Instructions FOR MASTERS, TRADERS, Laborers, &c.

Printed in the Year 1699.


Instructions FOR Masters, Traders, La­borers, &c.

Masters are to be Moderate in their Commands.

Q. ARE there not Duties, which God lays upon Masters, in regard of their Servants?

A. Every State has particular Duties be­longing to it, and none can be a Good Christian, who is not careful in enqui­ring into and satisfying them.

Q. What are the Duties in particular be­longing to Masters and Mistresses, in relation to their Servants?

A. They are several: First, in the Ex­ercise of their Authority in Command­ing: They are to command nothing that is Sinful: For Masters, in their Families, being the Vice-gerents of God, they ought to Order nothing contrary to the Com­mands of God, by whose Authority they act. And if they give Orders contrary to this their Commission, they are not only to answer for their own Sin, but likewise for the Sins of their Servants, complying with such their undue Orders.

Again, they ought not to hinder their Servants from doing what God requires of them. And since God has given Command to Servants, as well as to all other Christians, to Worship him, to seek the Kingdom of God, and to work out their Salvation, Ma­sters are not to hinder their Servants from complying with these Duties, which God exacts from them; neither directly, by forbidding them, nor indirectly, by op­pressing them with so much Business, as to allow them no opportunity for satisfy­ing the Commands of God. For this is to incurr the guilt of Pharaoh's Sin, who, when God had commanded the Children of Israel to go and offer Sacrifice to him in the Desart, doubled their Tasks, and by new Burthens confin'd them at home.


Secondly, Where God's Service is not particularly concern'd, there ought yet to be Moderation in all Commands, so as not to burthen Servants with more Work, than they are well able to do. For tho' it be a great Fault, to let Servants live without Business, so to betray them to all the Mischiefs of Idleness; yet to be unconcern'd at the Hardships put upon Servants, and not to value what they suf­fer, is a great Fault too, not only in the want of Compassion, but of Charity; which being the love of our Neighbor as of our selves, cannot allow of this Cruel­ty, of laying on Burthens, without any Consideration for those, who are to bear them.

I cannot tell, but it may look Great, to Command without Compassion; and I know a Wordly and Covetous Spirit thinks nothing too much for Servants, when it carries with it the prospect of Interest. But however it may look, it is certain there is no Greatness in it, but that of Pharaoh; for there can be no Ge­nerosity, where there is so much Cruel­ty; there is none but a slavish Spirit is fit to make Slaves. And as for the Cove­tous and Worldly Temper, 'tis so Mean and Base in it self, that there needs no more to mark the Oppression of Servants [Page 6] with Infamy, than to see it the Fruit of that Contemptible Spirit.

The Rule therefore ought to be be­tween both Extremes, so as to keep Ser­vants employ'd, for their own sakes, as well as their Masters, and yet still with that Moderation, as to consider what is necessary for their Health and Rest, and not to think, that because their Misfor­tunes make them serve, they therefore have no Sense or Feeling. This Com­passion is one Ingredient of the Good Christian; and where-ever 'tis excluded, either by Passion, Imperiousness, Cove­tousness, or Immoderate Niceness, there is the Resemblance of an Ill Compound, which has Gall thrown in instead of Honey.

They are to be Moderate in the way of Commanding and Re­proving.

AS there is to be Moderation in Com­mands, so likewise in the way of Commanding; for tho' Servants are sub­ject, [Page 5] [...] [Page 6] [...] [Page 7] yet they are not to be treated as Dogs. If some are of that slavish Tem­per, that they will do nothing, except they be ill treated, then it is they them­selves, that make the spur necessary: But this must not be taken up as a Plea to justifie Passion or Pride in other Cases. For certainly, there are many Servants, whose Fidelity and Willing Temper need not Passion to push it on: And here all Peevish and Imperious Commands, ei­ther in Words or Tone of the Voice, is an Argument of their Weakness, who are in Power.

A like Moderation is to be us'd in find­ing Fault, and Reproving; because Re­proof ought to be ever Just and Reason­able, and it cannot be so, but by bearing proportion with the Fault; now these being very different; as some being the Effect of Carelesness, some of Sloth, some of Mistake, some of Oversight, enquiry ought to be first made, before Reproof be given, for otherwise it may do more harm than good, by creating an ill Opi­nion of their Injustice, who give it.

First then, It cannot be allow'd, to find fault with every thing a Servant does; for, besides it being the certain way to keep Servants in an ill Humor, there is nothing can more discourage them from [Page 8] being Industrious, than when, notwith­standing the best of their Care, they are sure to be blam'd. This Nice, Ex­ceptious Temper, that is never to be pleas'd, may easily spoil, but will never make a Good Servant. But it punishes it self in its own uneasiness, by many Changes bringing sometimes such Ser­vants into the House, whose Crimes shew them the unreasonableness of their Impatience, in not bearing with ordinary Failings.

Secondly, They ought not with Passi­on declaim against such Faults, which are no more than Oversights, or the Effect of some Accident; because it is not Just; and with those of a Good Temper, it is very unreasonable, since the very Acci­dent it self is Grief enough, without the addition of a Master's Passionate Resent­ments, which only serve to change the Grief into Confusion, and instead of ma­king a Servant more careful, puts him beyond himself, and makes him not know what he does.

But, Thirdly, If Servants are faulty thro' Neglect or Carelesness, I except not against Reproof, but approve it as neces­sary; and think those Masters are very much to be condemn'd, who passing by such Faults in silence, give their Servants [Page 7] [...] [Page 8] [...] [Page 9] Encouragement to become good for no­thing. In this Case too much Easiness is Weakness, and Connivance is not Charity, but the Silence of an Enemy.

But then the Reproof ought to be sui­ted to the Person and the Fault: Some are to be treated with sharpness, such whose Dull or Heedless Temper has no Life, but from the Spur: And others will be prejudiced by this Severity. In all Cases Reproof is to be reasonable, and therefore as free from Passion, as may be, because this seeing nothing right, is not qualified either for being Judge, or do­ing Justice. For which reason S. Paul cautions Masters against it, advising them to forbear threatning, and putting them in mind, that they also have a Master in Heaven, with whom there is no respect of Persons, Ephes. 6. 9. Where he dis­swades not Masters from giving just Re­proof, but puts them in mind of consi­dering, how they do it; because they likewise are Servants of a Master in Hea­ven, who will call them to an Accompt, for whatever they do against their Ser­vants unreasonably, and in Passion.

They are to be Careful of their Servants in Health and Sick­ness.

