VARIOUS INJURIES & ABUSES IN Chymical and Galenical PHYSICK: Committed both by Physicians & Apothecaries, DETECTED. For the benefit of such, who being Conscientious and Studious in Physick, aim chiefly at the welfare of the Sick. And of those Patients, whether Rich or Poor, who are willing to preserve their lives & healths.

By Robert Godfrey, Med. Londinensis.

Antimonium quamdiu vomitum aut sedes mo­vet, & Mercurius revivificari potest; venena sunt, nec boni viri Remedia.

Licensed, Decemb. 1. 1673. Roger L'estrange.

LONDON, Printed by John Darby, for Richard Jones, at the Gol­den Lion in Little Brittain, 1674.

TO THE READER.

READER,

I Shall not go about to per­swade thee, that this my Discourse saw the Press through the importunity of Friends, and that it was onely Pen▪d for my own private Use; seeing I at first design­ed it for publick view; and to detect A­buses in Physick; seeing that instead of [Page] being perswaded to it, I was rather disswaded from it, lest I by writing too tartly might offend some. To do which, after serious perpension, I was easily inclin'd, knowing it to be a weighty Mat­ter to appear in Publick, especially with a Physical Discourse. Besides, I oft­times reflected on my years, and was thereby mightily disheartned, for all the many Advantages I had in a faithful Tutor, knowing that such a Discourse ra­ther became some Gray-headed Physici­an, than one so young as my self. And for that cause I assure thee I would wil­lingly have declin'd it, could I have had peace in so doing.

For though I knew I had wrote nothing dissentaneous with Truth, yet I suspected I might incur the anger of some selfish Physicians, as also of some incurious A­pothecaries, whose own Consciences would tell them I wrote the Truth, and that they were such I spoke of, Selfish Physicians, I say, and Careless Apothecaries: For I [Page] believe there is not any Learned True­hearted and Conscientious Physician, whether Chymical or Galenical, nor any Industrious Ingenious Apothecary can in the least be offended at this Discourse. But if any are, I care not, seeing a Pub­lick Good ought to be preferred before their Private Gain, and that I have con­tent in what I have done; Seeing also whilst I detect Injuries in Physick, I mention not the Persons offending; and that

—Licuit semperque licebit
Parcere Personis, dicere de vitiis.
It hath been lawful, and will al­wayes be,
To speak of Vice, but let the Name go free.

Are any therefore displeased? 'Tis a sign I have toucht them to the quick: But such should rather be displeased with themselves for being no wiser before, than [Page] to do th [...]gs worthy of sharp reproof; and to be so foolish now as to shew, by applying things to themselves, [...]t they are the Persons deciphered, or at least­wise such. However, toucht or not toucht, I regard it not; and may well be allowed to find fault▪ seeing my most dear Father (I being young) was kill'd, Secundum Artem, through the deceit of the Physici­an and Apothecary, by taking a Preven­tive Purge: And seeing that I my self also in my younger years, had my Vitals so much weakned by their poisonous and debilitating Methods, that I believe, as long as I live, I shall fair the worse for it: But if they will not allow me to find fault, I am resolved to do it whether they will or no, whilst mens Lives and Healths are so little set by, and that Money is the only thing sought after, whilst 'tis little minded what Medicines are given for Relief to the Sick, so Money can be got­ten by giving them; and so that if they die, we can but lay the blame on the Dis­ease, and pretend we walkt according to [Page] Art and Method: And whilst Sincerity and Charity are no Ingredients in Physick, and to act the good Samaritans part is out of fashion.

As to the study of Physick, I will assure you 'twas not my juvenile Design, nor did I enter on it till about seven years since, in the twentieth year of my Age. When coming to be intimately acquainted with a true-hearted Chymical Physician, and having been from my Youth a great lover of Art and Science, I, for diversion-sake, whilst I Tabled in the Doctor's House, and had his Physical Library at command, addicted my mind to the study of it: Hoping thereby onely to acquire so much knowledg in Medicine, as to keep me from being kill'd, as my Father had been by a Poysonous Dose: and to preserve my own health for the future, which had been formerly much impaired by bad Re­medies.

Thus I proceeded, and before many years were past, my Fancy and Genius [Page] was wholly inclin'd to it, nor was there any Art or Science under the Sun which I so much fancied as Medicine; though some­times when my Physical Studies had brought a wearisomeness, I now and then, for some years together, studied Astrolo­gy; but finding it a conjectural Art, and a thing that broke my peace, I wholly de­clin'd it. Then with the greater eager­ness I fell on the study of Chymistry, nor regard I my Moneys; so that I, who al­wayes hated [...]otchery, might have real Art: But spent hundreds of pounds Ster­ling to that end; which once attained, I hoped in my mind I might be profitable in my Generation, and benefit the miserable Sick.

But when after several years were past thus in study, I seriously considered the danger of working with such Physical Tools, or such Medicines as Books (the which are for the most part a Mass of Transcriptions, and things taken upon trust from one another) could afford me; forasmuch as many of those Recipe-Me­dicines, [Page] not only through their Earthy, and sometimes Poysonous Qualities, do more harm than good; but also through the con­fusedness of their Composition. I say, when I seriously considered this, I was a­fraid to attempt, being very loth to turn Experimenter; and as the Phrase has it,

Ludere cum corio humano.

I was also more frightned from it, by the untimely death of my Father, and by observing the Errors of Physicians. I then thought upon Helmont, and believed he wrote not so sharply for nothing, as also that Medicine (as he said) was a­bused. Which made me, having been hurt by Physick, know the better how to pitty the Sick, and avoid all means of hurting them.

But at length the Almighty favour­ing, and my good Friend dearly loving me: He confer'd his whole Knowledg in Pharmacy on me, and the result of above [Page] twenty years diligent search in Chymi­stry: Nor was I wholly ungrateful.

So that then being not the veriest Botcher in Medicine, and having the li­berty daily to discourse with the Do­ctor, and the advantage to raise various Objections, and have them answered: I by diligent observance, by Operating, and by studying for several years, not slug­gishly, having gain'd the knowledg of some Injuries in Physick;

Reader, for thy benefit (my Tutor being deceased) I have thought it fit to make them publick. If thou shalt ask whether or no I am or ever was a Member of the University, (for that is a thing car­ries a great face with it) I shall tell thee, Yes: But moreover assure thee, I was more happy than to spend years there a­bout Genus and Species, and such un­profitable Notions and Arts, that could not at last teach me how to cure a cut Fin­ger radically, much less a violent Dis­ease. [Page] Yet truly I exceedingly honour them, as they are Schools of Learning, and could wish they did not mind Words more than Things.

And prethee, Reader, don't ever the more under value this Discourse, because thou findest it neither dedicated to some Great Man, nor yet set off with flatter­ing Verses in commendation of me and my Work. The last I disesteem, because though some ingenious Physical Tracts at a chance comes forth with some, and de­serve them, yet almost every Mass of Col­lections, or Bundle of Insignificancies, have them to perswade the Reader to buy it. I am therefore resolv'd to have mine come simple and naked, that if thou likest it so, thou mayest buy it; if otherwise, let it alone.

Nor did I not Dedicate it through want of those to whom I might have ten­dred it, or those who would willingly [Page] have accepted on't: But that which made me not do it, was an unwillingness to sooth and flatter any Man, and to follow the custom of ascribing all Vertues to One scarce acquainted with them. For I am somewhat of an humour differing from the generality, in that whilst they a­scribe all Vertues to a Rich Man, I am prone to ascribe all Riches to a Vertuous Man: And to account him that is Wealthy and Vertuous, (for some such there are) to be rich in a two-fold mea­sure. However to the most Vertuous of them, without Your most humble Ser­vant Sir in the close of it, I should have tendred an unacceptable Gift: And therefore did not Dedicate, whilst I sa­vouring more of a Rustick than a Courtier, could never yet frame my mouth to such artificial Speeches.

Besides, if I had dedicated it to the most Noble and Wealthy, be could not have preserv'd it from the censures of [Page] the meanest Peasant, much less from those of the Ingenious; whilst every one has the priviledg to speak his mind in his Chimney-Corner, and to censure and dispraise what he please. So that with or without a Dedication, I shall be coun­ted and call'd a Fool, if I have writ like one, or have written what is preju­dicial to Mankind. But if I have writ what's not disagreeing with Verity, nor detrimental to Humane Society, and the Nation, I shall be commended by the Impartial and Honest; which thing is as much as I expect; Knowing that it is impossible to please all men; And that what the Father of Lights does not bless and defend, will be but as Chaff, and will fade in spight of the greatest of Patrons. Also that he which builds on ought but the chief Corner-Stone, will come to confusion at last.

Therefore, Reader, without a Com­plement, or calling thee Courteous or Kind▪ [Page] I desire thee thorowly to view what I have written, and if thou art benefited by it, give thanks to the Almighty, and thou wilt please thy Friend,

Robert Godfrey.

VARIOUS INJURIES AND ABUSES, IN BOTH Chymical & Galenical Physick, detected.

TO hear the groans of the Sick unsuccesfully lying under cure from ill-applyed and often­times worse-prepared Remedies, might, & undoubtedly would, considering the daily growth of Diseases, have excited the Studious in Phy­sick; to a more curious pursuit, after such Ver­tuous [Page 2] Medicines, whose Piercing and Inno­cent Liveliness might extinguish the Venomous Characters of Diseases: and without any Addi­tional Weaknings of Nature by poysonous Medi­cines and Phlebotomy: have radically not cloaka­tively cured the Sick had not too great belief in the Doctrines of Galen, an unwillingness in ma­ny to be Wise beyond the Antients, with too much adhering to Sloth▪ like the Tares in the Parable, spoiled their good intents. But this happening in the time of Ignorance is scarce wor­thy of note, if with it we compare the Stub­bornness and incuriousness of some in this Gene­ration, who oppose the breakings forth of fresh advantages in Medicine, whilst the poverty of the Galenick method is discovered; Some using and pleading for Venomous Purges, Vomits, &c. Taking a dirty besome to sweep a dirty house; and others using and defending Blood-letting, notwithstanding manifest, frequent, and Safe cures are daily done without it, yea more safely and certainly than with it.

The first of which, were not Diseases them­selves, especially if they be of somewhat long continuance, in a manner poysonous and Fer­mentive, and therefore to be withstood by A­lexipharmick not Poysonous Remidies, would be somewhat pardonable▪ and so would the se­cond, were not the Blood the nourisher, and enlivener of the whole Body; and by conse­quence [Page 3] of the Stomach the prime preparer of nourishments. For doubtless, as Anatomists con­fess, the Various Arteries and Veins which it has, are bestowed on it, to nourish it, and that it may reap some of the fruit of its own Labour, after the subservient Digestions have fully maturated it. Which thing considered: how hurtful is Phlebotomy that takes away the Blood which gives vigour to the Stomach?

And if the Blood is grown bad through a weakness in the Ventricle, and Scorbutick impu­rity introduc'd; think you ever to remove it through renewed Weaknings, and taking away from the Stomach part of that Blood which en­vigorates, enlivens, and nourisheth it? Which you do when ever you breath a vein, seeing whilst it runs out or soon after, through the Bloods circulation, all parts are co-sharers in the loss. Therefore is Phlebotomy the direct way to make the Blood worse instead of taking away the Scorbutick impurity of it; because the Sto­mach being debilitated through a loss of that Crimson-juice will be more disabled for the fu­ture: whereby through weakness a worse Chyle being made, a worse nourishment will be sent through the Venae Lact [...]ae to the Blood, and the whole Fabrick of the body more impair'd. There­fore for a Physician, under pretence of relieving Nature, to rob her of her prime Treasury and Force, instead of fortifying her with Medicines; [Page 4] is as equally ridiculous, as if one pretending to defend a Country already invaded, should take away from them a great part of their Ammuni­tion, and Weapons.

To declare which more amply I will venture to Tautologize, and tell you 'tis unfit to take a­way the Blood, unless better can be put in its place. Which can no waies be rationally expect­ed, because from a loss of that lively juice, a weakness (as I said before) is confer'd on the Stomach's, and other digestions, all parts being nourisht therewith. But we ought rather to con­sider the cause of its impurity: to wit, whether it had its Original from the Air being so, or from any precedeing Digestions of the body caus'd by an Ill▪ di [...]t, overmuch Study, Grief, or Anxi­ous thoughtfulness &c. If from the first, to wit, impure air, whereby a forreign Ferment is bestowed on the blood and Stomach too: what good can be expected from opening a Vein, so long as the spurious Ferment in both Stomach and Blood is unremoved? seeing that good and bad will be lest behind as well as emitted, and that the Vitals being weakened by it will be less able to subdue the spuriousness in the remainer. Besides, the Digestions being debilitated, will be hindered from thorowly concocting what shall be taken for nourishment, and thereby damnify the whole mass of blood, and produce a greater weakness, if the party be not vigorous, and active.

[Page 5]But if he is strong and Lusty he may outwear it as many robust stout people do; who are ac­customed to be bleeded once a year; and by that means make it so customary, that their bo­dies expect it, in the absence of a good Medi­cine. Though such are not much to be he [...]ded, because the loss of four ounces to one that is sick, is more injurious than thrice four to once that is strong and healthy.

But if the bloods impurity is from an error in the first shops of digestion, caus'd by those e­normities mentioned, what good does Phlebo­tomy so long as the cause is not remov'd, and the Digestions send immature aids through debi­lity? For if it be granted that we make several ounces of blood daily, & dismiss as much through the Pores of the Skin; likewise that the blood is subject to mutation, by adhering to what succours are sent from the Stomach, as truly it is; and that through deficiency▪ and debility impurity enters the blood; is it not agreeable and consentaneous to Reason, that after a thorow and perfect stren­gthening it, and removing the occasional cause, the same Crimson-juice should grow healthy a­gain, whilst all digestions are gradually cleansed? Yes 'tis. But this can no waies be better, and safelier done than by Spirituous, Valiant, and Innocent Healers, seconded by a regular Diet. By such Healers I say as are assistant to Nature, and may help her to expel the Diseasie leaven, [Page 6] and insinuate into the private recesses of Life; such as may subvert all Forreign, Hostile ferments without craving the assistance of the Lancet.

For notwithstanding the Taunts and Nega­tions of careless Men, such Medicines are to be found; but I can assure them not by sleeping, nor only reading of Books; which may be the cause some meer Notionists say thus of themselves, and discover their own Sloth by their Scoffs.

For all the boastings and Vain talks of these Chymists (say they) we can find no Remedies that can Dissipate a Fever certainly, and cure Scorbu­tick affects, without having recourse to Phlebo­tomy; much less in a Pleurisy to deliver a Per­son from the Jaws of Death that is almost suffo­cated with blood. For surely had there been any such Medicines, we should have known them who have tumbled over so many Volumes.

But they should consider, that although to be well-read is a thing needful, and so requisite that he which is not deserves not the Name of a Physician; yet that he, who on the contrary is so incumbent on his Books, as to neglect that most Material part of Pharmacy, the making & impro­ving of Medicines by Pyrotechny, may doubtless pass for a good Scholar unless he be egregiously Dull, but will scarce work Wonders in Physick. Because good, vertuous and lively Medicines must cure the Sick, for all words: and such are not obtain'd without practice in making.

[Page 7]For if Hippocrates and Galen were well-stu­died and good Linguists: yet 'tis to be under­stood, that they spent not their whole time a­bout the Nominative case and the Verb, or in Readings only, and subscribing to the errors of their Predecessors: but the greatest part in Ma­teria Medica, and in procuring such noble Remedies as might credit a Physician, and cure the Diseases of their Age. For if the first of them had not, he scarcely ever had obtained such excellent Medicines as he did, wherewith to out­do all the Physicians of his time: had scarcely ever been solicited, and promis'd great Honours and Rewards, to attend on King Artaxerxes's Court, and stop a depopulating Plague in Persi [...] that had baffled the Kings Physicians, and all o­ther; and for his famous cures to have been by his Nation counted one descended of the Gods. Five hundred years after him was Galen: who for composition of Medicines and making them with his own hands, as also for curing or at least-wise palliating those Diseases which were Grassant in his dayes, was famous.

But seeing that as Generations succeeded ma­ladies were entail'd on the world as wel as lands, and do still grow worse and worse, through the intrusion of several Diseases, whose foot-steps were unknown to the Antients: it must needs be necessary, to exalt the Vertues of Medicines as much, as Diseases are exalted in Malignity, by [Page 8] making them innocent, piercing, and lively; and by with-drawing all nauseous, and hurtful qualities from them, whilst Agents are duely apply'd to Patients.

And for a Physician to affirm, or think, that no man is a Possessor of such lively innocent Re­medies, as may safely, and certainly cure Diseases without Phlebotomy; because through either his Neglect, want of a Physical genius, or a faith­ful Tutor, to communicate the result of twenty or thirty years experience in Pyrotechny, he never was owner of such: or because he hath unsuc­cesfully tried, some weak if not mischievous Chymical Remedies, such as Apothecaries fre­quently buy of incurious and mercenary Opera­tors, to wit, Spurious Mercurial, and ill-made Antimonial ones, that will purge and vomit unreasonably, or have the Mercury unslain: That are rather disturbers than aiders of Nature, and that were at their first entrance banisht the Laboratories, and Repositories of the Ingenious; who will harbour no Medicine that may not be safely taken by the healthy. I say, for such a one to undervalue, and desame those innocent, and vertuous Chymical remedies he never knew, nor experienced, and to affirm or think no Man a Possessor of such, because he himself is not, is a thing both [...]idiculous, and idle. For he should call to mind the old Adage vix gemma in trivio; that things excellent are not found in common [Page 9] Roads: And that the Poet tells us and that not untruly, Gods sells Arts to sweats; therefore not to readings only, though to be well-studied be­comes a Physician.

This with many other such like absurdities I should scarcely have Detected, had I not pre­fer'd peace of mind, and the welfare of my Neighbour before my ease and leisure. Neither should I have thus attempted a publick discovery of some Injuries in Physick, caus'd through the Ig­norance and conceitedness of some, and the care­lesness and dishonesty of others. For when I observ'd some through a Vulgar abuse to make a prey of the People, and under the notion of preventing future Diseases, like Lice fatten them­selves with Mens blood, or at leastwise grow rich by their miseries, and by the poysoning the good juices of the Body: and saw others, whilst Diseases themselves are in a manner poysonous, give poysons and venoms to the Sick to cure Dis­eases, take Beelzebub to cast Beelzebub out▪ and thereby hurt, and leave them worse than they found them, and exasperate the Disease if not kill them: beheld others also, whilst Nature is loaded and clog'd, give Medicines more clog­ing by far, and destructive to the Stomachs fer­ment. I say, when I beheld these things it made me to wonder not a little. Especially when I saw such Poyson-mongers were commonly they that depretiated Chymistry and its innocent re­medies [Page 10] (like the Fox) because they could not come at them.

For Chymical Remedies, say they to the People, are like fiery mettlesome Horses, that will, if you mount them, either carry you quickly to your Journeys end, or otherwise break your Neck, (i. e.) either quickly kill or quickly cure you. This I remember was once in my hearing ob­jected against Chymistry by a favourer of Ga­l [...]n: And if by Chymical Remedies he meant such perverse Mercurial and Antimonial prepara­tions as are made by Mercenary Operators, and retail'd by Apothecaries; as also Oyl of Vitri­ol, with other such like corrosive Medicines, which I am confident no Intelligent and Learn­ed Chymical Physician, that regards the Life of of his Patient, will make use of. If by Chymi­cal Remedies he did mean such as those, I wholly agree to his assertion; and am so far from dis­proving what he or any other shall say against such that I give them my helping Hand.

Against Mercurial, and Antimonial Remedies.

FOr to unmask Mercury and Antimony, and to shew the Danger of such Medicines as are vulgarly made of them, was no small cause of my penning this Discourse: that I might admo­nish, and precaution those who are Lovers of Chymistry, and wish well to the Miserable Sick; not to endanger their credits, and the Health of their Neighbour by administring such mischie­vous things; nor yet vainly spend their time, own healths, and monies, in fruitlesly handling those Subjects.

For he that will tame them especially Mercu­ry, had need to have as many eyes as Poets be­stow upon Argus, and a well nigh Immortal Menstruum: had need have so much understan­ding in the more abstruse Philosophy, and in the gradual operations of Nature, as not to give credit to every Fabler, or else he will La­bour in vain. As too many have done; some of whom I more than a little admired at, whilst they went, without reason or understanding, to build Castles in the Air: and promise themselves great things from a science they knew not, and an Art whose Theories they were ignorant of. And so like blind men groping in the Dark, whilst [Page 12] through want of Study they want for no igno­rance, hope to get something by hook or by crook, though it is but burn'd fingers for their pains.

Nor is there any thing much commoner a­mongs our Junior Chymists, after Reading two or three Authors that write Mysteriously, than after meeting with these words; Mercury, Anti­mony, Gold or Sol, Luna or Silver, Venus, Sulphur &c. To fall dismally foul on those Subjects, but chiefly the first four, till they have wel nigh made all their Gold Volatile. And whilst they incon­sideratly put confidence in any author they meet with, as also in the literal sound of Aenig­matical Writings; in seeking for the Lapis, in­vent ill-contriv'd things that must pass for strangely-good Medicines.

Not considering in the interim that those ve­ry Authors say, where they have spoken plainly they have said nothing; and that where they have Written Darkly, there is the Truth; And that Helmont confesseth their Writings were but for excitements; also that Chymical Authors wrote not to be promiscuously understood by all, but that they might not be understood: lest (saith [...]e) in speaking plain we should cast Pearls before the unworthy. But 'tis no matter for that, they mind not what such idle men as Helmont say, for they are in the Right they think: and there­fore without following Nature, or in the least [Page 13] understanding her Laws, judging whatever they read must be so meant as they humbly conceive, presently go to work. Though there is no more reason to expect what they de­sire from their operations, than to hope a fire will be made of flint-stones and water, or a Horse generated from a Dog and a Tree.

Nor do they count themselves a little behold­ing to the Stars, if they meet with some Lapis-teaching Books: but hugging themselves up in their Fancies conceit they all shal be—Yea, what will they not be? seeing commonly upon twice or thrice tumbling a Bookover, & thorough­ly believing such a thing is in Nature; having met with some passage that pleaseth not a little, thogh they underst [...]nd neither head nor feet of the Discourse, they forthwith fall to work, and soon spend ten or twenty pounds in vain, and are at last as wise as at first. Therefore having scratcht their heads well for vexation, the Book must have the other slight reading, and perhaps we may have another Book to expound it; but their fingers itching to be lapising, after a week or two spent in slightly tumbling the Book, to work they go afresh: & if they meddle not with the old Subjects, yet doubtless they have ingredients e­very whit as Foppish; which being likewise workt upon, after a perdition of their costs, they sit soppishly down and lament, And some of these Juniors are so disingeniously witty, that be­cause [Page 14] such Authors talk of their Mercury sub­lim'd, Precipated Mercury, and Mercury of Mercury, with other such like things: there­fore forsooth to work they go on common Quick-silver, with Sulphur, Sal, and other ad­juncts, adding also Gold that it may partake of the Solar Tincture; because (say they) if it have not the Tincture of Sol, how can it give it? (Nobly Philosophiz'd!) seeing nil dat quod non habet, nothing gives that which it has not. And thus when through tedious and repeated opera­tings, they at last find not what they seek, to wit, their much coveted Elixir or Lapis: yet being unwilling to think they should work so long in vain, they begin to imagine That their—may we call it a Medicine? must needs be a succedaneum, or next in vertue to it; in regard 'tis made of Mercury and Gold, or perhaps of Mercury with some other adjuncts. And are somewhat confirm'd if they find it at a chance to do some good: For if at other times it does mischief, the Mercury being unslain, that they ascribe not to the Medicine, but to a mista­ken or too great a dose.

Others also Reading such Books, and there most fortunatly meeting with the word Anti­mony: acoordingly fall foul on't, and are resolv'd to get wonderful things from't whether Anti­mony can afford them or no. But when they also have spent much upon inconsiderate projects, [Page 15] and can't come at the coveted Elixir or Lapis: yet being also unwilling that their Works, and expences, should produce nothing; such Hot [...]h­po [...]chly mixtures must pass currant for Medicines: And though they Purge, and Vomit so notori­ously that they are enough to Kill a horse; yet must they have splendid Titles, to Gull the World with words.

And undoubtedly after this manner, whilst many were seeking for the Lapis, were most if not all those pernicious Mercurial, and Antimo­nial Remedies invented that currently pass in the Shops, and are taught by the Writers of the Be­ginnings of Chymistry. For there is scarce any name given by Hermetick writers to their science; but the same, by some or other, has been given to some ill-contriv'd Medicine, which is foun­ded on Mercury or Antimony.

This I thought meet to hint for the good of such, who are so extreamly Lapified, that meer­ly upon the account of getting the Lapis Philoso­phorum (though they oftner get the stone in the Kidneys) attempt the study of Chymistry: thereby losing much Silver in catching of Gold, & in unfortunately plundering the Golden fleece.

Whereas if they did but consider the sayings of those very Authors, That it requires the whole-man; which how can he that is incumbe­red with Physick allow? also that many that sought if ever they got it, obtain'd it not under [Page 16] nigh thirty years study and Labour: And that several Nobles, and Knights in pursuit thereof spent great part of their Estates before they obtained i [...]; and some such never did get it, but spent vast sums of money in vain. I say if they did but consider this, it might put some stop to their procedure, and teach them so much wit as to keep their monies, and not venture it upon they know not what; as also to be better satisfied and inform'd about what they would have, before they set to operate.

Besides, many are dubious whether or no, there is such a thing as the Lapis in Na­ture.Arbor vitae P. 793. And truly for my own part, were it not that noble Helmont con­fesseth, that he had some of the Gold-making powder given him by a Friend of one Evenings acquaintance: and that he was Constrain'd to be­lieve there was such a thing, because he had made pro­jectionCogor credere lapidem aurificum, & argen­tificum esse: quia di­stinctis vicibus manu mea unius grani pul­veris, super aliquot mille grana argenti viviferventis, projec­tionem feci, adstante multorum corona, &c. therewith several times, and confirms the same in diverse places of his writ­ings. Were it not for this; the lovers of the Hermetick Science must pardon me if I should desire my own liberty in thinking. How­ever I can assure you, I am so little an admirer of their prescrib'd processes, because some of [Page 17] them seemingly contradict other some; that I should count my self worthy of blame, if I should spend five pounds on five the most plau­sible receipts in their whole works: being bet­ter admonisht by the Dogs mishap in the Fable, that catching at the shadow lost the Substance. But to return to our Physical affairs.

Let those who read Helmonts works, dili­gently observe, and they shall soon find, he speaks but sparingly, and Aenigmatically of his Medicine the Alkahest; which (as he saith) was the Menstruum whereby he reduced things into their first being: and without which he denies, that his Horizontal Gold, Fire of Ve­nus, and other his most potent Remedies may be made. Also they shall find, that without it he denies the destruction of Vulgar Mercury: and saith, that Paracelsus in speaking about his Arcana, doth commonly hide the Operation of his Alkahest? Of which though I am not a Possessor, yet have I seen so much as to confirm me that Helmont wrote not like a Novice, and that such a thing is in Nature.

However in the absence thereof 'tis admirable that our Mercury-mongers and pretended Hel­m [...]n [...]ians, will offer to meddle with that Pro­teus, who derides their endeavours: and make such a talking about rendering Gold volatile, and potable as also about extracting its Tincture, when Helmont plainly declare▪ that he profited [Page 18] more by the Decoction of a Simple than by its Potest: Med. potable juice▪ For (saith he) after P. 480. that I knew how to unloose bodies by things agreeing with their radical Principles I then first began with a pleasant weariness to laugh at my foolish credulities, which caus'd me in times past to dissolve Gold: yet I profited less by its potable juice, than by the Decoction of a simple. But after that I could dissolve Gold, and make it look like Butter, Rosin, and Vitriol, I no where found the Vertues attributed to Gold, because it was reluctant to our Ferments. I per­ceived therefore that Gold without its own proper corrosive is dead; Dead I say, unless it be radi­dically pierced by its own Corrosive.

Elsewhere he saith 'tis impossible to alter Gold radically without the aid of one only Liquor: which I dare warrant you is not Aqua Regis, or any such pitiful Corrosive. Besides, if the Almighty, who is the God of the Poor as well as Rich, hath made all Nations of the Earth cur­able as saith the Holy Scriptures, it need not be doubted but in the absence of Gold Salutiferous Medicines may be found. Yet seeing all the harm Gold in a Medicine can do, in regard 'tis not corrosive, is the encreasing an Apothecaries, or Doctor's bill, and making the Patients purse lighter; I shal let it here alone, & speak of Mercury

Against which I can't say enough, so long a 'tis not kill'd, and its malignity wholly de­stroy'd. [Page 19] Which I believe all the Vizards of Salts, and other adjuncts will be in no wise able to do; it being a Body more strong, than to suffer Death through such. Of which I can speak partly from experience; having not on­ly operated on it with my own hands, to make it confess its vertues; But morover seen two others variously attempt, to fix, open and subdue it, whilst it apparently derided their endeavours, and made us conclude with Helmot, Nec mori potest per machinamenta sublunaria hujus seculi, to wit, that it can't die through the sublunary engins of this World. He confesseth indeed it may be radically pierced and divided by the Alkahest; but he deems not that a sublunary Engin, seeing 'tis an immortal Menstruum; & in resolving all bodies into their first being, burns up their hurtsul qualities, and sets their Vertues at Liberty. For (saith he) the Common People burn with fire, we with Water.

But doth not Helmont, in his Ignotus Hy­drops, highly commend Mercurius Diapho­reticus, and say, that it being once obtain'd is sufficient for many 100 sick people, as also for him that is a Physician, and his Son? Yes he does: but adds moreover, ‘That that thing may succeed according to thy de­sire,P. 521. the Mercury ought to die, without any association of external salts, or fellowship of Forreign Spirits. Yet 'tis meet [Page 20] that it so die, that in the Chariot a living be­ing may remain, which may be able in the middle life of the Mercury, to carry it to its ap­pointed places.’ A little before he also declares, that in the Dropsy, Paracelsus commends his Praecipiolum, or Mercury drawn dead out of its mine: where the word his, plainly shews it was not the common praecipitate; neither is that dead. And he more fully manifests that his was not the common, by quoting Paracel­sus saying; that he reverenceth and admires the endowments of simples as they arose from God, but not as they are a kin to Mineral Mer­cury. Which Praecipiolum, saith Helmont, is difficult to be obtained; doubtless more diffi­cult than the Vulgar Precipitate.

