[Page] [Page] Geography Anatomiz'd: Or, The Compleat Geographical Grammar.

Being a Short and Exact ANALYSIS Of the whole Body of Modern Geography, after a New and Curious Method.

COMPREHENDING

I. A General View of the Terraqueous Globe. Being a Compen­dious System of the true Fundamentals of Geography; Di­gested into various Definitions, Problems, Theorems, and Pa­radoxes: With a Transient Survey of the whole Surface of the Earthly Ball, as it consists of Land and Water.

II. A Particular View of the Terraqueous Globe. Being a clear and pleasant Prospect of all remarkable Countries upon the Face of the whole Earth; Shewing their Situation, Extent, Division, Subdivision, Cities, Chief Towns, Name, Air, Soil, Commodities, Rarities, Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universi­ties, Manners, Language, Government, Arms, Religion.

Collected from the best Authors, and Illustrated with divers Maps.

The Second Edition much Improv'd and Enlarg'd.

By PAT. GORDON, M. A. And Fellow of the Royal Society.

Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci. Hor.

LONDON: Printed for Robert Morden and Thomas Cockerill; at the Atlas in Cornhill, and in Amen-Corner. 1699.

[Page] THE Geographical Grammar.

[Page] IMPRIMATUR, Liber cui Titulus, Geography Anato­miz'd, &c.

John Hoskyns, V. P. R. S.
[...]

TO The Right Honourable THOMAS Lord Viscount Deerhurst, Eldest Son and Heir Apparent of The Right Honourable THOMAS Earl of COVENTRY,

THIS New Edition of the following Tract of MO­DERN GEOGRAPHY is [Page] (with the profoundest Respect) De­dicated by

Your Lordship's Most Humbly Devoted Servant, PAT. GORDON.

THE PREFACE.

MY principal Design in publishing the following Trea­tise, is to present the younger Sort of our No­bility and Gentry, with a Compendious Plea­sant and Methodical Tract of MODERN GEOGRAPHY, that most useful Science, which highly deserves their Regard in a peculiar manner. If it be alledg'd, That the World is already overstockt with Com­posures of this Nature. I freely grant the Charge; but withal, I'll be bold to say, That there's none as yet publisht, which is not palpably faulty, in one or more of these three respects. Either they are too Voluminous, and thereby fright the Young Student from so much as ever attempting that Study. Or, Se­condly, too Compendious, and thereby give him only a bare Superficial Knowledge of Things. Or finally Confus'd (being writ without any due Order or Method) and so confound him before he is aware. But all these are carefully avoided in the fol­lowing Treatise; for in framing of it, I've industriously endea­vour'd, to make it observe a just Mean, between the two Extreams of a large Volume and a narrow Compend. And as to the Method in which it now appears, the same is (I presume) so Plain and Natural, that I may safely refer the tryal thereof, to the Impartial Judgment of the Severest Critick.

To descend to Particulars. The whole consists now of Two Parts, whereof the first gives a General; and the second a Particular View of the Terraqueous Globe.

[Page] Part I. In giving a General View of the said Globe, I've perform'd these five Things, viz. (1.) I've illustrated (by way either of a Definition, Description, or Derivation) all those Terms that are any ways necessary for the right under­standing of the aforesaid Globle, as also the Analytical Ta­bles of the following Treatise. (2.) I've set down all those pleasant Problems performable by the Terrestrial Globe, together with the manner of their performance. (3.) I've subjoin'd di­vers plain Geographical Theorems [or self-evident Truths] clearly deducible from the foregoing Problems. (4.) I've ad­vanc'd some Paradoxical Positions in Matters of Geography, which mainly depend on a thorough Knowledge of the Globe, and are equally certain with the aforesaid Theorems, though many of them, may possibly appear to some as the greatest of Fables. Lastly, I've taken a Transient Survey of the whole Surface of the Terraqueous Globe, as it consists of Land and Water, as its sole constituent Parts.

This is the Substance of the first Part; and before I proceed to the Second, I must here desire the Reader may be pleas'd to observe these two Things, viz. (1.) That in defining the vari­ous Geographical Terms [mention'd Sect. I.] I have not strictly ty'd my self to the Logical Rules of a Definition; for if the Term propos'd be only explain'd, that is all required here. (2.) In advancing those Geographical Paradoxes (mention'd Sect. iv.) which will probably so startle the Reader at first [being a meer Novelty in Tracts of this kind] as that he can't readily comprehend either their Meaning or Design; let him therefore be pleas'd to know, that the main Drift of such an un­common Essay, is, in short, To whet the Appetite of our Geographical Student for a compleat Understanding of the Globe, [upon a thorough Knowledge of which, these seeming Mysteries do mainly depend] or more briefly, 'tis to set our young Student a thinking. Although the Soul of Man is a cogitating Being, and its Thoughts so nimble as to surround the Universe it self in a trice; yet so unthoughtful and strangely immur'd in Sense is the generality of Persons, that they [Page] need some startling Noise (like a sudden Clap of Thunder) to rouse and awake them. Now, as a strange and unheard­off Phenomenon, suddenly appearing in the Natural World, doth attract the Eyes of all Men, and raiseth a Curiosity in some to enquire into the Reason of it; even so is the Proposal of a Paradoxical Truth to the Intellectual: for it immedi­ately summons all the Powers of the Soul together, and sets the Understanding a-work to search into, and Scan the Matter. To awaken the Mind of Man to its Natural Act of Thought and Consideration, may be justly reckon'd no trivial Business; if we consider, that 'tis to the want thereof (or a stupid In­consideration) that we may chiefly impute all the Enormities of Mankind, whether in Judgment or Practice. If therefore those Paradoxes above-mention'd shall obtain the End propos'd, (the rousing of the Mind to think) it matters the less, if some of them, upon strict enquiry, should be found, to consist of Equivocal Terms, or perhaps prove little more than a Quibble at the Bottom. Proceed we now to

Part II. Giving a Particular View of the Terraqueous Globe. By such a View, I understand a clear and exact Prospect of all remarkable Countries, and their Inhabitants, on the Face of the whole Earth; and that in these following Parti­culars: viz. Their

  • Situation,
  • Extent,
  • Division,
  • Subdivision,
  • Chief Towns,
  • Name,
  • Air,
  • Soil,
  • Commodities,
  • Rarities,
  • Archbishopricks,
  • Bishopricks,
  • Universities,
  • Manners,
  • Language,
  • Government,
  • Arms,
  • Religion.

[Page] What is said upon each of those Heads, will best appear by the following Table.

ConcerningSituation—are briefly declar'dThe Degr. ofLong.between which any Country lies.
Latit.
Extent.—Its due Dimentions fromE. to. W.in English Miles.
S. to N.
Division—2 Things, viz.The general Parts or Classes to which any Country is re­ducible.
How those Parts or Classes are most readily found.
Subdivision—2 Things, viz.The particular Provinces which any Country contains.
How those Provinces are most readily found.
Chief Towns—2 Things, viz.The Modern Names of those Towns.
How such Towns are most readily found.
Name—3 Things, viz.How term'd by the Ancients.
The various Modern Appel­lations.
The Etymology of the English Name.
Air—2 Things, viz.Its Nature as to Heat and Cold, &c.
The Antipodes of that part of the Globe.
Soil.—3 Things, viz.The proper Climate thereof.
Its natural Product.
The Extent of Days and Nights.
Commodities—Those in particular which the Country produceth.
Rarities—2 Things, viz.Those of Nature where cer­tain.
Those of Art, especially Mo­numents of Antiquity.
Archbishopricks2 Things,viz. theirNumber.
Bishopricks—2 Things,
Universities—2 Things,Names.
Manners—2 Things, viz.The Natural Tem­perof the People
The most noted Customs
Language—2 Things, viz.Its Composition and Pro­priety.
Pater-Noster as a Specimen thereof.
Government—2 Things, viz.Its Nature or Real Constitu­tion.
The Publick Courts of Judi­catory.
Arms.—2 Things, viz.The true Coat quartered.
The proper Motto.
Religion—2 Things, viz.The chief Tenets thereof.
When and by whom Christi­anity was planted, if ever.

The Reader can't here exspect a very large Account of all these several Heads, it being impossible in so little room, as the nar­row Compass of a Compend allows, to say the half of what might be said upon many of them; however he may here find all those things that are most essential: These few Sheets being an Abstract of what is more largely express'd in the greatest Volums. Several of those Heads abovemention'd, being Subjects that don't much admit of new Relations, I reckon my self no Plagiary, to grant, that I've taken th' assistance of others; esteeming it needless sometimes to alter the Character either of a People or Country, when I found it succinctly worded by a credible Pen. Here the Reader may be pleas'd to know, That in treating of all Coun­tries, I've made their Situation my only Rule, beginning still with those towards the North, excepting North America, where I thought good to end at the Pole. But as touching the Analytical Tables of this Treatise, (the main Business of the Book) their Design and Use in short, is, To present to the Eye at one view, a compleat Prospect of a Country in all its remarkable Divisions, Subdivisions, and Chief Towns, with the man­ner how all these are most readily found. The Letters of N. S. W. E. [signifying the four Cardinal, and N. W. N. E. S W. [Page] S. E. the four Intermediate Points of the Compass] being affixt to the outside of the various Braces in the aforesaid Tables, do express the Situation of the Parts of any Country there men­tion'd; as (page 44.) where the Divisions of Africa are said to be found from N. to S. If only Cities and Towns, and no Divisions of a Country are set down, then these Letters have the same Relation to them, shewing their Situation in respect of one another. If a little Brace fall within a greater, [as page 44. where Egypt and Barbary have their peculiar Brace] this is to show, that those two Countries are taken together, and con­sider'd as one Division, when reckon'd with the following Coun­tries, in respect of their Situation, express'd on the backside of the outmost Brace; the same is to be said of Cities and Towns, if only such are set down. But finally, if neither Divisions nor Towns can be so ordered, as to have their Situation express'd in a conjunct manner; then the respective Distance of such Towns from some remarkable City, is particularly declar'd in English Miles, as (page 144.) where those in the Circle of Suabia are so set down. If it be objected, that not all, but only the Chief Towns of every Country are mention'd in these Tables. To this I answer, That to mention all were needless; for I presume, that he who knows the true Situation of the fifty two Counties of England, and can readily point at the Chief Town in each of 'em, may easily find any other in the same County if express'd in the Map. Besides, the business of a Geographical Tract, is not so much to heap up a vast multitude of Names, as to shew the Divisions, and Subdivisions of every Country, with the Prin­cipal Town in each of 'em, and how all such are most readily found. If it be farther objected, that neither the Analytical Tables of this Treatise, nor the various Descriptions of Coun­tries annext to them, are any thing of a new Discovery in the Science of Geography, but only the bare Crambe recocta of those who have gone before us. To this I answer, That the Tables are indeed materially the same with others [and other­ways it cannot be, unless we of this Age were so extremely fortu­nate, as to make a compleat Discovery of all the Countries and [Page] Towns as yet unknown; or so absurdly ridiculous, as to Coin new Names for those we know already] yet notwithstanding of this, they are highly preferable to all others whatsoever. For such Tables, hitherto publish'd, (whether English, French, or Dutch) being only a bare Catalogue of Names, confus'dly set down without any due Order and Method, are of so little use to the Reader, that his Pains are still the same as before, to find out those Names in the Map: Whereas the Tables of the fol­lowing Treatise are so contriv'd, by particular Directions on the out-side of their respective Braces, that he may point at those various Countries and Towns in the Map (almost) as fast as he can read their Names in the Table. And as touching the Descriptions of those Countries and their Inhabi­tants; 'twere indeed most unreasonable to exspect a Narrative of them compleately new, unless it be in those Countries, which have undergone such wonderful Changes, that the very face of Things is compleatly New; or some remote Parts of the World, where latter Intelligence hath rectifi'd former Mistakes. Besides, 'tis not so much my present Design in the following Tract, to present the Reader with perfectly new Relations, (except in such Cases abovemention'd) as to Abridge and Me­thodize those already known. And this sufficiently answers the proposed End of the Treatise, being calculated (as I already binted) for those, who are mere Strangers to Geography, or [at least] but young Proficients in that excellent Science; I mean the generality of them, who either attend our Publick Schools, or Study under the Care and Conduct of private Tutors. And so much for the Second Part.

To these Two Parts is annext an Appendix, comprehending the European Plantations [whether Countries, Towns, or Factories] in Asia, Africa, and America. As also some Pro­posals (I hope very reasonable, and I wish acceptable) con­cerning the Propagation of the Blessed Gospel in all Pagan Countries.

[Page] This, in short, is the Sum and Method of the following Geographical Treatise, which (as I said) is principally design'd for the use and benefit of the younger Sort of our Nobility and Gentry. And did such Persons apply their Minds, in their younger Years, to this most useful and diverting Science; 'tis more than probable, that they might thereby avoid these many and gross Im­moralities which abound among us. For if we strictly enquire into the source of these foul and loathsome Streams, (especially in those whom Fortune hath rais'd above the common level) we may readily find, that they mainly flow from that detestable Habit of Idleness, in which the generality of such Persons are bred up, during their youthful Days, and to which they wholly give up themselves, when arriv'd to more riper Years. By which means they're expos'd to a thousand Temptations, and continually lie open to the grand Adversary of Souls. For the remeding of this great Evil, 'tis highly to be wisht, that such Persons would daily imploy a few of their many spare Hours (that now lie heavy upon their Hands) in some proper diverting Study, which carries along with it both Profit and Pleasure, as its constant Attendants. Now, such a Study is undoubtedly that of History, a Study that's particularly proper for a Gentle­man, and adorns him with the best Accomplishments; a Study that begets Experience without Gray Hairs, and makes a Man wise at the Toil and Charge of others. If it be objected, that many have made attempts at the same, and that without Success. Most certain it is, I own, and the reason is ready at hand, name­ly, their Omission of a needful Preliminary Study, viz. That of GEOGRAPHY, which, with some small taste of Chro­nology, may be deservedly term'd, The Eyes and Feet of History, and ought to be acquir'd by our Historian, either in his younger Days, or (at least) in the first place. On which account, I've drawn up the following Treatise, adapting it chiefly to the younger Sort of our Nobility and Gentry; by the help of which, they may quickly acquire such an Idea of all remarkable Countries, as to fit 'em sufficiently for turning [Page] over any Modern History whatsoever. This one stept in Edu­cation of Youth, were preferable [methinks] to a Seven Years Drudgery in the dry Study of bare Words; and a Second Ap­prenticeship that's usually spent in a Phantastick Improvement of the Mind, with many useless Speculations. And I may be bold to say, That to exercise the Thoughts in such a manner as this, or to be but tollerably accomplish'd in these diverting Studies, would vastly transcend most of those other Accomplishments and Diversions, so much in Vogue among our Gentry at pre­sent. And 'tis highly probable, that such a Method as this, might more effectually check the Growth of Vice among 'em, than the most elaborate Moral Discourse that can be fram'd; [the very Title of such Composures being enough many times to fright them from the perusal] whereas a moderate Application of Mind to the aforesaid Studies, would insensibly wean the Thoughts of some, from the reigning Impieties of the Age; and in others, it might ev'n happily prevent an early acquaintance with Vice in general.

And thus you see the Design, Method, and Substance of the whole Treatise; one Word now, concerning this Edition, and I have done. The kind Reception of my first Essay, and its ready Admittance into many of our Publick Schools, gave me fresh Encouragement to send it abroad again; and that in a much better Dress than formerly, being now as Compleat as the Nature of the Subject, and Bigness of the Volume will per­mit. So considerable indeed are those Improvements made in this Impression, that the Book is in effect New. I have cast it in another Mould, and 'tis now above twice as big as the for­mer; the First Part (except the last Section) being intirely added, and above two Thirds of the Second. I have not in­deed augmented the number of Maps, because the Analytical Tables of this Tract are design'd for particular Sheet Maps, whether English, French, or Dutch; and are not to be read with those here inserted, which (though very good of their kind) yet being of so small a Scale, they're more for Ornament than Use. How far this Treatise in the whole doth answer [Page] its proposed End; and how much this Impression is preferable to the former, I intirely leave to the Reader's Judgment to deter­mine. This being all I think necessary to premise concerning the following Composure, I shall no longer detain the Reader by way of Preface, concluding the same with the Words of the Poet,

Vive, vale: Si quid novisti rectius istis, Candidus imperti: si non, his utere mecum. Q. Hor. Epist. Lib. 1.

The CONTENTS.

THE following Treatise being divided into Two Parts; whereof

TheFirstgivesa General Viewof the Terraqueous Globe.
Seconda Particular View

PART. I. Giving a General View.

  • Comprehend
    • Sect. I. Containing 38 Georaphical Definitions. From Page 1 to 15
    • Sect. II. Containing 48 Geographical Problems—15 to 32
    • Sect. III. Containing 41 Geographical Theorems—32 to 37
    • Sect. IV. Containing 39 Geographical Paradoxes—37 to 43
    • Sect. V. Concerning Land and Water.—43 to 59

PART II. Giving a Particular View. Comprehends

CHAP. I. Of EUROPE.

Sect. I.ConcerningScandinaviaSweden63
Denmark67
Norway70
Sect. II.Moscovia73
Sect. III.France79
Sect. IV.GermanyUpperHolland108
Flanders112
Upper Germany114
Sect. V.Poland125
Sect. VI.Spain and Portugal133
Sect. VII.Italy145
Sect. VIII.Turky in Europe, parti­larlyHungary170
Greece172
Tartary177
Danubian Provinces178
Sect IX.European Islands, parti­cularlyBritainScotland186
England197
Wales208
Ireland211

CHAP. II. Of ASIA.

Sect. I.ConcerningTartary—Page 238
Sect. II.China—241
Sect. III.India—247
Sect. IV.Persia—256
Sect. V.Turky in Asia—260
Sect. VI.The Asiatick Islands—282

CHAP. III. Of AFRICA.

Sect. I.ConcerningEgypt—294
Sect. II.Barbary—298
Sect. III.Bildulgerid—303
Sect. IV.Zaara or the Desert—305
Sect. V.Negroeland—307
Sect. VI.Guinea—310
Sect. VII.Nubia—313
Sect. VIII.Ethiopia—315
Sect. IX.African Islands—325

CHAP. IV. Of AMERICA.

Sect. I.ConcerningNew Spain—334
Sect. II.Nova Granada—338
Sect. III.Florida—340
Sect. IV.Terra Canadensis—342
Sect. V.Terra Arctica—357
Sect. VI.Terra Firma—358
Sect. VII.Peru—361
Sect. VIIIAmazonia—365
Sect. IX.Brasil—367
Sect. X.Chili—371
Sect. XI.Paraguay—373
Sect. XII.Terra Mageilanica—375
Sect. XIII.Terra Antarctica—Ibid.
Sect. XIV.The American Islands—376
APPENDIX—391

[Page]

A NEW MAP of yc WORLD by Robt Morden

Modern Geography. PART 1. Comprehending a GENERAL VIEW OF THE Terraqueous GLOBE.

INTRODUCTION.

IN taking a General View of the Terraqueous Globe, we shall ob­serve the following Method:

1. We shall Illustrate (by way either of Definition, Descrip­tion, or Derivation) all those Terms that are any ways necessary for the right understanding of the aforesaid Globe, as also the Analy­tical Tables of the following Treatise.

2. We shall set down in due Order and Method all those pleasant Problems, or delightful Operations performable by the Artificial Globe, together with the manner of their performance.

3. We shall subjoin divers plain Geographical Theorems, or self-evi­dent Truths clearly deducible from the foregoing Problems.

4. We shall advance some Paradoxical Positions in Matters of Geo­graphy, (or a few infallible Truths in Masquerade) which mainly depend upon a thorough Knowledge of the Globe, and are equally certain with the aforesaid Theorems, though many of them may possibly appear to some, as the greatest of Fables.

Lastly, We shall take a Transient Survey of the whole Surface of the Terraqueous Globe, as it consists of Land and Water, as its sole constituent Parts.

Of these five General Heads separately, and in their order. There­fore

SECT. I. Containing some necessary Geographical Definitions.

Def. 1. GEography [a Science both pleasant and profitable] doth mainly consist in giving a true Description of the exterior Part or Surface of the Earthly Globe, as 'tis compos'd of Land and Water, especially the former.

That Geography doth merit the Title of Science in several Respects, and that the knowledge thereof is attended both with Pleasure and Profit, is so universally granted by all who make any considerable Progress therein, that to enter upon a Probation of it, would be every whit as superfluous, as if one should go about to evince that the Sun is risen at Noon-day. It derives its compound Name from the two Greek Primitives of [...], Terra, and [...], scribo vel describo, and differeth from Cosmography, [quasi [...] vel [...], i. e. Mundi Descriptio] as a part doth from the whole; as also from Choro­graphy and Topography [quasi [...], i. e. Regio­nis ac Loci Descriptio] as the Whole from its Parts. By a true De­scription of the Exterior Part of the Globe of the Earth, we understand purely an Account of the Situation, Extent, Divisions, and Subdivi­sions, of all remarkable Countries on the Surface of the said Globe, together with the Names of their Cities and Chief Towns, and that accordingly as those Countries are already projected to our Hands upon particular Geographical Maps, and not an actual Survey or Mensuration of them, which the Science of Geography presupposeth, and which properly belongs to Geodaesia, or the Art of Surveying Land. In giving such a Description of Countries (as aforesaid) doth the Science of Geography properly consist; as for other Nar­ratives relating either to Countries themselves, or their Inhabitants, and which commonly swell up Geographical Tracts, we reckon them (though the more pleasant part of this Study) rather the Fringes of Geography, than its real or essential Parts. In the fore­going Definition we intirely restrict the Science of Geography to the exterior Part or Surface of the Earthly Globe, and that as it's compos'd of Land and Water, as its sole constituent Parts, design­ing thereby to distinguish it from Natural Philosophy, which (in its curious and pleasant Enquiries) reacheth not only the said Surface in all its constituent Parts, but also the whole Globe of the Earth, with the whole Body of the Atmosphere surrounding the same, yea, and even the outmost imaginable Expanse of the Firmament it [Page 3] self. We again restrict that Science mainly to one Part of the afore­said Surface (viz. the Dry Land) thereby to distinguish it from Hydrography, which particularly treateth of the other, namely Wa­ter. The Object therefore of Geography in a large Sense, is the whole Surface of the Ball of the Earth consisting of Land and Water as its sole constituent Parts, or (in a strict and more proper Sense) only One of those Parts, to wit, the Firm Land. For the more di­stinctly viewing of which Parts, and the better comprehending of the Science of Modern Geography in the true Fundamentals thereof, we shall begin with that Artificial Representation of the Earthly Ball, commonly call'd the Terraqueous Globe.

Def. 2. The Terraqueous Globe is an Artificial Spherical Body, on whose Convex Part is truly represented the whole Sur­face of the Ball of the Earth, as it consists of Land and Water.

That this Globe is term'd Terraqueous from Terra and Aqua, (the two constituent Parts of its Surface) or Terrestrial to distinguish it from the Coelestial; or finally, the Artificial Globe as a differencing Mark from the Natural or Real Globe of the Earth, are all so noto­riously known, that the least Illustration were wholly superfluous. We reckon it also superfluous, to show that there is a true Resem­blance in Figure, between the Artificial and Natural Globe, or that the Body of the Earth is truly Spherical: This being now be­yond all dispute, and never (at least very rarely) call'd in question, except it be only by Women and Children But here note, That in the following Treatise, we intirely restrict our selves to this Globe, so that wheresoever the Name of Globe is indefinitely mention'd, we are never to understand the Coelestial. Note, also that wheresoever we are upon the Surface of the Natural Globe, that the Point in the Heavens exactly Vertical to us, is term'd our Zenith, and that Point diametrically opposite thereto, is stil'd our Nadir, which are two corrupted Arabian Terms in Astronomy, importing what is here asserted of them. The first observables that present themselves to our view in treating of the Globe, are its Axis and Poles.

Def. 3. The Axis is an imaginary Line passing through the Center of the real Globe of the Earth, upon which the whole Frame thereof is supposed to turn round.