BEsides Commanding and Reproving, Masters have still another Duty to their Servants, in the Care of them, see­ing that nothing be wanting necessary for Life and Health: For since Servants spend their Lives, and often hazard their Health in their Master's Service, both ought to have part in the Master's Care. And therefore, as those are much to be commended for their Tenderness and Charity, who are not only Solicitous for their Children, but likewise for their Ser­vants, in seeing they are provided with all that is sitting, both as to Diet and Lodging, and sparing them in all, that may prejudice their Health, and then expressing a more particular Concern, when Indisposition or Sickness demands it: So those Masters are as much to be Censur'd, who being immoderately Nice in whatever belongs to themselves, make their Servants no part of their Care; but oppressing them with unreasonable La­bor,


They are to be Careful of their Servants in Health and Sick­ness.

BEsides Commanding and Reproving, Masters have still another Duty to their Servants, in the Care of them, see­ing that nothing be wanting necessary for Life and Health: For since Servants spend their Lives, and often hazard their Health in their Master's Service, both ought to have part in the Master's Care. And therefore, as those are much to be commended for their Tenderness and Charity, who are not only Solicitous for their Children, but likewise for their Ser­vants, in seeing they are provided with all that is fitting, both as to Diet and Lodging, and sparing them in all, that may prejudice their Health, and then expressing a more particular Concern, when Indisposition or Sickness demands it: So those Masters are as much to be Censur'd, who being immoderately Nice in whatever belongs to themselves, make their Servants no part of their Care; but oppressing them with unreasonable La­bor, [Page 11] let them want Necessaries, and ex­posing their Health upon every Humor, either let them lye Comfortless, when they are Sick, or turn them out of Doors; which is to treat them with much less Care, than their Horses or Dogs.

This is very unlike the Spirit of the Centurion, mention'd in the Gospel, who when his Servant was Sick, sent some Principal Men of the Jews to petition Christ in his behalf; and this Solicitude of a Heathen is a Reproach to such Chri­stians, who think it beneath them, to have a Concern for their Servants, and shew their Greatness in being Uncharita­ble, even where Charity is so much due, as to be within one degree of Justice, if it be not wholly so.

They are to see, that their Ser­vants do their Duty to God.

THis Care of Masters ought to be far­ther extended, even to the Care of their Servants Souls; so far at least, as to see, they perform their Duty to God, in [Page 12] doing Good, and avoiding Evil, as far as falls within Family-Disciplin.

First then, They are to examin, whe­ther they say their Prayers, and are pre­sent at the Public Worship of God. The Ignorance or Careless Temper of too ma­ny Servants, is proof enough of the Ne­cessity of this Inspection and Concern in Masters, and the Omission of this Enqui­ry, is enough to draw upon them the guilt of their Servants Neglects.

Secondly, They are to see, they have time to perform these Duties; and there­fore are to take Care, they be not so op­press'd with Business, as to have no op­portunity or leisure for the Service of God. Excess of Business may be some­times a real hindrance, and if it be gene­rally so, there is a necessity of consider­ing, how it may be moderated. Neces­sary Works cannot be omitted; but how many things are there in a Family, which are the Commands only of Pride, Ex­cess, Humor or Niceness? And is it not more reasonable in a Christian, that some of these at least should be retrench'd, than that Servants, for giving attendance to them, should be oblig'd to live as Hea­thens? If the thing be consider'd, Faith can have there no Influence, where the Decision is not in favor of Servants, for [Page 11] [...] [Page 12] [...] [Page 13] allowing them so much time at least, that they may not be forced to renounce the Practice of Christianity, in Com­pliance with the Weakness or Vice of those whom they serve.

This enquiry again ought to be made, because many make Excessive Business their Excuse for not Praying, and per­forming other Spiritual Duties, when in reality 'tis nothing better than Neg­lect; and Sloth is at the Root of all their Omissions. For which Reason, Masters ought to Examin their Ser­vants, that so they may confound the Slothful with their Neglect, and help to Contrive for those of better Inclina­ons, who have a Good Will, but for want of Management cannot find Time to Pray.

Thirdly, This enquiry ought to be made with a stricter Eye, as to Sundays and Holy-days, to see, if they take care to Sanctifie them, according to their Institution. The great Liberty in Pro­phaning these Days, or at least, in pas­sing them over, without any Concern for answering the purposes, for which they were ordain'd, ought to press Christian Masters to call their Servants to an Account. And a Principal care ought to be, on their own parts, to [Page 14] see, that by unnecessary Business they be not hinder'd in the Duties of those Days: Nay more, they ought to Con­trive things so, and exact so little Ser­vice from them, that having their time at Command, the Masters may be in no danger, of their Servants Neglects being charg'd upon them.

Hence it cannot but be advisable, on these Days, to dispence with that Nice­ness which on other Days may be ex­acted, in Cleaning of Rooms. Din­ner may be so order'd, as to excuse a great part of their usual Drudgery in preparing it, and of the Attendance in waiting unseasonably at Table. Visits may be excluded till a fitting time, and going abroad, with Retinue, put off, till the Duty of the Day be over. By this and other like Management, those who have the Care of Families may shew the best kind of Compassion to their Servants, in giving them great Opportunities for Saving their Souls, and taking all Excuses out of their Hands.

But since no part of the Duty of these Days can be well perform'd without due Instruction in the Christian Do­ctrin, hence are Masters to see, that their Servants have all necessary Convenience [Page 15] for being Taught what they are ob­lig'd to know. Many are so unhappy, either in their Education, or the Dul­ness of their Temper, that 'tis not a little help, will serve for their Instruction; this Circumstance is therefore to be well consider'd, and Provision must be made for every one according to their Wants: If some Service be excus'd for Accom­plishing this so necessary Work, the Masters will be no losers in the End; since, besides the Reward they will have from God for this Charity, they may Hope to be better serv'd; there being nothing that can better sit Servants for being every way Faithful to their Ma­sters, than the due Knowledge of their Duties to God. The want of this Know­ledge being a general Occasion of their failing in many Obligations, which be­long to their State, and running into Disorders.

They are to reprove whatever they observe in them displeasing to God.

THIS Care again of Masters ought to have another Branch, and that is, in Reproving whatever they observe in their Servants displeasing to God. Hence they are not to Tolerate in them any ill Custom, as of Swearing, Lying, Drinking, &c. but upon the Know­ledge of any such Disorder, to labor for its Reformation; and if upon suffi­cient Trial, there be no Amendment, to remove those that give the Scandal; that so, Vice may have its due Dis­couragement, and their Corruption may not be Communicated to those of the Family, who are as yet Innocent.

