Containing The Nature, Causes, Signs, and Pre­sages of the Pestilence in general.

Together with the state of the present Contagion.

Also most rational Preservatives for Families, and choice Curative Medicines both for Rich and Poor.

With several waies for purifying the air in houses, streets, &c.

Published for the benefit of this Great City of London, and Suburbs,

By Gideon Harvey M.D.

[printer's or publisher's device]

London, Printed for Nath. Brooke, at the Angel in Cornhill, near the Royal Exchange▪ 1665.

Advice against the Plague.

The Preface.

PHysicians can never discharge their Duty with greater Applause, than by contributing their aid to popular Diseases, which at this season is the prime movent of these Meditations. I might justly vacate from this task, having so lately amused my self about a Tract of the French Con­tagion; but since doing a thing opportunely is twice doing, renders me more willing to Oblige the World with a Propo­sal of my sentiment upon this accruing Pest, and advice of Preservatives, Curatives, and Extinguishers of what ever Pestilent seminaries might be conceived in the Air.

Distinction I. Comparisons of Plagues.

PLagues do ordinarily survene great Inun­dations, Stinks of Rivers, unburied Carcases, Mortality of Cattel, Wither­ing of Trees, Extinction of Plants, an extraordinary multiplication of Froggs, Toads, Mice, Flies, or other Insects and Reptils, a moist and moderate Winter, a warm and [...] moist Spring and [Page 2] Summer, fiery Meteors, as falling Stars, Comets, fiery Pillars, Lightnings, &c. A ready putrefaction of Meats, speedy Moulding of Bread, briefness of the Small Pox and Measles, &c. Hence it may appear somewhat strange this Pest should visit us upon such disguised Forerunners, at other times consequents and signs of a late extinct Pestilence, yea potent Causes in amortising that Contagion, viz. a preceding rude, cold and dry Winter and Spring, a dry Summer, no appearance of fiery Meteors, except those Comets of the last Winter, which seemed not to be imminent over this Region, or to direct their rayes hither: Meats retaining their usual sweetness as at other seasons, the Measles or Small Pox less Predominant than in other years, no Inundations, no stincks of Air, no extraordinary increase of Reptils or Insects, &c.

Distinction II. The Nature of the Plague.

THe Plague is a most Malignant and Contagious Feaver, caused through Pestilential Miasms, in­sinuating into the humoral and consistent parts of the Body; first speedily putrefying, then corrupting the fluors, afterwards the solid parts, whereupon a great ebullition or fermentation ensuing between the Venene Corpuscles and the Vital Spirits, causes that sense of burning heat and driness, &c.

Distinction III. Signes of the Plague.

THe highest pitch or degrees of Malignity and Con­tagion accompanying a Feaver, are the essential [Page 3] properties, that distinguish the Plague from all other Diseases; so that where we find a Feaver is most Ma­lign and most Contagious, there we are not to doubt of the birth of a Plague.

That the said Pestilence is a most Malign and Conta­gious Feaver, is evidenced by these signatures; parti­cularly that superlative degree of Malignity is known by an universal Lassitude, or Subitous soreness of all ones Limbs, as if bruised or beaten; sometimes a Diary Feaver, but immediatly changing into a putrid, and that soon after into a most Malign Feaver; or a Putrid Feaver at first, suddenly accrescing to a most Malign or Pestilent Feaver; or a most Malign Feaver at the first attaque, a great burning heat within and without, some­times the heat is moderate or scarce sensible without, but within melting and burning; other times the heat is not very intense either without or within, continual vigilies, or a perpetual restlesness, with anguishing jactitations, or throwing ones self from one part of the bed to the other; a raging pain of the Head, a sudden and raving Phrensie; a loss of appetite, with a loathing of all Victuals, an insatiable drought, frequent and anguishing Vomitings; a Dysentery or griping Loose­ness in some, in others a Costiveness. The Pulses beat according to the nature of the Pestilence, viz. in a Pe­stilent Diary great and quick; in a putrid Pest inequal in motion and strength, but quick; in a Malign Pesti­lent Feaver, thick, low; languid, inequal in motion and strength, quavering and intercident. The Urine varies likewise accordingly: and observe that both Urine and Pulses are very fallacious in Pestilentials, many expiring after strong Pulses and good Urines. Spots and Blotches of several colours and figures stragling over the Body; [Page 4] some are red like fleabits, but livid about; others yel­low, livid, or black. A pricking of the intire skin, as if stung with Nettles: Risings like blisters, or small tu­mors and pushes, some red, others yellow or blackish: Carbuncles, or red, purple or blackish Boyls or inflam­mations about the groin, under the ears or armpits, which if they break, contain a black crust or coal with­in them.

The single presence of these Signs are no certain Diag­nosticks or Determinations of a Plague, unless the said Feaver prove Infectious, as two or three dying in one house, or several in a Neighbourhood, of one and the same kind of Feaver, is no small argument.

Distinction IV. Causes of a Pestilent Feaver or Plague.

DIseases are caused through some innate, or adven­titious weakness of the Intrails; or vitiate qua­lity and effect of some or all the Non-naturals, viz. victuals and drink, air, passions, &c. or by reason of some external errors, or intemperance, or ill govern­ment in the use of the said Non-naturals; or mischances, as falls, poysons, &c.