Its term'd Axis from [...], quod circa illam agatur Terra. As this Axis in the Natural Globe, is an imaginary Line, so in Artificial Globes its a real one, it being a streight piece of Iron, or solid Wood, passing through the middle of the Globe, as the Axle-tree of a Wheel.

[Page 4] Def. 4. The Poles are the two Extremities of the Axis, one whereof is term'd the North or Arctick, and the other the South or Antarctick.

They are call'd Poles from [...], verto, because upon them the whole Frame of the Globe turneth round. The North is term'd Arctick from [...], signifying a Bear, because the real North Pole in the Heavens is commonly taken for a certain noted Star in that Constellation which bears the Name of the Little Bear: And the South is stil'd Antarctick from [...], [contra] and [...], [Ursa] be­cause of its Diametrical Opposition to the other The Terraqueous Globe being a Spherical Body (as aforesaid) turning round upon its own Axis: For the better understanding of that Globe in all its exte­rior Parts, and the various Operations perform'd by the same; we are to conceive it, not only as a bare Spherical Body, but also as such a Body surrounded with many imaginary Circles; the chief of which are Eight, divided into

Five Pa­rallel, viz.
  • The Equator.
  • The two Tropicks.
  • The two Polar Circles.

Three not Parallel, viz.
  • The Horizon.
  • The Meridian.
  • The Zodiack.

Otherwise divided into

Four Greater, viz.
  • The Horizon:
  • The Meridian.
  • The Equator.
  • The Zodiack.

Four Lesser, viz.
  • The two Tropicks.
  • The two Polar Circles.

Def. 5. The Horizon is that great Circle which divideth the Globe into two equal Parts, term'd the Upper and the Lower Hemispheres.

It's so call'd from [...], Terminans vel siniens, quia nostrum termi­nat prospectum, it being the outmost bounds or limits of our Sight, when situated in any Plain, or at Sea. This Circle is twofold, viz. The Sensible, and the Rational Horizon: The Sensible is that already describ'd, bounding the outmost prospect of the Eye, when view­ing the Heavens round from any part of the Surface of the Earth; but the other is purely form'd in the Mind, and supposeth the Eye to be placed in the very Center of the Earth, beholding the intire Upper Hemisphere of the Firmament: The Circle terminating such a prospect is reckon'd the true Rational Horizon, which is duly repre­sented by that broad woodden Circle, usually fitted for all Globes. Upon which are inscrib'd several other Circles, particularly those [Page 5] two containing the Names of the Months, and Number of their Days, according to the Julian and Gregorian Account; as also that other divided into the Thirty two Points of the Compass.

Def. 6. The Meridian is that great Circle, which passing through the Two Poles, divideth the Globe into two equal Parts, term'd the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

It's so call'd from Meridies vel medius dies, because the Sun coming to the Meridian of any Place, is due South, or maketh Mid-day in the said place. The Meridian here defin'd is that great brazen Circle, in which the Globe turneth round upon the two Extremities of its Axis passing through the said Circle; but the Meridians inscrib'd on the Globe it self, are those Thirty six Semi-circles terminating in both the Poles; besides which, we may imagine as many as we please; only note, That one of those Meridians is always reckon'd the first; however it's matter of indifference, which of them we take for such.

Def. 7. The Equator or Equinoctial, is that great Circle which divideth the Globe into two equal Parts, call'd the Southern and Northern Hemispheres.

It's call'd Equator, because the Sun coming to this Circle, tune aequantur noctes & dies, or Equinoctial for the same reason, viz. aequa­litas noctium cum diebus. By others it's simply term'd the Line, [...], and that chiefly by Navigators, as being of singular use in their Operations. It's divided into 360 degrees, which are reckon'd round the Globe, beginning at the first Meridian, and proceeding Eastward.

Def. 8. The Zodiack is that great broad Circle, which cut­teth the Equinoctial Line obliquely, one side thereof extending it self exactly so far North, as the other doth to the South of the said Line.

It's so call'd from [...], (Animal) because it's adorn'd with Twelve Asterisms, (commonly term'd the Twelve Signs) being most of them Representations of divers Animals. The Names and Cha­racters of which Signs are these following,

Aries.Taurus.Gemini.Cancer.Leo.Virgo.
Libra.Scorpio.Sagittarius.Capricornus.Aquarius.Pisces.

Of all Circles inscrib'd on either of the Globes, this alone admits of [Page 6] Latitude, and is divided in the middle by a Concentrick Circle, term'd the Ecliptick, which properly is that Circle set upon the Globe comprehending the Characters of the Twelve Signs above-mentioned, each of which Signs is 1/12 part of that Circle, and con­tains 30 degrees.

Def. 9. The Tropicks are the two biggest of the four lesser Circles, which run parallel to the Equator, and are equidistant therefrom.

They're term'd Tropicks from [...], (verto) because the Sun in his Annual Course arriving at one of those Circles, doth return to­wards the other. They derive their respective Denominations of Cancer and Capricorn from touching the Zodiack at the two Signs of that Name, and each of them is distant from the Equator, exactly 23 degr. 1/2.

Def. 10. The Polar Circles are the two least of the four Lesser Circles running parallel to the Equator, and at the same distance from the Poles, as the Tropicks are from the Equator.

They're term'd Polar, because of their Vicinity to the Poles. That Circle nearest the North, is call'd the Arctick; and the other, next to the South Pole, the Antarctick Polar Circle, and that for the same reason already given, (Def. 4.) when treating of the Poles themselves.

These are the eight necessary Circles above-mention'd; but to compleat the Furniture of the Globe, there remain as yet three Par­ticulars, viz. the Horary Circle, the Quadrant of Altitude, and Semi-Circle of Position.

Def. 11. The Horary Circle is a small Circle of Brass, and so affixt to the Brazen Meridian, that the Pole (or end of the Axis) proves its Center.

Upon this Circle are inscrib'd the Twenty four Hours of the Na­tural Day at equal distance from one another; the Twelfth for Mid-day being in the upper part towards the Zenith, and the other Twelfth for Midnight in the lower towards the Horizon; so that the Hours before Noon are in the Eastern, and those for the Afternoon in the Western Semi-Circle: As for an Index to this Horary Circle, the same is fixt upon the end of the Axis, and turneth round with the Globe. The Use of this Circle and Index will sufficiently appear in many pleasant Problems hereafter mention'd.

Def. 12. The Quadrant of Altitude is a narrow thin Plate of pliable Brass, exactly answerable to a fourth part of the Equi­noctial.

[Page 7] Upon this Quadrant, are inscrib'd 90 Degrees, each of them being according to the same Scale with those upon the Equator. How useful this Quadrant is, will also appear in the Solution of several Problems hereafter mention'd.

Def. 13. The Semi-Circle of Position is a narrow solid Plate of Brass exactly answerable to one half of the Equinoctial.

Upon this Semi-Circle are inscrib'd 180 Degrees, exactly the same with those upon the Equinoctial. We may term it a double Qua­drant of Altitude in some respect, and its of considerable Use in se­veral delightful Problems.

To these I might add the Mariners Compass, that most necessary Instrument, commonly us'd by Navigators, which being duly toucht with the Load-stone, and horizontally fixt upon the Pedestal of the Globe, is frequently needful for the right Solution of several Problems.

The necessary Circles of the Globe being Eight (as aforesaid); Of them, and some others, hereafter mention'd are form'd the Latitude and Longitude of Places, as also Zones and Climates.

Def. 14. Latitude is the distance from the Equator to either of the Poles, and measured upon the brazen or first Meridian.

No Term is more frequently us'd in Geography than that of La­titude, which is twofold, viz. North and South. In reckoning of the Northern Latitude, you are to begin at the Equinoctial Line, and pro­ceed to the Arctick; and the Southern from the Equinoctial to the Antarctick Pole, still numbring the Degrees of Latitude, either upon the brazen or first Meridian. The many Circles inscrib'd on the Globe, at the distance of 10 Degrees from one another, and pa­rallel to the Equator, are term'd Parallels of Latitude. But besides those actually inscrib'd, we are to conceive the Globe as furnisht with a vast multitude of such Circles, for every degree of Latitude, yea, and every sixtieth part of each degree is supposed to have an imagi­nary Parallel Circle passing through the same. But since Latitude (as aforesaid) is the Distance from the Equator to either of the Poles; it from hence follows, that the greatest Latitude consisteth of 90 Degrees. Now correspondent to each of those Degrees (or the 1/360 of a great Circle in the Heavens) is a certain Space of the Sur­face of the Earth, which is every where of the same Extent in it self, but different in its number of Parts, according to the different reckoning of various Countries. To know the said different number of Parts, (of what sort soever, whether they be Miles, Leagues, or other Measures) corresponding to one Degree in the Heavens, is absolutely necessary for the right understanding of the true Distance of Places in [Page 8] different Countries; we shall therefore illustrate the same, and that by the following Table,

answerable to one Degree, areCommon Italian, English, and Turkish Miles.—60
Ordinary French Leagues—20
Spanish Miles according to Vulgar reckoning.—17½
German, Dutch, Danish, and Great Poland Miles.—15
Miles usual in Swedeland.—12
Miles usual in Hungary.—10
The Versts of Muscovy.—80
Persian, Arabtan, and Egyptian Parasanga.—20
The Indian Cos.—24
The Stades of China.—250
The Inks of Japan.—400

But here note, That though these are the most remarkable Mea­sures of Distance throughout the inhabited World, with their respe­ctive Proportion to one Degree in the Heavens; yet, we are not to imagine that these Measures are of the same Extent in the vari­ous Provinces of the same Country, as is evident from the diffe­rent length of Leagues in different Parts of France; as also the diver­sity of Miles in the South and North of England.

Def. 15. Longitude is the Distance from the first Meridian, and measured upon the Equator.

In reckoning the various Degrees of Longitude (which are 360 in all) you are to begin at the first Meridian where-ever it is, and to proceed upon the Equator quite round the Globe. Correspondent to each of those Degrees in the Equator, [as to Degrees of Latitude on the Meridian] are sixty Italian Miles, or twenty French Leagues, according to Vulgar Calculation: But this is to be understood only of Places exactly under the Equator; for the true Distance between two Places lying due East and West in any considerable Latitude is far less in Miles than between other two Places lying exactly under the Equator, and likewise under the same Meridians; The Reason of which is most evident, namely, the approaching of the Meridians nearer and nearer to one another, till at last they unite all in the Pole. But that you may readily find the true Distance in Miles from East to West between any two Places in any Parallel of Latitude, we shall here subjoin the following Table, in which is set down, to every Degree of Latitude, the exact number of Miles, and sixtieth Part of a Mile, that are answerable to one Degree in the Equator, still allowing sixty Italian Miles to such a Degree.

[Page 9]

Lat.m.sLat.msLatm.s.Lat.m.s
06000235512464140692132
15956245448474100702032
25954255424484008711932
35952265400493920721832
45950275328503832731732
55946285300513744741632
65940295228523700751532
75937305156533608761432
85924315124543526771332
95910325052553424781232
105900335020563332791128
115852344944573240801024
12584035490858314881920
13582836483259310082820
14581237475660300083720
15580038471661290484612
16574039463662280885512
17572040460063271286412
18570441451664261687312
19564442443665252088204
20562443435266242489104
21560044430867232890000
225536454224682232

Def 16. Zones are large Tracts of the Surface of the Earth, lying Parallel to the Equator, and distinguish'd by the four lesser Circles of the Globe.

They're term'd Zones from [...], [Zona vel Cingulum] because they encompass the Globe of the Earth in some manner, as a Girdle doth surround the Body of a Man; and are in number Five,

Viz.Two Frigidcomprehend­ed betweenThe Polar Circles, and the Poles.
Two TemperateThe Polar Circles, and the Tro­picks.
One TorridThe Two Tropicks, and divided by the Equator.

Of these the Ancients imagin'd only the Two Temperate to be ha­bitable; esteeming the scorching Heat of the Torrid, and pinching Cold of the two Frigid to be equally intollerable; according to that of the Poet,

[Page 10] Quarum quae media est, non est habitabilis aestu: Nix tegit alta duas:— Ovid. Metam. 1.

Def. 17. Climates are those Tracts of the Surface of the Earth, bounded by imaginary Circles, running Parallel to the Equator, and of such a breadth from South to North, that the length of the Artificial Day in one surpasseth that in the other, by half an Hour.

They're term'd Climates from [...], [Declino vel Inclino] because in numbring of them they decline from the Equator, and incline to either Pole. Not to mention what the Ancients taught of Climates, either as to their number, or manner of reckoning them; It's sufficient for our present purpose to consider that Mo­dern Geographers have advanc'd the Number of them to 60. From the Equator to each of the Polar Circles, are 24 arising from the difference of ½ Hour in the longest Day; and from the Polar Circles to the Poles themselves, are Six arising from the difference of an in­tire Month, the Sun being seen in the first of these a whole Month without setting, in the second two, and in the third three Months, &c. How all these Climates are fram'd, viz. the true Parallel of Latitude in which they end, (that being likewise the beginning of the follow­ing) with the respective breadth of each of them, you may clearly see by the following Tables.

ClimatClimates between the Equator and Polar Circles.
d.m.d.mClimd.m.d.m.
Par. of Lat.BreadthPar. of Lat.Breadth
10825825135958129
21625800146118120
32350725156225107
43020630166322057
5362860817646044
64122454186449043
7452940719652 [...]032
84901332206547026
9515825721666019
105427229226620014
115637210236628008
125829152246631003

[Page 11]

Climates between the Polar Circles and the Poles.
d.m.d.m.d.m.d.md.m.d.m.
Par.Lat.Par.Lat.Par.Lat.Par.Lat.Par.Lat.Par.Lat.
673069307320782084009000
BreadthBreadthBreadthBreadthBreadthBreadth
010002000350050005400600
1Month2Month3Month4Month5Month6Month

Having thus taken a view of the chief Circles belonging to the Ter­restrial Globe, as also the manner how Latitude and Longitude with Zones and Climates are fram'd; proceed we next to the various Po­sitions of the Globe, commonly term'd Spheres, which are three in Number, viz. Parallel, Right, and Oblique.

Def. 18. A Parallel Sphere is that Position of the Globe, which hath these three Properties, viz. (1.) The Poles in the Zenith and Nadir: (2.) The Equator in the Horizon: (3.) The Parallel Circles parallel to the Horizon.

The Inhabitants of this Sphere, are those (if any) who live under the two Poles.

Def. 19. A Right Sphere is that Position of the Globe, which hath these three Properties, viz. (1.) Both the Poles in the Horizon. (2.) The Equator passing through the Zenith and Nadir. (3.) The Parallel Circles perpendicular to the Ho­rizon.

The Inhabitants of this Sphere, are they who live under the Equi­noctial Line.

Def. 20. An Oblique Sphere is that Position of the Globe, which hath these three Properties, viz. (1.) One of the Poles above, and the other under the Horizon. (2.) The Equator partly above, and partly under the Horizon. (3.) The Parallel Circles cutting the Horizon obliquely.

The Inhabitants of this Sphere are they, who live on all Parts of the Globe of the Earth, except those exactly under the Poles and Equinoctial Line.

But having no regard to these Positions of the Globe; The various Inhabitants of the Earth are likewise considered with respect to the several Meridians and Parallels peculiar to their Habitations, and that under these three Titles, viz. Antaeci, Periaci, and Antipodes.

[Page 12] Def. 21. The Antaeci are those People of the Earth, who live under the same Meridian, but opposite Parallels.

Peculiar to such People are these following Particulars, viz. (1.) They have both the same Elevation of the Pole, but not the same Pole. (2.) They are equally distant from the Equator, but on different sides. (3) They have both Noon and Midnight at the same time. (4) The Days of one are equal to the Nights of the other, & vice versâ. (5.) Their Seasons of the Year are contrary, it being Winter to one, when Summer to the other, &c.

Def. 22 The Perlaeci are those People of the Earth, who live under the same Parallels, but opposite Meridians.

Peculiar to such People are these following Particulars, viz. (1.) One of the Poles is equally elevated to both, and the other equally depress'd. (2.) They are equally distant from the Equator, and both on the same side. (3.) When it's Noon to one, it's Mid­night to the other, & econtra. (4) The length of the Day to one, is the Compliment of the other's Night, & vice versâ. (5.) They both agree in the four Seasons of the Year, &c.

Def. 23. The Antipodes are those People of the Earth, who live under opposite Parallels and Meridians.

Peculiar to such People are these following Particulars, viz. (1.) They have both the same Elevation of the Pole. (2) They are both equally distant from the Equator, but on different sides, and in opposite Haemispheres. (3.) When it's Noon to one, it's Mid­night to the other, & vice versâ. (4.) The longest Day or Night to the one, is the shortest to the other. (5.) Their Seasons of the Year are contrary, &c.

The Inhabitants of the Earth were likewise considered by the An­cients with respect to the Diversity of their Shadows, and accordingly reduc'd to three Classes, viz. Amphiscii, Periscii, and Heteroscii.

Def. 24. Amphiscii were those People of the Earth, who liv'd in the Torrid Zone, or between the two Tropicks.

They're so term'd from [...], [utrinque] and [...] [Umbra] be­cause they cast their Shadows on both sides of them, viz. North and South, according to the Nature of the Sun's Declination.

Def. 25. Periscii were those People of the Earth, who liv'd in the Frigid Zones, or between the Polar Circles and the Poles.

They're so call'd from [...], [Circà] and [...] [Umbra] because they cast their Shadows round about them, towards all Points of the Compass.

[Page 13] Def. 26. Heteroscii were those People of the Earth, who liv'd in the two Temperate Zones, or between the Tropicks and the Polar Circles.

They're so call'd from [...], [Alto] and [...] [Umbra] be­cause they cast their Shadows only one way, viz. North, if in the North temperate; or South, if in the South temperate Zone

But leaving the various Inhabitants of the Earth, and to come closer to our main Design, let us return to the Globe of the Earth it self, consider'd simply as a Spherical Body, whose Surface we are to view as compos'd of Land and Water, as its sole consti­tuent Parts, and those two Parts, thus subdivided as followeth, to wit,

Land into
  • Continents,
  • Isthmus,
  • Islands
  • Promontories,
  • Peninsula's,
  • Mountains.

Water into
  • Oceans,
  • Straits,
  • Seas,
  • Lakes,
  • Gulfs,
  • Rivers.

Def. 27. A Continent [Lat. Continens à Contineo] is a large and spacious Space of dry Land, comprehending divers Countries, Kingdoms, and States, all join'd together without any intire Separation of its Parts by Water.

Def. 28. An Island [Lat. Insula, quasi in salo] is a part of dry Land environed round with Water.

Def. 29. A Peninsula [quasi penè Insula, otherwise Cher­sonesus from [...], Terra, and [...], Insula] is a part of the dry Land every where enclosed with Water, save one narrow Neck adjoining the same to the Continent.

Def. 30. An Isthmus [ab [...] vel [...], Ingredior] is that narrow Neck of Land annexing the Peninsula to the Conti­nent, by which People may enter into one from the other.

Def. 31. A Promontory [quasi Mons in mare promi­nens] is a high part of Land stretching it self out in the Sea, the Extremity whereof is commonly term'd a Cape or Head-Land.

Def. 32. A Mountain [à moneo vel emineo] is a rising part of the dry Land, over-topping the adjacent Country, and appearing the first at a distance.

[Page 14] Def. 33. The Ocean [Gr. [...] quasi ex [...], citò, & [...], Fluo] is a mighty Rendesvouz, or large Collection of Waters environing a considerable Part of the Main Con­tinent.

Def. 34. The Sea [Lat. Salum à sale quia salsum] is a smaller Collection of Waters intermingled with Islands, and in­tirely (or mostly) environed with Land.

Def. 35. A Gulf [Lat. Sinus, quasi sinu suo mare com­plectens] is a part of the Sea every where environed with Land, except one Passage whereby it communicates with the neighbouring Sea, or main Ocean.

Def. 36. A Strait [Lat. Fretum à ferveo, quod ibi fer­veat mare propter angustiam] is a narrow Passage, either joyning a Gulf to the neighbouring Sea or Ocean, or one part of the Sea or Ocean to another.

Def. 37. A Lake [Lat. Lacus, a Gr. [...], Fossa vel Fovea] is a small Collection of deep standing Water, intirely surrounded with Land, and having no visible or immediate Communication with the Sea.

Def. 38. A River [Lat. Flumen vel Fluvius à fluo] is a considerable Stream of fresh Water issuing out of one, or various Fountains, and continually gliding along in one or more Channels, till it disgorgeth it self at last into the gaping Mouth of the thirsty Ocean.

These being all the necessary Terms commonly us'd in Modern Geography; and particularly those, that either need or can well admit of a Definition, Description, or Derivation: We proceed in the next place to

SECT. II. Containing some pleasant Geographical Problems.

Prob. 1. THE Diameter of the Artificial Globe being given, to find its Surface in Square, and its Solidity in Cubick Measure.

Multiply the Diameter by the Circumference (or a great Circle dividing the Globe into two equal Parts) and the Product will give the first: Then Multiply the said Product by ⅙ of the Diameter, and the Product of that will give the second. After the same manner we may find the Surface and Solidity of the Natural Globe, as also the whole Body of the Atmosphere surrounding the same, providing it be always and every where of the same height; for having found the perpendicular height thereof by that common Experiment of the ascent of Mercury at the foot and top of a Mountain; double the said Height, and add the same to the Diameter of the Earth; then Multiply the whole (as a new Diameter) by its proper Circumfe­rence, and from the Product substract the Solidity of the Earth, the Remainder will give the Solidity of the Atmosphere.

Prob. 2. To Rectify the Globe,

The Globe being set upon a true Plain, raise the Pole according to the given Latitude; then fix the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, and (if any Mariner's Compass upon the Pedestal) let the Globe be so situated, as that the brazen Meridian may stand due South and North, according to the two Extremities of the Needle.

Prob. 3. To find the Longitude and Latitude of any place.

By Longitude we do not here understand that Opprobrium Navigato­rum of Easting and Westing, but simply the distance between the given place and the first Meridian inscrib'd on the Surface of the Globe. For the finding of which, bring the given place to the East-side of the brazen Meridian, and observe what Degree of the Equator is just under the said Meridian, for that is the Degree of Longitude peculiar to the given place; and the Degree of the Meri­dian exactly above that place is its proper Latitude, which is either Southern or Northern, according as the place is South or North of the Equinoctial Line.

Prob. 4. The Longitude and Latitude of any place being gi­ven, to find that place on the Globe.

Bring the given Degree of Longitude to the brazen Meridian; reckon upon the same Meridian the Degree of given Latitude, whe­ther South or North, and make a mark with Chalk where the reckoning ends; the Point exactly under that Chalk is the place desir'd.

Prob. 5. The Latitude of any place being given, to find all those places that have the same Latitude.

The Globe being rectify'd Prob. 2. according to the Lati­tude of the given place, and that place being brought to the brazen Meridian, make a mark exactly above the same, and turning the Globe round, all those places passing under the said mark, have the same Latitude with the given place

Prob. 6. To find the Sun's place in the Ecliptick at any time.

The Month and Day being given, look for the same upon the wooden Horizon, and over against the Day you will find the par­ticular Sign and Degree in which the Sun is at that time (observing withal the difference between the Julian and Gregorian Kalendar) which Sign and Degree being noted in the Ecliptick, the same is the Sun's place (or pretty near it) at the time desired.

Prob. 7. The Month and Day being given, as also the parti­cular time of that Day, to find those places of the Globe, to which the Sun is in their Meridian at that particular time.

The Pole being elevated Prob. 2. according to the Latitude of the place in which you are, and the Sun's Place found Prob. 6. in the Ecliptick at the time given; bring the same to the brazen Meridian, and setting the Index of the Horary Circle at the upper Figure of XII. turn the Globe till the said Index point at the given Hour of the Day. Which done, fix the Globe in that Situation, and observe all those places exactly under the brazen Meridian, for those are the places desired.

Prob. 8. To know the Length of the Day and Night in any place of the Earth at any time.