Those Heads of Families, who are pre­sently exasperated upon the Ordinary Neglects of Servants in the Business of their Place, and yet know them to live in the daily Transgression of God's Commands, without any Concern for Correcting their Disorders, give De­monstration of their own unhappy State, [Page 17] in being so Solicitous for the things of this World, and having so little Zeal for the next. And tho' this may not touch them at present, yet the effect of this Indifferency will fall Heavy at last, when they shall be call'd to an Ac­count for all the Sins of their Servants, which have been encourag'd by their Silence, and grown up under the favor of their Connivance.

Those then, who will escape the weight of this Charge, must with a watchful Eye inspect all the Ways of their Servants, as to the Method of their Conversation at home, and all the Circumstances of their going abroad, both as to the Places and Company they frequent, and the Hours of their go­ing out and returning home. With­out this care, how shall Masters be able to give an Account of their Servants? And what will the Disciplin of a Fa­mily be, when Youth are left to the Liberty of their own Inclinations, with­out the Apprehension of any to questi­on or controul them?

Whence I cannot but think those Masters much to Blame, whose Ser­vants being early discharg'd every Evening from their Business and At­tendance, have some Hours left to [Page 18] their own Discretion, without being call'd to any Account of their Manage­ment. For those, who Reflect on the Corruption of our Age, and the little Confidence, that can be had in unex­perienc'd Years, must see, that this is nothing less, than putting into the Hands of Youth daily Opportunities of ruining themselves: And such Nu­merous Instances there are of this Li­berty abus'd, to the Irrecoverable loss of Youth, that 'tis a subject deserves Tears; especially when we consider the sad Disappointment of Parents, who after a Pious Education, having placed out their Children, and being satisfied in the Provision they have made for their Livelihood, find them afterwards lost to all that is Good, by the Neglect, of their Masters, and the unreasonable Liberties they have given them.

The Consequence of this Sin, both in the Affliction of Parents, and in the Ruin of Youth, brings so heavy a Charge after it, that I cannot see, how Masters will be able to answer it; since 'tis seldom in their Power to make any Reparation for the Mischiefs they do by such Neglects; which have still a greater Aggravation of guilt, if ob­serving the Disorders of their Clerks or [Page 19] Apprentices, they purposely let them go on, that so, when out of their Time, there may be no probability of their taking Clients or Customers out of their Hands; for this has such a Complication of Injustice in it, that it would be a Reproach even in a Hea­then, and therefore not to be recon­cil'd with the Principles of the Chri­stian Profession All Heads of Families then, who have Thoughts of provi­ding for another World, must be watch­ful, that all those under their Care, be a daily part of their Care, in advising and reproving, and cutting off, as much as may be, all the Opportunities, by which the Indiscretion of Youth is industrious in drawing Mischief on it self: For without this Care, they can­not satisfie the Obligations they have undertaken, either to God or Man.

They ought to give them good Ex­ample, and be Just in paying their Wages.

ONE Principal part of this Care must be in giving Good Example to their Servants; for without this the best Advice cannot be expected to be very successful: As to all Family-duties therefore, those, who are the Heads, ought to be most Regular, as in Pray­er and keeping good Hours, &c. For since nothing can go on well in any Family, where Disciplin is not observ'd, this must be a daily part of the Ma­ster's Concern, to see, that good Order be kept, and not only, that it be kept by others, but that he be Punctual, as far as Business will permit, in leading the way. For if he, by any Habitual Disorder, gives ill Example, it must needs make his Advice Ridiculous, and it cannot but be fear'd, but where there is so much Ignorance and Weak­ness, it will soon have Followers, not­withstanding all the Care, that can be [Page 21] us'd by others, for Authority is more prevalent in Evil, than in Good; and therefore to think, that a Family should be Regular, and the Master only Disor­derly, is a Thought without Experience, and can give no more than groundless Hopes.

I conclude now these Duties of Ma­sters with that of being Just to their Servants, in the due Payment of their Wages, and of complying with what­ever other Conditions were agreed up­on at their Enterance; for tho' they were made only with Servants, yet Justice ought to be as strictly observ'd with them, as with others, who have both Power and Money to make good their Right. God requires this at the Hands of Masters, and 'tis with the Addition of such Threats to such as fail in it, that if from them the guilt be Measur'd, the Consequence of no other Sin can more justly be Apprehended, than of this Oppression, which Cries to Heaven for Vengeance.

These Rules may serve for Masters, as far as concerns their Servants; but there being still many other Difficulties, which these do not reach to, belonging to their State, if they are engag'd in any kind of Traffic or Trade, there­fore [Page 22] I must carry on these Instructions farther, so as to give some Light in this way also, which a Universal Cor­ruption has cover'd with such great Darkness, that the Path of Truth and Justice is scarce to be discern'd by those few, who are willing to walk in it.

Instructions for Traders.

The Danger of their Profession, and General Rule for avoid­ing it.

TRading is in it self lawful, but the eagerness of Gain and Co­vetousness has mixt it with so many Injustices, that what of it self is irreprovable, is very dangerous in Pra­ctice. This Profession was so general­ly Corrupt in S. Chrysostom's time, that he sets down this as a Conclusion; That a Man of Traffic cannot please God, and therefore no Christian ought to be of [Page 23] this Prifession: I wish it were mended since his time, so as not to deserve this Censure; but since the Improvement of our present Age, above that of his time, is in nothing more evident, than in the Art of using Frauds, and in the Ingenious Contrivances for Cozening one another, I fear there is no reason to expect the Censure to be moderated. But the Evil of Trading being not in the Profession, but in the Abuses of it, I come to those Rules, which may serve for some help in avoiding them.

For a General Rule, I set down this Principle; That no Christian ought to do an Injustice to his Neighbor. This is more particularly applied by S. Paul to Buyers and Sellers, 1 Thes. 4. where, after this Preamble, Ver. 2. You know, what Commandments we gave you by the Lord Jesus: He instances several of these Commandments, and then adds this belonging to our present purpose, Ver. 6. That no Man go beyond and defraud (or, as in the Margin, over-reach) his Bro­ther in any Matter; because that the Lord is the Avenger of all such, as we also have forwarn'd you, and testified. It is one Commandment then of Jesus Christ, deliver'd and publish'd by S. Paul to all the Professors of the Gospel: That [Page 24] no Man defraud or over-reach another in any Business. And I wish it were writ in great Characters in every Shop and Place of Trade, that it might be a Rule to all that are concern'd, that, what­ever their desire of Gain be, they may be discourag'd from seeking it, by over­reaching or defrauding their Neighbor, of which God has declar'd, that he will be the Avenger.

This then is the Rule, Plain and Positive; by it are to be examin'd the General Methods of Traders, whe­ther in Buying and Selling; and in whatever Case there is any thing of De­frauding or Over-reaching, it must, of Course be condemn'd, as contrary to the Commands of Christ, as what the Gospel will not allow, and God will revenge.