I could heartily wish they would for the fu­ture be admonisht, and not refuse to learn at a cheaper rate than an utter loss of their ex­penees: Seconded with a ruine of their healths by its volatile fumes, if not a destruction of their Neighbour by the Medicine. Such rash, and heedless, procedures in handling Mercury and Antimony, whilst they sought they knew not what, and despised the footsteps of Nature; being doubtless one cause that Chymistry in for­mer Ages was so exceedingly undervalued. And the Medicines (if we may call them so) pro­duced by its Professors, so very much exclaim'd against, and shun'd.

[Page 21]And what ever some opine, and imagine concerning Mercury's being the basis of the Al­kahest: were I willing to declare my sentiments concerning it; I could easily prove, and back my assertions with Authority of good Authors that that neither it, nor Antimony is the Parent of the Alkahest, nor any ways contributing to its structure: and that they who think they are are no better than hood-winkt; will doubtless by operating on them prove dangerous know­ers; and be Adeptists at Latter Lammas. This the Learned, and Ingenious may find with facility, if they studiously peruse, and thorowly compare, and digests the sayings of its Wise-Possessors: especially if they bring all things to a Rational Tast, and to a Possibility in Nature.

But as for the more Ignorant and Ʋnlearned sort of Chymists, 'tis in vain to admonish them; for they dearly love to buy Wit, or at least­wise they commonly do so: as being those that dote on Mercury and Antimony, and expect wonders from them. For assoon as they get them into their clutches, having huddled over some wonderfull Author; they think they sha'l be for ever made, and can talk of little else but Arcana: such as Aurum Horizontale, the Lapis Philosophorum, or Glaubers Aurum po­tabile, which many times they so long pursue till they have well-nigh spent all their Aurum [Page 22] Portabile, and obtain the Vast secret of making Card-matches.

And though Helmont (whose Disciples they would fain be counted) doth tell them, that Mercury so long as it may be reviv'd, and Anti­mony so long as it purge or vomit, are Poysons, and not the Remedies of a good man: yet will they sometimes drive a subtil Trade with such Mercurial and Antimonial Medicines, that either Purge, or Vomit, and have the Mer­cury nor s [...]ain; till by the Death of several and loss of their own credits, they are somewhat startled. But they do not intend to leave them so. For Noble Mercury and dear Antimony is their All-in all; take them away and you half undo them. Well, let them keep them for all me; for I had rather the [...] should run hazards with their Patients, tha [...] I. And now to speak concerning Antimony, and Medicines made of it.

Which cannot possibly be enough disprais'd, so long as they either Purge or Vomit▪ because by such many are hu [...] and some do loose their lives.

And notwithstanding the Galenists blame the Chymists or using [...]azardous remed [...]s, and pretend, wh [...]lst they themselves use Poysons, to go safely to work; Yet who are more subject to give venomous Antimonial Medicines than they are? No [...]e I am perswaded. For with [Page 23] such, which are bought of Mercenary Chy­mists, the Apothecaries Shops are well (or ra­ther badly being they are Poysons) furnished. And amongst many other perverse things called Medicines, there is Crocus Metallorum, a re­medy fitter for a Horse than for a Man, though enough to infect & hurt the Stomachs of either▪ and of which there is such a Dose sometimes pre­scrib'd, that 'tis enough to make a well-man Sick, and almost Vomit his Heart out as the People phrase it.

But 'tis no matter for that, the Doctor he must have his F [...]e; which he well deserves were the Medicine good. And if the Patient happens to be kill'd by means of it, 'tis but the Doctors laying the fault upon the malignity of the Disease, (though had one in health taken it 'twould almost, if not altogether have kill'd him) and telling you the Patients time was come; also that he prescrib'd secundum Artem; and then all will do wel, and 'twill be funda­mentally done. So the Earth must hide his fault.

But I believe, if any amongst you should be so inhumane, as with a weapon to wound one to Death; and plead afterwards, that you could not help it, for his time was come▪ 'twould be counted but a shallow excuse. For that God had permitted such a thing to come to pass is Apparent: ye [...] doubtless was not his time [Page 24] so come, but that if the Weapon, (as it should have been) had been kept out of his Bowels, he might have lived many years longer. In like manner after taking a Poysonous Remedy, that destroyes the life of his Patient; though the Doctor to excuse himself tell you his time was come: yet grant me leave to tell you, had innocent Remedies been given, he might doubt­less have liv'd some years longer.

But if the Doctor prove so happy as not to kill, yet if the Disease is stubborn, and deeply impre [...]t through the vigour of the Sto­mach, or some other noble Bowel, [...]ailing, the Disease not being Acute but Chronick, 'tis much if it is not exasperated by such Poysons, (I may not well call them Medicines) and if the Patient is not made worse by much. Whereas were it not much better for the Phy­sicians Credit, and the Patients good, to give such Medicines as are harmless, yet cleansing and Vertuous? Yes it must needs. Only such are gain'd by Sweats, as well as Readings; both which together agree well.

But to speak in a word; I verily believe there are several Physicians, who would not take some such Vomits, as they order for their Patients for twenty pounds sterling: how­ever I speak seriously, if they would, I would not for thirty; and therefore should think my self exceedingly Wicked, if I should give such [Page 25] a Vomit to another. These are commonly given under pretence of cleansing the Stomach, but it oftner defiles it, and lays the foundati­on of future weakness. I speak experimental­ly: for I heretofore, in my youthful dayes▪ took several of them, according as I was or­dered, to my small comfort but great hurt: a­way with such poysonous Medicines; away with them.

And not go to prescribe Crocus Metallo­rum for a Vomit, as one did not long since; and the Apothecary in a jest shewing the Bill said 'twas a great deal too much: and he might have added as fit to Kill as Cure. But being askt why he would send it, answered What was it to him, he must do as the Doctor ordered. The event of which I have not heard of, by reason the Patient liv'd far off in the Country. But a Lady in the West of England, a few years since took a Vomit that was prescrib'd for her: and the poyson being great she never left vomiting till she died: as her Daughter told, complain­ing against poysons to my friend a Chymical Physician. Helmont also in one place gives an account, of three Persons which were destroy'd by Vomits: one of whom was his Wifes Bro­ther, and the other two were young N [...]ble Ladies, and Sisters: but to be brief, both of them died at once, for which they may thank, (I should say blam [...]) their Physician. But [Page 26] all three, after Death, being dissected, Black­ish and stinking Liquor (see the excellency of Poysons) floated on the Pylorus or lower mouth of the Stomach, which was contracted through indignation against the admitted Venom.

But are only Antimonial Vomits hurtful? No: For all other whose virulency is such, as with indifferency to work upon the Healthy and Sick, are poysonous. The cause of Vomit­ing after admitting such Venoms (I must not wrong them by calling them Medicines) be­ing no other than a close shutting up of the Py­lorus. For though the Palate, and tongue, being cheated by the vehicle which 'tis put in, unadvisedly admit it unto the Stomach: yet the lower mouth of the Stomach through its great sensibility, perceiving an Enemy to the Life to have entred, presently shuts up the pas­sage into the Guts by contracting it self like a Purse: Wise Nature by this designing the pre­servation of other cohereing parts. Which be­ing done, she with her whole might endeavours to cast forth the Venomous Dose, and at a chance if the Disease was from a surfeit, and of no long continuance, dislodgeth the cause of faex, but not without hazarding the Life: as also of leaving some Venomous Character, or Thorny­nest behind it. But if at any time whilst vo­miting is intermitted, the Pylorus having pret­ty well freed it self, gives passage to any of the [Page 27] Poysonous Medicine: then the neighbouring Bloud, and Latex, is summoned out of the Me­senterick veins, and other cohereing parts; to help Nature to cast forth the Venomous guest, and thereby cause stools. But if on the con­trary (as it sometimes happens) the Lower mouth of the Stomach, does not open, Death unavoidably follows.

Let this admonish People to take a special care of their Stomachs, and not endanger their Lives and Healths by poysonous or clogging Me­dicines: but let them be assured 'tis a blockish, and Heathenish trick, to cast out one Poyson by another, or Diseases which act like Poysons, and are virulent and leavenous.

My thus handling Mercury and Antimony, reminds me of an eminently-unlearned preten­der to Chymistry; one that used not to write much above thirteen words of false English in twelve lines; & one that for all he understands Latin scarce more than a Horse, yet has the confidente to tell us he read over the writings of those accounted the best Authors. How­ever I will clear him [...]rom a Ly; for I verily believe that those Authors he read were coun­ted the best, by Himself, his Wife, and same other such Sublime Learned Head [...]. For you may, without being counted a Cunning Man, guess that his Authors were no l [...]s [...] than N [...]ch: Cul­pepers works, or some such [...]n [...]er-working [Page 28] Books of Physick: seeing hr utterly defy'd all pittiful Latins Authors, and such as write in­telligible phrases. Only he now and then a­mongst the honest Women, would thunder forth such an All-astonishing word or two, that were enough to amaze'em: frightning'em with no less Bully-boes than Lapis Philosophorums; for either such Aurum Potabile, or Aurum Ho­rozontale he much desired. And having a­bus'd himself into a belief he should do won­ders, and obtain'd some small skill in Chymi­stry, he resolv'd to get one of them by hook or by crook. To which end therefore, and the better to inform himself, he would sometimes visit a Grave Ingenious Chymical Physician, that for several years together had kept his Bo­dy in good plight, though otherwise he was naturally of an infirm constitution.

This our Piece of Ʋnlearnedness you must understand, by being the Doctors constant Pa­tient, had sometimes admittance into his Labo­ratory, and was thereby doubtless the more excitedThe event of Chymi­cal Physicians shew­ing their Laborarities to their Patients, or o­ther busie desi [...]ers. to the study of Chymistry. For he having seen various Furnaces and Glasses, ima­gin'd according to likely­hood that he could do very strange things: yea what could he not do? For I have heard as if he [Page 29] could break Glasses as well as most; and that he was an able Man at it too.

But as I said before, he sometimes visiting this Grave Man, amongst many other things, would oft exceedingly please himself in talking Tara­tan-tara about the Philosophers stone and Ho­rizontal Gold, and gazing in our faces would magnify Mercury and Antimony, and tell us there was a noble thing in'em; to which the Grave Doctor would say, so; what then; or nod a little; and that was as much as he could get. Thus at last when he had told out a Tale of two or three hours long, home he would go as Wise as he came. But in the mean time you must needs, think that to have our ears weekly boxt about with the Philosophers-stone, Hori­zontal Gold and Noble Mercury, was a very irksome thing, as indeed it was: yet I assure you, the Repetition of his Mineralline conceits did abundantly recompence that injury, by of­ten produceing a smile or two at least.

But to proceed; many such visits being past, to work he went on Gold and Mercury; amal­gamized the first with the last; conjoyn'd them with Antimony after a previous preparation; and firmly resolv'd, after he had made it into a Cinnabar that it should be Horizontal Gold: and enumerating praises in no wise due to it, striv'd to recompense the fewness of its vertues by a [Page 30] Swelling and Glorious Title. This we having the sight of easily perceiv'd that 'twas a Mock me­dicine, first from its Taste, secondly from its flying the Fire, thirdly from the sparkling of the quick-silver disperst, but not fixt in the com­position: so we, or to say more truly, my Tu­tor in my hearing, told him 'twas not the true Horizontal. However he esteem'd on't not a little, but would tell the People 'twas a rare Medicine for there was Gold in it, and would thereby make them think that it was strangely good indeed: inasmuch as 'tis the custom of those who are ignorant in Physick, to judge a Medicines Vertues according to the costliness of its ingredients, or Mysteriousness of its com­position, not considering in the mean time that a price happens not in Nature; that a Disease will not be baffled with a naked name; and that God who is the Patron of the Poor, has chosen in Nature, as well as in Divinity, the Mean things of this World to confound the Mighty.

This Medicine which wanted not for Price, he therefore liberally made use of; and ma­nag'd his business so untowardly, that few Practisers had worse success than he had, till he had lost his practice wholly in a manner. How­ever I would not have you think but that some receiv'd good, for many Mercurial, and An­timonial Medicines don't hurt alwayes: Nay, [Page 31] I verily believe believ that some, and those not a few, receiv'd great benefit by it. But yet some others were very much injured. For when such Mercurial Medicines do meet with a sto­mach whose Ferment goes to work and resolves them, and by consequence sets the Mercury at li­berty, then is't that the Villain, Mercury plays knavish Tricks, and makes the Patient wish him out of his body: and if I my self were Sick, and should send for a Physician, if he give me a Mercurial Medicine that six others before me had done well after, whilst their Stomachs did not resolve it; yet my Stomach through the propriety of its Ferment, setting the Mercu­ry at liberty (which none of theirs could) it might be a means to Kill, or mischief me. There­fore I say with Helmont, that Mercury so long as it may be reviv'd, is a Poyson, and not the Medicine of a good Man. I remember,

A young Man falling Sick was perswaded by some Visitants to accept of our piece of un­learnedness for his Physician, and accordingly took as I was inform'd a Dose of a certain pou­der, which, by its descriptions, I deem'd was either the conterfeit Horizontal, or some such hazardous Mineralline production. But in short, the young Mans head sw [...]l'd so exceedingly that (as one related to us that saw him and was a next neighbour to him) his eyes were gastly, and his [Page 32] swell'd very much (Oh Noble Mercury and Antimony) also his Tongue black, and so swell'd as not to be easily contain'd within its limits; and thus being in very great Misery he breath'd his last.

Another cure though less mischievous than the former was on a Gentleman of his acquain­tance, and of the same Neighbourhood; one that for many years together had been a Patient to my Sober Tutor. By whom having now for several years been kept sound, through taking when need required such innocent, and lively remedies as were meet: was at length overper­swaded (thinking perhaps any one might be a Chymist, and that all Medicines call'd Chy­mical were safe) to accept of our piece of Unlear­nedness for his Physician; and when his Body required converse with Medicines, to take some of him, which he did. But after a few months following his ill-contriv'd mixtures, was re­duced to that weakness, that his Legs seem'd un­able to support his Body. Thus being tormen­ted with a daily declining of his strength and an almost incessant gnawing in his Stomach, (Oh Noble Mercury and Antimony! He sends his Wife to his former Chymical Physician, with requests to send something to give him ease, forasmuch as he supposed, and so did his Wife, that the Medicines taken from the o­ther; had exceedingly weaken'd him, and were [Page 33] the cause of that Gnawing. His desires were answered, as to obtaining ease, and getting strength; but not a real Cure: Mercury and Antimony scorning to be baffled after that pit­tiful rate, whilst the very texture of his Sto­mach and other vital bowels was vitiated. In­somuch that about six months after, whilst as yet he was infirm, his occasions calling him to London, he relapst; and there being helpt for­ward in his Heavenly journey, by a Mineral­line dose which another half-witted Ignorant, and unlearned Chymist gave him, he fairly breath'd his last.

But leting our Piece of Unleardness pass I will give you another relation. A Learned Physician my very familiar acquaintance, who from his Infancy was educated in Phy­sick, and chiefly in Pyrotechny; accidentally about the one and twentieth year of his Age, met with an Author that magnifies some Mer­curial preparations, and impertinently styles on an All-curer, This the studious young Physician reading, was no little animated to follow the Authors prescrib'd process, and prepare this Medicine: but before hand ac­quaints his experienced Father with his design, and accordingly was disswaded from attempt­ing. Nor was it without cause; for his Fa­ther had been deceived in his Junior searches by that Pr [...]t [...]an Subject, and such Collecting [Page 34] Authors, who not seldom write untried Processes and Recipes taken upon Trust, that are too often Decipes.

But he notwithstanding believing the Au­thor, Proceeded, Operated Variously accord­ing to order, and that at no mean Charge; and at last having finisht it, took a few grains of it first himself: which made him so unmercifully Sick, and paid him off so cru­elly; that he would gladly, have been freed from his perverse Guest, if he could. But in brief his Life being in Danger, (Oh Noble Mercury!) he applies himself to some Vali­ant, and innocent Remedies, which they had in their Repository, that quickly dispatcht it out of his Stomach, and other the more Vital Bowels: and sending it to his Throat, it rais'd a small sore so painful, that for nigh half a years time, it disquieted him day and night; but in the end by strengthening Remedies he was cured. Whereas, for ought I know, had they wanted good Medicines, he might have been Kill'd by Noble Mercury.

And since, for this and diverse other good Reasons, he is so much an Enemy to Mercu­rial Medicines; and so irreconcileably angry with them: that I perswade my self he will not deal with them on any account; nor give such to the Sick were he hired.

Neither is he only averse to Mercury; For [Page 35] Antimony so long as it Purges or vomits he hates even as much: And that not without cause. For his ingenious and grave Father, who in his junior studies hoped well concerning Antimo­my, was several times very much hurt by it: Whilst he honestly (because he would not dammage the Health of his Patients, and be­cause he had good Medicines to cure himself) would venture to take such Remedies first him­self, to the loss and hazard of his health. And to what end was it? That he might not give a hazardous Medicine to the Sick, but might cast away such as he found were disturbers of Nature. But this his tenderness towards his Pa­tients, and Love to the sick, once almost cost him his Life; for trying an Antimonial Me­dicine, as he had oftentimes done several, he Purg'd and Vomited, so cruelly, that had he not had good Medicines to put a stop to its Venom, it might have cost him his Life howe­ver it hurt his stomach. Here was candour and honesty indeed! Oh that we had many more such as he; or if not such; yet such as would be ad­monisht, to take heed of Poysons, and defend the Lives of their Patients: As this true-hearted Physician used to do: For when he by taking a Medicine found it malignant, his next work was to cast it away; that he might not hurt his Patients, nor discredit himself by giving such.

Though by this means amongst some people [Page 36] he lost the Repute of a Skilful knowing Man; [...]s if there were any skill in filling a Cupboards head with insignificant Glasses, and Gally-pots; or as if there were any Art, or Knowingness, in giving Poysonous Medicines to the sick. But he minded not, as I tell you, the Poysoning Trade; haveing run through that before: and was more willing to be counted unskilfull by the Ignorant and Foolish, than to be both Fool, and Knave, in walking against his Conscience; and in giving such Medicines as were hurt­full.

But to reassume our Discourse about Mercu­ry, and to shew our great adorers of it Hel­monts judgment; I shall desire them to take notice, he saith. ‘Therefore although the Mercurial part of Mettals, as also in the very Body of Mercu­ry, Pa. 408. may resemble Vitrol, Oyl, Salt, or Water, by reason of things put to it; yet are they nothing but the deceivings of the Eyes, as being that which alwayes returns, from those masked forms, to Mercu­ry again: because it is alwayes therein, ac­cording to all its properties, and Nature.’ Al­so a little after denying the dividableness of Mercury▪ he saith. ‘For Nature cannot de­stroy the seed which cannot die, nor be se­perated from its own matter; neither through the sublunary Engins of this World can it [Page 37] die.’ Thus doth he not only deny the Sepe­ration of Mercury; but hints, that mixing it with other ingredients, is no wayes able to alter it, nor its properties. The which had he been silent experience would have manifest­ed from miserable events, as well as others have declared it in their Works. But he else­where tells you that the Mercury ought to die, without the association of Forreign Salts, or spi­rits: Upon this word Forreign lies the stress: for he teacheth that his Alkahest turns Mercu­ry into Horizontal Gold, but that it, to wit, his Alkahest is a thing so much unworthy of the name Forreign, that he calls it a thing Consentaneous or agreeing with the Radical Principles of Bodies, for saith he Postquam sci­vi corpora denodare, per consentanea suis prin­cipiis radicalibus, tum primum caepi cum salu­tari [...]dio irridere &c.

And now to let our Piece of Ʋnlearnedness see his mistake about Horizontal Gold, I will borrow a few lines more from Helmont. He saith. ‘For as Gold is reckoned to be bred in the Horizon of theD [...] Lith. P. 69. Hemisphere, so Mercury when tis made Diaphoretical, Sweet as Hony, ☞ and as fixed as Gold; is Gold in its Horizon; and in Med icine is so much more Noble than Gold, by how much an Oriental, Pearl, exceeds a Scotish one.’ [Page 38] He also, in the foregoing Discourse, telling us of some, who with requests & threatnings, wold have obtain'd from him the secrets of Horizon­tal gold & Fire of Venus saith, ‘First of all I have answered that the secret of Paracelsus his Liquor Alkahest doth hinder, to wit, the teacher and dispenser, of which the Almighty hath decreed to remain even to the end of the world, for reasons in part known to adeptists.’

But those who go to transform Mercury into the likeness of Salt, Water, or Oyl; there­in following the Writers of young beginnings of Chymistry, do erre: as saith Helmont, who adds by way of Confutation, amongst other things: ‘I [...] I had not (saith he) seen Quick-silver to delude every endeavour of Artificers, so as that it wholly flyes away, as yet intire, or doth wholly remain in the Fire; and after either manner keeps its unchangeable Identi­ty, and undissolvable hom [...]geneity of same­liness: I should say that that Art was not true, which is true, without a Ly, and most exceeding true.’ You may remember I de­clared in the forgoing discourse, how mightily our Piece of Unlearnedness wold talk of the lapis Philosophorum, & on that account was wel pleas'd with Noble Mercury: But I forget to tell you how he was seconded in his attempts, by the assistance of another, who was neither well­studied, nor very Learned; but a great Ad­mirer of [...]he Lapis. This his assistant (who [Page 39] was counted a very honest Man) unhappily had a Receipt confer'd on him by a Woman which had found it, (as she said) in an Old-Doublet left at her house; yet you must know, that he had it on strict engagements of privacy; for if I thought you would not blab it abroad, I could tell you it was no less than how to make the Philosophers stone. This Receipt being pre­sented to our Piece of Unlearnedness, and he having seen it was pleas'd exceedingly with the thoughts of being a Philosopher, and thereup­on regarded not his money: nay he spared not to say that were he worth thousands he would venture it, not doubting but that the end would pay him with Usury.

Whereupon to work he went; and after long, tedious, and charegable Operatings to no purpose, he pulls down his Laboratory, and builds another much larger; but all prov'd in vain and to no purpose: For the Old-Doub­let was defective, and made him ineffectually cast away more money on't than would have bought many new New-Ones. Only whilst he was a stone-hunting, he obtain'd the secret (as he thought and boasted) of making Gold Volatile. For, (saith he) I having Amal­gamiz'd many pounds worth of Gold with Mercury, and incorporated it with other things, put it into heat; But the Glass breaking, away they flew, Gold and all. Which in my opini­on [Page 40] was neither a profitable Project, nor more an argument of Volatility in the Gold, than 'tis of Life in a Dead Child, forceably carried by an Active Man to the Top of a House. For the Gold being almost Atomical, at least wise eaten into very small Particles, was by the adjuncts carried away.

But what if the Old-Doublet had produced a Philosophers stone? What could you have said then? You must needs have not only call'd it Miracle: But have consequently conclud­ed, and reasonably expected that a New-Doublet should produce two.

Several such pretty stories I could afford you were I willing to spend Ink and time in vain. In vain I say, seeing this one instance about La­pising is enough. For my desire is (and to that end I inserted it) that such unwary ig­norant men may take heed: and not trust every Fabler and receipt they meet with; nor every conceit of their own sublime Heads. Lest whilst they hunt after Gold they ruin and undo themselves, and by following a crew of secret­tellers prove themselves such, of whom Augu­rellus speaks.

Ut videas quandoque bonum sua praedia civ [...]m
Vend [...]nt [...], patriasque domos, mercesque re­postas;
Fornaces inter versari: ac follibus auram
[Page 41]Captare, in tenuem, nefas, convertere fumum,
Rem dubias dum quaerit opes insanus, avitam.
Difficilem interea conjux, maestissima vitam
Protrahit, illachrimant nati, sit sordidus ipse
E lauto, ludusque patens, & fa [...]ula vulgi.

As thou mayest see a Citizen that's rich,
Sometimes to sell his farms; and houses which
His Fathers were, and hoarded wares to sell,
To catch the Bellows breath, and likewise dwell
with Furnaces, and (wicked 'tis!) presume,
His Grand-sires wealth to turn to slender-fume,
Whilst for uncertain gain he madly hoes
His Wife most sad and Melancholy goes,
His Sons lament, and being dirty, he
The vulgars sport and Fable comes to be.

Besides they themselves whilst to the ruine of their Estates & healths; they run blind-folded on in their Operations, never consider what those Authors, from whose writings they take the confidence of seeking it, doe say. There­fore that I may a little admonish such forward & over credulous Persons to take heed for the future, and let them see such Receipts are worth nothing; I will quote two or three of the most noted amongst them, and begin with Count Trevisan first. Quicunque cupit artem veram addisc [...]re, versetur cum sapientibus, (i. e.) istorum Libros legat & non impostorum, [Page 42] licet obscuris verbis eam doceant nullibi eni [...] claris & apertis verbis, descriptos ejusmodi Li­bros reperies. Whosoever (saith he) desir­eth to learn true Art, let him be conversant with the Wise, that is, let him read their Books (and not those of Impostors) though they teach it in obscure words. For thou shalt no­where find such Books written in words plain and clear. Which saying of Count Trevisan much contradicts the Actions of Receipt mon­gers, or such who would find it stitcht up in an Old-Doublet; for if we shall no where find it written in plain and intelligible phrases, never expect that the secret of secrets (for those who write of it call it so) will be committed to half a sheet of Paper. And if it is impossible, as Dionysius Zacharias saith it is, to find all things written in order, which are necessary to the Art; and that one Book expounds ano­ther, because what is wanting in one is suppli­ed in another: doubtless all Recipes and such­like half witted-stories must needs be explod­ed as error: his words are, Unus liber alio de­claratur, siquidem quod fortasse in uno deest sup­pletur in alio; impossibile namque est (sic dis­ponente divino consilio) reperiri omnia ex ordine Scripta quae ad hanc artem sunt necessaria. Thus he. Nor sayes the Author of Correctio Fatuorum much less in his Prologue, whilst he speaks of the benefit of Study. Imprimis (in­quit) [Page 43] est, necessarium perstudium, hujus suavis operis scientiam acquirere. Qui autem studu­ere abhorruerint, & tamen laborare voluerint; impossibile est iis secreta Philosophorum, ad per­fectum finem praeparare. De his sapientes di­cunt, quod ii transeunt ad practicam, sicut a­sinus ad coenam, nescientes ad quid rostrum por­rigant. Ideo omnes hujus artis apicem diligen­tes, studiis conentur insistere, & ex libris hau­rire veritatem, & non ex mendosis (alias nido­sis) neque fabulis fictis, quia haec ars non inveni­atur nisi per continuum studium, & Philosopho­rum dictorum cognitionem. It is (saith he) a thing chiefly necessary, to obtain by study the knowledge of this pleasant work. But they who abhor study, and yet are willing to go to Labour; to such, it is a thing im­possible, to bring the secrets of Philosophy to perfection. Concerning these, the wise say, that they go to practice like an Ass to supper, not knowing to what they reach forth their snouts▪ therefore all the lovers of this Arts perfection, endeavour to persist in their studies, and to ga­ther Truth from Books, and not from lying, though otherwise plausible Fables, nor yet from seigned ones. Because this Art is not found unless through continual study, and through the knowledge of the sayings of Philosophers. Ma­ny more Authors I could quote you to this ve­ry purpose, did I not judge these three had [Page 44] said enough to satisfie those that are intelligent. Therefore I shall next with as much brevity as I may speak a little concerning the Writings of Johannes Rudolphus Glauberus, as being those that have injured and abus'd many.

Concerning Glauber.

When I view Glaubers works and examine the forepart of them, I must needs conclude he wrote not a few things that were very good and useful; though methods tedious enough in Prae­paration are delivered: But when I view the lat­ter part, to wit, the Appendix to the fifth part of Phylosophick furnaces, his Annotations to his Appendix, his way of making Aurum Potabile, and his separation of Gold out of Flints, Sand, Clay, &c. By the assistance of the spirit of Salt,, it makes me even admire at the Man: and judge if he was not mad nor out of his Wits, when he wrote those impertinent dis­courses, yet conclude he was resolv'd to abuse the World with a parcell of Figments and fic­tions, and out of a desire to impose on the too­credulous, pretend to teach lucriferous secrets. I could wish with all my heart, I might be acquainted with; or at least wise hear (which I never yet could) of some persons that had been profited by his gain-bringing Arts; or that ever made his Aurum Potabile, and found [Page 45] its vertues answering his Charactet; or that e­ver produced Gold from Flints, Sand, Clay &c. in such wealthy quantities that they could get a tolerable subsistance at it; that so I might, without wronging my own judge­ment, count him neither Knave, Fool, nor Mad-man. For on the other hand I have in his discommendation met with an Anony­mous Latin Treatise publisht in Holland in the year 1660. thatSudum phi­lososph. pro Secret. Chym perspic. has fully painted out his deceit.

Concerning which had the Author been silent and not bla­med him for defrauding several Persons of their monies, under pretence of selling wonderful secrets; his own writings would have so amply manifested it to the in­telligent, if thorowly con'd, that no other proof had been wanting. For if it was not to defraud the too-credulous, and perswade them into the belief of an imposture, what meant he by exposing Gainful Arts to sale, whilst himself was poor, and use whining Religious Phrases, and make use of the name of the thrice­holy God, to back and cloak his deceit: Truly I could heartily wish, that the name of the Al­mighty and the Lord Jesus Christ were not thus made a cloak for roguery, But it ever was, and ever will be in this world we may believe, that where true Men are associated in fellowship; [Page 46] a crew of whining smooth-tongu'd Hypocrites will enter, that under the notion of Religion they may with more ease and a fairer gloss im­pose on the simple and unwary.

But to return to Glauber again: I say un­less it were to deceive his Reader, what made him publish gainful Arts whilst he manifest­eth himself a wanter of such: for in his Preface after his Appendix, he tells us: He had lived in these places, meaning Holland, many years with disprofit, and therefore was resolv'd whe­ther the peace of Germany succeeded or not, to be­take himself to such places, where he might have opportunity to handle Coals and Mines—Of which what need was there, seeing he himself could teach such gainful Arts as the separation of Gold out of Flints, Sand, or Clay. If these Arts were really such, how came he to live idle with disprofit? What were neither Flints, Sand, nor Clay in Holland, nor the Provinces adjoyning, that he might in some sort profit himself? For Charity begins at home: what were none of them there? Surely then 'tis such a Country as is not in the World beside. Besides, is it not strange, that he himself could n [...]ver meet with one of those whole rocks (nor half ones) and mountains of Gold, and great mountains filled with Golden Sand and Clay, of which he speaks in the first part of his Mine­ral Work, Pag. 412, and concerning which [Page 47] he saies how poor soever, Gold may be extracted out of it, by the spirit of Salt, with Gain: and tells us 'tis such a secret by which no man can be an impediment to another? 'Tis very strange he could never: and may we not suppose him in his generation to have been Tantalus redivi­vus? another Tantalus that in the midst of Golden Arts was poor? Who can suppose him to be otherwise?