Elevate the Pole Prob. 2. according to the Latitude of the given place; find the Sun's place in the Ecliptick Prob. 6. at that time, which being brought to the East side of the Horizon, set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, [Page 17] (or the upper Figure of 12.) and turning the Globe about till the aforesaid place of the Ecliptick touch the Western side of the Horizon, look upon the Horary Circle, and wheresoever the Index pointeth, reckon the Number of Hours between the same and the upper Fi­gure of 12. for that is the Length of the Day at the time desir'd, the Complement whereof is the Length of the Night.

Note, There is a Mistake in working the 7th Problem, for the same ought to be performed thus: The Pole being elevated accord­ing to the Latitude of the given Place, bring the said Place to the brazen Meridian, and setting the Index of the Horary Circle at the Hour of the Day in the given Place, turn the Globe till the Index point at the upper Figure of XII. which done, fix the Globe in that Situation, and observe what places are exactly under the upper He­misphere of the brazen Meridian, for those are the Places desir'd.

Prob. 9. To find by the Globe the Antaeci, Periaeci, and Antipodes, of any given place.

Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and finding Prob. 3. its true Latitude, count upon the Equator the same number of Degrees towards the opposite Pole and observe where the reckoning ends, for that is the place of the Antaeci. The given Place continuing under the brazen Meridian, set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, and turning the Globe about till the same Point at Midnight, (or the lower 12.) the place which then comes to the Meridian, (having the same Latitude with the former) is that of the Perioeci. As for the Antipodes of the given Place, reckon from the said place upon the brazen Meridian 180 Degrees, either South or North, or as many Degrees beyond the far­thest Pole as you are to the nearest; and observe exactly where the reckoning ends, for that is the place desir'd.

Prob. 10. To know what a Clock it is by the Globe in any place of the World, and at any time, providing you know the Hour of the Day where you are at the same time.

Bring the place in which you are, to the brazen Me­ridian (the Pole being raised Prob. 3. according to the Latitude thereof) and set the Index of the Horary Circle at the Hour of the Day at that time. Then bring the desired Place to the brazen Meridian, and the Index will point out the present Hour at that place where ever it is.

Prob. 11. To know by the Globe when the Great Mogul of India, and Czar of Moscovia, sit down to Dinner.

This being only to know when its Noon at Agra and Moscow, (the Imperial Seats of those Mighty Monarchs) which we may very [Page 18] easily do, at what time soever it be, or wheresoever we are: For finding (by the foregoing Problem) the present Hour of the Day in the Cities above-mention'd, supposing withal that Mid-day in the aforesaid Cities is Dining-time, we may readily determine how near it is to the time desir'd,

Prob. 12. To find the Hour of the Day by the Globe at any time when the Sun shines.

Divide your Ecliptick Line in Twenty four equal Parts, and in small Figures set down the Hours of the Natural Day after the fol­lowing manner. At the Intersections of the Ecliptick and Equator place the Figure 6; and bring both those Figures to the brazen Meridian, one being in the upper, and the other in the lower He­misphere. Which done, place the twelve Figures in the Western He­misphere in this order following, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Beginning then at the same Figure of 6, and proceeding Eastward, set down the other twelve Figures thus, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6. The Equinoctial being thus divided and mark'd, elevate the Globe Prob. 3. according to the Latitude of the place where you are, and bring the Intersection of the Vernal Equinox to the upper Part of the brazen Meridian; and situating the Globe Prob. 2. duly South and North, observe exactly that half of the Globe upon which the Sun doth actually shine; for the last part of the enlightned He­misphere doth always shew the Hour of the Day upon the Equi­noctial Line.

Prob. 13. The Latitude of the Place, and Height of the Sun being given at any time, to find thereby the Hour of the Day.

The Globe being rectifi'd Prob. 2. according to the Latitude of the given Place, and the Height of the Sun at that time being found by an exact Quadrant; mark his place in the Ecliptick Prob. 6. for the given Day, and bring the same to the brazen Meridian. After this, fix the Qua­drant of Altitude in the Zenith, and mark in the said Quadrant the particular Degree of the Sun's Altitude, and placing the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, move the Globe together with the Quadrant of Altitude, till the Sun's place markt in the Ecliptick, and his Degree of Altitude markt upon the said Quadrant do come both in one. Which done, observe what Hour the Index doth point at, for that is the Hour desir'd.

Prob. 14. The Latitude of the Place being given, as also the true bearing of the Sun in the said Place at any time, to find thereby the Hour of the Day.

[Page 19] The Globe being Prob. 2. rectifi'd, and the Sun's Place Prob. 6. markt in the Ecliptick, fix the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, and by the Mariners Compass observe the true bearing of the Sun; then bring the Quadrant of Alti­tude to the observed Point of the Compass upon the wooden Hori­zon, and move the Globe till the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick coincide with the said Quadrant: Which done, and the Globe continuing in that Position, the Index of the Horary Circle will point at the Hour of the Day, at the time desir'd.

Prob. 15. The Latitude of the Place, and Sun's Place in the Ecliptick being given, to find thereby the Hour of the Day.

Elevate the Pole according to the given Latitude, and situate the Globe duly South and North Prob. 2. by the Mari­ners Compass; then fix a small Needle perpendicularly in the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, and bringing the same to the brazen Meridian, set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon: Which done turn the Globe till the Needle cast no Shadow at all, and then observe the Index, for it will then point at the true Hour of the Day.

Prob. 16. Any Place being given, to move the Globe so as that the wooden Horizon shall be the Horizon of the same.

Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and reckon from it upon the said Meridian the number of 90 Degrees towards either of the Poles, and where the reckoning ends, place that part of the Meridian in the Notch of the wooden Horizon, and it will prove the Horizon of the given Place.

Prob. 17. To find the Meridian-Line by the Globe in any place, and at any time of the Day.

The Latitude of the Place being known, and the Globe Prob. 2. elevated accordingly; observe the height of the Sun above the Horizon at that time, and draw upon a true Plain a streight Line in, or Parallel to the Shadow of a Stile perpendicularly erected upon that Plain: In which describe a Cir­cle at any opening of the Compasses, and find Prob. 6. the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, and mark his obser­ved height in the Quadrant of Altitude. Then move the Globe together with the said Quadrant, till that Mark in the Quadrant, and the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, come both in one; which done, count upon the wooden Horizon the number of Degrees between the Quadrant of Altitude, and the brazen Me­ridian, and set off the same number of Degrees upon the aforesaid Circle drawn upon the Plain, by making a visible Point in the [Page 20] Circumference where the reckoning ends (beginning still at the side towards the Sun, and proceeding East or West according to the time of the Day) Then draw a Line from that Point in the Circumference through the Center of the said Circle, and the same will prove the true Meridian-Line of that Place, at what time soever the Observa­tion is made.

Prob. 18. A Place being given in the Torrid Zone, to find those Days in which the Sun shall be vertical to the same.

Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and mark what Degree of Latitude is exactly above it. Move the Globe round, and observe the two Points of the Ecliptick that pass through the said Degree of Latitude. Search upon the wooden Horizon (or by proper Tables of the Sun's Annual Motion) on what Days he pas­seth through the aforesaid Points of the Ecliptick, for those are the Days requir'd, in which the Sun is vertical to the given Place.

Prob. 19. The Month and Day being given, to find by the Globe those places of the North Frigid Zone, where the Sun beginneth then to shine constantly without setting; as also those places of the South Frigid Zone, in which he then beginneth to be totally absent.

The Day given, (which must always be one of those, either between the Vernal Equinox and Summer Solstice, or between the Autumnal Equinox and Winter Solstice) find Prob. 6. the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, and marking the same, bring it to the brazen Meridian, and reckon the like number of Degrees from the North Pole towards the Equator, as there is betwixt the Equator and the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, and set a mark with Chalk where the reckoning ends. Which done, turn the Globe round, and all the Places passing under the said Chalk are those in which the Sun begins to shine constantly without setting upon the given Day. For Solution of the latter part of the Pro­blem; set off the same distance from the South Pole upon the brazen Meridian towards the Equator, as was formerly set off from the North, and making a mark with Chalk, and turning the Globe round, all Places passing under the said mark are those desir'd, viz. them in which the Sun beginneth his total Absence, or Disappear­ance from the given Day.

Prob. 20. A Place being given in the North Frigid Zone, to find by the Globe what number of Days the Sun doth constantly shine upon the said Place, and what Days he is absent; as also the first and last Day of his appearance.

[Page 21] Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and observing its Latitude, Prob. 2. elevate the Globe accordingly, then turn the Globe about till the first Degree of Cancer come under the Meridian, and count the same number of Degrees upon the Meridian from each side of the Equator, as the Place is distant from the Pole; and making a mark where the reckoning ends, turn the Globe round, and carefully observe what two Degrees of the Ecliptick pass exactly under the two Points mark'd in the Meridian, for the Northern Arch of the Circle (viz. that compre­hended between the two mark'd Degrees) being reduc'd to time, will give the number of Days that the Sun doth constantly shine above the Horizon of the given Place, and the opposite Arch of the said Circle will give the number of Days in which he is absent. The Pole continuing in the same Elevation, bring the beginning of Cancer to the brazen Meridian, and observe the two Degrees of the Ecliptick which in the mean time coincide with the Hori­zon; then search upon the wooden Horizon for those Days that the Sun doth enter into the aforesaid Degrees of the Ecliptick, for those are the Days of his first and last appearance in the given Place.

Prob. 21. The Month and Day being given, to find that place on the Globe to which the Sun (when in its Meridian) shall be vertical on that Day.

The Sun's Place in the Ecliptick being Prob. 6. found, bring the same to the brazen Meridian, in which make a small mark with Chalk, exactly above the Sun's Place. Which done, find Prob. 7. those places that have the Sun in the Meridian at the time given; and bringing them to the brazen Meridian, observe that part of the Globe exactly under the aforesaid mark in the Meridian, for that is the place desir'd.

Prob. 22. The Month and Day being given, to find upon what Point of the Compass the Sun riseth and setteth in any place at the time given.

Elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the desired Place, and finding the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick at the given Time, bring the same to the Eastern side of the Horizon, and you may clearly see the Point of the Compass upon which he then riseth. By turning the Globe about till his place coincide with the Western side of the Horizon, you may also see upon the said Circle the exact Point of his setting.

Prob. 23. To know by the Globe the Length of the longest and shortest Days and Nights in any place of the World.

Elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the given Place, and bring the first Degree of Cancer (if in the Northern, or Capricorn, if in the Southern Hemisphere) to the East-side of the Horizon; and setting the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, turn the Globe about till the Sign of Cancer touch the Western-side of the Horizon, and then observe upon the Horary Circle the number of Hours between the Index and the upper Figure of XII. (reckoning them according to the Motion of the Index) for that is the Length of the longest Day, the Complement whereof is the Extent of the shortest Night. As for the shortest Day and longest Night, they are only the reverse of the former.

Prob. 24. To know the Climates of any given Place.

Find Prob. 23. the Length of the longest Day in the given Place, and whatever be the number of Hours whereby it surpasseth Twelve, double that number, and the Pro­duct will give the true Climate of the Place desir'd. But here note, That this is to be understood of Places within the Latitude of 66½. As for those of a greater Latitude, (where the Climates encrease by intire Months, enter the second Table of Climates (page 10) with the Latitude of the given Place, and opposite thereto you'll find the proper Climate of a place in the said Latitude.

Prob. 25. The Length of the longest Day in any place being known, to find thereby the Latitude of that place.

Having the Length of the longest Day you may know thereby Prob. 24. the proper Climate of that Place, and by the Table of Climates (pag. 10.) you may see what Degree of Latitude corresponds to that Climate, which Degree is the Lati­tude of the Place desir'd.

Prob. 26. The Latitude of the Place being given, as also the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, to find thereby the beginning of the Morning, and end of the Evening Twilight.

The Globe being rectifi'd, and the Sun's Place brought to the brazen Meridian, set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon; then bring that Degree of the Ecliptick (which is opposit to the Sun's Place) to the Western Quarter, and so move the Globe together with the Quadrant of Altitude, till the Degree opposite to the Sun's Place, and the 18 Degree of the said Quadrant come both in one; Which done, observe what Hour the Index then pointeth at, for at that Hour doth the Morning Twilight begin. As for the Evening Twi­light, [Page 23] bring the Degree of the Ecliptick, opposite to the Sun's Place at that time to the Eastern Quarter, and so move the Globe till the same and the 18th Degree of the Quadrant come both in one, and the Index will point at the Hour when the Evening Twilight doth end.

Prob. 27. The Length of the longest day being given, to find thereby those places of the Earth in which the longest Day is of that Extent.

By the given Length of the longest Day Prob. 25. find the true Degree of Latitude, where the Day is of that Ex­tent, and making a mark upon that Degree in the brazen Meridian, turn the Globe round, and observe what Places pass exactly under the said Mark, for they are the Places desir'd.

Prob. 28. A certain number of Days, not surpassing 182. being given, to find thereby that Parallel of Latitude on the Globe, where the Sun setteth not during those Days.

Take half of the given Number of Days, and whatever it is, count so many Degrees upon the Ecliptick, beginning at the first of Cancer, and make a mark where the reckoning ends; only observe, that if your number of Days surpass thirty, then your number of Degrees ought to be less than it by one. Bring then the mark'd Point of the Ecliptick to the brazen Meridian, and observe exactly how many Degrees are intercepted between the aforesaid Point and the Pole, for the same is equal to the desir'd Parallel of Latitude. If the de­sired Parallel of Latitude be South of the Line, the Operation is the same, bringing only the first Degree of Capricorn to the Meridian in lieu of Cancer.

Prob. 29. The Hour of the Day being given, according to our way of reckoning in England, to find thereby the Babylonick Hour at any time.

The Babylonick Hour is the number of Hours from Sun rising, it being the manner of the Babylonians of old, and the Inhabitants of Norimberg at this Day, to commence their Hours from the appear­ance of the Sun in the Eastern Horizon. For the finding of this Hour at any time, and in any place, First elevate the Pole Prob. 2. according to the Latitude of the given Place, and Prob. 6. noting the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick at that time, bring the same to the brazen Meridian, and set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon; after this, rowl the Globe either Eastward or Westward according to the time of the Day, till the Index point at the given Hour. Then fix the Globe in that Posi­tion, and bring back the Index again to Noon, and move the Globe [Page 24] from West to East, till the Sun's Place mark'd in the Ecliptick, coincide with the Eastern Horizon; which done, reckon upon the Horary Circle the number of Hours between the Index and Noon (or the upper Figure of 12.) for that is the number of Hours from Sun rising for that Day in the given Place, or the true Babylonick Hour desir'd.

Prob. 30. The Babylonick Hour being given, to find the Hour of the Day at any time, according to our way of reckoning in England.

Elevate the Pole according to the given Latitude of the Place, and marking the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, bring the same to the brazen Meridian, and set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon. Then Rowl the Globe Westward till the Index point at the given Hour from Sun rising, and fixing the Globe in that Situation, bring the Index back again to Noon, and turn the Globe backwards till the Sun's Place mark'd in the Ecliptick return to the same Semi-circle of the brazen Meridian from whence it came; which done, observe what Hour the Index of the Horary Circle pointeth at, for the same is the Hour desir'd.

Prob. 31. The Hour of the Day being given according to our way of reckoning in England, to find thereby the Italick Hour at any time.

The Italick Hour is the number of Hours from Sun setting at all times of the Year, to Sun setting the next following Day. For the ready finding of such Hours, Prob. 2. elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the Place, and Prob. 6. no­ting the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick upon the given Day, bring the same to the brazen Meridian, and set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon. Then turn the Globe either East or West according to the time of the Day, till the Index point at the given Hour, and fixing the Globe in that Situation, bring the Index back to Noon. Which done, turn the Globe about Eastwards till the mark of the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick coincide with the Western Horizon, and observe how many Hours there are between the upper Figure of 12. and the Index (reckoning them Eastward as the Globe moved) for these are the Hours from Sun-set, or the Italick Hour desir'd.

Prob. 32. The Italick Hour being given, to find thereby the Hour of the Day at any time according to our way of reckoning in England.

This being the Reverse of the former Problem, Prob. 2. elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the given [Page 25] Place, and noting the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick, bring the same to the Western Horizon, and setting the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, turn the Globe Westward till the Index point at Prob. 31. the Italick Hour given; then fixing the Globe in that Position, bring the Index back to Noon, and move the Globe backward till the Mark of the Sun's Place return to the same Semi-Circle of the brazen Meridian from whence it came. Which done, observe how many Hours are between Noon and the Index, (reckoning them from West to East) for those are the Hours desired according to our way of reckoning in England.

Prob. 33. The Hour of the Day being exactly given according to our way of reckoning in England, to find thereby the Judaical Hour at any time.

By the Judaical Hour we understand the exact Time of the Day according to the Ancient Jews, who in reckoning their time, di­vided the Artificial Day into twelve Hours, and the Night into as many, which Hours prov'd every Day unequal in extent (unless in Places exactly under the Equator) they still decreasing or encreasing according to the Seasons of the Year, or the various Declination of the Sun. For the finding of which Hours, observe the following Method, Prob. 2. Elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the given Place, and Prob. 6. marking the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick at that time, bring it to the Eastern Horizon, and set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon; then turn the Globe about till that place mark'd in the Eclip­tick come to the Western Horizon, and observe the number of Hours between Noon and the Index, these being the Hours of which the given Day doth consist, which number you are to Note down, and Prob. 29, 31. to find what Hour from Sun-rising corresponds with the given Hour, or from Sun-setting, if the given Hour be after Sun-setting. Which done, work by the following Proportion. As the number of Hours, whereof the given Day consisteth, (viz. those noted down) is to 12; so is the number of Hours from Sun-rising, (if it be an Hour of the Day) or from Sun-setting (if an Hour of the Night) to a fourth proportional, which is the number desir'd, viz. the Ju­daical Hour at the time given.

Prob. 34. The Judaical Hour being given, to find thereby the Hour of the Day at any time, according to our way of reckon­ing in England.

Elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the given Place, and finding the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick at the time given, bring the same to the Eastern Horizon, and set the Index of the Horary [Page 26] Circle at Noon, then Rowl the Globe Westward, till the Sun's Place coincide with the Western Horizon, and the Index will point at the number of equal Hours. whereof that Day consisteth. Which Number you are to note down, and bring the Sun's Place to the brazen Meridian, and setting the Index again at Noon, turn the Globe about till the Sun's Place coincide with the Eastern Horizon, and the Index will point at the Hour when the Sun riseth in the given Place. Which done, work by the following Proportion. As 12 is to the given Number of Judaical Hours, so is the Length of the Day in equal Hours (formerly found out) to a fourth proportional, which is the Number desir'd, viz. the Hour of the Day according to our way of reckoning in England. Only note, That if the fourth proportional be less than 12, you are to add the same to the Hour of Sun-rising, and the Product will give the Number of Hours be­fore Noon for that Day; but if it be more than 12, then Substract it from 12, and the Remainder will give the Hour of the Day for the Afternoon.

Prob. 35. To find the true Area of the five Zones in square Measure, allowing 60 Miles to one Degree in the Equator.

The Breadth of the Torrid Zone being 47 Degrees which reduc'd to Miles, make 2820; each of the Temperate 43 Degrees, which make 2580; and each of the Frigid 23 Degrees ½, which make 1410 Miles. The true Area of each of those Zones may be found in Square Measure by the following Proportion. (1.) For the Torrid. The Area of the whole Globe being found, (per Prob. 1.) say as Rad. to the Sine of 47; so is the ½ the Area of the Globe, to the Area of the Torrid Zone. (2.) For each of the Temperate Zones; say as Rad. to the difference of the Sines of 23½ and 66½; so is ½ Arch of the Globe to the Area of one of the Temperate Zones. Last­ly, For the Frigid Zones, add ½ Area of the Torrid to the whole Area of one of the Temperate, and Substract the Product from ½ Area of the Globe, and the Remainder will give the true Area of either of the Frigid Zones.

Prob. 36. A Place being given on the Globe; to find those which have the same Hour of the Day with that in the given Place, as also that have the contrary Hours, i. e. Midnight in the one, when it's Mid-day in the other.

Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and observe what Places are then exactly under that Semi-Circle of the said Meridian, for the People in them have the same Hour with that they have in the given Place. The Globe continuing in that Position, set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, and turn the Globe till the [Page 27] Index point at Midnight, and observe that Places are then in that Semi-Circle of the Meridian, for the Inhabitants of those Places do reckon their Hours contrary to these in the given Place.

Prob. 37. The Hour of the Day being given in any place, to find those places of the Earth where it's either Noon or Midnight, or any other particular Hour at the same time.

Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and set the Index of the Horary Circle at the Hour of the Day in that place. Then turn about the Globe till the Index point at the upper Figure of XII, and observe what Places are exactly under the upper Semi-Circle of the brazen Meridian, for in them its Mid-day at the time given. Which done, turn the Globe about till the Index point at the lower Figure of XII, and what Places are then in the lower Semi-Circle of the Meridian, in them its Midnight at the given Time. After the same manner we may find those Places that have any other particular Hour at the Time given, by moving the Globe till the Index point at the Hour desir'd, and observing the Places that are then under the brazen Meridian.

Prob. 38. The Day and Hour being given, to find by the Globe that particular Place of the Earth, to which the Sun is vertical at that very time.

The Sun's Place in the Ecliptick Prob 6. being found, and brought to the brazen Meridian, make a Mark above the same with Chalk; then Prob. 37. find those Places of the Earth, in whose Meridian the Sun is at that instant, and bring them to the brazen Meridian. Which done, observe nar­rowly that individual Part of the Earth which falls exactly under the aforesaid Mark in the brazen Meridian, for that is the particular Place, to which the Sun is vertical at that very time.

Prob. 39. The Day and Hour of the Day being given, to find those Places on the Globe, in which the. Sun then riseth. 2dly, Those in which he then setteth. 3dly, Those to whom its Mid­day. And Lastly, Those Places that are actually enlightned, and those that are not.

Find that Place of the Prob. 38. Globe, to which the Sun is vertical at the given Time, and bringing the same to the brazen Meridian, Prob. 2. elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the said Place. The Globe being fixt in that Position, observe what Places are in the Western Semi-Circle of the Horizon, for in them the Sun riseth at that time. 2dly, Those in the Eastern Semi-Circle, for in them the Sun setteth. 3dly, Those that are exactly under the brazen Meridian, for in [Page 28] them it's Mid day. And Lastly, All those upon the úpper Hemi­sphere of the Globe, for they are actually enlightned, and those up­on the lower are then in darkness, or deprived of the Sun at that very time.

Prob. 40. The Month and Day being given, as also the Place of the Moon in the Zodiack, and her true Latitude, to find thereby the exact Hour when she shall rise and set, together with her Southing (or coming to the Meridian) of the given Place.

The Moon's Place in the Zodiack may be found ready enough at any time by an ordinary Almanack, and her Latitude (which is her distance from the Ecliptick) by applying the Semi-Circle of Posi­tion to her Place in the Zodiack. For the Solution of the Problem, Prob. 2. elevate the Pole according to the Lati­tude of the given Place, and the Sun's Place in the Ecliptick at that time being Prob. 6. found, and mark'd with Chalk, as also the Moon's Place at the same time: Bring the Sun's Place to the brazen Meridian, and set the Index of the Horary Circle at Noon, and turn the Globe till the Moon's Place successively coincide with the Eastern and Western-side of the Hori­zon, as also the brazen Meridian, and the Index will point, at those various times, the particular Hour of her Rising, Setting, and Southing.

Prob. 41. The Day and Hour of either a Solar or Lunar Eclipse being known, to find by the Globe all those Places in which the same will be visible.

Mark the Sun's Place in the Prob. 6. Ecliptick for the given Day, as also the opposite Point thereto, which is the Place of the Moon at that time. Then find Prob. 38. that Place of the Globe to which the Sun is vertical at the given Hour, and bring the same to the Pole (or vertical Point) of the wooden Horizon, and fixing the Globe in that Situation, observe what Places are in the upper Hemisphere, for in most of them will the Sun be visible during his Eclipse. As for the Lunar Eclipse, you are to find Prob. 9. the Antipodes of that place which hath the Sun vertical at the given Hour, and bringing the same to the Pole of the wooden Horizon, observe (as formerly) what Places are in the upper Hemisphere of the Globe, for in such will the Moon be visible during her Eclipse, except those that are very near unto, or actually in the Horizon.