Frauds and Injustice in the Goods they Sell.

IN regard of the thing that is Sold, there may be Fraud and Over-reach­ing many ways; as, First, If that which [Page 25] is Damag'd or Imperfect, be Sold for Good in its kind, for Sound and Perfect. For thus the Buyer is over-reach'd, in having that put into his Hands for Good, which is not Good; and if he pays the Price of Good, he is defrauded, since he pays for what he has not.

I do not here except against the Arts of setting off Goods, where the design is no more, than to encourage Cu­stomers to give a Just and Lawful Price for them, according to their true Value. But if these Arts are made use of to de­ceive Customers, in making those Goods pass for Good, which are not so, and for bringing in a Price above their real Value; then all such Arts, as far as they serve for this End, must be condemn'd as Unlawful, since their whole design it to over-reach and de­fraud the Buyer, which is expresly for­bid.

Secondly, There may be Fraud and Over-reaching, as to the thing Sold, if the Buyer declaring the End and Use of the Goods he asks for, the Seller puts such Goods into his Hands, which are altogether unfit for that use, for which they are bought.

Thirdly, If a Person Sells, that, which is not his own: For here, be­sides [Page 26] the Injustice done the right Own­er, he that Buys it is wrong'd, by pay­ing a Price for that, which, when pay'd for, is not his own, but must be restor'd, and may be seiz'd by the Owner, if ever it comes to his Knowledge.

Fourthly, If a Person Sells that, which may be Prejudicial to the Buyer; as in Apothecaries making up their Bills with Drugs, that are either pe­rish'd, or, at least, do not answer the Intention of the Physician: For thus the Physician is impos'd on, and the Patient wrong'd both in Money, Health and Life.

Fifthly, If a Person Sells that, which cannot be Sold; as in taking Money for that which is Spiritual, or annex'd to Spiritual, for this is Simony.

Sixthly, If a Person Sells that, which ought not to be Sold, as being in it self Sinful, or immediately tending to Sin; such are all sorts of Immodest Pictures, Books, Songs, &c. as likewise all Books of Irreligion and Prophane­ness, and of such Errors, as are evidently contrary to the Truth of the Gospel. For tho' there be no wrong done to the Buyer, as to the Price of such Goods, yet there is an Injustice, in thus help­ing to betray the Cause of God, and [Page 27] directly Contributing to the Propaga­tion of Sin, That Christians should do this for Gain, is an Action so unwor­thy of what they profess, that I cannot see, but that keeping on such a Trade, is joining with Judas, in betraying Christ, in Selling the Gospel and their Souls; and what will be the Fruit of such Gain, but the loss of all?

In the Price.

THere may be Fraud and Injustice in the Price of what is Sold, by exacting an unreasonable Rate. There is a Gain allow'd to all that Trade, but this Gain has its bounds; and tho' these cannot be so fixt in Particular, as to condemn all Excess of Oppression; yet there is no one, who Trades, but from that Common Light of Reason and Justice, which God gives to every Soul, may easily discover, when he acts against that, which is Reasonable and Just. They all know the true Value of their Goods; they know the [Page 28] Circumstances, which raise or lessen their Value; they know the Rates, at which they are generally Sold, and their own Conscience bears Testimony against them, when making an Ad­vantage of the Buyer, they take of him a Price exceeding both the Value and Common Rates of such Goods.

Such is the Injustice, when a Person coming to Buy, who neither knows the Price of the Goods, nor when they are Good in their kind, has either Faulty Goods put upon him, or such a Price exacted from him, as far exceeds their Value. For this is evidently over-reaching him, by taking an Ad­vantage of his Ignorance.

Q. This is the Buyer's fault, in under­taking what he does not understand. Caveat Emptor; 'Tis the Buyer's part, to take Care he be not impos'd on.

A. 'Tis an oversight indeed for a Man, when he is amongst Pick-pockets, not to take Care of his Purse: And would you have every Man, that goes into a Shop, think this to be his Case? If he ought to think so, then the Fault of an Ignorant Chapman, is in believ­ing Shopkeepers to be Honester than they are. And so in reality it is, if they stand ready in their Shops to over-reach [Page 29] all they can, and then only do it not, when a Customer's Skill and Caution will not give them Opportunity for it.

Truly if this be all the Honesty of Shopkeepers, 'tis like that of Robbers, who quietly pass by those, who seem too well arm'd against them: But how far is this from the Justice requir'd of them by S. Paul, who expresly gives them Command, Not to over-reach or defraud any? If their Duty then be to over-reach none, and this Principle of Justice ought so to possess their Souls, as to give them a Horror of all Frauds, and to Tie up their Hands from all De­ceit; and God demands this at their Hands; how wretched must be the State of their Souls, who, as if there were no such Command, defraud all they can, and spare only those, who will not be deceiv'd by them?

If this be the Method of Traders, then 'tis true now, that such Traders cannot please God, and that no Chri­stian can be such a Trader, because God's Will and Commands are no Barr upon their Conscience, but they give themselves up to their Covetous De­sires, contrary to all the Principles of Truth and Justice.

But this is not the only Injustice in [Page 30] taking the Advantage of a Buyer's want of Experience or Skill; 'tis much the same of any other Advantage, that is taken, for raising the Price above what is just; as in Case of some present Distress or Ne­cessity observ'd in the Buyer; for who­ever, upon discovering such Necessity, exacts more than is due, is Guilty of Op­pression and Extortion, and overthrows, in this, all the Principles of the Gospel, by being then Barbarous and Cruel, when Circumstances oblige to Charity, Tenderness and Compassion; and there­fore there can be no less than Infinit Woes pronounc'd against those, who upon this Consideration, exact upon the Poor, or such, who by unhappy Circumstances are brought into Streights, and God will be the Reven­ger of such Iniquity.

'Tis not much Inferior to this, if a Person being earnestly bent on a thing, resolves to have it on any Terms; and this being observ'd, the Seller raises it to an Extravagant Price: For tho' here he has the Opportunity of a good Mar­ket; yet since the Phancy of the Buyer adds nothing to the real Value of his Goods, he has no other Motive for set­ting them so high, but only the fair Opportunity of making a Prey: And [Page 31] what does this betray in him, but the Disposition of those above-mention'd, who are ready to catch at all Advan­tages, and stand waiting for those, who are fit to be deceiv'd?

In the Seller.

