with the fatal news: And this some Authors affirm to be done upon Salisbury plain, but, however, the No­bles thus dead, the Juits, Angles and Saxons, fell on with Fire and Sword, killing and destroying all that came in their way, carrying a Torrent of Destructi­on from Sea to Sea; so that the poor Britains being utterly disheartned, and destitute of a Head, fled be­fore them like Flocks of timerous Sheep to the Moun­tains and Fastnesses, many of them living in Rocks, Caves and Woods, upon such as Nature afforded them, to avoid the fury of the destroying Enemy, who resolutely bent upon a total Conquest, daily sent over for more of their Companions, who came in swarms, devouring like Locust all the good things of the Land.

Thus the misery of the Britains renewed, and these People began to frame their Government, dividing the Country by Lott into seven Parts or petry King­doms, called from thence, The Hepterchie of the Saxons in this order.

  • 1. Kent.
  • 2. South Saxons.
  • 3. West Saxons.
  • 4. East Saxons.
  • 5. Northumberland.
  • 6. Mercia.
  • 7. East Angles.

These they formed into Kingdoms, striving, as much as in them lay, to exterperate the whole Race of the Britains, and raise themselves in their places: Some may be curious to know the Original of this Transmarine People but Originals of this kind are generally obscure, but Historians conjecture they were a branch of the Sacae an Asian People, who came into Europe to find themselves better Habitations, and planted on the Banks of the Rhine. They were upon their arrival in Britain Idolaters, worshipping a God for every day in the Week, and greatly persecuted those they found to persevere in the Christian Faith: And when they went to Battle, they had certain Songs prepared to invoke the favour of their Deities, and were very unmerciful, for they sacrificed every tenth Captive, and would admit of no Ransom.

The Garments of the Saxons were in the form of a Gassock, clasped over, or pined with wooden Pins their Weapons, bended Swords, with three notches on the back, in the form of a Back-sword, but broader, with fiat sloaping points, and battel Axes, using to try the quarrel of a whole Province, by single Combate, suffering their Virgins to Marry but once; and their Men were forbid plurality of Wives, except they were Noble; and they, only for want of Issue; Adultry they punished were severly.

These People going under the Denominations, o [...] Saxons, Argles, and Jutes, devided the Kingdom, now called England, for King Vort [...]gorn, being (by his In­r [...]ged Subjects) over-whelmed with wildfier in his Ca­stle or Pallace, as the cause of all their Calamities, by g [...]ving (at first) too much way and countenance to th [...] [...], they parted it out as they found themselve [...] [Page 27]in most power or advantage, by birth; and Hengist having leave to take his Lot, chose Kent, and formed it into a Kingdom, Stiling himself the first King of Kent, begining his Reign 455, and Reigned with great success, 34 years; and was succeeded by Esca or Oscia, from whom the Inhabitants were called Eskins, this Prince began his Reign in the year of our Lord 490, and continued it 24 years, giving place to Octa who Reigned 23 years; and was succeeded by Imerick, who somewhat inlarged his Borders, and continued his Reign till 562; and during his time, was held the se­cond General Counsel at Constantinople, for the Esta­blishment of the Church; when by the Pious and Ex­ampler lives, and Preaching of good Men, Christianity, that had been trampled on by the Saxons, began to re­vive in Britain; so that Ethelbert, that succeeded Imerick began to harken to them, and upon the Arri­val of Austine, the Monk, and Forty others with him, sent by Gregory, Bishop of Rome, he was Converted, and Baptized Anno 596. In the 36th year of his Age, and the 4th year of his Reign, giving a general Liber­ty to his Sujects, to Renounce their Paganisme; so that, these good Men (by the Kings Appointment) setling at Canterbury, are reported to Baptize and Con­vert 10003. in a very short time; which prosperous Work, by the Influence of Heaven, soon over-spread the Kingdom, and God, accordingly blessed the King with a Long Reign; for he continued in his Throne 36 years, and then was succeeded by Edbald, who, at first, was averse to the Christians, and for fear of him, Melitus, and Justus fled their Bishopricks, but he being Converted by Laurence, Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, they were recalled; but having Reigned 24 years, he gave place to Ercombert Anno 5 [...]2. This King brought Christianity to be highlier prized than before, turning the Idol Temples, that had been heitherto allowed. into places of True Worship, commanding the first Lent to be kept, that this Kingdom knew; but after a Reign of 24 years he dyed; and was succeeded by Eg­bert [Page 28]his Brother, who basely Murthered Ethelred, and Ethelbert, his two Nephews, Sons to Ercombert, and [...]ast the Dead Bodies into the River Medway; for which (no doubt) his Reign was shorter than any before him for he continued it but 9 years, ending it by Death 666, and was succeeded by Lothaire, who, after holding the Scepter of Kent 11 years, Engageing in a Bloody Wa [...] against Ethelred King of the Mercians, and Edrick, King of the South Saxons, he was shot through with a Dart which put an end to his Life and Reign. In his time a [...] third Counsel was held at Constantinople, being the 6th General Counsel for the Provision and Establishment o [...] the Church; Agathus, being Bishop of Rome and Ede­rick succeeded this Prince, he held not the Scepter long before his Subjects, (upon a disgust) took Arms against him, and slew him in a pitched Field, maintaining themselves against all Opposers, So that the Kingdom lay destitute of a Head, for the space of six years [...] this Kings Reign being the shortest of any, Viz. two years only; but at the end of 6 years, Withred, hi [...] Brother for a great sum of Mony payed to Inas, go [...] the Possession, and Reigned 33 years; and there gave place to Egbert, who began his Reign 727, in his time there appeared two fearful Commets, thaeatning Wars, and Desolation, which afterward Ensued by the falling out of Petty Princes; he Reigned 23 years, and was succeeded by Ethelbert, Anno 750, who held the Throne 11 years, and gave place to Edrick, who lost his Life after a Reign of 34 years, in a fatal Battle at Otteford, against Offa King of the Mercians; and in his time another General Counsel was held at Nice, and consequently the second General Counsel; and then the Kingdom of Kent was Usurped by Ethelbert the third, who (for that cause) being Wared upon by Ken­woolf, he was taken Prisoner, and crrried into Mercia [...] yet he afterward was released, and Reigned 3 years giving, at the end of that time, place to Cuthred, whom Kenwolf, King of the Mercians, Instated in the Thron [...] of Kent: Yet his Reign was short, terminating in the [Page 29]space of three years, and Baldred succeeding him, (after a long dispute with the Mercian King, and 18 years continuance in his Kingdom) was forced to flee, and leave the Possession to the Conqueror; who, about the year 824, made it cease to be any longer a Kingdom, annexing it, (by right of Conquest) to that of Mercia; in which, for the future, we must account it: This Kingdom continued entire 372 years.

Thus fell the Kentish Kingdom, thus bereft
Of all its Grandure, to the Conqueror left;
Its name was swallowed by a greater sway,
Ingulf'd, in what we must call Mercia.

An account of the Kingdom of the South Saxons containing, Sussex and Surry under the Succession of four Kings.

THis parcel of the British Land fell first to E [...] Captain of the Saxons, who brought supplys out of Germany, at their greatest need, Landing at Shoram in S [...]ssex, where he gave barrel to the Britains, and by a great overthrow obliged them to the Woods and Fastnesses, whereupon, sending for more Aid to A [...] ­sure him in his Conquest, he took possession of Sussex and Surry, begining his Reign 488. and continued it 32 years. Then giving place to Cossa, who Reigned, as some will have it 72 years; and to him succeeded Ethels Wolfe, who, after 25 years Reign, was slain by Cadewel, a Banished Prince of the West Saxons; yet be­fore his death, the Christian Religion was tolerated in his Kingdom, himself being Converted by, (as Bede has it) Bishop Willfride, tho' some allow his Conver­sion to Berinus Bishop of Dorchester, however, he was held to be a good Prince; nor did Cadewel long rest in quiet, after his death, for Barthun, and Authun, took up Arms against [...]im, and made him fly the Kingdom, but he returning with a great power, overcame the [Page 30]two Dukes; and after that, it became a part of the West Saxon Kingdom, when it had continued a King­dom 133 years.

Thus set the second Kingdom, or it's Fame;
For from this time, it lost it's ancient Name.

An account of the West Saxon Kingdom, containing Corn­wal, Devonshire, Barkshire, and Hampshire, with the succession of Kings.

THe first that possessed himself of this Kingdom, was Chardick, a low Country German Captain, who entred Britain about the year of our Lord 495. and Killing Nataulcon, a great Prince of the Britains, in a dreadful Battle, he made himself King of the West Saxons, beginning his Reign in 501, and continued it 33 years; at the end of which, he gave place to Ken­rick, who prosecuting the War against the Britains, gave them two great overthrows, at Banbury in Oxfordshire, and Shrewsbury in Wiltshire, whereby they lo­sing Courage, and hopes of Conquest, left him in quiet possession of what his Father had acquired; but after a Reign of 26 years, he was succeeded by Chew­lin, who fought Ethelbert, King of Kent, and defeated his Army at Wimbledon: And this is accounted the first Battle, the Saxons had amongst themselves; he gave likewise a great overthrow to the Britains at Bed­fold, and surprized four of their Towns as Liganburgh, Alisbury, Bensington, and Evesham; and about six years after, he fought the Britains at Durham, and slew Coinmagil, Caudigan, and Farmnagil, three of the Bri­tish Kings; thereupon surprizing Glocester, Bath, and Cirencester; but at length, some Saxons Joyning with the Britains, to Oppose his growing greatness, he was overthrown at Wodensbeoth, and his Son Cuth slain; and thereupon Cearlick, his Nephews, prosecuting the [Page 31]War against him, bereft him of the Kingdom, after [...]e had Reigned 33 years; yet the Nephew held it but [...]x years, before he gave place to Chelwoolf. This [...]rince held the Scepter of the West Saxons Kingdom 14 [...]ears, but being assaulted by the Britains, in confedra­ [...]y with the Scots and Picts, after much trouble and [...]ile, he dyed in the Wars; so that his Kingdom fell [...] Kingil, who gave the Britains Battle at Beandune, [...]nd killed 1046 of them; and the better to strengthen [...]imself, he made peace with Penda, King of the Mar­ [...]ans, and was converted to the Christian Faith, by [...]erinus, to whom he gave Dorchester, as a seat. This King Reigned 31 years over the West Saxons. and [...]hen gave place to Redwald, who was Baptized, and Reigned 13 years; after him Eskwin began his Reign, [...]75. and continued it but two years, being overcome [...]t that time by Wolfere, King of the Mercians, at Bu­ [...]amhford, and most of his people slain, and was succee­ [...]ed in the Kingdom of the West Saxons by Kentwin, who was a greater Persecutor of the poor remnant of [...]he Britains, making them fly into the Rocks and Mountains for shelter and security; but his Reign [...]asted not long, for at the end of 9 years he dyed, and gave place to Cadewalde, who slew Ethelwoolf, King of [...]he South Saxons, and afterward usurped his Kingdom; and being a Heathen, he destroyed many of the Chri­stians, especially the Clergy; but in the end, he was succeeded by Ine, who began his Reign, Anno 688. [...]he brought the South Saxon Kingdom into a province, and had Wars with the Britains and Mercians, and made many wholsom Laws; upon which, many now [...]n force, are founded; he built the Abby of Glassenbury, and went a Pilgrimage to Rome, and there dyed. This was he that gave the Pope the first Peter-pence from England, to be payed on Lammus day; his Reign con­tinued 37 years, and was succeeded by Ethellred, in whose Reign, two dreadful Blazing-Stars appeared; his Reign continued 14 years, and then he gave place to Cuthred, Anno 740. this King made Peace with the [Page 32] Mercians, and Joyning his Force; with them, the cruelly opressed the Britains, but Adelem, an Ea [...] and one of his Subjects, Rebelling against him, h [...] was obliged to give it over, to Defend his Trritories but having Reigned 14 years, he was succeeded b [...] Siges [...]rt. This King caused Cumbra, an Earl of h [...] Counsel, to be slain for reproving his Vices, whic [...] occasioned his Subjects to Rebel, and forced him t [...] shelter himself in a Wood, where he was found, an [...] slain by the Earls Swinheard, when he had Reigned a­bout a year; to whom Kenwoolf succeeded, who Wa [...] ­ed very furiously on the Britains, and gave them gre [...] overthrows; but in the end, himself was overthrow [...] by Offa, King of the Mercians, and there slain, [...] Captain Ciyto, but his Subjects recovered hi [...] Body and revenged his death upon the Captain, and Eighty of his followers. The King thus dead, Brithrick step­ed into the Throne, in whose time divers strange pro­degies, and Phantoms appeared, as well in the Air, a [...] on the Earth; and when he had Reigned without any considerable Action, fell by Poyson, which he took in in a confection, the Queen had prepared for one of hi [...] paramours; whereupon he fled into France, and ther [...] died Miserably, and now this Kingdom began to draw to a Period, or rather to loose it's name, to be joyned with the rest, in a sole Monarchy; for Egbert succeeded Brithrick, Anno 806. as King of the West Saxons, he (after a long War, wherein much blood was spilt) gained an absolute rule over the Seven Kingdoms, mak­ing a strict Law against the Welch, that should dare to venture over Offas Ditch, which he appointed for their Boundard, he slew Bernulph, King of the Mercians in Battle, and drove the King of Kent out of his King­dom, and to his Conquering Arms the East Angles, and East Saxons, likewise submitted, so that finding none oppose him, he caused himself to be Crowned the first sole Saxon Monarch at Winchester, and gave the Coun­try the name of England; and the Danes, (with 33 Ship) Landing in the 14 of his Reign, he gave them [Page 33] [...]attle, but was Obliged to retire with loss; and the [...]ext year (being invited by the Britains) they Landed [...] Wales, against whom he Wared, and was Victorious. This was the 17 King of the West Saxons, that had [...]eigned successively, and began his Reign as sole Mon­ [...]rch, Anno 819, and Reigned 17 years, and in all 36

Thus the divided Kingdom did Unite,
And on one head her Crown shone Dazling bright.

An Account of the East Saxon Kingdom, which contained Essex, and Middlesex, begining Anno 522, and con­tinuing 305 years under the success of 14 Kings.

THe first that we find to Govern the East Saxons, was Erchenwine, who began not his Reign, till Anno 527, and is held continued it Sixty years; and [...]hen gave place to Sladda, who held it only 9 years, when Sebert took upon him the Kingdom; and being Converted to the Christian Faith by Miletus, Bishop of St. Pauls in London, which had been founded by himself, and Ethelbert King of Kent, in the place where [...]he Temple of Diana had stood, restored them their priveledges, and free Exercise of Religion, which had before been denyed them, and Reigned 12 years, noted to be the first Christian King of the East Saxons; Seered succeeded him, Anno, 617. who, contrary to his Pre­decessor, put many Indignities upon the Christians, as Prophaining their Communion-Tables, and Offering to Idols; for which, being reproved be Miletus, he banish­ed that Bishop, and fell heavey upon the rest of the Clergy; but at the end of 6 years, he was slain by King­ [...]ils, King of the West Saxons; and Sigesbert Reigned in this stead, Continuing King of the East Saxons, by the space of 23 years; and after him Reigned Sigebert, whom Oswye, King of the Northumbers, perswaded to be Baptixed, and accordingly it was performed by Bi­shop [Page 34] Finnan; but being of a wild and sordid natur [...] when he had Reigned 15 years, his Brothers Conspir [...] against him, and slew him, and Swith [...]lm succeede [...] Anno 661, who was Converted, and Baptized [...] Bishop Cedda, and Edelwald, King of the East Angl [...] stood his God-Father, but he Reigned only 3 year [...] and then gave place to Sighere; who, after he had bee [...] Baptized, turned Apostate, but brought again to [...] former Principles, by the means of Woolfere, King [...] Mercia; he caused the Idol Temples to be Demolishe [...] and in his time a Raging Plague continued for th [...] space of 5 years: Sebba, succeeded him; but havin [...] Reigned about 30 years, he layed down his Crown as more desirous of a Monastick Life, and entred th [...] Monastery of St. Pauls, London; and Sigherd took up­on him the Government, and Reigned 7 years; A [...] the end of which Seofrid began his Reign, which con­tinued 7 years, as the former; yet in neither of the [...] Reigns, did any thing Memorable happen, nor in the [...] Successor Offa's; for he (when he had held the Scepte [...] of the East Saxons 8 years) went to Rome, and the [...] turned Monk, and dyed in that state: Selred began hi [...] Reign 722, and Reigned 38 years, without any thin [...] Memorable, except His Wars with the Mercians; and leaving Cuthred, (his Successor,) Imbroyled in Trou­bles, Egbert King of the West Saxons, at the end of [...] years, drove him out of his Kingdom: so that, after the Succession of 14 Kings, it was, in the year 872 made a part of the whole, under a sole Monarch.

Thus Heaven, by secret Wheels, Winds on the Fates,
Of Empires, Kingdoms, and of petty States;
Turns all things, as is in Wisdom thought,
That his Decrees be to perfection brought.

An account of the Northumber Kingdom, and Successi­on of Kings.

THe Kingdom of the Northumbers, contained Nor­thumberland, Cumberland, Yorkshire, Durham, [...]ncashire, Westmerland, and some part of the Marches; [...]d began in the year of our Lord 547, continuing 379 [...]ar, but it does not Challenge a Succession of Kings, [...]long; for the number found, are but 25; and of [...]ese in their order.

Ida and Ella took upon them to be Kings of the Nor­ [...]umbers, Conjunctly, Anno 547 and continued 24 [...]ars, but were obliged, (after 15 years of that Term) [...] take in 5 Partners, Viz. Adda, who held it 7 years, [...]appa 5 years, Theodwald 1 year, Frethulf 7 years, [...]odorick 7 years; but of these, some dying, and others [...]ing dispossessed, Ethelfride took place, making great [...]ar upon the Britains, and Subdued Edanaden, King [...] the Scots, whom he Overcame in a great Battle at [...]egsaston, and at Westchester; he slew not only the [...]uldiers of the Britains, but even the Monks, and Re­ligious of all sorts, to the Number of 1100, and Ban­ [...]ed Edwin the British Prince, who fled to Redwold, [...]ing of the East Angles, who, Joyning his Forces with [...]e Britains, they fought against Ethelfride, and slew [...]m, when he had Reigned 33 years; and Edwine was [...]aced in the Kingdom, who, at length, turning Chri­ [...]ian, restrained the Persecutions that had been made in [...]ose parts, against the Church; he was Baptized by [...]aul [...]nus at York, together with many of his Nobles, but Reigned not above 7 years, and then Osrick came to the throne, whose reign was far shorter for, within a year, Waring on the Britains, he was slain by Cadwal, their King, and so made way for [...]swald, who slew Cadewal, a British Prince, but was Overthrown by Penda, the M [...]rcian King; and slain at a place called, from that Mifortune, Oswaltree, when he had Reigned 9 years, [...]nd succeeded by Cswye; this King gave Battle to Of­wine, [Page 36]Prince of the Deirans, at Wilfairs-Downs, wh [...] flying the field, was by one of his confidents delive [...] ­ed up, and put to Death; and altho' Ethelbald, Son [...] Oswald, and Egbert King of the East Angels, Unite [...] their Forces with Penda, King of Mercia, he Ove [...] threw them, near Leads in York-shire, Killing Pe [...] Ethclbald, with 30 Dukes and Leaders, giving tho [...] United Armyes a great Overthrow, and decided th [...] long Controversy about the Celebration of Easter; an [...] founded the Cathedral Church in Litchfield, for a Bisho [...] See: He Reigned 28 years, and was succeeded b [...] Egfride, who, raising a great Power, and Waring upo [...] Ethelred, King of the Mercians, he found not the Su [...] ­cess of his Prodecessor; nor being so contented, [...] made an expedition against the Irish, who then, ( [...] small Barks) perplexed the Coast, but following the [...] too far in the Mountains, he was Intraped by an Am­bushment, and there slain, after he had Reigned [...] years; leaving his Kingdom to Alfride, who, thoug [...] he Reigned 20 years, did nothing of Note, he was su [...] ­ceeded by Osred, who gave himself up to Prodigiou [...] Lusts, Insomuch, that he forced Nuns out of their M [...] ­nasteryes, to satiate himself; and commiting outrage [...] he was at last slain by Kenred, and Oswick, when h [...] had Reigned 9 years; and these alternately succeede [...] him, the one Reigning two years, and the other 11 [...] but we find nothing worthy of note in their Reigns.

This being removed Ceolenuif took the Scepter, bu [...] was more given to devotion than to Rule; insomu [...] that at the Expiration of 8 years, he layed aside his Roy [...] al Robes, for a Monks Habit, making him a Cell in a [...] Holy Island, where he lived a Contemplative Life and in his Reign, two threatning Commets appeared the one before, and the other after, Sun rise and se [...] continuing so to do, for the space of 2 Weeks; A [...] now Egbert took up the Scepter, and having held it 2 [...] years, turned Monk, such was the Superstition of tho [...] times: To conclude, that by so doing they Mer [...] Heaven. Oswulph succeeded Egbert, but his Reign wa [...] [Page 37] [...]hort, and unfortunate; for scarcely had he held it a year, but he was Murthered by his Servant, at the In­ [...]tigation of his Step-Mother, to promote h [...]r own Son [...]t Mick'e Woughton; and Ed [...]lwald took place, but in [...]he 6th year of his Reign, he was slain by A [...]red, who [...]teped thereupon into the Throne; but at 9 years end, [...]or his many Violences, and cruel Dealings, he was, [...]y his Subjects Expeled the Kingdom, and Eth [...]red [...]laced in the Throne; but he being twice deposed for [...]is Misgovernment, was at last slain by his Subjects, [...]nd Alfwald, who succeeded him, after he had Reigned [...]1 years, was Murthered by the Conspiracy of Siga; [...]nd Osred succeeded him, in the year 789, but after a [...]ears Reign, his Subjects Expeled him the Kingdom.

Thus the Northumbers Kingdom Wavering slood,
Sometimes in Peace, some times in War and Blood,
There's nothing stable men, and fortune Change,
Fates unseen Springs, can Monarchys unhinge,
Or make a Kingdom to a Pesant crindge

An Account of the Kingdom of Mercia, or the Midland Kingdom of the Saxons, with the Successon of Kings.

THis Kingdom more large than the rest, contained the Counties of Rutland, Linco [...], H [...]tington, [...]eicester, Derby, Notingham, Oxford, Ch [...]sh [...]re, [...] ­ [...]ire, Gloucestershire, Wor [...]stershire, S [...]ordshire, Becking­ [...]amshire, Warwickshire, Be [...]shire, and [...] [...]nd frequently contend [...]d with the rest; for the sole Monarchy beginning in the year 582, and contin [...] [...]out 292 years under the Succession of 20 King [...]; in [...]der as followeth:

Crida, the first of the Mercian Kings, began his Reign 582; and being a very w [...]lik [...]. Prince, had gr [...]sped larger part of the Island than the rest, holding it [Page 38]with so hard a hand, that nothing could be taken from him, during his Reign of 12 years. Wibba succeeded him in the Throne, who greatly perplexed the Bri­tains, and incroached upon the Neighbour Saxons [...] But when he had reigned 20 years he dyed, and Ceorle took place, but did nothing of moment: Hi [...] Reign lasted only ten years, when P [...]nda the Great and Warlike King of the Mercians, came to the Throne, who slew in a pitch'd Field Edwin and Os­wald, Kings of Northumberland; Sigesbert, Egfrid and Ema, Kings of the East-Angles; and Expulsed Red [...] ­wald, King of the West Saxons, out of his Countries [...] But Fortune not always favouring, he in a Battle a­gainst Oswye, King of the Northumbers, ventering t [...] far upon his late Success, was there slain, when he ha [...] reigned about 32 years.

This great King thus disasterously fallen, Penda [...] Wenda took upon him the Government, and becam [...] the first Christian King of Mercia: But being young and his Step-Mother desirous to prefer her own So [...] conspired with some of his Nobles against him, an [...] procured him to be murthered in the Third year o [...] his Reign, but missed her aim; for Wolfere, a secon [...] Brother, was placed in the Throne: This Prin [...] conquer'd the West Saxons, won the Isle of Wigl [...] and gave it to the King of the South Saxons; an [...] altho he, before his Conversion, had caused his tw [...] Sons to be put to death, for suffering themselves [...] be Baptized, he becoming a Christian, greatly [...] mented that Cruelty, and caused the Heathen Tem­ples to be converted to the Worship of God, and held to found the Abby Church of Peterborough: Y [...] he reigned but Four years, being the Seventh pet [...] Monarch of the Mercians. Ethelred succeed him [...] the Throne, and warred upon the King of Kent wi [...] great fury, insomuch, that Blood was shed like W [...] ­ter; nor did the Churches, or Abbies, escape his Rag [...] putting W [...]lfridus out of his Bishoprick of Northum­berlan [...]: But at last he resigned his Crown to Kenr [...] [Page 39]his Nephew, from whom he had unjustly detained it, and structen with remorse for the Blood he had shed; [...]e turned Monk, and dyed in that state; his Reign, however, continued 29 years, and in that space two [...]lazing Stars appeared.

Ke [...]red coming to the Throne, held the Scepter of [...]he Mercian Kingdom in much peace Four years, and [...]hen falling into a Melancholly, he coveted a Mona­ [...]tical Life, & resigning the Crown to his Cousin Chelred: He went to Rome with Offa, King of the East Saxons, [...]nd Edwin, Bishop of Winchester, and there dyed a Monk. Chelred succeeding Ki [...]red, found a trouble­ [...]ome Reign, for he was fiercely warred upon by In [...]s, King of the West Saxons, who greatly envyed him: [...]o large a Kingdom his Reign continued Seven years, [...]& he was succeeded by Ethelbald, who greatly perplexed [...]he Northumbers, by making Incursions into their Country, which occasioned C [...]thred, King of the West [...]axons, to give him Battle, and overthrew him at [...]urford: But ingaging him a second time, Ethelbald [...]o dealt with the West Saxon Soldiers, that they slew [...]heir Master near Tamworth in Warwickshire. This King founded the Monastery of Crowland, and reigned over the Mercian Kingdom Eleven years, and then gave [...]lace to Offa, who warred upon [...]rick, King of Kent, [...]nd slew him at Ottef [...]rd and so marching from South [...]o North, brought all in subjection, as he passed, over­ [...]rowing Kenwolf, and his West Saxons, near Merton; [...]nd made a Ditch of prodigeous length and breadth [...]o be cast up, to hinder the Incursions of the Welsh [...]ritains, who presuming to throw a part of it down, [...]e entered their Territories with Fire and Sword, [...]ew Marmodius their King, and all his Associetes; [...]nd the Danes landing in his time, were beat back [...]ith great slaughter: He it was that procured, at [...]reat cost, the Canonization of Alban, the Proto [...]artyr of this Kingdom, and built a Monastry in the Town of that Name, giving a Tenth part of his [...]oods to the Church-men and Poor, as an Expiation [Page 40]for the Blood he had shed: He began his Reign, An [...] 758, and continued it 39 years. Egfrid succeeded thi [...] great King, and being of a Pious Inclination, he re­stored the Church to all her Antient Priviledges, o [...] which his Father had deprived her; but his Reign wa [...] short, for it exceeded not four Months.

Kenwolf succeeded this good Prince, and began hi [...] Reign with a War against Kent, whose King he mad [...] Prisoner, and gave his Kingdom to Cuthred; but at th [...] Dedication of his new Church at Winchcomb, he re­stored his Royal Prisoner to Liberty; and in hi [...] 22 years Reign did many great Exploits, and wa [...] succeeded by Kenelem: But this Prince was unfortunat [...] in his Youth, for having discovered some close In­treagues between his Tutor and Quindride his Sister the latter to prevent his reproofs, caused the forme [...] to Murther him, when he had Reigned about thre [...] Months; and Cleolwolf, who succeeded him, reigne [...] but a year before he was Expulsed his Kingdom by his Subjects, at the Instigation of Bernulf, who ther [...] upon stepped into the Throne; but being warred up­on by the West Saxons, and East Angles, he was slai [...] in Battle the Third year of his Reign, Anno 831; an [...] Ludecan, who succeeded him, felt the like Fate i [...] the Second year of his Reign, from Egbert the We [...] Saxon, in Conjunction with the East Angles. Witl [...] the next King of the Mercians, was overcome [...] Egbert, and forced to flee his Kingdom, in the Thir [...] year of his Reign. And now the Danes began to pe [...] plex the Coast, having an Eye to the Conquest [...] Britain, so that they drove Berthulf, who succeede [...] W [...]laf, out of the Mercian Kingdom, in the Thir­teenth year of his Reign: And although Brudre [...] got the Possession of it, Anno 852, yet they kept hi [...] in continual Alarums; and, notwithstanding, at fi [...] he was Victorious over them, yet they returning wit [...] greater Force, he was forced to quit the Kingdom when he had reigned about Twenty years, and w [...] the last of the Saxon petty Monarchs in this Kingdo [...] of Mercia.

Thus Kingdoms tost by fickle Fortune's hand,
Must Rise and Fall, yet ne'er are at a stand:
Great things oppress themselves with their own weight,
And still must yeild to the Decrees of Fate.

An Account of the Kingdom of the East Angles, with their Succession of Kings, &c.

THis Kingdom, so named from the Angles that claimed it for their Portion, contained Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, and the Isle of Ely, and took up­on it the form of a Kingdom, Anno 373, continuing [...]53 years, and had the Succession of Fifteen Kings, of whom in their order.

Uffa was the first King of the East Angles, who [...]etled and founded the Kingdom, but was in his be­ginning very much opposed by the British Princes: He Reigned Seven years, and gave place by Death to Titulus, who Reigned a longer time; for some Au­thors will have it, that he held the Scepter of this Kingdom about 32 years. Redwald succeeded him, [...]nd altho, upon his coming to the Throne, he was a Christian, he turned Idolater, he assisted Edwin to gain the Crown of Northumberland, by slaying Ethel­ [...]ride in Battle, and reigned over the Angles 8 years; Expenwald succeeded him. This King professed Chri­ [...]tianity, and not being well setled in his Kingdom [...]ne Richebert conspired against him, and slew him, when he had reigned Twelve years: And Sigebert suc­ceeded him, being a younger Son of Redwald; but being given up to a devout Life, he after two years Reign, resigned his Kingdom, and turned Monk: But that place could not secure his Life, for he was [...]lain by Penda. Egrick, upon the resignation, took up the Scepter, yet he reigned but four years, before Penda overcome his Country, and slew him in Battle. [Page 42] Anna succeeded him, but after a Twelve years Reign [...] Penda, who was a mortal Enemy to the Angles, cam [...] again, overcome and slew him.

Upon the unfortunate falls of these last Kings, E [...] ­theibert got into the Throne, as a favourite of Penda's but he had not reigned about Two years, when O [...] ­win, King of the Northcumbers slew him in Battle, fo [...] taking part with Penda against him: And Edelwa [...] succeeded in the Throne, yet he reigned only Eigh [...] year [...] before he gave place to Aldu [...], who reigne [...] Nineteen years, and then E [...]swo [...]f succeeded in a Reig [...] of Seven years. Beorn reigned after him Twenty fo [...] years, and then gave place to Ethelred, who reigne [...] Thirty five year [...], yet there is nothing memorably re­corded of their Actions. And now these petty King­doms growing to a period, Ethe [...]bert began his Reign [...] but having displeased the bloody Quindride, Wife t [...] Offa King of the Mercians, she prevailed with he [...] Husband to send for him, under pretence of givin [...] him one of his Daughters in Marriage; but having got him in her power, she caused him to be put t [...] death, when he had reigned Forty five years, an [...] was succeeded by Edmund, in whose time the Danes cam [...] over in great numbers, burning and destroying before them; insomuch, that the King was obliged to shu [...] himself up in Framingham Castle, and after a lon [...] Seige surrendred it: But the Pagan Danes, not regard­ing their Faith, having stripped the poor King, fin [...] beat him with C [...]dgels, then scourged him, and afte [...] that, tying him to a Stake, shot him to death with Arrows, whilst with much Patience and Devotion he suffered the usage, calling upon the name of Jesu [...] and recommending his Soul to his Redeemer; th [...] years of his Reign are doubtfully mention'd, how­ever he began to Reign over the East. Angles, An [...] 794; he was afterwards cannonized a Saint, and th [...] Town of St. Edmunds-bury still remains in remem­brance of him.

Thus you the Saxon Hepterchie may view,
How first it rise, and to a period drew,
To rise more glorious in what does eus [...]e.

The Saxon Government, under sole Monarchs, with the Succession if Kings, their Reigns and Actions.

THe Hepterchie of the Saxons appearing very trou­blesome in their continual Wars amongst them­selves, and those of the Danes and British Princes, who still held out, the chief of the last that [...]pposed them, during their petty Kingdoms, were [...]ortimer, Son of Vortinger, who reigned Four years; Aurelius Ambrosius, who reigned Thirty two years; [...]ter Pendragon his Brother, who reigned Eighteen [...]ears; Arthure, of whom the Monks, have created so [...]any Fables, that the truth of his Actions are doubt­ful, who reigned Twenty six years; Constantine, Son [...]f Cador, Duke of Cornwal, and Cousin to Arthur, who [...]eigned Three years; Aurelius Conatus, who reigned Thirty three years; Vortiporus, who reigned Three [...]ears; Malgo Cononus, who reigned Five years; Care­ [...]cus, who reigned Three years; Cadwan, who reigned Twenty two years; Gadwallo his Son, who reigned forty eight years, and Cadwallader, who reigned [...]leven years: These were the Chief, of the British Princes, who opposed the Saxons, and held [...]eir Kingdom for the most part, in Wales and the Marches, giving them, at sundry times, many notable [...]verthrows, disputing their Country with the Inva­ [...]ers, till their Power was wasted, and the remainder of [...]heir People compelled to betake themselves to the Mountains and Fastnesses. Egberts's Fortune prevail­ [...]ng he united the seven Kingdoms into one, and be­ [...]ame the first sole Saxon Monarch, causing himself to [...]e crowned at Winchesier, giving the whole Country [Page 44]the Name of England, and the People the Epethit [...] of English. In the Fourteen year of his Reign, th [...] Danes with thirty three Ships landed in England, t [...] whom he gave battle with such Forces, as on the sud­den could be raised, but was worsted, loosing two Dukes, two Bishops, and most of the Common Sol­diers, he hardly escaping the Field, yet afterwards th [...] Danes were driven to their Country; but not so much discouraged, as to hinder their landing in Wales th [...] next year, and there they joyned the poor remainde [...] of the Britains: But the King being aware, had more time to draw his Forces together, when giving then battle, he overthrew both parties; yet not long after th [...] Danes sacked the Isle of Shippy, and were not with out much slaughter expelled.

This was the Seventeenth King of the West Saxon [...] and First sole Monarch of England, beginning h [...] Reign as Monarch 819, and reigned Seventeen year [...] much improving and increasing the welfare of th [...] Kingdom.

Ethelwolf the Second sole Monarch, eldest Son [...] Egbert, began his Reign, Anno 837, and was in h [...] Fathers time Bishop of Winchester: But being in [...] manner constrained to take upon him the Govern­ment, he resigned his Bishoprick to Swith [...]n his Tut [...] and gave a great overthrow to the Danes at Ocl [...] freeing the Church Lands from all Trib [...]tes and R [...] ­gal Services; and going to Rome, at the Bishop's pe [...] ­swasion, he confirmed Peter-pence, and setled a yea [...] ­ly Pension of Three hundred Marks upon the R [...] man See, and continued his Reign about Twen [...] years.

Ethelbald succeeded Ethelwolf, being his eldest S [...] by his Wife Osburge, who was his Butlers Daughte [...] [...] his Valiant Actions sufficiently appeared against t [...] Danes in his Fathers Reign; but that which bloted [...] great Actions was his Marrying Judith, Danghter [...] the French King, and his Mother-in-law: But [...] reigned only two years, and was the Third sole M [...] ­narch of the English Men.

Ethelbert, the second Son to Ethelwofe, succeeded [...]is Brother, Anno 860, he was continually alarumed [...]y the Danes, who finding the pleasantness of the [...]ingdom, compared with their Rocky Land, came in warms, sometimes landing in one place, and some­ [...]mes in another, and destroyed W [...]nchester; but the [...]ople gathering in great numbers, and falling upon [...]em before they could recover their Ships, most of [...]em were slain: He reigned Five years, and then [...]ave place to

Ethelred, in whose Reign the Danes and Norwig­ [...]ans got more and more footing, and being Pagans, [...]ed all manner of Rapin and Violence, deslowring Virgins, and ravishing Women, not sparing the Veiled Nun, but destroyed the Abbies and Mona­ [...]eries; so that to save their Chastity, by the advice [...]f their Abbess, the Nuns of Codingham Monastery [...]ut off their Noses and upper Lips, to render them­ [...]elves deformed, and that the frightful spectacle might [...]ay the Lusts of the inslamed Danes; but it prevailed [...]ot, for the Monsters having first deflowred them, [...]ut them to the Sword, and set the House on fire, [...]nd so proceeded under the leading of Hungar and Hub­ [...]a, their Commanders in chief, to burn the City of [...]ork, committing extraordinary Outrages and Vio­ [...]ences: But Ethelred at length gave them a great over­ [...]hrow slaying one of their Dukes, or petty Kings, with nine Earls, and a great many common Soldiers: [...]ut about eighteen days after, being recruited with [...]sh Forces, they put the King to slight at Basing, [...]nd about two Months after wounded, and overthrew [...]im at Merton, of which wound he dyed, when he had [...]eigned about Six years; and was succeeded by

Elfride, fourth Son to Ethelwolf, who fought seven Battles with various success against the Danes; for in [...]is time they sorely oppressed the Land, insomuch [...]hat the High-ways were unfrequented, and the Ground [...]n most places Untilled, and the King himself obliged [...]o flee into Woods, and Desart places, but in the end, [Page 46]weary of that solitude, he put himself in the Hab [...] of a Musician, under which disguise he discovered t [...] sluggish security of the Danes in their Camp, whe [...] upon secretly rallying his scattered People, he su [...] ­prised them in that manner, killing a great number [...] them, and taking their Standard: And more Da [...] attempting to land in Devonshire under Halden th [...] Captain, the people rise generally in Arms, and falli [...] upon them near Exeter, kill'd the Captain, and 8 [...] of his Followers. This King caused all Thieves to banished, and divided the Kingdom into Shires, Hundred and Tythings, he founded the first common Scho [...] in Oxford, which is now called University Colledg [...] and continued his Reign Twenty nine years.

Edward, the Eldest Son of Elfride succeeded him and began his Reign 901, when soon after he came [...] the Throne, his Nephew Ethelwald stirred up [...] Subjects to rebel against him, but they were quiet [...] without much trouble; yet the Danes were still [...] possession of one part of the Country, which ma [...] the King build a strong Castle at Hartford, and mar [...] against them, when at St. Edmuns Ditch he gave the [...] Battle, but prevailed not, however, in that Mort [...] Battle two of their Kings, viz. Ethelwald and Croc [...] ­cus were slain: And soon after he gave them anoth [...] Battle at Wodesfield with a great overthrow, killi [...] two other of their Kings, and two Earls, with abo [...] 4000 Common Soldiers: He reigned Twenty fo [...] years and gave place to

Etheistance, who began his Reign 923; his Subject upon his coming to the Crown, rose in Mutine unde [...] Elfrede a Norman, but the Ring-leader taken, and se [...] to purge himself, they were quieted; yet he was [...] jealous of his Brother Edwin, that he consented [...] his being murthered, which created in him such remorse, that he caused his Murtherers to be put [...] death, and had like, soon after, to have been slain [...] his Tent by one Anlafe a Dane, but by a lucky r [...] ­moval he escaped, and a Bishop, who had pitched [...] [Page 47] [...]ent on the same Ground, was assaulted and slain. [...]fter he had killed many of the Danes with his own [...]nd, as well Nobles as Plebeans, and having [...]yed their fury, he had leisure to pass into Scotland [...]th a powerful. Army, and brought that Kingdom [...]o subjection: But upon his return, he found the [...]nes had strengthened themselves, yet he routed them [...]ar VVinchester, and in this contest, it is reported, Guy [...]rl of VVarwick sought with Colbron, the Danish Gi­ [...]t of mighty seize, and slew him hand to hand, as [...]e Kings Champion in single Combat; and so far read the fame of this King, that Historians report [...]ut with what credit I know not) that Hugh King [...] France, greatly desirous of his friendship, sent him [...]e Sword of Constantine the Great, which had in its [...]ile one of the Nails that fastened Christ to the Cross; likewise his Spear, which was that with which Lo [...] ­ [...]us peirced his side with a piece of the Thorny Crown [...] wore, that Otho the Emperor sent him a Landskip [...] with precious Stones, and the King of Norway a [...]ip with guilt Decks, and Purple Sails, he reigned [...]een years, and was the Eldest Son to King Ed­ [...]d.

Edmund the fifth Son of King Edward, succeeded his [...]other Anno 940. he fought sundry Battels with vari­ [...]s success against the Danes, and his Son Dunmail re­ [...]lling against him, he caused his Eyes to be put out; [...] was Crowned at Kingstone upon Thames, his picture [...] memory of it being still preserved in the Church [...]ith many other [...], his Successors he made many whol­ [...]m Laws, but interposing, as some Authors have it, [...]tween two Deuelists, he was unfortunately run [...]rough after he had reigned six years.

Edred succeeding Edmund Anno 946. the Danes be­ [...]n to gather courage not without being privately a­ [...]mated by some treacherous English, and amongst [...]em Weelstan Arch-Bishop of York; so that [...] the [...] caused himself to be Crowned King of Northum­ [...]rland, against whom Edred marched with a great [Page 48]Army, but had the Rear of it surprised by the underhand dealing of Woelstan; however, he made his party good, put the Danes to the rout, and returned with victory. He made St. Germans in Cornwal a Bi­shops See, which was by Canute the Dane translated to Credington, and at last setled at Exeter by Edmund the Confessor, where [...]it at present remains. This Edred was Tenth sole Monarch of England, and reign­ed Nine years.

Edwy succeeded Edred, Anno 955, and was crown­ed at Kingston upon Thames, where it is repoted he committed Adultery with a great Lady, his near Kins­woman, in the sight of his Nobles, and afterwards caused her Husband to be slain, that he might more freely enjoy her: He thrust out the Monks, and put married Priests in the places of those that affected a single Life; Banished Dunstan, who is now stiled a Saint, and the same that is reported to have taken a shee Devil by the Nose, with a pair of Tongues, for disturbing him at his Forge. These things turned the Peoples Affections against the King, to a degree of lay­ing him aside, and swearing Fealty to Edgar, which made him pine to death, after he had Rul'd Four years, and was buried in the New Abby Church at Winchester.

Edgar began his Reign, Anno 159, he recalled Dun­stan, and outed the married Priests, making a Penalty against Drunkenness; and the Land at that time be­ing pestered with Wolves, he laid a yearly Tribute of three hundred Wolves Heads upon the Prince of Wales, and upon the Noble-men and Free-holders, ac­cording to the largeness of their Possessions, so that in a few years they were all destroyed: He made it his business once a year, to ride the Circuit of his King­dom, to inquire of Abuses done by his Judges in Il­legal Actings, or those that were done by private Persons one to another, inflicting severe punishments on such as he found tardy; yet he have himself up to prodigeous Lust, insomuch, that casting his Eyes [Page 49]upon any Women he liked, he would have his satis­faction by fair means or force; and killed Ethelwald an Earl, and one of his principal Courtiers with a Spear, as he was hunting in the Forest, because he had marri­ed a beauteous Lady, Daughter to Duke Orgarus, when he had sent him to fetch her for his own use, and then took her to Wife: He deflowred a Nun, called Wolfe­child, and got on her a hopeful Brat, which was after­wards Sainted by the name of Edith; and afterwards another Nun, called Ethelflede, on whom he begot his Son Edward, who succeeded him; he had peace, except a little bickering with the Welsh, all his Reign, feared a broad and at home, having the greatest Navy of any King before him, some Authors reporting it consisted of Three thousand Ships: He was crown'd at King­ston upon Thames by Otho, Archbishop of Canterbury, and reigned sixteen years.

Edward, the Thirteenth sole Monarch of England, began his Reign, Anno 975, and was usher'd in by a Famine and a Blazing Star, with great contentions be­tween the Monks and Married Priests: Dunstan taking taking part with the former, and Duke Alfarus with the latter, and meeting to Dispute in an upper Room, the press being great, the Flour fell down, and many were wounded, only Dunstan's Chair stood fixed upon a Post, which gave such credit to the Monks, who without doubt had contrived the sinking of the Four, as ap­peared by the Chair, being fixed, that they gained the point, and the Married Priests were turned out, suffering great necessity, no Man daring to entertain or relieve them: Soon after this, the King going a Hunting, and being near the Castle of Queen Elfreda, his Mother­in-Law, he separated from his Company, and went to pay her, and her Son, a visit: But the treacherous Queen to advance her own, caused one of her Ser­vants to stab him in the Back, whilst he was drinking on Horseback at her Gate; whereupon turning his Horse he fled the farther Treachery, but not finding his retinue, he through loss [...] of blood fainted, and fal­ling [Page 50]in the next Wood, expired when he had reigned four Years.

Ethelred the Son of Edgar, and Elfreda succeeded Edward, who for his slowness in Affairs, was Nick-na­med, The Unready; he was Crowned at Kingstone upon Thames, the ordinary Seat of the Saxon Monarchs, and upon his Coronation day a Cloud was seen throughout England, half resembling Blood, and half Fire; and in the third year of his Reign, the Danes Landed in divers parts of this Kingdom, committing great Out­rages, and much about the same time, a great part of London was laid in Ashes. The King not being able to oppose the Torrent of the Danish power, compound­ed a Peace for 10000 Pounds a Year; but finding their Advantage, they soon raised it to 40000 l which [...] heavy upon the Nation, and was called Danes Guilt, o [...] Danes Money, nor did this suffice them, but they pilla­ged, and ravag'd the Country so extreamly, that the King to free his Sublects from the Oppressions they groaned under, gave them private notice on St. Brices day to fall upon the Danes in all the Cities and Towns where they quartered, which was done with so much secresie, that most of them were cut off, this being done on the 13 of November, Anno 1002. the News flew into Denmark, whereupon new swarms came over, under the Leading of Swanus, who destroyed all before them with Fire and Sword, in such a terrible manner, that the People fled to the Woods, and Mountains, and although the King bought his Peace at the price of 30000 Pounds, yet not long after they flew 900 Monks and such as were of Religious Orders in Canterbury, and having gotten a great sum of Money from the Arch­bishop Aphegus for his Ransom, they notwithstanding ston [...]d him at Greenwich, so that the King perceiving their treachery, and cruel dealing, and that he was no ways capable of opposing their fury, he sent Emma his wise with her two Sons, to her Brother Richard Duke of [...]mandy, and soon after left the Kingdom to follow them, but Swanus being stabbed by his own Me [...], and [Page 51] Canutus his Son set up in his stead. Ethelred returned, but finding many Treasonable Designs carried on a­gainst him by Edricus one of his Dukes, and a power­ful Enemy in the Land which he was no ways able to oppose, he died for grief when he had Reigned thirty seven years, and was the fourteenth sole Monarch of England.