Prob. 42. A Place being given on the Globe, to find the true Situation thereof from all other Places desir'd, or how it beareth in respect of such Places.

[Page 29] The various Places desir'd [which are supposed to be some of those that lie upon the intermediate Points of the Compass] being pitch'd upon, bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and elevate the Pole according to it's Latitude, and fixing the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, apply the same successively to the Places desir'd, and the lower Part of the said Quadrant will intersect the wooden Horizon at those various Points of the Compass (inscrib'd upon the said Circle) according to the true bearing of the given Place, in respect of the Places desir'd.

Prob. 43. A Place being given on the Globe, to find all other Places that are situated from the same, upon any desir'd Point of the Compass.

Elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the given Place, and bring the said Place to the brazen Meridian, and fixing the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, apply the lower Part thereof to the desir'd Point of the Compass upon the wooden Horizon; and observe what Places are exactly under the Edge of the said Quadrant, for those are the Places that are situated from, or bear off, the given Place according to the desired Point of the Compass.

Prob. 44. Two Places being given on the Globe, to find the true distance between them.

The two Places given must of necessity lie under either the same Meridian, the same Parallel of Latitude, or else differ both in Longitude and Latitude. (1.) If they lie under the same Meridian, then bring them both to the brazen Meridian, and observe the number of De­grees of Latitude comprehended between them, which being reduc'd into Leagues or Miles, will give the Distance requir'd. (2.) If they lie under the same Parallel of Latitude, then bring them separately to the brazen Meridian, and observe the Number of Degrees be­tween them upon the Equator; which done, enter the Table [page 9.] with the Latitude of the given Places, and seeing thereby how many Miles in that Parallel are answerable to one Degree in the Equator, multiply those Miles by the aforesaid number of De­grees upon the Equator, and the Product will give the Distance requir'd. But, Lastly, if the two Places given do differ both in Longitude and Latitude, then bring one of them to the vertical Point of the brazen Meridian, and extending the Quadrant of Alti­tude to the other, observe upon the said Quadrant the number of Degrees between them, which being reduc'd into Leagues or Miles, will give the distance requir'd. This third Case of the Problem be­ing most considerable and occurring more frequently than the other two, we shall here annex another way of performing the same be­sides the Globe, and that is by resolving a Spherical Triangle, [Page 30] two Sides whereof (viz. the Complements of the different Latitudes, or the distance of the given Places from the Poles) are not only given, but also the Angle comprehended between them, (it being equal to the difference of their Longitude) by which Sides and Angle given, we may very easily find the third Side by the noted Rules in Trigonometry, which third Side is the distance re­quired.

Prob. 45. A Place being given on the Globe, and its true Distance from a second place, to find thereby all other Places of the Earth that are of the same distance from the given Place.

Bring the given Place to the brazen Meridian, and elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the said Place; then fix the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, and reckon upon the said Quadrant, the given Distance between the first and second Place (providing the same be under 90 Degrees, otherwise you must use the Semi-Circle of Position) and making a Mark where the reckoning ends, and moving the said Quadrant or Semi-Circle quite round upon the Surface of the Globe, all Places passing under that Mark, are those desir'd.

Prob. 46. The Latitude of two Places being given, and how one of them beareth off the other, to find thereby the true Distance between them.

For the Solution of this Problem. Suppose the first Meridian to be the true Meridian of one of the given Places, particularly that whose bearing is unknown. Upon the upper Semi-Circle of that Meridian, mark the Latitude of the said Place; then elevate the Pole accord­ing to the Latitude of the other place, and fixing the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, extend the same to the given Point of the Compass upon the wooden Horizon, and turn the Globe about till the Point mark'd in the aforesaid Meridian coincide with the said Quadrant. Which done, reckon upon that Quadrant the number of Degrees between that Point mark'd in the first Meridian and the vertical Point; which Degrees being converted into Leagues or Miles, will give the Distance requir'd.

Prob. 47. The Longitude of two Places being given, as also the Latitude of one of them, and its Bearing from the other, to find thereby the true Distance between them.

For the Solution of this Problem, suppose the first Meridian to be the true Meridian of the Place, whose Latitude is unknown. Reckon from that Meridian upon the Equator the number of Degrees equal to the difference of Longitude of the two Places, and make a Mark where the reckoning ends, and bringing the same to the brazen [Page 31] Meridian, (which represents the Meridian of the second Place) reckon upon it the Degrees of the given Latitude; and fixing the Globe in that Situation, raise the Pole according to that Latitude, and fix the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, extending the other extremity thereof to the given Point of the Compass upon the wooden Horizon. The Globe continuing in this Position, observe that Point of the Surface, where the Quadrant of Altitude intersects the first Meridian, for the same representeth the second Place, and that Arch of the Quadrant between the said Point and the Zenith, being converted into Leagues or Miles, will give the Di­stance requir'd.

Prob. 48. The Distance between two Places lying under the same Meridian, being given, as also their respective bearing from a third Place, to find thereby that Place with its true Distance from the other two.

The given Distance being reckon'd any where upon the brazen Meridian, and those places of the Globe exactly under the beginning and end of that Reckoning being mark'd, raise the Pole according to the Latitude of one of them, (which for Distinctions sake we'll term the first Place) and fixing the Quadrant of Altitude in the Zenith, extend the other extremity thereof to the given Point of the Compass upon the wooden Horizon, according as the said first Place beareth off the third unknown, and make a small Tract with Chalk upon the Globe, where the Edge of the Quadrant passeth along. Which done, elevate the Pole according to the Latitude of the second Place, and fixing the Quadrant of Altitude in the Ze­nith, extend the same (as formerly) to the given Point of the Com­pass upon the wooden Horizon, and observe where the said Qua­drant intersects the aforesaid Tract of Chalk made upon the Surface of the Globe, for that is the third Place desir'd, whose Distance from the other two may be found by the foregoing Problem.

These are the Chief Problems performable by the Terrestrial Globe, as also the manner of their Performance. But if the Reader desire more, let him Consult Varenius, (his Geographia Generalis) from whom we have borrowed several of those abovemention'd. Now followeth according to our proposed Method

SECT. III.

Containing some plain Geographical Theorems.

Theor. 1. THE Latitude of any Place is always equal to the Elevation of the Pole in the same Place. & econtrá.

Theor. 2. The Elevation of the Equator in any Place is al­ways equal to the Complement of the Latitude in the same place, & vice versâ.

Theor. 3. Those Places that lie under the Equinoctial Line, have nothing of Latitude, it being there that the Calculation of Latitude begins.

Theor. 4. Those Places that lie exactly under the two Poles have the greatest Latitude, it being there that the Calculation of Latitude doth end.

Theor. 5. Those Places that lie exactly under the first Meri­dian, have nothing of Longitude, it being there that the Calcula­tion of Longitude begins.

Theor. 6. Those Places that are immediately adjacent to the Western-side of the first Meridian have the greatest Longitude, it being there that the Calculation of Longitude doth end.

Theor. 7. All Places lying upon either side of the Equator, have the greater or lesser Latitude, according to their respective Distance therefrom.

Theor. 8. All Places lying upon either side of the Equator, and exactly under the same, have the greater or lesser Longitude, according to their respective Distance from the first Meridian.

Theor. 9. That particular Place of the Earth lying exactly under the Intersection of the first Meridian and Equinoctail Line, hath neither Longitude nor Latitude.

Theor. 10. No place of the Earth is distant from another above 10800 Italian Miles, allowing 60 to one Degree in the Equator.

[Page 33] Theor. 11. No Place of the Earth is distant from its proper Antipodes (diametrically taken) above 7200 Italian Miles, still allowing 60 to one Degree in the Equator.

Theor. 12. The sensible Horizon of every Place doth as often change, as we happen to change the Place it self.

Theor. 13. The apparent Semediameter of the sensible Horizon in most Places, doth frequently vary according to the Refraction of the Sun-beams.

Theor. 14. All Countries upon the Face of the whole Earth do equally enjoy the Light of the Sun (in respect of Time) and are equally depriv'd of the benefit thereof.

Theor. 15. In all Places on the Globe of the Earth, (save exactly under the two Poles) the Days and Nights are of an equal Length (viz. twelve Hours each) when the Sun cometh to the Equinoctial. Line.

Theor. 16. In all Places between the Equinoctial and the two Poles, the Days and Nights are never equal to one another, save only those two times of the Year, when the Sun entreth the Signs of Aries and Libra.

Theor. 17. The nearer any Place is to the Line, the lesser is the difference between the Length of the Artificial Days and Nights in the said Place; and on the contrary, the farther remov'd, the greater.

Theor. 18. In all Places lying under the same Parallel of La­titude, the Days and Nights are of the same extent, and that at all times of the Year.

Theor. 19. Three or more Places being given on the Globe that lie between the Equator and either of the Poles, and equidi­stant from one another; the Extent of the longest Day in those Places doth not encrease proportionably to the distance of the Places themselves.

Theor. 20. Three or more Places being given on the Globe that lie between the Equator and the Poles, in which the Length of the longest Day doth equally encrease; the distance between the Paral­les of those Places is not equal to one another.

Theor. 21. Three or more Places being given on the Globe, whose distance from the Equator to either Pole exceeds one another [Page 34] in Arithmetical Proportion: The Length of the longest Day in one doth not keep the same Analogy to that in the other, according to the Proportion of their distance.

Theor. 22. In all Places of the Torrid Zone, the Morning and Evening Twilight is least; in the Frigid, greatest; and in the Temperate it's a Medium between the two.

Theor. 23. To all Places lying within the Torrid Zone, the Sun is duly Vertical twice a Year; to those under the Tropicks, once; but to them in the Temperate and Frigid, never.

Theor. 24. In all Places of the two Frigid Zones, the Sun appeareth every Year without setting for a certain number of Days, and disappeareth for the same space of time. And the nearer unto, or the farther from the Pole those places are, the longer or shorter is his continued Presence in, or Absence from the same.

Theor. 25. In all places exactly under the Arctick and Ant­arctick Circles, the Sun (at his greatest Declination) appeareth every Year for one Day compleatly without setting, and intirely disappeareth another, but daily riseth and setteth in those Places at all other times, as elsewhere.

Theor. 26. In all places between the Equator and the North­Pole, the longest Day and shortest Night, is always when the Sun hath the greatest Northern Declination; and the shortest Day and longest Night, when he hath the greatest Southern.

Theor. 27. In all places between the Equator and the South­Pole, the longest Day and shortest Night is always when the Sun hath the greatest Southern Declination; and the shortest Day and longest Night, when the greatest Northern

Theor. 28. In all places situated under the Equinoctial Line, the Meridian Shadow of the Sun doth cast it self towards the North for one half of the Year, and towards the South during the other.

Theor. 29. In all places lying under the Equinoctial Line, there is no Meridian Shadow on those two Days of the Year, that the Sun doth enter the Signs of Aries and Libra.

Theor. 30. The nearer that places are unto, or the farther remov'd from the Equator, the shorter or longer accordingly is [Page 35] the Meridian Shadow of a Style perpendicularly erected in such places.

Theor. 31. The farther that places are removed from the Equator (yet not surpassing 66 Degrees of Latitude) the greater is the Sun's Amplitude, or that Arch of the Horizon between the Points of due East and West, and those in which the Sun riseth and setteth on the Days of the Summer and Winter Sol­stice.

Theor. 32. In all places lying under the same Semi Circle of the Meridian, the Hours both of the Day and Night are always the same in one, as in the other.

Theor. 33. In all places both of the North and Southern Hemispheres, that lie under opposite Parallels of Latitude, the Seasons of the Year are always the same in one, as in the other.

Theor. 34. In all places situated in a Parallel Sphere, the Circle of the Sun's Diurnal Motion runs always Parallel (or very near it) to the respective Horizon of such places.

Theor. 35. In all places situated in a Right Sphere, the Circle of the Sun's Diurnal Motion is still perpendicular (or very near it) to the respective Horizon of such places.

Theor. 36. In all places situated in an Oblique Sphere, the Circle of the Sun's Diurnal Motion is always Oblique unto, or cutteth the Horizon of such places at unequal Angles.

Theor. 37. If the difference of Longitude in two places be exactly 15 Degrees. The People residing in the Eastmost of them will reckon the time of the Day sooner by one Hour, than those in the other. If the difference be 30 Degrees, then they'll reckon their Hours sooner by 2. If 45 Degrees, by 3. and if 60, then by 4, &c.

Theor. 38. If People residing in two distinct places do differ exactly one Hour in reckoning their time (it being only Noon to one, when one Afternoon to the other) the true distance between the respective Meridians of those places is exactly 15 Degrees upon the Equator. If they differ 2 Hours, the distance is 30 Degrees. If 3, its 45. and if 4, its compleatly 60, &c.

[Page 36] Theor. 39. If a Ship set out from any Port, and steering Eastward doth intirely surround the Globe of the Earth, the Peo­ple of the said Ship in reckoning their time, will gain one Day compleatly at their return, or count one more than those residing at the said Port. If Westward, then they'll lose one, or reckon one less.

Theor. 40. If two Ships set out from the same Port at the same time, and both surround the Globe of the Earth, one steering East, and the other Westward, they'll differ from one another in reckoning their time two Days compleatly at their return, even suppose they happen to arrive on the same Day. If they sur­round the Earth twice (steering as aforesaid) they'll differ 4 Days; if thrice, then 6, &c.

Theor. 41. If several Ships set out from the same Port, either at the same, or different times, and do all surround the Globe of the Earth, some steering due South, and others due North, and arrive again at the same Port; the respective Peo­ple of those different Ships at their return will not differ from one another in reckoning their time, nor from those who reside at the said Port.

These are the chief Geographical Theorems, or self-evi­dent Truths clearly deduclble from the foregoing Problems, and to these we might add a great many more; but leaving such Truths, we pass to some others (in pursuance of our proposed Method) and such as are equally certain with the aforesaid Theorems, though not so apparent, yet probably more diverting. Therefore followeth

SECT. IV. Containing some amazing Geographical Paradoxes.

Par. 1. THERE are two remarkable Places on the Globe of the Earth, in which there is only one Day and one Night throughout the whole Year.

Par. 2. There are also some Places on the Earth, in which it is neither Day nor Night at a certain time of the Year, for the space of twenty four Hours.

Par. 3. There is a certain Place of the Earth, at which if two Men should chance to meet, one would stand upright up­on the Soles of the others Feet, and neither of them should feel the others weight, and yet both should retain their Natural Posture.

Par. 4. There is also a certain Place of the Earth, where a Fire being made, neither Flame nor Smoke would ascend, but move circularly about the Fire. Moreover, if in that Place one should fix a smooth or plain Table without any Ledges whatsoever, and pour thereon a large Quantity of Water, not one Drop thereof could run over the said Table, but would raise it self up in a large heap.

Par. 5. There is a certain Place on the Globe, of a considerable Southern Latitude, that hath both the greatest and least Degree of Longitude.

Par. 6. There are three remarkable Places on the Globe, that differ both in Longitude and Latitude, and yet all lie under one and the same Meridian.

Par. 7. There are three remarkable Places on the Continent of Europe, that lie under three different Meridians, and yet all agree both in Longitude and Latitude.

Par. 8. There is a certain Island in the Aegaean Sea, upon which, if two Children were brought forth at the same instant of [Page 38] time, and living together for many Years, should both expire on the same Day, yea, at the same Hour and Minute of that Day, yet the Life of one would surpass the Life of the other by divers Months.

Par. 9. There are two observable Places belonging to Asia, that lie under the same Meridian, and of a small distance from one another, and yet the respective Inhabitants of them in reckoning their time, do differ an intire Natural Day every Week.

Par. 10. There is a particular Place of the Earth, where the Winds (though frequently veering round the Compass) do always blow from the North Point.

Par. 11. There is a certain Hill in the South of Bohemia, on whose Top, if an Equinoctial Sun-Dial be duly erected, a Man that is Stone-blind may know the Hour of the Day by the same, if the Sun shines.

Par. 12. There is a considerable number of places lying within the Torrid Zone, in any of which, if a certain kind of Sun-Dial be duly erected, the Shadow will go back seve­ral Degrees upon the same, at a certain time of the Year, and that twice every Day for the space of divers Weeks, yet no ways derogating from that miraculous returning of the Shadow upon the Dial of Ahaz in the Days of King He­zekiah.

Par. 13. There is a certain Island in the vast Atlantick Ocean, which being descry'd by a Ship at Sea, and bear­ing due East of the said Ship, at twelve Leagues distance per Estimation; The truest Course for hitting of the said Island is to steer six Leagues due East, and just as many due West.

Par. 14. There is a remarkable Place on the Globe of the Earth, of a very pure and wholsome Air to breath in, yet of such a strange and detestable Quality, that it's absolutely im­possible for two of the intirest Friends that ever breath'd, to continue in the same, in Mutual Love and Friendship for the space of two Minutes of time.

[Page 39] Par. 15. There is a certain Island in the Baltick Sea, to whose Inhabitants the Body of the Sun is clearly visible in the Morning before he ariseth, and likewise in the Evening after he is set.

Par. 16. There is a certain Village in the Kingdom of Na­ples, situated in a very low Valley, and yet the Sun is nearer to the Inhabitants thereof every Noon by 3000 Miles, and upwards, than when he either riseth or setteth to those of the said Village.

Par. 17. There is a certain Village in the South of Great Britain, to whose Inhabitants the Body of the Sun is less vi­sible about the Winter Solstice, than to those who reside upon the Island of Ice-land.

Par. 18. There is a vast Country in Ethiopia Superior, to whose Inhabitants the Body of the Moon doth always appear to be most enlightned when she's least enlightned; and to be least when most.

Par. 19. There is a certain Island, (whereof mention is made by several of our latest Geographers) whose Inhabitants cannot properly be reckon'd either Male or Female, nor alto­gether Hermaphrodites; yet such is their peculiar Quality, that they're seldom liable unto either Hunger or Thirst, Cold or Heat, Joy or Sorrow, Hopes or Fears, or any such of the common Attendants of Human Life.

Par. 20. There is a remarkable Place of the Earth of a considerable Southern Latitude, from whose Meridian the Sun removeth not for several Days at a certain time of the Year.

Par. 21. There is a certain Place of the Earth of a con­siderable Northern Latitude, where though the Days and Nights (even when shortest) do consist of several Hours; yet in that place it's Mid-day or Noon every Quarter of an Hour.

Par. 22. There are divers Places on the Globe of the Earth, where the Sun and Moon, yea, and all the Planets, do actu­ally rise and set according to their various Motions, but never any of the fixt Stars.

[Page 40] Par. 23. There is a large and famous Country on the Continent of Africa, many of whose Inhabitants are born perfectly Deaf, and others Stone-blind, and continue so during their whole Lives; and yet such is the amazing Faculty of those Persons, that the Deaf are as capable to judge of Sounds as those that hear, and the Blind of Colours as they who see.

Par. 24. There is a certain People in South America, who are properly furnish'd with only one of the five Senses, viz. that of Touching, and yet they can both Hear and See, Taste and Smell, and that as nicely as we Europeans, who have all the Five.

Par. 25. There is a certain Country in South America, ma­ny of whose Savage Inhabitants are such unheard-off Canibals, that they not only feed upon Human Flesh; but also some of them do actually eat themselves, and yet they commonly survive that strange Repast.

Par. 26. There is a remarkable River on the Continent of Europe, over which there is a Bridge of such a breadth, that above three thousand Men a-breast may pass along upon the same, and that without crouding one another in the least.

Par. 27. There is a large and spacious Plain in a certain Country of Asia, able to contain six hundred thousand Men drawn up in Battle Array; which number of Men being actually brought thither, and there drawn up, it were absolutely impossible for any more, than one single Person, to stand upright upon the said Plain.

Par. 28. There is a certain European City, whose Buildings being generally of firm Stone, are (for the most part) of a prodigious height, and exceeding strong; and yet it is most cer­tain that the Walls of those Buildings are not parallel to one another, nor perpendicular to the Plain on which they are built.

Par. 29. There is a certain City in the Southern Part of China, whose Inhabitants (both Male and Female) do observe almost the same Posture and Gate in Walking, as we Europeans; [Page 41] and yet they frequently appear to Strangers, as if they walk'd on their Heads.

Par. 30. There are ten Places of the Earth, distant from one another three hundred Miles and upwards, and yet none of them hath either Longitude or Latitude.

Par. 31. There are two distinct Places of the Earth lying un­der the same Meridian, whose Difference of Latitude is sixty De­grees compleatly; and yet the true Distance between those two Places, doth not really surpass sixty Italian Miles.

Par. 32. There are also two distinct Places of the Earth, ly­ing under the Equinoctial Line, whose difference of Longitude is compleatly 86 Degrees ½, and yet the true Distance between those two Places, is not full eighty six Italian Miles.

Par. 33. There are three distinct Places of the Earth, all dif­fering both in Longitude and Latitude, and distant from one another two thousand Miles compleatly, and yet they do all bear upon one and the same Point of the Compass.

Par. 34. There are three distinct Places on the Continent of Europe, equidistant from one another (they making a true Equi­lateral Triangle, each of whose sides doth consist of a thousand Miles) and yet there is a fourth Place so situated in respect of the other three, that a Man may travel on Foot from it to any of the other three, in the space of one Artificial Day at a certain time of the Year; and that without the least hurry or fatigue whatsoever.

Par. 35. There are three distinct Places on the Continent of Europe lying under the same Meridian, and at such a distance, that the Latitude of the third surpasseth that of the second by so many Degrees and Minutes exactly, as the second surpasseth the first; and yet the true Distance of the first and third from the second (or Intermediat Place) is not the same by a great many Miles.

Par. 36. There are two distinct Places on the Continent of Europe, so situated in respect of one another, that though the first doth lie East from the second, yet the second is not West from the first, and yet both of them are under the same Parallel of Latitude.

[Page 42] Par. 37. There is a certain European Island, the Northmost Part whereof doth frequently alter both its Longitude and Lati­tude.

Par. 38. There is a certain Place in the Island of Great Bri­tain, where the Stars are always visible at any time of the Day, if the Horizon be not over-cast with Clouds.

Par. 39. It may be clearly demonstrated by the Terrestrial Globe, That it is not above Twenty four hours Sailing from the River of Thames in England to the City of Messina in Si­cily, at a certain time of the Year, providing there be a brisk North Wind, a light Frigat, and an Azimuth Compass.

These are the chief Paradoxical Positions in matters of Geography, which mainly depend on a thorough Know­ledge of the Globe; and though it is highly probable, that they'll appear to some as the greatest of Fables; yet we may boldly affirm, That they're not only equally cer­tain with the aforesaid Theorems, but also we are well­assur'd that there's no Mathematical Demonstration of Euclid, more infallibly true in its self, than is every one of them. However we think it not fit to pull off the Vizor, or expose those masked Truths to publick View, since to endeavour the unmasking of them may prove a private Diversion, both pleasant and profitable to the In­genious Reader at his more vacant Hours; we hastning in the mean time to the last Thing propos'd, viz.

SECT. V. Concerning Land and Water.

THE Surface of the Terraqueous Globe [to which we intirely restrict our selves both here, and in the following Part of this Treatise] being always considered by Geographers as a Super­sicies compos'd of Land and Water, as its sole constituent Parts; and these Parts being subdivided (page 13.) as followeth, viz.

Land into
  • Continents,
  • Isthmus,
  • Islands,
  • Promontories,
  • Peninsula's,
  • Mountains.

Water into
  • Oceans,
  • Straits,
  • Seas,
  • Lakes,
  • Gulfs,
  • Rivers.

Of all these separately, and in their Order. Therefore

§. 1. Of CONTINENTS.