The first sort of these Causes evades all suspicion, since strong Bodies and the best Complexions are equal­ly exposed to the said Contagion with the worst. Nei­ther is the second accusable, most persons varying in the use and election of all the Non-naturals, except the air, which all Inhabitants of a City or Country seeming to inspire alike or in common, must likewise be the oc­casion of a common Disease.

[Page 5]The air to be capable of engendring a venomous and malign Disease, must be first venenated or rendred poy­sonous it self, for if distemper'd only generates no other than hot or cold, dry or moist Distempers: But 1. What this venom is? 2. Where out? 3. Through what? 4. Whence this venenosity in the air arrives? are intricate Queries, that merit studious Solutions.

What is this Pestilential venom? Pestilential sym­ptoms declare nothing a proportionate efficient of their effrajable and miscreant nature, but Arsenical fumes, which imitating the nature of Arsenick, result into a most pernicious poyson; for Arsenick ingested within the Body in a course thick substance, immediatly effects enormous Vomits, Dysenteries, burning Feavers, raging Headaches, &c. Much more such subtil Arsenical fumes, that aggress the Body from all parts.

Where or in what place are the said Arsenical fumes ge­nerated? The Earth can only be supposed the Womb of such venene fumes, which imbibing all sorts of stink­ing or putrid Bodies, embraces them within her close recesses, coagulates and kindles them into Pestilential Arsenical flames; so that all manner of stinks or rotten Bodies expiring into the air, are returned by moderate Rains, and so suckt in by the Earth; likewise all filth and dirt thrown into standing Waters, Pools, Sinks, Gutters, or Ditches, are also imbibed by the Earth, or by its clammy mud, and there coagulated into venene Miasms. Whence its apparent that nastiness and filth of Kitchins, and several nasty Trades, as Tallow-Chan­dlers, Butchers, Poulterers, Fishmongers, Dyers, &c. neglect of cleansing Gutters, Sinks or Ditches, [...]a [...]ng the Streets, burying the dead, removing Carrions and dead Carcases, are great occasions of a Plague.

[Page 6] Further observe, that to the production of Pestilential atoms, the concurrence of these conditions is requisite: 1. That those Pestilential fumes be first embryonately or preparatively formed in a close thick or standing air, (that is not much ventilated) and close places, viz. by harbouring great quantities of stinks and corruptions, and returning them to the earth or mud of standing Waters, Ditches, Gutters, or dirt of the streets, to be coagulated into venene fumes, which stinks participa­ting of a sulphurous inflamable nature, do soon kindle and are converted into flaming atoms, by being coagu­lated in close places, as the pores of the earth or mud. 2. A want of great showers of Rain, which otherwise would prevent a Pestilence, by washing away all stinks and mud, clear the Gutters and Sinks, cool the Earth, and extinguish those late concepted venoms. 3. Small Rains to open the pores of the Earth, and to conveigh those corruptions in the air into her bosom. 4. A dry and hot season following the moist, whereby the mud of the earth is seared up, and the foresaid malign coagulations are kindled into flaming atoms. 5. The said Arsenical bodies being now coagulated and kindled into flaming atoms, require either a very dry and warm, or subtiliating air, to melt and open the surface of the Earth, for to disincarcerate the said venene bodies, or to attract and evocate them thence: Or smal Rains to unglue and relax the earth to give vent to the inflamed atoms. 6. These expiring require a thick and dull air to support, preserve and feed them, otherwise if subtil and thin, they would soon be amortised, dissolved, or expelled by the thin quick and moveable air.

But since Plagues oft reign in places where the air seems cleer, and freed from all stinks or corruptions, its [Page 7] an argument, there must be some other sort of pestife­rous matter, viz. Mineral arsenical fumes, engendred within the bowels of the Earth; for its probable, the Earth being an universal Parent of various mixt bodies, as Vegetables, Stones, and Minerals, must necessarily abound with excrements, that are sequestred from all those Bodies she concocts, and remain unapt of being converted into them, which she expels to the surface, and thence into the air; But if it happens the Pores of the surface should be constipated, and occasion a preter­natural retention of the said excrements, probably the more sulphurous parts of them do putrefie and inflame, in the same manner of retained excrementitious hu­mours within the Microcosm, and so assume a venene nature, which expiring infect and venenate the air. The Earth may also happen to be constipated upon great Frosts, and so we see many Plagues derive their original from a rude Winter, or by great Rains converting her surface into a tough thick mud.

Distinction V. How the said Venenosities cause the Plague.

THe said flaming Arsenical corpuscles floating in the air, are attracted into the Body, by Inspiration through the Lungs and Nostrils; or otherwise they pierce through ones clothes, and so penetrate into the pores of the intire Body. The said Miasms entring the Body are not so Energick as to venenate the intire mass of blood in an instant, (for in that case no preservatives would avail, and any Person that had but inspired the least breath of contagious air would be struck with death [Page 8] immediatly) but by degrees, gradually corrupting the blood, and converting its parts into bodies of their own nature. The blood being afterwards rendred so turgid with a daily access of new Pestilential atoms from with­out, and increase of others within, Nature finds her self incapable of resisting any longer, and yields; where­upon the concepted fiery atoms unite, and excite a Pestilential fermentation, the genuine cause of all those ensuing symptoms. Vid. Venus Unmaskt, Par. 81.