Edmund the Eldest Son of Ethelred Sirnamed Ironside, succeeded him Anno 1016. and was Crowned at King­stone upon Thames, by Livingus Arch-bishop of Can­terbury, though Canute then Reigned as King at South­ampton. This Edmund gave the Danes many Battels, and being of a hardy and couragious temper, he great­ [...]y raised the drooping hearts of his Subjects, raising the Siege of London, and worsting their Army four times in open fight, so that Canute having Challenged him to a single Duel, for the Kingdom he loyfully accepted the offer, so that going into an Island called Alney near Glocester, they fought valiantly, but Canute find­ing himself over matched, and having received some dangerous Wounds, he desired a Parly, which being granted, he said, What should move us, most Valiant Prince, that for the obtaining of a Title we should thus indanger our Lives, better it were to lay Malice and Wea­pons aside, and to condescend to a Loving Agreement: Let us now therefore become sworn Brothers, and divide the Kingdom between us, in such League of Amity, that each may use the other as his own, so shall the Land be peaceably governed, and we joyfully assist each other in necessity.

Upon these words, they threw down their Arms, and embraced as Friends in the fight of both Armys, so that the Kingdom being divided, Edmund had the South, and Canute the North; but in a while after, Edrick the Treacherous Duke, who had betrayed the Councels of Edmund, thinking to ingratiate himself with the Danes, run a Spear into the Body of the King as he was easing himself, and having by that means killed him, he cut off his Head, and hastening with i [...] to Canute, he cryed, Hallsole Monarch of England, be­hold [Page 52]the Head of thy Copartner; upon which Canute pro­mised to advance him above all the Nobles of England, but whilst the Traytor was big with expectation of ho­nour and preferment he caused him to be Arrested, and cutting off his Head fixed it on the Tower, advancing him in that sense as he deserved. This Edmund was Third Son of Ethelfrid, and Fifteenth sole Monarch, his Reign exceeded not a year.

Thus the Great Saxon Monarchy did yield,
And with her slaughtered King gave up the Field,
To the Blood-thirsty Danes but three short Reigns,
Bring back the Saxons and expire the Danes.

The Danish Monarchy over England, and what remarka­bly happened in the Reigns of the three Danish Kings, &c.

THe Original of the Danes as indeed all Originals is variously reported by Historians, some will have that People derived from the Scythians, and others from Scandia an Island Northward, however when they Invaded England, they were populous, as it ap­pears by their continual repairing the great numbers they lost for their first Invasion, was in the year of our Lord 787, and were about 230 years before they gain­ed the sole Monarchy. They were as to their Religion Pagans.

Canute their first sole Monarch was Crowned at London, by Livingus Arch-bishop of Canterbury, Anno 1017. he upon his coming to the Crown Banished Edwin Son of Ethelred, and sent Edward and Edmund, the two Sons of Eumund Ironside to his Brother then King of Sweed [...]n, to be made away, and proceeded to Mary Queen Emma, who had been Wife to King Ethel­red, and was Sister to the Duke of Normandy, upon con­dition the Heir gotten on her Body should succeed [Page 53]him in the English Throne, upon which he assembled the Peers in Parliament at Oxford, and there made ma­ny good Laws, establishing the Christian Religion, in­joyning that all decent Ceremonies tending to Devoti­on and D [...]vine Worship, should be observed with reve­rence, that the Lords day should be kept holy, and a Clergyman that should kill a Layman, or be found guilty of any other notorious Crime, should be depri­ved of his Order and Dignity. A married Woman committing Adultery, to have her Nose and Ears cut off, and a Widow marrying within a Twelvemonth to loose her Joynter, and being great in power both by Sea and Land, some of his Flatterers would needs go about to perswade him, that not only the Earth but the Ocean was obedient to him, and that he might raise or calm it at his pleasure, and he then being at Southampton, to upbraid them caused a Chair to be set on the Sand when the Sea was coming in, and placing himself in it commanded the Sea to retire, and not dare to wet his Garments, but the regardless Waves roaling on, dashed him to that degree, that he was forced to remove when turning to his Parasites he said, You well now perceive all the might and power of Kings is but vanity, for none is wor­thy to have the name of King, but he that keepeth Heaven Earth and Sea in obedience to his Will: And from that time he declined to wear his Crown, causing it to be placed on the Head of Christs Crucified Imageat Win­chester; and gave many large Gifts to the Church and Church-men, building several Churches, and going a Pilgrimage to Rome, procured the taking off the exces­sive Charge the English Arch-bishops were at when they took the Pall. He Reigned eighteen years, and was the 16. sole Monarch of England, being Buried in the old Monastery at Winchester.

Harold succeeded his Father Canute, though he was opposed at his Enterance by Earl Goodwin; he was like­wife Son to Queen Emma, and Crowned at Oxford by Elmothius Arch-bishop of Canterbury, using man [...] D [...] vices to get Edward and Alfr [...]d the two So [...] [Page 54]into his hunds, he decoyed over the latter in his Mo­thers Name, but he landing, in hopes to be joyned with the promised Forces was betrayed by Earl Goodwin, and the King setting upon his small Forces at Guilford, cau­sed them all except every tenth man to be slain, and ta­king. Alfrid alive, he made his Eyes be put out, and fastening one end of his Bowels to a stake, he was pricked round with Ponyards till such time as he had drawn out his Guts, and so died this poor Prince: Nor did he rest here, but proceeded to Banish Queen Emma, and Confiscate her Goods for reproaching him with the Death of her Son. This Harrold was second Son of Canute, and the seventeenth sole Monarch of England; he began his Reign Anno 1036, and Reigned four years, being buried (according to Stow) at West­minster.

Hardicanute succeeded Harrold, being invited over from Denmark, both by the Danes and English, and Crowned at London by Elnoth Arch-bishop of Canter­bury, he caused the Body of Harrold to he digged up, and cutting off the Head threw it into the Thames, but it being found by some Fisher-men, they decently In­terred it in St. Clements-Danes, so called for its being the chief Burial place of the Danes. This King was given much to Eating and Drinking, insomuch, that he cau­sed his Tables to be spread four times a day with all manner of Dainties, and raised a Tax of 32147 pounds to maintain a great Fleet at Sea and in vain Ostentation Earl Goodwin sitted out one with a Golden stern, and Men compleatly armed with guilt Arms and Armour, but the King hearing the Tax was denied, and that Thurston and Feader, two of his Collectors were slain by the people at Worcester, he expulsed the Bishop and burnt the City; but as he was Revelling at a Wedding in Lambeth, he suddenly f [...]ll down dead, when he had reigned about two years: He was third Son of Canute, and the eighteenth sole Monarch, he began his Reign Anno 1040, and was [...] at Win [...]r, and with him fell the D [...]sh Monarchy in England, and the [Page 55] Saxons re-entered to the no small Joy of the peo­ple,

Thus Monarchies and Monarchs rise and fall,
Whilst worldly Pomp is Fortunes Tennis-ball.

The Saxon Monarchy restored, &c.

HArdicanute being dead, Edward the seventh Son of Ethelred by Queen Emma, was sent for out of Normandy, where he had taken Sanctuary during the Danish Monarchy, and Crown'd upon his Arrival at Winchester by Edsine Arch-bishop of Canterbury, Anno 1042. and to gain the greater favour of the people he remitted the Tax of 40000 Pounds a year, which had for 40 years been levyed upon all Lands except those of the Clergy, by the Name of Dane-Guilt, and the bet­ter to settle his Kingdom, he compiled a Body of whol­som Laws from those of the Mercians, West Saxons, and Danes, still known by the Title of Edward the Confes­sor's Laws written in Latin, his Wars were only with the Welsh, Irish, and some Danes, but those very incon­siderable, yet Earl Goodwin being very powerful, joyn­ed with his Sons against him, and in January a very deep Snow falling, which covered the Earth, till the middle of March, the Cattle, and Fowls of the Air were starved in abundance, and the Summer produced Lightnings that burnt up the Corn, whereupon a Fa­mine ensued, and the King (at the Instigation of Good­win, and Robert Arch-bishop of Canterbury, seized up­on his Mothers Jewels, and committed her Prisoner to the Abbey of Warwick, putting her to undergo the Law Ordalium, which is to pass over nine hot Plow­shares with naked feet, and blindfold, laid about a yard asunder, which she did without touching them before [Page 56]she knew she was come to the place; so that a recon­ciliation hereupon ensued, and this manner of tryal was by way of Purgation for such as were suspected of Incontinency, he Imprisoned her for Marrying Canute and not assisting him and his Brothers in their Extre­mity.

In this Kings Reign a great Earth-quake happened, and Earl Goodwin was choaked at the King's Table with a piece of Bread, which he wished might choak him if he had any hand in the Death of Alfrid the Kings Brother. He is accounted the first King that ever Cured the King's-Evil, he Marry'd Edith Daughter to Goodwin, a very Beautiful Lady, but had no Children by her, be­ing reported never to have Carnally known her, and seeing a needy Courtier come into his Chamber one Morning as he lay in Bed with the Curtains drawn, and take as much Money out of his Coffer as he could car­ry, he suffered it without speaking, but upon his third coming he reproved him of Covetousness, charging him to be gone, for if Hugoline his Treasurer should come and seize him in the Fact, he would be sure to stretch for it, and scarce was he gone when the Treasu­aer, who had casually left open the Coffer, came, and appeared in a great Consternation at the loss; but the King bid him not trouble himself, for he that took it had most need of it: And lying soon after upon his Death-Bed, perceiving those that stood about him to weep, he said, If you loved me you would not weep, but rejeyce because I go to my Father, with whom I shall receive the Joys promised to the Faithful, not through my merite, but the free mercy of my Saviour, who sheweth mercy on whom he pleases. And giving up the Ghost he was bu­ried at Westminster, when he had Reigned 20 Years and 6 Months, and 27 Days; he rebuilt St. Peter's West­minster, and St. Margret's Church; made the first Great Seal, and was the 19 sole Monarch of England, called the Confessor.

Harrold Son to Earl Goodwin, and Sitha his Wife Si­ster to Swain the younger King of Denmark, was upon the Death of King Edward taken for King, though he waved the Ceremony of this Coronation; and to ingra­tiate himself with the People, lightened the Texes and Behaved himself Courteous and Affable to all Men, but he had not long held the Regal Dignity, before Willi­am Duke of Normandy sent to put him in mind of his Oath, which was made during his Imprisonment in Normandy, whether in the time of King Edward he had been driven by stress of weather, importing, that when ever Edward died he should secure the Kingdom for the Norman Duke; but Harrold urging what he then did was by constraint, and that he conceived himself not obliged to stand to it: The Duke prepared to Invade the Kingdom, at which time a Dreadful Commet ap­peared, denouncing the Woes and Miseries that ensued, for before the Normans arrived, a great number of Danes and Norwigeans landed in the North under the Leading of Testo and Harrold Harfrager King of Den­mark, and spoiling the Country before them, marched to York, which constrained the King to draw out his Army, but being about to pass Stamford-bridge, built over the River Derwent, his Forces were stopped by a single Dane of Gigantick stature and strength, and forty of his Men killed in attempting to remove him, but in the end, a Soldier getting under the Bridge in a Boat, run his Spear through a Creuis, and by that means kil­led him, so that the Bridge gained the King gave Bat­tle, and overthrew the Enemy with great slaughter, killing the Danish King and Tosto his Brother, and Olave the Kings Son, with Paul Earl of Orkney, were taken Prisoners, however they upon earnest supplication were suffered to depart the Kingdom in the ships that brought them, with the heavy news of their loss, but the King had scarce time to consider his advantage be­fore he had News that William Duke of Normandy was Landed with 50000 Men at Pevensey in Sussex on the eigth of September 1066, and fired his Fleet, to put his [Page 58]Soldiers out of hopes of return, which made Harrold hasten to oppose him, who by this time had sent a Messenger to London to demand the Kingdom, but they dismissed him with Threats, and although the Duke to prevent the effusion of more blood, proffered to fight hand to hand yet the King refused it, saying, It should be tried by more Swords than one: Whereupon the Armys advancing pitched in a large Plain, and from thence the King sent Spies into the Dukes Camp, who being taken were lead from Rank to Rank, and made to take a perfect survey of the Army, and so dis­missed.

The 14th of October 1366, being come, the Armys drew out, and faced each other, till the Trumpets sounded the Charge, when at the first Encounter the Normans were forced to give ground and retire in disor­der, which the English perceiving, and thinking the Battle won carelesly disranked to pursue them, which they perceiving and taking that advantage rallied and changed the face of Fortune, for the Normans entering the loose squadrons, overwhelmed the English with showers of Arrows, so that all was turned to Confusi­on; and although they perceived their error too late, and casting themselves into a Ring stood to it manfully, yet the King as he was rallying them being slain with an Arrow that pierced his Brain, as likewise his two Brothers Leofin and Grith, with most of the English No­bles, and 97974 Soldiers, the rest threw down their Arms, ond submitted to the Conquerer, who from that time took upon him the Kingdom. This Harrold began his Reign, Anno 1065, and Reigned about 9 Months and 9 Days, and was buried at Waltham in Essex.

Thus Fortunes fickle wheel still turning round,
Does raise to Greatness, and again confound.

The Reigns of the Kings of the Norman Race, and first of William (usually called) the Conqueror.

THe Normans knew not their own true Original, but found themselves a mixed People, composed of Norwigeans, Sweeds, and Danes, taking their deno­mination from that Northern Climate anciently called Cimbrica Chersonesus and Norway, but the Country be­ing supposed too little for the people, they drew out their Collonies, and sent them abroad under divers Captains, to seek their Fortunes, in planting a more advantageous soil, and having made many descents up­on the Coasts of Belgia, Frizia, England, and Ireland, under Rollo their Captain a Noble Norman; they pitch­ed upon this Nation, and had great Wars with the Saxon Monarchs, till such time as Rollo in a Dream fan­cying himself upon the highest Hill in France, perceived beneath him a most pleasant Country, and that a River stowing from his seat watered it, whilst little Birds with red Breasts run to drink at the stream and sung melodiously about him. This being Interpreted by a Monk, That it was the will of Heaven he should go over, and settle himself in that part of France, he fancied himself to be in; and that there he should be victorious.

Whether this Interpretation was seigned by the Monk, to be rid of so powerful an Enemy, or by se­cret Devination revealed to him, we determine not; however it wrought so powerful with Rollo, that he drew his Forces out of England, and passing into France, during the Reign of Chales the Simple, with continual Wars so far indangered that Kingdom, that the King was constrained to make an Alliance with him at no less a rate than giving him his Daughter Gilla in Marriage, with the Dutchy of Normandy in Dow [...]. [Page 60]This Rollo was Great Grandfather to Richard the fifth, Duke of Normandy, which Richard was Elder Brother to Robert, who was Father to William, of whom we are now to speak.

William the first King of England, &c. (usually called the Conqueror, his Reign and Actions, &c.

VVIlliam the Conqueror was Natural Son to Ro­bert Duke of Normandy, by Arlotte a Beauti­ful Woman of mean Birth, her Father being no other than a Tanner, or Skinner; however 'tis Recorded, That being great with Child of this William, she Dreamed her Bowels delated, and extended all over Normandy, and Britain, and as soon as the Child was Born, being laid on the Floar strewed with Rushes, a Custom amongst the Normans to try the Presage of For­tune, he instantly grasped the Rushes in his hands, and thence they concluded his future greatness, and when his Father died he took upon him the Rule of Normandy and gained England as has hath been already rela­ted.

William the Conqueror, began his Reign, October 14. Anno 1066. and was Crowned the 25th. of the follow­ing December, by Aldred Arch-bishop of York causing the English Bishops and Barrons to swear Allegiance to him, taking himself a solemn Oath to defend the Rights of the Church, to establish such Laws as were agreeing to the Constitution of the Kingdom, and to see them administred with Uprightness and Justice, and supposing himself by this means securely setled in the Throne, he went a Progress to be more assured of the Southern Parts; but as was passing through Kent to Dover, Stigand Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, and Eglesine Abbot of St. Augustines Assembled the Commons to op­pose him, [Page 61]who placed themselves in a Wood near Swan­comb, waiting the Conquerors Arrival, when perceiv­ing his approach with a slender Train, shadowed with Boughs, cut down for the purpose, they marched a­gainst him, who supposing himself inclosed with moving Woods, was so much surprized that he was neither capable of advancing or retiring, but whilst he was considering what it might tend to the Kentish-men now inclosing his Army, threw down their Boughs and displayed their Banners; when the Bishop and Abbot presented themselves on the behalf of the rest, Addressing the Conqueror in the following Speech.

Most Noble Duke,

Behold here the Commons of Kent are come forth to meet and receive you as their Soveraign, requiring your Peace, their own free condition of Estate, and ancient Laws; if these things be denied, they are present to abide the Battle, being fully determined rather to die than to part with their Laws, or to live servile in Bondage.

The Conqueror much surprized, forbore reply for a time, but perceiving the Kentish Men making ready their Weapons, and resolute to give Battle, knowing himself much Inferiour in number, loath to stake a Kingdom upon so small a cast, he granted their De­mands, so that to this day they retain by ancient Cu­stom many Priviledges that other Counties injoy not; yet the Conqueror was not so favourable to the English as they expected; for after his Coronation, he Banish­ed such of the Nobles and Gentlemen as were most likely to oppose him in his Proceedings, seizing most of the Estates of the Kingdom, and gave them to his Normans, whom he most respected, or such as had helped towards desraying the Charge of the Expediti­on, depriving Monasteries, Bishopricks, Cities, and Corporations of their Ancient Liberties and Priviled­ges; and then obliged them to redeem them at great [Page 62]Sums of Money, constituting new Laws, and ordained four Terms, when as all Controversies (except what was rare, and extraordinary, were tried in the respe­ctive Counties, Hundreds, or Monthly Moots, or Gemotes; and to prevent great Meetings, which he feared might turn to his prejudice, he set out a severe Edict, commanding all Persons upon the ringing of a Bell, called by the Normans Coverfeu, or Coverfire, to put out both Fire and Candle exactly at eight of the Clock in the Evening, and causing an exact survey of the Lands and Estates of all the people, he amerced them accordingly, exacting six shillings for every Hide of Land; and the Book thus made of every several sur­vey, the number of the People, and their Abilities, is called Doomesday Book; nor did he permit any of the English to be in places of Trust, and for his pleasure, as some will have it) though others say it was out of Po­licy, that he might have a Desolate place to Land new Forces out of Normandy, if the English should rise in Arms against him, he laid waste 36 Parishes, with their Churches, and made of that Vacancy a large Forrest, by him called new Forrest, reaching to the Sea-shore, and in Circuit 60 Miles, he fortified the Tower of London, and other places, the better to secure his new acquired greatness, and was the first that admitted the Jews to Inhabit England, and finding some stirs in Nor­mandy, he re-passed the Seas, and fought his Son Ro­bert, who dismounted him, but knowing his voice, re­mounted him, and begged his pardon, and by that means they were made Friends, and the War ceased: However finding Odo Bishop of Bayeux, and Earl of Kent, secretly Conspiring against him, he Confiscated his Estate, and Banished him his Dominions; and be­ing about to War against the French, who (during the Contest with his Son) had offered some Indignities to his Dominions in Normandy, he fell sick of a great pain and disorder in his Bowels, whereat the French King in a scofing manner said, Our Cousin William is now in Childbed, therefore it behoves us to consider what number [Page 63]of Candles we must offer when he is Churched, for no doubt they must be very many. This being told to King Wil­liam he in a rage swore by the Resurrection and bright­ness of God, That his Cousin of France should be at no such cost or trouble, but that at his Churching himself would light a thousand Candles in France; and he failed not in his promise, for entering that Kingdom with Fire and Sword, he burnt the City of Mentz or Metz, and ma­ny other places; yet being too eager in pursuit of the French, and of a Corpulent Body, his Horse with a su­rious bound broke the Inner Rim or Film of his Belly, of which (when he had quieted the Disturbances a­broad, and at home) and an extream Surfeit he got by overheating himself in action, he died after a considera­ble sickness, at Roan in Normandy, Anno 1087. and there forsaken of his Sons and Courtiers, who hasted to secure their respective Interests, his Body was left un­buried, till one Harulims, a poor Country Knight, at his proper charge conveyed it to Cane, where, upon the attempting to bury him in St. Stephen's Chappel, it was denied by one Ascelinus Fitz Arthur, who in the Name of God forbad it, saying, It was the very place of his Father's House Floar, which the Duke in his Life-time had wrongfully taken from him, and upon his Inheritance founded the Church: Therefore (continued he) I chal­lenge the Ground, and on God's behalf forbid that the Bo­dy of any Oppressor, or Dispoiler, be buried in my Earth; neither shall it be Interred in the Precincts of my right: But in conclusion, Henry, the Conqueror's younger Son hearing of the refusal, compounded for 100 pound weight of silver, and the Body was accordingly Inter­red with little or no Pomp, for during the Contest, his Belly burst in sunder, and the Contageon thereby oc­casioned, was so great, that few could indure it, he di­ed on the 9th. day of September 1087. in the 56th. year of his Dukedom of Normandy, and the 21st. of his Reign over England, in the 64th. year of his Age, his Wife was Maud Daughter to Baldwin the first Earl of Flanders, his Issue was Robert, sirnamed Curthois, or [Page 64] Short-boots, William, sirnamed Miser, who died Anno 1028. Richard, who after his Father had gained the English Diadem, came to a violent Death, being gored in the New Forrest by a Stag, or (as others have it) died by the stroke of a Bough. William Rufus, who suc­ceeded him in the Kingdom of England, though he no­minated no Successor, but left it to God's disposal, much bewailing on his Death-Bed the Rigour and Op­pressions he had used towards the English. Henry born at Selby in York-shire, Anno 1070. Cicely a veiled Nun, Constance Married to Allain Earl of Britain in France. Alice Married to Stephen Earl of Bloys, by whom she had Stephen Earl of Mortain and Boleine afterward King of England. Gundred Married to William d' Warren a Noble Norman, and first Earl of Surry. Ela, who in her Child-hood was contracted to Duke Harrold after­ward King of England. Margaret, who in her Child­hood was given to Alphons King of Gallicia in Spain, and William Preverel his Natural Son, who was Crea­ted Earl of Nottingham.

His last Will and Testament was, That all his Goods should be distributed to Churches, Ministers, and Poor, li­miting their respective Portions; and to the Church and Monks of St. Stevens in Normandy, where he above all [...]oveted to be Buried, he gave several Mannors, as like­wise his Crown, which was afterward Redeemed by his Son Henry. To Robert he left the Dutchey of Norman­dy, but left (as we said) England free, only wishing that his Son William might succeed him in it, and presageing, that Henry should in Conclusion possess all his Dominions, he gave him 5000 Pounds, the remainder of his Treasure. He Deposed, and Imprisoned Stigand Arch-bishop of Can­terbury, who died in Prison: However he built many fair Churches, and Abbies, endowing them with Revenues, and large Priviledges, specially Battle-Abby, where he slew King Harrold; so that any The [...]f, or Murtherer, flying thither, had safe Protection, and if the Abbot came by where any Execution was in hand, he might (if he pleased) save the Malefactor; he allowed a certain Pention to the Monks to [Page 65] [...]ray for the Soul of King Harrold, and those that were [...]lain in the Battle.

In this King's time, who was the 20th. sole Monarch of England, happened a dreadful Earthquake, strange Burning Feavors, proving very Mortal, Murrains cau­sing great Dearth of Cattle, extraordinary Rains, and Inundations which softned the Hills to that degree, that some of them sunk to a flatness, and overwhelmed the Neighbouring Villages, most of the chief Cities suffered by Fire, and London had her Houses and Churches burnt as the fire carried it from the West Gate to the East Gate.

Thus Lived, and sell the Potent Conqueror,
Death's sorce subdued what ne'er was foil'd in War.

The Reign of William II. Sirnamed Rufus, King of England, &c.

VVIlliam Rufus, so named from the redness of his Face, although his Elder Brother Ro­bert was alive, immediately passing to London, he by the assistance of Lanfrank Arch-bishop of Canterbury and VVolstane, so far wrought upon the Council, that he procured himself to be Crowned Anno 1087. at VVestminster, but Odo his Uncle returning from his Ba­nishment, stirred up Robert his Brother against him, in­stigating the Nobles to take part with him; but Ro­bert wanting Money, was obliged for the better carry­ing on the Expedition to Pawn the Province of Con­stantine to his Brother Henry, but whilst these prepara­tions were in hand, VVilliam to ingratiate himself with the English made large Promises to take off the hard Taxes, and restore the Laws his Father had abolished, upon which the people siding with him, he wrested [Page 66]many of the strong Holds out of the hands of thos [...] that had seized them; for his Brother Robert proceed­ing to besiege his Uncle Odo in Richester, putting forth his Proclamation, by which he ordered all people to repair thither in Arms, and whoever refused he should be accounted a Niding, which word at that time was so distastful and hated by the English, as signifying a Cow­ard, or mean-spirited Fellow, that without any con­straint, or imposition of Penalty, they flocked thithe [...] from all parts, whereupon the place was constrained to yield, and Odo again Banish'd, but whilst these thing passed, Duke Robert was not idle, for having gathere [...] what Forces he could, he Landed at Southampton, but finding himself unable to resist the Army that was marching against him, and not joyned by the expected supply he repassed the Seas without doing any thing o [...] note, except the ingageing VVilliam to pay him 3000 Mark a year, and after his Decease to resign it to him or his Heirs; and now Lanfrank the Arch-bishop dy­ing, the King supplied himself with Treasure by keep­ing the See of Canterbury, and many other Ecclesiastica [...] Promotions vacant for the space of four Years, some o [...] which he likewise sold, and was wont to say, That Christ's Bread is a sweet Dainty, and most delicious fo [...] Kings: Howbeit, when two Monks were contending who should give most to be made Abbot of a certain Abby in the King's Disposal, he espied a third Monk standing in a corner, and causing him to advance, he de­manded, VVhat he would give to be made Abbot? Not on [...] Farthing (replyed the Monk) for I have renounced th [...] VVorld and Riches, that I may the more carefully serv [...] God. Then (replyed the King) thou art worthy to b [...] made Abbot, and the Abbey shall be thine.

The Scots by this time having Invaded England un­der the leading of Molcolm their King; King VVilliam marched his Army Northward to oppose him, but be­fore it came to the trial of Battle, a Peace was conclu­ded, and the 12 Villages in the Northern Marche [...] which the Scots had held during the Reign of VVilliam [Page 67]the Conqueror, restored them for a Tribute of twelve Marks a year: And this year the King to strengthen him against the Scots, rebuilt Carlisle in Cumberland, which had been demolished by the Danes about two [...]undred years before: And in Anno 1093 made An­ [...]elm, a Norman Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury; but [...]ong the Peace lasted not between the two Kingdoms, for Malcolm coming to Glocester, to treat about further [...]ccord, and not being received, or entertain'd, accord­ing to his liking, he returned in a rage, and raising a great Army in his own Country, fell into the English Frontires with Fire and Sword, destroying all before him as far as Alnewick; and no sooner were these stirs quieted, but Robert Mobray, and William of Anchon, conspired, with divers others, to depose King William and set up Stephen de Albermarle a Sisters Son, but were prevented and defeated.

The Welsh making many Incursions, and Inroades, into the Kings Territories, he marched a powerful Army into the heart of Wales, and there did such no­table Exploits, that the Welsh finding themselves un­able to make head against his Forces submitted them­selves, so that from the year 1093 VVales has been sub­ject to the Crown of England.

The King upon new provocations Invaded his Bro­ther Roberts Terretories in Normandy, taking divers Castles and strong holds, inforcing him thereby to a Peace; after which uniting their Forces against their younger Brother Henry, who had practised the sur­prising their Territories, he was besieged by them in the Castles of St. Michaels Mount in Normandy, during which Siege King VVilliam's life was in great hazard, for being too forward in charging such as sallied, he was overthrown by a Knight, and had his Horse slain, but being known, the Knight took him up, and presented him with another Horse, when the King springing into the Saddle, and coming up with a [Page 68]fierce countenance, demanded who it was that ha [...] overthrown him; but the undaunted Knight, instead of excusing it, boldly told him it was he: Then, sai [...] the King, looking mildly upon him, by St. Lukes fac [...] for that was his usual Oath, thou shalt be my Knight and inroled in my Check, with a Fee answerable to th [...] worth: But in conclusion, Henry being constrained fo [...] want of Water, and other necessaries, to submit the Brethren were reconciled, and Robert preparing for the Holy Wars, mortgaged his Dukedom of Nor­mandy to King VVilliam for 6660 pounds, to rais [...] which petty sum, at that time, he caused great Taxes as they were termed to be laid upon the People, and forced the Religious Houses to contribute towards it And in the absence of Robert, the French besieging Main in Normandy, the King upon notice of it, as h [...] sat at Dinner, in his Palace of VVestminster, swore H [...] would never turn his back till he arrived there; and so causing the Wall to be broke through for his passage he hasted to Sea, commanding his Army to follow him; but the Winds being contrary, and the Sea [...] rough and boisterous, the Mariners doubted to set sail and the Pilot besought the King to continue in the Port till the Weather was more favourable, but he impatient of delay, and disdaining to fear, replied Hast thou ever heard that a King has been drowned therefore hoist up the Sails, I charge thee, and be gone So that safely, and unexpectedly arriving in Nor­mandy, the French were so terrified, that they raised the Siege.

This King denied that the Pope had any Authority over any Bishop of his Realm, and also the Powe [...] of binding and loosing; yet in acknowledgement to the See of Rome, he paid Peter pence granted by his Father; he derided Invocation of Saints, and curbed the avarice and aspiring Ambition of the Clergy In his Reign a great Earthquake happened, and the Steeple of the Abby of VVinchester was burnt with [Page 69] [...]ghtning, which likewise rent the roof of the [...]by, casting down the Image of the Virgin Mary, [...]d her Crucifix, breaking one of her Legs; and not [...]ng after, so great a Wind happened at London, that it [...]ew down sixty, some say six hundred Houses, taking of the roof of Bow Church, and carrying it a great [...]ight in the Air: And so great a Famine and Mor­ [...]ity ensued, that the quick were scarcely able to bu­ [...] the dead: Two blasing Stars appeared, and many [...]ars, as if they shot fiery Darts at each other: [...]nd in the last year of his Reign the Sea over­ [...]wed her Banks, carrying away a great number [...] People, Cattle and Houses, drowning most of the [...]ands, which had been Earl Goodwins, which is not [...]covered to this day, but retain the Earls Name as [...]own by that of Goodwins Sands. At Finchamstead, [...]ear Abbington in Barkshire, a Well of bloodly co­ [...]oured Water sprung up for fifteen days, and then [...]eased.

King VVilliam, by this time having setled his Af­ [...]irs, betook him to Recreations, and especially [...]unting in the New Forrest his Father had made by [...]he unpeopling, and delapidation of a great many [...]owns and Vilages; when so it happened that Sir VValter Tyrre, a French Knight, shooting at a Stag, he Arrow glanced against a Tree, and flying aslaunt [...]ruck the King into the breast, of which he imme­ [...]ately died, August 1. Anno 1100. and his Body being [...]id in a Cart, the best Herse those times afforded a [...]reat King, it broke, bemired in a dirty way, yet be­ [...]g put into another, it was carried to VVinchester, [...]nd buried in the Cathedral Church; but since the [...]ones have been removed to, and laid with those of [...]anute, the Danish King.

This was the King who built VVestminster Hall [...]inety yards in length, and twenty four yards two [...]eet in breadth; yet when he came to see it, he [Page 70]complained it was too little by half, and therefo [...] he would reserve it for a lodging Room: He w [...] slain, as you have heard, in the thirteenth year his Reign, and the sorty sourth of his Age, being t [...] one and twentieth sole Monarch of England.

Thus Second William, by misfortune's hand,
Drop'd in the Grave, and left the wealthy Land:
Two Sons of the Great Conqueror met their fate,
VVhere he had laid the Country desolate.

The Reign [...]and Actions of Henry the First King England, &c.

HEnry the First English Monarch of that Nam [...] who for his great Abilities in Learning, w [...] called Beau-clark, or good Scholar; upon the une [...] pected death of his Brother VVilliam, and his Broth [...] Robert's being in the Holy Land waring again the Infidels, upon many fair promises to the Nobl [...] and Commons, procured himself to be accepted King, and was Crowned at VVestminster, Anno 11 [...] Anselm, being Archbishop of Canterbury; and at fi [...] made it hisstudy to please all sorts, striving to ma [...] his House and Court a pattern of Virtue, and go [...] Living to the rest of his Subjects, permiting the Pe [...] ple to have Fire and Candle in their Houses, at the own discretion, which under severe penalties had be [...] prohibited by his Father, freeing the Churches fro [...] reservations upon vacancies, allowing the Heirs Noblemen to possess their Fathers Lands without Re­demption, ingaging the Nobles to do the like by the Tenants, allowing, so it were, not to his Enemies, t [...] Gentry, to marry their Daughters and Kinswomen whom they pleased; and that the Widow enjoyi [...] [Page 71]Joynter should be at liberty to ma [...]y whom [...] [...]ased: That the Mother, and nearest Relations, [...]ould be Guardians to Fatherless Children, during [...]ir Minority: That such as coyned false Money [...]ould loose their Right Hand: And if Men be de­ [...]ved of their Genitals, he ordained a certain Mea­ [...]e to be a Standard; Measure of Commerce accord­ [...]g to the length of his Arm, which is our Yard: For­ [...]ing all Debts due to the Crown before be came to [...] Renewing the Laws of Edward the Confessor: And [...]e better to strengthen his Title, he married Maud, [...]ughter to the King of Scots by Margaret, Sister to [...]gard Atheling, joyning in Succession to the Saxon [...]ngs. But by this time News came that Robert his [...]der Brother (after refusing the Scepter of Jerusa­lem, which for his Valour and Conduct, upon taking [...]t City from the Insidels, was offered him by all the Western Princes that commanded the numerous Ar­my of Christians in that glorious Expedition) was [...]nd [...]d with an Army at Portsmouth, and that many [...] the English sided with him, which put the King to no small consternation; however, having got by [...]s lenity, and fair pretences, the hearts of the greater [...]rt of the People, he resolved not to forgo what [...] had gotten; and thereupon tried so far the good [...]mper of his Brother, that by Presents and large [...]omises, he worked upon him to remit his Claim, [...]ein of which he was to have three thousand Marks [...]id him yearly, and gave him six Months Royal En­ [...]tainment.

The Sunshine of Peace lasted not long before Be­ [...]isine, Earl of Shrewsbury, and Roger Montgomery, [...]ith divers other r [...]d, but being vanquished, [...]ey sled to Normandy; however, he was perplexed [...]the Arch-Bishop, who influenced by the See of [...]ome, contended to regulate the Clergy, and dispose [...] Ecclesiastical promotions, as he pleased, refusing Consecrate such Bishops, as the King was desirous [Page 72]to advance; yet the King fearless of what migh [...] happen in England, upon notice, his Brother, at th [...] instigation of some English Fugitives, was preparin [...] for a second Invasion: He resolved to prevent it by carrying the War into Normandy, which he effect­ed with such precepitation, that he overthrew Ro­bert, took him Prisoner, and sent him to Cardr [...] Castle, where at first he was only Prisoner at large having the priviledge of the Medows and Parks un­der a slender Guard; but as some will have it, at tempting his escape, but others, the People, too much pittying his condition, and the apprehensions i [...] wrought, made the King confine him a close Priso­ner, and the better to secure himself against any at­tempts, this poor Prince might make, cause th [...] Twinkles of his Eyes to be put out, or clouded i [...] darkness by burning Glasses, and not long after h [...] lost his Life; some say by a voluntary starving him­self, out of a disdain he took, that the King, his Bro­ther, sent him a Suit of his old cast Clothes, with a [...] addition, That they were good enough for a Prisoner; how­ever, this unnatural act greatly eclipsed the glory o [...] this King, and too plainly shewed that Crowns know [...] no Kindred when they stand in competion.

The Duke being dead, King Henry seized upon his Dutchy of Normandy; so that England may now be said to conquer Normandy, though indeed it was unhappy for the English, whom he began to restrain with a harder hand, seeing he had removed the danger that threatned him, banishing the Flemings who were desirous to instruct us in the Wollen Trade retracting many Grants he had passed, and to strenghen his Alliance abroad, he married Maud, his Eldest Daughter, to Henry the Fourth, Emperor of Germany, or the Romans; and the Welsh promoting some disorders, he forced them to obedience: A [...] likewise these in Normandy, where new trouble [...] arose, and that which gave him hopes of the [Page 73]settlement of Affairs, was the death of the Arch-Bishop, who to raise the Popes Power, had opposed [...]im in his important proceedings, and was a great Enemy to the Married Priests, who were tolerated [...]n this Kings Reign. The High Court of Parlia­ment, some Authors will have to be constituted in his Reign, Anno 1116.

William, Eldest Son to Robert the deceased, Duke of Normandy being alive, Lewis King of France, toge­ [...]her with the Earls of Flanders and Anjou, laboured [...]o fix him in the Dukedom, but were frustrated, [...]nd a great Battle, Anno 1119, was fought between [...]he two Kings, wherein Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, with divers other Nobles, and some thousands of Common Soldiers were slain, and the Victory falling [...]o the English, occasioned great loss and dishonour [...]o the French; and the Earl of Anjou, upon King Henry's return to Roan with Palms of Triumph, gave his Daughter and Heiress, in Reversion of that Pro­vince, to William the Kings Eldest Son, whose Nup­tials were solemnized with great joy, and hope of future happiness: But all things are unstable in this World, for the King setting sail for England, and the Prince with his Bride, his Brothers Sisters, and other great Personages, staying six hours sail behind [...]o take leave of their Friends, resolved, notwithstand­ing, to come up with the King before he landed; [...] that the Marriners running a desperate course, as [...]eing elevated with Wine and good Chear, fell soul [...]n a Rock, which broke the Ship to pieces; yet the [...]rince with his Bride, and some others got into the [...]ng Boat, and might have gone off, but the Coun­ [...]ss of Pearch crying to him from the Fore-castle [...]or help, he caused the Boat to turn and take her in; [...]ut before he could effect it, so many leaped into it, [...]nd clung to its sides, esteeming, in that extre­mity, their Lives as dear as their Princes, that it [Page 74]sunk with the overlaiding, and they were all drowned.

This doleful news coming to the Kings Earl by some of the Seamen that had escaped upon pieces of the Ship, he greatly lamented the loss of his Chil­dren; and though he was well in years, yet in some measure to repair it, he Married a second Wife, viz. Adilicia, Daughter to Jeffery Duke of Lorain; but having no Issue by her, he sent for Maud his Daughter, who had been married to the Emperor, her Husband being at that time dead, and calling a Parliament, caused Stephen, his Sisters Son, with his No­bles to swear her, as to his lawful, and now only Heir, when sailing into Normandy, after the toil of hunt­ing, eating a great meal of Lampries, he presently fell sick, and after seven days sickness, dyed in the Town of St. Denis, Anno 1135, his body was brought to Reading, and buried in the Abby himself had founded, and his Bowels and Brain at Roan; nor did he dye without suspition of being poisoned, for the very sent that came from his Brain, was the death of the Physician that took it out.

The Wives of this King were two, viz. Maud, Daughter to Malcolm King of Scotland, and Adilicia, Daughter to Godfry Duke of Lorain, his lawful Issue, by the first, was William and Maud, by the last he had none, yet is held to have fourteen Illegitimate Chil­dren: He built many Abbies and Monasteries, and was very charitable to the Poor. In his time many Pro­digies appeared, and the Ground rent by an Earth­quake, sent forth such flames as destroyed some, and indangered the lives of more: He was King of Eng­land, and Duke of Normandy, fourth Son to William the Conqueror, beginning his Reign, Anno 1100, and Reigning 35 years, being the 23 Monarch of England, dying in the 65 year of his Age.

Thus falls another Monarch, soon or late,
All Crowns and Scepters in the dust must set:
All breath of Life, the lowly and the high,
Must leave this narrow stage for vast Eternity.

The Reign of King Stephen with his Memorable Acti­ons, &c.

STephen Earl of Bloys, Son to Adilicia, Daughter to William the Conqueror, and Stephen Earl of Bloys, notwithstanding he had sworn Fealty to the Empress Maud, laid claim to the Kingdom, and by the interest and policy of his Brother Henry, Bishop of Winchester, and Roger Bishop of Sarum; as also one Hugh Bigot, who swore that King Henry, upon his Death-bed, taking a distaste at his Daughters pro­ceedings, had disenherited her, and appointed this Stephen to succeed him in his Kingdom of England, and Dukedom of Normandy, so that upon these, and other interests that were made, he was Crowned at Westminster on St. Stephen's day, Anno 1135, by Willi­am Curboil, Archbishop of Canterbury, the Prelates swearing to hold him King so long as he should pre­serve their Churches Rights, and the Lay-Barrons, in like manner, swore Allegiance to him, so long as he should keep his Covenants with them, in preserving their Rights and Priviledges, so that he accepted of the Crown, and owned his Right as by Election: The Charter containing his peoples Franchises, Liberties and Immunities, which he obliged himself to main­tain, he Signed and Sealed it at Oxford, which was, That all Liberties, Customs, Possessions granted to the Church, should be firm and in force; That Persons [Page 76]and Causes Ecclesiastical should appertain only to Eccle­siastical Jurisdiction; That Church vacancies, and the Goods of Church-men, should be at the sole dispose of the Clergy; That all ill usage touching Forests, Exacti­ons, &c. should be abolished, and the Antient Laws restored to their Purity: And for his security a­gainst the expected storm, he caused or suffered ma­ny Castles to be erected, which afterwards proved to his detriment.

This King took quiet possession of the Throne, and had an interrupted Series of Tranquility for a time; but by degrees the distractions came on, that turn­ed the Land into a seat of War for many years: Bald­win de Redners was the first that openly began to declare himself in favour of the Empress Maud, and hereupon the Welshmen took up Arms, and falling up­on the English, not altogether provided, gave them a considerable overthrow: Nor did David, King of the Scots, forbear to invade this Kingdom; and the Wesh incouraged by their former success, continued to spoil the Frontiers, and under the favour of an­other Scotish Invasion, wherein, under the leading of their King, the Scots committed almost unparallel outrages. The Nobles conspired against King Ste­phen, betaking them to their respective Castles, and strong Holds, declaring that they were slighted and rejected in favour of the Flemmings; and especially, one Willinm de Ypre, his chief counsellor and privado to follow, whose directions he had neglected that of his Peers. But the Scots, instead of assisting these Lords, making many other Invasions, made great spoil and havock of their Houses, Castles and Estates, seeming rather to aim at a conquest than any thing less: So that those in the North marched against them, and being animated by Thurstan, Archbishop of York, by whose Authority Ralph Bishop of Durham, being made General, undertook (but by what Warrant I [Page 77]know not) to forgive the sins of all that should fall in Battle, and secure them from punishments and pains in another Life; the English fell on with such fury, that they drove the Scots out of the Field with great slaughter; nor could the presence of their King, and the Prince his Son, restrain them from open flight into Scotland; and King Stephen follow­ing this advantage, obliged them to sue for Peace; however, he found himself but slenderly assured in the Hearts of his People, especially of the Nobles, which made him prepare for the worst; and hearing the Empress Maud was landed, with a small train, not exceeding 140 men at Arundel, he hasted to op­pose her, but she being a Woman of great Policy, coloured over her Intentions, protested she came in peace, only to spend the remainder of her days in a Country, wherewith she was so much delighted; and although the King had some little mistrust, he nevertheless dissembled it, and gave her Royal En­tertainment, causing her to be conveyed to the City of Bristol, appointing it for her reception: scarce had the Empress continued at Bristol two Months, before she privately withdrew to Walling­ford, expecting the Forces, her Brother, Earl Robert was raising on her behalf: But the King having no­tice of many underhand contrivances, besieged that place, whilst his Brother, the Bishop of Winchester, under a pretence of friendship, and important busi­ness, inviting many of the Nobles (that he thought disaffected to the King) he made them Prisoners in his Palace, and by that means constrained them to render their Castles as Ransoms for their Persons, which much weakened the Interest of the Empress; yet Earl Robert burnt Worcester for holding out against her, and the like did Ralph Painel, one of her Captains to Nottingham.

The Empress finding her Measures broken by the [Page 78]crafty Bishop of Winchester, hasted to Lincoln; but the King followed close, and besiged that City, and took it; yet she made her escape; so that new Mea­sures being taken, her Forces daily increased, insomuch that becoming strong in the Field, Robert Earl of Glocester, and Ralph Earl of Chester, gave the King battle near Lincoln, which was maintained with great obstinacy, and effusion of blood, Victory seeming to incline to neither party, till such time as the Kings Horse gave way (thought to have been done by trea­chery) however, the Foot stood manfully to it; but being overcharged and trampled down, for want of their Horse to cover them, they fled likewise, leaving the King, who chose rather to die than give back, to fight the Battle, when with a very weighty Battle-Ax, like an inraged Lyon, he drove whole squa­drons before him, killing a great number, for wherever he struck, the blow proved mortal; but in the fury of the Fight, having broken his Battle-Ax, and after that his Sword, he was beaten down with a Massie­stone thrown at him, and by that means brought un­der, and taken Prisoner. King Stephen thus made a Prisoner, was carried to Glocester, where the Empress expected him, and from thence sent Prisoner to Bristol, whereupon all but the County of Kent acknowledged her as their Soveraign, so that going to Winchester in state, she there received the Regal Crown, and passing to London, she was met with Procession, and the Ac­clamations of the people, but the Earl of Glocester, Brother to the Empress, being taken by some of the Nobles that sided with King Stephen, and Imprisoned at Glocester, searing if any violent Death befel the King, he should run the same Risque, he so far solicited the matter, that an exchange was made, and both the one and the other had Liberty, after which the Earl went for Normandy, which had revolted from Stephen, to raise Forces to secure what was gained; but whilst this was doing the Londoners being displeased, as not [Page 79]receiving the satisfaction they expected, and the Nobles thinking themselves slighted by her, the restless Bishop of Winchester set the Nation again into a Blaze of dissen­tion, making a strong Party for King Stephen, besieg­ing the Empress in the Castle of Winchēster seven weeks, and then the better to work his advantage, feigning a Peace, and causing it to be proclaimed, set open the City Gates, but she and her followers almost starved out with Famine, were scarce departed, when he cau­sed them to be pursued, in which pursuit many were slain, and taken Prisoners, and amongst them Earl Robert, who by this time was returned with a slender Train, and others taking Sanctuary in the Nunnery of Worwell were burnt together with the House, nor did the Bishop spare Winchester, but fired it for taking part with the Empress.