Doubtless these very pretty Crotchets, no little pleas'd him, when he consider'd how they would be admir'd and star'd at. But I wonder with what confidence he could send them to the Press. I remember the before­quoted Anonymus Author saies: how that he used to agree with the Printer for to have some hundreds of the Copies for his Book; and how he us'd to bind them curiously, and put his name incompassed with a Laurel, and the marks of the seven Planets to set them off, and present one to this Plenipotentiarie, another to a­nother Great Man, and thus get same and greater rewards for them, and excite them to buy his strangely gainful secrets: which was I must confess a subtile trick, but I cannot say an honest one. Nor did he this alone, but the same Author affirms, he cheated several of a­bundance of money; pretending to teach won­derful secrets, and then put a trick on them at last.

[Page 48]To one Plenipotentiarie (he saith) Glauber sold a Tract entituled Explicatio Miraculi mundi, as it was in its manuscript for a hundred Duckets, and afterwards publisht it in Print: that Glauber for some highly prais'd secret, had bargain'd with the same Great Man, and had receiv'd six hundred Imperials before hand: and though a time was set wherein he was to prove the certainty and truth of the secret; secret; yet that, and a longer, time being past the expected certainty of it no where ap­pear'd. Another Person (he also saith) com­plained to him how he was defrauded by Glau­ber, and lost but four hundred Imperials.

After this, the Anonymus saith, he came into England, and at London found that the writings of Glauber, which were translated into the English Idiom, did excite many de­tractions and filthy speeches against him (to wit) because the prescribed processes of the Author were most vain; and that frequently many men, had vainly tried the greatest part of them, to their very great loss.

He saith also that in Germany, Holland, and other places, complaints concerning him were then frequent. One saith, ‘Alas for me! who have spent so much money on Glauber, & have not indeed received on Pins worth of profit, or gainful retribution from his Arts.’

‘Saith a second, I was seduced after this [Page 49] manner; in that I saw a little honest good from Glaubers works: But all things in great quantity being bought for the Pro­cess in labouring, and all things being effe­cted according as I was commanded; I re­ceiv'd nothing again from thence but an ut­ter loss of my expences.’

‘A third saith, behold what incredible naughtiness is in Glauber; his own Con­science tells him, he cannot perform the Concentration he so exceedingly boasted of. For notwithstanding, as he desired, won­derful Cauldrons, with all other requisits for Concentration of Corn, and Wine, were prepared for him, and that at other Mens costs: yet in lieu of these large expences he produced nothing of worth, insomuch that the most poor and indigent, were unwilling to drink the Beer which he made; And yet desists not for all to invite even the whole World, to such his Fallacious Arts.’

Thus writes our Nameless Author; who I am perswaded was a Man singularly honest, and wrote no waies out of design, but for the real benefit of his neighbour: however his Princi­ples are consentaneous with the Chymical, whilst Glaubers seem uncouth and forreign. And whether or no he did write, what he did did causlesly, ask those who have attempted Glau­bers Mineral Work, and if you can meet with [Page 50] one that came not off a looser at last, you'l prove by farmore fortunate than I have. On the other hand I knew one, a quick-witted, and confi­dent unlearned Junior Chymist, that was a mighty adorer of Glauber, and gave no little credit to his writings: who on a time (doubt­less he had read Glauber well) boasted he could get twenty pounds a week by working on Minerals, which made us not smile a little: But after his roving conjectures were put into practice, he easily found his mistake; in that instead of getting twenty pounds a week, he, I believe did not convert much less than a hundred pounds yearly into Fume. And 'tis a wonder my Honest Tutor had not been caught amongst the rest; however I believe he went not alto­gether Scot-free: and had doubtless confoun­ded a great deal more, had not this Anonymous Latin Treatise which I have before cited, been sent him as a Present out of Holland, by a learned acquaintance of his, not long after he had met with Glaubers works.

Who can sufficiently admire at the Folly of Glauber, and his ridiculous and foppish im­pertinencies? surely I think none. Nor can any man skill'd in Chymical Science count him ought but such a Fantastical Scribler as the Au­thor of a book some years since Printed in Lon­don of five or six shillings price: the Title of which promis'd to teach the Knowledge of all [Page 51] things past present and to come. When the Book to give it's due, it was at the best, but a bundle of Blockish Impertinences.

It seems to me our fore-cited Anonymus did not too-too-egregiously err, when by an A­nagram he call'd him Vah longus Verbo sed nil supra! For about his non sen [...]ical Aurum Po­tabile, separating Gold from Flints, and other such like guilded stories, he hath made such a clutter in Print; that many who meet with his Books, and believing all that they read is true, count themselves more than ordinarily happy, and that hundreds a year are at their foot-steps▪ If they are not I heartily wish they were, and that so many had not been deceiv'd by his writings as have been; for then I had not had the trouble of mentioning him here, to give warning to others for the Future.

To make Aurum Potabile he saith Recipe (which you may make Decipe by changing the first Letter) ‘Of living Gold one part and three parts of Quick-Mercury, not of the vul­gar but the Philosophical, every where to be found without Charges, and Labour; thou mayest also add of Living Silver equal weight with the Gold: put them mixt in a Philoso­phical vessel to dissolve, and in the space of a quarter of an hour, those mixt Mettals will be radically dissolv'd by the Mercury, and will give a purple colour.’

[Page 52]At the Abortiveness and irrationality of which Recipe who is able enough to admire? First he bids us take living Gold, but tells us not wh [...]re 'tis to be found: for common Gold is Dead. Next Quick Mercury not the Vulgar, but the Philosophick every where to be found, without Charges, and Labour: yet gives us no account, whree this every where is, nor tokens whereby we may know it. He calls it also the Mercury of the Philosophers, yet confesseth in another place he knew it not; for speaking about the Philosophers stone, (which by some of them is call'd their Mercury) he saith in the fourth part of his Philosophick fur­naces, that he needed not to add any thing; of himself who was altogether ignorant of the thing and if he was altogether ignorant of the thing, he knew not their Mercury; and therefore blockishly bids others take what he knew not. But must not Glaubers be a strange kind of Mercury, that being found without cost or labour, is nevertheless so powerful and corro­sive, that in the space of an quarter of an hour shall dissolve the Living Gold and Silver too. Verily I am perswaded, and that not ground­lesly, he at last for the sake of mony, and to get profit by Printing, cared not (whilst he was idle) what fables he publish [...], so he might but make a noise in the World: for as saith [Page 53] the oft fore named Anony­mus. In praef. pa [...]. 2. After that Glauber too much confided in the preganncy of his own Wit, and was wounted to expose in publick for certain truth what ever came into his head, he inserted in his Books very many Vanities, Trifles, and Toyes; against which not a few have hitherto Dasht, but may as yet dash.’

Now if Glauber had profest himself an Ae­nigmatical writer, as many others have, and had told us he was not to be understood accor­ding to the Letter, he had had some cloak for his Folly: But he on the contrary so much disowns such a thing, that he professeth him­self a plain writer of Receipts. Only like a Cunning Sophister, in the first part of his Mi­neral work, he saith to his Reader.

‘Impute the fault if the errest not to me, but to thine own ignorance, if thou knowest not to extract the Gold; For I have written clearly, though thou shouldest not know any thing that were omitted: for it is cer­tain, and no fiction, that in many places there are found Golden Flints, and Golden Clay, and Sand, oft-times abounding with Gold; and if they do not abound with it yet may they be extracted with profit.’ And thus he G [...]lls the unwary and leads▪ them along, that having once [...]Spdn [...]d they may [...]er hazard more moneys, the [...] count him [...]f Lyes.

[Page 54]I cannot but exceedingly wonder, that any persons should be so stupidly idle, and vain, to publishes unexperimented Processes: seeing that though they may for some time, deceive the ignorant with their guilded impertinencies, and fruitless Receipts; yet such must needs in the end be manifested false, and even render them odi­ous to Posterity. What may it be that they expect, as the result of such Actions? Is it fame, and an honourable name, for the future? Surely no; for they steer a wrong course, see­ing no honout can proceed from a publishing untruths, or an imprinting of that which is false: in regard 'tis the custome of the veryest, Deceivers, much more of those Men who are True, to speak against Vice and Falsity.

What is it an unbounded desire after money the root of all evill, and mischief amongst men? If so I cannot but pitty their Follies, and stand amaz'd to think any should, for a little momentanie Wealth, hazard their Souls Eter­nally; and venture the lose of a Crown Immor­tal for ter [...]estrial D [...]oss. Whilst forgetting that Golden Law do as you would be done by, they make self the center of their actions, and build lofty Fabricks on the Ruins of the un­wary. Nay that is not all; for though Glau­bers lucriferous Arts, have plung'd a pretty many lovers of Chymistry [...] poverty, or at leastwise mad [...] [...]heir po [...]ke [...]s [...]ghter by far; [Page 55] yet many other Receit-Mongers amongst the Galenick, and Astral Tribe, do as much (if not far more) hurt; whilst they fill the Press with Collections of Collections, and pretend they do it for the good of the Country. But that pretence only serves to mask their ambition, and to make the Book go off the better; for the business is they would be in Print, but they want abilities to accommadat the Press. There­fore because their small portions in really Medi­cinal knowledg as also in literature, incapacitates them to produce such a Physical Discourse, as as might prove truly advantagious in Medicine, they forth-with turn Plagiaries, and hunting up and down, steal a few Receipts from this Book, burying the Authors name (who per­haps himself took them but on trust) and mak­ing some small and inconsiderable alteration, or none at all, add more Receipts to them, taken out of another; as also more from a third, fourth, and fifth Book, with some small and sensless additions (perchance) to make them more Mysterious, or else diminutions, to alter them, lest any should cry Stop-thief: and ha­ving digested them into a New-Method, this piece of Patchery must pass for a New-Book, when 'tis several Scraps of Old-ones stufttogether

And thus Book-Sellers Shops, as also our Libraries, abound with Books upon Books, but with few that are really Authors: How [Page 56] Injurious which thing is in Medicine let any so­ber Physician judge, whilst Diseases are more malevolent than to be play'd with.

Now the honest Country Gentleman, or his Charitable Wife, hearing of such a wonder­working Book, that is come forth in English, (for it wants not a Splendid Title,) present­ly has two or three shillings to spare for it, that they may knock down Diseases by Lapfuls. The better to perform which the Author (I mistake I should say the Collector or Plagiarist) tells them that this Remedy is good for this Disease, that Medicine for another, though he never tried them; and only have read so also a third for a third disease, & so on to the end of the Chapter. Insomuch that now not a Disease must offer to be so bold, as to peep where this Book is, least he pay the Punishment of his Sauciness.

For does he appear? away runs the well-in­tending Gentlewoman presently to her Receipt-Book, and there meets with a Medicine that has twenty or thirty Ingredients, or we will suppose but ten or fifteen in it: yet it being made is at last so untoward and clo [...]ging, that it ra­ter hurts than benefits the Sick; whilst the mu­tinous ingredients are at a scuffle amongst them­selves, who shall fall foull on the Disease, and predominate.

One, two, or perhaps three of the Ingredi­ents in the Composition, who were formerly the [Page 57] Basis of the Medicine before 'twas confound­ed, they are willing to do it, and would, but that some other Cross-grain'd ones wont let them, but are rather fit to oppose then lend them their helping hand. And thus whilst some Ingredients in the Medicine would, but are clog'd and hindered by others, and others can't being improper, and only put in through want of no unskilfulness in Nature; the Dis­ease takes the greater Liberty of Tyranniz­ing.

Whereas if the honest Country Gentlewomen or Ladies for the relief of their Poor Neigh­bours, would but make use of some such simple Medicines as a Carduus posset &c. or a Medi­cine made of two, or three Ingredients, (for com­monly the simpler a Medicine is, the better 'tis) which the long experience of Mothers, Grand-Mothers. and Great-Grand-Mothers, have told them is good, and profitable: the Sick might be sooner reliev'd, than by such Recipe con­fused Medicines, as are commonly huddled into Books, and Printed through desire of Fame.

There being scarcely one Receipt of ten that is good for any thing, but that is subject one time with another to dammage more than help Nature: and those that are good in such books are commonly some few Balsams, Vnguents, Emplasters or Salves. But now to speak of a Fever, and its seat.

Concerning a Fever, its seat, and and the Nature of Remedies most proper for its Cure.

ANd first, I judge it will not be amiss as Perliminary to Treat a little of the vices of Ferments, and the contrary. They being of Genuine, proper and true, the producers of quietude, and health in the Body, and é con­tra if spurious, malign, estrang'd, and for­reign, the Authors of all disorders and Fevers. Thus a Thorn or Splinter in the hand, makes such disturbance through its forreigness to the part, and its spurious fermentive odour, that it excites a preternatural heat; and sometimes make the whole hand, and arm, sensible of its power: thereby so altering and corrupting the Saline Blood which flows thither, as summon'd by the inraged Spirit of the part (which by Helmont is called the Archeus) to expel the in­croaching Enemy, as to make it put off vitality.

So that thus in the mean time the Blood is busie to expel, but not able, and for that cause angry, and hot; in approaching the Thorne (which through the excitemenes of heat sends forth a spurious odour) 'tis changed from its saline and Balsa [...]ick nature, and becomes as [Page 59] injurious as the Thorn. Insomuch that at last instead of a Hostile Thorn only, a Thorn and Thorniness are present to the more violent exal­perating the Archeus. And indeed Optima Corrupta pessima, the Blood the most lively juice of the Body being thus once deviated, and in­fected, is no less mischievous than the Thorn. For it having through adheering to the thorny­leaven put on corruption, lost its salineness, and its vitality, is thenceforth forbidden to circu­late in with the Blood, and enjoy the benefit of Life. However a ferment being begun, it glanceth forth its vitious raies; and whilst the Archeus is inraged at what doth afflict him, and neglects the defence of his Territories, the neighbouring good Blood is gradualy perverted (for a little Leaven leavens a whole Lump) and the Life of the part is endangered.

Thus you may see the cause of a Fever, and that though it takes its denomination from Heat, yet that heat is but the effect, and there­fore not so much to be minded; seeing the thorn, or thing causing is cold, and Deadly. But if whilst the thorn in the hand is unremov'd, or if removed whilst the begun Thorny Ferment or lea­ven is in being, they should, to abate the acci­dental Feverish-heat, let the Blood out, or ap­ply coolers outwardly or inwardly; opposing the preternatural heat with contraries, could you possibly, forbear smiling, and not think them [Page 60] half-witted, or at least wise well furnisht with Ignorance? surely I think not: yet this way might, and should, doubtless have serv'd, had not Chyrurgical experience prov'd it Vain; and not only have serv'd, but we should perhaps have been able to bring, some old musty rotten Axiom, to have prov'd it Authentick: if not backt with sufficient Authority.

For a great many of the Antients, who were wonted, as at this day 'tis too common, to strike at the effect not the cause; loving sloath, and ease, and being loath to swim against the stream of a received opinion, lest they should be accounted Hereticks in Physick: deem'd it better, more safe, and profitable, to Transcribe Collect from, and comment on their Antients, than in the least to oppose their dark notions. Inso­much that till within the space of an hundred years, there was rarely any, who sung not the same Cuckows note.

But Diseases growing more obstinate daily; and baffling the common method of healing, whilst the Pox and Scurvy prevail'd. God whose Mercies are beyond his judgments, mer­cifully sent us Men, tender of the health of their Neighbour, and that sought not wealth so much as Wisdom; who have so effectually laid open the errors of Galen, (who was but a man at best, and therefore Subject to err) and ma­nifested the defects of the Antients; who were [Page 61] likewise Men, that unless we wil wilfully shut our eyes as (the greater is the Misery) too ma­ny do, we may plainly enough see their bar­renness.

I remember a Learned Gentleman of my ac­quaintance, no Physician but a general student, and by that means intimate with some Court-Physicians, seriously told me; that on a time he lately Discoursing with an eminent Doctor; a lover of Chymical Principles, and asking him why he let his Patients be bleeded, seeing he knew better things; had what follows for an answer. Sr. (saith the Dr.) I am forced to do it, otherwise I should have little to do, for the people will be bleeded and look strangely on him that wont admit on't, and they must be humour'd. I must needs confess the Doctors dealing is po­litick: but how in the interim it fares with his Conscience, I know not: but surely I think, mine would fly in my face, should I do any thing which I knew might prove injurious to the Sick, though the Patient being ignorant perswaded me. Much good may his gain by bleeding do him.

But to reassume our discourse about Forreign Ferments, and to prove them the cause of heat in a Fever, leaving our Thorn, let us consider a Mote in the eye, not unlike a Thorn to the part: of which I will Treat, after I have desi­red you to take notice, that all Ferments are [Page 62] injured by strange ones, and that all parts and Liquors of the Body abhor the intrusion of a for­reigner. Thus a Mote in the Eye stirreth up a Feverish heat in the part, whilst Nature being hurt sends moisture plentifully to wipe it a­way: But labouring in vain, grows inraged, and angry, and gives leasure to the Mote (heat being present) to lay the foundation of a spu­rious▪ Acrimonious Ferment that corrupts' the Latex flowing thither, and endeavours a total extirpation of the life of the part. Insomuch that unless a Medicine contradictory to Acidi­ty, and the Spurious Ferment subvenes; a a continual weakness if not loss of the sight is threatned; whilst the Latex, or Liquor which flows Saline from the Eyes when wel, is corrup­ted by the acid acrimonious Ferment.

Thus a certain Merchant from some Hay­dust or such like Motes that fell into his Eyes, contracted a violent soreness; he took various remedies, as ordered but they still grew worse and worse: at last, when he had for nigh too months used many Medicines to cure them, and all attempts prov'd unsuccesful, because they struck▪ not at the cause; a judicious Chy­mical Doctor my acquaintance, whose many years converse with Pyrotechny had made him well skil'd in Physiology, and the Doctrine of Ferments, hearing the Merchant complain to his Physician, that told him he must have Blisters [Page 63] Blisters rais'd in his Neck, to draw the humour backwards; after the pretty ill-contriv'd old way strike at the effect but neglect the cause) I say the Chymical Doctor hearing him complain and seeing him like to loose his eyes sight; out of compassion offered him his help contrary to his custome, (for I believe he hateth that shab­bed trick of asking people to buy health) and told him he would give him something to cure him; should not cost above half a Crown: the Merchant replyed, he cared not what it cost provided he could be cured: and thereupon coming next day to the Doctors house, he gave him a Liquor that kills Spurious acid Fer­ments, and is very friendly to the eye; which being dropped into his eyes, three or four times a day, they were well in the space of (as I think) three daies. By which you may still see the force of Ferments, and what Medicines are likeliest to prevail.

And as a Fever in the hand is caus'd by a Thorn, a forreigner and an enemy to the part; as also the like in the Eye by a Mote, both the begetters (heat being present) of Spurious Ferments: so if it happens that any thing is admitted into the Stomach (which I have in following Discourse endeavoured to prove the Prime seat of life; & there through its weakness, or neglect of the Vitals called away from their duty, by some sudden fear, surprisal, or other­wise [Page 64] (for there may be twenty waies to cause it) what ever is received in for nourishment, deviates, & puts on a Hostile dress, and through debility is detained in that Noble Bowel long­er than it should: know the thing so detain'd is an Enemy, and Metaphorical Thorn to the Stomach the prime seat of Life, and consequent­ly the Parent of Feverishness in the whole body byeconsent. The which thing happens not to the Eye, or Hand, in regard they are less noble and nourished; and are not those on whose welfare the life of the Whole Body depends: therefore no more to be compared to the sto­mach in point of Excellence then Servants are to their Masters. wherefore seeing the blood, which is innocent, is commonly charg'd with the guilt of harbouring the cause of a Fever, and is therefore let out and Nature impoverisht, I will proceed to prove, that 'tis mightily wrong'd, and lay the blame on the Stomach as its due.

To tel you that with Stomachical Medicines, and those that resist Spurious Ferments, I have known of many hundreds that were cured of Fevers, without the least assistance of Phlebo­tomy or endangering the Life of the Patient; and such Fevers that the single and associated endeavours of several Galenists before the Doc­tor that at last cured them with such, was cal­led; will be, I suppose, much to weak an ar­gument [Page 65] to prove it; inasmuch as some may on on the other hand object, that those Medicines I call stomachical, might be aswell adapted to the Blood, and might destroy the Spurious Ferment in it. I therefore shall endeavour more amply to prove by arguments aswell as examples.

And first I wil begin with a Hectick Fever; which though numbered by many, and that not ineptly, in the Catalogue of Consumptions, I shall here Summon in to prove the stomach the seat of a Fever.

To tell you its definition, and to spend time and paper, to tell you the opinion of the Anti­ents about it, would be a thing besides the matter: it being not my intent to spin out a tedious Discourse, whilst the Disease is too no­toriously known. That the foundation of that febrile heat, which accompanies a Hectick, is in the stomach, and that its weakness is the cau­ser thereof, is so apparent to any one that has but half an Eye, that to deny it would be vain: whilst in the beginning of the Disease, & when 'tis in its Bud, a Feverishness is wonted to possess the palms of the hand, and some­times the whole Body, in less than an hour af­ter eating any thing liberally: and this when as yet the food is in the stomach, and no chyle sent from thence to the Venae Lacteae: much less to the blood in the Veins; that it might there [Page 66] prove the cause of that Heat. Nor doth the Aestuating and Feverishness cease, till the stomach hath overcome the oppression of the food, and in some sort fitted it for the Duode­num: yet at last having digested and clear'd it self of it, the Aestuating spontaneously ceaseth, till the stomach is over-loaded a fresh. Here we see that a Fever is caus'd, and cured again, whilst the Blood in the Veins is uncon­cerned.

That this is true my own experience hath told me, besides what I saw from others. For being some years since a little too Bookish, I in studying for the health of others, lost my own. Yet not so, but that I could pretty well walk about; for 'twas only my Spirits were flag'd, and the digestion of my stomach weakened. This I felt for a mouth together, and could by no means be drawn to give over, till by appa­rent signs I fully perceiv'd my self in a Hectick Fever. For usually at noon, after eating a moderate dinner, or at evening a supper, the palms of my hands would burn, my head ach, & I was sometimes more than ordinarily Feverish: that this Feverishness was from my Stomach, and that the Blood was not concerned, any o­therwise than as 'twas hot for the sake of the vital Spirit, I will thus prove.

I usually about an hour (sometimes less) after Dinner or Supper, whilst as yet the meat [Page 67] was in my stomach, was wonted to have the palms of my hands hot, and sometimes other parts too, with no little pain in my head. Be­ing therefore a Tabler with my C [...]rdial Tutor, I knew how to come at Medicines; and would usually, when I found the Fever and Head-ach violent, drink about four spounful of two Medicines which were stomachical and abstersive, and as usually remove them both in half an hours time hy enabling my stomach to master the food, whilst it destroy'd all in­clinations to Spuriousness. Whereas should the food have laid long, have declin'd, and prov'd Thorny, and the stomach not able to dismiss it; the thing to be expected had been a continual Fever from Natures endeavouring to expel it.

Nor is the heat in a Hectick, otherwise dif­fering from that in a continual Fever, than that the one is occasion'd by food receiv'd into a sto­mach that is unable to digest it, through an ill-habit and general weakness: and that the o­ther is caus'd from food received into a healthy strong stomach; which either through its be­ing too too much or from some other acciden­tal error, Nature being unable to dispose of it, lies there and degenerates, and Thorn-like pro­duceth a Fever.

But a Fever which assaults Persons strong, & lusty, is commonly by far the more vehement [Page 68] and raging; therefore wanteth the most excel­lent remedies. For their stomachs being vigo­rous, a small matter hurts them not; and their strength being confirm'd bear`s them out: so that if they are caught, commonly the offence is to some purpose, and they sometimes dearly pay the punishment of their offence. For what is more common, than to have robust, and jo­vial people; if after surfeiting and surcharg­ing their Stomachs, they fall into a continual Fever: for want of potent abstersive remedies to destroy the forreign ferment and enable the stomach to do its duty, to take their last fare­well of this World, when Phlebotomy and the Doctors coolers have done their best. And all because they mistaking the matter fall soul on the innocent Blood, and never level at the cause in the Stomach. Whereas they that are weakly, tender, and feeblish, not daring to be so bold with their stomachs; if they ex­ceed their little Doses, and their healths are pre­judiced by it; yet it not being so over much to excess, they make shift to wade from under it, with some slender disturbance, and pretty easily recover again:

But what is the seat of a Continual Fever, al­wayes in the Stomach and no where else? If you mean those Fevers which are bred by themselves alone, and don't borrow their be­ing from strange passions: I say yes▪ for experi­ence tells me so.

[Page 69]To the truth of which Helmont testifies, after he had said, I willTract. d [...] Feb. Cap. 9. shew both the seat and manner of a Fever, in such manner as expe­rience, and a long diligent search of things, hath made manifest unto me. Thus he delivers himself, First of all therefore a Diary, and that which is called an Ephemerial Fever from the du­ration of one day, si [...]s in the hollow of the Stomach, and is for the most part from vitiated food; there­fore also after [...]omiting or the finishing of di­gestion it ceaseth of its own accord. Likewise a consumptional or Hectick Fever, is a certain quotidian or daily Diarie, returding soon after the taking of food, from a part of it being corrupted. And in ch. 10. he saith, that they are so much the worse Fevers, which shall not sit in the hollowness of the Stomach, but in its convex parts; because none but an extraordinary Arcanum can reach unto those places. And therefore all Camp and all Endemical Fevers are more stubborn than others and for the most part without Thirst; wherein the heat is scarce perceivable, and a con­tinual perplexity alone brings the sick unto their Coffin: for such-like Fevers defile only from without, and affect the last nourishment of the stomach. Because indeed so long as we live, our whole Body according to Hippocrtes is transpir­able, and exspirable. For I have elswhere de­monstrated the Lungs, and Diaphragma, are [Page 70] on every side passible with pores in live-Bodies. Through which while Endemicks pass, and smite the convex part of the Stomach, they oft-times infect the last nourishment—Else-where in the same Chap. he saith, that those Fevers that are nearest to the Orifice of the stomach, are by so much the more molesting, and formidable in their perplexities.

To confirm the truth of which Doctrine concerning a Fevers seat in the Stomach, a loath­ing, just after the beginning of a Fever, an ab­horring of fleshes, fishes, and those things which readily corrupt, do offer themselve; as like­wise thirst, and want of Appetite do prove it. Pain in the forepart of the head, Do tages, a great Drowsiness sometimes and watching other some, pain about the mouth of the Stomach, and sometimes in that part of the back on which the stomach resteth, do also shew it. Burntish and stinking belchings, a prostrated Digestion, and Vomitings plainly attest it; as also roughness, foulness, Dryness, and Blackness of the tongue and mouth.

But to prove more fully that the stomach is the harbinger of the Thorn, and the Blood on­ly hot by consent, and for the sake of the Vi­tals; as also to manifest that Helmont was no wa [...]es mistaken when he said, that the nigher the seat of Fevers are to the Orifice of the sto­mach, they are by so much the more troublesome [Page 71] and formidable in their perplexities, take these following examples.

In the year 1660. being the fifteenth year of my Age, about Mid-Summer occasions re­quiring my taking Coach for London, I return'd from thence into the Country again about a month after; and the last night upon the road, my Jovial companions requiring it, by con­sent after supper we went to be merry or ra­ther to speak more properly be Mad. We having drunk pretty high though not to drun­kenness, I that alwayes before was accustom'd to moderate drinking, was illish next morning; and about noon had a pain in my Stomach. But at night when I came home was assaulted with a violent fever, whilst my Head and sto­mach grievously ach'd & a violent pain posses­sed my Back, doubtless caus'd by the stomachs leaning on the back-bone. In this plght I was when next morning they sent to a Physician, who sent me a purging dose: I took it the next day, and had six or seven stools, but my pains were more and more increast, insomuch that I did little but roar.

At night after taking some Kitchen-Physick, I went to bed being ill, and next morning when I awakt I found my sel [...]-well; and according­ly arose and came down. They wondered to see me whilst with Joy I told them I was well, and had not the least pain or Fever: But a few [Page 72] hours after they viewing my hands, and face, found the Small Pox coming out thick and three fold, as being I believe made worse by the purge.

Hereupon, my bed being warm'd, I was sent back again to it, & with Difficulty escapt with my life: but for five years after this with, what with the weakennings of this fit, twice bleeding an Issue, often vomitting, and oftner purging; I was every year as duly as autumn came, laid up with a continual Fever, or an intermitting one. Though ever since through the benefit of such healters whose properties I have describ'd, I was not sick, to say sick, two dayes.

By this my sickness was manifested the seat of a Fever, and that Helmonts assertion is true. For if the seat of a Fever is the Blood at which the Galenists shoot their arrows; how came it to pass I was not pain'd through all parts, see­ing the Blood doth circulate through all? and that only my stomach as chief and my Head and Back by consent should be punisht by the Fe­verish cause? also how came it to pass that af­ter it was out of my stomach, and that the pain from thence and from my Head and Back was remov'd▪ that the Fever ceased, and all ill­ness was banisht, whilst yet the impurity was in my Blood? For if a Fever should have its Throne in the Blood, to wit a forreigner or Ene­my being in it: It should then at that time [Page 73] when I thought and felt my self perfectly well have Aestuated most, and been Feverish; see­ing at that time the morbous Fex was present in my Blood, and was going to be driven to without.

Where will they find lurking-holes now? and how will they prove Phl [...]botomy needful? They will tell you, or at least-wise they may, that they love to walk safely in the foot-steps of the Antients; though were those Antients now living in our Northern Climats, doubtless our modern, and more stubborn diseases would baffle both them, and their frigid methods: and that (though some of them wrote like Ig­noramus's, and were scarcely in the least ac­quainted with Dame Nature) they had ra­ther persist in their (Heathenish) methods, whilst Diseases in the interim get footing, than now being old, and wanting Medicines to cure, leave destructive Plebotomy off. They would do well in the mean time to tell us, if the Antients were such excellent Naturalists; why the Romans who were a people not void of sense, by the perswasions of Ca [...]o the Censor, banisht the Method of Physick from their Ci­ty: he alledging how easily a man might live without it, having lived fourscore and five years himself without a Physician; but doubt­less not without Physick, for all things that are good, and by experience found innocent and [Page 74] healthy, may without a solecisme be termed Phy­sick: but what-ever is destructive, disgustful or a weakner of the Faculties, is improper­ly called so.