Distinction VI. Whence the Durability and great Contagion of the Pest.

VVE cannot rationally imagine, that the Earth should be so turgid, as to supply the air with such quantities of Pestilential fumes, as to protract a Pestilence to a Year or two: Wherefore its very pro­bable, those flaming malignities obtain a power of kindling and converting other sulphurous exhalations the air is at such times fil'd with, into Pestilent atoms; you may read more of this in my Venereal Discovery, Art. 6. Par. 25. The cause of their duration we ascribe to their analogick animation and nutrition, or attraction of fuel; But upon this I have already discoursed at large in Venus Unmaskt, Art. 19. Par 95.

Distinction VII. Why are some Bodies more exposed to the Con­tagion than others?

BEcause of their passive disposition of Body and Hu­mours to receive the Infection, and of being viti­ated [Page 9] by it; to wit, by foulness of their bodies, abun­dance of bloud, oppression of the Spirits, aperture of their pores, thinness of texture of body, intemperance, promiscuous converse with all sorts of people, whence the contagion oft lights in Taverns, Ale-houses, &c.

Whence is it the Plague is so scattering at present? Be­cause Pestilent Seminaries chance to expire and be kind­led in several places.

Distinction VIII. Why doth the Plague haunt one place more than another?

BEcause one place is closer, nastier, and more putrid than others, by being environed with ditches, stincking gutters, and sinks; houses built upon a clay and foggy ground are more subject to conceive pestilent Seminaries. Lastly, some sorts of earth being more sulphurous than others, are more disposed to expire ve­nenous fumes.

Distinction IX. How is the Pestilent Contagion propagated?

TWo waies: Immediately, by conversing with infected persons; or Mediately, by Pestilent Se­minaries, propagated through the air by continuation; or by those dense bodies, that easily incarcerate the in­fected air, as woollen cloaths, beds, furniture, in which the Contagion may be preserved several years, as Fra­castorius relates.

Distinction X. The state of this present Plague.

THis Contagion might have been presaged upon consideration of its precursors, viz. a rude Win­ter, want of great showers of rain, a thick, close, sul­phurous, and fiery air, stinks of ditches, and neglect of cleansing the gutters, sinks, and paring the streets. Whence we may collect, this Pestilence derives from expiring Mineral and adventitious Arsenical exhalati­ons. The differences of Plagues are specified by the degree, qualification, or modus substantiae of the Pesti­lent Seminaries, which according to their grosseness or subtility, activity, or hebetude, cause more or less trucu­lent plagues, some partaking of such a pernicious de­gree of malignity, that in the manner of a most presen­taneous poyson, they enecate in two or three hours, suddenly corrupting or extinguishing the vital spirits; others at their first appulse excite a Per-per-acute malign Feaver; and some begin with a putrid feaver, swiftly changing into a malign one, which nature this present Pest seems to have assumed, gradually encroaching up­on us, as we have already expressed.

The Pestilence, in respect of its Seminaries, peragrates the four ordinary times: to wit, first, the Commence­ment, when those fiery Miasms are but newly kindled, and begin to expire into the air, and but few dye. Se­condly, The Augment, when the said pestilent exhalati­ons exhale in greater quantities, and kindle other Semi­naries in the air. Thirdly, The state, when they burst out in a full stream, and have kindled most part of the [Page 11] fiery contents of the air, at which time people dye thick­est, and fewest escape. Fourthly, The Declination, when they begin to be extinguished, and the number of buri­als decreases.

Distinction XI. Prognosticks of the Plague.

THis Pestilence, balancing the qualification of its causes and precursors, with the number of the in­fected, (which, considering the numerosity of the peo­ple, are but few,) and the degree of its malignity (spe­cifying a milder sort of Plague;) portends no great mor­tality. At present it is in the Augment, and likely to attain to a state about the latter end of August or Septem­ber, according to observations of preceding Plagues that have began at the same time and season.

Note, that most exitial feavers, although not con­comitated with the Tokens, (Exan [...]hemata,) Anthraces, or Carbuncles, are to be censured pestilential, and con­tagious; and therefore, although such houses are not shut up, it is every ones concernment to forbear making visits to any persons supposed to be dange­rously ill.

Strong bodies, and good complexions, that have been temperate in their Diet, kept their bodies clean, and used Preservatives for a considerable time, are likely to escape, if they should be surprized in the Aug­ment.

Distinction XII. The Preservative Cure.

THe Preservative part seems the best, easiest, and surest cure of the Plague, for if once attaqued, it is great odds whether you escape, and therefore shall principally encline my endeavours to propose the best and most certain Preservatives.

We have illustrated to you, this Plague works upon us gradually by vitiating and corrupting our humours through the malign air, against which we are to preserve our bodies and humours in their natural state, and de­fend our selves against the injuries of the air.