The Empress escaping this Storm, betook her self to the Castle of the Devizes in Wiltshire, but being close­ly pressed by the prevailing party, and out of all hopes of relief, she contrived a Stratagem to prevent her fal­ling into their hands, viz. Inclosing her self in a Coffin and making it known to a few of her Trusty Friends, under pretence it was the dead Body of a Person, whom the Besiegers knew to be dead in that place, pro­curing a pass for the burial of it with its Ancestors: She was in a Horse-litter carried to Glocester, and there joy­fully received by those of their Party. But finding it not safe to continue there, she hasted to Oxford, where being straightly Besieged by the King in the depth of Winter, and the Suburbs gain'd, she found her self in no capacity longer to defend the place; but taking the advantage of a Snow that had fallen, she put on white Garments, and by that means in the dusk of the Even­ing passed alone undiscovered to Abington on Foot, and from thence to Wallingford on Horseback the same Night, (so sweet is a Crown, that no Difficulties, or Dangers are thought too much to attain it.) It was [Page 80]indeed strugled for with various success, causing a great deal of blood shed as the Partys prevailed, with Burn­ings, and Devastations. However that he might assure the Succession of his Son Eustuce, he called a Council at London, commanded Theobald Arch-bishop of Canter­bury to Anoint him King; but having received the Pope's Mandate to the contrary, he refused it, for which he was obliged to leave the Land, and flie to Normandy; yet the King for this refusal seized upon his Possessions. But shortly after, Prince Eustace dying, the King be­came more inclinable to an agreement with the Em­press. The death of this Prince is by some Historians thus reported, viz. Having set fire to the Corn Fields belonging to the Abby of Bury, because the Monks re­fused to supply him with a sum of Money for his pre­sent occasion, after that at his first sitting down to Din­ner, upon the first bit of Bread he touched he fell distra­cted, and died in that fit, but this seems a Fable of the Monks to terrifie people from medling with their Dia­na, or the abundance of Treasure they in those days of Ignorance scraped to themselves even from those that had far greater need: However the Kings hope dying in this Prince, he was content to adopt Henry, by some called Fitz Empress, though indeed Plantaginet; for his Son and Successor, to whom at Oxford in the great Assembly held there for that purpose, the Peers did Homage, as to the undoubted Heir, and the Prince ac­knowledged the King as his Father, and after whom he was to Reign; nor did Stephen live long when this was done, for being afflicted with the Illiack pasio, and the Haemorhoids worn out with Labour and continual toil, left the Crown which he had worn with so much trou­ble and variety of Fortune, to young Henry dying at Dover, Anno 1134, and was Buried at Feversham in Kent, though afterward his Body (only for the value of the Lead that inclosed it) was cast into the River by the covetous Sexton.

This Stephen was King of England and Duke of Nor­mandy, third Son to Stephen Earl of Blois, by his Wife Adilicia, or Alice Daughter to William the Con­queror, he began his Reign the second of December, Anno 1135, and Reigned Eighteen Years, Ten Months, and 20 Days, and had Issue by Maud, or Matilda his Wife, (Daughter of Eustace Earl of Bulloigne, Brother of Godfry, and Baldwin Kings of Jerusalem) Baldwin, Eustace, William, Maud, and Mary, he had likewise two Natural Sons Gervas the younger, he made Abbot of Westminster.

Thus in a Tempest liv'd the Warlike King,
Small rest he found till death the calm did bring,
Which shows the frailness of each earthly thing.

The Reign of Henry the Second King of England, &c.

HEnry Plantaginet, commonly called Fitz Empress, was three times Crowned, first by Theobald Arch-bi­shop of Canterbury at Westminster, then at Lincoln, and lastly at Worcester, and being setled in the Realm, he demolished sundry Castles that had given too much incouragement to the falling off of such as at any time grew discontented, some that had Honours unduly conferr'd on them he divested and reduced to a private State, purged the Land of Forreign Soldiers, and chief­ly of the Flemings that had come over with King Ste­phen, choosing his Council out of the most Worthy and Learned Men, restraining the Incroachments and Oppressions of the greatest Persons, without respect of their greatness, which made the Lord Hugh Mortimer fall off, and take up Arms, against whom King Henry went in person, and had been slain at the Siege of Bridgnorth, had not Hubert d' St. Clare one of his Cour­tiers, stepped between as the Arrow was coming, and lost his own Life to save his Masters, but this Lord soon reduced, and the face of calmness appearing at home, he passed into France to do Homage to King Lewis, for his Provinces of Normandy, Acquitain, Anjou, Main, and Lorain, which he claimed as his right [...] in himself, and partly in Eleanor his Queen, and there he adjusted differences between himself and his Brother Geofry, and after being highly Caressed and Entertained he returned to England, where as much as in him lay, intending to live peaceably, he contracted an Alliance with Malcolme King of Scots, restoring him the [...] of Huntingdon.

The Welsh about this time making Inroads, and greatly indamaging the English, the King marched a­gainst them, and joyned Battle, but in the heat of the Fight his Standard was cowardly abandoned, and his person in danger to be slain, or taken Prisoner, for which Henry d' Essex Standard bearer being accused by Robert d' Montford, as the main cause of the dissertion, the Combat (as usual upon such Accusations) was al­lowed them at Reading, and Essex being overcome the King was notwithstanding contented to spare his life upon condition he became a Monk which accordingly he did, and was immediately shorn, but in conclusion the Welsh were subdued, and the King returning in Triumph, was Crowned together with Eleanor his Queen at Worcester, where they both at the Offertory laid their Crowns on the high Altar, vowing never to wear them after, and this was the last of the three Crownings, and his Brother Geofry now dead, he sei­zed upon sundry Citys and strong places in Normandy, and setling his Affairs in that Province, he returned to England, where Becket, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, in­fluenced by the Pope, began to trouble the Kingdom, not only at the Council Tours, privately surrendring those Honours the King had heaped upon him to the Pope, and from him receiving them again, thereby to cast off the acknowledgements he had to the King or his Prerogative, but countenanced all manner of violence in the Clergy, even to murther; so that the complaints of above a hundred Murthers done by the Clergy, coming to the King's car, and he not find­ing them punished by Church Censure, brought some of them under the Civil Power, commanding Justice to be administred without partiality, as well to the Clergy as Laity, to that end appointing Mi­nisters of Justice in all parts of the Land, whose charge it was to enquire into crimes of that, or the like nature: But this was opposed by Becket [Page 84]with a high hand, challenging the King with in­vading the Rights of the Church, demanding at the same time the Castle of Rochester, and sundry other places, as belonging to the See of Canterbury. This made the King assemble all the Bishops in Convo­cation at Westminster, Becket excepted, where it was agreed, That no Appeals should be made to Rome with­out the Kings Licence: That no Arch-bishop or Bishops, up­on the Popes Summons, should go out of the Land with­out the like leave: That no Bishop should excommuni­cate any person, holding of the King in chief, or put any of his Officers under interdiction without the like Li­cence: That Clerks criminals, should, if the King thought fit, be tried before Secular Judges. But although the King urged Becket to agree to them, yet he absolute­ly refused it, sending thereupon complaints to the Pope, who for his profit and interest, not desirous to break with England, commanded Becket to yield to the King without any Salvo's or exception, which not without much stomaching the matter, he at last consented to on the word of a Priest, and swore that he would observe the Laws, which the King called Avitae, as being made in the Reign of his Grand­father; yet he refused afterwards to set his Seal, saying, What he had done was rather in some mea­sure to pleasure the King, than out of conscience: For which, and his continuing obstinate, he was con­demned to the confiscation of his Goods; and the Bishop of Chichester, in the name of the other Bi­shops disclaimed; and for the afronting the King in his Palace with his Cross, he was adjudged as a Traytor and perjured person, and that he should as such be taken and imprisond, which made him flee into Flanders, where Pope Alexander, and Lewis the French King openly declared for him, which so far incensed King Henry, that he banished his Kindred, commanding his Sheriffs, and other Officers, to seize such as appealed to Rome, as likewise the Kindred of [Page 85]those Clergy that were with Becket, excluding him from being prayed for as Arch-bishop.

Becket being by this time in France, excommuni­cated the Bishop of London, and proceeded in the like nature with others, so that there were scarce any found in the Kings Chappel to perform the Service: This made him send to the Pope for Legates to ab­solve his Subjects, and settle a peace in the King­dom; and although accordingly they were sent, yet Becket standing off with much obstinacy, no­thing was effected, wherefore, as some Historians will have it, to spite the Arch-bishop the more, and the more firmly to establish the Kingdom, he caused Roger, Arch-bishop of York, to Crown his El­dest Son Henry, and at the Coronation Feast, the King carried up, and served at the Table, the first Dish of Meat, whereat the Arch-bishop, whispering the young King, said, Rejoyce, my fair Son, for there is no Prince in the World that hath such a Servitor at­tending at his Table, as you have this day. To which the early raised Stripling replied, Why wonder you at that, my Lord, seeing my Father knows he doth nothing that is unbeseeming him? for as much as he is Royally born on one side, but as for our self we are Royally born on both, as having a King to our Father, and a Queen to our Mother. Upon which proud speech, the old King told the Arch-bishop, That he repented the too early advancement of the Boy: And now by the me­diation of Friends, the old King and Becket were reconciled, and all the Profits and Arrears of the See of Canterbury restored: But this restles Prelate taking his time to disturb the Kingdom, whilst the old King was in Normandy, published the Popes Letters, by which Roger Arch-bishop of York, and Hugh Bishop of Durham were suspended from their Ecclesiastical Functions, for that they had crowned the young King in prejudice to the See of Canterbury, and the Bishops of Exeter, Sarum and London, were cut off from the Church, by censure, for being Assistants [Page]at that Coronation; nor would he, at the young Kings earnest intreaties, but under divers restrictions and hard conditions Absolve them.

Becket's new insolencies coming to the ear of the old King in Normandy, he fell into a great rage, and let such words fall, that some of his Courtiers, inter­preting them to intimate the Kings desire to be rid of that proud Prelate, contrary to his knowledge, Ri­chard Fitzurse, William Tracie, Hugh Brito, and Hugh Norvil passed secretly into England, and getting ad­mittance into the Cathedral Church at Canterbury, took their opportunity, with concealed Weapons, to fall upon him, as he stood in the Evening Service time before the high Altar, and there slew him with a Monk or two that made resistance, and thereupon made their escapes. This news flying to Rome, and the Murther charged upon the King as done by hi [...] order, the Pope began terribly to mennace him when he, to take off the imputation of guilt, not on­ly protested his innocence, but offered to purge him­self by submitting to the Judgment of such Cardin [...] Legates, as the Pope should send upon inquiry int [...] the Fact, and the better to quiet the people that be­gan to murmur against him, he passed into Irelan [...] with a great Army, and finding the several pett [...] Kings divided amongst themselves, he made a Con­quest of that Kingdom, and made himself Lord Ireland.

Upon the Kings return from the Conquest Ireland, he found two Cardinal Legates arrived Normandy, by whom he was absolved, after giving Oath that he was no ways consenting to the death Becket, and declaring his sorrow for having let f [...] words in his anger that might administer any oc [...] ­sion of committing that crime, whereupon the co [...] ­ditions of his Penance were enjoyned, viz. That his own charge, for the space of a year, he should ma [...] ­tain two hu [...]dred Soldiers for defence of the Holy La [...] That he should revoke all Customs introduced to the [...] [Page 86]judice of the Churches Liberties, and restore and make up the Possessions of the Church of Canterbury: That he should cull home, and freely receive all that were in Banishment for Becketg 's cause. There were other se­cret Penances enjoyned, which upon his coming over he performed.

The King, notwithstanding the satisfaction he gave the Pope was not at ease, for the young King, Henry his Son, instigated by his Mother, the Kings of Scotland and France, his two Brothers, Richard and Geofry, with divers Nobles, as well English as Nor­mans raised a Rebellion, and seized upon many Towns in Britain and other places. But the old Kings Fortune prevailed against them, and by Humphry Bo­hun his High Constable in England, he overcame Ro­bert Earl of Leicester, which made Lewis of France seek a Truce with him of six Months, which was accord­ed; and coming to Canterbury three Miles bare footed, as his private Penance, he entred the Chapter House of the Monks, and humbly prostrating himself on the floor, begged pardon, and suffered himself voluntarily to be whipped on the back with Rods by all the Bre­thren of the House, so that his stripes amounted to fourscore. This confirmed the people of his innocen­cy, or at least, satisfied their anger; so that the Scots invading England, were so unanimously opposed, that they were defeated, and William their King taken prisoner: Young King Henry attempting to land, was driven back to France by contrary Winds; but making some other attempts, he died in the expedition, Anno 1183: And the next year Heraclius, Patriarch of Jeru­salem, came into England to implore the Kings Aid [...]gainst the Infidels, that grievously oppressed the Eastern Christians, and that he would go thither in person; but the Nobles being consulted, and not ap­proving it, only a supply of Money was granted.

The King, the better to quiet his Son John, who was of a turbulent spirit, constituted him Lord of Ireland, assigning him rents in England and Nor­mandy; [Page]however, he conspired with his Brothers Ri­chard and Geofry against him; but before any thing came to perfection, Geofry was troden to death un­der the Horses feet, at a Turnament in Paris, not­withstanding Richard, by the assistance of Philip, the French King, drove his Father out of Mentz, the place of his birth, and for which reason he loved it above all other; whereupon with tears he declared, that see­ing his Son had taken from him that day the thing which he most loved in the World, he would requite him, for from that day he would deprive him of that thing, which in him should best please a Child, viz. his heart, and having a Scrowl of the Conspirators, he no sooner found his Son John in the head of them, and first in that Scrowl, but he curst the hour of his Birth, laying God's curse, and his own, upon all his Sons which he could not be prevailed upon to recal, but fretting himself for the unnatural proceedings of his Children, and worn out with age and toil, he fell sick at Charon, and finding the approach of death, he caused himself to be carried to the Church, and laid before the high Al­tar, where after humble confession and sorrow for his sins, he gave up the ghost, Anno 1189, and wa [...] intered at Font Everard.

This King Henry the Second was King of England Duke of Normandy, Guen and Aquitain, eldest Son to Jeffery Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou, Son to Foulk King of Jerusalem, by Maud his Wife, eldest Daughter t [...] Henry the First: He began his Reign on the 25th o [...] October 1154, and reigned 34 years eight months an [...] eleven days, and was the twenty fifth sole Monarc [...] of England, he had Issue by his Wife Eleaner, Will am, who died 1156, Richard, Geofry and Philip wh [...] died very young, John, Maud who was married [...] Henry, sirnamed the Lyon Duke of Saxony, Elean [...] married to William King of Castile, Joan married [...] VVilliam King of Sicily, and afterwards to Ramu [...] the fourth Earl of Tholouze.

By the lovely Rosamond, his beautiful Concubin [...] [Page 87]he had natural Issue, viz. VVilliam, sirnamed Long­spur, and Jeffry, Arch-bishop of York. This Rosamond was Daughter to the Lord Clifford; and whilst the King prosecuted his Wars in Normandy and France, he caused her to be kept in a Labrinth built at VVoodstock to secure her from his jealous Queen, but she find­ing her by a clew of Thred or Silk, which the Fair one had accidentially let fall, compelled her to drink Poison, of which she died to the unspeakable grief of the King, who not only detested his Queen for so much cruelty, but raised a stately Monument at Godstow with this Scription.

Hic jacet in Tumba, &c.
Here lies the Worlds fair Rose which once was sweet,
But faded now you no such savour meet.

He had likewise Morgan by another Concubine, and in his time it reigned blood in the Isle of VVight for the space of two hours. A great Earthquake hap­pened, and a Dragon of marvellous higness was dis­covered, at St. Osyph in Essex another Earthquake hap­pened that rent in pieces the Cathedral of Lincoln, [...]nd at Oxford, in Sussex certain Fishermen drew up in their Net a hairy Creature out of the Sea, in all proportions like a Man, which was exposed to the [...]ight of thousands, living upon Flesh, but in the end [...]ole from his keepers, and got to Sea again: And his King it was that caused Leicester to be burnt, the Walls raised, the Castle demolished, and the Inhabi­ants to be expulsed for their disobedience, and taking [...]art with his Enemies.

This King long strugling for a Throne, at last
The glitring Diadem he grasp'd so fast,
That Becket, nor's rebellious Sons, nor Rome,
Could seize the Prize till death had found his [...].

The Reign and Actions of Richard the First King of England, &c.

KIng Henry the Second being dead, Richard his third Son, for his strength and courage, sirnamed Cour [...] Leon, or Lyons heart, was crowned by Baldwin, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, and sworn to keep several Articles administred to him by the Peers advantagi­ous to the Kingdom: the Solemnity of his Coronation was at Westminster, and was followed with much blood­shed in divers parts of the Nation; for by the insti­gation of several Monks and Fryers, the people in a tumultuous manner fell upon the Jews, and upon some disgust made miserable havock of their Goods, and slaughter of their Persons, for which divers of the Ring-leaders were executed: And now it being in the power of this King to put in practice what he had long determined, viz. to pass into the Holy Land, with an Army, for the rescue of the oppressed Christians, wherefore hearing that divers other Princes had determined the like, he appointed VVliliam Long­champ, Bishop of Ely, his Chief Justice, and Lord Chancellor; and to him he joyned Hugh Bishop of Durham, for the Conservation of the Northern parts Beyond Humber, and with these he associated divers Temporal Lords, concluding at the same time a Peace with the King of Scots; so that supposing all safe a [...] home, the next undertaking was to furnish his Navy which being done, he put to Sea, with a very grea [...] attendance, not sparing to mortgage and sell severa [...] parcels of his Revenues, and forced William d' Tur [...] ­ham, his Fathers Treasurer, to contribute 1100 pound to defray the Charges, and that he might the bette [...] keep his Brother John in quiet, during his absence h [...] appointed him for his maintenance, the Revenue of Earldoms.

The King being on his way toward Palastine, af [...] he had wintered at Sicily, passed towards Cyprus, whe [...] [Page 88]finding some of his Ships that had put that into Island stress of Weather, had been seized by the Cypriots, and his men roughly used, he sent to the King for re­paration, but that being denied him, not without Threats, if he did not depart the Haven; our un­daunted King not used to be braved, beat the Defen­dants from the shoar, and resolutely Landing, seized the Island, together with its King, and appointing a Governour, carried that King in Manacles of Gold to Ptolomais, where the Christians lay at Siege, taking by the way a great Argosey, on board which was 1500 Sarazens and Turks furnished, beside other things, with Fire-works, and Barrels of Venomous Serpents bound for Ptolomais, since called Acon, intending to disperse those Venomous Creatures amongst the Christians, as they lay Incamped before the Town, but King Richard caused them to be cast into the Sea, and in the dispute there perished by the Sword and Waters, for many voluntarily cast themselves over-board 1300, of the Sa­razens, &c.

The King by this time safely arrived at Ptolomais, or Acon, found it Besieged by sundry Nations under the Western Princes, as Genoways, Florentines, Flem­ings, Danes, Almains, Dutch, Pisans, Friez-landers, Lombards, and the English that had passed thither, under Hubert Bishop of Sarum, in the time of King Henry the Second; as likewise the Knights Templers of European Nations, beside the Asian Christians who made a gallant Army; and soon after came Philip King. of France, and the Duke of Austria with a great Fleet, whereupon a Council of the Princes was held, concluding that part of the Force, be­ing left to maintain the Siege, the rest should draw out to give Battle to the Saladine or King of the Turks and Sarazens, who lay hovering on the Plains, a few Leagues distant with 300000 Horse and Foot, but they could not engage him to a fight, yet falling upon his rear in his retreat, they cut off a great number, and took much spoil, returning a­gain [Page]to the Siege; but the Saladine, who knew the importance of this strong City, followed with greater force, but durst not attempt its relief, yet in ravaging the Country, have gotten, at sundry times, 1500 Christian captives, he sent word, If they did not raise the Siege, he would cut them in pieces in the sight of the Army; Whereupon King Richard sent a Trumpet, commanding him to desist, For if he put those Christians to death, the prisoners in his Camp must expect the like treatment: However, upon the next assault, the Saladine caused them to be put to death, whose piteous cries piercing the Ears of King Ri­chard, he in a rage caused the Heads of 2500 of the Turks and Sarazen Captives to be sinitten off in the fight of the Enemies Camp; and now a general assault was given, where the English with showers of Arrows, beating the Infidels from the Walls, mounted with such resolution and bravery, that no­thing was able to resist them; so that seconded by the rest, the strong City of Ptolomais was taken, and in the over-running the Streets, a great number put to the Sword; so that whilst the English were busie in repulsing the Enemy, who made a great resistance, the Austrians advanced the Standard of their Duke upon the Walls, as if by the valour of a handful of men that important place had been taken, which so far incensed King Richard, that he threw it down, and trampled it under foot, which rais'd a mortal grudge in the Austrian Duke against our King, nor did he rest till in some part he had given his anger vent, which at that time he durst not express.

This place being taken and garrisoned by Chri­stians, the next design was upon the City of Jeru­salem; but Philip the French King, envying the glory of the English, drew off the greater part of his Army, and returned to France, the like did the Duke of Austria, and divers of their faction, not withstanding the prayers and intreaties of the Asi­an [Page 89]Christians, who hoped by the prevailing Arms of these Western Princes, to be delivered from the tyranny and oppression they had so long groaned under; however King Richard was no ways dis­mayed, but drawing out his Forces, offered the Sa­ladine battle, which vvas refused, vvhereupon he caused the Army to march towards Jerusalem, but by the vvay he vvas diserted by the Duke of Burgundy, vvho the French King left as his Gene­ral vvith part of the Forces, and upon no other account, as Burgundy himself declared, But that it should never be said the English should have the glory of wining Jerusalem, vvhich greatly grieved the King, that so famous an enterprize should mis­carry through malice and emulation, and vvhilst he vvas in his melancholly upon this occasion, a Knight mounting a high sandy Hill, said, Come hither, Sir, and I will show you Jerusalem: but the King, at these vvords, covered his face, and fetching a deep sigh, said, Ah, my Lord God, I beseech thee, that I may not see thy holy City Jerusalem, because I am not able to deliver it out of the hands of thine enemies Hovvever he made an honourable peace vvith the Saladine, which including that the Christians should quietly enjoy what they possessed, and so selling the Isle of Cypruss to the Knight Templers for 30000 Marks, he re­turned with his Army, having obtained the nomi­nal Title of King of Jerusalem, from Guy of Lusig­ [...]am, the last of the race of the Christian Kings of Jerusalem, which Title the King of Spain claims at this day, but without power or effect: One thing is not lightly to be forgotten, viz. that the King a­bove all others that had been in the Holy Land, though many great Potentates had been there before him, brought terror and dread upon the Sarazens, for when at any time their Children cryed, they to quiet them would say, King Richard is coming and will have you; nay, when their Horses stumbled, they would cry, Ha Jade! you think King Richard is in the way.

King Richard; as is said, returning home with his fair Queen Berengaria, was separated upon the Coast of Histria, by a storm from the rest of the Fleet, and the Ship being broken, and in no condition to put to Sea, he in disguise of a Merchant, or as, some say, a Knight Templer, resolved to pass over Land; but being too lavish in his expenses, that raised a suspition of his being of great Quality; so that, near Vienna he was made a prisoner, by the order of Leo­pold the Arch-Duke, whose Standard he had thrown down from the Walls of Ptolomais, and by him sold to the Emperor Henry the Sixth for 60000 Marks, and was ransom'd after sixteen Months imprisonment, and very bad usage at 160000 pounds, to pay which, a great Tax, was levyed throughout England, yet joyfully disbursed by the people, who suffering un­der such Ministers, as were set over them, greatly desired the return of their King, so that Philip of France, having notice he was at large, sent to tell John, King Richard's Brother, who had usurped the Rule, during his captivity, That the Devil was let loose; and although several waits were laid to intrap and retake him, after security was given for the Mo­ney; he landed safe at Sandwich, and was joyfully re­ceived by Hubert, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, who had been in the Holy Land with him, as likewise by his Subjects, but more especially by Queen Eleanor his Mother, who by her prudent Conduct and Au­thority, had secured the Kingdom, during his ab­sence, from the total usurpation of his Brother John, who now hasted to meet him, and submitting him­self, was freely forgiven in these words, viz. I would that thy faults may be so forgotten of me, as thou thy self may keep in memory, wherein thou hast offended; and thereupon taking him into his favour, he re­stored his forfeited Possessions, who from that time became firm to the Kings interest, and did him faith­ful service, especially against the French, whose King contrary to his Oath he gave King Richard, upon [Page 90]his departure from the Holy Land, had warred up­on his Countries of Normandy, Anjou, &c. stirring up, in his absence, many discensions and disorders in England, when in one of the Skirmishes, taking the Bishop of Bevois prisoner compleatly Armed, the Pope interceeded by Letter for the delivery of his dear Son, as he termed the Bishop, when the King in a merry humour sent his Habergeon Curiass, and the rest of his Armour he was taken in, and order'd the Bearers in the words of Josephs Brethren to say, This we found, see if it be thy Sons Coat or not: To which the Pope earnestly replyed, They belonged not to his Son, nor to a Son of the Church, but to some Imp of Mars, and therefore he should free himself as he could, for as for his part he would have no further hand in the matter; So that the Bishop was obliged to ran­som himself with a large sum, and soon after the King at Gysors gave the French a great overthrow, taking 100 Knights and Servetors on Horseback, thirty Men at Arms, 200 great Horses, whereof 140 had Barbs and Caparisons, armed with Plates of Iron, kill­ing a great number, many of the first Rank; and here the King in Person did wonders, bearing to the ground with his Lance Matthew d' Monmerancy Alan d' Rusci Foulk d' Giserval, and made them Prisoners, and after this Victory, it was that the King expressed him­self in these Words, that have since become the Motto of the Arms of England, viz. Diu & Mondroit, Not we, say he, have gained this Victory, but God and our Right: But now the fatal time approached that was to eclipse the Glories of this Prince in the shades of Death, for hearing the Count of Limogen had found in one of his Lordships a great Treasure of Silver, he sent to him for it, as properly belonging to the Sovereign, but the Count would not yeild to send him above one half, which incensing the King, he besieged him in his Castle of Chauluz, at which Seige he was shot by a square Arrow out of a Steel Bow into the Shoulder; yet he took the Castle, and the Arcubalaster, being brought [Page 91]before him, boldly owned the shot, alledging That the King with his own hand had killed his Father, and two Brethren, which incited him to revenge their deaths in an honourable way: Whereupon the King per­ceiving the undaunted confidence of this Ber­tram d' Guidon, not only forgave him the fact, but or­dered him 100 shillings, yet through the unskilful­ness of the Chirurgeons, the Wound proved Mortal; when the King perceiving his end to approach, he greatly bewailed his sins, and then receiving the Sa­crament, expired Anno 1199, having before given or­der that his Bowels should be buried amongst his rebel­lious Subjects of Poctiou, as those that deserved his worst part; his heart at Roan, which City had always been constant and loyal to him; and his Body at Font Everard, there to be laid at the Feet of his Fa­ther, to whom he had been some time disobedient, and for which he greatly reproved himself.

This Richard the First was King of England, Duke of Normandy, Guin and Aquitain; he began his Reign the sixth of July 1189, and reigned nine Years nine Months, dying in the 42 year of his Age, being the 26 sole Monarch of England, he was conttacted to Alice, Daughter to Lewis the seventh King of France. But falling passionately in love with Berengaria, Daugh­ter to Sanches the six King of Navar, he married her in the way to the Holy Land, whether she was ac­companying her Father, but had no Issue by her, yet he left behind him Philip and Isabel his natural Children.

Thus the stout Lyons Heart to Death did yeild,
Whose dreadful Arms had strew'd the bloody field
Of fruitful Palestine, no Infidel,
Nor French, nor Rebels could resist his Steel:
Victorious every where he did remain,
Cyprus he won, yet by an Arrow slain.

The Reign and Actions of John King of England, &c.

JOhn called by King Henry the Second, his Father, Lackland, as being out of hopes of the Crown, by reason so many Brothers were before him, was, notwithstanding Arthur his Eldest Brother Geofry's Son being alive, crowned upon the Death of King Richard, by Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury at Wes [...] ­minster, through the instance of Queen Eleanor, and most of the Nobles; yet the French King promoted great troubles in England, under pretence of Inthroan­ing the young Prince, yet for great sum he connived at his being delivered into his Uncles hands, so that upon new disturbances, occasioned as well by the Clergy as Laity, he was closely imprisoned. The Poctovians rebelling, the King prepared to quiet them, but as well the Clergy, as the Lay-peers, denied him assistance of Men and Money, or to wait on him in person, yet with such a Power as he could raise, with present Treasure, he passed the Seas, overthrew the Rebels, took the young Prince, who had escaped, pri­soner, with divers Peers, and two hundred French Knights, reducing all the revolted Towns to their obedience; so that Prince Arthur, now kept under stricter restraint than ever, died in prison, as some will have it, not without suspition of violence, which caused much murmuring amongst the people; and the French King laying hold of that opportunity, cited King John, as an Homager, for the Dukedom of Normandy, &c. to appear at a set time to be tried by his Peers, upon Articles of Murther and Treason; but the King disdaining to obey the Summons, he was pretendedly, by the French King and his Peers, disinherited and condemned in his absence; so that by reason of the Intestine Troubles, not being able to pass over with a sufficient Army, to repel the in­sulting French men, they seized upon many of his [Page]Towns and Castles, some by force, and others by treachery, yet quieting matters somewhat better at home, and getting a considerable sum of Money from the delinquent Barons, and such as had been in Re­bellion against him, and having moreover a Subsidy granted him, he prepared to pass the Seas, when in the mean while the French King, out of a bravado, sent a Knight, as his Champion, to challenge to single Combate any of the Kings Subjects, and in a mor­tal battle to justifie the proceedings of his Sender: To match this Braggadocia, John Curcy, Earl of Ul­ster in Ireland, who had some time before been brought prisoner into England, upon a revolt of the Irish, so that the King knowing him to be of a savage and untractable nature, went in person to propose this honourable undertaking; when looking on the King with a stern countenance, enough to strike ter­ror in the beholders, he said, In thy Quarrel I will nei­ther draw Sword, or fight a stroke; but for the honour of the Realm of England, I will shed my last drop of blood: Hereupon the day was appointed, and all things ordered to be in a readiness; but in the mean while the Monsieur geting knowledge of the Earls Gigantick Stature, and proportion of Limbs; as likewise the great quantities of Provisions he daily devoured, he thought it no boot to stay, and thinking it was not safe to return into France, he sneaked away and went for Spain; so that Philip of France ashamed of the dis­grace, sent to excuse it, yet new troubles, (as indeed this Kings Reign was a perpetual storm) arising, h [...] could not so soon get over Sea, as he expected; how ever, upon his coming, the French were terrified t [...] a degree of suing for peace, and it was, upon the re­linquishing sundry places they had taken accordingly so that the two Kings appointing an interview, an [...] the Irish Earl happening to be there, the French Kin [...] was very desirous to see a tryal of his strength, whe [...] placing a Steel Helmet upon a knotty trunk of Oa [...] the Irish man with a strong Sword, that no body b [...] [Page 93]himself could weld, after a dreadful sneer or two, let fly with so full a charge, that he cut not only the Helmet in two, but entred his Sword so far into the wood, that none but himself could pluck it out, when being asked by King John, [...] he looked so furiously before he gave the blow? his [...]ply was, That had he missed it, he would have killed not only the two Kings but all the spectators.

The Truce that the French made with the English at this time, served but to gain the greater advantage, by rendring King John more supine in his Affairs, for by degrees they encroached upon all Normandy, geting even the City of Roan it self, upon which Main Tourain Poctou revolted, nor could King John hinder it, having his hands full at home, and when he was about to go for Normandy, Habert, Arch-bishop of Canterbury suspected to be a Pentioner of King Philip, peremtorily forbid him to proceed in that voyage; and the Earls and Barons a second time denyed their Aid, insomuch, that the King, in a rage, seized upon some of their Estates, and grievously fined others; nor was it a little gainful to him, that Hubert the Arch-bishop dyed the same year, whose large Treasure the King [...]ook for the use of the Wars, but now an obstacle [...]rose: The Monks of Canterbury chose one Reginald for their Arch-bishop, who was Subprior of their Convent, yet the King opposed it, and presented John Grey, Bishop of Norwich, so that the Pope, upon no­ [...]ice of what had happened, rejected both, and went [...]bout to impose on them one Stephen d' Langton, whom the Monks for fear of the Pope's high Curse, wherewith they were threatned, received as their Arch-bishop; but the King knowing him to be one [...]f the French Faction, and that he would consequent­ [...] be prejudicial to his Affairs, could not be brought [...] hearken to it, though the Pope sent him a present [...]f Rings, with some flattering Comments on them [...]eclaring, That the Right and Power over all Chi [...] as in the See of Rome: But the King threatning, [Page] if he desisted not from such pretentions in England, he would stop all Monies that passed from hence to Rome; and thereupon a hot contest by Letters happening be­tween them, the old blade in a pet Interdicted the Kingdom, which the Bigottry of the times made the people think to be the greatest Malediction that could befal them; so that the Priests to strengthen their Ma­sters Power, and make him more dreadful to the World, lay idle for the space of six years and four­teen Weeks, in which time there was neither pub­lick preaching nor praying, no Administration of the Sacrament, Burial or Christning, by which we may plainly see, whatever the Papists pretend, as to the Sanctity of their infalible Father, how much he pre­fered his private revenge before the Service of God, and this he denyed not to Hereticks, but to Papists; so that the people, being greatly discouraged, many parts of the Kingdom lay untilled, and became, as it were desolate; when the King, on the other hand, prescribed the disloyal Clergy, confiscated their Tem­poralities, as also their Bishopricks, Abbies and Prio­ries, puting them into the hands of Lay-men, suffer­ing the Clergy to be oppressed without taking notice of it, or righting them by civil Justice, declaring they had, by obliging the Pope, put themselves out of hi [...] protection, yet some of the more prudent, as the Bi­shop of Durham, and his Successor, the Bishops of Win­chester and Norwich, incouraged the King, not to regard the Papal Curse as being weak and insignificant; like wise the Abbots of Cistercian Order took no notice o [...] it, but went on, as before, till such time as the Pop [...] suspended them, for that contempt, and the more t [...] shew his spleen, Anathamatized the King by name whereupon some, as well Nobles as Plebeans, diserte his service, for which, in a stout resolution, he b [...] ­nished and fined them, but wearied out with th [...] practices of the Clergy against him, and the Rebellio [...] of his Nobles, he concluded it was better to give wa [...] to the humour of a petish Pope, than to live in di [...] ­quiet, [Page 94]and daily hazard his Kingdom, whereupon Langton was offered to be confirmed, the other Bishops and Clergy restored, and that the Churches should have its Franchises, as in the time of Edward the Con­fessor, but not being willing (as indeed he was not at that time in a condition) to restore the Monies re­ceived for Ecclesiastical confiscations, the Legate sent by the Pope would not come to a conclusion.

This being the state of Affairs, and the Pope desirous to humble the King, discharged his Subjects from their fealty and Allegiance to him, which some taking as a good warrant, utterly disowned him for their King, and the Welsh thereupon took up Arms, which so in­raged the King, that he caused the 28 Hostages, which they had given for the security of their good behavi­our, to be hanged up at Notingham; but by this time the Barons had invited Lewis, Dauphin of France, to in­vade the Kingdom, promising to set the Crown upon his Head, when, in the mean time, while Stephen Langton and other Bishops implored the Popes assistance to settle the Church, which must otherways fall into ruine, whereupon he decreed that King John must be deposed ere it could be settled, sending to Philip the French King to take upon him the Crown and Kingdom, offering him a pardon for all his sins, in case he effected it. King John, upon notice of the spightful proceed­ings, prepared to oppose the French, or any other In­vader by Sea or Land; but in the mean time Pan­dulph the Pope's Legate came into England, and so wrought with the King, that he suffered himself, to prevent the storm, conditionally to be deposed, and at the Knight Templers house at Dover, he surrendred his Crown into the hands of the Legate (some say, whilst he kneeled, the proud Priest kicked it off with his foot) for the use of the Pope, and to be disposed as he thought fit, laying his Scepter, Sword and Ring at the Legates feet, and subscribed a Charter, whereby he resigned his Kingdom to the Pope, professing (but how sincerely I suffer the Reader to judge) he did it [Page]not through fear or force, but of his own voluntary ac­cord, as having no other way to make satisfaction to God, and the Church, for his offence, and from that time forward he would hold his Crown and Kingdom in fee of the See of Rome, at the A [...]al pension of 1000 Marks for England and Ireland (a very hard case, but necessity it seems has no Law) so that the Legate having gained his ends more favourable than he could reasonably expect, passed over for France, to put a stop to King Philip's preparations, but he declared that seeing the Pope had been the main Instrument in seting him on, and that the charge was already very great, he would not desist, though the Pope should Excommu­nicate him, and calling a Council of Peers, all but Fer­dinand Earl of Flanders, approved his intentions; and the Barons denied to aid him, till he was Assailed of the Excommunication, and that all their Laws and Li­berties granted by Henry the First were restored, which obliged the King to send divers rich Presents to Rome, thereby to allure the Pope, who upon the Receipt sent the Bishop of Tusculum, who would have perswaded him to have made over the Kingdom of England, but not only the Arch-bishop, but all the Peers of the King­dom opposed it, so that in Parliament it was Enact­ed, That since the King could not without the consent of Par­liament, bring his Kingdom and People to such a Thral­dom, therefore if the Pope should, in the future, attempt any such thing, they with their Lives and Fortunes were ready to oppose it. So that the Pope finding there was no good to be done this way, sent his Authentick Let­ters for the repealing the Edict, yet not without the re­stitution of 1300 Marks to the Clergy, most of which came to his Coffers, so that the King passed into his Transmarine Territories; but before he could quiet the disturbances, news came that the English Barons had bound themselves at the high Altar of St. Edmunds­bury by Oath, to pursue the King with Arms, till he had granted them their Charter of Liberties, granted in the Reign of Henry the First, whereupon he found himself [Page 95]necessitated to return, and finding they had not only seized London, but were otherways very formidable a Council to reconcile differences was held in Runing Marsh, between Stains and Windsor, since called Coun­cil Mead, and there he granted them Magna Charta, and Charta Forestae, and consented that 25 select Peers should command the rest, who were bound by Oath to be obedient, but the King long dijested not this abating of his Power, but withdrawing himself, he sent to com­plain of it to the Pope, as likewise to his Friends abroad for Aid, and was in both successful, for at Rome by a definitive Sentence the Barons Charters were made void, and both they and the King accursed, if either of them observed the conclusion of the Treaty in Council Mead; he likewise had considerable Forces sent him from Gascoin, Brabant and Flanders, so that he again took the Field, dividing his Army in two parts, when himself marching Northward, and the Earl of Salisbury Southward, they brought all into subjection, and al­though the Barons were excommunicated, yet they slighted it, and incouraged the City of London, which was Interdicted for adhearing to their Interests; and sent to Lewis, Dauphin of France, their Letters of Al­legiance confirmed with their Seals, intreating King Philip, his Father, to send him in order to take posses­sion of the English Diadem, but the Pope advertised of what was in hand, sent his Apostolick commands to Philip, charging him not to suffer his Son to molest St. Peter's Patrimony, with a Curse upon such as should assist him, but it prevailed not, for the hot-headed Prince sent over with a Fleet of 600 Ships and 80 Boats landing in Kent, where he joyned the Barons, where­upon the King retired towards Winchester, and the Dau­phin came to London, where he was received in triumph, the Citizens doing him homage, as did the Barons at Westminster, he swearing to them, That he would restore all men their Rights, and recover to the Crown whatever King John had lost; so that most important places submitted.

During these Transactions, the King ruined the [Page 96]Houses and Castles of the Barons in Arms, and set for­ward from Lyn in Norfolk to give them battle; but passing the Washes, the Floods destroyed most of his Baggage, with many of his Soldiers, which obliged him to desist: But the Barons not having their rents paid, began to look back, and perceiving their services slight­ed by the Dauphin, and the places of trust bestowed on his French-men; they thought it high time to recon­cile themselves to their King, which was hasten­ed by the discovery the Viscount d' Melun made upon his Death-bed, viz. That Lewis had sworn, when esta­blished on the Throne, to condemn the Barons to perpetual banishment, as Traytors to their King, and utterly root out their Kindred, so that forty of them immediately addressed their Letters of humble sub­mission to the King, but it so unfortunately fell out, that he was dead before they arrived.

The death of this King is variously reported, some will have it to be of a Flux, others of a Surfeit, but Writers of best credit say, that coming to Swinstead Abby, after his great loss in the Washes, and seeing the liberal profuseness of the Monks, whilst his Army was in a manner half starved, he said in a pet, holding a Loaf in his hand, That if he lived but half a year, he would make it 12 times as dear, which being overheard by a Monk, he mixed poison in a Cup of Wine, and served it to the King, as he was at dinner, by the force whereof he died; some again will have it to be done by intoxicated Fruit.

This John was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy, Guyen and Aquitain, sixth Son of King Hen­ry the Second by Q. Eleanor, and 27 sole Monarch of England, he began his Reign on the 6th of April, Anno 1199, reigned 17 years 6 months and 13 days, dying of poison, the 19. of October, 1216.

Thus from a troubled Throne King John descends,
And in his Grave all toil and trouble ends:
There factious Subjects, Popes, nor Galick Arms
Disturb his rest, with their too rude alarms.
Death can alone from cares of state give rest,
The slumbring Grave is with no fears opprest.

The Reign and Actions of Henry the III. King of England, &c.

KIng John being dead, the Barons almost with one voice and consent, notwithstanding Lewis was yet in the Land with his Army, chose Henry, eldest Son to the deceased, King, about Ten years of Age, Crowning him nine days after his Fathers Death, and the Earl of Pembroke was constituted his Guardian, who raised an Army and marched against the French, giving them a great overthrow near Lincoln, taking several of the Barons that stood out with about 400 Knights and Esquires Pri­soners, besides a great Booty the French had scraped together in plundering the Country, and many of the French that scattered from the Battel were kil­led by the Peasants; nor was the Fleet, appointed to bring Supplies out of France better treated; for being met by the English, most of the French Ships were burnt, sunk, or taken, so that the Dauphin was obliged, with such Forces as he could Rally, to shut himself up in London, whither he was fol­lowed by the Earl, and besieged by Water and Land; which made the Monsieur begin to think of a timely Capitulation: The substance was, That Lewis, and the Barons in Arms should submit to the Censure of the Church, and that then he, and as many as would goe with him, should be per­mitted to depart the Land, with a Promise never to return again, in a design of harming it; and that he should use his Interest with his Father, that such things as belonged to the English Crown, and were wrongfully detained, should be restored, and that when himself should be King of France he should peaceably part with them; and that he should im­mediately render to Henry all Castles and Places ta­ken in England, during the War. To this Lewis [Page 98]swore, and for the better security of the Barons that had been in Rebellion, Wallo the Legate, the Earl of Pembroke, and the young King swore they should be restored, as well the Barons as others, to all their Rights and Inheritances, with their Liber­ties before demanded of King John; that none of the Laity should suffer damage or reproach for the Side or Party they had taken; and that the Prisoners taken in War, or by Surprize, should be released. Upon this Lewis the Dauphin, and as many of his Followers as were left, passed into France; yet the Kingdom was molested by sundry turbulent Persons, whom no Concessions, nor Favours, could oblige; and amongst these were William Earl of Aumarle, Robert de Veipont, &c. which encouraged the Welsh to raise new Broils on the Frontiers: And soon after one Arnulph, a Citizen of London, with divers others, Conspiring to call in Lewis a second time; Arnulph and two others were hanged, and several had, for the like Attempt, their Hands or Feet cut off, and the Barons finding their Liberties but slowly confirmed, began to murmur.

Lewis extreamly vexed for the disgrace he had suffered in England, upon the Death of his Father, though contrary to his Oath seized upon Rochel, and the County of Poictu, both appertaining to the English, and the true Cause he excused by pretend­ing King Henry, as Homager of Aquitain, should have attended at his Coronation; but that he nei­ther did it in Person, nor shewed any Reason for his being absent, by his Ambassadors. These Pro­ceedings made King Henry, n [...] at Age, Call a Par­liament, which granted him Supply, in order to raise an Army for the recovery of his Right, but that not proving sufficient, though he that Summer vanquished the French in a set Battel, he pressed about 5000 Marks from the Londoners above their Fifteenths, and the Clergy were not exempted, but [Page 99]under pain of the papal Censure, obliged to pay the Tax of Fifteenths; but the greatest Summe he rai­sed was by revoking the Charters and Liberties, ex­cusing it by declaring they were granted in his non­age: But this begat Hubert de Burgo, his chief Ju­stice, who advised him to it, a very great hatred a­mongst the People; however, the King with the Money thus gotten, raised an Army, and sailed for Britany, winning many Places, and driving them from their Encroachments; but the Irish rebelling he was constrained to return sooner than he purposed; but upon notice of his Preparations, the Irish laid down their Arms, and sneaked into their Eogs. He about the same time quieted the Welsh that began to be mutinous; and now it was that the Bishop of Winchester, and others, found an opportunity to ac­cuse Hubert de Burgo of many high Crimes and Mis­demeanours, upon which he fled, but being taken at Brent Wood in Essex, he was brought bound to London, and Imprisoned in the Tower; when in his Place, as chief Counsellour and Confident, the King ordained Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, but he being a Foreigner by Birth, so greatly favoured Strangers, that he procured them to be put into Offices, and the most important Trusts of the Kingdom; which made the English Noblemen con­federate against him, and the King summoning them to Parliament, they sent him word that if out of hand he removed not the Bishop of Winchester, and Strangers, out of his Court, they would drive both him and them out of the Kingdom; and ha­ving removed him, with his evil Counsellours, they would consult about Creating a new King. But a­nimated by the Bishop of Winchester, his Confident, the King marched to Gloucester with an Army, and sending for them by Name, such as appeared not he burnt their Mannors, and gave their Inheritan­ces to his Strangers; which made the Earl-Marshal [Page 100]and others that stood out, contract a strict Alliance with Lewellin Prince of Wales, and by way of Repri­sal fell upon the Possessions of the Kings Favourites, burning some Towns, and many Castles; but the Earl-Marshal crossing the Seas to recover his confis­cated Possessions in Ireland, was there wounded, and of that wound he dyed; whose Death, instead of Rejoycing the King, as some expected, made him on the contrary burst into Tears, declaring. That he had not left his peer in England; and the King plainly perceiving the People's hatred in general a­gainst the Bishop, commanded him not to meddle any farther in Matters of State; and finding the necessity of it, he laid aside Peter Rivalis, his Lord-Treasurer, commanding the Poictuovians to depart the Land: But the Disquiets ended not in this man­ner, for the Pope perceiving the English Clergy did not greatly stickle for his Interest and Advantage, he, the better to support his Usurpation, sent over 300 Romans requiring they should be placed in the first Benefices, as they became vacant, at the same time, demanding great Summes of Money of the Clergy, for the Maintenence of his Wars against the Emperour, the which though at first denied, was at length complyed with; and soon after the Pope, as he alledged out of a Curiosity from a Report, he had heard of the Country's Fertility and Plea­santness, was greatly desirous to come over and see it, making his Suit to the King that he might be admitted: but the Council considering he had some sinister end in it, not only the Laity but the Clergy opposed it.

In the year 1240 Richard Earl of Cornwall, with the Earls of Lincoln, Salisbury, Pembroke, Chester, and others, departed, with a great Train, to the Holy-Land; and two years after, King Henry passed the Seas to recover Poictou, but spent a great deal of Treasure without effecting any thing memorable, [Page 101]which made him in his Return levy grievous Taxes to supply his Coffers, and above all he sate heavy upon the Jews, who were then great Usurers in this Kingdom, draining them of what they had unlawful­ly gotten: He likewise retrenched the Expences of his House, condescending to such a meanness, that to save Charges, he would invite himself, and his Court, frequently to the Houses of such wealthy Persons as he thought best able to give him Enter­tainment; getting likewise a great Summe of the Parliament, under pretence of going to the Holy-Land, and for his consenting again to restore the Liberties and Charters.