But that which I believe was banisht from Rome as hurtful, and exasperated their spirits against the Art, was their poysonous dos [...]s, and those methods that rather weaken than stren­gthen a man. I could wish they, to wit poy­sonous Remedies had never return'd, and had never been counted more, as Physick; for then my Father for ought I know might have been alive to this day.

However I will not leave the matter thus, but will prove by one example more, that the occasional thorn, and cause of a Fever has its seat, and residence in the Stomach: and that therefore to let the Blood out whilst 'tis only hot by accident, is a needless thing, if not hurt­full.

A Gentleman my acquaintance falling sick after the eating of something that disagreed with him, fell into a Fever, an eminent Gale­nist was sent for, and for a fort-night labour­ed in vain to abate the Fever; notwithstanding his Bleedings and his Coolers.

Hereupon the Gentleman being given over as incurable, though as many are, he was afraid of a Chymist, yet sent for my honest Tutor, know­ing at last he could but die, as the Alder-man [Page 75] his Father, and also his Mother, had done a­bout six weeks before of a Fever and were bu­ried together in one day; after they had each of them been bleeded once or twice at least.

The Chymical Doctor hereupon visited him, and finding him very weak, and in a Fever, with a very great pain in his stomach went home and sent him two Medicines, on an ene­my to Acidity, and Acrimonious spurious Fer­ments, and the other Cordialine to revive his drooping spirits.

He took the first as ordered several times, and about six hours after when the Doctor vi­sited him again he found him a small matter better, but the Fever not removed, and the pain in his Stomach remaining: because the Medicine taken inwards was not strong enough alone to conquer the Diseasie Leaven in his sto­mach, which as a thorn, or rather thorniness, there Implanted, was the cause and parent of the Fever. Hereupon he took another Reme­dy that kills acidity and that was somewhat a­kin to the first, and applies it outwardly to the Pit of his Stomach: and then gave him Me­dicines as before plentifully to drink. These by their insinuating and subtil liveliness so nar­rowly on both sides, beset the forreign spuri­ous Guest, that next morning there remained no foot-steps on`t (see here the power of Fer­ments) so that the Doctor visiting him found [Page 76] him pretty well, only weakened with his fort­nights sickness: for which cause cordials & such Medicines still were successively given him; and Sack, and good strong Beer with a Tost in mo­derate quantities were not omitted.

By following of these he in less than four daies space left his bed, and walked about the cham­ber: a fame of which flying abroad, a certain pretender to huge skill in Medicine and to as great in feeling the Pulse, (concerning whom also else-where) came boldly to give him a visit. Whereupon seeing him so well, to the end the Chymical Doctor might not have the whole honour, feeling his Pulse, tells him he was in a continual Fever, and that 'twould ha­zard his Life if he were not bleeded.

This exceedingly disturb'd the young Gentle-Man, (for Death is the King of Terrors) and caus'd him forthwith to send for the honest Doctor in haste to hear what he would say to it. The Gentleman having told what the Apothecary had said concerning bleeding him; The Chymical Doctor askt him how he found himself: he replyed very well, and that the pain was remov'd from his Stomach. Upon this the Doctor heartned him up, and admonisht him not to let in fears, for he doubted not of his doing well; adding, that if a Fever had been present his Body would have been out of order, and chearfully bad him farewell. The Gentle­man [Page 77] got strength apace, and yet kept his blood, and saw the Cunning Pulse-feeler mistaken: for within seven or eight daies after he walked abroad, and remains well now 'tis several years since. But by this means he is become such a Chymical Convert, that he cares for none but Chymical Remedies: nor cares he for them unless they are stomachical, and agree with the Life of that part.

Abundance of instances as remarkable as these I could bring, did I think it needful here: but omitting them, I shall desire you to con­sider how little benefit Phlebotomy affords, whilst the Blood is not concern'd in the mat­ter. For though the Blood seems to look of various colours when 'tis let out, as being in­flamed for the sake of the Vitals at the Disease that intrudes: yet does that not argue in the least a necessity of letting it out, seeing a Fever is and may be safely cured without it▪ to say that there is putrefaction in the Blood, and that for that cause it should be emitted won`t do neither; seeing if it be deviated or putrefied, good and bad together will be retain'd, aswell as let out. Besides, that the Blood is not putrefied plainly appears, from its return to vitality when the Fever is overcome, though not an ounce of it was transmitted: also from its losing that discolouredness which appear'd in the Fever when the cause in the stomach is remov'd and [Page 78] the preternatural aestuating cease. Where­as were the Blood really putrefied it could not be, seeing a returning from Real cor­ruption to Life and Health is denied. Besides if the Blood should putrefie in the Veins, the Veins themselves would putrifie as in Gangrenes, &c.

But what are the Signs of the Blood being pu­trefied?

Is it not from Diverse colours appearing in the porringer, after 'tis let out? As Black, Yellow, Duskish, White, and somewhat Greenish colour? is it not from a slimy, gross, watry thin matter? and lastly is it not from a consistence not thready or fibrous, scarce cleav­ing together? And if these be the tokens of Blood being putrified, let us hear what the Learned Chymical Physician Van Helmont faith concer­ing it, from whom I made bold to borrow these queries.

In answer to them, saith he, ‘I declare under the penalty of a convicted Ly, if any oneDe feb. Cap. 2. will make tryal, that I have examined the Bloods of two hundred wanton Country healthy people in one only day, and many of them were exceedingly un­like [Page 79] like in their aspect, colour, matter, and consistence.’ Ma­nyAspectu valde dissimilares co­lore, materia, & consistentia. of which I destil'd and ‘found them a like profitable in healing. For our coun­try-People are wonted at every Whitsuntide, to let out their Blood, to to the end they may drink the more largely: and though many of them seem'd to be pu­trefied, others Cankery or Black-Chollery; yet nevertheless the Country-men from whence those bloods issued were very health­full: Therefore they confirm'd me, the tokens of corruption not gain saying it, that they had their bloods not alien'd in the least, or estrang'd from the Nature of a Balsame. Wherefore I have laughed at the Table of judgments from the beholding of Blood e­mitted; and have really concluded, that by Physicians the venal Blood is commanded to bekept, on this account that at least-wise they might number one visit to the sick. For if corruption of the Blood hath any where a place, and if under that name it betokeneth the letting forth of it self, surely that must be in the Plague. But in the Plague the cut­ting of a Vein is destructive. Therefore Putrefaction is no where in the Blood of the Veins, nor a fear lest the putrefaction of that Blood should prevail; and by conse­quence [Page 80] the scope of letting out the Blood is in this respect erroneous.’ Thus said Helmont.

Nor is his Doctrine coatradictory to experi­ence; for let others talk of the Blood being faulty in a Fever and of its being the cause of the aestuating, and corrupted, if they will call it so. Yet I testify, I have known of many hundreds cured safely and happily of a Fever, by remedies that were innocent Stomachical and lively, and the destroyers of forreign fer­ments, without the least assistance of Blood­letting. Nor were months required to cure a Fever with such, whilst commonly five dayes space did it: sometimes four, sometimes three sometimes two. And sometimes if the Pati­ent was pretty strong, and not much weaken­ed in his Vitals, one dayes time would do it, without attending the leasure of a Crisis. But if the party had been one that had long lan­guisht under other Physicians, and was thereby much impair'd and debilitated: though it re­quired many times three weeks, if not longer, to regain his lost strength, yet four or five daies time at most carried off the Fever.

One thing there is which I have observ'd very injurious in Physick, that is mask'd under the vizard of Art. To wit, that a Physician being called whether in a Fever or otherwise, doth, notwithstanding his pretences to Method, and [Page 81] withstanding the Disease, see it violently get footing, whilst he gapes for a judicial Crisis. And for all he tells them,

Principiis obsta, sero Medicina paratur,
Cum mala per longas convaluere moras.
Withstand at first, for healers late I say
Prepared are, when evils through delay
Have waxed strong—

And is permitted, by being sent for in time, obstare principiis; yet by clogging drossy Medicines and debilitating methods, lets the Disease grow worse; And when through the ineffectualness of his Remedies he sees the sick party dangerously Ill, he tells the bystanders that the Disease is pertinacious, stubborn, and difficult to be cu­red; and that he hath done the utmost Art and method will allow him, and therefore now he will wait for a Crisis. But if in the inte [...]im, or a little after▪ Nature being not wholly de­feated does (like a Fire almost extinguisht with water and dirt) through the benefit of a few sparks of life left in its Embers, revive and get strength by the assistance of a little Kitchen Physick, when the clogging Medicines are laid aside, and non-plust; how is the Doctor applau­ded for his mighty Cure, and Nature not in the least commended: notwithstanding [...]hee [Page 82] (opposing the Disease & Medicine too), did the Cure by her proper strength. This I have of­ten beheld▪ & wondered to see that the people could suffer themselves to be so signally delu­ded. For if a Person is slightly affected & illish & the Doctor, being sent for, gives him medicines so ineffectual as to exasperate the disease, or let it grow stronger; thereby confining his Patient to the Dungeon of a sick bedd▪ and yet after all this if Nature by her own strength does the work▪ and restores the sick again; or if by other re­medies aiding shee does it; Know this for certain the first Method & Medicines were destructive, and no waies assistant to Nature. For shall Reme­dies not be able to deliver one out of the hands of a slight Disease, and yet be able to effect it when 'tis twice worse? I say no: For you may as well imagine that person able to carry five hundred weight on his back, who upon trial could not carry three. But indeed that their Remedies do not do it is plain, and 'tis as manifest that Phlebotomy is useless: for commonly when they have brought the Sick to that pass that 'tis dubious whether they will live or dye, and only attend upon a Crisis, then they apply themselves to Cordials, and to Kitchen▪ Physick, and their Patients are sometimes recovered by them.

Whereas if Medicines are truly Stomachical, the destroyers of forreign Ferments, Friendly [Page 83] to the life, Resisters of poyson, and innocent, they do not use to permit the growth of dis­eases: But laying the Axe to the Root, cut them down (if they are acute) in the space of four or five dayes: And the first day give the Patient such a Testimony of their Vigour, and of their Power and abilities in healing; that in­stead of growing sicker, they arefar more chear­full, and have thereby encouragement to take them. But if such Medicines have been exhi­bited▪ as I have several times known, and the Patient hath vomited them up; and hath after taking them often still done the same, so that no such Medicine could be admitted to work upon the Disease: It was an apparent sign of the Patients not recovery, and that the mor­bous Faex reigned in his Stomach.

And if such innocent Medicines as I have be­fore spoken of (with others as occasion) have been taken in some Diseases of long continu­ance, and that therefore required the longer time for extirpating them, and their Semina, And have not in six dayes time, or less, given some testimony of their Vigour and Virtues; but have nevertheless suffered either the Disease to stand at a stay, or get strength: I say the Remedies being thus non-plust, if the Disease did more narrowly beset the life in the Stomach &c. It was a real sign of the Patients not recovery, and that the best shop Remedies would be baffled.

[Page 84]Therefore I say, and say it again, that that Physician who lets a Patient for several dayes decline, whilst he makes use of Remedies in a Fever, or other such like Acute distempers; and yet at last the Party recover: deserves not in the least to have the honour of the Cure, whilst Nature by her goodness effected it. For had she not done it, for all his Crisis the Pati­ent had died at last.

And let it not suffice to say this learned man, or that learned man useth Phlebotomy in a Fe­ver, and therefore we may do so: for if they do so, know 'tis through a penury of good Re­medies, for where noble Remedies are, there's no need of it. And know also that Helmont who out of compassion to his neighbour wrote expresly against it, was as Learned as the Learn­dest o [...] them all: and that not a few Learned and Graduated Doctors in this Nation have ap­peared in Publick against it. I remember one of our ingenious Moderns, in a treatise of his lately publisht, candidly confesseth that he, through a penury of good Remedies in some high Fevers, made use of the Lancet. I must needs highly commend his candor, whilst he does his best to find better; and could wish more Physi­cians had so much good will towards their Neighbour as to be as diligent as he.

[...]or Purging and Phlebotomy, the two main Pillars of the common Method, where found by [Page 85] learned Helmont so fruitless and destructive in Fevers: that with a serious Character he affirms he should be guilty before God, if he did not per­swade we must wholly abstain from them.

What must we doe then? Go to labour as other honest Physicians have done, and take heed of Mercury and Antimony, by which means you may get Medicines that will credit a Physician, and certainly cure a Fever. Such Medicines, I say, if you are as fortunate as some others have been, that will not stand shall I? shall I? but will fall to work on the Disease presently; and if Nature be not too weak, will enable her to cast it out the dores, either by Vomit, Sweat, Stool, or Urine, according as she best can dispose ont.

But what, is a Fever by no means safely to be Cured by Phlebotomy and borrowing the assistance of the L [...]ncet? do not we see that a person in a Fever that is exceeding hot, has that aestuating abated by bleeding, and it afterwards the heat in­creaseth, and the Fever is renewed, cooling again is produced by sanguimission? is not this obvious and manifest? I answer 'tis obvious that after bloodletting the Patient is cooled, but you do not consider how; for 'tis no other­wise then as the Vitals are weakned, and so a desisting for a time from the Combate between Nature and the Occasional cause in the Stomach is admitted of. For when shee has rallied, [Page 86] and gained a reinforcement, and is enabled to give another onset, the Fever renews, and is as ill as before, and if you think meet requires a cooling. But I don't mean by a loss of more blood; for if you go that way to work, your cooling will but add weakness to weakness, and take away strength from the shoulders of Nature. And yet after a second or third opening of a Vein, and a loss of that Crimson Treasure, if the Cause, the Cause, the Cause I say, in the Sto­mach remain and Nature is not wholly prostra­ted, the Fever will again renew in spight of the Lancet's assistance. For

Manente causa, non tollitur effectus.

A Thorn in the hand remaining, a heat and Fever in that part doth not cease. And the occasional matter (like a Thorn) remaining in the Stomach, heat in the whole body will not cease, so long as the Life can make resistance. But when you have let out too much of the Bload, so that not enough remains to make good the Combate, the Patient is fairly cool'd, and to the small honour of Phlebotomy, dies: whilst the numbers of the Fatherless are increast.

Whereas had a Medicine that is able to pre­serve it self from Mouldiness in the Glass or Gally-pot, and not only so but also lively, inno­cent, friendly to the Stomach, and a resister of [Page 87] Spurious ferments, been administred; with some other Cordialine Medicine, according to the necessities of the sick▪ to revive and keep up his spirits: Nature might not only have been enabled to expel the Occasional cause, by wayes most meet and easy; but likewise the Thorny­ness, or bad Character imprinted on the sto­mach, and its dependants, might be oblitera­ted; as also the faculties and functions strength­ened. So that a person cured after this method and way might be as lusty in few dayes as before.

When as those that are cured after repeated Phlebotomy and such like exhausters of the strength, if they at length recover through the benefit of Nature or otherwise: How slowly do they get strength? how thin and weak (like small beer its own self) are they for a long time? and how subject on the least error or cold to suffer a relapse. The last of whichDe Feb. Cap. 1. & alibi the learned Dr. Willis confesseth, saying, They who let their blood often out are the more prone to Fevers.

Neither, as some suppose, is Putrefaction in the Heart or Stomach the producer of heat of it self; and so consequently the cause of heat in the whole body: For if so that Putrefaction which of it self is so Hot, as to extend its heat to the Extreams and Surface of the Body (i. e.) to the hands and feet; must of necessity [Page 88] scorch or burn thot bowel wherein it resides. But that the real producer of that aestuating and Feverishness, is not an inflamed mass of putry­fyings, I shall prove by a Thorn thrust into the hand; which is so for from being hot, that 'tis actually and potentially could: and yet through its being an Enemy to the life of the part, inrageth it, and exiteth a Fever: Which cannot better be extinguisht than by a strengthening of the injured life, and enabling it by good remedies to expel the Thorn and Thornyness. By doing which, the Praeternatural heat will of its own accord cease, without the aid of Cool­ers, or taking away the Blood. Therefore is the Heat in a Fever a thing by accident, a latter product, not the being or occasional cause; and consequently not so much to be regarded, as for that cause, and for fear of inflaming the sick, by adding a kind of Fire to Fire, as they phrase it: to deny, when the Patient desires it, a Glass or two of comfortable Liquor (to wit) Good Beer, Ale▪ or Sack in moderate quanti­ties. It having been by long experience proved that through the assistance of such in Fevers, much good may be done: Seing many have re­covered by their sole aid, when the Apothe­caries Drugs have proved aidless without them. But if with them, good, innocent, yet lively Remedies are given to corroborate and streng­then the functions, by destroying all Spurious [Page 89] Ferments: The Disease must needs with more ease be expelled, and cast forth by a two-fold assistance. But to let you see the excellency of Lively Liquors in a Fever, I have inserted these following relations.

A Gentleman my acquaintance, being in a Fever, was forbidden, though he desired it of­ten, the use of strong-beer by the Doctor, say­ing 'twas asmuch as his life was worth. The Fever continuing, and whilst he languisht, not being able to obtain any of his wife and atten­dants, who were frightned with the menaces of the Doctor; the Gentleman was resolved to try the event, not doubting but he should do well, and therefore watching his opportunity, in their absence privately steals to the place where the Strong-beer lay, and drawing two large Tankards full drank them off, and car­ried a third to his bed-side; the which he also drank off, and laid himself down, and began within few hours to mend upon it. The Doctor not long after coming to see him, he askt, and earnestly requested he might have some Strong­beer: The Doctor answered not by any means, adding 'twill inflame you; Well (replies he again) come what will on't, I have taken three Tankerds full, and so he tells him how, to which the Doctor knew not what to say, seeing him so much mended. And there upon contrary to his adored Small-beer Method the sickman [Page 90] quickly recovered, who otherwise had undoubt­edly laid Languishing a long while, if not perisht at last, by following Heartless Slops and Spiritless Small-beer.

Also a man and his wife, both my Quondam acquaintance, and neighbours, being in a Fever, and prohibited by their Doctor to drink Strong-beer, Ale, or Sack; where there­upon through about two months sickness so very weak, that their recovery was despaired of by many. But whilst they were thus languish­ing, and the Doctor not coming as he used to do, necessity required them to send their son to him: who found the Doctor indisposed and feverish. But the prettiness of the Knack was that Master Docter who denyed strong-beer to his two Patients, wanting a refreshing dram or two whilst the youth was there, was almost angry with his servant for not quickly bring­ing up a Cup of the Best-beer to quench his thirst. The youth observing this at his coming home tells it to his Parents, and thereby renewed their desire to drink a cup of Good Beer, &c. But being unwilling to do it without a Doctors ad­vice, resolved to consult another, and accor­dingly send for him. Who being a Chymical Physician spontaneously advis'd them to follow lively corroborating liquors▪ and drink now and then a Glass of Wine ot Ale, with a Toste to warm it. These conditions of peace were migh­ty [Page 91] pleasing, and prov'd no less efficacious and profitable: seeing that with the aids of such, and a Dose or two of Physick (I dont mean purging) they both shortly recovered.

Many such remarkable instances I could give you, which were in complaining-wise told me by the very Parties themselves, that in sickness were thus forbidden strong liquors, and that on no less penalty than Death it self. One of them (a Gentle-woman) told me, that had she not, when some years since she was in a Fever, drunk Sack liberally, contrary to the Doctors strick't command, she had been in the black Box (meaning the Coffin) e're now: For, as she seriously told me, by the help of it and other Kitchen Physick, whilst she took none of those Decoctions the Doctor ordered, she safely recovered in the space of ten or twelve dayes, the Doctor thinking she followed his orders. But on the seventh o [...] eighth day the Fever being vanisht, the Doctor told her she might drink Sack or Strong-beer: Where­upon shee replied she had done it all this while, and that if shee had not shee had been in the Black Box. The Doctor hearing which, told her if shee was wiser than he (as truly I think shee was in this) he would come nigh her no more, and in a chafe went away and prov'd as good as his word: But shee recovered, and I saw her well lately.

[Page 92]Such like passages as these almost every Nurse-keeper can tell you; some of whome are so ingenious and witty, that when the Doctor hath told his tale, and hath anathematiz'd strong liquors they will nevertheless use them, and that succesfully: Concerning which I could give you one remarkable instance, but it being too long I must omitt it. I wonder in the mean time however that the people should be so unwise as thus to be led by the nose, and frightened with the threatnings of the Doctor. Fo [...] if the Doctor whilst he is sick may follow the dictates of his own stomach in such indifferent things, I know not why the Patient may not. For it is well known, and by some taken great notice of, if a Doctor himself be sick of a Fever; not a spoonfull of Small-beer shall enter his stomach if he find it rather crave Strong. Though he command his Patient to drink Small: I will not say to keep them long under cure, but shall leave others to consider the reason of it. 'Tis true, and can't be denyed, that Strong Spirituous Liquors, Sack, or Ale, doe a little heat the body for the present: Yet if they be moderately taken (to wit a Glass at a time) the strength which the Vitals receive there­f [...]om, doth in a five- [...]old measure recompence that Injury, by enabling them the better to withstand the disease. Others there are who having desired cold water, and laid for [Page 93] want thereof in a more violent Fever, have begun exceedingly to mend and grow better, when their earnest requests were fulfill'd: Only care must be taken to give a little at a time, least instead of refreshing with watter they doe harm.

These Examples I have brought to Confirm the use, and necessariness, of Strong wholsome Liquors in a Fever, be it never so high, if the Patient desire it, and it be given in moderate quantities. It being the office of a Physician in these indifferent things to follow the guid­ance of wise Nature, (who saith Helmont is wiser than all the wits of the Schools) and alwayes to aim at a confirmation of the faculties, not exhausting the strength and Vitals.

For, as many times only through a failing in them, diseases are caus'd, and a hurtfull guest introduced to the dammage and detriment of the functions; which otherwise, had they been vigourous, had not been admitted: Therefore a Physician aim ought to be the strengthening of them by Medicines well agreeing, and such that may prove true helpers and corroborators of the Vitals. For that being once well performed, Nature who before was weak, and admitted the Diseasy Faex, will again expell it by wayes most requisite and advantageous. For, as saith Hippocrates, Natura est Morbo­rum Medicatrix, Nature is the Physicianness [Page 94] of diseases: and therefore ought by no means to be impoverisht. Thus far concerning a Fever.

I intending to discourse of a Pleurisie next, and of the safety of curing it without Blood­letting, by the assistance of vertuous Remedies: as also of the needlesness of opening a Vein, pro­vided Remedies that will cure are at hand. Though in their absence, to prevent a greater mischief, the use of the Lancet may prove ad­vantageous: we being admonisht by the vulgar proverb To choose the least of Evils.

Concerning a Pleurisy, and thē cu­ring of it without Blood-letting.

And first it will not be amiss to take notice, that as Salt is the Savourer and preserver of all things, so is it next to the life, the preserver of integ [...]ety in the Humane Fabrick: and that no otherwise than from a pricking and stimu­lating Sharpness entred into the Blood and laid aside in the Pleura, has a Pleurisy its rise. For as the Blood, the most livelyliquor in the body, is Saline, and consequently an enemy to Aci­dity and Acidity to it, if through an error in any of the preceding Digestions, to wit the Stomach, Duodenum, &c. or through a [Page 95] contagion in the inbreath'd Air, a hostile Sharpness is admitted into the Blood, and (it proving like a Thorn to the part it fixeth in) doth take-up its residence in the Membrane which cloaths the Ribs called the Pleura, whilst the circulating Blood, would dismiss it: Then doth the life in the part muster up the neighbouring Blood in endeavouring to cast forth this forreigner, which whilst it runneth thither to assist the life of that part, and by the stimulating Sharpness, the life being incen­sed, that membrane is torn from the Ribs: the new-made cavity is filled by the Blood running thither. Whereas had there not been that hostil Acidity (Thorn-like) in the Blood and Pleura, that Crimson juice would, of its own accord have been quiet, and con­tained it self in its limits.

But it being the property of the Blood to flow where pain is, according to that [...] the Anti­ents: Ʋbi dolor et calor èo [...]ffluit cru [...]r. Where Pain and Heat is, to that place Blood flows; what profit may Revulsion bring, seeing that when part is let out, the remaining Blood will in short time be equalliz'd in the veins; and that if Nature is not too much debilitated by her loss, she will give the other onset so long as the Enemy is conversant in her Territories? I say, what can be expected from Phlebotomy, unless an enervation and weakening of Nature [Page 96] (though some respit from Death be granted) and a laying the foundation of some Chronick disease, so long as the acidity is not remov'd from the Blood and Pleura by suitable Medicines, or by Nature?

For by a loss of Blood, a desisting is only caused from the combate between the Meta­phorical Thorn and Nature, no otherwise then as shee has scarce strength left to defend her self. But what in the mean time will become of the acidity, if any is in the Blood, as well as Pleura? how shall that be taken away? for good and bad will be left behind as well as emitted after the Lancet has done its best? what must that be left to be overcome by the strength and vigour of Nature, who after the Blood is let out, and she weaken'd, hath enough, and sometimes too much to do, to preserve her self and dispose of the begun Apo­stem? Yes, that's the way: For striking at the cause, and omitting Phlebotomy, is some­what a strange Doctrine yet, though not half so Heretical as formerly, since Experience has prov'd it Safe and Usefull. But for all the poor relief of Phlebotomy does diminish the Blood, and consequently hinders the Growth and increase of the Pleurisy, through forbid­ding the Bloods flowing too fast by the Vein Azugos &c. Yet it withdraws none, or very little that is out-hunted, nor hinders it in the [Page 97] least from Apostemizing: Which thing ought chiefly to be look after by the Physician, though that whole burthen is commonly left on Na­tures shoulders; who failing through want of good Remedies and proper assistants, the Pa­tient dies at last.

Nor is this all; for if she struggling out-wears both the loss of Blood and the Acidity, where­by some recover after long lying by it, whilst others lose their lives through want of Medi­cines: yet by reason of so great weakening of the Vitals by the Lancet the functions and fer­ments of the body being impair'd; 'tis not many of those that prove not Scorbutical or con­sumptive, if they do not next year relapse into the same.

'Tis a miserable thing that so many should yearly perish of this Disease, whilst the Ve­nal▪ Blood is emitted, by lavishing the strength through taking away its magazine, and ne­glecting the cause in the Blood and Plenta: see­ing that the bountiful Father of Lights has af­forded Medicines for its Safe and Perfect cure without exhausting the Vitals in the least. As Van Helmont testifies who cured Ple [...]risies safelyHelmontius, in ple [...] ­rae furent [...]s Tract: nec non Libr [...] ejus de▪ Feb: cap. 4. & alibi, Sparsim [...]ulgaria remedia ad▪ s [...]nandam absqu [...]e venae-sectione pleuritidem, tradit. without Blood-letting: nor▪ [Page 98] have a few of our Moderns frequently done the same. As I also can testifie who am owner of such, and that have known of many safely cu­red of Pleurisies without the loss of one ounce of Blood. But as long as sloth dictates, and Pa­ganish Ego sane nemini pleu­ritico Sanguinem mitto (inquit Helmontius) estque enratio ejusmodi tuta, certa, commoda, & solida. Nemo illo­rum perit: ubi interim sub Phlebotomo, plures longa tandem tabe pe­reunt, & quotannis re­cidivam experiuntur▪ de Feb. cap. 4. Doctrines are dot­ed on by Christians; as long as Physicians shall refuse to be wise beyond their Ancestors, who were Men, & Huma­num est errare; So long must we expect an im­poverishing of Nature, under pretence of aiding and assisting her: besides could a Pleurisie be cu­red safely by breathing a Vein, which it cannot; yet curing it by the sole aid of stout and inno­cent Remedies, must needs be the excellenter way: seeing that Nature by not diminishing her strength, which is the Blood, may be much sooner enabled after her enemy is Van­quisht to recover the loss she sustain'd.

Whereas if the Blood be let out, though, the Patient escape choaking, and is perhaps de­livered from the jaws of death, yet is he so shat­tered and shaken in his Vitals by the loss of that Vital juice that if he recover 'tis very long First. But if the Patient Die than the blame is [Page 99] impos'd on the too vehementness of the Disease, when the Doctor is often more in fault; in that he let out the Blood which is the strength of Nature, and neglected that sharpish cause, which from an error in digestion was let slip into the Blood, and furiously assaulted the Pleura. For though sharpness is grateful in the Stomach if it exceeds not its Ferment, yet out of it 'tis as a Thorn to the part it fixeth in, 'tis the cau­ser of gripes, the Parent of a Consumption, and of all other Diseases almost. To which Hippo­crates testifieth, and saith Non calidum, frigi­dum, humidum, siccumve, sed quod acre, a­marum, acidum, & austerum morbi sunt.

But, omitting narratives concerning such who have miscarried in this Disease under the Lancet, it being a thing too too frequent; I shall only relate what was accidentally told me by the Brother of a Person not many years since Pleuritical: it being extorted from him by hearing another declare, how his Grand-Father perisht by Phlebotomy, and his Father being four times Bleeded Died Consumptive through that loss in the space of two months. He said.

His Sister falling sick, a Physician was sent for, who when he came found her Pleuritical­ly affected; therefore orders fourteen oun­ces of Blood to be taken away presently, and the next day at his coming again six or seven [Page 100] ounces more: by which means she (whose age was but ten years) was so extreamly de­bilitated and consequently her life endange­red, that for the space of a month she was not able to go, and recovered not her strength as formerly in many months after. But now at length she hath outgrown it.

Whereas had the Physician given her an ex­cellent Medicine or two inwardly to strengthen the Stomach, kill spurious ferments and slay the stimulating thorn in the Pleura and Blood; also had applied another to her side for the same purpose; he might without a loss of Blood, and exhausting her strength, have taken away the occasional cause and with ease have stren­gthened Nature, so as to have dispos'd of the out-hunted Blood to her greatest advantage and profit: either by admitting it again into the Veins, which thing is very common if a good Medicine is present; or by dismissing it by the mouth or fundament. So that a Per­son thus cured without Phlebotomy may be well and vigorous in a week or little more.

Or if through the far absence of good and able Medicines he had for the present drawn out six or eight ounces of Blood, & had afterwards exhibited remedies to slay Acidity in the remain­er, and the Forreign guest in the Pleura: he might with more ease and less hurt to the Pa­tient, have head her without running a hazard. [Page 101] Only observe that though this way brings grea­er ease yet scarce so much benefit to the Doct­or: forasmuch as a months time keeping people in hand produceth more Angels than a Week.