1. Our bodies and humours are best preserved by feeding moderately upon meats of easie digesture, and of a dry temperature, as Mutton, Veal, Hens, Ca­pons, &c. but dry roasted. By being temperate in drink, avoiding French Wines, Sack, Strong Alc, and espe­cially musty Beer. Coffee is commended against the Contagion; likewise moderate exercise; be sure to prevent costiveness, and violent passions; Sleep mode­rately, and after you are up uncover your bed, and open the curtains to air it, and have the bed well shaken when it is made; for damps are very dangerous.

Abstain from all moist victuals, as fish, and moist fruits, especially from Cowcumbers, Lettuce, Spinnage, Plumbs, Peaches, &c. Oranges and Lemmons are judged very good against Infection; likewise Vinegar.

To go forth with an empty or hungry stomach is un­wholsom, because the spirits tending from the circum­ference [Page 13] to the stomach and intrails to attract nutriment, their deserted vacuities in the extremities are filled up with the infectious air.

The best breakfast against the Contagion is Bisquit and Raisins.

2. Plethory or abundance of bloud oppressing the spirits, that are already engaged by the malign air, op­pugning them from without, is very apt to putrefie, and to be converted into malignity: and therefore Phlebo­tomy or opening a vein is of absolute necessity, whereby the vessels are rendred more loose and free for the spirits to work in.

3. Likewise foulness of body, or excrementitious humours lodging in hidden recesses, being disposed to putrefaction, and oppressing the spirits, ought to be ex­quisitely purged away.

4. These internal disorders or apparent intestine ho­stilities being thus prevented, you are to provide against the injuries of the venene air, which assaults us two waies: 1. Through the nostrils and lungs by Inspirati­on. 2. Through the pores of the body, especially where the skin is thinnest, and the Arteries most de­tected, (for the vital spirits seem to attract the air po­tently through the Arteries,) as about the wrists, tem­ples, Jugulars, groin, and under the arm pits. The In­dicata relating to those Indicantia are: 1. Perfumes to smell to, correcting and purifying the air before it is at­tracted by the Lungs, or rather antipestilential unguents and oyls to annoint the nostrils with; for it is tedious to be alwaies obliged to hold a perfume to ones nose; besides, I observe most people that carry those perfu­med boxes about with them, imagine them sufficient preservatories, as if the Infection were only taken by [Page 14] inspiration through the Nostrils; but that is a great mistake, since the Contagion doth more ordinari­ly penetrate into the body through the pores of the Arteries. 2. Lavatories to wash the temples, hands, wrists, and Jugulars, do potently profligate and keep off the venome: But I should rather advise Antipesti­lential Emplasters to be applied to the wrists, temples, groin, and arm-pits, which is a most excellent and commodious way of preserving, because those Lavato­ries are easily dried up.

3. Since it is impossible, that those that are encom­passed with a pestilential air can so preserve themselves, but at one time or other the Contagion will enter into this or that part, it is advisable we should continually fortifie our spirits with internal Antidotes, to expell those Venenosities, as fast as they croud in. The Anti­dotes ought to be so qualified as in a single Doss to retain the bloud in a continual mild fermentation for 24 hours, (known by a small glowing of the body and extremities,) whereby the insidiating corpuscles are expulsed, and the advenient ones kept off: and such are only gross Dia­phoreticks given in substance, that scarce exhale out of the body in less time than a natural day. Hence ap­pears the vulgar vanity, reposing an indubious confi­dence in a spoonful or two of those ordinary Antipesti­lential spirits, (as that of Sir Walter Rawleigh, the Lord Bacon, Mithridate, Treacle, and a thousand more, that are composed out of the same sudorifick ingredients) which because of their subtil parts and exiguous Dose, are consumed and evaporated in less than two hours time, and so the body is deserted without defence for the remainder of the day; besides they are apt to in­flame the body, enrage the Gall, and engender [Page 15] pernicious humours. Neither, as we may universally observe, is the Plague more shie in attaquing those that are armed with the said Antipestilentials, than others that slight all Preservatives.

But the greatest levity and imprudence is, that peo­ple should so preposterously addict themselves to tipling of the fore-instanced spirits, which encountring with foul bodies, and Plethories, and exciting a fermentati­on of those vitiate humours, must necessarily precipi­tate them into putrid and malign Feavers, especially where the air is so propitious for them. Moreover, they must also cause obstructions and constipations, by dissi­pating and absorbing the subtiler parts of the fluors, and leaving the courser behind. Now, to evidence the necessity of Phlebotomy and Catharticks; the long rude Winter and cold Spring occasioning great appetites have extreamly provoked people to gourmandizing and debauchery, whence bodies result Plethorick, and Ca­cochymick, add thereunto the vitiate disposition of the air, sensibly contributing to the generation of depravate bloud; thus far touching the Indications.

Distinction XIII. Caveats against the Plague.

1. SHun all publick meetings, where people promis­cuously conversing with one another, do readily propagate the infection: besides nothing subministrates apter matter to be converted into pestilent Seminaries than peoples steams and breaths, especially of nasty folks, as beggers, and others: whence those houses happen to be soonest infected, that are crouded with [Page 16] multiplicity of lodgers and nasty families.