THere may be Injustice in the Seller, if by Lying he endeavors to per­swade his Customers that his Goods are Sound and Perfect, when they are not so; or that their Value is much above what they deserve. This is more Cri­minal, if he adds Oaths and Impreca­tions to gain Credit to his Lies; for then there is a double Iniquity; in the Injustice of his Price, and in his Per­jury, by which he prevails on the Cu­stomer to give it.

Lies have not that notorious Guilt, when they are only Perswasives to a Just Price; nay, the Hardness and Un­belief of Customers is such, that they seem almost necessary for those, who think to Sell. But however, this is not enough to justifie the Practice; for [Page 32] since Lies are expresly forbid by God, they must be judg'd unlawful, by as ma­ny as believe in him, and make his Will the Rule of their Conscience, and therefore are not to pass for Innocent, even when they are to perswade a Cu­stomer to give a Just Price.

I must confess, the Hardness of Customers is a great Temptation, and the fear of losing Trade pushes it on. And is not this a strange Character of a Christian World, that believing Truth and Justice to be the Way to the Eter­nal Truth, there is scarce such a thing to be found amongst them, as a Con­fidence of any being True and Just; but in all Business there is as general a Distrust, as if there were no Faith a­mongst them? The Hardness of Cu­stomers makes Shopkeepers Swear and Lie; and therefore are Customers Hard, because they know Shopkeepers will Swear and Lie. Both have something to Mend, and I think, those, who keep Shop may safely begin, without dan­ger of being much Losers by it. For I cannot but believe, that if a Person were so exact to Truth, that those who come to Buy, could have a Confidence in him, that he would neither demand an unreasonable Price, nor put off [Page 33] things for Good, which are not so, this would encrease the Number of Customers, and by Moderate Gain come to equal their Heaps, who use all un­warrantable Means for imposing on those, who come to Buy: And in case it should not, yet there would be the Comfort of a Good Conscience, which with the Hopes of God's Blessing, would make abundant Recompence for whatever Advantage their Neighbors have over them, and is the Fruit of their Injustice.

Another Injustice may be in the Sel­ler, if he makes use of False Weights or Measures; for this is nothing less than Cheating; and as God has declar'd this to be an Abomination to him, so those, who make this their Gain, pro­voke God's Wrath against them, and must look from him the Punishment of all the Injustice they have done their Neighbor.

Here must have place the Monopo­lies and Compacts of Traders, who by these undue Ways make a Scarcity when there is none, and by either keep­ing or getting all into their own Hands, oblige those that will Buy, to come to whatever Extravagant Rates they are pleas'd to set upon their Goods. This [Page 34] cannot be allow'd in any Trade, because there is Oppression in it; but 'tis most Criminal, when the Monopoly is in things necessary for Life, as in Corn, Meat, &c. for this is bringing Calamity on the Public, and Starving the Poor: 'Tis that, which provokes the Curses of the People, at 'tis said in the Pro­verbs, and if S. Chrysostom's Judgment be taken, he is absolutely Accursed, who contrives to the making [...] Dear.

In the Buyer, and of Stoln Goods.

ON the Part of the Buyer there may be likewise Injustice: First, If he that undertakes to Sell, knowing not the true Value of what he Offers to Sale, the Buyer takes this Advantage, and gives much below the real Value. For tho' Tradesmen are suppos'd to know the Price of their Goods, and there is no need of Scruple in the Case; yet while Servants undertake to Sell, they may be easily over-seen; as likewise many others may be, in the case of Offering to Sell what they do [Page 35] not well understand. And yet no Ad­vantage ought to be made of such Ig­norance or Over-sight; because every one ought to do, as they would be done by; and no Body would think it Fair-dealing, to be thus Treated by another, but would esteem it Deceit or Over-reaching.

Secondly, If a Person obliges a Shop­keeper to Sell for loss; as in case he be in Debt, and [...]ng not ready Money, his Creditor [...] not take Goods in Payment, except it be at an unreasonable Under-rate: The Creditor being satisfi­ed at the same time, that he should be no loser, if he took them at the Com­mon Price. Likewise if a Person knowing a Shopkeeper to be in Distress for ready Money, presses him to Sell with loss.

Thirdly, If a Person pretends, he has no want of such Goods, knowing, that no Body else will Buy them, that so he may perswade the Seller to part with them with loss. Infinit other ways there are betwixt Buyer and Sel­ler, in which, by Dissembling, Lying, and other Artifices, they impose on each other. But whatever they be, tho' Authoriz'd by Custom, and Universal in Practice, they must all be Censur'd [Page 36] and Condemn'd by the Apostle's Rule, as far as they have any thing of Fraud or Over-reaching in them.

And that Custom must be here inclu­ded, which is of Buying Stolen Goods. For this is an Injustice equal to Theft, if it be done with a Compact of taking off the Hands of Thieves, whatever they meet with belonging to their Trade. And it cannot be excus'd, if they only Buy, what is by accident Offer'd to be Sold at their Shop. The Reason is, First, Because such Goods are not theirs, who Offer them to Sale, and it is not Just to Buy of those, who cannot Sell. Secondly, Because by taking such Goods off their Hands, they encourage Thieves, by making their Theft an Advantage to them, and thus do Injury not only to Private Persons, but also to the Government, in helping to support Robbers, by making their Wickedness Serviceable to them. Thirdly, For their own sakes; because, when they have paid for such Goods, they can­not be esteem'd their own, but theirs from whom they were Stoln; and whatever Advantage they make in Sel­ling such Goods again, it is not theirs, but of Right belongs to the Owners, from whom they were taken.

Q. But if Shopkeepers Buy such Goods with a good Conscience, without Suspicion of their being Stoln?

A. There is something so particular in Thieves Offering Stoln Goods to Sale, both in the way of Offering them, and in the Under-rate, which they ask, that it is easily discern'd by such as are us'd to Trade: But if we must suppose your Case, I answer, that if Stoln Goods are bought without Suspicion of their being Stoln, there can be no Sin in such a purchase, because it was made with a Good Conscience, and without any appearance of Evil. How­ever if afterwards there be Evidence of the Goods having been Stoln, the Purchaser, tho' he has paid for them, can make no Advantage of them, nor Sell them, but they are to be return'd to the Owner, who has the only Right to them.

Q. Is not this hard, when he has paid for them, and bought them with a Good Con­science?

A. It is his Misfortune to be thus impos'd on. He has been Cheated, and must be a loser by it, as he must be in all other Bargains, where the Goods do not answer his Expectation, but, upon Ex­amination, prove Damag'd, Imperfect [Page 38] or Counterfeit; for as here, he must bear the loss, except he can recover something of him that made the Sale; so in the Case propos'd, the Purchaser of Stoln Goods must stand to the loss, except he can find a way to make Re­covery of him, that Sold them; for the First Owner has all the Right to them; his Title being still as Good as ever, notwithstanding the Theft and the Sale, that has been made of them. Thus the Law decrees, and 'tis found­ed on the truest Principles of Justice: Because no Man loses his Right by the Act of another, who has no Right for what he does. It would be the same it an Estate, which the Owner would not lose, tho' another should have paid the full Price of it, to one, who had no Right to Sell it.