However 'twas well the young Woman re­covered at last, when her Fathers pocket had paid well for it. But had one forty or fifty years old been dealt with after this Bloody rate the loss would not have been so easily made up; But in all likely-hood 'twould have made the party weakly, if it had not cost her her life. Or which is oft-times the event of a great loss of Blood, have laid the foundation of some bad Disease. Witness Helmont, Pleuritis quae per Phlebotomiam est restituta saepe post annum re­currit, saepiusque tabem post se relinquit. The Pleurisy which is cured by Blood-letting, often­times after a year returns, and oftner leaves a Consumption behind it. And which Helmont here takes not notice of, so great a loss of Blood laies oft the Foundation of the scurvy: as is daily too too obvious.

Nor do I write feigned Notions or imagina­ry Conjectures; having, whilst I was for ma­ny years conversant, and a tabler in the House with an ingenious aged Chymical Physician, known of a great many cured after this man­ner, to wit, without Blood-letting; nor to the best of my remembrance did ever any one mis­carry under his hand. Yea so acute was he at [Page 102] it, that several have recovered by following his mehod without the least assistance of Phle­botomy, that have been given up for Death by eminent Galenists.

So that observing such cures frequently done by him; and on the contrary often Miscarria­ges by others: I set upon the study of Physick out of a desire to inform my self, that I might prevent being purg'd out of my life, as my Fa­ther was. And after a twelve months pursu­ing my studies, and observing curative passa­ges, I began out of an affection to the Chymi­cal Science to prove a general student in Physick, being daily improv'd in my intellectuals by hearing my experienced Intimate Discourse, & his patients declare the effects of his Medicines.

Nor was I less admonisht by hearing them amongst the rest to intersperse complaints; some against Mercurial, and Purgative, or Vomitive Antimonial Medicines; others a­gainst other horrible Vomits; declaring how such a Person took one, and was thereby so weakened that she never left vomiting till she died.

Another declares how her Husband was Bleeded by an Apothecaries order, and had twentyounces taken away, whereby he through weakness fainted and died.

Another relates how a Doctor (I might call him a Horse-Doctor) had given a Dose of Pills [Page 103] to her Neighbour, that kill'd him before the had done working.

These with many more such-like narratives minded me of my Fathers Death, and the harm I my self had sustain'd by twice bleed­ing, often Purging, and Vomiting, and an Issue: So that for many years, I, at every Autumn, had a tedious fit of sickness; and was often indispos'd at other times. Thus it continued till about the twentieth year of my age, when I happily came acquainted with this Chymical Doctor: who by ordering me to take his abstersive wholsom Medicines kept me so healthy, that now for seven years together I have not been sick (to say sick) two daies. Only through too closely pursuing my studies, I once made my self somewhat Hectical, but with good wholsome Medicines, and laying my Books aside a little, I in about a month was cured again.

Yet believe that what with the hurts of the Small-Pox when I was a Youth, seconded with the dammage received from Purges, Bleedings, Vomits, &c. I have been so weakened; that I shall scarce ever regain my former Complexi­on, and chearful countenance, whilst I not­withstanding (through Gods mercy) am pretty healthy.

But to return. Thus having spent about four years in my studies I began to fancy the [Page 104] practice of Physick. But when I considered on the other hand, the dangerousness of work­ing with unexperienced tools, and such reme­dies as Books alone will afford me; without a faithful Tutor to open my understanding in the Analysing of Bodies, the reasons of apply­ing Agents to Patients, and the compounding and applying of Remedies. I say when I con­sidered this I was somewhat disheartened, through an unwillingness to turn Experimenter, and as Physicians too often do Ludere cum co­rio Humano.

Because I saw much of the mischief frequent­ly done by Physick was effected through too great confidence in Vulgar Prescripts and Au­thors, whilst Diseases were not the same. But Providence favouring, and my most Cordial friend intirely loving me, I obtain'd (he be­ing aged) the knowledge of all his Method and Medicines, with what was the result of twenty I might say, (for he himself had an Aged and Learned Tutor in Chymistry) almost forty years experience in Chymistry: nor was I wholly ungrateful.

Being therefore for several years since no Botcher in Medicine, I thence-forward ap­plied my self to a more narrow search: and from frequent Readings, Operatings, and dai­ly converse, having made some discovery of Abuses, and Injuries in Physick, I thought [Page 105] meet at length for a General good to publish them. That the Physician may be admonisht to defend himself and his Patient; and the Pa­tient likewise fore-warn'd to take heed of such, who being confident and careless mind nothing but their Ease and Profit; and by administring hurtful Remedies under the notion of Physick, through meer ignorance and carelesness Kill not a few: as likewise of such who under pretence of Healing, are continually busied about Ex­hausting the strength and Vitals.

To give you a rehearsal of those cures in Pleuritical affects which this Chymical Physi­cian did without Phlebotomy, will be too tedi­ous; such narratives requiring more time and Paper than can I now spare. However as a Taste and for example sake, I will mention one which I cured after his manner, in that inte­rim whilst this Tract was penning.

A person who heard well concerning me and the safety of my Method, sends for me to cure his Wife that was ill, and had through the vi­olence of her distemper lately sounded, and sainted away. I went, and by that time I came to her she was pretty well reviv'd, inso­much that she could answer to my Quaeries: Only she had an almost intollerable pain in her left side, and her Stomach was disordered. I therefore judg'd 'twas a Pleurisy; and askt her [Page 106] what she lately had been eating of, that dis­agreed with her Stomach.

She replied that last night she had too freely eaten of a thing she lov'd, but it did not agree with her: This confirm'd 'twas a Pleurisy and that her Stomach not well digesting the last nights Supper had sent a Pleuritical sharpness into the Blood. Wherefore as I had learnt from expert Helmont, and my no little experi­enced Tutor, I gave her a Medicine to fortifie her Stomach, and make sure work there by slay­ing forreign Ferments, and hinder a further procedure that way: not doubting in the least (as I had often known) to expel the Acidity in the Pleura, and put the Blood in good order again without borrowing the least aid of the Lancet. To do which I appointed a Medicine that is an Enemy to sharpness to be applied to the place where the pain was; having long since learnt, ubi Dolor, ibi Morbus, that where the pain is there is the Disease; and so I took my leave of them.

These so operated and beset the Spurious fer­ment on both sides that they proved a little too hot for it, and banisht it: so that when about six hours after I visited her again, my Patient (being perswaded to it by a Female acquain­tance of hers) was gone into the City. I ex­ceedingly admired at her rashness, nor less at the suddenness of the Cure: so that desiring [Page 107] they would take care at her coming home, if she relapst, to give her liberally of the first Medicine without fear, I took my leave for that night: and coming the next morning I found her very well; but she told me she was at coming home illish, that the pain return'd after her walk, and that the first Medicine re­mov'd it again:

Thus to Cure a Pleurisy in a Day is some­what unwonted, but I had an advantage in taking it in its Bud: Nor will I undertake to do the like again in so short a time. However in four or five daies, I have known a Pleurisy commonly cured, by the sole aid of such-like Remedies, without bleeding: and will ven­ture one more than an equal lay, by Gods bles­sing, to do it at any time, if I have the Patient in due season.

Next it will not be amiss to discourse of the Stomachs Priority, and the excellency of Sto­machical Remedies. Only take notice that I by such don't mean Syrups or such like Sugary Medicines; which how pleasing soever they are to the healthy, are clogging and hurtful to a weak Stomach. But I by Stomachical Reme­dies mean such, that though not very sweet, are pleasing and friendly to Nature, and no waies disgustful to the Stomach.

The Stomach's prae-eminence as­serted, and the necessariness of suiting Remedies to it.

NOr must we here forget to assert the Priority of the Stomach, and conse­quently the needfulness of adapting Medicines that are to be taken into it, to an agreeableness with it: in regard 'tis the most Vital bowel and prime Seat of the Soul; as also doth nourish all other regions of the Body, and correspond with them through an intercourse of Veins, Arte­ries, and Nerves.

That the Soul hath its prime residence in the Stomach the Acute Philosopher Van Helmont hath affirm'd: Nor do I believe he spake by conjecture, but what he experimentally knew; having not only (as he confesseth) through a denial of self, been admitted to that happiness to see his own nothingness, but likewise (I be­lieve) to be truly Regenerated, Regenerated I say; which ought above all things to be sought after, seeing our Blessed Saviour has said, there is no entring into the Kingdom of God without it.

Nor hath he affirm'd it only, but prov'd it by arguments: against which when the learn­ed [Page 109] Anatomist Bartholinus, hath raised some ob­jections▪ yet a little after confesseth.

Dici tamen lato modo potest vitae Anatom. reform. P. 51. principium, quia ibi sedes appetitus, & prima alimentorum apprehensio; cujus vitium in sequentibus coctioni­bus, nusquam mutatur in melius. That it may in a large sense be called the principle or be­ginning of Life, because there is the seat of Appetite, and the first reception of nourish­ment, and that its error is never mended in the following Digestions.

But to prove it, and at present to omit the bringing a loss of Appetite on sudden frights or ill news, with other like arguments to prove that the seat of the Soul is in the Stomach; I shall refer you to those who have undegone a New-Birth or Regeneration, and in whom Christs Spirit inhabiteth: Who can tell you experimentally by pointing to the Pit of their Stomachs; or a fingers breadth lower, That the Spirit of Christ (which is not an imagina­ry thing but real substance, obtain'd through Tribulation by the goodness of God) appearing to refresh and consolate the distressed and thirsty Soul, glanceth forth its amiable, and thrice welcome beams in the Stomach: and that as oft a [...] he withdraws himself▪ (to wit the Spirit of God or Christ who are one) a load, and heavy burthen, is there felt; until the most gracious [Page 110] and merciful Father of Lights extends forth his bowels of compassion, and removing that Load and Burthen, causeth his most Holy Spirit, that gentle Dove, (in his own time) to appear and abound like over-flowiag streams, to the unutte­rable consolation of the Soul.

Unto which alludes that most true saying of our Saviour, he that believes in me (that is confides and can deny Self in all appearances) out of his Belly shall flow rivers of Living waters, metaphorically intimating an abound­ing of the Holy Spirit to refresh such Souls as believe.

He happy is who from Experiment,
Knows where his Soul is fed; and is content.
To leave his darling Sins that he may come,
To be Regenerated, and brought home
To know himself: and with an humble mind,
Wait on our God, till he his Spirit find
O're flowing like a stream, and bringing rest,
Unto his Soul, of Treasures 'tis the best.
Yea such a Treasure that no one shall gain,
Who wicked lives, and who his Soul doth stain,
With what corrupts: whilst living such are Dead,
And cannot eat of Israel's daily Bread.
Besides 'tis certain as the Sophi say,
Nose teipsum is the leading-way
[Page 111]To Wisdoms gate: whatever Fools do cant,
Who opened-Eyes, and understanding want.

Neither doth the ignobleness of it office, in that it concocts for, and is as a Servant to the whole Body, at all gain-say or hinder it: or because it is alwayes full of Crude Meats, as Bartholine objects; those being no more argu­ments of ignobleness in the Stomach than it was in the High-Priest of the Jews for the good of the People to have plaid the Butcher in sa­crificing. Nor doth the seeming meanness of its office at all hinder, that the Soul chiefly and the most Holy Spirit of God that refresh­eth it may not in the Regenerated reside there: seeing that his waies are not as Man's waies, nor his thoughts as Man's. And that oftentimes that which is mostly in esteem with Men, is disrespected by the almighty: &è contra.

Forasmuch therefore as the Stomach is the prime seat of the Soul and by consequence of the Life; or if but as Bartholine saith in a large sence the Principle, beginning; or original of Life: yet because its error is never mended or corrected in any of the subsequent Digestions, it must needs be undeniably requisite, to level our intentions in cure, so as not to hurt it, but rather to please and cherish it. Especially in regard (as I said before) it corresponds with other noble Parts, and Regions of the Body. [Page 112] to wit, the Brain, Spleen, Oesophagus, mouth, Liver Lungs, Heart, Mid-riff; and in a word there is scarce any eminent part of the Body which converseth not with it through the mediation of Veins, Arteries, Nerves, and Membranes. Whereby it (like a careful Pa­tron) is made sensible of any injury those cor­responding parts sustein, and not seldome shews it by Vomiting.

Nor is it only sensible of what injury other parts undergo, but it likewise makes them feel, and grow sensible of its own. And even like­as when a good and careful Father is sick, on whom alone depends the life and welfare of his Family, his dependants and those who are nou­risht by him are disconsolate or distressed: so do the less Noble Ferments, and depending functions of the Body, pine away and lan­guish, when the Stomach the prime digester and preparer of nourishments is indispos'd and doth languish. And on the contaary are prone and Subject to chearfulness, if the Ventricle or Stomach beams forth healthy and pleasing raies; yea though they are otherwise indispos'd, and debilitated. Which may be easily prov'd from the cure of the Iliaca Passio, or griping of the guts, Splenic affects, Cephalalgia or Head-ach inveterate and stubborn Fevers &c, by Medicines truly Stomachical. But now I shall proceed to answer an objection that will perhaps be of­fered [Page 113] to prove the seat of the Soul not in the Stomach but in the heart.

But doth not the Psalmist David say, Create within me, O Lord, a New-heart &c. And thou hast made my heart to rejoyce &c? by the word Heart the Psalmist meaning? his Soul, puting the containing for the contained?

I answer, that though Holy David was un­doubtedly a true Divine; and did sufficiently experience the Almighty's merciful benignity, and frequently enjoy the overflowings of the Spirit in his Soul; yet might he nevertheless be so wholly unskilful in Anatomy, as not to di­stinguish whether that Refreshment he felt was in his Stomach or Heart: seeing that Galen who was after him above a thousand years is upbraided by several with a dissercion of Apes through a penury of humane Bodies. But granting on the other hand that Holy David and all the Prophets were well skill'd in Anato­my as they might, the contrary not being proveable: yet doubtless was it a great error in the First Ages of the World, to impose the Word HEART which is a Word of a very large signification on that one small part of the Body commonly called so; when it sometimes signifies the affections of the Soul or Mind, and sometimes the whole Soul it self; which doubtless is not confin'd to any one part of the Body but inhabits in the Heart, Sto­mach, [Page 114] Head, Liver, Blood &c. Though I am perswaded chiefly about the upper Orifice of the Stomach.

And therefore if by reason of its being an accustom'd Phrase amongst the Jews, the Pro­phet David utters those sayings; and our Bles­sed Saviour in speaking to the People useth the Word Heart frequently for the Soul, yet 'tis to be understood that Christ did speak to the People in their own phrases, to the end they might understaud him; which otherwise they could not: and that the end of speech is to impress our meaning to the hearers. Likewise we ought to consider that had either the Liver, Spleen, or Lungs through an accustom'd Er­ror, been used Rhetorically to signifie the Mind or Soul; Christ in speaking, and the Prophet in writing, must have used their man­ner of phrasing, and delivered themselves in words suiting the capacities of the People, if they would have been understood by them: and therefore cannot this deny the Souls not re­sidence primely in the Stomach.

For if we grant the Life of the Body to be the Soul, as 'tis; and that where the Soul chiefly resides must needs be the most sensible and necessary Bowel, We shall easily prove it to be in the Stomach: from its so great neces­sariness that no Animal lives without it, and from its so great sensibility that it will not en­dure [Page 115] the pressure of a hand on its upper Orifice without grief; nor a wound without sudden death. Whereas Mullerus relates a story of a man wounded in his heart that surviv'd fifteen daies, of which 'tis said he hung up a Table at Grouingen. And all the Anatomies or histo­ries I ever could meet with never yet gave an account of any man, that after a wound in the Stomach, especially if towards the upper Ori­fice which lies just under the Pit of the Sto­mach, liv'd one day. But to prove the mistake of the Antients about the Heart, lets hear what Bartholine himself saies that objected a­gainst Helmont. He speaking about the Ori­fices of the Stomach thus delivers himself.

Sinistrum vulgo superius dicitur, alias os ven­triculi simpliciter, aliis Stomachus ob amplitudinem: Veteribus▪ cor, quia Anatom. reform. P. 50. ejus affectus animi deliquia, alique sympt [...]mata Cardiacis similia gig­nunt, tum ob exquisitissimu [...] sen­sum, tum quia cor condolet per consensum & vicinitatis, & nervorum ab eadem ra­mo Prodeuntium. In English thus: the left Orifice▪ is called the upper, otherwise singly the Mouth of the Stomach: by some 'tis called the Stomach because of its largeness. By the Antients 'twas called the Heart, because the Diseases thereof causeth faintings Fits or sound­ings and other symotoms like▪ to those of the [Page 116] Heart; likewise because of its most exquisit sense, and because the heart doth Sympathize therewith through consent, both of Neighbour­hood and of Nerves proceeding from one & the same branch. Here Bartholine tels you the mistake of the Antients in calling the Stomach the Heart: and saies 'twas because of its most exquisite sense, and because the Diseases of the Stomach caused fainting fits, and soundings like to those of the heart: and truly he might have said without injuring the Truth, that it not only causeth symptoms like to those of the Heart; But even that 'tis the Harbinger and Parent of those Diseases, for which the Guiltless Heart is often blamed. However if those Generations after which the Holy Prophet David liv'd, did mi­stake 'tis no wonder; seeing then Anatomy was little in request, and so they minded not the scituation of parts. Also seeing that we who are in an Age of greater understanding can't lay aside that word yet, but use it commonly, for so much is it the mode still to call the Stomach the Heart, that people frequently say their Hearts were at their Mouths, when on a sud­den fright or surprisal their Stomach's have been mov'd. I remember that on a time I Discoursing with an Ingenious Woman, and speaking of the Stomachs Prae- [...], in that the Prime seat of Life as also of the Soul was in it: she presently replyed the chief place of Life, and [Page 117] therefore of the Soul, was in the Heart; for­asmuch as she found upon sudden frights or grief, that trouble and a load lay at her heart. Whereupon I askt her where her heart laid, and in what part of her body; And she forth­with pointed to the Pit of her Stomach, and told me there; which still confirm'd my argu­ment of the Souls being chiefly in the Stomach reminding me of the saying of experienced Hel­ment. But the vulgar (saith he) are of my opinion, who for the vital beginning or seat of the Soul do shew with their hand the Orific of the Stomach, as oft as shey are pressed with streights; to wit, aswel with the anxieties of the Body & Life, as with the afflictions of the mind.

However Reader be pleas'd to take notice, that this Discourse is not penn'd to the end, I may bring up new Modes of speaking in Divini­ty: or to perswade the Teachers of the people to tell their Auditors, that they must Love God with all their Stomachs, instead of hearts; for 'twould be vain, needless and ridiculous, seeing that the holy Scriptures use the word heart commonly for the Soul, and the people un­derstand it signifies so. Nay if amongst the Antients the Liver had been used to sig­hifie the Soul, and those Holy-Men who gave forth the Scriptures had utter'd it custo­marily, whilst they spake to the capacities of the People that heard them; it had been no [Page 118] waies convenient to alter it. But the drift of this Discourse is to prove the nobility of the Stomach; that Physicians may take a little more care on't, than they are w [...]nted; and not by their poysonous Medicines destroy the health of the Bo­dy, in ruining the Vigour and health of that Bowel.

But to reassume our Discourse concerning the Stomach:

We find that 'tis so useful and necessary a Bowel that no Animal lives without it, or can live in its absence: and that Nature has been so solicitous and careful in the formation of it, and has taken such care to preserve it; that those Animals that want teeth to grinde their food with, have two Stomachs. As for instance Birds &c. who have besides their real Sto­mach which lieth more inward another kind of Stomach called Ingluvies the Crop, which receives the meat, that it being lightly digested may be fitter for the Stomach succeeding; or as occa­sion may be cast forth for the young ones. This first Stomach, (or the Crop) one of our moderns tels us may be wounded and sown up again, which our loss of the Life: but not the second or true Stomach, which is most Vi­ral. Also Beasts that chew the Cud have that prerogative to enjoy more Stomachs than one. And chewing the Cud being a melio­rating, and making the food more fit for nou­rishment, [Page 119] does tacitly hint to us that Chewing of Food well (as really 'tis) is very advanta­geous to Health: seeing we read also that those Beasts that chewed the Cud were in the Old Law counted Clean.

And though I believe it was never found on record that any man after his Stomach was pierced or pluckt out spake one only word: yet the Lord Verulam speaks of a man that utter'd three or four words of a prayer when his heart was out and in the Executioners hand, which argues that after his Heart was out his Soul was in his Body, else he could not have spoken. To omit what Galen saies of Beasts that lowed at the Alter after their hearts were taken out, and what Pliny (which another to wit Iulius Obsequens confirms) saies of those Beasts which when Caesar sacrificed were found with­out Hearts: but doubtless not without Sto­machs. To let pass what Schenkins saies of those that had no Hearts, & Tilesius his declaring how 'twas wholly consumed. And lastly Paraeus his relation of one wounded in his heart that ran two hundred paces: with several others too tedious to quote, though I never yet could Read or Hear of any that wanted a Stomach, or that having been wounded therein have not presently died.

But Helmont tells of a certain strong and stu­d [...]ous Man, that did strik another sitting at a [Page 120] Table with his fist, about the Orifice of his Stomach; who presently sunk down with a foaming mouth, & being lifted up by the com­pany, was forth-with depriv'd of Pulse, and before Grace was said his body was as Cold as Ice.

Another relation he has of a Carter, who being with a Dagger thrust thorow about the Mouth of his Stomach presently died with a foaming Mouth, and was also depriv'd of all Pulse, and Heat: which proves that the prime seat of the Soul was there by so quick a depar­ture of Heat and Pulse with the Life. When as those that die from some other defect, or a wound else-where, are scarce cold in many hours; which the same Author proves by not­able instances. One of which is concerning a Woman, on whose Head an Image fell down from a high place, so as that the top of the Skull depressed her brain, for almost two fingers breadth: and though she was rcekon'd to be Dead, yet had a slender pulse in both Arms six hours after.

Some there are who would have the Soul e­qually dispersed through-out the whole Body, and that all parts enjoy it alike: not granting it to be in one Part more than in another. But such in the mean time forget a thing daily ob­vious, to wit, that a Man loseth his legs or Arms, and yet the Soul remains intire and has [Page 121] all its faculties. Nevertheless I will not deny, but that it may reside in more parts than one, being unwilling to testifie what the Scripture, in this thing, and my own experience will not warrant: however I am sufficiently confirm'd that the chief seat thereof is in the Stomach, for reasons before mentioned; though likewise per­swaded it in some sort inhabits in the Head, Spleen, Heart, Blood, &c.

Others would endeavour to prove the Prime or chief seat of the Soul to be the Brain: but in the first place experience denies it, from trouble and grief suddenly possessing the Stomach, and bringing a loss of Appetite with it; which doth not in the least affect the Brain, unless the Life grows outragious, and then it affects it, by mediation of Arteries and Nerves. Secondly, the appearance of Christs Spirit withstands it, in regard solace is felt in the Stomach not in the Brain. Thirdly, the Holy Scriptures gain­say it, which declares, out of the Belly not out of the Brain or Head of Believers in Christ, shall flow Rivers of Living Water.

Thus far with Arguments, to excite the in­genious and studious in Physick to strive after Remedies suitable to the Stomach, such being most excellent and safe: yea with such I have seen almost incureable Diseases heal'd, At least­wise such, that had not only encreased, and grown worse, under the aids of Phlebotomy, and [Page 122] the Drossy Medicines of the shops, with their clogging Electuaries and Syrups: but also such as had vanquisht with loud laughter the single and associated endeavours of Physicians. For alas as pittiful a fellow as a Disease seems to be, he scorns to be frightened at a Bombast word, or Fustian Term: or in the least scared at an A­phoris [...] of Hippocrates's though I never so cunningly quoted, and though it may carry a great gloss in the tail on't. Nor is he more a­stonisht at a rehearsal of one of Galen's, Celsus▪ Sennertus, Riverius, or Helmont [...] sayings: whilst he domineering through deficiency in Medicine, causeth the lamenting Patient to cry out (if he is able) Give me a Medicine or else I die—A Medicine I say, for Non Verbis, sed herbis, Diseases are not cured with words.

Nor with Medicines without endangering the Life, unless they are homogenial and lively: For­asmuch as Malignant ones not seldom do mis­chief, and exasperate the Disease: thereby as­suredly telling us, if such at any time profit the sick; the praise is due to Nature not to the Medicine. Because being provok't, had she not been strong enough for both the Disease and the Remedy, Death had inavoidably fol­lowed. But with Remedies truly Stomachical, Vital, and the destroyers of Spurious forreign ferments; I have seen and known of Various Tough, slurdy, and Venomous Diseases cured, [Page 123] when they had non-plust Methodical Prescrip­tions. A few of the cures I wil candidly relate, and such, whose occurrences may not be un­worthy your remark.

A young Gentle-Woman my acquaintance falling into a violent Vomiting of Blood, at se­veral times brought up about two quarts. Here­upon one, and afterwards a second Physician was sent for, who forthwith ordered a Vein to be Breath'd: but in the interim prae­scrib'd, and order'd various cooling things; ne­glecting the Sharpish-cause which entred the Blood, through a more than accustom'd con­verse with White-Wines, and had there being corrosive, and Turgent, fretted a Vein and gi­ven vent to it self. So that the occasional Aci­dity not being heeded all arrows were shot at the Vi [...]als. And although Phlebotomy was of­ten repeated and Spiritless Medicines oftner given, all was in vain: For whilst the Acidity in the Blood was in being, she frequently, even almost every day, vomited up Blood; yea sometimes twice or thrice a day, and that not by ounces but by greater Quantities. Insomuch that in less than fourteen daies, notwithstand­ing the united endeavours of the two Galenical Doctors, she was almost Dead through daily languishing, and the loss of about two Gallons of Blood; was grown so weak as unable to lift up a spoon to her mouth; or which is worse [Page 124] to sit up right in her bed against a Pillow, un­less they held up both her and it.

She being in this condition, A Chymical Physician my acquaintance was sent for, who when he came and saw in what a weak state she was, told the By-standers he doubted of her recovery: and that her other Physicians had done ill, to let out so much of her Blood, and neglect the O [...]asional cause, and preternatural sharpness in it▪ However seeing that they sent for him, and the other Physicians were Non­plust; if they would give him that liberty he would do his utmost endeavour, and use the best of his skill to recover her. 'Twas yielded to; and Medicines being sent, he gave her a Dose or two of one of them, that is heating, but not inflaming, Stomachical, and an ene­my to sharpness the Parent of this mischief, and turgency in her Blood: aiming thereby at for­tifying her Vitals and the Stomach their prime seat; shooting his arrows directly at the cause, the which being remov'd he easily fore­saw the Blood would soon be placid; and that it would not he very difficult to close the New­made Orifice, and confine the vital juice to its channels. By taking this Medicine often she began to revive, so that other Medicines were admitted likewise; yet did not the Blood pre­sently stop: nor did he mind that much but aim'd at dulcifying the remainer; knowing [Page 125] that must be the way to quiet it, and judging the loss of two or three ounces of Blood in a week not material, seeing she got strength. Thus with his Remedies he gradually subvert­ed the sharpish ferment, and in about ten daies time made her chearful and much stronger; though then through so great a loss of her▪ blood she could not go alone: but in less than six weeks he st [...]pt her Bleeding quite, and made her without help able to walk about the Cham­ber. Nor did he retard the Cure by denying her generous liquors: but being a profest ene­my to the Small-Beer Method gave her orders to drink strong smooth-ale liberally, after the Cold was taken off with a Toste.

Whilst she thus gain'd strength daily, and through Cold-weather was confin'd to her Chamber, one of her former Physicians came to visit her again. Who perceiving a very great amendment, and no fear of her Death; that he might preserve his own, and the Credit of his Brother Galenist, and that he might say she recovered soon after the taking something of him, when the Chymical Doctor, (under God) had snatcht her from the very Jaws of Death: perswaded her that for all she was pretty well, and that the Chymical Medicines had reviv'd her, there was something in her Body that if nor carried off would certainly hurt her for the future; and moreover with many submissives [Page 126] tells her, if she pleas'd, he would order a gentle Purge. As if forsooth the Chymical Doctor who was a Learned and well-studied Physici­an, and the Son of a Physician, knew not Ex­tractum Rudii, Pilulae Ruffi o [...] some such dispen­sat [...]ry purge, but must be beholden to him for one for his Patient.

But of this the Young Chymical Physician must not know at any hand; lest he should be offended, as he had cause. For doubtless if it had done her no harm, it had been enough to turn him off, upon sight of a full Glose-stooll and imagining all diseasiness in it: and to have given▪ the Fame and Name of curing her to the Galenist. For so they used sometimes to serve his ingenious and true-hearted Father before him, and with some musty Electuary, or Syrup, muddy Cordial, some trivial Dec [...]ction or a Purge, car­ry away the Credit, when he had done the cure: and by railing against Chymistry; though those Remedies which were Chymical cured the Pa­tient▪ sometimes get such an Antipathy in him against them for fear of mischief four or five years after, that Chymical Medicines and the Doctor▪ must be sh [...] out. But Providence had not design'd that he should than▪ complain with the Poet.

Ego hos versiculos feci, tulit alter honore [...]
I cured her, another has the Name.

[Page 127]However notwithstanding I as an acquain­tance visiting her several times in her sickness, had taken up the Gally-pots and Glasses, with their mouldy Medicines left on the Cup-boards head by the two other Physicians; and had askt her how she could reasonably expect a cure and preservation, from Medicines so Spiritless, a [...] unable to preserve themselves, and had told her 'twas unreasonable to expect it: yet so much was she over-perswaded, and taken with the guilded, and pretty name Purge, that she took a purging Dose & had six or eight stools there­upon. That all Diseasiness was banisht, and that the Close-stool had imprison'd it, was doubt­less confidently believ'd; but the Scene was suddenly alter'd: for before eight next morn­ing the Chymical Doctor was sent for in hast to the lately purg'd Gentle-woman, forasmuch as nothing but Death was expected.

The Doctor saw it, and was very sorrowful, therefore giving her a little of a Medicine to re­vive her languishing feeble Spirits he returns home, and I being present, tells his Father (who was both his and my Tutor in Chymical Pharmacy &c. He believ'd Mris.—would not recover, because he saw his Medicines non­plust: And experience had told him if those Medicines he had given her could not prevail, nought else he, or any Galenist in Town, could give would. This I had known various times [Page 128] verified, and therefore likewise believ'd the same; however we agreed upon't that Medi­cines should be given her, because as l [...]ng as there was Life their was hopes: lest the re­lapse might be from some Peccant matter more narrowly besieging the Life in the Ven­tricle. Which was too true, for though we knew not of it then, 'twas a Really Peccant Purge.