2. Avoid passing close, dirty, stinking, and infected places, as Alleys, dark Lanes, Church-yards, Chand­lers shops, common Alehouses, Shambles, Poultries, or any places where old houshold-stuff is kept, as musty beddings and hangings, for it is experienced, nothing breeds or retains Pestilent Atoms more than woollen, and feathers.

3. Those that have occasion to go by water to Gravesend, let them rather prefer lying upon the boords, than on musty infectious straw: Likewise Travellers in their Inns had better lye on the floar, or upon Chairs, than in those common nasty beds▪

4. The best Caveat, and surest Preservative is to change the air, according to that trite Distich:

Haec tria pestiferam pellunt adverbia tabem,
Mox, Longe, & Tarde, Cede, Recede, Redi.

i.e. Flee quick, Go far, and Slow return.

Distinction XIV. Preservatives for the Rich.

1. FOr those that are Plethorick or full of bloud, it is necessary they should be let bloud.

2. It is of great concernment to have their bodies well purged, and obstructions removed, to procure the bloud and spirits a free course, ventilation, and transpi­ration, by sutable purges and Ecphractick Medicines.

3. The body ought to be maintained in its dayly ex­cretions, and its superfluous humours subtracted at [Page 17] several times, to hinder all excrementitious accumula­tions, by such means as are Eccoprotick, and do particu­larly oppugn the malignity, for which purpose Pilulae Ruffi sive Pestilentiales are much cryed up, taking a half drachme or a drachme mornings, once or twice a week; or these following:

Al. Succot. Nutrit. Suc. Absinth, ʒ ij. Gum. Ammon. Sol. in Acet. Squil. ʒ j. Tart. Vitriol. Sal. Absinth. an. ʒ ss. Sal. Vitriol. ℈ j. Croc. Angl. gr. 15. Ol. Succin. gut. 20. Syr. Veton. q.s. M. F. Mass. Pil. Das. a. ℈ j. ad ℈ ij. Mane duabus horis ante cibum.

This being premitted, Ile commend to you this following Antidote.

Pulv. Lign. Guaiac.ss. Flor. Sulphur. ʒ ij. Antimon. Diaphor. ʒ j. Flor. Benz. ℈ ij. Sal. Centaur. Min. ʒ ss. Myrr. rub. ℈ j. gr. 5. Camphor. ℈ j. Croc. Anglss. Ol. Succin. gut. 15. Ol. Vitr. gut. 10. Mel. Iunip. q. s. M. F. Elect. Dos. a ʒ ss. ad ʒ j ss. vel. ʒ ij.

This mixture contains all the properties that can be desired in a most excellent Pestilential Antidote; The ingredients being prescribed in their substance do not suddenly exhale or depose their virtues, but maintain the bloud in a gentle fermentation for a whole day and night, actuate the spirits, absorbe the intestinal super­fluities, reclude oppilations, mundifie the bloud, op­pugn putrefaction, gently expell and work out all con­tagious Seminaries through the pores, and all this with­out inflaming the body, which makes it sutable to all temperaments. I could here recite five hundred very select antipestilentials, but judging this to answer all Indications, shall therefore supersede that needless pains.

[Page 18]The Dose hereof is about the bigness of a small Walnut, or more, every Morning, drinking upon it a draught of wormwood Rhenish, and an hour or two after you may breakfast upon biscuit and raisins.

It is also very proficuous to take a good large dose once a week, and sweat moderately upon it a bed.

This following we have composed out of the chie­fest Alexipharms, but most for Phlegmatick tempera­ments.

Conserv. Salv. Ros. Vet. an. ℥ j. Elect. de Ovo, Diascord. Frac. an. ℥ ss. Flor. Sulphur. ʒ ij. Rad. Zedoar. Dictam. Carlin. Scorzon. Angel. Ostrut. Gentian. Tormentil. an. ʒ ss. Myr. Suc. Alb. Thur. Camph. an. ℈ j. Extr. Iunip. ʒ j Tinct. Croc ℈ ij. Ol. Angel. Spir. Vitriol. an. gut. 15. Syr. Acet. Citr. q s. M. F. Elect. Dos. a ʒ j ad ʒ ij.

Children and bigbellied women require Antidotes somewhat more grateful to the Palate, and less hot; as these tablets.

Sp [...]. e Chel. Cancr. Coru. Cer. Nov. Prap. Terr. Sigil. Succin. Alb. an ʒ j. Ol [...]ont. Citr. gut. 10. Sacchar. Alb [...] q.s. Sol. in Aq. Ros. M. F. Rotul. Poud. ʒ ij.

Having now proposed to you the choicest internals, it is requisite to add some external defences, to keep off the air from entring, viz. Emplasters to be applied to the wrists, temples, and groin.

Mithrid. Opt. Vet. ℥ j. Cinab. Factit. ʒ j. Vitriol. Roman. ℈ ij. Pic. Liq. ʒ iij. Cer. Alb. q.s. M, F. Empl. Extend. Super. Alut. vel Pan. Seris.