Commonly reckon'd Four, viz. those

of
  • Europe,
  • Africa,
  • Asia,
  • America.
EuropeNorthScandinavia—found from W. to E.
Muscovia [or Russia]—
MiddleFrance—found from W. to E.
Germany—
Poland—
SouthSpain—found from W. to E.
Italy—
Turky in Europe—

AsiaNorth, comprehending the vast Body of Tartary.
SouthChina—found from E. to W.
India—
Persia—
Turky in Asia—

[Page 44]

AfricaEgyptfound from N. to S.
Barbary
Bildulgerid
Zaara or the Desert
Land of the Negroes
Guinea
Nubia
EthiopiaInterior—
Exterior—

AmericaNorthMexico or New Spain—from S. to N.
New Mexico or Nova Granada—
Florida—
Terra Canadensis—
Terra Arctica—
SouthTerra Firma—from N. to S.
Peru—
Land of the Amazons—
Brasil—
Chyli—
Paraguay—
Terra Magellanica—
Terra Antarctica—

§. 2. Of ISLANDS.

They belong either

to
  • Europe,
  • Africa,
  • Asia,
  • America.
Europe.The Scandinavian Islands—Lyingin the N. and Baltick-Sea.
The Island of Ice-land—W. of Scandinavia.
The Britannick Islands—N. of France.
The Azores—W. of Spain.
The Mediterranean Islands—S. of Europe.
Asia.The Japan Islands—E. of China.
The Philippin—S. W. of Japan
The Isles des Larrons—E. of the Philippin.
The Moloccoes—S. of the Philippin.
The Islands of the Sund—W. of the Moluccoes.
Ceylon and the Maldives—W. of the Isles of Sund.
Africa.more Re­markableMadagascar—E. of Ethiopia.
The Isles of Cape VerdeW. of Negroland.
The Canary IslandsW. of Bildulgerid.
The Madera—W. of Barbary.
Less Re­markableThe Isles of ComoreN. W. of Madagascar.
St. Thomas's Island—W. of Ethiopia. Lat. 00
The Princess IslandW. of Ethiopia. Lat. 3.
St. Helena—S. W. of St. Thomas.
Isle of Ascention—N. E. of St. Helena.
AmericaNorth areCalifornia—W. of Nova Granada.
Newfoundland—E. of Terra Canadensis.
Middle are the AntillesGreaterCuba—E. of New Spain.
Jamaica
Hispaniola
Port-rito
LesserCaribees—S. E. of the greater An­tilles.
Lucayes—S. E. of Florida.
Sotovento—N. of Terra Firma.
Bermudas—E. of Florida.
South is Terra del Fuogo—S. of Terra Magellanica.

§. 3. Of PENINSULA's.

Europe.Juitland—adjacent toGermany.
Morea—Greece.
Taurica Chersonesus—Little Tartary.
AsiaPeninsula Indiaeintra Gangemthe Continentof Asia
extra Gangemthe Continent
Mallaca [or Chersonese d'or]—Peninsula Indiae intra Gangem.
In Africa is none but Africa it selfthe W. of Asia.
AmericaMexico or North America—SouthAmerica.
Peru or South America—North

§. 4. Of ISTHMUS.

In Europe are the Isthmus ofCorinth—joiningMorea to Greece.
Taurica ChersonesusTaurica Chersonesus to Lit­tle Tartary.
In Asia is the Isthmus of MalaccaMalacca to Penins. Indiae intra Gangem.
In Africa is the Isthmus of Swez—Africa to Asia.
In America is the Isthmus of PanamaMexico and Peru.

§. 5. Of PROMONTORIES or CAPES.

In EuropeCape Nord—Extending fromThe Northmost part of Norway.
Cape la Hogue—The N. of France.
The Lands-End—The S. W.of England.
The Lizard—The S.
The Start—The S.
Cape de Finisterra—The W.of Spain.
Cape de Rocca—The W.
Cape St. Vincent—The W.
AsiaCape Ningpo—The E. of China.
Cape Comorin—Penins. Indiae inter Gangem.
Cape Razalgate—S. E. part of Arabia.
AfricaCape Spartel—The W. of Barbary.
Cape Verde—The W. of Negroeland.
Cape of Good Hope—The S. of Ethiopia exterior.
Cape of Guardifeu—The N. E. part of Ethiopia exterior
AmericaCape de Florida—The S. of Florida.
Cape de Coriente—The W. of New Spain.
Cape Froward—The S. of Terra Magellanica.
Cape Hoorn—The S. of Terra del Fuogo.
Cape de S. Augustine—The E. of Brasil.

§. 6. Of MOUNTAINS.

Remarkable Mountains in EuropeThe Dolfrine Hills—To be seenBetween Sweden and Norway.
Boglowy—In the Souther. partof Moscovia.
Hyperborean Mountains—In the Norther. part
The Sevennes—In the South part of France.
Auvergne—
The Vauge—In Lorraine.
Fitshtelberge—In circulating Bohemia.
Schwartzwaldin—In the S. of Germany, viz. Suabia.
The Carpathean Mount.In the South parts of Poland.
The Pyrenaean Hills—Between Spain and France.
The Alps—Between Italy andFrance.
Germany.
The Appenine Hills—Dividing Italy intoEast.
West.
Vesuvius [à Vulcano]—In the Kingdom of Naples.
Balkan—In the N. of Macedon.
The Holy Mount—In the E. of Macedon.
Lacha—Between Thessaly and Macedon.
The Grampion Hills—In Scotland, viz. S. of the River Dee.
The Cheviot Hills—Between Scotland and England.
Malvern Hills—In England, viz. Worcestershire.
The Peake—In England, viz. Darbyshire.
Snowdon—In Wales, viz. Carnarvenshire.
Plinlimmon—In Wales, viz. Cardiganshire.
Knock Patrick—In Ireland, viz. in the C. Limerick.
Stromboli [à Vulcano]In a little Island W. of Naples.
Aetna [à Vulcano]—In the Island of Sicily.

Remarkable Mountains inAsiaImaus—To be seenIn Tartary:
Caucasus—BetweenTartary.
Mogul's Empire.
Sardonix—On the N. of Penin intra Gangem.
Guaco—In Peninsula Indiae intra Gangem.
Taurus—reaching from E. to W. of all Asia.
Adam's Pike—In the Island of Ceylon.
AfricaMontes Lybici—Between Zaara and Egypt—
Atlas—In the W. ofBarbary.
Bildulgerid.
Basili—In the N. of the Abyssine Empire.
Amara—Under the Eq. in the same Empire
Montes Lunae—BetweenAbyssine Empire.
Monomotapa.
Tenerife—In the Island of Tenerife.
AmericaThe Apalachin HillsBetweenFlorida.
Terra Canadensis.
The Andes—In S. America running from S. to N

§. 7. Of OCEANS.

EuropThe HyperboreanOceanEnclosingEurope in theNorth.
The vast WesternWest.
AsiaTartareanOcean.—Asia on theNorth.
China—East.
Indian—South.
Persian—
Arabick
AfricaOrientalOcean—Africa on theEast.
EthiepickSouth.
AtlantickWest.
Amer.Vast EasternOcean—America on theEast.
The PacifickWest.

§. 8. Of SEAS.

EuropeBaltick Sea—EnclosedwithSwedelandon theW.
Poland in partE.
Germany in partS.
German Sea—withScandinaviaon theE.
Britain—W.
Irish Sea—withBritain—on theE.
Ireland—W.
Mediterranean SeawithEurope—on theN.
Barbary—S.
Euxine Sea—withpart of Europeon theN. & W.
part of Asia.S. and E.

The Seas in the other three Parts of the world, are different Parts of the Ocean [except Mare Caspium in Asia] variously nam'd accord­ing as they lie adjacent to different Countries.

§. 9. Of GULFS.

EuropeSinus BotnicasBending upNorthwardinto Swedeland.
Sinus FinnicusEastward
Sinus AdriaticusN. W. betweenItaly.
Turky in Europe.
Gulf of LionsN. into the S. of France.
Gulf of TarentumN. W. into the S. of Italy.
Gulf of LepantoE. N. E betweenGreece:
Morca.
AsiaPersian Gulf—N. W. betweenPersia.
Arabia
Gulf of BengalN. bet.Penins. Indiae intraGangem.
Penins. Indiae extra
In Africa is the Ara­bian Gulf.—N. W. betweenAsia.
Africa.
AmericaGulf of MexicoW. BetweenFlorida.
Terra Firma.
Button's BayS. W. betweenTerra Canadensis.
Terra Arcticá.
Baffiu's BayN. W. into Terra Arctica.

§. 10. Of STRAITS.

EuropeStraits of DoverJoyningThe Germ. Ocean to the Engl. Channel.
Straits of the SoundThe Danish to the Baltick Sea.
Straits of GibralterThe Medit to the Western Ocean.
Straits of CaffaPalus Meotis to Pontus Euxinus.
Thracian BosphorusPontus Euxinus to the Propontis.
The Hell [...]spont—Propontis to the Archipelagus.
Veer of MessinaOne part of Mediter. to another.
Boke of CorsicaOne part of Mediter. to another.
AsiaStraits of the SundThe Indian and East Ocean.
Straits of OrmusThe Persian Gulf to the S. Ocean.
In Africa is BabelmandelThe Red Sea to the E. Ocean.
AmericaHudson's Straits.—Button's Bay to the E Ocean.
Fretum DavisBaffin's Bay to the E. Ocean.
Magellanick StraitsThe vast E. and W. Ocean.

§. 11. Of LAKES.

Most remarkable Lakes in Europe, areLadoga—Found towards theEastern part of Swedeland.
Jend—
Ula—
Peipus—
Wener—Western part of Swedeland.
Veter—
Meler—
Onega—Western part of Moscovia.
Ilment—
Constance—
Geneva—Southern part of Germany.
Lucern—
Winander-mereNorth of England, viz. Lancashire.
Wittles-mereMiddle of England, viz. Huntingtonshire.
LoughNess—Northernpart of Scotland.
LomondSouthern
Foyl—Northernpart of Ireland.
Neagh—Northern
EarnNorthern
DergeMiddle
AsiaCorus—Northpart of Tartary.
Kithack—North
Kithay—Middle
Piex—Eastern part of China.
Tai—
Chiamy—Northern part of India.
Astamar—Northernpart of Persia.
BabaconbarNorthern
Burgian—Middle
Asphaltis—South part of Palestine.
AfricaElbuciara—Western part of Egypt.
Lybia—Middle part of Zaara.
Guard—Middlepart of Negroeland.
Borno—Eastern
Niger—Northof Ethiopia Interior.
Aquili [...]ia—Middle
Sachaf—South
Zaire—South parts of Ethiopia Exterior.
Zambre—
Zaflan—
AmericaNicaraguaSouthof New Spain.
Mexico—Middle
Parime—East part of Terra Firma.
Titicaca—South part of Peru.

§. 12. Of RIVERS.

Those of Europe.

ScandinaviaSwedeland areDalcarleAncientlyUnknown—RunningEastward.
KimiUnknown—Southw.
TornoUnknown—
ElfeUnknown—
DenmarkNone re­markable 
Norway 
Moscovi.Volga—Rha—E. turning S
Don—Tanais—E. turn. W.
Dwina—Unknown—N. W.
FranceSein—Sequana—N. W.
Loir—Ligeris—W.
Rhone—Rhodanus—S.
Garonne—Garumna—N. W.
GermanyDanube—Danubius or IsterE.
Scheld—Scaldis—N. turn W
Maes—Mosa—
Rhine—Rhenus—N. W.
Elm—Amasius—
Weser—Visurgis—
Elbe—Albus—
Oder—Odera or ViadrusN.
PolandNieper—Boristhenes—S. E.
Niester—Tyras—
Bogg—Hypanis—
Vistule—Unknown—N. W.
Niemen—Unknown—
Duna—Unknown—

[Page 52]

SpainEbre—AncientlyIberus—RunningS. E.
Xucar—Suero—
Guadalquivir—Batis—S. W.
Gualiana—Anas—
Tago—Tagus—
Douro—Durius—W. in its main Body.
ItalyPo—Eridanus or PadusE.
Adige—Athesis—
Arno—Arnus—S. W.
Tiber—Tibris—
Volturno—Uulturnus—W.
In European Turkey is the DanubeDanubius or IsterE.
ScotlandTay—Taus—E.
Clyde—Glotta—N. W.
Spey—Speia—N.
Dee—Dea, Diva, OcasaE.
Don—Dona—
EnglandThames—Tamesis—E.
Severn—Sabrina—S. W.
HumberOuseAbusUreE.S. E.
TrentTrigintaN. in main Body.
Tine—Tina—E.
Twede—Tuesis—E.
Medway—Vaga—N. turning E.
Cam—Camus—N.
IrelandShannon—Sinus—S. W.
Lee—Sauranus—E.
Blackwater—Avenmoore—E. turning S,
Barrow—Birgus—S.
Lift—Libnius—N. E.
Boyne—Buvinda, Boina

[Page]

A New Map of HISFANIA and PORTUGALLIA By Robt. Morden

Those of Asia.

TartaryOby—AncientlyMargus—RunningW. turningN
OchardusUnkonwn—N.
Tartar—Unknown—
PalisangaUnknown—E.
Chesel—Laxartus—W.
ChinaCroceus—Unknown—E. various turnings.
Kiang—Unknown—E.
IndiaGanges—Idem—S.
Guenga—Not remarkable—E.
Indus—Idem—S. W.
PersiaAbiamus—Oxus—W.
Palimalon—Not remarkable—E.
Ilment—Arabs—S.
Bendimur—Bagradas. Agradatus.S. W.
Tiriti—Euletis. Choaspes Hidaspes
Syri—Araxes. Arases.—
Asiatick TurkyTegil—Tygris—S. E.
Prat—Euphrates—

Those of Africa.

In Egypt is the Nile—AncientlyNilus—RunningN.
BarbaryGuadilbarbara—Bagradas, MacraN.
Major—Rubricatus—
BildulgeridOrigin ofGuadilbarbaraNot remarkableN. W
Major—Not remarkable
Branches of Gir—Giras—S. E.
In Zaara is the Body of Gir—Giras—S. E.
In Negroeland is the [...]IdemW. Gulma
GuineaSweria de Costa—Not remarkableS.
Rivere de Volta—Not remarkable
In Nubia is the River Nuba—Not remarkableN. E.
 ExteriorZaire—UnknownW.
Coanza—UnknownW.
EthiopiaR. de Infanto—UnknownS. E.
Zambre—UnknownS. E.
R. de Spiritu S.—UnknownS. E.
Interior is Nile its main BodyNilus—N.

Those of America.

In New Spain none remarkableAnciently Running 
InN. Granada is Rio del Nort.—UnknownS. W.
Florida is R. del Spiri­tu S.—UnknownS.
Terra CanadensisThe great River CanadaUnknownE.
Branch of the CanadaThe ConnecticutUnknownS.
Hudson's RiverUnknown
Rivere de la WareUnknown
The SesquahanaUnknown
The PatomeckUnknown
In Terra Arctica none—
Terra FirmaR. de Paria or OrinoqueUnknownN.
R. deMadeline—Unknown
S. Martha—Unknown
BrafilMiary—UnknownN. E.
Siope—UnknownN.
S. Francis—UnknownE.
Parama—UnknownS. W.
In Amazonia is the Amazone with its Branches—UnknownN. E.
InPeru none remarkable—Unknown
Paraguay is Rio de la PlataS. E.
Chili none considerable—
Terra Magellanicanone
Terra Antarctica

These are the most Remarkable Rivers in the World, as also their old Names, and how they run; which Rivers will be found very necessary for the better understanding of the Second Part of this Treatise, wherein we design to view all Remarkable Countries in their Situation, Extent, Division, and Subdivisions, and more, espe­cially those of Europe. But since most of those Rivers above-men­tion'd belonging to the Continent of Europe do consist of several considerable Branches very necessary to be known; we shall rehearse such Rivers, and annex to each of them their Principal Branches, all which may be readily found by travelling from the Mouth of the Rivers towards their Heads. Therefore

Remarkable Branches of theDwina areWayma—RunningS. W.
Juga—W.
Volga areSosowoia—S.
Occareca—N. E.
Seine areL'Oyse—S. W.
Marn—
Yonne—N. W.
Loir areMayenne—S.
Le Sarte—S. W.
Le Loir—
Vienne—N. W.
Indre—
le Chere—
Allier—
Rhone areDurance—S. W.
Isere—
Saene—S.
Garrone areDardonne—W.
Lot—
Tarne—
Danube arePruth—S.
Misone—S. E.
Alouta—S.
Morawa—N.
Teyssa—S.
Drave—E.
Save—
Inn—N. E.
Iser—
Lech—N.
Iler—
Scheld areRuppel [running W.] aug­mented bySenneN.
Dyle
DemerW.
Dender—N.
Lis—N. E.
Scarpe—
Haisne—W.
Elme areSost—W.
Haise—
Rhine areLippe—W
Roer—
Moselle—N. E.
Lahn—S. W.
Maine—W
Neckar—
Maese areDommel—N.
Niers—N. W.
Roer—
Ourt—
Sambre—N. E.
Semoy—W
Chiers—
Wiser areAller [W.] augmented byLeineN.
Ocker
Fuld—
Elbe areIlmenow—N. W.
Havel—
Saaldre—N.
Muldaw—
Oder areWarta—W.
Bober—N.
Westritz—N. E.
Nieper areDizna—S. W.
Przypiecz, or Pereptus—N. E.
Vistul is the Bugg—N. turn W
Niemen is the Vilna—W.
Ebro areSegre—S. W.
Cinca—S. E.
Gallega—S. W.
Xalo—N. E.
GuadalquivirXenil—W.
Guardamena—S. W.
Guadiana are none remarkable—
Tago areZatas—W.
Zezer—S.
Guadarran—
Xaruma—
Douro areTonroes—N. W.
Tormes—
Arlanza—S. W.
Po areOglio—S E.
Adda—
Tesine—
Tanero [running E. turning N.] augmented byBormida 
Stura—N E.
Sesia—S. E.
Dora Baltea—
Adige is Bachiglione—S.
Arno areElsa—N. W.
Sieve—E. turning S.
Tiber areQuartitio—W.
Nera—S. W.
Chiane—S. E.
Volturno, its chief Branch is Sabate—W.

[Page 58] These are all the Remarkable Branches of the Chief Rivers on the Continent of Europe. And thus we are come to a Period, not only of this Section, but also of the First Part of this Treatise, having now perform'd those five Things at first propos'd, which was to entertain the Reader with some Geographical Definitions, Problems, Theorems, and Paradoxes; as also a Transient Survey of the whole Surface of the Terraqueous Globe, as it consists of Land and Water. And so much for a General View thereof, Now fol­loweth,

[Page]

[figure]

Modern Geography. PART II. Comprehending a PARTICULAR VIEW OF THE Terraqueous GLOBE.

BY a Particular View of the Terraqueous Globe, we under­stand a clear and exact Prospect of all remarkable Coun­tries on the Face of the whole Earth, according as they are represented by particular Geographical Maps; as also a true and compendious Narrative of the chief. Observa­bles relating either to them or their Inhabitants: All which may be briefly reduc'd to these following Heads; viz. their

  • Situation,
  • Extent,
  • Division,
  • Subdivision,
  • Chief Towns,
  • Name,
  • Air,
  • Soil,
  • Commodities,
  • Rarities,
  • Archbishopricks,
  • Bishopricks,
  • Universities,
  • Manners,
  • Language,
  • Government,
  • Arms,
  • Religion.

In taking such a Prospect of all remarkable Countries, we shall begin with Europe, and travel through the various Divisions thereof in the same order as they are set down (page 43.) Therefore

CHAP. I. Of EUROPE.

The Continent of Europe being divided (Pag. 43.) into VIII. great Parts.

VizScandinaviaSwedelandCapital CityStockholm.
DenmarkCopenhagen.
NorwayBergen.
Moscovia or Russia—Moscow.
France.—Paris.
Germany—Vienna.
Poland—Cracow.
Spain—Madrid.
Italy—Rome.
Turky in Europe—Constantinople.

To these add the European Islands. The Chief of which

areGreat Britain.—Cap. C.Those ofLondon.
Edinburgh.
Ireland.—That of Dublin.

Of all these in their proper Places.

[Page]

SWEDEN & NORWAY

SECT. I. Concerning Scandinavia.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween2620of Long.Its greatestLength is about 1030.
5310
between5410of Lat.Breadth is about 840.
7106

Divided into the Kingdoms ofSwedelandCh. T.Stockholm.
DenmarkCopenhagen.
NorwayBergen.

Swedeland compre­hendsScania—Chief TownLunden—from S. to N.
Gothland—Calmar—
Swedeland prop.Stockholm—
Lapland—Tornia—
Finland—Abo—from N. to S.
Ingria—Notteborg or Oresca—
[...]Riga—
Denmark [...]tland—Sleswick—from W. to E.
[...] IslandsCopenhagen—

Norway comprehends five Governments. Of which hereafter.

More Particularly,

§. 1. SWEDELAND.

Scania contains the Provinces ofHalland—Ch. TownHelmstat—W. to E.
Bleking—Christianstat
Schonen—Lunden, Southward.

Gothland contains the Provinces ofVermelandia—Chief TownCarolstadtN. to S. in the West part.
Dallia—Daleburge
Westrogoth—Gottenburge
Ostrogothia—NorkopingN. to S. in th E. part Swedeland
Smalandia—Calmar—
Swedeland [proper­ly so call'd] con­tains the Provin­ces ofSudermania—Nikoping—from S. to N.
Nericia—Orebro—
Westmania—Arosen—
Uplandia—those ofOpsal and Stockolm
Gestricia—Geval—
Dalcarlia—Hedemore—
Helsingia—Hadswickwalt—
Medelpandia—Selanger—
Jemptia—Ressundt—
AngermanniaHernosand—
Lapland contains the Provinces ofUma LapmarkUma—from S. to N.
Pitha-LapmarkPitha—
Lula-LapmarkLula—
Tornia-LapmarkTornia—
Kimi-LapmarkKimi—
Finland contains the Provinces ofCajania—Cajaneburgh upon the Ula.
N. Finland—BiornebergeW. to E.
Tavastia—Tavastus—
Savolaxia—Nyslot—
Kexholmia—Kexholm—
Carelia—Wiborg—E. to W.
Nylandia—Borgo—
S. Finland—Abo—
Ingria contains the Provinces ofIngria propriaOrcsca, or NotteborgN. to S. W.
Ingermania—Caporio—
Solouski—Juanagorod
Livonia contains the Provinces ofLettenland—Riga—S. to N.
Estland—Narva—

§. 2. DENMARK.

Being divided intoThe Peninsula of Juitland.
The Danish Islands.

The Peninsula of Juitland comprehendsNorth JuitlandCh. TownWiborg.
South JuitlandSleswick.
D. of Holstein [of which in Lower Saxony.

[Page 63]

Juitland divided intoNorth com­prehends the Dio­cesses ofAalborg—Chief TownIdem—from N. to S.
Wiborg—Idem—
Arhusen—Aarhus—
Ripen—Idem—
South com­prehends the Praefe­ctures ofHedersleveIdem—from N. to S. upon the Baltick Sea.
AppenradeIdem—
FlemborgeIdem—
GottorpeSleswick
TonderenIdem—N. to S. upon the Germany Sea.
HusumIdem—
EyderstedeTonningen—

The chief of the Danish Islands are Zeland, Funen, &c. Of which hereafter when we come to treat of Islands.

§. 3. NORWAY.

Divided into the Governments ofBahus—Chief TownIdem—S. to N. E.
Aggerus—Agger—
Bergenus—Bergen—
DronthemusDronthem
Wardus—Idem—

This vast Continent of Scandinavia comprehending (as aforesaid) three distinct Kingdoms, viz. those of Swedeland, Denmark, and Nor­way. Of each of these seperately, and in their Order. Therefore

§. I. SWEDELAND.

THIS Country (formerly Succia, a Part of Ancient Scandinavia) is term'd by the Italians, Suezia; Name. by the Spaniards, Suedia; by the French, Suede; by the Germans, Schweden; and by the English, Sueden or Swethland; so call'd from its Ancient Inhabitants the Sueones, Suevi, or Suethidi, with the Addition of Land for Termination.