Anno 1257. Richard Earl of Cornwall, the King's Brother, was chosen King of the Romans, by the Electoral Princes, and with King Henry's consent passed into Germany; yet he was obliged to purchase this Leave with a great Summe of Money, as being accounted one of the richest Princes in Europe. He was Crowned King of the Romans at Aquisgrave, and received the Honour due to his Character, from all the Princes and Estates of the Empire. But af­ter his Departure new Differences arose between King Henry and his Nobles, upon the Account of the Return of Strangers, contrary to the Agree­ment, so that they came armed to the Parliament at Oxford, binding themselves by Oath, to have Things of that nature regulated; and the King, the better to quiet them without bloud-shed, together with Prince Edward his Son, was there content; and the wide Differences being referred to a Parliament, appointed to meet at London, they were cemented: But the Peace continued not long, e [...] upon new Disgusts, both Sides prepared for War; so that the King seizing upon Oxford, turned out the Students, of that University, to the number of 15000, whose Names were entered in the Matriculation Book; which made many of them take part with the Ba­rons, [Page 102]and imbody themselves under a peculiar Stan­dard; so that when the King broke into Northamp­ton, where part of the Confederate Army lay, the Students bore the brunt of the Battel, and killed more Men than all the rest of the Soldiers; which so incensed King Henry, that he vowed a sharp Re­venge; but being told they were many of them the Sons and Kinsmen of the Noblemen in his Army, and that such Rigour would alienate them from him, he retracted his Resolution: Yet height­ned with this Success, he pursued the Barons to Not­tingham, burning, and wasting their Possessions; which made them seek for Peace; declaring, by a submissive Letter, their Loyalty to him, and that they had no Design against his Person, but their Quarrel was to his evil Counsellors, the known E­nemies of the Kingdom. But the King reproaching them by the Name of Traitors, sent them word, that the Injury done to his Friends he took as done to himself, and therefore held them as theirs, and his own Enemies; so that no good understanding being towards the Armies, drew out, and en­gaged in a mortal Battel, wherein Prince Edward the King's eldest Son behaved himself with much Bravery, routing the Battalion, composed of Lon­doners, and following the pursuit four Miles; which notwithstanding was prejudicial to his Father, for in the mean while the King's Horse was slain under him, and he made Prisoner, together with his Bro­ther, the King of the Romans, who a little before returned to England, for the security of his Possessi­ons; so that the Prince not being able to restore the Battel, Victory fell to the Barons, and the next day a Truce was concluded; yet Simon de Monfort, Earl of Leicester, who headed the Baron's Army, carrying the King about with him as his Prisoner, got into his hands all the strong Holds.

These Proceedings in England putting a stop to [Page 103]the Pope's Revenue, he sent Cardinal Ottobon, his Legate, to Excommunicate the Barons, but they for a while despised it; yet soon after falling out a­mongst themselves, many of them came over to Prince Edw. who had taken the Field with an Army; so that he enclosed the Earl of Leicester's Camp at Evesham, and obliged him to battel, where the Earl lost the day with his Life, and had his Head, Hands, and Feet chopped off, as a mark of Infamy. By this Overthrow the King was rescued, and set at liber­ty; when to heal the long Divisions a Parliament was called at Winchester, by whose Approbation the King seized the Charters of London, and other Ci­ties and Towns that had proved disloyal; and the Legate proceeded to excommunicate the Bishops of Winchester, London, Worcester, and Chichester, for ta­king part with the King's Enemies. And now Prince Edward, with a great Train, took a Journey to the Holy Land, and the King more firmly to settle the Nation, called a Parliament at Marlborough, where the Statutes called by the name of the place were enacted; but having been at Norwich to quiet a tu­mult, and punish such as had burnt the Priory Church, upon his return he fell sick at the Abby of St. Edmund in Suffolk, and after a short Languish­ment dyed, Anno 1272. from whence he was con­veyed to Westminster, and there buried in the Ab­bey.

This Henry, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Guyenne and Aquitain, was eldest Son to King John; his Wife was Eleanor, Daughter of Ray­mond, Earl of Provence, by whom he had Issue Ed­ward, Edmund, Richard, who dyed young, also John, William, and Henry, Margaret, married to Alexander the Third, King of Scotland, Beatrix, married to John the First, Duke of Bretaigne, and Katharine, who dyed young. He began his Reign the 19th of October, 1216. and reigned 56 Years, and 28 Days, being [Page 104]the 65th Year of his Age; he was the 27th sole Mo­narch of England. He was very charitably given, and founded many Churches and Religious Houses. In his time four Suns appeared from the Rising to the Setting; after which followed a great Famine, and eighteen Jews were hanged for crucifying a Child, and others severely punished for circumcising another that had been christened.

Thus dyed Third Henry, when on England's Stage
H'ad sway'd the Sceptre near a long liv'd Age,
The longest Reign the Nation e'er beheld,
Yet Life wound off by time the Cedar's fell'd.

The Reign and Actions of Edward the First, King of England, &c.

KIng Edward, at the death of his Father Henry, was warring in the Holy Land, where he did Wonders in his own Person, insomuch that the Sa­razens dreading his Prowess, the Governour of Da­mascus, under a feigned Friendship, sent a Villain to assassinate him who seeming as if he was about to deliver him a Letter, stabbed him in three places in the Arm with a poisoned Dagger, and had re­peated the Wounds, but that the Prince struck him down with his Foot, whereupon his Guards came in, and cut the Wretch in pieces as he lay on the floor; yet these wounds by the Chirurgions were accoun­ted mortal, unless some one would hazard his own Life, by sucking out the Poison; but when every one shrunk back, Eleanor his Wife, who would by no means be persuaded from accompanying him in that tedious Journey, chearfully undertook it, and effected the Cure without any Injury done to her self; for which generous Undertaking he raised [Page 105]Crosses, and Monuments, to her Memory in En­gland.

The News of his Father's death no sooner reach­ed him, but setling the Affairs of the War, he re­turned to England, where together with his Queen, he was crowned by Robert Kilwarby, Archbishop of Canterbury, at whose Coronation 500 Horses were let loose in a large Forest, to be possessed by those that first caught them; and upon notice the Welsh were in Arms, he marched against them, overthrew and slew Lewelin, their Prince, in a great Battel, whose Head, crowned with Ivy, was set upon the Tower, and utterly subduing those Mountainiers, he made his Son Edward, born amongst them at Ca­ernarvon, Prince of the Country: And going for France he sate as a Peer of that Kingdom, in consi­deration of the Lands and Territories he held there, and upon his return banished the Jews, to the num­ber of 15000, for bringing in base Money, and ex­acting Extortion.

Alexander the Third, King of Scotland, who had married King Edward's Sister, being dead, and the Lords Bruce and Baliol, for want of other Heirs, standing in competition for the Kingdom, Edward, by his Authority, became Umpire, and adjudged it to the latter, promising to support his Right by Arms, for which he was to become his Homager; but that Prince being in the Throne, to please his Peo­ple, who feared the English Greatness might be pre­judicial to them, hearkened to Proposals with France, and suffered his People to enter the North parts of of England with Fire and Sword; Edward drove them back with great slaughter, entering Scotland, and making such terrible Destruction, that the Cities and Towns for the most part surrendred, the Scotch Nobles sued for Peace, and in the Parliament held at Berwick they acknowledged him their King, swearing to be true Subjects to him for ever after, sealing a [Page 106]solemn Instrument to that purpose; whereupon King Edward leaving John de Warren, Earl of Surry, and Sussex, as his Viceroy in that Kingdom, sent John Baliol, the late King, Prisoner to the Tower of Lon­don, and brought away with him the Crown, Scep­tre, and Cloth of State, burning their Records, ab­rogating their Laws, altering the Form of their Di­vine Service, and transplanting their learned Men to Oxford: He brought likewise the Marble Chair, wherein the Kings of Scotland were wont to be crow­ned, from the Abbey of Schone, and sent it to West­minster, upon which is written this prophetical Di­stich:

Ni fallat Fatum, Scoti quocunque locatum
Invenient Lapidem, regnare tenetur ibidem.
Where'er this Stone the Scot shall placed find,
There shall he reign, for there his Rule's assign'd.

This was verified in King James the first, upon the uniting the Kingdoms, but more of that in his Reign.

King Edward going into France to recover such places as the French had taken in the latter end of his Father's Reign, and refused to restore, especial­ly in Gascoign, the Scots rebelled, and under the lea­ding of one William Wallis fell upon the English at an advantage, near Striveling Bridge, and put them to the rout, killing amongst others Hugh de Cressing­ham, the Treasurer, and having flead him, divided his Skin in parcels amongst them, as a Trophie of their Revenge, and committed many other outra­ges, which hastened the King's Return; at which time he summoned a Parliament at York, giving the Scots a day to appear, but they neglecting it, and refusing to acknowledge they ought so to doe, he with a powerfull Army entred Scotland, and being [Page 107]about to charge the Enemy, as he was mounting his Horse startled, and threw him, breaking by a spurn of his Heel two of the King's Ribs, yet without de­lay he remounted, and gave them Battel, charging quite through their Army with such slaughter, that in a very short time they were all in Rout and Con­fusion; so that in this Action near Fawkirk 70000 Scots are reported to be slain, after which most of the strong places yielded to King Edward, when re­turning victorious to England, he in Parliament re­stored Mogna Charta, and Charta Forestae, agreeing that no Tax or Subsidy should be levied upon the People, but by the Consent of Prelates, Peers and Commons in Parliament, and in the end of his Grants left out Salvo jure Coronae nostrae, viz. Saving the rights of our Crown; and at the earnest entreaty of the Pope, he set Baliol at Liberty. And now the King being desirous absolutely to subject and annex Scotland to the Crown of England, raised another powerfull Army, against which the Scots not able to make head, retired, and as their last refuge entreated the Pope to send his Letters of Inhibition, which accor­dingly were sent; but the King was so far from re­garding them, that he in a great passon swore he would not desist; ahd when they urged it farther, that if he persevered, the Pope would take it upon himself, he with a disdainfull Smile replied. What! Have you done Homage to me as to the chief Lord of Scotland, and do you now suppose that I can be terrified with Threatenings, as if (like one that had no Power to compell) I would let the right which I have go out of my Hands. Let me hear no more of this, for if I do, I swear by the Lord I will consume all Scotland from Sea to Sea. This resolute Protestation so terrified the Scots, that they only replied, For the Justice and Rights of their Countrey they were ready to shed their Bloud; and the King, to justifie his Proceeding, sent the Earl of Lincoln to Rome, so that by the Influence of the Pope [Page 108]a Truce was concluded from all Saints to Whitsuntide; but the Pope not so contented, before the Truce was expired, declared himself in favour of the Scots, whereupon King Edward, in a Parliament holden at Lincoln, by the General Consent defended his Proceedings with a Protestation, that they had not exhibited any thing to the Court of Rome, as in form of Judgment or submitting to the Tryall of his Cause, but rather for the satisfaction of its Merit and Justice; and when the Pope required the King to stand to his decision for matter of Claim; the Peers, to whom the King had entirely referred it, signified to the Pope, that the King of England was not to answer in Judgment for any rights of the Crown before any Tribunal under Heaven, and that by sending Deputies and Attornies to that purpose, he should make the Truth and Justice of his Cause doubtfull, forasmuch as it manifestly tended to the Disinherision of the Crown, which with the help of God they would maintain against all Men: And this was subscribed at Lincoln, Anno 1301. by no less than 100 Peers; so that Pope Boniface the Third per­ceiving no good to be done, and loth to break with England, gave over his Pretensions, and left the Scots to make the best of their business; whereup­on the King made the Lord Segrave Custos of that Kingdom; but the Scots thereupon growing impa­tient, took Arms, and overthrowing the Custos, took him Prisoner, but he was soon rescued by Sir Robert Nevil; yet this made King Edward set for­ward with an Army, which brought such a Terrour upon Scotland, that he marched through the King­dom from Roxborow to Cathiness, 300 miles, with­out the lest resistence; for those that were in Arms betook themselves, upon his approach, to the Woods and Mountains.

The King thus absolute in Scotland, had for a summe of Money Wallis, their Ring-leader, delive­red [Page 109]into his hands; so that at Westminster being found guilty of Treason in rebelling against the King his law full Sovereign, he was hanged and quar­tered, his Quarters sent into Scotland, and set up in divers remarkable places; after whose death Bruce, that had contended with Baliol for the Kingdom, hea­ded the Scots, and gathered a considerable Army, but was routed by Aymery de Valence, one of King Edward's Captains, and forced into the Orcades, where he lived an obscure Life, with much hard­ship, till he found another opportunity to head his Countrey-men, and did many noble Exploits, which drew King Edward to oppose him; but in his way he fell sick at Carlisle, where finding the near approach of Death, he charged his Son Edward, who was to succeed him, that he should be industrious to bring the Scots under the English Obedience, and that he should carry his Bones along with him through Scot­land, the better to render him victorious; comman­ding on pain of his Curse, not without common consent to recall out of Banishment Pierce Gavestone, and farther enjoining him to send his Heart into the Holy Land, accompanied with 149 Knights, and their Train; to which end he had laid up two thou­sand pounds of Silver, and that upon pain of Dam­nation the Money should be turned to no other use; then removing from Carlisle to Bury upon the Sands, he there dyed of a Dissentery, anno 1307. and his Body buried at Westminster,

This Edward the First was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitain, &c. eldest Son to Hen­ry the Third by Eleanor his Queen; his first Wife was Eleanor Daughter to Ferdinand the Third, King of Castile, by whom he had Issue John, Henry, and Alphons, all dying young, Edward, who succeeded him; Eleanor married to Henry the Third, Earl of Barrie; Joan married to Gilbert Clare, Earl of Hereford and Gloucester; Margaret married to [Page 110] John the Second, Duke of Brabant; Berenger, Alice, and then Mary, who at the earnest Entreaty of her Grandmother, became a veiled Nun at the Age of Ten years; Elizabeth first married to John Earl of Holland and Zealand, then to Humfrey Bohun, Earl of Hartford and ctssex,; then Beatrix, and Blanch. By his Second Wife Margaret, Daughter to Philip the Hardy, King of France, he had Issue Thomas Earl of Norfolk, and Earl Marshal of England, Edmund Earl of Kent, and Eleanor, who dyed young; he began his Reign on the 16th of November, anno 1272. and reigned 34 Years, 7 Months, and 12 days, dying in the 35th year of his Reign, and the 69th of his Age.

Thus did grim Death close up our Monarch's eyes,
From whom no mortal Might could take the Prize,
In Arms renowned, the World his Fame has heard,
Belov'd by most, and by all Mankind fear'd.

The Reign and Actions of Edward the Second, King of England, &c.

THis King, from the place of his Birth, was cal­led Edward of Caernavon; he began his Reign anno 1307, and prosecuting the Wars of Scotland, he obliged many of the Scotch Nobility to doe him Homage at Dumsreize, and upon his return he im­prisoned Walter Bishop of Chester, seizing upon all his Goods and Credits, for causing by his Complaint the Banishment of Gaveston, in the Reign of Edward the First, as likewise himself to be restrained in his disorderly way of living: Then passing the Seas, he at Bulloign in France married young Isabel, Daugh­ter to Philip the Fair. King of France, and returned with her in a most splendid manner, bringing back [Page 111]with him Gaveston, his darling Favourite, who was a Gentleman Stranger brought up with him in his youth, and now under the Influence of the King be­gan to be so imperious, that the Nobility was set a­gainst him, yet the King, who thought nothing too dear for his Minion, not only upheld him, but sup­plied him with Treasure to the highest Profuseness, giving him his Jewels, and wishing nothing more than that he might succeed him in the Throne, which obliged the Parliament to pass an Act for his perpetual Banishment, but had much difficulty to get it passed by the King; nor did he doe it but to pass another, giving him a great Summe of Money, however with reluctancy he signed it; yet he would suffer his Privado whom he had made Earl of Corn­wall to be no farther from him than Ireland, where he maintained him in a splendid manner, and with­in a while called him to Court, and married him to Joan of Acres, Countess of Gloucester, his Sisters Daughter, which made him more insolent than e­ver, consuming the King's Treasure in Feasts, Plays, and other Riotous Proceedings, at such a rate, that there was not enough left to supply the necessities of the Court, drawing the King likewise into such De­baucheries, that the Queen finding her self sensibly injured, reproved him at first with mildness, but finding that ineffectual, she openly complained; so that Gaveston was a third time banished; yet he staid not long before the King privately sent for him, making him principal Secretary of State, which so incensed as well the Bishops as the Temporal Lords, that they resolved to expell him by Force of Arms, chusing for their Leader Thomas Earl of Lancaster, and at Dathington, whither his Fear had driven him, he was surprized by Guy Earl of Warwick, who con­veyed him to Blacklow, where several of the Nobles consulting, that if he was set at Liberty he would work their Ruine with the King, they proceeded to [Page 112]prevent it, and without any formal Tryall caused his head to be struk off, which greatly incensed the King, and raised in him a mortal Enmity against those Lords, yet by the Mediation of Gilbert Earl of Gloucester they were seemingly forgiven.

The Scots about this time rising in arms under David Bruce, whom they had chosen their King, or Leader, entering England, and doing great Mischief in Northumberland. King Edward marched against them; but in this expedition many of the discon­tented Lords refused to aid him, under pretence that he had delayed to ratifie their Liberties and Charters, through which defect he received a great overthrow near Bannocksbourn; for there the two Armies joining, the crafty Scots had in divers places made deep Trenches, covering them with rotten Hurdles and Earth, so that the English Chavalry pressing on, fell into those Pits, and were gored up­on the sharp Stakes that were placed at the bottom; and although the King behaved himself with much bravery, refusing to leave the field till he was for­ced thence by his Friends, yet the Earl of Gloucester, the Lord Clifford, and about seven hundred Knights and Esquires, with a great number of common Sol­diers, were slain, many Nobles taken Prisoners, to­gether with a large Booty; and this was the grea­test Advantage the Scots ever gained over the En­glish, which encouraged them to make deeper In­roads with whom some of the discontented English joined, while King Edward in the most solemn Pomp interred the Body of Gaveston at Kings-Langley in Hertfordshire, and soon after instead of one he raised up two Privadoes, or Favourites, viz. the Spencers, Father and Son, who perceiving themselves high in the King's Favour, instead of taking warning by the Fate of Gaveston, they strove to exceed him to pride and Arrogance, which soon procured them the ha­tred of the Nobles to such a degree, that the King [Page 113]could not consider himself in Safety till he had con­sented to their Banishment. But now the Queen, who had hitherto been a Mediatrix between the King and his Barons, being denied a Night's Lodg­ing in one of the Baron's Castles, she so highly re­sented the Affront, that her former good Offices were changed into Studies of Revenge; and in this humour she laboured with the King to ruine those she a little before had sought to protect; and the King easily exasperated, soon consented to pleasure her to his Power; and therefore to cross the Barons, he caused the Judgment against the Spencers to be reversed.

Some of the delinquent Lords, fearing the Storm that threatened them, submitted to the King, others were taken Prisoners as the two Roger Mortimers, Fa­ther and Son, and committed to the Tower, but the rest resolved to stand out under the Leading of the Earl of Lancaster, but they were overthrown at Bur­rough-bridg where Humphrey de Bohun was slain by a Spear from under the Bridge. And the Earl, with other principal Men to the number of Ninety, or upwards, most of them Barons and Knights were taken Prisoners by Andrew de Herkerly, Captain of Carlisle; for which Service he was afterward created Earl of that place.

These Noble Prisoners were not long confined be­fore they too sensibly felt the King's Anger, for be­ing pushed on by the Queen, the Spencers, and other Court Favourites; he caused the Earl of Lancaster, his Unkle to be beheaded at Pontefract, where he stayed five hours upon the Scaffold before the She­riff could procure an Executioner, and the Ba­rons and Knights were hanged and quartered in di­vers places. And here the Queen had her Revenge; for the Lord Badelmere, who refused her the Lod­ging, being taken amongst others, was hanged be­fore it; so that by this rigorous Execution most of [Page 114]the Noble English Bloud supplyed the thirsty Earth with too precious a draught: But it appears that this Cruelty was rather an Act of the Courtiers, than done by the King's natural Inclination; for one of a mean family being taken in the Rebellion, and the Favourites pleading earnestly for his Pardon, the King, in a great rage reviled them in these terms, viz. A plague upon you cursed Whisperers, malitious Backbi­ters, wicked Counselors! Intreat you for the Life of a most notorious Knave, who would not speak one word for the Life of my near Kinsman, that most noble Knight, Earl Thomas? By the Soul of God this Fellow shall dye the death he has deserved; and accordingly he was ex­ecuted.

In the Year 1322. The King, to revenge former Injuries, marched with a great Army into Scotland, but through the neglect of his Purveyors a great Scarcity of Provision happening, he was constrained, without performing any memorable Action to make his Retreat; nor was the Scots so contented, but falling on his Rear, not only cut off a great many of his Men, but obliged him to leave his Baggage, with much Treasure, as a Prey to them. But now the Pope, in favour of England, having interdicted Scotland, a Truce was concluded between the two Kingdoms for thirteen Years, and so ended this te­dious War, and the King had leisure to make his Progress through the several Counties of York, Lan­caster, and the Marches of Wales, punishing such as had been in the former Rebellion, and amongst o­thers, Andrew de Herkerley, was drawn, hanged, and quartered, for taking part with the Scots. But now a greater Storm began to gather; for young Morti­mer making his Escape out at a Window, and swim­ming the River of Thames, fled beyond the Seas, and joined himself to other Fugitives, and banished En­glish; and not long after the Spencers oppressing the Kingdom, and setting the King against the [Page 115]Queen, she, under a pretence of Visiting her Fa­ther's Court at Paris, found means, with her Son Edward, to get beyond the Seas, and refused, upon the King's sending for her, to return, till she, joi­ning with Mortimer, her dear Fovourite, and other Lords, raising a considerable Power, and holding Correspondence with the Lords that yet were disaf­fected in England, landed in a hostil manner, and marched against the King, who was preparing to op­pose her, seizing upon many considerable Towns.

The King by this Proceeding finding himself in distress, and that the Londoners, and many of the Lords, had declared against him, setting the Priso­ners every where at Liberty, and recalling those that were banished, thought it good to avoid co­ming to Battel; whereupon the Queen, with her Forces, sate down before Bristol, took it, and there­in Spencer the Elder, whom she caused to be cut up alive, after being dragged through the Streets for the Satisfaction of the People, who mortally hated him. And now the King finding himself in a man­ner forsaken, fled into Wales, and there for a time lay secret in the Abby of Neath; but in the end be­ing discovered, and with him the younger Spencer, Robert Baldok, Chancellour, and Simon de Reading; the King hereupon was conveyed to Kenelworth Castle, and the Lords to Hereford, where the Queen lay, and there Spencer and Reading being condemned by Sir William Trussel, Lord Chief Justice on that occa­sion, they were hanged.

The Confederates with the Queen having in this manner imprisoned the King, and not conceiving it safe to set him at Liberty, resolved amongst them­selves to make Edward his Son, a Prince of about thirteen years of Age, King, and thereupon sent Sir William Trussel to the Castle where the King was Prisoner, to acquaint him with what was intended, which put him into a mortal Agony, from whence [Page 116]being recovered, he greatly lamented and bewailed his hard Fate; however Trussel being instructed what to doe, proceeded to unking him in these words: I William Trussel, in the Name of all Men of the Land of England, and of all the Parliament, Procurator, do resign to thee Edward the Homage that was made to thee some time, and from this time forward I deprive thee, and defie thee of all Power Royal, and I shall never be tendent to thee after this time. Anno Dom. 1327.

And here, following the Rule of other Historians, we put an End to his Reign, though he lived in Captivity, as we shall have occasion to mention in the Reign of his Son.

This Edward the Second was King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitain, and fourth Son of Edward the First, by Eleanor his Queen; he be­gan his Reign the 7th of June, Anno 1307. and reigned 19 Years, 6 Months, and 18 days, and was the 30th sole Monarch of England; he was murthe­red Anno 1327. in the 20th Year of his coming to the Crown, and the 41st of his Age, and afterward buried at Gloucester: His Wife was Isabel, Daugh­ter to Philip the Fair, King of France, and by her he had Issue Edward of Windsor, John of Eltham, Joan married to David Bruce, and Eleanor married to Rey­nold Duke of Guelder. In his time there happened a very great Famine throughout England, with ma­ny strange Sights, betokening the Woes and Miseries that after followed, &c.

Thus by misguided Zeal a Monarch fell,
Ʋndone by Parasites he lov'd too well;
Hard Fate of Princes! that in time wont see
Their Friends from Foes, untill they ruin'd be.

The Reign and Actions of Edward the Third, King of England, &c.

EDward the Third, though scarcely of sufficient years of Discretion to know what belonged to the Titles or Rights of Crowns and Kingdoms, had however more compassion on his afflicted Father than the Queen his Mohter had on her Husband; for young as he was, when he heard what had hap­pened, he greatly bewailed his Misfortune, vowing never to take upon him the Government, unless the King freely consented to resign without compulsion; nor could they constrain him to it, but with threats that they would utterly reject the whole Line, and chuse a King out of the Nobility, though of ano­ther Family.

Upon these Considerations the young King, eight days after his Father's Resignation, was crowned with the usual Ceremonies; but the old King being yet alive, and the People compassionating his Cap­tivity, his Deposers thought themselves no ways se­cure, especially Mortimer, who was suspected to be over familiar with the Queen, and from that time they fell to plotting his death; in order to which Mortimer procured an express from the young King to remove him, under pretences of Friendship and Advantage, but indeed that he might put him into such hands as he was sure would dispatch him, and thereupon he was conveyed to Berkley Castle, when by the way, for fear he should be rescued by the People, who had yet some remains of Love for him, they set him on a Mole-hill, in order to shave him, for the better disquise, and in an insulting manner told him, That the Water of the next Ditch should accommodate him for that purpose, to which the sorrowfull King replied, That there should be warm Water whether they would or not, and thereupon [Page 118]sent forth a floud of Tears, and being arrived at Berkley Castle, in the Custody of Thomas Gurney, and John Matravers, he was murthered by them, or such as they appointed, in this barbarous manner, viz. being bound to a bed with his face downwards they thrust a hollow Horn into his Fundament, and through that, to prevent any burning or searing in the outward parts, they thrust an Iron Instrument, red hot, twisting it amidst his Bowels, till with hor­rible pain and torment, amidst crys and groans he expired. And this Wickedness Historians record to be acted upon Mortimer's sending an ambiguous Sentence, prepared by Adam Torleton, Eishop of Hereford, to such as kept the Castle, viz.

Edvardum occedere nolite t [...]mere bonum est
To kill King Edward refuse to be afraid is good

This passage in Mortimer's Letter being written without stops, and the Keeper well-knowing that a­spiring Lord had no kindness for the King, took it as the Writer truly meant though Mortimer upon his being Accused, alledged, his Command was not to kill the King, but that he sent word it was good to be afraid to doe it.

Young King Edward, upon the inhumane Mur­ther of his Father, was on the Borders of Scot­land, and had environed the Scots in the Woods of Wividale, and Stanhope; but Mortimer desirous to eclipse the Glory of that young Prince, that his own might appear, so carried the Matter, that through the carelessness of the English Army they escaped; so that the King, after a vast Expence of Treasure, and the hazard of his Life, which had been lost had not his Chaplain stepped between him and Death, receiving the mortal Wound in his own Body, returned inglorious: And soon after [Page 119] Joan, the King's Sister, was married to David Bruce, whom the Scots had made their King; whereupon a Peace, though somewhat dishonourable to the Eng­lish, ensued; and in the same year, viz. 1327 dyed Charles the Fair, King of France, without Issue, by which means that Crown devolved to King Edward, in Right of his Mother, Daughter to Philip the Fair, and Sister to Cha [...]l [...]s; but to bar the English of that Advantage, the French Peers opposed their Salique Law, pretending thereby, that no Woman was ca­pable of Inheriting the Crown of France, or being admitted the Regency; and thereupon they admitted Phillip de Valois, whose Father was younger Brother to Philip the Fair, which afterward cost the French many showers of Bloud.

About this time the Lord Mortimer and the Queen Mother, perceiving Edmund Earl of Kent, the King's Uncle, to cross their purposes, found means to procure his Death; which so far opened the Eyes of the young King, together with the Report, that his Mother was with Child by Mortimer, as not to think himself in safety till he had crushed that am­bitious Man▪ and the better to doe it, he undertook a daring Enterprize; for fearing he was with the Queen at Notingham Castle, notwithstanding it was strongly guarded, he entered in the night time ac­companied with a few of his trusty Friends, and by an unsuspected way, viz. through a Vault under ground, coming suddenly into his Mother's Chamber, found Mortimer undressed, and ready to go to Bed to her; whereupon he caused him to be a Arrested, and carried away Prisoner, and being tryed in open Parliament he was Condemened at Westminster, upon several Articles, viz. For causing the King to make a dishonorable Peace with the Scots, and taking large Bribes to procure it. For procuring the Death of King Edward the Second, and his over Familiarity with Queen Isabel. For his oppressing [Page 120]the People by illegal Exactions. And lastly, For embezzling the King's Treasures. And for these and the like receiving Sentence, as a Traytor, he was drawn to Tyburn, and there hanged, and his Bo­dy left on the Gallows for the space of two days and nights; and with him in the same manner dyed Sir Simon de Bedford, and John Deverell Esq as Con­trivers of King Edward the Second's Death; the Queen had likewise her Pension shortened. And now there arising a Dispute between the Houses of Baliol and Bruce, for the Crown of Scotland, King Edward, not thinking himself obliged to stand to what Mortimer, and his Mother, had done in his Minority, since many of his Towns were detained, raised a considerable Army, and striking in with Edward Baliol, besieged Berwick, when to relieve it the whole Power of Scotland advanced, so that at Halydon Hill the Battel was joined, and after an ob­stinate bloudy Fight the Scots were routed with great slaughter; there dyed Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, Governour of Scotland, the Earls of Sou­therland, Carrick and Ross, the three Sons of the Lord Walter Steward, and about 14000 of lesser rank, with a very inconsiderable damage to the English; whereupon Berwick surrendered, and Baliol was ac­cepted King of Scotland, submitting to King Edward as his Homager, for the Kingdom, and he in lieu thereof became his Protector.

King Edward having settled Scotland, began to take into Consideration the Injuries the French had done, in preventing him of his Right; as likewise by encroaching upon his Territories in that King­dom, and finding no redress by way of Embassy, he resolved to gain it by the Sword; yet to justifie his Actions, he sent his Reasons to the College of Cardinals, and the better to strengthen his Interest made a League with the High and Low Dutch, as he did with other foreign Potentates; and now he [Page 121]proceeds to require a Supply, which being liberally given, and Moneys raised, by sundry other ways, he raised a gallant Army, and crossed the Seas to Antwerp, assuming by the importunity of the Fle­mings, the Title and Armories of France, quartering the Lillies with the Lions; and having all things in a readiness, he entered the North part of that King­dom, burning and destroying the Country as far as Turwin, returning with the Spoil to Antwerp, where, with Philippa, his Queen, he kept Christmas, and about Candlemas set Sail for England.

The French having had a tast of the King of Eng­land's Courage, and he resolving to goe on pressed the Parliament for a greater Supply, which was li­berally granted, and he in lieu of that Kindness gave a general Pardon of Trespasses, and other dues to him, confirming Magna Charta, and Charta de Fo­restae; and on the 23d. of June set sail from Harwich, intending for Sluce, but in the way was encountered by 400 French Ships, with which the King engaged, and having the favour of the Wind and Sun made an almost incredible Destruction, so that the terrour of the English caused many of the French to leave their Ships, and leap into the Sea, so that Thirty thousand are said to have perished together, with the greatest part of the Fleet, and the King landing, entered France, sitting down before Tourney from whence he sent the French King a Challenge to fight single handed for the Kingdom, or if that plea­sed not, each to bring 100 Men into the Field, for the saving the effusion of more bloud, or otherwise within Ten days to join Battel, near Tourney: But to this King Philip made no direct Answer, alledging, the Letter was not sent to him, the King of France, but barely to Philip d' Valois, (for so it was directed) and he therefore thought himself in honour not bound to Answer it; yet he approached the English Camp with a very numerous Army, and every day [Page 122]Battel was expected, but Two Cardinals, and the Mother of King Philip so laboured to prevent the slaughter that must have ensued, that a Truce was concluded till the Midsummer following.

The Truce was no sooner expired, but King Ed­ward invaded Normandy to the City of Caen, and over-ran the Countrey allmost within sight of the Walls of Paris, forcing his way over the Sein, and where the Bridges were broken down, and the bet­ter to encourage his Men to beat off the French that guarded the farther Shoar, he entered the Water, at a Ford in the head of the Army, crying, He that loves me let him follow; so marching towards Cressie, in the Province of Ponthieu, he understood the French King was advancing with 100000 Horse and Foot; nor was it long before the two Armies came in sight of each other, which made King Edward di­vid his Forces into three Battalions, giving the Van in charge to his Son Edward, commonly called, The Black Prince, through the Warlike Actions that at­tended his Life, &c. the middle Battalion he reduced under the Command of the Earls Arundel and North­hampton; and the last he retained himself, placing his Carriages in the Rear, commanding every man to leave his Horse, and fight on Foot, as resolving either to win the Victory, or dye. As for the French Army, the King of Bohemia, and the Earl of Alanson, had the charge of the Van-guard, King Philip of the Main Battel, and the Earl of Savoy of the Rear; and no sooner the Charge was sounded, but a bloudy Conflict ensued, whilst King Edward stood upon a hill with his Battalion to behold the Event, and at the beginning the French Horse charging with great Fury, made the Prince give way, and had allmost enclosed his Battalion, which made the Nobles that had the care of his Person send to the King, to ad­vertize him of the danger his Son was in, when de­manding only whether the Prince was alive, and cer­tified [Page 123]that he was, so instead of sending the succours demanded, he replied, Let them send no more to me for any Adventure that may befall whilst my Son is alive, but let them either vanquish or dye, because the Honour of this glorious day shall be solely his, if God suffer him to survive. This resolute return not only made the English obstinate in fighting, but repent they had sent to require aid; wherefore redoubling their fu­ry, the French were overthrown on heaps, especial­ly by the Showres of Arrows that continually poured upon them, from whence such a rout and disorder ensued, that their Horse trampled down their Foot, so that all was in confusion, and nothing remained for the English, but the Slaughter of the flying French men, and the Field being entirely won, the King advanced and embraced his Son, encouraging him to future Glory by so prosperous a beginning. In this Battel were slain Eleven Princes, and about 1500 Barons, Knights, and Men of Arms: Here fell the Kings of Bohemia, and Major [...]u, Earl of Alan­son, Duke of Lorain, Duke of Burbon, Earl of Flan­ders, Earl of Savoy, the Dauphin of Vienois, the Earl of Sancerrer and Harecourt, the Earls of Aumarl and Nevers, with six Counts of the Empire; the grand Prior of France, and Archbishop of Roan; and of the meaner sort about 30000. The English lost not a­bove Five thousand, and amongst them none of con­siderable Note.

The King by this means grown terrible to the French, marched to Calais, and straitly besieged it, yet permitted about 1508 Starvelings, whom the Governour had turned out to spare Provision, free passage, relieving them with Victuals, and Money. And now the French finding their own weakness, dealt underhand, stirring up the Scots, that so they might divert the King's Forces nearer home; but they being encountred near Durham, were over­thrown, and their King David taken Prisoner, and [Page 124]in the Encounter the Earls of Murray and Strathern, the Constable, Marshal, Chamberlain, and Chan­cellour, with many other Nobles, were slain. The Noble Prisoners, beside the King, were the Earls of Douglas, Fife, Weigton, Southerland, and Mentieth, and King Edward being still in France, sent Parties abroad under several Generals, who gained great advantages over the French, insomuch that the Kingdom was quite disheartened, not only to see their Field Forces worsted, but their Towns drop away very fast, and amongst the rest that considera­ble one of Brigerac, where the Earl of Darby and Lancaster commanding the Forces, promised, the bet­ter to encourage his Soldiers, that when the Town was taken, every Man should have the Plunder of the first house he enterd; when so it happened that a common Soldier broke into the Mint-Master's Stores, and there found great store of coined and uncoined Gold and Silver, insomuch that not know­ing how to dispose of it, he acquainted the Earl with his Fortune, desiring him to take it into his possession; but he generously refused, saying, that his word was past, and he would not recall it; and the King having lain eleven months before Calais, had it surrendred upon discretion, which was secon­ded by the News that Sir Walter de Bendley had van­quished the Marshal of France, slain 13 Lords, 140 Knights, 100 Esquires, and made 9 Lords Prisoners, with many Knights, and Gentlemen of Note; so that the French suing for Peace, and offering extra­ordinary Advantages to the English, it was accorded upon sundry Articles and Limitations; but the French not long observing them, the War broke out again, more dreadfull than before; for King Edward, who had withdrawn the greatest part of his Forces, entred again that Kingdom with a puissant Army, laying a great part of it waste; but in the mean while King Philip dying, and John coming to the [Page 125]Crown, and upon his giving the Dutchy of Aquitain to Charles the Dauphin, King Edward, to counter-ba­lance him, gave it to Prince Edward his Son, com­manding him to defend it, who passing thither with an Army, took most of the Towns with little resist­ence, when heightened with the Success, he pierced as far as the Gates of Burges in Berry, but in his re­turn to Bourdeaux, John the French King opposed him with a very numerous Army, but notwithstan­ding he had six to one in the Field, he was over­thrown by the Prince, and taken Prisoner, toge­ther with Philip his youngest Son, the Archbishop of Sens, with many great Lords, and about two thou­sand Knights, Esquires, and Gentlemen, bearing Armories, and in the Fight were slain Fifty two Lords, one thousand seven hundred Knights, Esquires, and Gentlemen, together with the King's Standard-Bearer, and about six thousand Common Soldiers, it being ever the Fate of France to have the loss fall heavy on the Nobility; and after many other ad­vantages gained, the Prince settling his Affairs, re­turned to England with his Prisoners, and was recei­ved with great Triumph; and Henry Picard being then Lord Mayor of London, at his own charge feasted four Kings, viz. of England, France, Scotland, and Cyprus, and eight days were taken up in giving Glory to God for the Victory; and the King not thinking the English Interest in France sufficiently se­cured, sent over a Fleet of 1100 Sail, and coming with his Army before the Walls of Paris, he knigh­ted, for their better Encouragement in military Atchievments, 400 Esquires and Gentlemen, but at length, through many Mediations and Inter­cessions, it was concluded that King Edward and his Son, should ever release unto King John, and his Heirs, the Right and Claim they had to the Crown of France, and Dutchy of Normandy, &c, and in lieu thereof King John, and his Son, should for them and [Page 126]their Heirs, release unto King Edward, and his Heirs, the entire Countrey of Aquitain, Santogne, and their Dependences, &c. That King John should pay 300000 Schuts of Gold, each valued at six Shil­lings eight pence Sterling; which Agreement was ratified at Calais, but not all performed; for now the Black Prince dying, Anno 1377. in the 46th year of his Age, and the King growing in years, and sickly, matters abroad were neglected, and the French renewed their Encroachments; nor did the King long survive the death of that dear Son, for having appointed the Son of that Prince to succeed him in the Throne, he dyed on the 21st of June, Anno 377. in the 51st year of his Reign, and was the 31st sole Monarch of England, &c.

This Edward was King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitain, eldest Son to Edward the Second by Isabel his Queen, Daughter to Philip the Fair, King of France, he dyed at Shene in Surry, and was buried at Westminster; his Wife was Philip, Daughter to the Earl of Hanault and Holland, by whom he had Issue Edward the Black Prince, William of Hatfield, Lionel Duke of Clarence, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Edward Earl of Cambridge, and Duke of York, William of Windsor, and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, Isabel mar­ried to Ingelram of Guisnes, Earl of Soysons, and Arch Duke of Austria, Joan espoused by proxy to Alphons the Eleventh, King of Castile and Leon, but dyed be­fore the consummation of the Nuptials, Blanch who dyed young, Mary married to John Montfort, Duke of Bretaigne, and Margaret married to John de Ha­sting, Earl of Pembroke.

He built many stately Fabricks, settled the Wool Staple at Calais, instituted the Order of the Garter, restrained the Pope from conferring Benefices upon Strangers, constituted Prince Edward his Son first Duke of Cornwall, since inherent to the Eldest Son of [Page 127]the Kings of England; in his time florished the fa­mous John Wickliff, who first openly and successfully opposed the Pope, and exposed the manifest Errours of the Church of Rome. Blazing Stars likewise ap­peared with continued Rains, and a great Mortali­ty through all Europe so vehemently, that the Dead were more than the Living.

Thus the great Warrier after all his Toil,
From whom whilst living none could take the spoil,
Dropt in old Age, and made the Grave his Bed,
Whom late the Nations did both love and dread.

The Reign and Actions of Richard the II. King of England, &c.

THis Richard was Son to Edward the Black Prince, he was crowned on the 21st of June, 1377, in the eleventh Year of his Age, but the Govern­ment growing out of Frame, by reason of the King's Nonage, and the Differences amongst the Nobility, the French took the opportunity to invade some Sea coast Towns, and the Scots were emboldened to en­ter England, burning Roxborough; and to augment the miseries of the English the Pestilence raged fear­fully in the Northern parts, so that the glorious Face of things seemed utterly to be changed; but a better Accord ensuing, the Earl of Northumberland regained Berwick; and in the Year 1379. a Parlia­ment being held at London, where it was agreed that the more wealthy sort should be taxed for the King's present occasions, and the poorer exempted; but this held not long, for the next year another Parli­ament being called at Northamp [...]on, a Poll Tax was agreed on, that every Person of either Sex, above the Age of Sixteen, should pay 12 pence a head, [Page 128]which was looked upon as so great a Grievance, that many refused not only to pay it, but took up Arms, especially in Kent, Surry, Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge-shire, under the Leading of those notori­ous Persons Jack Straw, and Wat. Tyler, who making no less than one hundred thousand came to London, where the multitude sided with them, and commit­ted many outrages, as burning the Priory of Saint John's, the Duke of Lancaster's Palace at the Savoy, us likewise the Archbishop of Canterbury's Goods at Lambeth, defacing all Rolls, Records, and Writings, wherever they found them, as professing themselves great Enemies to the Law; nor did this suffice, but dragging the Archbishop, then Chancellour of En­gland, and Sir Robert Hales, Lord Prior of St. John's, out of the Tower, though the King was present, they in a rude and barbarous manner heheaded them on logs of Timber, with loud Shouts and Rejoicings, and proceeded to exhibite many unreasonable Peti­tions, yet necessity constrained the King either to dissemble their Insolence, or grant them their De­mands; whereupon many dispersed, went to their respective Habitations, and the rest the King by his Proclamation ordered to meet him in Smithfield, with promises of Satisfaction, where in great numbers they came, armed with a Messeline of Weapons, headed by Wat. Tyler, who in presence of the King using insolent Speeches, and attempting to kill Sir John Newton for contradicting him, William Walworth, Lord Mayor of London, being by, and no longer able to endure such Arrogance, after some Expressions of his Resentment, stabbed Tyler with a Dagger, which his companions perceiving, prepared to take a bloudy Revenge; but the King taking courage, spurred forward, commanding them to follow him, declaring that he would be their Captain, and in the mean while Walworth armed the Citizens, and came with a thousand well appointed men, bearing [Page 129] Tyler's Head on a Spear before them, by which he so daunted the rout, that they threw down their Wea­pons, and besaught the King's Mercy, with a Pro­mise of future Obedience; and Walworth for this Act was knighted, with a Donative of one hundred pounds a year free Land; and from this Action ma­ny will have it that the Dagger was added to the Ci­ty Arms; and soon after this Jack Straw, and about 1500 others were executed upon the account of this Rebellion, Straw at his death confessing that their Design was to murther the King and Nobles, and set up petty Kings of their own chusing in every Shire.

The Nation being better at quiet, the King be­thought himself of Marrying, and in order to it ha­ving treated with the Emperour, Charles the Fourth, for the Lady Anne his Daughter, she was sent into England, and the Nuptials were celebrated, upon which a Peace with France ensued; yet the Scots continued to invade the Northern parts, though with various Success; but this was not all; for the King advancing divers persons of mean worth to the highest Dignities, or at least the greatest Favours, and places of Trust; the Nobles began to murmur, and fall off, so that although a Parliament was cal­led, they would not grant the King any Aids, unless his Favourites were removed or degraded, which he could not well digest, and therefore resolved to find out some other way to supply his Coffers; in order to which he seized upon the Estates and Effects of sundry that had withdrawn themselves, and consul­ting his Lawyers for his better justification, about sundry Articles of Treason, in the compass of which the Lords that stood out might fall, he got them subscribed at Nottingham by Robert Trisilian, Chief Justiciar, Robert Belknap, Chief Justice of the Com­mon Pleas, John Holt, Roger Fulthrop, and William Burgh, Justiciars, as likewise by John Lecton, Serje­ant [Page 130]at Law, whereupon he proclaimed them Trai­tors, and both sides armed; but the King finding the Lords too powerfull for him, and that they had discovered the Snares he had laid to entrap them, thought it no time to oppose his small number against forty thousand men, but shut himself up with such Forces as he had in the Tower of London, where he had laid up Stores for his Subsistence, if things came to farther Extremity.

The King withdrawn, the Lords came to West­minster, and there assembling to consult what was to be done, they resolved to dispatch a Messenger, to let the King know, that if he left not the Tower, and came quickly to them, that things might be bet­ter settled, and ordered, they would proceed to chuse a King that should and would hearken to, and the Judgment and Counsel of his Peers. This, though much against his will, constrained him to meet them at Westminster, and after some debate consented to remove from his Person Alexander Ne­vil, Archbishop of York, the Bishops of Durham and Chichester, the Lords Zouch and Beaumont, and ma­ny others, with certain chargeable Court-Ladies, who were maintained as Spies upon the Actions of the Nobility; and the better to make up the breach a Parliament was summoned, in which the Judges were called to an Account, for the subscribing of the Articles, and other matters, and most of them being arrested, as they sate in Judgment, were sent Priso­ners to the Tower, but Trisilian took an opportuni­ty to escape, yet being apprehended, he was in the morning sentenced in Parliament, and in the After­noon, pursuant to that Sentence, as one that had wheedled in the rest to a compliance, he was con­veyed to Tyburn, and there had his Throat cut by Hand of the common Executioner, and many others were put to death as evil Counselours, and Betray­ers of the People. The Estates of the King's chief [Page 131]Favourites were likewise confiscated; but the Scots at the same time invading the Northern Parts, the Proceedings were not carried on to the highth as was otherways intended; and not long after the Scale turned for another Parliament, being called at London, the Sanctuary of former Laws, and all par­tscular Charters of Pardon were disannulled, and ta­ken away from Thomas Duke Gloucester, the Earl of Arundel, and others, for their Treasonable Practices and Enterprizes, and all the Justiciars who stood for the King were cleared from the Danger and Scan­dal they lay under, and the Articles they had signed were ratified, and such as had offended against them proclaimed Traitors, and Richard Earl of Arund [...]l was beheaded on Tower-Hill, as guilty of the breach of them. The Earl of Warwick upon the like cause was banished, and the Duke of Gloucester arrested, and carried to Calais, where he was privately made away, and the King created himself Earl of Chester, and to his Escutcheon Royal added the Armories of Edward the Confessour, creating his Cosin Henry Duke of Hereford, who was not long after accused by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, for speaking dangerous words of the King, and Mowbray constant­ly affirming what Hereford denied, the Combat was granted them, and all things in order to it prepa­red; but when they were entred the Lists, and at the point of defying each other to death, the King threw down his Warder, by that means staying the Combat, changed the manner of the Order, and banished them the Kingdom, the Duke of Nor­folk for ever, and the Duke of Hereford first for ten Years, then for six only, constraining them upon pain of death immediately to depart, and soon af­ter the Duke of Lancaster, Father to the latter, and Uncle to the King, dying, he seized on all his Wealth, which was extremely considerable, he being looked upon one of the richest uncrowned Heads in Europe.