In brief she again followed the same Medi­cines and took them successively as ordered, which blotted out the venome of the Laxative and in about a week recruited her strength.

With which she being confirm'd that the Doctors Method and Medicines were safe, in­nocent, and vertuous; pleasantly relates the whole story of the Purge: and thereby unfold­ed that Riddle which is so exceedingly puzled us, to wit, how she came so violently to Re­lapse, in the presence of such vertuous healers. However she recovered, and has continued well several years, without Relapsing, to the no­discredit of Chymistry.

Another Gentle-Woman having contracted a Disease through catching Cold and want of Digesture, had her Vitals so narrowly be set, and violently assaulted that her recovery was e­ven despair'd of, whilst the Consultations and mutual endeavours of two Learned, and expert Galenists, were in vain. She being in this [Page 129] weak condition sent for the Chymical Doctor, and was very well pleas'd with his rational Theory, the description of her Disease, its cause and manner of cure. But words would not heal her; therefore he sent two Medicines, Sto­machical and Abstersive, which she took: and for the first two or three daies very much men­ded. But the Digestions whilst weak having heapt up abundance of Flegm, Nature after she was reinforc't attempted the expulsion of it, to ease her self of that load: and not being strong enough fell under the burthen to the well-nigh choaking the Patient. Hereupon the Doctor was sent for in hast, who gave her lively Medicines plentifully, which brought abundance of tough viscous Flegm, and in a short time he left her much better. After this she took the same Remedies, and was by that means so vigorous and stout, that Nature re­solv'd to have the other brush with her Enemy, and clear her self of the clogging Flegm: In which combate the Sick party being in dan­ger of suffocation, the Doctor was sent for a­gain, and plying her as before he brought it all up, to the no little hastning the cure. Which being done, he did his endeavour to cleanse and strengthen the Ferments and Functions of the Body, with Medicines which were lively and innocent; and in nine or ten dayes space [Page 130] fully recovered her, to the credit of Chymical Physick.

Also an ingenious Gentleman my good friend having for many months laboured under a Galloping Consumption and made use of diverse Physicians in vain; at length recollecting his memory remembred how I had formerly com­mended this Chymical Doctor. And thereup­on (though afraid of those dreadful things cal­led Chymical Remedies, because he had heard how some had done mischief with Remedies so call'd) was induc'd, health being a thing de­sirable, to see what the Doctor could do. A desire of health doubtless it was inclin'd him to it, for he was in no wise a friend to Chy­mistry; and would never have craved the assi­stance of its Medicines, could those of the Shops have cured him. But necessity had no Law: he had also heard from others a good Character of the Doctors Medicines, and his Method commended for its innocency.

At leastwise the worst that could come was but Death he thought, towards which he was hastning apace: whilst the most Authentick Bills, and costly Prescripts, were expos'd to a mock by the Disease. For his flesh was so wasted that he was little else but Skin & Bones: his Stomach was so weak, and made worse by Spiritless drossy Doses, that he almost continu­ally [Page 131] spitted, and daily grew worse and de­clin'd. Whilst he was in this languishing state, he consulted this Chymical Doctor: who to cure him gave him innocent Remedies, yet lively, Stomachical, cleansing, and pro [...]est e­nemies to forreign ferments, with such good success, that about two months following them restor'd him.

About a year after the same Gentleman through drinking wines and eating a thing he could not digest, surfeited and contracted a Quinzy. After some daies the Doctor visit­ing him, and finding him scarce able to speak and in a Fever withal, gave him Medicines to fortifie his Stomach, and break the neck of the Fever: and applied likewise two other Medicines to his throat outwardly that were e­nemies to Acid Thorninesses. These so abat­ed the fury of the Quinzy and vanquisht the Fever and its cause; that in the morning when a friend of his came to make his Will, as sup­posing him not for this World, he was well, and said he could swallow a leaden-bullet, to the great astonishment of the Person.

For a certain pretender to vast skill in Phar­macy, and to no less in feeling the Pulse, hav­ing been at the Sick Gentlemans house over­night, had caus'd that party to come down to make his will: for he was pleas'd to tell the Mistress of the Family, that if her Husband [Page 132] was not Bleeded in both Arms (for take no­tice he had felt his Pulse) he would be a Dead-Man before ten of the clock next morn­ing. The tender Gentlewoman having dis­mist him, comes up big with trouble for fear of losing her Loving Husband; and being askt what she aild? relates the Cunning Pulse-feelers opinion, and that in the presence of the Doctor. Who knowing what his Medicines had often­times done, and could do, smil'd and animat­ed his Patient; and to prove that Whining­man a notorious lier, and no less an ignoramus did sit up all night with his Patient; and by applying Medicines oft both outwardly, and inwardly, made him sound (God blessing his endeavoars) by eight a clock next morning, without opening a Vein in the least, or with­out the least inclination to relapse.

Another Man aged fifty years and upwards being sick, was almost suffocated with Flegm: and whilst he had for several daies taken vari­ous prescrib'd Remedies grew worse and worse notwithstanding, and was yielded up as incur­able: So that his Galenical Physician was dis­mist, and my Friend a young Chymical Physi­cian sent for▪ He came, and finding the Dis­ease stubborn, gave him a Medicine in a four­fold quantity almost; but 'twas such a one as could no wise hurt nor inflame him, if he had given him four times more; by which ye may [Page 133] judge 'twas neither Purge, nor Vomit. This somewhat reliev'd the Man▪ and began to work upon the Disease to some purpose; which done the Doctor departed else-where. And in his absence in came an Illiterate Man a pretender to Physick, and counted a knowing Astrolo­ger: yea with the Vulgar he goes under the name of a Conjurer, in that he undertakes to predict Life and Death to the people from A­strology, and takes Toll for the Discovery of Lost Petty-coats.

This unlearned mans opinion was askt: and thereupon after he had observ'd the Planets well, profoundly like a Fool, (and no Phy­sician) in the sick mans presence condemns him to die without Mercy. Thus ♃ ♀ ☉ ☽ ☿ Ω. with all their smiling Trines, pleasant Sextiles, and kind Conjunctions▪ could do no­thing it seems▪ and stood in this Scheme for Cyphers. This news was bad to the Sick-man▪ and as much believ'd by the Women as an O­racle.

But when the Chymical Doctor came, who was not ignorant of Astrologie, they telling him what the Conjurer had said, and he know­ing that the Conceit of Death might do as much harm as the Disease, bad his Patient not fear, for the Conjurer was an Ass. And proved him little better before he had done: for with wholsome and lively Remedies in the space of a [Page 134] week he fully restor'd him, and he was well not long since when I saw him.

These instances with the Arguments pre­ceding them, will I hope be sufficient to let Physicians see that the Stomach is no contemp­tible bowel, and that Medicines innocent, and adapted to it, must needs be good healers. But if they will be wilfully blind and still persist with their poysonous untoward Remedies, and such that many times make a Disease instead of curing one; and very commonly exasperate Maladies instead of pa [...]ifying them, I cannot but pitty their Patients: & deem them unfortu­nate who fall into the hands of such Physicians, that [...]eading of a few Books can content them­selvs with a parcel of ill-contriv'd Recipes so they have but the name of Art to back their Art­less procedures and that whilst their Remedies are baffled are fit to say and do with that Phy­sician of whom the ingenious and noble Robert Boyl Esquire speaks.

There was (saith he) a witty Doctor, who being asked by an acquaintance▪ of mine of the same profession, why he would not give such a Patient more generous remedies, seeing he grew so much worse under the use of common languid ones, to which he had been confin'd, al­ledging that at last he must needs die with them in his Mouth; he briskly answered, Let him die if he will so he die secundum Artem.

[Page 135]But may Secundum Artem serve in the presence of the Almighty, when their own Consciences shall fly in their faces, and tell them, that they knew better Remedies were to be had, only their Sloth and Carelesness hindred them from them? May that excuse when those who through their deceit, and pre­tending to Cure have been miserably and un­timely Butchered, shall appear as accusers? 'Tis to be doubted hardly. Therefore ye Physicians act wisely, for the good of your own Souls, and the health of your Neigh­bour; and consider if the Priest and Levite who took not compassion freely on the stranger that fell amongst Thieves, were fore it count­ed unneighbourly and by consequence worthy of Blame: How much more worthy of it will such of you appear, who having the life of the distressed Sick committed to your charge, and a promised reward at your Elbows, are never­theless so much unneighbourly, and inhumane, as to take the reward without regard had to his welfare.

Surely if you d [...]l but know the Comfort and Peace which attend Vertuous actions, and that quietude which follows welldone deeds and safe-walking in medicine, you would ma­ny of you not do what you do: But the grea­ter is the Patients misery, 'tis not minded what Medicines, or Method may best cure, But [Page 136] which Method is most Easy, which least Here­tical and which most in Vogue. This was not the way that those, who desired Wisdome, and Peace of Conscience before all fading enjoyments and Mundane Treasures, walked in. Nor was it the Path of Helmont, who confesseth that out of Charity he forsook the Common Roads of Medicine, as supposing it to be a cruel thing to heap up Moneys by the miseries of others.

It may be objected (as I heard it was by a Dunce of a Physician) against him that he was a Papist. 'Tis true: he confesseth it in his works. which (if you will make it a fault) is to be born with, considering 'twas the Reli­gion of his Country. But the same pretty Ob­jector forgot in the mean time that Galen was a Heathen, for all he lived in the dayes wherein Christianity was profest; and amongst Chris­tians (to wit) at Rome, almost two hundred years after preaching of the Gospel.

Truly I wish that those Doctors we call Protestants, and Professors, would but shew more of Christianity in their lives than he did, and then I should say more against him, than now I may think. However I am one of those who doubt whether or no the most holy God minds a Name or a Form so much as the Heart of a Person; seeing he says by his Prophet My Son give me [...]y Heart. Thy Heart: not whining Formalities, for a Contrite-heart God [Page 137] never despiseth. And if indifferent things every one were allowed to walk as he is perswaded, seeing 'tis Antichristian to domineer over, and prescribe Laws to mens Consciences, and that God giveth what number of Talents he plea­seth to every man or woman, (provided they take up no Weapon against the Regal and governing Power of the Land,) it would do very well.

For the Scripture tells us They shall come from the East, from the West, from the North, and from the South, and shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, in the Kingdom of Heaven. Also I perceive (saith the Apostle) that God is no respecter of Persons, but in every Nation he that Feareth God and worketh Righteousness is accepted with him. And 'tis to be doubted that the greatest part of the World, whilst they contend one for this, an­other for that, and a third part for a third Form & opinion; in the end through their dis­obedience to Gods Spirit placed in their hearts, & through their neglect of Justice and Mercy, whilst they pay Tithe-Mint and Rue, and perform the less weighty matters of the Law, (Strain at Gnats and swallow Camels) will be cast headlong to infernal punishment.

We may also suppose that it will not be said in the last Day, come hither, yee Episcopalians, that is as such an associated people, or ye [Page 138] Papists, or yee Presbiterians, or yee Indepen­dent's, or yee Anabaptists, or yee Quakers, (which are all but Nick-names) and en [...]oy the Kingdom prepared for you from the founda­tion of the World: But rather; Come hither yee that served me with an upright Heart in Self-denial: That did to others as yee would be done by: That obeyed my Law of Light in your Hearts, and washed your garments clean from defilements: That abhorred Deceit in all its appearances, and faithfully to the best of your understandings withstood it: That Fed, and Cloath'd me in my despis'd little ones: That imbrued not your hands in the Blood of the Innocent, but rather for my sake endea­vour'd their preservation: I say to such as these it will rather be sayd, Come yee blessed of my Father, and inherit a Kingdome &c.

On the contrary we may believe, that the most just God, who is no respecter of persons, will cast all of all Religions, that shall work wickedness, and do things unbecoming a Chris­tian, to wit, shed innocent Blood, as the Pa­pists did the Noble and true-hearted Protestants Blood; or which is less, shall so far forget their neighbour as to make Self the Center of all their actions; such I say we may believe, the Almighty, who will not behold Iniquity, will cast into Eternal flames where the Worme never dies.

[Page 139]And if so why may we not charitably think well concerning Van Helmont who was an honest man, and merciful to the Poor and Distressed; one that Studied Physick chiefly, that he might profit Mankind & relieve the mise­rable Sick, one that believ'd in Christ, and was an experienced (not literal) Divine: In some of which he manifested himself a true Physician, and in all of them a Christian indeed. To speak of what he was as to a Linguist is in vain, whilst his Works written in a florid Latin-style do it loudly: But concerning his Education and Progress in Physick he speaks as follows.

Van Helmont's Education &c. with some other passages not un­worthy remark.

IN the year 1580. my Father (saith he) dying, I being the youngest and of least esteem of my brethren, and sisters, was brought up in studies: But in the yearStud: Auth: Pag: 16. 1594. which was the seventeenth year of my Age, I finished the Course of Philosophy: therefore seeing that I had only a Mother, I seem'd to be the sole disposer of my right and will. But when I saw none ad­mitted [Page 140] to Examination but in a Gown, and mas­ked with a hood as if the Garment promised learning; I began to know that Professors for some time past, did expose young-m [...]n that were to take their Degrees in Arts to a mock: And I admired at a certain kind of Dotage in Pro­fessors, and so in the whole World; as also at the simplicity of young-mens Credulity. And that I at least wise might in my own judgement know, how much I was a Philosopher: I took my self to task, and examined whether or no I had gotten Truth or Knowledge.

I found for certain that I was Puft up with the Letter and as it were (the forbidden fruitbeing [...] eaten) plainly naked; save that I had learn Artificially to wrangle: Then first I came to know within my self that I knew nothing, and that I knew that which was of no value. For the sphere in Natural Philosophy did seem to promise some knowledge, to which I therefore joyned the Astro­lobe, and the use of the Circle, and Theories of the Planets. I studied Logick and Algebra also for delights sake, as oft as a reading other things had brought Wearisomness: to which I joyned Euclids Elements, and made this Doctrine soci­able to my Genius, because it contained Truth: But by accident the Art of knowing the Circle of Cornelius Gemma, as it were an other Meta­physick, came to my hand. He afterwards speaking of other his Studies, and how Astro­nomy [Page 141] was of little Account with him, because it promis'd little of certainty or truth but very many vain things, goes on thus: Therefore (saith he) my Course being thorowly finished seeing I knew nothing that was Sound and no­thing True, I refused the Title of Mr. of Arts; being unwilling that Professors should play the fool with me, and declare me Master of seven Arts who was not yet a Scholar. Therefore I see­king Truth and Knowledge, but not their appea­rances, withdrew my self from the University.

A wealthy Cannonship was offered me, if so be I would make myself free to Divinity; but S. Bernard frightened me from it, because I should eat the sins of the People. But I begged of the Lord Jesus, that he would Vouchsafe to call me thither, where I might most please him.

Next he goes on and declares many occur­rences, which I for brevity sake omit; but amongst the rest tells how he was pleased with L. Annaeus Seneca's works, as also Epictetus's; and that after he thought he had found the juyce of Truth in Moral Philosophy, and had prayed to the Prince of Life divers times that he would give him strength whereby he might contemplate of the naked Truth and Love it; as also had believed that in Stoicisme he did pro­fit in Christian perfection; God mercifully dis­covered to him in a Dream that he was but as [Page 142] a Bubble, and that in Christ Jesus we live and move and have our being; that no man can call even on the name of Jesus to salvation, without the special Grace of God; and that we must continually pray, and lead us not into Temptation &c. He tells us also how he rould over Mathiolus and Diascorides, and found the Art of Herbarisme to have nothing increased since the dayes of the latter, to wit, as to the knowledge of the Properties, Vertues, and Uses of Plants and Herbs: And being in a doubt to what Profession he should resign himself, he viewed the Law, and saw it to be uncertain, because 'twas mens Traditions; at least wise (he says) to govern himself he found was a thing hard enough, but the judgement concer­ning good-men and the life of others to be ob­scure, and subject to a thousand vexacious dif­ficulties. But at last he fell in love with the Knowledge of Nature, and gives this account of his procedure.

I therefore (saith he) read the Institutions of Fuchius, and Fernelius, in which I knew as by an Epitome I had lookt into the whole science of healing; and smiled to my self: Is it so that the Science of healing is thus delivered without a Theorem and without a Teacher, Who hath drawn the gift of healing from the Adeptist? is the whole History of Natural properties thus shut up in Elementary Qualities? I therefore [Page 143] read Galen's works twice, Once Hippocrates (whose Aphorisms I almost learned by heart) and all Avicen: I seriously and attentively read thorow as well the Greeks and Arabians as Mo­derns happily six hundred; and noted in Common places▪ whatever in them seemed singular to me, and worthy the Quil. At length reading again my collected houshold-stuff, I knew my want, and it grieved me of my pains and years bestowed: To wit when I observed all Books singing the same song with the Institutions, did promise nothing of soundness; And that there was no­thing which might promise the Knowledge of Truth, or the Truth of Knowledge. Elsewere he saith.

I have alwayes even from a Child sought after the Truth above every delightful thing, because in all places I foundIn Prae [...]at: Tum: Pest: every man a Lyer: And so from the impiety of the World, all false, ignorant, devised, deceitful things, and things full of imposture have been Invented. And when I had opportunely searched into all states, Religions, and Conditions by their indi­viduals; I saw indeed the certain and immutable Truth in Numbers and Measures. Finally in created things I found the Essences and Proper­ties of things were True, and Good: But Truth it self however I enquired amongst men I no where found. I greatly griev [...]d that Truth had [Page 144] hid it self from my capacity, being ignorant that that was my own Vice, but not the fault of things. At length when I had considered that God himself was the naked Truth, I took the New-Testament in my hand: In which although I every where noted Singular Truth, yet I found it interpretable to the Will of the Flesh: Yea at this day, I have observed some diligently studi­ous to excuse excuses in Sins, especially in those of great men: and so I perceived Evangelical Truth to be professed but not Consented to as it ought. For there is none who having two Coats puts off one, that out of mer [...] love he may cloath the Poor therewith as if Christ were present: none turns the other Cheek to the striker: And so through the endeavour of some at this day Evangelical Truth is grown out of use amongst Christians.

In which consideration whilst once I had tar­ried out almost all night, after the studies, and very many anxieties, of some Years: I resolved with my self, that I would every were assault the Plague Gratis, the which had invaded our Coun­trey-men, and from which all fled. And al­though I had on every side from books, contrac­ted into a compendium the choicest Remedies described by others, and had them ready: Yet I having tried them found them all to be Feeble, vain, and to no purpose. For the forsaken Sick and Poor, did often cast their Vomitings and [Page 145] belchings upon me; and breathed out their Soul between my armes, to my grief: But God pre­served this ignorant and unprofitable servant. After this discoursing how naked he sound the Art of healing he thus goes on.

I therefore griev'd that I had learnd that Art; and being angry with myself grie­ved that I who was Noble, hadTum: Pest: P: 10: (against my Mothers will, and my kindred on my Fathers side being ignorant of it) as the first in our family de­dicated my self to Medicine. I long time bewai­led the sin of Disobedience, and it repented me of the years and pains bestowed in a Chosen Professi­on. With a sorrowful heart also I humbly besought the Lord, that he would vouchafe to lead me unto a calling, not whither I was carried of my own accord, but wherein I might chiefly please him: and I made a Vow I would follow and obey him, to the utmost of my power, whi­thersoever he should call me. Then first as ha­ving fed on the forbidden fruit, I acknowledged my own nakedness, because I found neither Truth nor Knowledge in my Pu [...]atitious Doc­trine: supposing it especially to be a cruel thing, to heap up moneys by others miseries.

After this, amongst other things too tedious to be mentioned, he tells how he intitled his Inheritance on his Sister; and being a young­man, unprofitable in all things, he recommen­ded [Page 146] himself to God▪ with an intent of going far from home; Of forsaking Medicine; and of never returning into his own Country; And so went on hoping the Lord would cle­mentiously direct him, & says that by how much the more he detested Medicine, and cast it far from him as an I [...]posture or Juggling Deceit; by so much the greater occasion of healing invaded him. For meeting with a Novice who had known at least the Manual Instruments of Pyrotechny; forthwith so soon as he beheld the Penetrale or inward part of some Bodies by the Fire▪ he perceived the separation of many: And in few years after, though absent, was in great esteem with the sick, by reason of his Medi­cines; as also with Ernestus Bavarus the Elec­tor of Collen, who sent for him to help him. And a little after, after giving an account of some passages▪ which I shall omit, he thus proceeds.

‘Finally (saith he) God cut off the means of Preferment from me, aswell in the Church as amongst Civil Potentates; and so also ample fortunes seem'd to be promis'd me by Rodolph the Emperour, but I had incurr'd the danger of my Soul. In exchange whereof he gave me a God­ly and Noble Wife, with whom I withdrew myself to Vilvord: and for seven years space de­dicated myself to the Art of the Fire, and suc­coured the Calamities of the Poor. I have found, and indeed I have certainly found (saith [Page 147] he) that none shall be forsaken of God, who with a pious affection, and firm faith performs the office of a Physician. For although I am the sillyest of all men, yet I have apparently found that God is Charity itself towards the Miserable; and that therefore from his own effluxing good­ness of Charity, he alwayes took care of me: For the inheritances of my▪ Wife were increased, and ample Patrimonies of my Family befel me: And though I was pressed down with suits of Law by the malice of men, Yet I became a Con­querer by some revisals so as that the Mercies of God openly appeared to me an unworthy Person.’

‘Moreover he pressed down those that excelled in might, who under the Cloak of Piety per­secuted me unto disgrace, and hidden Death. And the Darts were reflected on those that cast them, so that it now more shameth than repen­teth them of their manifest Crimes.’ Thus the noble Helmont.

And truly methinks he wrote like a Christian, and one that was a Physician indeed. Nor did he only write, but did so, in Curing the Poor freely, and in conscientiously exercising the office of a Physician towards the Rich, as also in detecting the Errors of Galen, and such his Drowsy followers who aim more at curing their Patients pockets of a Plethora than their bodies of a Consumption.

[Page 148]Indeed I the more willingly collected these things concerning his Education, and progress in Physick, that Galenick Physicians may see, or, if they will be wilfully blind, that other intelligent persons may see, against whom they have been Bawling so and Rayling; because he struck at their Master Galen's frigid No­tions and sour Humors, that have no existence unless in the Brains of the vulgar. But I must confess they were a little concerned, whilst he strikes at their Silver Shrines, to cry out with Demetrius; Great is Diana of the Ephesians: thinking that if this fellow prevail'd, he would clearly spoil the Trade of Stirring Dung and Urine, and diminish their Gain.

As to diminishing it I have nothing to say, on­ly as to making Gain the chief aim that Helmont wrote against; as also against their neglect of the Poor, and did well in so doing: For Phy­sick doubtless had its rise in Charity, though since (as all things are) 'tis corrupted. He tells you in the words of the Wise-man, That a Physician shall receive a Gift of a King, not of a Poor-man: thereby implying that we are not to neglect the Poor though they are not able to bring Angels nor Crowns in their hands for scribling a few words to an Apothecary; nay though they are not able sometimes to bring half so much in their hands to pay for a Medi­cine: [Page 149] For the Almighty who is the God of the Poor, has sometimes a Lazarus in his Sores.

Nor is it unfit in the mean that those whol can should pay, and reward a Physician wel for his Labour and Studies, as a Physician ought to be: which Helmont in the words of the wise­man signifies. Besides some Physicians, who are owners of but indifferent Estates, would be ruin'd in doing otherwise, and thereby by disi­nabling themselves to relieve, injure the di­stressed Poor. But then be sure let Equity and a good Conscience be made use of, and when they are under your hands do not, as 'tis to be doubted too many do, play such unhandsome Parts with them, as to protract cures out of love to Angels; Golden ones I mean: Nor out of Deceit, whilst your own Consciences tell you the only preventive Physick is sober, modera­te, and orderly living, without R [...]oting and Drunkenness, go to perswade people to take your Preventive Purges when they are already in good plight, though many of you yourselves will not touch one of them in the case; knowing a Cup of Sack or Ale drunk mode­rately is better. Neither deal unreasonably, as too many frequently have done in cure of Sick persons of mean Estate, running them to such needless and great expences as to make them Beggars for ever after; or at least thereby so to impoverish them that several years s [...]ar [...]e make [Page 150] good the Loss, if the very Conceit of being so extreamly Poor make them not as Sick as the Disease it self made them.

The Truth of it is too too apparent, and yet many times, at least when the Disease is cu­rable, they go uncured through deficiency in Medicine. Nor do some Physicians mind that; for so long as there is Money, the Sick shall have their Company, with Your Humble Ser­vant Madam to boot, And although their own Consciences tell them, that their Lifeless Me­dicines will not Profit; yet they will tell you, Their life for yours you will recover, wish they had a lease of your life or something to that effect: and speak twice more confidently than one that has better remedies, and makes a Con­science of what he does and says. Thus a rich Physician, but as ignorant as his Neighbours, was wonted to serve his Patients, (as several per­sons concern'd and that too well knew it, told me;) and as long as they gave him his Fee, to tell them that the Sick Party was like to Reco­ver. And for all he apparently saw they were worse daily, and that his Remedies were at best but Insignificancies, also that there was no hopes of recovery by his Cooling Method: Yet would he not tell them so, lest I believe another Physician should be sent for, to effect the Cure to his dishonour. And which was remarkable, many times when the Physician [Page 151] has thus promis'd life the Party has died in an hour or two after, and was sometimes strugling with Death when the Doctor praedicted Life. One Gentleman told me himself, that this Doctor visiting his Wife every day would give him comforting words, though he and the Nurse apparently plainly saw that she declin'd, and the Doctor might too doubt­less have seen it had he not been made blind by Pl [...]tus; And that the last day the Doctor visited his Wife (who was then dying,) he gave him great hopes of her recovery, but was scarce gone a Bow-shot from the house before she was Dead. On the other hand, when the same Physician has been called to others that have not [...]ed him as he expected, then would he denounce Death to them: perhaps on pur­pose to get clear of such Moneyless Patients.

On a time a Poor Washer-woman (as 'twas told to my Intimate by her self) being very ill, and having as I remember but three Half-Crowns in the World, was over-perswaded to imploy this Doctor, she did; but did ill in it: for she should have sent to some Physician who prepared his own Medicines, and then her advice would have cost her nothing. Or she might have gone or sent to some Apothecary that was judicious and sober, and he would have done her doubtless less harm than that Do­ctor did. For if she was not right-down sick the [Page 152] loss of her Money (poor-creature) for Fees was enough to have made her so.

But to the matter. The Doctor visited her once, and had one half-crown, which was more than she could clear by a weeks washing; The second day he came again without sen­ding for, for the Doctors custom was, being once sent for, to follow his Game close, and then he had the second half Crown; And the third day when he call'd in without sending for, the poor-womans last half Crown being hard to be parted with she did not give him it: Where­upon being angry he askt her at his departure, whether she thought he could run up & down for nothing? she might have told him she did not send for him; And truly in my Opinion, if Physicians are so unwise as to run up and down to Mean-peoples houses without sending for, the People should be so wise as to thank them for it, but give them no Money for coming. Now whether or no the woman was sentenced to dye by the Doctor I cannot tell, but I remem­ber I heard she recover'd by better Medicines. But what an unchristian trick was this to rob the Spittle-house! and how contrary to what the good Samaritane did! Surely if such Phy­sicians should have no more mercy shewn them from the Father of Lights than they shew to their fellow-creatures, they would soon descend the Infernal Lake.

[Page 153]However I perswade myself there are not a few Learned Physicians that are tender­hearted, industrious, Conscientious, and Mer­ciful; and many more that would do better did they know better: But such should be diligent, and inquisitive, (for as the Poet tells us, God sells Arts to sweats) and not content themselves with barely tumbling over a few volumes, and such that, were the very Authors themselves living, they would not know what to say to the stubborn Diseases of this Age. But though there are many such honest Phy­sicians, yet there are many more 'tis to be feared otherwise; which thing is very lamen­table. For though Botchery and Deceit in any Art is unpleasing, yet in Physick 'tis most dan­gerous, and prejudicial: whilst men by them sometimes lose their lives, and oftentimes the [...]r healths.

Therefore for an example to such as are not as they ought to be, I will by and by declare what I saw, and was an Eye-witness to, after that I have detected one abuse more, that too frequently is put on the Gentry: To do which take this following example.

A Wealthy Knight and Baronet not many years since fell sick: At first he was but slight­ly affected, but under welnigh half a dozen Physicians which did their endeavour off and on, instead of being better he declin'd; and at [Page 154] last itterminated in a Paralytick Gout, or the Gout & Palsy together because the disease lying much in the Genus Nervosum contemned their fee­ble succours, or was rather strengthened by them. But before it came to this pass, and (though he was weak) had as yet the use of his Legs and Arms, he was visited by his Bro­ther an Esquire that intreated him to make use of his Chymical Doctor: adding that he cured him safely, and soundly, when the ablest Ga­lenists thereabouts could do no good, and had since cured his Wife of a Paralytick Lethargy, when two or three Physicians had after three daies endeavour left her insensible, and sleeping as they found her. At length the Esquire pre­vail'd so much that his Doctor was sent for, and retain'd, not doubting but to recover him with lively and good Remedies: Therefore he sent such. But before he (to wit the sick-man) had taken one spoonful of any of them, the Ga­lenists with their Agents (of which they have too many) subtilly Workt him out, under the Notion of wishing the sick-man well: Buzzing into his head, that the Chymical Doctor gave hot Medicines that were Dangerous.

And why dangerous? Because the Medicines being vital and penetrative (which are properties in a medicine, that must su [...] in with, and assist the Life) if the Sick-man should have taken them he might doubtless have recovered; and is not [Page 155] [...]at dangerous? Now when they take their Coo­ [...]ng Medicines, which carry Deaths property, [...] Death is cold enough, there is little danger [...] fear (unless Nature be stubborn, and vigorous) [...]t that they'l die according to Art.

But to go on. One of the first Doctors, [...]hough before he could do no good, after he had workt out the Chymical Doctor, that he might [...]ot be re-admitted & to keep the Sick-man in play, told him he had found out something [...]hat would doubtless Cure him safely in a Month or Six weeks. The words Cure him safely were mighty pleasing: and so they went on. But after this he daily declin'd, whilst they fed him up with Fancies, and told him 'Twas all for the better. But in short, he that before had the use of his Limbs in the space of six weeks could neither move Legs nor Arms, and was three times worse than before: So that the Promis'd Cure no where appear'd.