The Air of this Country is generally very Cold, but (if not too nigh some Lake or Marish) very pure and Air. wholesome; yea, so healthful to breath in, that many of its Inhabitants do frequently live to an hundred years, especially they who abstain from excessive drinking, a thing too much pra­ctis'd [Page 64] by many of them. The Antipodes to this People, or the oppo­site Place of the Globe to Swedeland, is that Part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, comprehended between the 220th and 230th Degree of Longitude, with 50 and 70 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th Northern Climates) is not very fruitful, Soil. but yet where less fertile in Corn, that disadvantage is recompens'd with tollerable Pasturage. Its numerous Lakes are very well stor'd with various kinds of Fishes. Its Mountains are generally covered over with Trees, and several of them lin'd with considerable Mines of Silver, Tin, Brass, and Iron. The longest Day in the Northmost part of this Country is about two Months (the Sun being so long without setting when near the Summer Sol­stice). The shortest in the Southmost, is about 6 Hours 1/ [...], and the Nights proportionably.

The Chief Commodities of this Country, are Metals, Ox-hides, Goat-skins, Buck-skins, and costly Furs, Commodities. Pine trees, Fir-trees, Oales, Tallow, Tar, Honey, and such like.

The Chief Rarities of this Country may be reckon'd two Publick Clocks of admirable Workmanship; one Rarities. belonging to the Cathedral Church of Upsal; the other to that of St. Laurence in Lunden, especially the latter, which (sup­pos'd to be the Work of Casper Bartholinus) shews not only the Day, Hour, and Minute, but also all the remarkable Motions of the Coelestial Bodies, with all Festivals, both fixt and moveable, and several other pleasant Curiosities. To these add that famous Slimy Lake in the Southern Part of Gothland, which burns such things as are put into it. As also a certain Stone found in several Parts of Sueden, which being of a Yellow Colour, intermixt with several Streaks of white, (as if compos'd of Gold and Silver) affords both Sulphur, Vitriol, Alium, and Minium. Some write of a Lake in Lapland, which hath as many Islands in it, as there are Days in the Year.

Archbishopricks belonging to Sueden, are Two, viz. those of Archbishopricks.

  • Upsal,
  • Riga.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom are Eight, viz. those of Bishopricks.

  • W [...]steras,
  • Strergnes,
  • Wexioc,
  • Lunden,
  • Lindkaeping,
  • Scaren,
  • Abo.
  • Wiburg.

[Page 65] Universities established here, are Two, viz. those of. Universities.

  • Upsal.
  • Abo.

The Swedes (for the most part) are Men of big and strong Bodies; Men whose very Constitution doth fit Manners. them to be Soldiers, but generally they weaken Nature by extravagant excess in Drinking. Their Gentry are much given to Hospitality, very Affable and Civil to Strangers, and many of them become considerable Proficients in several Arts and Sciences. The Commons are generally esteem'd good Mechanicks, but lookt upon by all, as too much addicted to Laziness in point of improving their Country, by not cutting down many unnecessary Forests, and im­proving that Ground to better advantage.

The Swedes speak a Dialect of the Teutonic, which is somewhat different from that us'd in Denmark and Upper Language. Germany. Persons of Quality understand and speak the High-German Language in its Native purity. The Finlanders have a peculiar Gibberish of their own, For a Specimen of the Swedish Tongue, we shall here subjoin the Lord's Prayer in that Language, intending to observe the same Method in treating of all other Languages in Europe. Their Pater-Noster runs thus, Fadher war som est i himlem; helghat warde tiett namyn, till komme titt ricke, skee tin wilie sa comi himmelen, sa ock pa jordenne, wart dagliha brod giffosz i dagh; och forlat osz wara skuld, sa som ock wforlate them osz skyldighe aro; Och in leedh osz ickei frestelse uthan frels oszi fra ondo. Amen.

The Kingdom of Swedeland having suffered various turns of Fortune, being frequently disturb'd by the Government. Adjacent Nations, at last got rid of them all, and be­coming terrible to others, spread it self over a considerable Part of its Neighbours Territories. At present 'tis subject unto, and go­vern'd by its own Monarch, who, since the last Age, is not only Hereditary, but by the late turn of Affairs in his Country, hath also attained unto, and now exerciseth such a Power over the Sub­ject, that the same is really astonishing to any considering Person, who looks back unto the State of that Kingdom, only a few Years ago. He is stil'd King of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals; Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Estonia and Carelia, and Lord of Ingria, &c. The different Orders in this Realm are Six, viz. Princes of the Blood, the Nobility, Clergy, Soldiery, Merchantry, and Commonalty. These by their Representatives being assembled in Parliament, make four different Houses, viz. that of the Nobility, where the Grand Marshal presides. 2. That of the Clergy, where the Archbishop of Upsal presides. 3. That of the Burgesses, where one of the Consuls of [Page 66] Stockholm presides. And lastly, That of the Knights of the Shir [...], where one of their own Number elected by themselves presides. Chief Courts establisht in this Kingdom, are these Five, viz. (1) That commonly call'd the King's Chamber, design'd for the De­cision of all Cases happening between the Nobility, Senators, or any of the Publick Officers, and here the King is (at least, ought to sit as) President. (2) The Court-Martial, in which all Matters re­lating to War are determin'd, and here the Grand Marshal of the Army is President. (3.) The Court of Chancery, in which Edicts, Mandates, Commissions, and such like, are made out in the King's Name, and here the Chancellour of the Kingdom is President. (4) The Court of Admiralty, in which all business relating to Ma­ritime Affairs are transacted, and here the High Admiral is President. Lastly, The Court of Exchequer, in which all Matters concern­ing the Publick Revenue are manag'd, and here the Grand Trea­surer is President.

The King of Sweden bears quarterly. In the First and fourth, Azure, three Crowns, Or, two in Chief, and Arms. one in Base, for Swedeland. In the second and third, Barry, Argent and Azure, a Lyon, Or, Crown'd Gules, for Finland. Over all quatterly, in the first and fourth, Sable, a Lyon, Or, crown'd, arm'd and langued, Gules, for the Palatinate of the Rhine. In the second and third, Lozenges, Bendwise of twenty one pieces Argent and Azure, for Bavaria. For the Crest, a Crown Royal, adorn'd with eight Flowers, and clos'd by as many Demi-Circles terminating in a Mond, Or. The Supporters are two Lyons, Or, Crown'd of the same. And his Motto is in these words, Domi­nus Protector Meus.

Lutheranism is the establisht Religion of this Country, being universally profess'd by all Orders and Degrees Religion. of Men, (except in Livonia, where is a considerable Number of Papists intermixt; and Lapland, many of whose Inhabi­tants are mear Heathens, usually worshipping the Sun, Fire, Ser­pents, and the like) and that ever since the Days of the Reforma­tion, which was happily effected in this Kingdom by Gustavus the First, upon his Accession to the Swedish Crown, since which time their Religion hath not been disturb'd from abroad but once, and since that Disturbance, never distracted at home by Non-Conformi­ty; for Persons of all Ranks adhering to the Tenets of Luther, give constant attendance on Divine Service, and joyn in the same manner of Worship. Christianity was first planted in this Kingdom by the care and diligence of Ansgarius, Archbishop of Breme, the Apostle General of the North.

§. 2. DENMARK.

THis Country, especially Juitland (formerly Cimbri­ca Chersonesus, a part of Ancient Scandinavia) is Name. term'd by the Italians, Dania; by the Spaniards, Din­marca; by the French, Danemarc; by the High Germans, Dennemark; and by the English, Denmark; so called from the Bounds and Mar [...]es of its Inhabitants the Danes, whose Country bordering on the An­cient Batavi and Saxons, was thereupon call'd Dane-march, which Name in process of time did turn into that of Denmark.

The Air of this Country is much the same with that in the Southern Part of Swedeland, it being extreamly Air. Cold, but in most places, very wholesome. The opposite place of the Globe to Denmark, is that part of the Pacifick Ocean lying between 210 and 220 Degrees of Longitude, with 50 and 60 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 10th and 11th North Climates) is very good for Grain and Pasturage. Soil. Here is abundance of Fish, especially Herrings, as also many wild Fowls, and most kinds of wild Beasts. The longest Day in the Northmost part is 17 Hours ½, the shortest in the Southmost is 8 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The Chief Commodities of this Country are Fish, Tallow, Furniture for Ships, Armour, Ox-hides, Commodities Buck-skins, Fir-wood, and Wainscot, &c.

Near to Sleswick (Southward) are yet to be seen the Remains of that famous Wall and Trench, made above Rarities. 880 Years ago by Gotricius (then King of Denmark) to hinder the Incursions of the Saxons, resembling somewhat the Pict's Wall in Great Britain (2.) Between Flensburg and Sleswick is a small Village, which goes by the Name of Anglen, remarkable in so far, that from the said Village and Country adjacent, came our Ancestors, the Ancient Angles into Great Britain. (3.) In Gottorp is an admirable Globe of Copper, 10 Foot ½ in Diameter, so contriv'd by one of the Dukes of Holstein, that (by certain Wheels turn'd about by Water) it represents exactly the Motions of the Coelestial Bodies. As also another in the Arsenal at Copenhagen of 6 Foot Diameter, fram'd by Tycho Brahe, that famous Danish Astronomer. (4.) In the Island Ween are the Ruins of the Tower of Uraniburge, renowned for the Observations made thereon, by the aforesaid Tycho Braye. As also the Dungeon, call'd Stelliburg, beset with Looking-Glasses, where he was wont to sit and observe the Stars in all Sea­sons. [Page 68] (5.) The Island Ween is likewise remarkable in that, it will harbour no Dormice; (none such being able to live when imported thither) as also a Spring whose Waters never freez, even, in the extreamest Cold of Winter. To these we may add, (as a singular Curiosity of this Country) That magnificent Throne fram'd of prodigious long Horns of a certain Sea Animal, which the Vulgar are willing to take for the Unicorn. Vid. Dr. Brown's Travels.

As for Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, there's only one, viz. that of Archbishopricks.

Copenhagen.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Sleswick,
  • Arhusen,
  • Alburg,
  • Ripen,
  • Wiburg.

Universities in this Kingdom, are those at Universities.

  • Copenhagen,
  • Kiel.

The Danes (a very warlike People of old, having constrain'd many of the Northern Nations to submit Manners. to the force of their Arms at some time or other) are now almost of the same Temper with their Neighbours the Swedes and Germans; but that they are generally esteem'd a People more given to Pride and Cunning, than either of the former. They are Industrious and Frugal enough: as also considerable Lovers of Learning, but generally greater Lovers of Excess, whether in Drink­ing or Eating, especially the former, and that ever since the Juice of the Grape was recommended to them by the High Germans, whom they now equal (if not exceed) in all manner of Carousing.

The Modern Language of Denmark, is originally a Dialect of the Teutonit. The Court, Gentry, and Language. Chief Burgers, commonly use the High German in or­dinary Discourse, and French when they talk with Strangers. How the Danish Tongue differs from the High German, and the Modern Language in Swedeland will best appear from their Pater-Noster, which runs thus, Fader vor du som est himmelen; helligt vorde die naffu tilkomme dit rige, vorde din vilie s [...] pa [...] jorden, som hander i himmelen. Gift osz [...] dagh vort daglige brod; oc forlad osz vor skyld, som wi forlade vare skyldener; ock lead osz ickudi fristelse: Men frele osz fra ont. Amen.

This Kingdom was formerly Elective (although they usually advanc'd the next Heir to the Crown) until Government. the Year 1659. that Frederick the Ill having bravely [Page 69] repuls'd the Swedes, besieging the Capital City, Copenhagen, it was then rendred Hereditary to his Family. The Nobility here had hitherto a considerable Stroke until these our own Days, that this Kingdom is so strangely Frenchifi'd in Point of Government, that the Danish and French Monarchy's are now almost of the same Mould. The King assumes to himself the Power of disposing of all Heirs and Heiresses, of any Note, as 'tis practis'd in France. The Danish Law is highly to be priz'd in that it's short and perspicuous surpassing the like of all other Nations in that respect. It's wholly founded upon Equity, and Compris'd in one Quarto Vo­lume in the Danish Tongue, and that so plain, that any Man may understand and plead his own Cause without the Aid of either Counsel or Attorney; and no Suit is to hang in suspence beyond one Year and a Month. This is indeed a mighty Advantage, and a singular Property of the Danish Law upon one hand, but the same is attended with a vast Inconvenience on the other; for the first and principal Article thereof runs thus, That the King hath the Priviledge reserv'd to himself to explain, nay, to alter and change the same as he shall think good. Chief Courts for Administration of Ju­stice, both in Civil and Criminal Affairs, are four; viz. Byfoght's, Heredsfought's, Lanstag, and High-Right. The first is peculiar for deciding Matters which happen in Cities and Towns. The second for those of the Country. The third is the High-Court of the Pro­vince, to which Appeals are made from the two former. And the fourth is the Supream of all the rest, held commonly at Copen­hagen, and consisting of the Principal Nobility, in which Court the King himself sometimes sits in Person. Beside these, there is the Court of Admiralty for Maritime Affairs; as also a Rent Chamber (resembling our Court of Exchequer) for managing all Matters relating to the Publick Revenue.

The King of Denmark bears Party of three, and Arms. Coupè of two, which makes twelve Quarters. In the first Or, Semè of Hearts Gules, three Lyons passant, guardant Azure, crown'd Langu'd and Arm'd of the first, for Denmark. 2 Gules, a Lyon Rampant Or, Crown'd and Arm'd of the first, in his Paws a Battle-Ax Argent, hilted of the second, for Norway. 3. Gules, a Lion Passant-guardant Or, on Nine Hearts of the same in Fesse, for Gothland. 4. Gules, a Dragon crown'd, Or, for Schonen. 5. Azure, three Crowns Or; for Sweden. 6. Gules a Paschal Lamb, Argent, supporting a Flag of the same, mark'd with a Cross Gules, for Juitland. 7. Or, two Lions Passant-guardant, Azure, for Sleswick. 8. Gules, a Fish crown'd Argent, for Ice land. Over these eight Quartors, a great Cross Argent (which is the ancient Devise of the Kingdom) on the Center of which are plac'd the Arms of Dith­marsh, viz. Gules, a Cavalier Arm'd Argent. 9. Gules, a Nettle-leaf [Page 70] open, and charg'd in the middle with a little Escucheon, the whole Argent for Holstein. 10. Gules, a Cygnet Argent; gorg'd with a Crown Or, for Stormarsh. 11. Gules, two Fesses Or, for Delmen­horst. 12. Gules, a Cross Pattree-fitchree Argent, for Oldenburgh. The Shield surrounded with the Collar of the Order of the Elephant. The Crest is a Crown Or, flowr'd, rais'd with eight Diadems, ter­minating in a Mond of the same. For the Motto are these words, Pietas & Justitia coronant.

The Errors and Practices of the Roman Church being grown at length so intollerable, that an Universal Re­formation Religion. became expedient, this Kingdom, among the other Northern Crowns, threw off that insupportable Yoak, and cordially embrac'd the Doctrine of Luther, which being al­low'd off by Frederick the First, about the middle of the last Cen­tury, was so firmly and universally establish'd in Denmark, that in all the Danish Dominions there is no other Religion but Luthe­ranism profess'd, except some French Refugees, who are allow'd a Church at Copenhagen; and a few Popish Families, who were lately permitted to perform their Worship in a Chappel at Gluckstat. The Danish Clergy do still retain the Practice of Confession, which all Persons are oblig'd unto before they participate of the Blessed Sacrament of the Lord's Supper; they likewise retain Crucifixes, and several Ceremonies of the Roman Church. Christianity was fully Establisht in this Country about the middle of the XII. Cen­tury, and that by the means of Pope Adrian the IV. (an English­man) who before his Assumption of the Popedom, was term'd Nicholaus Breakspear.

§. 3. NORWAY.

THis Country (formerly Norvegia, a Part of Anci­ent Scandinavia) is term'd by the Italians, Nerue­gia; Name. by the Spaniards, Noruega; by the French, Nor­wegue; by the Germans, Norwegen; and by the English, Norway; so call'd from its Northern Situation (Nort being for North, and weg, way,) seeing it is the way to and from the North in respect of the rest of Europe.

The Air of this Country is so extreamly Cold, especially towards the North parts of the Kingdom, Air. that 'tis but thinly inhabited, and that by the meanest of People. The opposite Place of the Globe to Norway, is part of the Pacifick Ocean between 200 and 230 Degrees of Longitude, with 60 and 70 Degrees of South Latitude.

[Page 71] By reason of the excessive Coldness of the Country (it lying in the 11th, 12th, and 13th North Climate) Soil. the Soil is very barren, not having force enough to produce the very necessaries of Life, the Common People being forced to use dry Fish instead of Bread. In short, this Country is overspread either with vast Forrests, barren Mountains, or formi­dable Rocks: In the Northmost parts of it, the longest Day is above two Months, the Sun not setting for that time; the shortest in the Southmost about 6 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The Chief Commodities of this Country, are Stock­fish, Rich Furs, Train-Oyl, Pitch, and Tackling for Commodities. Ships, as Masts, Cables, Deal-boards, and the like, which the Inhabitants exchange for Corn, Wine, Fruits, Beer, and other Necessaries of Life.

What chiefly deserves the Name of Rarity in this Country, is that remarkable Lake near Drontheim, Rarities. whose Waters never freeze even in the dead of Win­ter, notwithstanding of the excessive Cold at that Season. Near to the Isle of Hiteren is that wonderful and dangerous Whirly-pool, commonly call'd Maelstroom (and by Navigators, The Navel of the Sea) which swallows up Ships with their whole Cargo, if they unhappily approach too nigh.

Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, only one, viz. that of Archbishopricks.

Drontheim.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Anslo,
  • Bergen,
  • Staffanger.

Universities in this Kingdom. None. Universities.

The Norvegians (being notorious Pyrates of old, be­came very formidable to several of the Northern Na­tions) Manners. are now lookt upon as a very mean, simple, and ignorant sort of People; a People however that's very hardy, much given to Toiling and Labour, very Just in their Dealings, and abundantly Civil (after their own Manner) to the few Strangers who come among them. In the Northmost Parts of the Kingdom they have no Towns, but generally live in Tents, and Travel in great Companies from one place to another in Hunting.

The Language now spoken in this Country, (especi­cially in all the civilized Parts thereof) is little diffe­rent Language. from that us'd in the Kingdom of Denmark, a Spe­cimen of which is already given in the foregoing Paragraph.

[Page 72] This Kingdom was formerly a distinct Body by it self, and independent of any other, but (being in­corporated Government. with Denmark, Anno 1387.) is now sub­ject to his Danish Majesty, who, besides particular Governors in the five Castles of Bahus, Aggerus, &c. abovemention'd, doth ordina­rily keep a Vice-Roy there for the better Administration of the Publick Affairs of that Kingdom; his Place of Residence is com­monly at Bergen, and his Power is extraordinary great.

See Denmark. Arms.

The establisht Religion in Norway, is the same as in Denmark, only that in the Northmost Parts of the Religion. Kingdom, the knowledge of Christiany (which was at first planted in this Country much about the same time with the two other Northern Crowns) is so decay'd, that on the Borders of Lapland they differ but little from mere Heathens.

[Page]

MOSCO VIE or RVSSIE

SECT. II. Concerning Moscovia.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween4600of Long.Its greatestLength is about 1630.
10500
between4510of Lat.Breadth is about 1500.
7100

Divided intoNorthChief TownSt. Michael Arch-Angel.
SouthMoscow, Capital City.

More Particularly,

North contains many Provinces, but chiefly these of

Trines—Chief TownW. to E.
Kargapolia—Kargapol.—
Dwina—St. Michael Arch-Angel—
Condora—Wirgatouria—
Sibiria—Tobol—
Obdora—Berezow—
Vologda—Idem, upon the upper part of the Dwina.

South containing many Provinces, but chiefly these of

Casan—Chief TownIdem—from E. to W. upon the Volga.
Mordowitz—None remarkable
Nisi Novogrod—Idem—
Volodimir—Idem—
Moscow—Idem—
Astracan—Idem, at the Mouth of the Volga.
Novogrod WelekiIdem—Between the Lake Ilmins and Peipus.
Pleskow—Idem—
Severia—Novogrod-Sewarski S. W. of Moscow.

§. 2. MOSCOVIA.

THIS Country (containing much of Sarmatia Europaea, and part of Sarmatia Asiatica, being also Name. nam'd Russia from the Ancient People of that Country, call'd Rossi or Russi) is term'd by the Italians, Moscouia; by the Spaniards, Moscovia; by the French, Moscovie or Russie Blanche; by the Germans, Moscau; and by the English, Moscovia or Moscovy; so call'd from its chief Province of that Name, whose Denomina­tion is deriv'd from Moschi or Mosci, an Ancient People first inhabi­ting that Part of the Country.

The Air of this Country is very Cold, particularly towards the North, where Snow and Ice are usual for Air. three Quarters of the Year; but in the Southmost Provinces they have very scorching Heats in the Summer for the Space of six Weeks. The opposite Place of the Globe to Moscovia, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 220 and 290 De­grees of Longitude, with 45 and 71 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, &c. Northern Climate) is very diffe­rent, Soil. according to the different Situation of its Parts. Here are many Plains, but generally full of Marishes. To­wards the North are vast Forests; and even where the Ground is clear'd of Wood 'tis (for the most part) very Barren, and so ex­tremely Cold, that what they sow doth seldom come to due Per­fection. In the Southwest parts towards Poland, the Soil is tolerably good, the Ground there producing several sorts of Grain in great abundance; and 'tis reported by many, that their Corn is ready for reaping about two Months after it is sown. The longest Day in the Northmost Part of this Country is above two Months, the Sun not setting for that time when near the Summer Sol­stice; the shortest in the Southmost is about 9 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The Chief Commodities of this Country, are Furs, Sables, Martins, Wax, Honey, Tallow, Train-Oyl, Commodities. Caviere, Hemp, Flax, Slad, Iron, &c.

[Page 75] As one of the Chief Rarities of this Country, we may reckon that strange sort of Melon, found in or Rarities. near to Astracan, Casan and Samara. Some of the Na­tives term it Boranetz, (i. e. The Little Lamb) others Zoophyton, which signifies the Animal Plant. The first Title would seem most proper, because in Figure it resembles a Lamb, and such is its vegetable Heat, that (according to the vulgar manner of expression) it Consumes and Eats up all the Grass, or other Herbs, within its reach. As the Fruit doth ripen, the Stalk decays, and is covered with a downy Substance, which being carefully taken off and dress'd, is us'd by some instead of Furs for Lining of Vests. To this we may add that Church in Moscow, call'd Hierusalem, which seem'd to John Basilides 1. (then Czar) such a stately Pile of Build­ing, that he caus'd put out the Eyes of the Architect, that he might never contrive, (at least) behold its fellow.

Ecclesiasticks in Moscovia are, One Patriach, Four Metropolitans, Seven Archbishops, and several Bishops.

The Patriarch is he of Moscow, residing in the same City.

Metropolitans are those ofNovogorodskoi and Welikoluskoi.
Rostoufskoi and Harostauskoi.
Casanskoi and Sunatskoi.
Sarskoi and Pondoskoi.

Archbishopricks are those ofWolodgskoi and Weliko Premskoi.
Archbishopricks.
Resanskoi and Moromskoi.
Susdalskoi and Turruskoi.
Twerskoi and Cassinskoi.
Sibirskoi and Tobolskoi.
Astrachansckoi and Terskoi.
Pleskouskoi and Sborskoi.

As to the exact Number and Names of Bishopricks in this Country; the same is but uncertain at Bishopricks. best.

Here we can hardly expect the Seats of the Muses where the Liberal Arts and Sciences have been so long Universities. banisht, and the Studying of them inhibited by Pub­lick Authority.