Long had not these Things passed, before the Irish fell into Rebellion, when to quiet them King Richard raised a great Army, to supply which he grievously oppressed his Subjects by a heavy Tax, which begot no small Hatred amongst the People; so that some of the Nobles who favoured Hereford, now become Duke of Lancaster, sent to him to ad­vertize him of the Discontents, letting him know that this was his time to make his Fortune, and he not delaying the opportunity, with an Army of a­bout 2000 English and Foreigners, landed whilst King Richard was busie in Ireland, and was immedi­ately joined by the Earl of Northumberland, and his Son, and declaring as a specious pretence he came for no more than his Dutchy of Lancaster; the Peo­ple in compassion of his wrong flocked about him from all parts, so that the Duke of York, whom King Richard had left Governour of the Kingdom till his Return from his Irish Expedition, not being able to oppose the Torrent, was obliged to acquiess, and suffer him to take Bristol, where Bushy and Green, two of the King's Privy Counselours, being made Prisoners, they lost their Heads to please the multi­tude.

This allarmed King Richard in Ireland, and obliged him to hasten for England, gathering some Troups in Wales, which he joined to those he brought over; but few of the Nobles coming to his Assistence, and finding himself too weak to oppose the Torrent, he suffered them to disband, and betook himself, with a few of his Followers, to Conwoth Castle, and from thence sent to demand Honourable Conditions, and amongst the rest, That if himself, and eight more whom he should name, might have Allowance beco­ming their Qualities, and an assurance of a quiet Pri­vate Life, he would be content to resign the Crown to his Cosin the Duke of Lancaster, and being pro­mised what what was demanded, he put himself into [Page 135]the hands of the Earl of Northumberland, and was conveyed to the Tower of London; whereupon a Par­liament was called in his Name to sit at Westminster, who concluding upon his Resignation, sent an Instru­ment to him in order to his subscribing, which be­ing accordingly done, as likewise seal'd, he put his Si­gnet Ring, upon the Duke's Finger, and after this a definitive Sentence passed in Parliament, at which time the Duke of Lancaster rising from his Seat, made his Claim and Challenge to the Crown in the following words, viz.

In the Name of God Amen. I Henry of Lancaster claim the Realm of England, and the Crown, with all the Apurtenances, as coming of the Bloud Royal from King Henry the Third, and that Justice which God of his Grace doth send me by the help of my Friends, for the Recovery of the said Realm, which was in point of Per­dition through default of Government, and breach of Laws.

After this Claim Henry was acknowledged by all the Estates for King, and seated in the Royal Throne, which is accounted the end of Richard's Reign.

This Richard the Second was King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitain, se­cond Son to Edward the Black Prince by Joan his Wife, Daughter to Edmund Earl of Kent. His Reign began the 21st day of June 1377. and he reigned 22 Years, three Months, and eight days, and was the 22d sole Monarch of England, &c. and was mur­thered in Pontefract Castle, as will appear in the next Reign. He had two Wives, but no Issue, or at least none that survived him; his last Wife Isabel, Daughter to Charles the Fifth, King of France, be­ing so young that she was incapable of consumma­ting the Joys of a Marriage Bed, &c.

In his time made Portents and Prodigies happe­ned; the Bay and Lawrel Trees withered through­out England, and suddenly after became green and [Page 136]flourishing, and the deep River near Bedford divi­ded into two Streams, leaving the Chanel dry for three miles: He caused his Palace of Shene, now Richmond, in Surry, to be demolished, occasioned by the excessive grief he conceived for the loss of his first Wife, Queen Ann, who dyed there; he like­wise, upon the City's refusing to lend him 1000 l took away their Charter, and obliged them to ran­some it at a far greater Summe.

Thus we behold how Fortune plays with Kings.
There's nothing stable found in earthly things,
The Greatness that on Power and Honour grows,
Like the wild Ocean, has its Ebbs and Flows.

The Reign and Actions of Henry the IV. King of England, &c.

HEnry of Bullinbrook, so called from the place of his Birth, Son to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, upon the Resignation of King Richard, was crowned by Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Can­terbury, making it his business to ingratiate himself with the People, thereby the better to secure what he had gained, he sent his Ambassadours likewise abroad to keep up the Correspondency with fo­reign Princes, as also to justifie his Proceedings, but France and Normandy approved not of them, but rather condemned what had pasted in dishonour of King Richard, nor were there divers in England wanting who laboured to restore him; and amongst these were John Holland Earl of Huntington, Thomas Hollnnd, Earl or Kent, John M [...]acute, Earl of Sa­lisbuy, Thomas Spencer, Earl o [...] [...]ucester, with the Dukes of Surry, Exeter, and [...] but these Lords were altogether unsuccessfull [...] Undertaking, [Page 137]although they raised a considerable number of Per­sons in Arms, giving out, King Richard was at li­berty, and there present, the better to confirm which they had gotten his Chaplain to personate him; for the Townsmen of Cyrencester assailed them, took divers of them, and because some of the Lords Servants had fired the Town, to contribute to their Masters Escape, whilst the People were busie in ex­tinguishing the Flames, they in Revenge cut off the Heads of such Noblemen as they had taken, without Law or Process; and the Commons of Essex did the like to the Earl of Huntingdon, in revenge of the Duke of Gloucester's Death, mentioned in the foregoing Reign to be made away at Cailais. The Lord Spencer falling into the hands of the Rab­ble at Bristol, met the same Fate. Others were put to Death at Oxford and some at London, John Maudlin, the Counterfeit Richard, and one Thurby, were drawn, hanged and quartered: The Bishop of Carlisle was condemned, but afterwards pardoned; and thus the Attempt was totally frustrated; yet it proved fatal to Richard, for Henry finding he could not assure himself in the Throne, whilst the depo­sed King lived, and he purposely letting fall some words before his Favourites, as, Who shall rid me of the cause of my troubles? &c. Sir Pierce of Exton, to curry-favour with him, went to the Ca­stle where King Richard was lodged, and gaining admittance, under pretence of an Order from the King, he and seven of his Accomplices fell upon, and murthered that poor Prince with Battel-Axes; yet before he fell, wresting a Weapon, he killed four of them; others will have him to dye through Famine and Discontent, which may appear some­thing likely, when we consider he was exposed at St. Paul's London, for the space of three days, there­by to assure the People of his Death, and prevent any Counterfeit that might be set up, and after­wards [Page 138]buried at Kings-Langly in Hartfordshire; ye [...] in the fifth year of Henry the V. his Remains were brought to Westminster, and interred with his An­cestours, where some will have that beautifull P [...] ­ture of a King Crowned in a Chair of State, to be placed at the upper end of the Choir in memory [...] him: However this freed not Henry from dang [...] for the Scots entered England, and the Welsh took [...] Arms under the Leading of Owen Glendour, but were both defeated yet these publick Practices were seconded with a private one, which had prove [...] more dangerous had it taken effect, viz. a Calthrop, being an Engine with four sharp Spears, standing upward, was placed in his Bed, and had peradven­ture put an end to his days had he not espyed it be­fore he lay down, but it could not be known who placed it there.

The Welsh, who rather retired than over-come, took Arms in greater number, and overthrowing the Lord Edward Mortimer, who was sent to surpress them, took him Prisoner, and obliged him to mar­ry Glendour's Daughter; nor did People spare to spread abroad sundry inveterate Libels, for which some were executed, and amongst them several Gray Fryars; and the King going against the Welsh was repulsed by a mighty Storm, yet succeeded his Lieutenant the Early of Northumberland, and his Son Piercy Ho [...]spur, better against the Scots in the North; for by them the Scots were overthrown in two Bat­tels, and some Persons of note taken Prisoners.

The King being at this time a Widower, took to Wife the Lady Jane of Navarre, Widow to John de Mountfort, Duke of Britain, which Marriage was followed by dreadfull Prodigies; and soon after the Lord Piercy Hotspur, when he had done Wonders a­gainst the Scots, and thinking his Services slighted, grew discontented, and turned his Arms against King Henry, and with him joyned Mortimer Earl of [Page 139] March, Henry Piercy his Father, and Owen Glendour, pretending a Care to reform Disorders in the Go­vernment, though it was afterwards discovered, they intended nothing more than their own Inte­rest, for Mortimer was to have the South part of [...]gland, Piercy the North, Glendour all beyond the [...], and Archibald Earl of Douglas, who had be­ [...] been takan Prisoner, to have his Liberty, and the Town of Berwick, with the Territories belong­ing to it; but before they could gather into any great Body, the King was advancing with a pow­erfull Army towards Shrewsbury, which they had fortified; when Hotspur no sooner discovered the Royal Standard, but resolving to loose his Life, or win the Day, drew out Fourteen thousand Men, and desperately engaged the King, and Prince Henry his Son, yet being inferiour in number, though he fought with a Courage beyond expressi­on, Fortune, that never before failed him, turned her back, so that he was slain, and the Earls of Worcester, and Douglas, Sir Richard Vernon Barron of Kinlaton, taken and beheaded 200 Esquires and Gentlemen of Cheshire, and a great number of common Soldiers lost their Lives, not without con­siderable Loss to the King, and the ending his Life; for Hotspur broke furiously through the Squadron where the Standard was, and there had killed, or taken him Prisoner, had he been seconded as he ex­pected; yet this so incensed the King, that he cau­sed his Body, whom his own Party had carried off and buried, to be taken out of the Grave, the Head cut off, and the Quarters to be dispersed in divers Places: As for the Earl of Northumberland, he was taken, after this Defeat, as he was raising Forces in the North, yet had his Life pardoned, but was abridged in his Estate; and the better to quiet the like Disturbances, the King called a Par­liament, but could get no considerable Supply, nei­ther [Page 140]in that nor the other two Parliaments that suc­ceeded it.

About this time William de Willford being abroad with a Squadron of Men of War, brought in 40 Prizes laden with Iron, Oyl, and Rochel Wine, which was sold to supply the King's Coffers; and a Troup of Western Men brought 3 foreign Lords, and 20 Knights, of note, Prisoners from Dartmouth, having slain the Lord Castile, and a great many of his Followers, who cruzing on the Coast, attempted to burn and plunder that place, as before they had served Plimouth; for which Service the King bestow­ed liberal Rewards amongst them, and in Parlia­ment caused the Earl of Northumberland to be resto­red to his entire Possession; yet these things quie­ted not the minds of the Nobility, for soon after Thomas Mowbray, Earl-Marshal of England, drew Richard Scroop, Arch-Bishop of York, into a Con­spiracy, who tampering with the Earl of Westmore­land, and he promising them fair, instead of siding with them, delivered them up to the King, and they were thereupon beheaded; but the Pope be­ing highly incensed at the Arch-bishop's Death excommunicated all those that had a hand in it.

This was seconded by another of the Earl of Nor­thumberland, and the Lord Bardolf, but their Forces being weak they were encountred by the Sheriff of Yorkshire, where the Earl in a sharp conflict was slain in the Field, and the Lord mortally wounded; and, as a mark of Ignominy, the Earl's Head was carried on a Pole through London, and fixed on the Bridge-gate, and because the Scots had encouraged this Undertaking, and to surpress the Rumour that went abroad of King Richard's being alive, the King marched an Army of 37000 Men to their Borders, battered Berwick with a piece of Cannon, the first that was used in England, and took it; as likewise siezed on all the Castles belonging to the Earl of [Page 141] Northumberland; then marched into Wales, but was [...]isappointed in that Expedition by the sudden In­ [...]undations and Torrents of Water, that flowed [...]rom the Hills, whereby fifty of his Waggons with Treasure and Provisions were destroyed, and a great part of his Food, which obliged him to re­ [...]ire.

The King to repair his Loss, called another Par­ [...]iament, which, through his Importunity, was con­strained to grant him a Subsidy; and in the year 1407 a Plague raged throughout England, and de­stroyed in London 30000 Persons. A great Frost followed it, that lasted 15 Weeks; yet the Duke of Burgundy craving the King's Aid against the Duke of Orleance, had his Request granted: And a­mongst other memorable Actions of the English, Sir John Blunt raised a Siege, beat Four thousand French-men, with Three hundred English, taking about Twelve Noblemen, and One hundred and Twenty Gentlemen Prisoners: And now Wickliff's Doctrine beginning to spread the Arch-Bishop A­rundel so incensed the King that William Sawtree, William Swinderby, and William Thorp, all eminent Divines, were put to Death for their profession of a good Faith: but the King did not long survive that Cruelty, for Anno 1413. falling sick, and into an Appoplexy, whilst his Crown was placed on his Pillow, Prince Henry his Son came and took it thence, which the King perceiving, upon his reviving sent for him, and dema [...]ded the reason of his hastiness, who boldly replyed, That he seeming dead in all Men's esteem, he took it as his Right: Whereupon the King, with some trouble of mind, looking on him, said, Ah Son! with what Right it was got God only knoweth, who forgive me the Sin: To which the Prince fiercely replyed, However it was got I mean to keep it when it shall be mine, and defend it with my Sword, as you by your Sword have obtained it: and soon [Page 142]after the King dyed, and was buried at Canterbury.

This Henry the IV was King of England, and France, Lord of Ireland, &c. eldest Son to John Duke of Lancaster, by Blanch his Wife: He began his Reign the 29th. of Sptember, Anno 1399, and Reigned 13 Years, 3 Months and 16 Days, and was the 33d. sole Monarch of England: by his first Wife Mary he had Issue Prince Henry, Thomas Duke of Cla­rence, John Duke of Bedford, Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, Blanch and Philippa; by his second-Wife no Issue that survived him.

Thus ill-got Crowns create a troubl'd Reign,
Howe'er so easie got, hard to maintain;
Such Crowns have Thorns that still the Wearer pain.

The Life, Reign, and Actions of Henry the V. King of England, &c.

HEnry of Monmouth, so called from the place of his Birth, in his youthfull years lead away by wild and debauched Courtiers, committed many extravagancies, not being exempted from Robbing on the High-ways, putting his Father in fear of some Design he had upon his Person, and attemp­ting to rescue a Prisoner from the Face of Justice in the Court of King's-Bench; but when he came to the Crown he was wonderfully changed, com­manding his former leud Companions to alter their manners, or not dare to approach his Court, nor within Ten miles of his Person; chusing grave and worthy Counsellours, and much honouring the Clergy; and the more to ingratiate with the Peo­ple, every day after Dinner he was wont, for the space of an hour, to receive Petitions, in order to redress Grievances, which he would doe with won­derfull [Page 143]Equity, much lamenting the untimely Death of King Richard, and so near it touched him that he sent to Rome to be absolved from a Fact he had no hand in.

Whilst things went on prosperously, a Parliament was called, wherein it was moved that the superflu­ous Lands and Temporalties belonging to Religious Houses were sufficient of the Maintainance of 15 Earls, 1500 Knights, 6200 Esquires, and 100 Alms-Houses, and over and above 20007 l per Annum, to the King's Coffers; and this, to curb the Pride of the Clergy was pressed very home, and had gone on had not the Arch-Bishop of Cante [...]bury, to turn his Thoughts from it, perswaded him to seek his Right in France, of which Kingdom he told him he was the true Heir, enforcing it with strong Rea­sons; insomuch that the young King being natu­rally of a fierce and warlike Spirit soon hearkned to what he had suggested, and sent in the first place a Summons to demand the Dutchy of Normandy, Aquitain, Guyne, and Anjou; upon which the Dau­phin, who ruled all at Court, sent him in derision a Tun of Tennis Balls, as supposing them fittest for a Prince that had formerly given himself over to Sports and Recreation; but at this time he was mistaken in his mark; for the King highly incensed at the affront, sent back word, that he would short­ly send him London Balls that should shake Paris Walls, and proceeded to make large preparations for passing the Seas; which incited the French to use their old Artifice of stirring up the Scots; but they upon their attempting to enter England were overthrown by Sir Robert Humfreville: This made the French King, who was but weak in mind, consult his Peers, who concluded it would be most expedient for France to come to Terms with the English before the Matter was carried too far, and accordingly Am­bassadours were sent, who at Winchester made offers [Page 144]of some Territories, with a summe of Money to de­fray the charges of the preparation; but more espe­cially thinking by that means to please the King, they made proposals of Marriage between him and and the beautious Princess, Katharine of France; but all this came to nothing; for the King perem­ptorily demanded what had ever formerly belonged to his Progenitours, and that being refused, Anti­lop, his Pursuvant at Arms, was sent to King Charles with Letters of Defiance, and he passed with such Forces as he had raised in order to his Embarking at Southampton, commanding the Nobles, and all that held Fee of the Crown, to follow him, and the French perceiving fair means would not doe, pro­ceeded to Treachery, by corrupting the Lords Grey, Scroop, and Cambridge too, with promises of vast summes of Gold, to murther him before he took the Seas; but this was discovered by a paper found in the bosome of the latter, and the matter being plain, the two first were executed, but the last, at the Instance of the Duke of York, whose Son he was, had his Pardon procured.

The King being by this time in a forwardness, set sail on the 7th of August 1414. with 500 Ships, and 30000 Soldiers, besides Engineers, Artificers, and Labourers, and on the 15th cast Anchor at the mouth of the River Seyn, three miles from Hareflew, and no sooner he came on shoar, but falling on his Knees, he implored God's Blessing, and Assistence, in prospering his Enterprize for the gaining his Right, and his Army being landed, he caused Pro­clamation to be made, that no person whatsoever, on pain of Death, should presume to injure Chur­ches, Churchmen, Women or Children; and en­couraging his Soldiers, he soon made himself Ma­ster of the Town of Harflew, and having at St. Mar­tin's Church given God Thanks for the first success of his Arms, he detached two thousand Horse, and [Page 145]thirteen thousand Foot, and marched with them through the Countries of Caux and Eu in his way to Callis, when to hinder him the flying parties of French not only skirmished as they saw advantage, but broke down Bridges, plashed Trees, carried a­way or destroyed all manner of Provision and Fo­rage, so that he was obliged to march along the Banks of the River Some, as far as Bathencourt, be­fore he could gain the Pass, and on the 24th of Oc­tober he came to Azin, or Agincourt, the numerous Army of the French attending, and watching all advantage.

The King being thus far advanced through a ru­ined and destroyed Countrey, whereby his Soldiers for want of necessaries were become extremely feble, he found he could not proceed without giving Bat­tel, and therefore resolved to pitch his Banner Roy­al, but finding the Army extremely weakened, and himself surrounded in a Toil, at the instance of the Nobles he proposed Overtures to the French, pro­posing the delivery of Harflew, and such other pla­ces as he had taken since his arrival in France, in consideration that himself, and all with him, might pass quietly to Calais, and there ship for England. To this the Mareschal, and Constable, who had the chief Command in the French Army, were wil­ling to hearken, as knowing the danger of compel­ling a desperate Enemy to fight in the extremity of Despair; but the other Commanders, young Princes, and Nobles, more fiery than either vali­ant or wise, would not hearken to any accord, and so confidently they promised themselves the Victo­ry, that they had before hand divided the spoil, causing the Bells to be rung, and Thanks to be gi­ven in the neighbouring Churches [...]hat God had delivered the Enemy into such a [...] of advan­tage, that he could not escape: [...] when Man proposes, God disposes, for too much confidence [Page 146]ruined them, not considering that when it seemeth good the Almighty by weak things can destroy the powerfull; nay, so confident were they, that they sent for King Charles, and the Dauphin, that they might have the Honour of the Victory, and spent the night before the Battel in a careless manner of feasting and revelling, whilst the English spent it in moderate refreshment and prayer.

King Henry seeing the Storm that he was bound to oppose, commanded two hundred Archers to lodg in a Meadow, secured against the French Horse, with strong bushes, and a large Di [...]ch; pla­cing likewise Archers in the Front of the Battel; and to secure them they had long stakes, shod with Iron, to stick slantwise against the breaking in of the Horse, which might be removed as accasion re­quired, ranging the Hoast into three Battalions, flanking the whole with Archers; and that he might not be hid on so eminent a day, he wore on his Helmet a small Crown of Gold, riding from Rank to Rank, and giving necassary Orders in all places, declaring that England should never be charged with his Ransome, but that he resolved either to con­quer or dye; and then commanding his Standard to advance; Since (says he) our injurious Enemies do attempt to shut up our way, let us set upon them in the Name of the most glorious Trinity, and in the best hour in the whole year: whereupon Sir Thomas Epingham, with a Warder in his hand, advanced against the French, who kept their ground, covering the plains for many miles, and throwing it up in the Air, gave the signal to join Battel, whereupon a joyfull shout ensued, and the Archers from the Meadow, as the French advanced, let flie their Arrows, galling and wounding Horse and Man, whilst the Main Body joined; and then the English army fell on like Men driven to their last necessities, yet not without ex­pressing a singular Conduct and Courage, having [Page 145]the advantage of the French in charging, by reason of the unweildiness of their Army; insomuch that the English Arrows flying like Thunderbolts upon the thronging Horse, no ways able to avoid them, and those that advanced furiously being goared with the stakes, as the Archers retired to give way to the Men of Arms, making a Barracade against those that pressed behind, nothing but rout and confusion ensued, the French at such a disadvantage not being capable of using their Arms, which the Duke of Bra­bant perceiving, advanced furiously to break the Order of the English, and encourage his side, but met his Fate in that Attempt; however the Duke of Alanzon broke in upon the King's Standard, and there had slain the Duke of Gloucester, had not the King prevented it by timely interposing, and be­tween them began a sharp dispute, wherein the Duke of Alanzon all most beat the King's Crown flat to his Helmet, but being struck from his Horse by Henry, and crying out, he was Alanzon, notwithstan­ding his begging quarter, and the King's endeavour to save him, the enraged Soldiers, for the Danger he had put their Sovereign into, dispatched him on the spot; so that the Rear-guard of the French Ar­my being worsted, and unable to sustain the Fury of the English, fled without fighting, leaving the Vic­tory, with infinite spoil, and a great number of Pri­soners, to a handfull of Men, in a manner naked, and allmost half starved which may convince the World, that Victory depends not upon the Arm of Flesh, but scarcely was the Field cleared of the French, before another Army bigger than that of the English, which was coming to their Aid, and knowing nothing of the Defeat, appeared upon the Hills, and the King fearing the great number of Prisoners might turn against him, during the heat of the Fight caused them all, as a Maxim of self- [...]eservation, except those of the greatest Quality, [Page 146]to be killed, and then sent a Herauld to summon them to fight, or depart immediately, for if they stayed whilst he charged them, they must expect no Quarter; whereupon the King of Sicily, who commanded in chief, not thinking it convenient with those Forces to dispute what so great an Army had lost, drew off; so that King Henry finding him­self an entire Conquerour, fell on his Knees and commanding all, both Officers and Soldiers, to doe the like, with up lifted hands and said, Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy Name be gi­ven the Glory. And having learned the name of the place, he said, Let this be called the Battel of Agin­court all posterity.

In this Battel were slain of the French one thou­sand Princes, Noblemen, Knights, and Esquires, and ten thousand common Soldiers. The Prisoners of note were Charles Duke of Orleance, John Duke of Burbon, the Earl of Richmond, Lowis de Burbon, the Count de Vendosme, the Earl of Eu, Edward de Roven, and divers others. The English loft of Note were the Duke of York, and Earl of Suffolk, with two Knights, and David Gam Esquire; the common Sol­diers that fell were very inconsiderable, some not al­lowing above one hundred twenty eight, but that seems somewhat partial.

The next day after this Battel Henry marched with the spoil, and his Prisoners, off the Field towards Callais, his Soldiers now having Cloaths, and plen­ty of all Necessaries; and having fortified the Towns he had taken, and given necessary Orders, he came for England, and was received in London with Triumph, and there presented with one thou­sand pounds, and two Gold Basons, and calling a Parliament, he had a Subsidy of a Tenth granted for the carrying on his Wars in France, which not sufficing, he pawned his Crown to Cardinal Beau­fort, his Unckle, and his Jewels to the Lord Mayor [Page 147]of London for ten thousand Marks; then he passed the Sea with an Army of 25527. every fourth being an Horseman, besides a thousand Carpenters and Labourers, and the first of August 1417. arrived in Normandy, bringing such a terrour upon the Coun­trey, that most of the Inhabitants fled into Bretaigne, and having dubbed thirty eight Knights, he laid Siege to Conquest, and took it the 16th of August, with the Castles of Aubeliers and Lovers; he like­wise stormed the City of Caen, and gave the Pillage to his Soldiers.

During K. Henry's Success in France, the Scots inva­ded England, bringing with them a Person repre­senting Richard the Second; but hearing as they lay at the Siege of Roxborough and Berwick, that the En­glish Army was marching toward them, they raised the Sieges, and fled. This did not hinder the King's proceeding in France; for there he took many Ci­ties, and had the strong Castle of Fallors delivered him, then divided his Army under the Commands of the Dukes of Clarence, Gloucester, and Earl of War­wick; so that taking divers places at once, he set down before Roan, and took it after a year's Siege, obliging the Burgesses for their Ransome, and being permitted quietly to live there, pay him 356000 Crowns, and swear Fealty to him and his Successors. And now the French finding themselves unable to make head against the English, and Accommodati­on was sought, and to bring it the easier to pass, an Interview was had between King Henry and King Charles at the Town of Melun, where the Queen and the Princess Katharine of France was present, and there King Henry first fixed his Eyes and Affec­tion on that beauteous Maid, and finding the French Noblemen averse to his Demands, he told the Duke of Burgundy, that he would either have the Princess and what he had farther required, or he would drive him and the rest of the Nobles out of France: To [Page 148]which the Duke replied, That he might say his plea­sure, but before he should drive them out of France, he should be weary of the Enterprize.

This Treaty proving ineffectual, the King took the Town of Ponthois, and gave large spoil to his Soldiers, which obliged the French King to remove his Court from Paris to Troyis in Champaigne; and now to facilitate the English Conquests, the Dau­phin having put a sensible Affront upon the Queen, his Mother, she conceived a mortal hatred, and la­boured to ruine him, confederating with the Duke of Burgundy, and procuring her self, by reason of the King's Imbecility, to be made Regent of France; and soon after the Dauphin causing John Duke of Burgundy to be slain in his presence, as he came to doe him Homage, for contriving, as he said, the death of Lewis Duke of Orleance, that he might the better sway the Kingdom under an infirm King. Phi­lip, the young Duke of Burgundy, to revenge his Fa­ther's death, closed with King Henry, and proceeded to persuade Charles, the French King, to disinherit the Dauphin, and give the Lady Katharine in Mar­riage to the King o [...] England; and the Queen secon­ding this Project, it was effected, and a Peace con­cluded between the two Crowns upon divers Arti­cles, the chief being, That Charles and Isabel should retain the name of King and Queen, and hold all their Dignities, Rents and Possessions, during their natural Lives. That after their deaths the Crown and Realm of France should, with all its Rights and Appurtenances, remain unto the King of England and his Heirs for ever; and that by reason of the Infirmity of King Charles, therefore during his Life, the Affairs of the Realm of France, together with the Government thereof, should remain in the King Henry, so that thenceforth he should govern the Realm, and admit to his Council and Assistence, with the Council of France, such of the English No­bility [Page 149]as he should see convenient, with other Arti­cles, to the number of thirty, very advantageous to the English, were all sworn to at Troyis, May, the 30th, 1420. and proclaimed in London the June fol­lowing, and Homage sworn to King Henry, who was proclaimed Regent of France; and on the 3d of June the Marriage was celebrated in the presence of di­vers of the chief Nobility of England and France at Troyis, with great Pomp and Splendour, and they rode in Triumph to take Possession of the Palace in Paris, and a Parliament of the three Estates were assembled in that City, who confirmed what had been done by the Kings; and it was there likewise ratified by the General Estates of the Realm, and Sworn to particularly on the Holy Evangelist by the French Noblemen and Rulers, Spiritual and Tem­poral, who moreover sealed the Instruments which were sent over to be kept in the King's Exchequer at Westminster; which done, the King left the Duke of Clarence his Lieutenant in France, and came for England with his Queen, where he was received with Joy and Triumph, causing her to be crowned at Westminster, and then proceeded to call a Parliament for farther Supplies, to maintain his War against the Dauphin, who still stood out to recover the Kingdom; but the Commons exhiting a Petition of Poverty, he again pawned his Crown to Cardinal Beaufort for 20000 pounds, and passed into France with 4000 Horse, and 24000 Foot, and his presence there was necessary; for the Dauphin, strengthen­ed by Forces for Scotland, under the Leading of the Earl of Buchanan, and Archibald Douglas, defeated and killed the Duke of Clarence, took the Earls of Hun­tindon, Somerset, and others, Prisoners; and heigh­tened with that Success, he laid Siege to Alenzon, and cut off the Provisions of Paris, but the King's Approach made him to retire to Bury.

King Henry soon recovered what the Dauphin had taken, and drove him to great distress; but when this great King had triumphed over that mighty Kingdom with unconquerable Fortune and Success, and annexed it fully to the Crown of England, death laid his Arrest upon him, for falling sick of a bur­ning Fever and Flux, he dyed on the 30th of Au­gust, 1422. at Bloice de Vincennois, and his Body brought over, was buried with pomp at Westminster, hard by the Tomb of Edward the Confessour, ap­pointing by his last Will and Testament his younger Brother, Humphry Duke of Gloucester, Protectour of England, his Brother John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, and Thomas Beaufort Guardian of his Son Henry, born a little before at Windsor, contrary to the King's express command, who when he heard the Queen had lain in at that place, prophetically spake, viz. Good God! I Henry of Monmouth shall have but a short Reign, and win much; but Henry of Windsor shall reign long, and lose all; yet God's Will be done.

This Henry was King of England, and France, and Lord of Ireland, eldest Son of Henry the Fourth by Mary his Queen: He began his Reign on the 20th of March, 1412. and reigned 9 Years, 5 Months, and 10 days, and was the 34th sole Monarch of En­gland.

Thus Beauty, Power and Honour yield to death,
Great Conquerours, like Slaves, resign their breath
Their Lawrels in the Dust with them must lie.
But Fame's immortal and can never dye.

The Life, Reign, and Actions of HENRY the Sixth, King of England, France, &c.

HEnry of Windsor, so called from the place of his Birth, upon the death of his Father, was crow­ned when he exceeded not eight Months of age, the Queen holding him in her lap whilst the Solemnity was performed, to whom his Nurtriture and Educa­tion was committed, but his Minority much disad­vantaged the English Interest in France; for old King Charles dying, Charles his Son greatly strength­ned his party, and although he was called by the English in derision only King of Burry, as having little more left him, yet now he encroached upon the English, wresting from them sundry places by the help of Aids from Scotland and Italy, which made the English Regent think it time to give him Battel, and accordingly the Armies joyned near Vernoli, where the French were overthrown, the Regent doing wonders in his own person, and there were slain the Constable and Lieutenant of France, the Earls of Wigton and Vantadour, with about five thousand others, and the Duke of Alanzon taken Prisoner, upon which Victory the English besieged Monts in Main, and having with his Cannon made a great breach in the Wall, it was surrendered, and a little while after, the Earl of Salisbury besieged Or­leance, and brought it to such distress, that the Gari­son was willing to surrender to the Duke of Burgun­dy, but the Earl refused it, which so offended the Duke, that he declined the English Interest, which proved very prejudicial.

The French being in a drooping Condition, and using strong Cordials to support their Spirits, one Joan, a Shepherdess of Lorrain, came to the Dauphin, and offered him her Service, saying, She was sent by God, to deliver France out of the hands of the English; [Page 152]and not exceeding eighteen years of age, her offer at first was looked upon as rediculous, but she per­sisting in what she had declared; the Dauphin cau­sed her to be armed at all points, and desiring the Sword that hung in St. Catharines Church, she got into Orleance, then besieged by the English, and from thence sent a Letter, commanding them to raise the Siege, and deliver up the Towns they possessed, for she was resolved to drive them out of France; but they looked upon it, only as proceeding from Folly or a raving fit, yet in the several Sallies she made it proved otherwise, for by the violent Sallies she made the Siege, was raised with loss to the English, she commonly fighting in the head of the French, and animating them to go on couragiously, for being in one of the Sallies, shot through the Arm with an Arrow, and perswaded to retire; she cryed out, This is a favour, let us go on, they cannot escape the hands of God, and there of note were slain the Earl of Salisbury, the Lords Moline and Poynings, Sir Tho­mas Gagrave, and the French say about eight thou­sand common Soldiers, yet our Historians allow but six hundred; and the French following their success wrested several Towns, and surprising a party of English, overthrew them taking Prisoners the Lords Talbot, Scales, Hungerford, and Sir Thomas Rampston, whereupon several Towns revolted, and the Dauphin took Auxier and Rhiemes, in the latter of which, according to the direction of Joan, called by the French, the Maid of God, Charles the Dau­phin caused himself to be Crowned King of France.

Joan of Arks, having been hitherto very suc­sessfull, and done, the Dauphin singular service coming to the relief of Campaign, which was great­ly distressed by the English and Burgundians, in a desperate charge advancing too far and being separa­ted from those that should have succoured her, she was made Prisoner by a Burgundian Knight, and by [Page 153]him sold to to the English, who sent her to Roan, and being charged with Witch-craft, Bloud-shead, and the unnatural use of Man's Apparel contrary to her Sex, she was burnt, which was too barbarous a usage, and had not been executed, but to put the French out of the great hopes, they conceived in the Promise she had made to drive the French out of the King­dom and in some kind, it had its effects; but another expedient was resolved on, which was to send over for young King Henry, and he accordingly was crow­ned in Paris with great Pomp, by the Cardinal of VVinchester, on the 7th. of December, 1431. The French Nobility doing him homage, and the King's Pattents and Grants, touching the French Affairs, passed under the Seal and Stile of Henry King of the Frenchmen, and of England, and the Lords Talbot and Arundel were successfully victorious in the Pro­vinces of Main, Anjou, and other places, but John Duke of Bedford Regent of that Kingdom dying at Paris, Anno. 1435. with his death, the English Af­fairs sunk; for although Richard Duke of York, was sent over Regent, yet before his arrival, Paris was lost by the treachery and revolt of the Citizens and the Duke of Burgundy falling off, besieged or blocked up Callais; upon notice of which the Duke of Glouce­ster, passed with a great Army, but the Burgundi­ans were retired before his arrival, which made him proceed to waste the Burgundian Territories, and then returned to England, whilst the Duke of So­merset, the Lords Talbot and VVilloughby, made good the English Interest against the French; and now it was thought expedient that King Henry should Mar­ry, and by the contrivance of de la Pool, Duke of Suffolk, he took to Wife, Margaret, Daughter to Renate, Duke of Anjou and Lorain Titular King of Sicily and Jerusalem, &c. with whom he had little or no Dowry, and Suffolk's too much favour and interest with the Queen, made the Nobles begin to mur­mur [Page 154]and indeed, this Match proved in the end, disadvantageous to the English; for the Queen being a Woman of a high Spirit, and finding her power over a good natured and easie King, she delayed not to use it, placing and displacing at her pleasure the greatest Counsellers and Ministers of State, so the Interest in France daily lessoned, and the Dauphin [...] recovered the greatest part of the Kingdom, which moved Duke Humphry to reproach the Queen and her Council with bold truth, whereby they became so exasperated, that from that time they layed Snares to intrap him; but finding no plausible op­portunity, they resolved to take a violent occasion, and at a Parliament holden at St. Edmunds-bury, An­no. 1447. he was arrested by John Lord Beaumont, Lord High Constable of England, and others, char­ged with High-Treason, and put under a Guard of the King's Houshold, but had not been long in his Confinement before he was found dead, not without strong presumption of violence used towards him yet to shadow it with the people, who entirely loved him, as a vertuous, wise, and learned Patriot of his Country, his body was exposed, and it was given out that he died of an Imposthume and Palsie.

This Duke, who had been the Prop of the English Affairs, removed, his Servants (the better to colour the Matter,) were brought to Tryall, and five of them convicted of High-Treason, upon which Sen­tence they were drawn to Tyburn, and being hanged about two Minutes, were cut down alive, stripped naked, and marked out with a Knife to be quartered and then their Charters of Pardon were produced by the Marquess of Suffolk; and now the whole frame of Government seemed to repose it self in the Queens Authority, and such Favourites as by her insinuati­on with the King, she raised to the highest Digni­ties. This gave scope to the Duke of York's Ambi­tion, who concluding there was an open passage to [Page 155]the Crown, delayed not the opportunity, but consul­ted his Friends, declaring his Title, as descended from Lionel, and Elder Brother to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, great Grand-father to King Henry the sixth, aggravating the miscarriages in Government, and keeping up popular divisions, and indeed the King's mildness, a Council out of Favour with the people, [...]osses and dishonours abroad, a disorder and confu­sion of things at home, mainly contributed to his de­sign; and about this time a Rebellion happening in Ireland, the Duke of York was looked upon as the fittest Man to go over, for the appeasing it, and had the fortune to bring it to a happy issue, when in the mean while the Duke of Suffolk, the Queens great favourite was charged in a Parliament at Westminster, with evil Demeanour, Misprision and Treason, and committed Prisoner to the Tower; but the Queen soon after procured his release; and now the Yor­kists Faction considerably strengthened, appea­red bare-fac'd, and being vigorously withstood by Adam Molins, Bishop of Chichester, Keeper of the Privy Seal, to remove him out of the way, a rable of Seamen were stired up to fall upon him at Ports­mouth, by whose rude hands the good Bishop was slain, and in a Parliament holden at Leicester, they procured the Banishment of the Duke of Suffolk for five years, and as he was attempting to pass the Seas, he was taken in Dover Road, by such as the Duke of York had laid in wait for him, and for want of a Block, had his Head cut off on the side of a Cock­boat, which was looked upon as a Judgment, for his being a contriver of the death of Humphry, Duke of Gloucester, the King's Uncle.

Suffolk thus removed out of the way, the Duke of York concluded he wanted but one step into the Throne; and although he was yet in Ireland, he so effectually wrought by his Friends in England, that the Kentish Men took up Arms under the leading of [Page 156] Jack Cade, and were joyned by those of Essex, de­manding that the Duke might be called home, and that he with some others, that Cade named, might be­chief in Council. That those guilty of the death of Duke Humphry might receive due punishment: That the Grievances of the people might be redressed; and because these requests were not speedily answered, they committed many violent out-rages in and about London, as plundering the houses of the Citizens, be­heading the Lord Say, Treasurer of England, and Mr. Comer High Sheriff of Kent, for attempting to perswade them to return to their Obedience: How­ever their fury being spent, and the King's Procla­mation for a Pardon coming out to indemnifie them, they returned to their respective Habitations; but Cade finding his Power and Credit with the Multi­tude, upon some new disgust attempting again to raise the Rable he was encountered by the Gentry of Kent, and slain by one Edan.

Upon the stirs and uproars in England, the Duke of York without any Order, hasted from Ireland and took up Arms, pretendedly for the Reformation of the State, which made King Henry fortifie himself, and prepare to oppose their force [...] but the Duke of York so far prevailed with the easie King, that a Re­conciliation was made, and the Kuke of Somerset, who mainly opposed the Yorkists Interest, was con­fined a Prisoner to his house, which done; the Duke of York dissolved his Army and came to London, ma­king great complaints to the King against Somerset, of which that Duke had no sooner notice, but he came before the King, and accused his Accuser, Face to Face, charging him with High-Treason, as having conspired to depose the King, and take the Sovereignty on himself; whereupon the Duke of York was confined, till such time as he swore in St. Paul's Church, before a great Concourse of Nobili­ty, to continue a true, faithfull, and obedient Sub­ject [Page 157]to King Henry. And about this time, by the success of John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, the Af­fairs of France began to appear in a better posture, for by the prevailing Arms of this valiant man, Bur­deaux, the chief City in Normandy was taken, with ma­ny other Places of Note; but upon his attempting to relieve Castilion, charging the Enemy upon une­qual Terms, he was slain in the Field, together with his Son, the Viscount Lisle, and with him dyed all the English hope of ever recovering what was lost in France; for the Duke of York not regarding his Oath, An. 1445. took up Arms, and broke into the King's Palace, and the King to oppose him drew out considerable Forces, so that a great Battel was fought at St. Albans, where the King was wounded with an Arrow, and taken Prisoner, and the Duke of Somerset, the Earls of Northumberland and Stafford, together with the Lord Clifford, and divers other Knights and Gentlemen of the Royal Party slain.

Henry being brought to London, a Parliament was called, in which the Memories and Honours of Hum­phrey Duke of Gloucester were restored; and those that had taken up Arms under the Duke of York, indempnified of the Treason, and that Duke crea­ted Protectour of England. The Earl of Salisbury made Chancellour, and the Earl of Warwick, his Son, Captain of Calais: And thus having gotten the Power into their hands, they worked out the Coun­sellours and Favourites of the King, placing such in their stead as would stickle for their Interest. The Divisions gave the French the boldness to make dis­cents into several places: In Kent and Devonshire they burnt some Towns, and committed many Out­rages, which yet abated not the heat and heart­burning of the English one to another; for although [...] Lords met, and concluded a seeming Agree­ment [...] yet it lasted not long, before both side [...] ­med, and a mortal Battel was fought on [...] [Page 158]where the King's Party was worsted: And soon af­ter another Battel was fought at Ludlow, where the Duke and his Adherents received a great overthrow, and the Town of Ludlow laid in Ruines for adhering to the Yorkists; and hereupon a Parliament was cal­led, wherein the Duke of York, the Earls of March, Salisbury, and Rutland, and others, were attainted, of High Treason, and had their Estates confiscated: But on the 9th of July 1460. the Scale turned, for in a fatal Battel at Northampton the King was over­thrown by means of the revolt of the Lord Grey of Ruthen; and in this Battel on the King's part there were slain the Duke of Buckingham, the Earl of Shrews­bury, Viscount Beaumont, the Lord Egrinham, Sir Wil­liam Lucy, and others, and the King himself was made Prisoner, and carried to London, where in a Parlia­ment, begun the 8th of October, the Duke of York laid Claim to the Crown, and set forth his Pedigree, and urged it so far, that the Parliament came to a conclusion, That Henry should enjoy the Crown du­ring his natural Life, but then it should fall to the Duke of York, and his heirs, and the heirs of Henry to be utterly excluded; and accordingly the Duke was proclaimed Heir apparent to the Crown: But Queen Margaret, who was in the North raising For­ces, resolved not to stand to what her Husband had been forced to consent to, but to maintain the right of her Son Prince Edward; but having gathered a considerable Army, she marched towards London; against her the Duke drew out, and near Wakefield a bloudy and doubtfull Battel was faught, in which the Duke of York was slain, his Forces overthrown, his Son, the Earl of Rutland, killed begging his Life on his Knees, and the Earl of Salisbury taken Priso­ner, and beheaded; the Duke's head was cut off, and a Paper Crown set upon it, by way of derision and thus had ended the fatal Quarrel between the Houses of York and Lancaster, had not Edward Earl [Page 159]of March, eldest Son to the Duke of York, advanced with a great Army, gathered in the Marches of Wales, and near Mortimer's Cross in Ludlow fought with the Queens Army, when at the joining of the Battel three Suns appeared in the Firmament, which immediately united into one. In this Battel the Queens Forces were overthrown with great Slaugh­ter, and Owen Tudor, Father in law to King Henry VII. being taken Prisoner, was, together with Sir John Scudemore, and his two Sons, beheaded; but An. 1460. the Queen overthrew the Earl of March in a great Battel, at St. Albans, rescuing King Hen­ry out of his hands, who was brought thither to countenance the Soldiers; but the Londoners sided with him, and upon the Queens drawing off to the North, proclaimed him King of England, &c. And here Historians put an end to King Henry's Reign, though he lived much longer, as will appear in the succeeding Reign; his Wife was Margaret, Daugh­ter to Reynate, King of Jerusalem, &c. by her he had Issue Edward.

This Henry was King of England, and France, and Lord of Ireland, the onely Child of Henry the Fifth by Katharine his Queen; he began his Reign on the 30th of August, 1422. and reigned thirty eight Years, 6 Months, and 3 Days, being the thirty fifth sole Monarch of England, and was stabbed to the heart in the Tower by Richard Duke of Gloucester, Brother to Edward the Fourth, on the 20th of May, 1471. in the 46th Year of his Age, buried first in the Abbey of Chartsey, in Surry, afterwards remo­ved to Windsor by Henry the Seventh, then removed again none knows where. In his time many strange Accidents happened, portending the Woes and Mi­scries that befell the Kingdom.

Thus the good pious King, bereft of Crowns,
Bore patiently the Wreck of Fortune's frowns;
Yet murtherous minds were not with this content,
But in a stream of Bloud to Heaven he's sent.

The Reign and Actions of Edward the Fourth, King of England, &c.

EDward the eldest Son to Richard, Duke of York, in the beginning of his Reign, found great opposition from the Lancastrians, who pitying the Misfortune of pious King Henry, raised Forces in ma­ny parts; he was crowned at Westminster; but the Citizens, who had been the greatest Sticklers for him, not finding him answer their expectations, in performing the Promises he had made them, began to decline his Interest, however he marched against the Forces raised in the North, giving the Lord Fitz-walter battel at Ferrybridg, near Pontefract, but not being able to maintain it, he was there, with most of his men, cut in pieces by Henry's Forces, when both Armies facing on the Plain between Tow­ton, and Saxton, on the 28th of March they joined Battel, that of Edwards consisting of 48660 men, and Henry's of 60000, but by the Lancastrians mistaking Stars for Suns, being the Cognizance of each Party, and doubting some Treason in the case, many of them fled; so that those who remained lost the field; and in this Battel were slain the Earl of Nor­thumberland, the Lords Clifford, Neuel, Wells, Scales, Beaumont, Dacres, Grey, Willoughby, Fitzhug, and o­ther Persons, of Quality, about 357, and in all 35091, being the most bloudy and obstinate Battel that had been fought; upon this Overthrow Henry, with his Queen and Son, fled into Scotland, and were [Page 161]honourably received by King James, whose Sister Prince Edward not long after married. From Scot­land the Queen sailed to France, to seek aids in that Court, and in mean while King Edward returning to London, was a second time proclaimed, and cal­ling a Parliament, Henry, together with his Queen, and Prince Edward his Son, were disinherited, and about fourty three Nobles disinherited and attain­ted.

The Queen, a Woman of a Martial Spirit, by her Interest in France had by this time gotten a conside­rable number of Men; but sailing for Scotland, and af­terwards making for England, her Fleet was scatte­red by a Tempest; so that she and her Husband were left solely to the Aid of the Scots, and with what Forces they could gather, marched as far as the Bishoprick of Durham; but the Forces of the Scots were defeated at Hegely Moor, where Sir Ralph Percie dying, said in allusion of his Oath to King Henry. I have saved the Bird in my Breast. And ano­ther defeat happening at Hexam Feries, Fortune seemed utterly averse; and that poor Prince co­ming out of Scotland into England in disguise, was be­trayed, and apprehended as he sat at Dinner in Wa­dington-Hall, and in an ignominious manner brought to London, with his Legs bound under the Horses Bel­ly, and secured as a Prisoner in the Tower.