When the Sick Knight and Baronet com­plained of this, the Apothecary would tell him that they aim'd at preserving his Life within, and were loath to set upon the Disease in his Limbs, lest they should drive it in upon his life, and so kill him, as if there had been no other way to cure him but by driving the Dis­ease upon his Life. Reader canst forbear smi­ling at, or rather pittying a Sick-man under such unfaithful helpers? However this quieted [Page 156] him for the present. But daily growing worse and worse, he still complain'd how that now he was in great pain in this joynt, and part of his Body. The Doctor told him 'twas all for the better. At another time telling him he was much disturb'd in another part, and in almost half his body: The Doctor would still reply 'tis all for the Better. And thus he grew better and better, till he was almost Dead. Where­upon when this languishing Person, after many months trial of this Doctor, was nothing men­ded: but was worser by many Degrees at last, than he was when he took him in hand the second time, notwithstanding 'twas all for the better: Yet he imploys another Galenick Phy­sician and in about six weeks after fairly dies Secundum Artem. But whether or no that was all for the better, I'le leave you to deter­mine.

Thus are the Gentry liable to be impos'd upon for their money, as well as the Poor slighted for want on't. Neither have Nobles themselv's because they are Rich been freed from Casualties, Nor will they ever be free, as long as Poysons must pass for Medicines, and so long as Nature must be weakned instead of helpt, and so long as Words are more studied than Things. Witness the sudden and untimely death of Marquess Charles Spinelli some years since General of the Genoans by white Hellebore [Page 157] [...]hich was given him by a Company of Phy­ [...]cians: As also the Death of that Emperour (to [...]mit narratives nigher home) on whose Tomb History tells us was Engraven,

He perished through a Rout of Physicians.

Nor may I pass by the death of a very Lusty [...]nd stout young Gentleman, and an eldest [...]rother, through extract of Black Hellebore, given him by an eminent and Learned Doctor [...]o Purge away an Ague. For he after he had [...]een walking abroad in the City wherin he [...]v'd, came home, and took it at eight at night, and was dead about three hours after: Pur­ging and Vomiting most cruelly having prece­ded Death. The which, when I heard it from [...]he mouth of the Brother of that Party that was [...]ill'd, and the manner how, made me no little [...]dmire; and more admire that such can have the face to cry out against Chymistry as a ha­ [...]rdous Art, and exclaim against its Medicines [...]s Venomous: When their very Dispensatory in point of Purging sounds forth little else but Poysons; and that they scarce ever effect any [...]otable Cure but they do it by Chymical Re­ [...]edies, and such, that were they faithfully pre­pared, and not Adulterated through desire of [...]ain, would do much more than they do.

'Tis pitty that Physick, an Art so useful, [Page 158] should be thus corrupted; and that Self should thrust Charity out of doors. I believe if any Shop-keeper with whom a Physician deals should defraud him of a Pound or two, and act dishonestly, he would take it ill, and call him Knave not causlesly: But how much greater are such, who with lying deceits, not only many times get peoples money for nothing, or at best for a parcel of they know not what themselves: but also under pretence of curing, Kill them with Poysons Secundum Artem, when their lives can never be regain'd: And rather than another shall come to cure when they can't, anoint them with the Oyle of Fool, and feed them with fancies till they are dead, knowing then they are past telling tales.

☞ Therefore I say (Pray Reader take notice on't,) that that Physician who takes a Patient in hand, though it be in a Chronick disease, and does not in less than fourteen dayes time shew an apparent sign of Recovery: and by the fifth or sixth day does not give some refreshment to the Patient, and put a stop to the procedure of the dis­ease, I say, if he does not do this, Let him pretend what he will, his Method and Remediesare feeble, and will in no wise profit.

For if the life do not meerly fail, which failing no Medicine can cure, Nature will in a few daies in some sort revive, in the presence, and through the aid of lively innocent remedies, [Page 159] and such as suit with the life. But if Medicines shall let a Patient languish and grow worse for a week or two, and yet the Patient after that recover by other Medicines: Know assu­redly those first Medicines were unfit, or spirit­less and dead, if not fitter to kill a Well-man, than cure a Sick one.

And if a Physician being called in an Acute distemper, to wit a Fever or a Pleurisy: and can't give ease, and great comfort, in less than four and twenty hours, and put a stop to the advance of the Disease: Also can't in the space of seven dayes, cure either of them without ope­ning of a Vein; provided Medicines be well followed, and the candle of life does not fail: Tell him that I who have known hundreds upon hundreds cured so, affirm his Medicines are not the best in England.

And now to perform my promise madeafew Pages back, having brought you Helmont that noble Physician for an example of Charity, and Christianity; I will give you one president more, that you may have two to imitate, and may be excited to well-doing by Example.

This person was my I have for the present conceal'd his name, lest it should be thought I wrote this to promote his Sons Interest who not unfortunatesy suc­ceeds in his pra­ctice. Tutor, who now being [Page 160] deceased, I may lawfully commend, and tell you he was a practical Divine: And one that though he did not use to whine as some do, and take the Lord's name vainly in his mouthto make an outside religious show, (for he aswell as my self abominated Hypocrites) yet carried the fear and love of God alwayes in his heart. And of all the Physicians I ever yet met with, I never found one whose humour was more like to Van Helmonts than his. For in the first place above twenty years since when he had a good Galenick Practice, finding as he told me that 'twas a long way to Cure diseases, but a short and easy way to get Money, he gave to a learned chymical physician, to wit, one Sommerskil, Me­dicinae Doctor, that had formerly been Secretary to Prince Henry the eldest Son of King James, and was a man very Aged and judicious in Phy­sick, and a Practiser many years. I say, to him he gave above a hundred pounds to teach him his Skill in Chymistry. Which he did, because he lov'd him well, and shortly after died; through grief some say because he could not obtain the Lapis to get which he vainly attemp­ted. But that not concerning our Physical affairs, I shall pretermit.

And tell you that he by this means having many years experience, studiously went to work himself, till at last he obtain'd remedies after some years endeavour of a Large extent in [Page 161] Point of Curation. Then he left off prescri­bing; and being at that time the only Physician there that cleav'd to the Chymical Method, had all the Doctors and Apothecaries against him; so that he was forced to make good his Ground by Real Art, and oppose their Reproaches with Cures. Which he manfully did till he died, and left in his place his eldest Son of the same Name, a Person Ingenious and Learned.

Nor did this honest Physician appear like to Helmont, only in leaving the Galenick for the Chymick-Method; but also in Charity. And had he had but Helmont's Alkahest, and his hundreds a year, he would, I am perswaded, have given his Medicines away Helmont▪ like. For though he liv'd by his Practice, as other Physicians did and do, yet was he so charita­ble to the Poor, and tender of the Health of the Distressed, that I verily believe he cured more People yearly for nothing, than some Physicians in that City did for a hundred pounds. For 'twas but going and telling him they were Sick and Poor, and it was the way not only to have Advice, but Medicines too for nothing. Nay, which is more than ordi­nary, he would not only Relieve some that were Poor with Medicines and his Advice free­ly, but with Money in private likewise, as I by diligent observance and watching him found; for he did not use to blow a Trumpet when he did [Page 162] it; nor would he speak on't, unless I took an occasion to discourse with him about it: And then he would like a good Man (as he was, if a Man may be called good) reply, The Rich have many Friends, but the Poor have few: And would add, That perhaps whilst the poor Person languish'd, and could not work for his Family, his Wife and Children almost starv'd at home: And therefore to let the sick Man languish because he had no Mo­ney, would be a thing very hard-hearted. He would also use to make their Case his, and say, He would be glad of relief if he were sick, though he had no Money to pay for it.

Sometimes others who were pretty well to Pass, having spent four or five Pounds on other Doctors in vain; when their Money was al­most all gone, would come to him; and if when they came they could but plead, 'twas low with them, and they wanted Money, &c. he would commonly Cure them for a Crown or an Angel charge; to wit, by giving some of his Medicines away, whilst he sold other-some. And when Persons who lived well by their dai­ly Labour, but not very Rich have come to him at any time about a Feaver, or any other such like Acute Distemper, his Advice they had for no [...]hing, and commonly a Cure for a Crown or less, and that quickly and safely too.

But the Rich rewarded him as they ought, and [Page 163] all the Reason in the World for it: For if they do not, who shall reward him that is a Physi­cian, for all his Pains, Studies, and Expen­ces? But he would not, I am confident, have given to either them or the Poor, a Malignant Remedy, or such a one he durst not take him­self, if he might have been hired to do it. Which was, in my Opinion, an excellent pro­perty in him▪ and a thing that gave great en­couragement to many of his Patients, to cleave to him whenever there was a necessity for Me­dicines. And some of his Patients when they have come, and have desired of him some Ve­nomous Dose, perhaps a Vomit, &c. have had a positive denyal, and that was all; for he would rather at any time venture the loss of his Patients love, than hazard their Lives and his Credit. But if they (being self-will'd) have got what they desired elsewhere, and have soundly paid the punishment of their Folly; then would they come to him many times to make up the Breach, and take leasure to repent of their Indiscretion.

It was also his custom (though he oftentimes hurt himself by it) after inventing or making a New Remedy, if none of his Family would venture on't, to take it first himself before any of his Patients should touch it. For, saith the honest Man, I that have Medicines by me, better know how to cure my self, if Malignity [Page 164] be in it, than another that hath no Medicine to help himself. Besides, he considered if he should try a New-made Remedy on a Rich-Man, and he be hurt by it, it would discredit himself and Chymistry. And to try it on a Poor-Man, as too many do, he considered if it should hurt him, though not kill him, yet it spoiling his Health, might ruine him, and un­doe his Wife and Children (if he had any) that depended on his daily Labour; and there­fore to do that would be cruel.

Thus did this true-hearted Physician too of­ten hazard his own, to recover the Health of his Neighbour; endangering it, not only by o­perating in the Fire, to produce good Remedies, various times undergoing the fumes of Mercu­ry and Antimony, till he was as weary of them as I am: But after he had, by Directions from other Authors, some true ones, some false ones, made many preparations too tedious to be na­med, and had wrought upon most Subjects that werein the least counted Medicinal; He, by taking many of them into his Body, mightily impaired his Stomach. And afterwards be­cause he would not hurt others, (to wit, his Patients) he threw all such as he found Di­sturbers of Nature, and Hazardous, away; and only kept to such Remedies, as he was well assured were Wholesom, Innocent, and Ver­tuous.

[Page 165]Here is a President for such Physitians that mind nothing beside Self, whilst the good of their Neighbour is least thought of; not re­garding what they give to the People, so they may but live in Ease and Pleasure; no [...] caring what Method they follow, (whether Chymical, or Galemical) so they can but get money. As if to deal honestly and candidly with the op­pressed, or to act with the good Samaritan, were out of fashion. They may believe it will not be askt in the great Reckoning day how ma­ny hundreds a year they had when they Died: but rather how many hundreds of the distressed Sick they have faithfully Reliev'd. I will not say for nothing, seeing, The Labourer is wor­thy of reward, but even for money and a stipend being tendred. They may consider that this life will have an end: And that although those many Souls, that by their Carelesness and sloth, are so civil, That they never come back to com­plain: Yet that the Ears of the Almighty being pierced by the crys of the Widow and Father­less, they must once give an account of their Stewardship, and with what Conscience, they have exercised Physick. In which juncture I perswade my self, if God's witness in their Consciences stand on their side, they'l find it more than a little prevalent.

Another property my honest Tutor had, which I highly commend in him, or any other [Page 166] ingenious Physician; to wit, he cared not, nay, abhorred to turn Mountebank; and as too many do, make a noise in Print about their Pills, Elixirs, and Spirits. For such let them pretend what they will, and tell you of the Name of the Lord God to boot▪ yet the business in the bottom is Money. And though many of them would perswade you into a belief that their hazardous Purging Pills, &c. are All­curing, and can make a Disease it self on sight of it Diseasie: Yet they rarely Cure any Dis­ease radically with them, unless it be the Con­sumption in their own Pockets. Nor must you hear how many have been Kill'd and Mis­chiev'd by them, for that would not be to their Advantage.

I remember on a time, That one who found great benefit by a certain Medicine which my Tutor made, that would Cure several Acute Distempers safely; prevailing with his young Son many years since, got a few Bills printed of the Vertue and Use of it, with intent to sell the same only to his private Acquaintance and Friends, and to take away the trouble of writing Directions. But when this ingenious Physitian saw it, he contemning that pedling trick of Mountebanking, was exceedingly a­sham'd on't, and gave strict orders to the con­trary▪ for the future. For if a Physician is qualified as he ought, a possessor of Excellent [Page 167] Medicines, and one that prefers Wisdom before Wealth, he will doubtless never so highly un­dervalue his Profession, if he live on Bread and Water.

The Cure of those most inveterate Distem­pers, the French Pox and Scurvey, is a small matter with some of these Bill-men, when, poor-hearts, they would cure it if they could. Infallible Cures other-some thunder forth, though they have little skill in Medicinal Af­fairs. Pish, this is nothing with us; London and most Cities in England can shew you Pills good for All Diseases; and which is more, some good for more than All being those (it re­quires a long Faith to believe it) that out-do all Pills hitherto extant: So that (Monstrum horrendum!) those very Pills their own selves that Cure all Diseases, are in no wise to be compared to them.

Most of these notwithstanding are Compleat, Neat, Delicate, Fine; sometimes Curing, of­ten hurting, and now and then Killing-Cathar­ticks, or Emeto-Catharticks; that is to say, Purging-Pills, or Pills that Purge and Vomit notoriously, and not seldom fatten Burying­places prettily. But I command and charge you not to read any thing of that in their Books and Bills, on the penalty of being coun­ted one that read what they never publish in them.

[Page 168]But here's the worst on't, The more to de­ceive the People, and to put the better face on the Matter, we must have a pretence to Chy­mistry, (for that takes) if we have not some ill-shap'd Picture of a Chymical-Furnace, to make it daintily fine; and must tell them Chy­mistry had a finger in the Pill's-formation, for that will make it go off. When alas, Poor-Things, they understand nothing less than the real Art of the Fire; which teacheth us, if truly understood, to shun all violent Purges and Vomits, and to avoid all hazardous Reme­dies.

I do not write this to have these persecuted or put by, unless the Poor may have better Assi­stants; But to have People take notice, That, as good Wine needs no Bush, no more do good Medicines a printed Bill; as also to desire such Physicians who are intelligent, to be Sincere, True-hearted, and Merciful, and to eat some Grains of Self-denyal. For 'tis the hard­heartedness and haughtiness of some such, that gives encouragement to these, whilst those who want an Angel or a Crown to Fee a Doctor, must go to them many times or no where, though they receive not that benefit they might. Whereas would intelligent Physici­ans keep a few Medicines by them to sell to the meaner sort of People without, whilst the richest give Fees, they would soon work them [Page 169] out of Credit. Or, if instead of an Angel or a Crown, they would take a Shilling, or Nothing, and write them a Bill to some Con­scientious Apothecary, prescribing a few cheap, yet Vertuous Ingredients, it would be a means to suppress the Bill-Trade. Which otherwise they will never do, and in reality 'tis pitty they should; for a small Aid, and somewhat uncertain, is better to the Poor than none.

Concerning Medicines both Chy­mical and Galenical.

THat the Common Method of Medicine, called Galenical, is too languid and fee­ble to tug with those violent and stubborn Dis­eases which are grassant and assail us in our dayes, Experience hath so apparently evinced, that there is scarce one in four of our late Phy­sical-Writers but confess it: And therefore ex­hort Physicians to apply themselves to search after more vigorous Remedies, which by their Vertues may vanquish Diseases. Thus far they do well and nobly, but in my Opinion they are sluggishly obeyed, especially by such who have either grown gray-headed in Ignorance, and will know nothing in a manner beyond a Purge, a Vomit, a Syrup, or the Lancet; or by such, who not much regarding the Good [Page 170] of the Sick, mind mostly their Ease and Profit.

Nor is it wholly without cause that they are no better obeyed, seeing some few of those who Preach forth this Excellent Doctrine, and plead for a Renovation of Medicine, are so far short of what they would have others do, that they themselves defend Blood-letting, and are not startled at hazardous Remedies.

For shame let us cast Poysons out of Physick, and all such Medicines as are disturbers of Na­ture; unless with Helmont we are able so to correct them, that we may not expose the Dis­eased to danger, nor to the Mercy of Merci­less-Doses. Nor let us forget Mercury and An­timony, unless we are able to tame them; espe­cially the first, who derides all endeavours unless you bring him an Alkahest. For not­withstanding as otherwise prepared, with an addition of other Ingredients, it sometimes, as being Alcaleous, effects a Cure.

Yet considering it may expose, as it some­times hath done, a Person to dammage and danger, if not perniciously destroy him; I verily perswade my self, 'twould be for the honour of Physick and their safety, never to admit it into our Stomachs. Next I think it would no wayes dishonour Chymistry, could we find all our Pretenders to Helmontianism, steer their Course safely in Physick; (as some I [Page 171] know do) and not by their perverse Mineraline Remedies gainsay Noble Van in Works, whilst in Words they seem to defend him. Perverse I say, for such as Purge and Vomit I can assure you deserve no better Name, and no little de­fame Chymistry.

Which as it is an Art most useful, so is it a Word of no ill signification; being derived, as some say, from [...], others from Alchy­mus a King. But 'tis the real knowledg of the Art and its Principles, not the Name, which is the thing that makes a Physician Ex­cellent: Seeing it separates Crudities, and cor­rects Medicines by the Fire, through a proper Application of Agent to Patient.

Nor is there any greater difference between Well-prepared Chymical Remedies, and vulgar Shop-ones called Galenical, than that the last are Crude and Raw, at least-wise not cleansed from their Terrene and Drossy Shackles, and therefore unfit for a weak Stomach: And that the first, to wit, the Chymical Remedies, through the assistance of the Fire and Art, are rendered Spirituous, Vertuous, and Innocent, being divested of all cloging Qualities.

For if the Fire be so needful a thing to pre­pare Food when we are well, much more when we are sick; forasmuch as the Stomach is then usually so impair'd, as that the least thing of­fends it, if it be not lively and suitable. Be­sides [Page 172] the Stomach not being strong, is incapa­citated to make a separation of Parts, and suck out the Vertues, which are but small, in a crude, and therefore unfit mass of Terrestrieties or drossy Medicines. Whereas a studious and industrious Chymical Physician, professing himself Natures Servant, separates the drossy parts from the more pure that should nourish; and by only exhibiting the latter, saves Na­ture the trouble of expelling the Dross, and of casting forth what otherwise would hurt Her. So that She being delighted and enlivened by the approach of such pure Remedies, begins to revive and get strength, and finally routs Her Houshold Enemy, to wit, the diseasie faex.

Which thing doubtless many Galenical Phy­sicians observing often, whilst they rail'd a­gainst Chymistry and its Medicines; after a tryal of such as they could get from their own or others hands, found them not undeserving Protection; and do since embrace them with such loving hearts, though they subtilly rail against Chymical Physicians, as such that give hot dangerous Medicines; That being put to a non-plus by the stubborn Disease, and their Syrups, Purges, and Electuaries being baffled, they'l apply themselves to such, and sometimes so fortunately, that the almost-dead Patient re­covers.

For which their care I must needs highly [Page 173] commend them, and should more commend them if they made such Chymical Medicines themselves: But I cannot say they are too ho­nest and candid in railing against an Art, which their own Consciences tell them is most useful, and to which they are so much behol­den. For if Chymical Medicines are good in an Apothecaries Hand, who ignores their Dose or Composition; or if they are excellent, be­ing prescrib'd by a Physician that never made a Chymical Medicine, or at least-wise that Me­dicine he gives order for; Why may not such Medicines, being more faithfully made, be much better in a Chymical Physitian's Hands? I am sure there is no reason to the contrary, but much reason for it; and it seems most agree­able to sense, That he should best cure with Chymical Remedies, that spared neither cost nor labour to make them Excellent and Inno­cent, and knows well what Ingredients they are made of. But what do Galenical Physitians who prescribe to Apothecaries, make use of Chy­mical Medicines, and yet nevertheless rail at Chymistry and its Professors? Yes, they do, notwithstanding their railing, which is but to blind the World; and which is worse, those Chymical Remedies they make use of, are (be­sides badly made) oftentimes Sophisticated and Adulterated. How! Sophisticated and Adulterated? 'Tis so, and all from this cursed [Page 174] thing Self, and a desire of Gain. For in the first place the Doctor cannot, because he must mind his Fees, and keep delicate white hands to feel the Pulse of his Patient. And in the next place the Apothecary loves Money, and won't, because he can buy them of Mercenary Chymists much cheaper than he can make them. But this cheapness sometimes costs the Patient dear, to wit, his Health, if not his Life, in regard the Remedies are Adulteraeted and Abu­sed, that they may be afforded so: Though to cloak their own deceit, if the Medicine does harm, they, like Politicians, will say, His time was come.

But why do the Mercenary Chymists thus a­buse their Remedies? That they may get a to­lerable Subsistence and live. For the Apothe­cary, who (like other Tradesmen) buyes where he can buy cheapest, offering low rates, so low, that the Medicine cannot be faithful­ly made for the Money; doth thereby tempt the Mercenary Chymist to Adulterate and So­phisticate, or else make the Medicine by halfs: How destructive this is to many a poor Soul, I shall leave others to determine. Thus in­stead of Spirit of Salt, Phlegm of Salt is sold; and not only so, but 'tis sometimes Sophistica­ted, and Oyl of Sulphur (with other Reme­dies too tedious to be named) adulterated, &c. [Page 175] I omit with what, because I will not make Fools Knaves.

Nor are many of our Modern Writers si­lent concerning this; for even Van Helmont se­riously professeth, That he was loth to speak plainly of any Medicine of Note, Because al­most all Chymical Remedies in the Shops being full of deceit, and adulterated, through desire of Gain, gave him cause to think all would be serv'd so: And truly I am of his Opinion. But the ingenious and noble Ro­bert Physiolog. Essayes. Boyl Esquire, having found it too true, sayes, That he so of­ten met with Chymical Prepara­tions unsincere, that he dare scarce trust any in the Administration of Physick, which either his own Furnaces did not afford him, or was given him by some faithful skilful person he had a good opinion of. The other day (sayes he) ha­ving occasion to use some Spirit of Salt, whereof I was not then provided, I sent for some to a Chymist, who making it himself, was the like­lier to afford that which was well made: But though I gave him his own rate for it, at the first rectification in a Retort, a single pound af­forded us no less than six ounces of Phlegm; and afterwards being further rectified in a high Body and gentle Heat, the remaining Spirit parted with a scarce credible quantity of the like nau­seons Liquor. And after all these sequistrati­ons [Page 176] of Phlegm, 'twas not pure enough to perform what we expected from it. Of which complain­ing to an excellent Chymist of my acquaintance, he sent for Spirit of Salt to a very eminent Di­stiller of it, who gets much by his Profession, and passeth for a very honest Man: But this Spirit (besides its weakness) discovered it self to be Sophisticated, with either Spirit of Nitre or Aqua Fortis; Which betrayed it self by its peculiar and odious smell. Whereas Spirit of Salt skilfully and sincerely drawn, is commonly of a greenish Colour, bordering upon yellow, and hath usually a peculiar and not unpleasing smell.

I shall bring here no more Instances, though I could produce many to the same effect, see­ing it would be but actum agere. Only be pleased to take notice how well a Patient is likely to be recovered by such ill-made Medi­cines: And what's the cause the Galenists of­ten prevail little more in a manner with their mercenary Chymical Remedies, than they do with their own cloging drossy Galenical ones, as also what is one cause they cry out against Chymical Medicines.

But why then do Galenists rail at, and give reproachful Titles to Chymical Physicians and their Art? There are many Causes, one of which I desir'd you to take notice of lately, but the most usual one is, because they out-do [Page 177] them in Cures, through faithful preparing their own Medicines. And thereupon lest the People, especially the Gentry, should be in­clin'd to make use of them, they Buz into their Heads, That Chymical Remedies either Kill or Cure quickly. Who, not perceiving the Doctors Design, believe it, till they are brought almost to Death's door; and then when they perceive themselves as 'twere incurable, know­ing they can but die, a Chymical Physician per­haps shall be imployed; and if they be not too far spent, (which sometimes they are before the Galenist will leave them) by wholsom, live­ly, innocent Remedies they recover. And by this means, notwithstanding their Reproaches, is Chymistry in repute with many.

I remember about four years since, a worthy Gentlewoman falling into a Paralytick Le­thargy, several (I think three) Galenick Phy­sicians were sent for. They tryed various Wayes and Means, and Medicine upon Medi­cine, but all was in vain; and after three days endeavour could not awaken her, or cause her to move, but were forced to leave her as they found her, whilst the Disease seemed to laugh their lifeless and feeble Remedies to scorn. Thus when she was yeelded incurable, my ingenious Tutor was sent for; who sending his Son, because himself could not conveniently go, recovered her by innocent yet valiant Re­medies, [Page 178] insomuch that she could move and open her eyes in few hours space, and after­wards, to the wonderment of many, he made her well and sound. One or two of the Do­ctors hearing this, and seeing her within few dayes so much mended after their ineffectual attempts: To save their Credits, and salve their Bungling, buz'd into the heads of the Women, that he, to wit, the Chymical Do­ctor, corresponded with the Devil, or some bad Spirit; adding, he useth Astrology, (which the Vulgar call the Black Art, though it bor­rows its name from Light Bodies) but they mistook. However this was not a little belie­ved, by not only the credulous Women, but some Men; insomuch that enquiery was made concerning it, and that with diligence, where­by they were better satisfied▪ and plainly saw the Heathenish Christianism, and deceit of the Doctors; and we by this means came to hear on't.

But what a piece of Villany was this, to reward so good, so charitable, and so ingeni­ous a Physician, with so base and ignominious a reproach, for all his Labour and Expences to find out better Medicines than they had! Nor was this all, for they used and tryed many wayes to depretiate, and bring his Medicines into contempt; onely because he could do more than they could, and oftentimes cured [Page 179] where they were non-plust. But this reproach was so blockish, That surely had I not then been a Tabler with him in the House, and heard it there, I should not easily have be­lieved that any Physician had been so stupid, or so unphilosophically bred, as to ascribe the cure of Diseases to the Devil. I must confess 'tis something like the trick of the Pharisees, who abused the Prince of Physicians, our Lord and Master Christ, for casting out Devils, and curing Diseases, which they could not; say­ing, he did it through Beelzebub the Prince of Devils: Wherefore if the Master was defam'd, well may his Servants.

However let not such Reproaches deter you, ye noble and true-hearted Chymical Physici­ans, from pursuing after more refined Medi­cines; being assured, (as Helmont sayes) That none shall ever be forsaken of God, who with a pious Affection, and firm Faith, performs the Office of a Physician.

Nor be ye startled at their crying out against the Heat of Chymical Medicines, seeing through a defect in the Natural Heat of the Body, Diseases are commonly bred, especially Fevers. For if Heat, which is the Exciter, though not the Efficient of Digestion, did not fail, as well as the Ferment it self, and there­by disinable the Stomach; so many Fevers, and other Distempers as are, would scarce be: But [Page 180] when the Natural and Vital Heat fails, a pre­ternatural one either is caused in the whole Body soon after, through the Archeus being angry, or the whole does gradually decline. Besides we ought to consider that Death is cold, and that Diseases are the Harbinger of Death, therefore to be withstood by Vital Remedies, if we intend not to labour in vain: But how a Remedy that is Vital can be Cold, Dead, and Spiritless, I shall leave them to prove, seeing Life and Heat in Man are so much akin, that where the first is, there's the last; and that where the last is wholly absent, the first is not present.

But here by Vital Remedies, I do not mean such as will inflame, to wit, Vinous Ones: though such, if mild, when the diseasie cause is removed, are good for nourishment. But I by Vital Medicines do mean, such as are friendly to the Life, and the Stomach, the Prime Seat thereof; such as are benign, and in their heat not exceeding the Vital Heat of the Body. Such Heaters, I say, as shall certain­ly by their lively and abstersive Properties, as­sist and reinforce Nature, to the expelling what hurts, and thereby undoubtedly cool.

Provided Death, and an extinction of the Candle of L [...]fe is not at hand: Yet then (which is worthy of note) such shall keep the Tongue smooth, as also the Mouth unfur'd; shall give [Page 181] Ease when vulgar Remedies can't; And com­monly preserve the Senses intire to the last; as much as then can be expected. For,

Contra vim mortis, non est Medicamen in hortis.

Yet am I not so much wedded to the Chy­mical Science, as to exclude all things from Phy­sick which have not been Spagyrically handled: or to go to perswade the World that in the ab­sence of Pyrotechny, no Remedies may be pro­duced for some particular Maladies, whilst experience tells me the contrary. For doubt­less the Art of Healing amongst the Antients was first founded on a Proper application of Simples, which they found good against many remote, and less dangerous Diseases, whilst daily experience dictated.

Nor can I be perswaded otherwise than that they had Remedies; with which many violent Affects, and such that beset the Vitals in their chief Inns, were not unfortunately remov'd: could we be so happy as to know them in their naked simplicity, unmasked and singled from their hotch-potchly Adjuncts. Which we have reason to believe Posterity added, more from a desire of hiding the Art of Healing, to make the People believe 'tis most mysterious, and to beget admiration in them; than in the least to advance it, or that they might safelyer [Page 182] Cure Diseases: Seeing the multiplying of In­gredients in a Medicine is so common at this day, that scarce a wholsome one which is sim­ple and innocent can be invented by any Sober Physician, Motherly Gentlewoman or expert Nurse (which two last have been doubtless the finders out of a great many Remedies); but if it come into the hands of some half-witted, and Ambitious Doctors; presently their aims are to Monopolize the same, and render it far more intricate.

To which end therefore, one he adds to the already vertuous Simple (or Medicine made of two or three ingredients) this thing, another he adds a second, as they think analogous; a third perhaps two or three more ingredients: And thus they add more and more till the Vertues of the Simple are Confounded, whilst the Medicine is Compounded. Besides, think they, (who are in the interim ignorant that Nature rejoyceth in Simplicity) if we mix a mul­titude of Ingredients together, 'tis much if one don't cure but an other will; And that if a Me­dicine hath thirty or fourty several Ingredients in it, 'twill not be difficult to perswade the weak-sighted People that 'twill Cure half as many Diseases; at leastwise knock down one as dead as a H [...]rring: For thirty to one is odds at the foot-ball; and that (Reader) thou knowest as well as I.

[Page 183]But truly herein they mistake, for we are not to go to foot-Ball, but to heal. Besides, let us suppose that that Simple, or perhaps two or three, which were originally the true Medicine, had any considerable Vertues: Yet they may well believe, and according to the Rules of Na­ture too, that the other adjuncts though they make the Medicine m [...]sterious, do weaken and E [...]lipse its Vertues; and render it disgust­ful and oppressive to the Stomach, when other­wise it might allevia [...]e Nature.