[Page 76] The Moscovites (Men of a vigorous and healthful Constitution) are generally reckon'd a rude, deceitful Manners. and ignorant sort of People; much addicted to excessive Drinking, as also unlawful and beastly Pleasures. And so fond of Ignorance have they hitherto been, that 'twas lookt upon as (almost) a piacular Crime for any of them to apply himself to a search after Knowledge. But things are now mightily alter'd in this Point, and that by the Encouragement of his present Czarish Majesty, who gives leave to his Nobility to acquire the Liberal Arts and Sciences, particularly the Mathematicks; and to acquaint themselves with Foreign Countries and Languages. And that the Learned Languages (Greek and Latin) may be no longer strangers in this Country, he hath already erected Publick Schools in Moscow for the teaching of them. By which means it is to be hop'd, That the Brutish Temper and Stupidity of this People, may be much reform'd in some time. And whereas the present Emperor hath already visited some of the best Nations of Europe. purposely to improve himself in Warlike Affairs, both by Sea and Land, (especially the former) and since this Undertaking is so uncommon, that the Mascovitish Story can't afford a Parallel; 'tis also to be hop'd, that the Effects thereof will be equally astonishing, and that in humbling (if not crushing) both Turks and Tertars his disturbing Neighbours, and professed Ene­mies to the Cross of Christ.

The Language us'd in this Country, is a Dialect of the Sclavonian, but so corrupted and blended with Language. other Languages, that 'tis hardly understood by those who speak the pure Sclavonian, which nevertheless is still us'd by the Russians in their Divine Service. Pater Noster (which I find only in a corrupt Dialect of their Tongue) runs thus, Aisameidhen joke oleah tainahissa; Pyhetta olkon siun wakakuta; si olkohon siun tharosi kwin [...] tainahissa ayn man palla. Meidhen jokopai wen leipa anna m [...]h [...]llen tanapaiw [...]na, ja anna meidem syndia: Kwin moe annama meidin vostachan rickoillen; ja âle sata meita kin sauxen mutta pa­asta [...] paasta.

This great Body is under its own Prince, who as­sumeth the Title of Cear, (which in the Russian Lan­guage Government. signifies Emperor) yet more commonly he's term'd the Great Duke. He's an Hereditary Monarch, and his Go­vernment truly Desuotical. The Lives and Fortunes of his Sub­jects are wholly at his disposal; and the greatest Knez: or Lord within his Dominions, doth acknowledge himself his Galop or Slave. Yea, be not only exerciseth an uncontroulable Power over [Page 77] his slavish Subjects, but also pretends to a kind of Omniscience among them, and hath so succeeded in this bold Pretence, that the main Body of the People doth really believe that their Great Duke know­eth all things. To support which Opinion, The Moscovitish Em­perors have industriously endeavour'd to keep their People in gross Ignorance, and for that end have hitherto banish'd out of their Domions the Liberal Arts and Sciences, and forbid the studying of them under the severest Penalties. But the present Czar by his proceedings (already hinted at) would seem to rectify that gross Abuse. He suffers none of his Nobles to retire from Court with­out his Special Permission, and seldom, or never, to visit Foreign Countries, till these our own Days; no, nor so much as to talk with Foreigners at home. The Publick Affairs are chiefly manag'd by his Great Council, (call'd Dumnoy Boyaren) consisting of the Principal Noblemen of the Empire. Here also are divers other Councils, or rather Chambers and Courts of Judicatory, to which belong their respective Business, and each of these hath its peculiar President; they're in number Six, whereof the first is appointed for Ambassadors and Foreign Negotiations. The second for managing of Military Affairs. The third for the Publick Revenues of the Empire. The fourth for encouraging of Trade and Merchandizing. And the two others for hearing and determining of all Causes, both Civil and Criminal.

The Arms of Moscovia are, Or an Eagle display'd Sable, [...] on its Breast a Shield Gules, charg'd with Arms. a Cavalier A [...]t fighting a Dragon; on and between the Heads of the Eagle are three Crowns for Moscovy, Cazan, and Astracan. According to others, the Arms are Sable, a Portel open of two Leaves, and [...]s [...] degrees Or.

The Muscovia's [...] that they profess Christianity, according to the Doctrine of the Greek Church in its Religion. Ancient Purity; but indeed they have mixt with the same, a great [...] ridiculous Ceremonies and foolish Superstitions of their own. They [...]ender Divine Worship to the Virgin Mary, and other Saints as also to Crosses, and never Commerce any thing of Moment unless they first Sign themselves with the Sign of the Crost. In Baptism they use Exorcism, and always Confession to the Priest before they receive the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. All above seven Years of Age receive that Sacrament in both kinds, and they give it i [...] one kind to Children under that age. They usually Administer the same (as also Extreme Unction) to Persons past all hopes of Recovery; but they neither adore the Sacrament. [Page 78] nor believe the strange Doctrine of Transubstantiation. They ob­serve fifteen great Festivals, besides a great many Days dedicated to particular Saints. Sermons they never use, but only read some Portions of Holy Scripture, with St. Basil's Liturgy, and divers Homilies of St. Chrysostome. The Christian Faith was first planted in this Country towards the latter Part of the Tenth Century, and that by the Preaching of some Greeks, sent thither by the then Patriarch of Constantinople.

SECT. III. Concerning France.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween1210of Long.its greatestLength is about 520
2630
between4230of Latit.Breadth is about 450
5110

Being divided into Three Classes, viz.

  • North.
  • Middle.
  • South.
North compre­hends the Go­vernments ofPicardy—Chief TownAmiens, Northward.
Normandy—Roven—from W. to E.
The Isle of FranceParis—
Champaigne—Troye—
Middle compre­hends the Go­vernments ofBretaigne—Rennes.—W. to E.
Orleanoise—Orleans—
Bourgoigne—Dyon
Lionois—Lion
South compre­hends the Go­vernments ofGuienne & GasconyBourdemix—W. to E.
Languedoc—Tholouse—
Dauphiny—Grenoble
Provence—Aix—

Of all these in Order.

§. 1. PICARDY.

Divided intoHigher, towards the East—Ch. TownGuise.
Lower, towards the West—Abbeville.

[Page 80] But more particularly,

Higher containsTierasche—Chief TownGuise—E. to W.
Vermandois—S. Quinten—
Santerre—Peronne—
Amienois—Amiens—
Lower containsPais Reconquis-Calais—N. to S.
Ardres—Idem—
Boulognois—Boulogne—
Ponthieu—Abbeville—

To Picardy we subjoin the Archbishoprick of Cambray, lying N. of Peronne. Chief Town Cambry.

§. 2. NORMANDY.

Divided intoHigher, towards the East—Chief TownRouen.
Lower, towards the West—Caen.

More particularly,

Higher containsPais Caux—Chief TownCaudebeck—N. to S. E.
Roven—Idem—
Gisors—Idem—
Eureux—Idem, S. of Roven.
Lower containsCoutantine—Coutance—W. to E.
Gaen—Idem—
Alencon—Idem, S. E. of Caen.

§. 2. Isle of FRANCE.

Divided intoNorth, the Seine—Chief TownSoissons.
South, the Seine—Melun.

[Page 81] More particularly,

North the Seine containsLaonois—Chief TownLaon—E. to W.
Soissonois—Soissons—
Beauvoises—Beauvais—
Vexin FrancoisPont-Oyse—W. to E.
D. of Valois—Senle [...]
Isle of France—Paris—W. to E.
Brie—Meaux—
South the Seine containsHurepoix—Melun—N. to S.
Gastenois—Montargi—

§. 4. CHAMPAIGNE.

Divided intoHigher, on the North—Chief TownRheims.
Lower, on the South—Troye.

More particularly,

Higher containsRethelnois—Chief TownRethel—N. to S. W.
D. of Rheims—Rheims—
High ChampaigneS. Dizier
Challonois—Chalon on the River Marn [...].
Lower containsSennois—Sens—W. to E.
Low ChampaigneTroyes—
Bassigny—Langres—

§. 5. BRETAIGNE.

Divided intoHigher, Eastward—Chief TownRennes.
Lower, Westward—Brest.

[Page 82] More particularly,

Higher contains the Territo­ries ofDole—Chief TownIdem—E. to W.
S. Malc [...]Idem—
Brieux—Idem—
Rennes—Idem—N. to S.
Nantes—Idem—
Lower containsSt. Polde LeonBrest—W. to N. E.
Trigvier—Idem—
Cornoaile—Idem—W. to E.
Vannet—Idem—

§. 2. ORLEANOIS

Divided intoNorththe River Loir, chief TownChartres.
uponOrleans.
SouthPoictiers.

More particularly,

North containsMaine—Chief TownMans—W. to E.
Perche—Nogent—
Beauce—Chartres—
Vendosmois—Vendosme—
Middle, or upon the Loir.Anjou—Angers—W. to E.
Tourraine—Tours—
Blais [...]Blois—
Orleanois—Orleans—
Nivernois—Nevers—
South containsAunis—Rochelle—W. to E.
AngoumoisAngoulesme
Poictou—Poictiers—
Berry—Bourges—

§. 7. BURGOINE.

Divided intoHigher, NorthwardChief TownDijon.
Lower, SouthwardBourge-en Bresse.

[Page 83] More particularly,

Higher, [viz. Burgoigne pro­perly so call'd] contains the Towns ofAuxerre—W. to S. E.
Semur—
Dijon—
Challon—N. to S.
Mascon—
Autun—N. to S.
Charolles—
Lower, [viz. la Bresse] con­tains the Towns ofBourge-en-Bresse—N. to S. E.
Belly—
Trevoux—Westward.

§. 8. LIONOIS.

Divided intoEast—Chief TownLions.
West—Clermont.

More particularly,

East compre­hendsLionois [properly so called—Chief TownLions—S. to N.
Baujolois—Beaujeu—
Forez—Feurs—Westward.
West compre­hendsAuverguehigherClermontS. to
lowerS. Flour
Bourbonnoi—Bourbon [or Moulins
March—Gueret—Westward.

§. 9. GUIENNE and GASCOIGNE.

Divided intoGuienne [Northward]C. T.Bourdeaux.
Gascoigne [Southward]Ayre, viz. the chief of Gas­coigne, properly so called.

[Page 84] More Particularly,

Guienne in 8 Provinces.SouthGuienne [proper­ly so called—Chief TownBourdeaux—W. to E.
Bazadois—Bazas—
Agenois—Agen—
Revergue—Rodes—
4 NorthSaintoigne—Saintes—W. to E.
Pertgort—Perigueux—
Limosin—Limoges—
Quercy—Cahors—
Gascoigne into 3 partsNorth the AdourLes Landes—Dax—W. to E.
Albert—Idem—
Condomois—Condom—
Armagnac—Aux—
Gaure—Verdun—
Uponthe AdourLabour—Bayonne—W to E.
Gascoigne prop.Ayre—
Estarac—Mirande—
Comminges—Lombes—
South the AdourLower NavarrS. Palais—W. to E.
C. of Soule—Maulleon—
Bearn—Pau—
Bigorre—Tarbe—
Conserans—S. Bertrand

§. 10. LANGUEDOC.

Divided intoHigher, towards the WestChief TownTholouse.
Lower, towards the EastNismes.

[Page 85] More particularly,

Higher contains the Ter­ritories ofFoix—Chief TownIdemS. to N. on the Garonne.
Rieux—Idem
TholonseIdem
Alby—Idem 42 m. N. E.of Tho­louse.
S. PapoulIdem 36 m. S. E.
Lower con­tains theTerritories ofNarl [...]neIdem—W. to E.
BeziersIdem—
MompelierIdem—
Nismes—Idem—
Country of Sevennes divided intoGivaudanMende
Velay—Le PuyW. to E.
VivarezViviers

§. 11. DAUPHINY.

Divided intoHigher, towards the East—Chief TownGrenoble
Lower, towards the West—Vienne.

More particularly,

Higher contains se­veral Towns, the chief of which areGrenoble upon the Isere.
Gap—Nigh unto or upon the Durance.
Embrun—
Briancon or Brianson—
Pignerol, S. E. of Brianson.
Lower contains se­veral Towns, the chief of which areVienne—N. to S.
Valence—
S. Paul de Tricasten—
Dye, S. E. of Valence.

§. 12. PROVENCE.

Divided intoHigher, Northward—Chief TownSisteron.
Middle part—Aix.
Lower, Southward—Marseilles:

More particularly,

Higher, whose chief Towns areOrange—W. to E. on the North of Du­rance River.
Avignion—
Apt—
Forcalquier—
Sisteron—
Middle part, whose chief Towns areArles—W. to E. on the S. of the Durance.
Salon—
Aix—
Riez—
Senez—
Glandeves—
Lower, whose chief Towns areMarseilles—W. to E. nigh un­to, or upon the Sea-Coast.
Toulon—
Hyeres—
Frejuls—
Grace—
Vence—
Anti [...]e—

After these Twelve Governments we may here subjoin two other Countries adjacent to the East part of France.

Namely,

  • Loraine.
  • French County.
LORAINE.
Divided intoLoraine properly so calledCh. TownNancy.
Dutchy of Barr [Westward]Bar le Duc.

[Page 87] More particularly,

Loraine properly so calledChief TownNancy towards the middle.
D. of Bar—Bar le Duc, Westward.
Principality of PhaltzbourgeIdem, Eastward.
The Territor. ofToule—IdemS. to N.
MetzIdem
VerdunIdem
Also those ofClermont—Idem, 15 Miles W. of Verdun.
Bitch—Idem—N. to S. upon the E. part of Loraine.
Sarward—Idem—
Sarbruck—Idem—
Salme—Idem—
VaudemontIdem, 18 Miles S. E. of Toul.
FRENCH COUNTY.
Divided intoHigher, Northward—Chief TownMontbeliart.
Middle part—Besanson.
Lower, Southward—Salins.

More particularly,

Higher, its chief Towns areMontbeliart—E. to W.
Vesoul—
Middle, its chief Towns areBesancon or BesansonE. to W. upon the Doux.
Dole—
Lower, its chief Towns areSalins—N. to S.
S. Claude—

[Page 88] THis Country (formerly Gallia from its Ancient Inhabitants the Gauls, otherwise the Celta) is Name. term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Francia; by its Natives, la France; by the Germans, Franckreich; and by the English, France, so call'd (as most Authors agree) from the Franks, a Ger­man Nation, inhabiting that Part of Germany still call'd Franconia; who invading Gaul, and by degrees subduing a great Part of it, gave it a New Name from its New Masters, who (in the Opinion of some Judicious Writers) had theirs from certain Franchises grant­ed them by the Roman Emperors beyond what the Neighbouring Nations enjoy'd; or (according to others) from the German words, Fra [...]n and Ausen, the former signifying Free, and the other an Heroe.

The Air of this Country is very Temperate, Plea­sant, and Healthful, being in a good Medium between Air. the great Excess of Heat and Cold, which ordinarily attend those Countries of a more Northern and Southern Situation; yea, so healthful is it, that this Kingdom is generally observ'd to be less subject to Plagues and Sickness, than most other Nations of Europe, and the Air about Mompelier, in particular, is universally esteem'd Medicinal for Consumptions. The opposite Place of the Globe to France, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 190 and 207 Degrees of Longitude, with 42 and 51 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 6, 7, and 8. North Climate) is extraordinary fruitful, particularly Soil. in Corn, Wine, Fruits, Hemp, &c. The Fields being here both large and open, are generally intermingl'd with Vines and Corn; as also bordered and interlin'd with variety of Fruits: Here are many and vasts Forests, and these well-stor'd with most sorts of wild Beasts fit for Hunting; several Mountains, and these cover'd over with numerous Flocks, and some of them lin'd with rich and valuable Mines. Here also are divers excellent Pits of Coals, and Quarries of Stones. The longest Day in the Northmost Part of this Country, is about 16 Hours ¼. The shortest in the Southmost, is 9 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The Chief Commodities of this Country, are Salt, Fish, Corn, Wine, Almonds, Coral, Canvas, Oade, Linnen, Commodities. Paper, Wood, Skins, Alamodes, Lusting, and rich flower'd Silks, Verdigris, Cremor Tartaris, &c.

[Page 89] Among the chief Rarities of France, we may reckon some remarkable Remains of the Roman Antiquities as Rarities. yet to be seen in that Country. And they are reduci­ble to these following Heads, viz. (1.) Triumphal Arches, particu­larly that in the City of Rheims as yet entire, compos'd of Three Arches, and adorn'd with many Figures and Trophies, but uncer­tain for whom erected: There are also the Ruins of several others near Autun in Burgundy; one at Saintes in Guienne; another almost entire at the City of Orange, erected by Caius Marius and Luctatius Catulus, upon their Victory obtain'd over the Cimbres and Teutones; (where are likewise the Ruins of a Roman Circus) To these we may add that stately. Bridge, twelve Miles off Nismes, consisting of three Stories of Arches one above another, the last of which was an Aqueduct. (2.) Amphitheaters; as the Ruins of a stately one at Chalons in Burgundy; another at Perigueux in Guienne; another at Tholouse in Langaedoc; another at Arles in Provence; another at Vi­enne in Dauphine; but the chief of all is that at Nismes of an extra­ordinary bigness, and as yet adorn'd with several Pillars, and di­vers Roman Eagles, as also the Fable of Romulus and Romus sucking the She-wolf. (3.) The Remains of some Heathen Temples; particu­larly those of Templum Jani (now call'd the Jenetoye) at Autun in Burgundy; those of the Goddess Venus at Perigueux in Guienne; and that of Diana near Nismes in Languedoc. (4.) The Ruins of some Ancient Aqueducts, as those near Coutance in Burgundy; those at Dole in Britaign; some at Autun in Burgundy; and those at Tholouse in Languedoc. (5.) Remarkable Pillars, particularly those Ancient Columes and Pyramids near Autun in Burgundy; but more especially is that famous Roman Obelisk of Oriental Granat at Arles in Provence, which is much admired by the Curious, being fifty two Foot high, seven Foot Diameter at the Base, and yet all but one Stone. Among the Monuments of Antiquity, we may men­tion that large Passage cut through the middle of a Rock about two Leagues from Brianson in Dauphine, which being a stupendious piece of Work, gives occasion to various Conjectures, some Persons imputing it to J. Caesar, and others rather to Hannjbal. To these we may add that large and round Buckler of Massy Silver fish'd out of the Rhone near Avignion, 1665. being twenty Inches in Diamiter, and weighing twenty one pounds; 'tis 1900 Years old, and is charg'd with Scipio Africanus half Mantled grasping his Pike, and Roman Officers attending with the Spaniards supplicating for a fair Virgin; the same being consecrated to that Virtuous General upon his re­storing a beautiful Captive to Allucius, Prince of Celtiberia, who had espous'd her.

These being the principal Remains of Reverend Antiquity obser­vable in this Country; next to such Curiosities, we may subjoin [Page 90] some Rarities of Nature, the most noted of which are these follow­ing. (1) Waters of remarkable Qualities; particularly, Those nigh to Dax or D'Acque in Gascoign, so reputed of old for Bathing, that from them the whole Province of Aquitaine did derive its Name. As also the Mineral Waters of Bourbon much resorted unto, even in time of the Romans, together with that famous Fountain near to Grenoble, which appeareth as if covered with Flames, and boileth up in great Bubbles and yet is never hot. Likewise another boiling Fountain about a League from Montpellier, much observ'd by Travellers; and finally, that Oily-spring near Gabian, in the Road from Montpellier to Beziers. Add to these a Spring near Loches in Orleanois, and that at Clermont in Auvergne, whose Waters are of a Petrifying Nature; and likewise ano­ther nigh to the City of Mans, which maketh Silver look exactly like Gold. (2) Observable Mountains, particularly those nigh to Rhodes in Guienne, call'd the Mountains of Cansac, which burn whenever it Rains. (3.) Some hideous Subterranean Holes or Passages, as that in the Forrest of S. Aubin du Cormier in Bretaign, through which flows a mighty Torrent of Water; and another near Nions in Dauphine, from which proceedeth a violent Wind. These are the chief Rari­ties in France, both Natural and Artificial, especially the latter. As for Artificial ones of a modern date, this Country affordeth several, particularly that famous Canal of Languedoc, and splendid Palace of Versailles, with divers magnificent Buildings, (especially Churches) but these are either too well known to need, or too numerous to admit of any particular Relation here.

The Archbishopricks of France are these following, viz. Archbishopricks.

Lionswhose Arch­bishop isCount and Primate of France.
SensPrimate of France and Germany.
ParisDuke and Peer of the Realm.
ReimsDuke and Peer, and Legat of the Holy See.
RouenPrimate of Normandy.

As also those,

  • Yours,
  • Bourdeaux,
  • Narbonne,
  • Vienne.
  • Burges,
  • Auch,
  • Arles,
  • Bezancon,
  • Alby,
  • Tholouse,
  • Aix.
  • Embrun.

The respective Suffragans of these Archbishops, are as followeth, Bishopricks.

Lions.
  • Autun
  • Langres
  • Wacon
  • Chasion

Sens.
  • Trois
  • Auxerre
  • Nevers

Paris.
  • Chartres
  • Orleans
  • Meaux

Reims.
  • [Page 91]Soissont
  • Laon
  • Chaalons
  • Noijon
  • Beauvais
  • Amiens
  • Senlis
  • Boulogn

Alby.
  • Castres
  • Mende
  • Rodez
  • Cahors
  • Vahors

Narbonne
  • Carcass [...]nr
  • Ale [...]
  • Beziers
  • Agde
  • Lodove
  • Montpellier
  • Nismes
  • Usetz
  • S. Pons
  • Perpignan

Rouen.
  • Bayeux
  • Eu [...]eux
  • Auranchet
  • Seez
  • Lis [...]ux
  • Coutances

Bourdeauz
  • Poictiers
  • Saintes
  • Angoulesm
  • Perigueux
  • Agen
  • Condom
  • Sarlat
  • Rochelle
  • Lucon

Arles
  • Marseilles
  • Orange
  • S. Paul de 3. Chateaux
  • Toulon

Tours.
  • Mans
  • Angers
  • Rennes
  • Nantes
  • Cournouaille
  • Vannes
  • S. Malo
  • S. Brieu
  • Treguier
  • S. Pol de Leon
  • Dole

Auch
  • Acquis
  • Aire
  • Bazas
  • Bayonne
  • Comminges
  • Conserans
  • Lectoure
  • Mescar
  • Oleron
  • Tarbes

Aix
  • Apt
  • Riez
  • Frejus
  • Gap
  • Sisteron

Vienne
  • Valence
  • Die
  • Grenoble
  • Viviers
  • Maurienne

Bourges.
  • Clermont
  • Limoges
  • S. Flour
  • le Puy
  • Tulle

Tholouse
  • Pamiers
  • Mirepoix
  • Montauban
  • Lavour
  • S. Papaul
  • Lombez
  • Rieux

Bezanc.
  • Belley
  • Basil in Switz.
  • Lausanne in Switz.

Embrun
  • Digne
  • Glandeve
  • Vence
  • Senez
  • Grace
  • Nice in Savoy.

Universities belonging to this Kingdom, are establisht at these Cities following, Universities.

  • Paris,
  • Angers,
  • Reims,
  • Perpignan,
  • Bourdeaux,
  • Caen,
  • Valence,
  • Douay,
  • Poictiers,
  • Montpellier,
  • Aix,
  • Dole,
  • Orleans,
  • Cahors,
  • Avignon,
  • Friburge,
  • Bourges,
  • Nantes,
  • Pont a'mauson,
  • Orange,

[Page 92] The French are generally a Civil, Quick and Active sort of People; but extreamly given to Talking, es­pecially Manners. those of the Female Sex, who nevertheless are not only very pleasing in discourse, but also of a graceful and win­ning deportment. This People is thus characteriz'd by some; That they are Aiery, Amorous, full of Action, and above all things Contentious, being so universally given to Law-fuits, and that even among nearest Relations, that Lawyers, Judges, and other Officers of Justice, are observ'd to be the richest Body of the Kingdom, excepting the Churchmen. Many of this Country in matters of Learning, are bless'd with a clear Conception, and ready Expression; and of late, they have advanc'd the Republick of Letters to a very considerable height; this Age having produc'd several of that Nation (and even some of the Female Sex) who are now famous through all the Learn­ed World for their singular Parts.

The French Language (compos'd chiefly of the Latin, together with several German and Gothick words inter­mixt) Language. being lately much refin'd by the Royal Acade­my at Paris, is so admir'd for its elegancy and sweetness, that it hath wonderfully spread it self abroad in the world; and is now become the chief Tongue that's commonly us'd in most Princes Courts of Europe. Pater-Noster in the same, runs thus, Nôtre pére qui es aux Cieux, Ton Nom soit sanctifié; Ton Regne vienne; Ta Volonté soit faite en Ia Terre, comme a [...] Ciel; Donne nous aujourdhuy nôtre pain quotidien; Pardonne nous nos offences, comme nous pardonnons a' ceux qui nous ont offencez; Et ne nous induit point en tentation; mais delivre nous du mal. Amen.