King Edward by the Imprisonment of Henry, con­ceiving himself more secure, sent the Earl of War­wick to woo for him in the Court of Savoy; but whilst he earnestly sollicited, and had brought the matter to perfection, by obtaining the good Will of the Estates; News came that King Edward had married the Lady Elizabeth Grey, Widow to Sir John Grey, slain in the Battel at St. Albans, fighting on the part of King Henry, with whom he had fallen in Love, upon her becoming an humble Suitor to him for her Jointure; and because he could not [Page 162]compass his ends without Marriage; that vertuous Lady disdaining to be the Harlot, even of a puissant King, he resolved against the Minds of his Friends to obtain his desires, by making her his Wife. This so sensibly touched the Earl of Warwick, in reflect­ing upon his Honour, in serving a Master of so little Constancy, that although he had been mainly In­strumental, in helping him to the Kingdom he changed his love into mortal hatred, and working upon George Duke of Clarence to favour his design and by secret Practices, they stirred up a Commo­tion in the North, where one Robert Huldren hea­ded 15000 of the Commons, but he being executed Sir John Conyers undertook to head them, Proclai­ming as they passed, that King Edward was an unjust Prince, and unprofitable to the Kingdom; when to surpress these disorders, he sent an Army under the leading of the Earl of Pembroke, who joyned Bat­tel near Banbury, and had been victorious, had not one John Clapham, Esq and Servant to the Earl of Warwick, come in the heat of the Fight, and display­ed his Master's Colours, whose Cognisance was the White Bear, and by crying a Warwick, so dismayed the Welshmen, of whom most of the Army was com­posed that thereby thinking the Earl was come in with his party, they threw down their Arms, and betook them to flight, leaving their General, who valiantly fighting, was taken Prisoner; together with his Brother, Sir Robert Herbert, and ten other Gentlemen of Note, who lost their Heads at Banbu­ry, by the Judgment of Conyers and Clapham, Anno 1469.

The Success of the Northern men occasioned them to rise in great Number, and a Party under the Leading of Robert of Ridisdale, surprising the King's Manner of Grafton siezed the Lord Rivers, the Queens Father, together with John his Son, whom they behea­ded at Northampton, which obliged the King to hasten [Page 163]with a great Army, but whilst the people were expecting the issue of a bloudy Fight, a Truce was concluded, which rendering the King more secure than cautious, the Earl of Warwick entered his Tent in the dead of Night and with little resistance made him Prisoner, and carried him to Warwick Castle, and from thence in the Night time conveyed him to Middleham Castle in Yorkshire, and there commit­ted him to George Nevil, Arch-Bishop of York, Bro­ther to the Earl, but having Liberty allowed to hunt in the Park and Forrests, he was rescued by a Troup of his own Men; however, Sir Robert Wells with thirty thousand of the Commons, disturbed the Country, Proclaiming King Henry. but encounte­ring King Edwards Forces and himself in a bloudy Battel, made Prisoner; the Lincolnshire Men, of which the Army was mostly composed, threw of their Coats, with the Earls badge on them & in great Confusion left the Field, so that from that it was called the battel of Losi-Coa [...]field, upon which de­feat, and the putting Sir Robert with many others to death. The Duke of Clarence Earl of Warwick, and divers Nobles, found themselves obliged to pass the Seas, but were refused enterance at Calais, of which place VVarwick was Captain, by one Vawclear whom he a little before had Substituted his Deputy, and for which refusal King Edward made him Captain in VVarwick's stead; however they went to the Court at France, and were there entertained with much respect, where gathering Aids and holding Corre­spondence with their Friends in England; soon after they Landed at Dartmouth, and Marched towards London, Proclaiming King Henry, and commanded all from Sixteen to Sixty years of Age, to take up Arms on his behalf, against Edward Duke of York whom they termed a Usurper, so that all the Land in a manner was in Arms; and King Edward perceiving his Fortune utterly averse, and that the few forces [Page 164]he had raised, were ready to Revolt, he thought it no fit time to dispute, but rather to reserve him­self to a more favourable Fortune, whereupon with a few of his Friends, he passed the Seas- and was received by Charles Duke of Burgundy, who had married the Lady Margaret his Sister, whilst his Queen took Sanctuary in Westminster, where she was delivered of a Son, afterwards Christened by the name of Edward, and other Sanctuarys were filled with the King's Friends, and such as had adhered to him. This disorder gave the Kentish men an op­portunity to rise in Arms, and do great mischief, especially in and about the City of London, and had been greater, but the Earl entered with his Army, and put an end to those disorders, and set King Henry at liberty, who had been a Prisoner in the Tower, for almost the space of Nine years, convey­ing him to the King's Palace in great Triumph, where on the 13th. of October he was crowned again, and went with the Crown on his head to St. Paul's Church, the Earl of Warwick bearing up his Train, and the Earl of Oxford carrying the Sword before him, whilst the people cryed, God save King Henry, and a Parliament being called to sit at Westminster, the 26th. of November, King Edward was declared a Traitor to his Country, and a Usurper of the Crown, his Goods and Lands were confiscated, and his Ad­herents were attained: The Earl of Worcester, for his Cause lost his Head, and all the Statutes made by Edward Revoked: The Crowns of England and France were entailed to King Henry and his Heirs Male, and for default of such Issue to George, Duke of Clarence; The Earl of Warwick to be Governour of the Land till it could be better settled.

Thus went the various change of Affairs in Eng­land, [...] the bloudy contest between the houses of York and Lancaster, yet continued not the advance­ment of King Henry; for King Edward holding Cor­respondency [Page 165]in England, and gathering some Forces beyond the Seas, landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, where the better to insinuate with the People: He at first pretended to come for his right, as a private person, but finding himself strong enough, he siezed upon York, and increasing in Power, marched till [...]he came near to the City of Warwick, where his Brother the Duke of Clarence being reconciled to him by the means of a Maid-servant, that had lived with the Old Dutches of York, desiring the Earl to for­sake King Henry's Cause, and close with his Brother, but that great Man more regarding his Engagement than Life or Interest, sent him word, that he had rather be an Earl, and always like himself than a per­jured Duke, and that e'er his Oath should be falsi­fied as the Dukes apparently was, he would lay down his Life at his enemies Feet, which he doubt not should be bought very dear, whereupon King Edward hasted to London, and was received by the Citizen no ways able to resist him; when drawing out his Forces, he marched against the Earl and his Accomplicies, and on Easter day in the Morning, Battel was joyned on Glad-more Heath, near Barnet, in which bloudy Conflict, fortune at first seemed to favour VVarwick but by an unlucky mistake, he lost the day, for a great Mist falling the embroidered Stars, upon the Coats of such as were commanded by the Earl of Oxford, being taken for Suns, which was King Edward's Cognizance; VVarwick's Battallion charged by that Errour upon their Friends, and they suspecting it done on purpose, crying out, Treason quitted the Field, which the Earl perceiving, and re­solving not to out-live the loss of the day, charged desperately into the King's Battel, killing many with his own Hands; but being cut off from the assi­stance of his own men, he there was slain, as like­wise was his Brother the Lord Montacute, in attemp­ting to Rescue him; on King Edward's Party, dyed [Page 166]the Lords Cromwell, Bourchier, and Barns, with Si [...] John Lisle; and on both sides about 10000 of all sorts: But thus ended not the Contests for the Crown; for Queen Margaret, in the right of her Husband, and Son, raised a strong Power, Anno Do­mini 1471. and gave the King Battel at Tewxbury; but Fortune now turned fatally averse to the Queen, and her Family; for losing the day, with the death of John Lord Somerset, John Courtney, Earl of De­vonshire, Sir John Delues, Sir Edward Hampden, Sir Robert Whitingham, Sir John Leukner, and several others; and a great many of lesser note. The Queen in this rout fled, and betook her self to a religious house for sanctuary, but was takan thence, and made close Prisoner; young Prince Edward, her Son, was taken in his flight by Sir Richard Crofts, who presented him to King Edward, who having a while beheld him with a stern countenance, demanded how he durst presume with Banners displayed to di­sturb his Kingdom; to which the Prince replied, that what he did was to recover his Father's King­doms, and his most rightfull Inheritance. But how dare you, continued the Prince, being but a Subject, display your Colours against your Liege Lord? Upon this resolute replie, King Edward unworthily struck him on the Mouth with his Gantlet, when Richard Duke of Gloucester, basely taking the hint, stabbed him, and the Wound being seconded by some of the Ser­vants, the poor Prince fell dead at the King's feet.

Things being carried at an extraordinary highth, Edmund Duke of Somerset, the Prior of St. John's, with divers Knights and Esquiers, who had taken sanctuary, were contrary to the Custome of those times, taken thence by force, and executed at Tewx­bury; and soon after Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the King's Brother, stabbed the pious King Henry to the heart in the Tower of London, and his body was ex­posed in a Coffin at St. Paul's, to convince the Peo­ple [Page 167]he was dead. As for the Queen, she continued several years a Prisoner, but at length her Father mortgaged most of his Principalities to pay her Ransome, and she thereupon was sent over Sea, where in much sorrow and perplexity she languished [...]ut the rest of her days; and by this means the Lan­castrians being utterly disabled to make head, King Edward more assured in his Throne, betook himself to his Pleasure, and hearing of the Fame of Jane Shoar, Wife to a Goldsmith in Gracechurch-street, he sent for her, and took her to his Bed; upon which her Husband renounced her, and for Grief, and the Disgrace, betook himself to travel beyond the Seas, never returning into England. He had likewise two other Concubines, high in his esteem, and being in the Year 1474. in France, at an Interview with the French King, Lewis told him, that he would one day invite him to court the fair Ladies of Paris; to which Offer Edward readily consented; insomuch that the French King not being pleased with his for­wardness, whispering to Philip Comines, his Bosome Friend, told him that he repented of his Offer, con­sidering that there had been too many English Prin­ces already at Paris; so that the King returned with­out having any opportunity to prosecute such A­mours.

Anno 1478. by the contrivance of Richard Duke of Gloucester, George Duke of Clarence, was accused of sundry Crimes, and committed to the Tower, where soon after he was smothered in a Butt of Malmsey Wine; and 'tis reported the King consented to so great a Wickedness upon a Prophecy, That a G. should succeed an E. which however proved true, though he mistook the Man; for Richard Duke of Gloucester usurped the Throne, and murthered his two Sons, as will appear hereafter. Two Acts yet more of this King's Cruelty are memorable, viz. Going into the Countrey he was invited to hunt in [Page 168]the Park of one Thomas Burdet Esq where after ha­ving caught much Game, he, by the persuasion o [...] some that were about him, killed a white Buck, which for its Tameness and comely Form was great­ly beloved by the Owner; and upon notice it was slain, he wished the Horns of it in the Belly of those that advised the King to doe it; which being over­heard by some Court Parasites, they, to curry fa­vour with the King, made their Report of it to him with aggravation; insomuch that Burdet was tried and cast for High Treason, in wishing the King's Death, and accordingly beheaded at Tyburn. Ano­ther Person he caused to be hanged before his own door in Cheapside, for saying to a little Youth, his Son, that if he would mind his Book, and be a good Boy, he would make him heir to the Crown, mea­ning in all probability his house that bore that Sign, &c. But now the King worn out with Wars and Women, much grieved for the untimely death of his Brother, fell sick, and sending for the Nobles that were at Court, he earnestly desired them to live peaceably together, and have regard to his Children in their tender Years, forgetting Injuries and Animosities, as they tendered the Love of God and their King, appointing his Son Edward, a Youth of about 12 years of Age, to succeed him, making the Duke of Gloucester Protectour of his Person during his Minority, and then gave up the Ghost on the 9th of Apr. 1483.

He had Issue by Elizabeth his Wife, Daughter to Richard Woodvile, Earl Rivers, Prince Edward, Ri­chard Duke of Bedford, who dyed a Child, Richard Duke of York, Elizabeth married to Henry VII. Cici [...] married to the Lord Viscount Wells, Anne married to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, Bridget, a vei­led Nun, Mary, who dyed 1482. Margaret, who dy­ed an Infant, Katharine married to William Courtney Earl of Devonshire; his base Issue was Arthur and [Page 169] Elizabeth. This Edward was King of England, France, and Lord of Ireland, Son to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York; he began his Reign on the 4th of March, 1460. and reigned 22 Years, 1 Month, and 5 Days, and was the 36th sole Monarch of England; he dyed in the 40th year of his Age, and the 23d of his Reign; his Body was buried in the new Chapel at Windsor, whose Foundation himself had laid.

Thus after bloudy Toils with restless Fate
The Warlike Prince does to the Grave retreat;
The mighty dead now undistinguished lies,
Death makes the Monarch and the Slave his prize.

The Reign and Actions of Edward the V. King of England, &c.

EDward V upon the death of his Father was com­mitted to the Care and Tutulage of Sir An­thony Woodvile, with whom were joined sundry of the Queens Relations before her Marriage; but Richard Duke of Glocester, the deceased King's Brother, thir­sting after Sovereignty, laboured to remove them from the Person of the young King; and to that [...]nd hearing they were bringing him out of the Countrey, whither he had retired, to be crowned [...]t London, with a great Power and Train, he so [...]ealt with the Queen, that she sent express word, they should save the charge and trouble of so great [...] Concourse, and urged as Gloucester had insinua­ted, that it would give the Nobility at London ap­prehensions of danger, and occasion of disturbance or discontent; and having made the Duke of Buck­ [...]ngham, the Lord Hastings, and others, his Confi­dents, he marched to Stonystratford, and there took [...]ho young King by force from the small Train that [Page 170]attended him, arresting the Lord Richard Grey, Sir Thomas Vaughan, and Sir Richard Hawtre, in the King's presence, nor could his entreaty prevail for their delivery; he made Sir Anthony Woodvile, now Lord Rivers, Prisoner, and soon after sent him and the Lord Grey, with a strong Guard, to a Castle in the North, pretending for his Justification of these pro­ceedings, that they had a design upon his Life, and the Lives of the ancient Nobility, that they might have the power of the King and Kingdom in their own hands; and to render the report more plausi­ble, caused old Armour, and rusty weapons, to be shewed to the people in his way to London, preten­ding those were the Instruments intended to doe the business.

The Queen upon the surprising news began to have mortal Apprehensions of the danger the King and her self were in, finding how she had been im­posed on by the Protectour, in forbidding the strength intended for the Guard of her Son's Person and the better to secure her self she removed with her son Richard, Duke of York, and her Daughters into the sanctuary at Westminster, and people wer [...] filled with fear and confusion, especially when they found the Thames full of Boats, with the servants o [...] Buckingham and Gloucester in them, to prevent th [...] escape of any persons that way, and to preven [...] their coming to sanctuary; however the Archbishop of York comforted the Queen the best he could, de­livering up the Broad Seal, and telling her, if an [...] misfortune came to the King, he would crown hi [...] Brother; and the Duke of Gloucester caused th [...] Lord Hasting, Lord Chamberlain, to send a Messag [...] to the Archbishop to assure him all would be well but the Queen declared against that Lord, as on [...] that sought the Ruine of her Family: however o [...] the fourth of May the King came to Town, and wa [...] in much Pomp conveyed to the Bishop of London [Page 171]Palace, where the Dukes of Gloucester, Buckingham, and other Noblemen, swore Fealty to him, and by a second Approbation the first was confirmed Pro­tector of the King's Person and Kingdoms.

Gloucester having made a prosperous beginning, fell to strengthening his Party, and held divers Councils, to contrive what was farther to be done; but he found he had as yet but half his Prey in his hands, and thereupon he laboured to get the Duke of York into his possession, and to that end Consulta­tions were held in the Stra-chamber, where it was resolved, that for sundry Reasons he should be with his Brother; but the Abbat and Archbishop decla­ring it was no ways reasonable, but alltogether dangerous, to make a breach upon the sanctuary; the latter was appointed to wait upon the Queen to prevail with her for his peaceable delivery; and al­though she used many pregnant Reasons to the con­trary, yet understanding the Protectour was resol­ved to have him by force, if fair means failed, she with much regret, and a floud of sorrow, delivered him to the charge of the Archbishop, and other Lords that attended, saying, I deliver him and his Brother into your hands, of whom I shall require them be­fore God and the World; after which she tenderly kis­sed and embraced the Infant, blessing him, and wee­ping over him, as a fatal presage of his Misfortune, whilst the Child wept as fast; the Protectour ha­ving gotten him, he took him in his Arms, and gave him a treacherous Kiss, saying, Now wellcome, my Lord, even with all my heart. The Prize thus got­ten, the Councils were removed, one held in the Tower, and the other in Bishopsgate-Street, under pretence of preparing for the King's Coronation; and the better to colour the matter Pageants were ordered to be made, but the Protectour perceiving the Lords Hastings and Stanly to cross what he aimed at, he resolved to remove those Obstacles, in order [Page 172]to which coming in the morning to that Council in the Tower with a very pleasant countenance, and excusing his lateness, he went out again for a little space, but then returned with a frowning and an­gry countenance, and demanded what ought to be done to those that sought to compass his death, who was of the Royal Bloud, and so near allied to the Crown. To which they agreed, that they ought to be punished as heinous Traitours. They are, said the Protectour, that Sorceress, my Sister, meaning the Queen, and that Witch Shoar's Wife, of her Coun­cil, that have wasted my Body with their Sorceries, an [...] Witchcraft, and thereupon drawing up his slieve shewed his Arm, which was wasted and wearish, bu [...] indeed had never been otherwise; whereat the Lords stood mute, as knowing it was only designed to quarrel with them, till the Ld. Hastings presuming upon the friendship he had all along had with him and at that time keeping Jane Shoar as his Miss whom he thought to excuse, said, Certainty, my Lord, if they have so done, they are worthy of punishment, What, replied the Protectour fiercely, thou serves [...] me with If's and Ands, I tell thee they have done so, and that I will make good upon thy Body, Traitor. Ʋpon me, my Lord, replied Hastings? Yes, upon thee, Traitor, re­plied the Protectour; and thereupon gave a Blow with his Fist on the Table, at which, as the Signal one without cried, Treason, and immediately there rushed in a company of armed Men, one of them letting fly with his Sword at the Lord Stanly, and wounded him in the head; nor had he failed to have cleft his Skull, had he not nimbly shrunk under the Table. Then the Protectour caused Hastings to be arrested, bidding him speedily take a Priest, and confess himself, swearing by St. Paul, he would not dine till he saw his Head off; and it was no time for that Lord to reason the matter, but taking a Priest at a venture, after he was shriven his Head [Page 173]was struck off on a Log of Timber in the Tower, and the sooner to save the Protector's Oath, who was in haste to go to dinner. And thus dyed this man in the time of his greatest Security, betrayed by a Servant of his, whom he had too much relied on, and trusted with his secrets.

To colour off the Murther of the Lord Hastings, who fell without Process or Tryall, the Lord May­or and Aldermen were sent for, to whom the Pro­tector and Duke of Buckingham appeared in old rusty Armour, declaring that their Lives being in such eminent danger, by the Conspiracy of the Lord Hastings and others, of which they had not been in­formed till ten in the Morning, that in their de­fence, they were forced to take what came first to hand, requiring them so to report it to their fel­low Citizens, and an Instrument in Writing to the same purpose that had been drawn up before hand, was Proclaimed by the Heraulds; and to set some Gloss upon his Words, he caused the Sheriffs of Lon­don to sieze upon all the Riches and Furniture of Jane Shea [...]s House, and commanded the Bishop of London to put her to open Pennance, and according­ly she went barefoot in her Shift, with a Rope about her middle, and a Tapour in her hand, through the Streets of London, to Paul's Cross, &c. and further, the Protector commanded under great Penalties, that she should be turned into the Streets, and none should relieve her, yet several did it privately, whose Lives and Estates she had saved by her Power and Interest with King Edward; however, she lived to an old Age, not dying till the 20th. year of the Reign of Henry the eight.

The Protector's hand dipped again in Bloud; he resolved not to stop, but by a private Order, sent to his Creature, Sir Reheard Radeliff, the Lords ta­ken from the King at Stonystratford and Northamp­ton, were beheaded in Pontefract Castle. And now [Page 174]the Protector concluding his passage open to the Throne, no longer Masqued his Intention; but gai­ning Edmund Shaw, Lord Mayor of London to side with him, many Clubs and Caballs were carried on by his Party, and Dr. Shaw, Brother to the Mayor, Preaching a Sermon at St. Paul's Cross. on the 19th. of June, declared to the people that there had been no lawfull Marriage between King Edward and his Queen, and therefore the Children ought not to succeed to the Throne, and that neither King Ed­ward nor the Duke of Clarence, his Brother, were held by them that knew most of that Affair, to be the lawfull Sons of Richard Duke of York, but said he This Noble Prince (meaning the Protectour who wa [...] to have come in just at the time the Words were ut­tering) he is his Fathers own Picture, his very Fea­tures and his Countenance, which remarkably declar' [...] him to be the true Son of the great Duke of York; ye [...] the Protector not coming at that time, but some­what late, the Doctor turned back from the other Matter he was upon to the old Lesson, repeating the very words again, which rather made the Audi-Laugh, than give heed to them; and the Doctor afterward grew so ashamed of his flattery, that finding himself every where reproached, he not long after dyed for Grief.

This way not succeeding, the Mayor was order­ed to Summon the Citizens to meet at Guild-Hall, where the Duke of Buckingham made several Orati­ons, to persuade them to reject the Line of King Edward and own the Protectour for their King, but all he could obtain, was only the Shouts of some Servants and Foot-boys, who were ordered to be there for that purpose, which the Duke laying hold of as the Consent of the People, he told them it was a very goodly Cry; and then whilst the Citizens stood amazed at his discourse, he desired them to make their humble Petition to the Protectour, that he [Page 175]would receive the Crown, and take upon him the Kingly Government; and accordingly the next day the Mayor, Aldermen, and some of the Commoners with abundance of Rabble at their Heels, accom­panied the Duke of Buckingham and some other Lords to Bainard's Castle, where the Protector kept his Court, and sending in their Message, the Protector appeared in the Balcony, as seeming to fear some danger of his person, if he give them nearer access, feigning an Ignorance of their coming, and when Buckingham (having first intreated his Graces Par­don, and a License to acquaint him with the cause of their coming) declared it was to beseech him to take the Crown and Government upon him; he loo­ked angry, and dissembled an amazement at such a request, protesting against it, and was forced, (if you will believe it) to be threatened into an ac­ceptance of what he had so passionately sought; for by Buckingham's declaring, that none of Edward's Race should Reign over them, and therefore they had offered the Crown to him, which if he refused, they would give to another of a different Family that should be worthy of it: Hereupon with a seeming unwillingness; he told them, seeing they were so bent against the Linage of his dear Brother, which he was sorry to hear; rather than they should be destitute of a King of the Royal Bloud, in the house of the Plantagenets, he should be content to submit to their desires, and take the Government upon himself. These words ended, the people cryed, King Richard, King Richard, and from this time is ac­counted the end of Edwards the Fifths Reign.

Thus by false seeming Friendship, the poor Prince
Betray'd and Murther'd in his Innocence.
Without a Crown goes down into the Grave,
Yet so had rest, which others could not have.

The Reign and Actions of Richard the Third, King of England, &c.

RIchard, by the means, mentioned in the fore­going Reign, having obtained Possession o [...] the Throne, and laid his Nephews aside, he kep [...] them strict Prisoners in the Tower, when calling [...] Parliament the Crown, was confirmed to him and his Heirs, and great preparations were made fo [...] the placing it on his Head, but fearing the Nobili­ty when gather'd in a body, might oppose it; he sent for his trusty Friend, Robert of Risdale, wh [...] gathering about 5000 of the Northern Rable came to London as his Guard, when at Westminster the Cere­mony was performed with great Splendour; Quee [...] Ann, Daughter to the great Earl of Warwick; being Crowned with him, who had been contracted to Prince Edward, Son to Henry the Sixth, and the more to ingratiate with the people, he discharged the Arch-Bishop of York, and the Lord Standly from their Imprisonment, taking his Seat likewise in the Court of King's-Bench, and there pronouncing par­don for all Offences committed against him, and a [...] the Intreaty of the University of Oxford, John Mor­ton, Bishop of Ely, was delivered into the hands o [...] the Duke of Buckingham, who sent him in close con­finement to his Castle of Brecknock in VVales, and then suffered him to continue upon his Parole.

King Richard, by this time notwithstanding he had Possession found himself, but slenderly settled in the Throne, whilst the young Princes his Nephews were alive, and therefore to make sure, he sent his Letter by John Green to Sir Robert Brackenbury Lieute­nant of the Tower, to make them away privately; bu [...] he detesting so great a Murther, refused it with ex­pressions of the horrour he conceived at such a pro­position, but this changed not the Usurpers deter­mination, [Page 177]rather making him more earnest, least the design should be discovered before it was put in practice, wherefore being wished by some of his Privados; to one Sir James Tirrel, a Man of despe­rate Fortune and wicked Principles, he disclosed the Matter to him, and he promised if he might have the Keys of the Tower delivered to him for one day, he would see it effected; hereupon the King Wrote to the Lieutenant on pain of high displeasure, to deli­ver they Keys to this Person, and he not daring to refuse, least his own Life should go for it, unwil­lingly surrendered them, whereupon Tirrel, when the young Princes were in Bed and a sleep, sent in two of his Hell-hounds, viz. Miles Forrest and John Dighton, who wraping the innocent Youths close in the Bed-cloaths, and clapping a Bolster on their Fa­ [...]es; Forrest being a heavy squat Fellow, lay upon them whilst the other kept down their Bodys, and [...]o continued to do for the space of an hour, till they found no more strugling, life, or motion in them, at what time Tirrel came in, and finding them dead, caused their Bodys to be buried under the Stairs deep in the Ground, and a great heap of Stones were laid upon them.

The business being done, the Murtherers redeli­vered the Keys, and went to give an account of the Wickedness, and receive the Wages of Iniquity; but the Usurper in this was mistaken, for instead of contributing to his peace, it added exceedingly to his disturbance and disquiet, for he never after en­ [...]oyed any content of mind, not through any Re­morse, but through the terrour of a guilty Consci­ence, fearing every one that looked wishfully on him [...]ame to kill him, and in his sleep he fancied hor­rible Apparitions of Devils and Spirits came to [...]ear him; so that he often would start out of his Bed, run up and down the Chamber, crying out for help. As for the Instruments of this Murther, Tir­rel [Page 178]was beheaded for High-Treason, in the Reign of Henry the Seventh; Forrest Rotted alive, and Dighton dyed miserably beyon the Seas: As for the Bodies of the Children, they were by Richard's Or­der taken up, and being enclosed in a Leaden Cof­fin full of holes, they were said to be carried to the black deeps in the Thames mouth, and there thrown in, out of a Fancy that this would appease the Ter­rour of his Dreams.

The Duke of Buckingham, who had been mainly Instrumental in raising Richard to the Throne, soon after this Murther fell into discontent, some say, for that the King refused him the Duke of Herefords Lands, to which he pretended himself rightfull Heir others, because he was not looked upon and estee­med at Court as he expected, but he declared it was from a Remorse for the Murther of the two Princes, of which he could not but conceit himself somewhat Guilty, because he had raised one to the Throne that had caused them to be Murthered though he was ignorant of the Fact, or its Contri­vance, and hereupon leaving the Court, he retired to his Castle of Brecknock, and there conferring with Bishop Morton, that crafty Clergy-man, to gain his entire Liberty, so fed the Dukes Ambition, who was naturally of an aspiring Spirit; that after having founded his Inclinations, he plainly told him that no­thing grived him so much, since there was so wor­thy a person allied to the Crown, that a Tyrant and Murtherer should sit upon the Throne, commending the Duke to be a person of such rare vertues, that none merrited to wear the Crown so much as him­self, and although the Duke excused it, in telling him Henry Earl of Richmond had a right before him, he was prompt enough to harken to so pleasing a Sub­ject. These debates, that seemed at first in jest, came at last to earnest, for Buckingham resolving (if possible) to displace King Richard; Communicated [Page 179]his designs to divers of his trusty Friensd, amongst whom it was agreed, that the Earl of Richmond Heir of the House of Lancaster, should Marry Eliza­beth, Daughter to Edward the Fourth, Heiress to the House of York, and by that means unite the two Families: Whereupon the Mothers of the Earl and Princess being made acquainted, and apropving the Project, Bishop Morton was sent with ample Instru­ctions, to let the Earl know what was agreed upon, and desire him with such Forces as he could raise to come over where he would find his Friends ready to receive him, and joyn their Forces with his.

These Matters were not carried so privately, but the King got notice of them, and sent a very kind Message to the Duke of Buckingham to invite him to Court; but he excusing it, by reason of pretended Indisposition; an Express was sent to command him to come, or he would fetch him dead or alive, by this he knew it was time to stand upon his own de­fence, and returned answer that he would not come to his Mortal Enemy, and thereupon sending for Thomas Marquess of Dorset out of a Sanctuary, and gathering such power as he could in the North, whilst Sir Edward Courtney and his Brother the Bishop of Exeter, raised another in Devonshire and Cornwall, as likewise did Sir Richard Guilford and other Gentle­men in Kent, they resolved to joyn their Forces; but before it could be effected, the King marched directly against the Duke with a great power, where­upon his little Army mostly consisting of Welsh­men, disbanded, and left him to shift for himself, so that he was forced to hide him in a poor disguise putting himself into the hands of one Humphrey Ban­nister, that had been his Servant and raised by him to what Estate he had, and with him he lived for some time as his Gardener; but the treacherous man upon the Kings putting out a Proclamation, promi­sing [Page 180]a reward of 1000 pounds to those that could de­cover him, deliver'd him up for the lucre of the Money to the Sheriff of Shrewsbury, who siezed this Duke diging in a poor habit; and being carried to the King at Salisbury, he there without Tryall or Process, was beheaded, upon which all the Accom­plices dispersed, and fled many of them beyond the Seas; and to this Treachery, many attributed the Judgments that soon over-took Bannister and his Fa­mily, for most of his Children dyed distressed or unnatural deaths; his Substance decreased, and he dyed in extreme Poverty.

The measures of the Confederacy thus broken, ma­ny were imprisoned, and put to death, and the King fearing an Invasion, caused the Sea Coasts to be guarded and fortified, and then assembled a Par­liament at Westminster, wherein the Earl of Richmond, and all his Adherents that had fled the Land, were attainted, and proclaimed Enemies of the Country, their Goods and Possessions were confiscated; nor did Richard delay to use the same Practices his Bro­ther had done, sending his Agents to the Duke of Bretaigne, in whose Court the Earl resided, with store of Gold, and many Presents, to persuade that Duke either to send Richmond Prisoner into England, or if he refused that, to keep him a Prisoner there, and missed but a little of succeeding; for the Duke lying sick, and Peter Landois, his Treasurer overcome with the Presents, had delivered him into the hands of such as were appointed to receive him, had not the Earl had notice of the design, and made his Escape; but the Duke highly blamed this Action of his Trea­surer, and discharged him his Office.

King Richard knowing whilst his Brother's Daugh­ters were alive, that his Title was but ill grounded, and therefore to strengthen it he proposed (though Queen Ann his Wife was living) to marry Elizabeth his Niece, by that means to cross Richmond's Preten­sions, [Page 181]and to try in this case how the people stood affected, it was given out that his Queen was dead, and soon after it proved so, that virtuous Lady dy­ing, as many conjectured, an untimely death. The Earl of Richmond having notice of what was intended, by the Money he received from England, and other Assistence, gathered what Forces he could, and lan­ded at Milford-Haven with 2000 Men, on the 15th of August, 1586. and from thence marched to Shrews­bury, being joined by the way with a considerable Force, under the Leading of Sir Rice Ap Thomas, and so marched to Newport, where Sir Gilbert Talbot met him, sent by the Earl of Shrewsbury with 2000 men, and passing from thence he came to Lichfield, where he was joyfully received; but whilst Richmond's Ar­my gathered King Richard was not idle; for raising such Forces as could be got in such a pressing Con­dition, he marched to oppose his Invader, and near Market-Bosworth in Leicestershire both Armies met, and being encouraged by their Generals with moving Speeches, the forward Soldiers rushed on to the Bat­tel, and for some time it continued both bloudy and doubtfull; nor did Fortune in the first Shock fail to favour King Richard; but the Lord Standley, who had been intrusted by Richard with a Squadron of Horse, revolting in the heat of the Fight, and char­ging upon, the allmost tired Soldiers, bore down all before him, and turned the scale of Victory, which King Richard perceiving, and resolving not to out­ [...]ive the loss, charged furiously into Richmond's Bat­tallion, and with a Courage hightened by despair, beat down all before him, till over-powered by number, and weary with fighting, he fell amongst [...] thousand Swords, and with him fell the Duke of Norfolk, the Lord Ferrers, Sir Richard Radcliff, Sir Robert Berkenburg, and about 4000 others of lesser [...]ote, and Sir William Cateshy, with two others of his [...]rivado's, being taken, were two days after behea­ded [Page 182]for evil Counsel, and other Practices, against the Good and Wellfare of the Kingdom; and Tho­mas Howard, Earl of Surry, and Son to the Duke of Norfolk, being made Prisoner, and demanded by Henry how he durst bear Arms on the behalf of a Tyrant and Uusurper, courageously answered, He was my Crowned King; and if the Parliamentary Au­thority of England set the Crown upon a stock, I will fight for that stock; and as I fought then for him, I will fight for you, when you are established by the like Autho­rity.

After this fatal Battel, wherein the number of the slain on either side did not greatly differ, the Crown that King Richard brought into the Field was found by the Lord Stanley, or those that attended him, in an Haw-thorn-Bush, and by that Lord set upon the Head of the Earl of Richmond in the Field, at the sight of which the Soldiers cryed, Long live King Henry. The Body of Richard being found a­mongst the heaps of the slain, was stripped and spoi­led by the Pillagers, and laid naked on a Horse be­hind St. Leiger, Pursuvant at Arms, and in that con­temptible manner carried to Leicester, where it was buried in the Grey-Friars Church in a stone Coffin, which was afterward made a Trough for Horses to drink in in a common Inn, and thus fell the great­ness of the Usurper, setting in bloud, who had so of­ten unjustly shed the bloud of others.

His Wife was Ann, Daughter to Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick and Salisbury, called the Make King of those times; by her he had Issue Edward Earl o [...] Salisbury, created Prince of Wales 1463. and the Crown entailed upon him by Parliament; but he dyed by an unfortunate Fall before his Father. This Richard stands accounted among the Kings of En­gland, &c. he was third Son to Richard Duke of York and began his Reign the twenty second day of June 1483. reigning two years and two months, and wa [...] [Page 183]the 38th sole Monarch of England. Many good Laws were made in his time, and he built and endowed several places to charitable uses; he caused William Collingbourn to be executed as a Traitor on Tower­hill, for writing this distich:

The Cat, the Rat, and Lovel our Dog,
Rules all England under a Hog.

Descanting thereby on the Names of Catesby, Rat­cliff, and Lovell, three of his chief Favourites; and as to the Hog, upon Richard himself, as having the White Boar for his Cognizance.

Thus the Ʋsurper, who through Seas of Bloud
Had swum to Empire, and there tottering stood,
Till Fates just hand removed him at a blow,
He fell unpittied who'd no pitty show.

The Life, Reign, and Actions of Henry VII. King of England, &c.

HEnry Earl of Richmond, upon the Success of Bos­worth Field, hasted to London, and a Parlia­ment being called at Westminster, on the 30th of Oc­tober, anno 1485. he was crowned, and owned King of England; and to prevent future Stirs or Insurrec­tions, he imprisoned Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick, Son to the Duke of Clarence in the Tower, and King Richard was attainted in Parliament as an Usurper, and Traitor against the Government, and the Crown entailed upon King Henry and his Heirs for ever, and for the better security of his Person he appointed a band of Archers under a Captain, in the nature of Yeomen of the Guard, and a free Pardon was given to all that should submit themselves with­in [Page 184]a set time, unless such of Richard's Friends as were excluded by name, and all former Acts contrary to Henry and his Friends were repealed.

Anno 1496. on the 19th of January, the King married the Princess Elizabeth, eldest daughter to Edward the Fourth, and true Heiress to the Crown, as had been before agreed on, by which means the Houses of York and Lancaster, after having overflow­ed the Land with bloud, were united, to the ceasing of future Jars on that occasion; however some that found themselves out of Favour, began to disturb the Tranquillity of Henry; for the Lord Lovell, and Sir Humphrey Stafford, his Brother, took up arms, and drew after them a considerable force, but upon the approach of the King's Army they dispersed, and Sir Humphrey being taken out of Sanctuary, whither he had fled for shelter, was carried to Tyburn, and there executed: Yet this was but light to what fol­lowed; for Margaret, Duchess Dowager of Burgun­dy, Sister to Edward the Fourth, mortally hating the Line of Lancaster, by her contrivance with some discontented English, one Lambert Simnell was set up for the Earl of Warwick, who was then in the Tower, and passing to Ireland with one Simon, a Priest, who had been his Tutour, and Manager, he was crow­ned King at Dublin, and assisted by the Dowager of Burgundy with 2000 men, under the Leading of Col­lonel Swart, and getting an Army of Irish, English, & Scots, he returned, and proclaimed himself to be the true Son of the Duke of Clarence, still encrea­sing his number; but at Stoke, a little Village near Newark, the King's Army opposed them, and a bloudy Fight ensued, wherein, after three hours hot dispute, the Impostor's Forces were routed, and put to flight, and the Earl of Lincoln, the Lord Lo­vel, Sir Thomas Broughton, Collonel Swart, and Mau­rice Fitz-Thomas were slain, with about 4000 Soldi­ers, and Simnel and his Tutour being taken, the [Page 185]former upon his Ingenious Confession how the whole Cotrivance had been imposed on him, was made the King's Falconer, after he had drudged a while in the Kitchin; but the latter condemned to perpetual Imprisonment Yet Henry gained not this Battel but with considerable loss on his side, for the Strangers knowing their Lives were at stake, if they lost the day, fought like men indespair, and sold their Lives very dear.

King Henry finding those that opposed him took generally refuge in Scotland, sent his Ambassadours to James the Third, to conclude a Peace with him, by which means he was the better at leisure to pro­secute his Wars with France, in Favour of his Allies; but to this end raising a large Subsidie, the Com­mons in Yorkshire refused to pay it, and took up Arms, but upon the approach of the Earl of Surry, and his taking John Chamber, their Ring-leader, the rest dispersed, and Chambers, and the rest of the Ring­leaders, were executed at York; and the King sailed over into France, being furnished with Money from the Citizens of London, but assoon as he set down before Bulloign, the French King offering him 186250 pounds to retire, and the Emperour his Confede­rate not being prepared to take the Field, the offer was accepted, and the Money paid in the time li­mited; and he no sooner returned but he found em­ployment at home; for the Duchess Dowager of Burgundy, with other discontented English, had set up a second Impostor, viz. one Perkin, or Peterkin Wal­beck, who passed with many for Richard Duke of York, younger Son to Edward the Fourth; and al­though the King sent his Agents abroad to discover how the Designs were carried on, as well as make the Impostor known to those to whom he applied himself for aid, he received great countenance in the Court of France, and with considerable Forces passed into Ireland, and from thence to Scotland, [Page 186]where he was very kindly received by King James the Fourth, and setting off the deceit with a very plausible Speech, in a princely Port, that King not only believed him to be the Duke of York, but gave him the Lady Katharine Gourdon, his Niece, in mar­riage; nor failed he to aid him: But whilst these preparations were making, the Lord Fitz-walter, Sir Simon Montfort, and the Lord Standly, who at his coming in at Bosworth Field had given King Henry the Victory, and with it the Crown, were behea­ded on pretence of holding Correspondence with Walbeck, and the King proceeded to strengthen the Sea-Ports, and all places of Advantage, raising Forces, and using much diligence, that he might be able to weather the Storm he foresaw breaking in upon him, when calling a Parliament, he had a Tax of 80000 l granted him, which caused the Cornish Men to rise under the leading of one Flammock, a Lawyer, and Joseph a Black-Smith, and were joined at Wells by the Lord Audley, and so marched to Black Heath in Kent, where they were fought with and routed by the King's Forces, the Lord Audley taken, and beheaded on Tower-hill, and the other two Ring-leaders hanged and quartered; the Smith comforted himself by the way, that his Name by this Action should be immortal. And now the King, in requital of the Invasions the Scots had made du­ring these Revolutions, sent the Earl of Surry to fall upon their Frontiers with Fire and Sword, who prosecuted it so rigorously, that they were obliged to sue for Peace, which upon the Mediation of the King of Spain was concluded, and Perkin by one clause of it excluded Scotland, whereupon he went for Ireland, and from thence was invited by the Cor­nish Men to head them against the King's Forces in England, promising their Aid to help him to the Kingdom; so that landing at Whitsand Bay in Corn­wal, many thousands resorted to him; and being [Page 187]strong enough, he besieged Exeter, but it made a stout Resistence, and was in conclusion relieved by the Earl of Devonshire; whereupon Perkin's Men per­ceiving the little success they were like to have a­gainst the far greater Forces preparing to encounter them, dropped away by degrees, which he percei­ving, fled privately to the Abby of Beaulien in New Forest, for Sanctuary, but upon Promise of Life, and a Pardon for his Crimes, he came forth and sub­mitted, making his publick Confession and Recan­tation, how he was but the Son of a converted Jew, born at Tournay in Flanders, and had been wrought upon to take this Enterprise upon him by the Du­chess of Burgundy, and others, upon which he was committed close Prisoner to the Tower. Yet some Practices being still on foot, King Henry not thin­king himself secure, caused him to be tried at West­minster for High Treason, in attempting to escape, and carry with him the Earl of Warwick, to raise new Commotions in the Kingdom, and being sen­tenced, was drawn to Tyburn, and there hanged. In this the innocent Earl of Warwick was involved, without any other apparent reason than to cut him off, that the Succession might be the more firm to Henry's posterity; and this poor Prince who had been kept a Prisoner from his Infancy, and little kn [...]w what belonged to Law, or Matters of State, being by some who insinuated to be his Friends, persuaded to confess upon his Tryall what he never intended or thought of by having a Promise of Pardon up­on such a Confession; the King very unkindly took him at his word, and being condemned for High Treason, he was beheaded on Tower-hill, and in him failed the Name of Plantagenet, as being the last of the Male Line of that illustrious House. This cruel execution, little inferiour to what Richard the III. had acted by his Newphews, is held to be done up­on the account of the Match between Prince Arthur, [Page 188]the King's Son, and the Princess Katharine of Spain, the Spaniard appearing averse to conclude it till by the removal of the Earl of Warwick, the Succession was better secured.

Anno 1506. Edmund de la Pool, Earl of Suffolk, was tried by the King's express Command at the King's-Bench-Bar Westminster, for killing a man; and tho he had his Pardon, yet being of the Royal Bloud, it so disgusted him, that he privately retired beyond the Seas, and laboured to disturb Henry's Reign, by secretly holding Correspondence in England; which obliged the King to send his Spies abroad, especi­ally Sir Robert Courson, who insinuating into the Earl's Favour, got out of him who were his Confe­rates in England; whereupon Sir James Tirrel, the wicked Instrument in the Murther of the two young Princes, Edward and Richard, in the Tower, and Sir John Windham, with three others, lost their Heads on Tower-hill: Nor did the King spare any Cost or Labour to get the Earl into his hands; but when his Pollicy failed, Fortune befriended him; for Phi­lip, King of Spain, and Archduke of Austria, in whose Countries the Earl remained, being at Sea, was driven into the West of England by Stress of Weather, of which Henry had no sooner notice, but he hasted to receive and entertain him, which he did in a most splendid manner, and with some diffi­culty procured his Promise to send him over the Earl a Prisoner, protesting his Life should be secured to him, and accordingly he was sent over and secured in the Tower.

King Henry supposing himself now secure, made it his business to heap up Riches, and for that pur­pose he had his Instruments, Empson and Dudly, who by grievous unlawfull, and indirect ways oppres­sed the People, for which they were justly punished as a Terrour to corrupt Judges, which in the next Reign appears; but in the midst of this Unrertaking [Page 189]the King dyed, viz. anno 1509. on the 22d of April. He had Issue by Elizabeth his Queen, eldest Daugh­ter to Edward the Fourth, Arthur, who was married to Katharine of Spain, and dyed before his Father, anno 1502. Henry, Edmund, who dyed 1499. Mar­garet, married to James the Fourth, King of Scot­land, Elizabeth, who dyed young, Mary, first mar­ried to Lewis the Twelfth, King of France, and af­terward to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, Katha­rine, who dyed young.

This Henry was King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, Son to Edmund Tudor, Earl of Rich­mond, by Margaret, Daughter and Heir to John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, Grandchild to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. He began his Reign in the Year 1485 and reigned twenty three Years, eight months, and was the 39th sole Monarch of England; he dyed in the 52d Year of his Age, and was buried in the Chapel of his own Building at Westminster.

Thus after Toils of State and War are o'er,
Monarchs lie down to be disturb'd no more:
The Grave yields quiet and Repose from ill
When Fate wound off the Wheels of Life stand still.

The Reign and Actions of Henry VIII. King of England, &c.

KIng Henry the Eighth was in his Father's Life time betrothed to Katharine of Spain, his Bro­ther Arthur's Widow; and the old King left him to set up with 1800000 l that he had scraped toge­ther in his latter days, the greatest Treasure any King of England ever left before. This Henry was crowned at Westminster, on the 25th of June, 1509. together with Queen Katharine, by William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, chusing many grave per­sons out of the Clergy and L [...]i [...]y. And now the people being enraged against Empson and Dudly, for their illegal Oppressions, the King, to prevent Tu­mults that might have happened in the beginning of a young Prince's Reign if Redress had been re­fused caused them to be arrested and imprisoned, and soon after being brought to Tryall, and many heinous things proved against them, together with the Cries and Clamours of the people for Justice, they were sentenced to lose their Heads, and were accordingly executed.

The King being of a martial Spirit, and impati­ent of Ease, sent his Heralds at Arms to the French King, there in his Name, and as in right belonging to the English Crown, to demand the Dutchies of Normandy, Guine, Main, and Anjou; but they being refused, he failed into France with a considerable Army, besieged Terwin; and thither came Maximi­lian the Emperour, as a voluntary aider to the King, and served under the English Standard as a Knight of the Order of the Garter, and the French advan­cing with a considerable power to the relief of this place, were routed allmost without fighting; so from their cowardly running away, being most Horse, it was called in derision, The Battel of Spurs; [Page 191]yet six of their Standards, and many Prisoners of note were taken, and thereupon the Town yielded, and the King marched to the Siege of Tournay, which he won, and obliged the Citizens for their Redem­ption to pay him 10000 l and about 80000 of them took their Oaths to become his Liege Subjects, ma­king Sir Edward Poinings Governour, and Thomas Wolsey, his great Favourite, Bishop of that City: nor did this Success remain to the English in France alone, but at the same time in England; for the Scots invading England with a powerfull Army, and having pierced as far as Northumberland, the Earl of Surry gave them battel, with a great overthrow, in Folden Field, where James their King, one Archbi­shop, 2 Bishops, 2 Abbats, 12 Earls, 17 Lords, a great number of Knights and Gentlemen, and about 8000 common Soldiers slain, and allmost all the rest taken prisoners. This memorable Battel was fought on Septemb. 9. 1513.

King Hen. victorious in France, the French sought all Ways for an Accommodation, and at last, Pope Leo becoming Moderatour, a Peace was concluded; and soon after Lewis XII. married Mary, the King's younger Sister, at Albeville, with great splendour; yet he lived but 82 days after; for being aged, and infirm, and over striving himself to pleasure a beautious, lively, young Lady, it no doubt con­tributed to the hastening his End; and upon his Death the Queen returning for England, was pri­vately married at Callais to Charles Bradon, Duke of Suffolk, her first Lover, and from whom she had un­willingly parted, to fall into the Arms of Majesty. And now by the too free Access of Foreigners Trade greatly decreasing, one John Lincoln, and other ag­grieved persons, put up a Bill of Complaint, and it was read by the Minister at the Spital Sermon. This so animated the Rabble that getting together on May day, 1517. they fell upon, plundered, and de­stroyed [Page 192]the Houses of the Strangers, committing many Outrages on their Persons: Nor was the Magistracy able to quell them; for being all in an uproar, the Lieutenant of the Tower, who had no Good-Will for the City, played the Great Guns up­on it; but the Rage of the Multitude spent, they retired to their respective Habitations, yet several were taken and tried, of which number Lincoln, and 13 more, most of them youths, were hanged in di­vers places of the City, and about 200 Men and Boys, and 9 Girls and Women, went in their Shifts only, being bare headed, footed, and legged, and Ropes about their Necks, to Westminster, where at the upper end of the Hall the King sate, and after he had sharply reproved them, and they on their knees had begged Mercy, Wolsey, by the King's com­mand, pronounced their Pardon, whereat with a joyfull Cry they threw up their Halters, in token of deliverance from death, and this day ever since is cal­led Evil May day, and soon after Tournay was resto­red to the French, in consideration they paid the King 600000 Crowns in twelve years, and the Dau­phin to marry the Lady Mary, King Henry's Daugh­ter, when she should be of sufficient years of Con­sent; but if the Marriage took no effect, then the City to be restored, and Wolsey, who by this time had bought him a Cardinal's Cap; to have 1000 Marks a year for the profits of the Bishoprick; and Wolsey having power with the King to doe all, re­membring a former Affront put upon by Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, he used his interest to the destruction of that great Peer, who was behea­ded on Tower-hill, upon pretence of aspiring to the Crown.