Q. But what if the Purchaser has Sold the Goods again, before he has any Know­ledge of their having been Stoln?

A. The Case is hard, but I must judge as the Law does, which ma­king no Distinction betwixt the Goods, and the Price of the Goods, obliges in both Cases to Restitution. Thus, I think, Conscience obliges, since such a Person is in Possession of what is not his own upon a just Title; and I [Page 39] know of no Relief, but from the Per­son, to whom the Restitution is to be made, who being assur'd of his Buy­ing and Selling such Goods with a good Conscience, without any Suspicion of their being Stoln, ought in Equity to consider him, and not let him bear the whole Loss. This, I know, the Law will not Encourage, because it takes no Cognizance of Conscience, but only of the Overt Act: But where Con­science is wholly consider'd, the Re­solution must be different, and I see none more Equitable, than what I have here declar'd; for so, I think, Sincere and Just Persons would do on both sides. And hence, if there should be any, who, upon the Motive of Consci­ence, after having thus Bought and Sold Stoln Goods, should make their Ad­dress to the Party from whom they were Stoln, I think it would be Cruelty to take the Advantage, which the Law gives in such Case, and Refuse the Composition here prescrib'd; because Equity will not allow such Rigor, but requires Tenderness towards Persons of Tender Consciences.

These Directions may serve for Tra­ders; but having prescrib'd Justice to to be observ'd in the Manner of Deal­ing. I cannot Conclude without this [Page 40] Fundamental Caution, that they con­sider the Lawfulness of the Trade they profess. The far greater part are so; but some are to be question'd, especial­ly in the way, they are generally pra­ctis'd; such, I mean, which have Op­pression of the Poor, and Extortion in them. Amongst these I reckon Pawn­brokers, and some Private Persons, who lend Money to such as are in Distress. There are many Reasons absolutely to except against them; but certainly, as the Common Practice is, of Doubling the Principal, or gaining Fifty or Eighty per Cent. they are so far from helping the Poor, as they pretend, that they Eat out their very Bowels, and Devour them; and therefore, in this way, must be Condemn'd of Oppression. And if they are any way to be justified, it must be, by bringing them to some Re­gulation, by having the whole Matter laid before those in Authority, and a Moderate Gain settled, upon a due Computation of their Expences, Ha­zards and Losses. If this were done, they might be Serviceable to the Public, and live by the Service they do to those, who want their Assistance; but with­out this, I do not see, how any, who pretend to Conscience, can live in the Profession and Practice of so Evident an Extortion.

In Workmen and Laborers.

HAving gone thus far with Traders, as to Buying and Selling, I must now speak to others, whose Profession is to serve their Neighbor, and take Money as the Reward of their Labor, whether of Mind or Body. And these are to keep to the same Standard-Rule with the former, of not over-reaching, defrauding, wronging, or doing any kind of Injustice to their Neighbor.

There is Injustice in these, if they exact more for their Labor, than what is due according to the Common Rate, which Custom and Practice have set upon it. But I speak not here of those, whose particular Art, as in Painting, Carving, &c. cannot be thus rated, but must be differently Valued, accor­ding to the Rarity of the Work.

Secondly, If they do not take due Pains, that the Work they have under­taken, be done according to Agree­ment: For if they either put not in good Materials or Ingredients, or slightly make up a Work, so as not to [Page 42] answer the Contract, it is evident, they over-reach their Neighbor, and take Money for what they have not done; since the Price of Slight Work is very different from that, which is more Substantial. In this are concern'd all sorts of Working Trades; and as it is a Principal Part of Honesty belonging to their Profession, to Finish their Work according to Agreement, both as to the Goodness of Materials, and due Care in making it up; so it is an evident Injustice to do otherwise, and no Generality of Practice will excuse the guilt any more, than the Number of Offenders does in other Sins.

Thirdly, If by neglecting to Finish their Work according to Agreement, or in due time, they considerably injure those, who employ them. This may be in many Cases, and is most evident in what belongs to Plowing, Planting and Gardening, where Neglect proves the loss of the Season.

Fourthly, If the Materials or Ingre­dients are considerably prejudiced, and the Work damag'd by their neglect­ing to make it up in due time. This happens in many Compounds, and Ex­tracts, &c. where the Goodness and Virtue depends often upon a Nicety.

Fifthly, If they demand more Ma­terials, than is necessary for the Work, and keep what remains for themselves. This is a Method of many Working Trades, but particularly of those, who make up Cloaths; but how to excuse it from Fraud, I cannot tell; since being paid for their Work, they have no Right to the least part of the Mate­rials, that remain, and therefore can­not keep them, without his Knowledge and Permission to whom they belong, but by being Unjust to him. If any thing be due for Time spent in Buying for those, who set them to Work, this ought to be set down and consider'd by such as employ them; for Time is valu­able to such as Work for Bread; but however, they ought not to be their own Pay masters, but deal fairly, and let those, who are to pay them, know what they pay for.

Lastly, If they do not Work the the whole time, according to Contract. In this are principally concern'd Jour­ney-men and Day-laborers, who make no Conscience of Neglecting their Business, and Idling away Hours, when they have no Overseer to oblige them to more exactness. This is a Point too easily pass'd over without examining [Page 44] by those, who are concern'd in it, and 'tis nothing but not thinking can give them any Peace of Conscience; for certainly there is as much Injustice in this, as in Stealing, and for this they will be call'd to an Account.

The Reason of all these Points is, because whoever Labors by Compact, is Bound in Justice to comply with all the Conditions of the Compact, both as to Time and Manner of the Work; and purposely, or by neglect to be want­ing in any, cannot be done, but with Injustice, if it turns to the prejudice or loss of him, with whom the Contract was made.

In Lawyers, Physicians, Sur­geons.

THE same Judgment is to be made of those, who are of a more Libe­ral Profession, but undertake Business by a sort of Virtual Contract, and expect the Reward of their Industry or La­bor; such are All that belong to the Law, Physic, or Surgery.

First then, 'tis an Injustice in any of these mention'd, if they bring in Bills of Charges, and either set down what is unreasonable for what they have done, or add what they have never done.

Secondly, If they undertake the Defence of a Cause, that is evidently Unjust; or, for their own Gain, En­courage Persons to commence Litigi­ous Suits, to the Prejudice of both Parties, or Ruin of either.