Hence is it that the Sick frequen [...]ly complain against vulgar Remedies that are given for re­lief: Saith one, I no sooner see a Gally-pot or Pill-box but it presently inclines me to lo [...]h [...]ng and vomiting. Others there are who having been soundly paid [...]ff, will by no means hear of a Physician till they are right-down Sick, and almost at Deaths door; Yea will rather venture their lives under the hand of a Nurse, with some Home spun simple Decoction, than in the least adhere to such confused Prescripts: So that till he is much spent, and he find his strength daily to fail, no Physician or Physick (as they unprope [...]ly call poysonous Purges, Vomites, or Spiritless ho [...]ch-potches) must p [...]ss over the threshold of the door. And when he is consulted, the Patient is apt to [...]ry out, and that not causl [...]sly, Good Doctor give me no­thing to Clog, Vomit, or Disturb me. And why [Page 184] is it? Perhaps Experience told him that last time he fell under the Doctors hands; he had weln [...]gh as much trouble, and felt as much oppression from the Medicine he took▪ as from the Disease it self: Whilst poor Nature under two Aegyptian Task masters, was even forc'd to make Brick without Straw, and had a double trouble, instead of ease, to cast forth the Disease and Medicine.

Thus many times by clogging lifeless Medi­cines▪ as also by poysonous and churlish Purges and Vomits, Nature is not only even jaded, and hag'd, but likewise for the future admonisht. And I my self was in my youthful years, so grieviously perplext with such, and harm'd in my Vitals; that several purgative Ingredients can't approach my Tongue or Pal­late, without welnigh causing me to Vomit: For Nature, who formerly paid punishment for admitting them, will hardly be cheated a­gain.

And though some there are, and those not a few, who (with me) know that the most sim­ple Remedies are most vertuous and benign, pro­vided the ingredients be not poysonous; And therupon will not in the least, for any sinister ends, walk contrary to their understandings: Yet others there are, who making Gain God­liness▪ and their Bellies their God, mind not so much their Patients good, as the esteem of the [Page 185] World, which (as it alwayes did) loves things of least worth, if they are splendid; And therefore oftentimes, out of policy, give them a tedious Receit to frighten them into a belief of the All-skilfulness. For perhaps such Do­ctors imagine, that if they shall prescribe a few things, the Patient or By-standers will count them not knowing, and highly undervalue their Art: And think that if they shall order Common Things, and such as may be had at home, that the Women will get away their Skill: And that if they shall prescribe one Medicine twice, to one and the same Patient, without addition, 'twill manifest their Know­ingness to be small they suppose, or else discover their Art to the Apothecaries.

To keep all of them therefore in ignorance, and make them adore them the more, Foreign and costly Ingredients, with cruel and perversly hard names shall be ordered, and that in no small number: notwithstanding that by this means the Medicine is made cruelly and perver­sly clogging, and the Patients Vitals are in­jured whilst they seek to be admir'd.

Some others there are, who being igno­rant of Nature, and not well knowing the rise and cause of Diseases; when they meet in consultation, because the Disease shall not escape their clutches, sometimes mix twen­ty or thirty (if not more) Ingredients toge­ther: [Page 186] Perhaps hoping that if one don't frigh­ten him, a second may scare him, a third may box his Ears, a fourth may cut his Nose, a fifth break his Pate, or a sixth knock him down dead a [...] a door Nail. But if none of these shall do the work, yet at leastwise hope that so great a number of Simples will so closely beset the Disease on all [...]ides, that he shall never e­scape their fingers, when many times there is more harm than good done by them.

I remember a certain Author relates, how that on a time several Physicians being in con­sultation, after viewing their Patient, resolv'd to joyn their forces together, and invent a Me­dicine to cure him. Whereupon one of them orders several things, another as many more, and a third must have his Ingreedients in too; so they went round, and round again, being resolv'd that some of the Ingredients should do the Work. But one who was more ingenious and intelligent than the rest, observing the non­sensicalness of the Compound, and the multi­tude of Simples, mixt without Reason; tells them, They should put in one thing more, to wit, a Hay-Cock, and then 'twould be a Me­dicine fit for a Horse. Methinks he toucht the Mark, and spoke like one of understanding, for doubtless before 'twas as fit to Kill as Cure, but the Hay-Cock might have made it good for something.

[Page 187]But can we seriously suppose that such a Me­dicine, so diversly and irrationally mixt, and wherein are so many differing Ingredients, can ever prove a Pacifier of Nature? Or, may we not rather suppose, if any of them are Alcal [...]ous, and others Acid, that Nature will be disturb'd by their cross-grain'd litigiousness and quarrelling? I am fit to think nothing less.

Well, but imagine that the Ingredients are as quiet as Lambs, and don't one fall foul on a­nother; also that there are in such a Mass-of­altogether, four or five Ingredients, which are Homogeneal and Innocent, and would, if gi­ven by themselves, do good: Yet they being exceedingly shackled and overwhelm'd, if not wholly destroy'd by the other Additions, are thereby made so feeble and weak, that if the Medicine, by its cloggingness, proves not an E­nemy to Nature, it seldom gives ease to the Patient.

Give Ease did I say! Alas how can it pos­sibly? 'Twould be a thing most unreasonable to expect it: Seeing the Necessary and Vertu­ous Ingredients, are so hood-winkt by the Ad­juncts, that they are unable to peep out of the mixture. Which doubtless gave one of our Moderns occasion, with a serious Character, to say, There were very few Medicines in the [Page 188] whole Dispensatory, which contained not as much hurt as good in them.

But as for some of the more vertuous Simples, in their Integrity and Nakedness, they are in no wise to be denyed our Repositories, nor ex­cluded from the Classis of Medicine; nor some few such Specifick Remedies, as are compos'd of two or t [...]ree Ingredients, and which Experi­ence hath prov'd innoce [...] and good; though it manifestly appears (daily experience dicta [...]ing) that Chymistry produceth Remedies more U­niversal, and of a far more swift, certain, and safe Operation, in Malevolent and Dangerous Diseases; to wit, if the Ingredients are pri­marily Innocent, or made so by the assistance of Art: In that it separateth the parts terrene, deadly, and malign, from those that are most benign, lively, and vertuous. Whereby the last with greater ease are admitted into the Privy-Chambers of Life, and enable it to ex­pell the Disease.

To call which injurious, I suppose there is no man so blind, seeing even when the strength is intire and confirm'd, so small a quantity of what Food is received into the Body, is assi­mulated and turned into nourishment. See­ing that after the m [...]st nourishing and vital parts are suck'd out by the Venae-lacteae, the Drossy and Earthy (which are far greater commonly than the nourishing) are rejected, [Page 189] and cast forth by the Guts: Seeing also a sepa­ration is needful in Health, much more requi­site in Sickness. But then Nature being debi­litated, and unable to do it, 'tis the Office of the Physician to do it for Her, else he merits not the name of her Helper: That the Sto­mach and other Digestions which do fail and decline, may be aided with innocent Healers, and not be loaded and jaded with spiritless Me­dicines, insignificant, earthy, and raw.

Opiates blam'd.

TO omit Opium likewise, whilst it too of­ten hurts and sometimes gives People their bane, is a thing I deem most inconvenient. For I aim not in reflecting on Damages in Medicine, to do my Work sluggishly by halfs; nor partially to condemn some Physical Ingre­dients for their malignity, and let others as Venomous got Scot-free.

Would it not make one admire to see how many are murdered, yea plainly murdered, by the stupifying venom of Opium, and no warning taken thereat? But as if it were no­thing to sport with mens Lives, those who have been the unfortunate Actors of such lamenta­ble Tragedies, having prescribed such, and thereby killed their Patients secundum Artem, [Page 190] have nevertheless adventured ('tis cruel Igno­rance!) to give the same again with no unlike deplorable event. Yea, with many, not only confidently ignorant ones, but also the more Learned and Acute-witted, what is more com­monly ordered for procuring gentle Rest, when the violence of the Disease hinders sleeping, than the mischievous, and not half-guilded Laudanum of the Shops? When the gentle Rest which it produceth, is not seldom a sleep­ing to Death, and that it so exceedingly stupi­fies many that take it, and so immeasurably preys upon their Vitals: That if after long sleeping they being forceably awakened, do mutter out a few words to their Friends, they serve for no more than a last fare-well, or to hint that Death is approaching. But some it [...]o severely intangles in its Narcotick-Chains, and so benums and freezes their Vitals, that their pretended gentle Rest, to the shame of Me­dicine, is a hor [...]id irrecoverable Sleep.

And what then can any harm be in that? Seeing the Dead are generally very courteous, and are usually so little addicted to revenge, that they never come back to complain, or in the least to tell stories against the Doctor? It is to be wished they could, that then if Physici­ans Consciences smite them not, nor excite them to studiousness in Physick; yet being ad­monish'd for the future, they may learn to [Page 191] make use of more innocent Remedies and not hazard the life of the Sick: May be thereby taught so much honesty for the future, as not to exclaim against men studious and learned, and because they recede from perverse Reme­dies and Methods, brand them with the name of Empericks, whilst themselves who know not what Remedies they give, are much more wor­thy thereof.

But suppose that an Opiative Medicine is given that has not so bad and malevolent tricks, but is by far better corrected than the Laudanum, for all its specious and spicy addi­tions; which with Sp. Vini, are no more able to tame the Opium, than a Mouse is to tame a Lyon, though the Medicine is made mysterious by it. I say, suppose one better corrected than the Laudanum is given, yet the event is not al­wayes as it should be. For Matthews's Pill, which in many Apothecarys shops in the Coun­try is call'd Magisterium Anodynum, and in which the Opium is six times better corrected than in the Laudanum, is not only at a chance so great an enemy to the life as to destroy it: But also frequently a great causer of Thirst, Costiveness, and head-Ach the morning fol­lowing, and sometimes watchfulness a night or two after.

You may perhaps say this is through the Pills ill composure, the Corrector not being [Page 192] good, or through the Opiums ill commixture with it; caus'd from Lazyness and carelesness in him that made it: But not from any Vice in the Pill, as a Pill. In behalf of its innocency I can say little: only I can assure you that not­withstanding I can make it as well as another, yet I use it not, because it is hazardous. For, whatever others think, 'tis not an ordinary thing to sport with mens lives, nor is it in my Opinion lawful to give that Medicine to an­other which I would not willingly take. Be­sides the miscarriage of a Father, Mother, or Son, upon taking an untoward Remedy, may do so much injury in a family as to give them cause of blaming, if not of cursing the Physician and Apothecary too. And the killing of a Man, though it be secundum Artem, with a Medicine known to be dangerous, is a crime not easily expiated. Others perhaps may think well on't, and being adventurous, not dread it in the least: And so they may for all me; though I wish them success and prosperity in their affairs, even asmuch as their hearts can desire.

And as to Laziness, and Incuriousness in the Preparer of it, on which you would lay the blame, when the Pill does harm and destroys the life of the Patient: I confess they are detri­mental in Physick, and do make the Pill much more hazardous. Notwithstanding which, some of those Physicians who pretend to make their own [Page 193] Medicines, as well as Apothecaries, especially such as live in the Country, are and have been accustom'd to buy such like Remedies of Mer­cenary Chymists and Operators. Of the ill­making and compounding of which they being ignorant, and hoping they are truly and well­prepar'd, do sometimes, and that not seldome give them to the sick with events not answe­ring their desires.

For such incurious Operators, if they make not their Remedies of perished Drugs, yet they bestow not the pains required to make them well, or at leastwise Adulterate and Sophisticate them at last that they may get a tolerable subsistance: And why is it? Because 'tis the humour of most Apothecaries, especially of those who are ignorant of Chymistry, with­out any regard had to due and honest prepa­ration, to buy where most may be had for mo­ney; and (which is a wonderful cheapness) to purchase some remedies so cheap, that the same money, without being payd for Labour, will but defray charges of ingredients, Glasses, Fire, and house-Rent, if the medicine were due­ly and honestly made. Which humour of theirs in seeking after cheap, (not good) remedies is doubtless detrimental to the Sick, and one cause why they sometimes go uncured: whilst to please them their Operators scarce regard what [Page 194] they do, being loath to be depriv'd of their Custome.

I perhaps by this discourse may anger some of the Apothecaries whose Consciences on sight hereof will fly in their Faces; As also some Phy­sicians who pretending to make their own Me­dicines; do buy their Chymical preparations of others. But if I do, truly they must pardon me: For where the lives of men are concern'd 'tis bad foothing; My desire is that they would be candid & not seek more after wealth & ease than the good of the sick. I that lost a Father and had my own Vitals clipt in their prime, through ill-contriv'd and pernicious medicines, may well be allowed to speak. At leastwise whether they will allow me or not, I will take the liberty to do it.

Yet would I not have you think that all Apothecaries are thus incurious. No: No: for I am perswaded that there are not a few in London, and some few here and there in the Country that are persons very ingenious, and candid, and such as make their own Chymi­cal preparations. Only I could wish that those candid ones were the quarter part of the Apo­thecaries in the Nation: For then though it would be bad enough, it would be better by far than 'tis now. But to return to Magisterium Anc­dynum otherwise call'd Mathews his Pill, and to let you see 'tis not the safest of Medicines, [Page 195] but sometimes destructive, take this example. A certain person a man of good credit falling violently ill of a Fever had Mathews his Pill given him by a Physician that made it, or at leastwise pretends to make his own Medicines: But whether 'twas to make him sleep or cure him of his Fever I know not; however the sick taking it, it so perniciously freez'd and stu­pify'd his Vitals that although after some hours were past, being awakt he could open his eyes a little; Yet returning to sleep, all their Art could not awake him, so he soundly slept till he died.

Several more instances I could give you of such who with Opiates slept to Death: But I know not certainly whether they took the Lau­danum, or Magisterium Anodynum: Only an Esquire and his Wife in the Country not many years since taking Magisterium Anodynum as the Physician ordered, and they perswading him to do so too, to prove the safety of his Medi­cine: the Physician died that night after ta­king it, and his Patients died in few dayes after him, their disease having been much exaspe­rated.

An other person not being currently well, was thereby depriv'd of sleep, whereupon she consulting a Physician, and a Learned one too, he prescrib'd her an Opiative medicine to cause sleep, as also a Cordial with it. She took it [Page 196] and sleeping soundly all night was awak't by her husband in the morning; when asking for a little drink, she suddainly fell asleep, and slept so long till she died; whilst they did their utmost endeavour to awake her.

A certain widow being somewhat ill fell un­der a course of Physick, (her Doctor being he that ordered a sleeping dose for the last) And first of all she was Purg'd and Vomited, which being done her Stomach was so hurt she could not sleep at night. Hereupon a Dormitive medicine was given her, which she taking over­night, next morning (whereas she us'd to be up at seven a Clock) she not being Stirring at nine, one of her chief servants enquired for his Mi­striss, and askt why she was not come down: says the mayd presently, the Doctor gave my Mistriss something to make her sleep, which said: The man fearing lest as some others had done she should sleep to death, took the bold­ness to go up and call her. When he came and found her fast a sleep and in a cold sweat he awak't her; and she desiring it, reacht her something to drink: But the Cup was no soo­ner taken away, than she was a sleep again, and gave the man a second trouble of awaking her: However that would not do, for to sleeping she return'd, whereupon he call'd up more company; and they not prevailing they sent for the Doctor to see if he could do any good: [Page 197] But he with all his Art Force and Violence, could not make her open her eyes, for the Poy­sonous Opium prevail'd. At length when fair means would not do, the Doctor ordered red­hot coals to be laid to her back; and when he had soundly burnt her, she not awaking slept to Death Secundum Artem, and left several Fatherless and Motherless Children.

I think I need mention no more, for these will suffice seeing such pranks are too often acted every where. But I wonder what such Doctors think of themselves, whilst they thus through carelesness fatten Burying places, and increase the numbers of the Fatherless and Mo­therless? Do they think God is just, and will ever call them to an account? Doubtless though the Outward Law can't reach them whilst they murther by authority, and send people Me­thodically to Orcus: God will one day let them know what a good Conscience means, and that there were and are Medicines not Poysonous to be found, if they had been diligent. How­ever we Physicians have one great benefit above many other Professions, and 'tis that which keeps the Poysoning trade on: For if some others commit errors they remain in sight to posterity, but the Earth forthwith covers Our faults; By which means they being forgotten, we may without interruption next year Kill another Secundum Arte [...].

[Page 198]But does not Opium many times profit the sick in provoking rest, and causing them to sleep which otherwise they would not after watchful nights & days? I cannot say it really profiteth, as 'tis commonly corrected, but that it brings sleep and sometimes Death is appa­rent: nor does it seldome appear that the sleep which it causeth is not nourishing, as almost every intelligent woman that has been conver­sant with sick people, or has taken it her self can tell you. For it procures not sleep in that it takes away the cause of Watchfulness from the Midriffs and Stomach, but only through Stupifying the Vitals: For after the taking of an Opiative Medicine to wit Laudanum if the occasional cause of Not-sleeping remains; the night or two following the Party who took it is commonly more restless than before.

And if Mathews's Pill does at any time effect a cure I can hardly ascribe it to the Opium or Hellebore but to the Correcting Sapo: For that being Alcaleous and an enemy to Acidity by its abstersive property (whilst so much of the Opium in it does more harm than good) some­times effects a cure and removes the Occasional Cause; which being taken away sleep comes naturally, and of its own accord; therefore we should chiefly aim at that. What I speak is not conjectural, but can assure you I am fully con­firm'd that if half the Opium in the Pill and [Page 199] half the Hellebore were left out, and a larger quantity of the Liquorish put in, 'twould be a far more innocent, less disturbing, and far more vertuous Medicine: for whereas according to Mathews his way the Opium was one to four, yet now being but one to eight it can't have that stupifying force, nor so exceedingly display its Narcotick Venome.

But be sure whatever you do let the Sapo be well, truly, and duely made, and then mix the Opium thorowly with it, beating them two together for a good while in a Mortar till they are fully incorporated: which being done, at last put in the other ingredients after you have mingled them likewise; and by this means 'twill be made the more safe. Though after all if you would be ruled by me you should be very cautious in using it.

Preventive Physick a cheat, and a trick to get Money by.

Amongst other Injuries and Abuses I can't pass by that mischievous one of giving purges to the healthy at spring and fall under pretence of keeping a future integrity. Having not only under that speciousness been reduced to weak­ness my self, but had likewise the unhappiness whilst a youth to lose my Most dear Father. Who being about the fourtieth year of his age, [Page 200] and pretty healthy, in the spring-time some oc­casions calling him into that City wherein we liv'd, accidentally (as I think 'twas) meets with a Galenist, and one Med: Doct: This Do­ctor having for several years been his Physician used not much Rhetorick to perswade him; but taking his fee, Prescribes, and sending the Bill away to the Apothecary gives order for a Preventive Purge to be taken next morning. My Father complyed with his order and took it, but Nature not being able to expel and con­quer the Venome, it notwithstanding all their endeavour, derided all their succours, and so debilitated Nature, that things past through his body unaltered as it were, unless by the Poyson of the Purge: and the fourth day after taking it, it giving him thirty or fourty stools (if not more) Kill'd him about six the next morning. Thus my Father through Ignorance and Deceit was murther'd under the notion of Prevention, and of anticipating future Diseases: whilst the Doctor and Apothecary striv'd each to find excu­ses and discharge themselves of the Blame.

But had the Purge been safe as it was not; they would do well to give a reason why such a Dose must be given, to Oppose a Disease not in being, and is but supposed to come: Seeing they are wholly ignorant whether o [...] no 'twill, (if it do come take up its Inn next in the Head, Heart, Stomach, Guts, Spleen, Liver or Joynts [Page 201] &c. Seeing that also they know not which of the four Humours (pardon the Phrase for I speak to the Humourists) will next abound, and therefore must needs be ignorant which of them to Select and Purge forth: Seeing also that the taking of Physick can bring no man to a more happystate of body than health, & there­fore he that enjoys it wants none of their Pre­ventives.

Yet will I not say that Physick (as the people call it) at Spring and Fall is unworthy of that appellation; it being most true that it is effica­cious, and hath a Diverse Operation at Once: yea and so effectual a one too that I will not not be so audacious as to rob it wholly of its name, seeing it in some sort deserves it. For if it takes away superfluous humours from the Patients body as they tell you; I am sure it adds necessary ones to some of the Doctors Purses: and whilst it cures that of a Plethora, cures this of a Consumption; which must inevitably follow were there not a supply and a proper Preventive at hand. But 'tis no matter think some, and their Actions declare it: If we meet not with a Disease we will make one; for 'tis a sad thing to be without work: Oh misery of mi­series! What a horrible thing is this, that Medi­cine mercifully created by the Father of Lights for the relief of distressed mankind, should thus be perverted & abus'd? Honest Helmont that thou [Page 202] wrotest not so satyrically in vain, nor yet with­out sufficient cause, we may with facility see.

It may perhaps be objected that some Persons if they take not a Purge at Spring and Fall, are subject sometimes to Sickness in the Summer or Winter succeeding. This word Sometimes is well put in; for doubtless 'tis not alwayes; Neither are they alwayes well in the succee­ding Winter or Summer who take them; Which I with many others can testify from woful Ex­perience. But many times on the other hand they who don't take them, are more healthy & less subject to lapse: Whilst they only crave the assistance of a Cup of Wormwood-beer, or some such innocent haustus in the spring-time.

But granting what they say, to wit, that it is needful for some, and so requisite at the fore-named Seasons; that the omission thereof has made them infirm, and not seldome less healthy by far: Yet they ought to consider that Custome is the cause thereof, and that as Customary doth the body require it, no other­wise than it doth the use of Tobacco when many Years converse therewith had made it familiar. And if too frequent smoking hath made Tobacco so necessary that some persons can better be without their food than without it, must that forthwith prove it convenient for all persons to take it? Experience tells us the contrary whilst not a few are hurt by the use of it, and wish they never had known it.

[Page 203]And therefore I shall say no more to such, whose converse with Preventive Purges has made that custom useful, and too sudden a de­clining it dangerous, than to advise them to take heed of whom they Make use, and be sure that the Solutive be safe. Lest after they have consulted too confident and careless Physicians, they dearly pay the punishment of their folly. I say, let them be sure that the Purge, if they must have one, be safe, and such that shall not hurt them, nor in the least impair the Faculties and Ferments of the Body. They who give other, deserve sharp reproof, and whether lear­ned or unlearned, want no ignorance in Physick.

Yet would I not have you think there are no Preventives, or means to preserve Health for the future, for I can assure you to the con­trary; onely they are neither Purgatives nor Vomitives. For in my opinion, the best Pre­ventives, are sober and moderate Eating and Drinking; keeping a good order for Sleeping, Exercises, &c. and avoiding too much Seden­tariness; shunning all Drunkenness and Debau­chery, and taking care upon s [...]dden or great Heats not to catch cold: As also not to be too studious or thoughtful, (both which, or either of them weakens the Body more than Labour) but sometimes to slacken the Cords of Intense Stu­dy. 'Tis an excellent way also to prevent Dis­eases, and more profitable than the best Preven­tive [Page 204] Purge or Vomit in England, Never to Eat or Drink any thing that disagrees with you, or is disgustful and loathsom to your Stomach: Not forgetting at any time when your Spirits are flag'd and fail, to refresh and enliven them with a moderate cup of Ale, Sack, or other generous Liquor that agrees with your Stomach and Purse. In doing these, I dare assure thee, Reader, thou wilt do well, through God's bles­sing, and mayst laugh at all their Preventives. But now to give you a second Narrative.

Some years after the untimely death of my Father, it being thought meet in Autumn, for all I was pretty well, to purge my Body; that is to say, to take a Poysonous dirty Besom to sweep a clean House, and diminish my Venal Blood, a Purge was ordered, and I took it, but was thereby purged into an Ague, that conti­nued a good while after; whereas had I been let alone, I might undoubtedly have been heal­thy that Winter.

Not much disagreeing with the History of my Father's Death, is an account which Hel­mont gives concerning a noted Brabanter. Of late, saith he, a judicious Man of the Privy-Council of Brabant, that he might preserve his Health, had taken an usual Pill of washed Aloes, (to wit, gilded) and whilst he found not the effect thereof, declares it to a Physician passing by: Who blames the sluggishness of the Aloes, and [Page 205] so turns Picron or bitter, into Pigrum slow. I will prescribe, saith he, corrected Pills of grea­ter vertue; the which being taken, after a whole weeks vainly endeavouring to restrain the Purges unbridled effect, he miserably perished, thus that he might free himself from a future Disease, he perished by the deceit of the Physician, and left eleven Children.

From whence (saith Helmont) 'tis chiefly manifest, that it is free for a loosening Me­dicine to tyrannize on him that is in good health, as well as on a sick Person: to wit, it is lawful, under the name of a Physician, and deceit of a purging Medicine, to prey upon the Life of Prin­ces without punishment, because the Earth co­vers the cruel ignorance of Physicians.

Also a Merchants Daughter of my Acquain­tance told me seriously, That having some de­fect in her Speech, to wit, a Lisping, and thereby pronouncing some words not very plainly, though otherwise she was in very good health; was partly promis'd a removal of that Defect by a Physician. Who according­ly prescribes a Medicine or two for her whilst an Angel mediated. They being sent from the Apothecaries, the young Gentlewoman ac­cording to order took them, and was at four dayes end sick in good earnest, (this is worse than what Tinkers do, to make a Hole in a whole Vessel) and therefore had the Doctor's aid to repair the breach he had made in her Health. [Page 206] which he, by strengthning Remedies, did in four or five dayes more. But the defect in pronunciation, her Lisping remains still, after that the Doctor had got some An­gels for making her Sick: Whereas had he sent for a Chyrurgion to cut off a piece of her Tongue, he had had some seeming pretence; yet that had been▪ as equally blockish and dangerous. Seeing the cause of Lisping is the Tongues being too large for the Mouth, thereby hindring a clear pronunciation, whilst it cannot move readily, and is subject to close with the Teeth when it should not.

Surely the Physician (if I may call him one) was either sufficiently ill-read in Anatomy, or else little ho­nest, either of which agree badly with Physick; for if he had not been one of them, he would never have pre­scribed Medicines to cure what cannot be cured. The over-bigness of the Tongue being caused at Nature's pleasure, no otherwise than a large Hand, Arm, Leg, Foot, Nose, Mouth, or Head; and therefore 'tis every way as rational to expect to lessen any of them by ta­king of Medicines inward, as to hope to make the Tongue less; to attempt which nevertheless would be Sottish. Also why may we not expect, after the same rate of Cu­ring, that a Person having six Fingers on a Hand, should have one of them taken away by a Medicinal Potion, seeing that also is from an Error in Formation. But of this enough, which though not proper in this place, I thought meet to hint; That if such Physicians will not learn to be wise and honest, yet that the People may learn to shun them. I shall onely add one Instance more to shew the perniciousness of Preventive Doses, and then draw towards a conclusion.

A certain Tradesman, some years since, being desi­rous to take some Preventive Physick, consults a Phy­sician; who thereupon prescribes him a Purge (to wit) in Pills, which were accordingly sent home to his house: But he, by reason he had urgent Affairs, neglected the taking of them for two dayes. The Doctor coming by, [Page 207] and seeing him in his Shop, demanded whether or no he had taken them, the man replyed No, but said, he would, and by the Doctor's permission did so: But the Poyson being strong, too strong for Nature, he was dead in two hours space.

These Examples I bring, for an admonishment and caution to such who may at any time be tempted to take Preventive Physick, when they are already healthy, and Nature in a good plight, through the Stomach and o­ther Digestions performing their Office. It not being seldom that such a Prevention doth weaken the strength and Vitals, as well as the Purse; at least-wise it doth them no good, all things being considered. And some Physicians there are who are worthy of blame, in that notwithstanding their own Consciences, as well as the Scripture, tell them, The whole have no need of the Phy­sician, and therefore want no Physick: Yet will, in hopes of an Angel, be perswading the Healthy to take their Preventive Doses, when some of them themselves would not take them were they hired to do it, but a cup of good▪ Ale or Sack shall supply its place.

Also 'tis worthy of note, that if at any time a Person is Sick, and by the Physicians order a Medicine brought; if the sick Party request him [...]o prove the innocency of it, by taking the like quantity he orders; it is five to one if to avoid taking it, he answers not, That the whole have no need of the Physician, or something to the same effect, and so evade it. Which thing considered, 'tis ad­mirable the World is so stupid to be thus bul [...]'d out of their Moneys, Healths, and sometimes their Lives, under a pretence of Prevention. It being a thing as altogether needless to converse with Medicines when we are well, as 'tis needful to use them when we are sick; lest, be the Medicines never so good, by too familiarly taking and making them daily Food, as it were, they prove not Medicinal when occasion requires. Yea, so much harm hath this preventive Purging, and other abuses former­ly done, as to make it a Proverb, Qui Medicè vivit, [Page 208] miserè vivit, (i. e.) He that lives Physically, lives miserably: And to make Physick the by-word of the Vulgar.

It may be Objected, That many take such Purges at Spring and Autumn, and are not at all hurt thereby; and 'tis doubtless true. Yet let me tell them, that not hurt­ing such, and not impairing their Strengths, is not suf­ficient to counter-ballance those injuries many others receive, if not by being kill'd, yet by debilitating and weakning their Vitals. Besides, I am sure if they are not we [...]kned, yet all things considered it profits not; notwithstanding much corrupt Liquor is cast forth; which some call bad Humours, and truly so they are when in the Glose-stool, for 'tis Venal Blood slain by the venom of the Laxative, and rendred u [...]fit for nourish­ment. Though before the Purge was admitted into the Body, 'twas well enough. That it is slain Venal Blood, the putrid smell of a dead Carkase possessing those Hu­mours (as Helmont [...]inteth) doth amply prove: As also if the Purge was violent, the scarce appearance of those Veins which the day before were full, and the weakness of the Vitals, whose strength is the Blood.

What miseries (alas) thus attend us Mortals! As if it were not enough to do to wrestle with Diseases, that do daily get strength, and grow more malign and stub­born: But we must be prey'd upon by venomous Reme­dies, and unfaithful Helpers! As if it were requisite to preserve Health, and a future integrity, by diminish­ing the strength, and poysoning the good Juyces of the Body! Surely let him believe it that can, for I cannot; having been taught better, though at a dear rate, by the loss of my Fathers Life, and by weakning my Vitals heretofore by such mischievous tricks.

FINIS.

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