In the Year 1521. the Emperour Charles V. in his way to Spain landed at. Dover for Refreshment, and at the King's earnest Request came to London, and was royally entertained with all the Magnificence [Page 193]and Splendour the Court abounded with at that time; and King Henry having written a Book a­gainst Martin Luther, and sent it to the Pope; he in recompence to his Zeal for the Roman Church, sent him the Stile of Defender of the Faith, which has ever since remained to the Kings and Queens of England, sending him likewise a Consecrated Rose.

The Peace between England and France, by rea­son of misunderstandings, growing to a Conclusi­on, a Parliament was assembled at the King's Pa­lace in Black-Fryers, granting him half the yearly Revenues of all Spirituall Livings to be paid for five years, and the tenth part of all Temporal Substance to carry on his Wars, so that not staying to expect War, he sent to meet it, commanding the Duke of Suffolk to pass over with an Army, who taking ma­ny Towns and Castles, and every where worsting the French, returned Victorious, and the King ba­nished the Scots out of England, confiscating their Goods, but upon the Mediation of his Sister, a peace was concluded for a time, yet there was Martial business abroad, for the Irish rebelled, and siezing upon the Earl of Kildare, who bore the Kings Au­thority in that Kingdom, they sent him bound to England, with many Accusations against him, for which he was committed to the Tower, and Wolsey who hated him, signed a Warrant for his Executi­on, without the knowledge of the King; whereup­on the Lieutenant went to Court, and the Trick being made known to the King, Wolsey was severely checked, and the Earl had the King's Sgnet sent him for his security.

About this time, overtures being made by the Emperor's Ministers in consideration of Marriage with the Lady Mary; the French having rejected the Match, and some scruples arising about the Le­gality of her Birth, as being born on a Queen that had been his Brother's Wife, the King began to fall [Page 194]into a dislike of his Marriage, and sent to Rome to sue out a Divorce; but finding delays in that Cour [...] he desired a Cardinal might be sent to hear the Cause, and accordingly Cardinal Campius was sent whose Mules casting their Sumpters in Cheap-side the Cardinal's Treasure was discovered to consist o [...] old Shooes, broken Meat, tatter'd Breaches and Rags, which raised no small Laughter in the peo­ple. This Cardinal sate with Wolsey and other Clergy men; but when the King expected the issue of the Matter, instead of giving the definitive Sentence he dissolved that Court, and referred the Cause to the Pope, which so incensed the King, that he Com­manded him to depart the Kingdom, and sent Dr. Cranmer to Rome, to justifie the proceedings to the Pope, who with other learned Men, bringing the O­pinions of almost all the Universities of Europe un­der their Seals that it was not Lawfull to Marry [...] Brother's Wife, the Divorce was made, yet the Queen lived in England till she dyed, and King Hen­ry proceeded to take to Wife Ann of Bullen, a very beautifull Lady, who to that end he had before made a Dutches, and honoured with many favours, but bet­ter she had been without them, as by the sequel wi [...] appear, Cardinal Wolsey, whose power was such, tha [...] he seemed to sway both King and Kingdom, bega [...] about this time to be lessened in esteem, and shortly after, for not only disliking, but striving to cros [...] the King's Proceedings in the Divorce, and new Marriage, had first the great Seal of England taken from him then several of his Bishopricks, which he had ingrossed, which begining of disgrace, made him more liable to the Revenge of some Courtiers whom he had i [...]jured, and they soliciting the King to proceed further, he commanded him to leave the Court and retire to York, but as he was on his way he was overtaken, and arrested by the Earl of Nor­thumberland, and his House and Furniture siezed: Hi [...] [Page 195]Charge was for speaking Arrogant Words against the King, which were interpreted that he meant to take revenge for his disgrace; but at Leicester Ab­by, in his way to London, taking an Italian Confecti­on to break Wind from his Stomach, he dyed not without suspition of Poisoning himself, rather than after so great a share of Power and Grandure as he had possessed, to fall into the hands of his Enemies. His last words were these, viz. ‘If I had served my God as faithfully as I have served my King, he would not at this time cast me off.’ As for his Birth it was mean, being the Son of a Butcher at Ipswich, rising from a low degree, by his Policie, Cuning and prompt Genus.

About this time Queen Ann was delivered of a Daughter, Christened by the name of Elizabeth; afterward our renowned Queen of England, and two years after of a dead Child; but the Popish party at Court, perceiving this good Queen strongly to in­cline to the Lutheran Doctrine, and encourage those of the Profession, they found an opportunity to strike in with some displeasure of the King's, and accuse her of Incest and Adultery with her Brother, the Lord Rochfort, which appeared upon no other Foundation than his waiting upon her, whilst she was in Bed, to inquire of her Health, and for joy of her recovery, presuming to salute her; however she was beheaded on Tower-Hill, making a very Pi­ous and Christian-like end, and for the same Fact dyed; Her Brother in like manner, on the 19th. of May, 1536. and the next day the King gave a greater light into this cruel Execution, by Marry­ing the Lady Jane Seymour, Daughter to Sir John Seymour, which looked as though the removing one from his Embraces, was only to make way for the other.

Wolsey, as is said being dead, Thomas Cromwell a Black-smith's Son of Putney, who had been an under [Page 196]Favourite of the Cardinals began to rise in the Kings esteem, being first made Master of the Jewel-house, then Barron of Okeham, then Earl of Essex, after that great Chamberlain of England, and Vicar Ge­neral of the Spiritualities, he was a great favourer of the Reformed Religion, and strove what in him lay to promote it, but this and his greatness proved his downfall, by raising powerfull Enemies at Court against him, so that after he had done many great things for the King and Kingdom, he was Arraign­ed, Condemned, and lost his Head; however some change of the Face of the Romish Worship, made the Monks and Fryars invite the Plebeans to take up Arms, under pretence of redressing Grievances, and reforming matters of State, and were headed in Lincolnshire by one Mackarel a Monk; but being pro­mised by the King, their requests should be partly answered, they laid down their Arms, but it was not long before another rout got together, under the name of Pilgrims, carrying in their Banner the Picture of Christ with his five Wounds, the Cha­lice Cake, and other foolish Devices, declaring for Holy Mother Church, and a Reformation in State. These assembled in Yorkshire to the number of 40000 Commanded by one Diamond a Fisherman, who Stiled himself the Earl of Poverty, and one Robert Aske, yet upon the approach of the King's Forces, (though they had for a time appeared very formidable) be­ing promised as the former, some Redress of their Demands, and a Pardon for what had passed, they dispersed themselves, yet upon these and the like stirs, several of the Ringleaders were taken and Ex­ecuted, as four Abbots, two Pryors, three Monks and 3 Priests, nor did Captain Mackerel escape this Execution, and of Temporal Persons dyed the Lord Dacres, Sir Robert Constable, Sir Francis Bigod, Ro­bert Aske, and divers others, and now the Churches began to be purged of Images, and other Trumpe­ry, [Page 197]which greatly inriched the King's Coffors, for many of them were of Gold and Silver, set with pre­cious Stones, and those of Wood were burnt, nor were the Monasteries and Religious Houses long de­layed, of which there were suppressed Monasteries [...]645 Colledges, 90 Chanceries, and Free Chapels, [...]374. So that the Bible was read in English Regi­ster Books appointed, and Weddings and Christen­ [...]ngs Commenced in due order, to hinder Clan­destine Iniquities, for upon their being demo­lished, great numbers of Childrens Sculls and Bones were found, which had been Murther'd, stopt up in the Walls and other places, to hide the Infamy of the Lascivious Nuns and Fryars, &c. But by this means the Revenues siezed, swarms of Monasticks were turned out to shift, which made them labour to incense not only many of the Commons, but some Noblemen and Gentlemen, against the King, and the Pope sent a Bull Excommunicating the King, but the Bull bearer being taken as he was fixing it upon the Bishop of Londons Palace, he was as a Tray­tor conveyed to Tyburn, and there hanged with the Bull about his Neck, and the Marquess of Exceter, the Lord Montacute and Sir Edward Nevile were Ex­ecuted at Tower-Hill, for Conspiring to depose Hen­ry, and place Cardinal Reignald Pool, Grand-son to the Duke of Clarence in the Throne.

The Lady Jane Seymour, whom Henry hade made [...]his Queen, dying in Child-bed with Prince Edward, afterward our Edward the Sixth, the King Married the Lady Ann, Sister to the Duke of Cleve, and she being sent over, the King no sooner fixed his Eyes on her, but he took dislike a to her Person, and pretending he had been deceived in the Report of her Beauty, the Beding was refrained and a Divorce procured in Parliament, barring her the Tittle of Queen, and he proceeded to Marry the Lady Catha­rine Howard, Neice to the Duke of Norfolk, but she [Page 198]soon after run the same Risque as Ann of Bulloin had done, for she had not been Married much above a year, before she was accused of Fornication and A­dultery, the one with Francis Derham before Marri­age, and the other with Thomas Culpeper after, she was Queen, for which, she together with the Lady Jane Rochfort, lost her head, on Tower-Hill, the latter suffering for Concealing the Fact of the for­mer, though the Queen declared to her Confessor to the last she was innocent; as for Derham and Culpeper they were Executed at Tyburn, nor did the Countiss of Salisbury, Daughter to George Duke of Clarence, and Mother to Cardinal Pool escape the cruelty of the King, for upon a suspition she held Correspon­dence with her Son, she was attainted in Parliament and beheaded upon that Attandure, and about the same time the Lord Leonard Grey lost his Head for Treason, and for refusing to deny the Pope's Su­preamicy, and acknowledge the King's, upon a Sta­tute acknowledging the King Supream Head in his own Kingdom. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and the famous Sir Thomas Moor, Lord Chancellor of England, were beheaded, and yet by the contrivance of the Papists, the bloudy six Articles were brought in a sa Snare to those of the Reformed Religion, upon which account many suffered the Flames, and amongst others Dr. Barns and Mrs. Ann Askew, who refusing after Tortures to comply, were committed to the devouring Fire, and the King Married the Lady Ca­tharine Parr, who favoured the Lutherans, and was of the Reformed Church, whose Life the Papists of­ten put in danger, but she escaped the Snare and out-lived the King, who having invaded both Scot­land and France, upon the disappointment in the Match proposed and agreed on, between Prince Ed­ward and the Lady Mary of Scotland, Heir and Hei­ress to the two Crowns, and won Bulloin in France, wasting Scotland wsth Fire and Sword, and taking [Page 199]upon him the Title of King of Ireland, he fell sick in January 1547. and made his Will, that in default of Issue, his Son and two Daughters should succes­sively possess the Trone, and giving great Sums to charitable Uses, dyed the 28th. of the same Month.

This Henry was King of England, France, and Ire­land, second Son to Henry the Seventh, he Reigned 37 Years 9 Months and six Days, and was the forty sole Monarch of England, the Issue he left behind him, were Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth, who succeeded him in the Sovereignty, he dyed in the 56th. year of his Age, and was buried in the Chapell at Wind­sor.

Thus the Eighth Henry ends his bloudy Reign,
Beauty it self with him can't Pitty gain;
Yet met by Death, amongst the Dead he lies,
And with his Life he ends his Cruelties.

The Life, Reign, and Actions of Edward the Sixth, King of England, &c.

PIous Edward the Sixth, far from his Fathers tem­per, was born on the 12th. of Ostober, 1537. occasioning by his Birth the Death of his Mother Queen Jane, for in her hard labour King Henry ha­ving notice it was a Son, for which he had passio­nately longed, and that either the Child or the Mo­ther must perish; he intimated he could have more Wives, but knew not whether he should have ano­ther Son, whereupon the Chirurgeons having dozed the Queen with strong Spirits, to make her senseless of the pain, by making a large Incision, took forth the Birth, but by that usage the Queen soon after dyed

This Prince was Crowned at Westminster, on the 20th. of February, 1547. having the three Swords delivered to him, as King of England, France and Ireland, and upon this he told them, there was yet another Sword to be delivered to him, viz. The Holy Bible, which is the Sword of the Spirit, and without which, no King can Govern well, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, and his Mothers Brother was made Protector over his Minority, and hereupon it was concluded the Scots should be compelled to make good the Marriage, which otherwise they refused to do, wherefore a great Army was raised, and led by the Lord Protector into Scotland, and vanquished the Scots in Muschelborough Field, after an obstinate and bloudy Fight, with great slaughter of their men, chasing them about five miles, so that there dyed the Lord Fleming, with sundry others of quality, and ten thousand of lesser note, and one thousand were taken Prisoners, amongst whom of note were the Earl of Huntly, the Lords Yester, Hobby and Hamil­ton, the Earl of Cassis, and the Lord Weems, so that the English without any farther opposition, sacked and burnt Lieth, the Island of St. Colmes, Brougherag, Roxborough, Humes Castle, and other places, which obliged many of the Scotch Nobility and Gentry, to come and cast themselves at the Proctor's Feet, be­seeching him to spare their Country, entering into terms with him on condition of Peace, whereupon he returned to England, and a Parliament was cal­led, and the bloudy six Articles repealed those Col­ledges, Chapells and Religious Houses that King Henry had spared, were given to the King Edward, and Commissioners appointed to purge the Churches of Images, which accordingly was done, but in the West, Mr. Body, one of the Commissioners was stab­bed to the heart by a Priest, and to justifie the mur­ther, 10000 of the Cornish and Devonshire Rusticks took Arms, Headed by Humphry Aurundell, & six other [Page 201]Gentlemen and eight Priests, who straightly besie­ged Exceter, but were beaten off after they had done considerable mischief, yet they continued in Arms, [...]nd sent the King sundry Articles to be aggreed to, viz. That they might have Mass Celebrated as in times [...]ast, that they might have Holy Bread and Holy Water in [...]membrance of Christ's Body and Bloud, that the six Ar­ticles might be again in force, with some others; to which, the young King pittying their ignorance re­turned them an answer with a general Pardon, if they submitted, but that not prevailing, and the multitude still encreasing, an Army was sent against them, which put them to flight at Honiton, and beat [...]hem before Exceter, and on Cliff-Heath utterly dis­ [...]omfitted them with considerable slaughter, and all the Popish Trumpery which the Priests had brought [...]nto the Field to encourage them, were trampled under Feet, and Aurundel, Holms, Winsland, and Bury [...]our of their Ring-leaders were taken and Executed, [...]nd a Miller's man near Bodmin taking upon him, by [...]is Masters directions to personate him, Sir Anthony Kingstone, Marshal of the Field, commanded him to [...]e hanged; the Fellow confidently affirming himself to be the Rebellious Miller, till he came to the Gal­lows, yet there declared he was but his man, yet this late Confession stood him in no stead, for Sir An­thony caused him to be hanged, telling him he could never do his Master better Service; but the troubles ended not thus, for the Priests being unhived and deprived of their Roast-meat, stir'd up the people in other parts of the Kingdom, and especially those in Norfolk, were Headed by one Robert Kett a Tanner, who Stiled himself the King's Deputy to redress Grie­vances, issuing out Writs and Warrants in the King's name, and chusing an Old Oake to sit in Council, called the Oake of Reformation, to which Tribunal all Com­plaints and Grievances of the Rusticks were brought to be redressed, and Orders were sent for the plun­dering [Page 202]Gentlemens Houses, taking Arms and Amu­nition out of Ships, &c. making themselves Master of the City of Norwich, over-throwing the Mar­ques of Northampton; but the Lord Dudly Earl of Warwick, being sent against them, forced the City and caused Sixty of such as he there had taken i [...] Arms, to be immediately hanged; however, th [...] Rebels intrenched and fortified their Camp at the foot of a Hill called Duffin-dale, encouraging them­selves upon a vain Prophecy, that Hob, Dic, and Hic, meaning the Rusticks should with their Club [...] fill up the Valley of Duffin-dale with the Bodys of the slain.

On the 27th of August, the Earl prepared to give them Battel, when the better to retard him, the Rebels set in the head of their Battel, all the Gen­tlemen and others that they had taken Prisoners coupled in Irons; however Captain Drury with hi [...] Band of Almains broke in furiously, and gave those persons leave for the most part to escape, and the Earls light Horse-men coming on, the Rebels gave back, and at length betook them to open flight, and were pursued three miles, with the slaughter o [...] 3500 of them; yet such as had Barrocaded them­selves with Carts and Waggons amongst the Ordi­nance, as men in despair, resolved to sell their live [...] at a dear rate, but upon offer of Pardon they threw down their Arms, crying, God save King Edward and the next day, Kett being siezed in a Barn, was hanged in Chains upon the Castle of Norwich, and his Brother William Kett, was hanged on Womanha [...] Steple, and Nine others on the Oake of Reformati­on. The pretence of this Rebellion, was about throwing open Inclosures, which the King by his Proclamation had commanded to be done, but it was neglected.

These Commotions were no sooner over, but a­nother Rebellion broke out in the North, Headed [Page 203]by Thomas Dale, a Parish Clark, one Stephenson a [...]ost-master, and William Ombler, a Yeoman, pre­tending to restore Church rights, and redress Grie­vances, declaring the power of the Pope above that of the Kings, and that the Church had power of [...]oth Swords, but this feeble Rebellion not exceeding [...]000 vanquished upon the Kings sending his For­ [...]es and offer of Pardon, yet Ombler, Dale, and four others were on the 12th of September 1549. Execu­ [...]ed at York, as Seducers and Ring-leaders.

These and the like disturbances qeieted, conside­rable ones began at Court, for Thomas Seymour, Baron of Sudley, High Admiral of England, having married Queen Catharine Parr, Widow to Henry the Eighth, and some words and contest happening between her and the Dutches of Somerset, Wife to the Protector, for precedences the two Brothers so unadvizedly espou­sed their Wives Quarel, which was fomented by se­cret Enemies, that the Admiral by the Protector's procurement, being accused in Parliament, for at­tempting to get the King's person and Government into his hands, &c. Upon slender proofs was Senten­ced and lost his Head on Tower-Hill, on the 20th of March, to the great grief of the young King, who aboured to prevent it, but by Somerset's removing this Brother, he stood open to the malice and re­venge of his implacable Enemies; for soon after, by the contrivance of Northumberland and others, di­vers Articles were exibited against him for abusing his Trust, Animating the Rebels, sowing Sedition amongst the Nobles, keeping a Court of Requests in his own house, whereupon he was deprived of his Authority, and sent to the Tower, but the King soon released him, yet was he not restored to his Trusts.

Whilst these heats lasted at Court, the Affairs a­broad were neglected, insomuch that the Scots re­covered most of the Town the English had taken, [Page 204]and the French attempted to surprize Bullenberg with seven thousand men, but were beaten off wit [...] the loss of one hundred and fifty, and had no better sucsess in their attempts upon Guernsey and Jersey Is­lands; however, things not going well at home Bullenberg and Bulloin were surrendred to the Frenc [...] upon Conditions, and the payment of a large Sum [...] of Mony, and now to add to the Calamity, th [...] Mortal Disease, called the Sweating Sickness, raged in England, carrying off many thousands, pursuing the English into Forreign Countrys, where none but they were afflicted with it: And now the Duke of Northumberland being grown great at Court, la­boured to remove the Duke of Somerset, and by a [...] Stratagem, found an opportunity, for the Duke, by some of his flatters, being perswaded there was a [...] design against his life, went privately Armed to the Council, but his Gown opening as he sate at the Board, it was laid hold of, as a design in him to kill some of the King's Privy Counsellors, and that, with some light matters being urged with agravation they procured his imprisonment, and soon after be­ing tryed and found guilty of Felony, though he might have come off by his Clergy, yet his Council nor himself not foreseeing to claim it, he was on the 22d. of February, Anno 1550 brought to Tower-Hill, and there, after having declared his Innocence, and made a most Christian Speech, he was beheaded, which some looked upon as a Judgment, for so ri­gorously persecuting his Brother.

Upon the Death of this Uncle, though Plays and other Devices were made to divert the King, he grew Melancholly, and the people were greatly In­censed against Northumberland; however, he taking the occasion from the King's Sickness and Disorder, procured him to disinherit his two Sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, and settle the Crown on Jane, Eldest Daughter to the Duke of Suffolk, by the Lady Fran­ces, [Page 205]Daughter to Charles Brandon, and Mary, Queen of France, younger Sister to King Henry the eighth, who was married to Guilford Dudly, Fourth Son to Northumberland; and to this Will of the Kings, the Council, Bishops, and all the Judges, except Sir John Hollis, Subscribed, and the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, afterward promi­sed their Assistance and Protection; but this was supposed to hasten the King's Death: For Northum­berland having gotten what he expected, viz. The Crown in his own Family, removed his Physicians [...]nd trusty Friends, putting him into the hands of a [...]he Doctress, who wittingly, or unskilfuly brought him to his End, on the 6th. of July, 1553. This good Prince is accounted a second Josia, exceeding in Charity and Piety all that went before him, having Learning and Understanding far above his years, [...]nd had he lived a longer Date, he had proved more perspicuously the Mirror of Kings.

This Edward was King of England, France, and Ireland, the only Son of King Henry the Eighth, by Jane his third Wife, he Reigned six Years, five Months, and eight Days, and was the one and For­ [...]ieth, sole Monarch of England, dying in the 16th. of his Age, and was buried at Westminster.

Thus England's Phoenix early left the Stage
His Death was much Lamented of the Age,
Yet he contented dy'd, from's Throne to rise,
In Angels Arms to everlasting joys.

The Life and Bloudy Reign of Queen Mary.

UPon the Death of King Edward, according to his Will, the Lady Jane was proclaimed in London and elsewhere, and confirmed by the Coun­cil; but Mary, Eldest Daughter to King Henry the Eighth, being then at Fremingham Castle, sent to complain against their Proceedings, in giving away her right, commanding them to acknowledge he [...] their lawfull Queen, but they returned her a very slight answer, commanding her to be obedient to Queen Jane, her Sovereign; whereupon, with such Friends as she had about her, she prepar'd for Lon­don, and to her a great many of the Suffolk men re­paired, offering her their Service, in case their Re­ligion might be asured, insomuch, that by that means, and the siezure of several Ships in the Ports out of which she caused the Cannon and Ammuition to be taken, she became formidable, whereupon an Army of 13000 men, under the Command of the Duke of Northumberland, marched out against her but by that time the Duke was got as far as Cam­bridge, he had notice that the Council at London ha [...] laid aside Queen Jane, and Proclaimed Mary Queen whereupon most of his Forces deserting him, h [...] threw up his Cap likewise, and Proclaimed he Queen, but this excused him not, for he was soon after Arrested by the Lord Arundel, and brought Prisoner to the Tower. Queen Mary being com [...] to London, and perceiving her self a little settled i [...] the Throne, by reason many Noblemen and other had declared for her, and raised Forces in her De­fence she soon forgot, or rather rejected the Pro­mise she had made to the Suffolk men, of not alter­ing any thing in Religion, setting at liberty the Popish Clergy, and restoring them to their Benefi­ces, Imprisoning Bishop Ridley, and Arch-Bishop [Page 207] Cranmer making Stephen Gardner the Inveterate E­nemy of the Reformed Church, Lord Chancellor, by whose persuasion Northumberland was tryed and at­tainted of Treason, when coming on the Scaffold, deluded by the Popish Priest in hopes of Pardon he renounced the Protestant Religion, for which he had before appeared so zealous, and openly professed the Roman Catholick, declaring it to be the truly ancient Religion, but this meanness of Spirit, in pro­stituting his Conscience availed him little for they shewd him a Popish Trick, cuting his Head off, not­withstanding his recantation, with him dyed, Sir John Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer, and soon after the Queen was crowned at Westminster by Stephen Gardener, Bishop of Winchester; and a Parliament being called, the Popish Party so over-ruled the rest, that they were obliged to comply with them, after a long refusal for the repealing an Act, made in the Reign of Edward the Sixth, Intituled an Act of Uni­formity of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, so that the Papists got again into the Churches, and finding their Power, they be­gan to wreck their revenge on those that had any ways opposed and crossed their purposes; and now the Lady Jane and her Husband, the Lord Guilford. being tryed, and condemned at Guild-Hall as guilty of Treason, they were on the 12th. of February, 1553 beheaded the Lord Guilford on the Great Tower-Hill and the Lady Jane on the Green within the Tower, both dying in the Reformed Church, with admira­ble patience and firmness of mind, declaring they suffered not for any Crime of their own, but for the Crimes of others, whose Ambition had driven them to take upon them the Sovereignty.

This Innocent Bloud satisfied not the Papists an­ger, insomuch that they persuaded the Queen she could not be safe whilst the Duke of Suffolk lived, [Page 208]and thereupon getting him attainted of Treason for conspiring to raise Rebellion, and leavy War to hinder the Queens Marriage with Spain, &c. he was on the 23d. of October, beheaded, and his Bro­ther Thomas Grey, beheaded the 23d. of May follow­ing, and now the Queen no longer desirous to li [...] alone; a Marriage with Spain was concluded ve­ry advantageous to the Trade of the English, ye [...] many fearing the Kingdom would be subjected or at least over-run by a Forreign Nation, great Commotions were rais'd, and the Kentish-men rise under the leading of Sir Thomas Wyat, against whom the Duke of Norfolk being sent, instead of Fighting most of his men Deserted and joyned with Wyat whereupon the Duke retired, and Wyat advanced to­wards London, demanding a disanulling the Match with Philip of Spain, and that for security, the Tow­er and other places should be put into his hands which obliged the Queen to leave the Palace, and betake her self to London, where many Consult were held in the Guild-Hall, and the Queen in those Councils, declared her right to the Crown, Mag­nifying the Advantages that would Accrue by the Match with Spain, and encouraging the Londoners to stand by her against her Rebells; however, Wy­at advancing, and Treaties proving ineffectual, the Earl of Pembroke was made General, and 100 l [...] Year Land promised to him and his Heirs for even that should bring Wyat alive or Dead; however h [...] fortified Southwark, and attempted with his great Guns, and about 5000 men under 14 Ensigns to force London-Bridge; but finding the Draw-Bridge cut away, and the further part strongly guarded b [...] the Citizens and others, and at the same time mo­ved by the Tears and Intreaties of the Inhabitant of Southwark, many of whose Houses were beate [...] down by the Tower Guns; he marched round by Kingstone upon Thames, and there, though part o [...] [Page 209]the Bridge was broken down and Guarded, he gai­ [...]ed a Pass, but coming too late to London, by stay­ing to remount a great Gun, he was furiously char­ged by the Earl of Pembroke and others, yet he broke through, and marched with one Party to Ludgate, whilst another Party assaulted the Court; but finding no Enterance, he retired with his small Number, but was stopped at Temple-bar, and being by Clarencieux, King at Arms, required to submit to the Queens Mercy, he surrendered him, and was carried behind Sir Maurice Berkly to the Court, and from thence sent to the Tower, and on the 11th. of April, 1554, he was beheaded on Tower-hill, where he much bewaled his misfortune, and cleared the Princess Elizabeth and the Lord Courtney, by decla­ring their Innocence, as to their having any hand in his undertaking: About 50 of his Followers suf­fered in and about London, and about as many in di­vers parts of Kent, and 400 went through the City with Halters about their Necks to White-Hall, where the Queen from a Gallery pronounced their par­don.

Queen Mary finding her Endeavours fruitless to bring over the Princess Elizabeth her Sister, to the Popish Superstition, resolved to use violence, and hereupon sent Commissioners to her Mannor of Ash­bridge, where she resided to bring her live or dead to London, and accordingly she was brought Priso­ner in a very sick and weak condition and sent from White-Hall to the Tower, under pretence of holding Correspondence with Wyat and others, where she was kept very close and strict, and on the 9th. of May removed to Woodstock; where hearing a Milk-Maid sing merrily over her Pail in the Park, she preferred the mean contented condition of that Maid, before her own wishing her self in her State. The Princess by the usage she received, looking for no less than to be made away, adicted her self to De­votion, [Page 210]when she was not under Examination; for Gardener and others of the Popish Crew, that la­boured for her Death, spared no pains to sift her, and examined some persons against her, even by Torture, but finding nothing Criminal, Gardener to insnare her in Matters of Conscience, pressed her to Declare her Opinion, about the corporal pre­sence in the Sacrament, to which the Witty Prin­cess warrily reply'd.

Christ was the Word that sp [...]ke it,
He took the Bread and brake it,
And what the Word did make it,
That I believe and take it.

And although when she was in the Tower, Gar­dner privately, and without the Queens knowledge, signed a Warrant for her Execution, which had ta­ken effect, had not the Lieutenant's Scruples pre­vented it by going to the Queen, and the Bords of her Chamber were Fired under her: As likewise two Ruffians sent at another time to kill her, who were prevented by Beddingfield; her Keepers being out of Town, she at last escaped the ruine intended her.

In the year 1554. on the 16th of April, a great Dispute was held between the Popish Doctors and Thomas Cranmer, Arch Bishop of Canterbury, Nicho­las Ridly, Bishop of London, Hugh Lattimer, Bishop of Durham, and others of the Reformed Religion at Oxford, about Transubstantiation and other Points, wherein, when the Papists found themselves baffled, they told the Bishops, though they had the word, yet they had the Sword, and indeed they used it with extream cruelty, for these good Prelates were then Imprisoned, and about a Year and six Months after, were burnt for the sake of a good Conscience in Oxford Town-Ditch, and now on the 25th of Ju­ly, Philip King of Spain, arrived with a great Train [Page 211]of Nobility, and the Marriage was solemnized and they proclaimed by the Titles of Philip and Mary, King and Queen of England, France, Naples, Jeru­salem, and Ireland, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Arch Dukes, &c. of Austria Dukes, &c. of Millain Burgundy and Brahant, Counts, &c. of Haspurg, Flanders, and Tyrol, and in November following, the Queen was said to be with Child, and upon the spreading this re­port, she took her Chamber, whereupon Midwives, Rockers and Nurses were provided, and the Priests in their Pulpits prayed for her safe Delivery, assu­ring the people before hand, it was a Prince, and some where so vain to discribe it features, the Parli­ament likewise resolved if the Queen Dyed, King Philip should be Protector of the Realm, and the In­fant during the Minority, and at last a false Rumour was given out, that the Queen was actually deliver­ed of a Prince, whereupon the English Merchants at Antwerp, and other Ports discharged their Guns and drunk Healths to their young Master, but in conclu­sion, it appeared the Queen was not, nor never had been with Child, yet it was conjectured by many, that the Papists, if King Philip had not protested a­gainst it, had shamed a Child upon the Nation, and soon after out of some dislike, he left England, and returned no more, yet he taking part with the Em­perour his Father against the French, the Queen sent a Gallant Army, under the Leading of the Earl of Pembroke to his Aid, as he lay at the Siege of St. Qeintines, by whose help the place was taken from the French, whereupon the Duke of Guis, with the greatest part of the French Army, coming about by swift Marches, unexpectedly laid Siege to Calais the only English Town in France, and there being no Succours sent from England, by reason of contrary Winds, as if Heaven apparently declared it self a­gainst the breach of League, the besieged few in number, after they had done all that men were cap­able [Page 212]of doing in Defence of the place, surrendered it upon advantageous Articles.

The loss of this place, and the unkindness of King Philip, cast the Queen into a deep Melancholly, in­somuch, that she declared, if she was opened when Dead, they might find Calais written on her Heart, and the Sweating Sickness coming on, she fell despe­rately, ill and dyed the 17th. of November, 1558 in her Reign were consumed in the Flames, for the sake of a good Conscience, five Bishops, twelve Mi­nisters, 18 Gentlemen, forty eight Artificers, one hundred Husband-men, Servants, and Labourers, twenty six Wives, twenty Widows, nine Virgins, and two Infants, the one Whipped to Death by Bon­ner's Chaplain, for calling him Ball's Priest, and the other springing out of his Mothers Womb, whilst she was in the Flames, was notwithstanding cast in­to the Fire, sixty more were Imprisoned, and grie­vously persecuted, seven of them Whipped, and six­teen perished in Prison, who being as Hereticks de­nyed Christian Burial, were buried in Dunghills: The Dutches of Suffolk, and divers others were for­ced to flie beyond the Seas, where they suffered ex­treme Misery and hardship; nay, so violent were the Priests, who altogether swayed the Queens In­clinations, that they intended to take up the Body of King Henry her Father, and bury it in a Dunghill, in revenge of the injurys he had done Mother Church in rooting out the Monks and Fryars, but the Coun­cil opposed it, and in process of of time, almost all the Persecutors came to miserable Ends.

This Mary was Queen of England, France, and Ire­land, Eldest Duaghter to Henry the Eighth, by Ca­tharine his Queen, Daughter to Ferdinand the Seventh, King of Spain. She began her Reign, on the 6th. of July, and Reigned five Years, four Months, and Eleven Days, dying in the fortieth Year of her Age, [Page 213]without Issue, and was buried in Westminster, being the 42. sole Monarch of England, &c.

Thus Dy'd Romes Darling, who a wonder stood,
In Cruelty and Feasting Flames with Bloud,
Made England groan beneath a Popish Yoak,
Yet Death at last, the fatal Fetters broke.

The Reign and Actions of Elizabeth, Queen of England, &c.

QUeen Mary giving place by Death, her Illustri­ous Sister Elizabeth, after escaping many E­minent Dangers, succeeded her in the Throne, the Nobles owning her their rightfull Queen, and do­ing her Homage; so that on the 15th. of January, she was crowned by Dr. Oglethorp, Bishop of Carlisle, and soon after a Parliament was called, in which the Title of Supreamacy was taken from the Pope, and restored to the Crown with the tenths and first Fruits of Ecclesiastical Livings, as also the Common Prayers as used in the Churches in the Reign of Ed­ward the Sixth, and such Acts as in Queen Marys time, were made in favour of the Romanists were were repealed, so that the Face of Religion was again restored, and many pious men that had fled the Land, returned, and about this time, a Petition was made to the Queen to Marry, that her Royal Issue might succeed her, but she absolutely refused to hearken to it, saying, That she held it sufficient, that a Marble Stone should tell to Posterity, that she a Quen had Reign­ed, lived and dyed a Virgin.

The Pope by this time having Notice that Eng­land was rescued out of his Clutches, set all his En­gines on work, to trouble the Reign of this great Queen, which obliged her to enter into Confede­racy [Page 214]with divers Protestant Princes of Germany, and upon demanding Calais; the French promised to deliver it to the English at the Expiration of eight years, or to pay 500000 Crowns, but it was never performed, though sworn to, and for the better Regulation of the Clergy in England, Oaths were tendered; whereupon divers refusing to own the Queens Supreamacy, were turned out, and learned Men, who had been outed in Marys Reign, put in­to their places, she likewise called into her Mint, Pase, and Adulterated Coin; and allowing so much as the true value, she refined it, and Coined that Mony that now goes Currant in her Stamp, laying up Magazines and Stores of Warlik Provision, and sent Aids into Franne, to support the Protestants in Arms against the Papist; but to divert her nearer home, Shan O-Neal Rebelled in Ireland, laying claim to the Province of Ʋlster; but great preparations being made against him, he came over, and sub­mitted, yet returning to his old Trade, he was at length slain by one of his Companions, who with his Head, compounded for his own safetie, &c. and shortly after great Dissensions happened in Scotland, where the Scots Mutiniers Murthered their King, and the Queen, the Heiress of Scotland, and Mother to King James the First, of England, flying for France, was driven on the Coast of England, and made a Prisoner by order of Council; and now the Pope impatient of delay by his Commissions and large Promises stirr'd up many, as well Nobles as Plebe­ans to take Arms, causing his Bulls to be dispersed the better to incense the people against the Queen; however they were overthrown, and an Alderman, a Priest, and about 66 Constables and others Exe­cuted at Durham and other places The Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, hereupon fled into Scotland; but raising new Commotions, they were again routed, and Northumberland on the 22d. of [Page 215] August, 1570 beheaded at York, where to the last, he affirmed the Pope's Supreamacy, and declared the Land to be in Schism, according as the Pope had declared in his Bull, or Curse, against the Queen, which had been privately fastened on the Gate of the Bishop of London's Palace, and divers Priests con­spiring themselves, and stirring up others to raise Commotions, were convicted and Executed at sun­dry times and places, as Story, Summevil, Parry, Cam­pion, Throckmorton, Howard, and others.

Anno 1577. the famous Captain Drake set sail from Plymouth, and in 3 years wanting 12 days com­passed the whole Earth, making many wonderfull discoverys, his Men being worshiped by the Barba­rous Nations as Gods, and at a place which he na­med Nova Albion, the King surrendered him his Crown of Net-work, and Feathers curiously wrought desiring him to take upon him the Government of the Country, which he did, to the behoof of the Queen, setting up a Monument of her Sovereignty in those parts, by the consent of King and People; and much about the same time, Sir Martin Forbish­er tryed the North East Passage, and named the fur­thest Land, Queen Elizabeths Forelands; and whilst this great Queen flourished in spite of Forreign and Clandestine Foes, Francis de Valois, Duke of Anjou, and Brother to the French King, made sute to her for Marriage, and mistaking the Freedom she had taken for a consent came over to Wooe her in Person; but after the Expence of much Treasure, himself and his Sute were rejected, and he returned no wiser than he came: And now the King of Spain oppressing the States of the Neitherlands, and la­bouring to settle the Inquisition amongst them the Queen, upon their humble supplication sent over 1000 Horse, and 5000 Foot, under the Leading of Sir John Norris, and for the Security of the Reim­bursment of her Charges, had the Towns of Brill [Page 216]and Flushing with two Sconces, and a Castle put into her hands.

Anno 1587, The Priests, raised new stirs in England and Ireland, which hastened the Death of Mary, Queen of Scots, for that poor Princess weary of a tedious Imprisonment, holding some Intelligence with one Babington and others, in orders to make her escape, was betrayed by her Secretary, and being Sentenced as one that had designed to depose Queen Elizabeth, and set up her self, she was on the 7th. of Feb. beheaded at Fotheringay Castle, whose Exe­cution proved afterward no small cause of discontent to our Queen.

All hopes by this means, and other disappoint­ments, being lost to the Papists of bringing their Designs about, by Clandestine ways, the Pope stir­red up the King of Spain to Invade the Kingdom, gi­ving it him as the Patrimony of St. Peter, and pro­mising him success, whereupon he gathered his huge Armado, which he named Invincible, even whilst there was a Treaty of peace on Foot, yet the Queen having notice from Henry the Third, King of France, what was intended against her, prepared by Sea and Land, to expect the Storm, pitching her Camp at Tillbury in Essex, consisting of 15000 Horse, and 22000 Foot, and for her own Guard out of the se­veral Countys she drew 23520 Horsemen and 34500 Foot-men, and in the remarkable year 1588, on the 20th. of July, the Spaniards with their huge Hulks, which appeared on the Sea, like floating Castles pas­sed by Plymouth towards Calais to joyn the Duke of Parma, Governour of the Neitherlands for the King of Spain, but were dispersed with a mighty Tem­pest, yet gathered again, but were so beaten by the English, under the command of the Lord Howard, Admiral, Sir Francis Drake and others, that of 134. great Ships that Sail from Lisbon only 53 returned in­to Spain, so that there were missing 81 Vessels, 13000 [Page 205]Soldiers and Sea-men, and there was hardly a Noble Family in Spain but lost a Brother or Kinsman in this Expedition, which had cost the King of Spain Ten Millions.

For this great deliverance the Queen gave pub­lick Thanks in St. Paul's Church, and the Spanish Prisoners and Streamers were brought to London, and the Queen resolving to be even with the Spani­ard for this Treachery, sent Sir Francis Drake and others into the West-Indies, where they took many Spanish Towns and Ships, with great store of Gold and Silver, and after that she assisted Don Antonio, the expulsed King of Portugal to recover his right, whereupon they burnt Cadiz, and the Shiping in the Harbour worth five Millions, took several Towns in Portugal, and marched to the very Gates of Lisbon, against which the Earl of Essex breaking his Lance, demanded the proudest Spaniard of them all to come and answer him. They likewise sailed to the Az­zores, and took and plundered those Islands. This made the Papists at home begin to stir, for which Patrick Cullen. Dr. Lopez a Spaniard and divers o­thers hired to kill or poison the Queen, were dete­cted and executed; and indeed the Plots and Con­trivances of the like kind against this Queen, are recorded to be very many; nor did the Spaniards fail to send Forces to the Assistance of the Irish Re­bells, under Tyroen, but they were defeated by the Lord Montjoy, many of them killed, and the rest o­bliged to beg leave to depart the Kingdom, and Tyroen forsaken of his Followers, was sent into Eng­land and Imprisoned in the Tower.

About this time, the Earl of Essex, who had been under disgrace for some Miscarriages, when he was Deputy of Ireland, and confined to his House being of a fiery temper, and knowing his Enemies at Court were contriving his Ruine, he sent for [...]e Earl of Southampton, and divers other Friends as [Page 206]resolving to force a Visit and confront them in the presence of the Queen; but being strictly forbid it, he confined the Counsellors that were sent to that purpose under a guard, and marched into London, but finding himself opposed, and that there were none very forward to stand with him upon such an Undertaking; he returned, and fortified his House in the Strand, but finding himself to weak to hold out, he surrendred himself, and was committed to the Tower, and soon after, he with the Earl of South­ampton, were convicted of High-Treason, in endea­vouring to Leavy War against the Queen, &c. and the Earl of Essex, on the 20th of February, 1600 lost his Head on the Green within the Tower, not only lamented of the people, whose Darling he was, but of the Queen her self, who at the perswasion of his Enemies, had in the heat of her passion signed the Warrant for his Death; divers others were Execu­ted on this occasion, as it were to bare so great a Man company; nor did the Queen enjoy her self after the fall of this Favourite, but hastened her own Death by grief, dying on the 24th. of March, 1602, and was buried in Henry the Seventh's Cha­pell at Westminster, when she had Reigned 44 Years, 4 Months and 7 Days, and in the 69th Year of her Age. This Elizabeth was Queen of England, France and Ireland, Daughter to Henry the Eighth, by his Wife Ann Bulloin, in her Reign happened Earth­quakes, Blazing Stars, and a Mortal Plague, of which 40000 dyed in and about London; She was the 43th sole Monarch of England, &c.

Thus set the Glory of her Sex in Dust,
Whose endless Memory Fame keeps in trust;
When Eating Time shall Marble Tombs deface,
Her Name shall live, belov'd in every place.

The Life, Reign, and Actions of James the First King of Great Britain, &c.

THe name of the Tudors expiring in Queen Elizabeth, gave way to that of the Stu­arts, James the Sixth of Scotland, great Grand-child to James the Fourth, and Margaret his Wife, Eldest Daughter to Henry the Seventh, succeeding to the Crown, by reason of the failure of Issue by the Male Line, who upon notice of the Death of Queen Eli­zabeth, being invited by the Nobles, set forward from his Kingdom of Scotland, and entering England was received on the Frontires with great joy, and conducted to London, being met some distance by the Mayor and Aldermen and five hundred Horse, who conducted him to the Charter-House, prepared for his Reception, but because the Plague raged, the Coronation was deferred, and the Popish Party, who had earnestly expected the death of the Queen, in hopes a Papist might succeed, finding themselves disappointed, laboured to prevent his establishment in the Throne, and several were detected who had received Orders from the Pope to seize his Person, and bring him to their own terms; however on the 21st. of July. 1603. The King, together with the Queen his Royal Consort were crowned at Westmin­ster, by Dr. Whitgift, Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, and the Conspirators being tryed at Winchester, many were found guilty, yet only, Watson and Clark two Priests, together with George Brook suffered death; the King pardoning the rest, mostly at the place of Execution; and then in a dispute between the Bishops of the Church of England, and the Puritan Mini­sters who pretended to a farther Reformation, this wise Prince gave it for the first, and by learned [Page 208]reasons so confuted the latter, that they were utterly non-plussed, and after that, he caused the Holy Scrip­ture to be new Translated from the Original, and Anno 1604 he made peace with Spain, and procee­ded to a Uniting the Kingdoms of England and Scot­land, and took upon him the Stile of King of Great Britain, banishing the Jesuites and Seminary Priests, who began a fresh to disturb the Government, which made them as their last Shift, or rather cruel re­venge, contrived that hellish Plot, called the Gun­powder-Plot, wherein they bound themselves by Oaths and Sacraments, for the more secretly car­rying it on, but nothing escapes the Eyes of the Al­mighty, who, when they were in the highest ex­pectation of success, turned their Wisedom into Foolishness; for by a Letter directed to the Lord Monteagle, whom one of the Conspirators was de­sirous to spare the Nest they had so long been ma­king, was found, and in it thirty six Barrels of Pow­der intended to blow up the King, Lords, and Com­mons in Parliament; & this was discover'd under great heaps of Billets but the very Morning they were to assemble in Parliament, and Guy Faux at the Vault Door under the Parliament-House, Cloaked, Boo­ted and Spurr'd, with a Dark-Lanthorn, and Match­es ready to lay the Train, upon which the Conspi­rators were pursued, and in the dispute, John, and Christopher Wright, Thomas Piercy, and Robert Cates­by were slain, and Anno 1605, on the 27th. of Janu­ary, Sir Edward Digby, Thomas Winter, Robert Win­ter, Ambrose Rookwood, Thomas Bates, Robert Keys, and Guido Faux were found guilty, and Executed as Traitors, at the West-end of St. Pauls, and in the Palace-Yard. In memory of this signal Deliverance, the fifth of November, the Day on which it was dis­covered, by Authority of Parliament, was enacted a perpetual day of Thanksgiving. Henry Garnet and divers others concerned in this Plot, were Executed [Page 209]at sundry Times, and Places. Garnet confessing it, though a Jesuite, and warning the Roman Catho­licks not to practice any Treason against their Prince; for God would certainly discover and de­feat it: And soon after there happened Insurrecti­ons in the Shires of Liecester, Warwick, and Nor­thampton, about throwing open Inclosures, Headed at last by John Reynolds, but were dispersed and quieted without much Trouble; and the King to honour the City entered himself a Brother of the Cloath-workers Company, and by his Example many Nobles were made free of that and divers others; the New Exchange was finished Anno 1609, and furnished with Wares, being called by the King, Britain's Burse.