Thirdly, If they take no Pains to understand the Cause, in which they are to Plead. If they make Delays in bringing on a Cause to a Hearing. If they have been wanting either in duly Soliciting, or Drawing up Breves; if they have purposely put off a Cause. In­finit ways there are, by which Men of this Profession, put their Clients to un­necessary and repeated Charges, and at other times make them great Sufferers thro' their Neglect Custom, and the Ex­ample of others, may lessen the Horror of this Sin; but certainly it is so great, that it cannot easily be equall'd, since in raising themselves upon their Neigh­bors Misfortunes, and encreasing their Unhappiness, that they may be Gain­ers by it, has so much of Hard-hearted­ness in it, so much Cruelty, and is so [Page 46] contrary to the Spirit of Charity, that, I think, it cannot be practis'd, but by renouncing the Gospel, and all Right to Life Eternal.

The Case is much the same, when Physicians, Surgeons, &c. Neglect their Patients, or Prolong their Cure for their own greater Advantage; for this cannot be excus'd from Oppression and Cruelty; which is likewise their Crime, when for making their own In­terest another way, they prescribe more Medicines, or more Chargeable, than the Case requires.

Fourthly, In all Professors of the Law, it is acting both against Law and Gospel, to take Fees of the Adverse Party to betray their Clients. The like Injustice may be in those, who sit on the Bench, if they take Bribes, if they are prevail'd on by Passion in fa­voring or opposing either Party, or if they take not due Care in discerning the Justice of the Cause before them.

Fifthly, There may be the same In­justice in the Jury, upon the same Heads; for if they give not due Atten­tion to the Cause, if they accept Pre­sents or Money, if they are over-rul'd by Passion or Party in the Verdict they bring in, they betray the Trust repos'd [Page 47] in them, and must answer to God for whatever wrong they do their Neigh­bor, whether in Life, Estate or Repu­tation. The same guilt falls on all those, who are concern'd in Empan­nelling the Jury; for if they do not nominate Persons of known Integrity, and such as they think most Indifferent to Both Parties; if they are Industrious in putting those on, whom they know indispos'd by Passion or Interest for do­ing Justice, or if they take Bribes for doing so, they are False to their Trust, and have all the Injustice to answer, which is the Consequence of whatever unjust Verdict is brought in.

In paying Wages or Hire.

BEsides the Heads already mention'd, there may be Injustice, as to the Wages to be paid to such as are Hir'd to Work. First, In absolutely refusing to pay what is thus due. Secondly, In unreasonably changing the Wages agreed upon, as Jacob complain'd of Laban. Thirdly, In unreasonably de­lays of paying what is due, by which [Page 48] such as Work Hard, come to want the Bread they have Work'd for, are forced to run in Debt, and take up what is ne­cessary for Life at the Highest Rates, and bring their Family into many In­conveniencies.

Fourthly, By oppressing Poor Work­men, obliging them to Work at an un­der-rate, or otherwise not to employ them; this is a Force upon Persons, whose Bread is to come by their Work, and therefore must be contented to take a little rather than Starve by standing Idle. But in this may be great Inju­stice, whilst their Works being Valued at a High Rate by such as employ them, these grow Rich by the Sweat of the Poor, without allowing them any Tolerable proportion of what is gain'd by their Labors.

Here must have place a like Oppressi­on in Spiritual Affairs; as in a Case much practis'd, of those, who having Rich Benefices, put in Vicars to bear the whole Weight of the Duty, and scarce allow them what is sufficient for a decent Subsistance: For since what­ever Donations have been made, or whatever Tenths are paid, are in Con­sideration of the Service, that is to be done the Flock, and for their Mainte­nance [Page 49] and Encouragement, who serve it, the whole seems in Justice their Right, who Labor in performing all the Functions due to the Flock. Thus it was certainly intended by the Do­nors, and in the First Institution of Tithes, and it was never desir'd, these Pious Provisions should be made the support of Idle Church-men, or to raise their State, whilst others for a Poor allowance do their Work. This then must be set down as an Abuse, in per­verting the Charities of Pious Chri­stians. But if it be consider'd farther, that such Plentiful Benefices were at First design'd, that the Flock might be provided with Able Men, and that these might not only live decently themselves, but likewise have wherewith to give relief to those of the Parish whom they should find to be distress: This Con­sideration shews a double Injustice in the present Method; First, In their Committing the Flock to the Care of such, whose want of Experience, &c. makes them unfit for the Charge, and thus robbing them of that help, which they want, and is their due. Secondly, In either unprofitably Hoarding, or unpro­fitably Spending, what ought to be the Relief of those Poor, whose Pastors they are.

In Governors, Overseers of Col­ledges, Hospitals, &c. in Tru­stees, Overseers of the Poor, Masters of Schools, Debtors, Masters of Families, Gentle­men of Estates.

HERE again may come in still o­ther Injustices too much pra­ctis'd; as, First, In Masters, Governors, Overseers of Colledges, Hositals, Alms-houses. For all these being plenti­fully founded, and the express Intention of the Founders and other Benefactors, being to provide for such, whose Cir­cumstances answer the Conditions by them declar'd; all Governors, Over­seers, &c. are bound in Justice, by their Place, to present or admit no o­thers, but such as come nearest to the Conditions prescrib'd; and thus only can they satisfie their Trust, and answer the End of the Founders. As often then, as they are over-rul'd either by Private Interest, Affection, or other Considera­tions, in preferring Relations, Friends, [Page 51] &c. to others, whose Circumstances come nearer the design of the Founder, they abuse his Charity, and act against Justice, and are False to the Trust they have undertaken.

Secondly, In all sorts of Trustees, Guardians, &c. For if these are wanting to their Trust, and let those, for whom they have undertaken it, be Sufferers thro their Neglect, in not ex­amining, how things are manag'd, or not calling Stewards, &c. to an Ac­count: Or if they make their own Ad­vantage of the Trust, above what is due, by turning to their own use what belongs not to them, or by making very unreasonable Accounts, this is acting against Justice, and no Man of Integrity or Honesty can do it.

Thirdly, In Overseers of the Poor, Collectors and Church-wardens: For if these make undue Distributions, ad­mitting such for Favor, into their number, who are not in want, or ex­cluding others thro' Passion, who are in want: Or if they give in False Ac­counts, or turn to their own use what is given to the Poor, or Spend any part of it in Drink, Dinners, or Entertainments; they so far Rob the Poor, and can have no more Hopes of Mercy, without a [Page 52] Sincere Repentance, and making Resti­tution, than they who commit Rob­bery and Murther on the High-way; nay, they are in so much worse Condi­tion, as God has undertaken the Cause of the Poor, and declar'd, that he will be the Revenger of those, that do them wrong.