This Emplaster, I can assure you, is of that force and vertue, that you would detract from its worth in [Page 19] using any thing else to second it, since it performs the same effects of intrinsick Alexipharms; besides it per­fumes ones cloaths, purifies the air, attracts the venom outwards, and gently keeps the vital spirits in play.

Cordial Bags worn next ones breast over the heart, likewise Pestilential stomachick Emplasters applied to the stomach, do potently resist the Infection, and pre­serve the entrails.

The Cordial sweet-bag.

Rad. Calam. arom. Angel Zedoar. an ʒ j ss. Flor. Anth. Salv. Ros. an. P. j. Sum. Rut. pul. Benz. Styr. Myrr. an. ʒ j. Santal. Citr. Nuc. Muscat. Cinam. an. ʒ ss. Camphor. ℈ j. Pul­veriz. M, F. Saccul.

The Stomach Emplaster.

Emplastr. Stomach. ℥ j. Myrrh ʒ j. Zedoar. ℈ ij. Extract. Rut. Angel. an. ʒ j. Ol. Succin.ss. Ol. Laurin. q.s. M. F. Empl. sentiform. applicand. stomach.

The Nostrils and the jugular Arteries ought to be anointed every morning with this following liniment or Balsom.

Ol Stillat. Angel. Rutae. Succin. an ℈ j. Caphur gr. 5. Cerae Alb. q.s. M. F. Balsam. inungant. intern. nar. & Art. jug.

Some do also commend Balsame of Sulphur to anoint the Nostrils with; but erroneously, because its sent is suffocating and very offensive to the Lungs.

The face and hands may be defended with this single wash.

[Page 20]Take half a drachme of Camphor, dissolve it in two ounces of wine Vinegar, and mix it with four ounces of Rose water.

The brain should likewise be shielded with a Cucu­pha, or spice cap, made with the same species prescribed for the cordial sweet bag.

It will not be amiss to insert a word or two touching their cloaths. Nothing seems more preservative than cleanliness and oft shifting of Linnen, because the steams of a mans body inhering in dirty linnen are very apt to putrefie into malignity; it is likewise very com­mendable to change cloaths once or twice a week, for the reason alleged. At nights have a fire kindled in your Chamber, which doth very much conduce to pu­rifie the air, and consume all noxious damps; and after you are a bed cause your cloaths to be hung before the fire, whereby the venene air that possibly may be la­tent in the wooll is potently extracted; Next morning perfume your cloaths with these following Trochisces.

Rad Angel. Zedoar. an. ℈ iiij. Gum Iunip. Myrr Styr. Cal. an ʒ j Sem Rut flor. Lavend an ʒ ss. Arsen. Pel. ℈ j Excip. Thereb. M. F. Trochis. Pond. ʒ ij.

What concerns the election of cloaths, it is pro­bable Hairs Stuff, as Camelots, or Grograins, are least disposed to harbour infection, their density denying passage to the thick contagious air, easily glancing or slipping off their glib surface, whereas woollen and woosted do easily retain infection.

Since we have hitherto instructed you how to pre­serve your self abroad, it falls in course to propose such means, as may conspire your preservation within. Above all keep your house very dry with fires, for [Page 21] dampness, as I have illustrated in my Philosophy, Part 2. Book 1. Chap. 24. Par. 5. is a great cause of the Plague. Next prefer neatness and cleanliness in your Kitchin, Buttrey, Sinks, &c. be sure to have the upper corners of your Rooms well swept, and that often; cause your Room where you most abide in to be oft washt with wa­ter and Vinegar: flash Gunpowder in it twice or thrice a day, or burn frequently pitch and brimstone, or the before written Trochisces; perfume your sheets like­wise by burning the said Trochisces in a warming pan. Put away your Cats and Dogs, for they are not only apt to transport the contagion from other places, but do also emit stinking fumes or steams, that are readily converted into malignity.

Distinction XV. Preservatives for the Poor.

CAcochymies or fowl bodies of the Vulgar, con­tracted through course and dreggish feeding do re­quire strong Purges, or rather vomits once or twice re­peated, among which for its cheapness and excellency in evacuating, deoppilating, and expelling all malignity, we prefer this following:

℞. Vitr. Antimon. a gr. 2. ad 4. Diascord. Frac. a ℈ j. ad ℈ ij. M. F. Bol. Caplat mane cum regimine.

In Plethories opening a vein proves a great Preser­vative.

Hereupon they are to take a draught of this an­tipestilential Tincture or Infusion every morning, [Page 22] repeating the foresaid Vomit once a month.

Take Iuniper berries one ounce, Gentian root, Zedoary, Myrrh, of each two drachmes, Rue tops half a handful, bruise them all in a mortar, and being put into a clean earthen pot, poure upon them Wine Vinegar and Brandy, of each the same proportion, as much as will swim three fingers atop; stop the pot very close, and set it for 24 hours on the hot Cindars; then strain it, and dissolve in it Camphor, and sal Prunella, of each half a Drachme.

A spoonful hereof, or two at most, taken Mornings and Evenings is so potent a defence and Preservative, that scarce any Pestilence is poysonous enough to in­fringe its force.