The Priests and Jesuites were commanded to de­part the Kingdom. The Body of Mary Queen of Scots, Mother to King James, was Anno 1612 re­moved from Peterborough, to the Royal Chappel at Westminster, and there splendidly Interred, and the Kingdom remained in great Tranquility: But to abate the Joy, Prince Henry, the King's eldest Son, dyed November the 6th. of a Feaver, though not without some suspicion of Poyson, to the great Grief of the Kingdom, whose Darling he was: And Frederick the Electour Palatine of the Rhine coming into England was married to the Lady Eli­zabeth, the King's eldest Daughter, in the Royal Chappel at White-Hall, on the 14th. of February fol­lowing; but soon after at the Instance of the Bohe­mians taking upon him the Rule of that Kingdom he was routed by the Emperour's Forces, who seized likewise the Palatinate; and the King gave the Ci­tizens of London the Province of Ʋlster in Ireland, and instituted the Order of Baronets, limiting them within the number of 200, and to cease with the failure of Issue; and Anno 1614, the New River was brought to London, to the great refreshment of [Page 210]the City, which was much stinted for want of Wa­ter, being only supplied by a few Conduits in the neighbouring Fields; and this year a Divorce being sued out between Robert Devereux and his Countess, on her Pretence of his Insufficiency, she married Robert Carre, Earl of Somerset, and the King's great Favourite; for inveighing against which Marriage they procured Sir Thomas Overbury first to be sent Prisoner to the Tower, and there to be poisoned; for which Contrivance Sir Gervase Elwes, and Mrs. Turner suffered Death; the Earls and Countess were likewise sentenced, but had by the King's Mercy Leases of their Lives granted them for 99 years, and for ever banished the King's Pre­sence. The Fall of this Favourite made way for Mr. George Villiers, a Gentleman of a good House, who was soon after created Duke of Buckingham An­no 1618. Sir Walter Rawleigh was delivered from a long Imprisonment in the Tower, and sent to dis­cover a golden Mine in the West-Indies, promising it should be no ways prejudicial to the Spaniards; but failing in that Discovery, and Sacking the Spanish Town of St. Thoms, upon his Return to England, at the continued Importunity of Gondamore, the Spanish Ambassadour, he was Beheaded, upon a former Sentence, and on the 2d. of March, 1618, Queen Anne died, and was buried at Westminster, her Death was preceeded by an extraordinary Bla­zing-Star. And now the King being desirous to see Prince Charles Married, sent him into Spain, to render his Courtship to the Infanta, but after a six Months stay, being trifled with, that Court insi­sting to have him change his Religion, &c. the King recalled him, and prepared for War, in order to re­cover the Palatinate, and set on Foot a Treaty of Marriage with France, but lived not to see it con­cluded; for on the 7th. of March, Anno 1625, he died of an Ague at Theobalds in Scotland, and was [Page 211]Buried at Westminster with great Solemnity, much lamented of his Subjects, being a Prince of extra­ordinary Learning, Conduct, and Prudence; his Wife was Ann, Daughter of Frederick the Second, King of Denmark, by whom he had Issue Henry, Charles, Elizabeth, and two other Daughters Mary, and Sophia, who dyed young.

This King James was great Grand-Child, by Father and Mother's side, to Margaret, Daughter to Henry the 7th. of England: He began his Reign over this Kingdom Anno 1602, Reigned 22 years, 3 days, and was the 44 sole Monarch of England, and first of Great Britain, whose antient Name he restored, by uniting the Kingdoms: He died in the 59 year of his Age.

Thus to Death's Fury the wise Prince gave way,
And left this Twilight for eternal Day,
That, Phenix-like, he out of moulder'd Dust
May Glorious rise, to mingle with the Just.

The Life, Reign, and Actions of Charles the First, King of Great Britain, &c.

KIng James giving way by Death, Prince Charles, his only surviving Son, was immedi­ately Proclaimed and Crowned at Westminster; soon after which he was solemnly Married to Hen­rietta Maria, Daughter to Henry the Fourth, French King, whom he had seen in his Journey through Paris, to the Court of Spain.

The Marriage being over, the King began to shew his Resentments of the Affronts he had recei­ved in the Court of Spain, and Anno 1625 a Parlia­ment was called, and Assembled at Westminster, on the 8th. of June, wherein, after some strong De­bates [Page 212]about Petitions of Right and Religion, the King had two Subsidies granted him, and a Fleet was sent to Sea, which spoiled and greatly indama­ged the Spanish Coast; but although the War was just and honourable, yet upon the Meeting again of the Parliament in the August following, they denyed a farther Supply; whereupon he endeavou­red, with the Advice of his Lawyers, to raise Money by way of Tonage, but the Parliament forbid the Payment of it, and many of the Merchants refused to obey the King's Mandates; however the King making an Alliance with the united Provinces, set out another Fleet, and greatly distressed the Spa­niards; but amongst others, some French Ships being sunk, burnt, or taken, they seized the English Effects in their Ports by way of Reprisal, where­upon the French were commanded to leave England, but Monsieur Basompire coming Ambassadour, pre­vailed to have many of them recalled, yet all Commerce ceased between the two Kingdoms, and the French greatly oppressed the Rochellers, which made them humbly supplicate King Charles's Assi­stance, who sent a good power under the leading of the Duke of Buckingham; but the French being strongly Encamped and Fortified in Rhee, the English returned without effecting any thing considerable; and the Parliament again complained of several Grievances, whereupon they were Dissolved, and new Forces raised for the Relief of Rochell; but as the Duke of Buckingham was about to Embark he was stabbed to the Heart, by one John Felton, an English Adventurer, at Portsmouth; for which the Murtherer was Executed, seeming to approve off, and glory in the Fact to the last, and thus unhap­pily fell this Duke that had been the Darling Fa­vourite of two Kings.

Anno 1630, the Queen on the 29th. of May was brought to Bed of a Son, afterward Christened by [Page 213]the Name of Charles, and since our Soveraign Mo­narch, as will appear in the next Reign; at his Birth a bright Star appeared in the day-time, and on the 14th. of October, 1633, the Queen was deli­vered of the Duke of York: but the Joy of these Births were a little Eclipsed by the misunderstan­dings in Scotland, and the oppositions made in pay­ment of Ship-Money, though Ten Judges had gi­ven their Vote for the legality of it; the Occasi­on of great Commotions in Scotland arising about the Service-Book of Common-Prayer, being sent thither to be read in Churches, as usual in England; for when the Dean came to read it in St. Giles's Church at Edenborough, he narrowly escaped his Brains being beaten out by the People's throwing Stools, Chairs, and Cudgels at him; nor did the Bishop, who got up into the Pulpit to appease them, fare any better, and so great in a short time grew the Tumult that the Magistrates were not a­ble to quell it, which obliged the King to raise an Army; but upon his Approach, the Scots in Arms met him on the Lorders, and submitted, and a Peace thereupon was concluded, but soon after fell to Covenanting, and raised new Commotions, the which, and the Misunderstandings between the King and his Parliament, gave the native Irish an opportunity to Rebel, and commit a most horrible Massacre on the English, throughout that Kingdom, murthering about 200000, of all Ages and Sex, before any Succours were sent to their Relief: This happened in the year 1641, the same year the Earl of Strafford was beheaded upon an Attaindure of Parliament; and about two years after William Laud, Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, was Executed in the same manner; and the King having passed a Bill for the Parliament to sit during their Pleasure, such Heats ensued, and such Tumults withall, that the King, after he had endeavoured to give them all [Page 214]the satisfaction that could consist with his Honour and Conscience, was obliged to retire to Windsor, to avoid the Insolencies of the Multitude, who threa­tened him in his Palace, and committed many out­rages, pulling down the Organs, and spoiling the Vestments, and Ornaments of Worship in Westmin­ster-Abby; and during the King's Absence, the Par­liament having put the Country in Arms, and took into their hands most of the Sea-Port Towns, the King sent to grant them their reasonable Demands; yet though several Messages passed, nothing came to a conclusion, and many of the King's Friends left the upper and lower House, as dreading the fa­tal Consequence, so that at last there not being a­bove 80 Members in the lower House, and 16 in the upper: The Queen left England, with her illustri­ous Daughter the Princess of Orange, and the King with divers Nobles went to York, whither he Sum­moned the Knights of the Garter, and those that held of the Crown to repair: And now People fearing things would come to extremity, the Coun­ty of Kent petitioned for an Accommodation, but their Petition was rejected, and the bringer, and receiver imprisoned by the Parliament; yet upon the King's Summons, about 60000 Men of Yorkshire appeared on Howard Moor, near York, and after a view were ordered to repair to their respective Ha­bitations; but at this time the Parliament borowed a great Summe of Money of the Londoners, on the publick Faith, and raised an Army of 10000 Foot, and 2000 Horse, making the Earl of Essex their Ge­neral, and proclaimed War.

The King being denied entrance into Hull, and having vainly assaulted it, fortified Newark, and Barwick, and advancing to Nottingham, set up his Standard, so that Hostilities began, and a piteous War ensued, wherein many brave Men lost their Lives, Victory declaring sometimes for one Party, [Page 215]and sometimes for another, insomuch that the Fields [...]n about fifty Battles and Skirmishes were fatted with Bloud, and made in many places white with the Bones of the slain, no Wounds, as it is obser­ved by Lucan, piercing so deep as those of Civil War; but the King being extremely weakened by a fatal Overthrow at the Battel of Nas [...]by, fought on June the 14th. 1645, where most of his Offi­cers, Soldiers, and voluntire Gentlemen, were [...]lain, or taken Prisoners, his Baggage, Cannon, Ammunition, or what not, seized, he, after the De­feat, for want of Money, was never in a Condition to make any considerable Head, though some Towns and Parties stood out for him; but going to Oxford, and finding the Storm gather from all Parts, distrusting the strength of the Place, he privately withdrew, and by the Advice of some a­bout him, cast himself, for protection, on the Scotch Army, then in England, whose Commanders promised him all manner of safety, but being in Arrear, they for the Summe of 200000 l delivered up this good Prince into the hands of his merciless Enemies, who carried him for a while from place to place, flattering him with Treaties, and Commissi­oners were sent to him, demanding Consessions, and Agreements to Articles, but when all good people were in hopes of an Accommodation, and right un­derstanding, that the Land after so much bloudshed might have rest, the Scale suddenly turned, and a High Court of Justice was erected, of which Serje­ant Bradshaw was President; and although the King denied their Jurisdiction, yet they proceeded to try him, viz. for that he had caused the cruel bloudshed in England, and Ireland, and born Arms against the Parliament; That he had given Commissions to his Son and others to wage War, &c. and although he answered not to the Charge, yet on the 27th. of January 1648. they pronounced Sentence against [Page 216]him, that he should loose his Head, and according­ly on the 30th. of January; he was beheaded on a Scaffold before White-Hall-gate, where he made a Speech professing his Innocency, and desiring God to bless these Kingdoms, and forgive his Enemies.

Thus fell this unfortunate Prince, when he had Reigned 23 years, 10 Months and 3 Days, in the 49 Year of his Age, and his Body was Buried at Windsor: He was second Son to King James by Anne his Queen, and had Issue by Henrietta Maria, his Queen, Charles, James, Henrietta, Mary, Elizabeth, Catharine and Henrietta.

Thus did the much lamented Monarch fall,
And left behind the slighted earthly Ball;
Too scanty was Earth's Glory and Renown
For him that had in view a heavenly Crown.

The Reign of Charles the II. King of Great Britain, &c.

AT the Time of the cruel Execution Charles the Second was in Holland, whither he had with­drawn himself to prevent the Designs of his Ene­mies, and there with inexpressible Sorrow recei­ved the heavy News of his Father's Death, and although from the 30th. of January 1648, his Reign is dated, as being rightfull King of these Realms, yet that part of a Parliament then sitting, upon penalty of Treason, forbid all Persons to pro­claim him, or be aiding in his Restauration; and then the Commons House, the better to assure it, Voted the Lords useless, and dangerous; however the Marquess of Ormond, since Duke of Ormond, Proclaimed the King in Ireland, and the Scots did the like in Scotland; however in England the King's Arms were pulled down, and the Harp and [Page 217]Cross, called the Arms of the Common-wealth, set up. The Processes in Law were altered and Money Coined with the States Arms: And now the Lord Fairfax, disliking these proceedings and having laid down his Commission of General of the Army, Oliver Cromwell took it up and so laboured to please his Masters, that with armed Force he brought Scotland and Ireland to a Compliance, whilst the King was soliciting the Princes abroad for Aides to recover his Right, when the more to disturb that King's Party in England, not onely the Crown Lands were set to sail, but even the Palaces, and those of Bishops, Deans and Chapters run the same risk, and many worthy persons were expelled places of Benifice or Trust, in Church or State, and the Parliament for their greater security, caused many Castles to be demolished.

The Marquess of Montross declared for the King's interest in Scotland, performing wonders even with [...] handfull of men, against the Arms of the Coun­trie, but in conclusion after he had done all that [...]ould be expected from heroick Valour and Con­ [...]uct, his men being scattered and he obliged to [...]hift was taken, and at Edenburg, hanged and quar­ [...]ered. During the Treaty the Scots had on Foot with the King to bring him into that Kingdom, [...]owever the urgency of the King's Affairs made [...]im dissemble his resentments, and upon the Treaty concluded landed at Spey, and was conducted [...] Edenburg, and afterward solemnly Crowned [...] Schon, viz. January 1. 1650. setting up his Stan­ard at Abberdeen, and causing the Forces reduced [...]nder his Command to march against the English [...]orces that had entred that Kingdom, but without [...]mming to any considerable Encounter, the King [...] July, 1651. passed the Tweed and entred England, [...]ot onely to draw the Enemy out of Scotland, but [...] join his friends that had promised him Succours, [Page 218]and without much difficulty, marching through the Country to Worcester, many Gentlemen and others came in, to him, but being followed in a manner, at the heels by Cromwell, and the Militia of the Counties every where raised, and the Earl of Derby, whom he had sent to raise Forces in Leicestershire, defeated by Lilburn, he resolved to fortifie that City, and abide the storm, he perceived was gathering about him, but long he had not been there, before Lambert's men forced the pass at Ʋpton, and other places, insomuch that he found himself constrained to hazard a Battel, and thereupon sallyed with un­daunted bravery, at the head of his loyal Forces making great slaughter, forcing Cromwell's Regi­ment to give way and fall into disorder, but being to contend with about 60000 men, with not above 7 or 8000; after he had done all that could be ex­pected from Resolution and Bravery, finding him­self overlay'd, the retreat was sounded and he re­tired in some disorder into the City, and finding the day utterly lost, he passed out at an other Gate and escaped the hands of those that sought his Life God so ordering it, that although 1000 l was bi [...] for him, yet he lay obscure till he found means t [...] pass the Seas.

Upon this defeat, the Earl of Derby was take and beheaded, the Scots prisoners were sold and mad [...] slaves, and divers of the King's Friends, at sund [...] times suffered death and confiscation, as the Lo [...] Capel, Duke of Hambleton, the Earl of Holland, & [...] and soon after Cromwell got himself Proclaimed Pro­tectour, and many strange things were Acted, t [...] [...] ­cedious to be in [...]erted. But the blustring Tyra [...] ­ [...]lying, and his Son Richard dismounted, the seat had mounted in his stead; the form and method Government continually altering, and the Peo [...] weary of Oppression, General Monk came with Forces out of Scotland, and after a short time de [...] ­red [Page 219]for a free Parliament; and that Parliament, to the great joy of the People, happily restored the King, who was with his Royal Brothers the Dukes of York and Glocester, conducted in great Splendour to his Pallace of White-Hall, on the 29th of May, 1660. which day, by Act of Parliament, is set apart as an Annual day of Thanksgiving, and many of those that were of the High Commission Court, or had an actual hand in his Fathers Death, were Tryed, Sentenced and Executed in divers places, and the 30th of January appointed as an Anniversary, in memory of King Charles I. his death, and the Churches were restored to Episcopacy and the Purity of Worship, as also Crown and Church Lands; but to damp this joy, the illustrious Princess of Orange coming over to visit her Royal Brothers, fell sick of the small Pox and dyed, to the great grief of all Europe: and on the 13th day of September dyed Henry Duke of Glocester.

Notwithstanding this happy Restauration, there remained some restless people, for the January following, one Venner, a Wine-Cooper, with his Fifth-Monarchy Proselytes, took Arms and fell desperately upon the City of London killing divers people, but being suppressed, Venner and 11 more were Executed, and the Bodys of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw, were taken out of their Graves, and hanged at Tyburn, their heads cut off and set upon Westminster-Hall, and their Bodys buryed under the Gallows; and on the 23d of April, 1661. the King with great Magnificence passed from the Tower to Westminster, and there was Solemnly Crowned: The Nobles, etc. doing him Homage, and the Parlia­ment gave very liberally towards the support of the Crown, Voting him a Supply of Two Millions Five hundred thousand pounds, to be raised in three years time, and to hasten the Naval Preparations, the City lent him 100000 li. And Anno 1664. War [Page 220]was Proclaimed against the United Netherlands, and the following year a fatal Plague fore-run by two blazing Stars happened in most parts of England; so that in the space of a year 100000. dyed in the Citys and Suburbs of London and Westminster, and [...] 3 of June, a bloudy Fight happened between the two Fleets; in which many brave men were killed on both sides, and in June following, another Fight happened which continued for three days: And on the 2d of September, a Fire begun in Pud­ding lane, which in three days consumed 78 Parish Churches, 5 Consecrated Chappels, 18200 Houses, Guild-Hall, the Royal Exchange, and most of the Companys Halls: the total Loss valued at Nine Millions 9 hundred thousand pounds, and after it many dreadfull Fires happened, as in Southwark, Lime-House, Northampton, &c. But care was taken to rebuild these and other places, more Magnificent in Structure, and after several bloudy Engagements at Sea, a Peace, Anno 1667. was a Peace concluded with the Dutch, as likewise the difference with the Crown of Denmark was adjusted, soon after and in August 3. 1669. Henrietta Maria, the King's Mother and Dowager of England, dyed at Columbee in France, and was buried at St. Denis, Anno. 1670. the Project on foot to make England and Scotland but one, was strongly pressed, but so many difficulties arize, that it was laid aside: And the Princess of Orleance ma­king the King a Visit, upon her return to France dyed suddenly: And the beginning of the year 1671 dyed Her Royal Highness Anne Dutchess of York and was buried at Westminster: and in March a Second War was Proclaimed against the Dutch, and the French King was brought into the League; and in May there happened a desperate Engagement and after that several others, which occasione [...] many disorders in Holland; but about the latter en [...] to 1673. a Peace was concluded, and the same yea [...] [Page 221]the Duke of York Married the Princess of Modena, much against the mind of the Parliament: the King accepted a Freedom of the Goldsmiths, and was presented with his Freedom in a Box of Gold and Diamonds, and soon after set out his Proclamation for the security of Merchants Ships, from Men of War or Privatiers, that should come into any of his Ports: and to prevent the growth of Popery, published an Order that none under very great Penalties should hear Mass, or go to Popish Chapels, unless such as belonged to the Queen or foreign Embassadours.

These being the material Treasactions to the year 1678. at the end of which year the Popish Plot came upon the stage, discovered first by Israel Tongue and Titus Oates, two Divines, and afterward by divers others, which put the whole Kingdom in a flame, and for which divers suffered, as Col [...] ­man, Ireland, Pickering, Grove, &c. who were Exe­cuted at Tyburn: and William Viscount Stafford lost his Head on Tower-hill, and Green, Berry and Hill, were Executed for the Murther of Sir Edmund Bury Godfrey: And the following year a party of despe­rate Scots, Murthered the Arch-Bishop of Saint Andrews in his Coach, and fell into Rebellion; but were dispersed by the King's Forces, under the Command of the Duke of Monmouth, and several of the ring-leaders Executed; but soon after his return he fell into disgrace at Court, and went for Flanders, yet stayed not long there e'er he returned and was received into favour: And now the Pa­pists began to struggle to cast off the odium the Plot had cast upon them, and laboured to lay it upon the Dissenters: Nor was there some hot-hea­ded people of that kind wanting, who by their ill­timed behaviour towards the King and his Mini­sters, gave them an unexpected advantage; so that the Earl of Shaftsbury and others, were Impri­soned [Page 222]in the Tower: one Stephen Colledge a Joyner, was Tryed at Oxford, found guilty of High Treason and Executed. And in the year 1683. Captain Walcot, William Hone and John Rouse, were execu­ted at Tyburn, and the Lord Russell and Algernoon Sidney, lost their heads: And not long after Sir Thomas Armestrong being brought from Holland; and James Holloway from Nevis, were sentenced at the King's Bench Bar, upon their Outlawries, and executed at Tyburn: And two Informations for Perjury, were preferred against Titus Oates, the principal Evidence in the Plot: But before he came to Tryal the King dyed, for falling ill on Monday the 2d of February, 1684. With a violent fit of the Appoplexy, which at that time bereaved him of his Senses, he continued in a languishing Condition till Friday the 6th of February and then dyed, in the 55th year of his Age, when he had Reigned 36 years and seven days: And was buried in King Henry the Sevenths Chappel; being the 46th Sole Monarch of England.

Thus Charles the Great, his Glory laid aside,
A Prince that Fortune in all Shapes had try'd:
In War and Councils equally approv'd,
Feard of his foes, but of his friends belov'd.

Remarkable Transactions from the Time of King JAMES the II. coming to the Crown, till his Leaving the Kingdom, &c.

KING Charles leaving no Issue, by Queen Katharine, his onely Brother succeded him, and was Proclaimed by the style of James the Se­cond, King of England, &c. at the Pallace Gate, and in London with the usual Solemnity and Cere­mony, Causing the Lords and others present (that were before) to be Sworn of His Majesty's Privy Council, signifying by Proclamation, it was his Pleasure that all who at the decease of King Charles, were in Office of Government, should so continue till his pleasure was further signified. And upon his first sitting in Council he made a Speech, in which amongst other Expressions are these, viz. ‘I shall make it my endeavour to preserve this Government, both in Church and State, as it is now by Law Established: I know the Principles of the Church of England are for Monarchy, and the Members of it have shewed themselves good and loyal Subjects: Therefore I shall always take care to Defend and Support it. I know too that the Laws of England are sufficient to make the King as a great a Monarch as I can wish, and as I shall never depart from the Just Rights and Prerogatives of the Crown, so I shall never In­vade any Man's Property. I have often hereto­fore ventured my Life in Defence of this Nation, and I shall still go as far as any man in preserva­tion of it, in all its Just Rights and Liberties.’ [Page 224]Nor was it long before a Proclamation was Issued forth to give notice the King intended to call a Parliament, inculcating therein the settlement of the Revenue for the support of the Crown and Government; that there was a necessity for the maintenance of the Navy for the Kingdoms defence, and the advantage of Trade, in order to which he desired that the settlement of the Customs due in the Reign of King Charles the Second, might con­tinue, declaring it was his will and pleasure that the Duties should be Collected accordingly, and that he did not doubt of the ready complyance of his Subjects therein. This being given forth, the Merchants did not dispute the payment: And the next thing taken in hand, was the preparation for the funeral of the deceased King, all persons be­longing to, or having business at the Court being commanded, by an Order of the Earl Marshal, to put themselves into decent Mourning, and indeed the loss of a Prince that ruled so much in the hearts of his Subjects found a ready complyance, for not onely the Courtiers were in Mourning, but all the responsible persons of the Kingdom; and his Royal Highness the Prince of Denmark, on the tenth of February, took his place at the Council Board, as a Privy Councellour of this Kingdom.

All things being prepared for the Funeral Solem­nities of King Charles the Second, with decency and order as the occasion required, the Royal Corpse was on the 14th day of February Interred in King Henry the Sevenths Chappel at Westminster: The Prince of Denmark, whose Train was born up by the Lord Cornbury, being chief Mourner; and a [...] curious Figure of Wax, representing the King, was set up amongst the rest of the Kings of England, his Predecessours; and an Order was published for al­tering the Prayer in the Liturgy or Common Prayer, relating to the Royal Family, by way of [Page 225]exchanging Names in the repetition, viz. JAMES for CHARLES, and further, viz. our Gracious Queen MARY, CATHERINE the Queen Dowager, Their Royal Highnesses MARY Princess of Orange, the Princess ANNE of Denmark and all the Royal Family. And Money being wanting in the Exche­quer, it was taken up upon the Excise by way of Farming, and the Earl of Rochester was constituted Lord High Treasurer of England, and the Marquess of Halifax Lord President of the Privy Council, the Earl of Clarendon Lord Privy Seal, and the Duke of Beaufort Lord President of Wales. These Great Officers thus put in Trust, gave us prospect of the tranquility of Affairs, and the King was Pro­claimed in all the Citys and Burrough Towns of the Kingdom; and in the like order in Scotland and Ireland, and the Earl Marshal issued out the orders of Summons, in order to the preparation of the Coronation, which was appointed to be on the 23d of April, being Saint George's day; requiring all persons, who in regard of their Tenures, Customs and Usage, are bound to do and performe Services on that day, to appear before the Com­missioners and make out their Claims and give their attendance at the Solemnity; and a Procla­mation was sent into Scotland, in order to the calling of a Parliament in that Kingdom, with a Proclamation of Indemnity to divers of the Scottish Nation. Then he proceeded to put out a Procla­mation to Summons a Parliament to sit at Westmin­ster, on the 19th day of May, 1685. And accor­dingly the Citys, Burroughs and Shires, proceeded to Election; and sundry Embassadours residing in England, or such as came by Expresses, made their Complement of Condolence and Congratulation; and the 23d of April being come, great prepara­tions were made for the Coronation, the Nobles and others met in their Robes and For­malities, [Page 226]the Ceremony was performed with much Magnificence; and the Parliament, according to appointment met; when the King, in his Robes, went to the House, and being seated on the Throne made a Speech in which, amongst other things, He informed them that the Earl of Argyle was Landed in Scotland, with the men he brought with him from Holland, &c and soon We had notice that that Earl had levyed considerable Forces in Argyleshire and other places, which obliged the Militia to rise in Arms, and several Troops were sent from England, and more had gone had not the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme in Dorcetshire, with about fourscore men, and a considerable quantity of Arms and Amunition, declaring his intention to deliver the Kingdom from the danger it was likely to be brought into by the prevailing power of the Pa­pists, under the influence of a King who had pro­fessed himself openly to be of the Roman Commu­nion, &c. and divers of his Declarations were printed and scattered abroad, for printing which, one Mr. Desney, a Councellour was seized and Tryed at the Marshalsea, upon an Indictment of High Treason; and being by the Jury found guilty he was sentenced and executed; his head being after­ward placed on London Bridge.

The Duke of Monmouth encreasing his Forces in the West, and causing himself to be Proclaimed King; not onely the standing Guards, but a great number of New-raised forces were sent against him as likewise the Scotch Regiment sent from Holland, when after sundry skirmishes, in which divers were killed on both sides. On the sixth of July, the Duke, in the dead of the night by a silent March endeavoured to surprize the King's Forces encam­ped on Sedgmore near Bridgwater; commanding the Foot in person, and ordering the Lord Grey with [Page 227]the Horse, to take a compass and fall in the Rear, but the design being discovered by an early Alarum, after many brisk firings between the Foot, and the Dukes Horse not coming timely up, the King's Horse entred the Ranks, and in spite of the oppo­sition that was made broke and disordered them so, that about daylight they fled in great confusion and a piteous slaughter ensued, so that two thousand are held to be slain. The Duke with most of the Commanders escaped the Field, but having been Attainted in Parliament, and a premium of 5000 l set upon his head, he was upon the information of an old Woman, searched for in the Inclosures near Holt Lodge; and after divers attempts to escape, was taken and by easie Marches brought to White-Hall, and by the Council committed to the Tower, and the third day after brought to the Scaffold on Tower-Hill, where after he had made a very Chri­stian-like and Heroick Speech, he had his Head severed from his Body, at five stroaks, so barbarous was his execution; the Body of this unfortunate and much lamented Nobleman, in whose Veins flowed by the Father's side the Royal Bloud, was put into a Hearse in order to its Interment; but this execution allayed not the fury of some persons, for the Lord Chief Justice Jeffries and others, being sent into the West, to try such as escaped Military execution, caused about 300 to be execu­ted in divers places, amongst whom the Lady Lile was beheaded at Winchester, for harbouring some persons who had escaped the Battel, and soon after a Woman was burnt at Tyburn, upon the like occasion.

During these proceedings, the Earl of Argyle was Routed in Scotland, taken in a pond, and be­headed at Edenburg, Rumbold the Malster was hanged and quartered, and his quarters sent to England and set upon the Gates of London, Colonel [Page 228] Ayloffe and Mr. Nelthorp, were sent prisoners and executed, one before the Temple, and the other before Gray's-Inn: And the Parliament meeting again after its prorogation the King told them that in consideration of sundry good Services, several Roman Catholick Officers had done him, he was willing they should continue in their places, not­withstanding the Parliament was very earnest to have them removed, and pardon granted them for what had passed in Acting contrary to Law, as not being Qualified for places of Trust, without taking the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy; however they were continued and the Parliament soon after Dissolved. An Embassadour was sent to Rome, and the Pope's Nuncio came to England, being kindly received by the King; and now it began to be rumour'd that Father Petre, a Jesuit, was got to the Helm of Affairs; and soon after he was declared a Privy Councellour: And divers persons were Tryed upon the Account of what had been done in the Reign of King Charles the Second; for which Alderman Cornish suffered in Cheapside, and Charles Bateman, a Chirurgeon, at Tyburn: And the Dissenters were severely prosecuted, though at the same time the Popish Priests began to build them Chapels in Limestreet, Bucklers-Bury, St. John's and Southwark, promising themselves no less than the re-establishment of that Religion, and some people were punished for opposing their proceedings; the City Trained Bands being ordered on Sundays, &c. to guard those houses from the violence of the Multitude; and most of the Judges having declared a Dispensing Power in the King Papists throughout the Nation were put into places of Trust and Offi­ces, without taking the Oaths. Especially after the Tryal of the Case of Sir Edward Hale [...], at the Court of King's-Bench, where the Verdict went for him, &c but the Members of the Church o [...] [Page 229] England seeming not well pleased, there followed an unexpected closing with the Dissenters; and a Declaration was published for Toleration or Li­berty of Conscience, and a promise to Establish it by Law. The Church of England-men we almost every where displaced, and Papists and Dissenters placed in their stead; most of the Fellows of Mag­dalen College in Oxford turned out, and a President imposed on it. A High Commission Court was [...]erected to censure the Clergy; the Bishop of London was suspended, and most of the Corporations had their Charters taken into the King's hands, some of them being shortly after restored, with alterations. The standing Forces were increased, Campaigns were held on Hounslow Heath, to exercise the Souldiers; and the King designing to call a Parliament, the people were questioned in many parts of the Kingdom, whether they would them­selves, if chosen, or give their Voices for such as should be willing to take away the Penal Laws and Tests. And the Archbishop of Canterbury, with Six other Bishops were sent prisoners to the Tower, [...]nd afterwards Tryed at the King's-Bench Bar (but [...]cquitted) for petitioning the King to revoke his Order of Reading his Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, in Churches, in time of Divine Service. And during their Imprisonment we had news that [...]he Queen was brought to Bed of a Son, for which [...] Thanksgiving day was appointed, and the Con­ [...]uits in London ran with Wine, as likewise in many other places, and the Embassadours in foreign Courts, made great Rejoycing: But whilst this [...]oy lasted at Court, and things were making ready or the calling a Parliament; news came that great [...]reparations were making in Holland, with a design [...]o pass an Army into England, which changed the [...]ace of Affairs; for those that had been turned out [...]f places of Trust were restored, the Bishops were [Page 230]received into savour; the Charter of London and other Charters were restored; Depositions were taken relating to the Birth of the Infant, and en­rolled in Chancery; and the King was willing no Papist should be a Member in Parliament with many other concessions and great Levys were made for Sea and Land; however the Dutch Fleet without much interruption, came to Torbay in Devonshire, on the 5 of November 1688. and the Army to the number of 13 or 14000 Landed; seized upon Exceter and divers other places, whilst the King was prepairing to oppose it, causing his Forces and Artillary to march for Salisbury, whether he went in person: But finding the falling off of part of his Army, and afterwards the Nobility; and the surprize of sundry strong Towns in the North and other places, he returned to White-Hall; and upon news of the defeat of a Party set to Guard Reading and Twyford Bridge, the King on the 11 of December, left White-Hall, having the day before sent the Queen away, &c. but within a day or two he was discovered at Feversham, and a Message sent to him from the Lords sitting in Council, to return which accordingly he did; but afterwards going to reside at Rochester, he privately withdrew himself and taking Ship passed into France, where the Queen was arrieved some time before.

Thus fortunes Hand does turn about the Wheele,
And makes the great as well as feeble Reele.

Memorable Transactions under the Auspicious Reign of King WILLIAM and Queen MARY &c.

THE Kingdom left without a Head, and th [...] Publick Affairs receiving prejudice in man [...] particulars; after several Addresses and Congratu­lations, [Page 231]on the 25th of December, the Lords Spiri­tual and Temporal, assembled at Westminster, and humbly besought his present Majesty to take upon him the Administration of of Publick Affairs, both Civil and Military, and to dispose of the publick Treasury, &c. till the meeting of the Convention appointed to meet the 22 of January, making i [...] their further Request that he would cause his Circular Letters to be Issued out to the Lords: And for the Election of Representatives to repair and [...]it at Westminster, and the next day a great number of Gentlemen, who had been Members of Par­liament in the Reign of King Charles the Second, met at the Commons House, who drew up an Address to the [...]ine purpose, as the Lords, which was presented and very Gratiously received; and on the 30 of December, a Declaration was Issued out, Authorizing Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs and other Officers, who were in their Offices the 1st of December, except Papists, to Act in their several Places and Stations. And divers Priests and other disaffected persons were seized in sundry Counties, and committed to several Prisons; and the Circular Letters sent abroad, the Papists were commanded to depart the Citys of London and Westminster: And many eminent Citizens of London, upon notice that the Treasury was Exhausted, lent towards the defraying the Charges of the Publick Affairs of the Kingdom, about 300000 l which was paid in at Guild-Hall, for the use of the Exche­quer: Nor was the Scots slow in making their Address for Protection; which many of the Lords and Commnns did, and were kindly received, with a promise at their Request, of Issuing out Letters for the meeting of a Convention of the Estates on the 14th day of March, at Edenburg, which gave a general Satisfaction to Scotland.

On the 22d of January, 1688. According to [Page 232]appointment, the Convention met at Westminster, where the Lord Marquess of Hallifax held the place as Speaker, in the House of Lords, Henry Powell, Esq did the like in that of the Commons: And after some Debates and Considerations for the Settlement of Affairs, they made an Address of Thanks for the Royal Care and Conduct; and at their Intreaty a further continuation of the Ad­ministration was Accepted; and the days were Ap­pointed for a Publick Thanksgiving for the great Deliverance of these Kingdoms. But in Ireland things went not on so prosperously, for the Earl of Tyrconnel greatly oppressed the Protestants, suffered the Papists to plunder their Houses, every where disarming them, and putting them out of places of Trust; however in several parts of that Kingdom the Protestants, under the leading of Noblemen and others, gave them notable overthrows. But the Popish party relying upon the Succours they expected from France, gave not over their Ravages and Outrages. However great preparations were made in England to reduce that Kingdom to Obedi­ence, and some Stores of Ammunition and Pro­visions sent from Scotland; and care was taken to stop such as were going over, and a prohibition was laid on French Goods and Manufactures, &c.

And now the desire of the people being to see their present Majestys on the Throne, a great number of worthy persons, in the Citys of London and Westminster, Petitioned, setting forth it was their humble desire it might be speedily done; and soon after Her present Majesty, upon the earnest Invitation of the Estates, Embarqued for England, attended by a Squadron of English and Dutch Men of War; and arrived safely at White-Hall, on the 12th of February, 1688. to the inexpressible Joy of the people, and was saluted all the way Her Yatch passed by the Forts and Ships in the Road, [Page 233]as also by the Tower Guns, the Standard being displayed; and at Court she received the Comple­ments of all the Nobility present, nor did the Lords and Commons delay to prepare for the Proclaiming King WILLIAM and Queen MARY, by declaring the Throne Vacant, and praying them to accept the Regal Dignities, Abrogating the former Oaths of Allegience and Supremacy, and Incerting these, viz.

‘I A. B. Do sincerely Promise and Swear, that I will be Faithfull and bear True Allegience to their Majestys, King WILLIAM and Queen MARY. So help me God.’

‘I A. B. Do Swear, that I do from my heart, Abhor, Detest and Abjure, as Impious and He­retical, this Damnable Doctrine and Position, that Princes Excommunicate or deprived by the Pope or any Authority of the See of Rome, may be Deposed or Murthered by their Subjects, or any other whatsoever; and so I declare that no foreign Prince, Person, Prelate, State or Poten­tate hath or ought to have any Jurisdiction, Power, Superiority, Preeminence or Authority, Ecclesiastical or Spiritual within this Realm. So help me God.’

Matters prepared in readiness for so great and solemn an Occasion; the Lords and Commons on the 13th of February, having acquainted them with what they had done, and obtained their Consent. About Eleven of the Clock they went to White-Hall Gate, where the Officers and Serjeants at Arms, Trumpets and other persons being present, Sir Thomas St. George Knight, Garter Principal King at Arms, receiving the Proclamation, and the Officers at Arms, by the Lords being ordered immediately to Proclaim it; York Herauld Proclaimed it at White-Hall Gate, after the Trumpets had thrice sounded, Garter reading it by periods in the presence of the [Page 234]Lords and Commons, and a great concourse of people, and the satisfaction conceived was mani­fested by loud shouts and general Acclamations of Joy; and in good order they proceeded to Temple-Bar, where having informed the occasion of their coming; they had the Gates opened and all, except the Bailiff of Westminster, and his men entred and were received by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Re­corder, Sheriffs, &c. When having made a Second Proclamation, they passed to Wood-street end in Cheapside, and there Proclaimed a Third time, and the like was done before the Royal Exchange in Corn­hill, and immediately the great Guns made it known to remote parts; the Evening being conclu­ded with the Ringing of Bells, Bonfires and other demonstrations of Joy. Nor was it less upon the like Proclamation of their Majestys in the principal Burroughs and Towns of England and Wales. And two days following his Majesty was pleased to give the two Houses a further Assurance of his Care and Protection for the preservation of their Religion, Laws and Liberties; and that he was desirous to concur with them in any thing that should be for the good of the Kingdom, and do what in him lay to advance the Glory and Welfare of the Nation. And thereupon published his Royal Declaration to restrain disorderly persons, who took the liberty to kill the Deer, and cut down the Timber in di­vers Chaces and Forests, causing the Ports in the West facing Ireland to be stopped, to prevent dis­affected persons from passing over to Tyrconnel: And the City of London, by the Lord Mayor, Al­dermen, and divers of the Commons, Congratula­ted their Majestys upon their happy Accession to the Throne; and on the 18th of February the King went to the House of Lords, Royally attended, and too his Place on the Throne: when the Gentleman [...]sher of the Black Rod, had order to Summon up [Page 235]the Commons, and they accordingly attending at the Bar of the Lords House, his Majesty let them know how sensible he was of their kindness; and how much he esteemed and valued the confidence they had Reposed in him, giving them Assurance that at no time he would do any thing that might lessen their good opinion of him, recommending to them the Care of the Allies abroad, and the dan­gerous state of Ireland, &c. And soon after his Majesty being waited on by the Bishop of London and about 100. of the London Clergy, with an humble Tender of their duty, and fidelity he was pleased to express his Gracious promise of Protection and Encouragement. And the two Houses resolved into a free Parliament; his Majesty gave the Royal Assent to an Act intituled an Act for the removing and preventing all questions and disputes about the Assembling and Sitting of this present Parliament; putting out his Royal Declaration for bringing in and restoring Arms, imbezled during the disban­dings and disorder, in the late King's Army.

During these prosperous proceedings, we had frequent news from Ireland, that the Earl of Tyr­connel laboured to increase his Army, and to draw away those that yet remained unshaken; to prevent which, his Majesty was pleased to Issue out his Proclamation, offering a pardon of Indemnity to all those that would lay down their Arms and retire to their respective habitations, and there quietly and peaceably behave themselves, and that accor­ding to Law, they should enjoy their Estates and Possessions; likewise those of the Roman persuasion to have all the liberty of private Exercise of Reli­gion that the Law allows, with a promise of calling a Parliament in that Kingdom: But if any refused they were proclaimed Rebels and Traytors and their Lands forfeited, to be distributed to those that should be aiding and assisting, to the reducing [Page 236]the Kingdom. But on the other hand Tyrconnel, as much as lay in him to hinder this Gratious offer, prevented its being dispersed in many parts of that Kingdom, and published a Declaration of his own, wherein he promised them wonders, if they would persevere, and laid before them the danger if they laid down their Arms, whch animated them to great Outrages, however the English Protestants defended Sligo and other places, making strong opposition, especially in the North, expecting Succours from England, where extraordinary Levys were making, and the King the better to encourage his Subjects, consented to the taking away the Act of Harth Money, which had been a long time very grievous to the poorer sort of the Nation; for which he received an Address of Thanks from both Houses, and an other wherein they resolved to stand by him with their Lives and Fortunes, in supporting his Allies abroad in reducing Ireland, and to secure the Protestant Religion in that King­dom, which was very Graciously Received; and his Majesty declared his Opinion, as to what was requi­site for the support of the Nations Glory abroad and at home: And the two Houses, for declaring to stand by his Majesty, &c. had two humble Ad­dresses of Thanks from the City of London, and they likewise tendred their Address of Thanks to his Majesty, upon his Condescending to have the Harth Money taken away, which was shortly after taken away by an Act for ever, onely a Clause reserving to be collected, what was due to the 25th of March before the publication of the said Act.

During these proceedings, the King had an Express that a considerable number of Soldiers of the Regiment, once commanded by the Lord Dumbarton, and some Companies of Fuziliers had had mutined near Ipswich, and marched away with the Money sent to pay them and four Field Pieces, [Page 237]in their way proclaiming King James; when to prevent the disorder, upon the Address of the Par­liament they were proclaimed Rebels, and a conside­rable force of Horse and Dragoons sent to suppress them; and accordingly upon their inclosing those mutinous Soldiers, they after some shew of resi­stence, threw down their Arms and surrendred them yielding upon discretion; when being disarmed they and their Officers were disposed of in divers prisons, and an Act passed the Royal Assent, impowering his Majesty to apprehend such persons as he should find just cause to suspect were conspiring against the Government, and an other to take off the Attaindure of William Russell, Esq commonly called William Lord Russell; and many other Acts condu­cing to the good and settlement of the Kingdom, were soon after passed.

Upon the death of Sir John Chapman, Lord Mayor of London, Thomas Pilkinton, Esq since Sir Thomas Pilkinton, was Elected at the Guild-Hall, and presented to the Commissioners of the Great Seal, and Sworn at the Hustings, and after that by the Lieutenant of the Tower, by reason at that time there was no Court held at Westminster.

Scotland at this time was not wanting, for the Convention pursuant to the King's Circular Letters meeting, March 14th, and chusing Duke Hamilton their Chairman, they earnestly laboured for the settlement of that Kingdom, which was fallen into some disorder upon the Grand Revolution, Sum­moning the Duke of Gourdon to surrender the Castle of Edenburg, and upon his refusal Proclaimed him and his adherents Traytors; on great penalties prohibiting any to have intercourse with him, secu­ring divers suspected persons, and raising Forces to secure the Kingdom, with many other things too many here to be incerted. And now the Corona­tion Solemnity of their Majestys, being appointed [Page 238]on the 11th of April, and a Proclamation issued out to the Peers, and for all that could make Claims by right of Service or Tenure. Great were the preparations, and an Act on the 21st of March passed the Royal Assent for granting their Majestys a present Aide; and another Act soon after passed for recviving Actions and Processes depending in the Courts of Westminster, discontinued by the omitting Hillary Term, with others conducing to the regulation and settlement of Affairs; and divers great Officers were made and honours Con­ferred on sundry persons. And now the Coronation day drawing near, the Parliament considered of the Coronation Oath, and the Royal Assent given to an Act intituled an Act for Establishing the Coro­nation Oath, to be Administred to all the Kings and Queens that shall Succeed to the Imperial Crown of this Realm, upon their respective Coro­nations by one of the Arch-Bishops to be done in Publick; so that nothing being wanting to perfect the Royal Ceremony of the Coronation; on Thursday the 11 of April, the King and Queen landing at the Parliament Stairs, went to the Princes Lodgings between 10 and 11 in the Mor­ning; and the Peers and Peeresses being in their Robes, and having their Coronets, their Majestys came to Westminster-Hall, (the Procession being put in order) and there taking their Seats on a Throne under a Cloth of State, the Regalia was presented and delivered to those Noblemen, by whom it was to be born, and the Earl Marshal, Kings at Arms and Heraulds, having put the Procession in order, it passed on through the Guard of Soldiers that made a Lane, blew Cloth being spread and scat­tered with sweet hearbs; their Majestys, under a Canopy of State, in their Royal Robes, the King in a Velvet Crimson Cap, and the Queen with a Circlet of Gold on her head, the Peers and Peeresses [Page 239]in their Robes, with their Coronets in their hands, and entring Westminster Abby, their Majestys As­cended the Throne, and the Nobles and others disposed themselves according to their degrees and Places, and the Ceremony was performed with great Splendor and Magnificence; after which their Majestys with their Crowns on their Heads and the Nobility with their Coronets on, returned in the same order they went, to Westminster-Hall, where a Stately Banquet was prepared, and being seated, the first course was Marshalled in, and the King Champion in Compleat Armour, came into the Hall on Horseback and made his Challenge in these words repeated by York Herauld, viz.

‘If any person of any Degree whatsoever, High or Low shall deny or gainsay our Sovereign Lord and Lady. King WILLIAM and Queen MARY, King and Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, to be Right­full King and Queen of this Realm of England; or that they ought not to Enjoy the Imperial Crown of the same, here is their Champion, who saith he lieth and is a false Traytor, being ready in person to Combate with him, and in this Quarrel will Adventure his Life against him on what day soever he shall appoint.’ The Royal Entertainment ended, their Majestys returned to White-Hall, and the great Guns and Bells proclaimed the Joy, together with the peoples shouts and acclamations. The Night was spent in Bonfiers and Drinking-healths, which in a short time was so ordered throughout the Kingdom; and Scotland not to be behind proceeded to Proclaim their Majestys King and Queen of that Kingdom, deputing the Earl of Argyle and others to wait upon their Ma­jestys with an offer of the Crown, which being Ac­cepted, their Majestys have since been so owned that Kingdom, with equal demonstrations of Joy.

The Charges of the Government appearing very great, the Parliament agreed upon a Pole B [...], which being brought in and approved, it passed the Royal Assent, encouraging the lending of 300000 l upon its security till Money can be raised. The late King being by this time in Ireland, and the French Fleet about to Land more men in that Kingdom, were Engaged near Bantry-Bay, by an English Squadron under the Command of Vice-Ad­miral Herbert, and three of their great Ships disabled and sunk a great many of their Seamen and Officers killed, without the loss of one Ship on our side, though much inferiour in number. And the French and Irish laying Siege to London-Derry, were beaten off by the Besieged, under the Command of Colonel Walker, Minister of that Place, and about 4000 of them slain, insomuch that they were obliged to acquit it and draw off. And several persons at­tempting to spread King James his Declarations in the City of London, some were seized and committed to Newgate. And during these Transactions, the late Lord Chancellour Jeffreys, and the late Lord Chief Justice Wright dyed, one in the Tower and the other in Newgate.

The Convention of Scotland was turned into a a Parliament, the Lord Hamilton made President, and an Act passed for asserting their Power, and preventing any questions or dispute that may arise about their power to Act as being a Parliament. Aud since the Castle is surrendred.

Thus Reader you may see our chang'd estate,
And own God's Mercies Wonderfull and Great;
Whose swift Almighty Hand, the Ruin stay'd,
That Rome's dark Thunder into Bolts had made,
Aiming 'em at Religion, Life and Laws,
But Heaven defeats where e'er it owns the Cause.

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