Fourthly, In Masters of Schools, or others, who have the Care of Youth: For if these have either a settled Allow­ance, or are paid by the Parents of those, who are under their Charge, they are oblig'd in Justice, to take due Pains in teaching such Youth, and to be watch­ful in every particular, as far as they have undertaken, in order to their Edu­cation. And if they are either Sloth­ful or Careless in teaching them, or for want of due Inspection, give them Opportunities of doing themselves In­jury, by Idleness, or Ill conversation, they betray their Trust, and will have all those Mischiefs to answer for, which are the Consequence of their Neglect. And may not the Ruin of many Families, and Loss of many Souls, be a part of this?

Fifthly, In those, who having the Money of others in their Hands, Neg­lect to give them sufficient Security: [Page 53] For tho' those to whom it belongs, ought to press it, yet there are Cir­cumstances, where Bashfulness, De­pendance, Friendship, will not allow some. Tempers to be importune in the Case; and here for the Debtor to omit or delay the securing such Money, can­not be clear'd from Injustice, since 'tis hazarding another's Right, and may easily prove his Ruin. These Delays have often been follow'd with such Effects, that neither Justice nor Pru­dence can expose another's Right to such Uncertainties, as are those of Life.

Sixthly, In those, who neglect to make their last Will in time of Health, who have Matters of Justice, Provision for Younger Children, the Peace of Fami­ly, &c. depending on their Settlements. The Injustice of Delays in this Point is very evident, where Justice presses so strongly for it.

Seventhly, In all those, who un­necessarily Contract Debts, which may be never in their Power to pay; and in all those, who, being able, Neg­lect to satisfie Just Debts. The Rea­son of the former part is, because doing Justice ought not to be put to hazards without Necessity. And the Reason of the latter is, becaule paying Debts [Page 54] is a Point of Justice, and therefore ought to be satisfied. This is most pressing in Regard of those, who want their Money; and the greater the In­conveniencies are, which they Suffer for want of it the greater is the Crime. 'Tis no less than Cruelty and Oppressi­on, when the denial of Just Debts streightens Families, so as to want Ne­cessaries for Managing their Trade, Educating their Children, and brings ruin upon them. 'Tis generally injurious to all, because there are few, but what are Sufferers for want of their Money; and sometimes those are the greatest, who seem least Importune in Demand­ing their own. At least their Incon­veniencies are not to be disputed, who solicite for their due; and therefore, tho' it be no surprize, that Men of no Principles Contract Debts on all sides, and are not concern'd in paying; yet it is a matter of just wonder, that those, who seem serious in the Business of Salvation, and make a Scruple of being Unjust, should be so little Solicitous in Paying what they Owe, but let their Debts run on, with no more Reflection, than as if no Body were injur'd by their Debts unpaid, or that it was not their Duty to pay them. They seem [Page 55] to think little of it, and so are at Rest within themselves; but to me their Case looks so very ill, by Reason of the many Injuries, they may do by their Neglect; that in my Opinion, 'tis much safer for them to consider it in time, than to run the hazard of the In­justice, which may be charg'd upon them.

Lastly, In many Masters of Families, and Gentlemen of Estates. For when I consider these, upon the Title of Ju­stice, bound to provide for their Chil­dren and Family, I cannot but con­clude, that the Neglect of this is doing contrary to Justice, contrary to that Duty, which God has laid upon them, and they by a virtual Contract, have undertaken. And what then must I say of Tradesmen or others, who live by their Industry, when thro' Sloth or Ill Company, they neglect their Business, and expose their Children, &c. to all the Mischiefs of Want? What of Gentlemen, who either thro' want of Care, or the Immoderate Expences of an Idle, Extravagant or Vicious Life, waste their estates, and many ways In­jure, if not wholly Ruin their Family? Can these think themselves Just, I do not say to God, but to Men, while [Page 56] they Prodigally throw away their E­states, of which, according to the Chri­stian Scheme, they are no more than Principal Stewards, and ought to ma­nage for the good of their Posterity, to whom whilst they give a Being, they ought likewise to provide a Well-being? Can they think themselves Just, while to gratifie their Humors, their Vices and Idle Company, they are more Cru­el to the Children of their own Bowels, than the worst of Enemies? I cannot tell what their Thoughts may be, tho' I fear they do not think; but to make a Judgment from the Infinite Mischiefs I have seen brought upon Generations by this unchristian Method, I think the Violence of Thieves and Murtherers may more likely find Mercy, than the Treachery of these Modish Parricides. And therefore, whatever their Professi­on be, to esteem them for Christians, is what I cannot do, without Violence to all the Principles I have learnt from Christ and his Gospel.

Infinite other Injustices there are, but from the Consideration of these Parti­culars, I think they may be easily dis­cover'd by those, who are not resolv'd to smother all the Principles of Nature, Reason and Faith, which God has given [Page 57] them; and therefore I conclude with this Request to all those, who are any ways engag'd in Money-concerns, that they would be watchful against all the Temptations of unjust Gain, and not lose their Souls for any Advantage that can be expected from over-reaching or defrauding their Neighbor; but to be contented with the Fruit of Fair and Just dealing, hoping for the Blessing of God on it, and esteeming a Little with the Comfort of a Good Conscience, bet­ter than the Abundance of Fraud and Injustice; for thus only can they Act as Christians.

THE Contents.

  • Sect. 1. MAsters are to be Mo­derate in their Commands. Pag. 3.
  • Sect. II. They are to be Moderate in the way of Commanding and Reproving. 6
  • Sect. III. They are to be Careful of their Servants in Health and Sickness. 10
  • Sect. IV. They are to see, that their Servants do their Duty to God. 11
  • Sect. V. They are to reprove whatever they observe in them displeasing to God. 16
  • Sect. VI. They ought to give them [Page] good Example, and be Just in paying their Wages. 20
Instructions for Traders.
  • Sect. I. The Danger of their Profession, and General Rule for avoiding it. 22
  • Sect. II. Frauds and Injustice in the Goods they Sell. 24
  • Sect. III. In the Price. 27
  • Sect. IV. In the Seller. 31
  • Sect. V. In the Buyer, and of Stoln Goods. 34
  • Sect. VI. In Workmen and La­borers. 41
  • Sect. VII. In Lawyers, Physici­ans, Surgeons. 44
  • Sect. VIII. In paying Wages or Hire. 47
  • Sect. IX. In Governors, Over­seers of Colledges, Hospitals, &c. in Trustees, Overseers of the Poor, Masters of Schools, Debtors, Masters of Families, Gentlemen of Estates.

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