An hour or two after, they may breakfast with bread and butter, and Sage, Rue, or Garlick; and worm­wood Rhenish.

To smoak Tobacco oft, especially Mornings and Evenings seems an excellent Preservative.

Its judged by many, that Issues conduce to divert the malignity; but chiefly in Children and moyst Con­stitutions.

Amulets are commended by some, and disproved by others.

We do also commend to them our Pestilential Em­plasters, prescribed in the preceding Distinction, to be applied to the same parts, viz. wrists, temples, groin, and under the armpits.

Touching fumes to correct the air, they will find this following very efficacious: Take Rue and steep it in Vinegar, and pour some of it twice or thrice a day upon a hot Iron: or pour Vinegar and water upon unquencht Lime.

Above all let them study cleanliness.

Distinction XVI. The Pestilential Cure.

IF on a sudden you are surprised with a great head­ach, anguish, and soreness or pains of all your limbs, you may with reason suspect your condition; and there­fore lay aside all business immediately, betake your self to this ensuing Antidote, composing your self to a co­pious sweat in bed.

℞. Bezoart. Min. a gr. 6. ad 12. Spir. Corn. Cerv. a gut. 4. ad 8. Caphur. a gr. 2. ad 4. Diascord. ℈ j. M. F. Bol. Deauret.

Continue the sweat for an hour; afterwards in case of too great a Laps of spirits, take a spoonfull or two of the below mentioned Cordial restorative. The sym­ptoms disappearing upon the sweat, it is a sign there was no infection; if otherwise, six hours after be let bloud to a small quantity of 5, 6, 7, or eight ounces, and within a quarter of an hour after, sweat again upon the repetition of the prescribed Bole.

In case the Sickness attaques you with more certain and evident Symptomes, immediately exhaust a conve­nient proportion of bloud, and within a quarter of an hour assume the Pestilential Bole, or this annext Tincture, and sweat copiously upon it.

[Page 24]Rad. Carlin. Angel. imperat. Zedoar. Tormen. an. ʒ vj. Rad. Contrayer.ss. Diascord. Frac. ℥ iiij. Myrr. ℥ ij. Croc. Orient. ʒ vj. Camphor. ʒ ij. Superfan. Spir. Vin. Rect. Spir. Sulphur. per Camp. ʒ j. Acuat. lb j ss. diger. p [...]r dies 8. Dein Cole [...]r. per Chart. Empor. M. F. Tinct. Dos. abss. ad ℥ j.

1. We judge Vegetables more commodiously given in infusion than substance, because of their quicker ope­ration. 2. We do also prefer Tinctures before distilled liquors; because these are nothing but abstracted men­struums, impregnated with a nauseous phlegm, or light cariared dusts of Vegetables, whereas the virtues of the ingredients are chiefly latent in their salts, that are left in the bottom of the Still: Whence it is, that Treacle Water is so feeble, and of so faint a taste, far different from the strong faculties and sent of Treacle in substance. Nei­ther are Treacle or Mithridate in substance proper Medi­cines against the Plague, because consisting of a great many Aromata, or gross aduring Spices, they impress an Empyreume upon the intrails for want of subtil dissipative parts. Whence you may readily apprehend the excel­lency of the prescribed Tincture, being extracted from few, but most experienced and select ingredi­ents.

Having passed your sweat, relieve your spirits with a spoonfull or two of this Analeptick.

Take a Pollet or Capon, cut it into small pieces, and put them into a diet pot, affuse upon them black Cherry, Burnet, Borrage, and Rose water, of each four ounces, let them simper four hours upon a gentle fire, afterwards express the [Page 25] liquor, and mix with it Cinamon water comp. an ounce and half, gely of Quinces, and Currants of each one ounce and half, syrup of Citrons one ounce, Saffron, twenty grains.

Some six or eight hours after repeat the said sudori­fick, and thereupon the Refective Cordial. The Con­tagion being very malign indicates the commixture of some Narcotick with the sudorifick; as a grain or two of Laudanum Opiatum, to allay the violence of the Fer­mentation. If the malignity be only obtunded by the fore-instanced Diaphoreticks, a third Dose will prove ne­cessary. Inject also lenitive and detergent glysters be­tween times.

To extinguish the great heat, and abate the Patients immoderate thirst, this Julep is thought very excel­lent.

Take the shavings of Harts horn one ounce, affuse a quart of water, and boyl it for half an hour or less, strain it, and dissolve in it three ounces of syrup of Popies, one drachme and a half of Sal. Prunellae, one Scruple of Spir. of Vitr.

This may be inforced by admixing two or three ounces of Aq. Sperm. Ranar. to it,

Against restlesness or immoderate vigilies we use to prescribe this following in malign feavers.

℞. Aq. bor. Nymph. Pap. Rh. an ℥ j ss. Diascord. Frac. ℈ j. Syr. Pap. Rh. ℥ j ss. This, if frustraneous, is fortified with Diascord. or Laudan. Op.

Anoint the Temples, Nostrils, and Jugulars with Ung. Pop. Alabast. an. ʒ j ss. Op. Theb. dissol. in spir. Vin. gr. 9. Camphor. gr. 3. M. F. Lin.

[Page 26]Against the adustion of the tongue and mouth use Plantain water four ounces, two ounces of Rose Vine­gar, one ounce of Syrup of Mulberries, one drachme of Sal Prunellae.

If upon the first shock of the Contagion the stomack is vitiated in its retention, so as it vomit up whatever is ingested, exhibit a Dose of salt of Vitriol, which be­sides its speedy evacuation by vomit without enerva­ting the body, doth singularly infringe the malignity: An hour or two after its operation assume a Dose of the Antipestilential Tincture, which repeat as oft as ne­cessary.

If the Patient is surprised with a Lipothymous an­guor, jactitation, or great oppression about the stomach and Hypochonders, expect no relief from Cordials in that case, although usually prescribed, but take a Dose of salt of Vitriol.

A raging headach is only appeased with soporiferous Liniments, and internal Narcoticks.

A Dysentery is stopt by a Detersive mixt with a Narcotick, viz. Diascord. ad ʒ j. Laudan. Opiat. ad. gr. 2. vel 3.

Distinction XVII. The Cure of Carbuncles.

CArbuncles the more they break forth in number, and the farther from the heart, so much the bet­ter, which if soft, and easily perduced to a laudable maturation with the sequel of the imminution or miti­gation of symptomes, portend a happy event, if other­wise, the contrary.

[Page 27]Since Nature doth disburden her self of the venom by those kinds of tumours, we are to give them vent as speedily as possible, by applying strong acre and at­tracting Maturatives; as this following:

Take sharp Leaven one ounce, Garlicks roasted number two, Mithridate half an ounce, Mustard seed bruised two drachmes, oyl of Rue Per. infusion. two ounces, make it to a Poultis.

The said tumours being but imperfectly maturated, known by their softness, are to be opened with a Can­stick, and a milder Poultis to remain on untill the crust falls off, then to be mundified with honey of Roses an ounce, Mithridate a dram, dissolved in spirits of Wine; this to be imbibed by stoupes and applied, imposing up­on them an Empl. Diachyl.

Distinction XVIII. Whether Phlebotomy ought to be celebrated in the Cure of the Plague?

IT is generally thought Phlebotomy retracting the bloud from the Circumference to the Center, doth also convey the concepted Contagion with it, and so impact it deeper into the body; for which reason it is disapproved by those that know no better; but this supposed, it is no prejudice as long as the Contagion be­ing still in motion is immediately after expelled with a double force, by taking a sudorifick upon it; for by letting bloud in the beginning after that manner, we take the greatest advantages imaginable: 1. We de­tract some part of the burden from the spirits, that are too much oppressed already by the malignity. 2. There­by [Page 28] by we remove obstructions of the vessels, and relax the constipation of the pores towards a ventilation and transpiration, which otherwise doth deny passage to the malignity Nature endeavours to expell by sweat. 3. The spirits being embroyled with the malignity, and drowned in the bloud, (not only abounding, but also turgent and tumisied by the Febril fermen­tation,) and so tyed up from expelling the venosity are by Phlebotomy relieved, set free and loose, abstracted from the fermentation, whence afterwards uniting to­gether do forcibly expel the venom by transpiration, (whence it is most persons are easily incident into sweats after Phlebotomy,) especially if moved by a Diaphoretick, although but gentle. Wherefore you may now believe nothing more proficuous against the Plague (but in the commencement only,) than Phle­botomy, seconded with Diaphoreticks: read the same question in my Vener. Discov. Book, Art. 5. P. 14.

Distinction XIX. Whether the Plague cannot be generally prevented by purifying the Air, and extinguishing the Pest [...] ­lent Seminaries therein floating?

IT is recorded Hippocrates cured his Island, being in­fected with a Deleterious Pestilence, by setting in fire a great Wood, which attracted all the Venene Seminaries, and so consumed and amortifed them: but it's observed he did so, when the Plague was decli­ning. But it is not as the Vulgar imagines, the Pesti­lent Seminaries must not only be extinguisht, but all the sulphurous matter of the air, whereout the said Ve­nenosities [Page 29] are kindled, be consumed: And lastly, not only so, but the Earth must also have vented all her malign fumes; for know, that a Pestilence generally derives its origine from a Crisis of the Earth, whereby it purges it self by expiring those Arsenical fumes, that have been retained so long in her bowels; now before a Pestilence can cease, the Earth must have purged it self through those transpirations, which continue longer or shorter, according as the heat of the Sun doth assist her by attracting the said fumes, or small Rains open her pores by relaxing her surface; whence we may now weekly observe, the more small Rains there fall, the more the present mortality increases. So that you may now collect a Pestilence to be originally nothing but a Critical sweat of the earth.

The air may be purified by burning great fires of pitch barrels, especially in close places; by discharging of great Guns into infectious Streets; by burning of Stinck pots, or Stinckers, as they call them, in Con­tagious Lanes; besides many other waies which at pre­sent time and paper denies us a recital of: Otherwise I should have inserted many other very considerable Secrets for Preservation and Cure, but I content my self to have served the Publick, by divulging the most apposite methods, and choicest Medicines that can be composed or thought upon.


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