This Kingdom, being formerly a part of the Roman Empire, was in process of time over-run by Franks, Government. Goths and Burgundians, especially the first, by whom was rais'd a Monarchy, which continuing in the Succession of Kings of three several Races, (viz. the Morovignian, Carlovinian and Cape­tine) is now as great as any in Christendom; and at present subject to one Sovereign [entitl'd the Most Christian King, and eldest Son of the Church] whose Government is Monarchical, and Crown hereditary in his Heirs Male, all Females being excluded by the Salique Law. The whole Kingdom being divided into 12 Governments; over each of them is set a Governor, styl'd the King's Licutenant-General or Super-Intendant, having the like Power as the Lords Lieutenants of England formerly had in their several Counties. For the better ma­nagement of the publick Affairs and Administration of Justice in all parts of this Kingdom, here are establisht a great many Courts of Judicatory, particularly these following, viz. Parliaments; Cham­bers of Accounts; Courts of Aides; Presidial Courts; Generalities; Elections, &c. I. Parliaments (the highest and supream Courts of [Page 93] the Nation) were Fifteen in number, reckoning the late Con­quests, and held at the Cities of Paris, Tholouse, Rouen, Grenoble, Bourdeaux, Dijon, Aix, Vannes, Pau, Mets, Besancon, Tourney, Perpig­nan, Arras and Brisac. These Parliaments (according to their respe­ctive business) are divided into several Chambers, especially that of Paris, which hath no less than Ten. viz. (1.) The Grand Chamber, where the Peers of the Realm being accus'd of any Crime, are usual­ly Try'd. (2.) The Tournelle Civile; where they take cognizance of such Civil Causes as exceed a thousand Livres in value. (3.) The Tournelle Criminelle; where Appeals from Inferior Courts in Crimi­nal Matters are heard and discuss'd. Besides these three, there are five Chambers of Inquest; where Depositions of Witnesses are set down, and Causes thereupon determin'd; being almost the same with our Bill and Answer in Chancery and Exchequer. And lastly, There are two Chambers of Request; where Causes of Priviledg'd Persons are heard and discuss'd. II. Chambers of Accounts; where Accounts of the Treasury are examin'd, and Homage and Vassalage due from the Royal Feifs are receiv'd, Treaties of Peace, and Grants made by the King, and such like, are recorded. These Chambers are 12 in number, and held at the Cities of Paris, Rouen, Dijon, Nantes, Montpelier, Grenoble, Aix, Pau, Blois, Liste, Aire, and Dole. III. Courts of Aides, where all Causes relating to the King's Revenue (particu­larly Aides, Tailles, Gabells) are determin'd, and that without any appeal to a higher Judicatory. These Courts are in number Eight, and held at these 8 Cities of Paris, Montpelier, Rouen, Clermont, Mont­ferrand, Bourdeaux, Aix, Grenoble and Dijon. IV. Presidial Courts (compos'd of several Judges) where Civil Causes in matters of smal­ler importance, as also Appeals made from Subaltern Justices in Villages, are heard and determin'd. V. Generalities, whose Office (they being the Treasurers general of France) is to take care of asses­sing the Taxes proportionably in their respective Districts, according to the Sum propos'd by the King and Council to be levied. These Courts are 23 in number (each consisting of twenty three Persons) and these conveniently situated in several parts of the Kingdom. They do also judge Matters relating to the Crown-Lands, the King's Revenue, and such like. Lastly, Elections; which are small Courts subordinate to the Generalities, and their Office is to cast up how much every Parish in their respective Division must raise of the Sum propos'd by the Generality; and accordingly they issue out their Or­ders to every Parish; whereupon one of the Inhabitants being cho­sen Collector, he proportions every one's Quota; and collecting the same, returns it to the Generalities, and they again to the publick Exchequer. Besides these, there is a vast number of inferior Courts for smaller Matters, whether Civil or Criminal: And a great many publick Officers, as Provosts, Seneschals, Bailiffs, as also Intendants de [Page 94] la Justice, Police, and Finance, &c. But our intended brevity will not admit of a farther Relation.

The King of France, for Arms bears Azure, three Flower de Luces Or, two in chief, and one in base; Arms. the Escutcheon is environed with the Collars of the Orders of S. Michael and the Holy Ghost. For Crest, an Helmet Or, entirely open, thereon a Crown clos'd, after the manner of an Im­perial Crown, with eight inarched Rays, topt with a double Flower de Luce. The Supporters are, two Angels habited as Levites; the whole under a Pavilion Royal, semé of France, lin'd Ermines, with these words, Ex omnibus Floribus elegi mihi Lilium. Lilia neque labo­rant neque nent.

The only Establish'd Religion in France, is that of the Church of Rome; for all the Decisions of the Coun­cil Religion. of Trent in Matters of Faith are there receiv'd; but those that relate to Points of Discipline, and infringe the Rights of the Crown, with the Liberties of the Gallican Church, are rejected. The Protestants (commonly call'd Hugonots) were formerly allow'd the publick profession of their Religion by several Edicts granted by the French Kings; particularly that of Nantes, An. 1598. by Henry IV. and confirm'd by all his Successors ever since. But the present King, by his Declaration of October 1685. abolish'd the said Edict, and in­hibited the Exercise of the Reform'd Religion, enjoining the pro­fession of the Roman, and that under the severest Penalties. Where­upon followed the Destruction of their Churches, and a violent Persecution which forced great Droves to leave the Kingdom, and seek for shelter in Foreign Countries. As to the Romanists themselves; There are great Divisions among them at present, notwithstanding of their so much boasted Unity: For besides the hot Disputes be­tween the Molinists and Jansenists about Predestination and Grace (in which the pretended Infallible Judge at Rome dares not interpose his Decisive Authority for fear of disobliging one or the other Party) we find that the Sect of Quietism has lately crept in among them; as appears from the late Book of the Archbishop of Cambray concerning the Internal Life, which has been censured by the Archbishop of Pa­ris, and the Bishops of Meaux and Chartres, and complain'd off by the French King in his Letter to the Pope, though the Author profers to maintain his Doctrine before his Holiness, if permitted to go to Rome. The Christian Faith was first planted in this Country by some of St. Peter's Disciples (as is most probably thought) sent thither by him at his first coming to Rome.

[Page]

A New Map of GERMANY By Robt. Morden.

SECT. IV. Concerning Germany.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween2410of Long.Its greatestLength is about 540.
3712
between4530of Lat.Breadth is about 510.
5430

Being divided into three Classes, viz.North.
Middle.
South.
North.The Circle of Belgium.Chief TownsareAmsterdamW. to E.
Bruxelles
The Circle of WestphaliaMunster—
The Circle of Lower Saxony.Hamburg—
The Circle of Upper Saxony.Wittenburg—
Middle.The Circle of the Lower RhineHeidelberg—W. to E.
The Circle of the Upper RhineFrancfort—
The Circle of Franconio.Nurenburg—
South.The Circle of Suabia.Ausburg—W. to E.
The Circle of Bavaria.Munick—
The Circle of Austria.Vienna—

Of all these in Order.

§. 1. The Circle of Belglum.

Divided intoNorth, viz. Holland—Chief TownAmsterdam.
South, viz. Flanders—Bruxelles.

Holland contains Seven Provinces.

Viz.4 towards the SouthHolland properly so call'dChief TownAmsterdam.
Zeland—Middleburgh
Utretcht—Idem.
Zutphen, and a part of Gelderland.Zutphen.
3 towards the NorthOver Issel—Deventer.
Friesland—Leuarden.
Groningen—Idem.

Flanders contains Ten Provinces.

Viz.4 DutchiesGelderland—Chief TownGelders.
Brabant—Bruxelles.
Luxembourge—Idem.
Limbourge—Idem.
4 CountiesFlanders properly so called—Bruges.
Artesia—Arras.
Hannonia—Mons.
Namur—Idem.
The Marquisate of the EmpireAntwerp.
The Seignory of Malines.Idem.

[Page 97] The Chief of these [...] Holland and Flanders properly [...] particularly consider them, [...] the most remarkable Towns in each of them. [...]

Holland properly so call'd, being divided into

  • North.
  • South.
Chief TownsNorth areGoree in the Island Goree.
[...]Nigh unto, or upon the Mues from W. to E.
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]In the Western part from S. W. to N. E.
[...]
[...]
South areAmsterdam upon the Channel Amstel.
[...]In the Western part from S. to N.
[...]
[...]
[...]Upon the Zuyder-zee, or South-Sea, from N. to S.
[...]
[...]
[...]
[...]
Naerden—

[Page 98] Flanders properly so call'd, being divided into

  • East.
  • West.
Chief Towns inEast areDendermonde—Upon the Dendre, from N. to S.
[...]
[...]
Gramont—
Gh [...]ut—Upon the Soheld.all found from N. to S. W.
O [...]denard—
Tournay—
St. Amand—Upon the Scarpe.
Doway—
Deynse—Nigh unto, or upon the Lys, all found from N. to S. W.
Courtray—
Armenthiers—
Lisle—
West areGraveling—Five remarkable Ports from S. to N. E.
Dunkirk—
Neuport—
Osiend—
lāys—
Bruges—found from W. to E.
Axel—
Hulst—
Rupelmond upon the Scheld, 5 Miles S. of Antwerp.
Farne—found from W. to E.
Dixmude—
Thyelt—
Berge S. Winoc—from W. to E.
Ypres—
Cassel, farthest South.

[Page 99] The Dutchy of Brabant being divided into

  • North.
  • South.
Chief Towns inNorth areBosleduc—found from E. to W.
Breda—
Steenbergen—
Bergenopzoom—
Antwerp upon the Scheld.
Mechelin upon the Dender.
South areAersschot—Upon the Demer from W. to E.
Sichem—
Diest—
Brussels—found from W. to E.
Louvain—
Tilmont—
Judoigne about 12 Miles S. E. of Louvain.
Gemblours—found from E. to W.
Genape—
Nivelle—

§. 2. The Circle of Westphalia.

Divided intoNorth-East, between the Weser and ElmCh. T.Osnaburge.
Middle, between the Elm and the RhineMunster.
South-West, betw. the Rhine and Cir. Belg.Leige.

More particularly,

North-East compre­hendsThe Coun­ty ofOldenburg—Chief TownIdem—On the Wefer from N. to S.
Hoya—areIdem
Diepholt—Idem
Schomberg—Idem—
The Principal of MindenIdem—
The Coun­ty ofEmbden orEmdentNigh unto, or upon the Elm, from N. to S. E.
[...]seland
Linge—Idem
The Bishop of Osnaburg.Idem
The Coun­ty ofTecklenburgIdem
RavensburgIdem
Middle compre­hendsThe County of Ben [...]hem—Idemfrom N. W to S. E.
The Bishoprick of MunsterIdem
The County of Lip—Idem
The Bishoprick of PaderborneIdem
The Durchy of WestphaliaArensbergefrom E. to W.
The County ofMarke—Ham—
Berge—Dusseldorp.
South West compre­hendsThe Succession of the Dutchies ofClevesClevesN. to S.
JuliersJuliers
The Bishoprick of Leige—Liege W. of Juliers.

§. 3. The Circle of Lower Saxony.

Divided intoNorth—Chief TownHamburge.
Middle—Lunenburge.
South—Magdeburge.

More particularly,

North the D ofHolstein compre­hending the D ofDitmarsh—Chief TownMeldorp—Hamburg—From W. to E.
Holstein propKiel—
StormariaGeluckstat
WagerlandLubeck—
Lawenburg—are those ofLawenburg.
Mecklenburg—Wismar
Middle the D ofBremen—are those ofEremen—W. to E.
Ferden—Ferden—
Lunenburg—Lunenburg
SouthHildersheim, a BishoprickIs that of Hildersheim—W. to E.
Brunswick, a Dutchy—Brunswick & Wolfenbuttle
Halberstat, a PrincipalityIs that of Halberstat—
Megdeburg, an ArchbishIs that of Megdeburg—

[Page 101] Besides these are,

The D. ofHanover—Chief TownIdem, 16 m. N. W.of Hildersheim.
GruppenhagenIdem, 37 m. S.
Gottingen—Idem, 14 m. S. of Gruppenhagen.
The C. ofReinstein—Blackenberg, 10 m.S. W. of Hal­berstat.
Weringen—Elbingeroda, 12 m.

§. 10. The Circle of Upper Saxony.

Divided intoSouth—Chief TownWittenberg.
North—Stetin.

More particularly,

South con­tains theD. of Saxony, properly so called—Ch. T.Wittenberg—N. to S.
Marq of Misnia—Dresden—
Lantgr. of Thuring—Erfurt, Westward
North con­tains theMar. of Bran­denburgAlt-mark, West.Chief TownStendalBerlinfrom S. to N.
Middlemark—Berlin
Newmark, East.Custrin
D. of Po­meraniaDucal, East.CaminStetin
Royal, West.Stetin

Besides these, are many little Princes of the House of Saxony scat­tered up and down (or nigh unto) the Landtgrave of Thurin, par­ticularly these following;

The Princip. of Anhalt, [South to Magdeburg] Ch. Town Bernburg.
The D. ofWeimar—Chief TownIdem, 13 miles E.of Erfurd.
Gotha—Idem, 14 miles W.
Eisenach—Idem, 26 miles W.
The E. ofSchwartsberg—Idem, 24 miles S.
Beichlingen—Idem, 20 mil. N. E.
Mansfield—Idem, 55 m. S. W.of Witten­berg.
The Bishoprick of Hall—Idem, 36 m. S W.

§. 5. The Circle of the Lower Rhine.

Divided intoEast—Chief TownHeidelberg.
West—Cologne.

More particularly,

It comprehendsBishoprick of Cologne—Chief TownCologne betweenJuliers.
The Rhine.
The Palat. of the Rhine-Heidelberg upon the Neckar.
Arch-Bishop­rick ofTriers-Idem upon the Moselle.
Mentz-Idem upon the Rhine.
Bishoprick of Worms—Idem upon the Rhine.
D. of Simmeron—Idem 33 m. W. of Mentz.
Rhinegravc—Kirn ij m. S. of Simmeren.
Counties ofMeurs—Idem 28 m. S. E. of Cleves in Westp.
Sponheim.Creutznach 20 m. S. W. of Mentz.
Veldentz-Idem 17 m. N E. of Triers.
LeyningenIdem 12 m. S. W. of Worms.

§. 6. The Circle of the Upper Rhine.

Divided intoNorth—Chief TownCassel.
South—Francfort.

More particularly,

It containsD. of Zueybruck, or Deux Ponts—Chief TownIdem, 44 m. all W. of Worms.
Landtgr. ofHesse Cassel—Cassel farthest North.
Darmstat—Idem betw. the Rhine and Maine.
Territories of Francfort—Idem upon the Matne.
Counties ofWaldeck—Idemfrom N. to S. on the W. of the Landtgr. Hesse Cassel.
Solms—Idem
Isenlurg—Idemfrom W. to S. E. on the North of the Rhine.
Nassan—Idem
CatzenclbogenIdem
Hanan—Idem
Erpacl:—Idem

§. 7. The Circle of Franconia.

Divided intoSouth—Chief TownNurenburg.
North—Coburg.

More particularly,

It containsThe Territ. of NurenburgChief TownIdem on a branch of the Maine.
Marq. ofOnspach—Idem, 23 m. W. of Nurenburg.
Culenbach—Idemfrom E. to W.
Bishopr. ofBamberg—Idem
WartzburgIdem
Aichstat—Idem, 34 m. S. of Nurenburg.

Besides these are

The State of the great Master of the Teutonick Order, chief Town Margentheim, 57 Miles W. of Nurenburg.

As also several Counties, but chiefly those of

Reineck—Chief TownIdem—from N. to S. in the W. part of this Circle.
Wertheim—Idem—
Holach—Oringen—
Papenheim—Idem 12 m. W. of the Bishoprick of Aichstat.
Schwartzenberg—Idem 32 m. N. W. of Nurenberg.
Castel—Idem 23 m. S. W. of Bamberg.

§. 8. The Circle of Suabia.

Divided intoEast—Chief TownAusburg.
West—Stugart.

More particularly,

Suabia comprehends theD. of Wirtenberg—Chief TownareStugart—Nigh or upon the Neckar.
Tubingen—
Bishopr. ofConstance.Idem upon the Lake Constance.
Ausburg—Idem upon the Lech.
Marq. ofBaden—Idem 38 m. W. from Stugart.
Burg [...]Idem 10 m. W. from Ausburg.
Ortnaw—Offenburg 20 m. S. from Baden.
Princ. ofFu [...]stenbergIdem 36 m. N. W. from Constance.
Hoenzolern—Idem ij m. S. from Tubingen.
Count ofOtting—Idem 38 m N. W. from Ausburg.
Reckbery—Gemund 43 m. W. from Otting.
Koniseck—Idem 18 m. N. from Constance.
Baron ofWaiburg—Idem, or Waldsee, 30m. N. E. fr. Consta.
Limpurg—Idem 37 m. W. from Otting.
Justingen—Idem 28 m. S. E. from Stugart.
Territ. ofFuggers—Babenhausen 30 m. S. W. fr. Ausburg.
Ulm—Idem 38 m. W. from Ausburg.
Abacy of Kempten—Idem 50 m. S. W. from Ausburg.

To the Circle of Suabia we add Alsatia, chief Town is Strasburg.

It's divided into

  • Higher, Southward.
  • Lower, Northward.
Higher contains the Towns ofFreiburg—From E. to W.
Brisach—
Colmar—
Lower contains the Towns ofStrasburg—S. to N.
Hageno [...]
Zabern, Westward.

§. 9. The Circle of Bavaria.

Divided intoNorth—Chief TownLeutchenberge.
South—Munick or Munchen.

More particularly,

North contains Nortgow, or the Palatinate of Bavaria,

ComprehendingLandtgr. of LeutchenbergeChief TownIdemN. to S. W.
Territor. ofSultzbach—Idem
Amberge—Idem
Abacy of Walthausen—IdemN. to S.
County of Chambe—Idem

South con­tainsD. and Elect. of BavariaHigher, Southw.Ch. T.Munick or Munchen.
Lower, Northw.Ratisb. or Regensp.
Arch-Bishoprick of SaltzburgeIdem, Southward.

Besides these are several other Dominions, as particularly

The Dutchy of Neuburge, [Ch. Town, Idem] 10 miles S. of the Bishoprick of Aichstat in Franconia.
The Bishopr. ofPassaw—Ch. To.Idem 68 m. E. of Ratisbonne.
FreisengenIdem 10 m. N. of Munick.

§. 10. The Circle of Austria.

Divided intoLower, Eastward—Chief TownVienna.
Higher, Westward—Inspruck.

More particularly,

Lower containsArch D. of AustriaEastChief TownViennaVienna, chief of the whole.
WestLintz
D. ofStiriahigher, W.JudenburgJudenburgfrom N. to S.
lower, E.Gratz—
Carinthiahigher, W.Willach—Clagenfurt
lower, E.Clagenfurt
 Carniolahigher, N.Laubach—Laubach—
 lower, S.Loes—
Higher con­tains theCounty of Tyrol—Inspruck—from N. to S.
Bishopr. of BrixenIdem—

Besides these are some other petty Soveraignties, especially these two following▪

The D. ofGoritia—in Carniola40 miles W.of Laubech.
Gilley—36 miles E.

Under this Circle is ordinarily comprehended Bohemia, containing

The K. of Bohemia, prop. so call'dChief TownPrague—S. to N.
Lusatiahigher, Northward—Soraw [...]
lower, Southward—Pantzen
MoraviaEastern—WeiskirkOlmutz
Western—Olmutz
D. of Silesiahigher, SouthwardTroppawBreslaw
lower, NorthwardBreslaw

After the 10 Circles of Germany followeth Switzerland, compre­hending 13 Cantons, with several Confederate Cities and Proe­fectures.

(1.) The thirteen Cantons are those of

  • Zurick,
  • Switz,
  • Glaris,
  • Solothurn,
  • Bern,
  • Underwald,
  • Basil,
  • Schafhousen,
  • Lucern,
  • Zug,
  • Friburg,
  • Apenzel.

[Page 107] These Cantons are set down according to their Votes in the gene­ral Diets; each of them hath a capital City of its own Name except Uri (chief Town Altorf) and Underwald (chief Town Stant) and are reduced to three Classes.

Viz.West comprehendingBasil—from N. to S.
Soloturn—
Bern—
Freiburg—
Middle comprehendingSchafhouse—from N. to S.
Zurich—
Zug—
Lucern—
Switz—
Underwald—
Uri—
East comprehendingApenzil—from N. to S.
Glaris—

(2.) The chief Con­federates of the Switzers are theGrisons, ch. T. CoireW. of theCounty of Tirol.
City of Geneva—Lake of Geneva.
(3.) The chief Prae­fectures of the Switzers areBaden—on theW. N. W.of Zurick.
Bremgarten
Mellingen—
Sargans▪ N. of the Grisons.

To the German Empire we might here annex the Kingdom of Hun­gary, it being now almost intirely under the Emperour; But of it when we come to Turkey in Europe.

[Page 108] THIS great Body being divided (as aforesaid) into Ten Cir­cles; and the first of these (viz. Belgium or the Netherlands) being most observable upon several accounts; we shall take a particular View of the same, as it consists of Holland and Flanders, and then treat of all the rest conjunctly, under the general Title of Upper Germany. Therefore,

§. 1. HOLLAND.

THis Country (of old Batavia, a part of Ancient Belgium) is [...] by the Italians and Spaniards, Holanda; by Name. the French, Hollande; by the Germans and English, Holland; so call'd (as many imagin) from Hol and land, two Teutonic words, signifying a low or hollow sort of Land: But others choose rather to d [...]ive the Name from Oeland (an Island in the Baltick Sea) whose Inhabitants, being great Pyrats, and frequently ranging these Seas, at [...] did seize upon, and settle themselves in this part of the [...]

The Air of this Country is generally thick and moist, by reason of the frequent Fogs which arise from the many Lakes and Channels with which this Country abounds; And to Moistness of the Air it is, that we may impute the Cause of the [...]ency of Agues, to which the Inhabitants are so subject. The [...]site Place of the Globe to Holland is that part of the vast Paci­ [...] Ocean, between 205 and 210 Degrees of Longitude, with 51 and 54 Degrees of South Latitude.

This Country lying very low, and in the Tenth North Climate; Its Soil is Naturally wet and fenny, but the in­dustrious Soil. Inhabitants do so drain it by a vast Multitude of Artificial Channels, that the Ground is made very fit both for Pasture and Tillage especially the former, they imploying the greatest part of their Land in Grazing vast Herds of Kine. The Length of the Days and Nights is the same as in England, South of the Hum­ber.

Although the Commodities of this Country, proceed­ing from its natural Growth, may (strictly speaking) Commodities. be reckon'd only Butter and Cheese; yet by reason of the many useful Manufactures which this People encourage at home, (the very Materials of which are brought from other Nations) and that wonderful Trade which they manage abroad in most Parts of the known World, we may reckon it as a Publick Warehouse of the richest and best Commodities of all Nations.

[Page 109] The chief Remarkables in Holland are these follow­ing; viz. (1.) The vast Multitude of Artificial Rarities. Sluces and Canals, being a Work of prodigious Ex­pence and great Convenience both for Traffick and Travelling. (2.) The Burg in Leyden (being reckon'd a notable Piece of Anti­quity) with the many rare Curiosities to be seen in the famous University there. (3.) The Curious Fountains (especially that call'd The Basin of Venus) and the two great Cascades or Water-falls in the pleasant Gardens belonging to Loo. (4.) The brazen Font in St. Peter's Church in Zutphen, Remarkable for its admirable Workmanship. (5.) The two brazen Dishes in the Village of Losdun, in which were Baptiz'd (Anno 1276.) by Don William, Suffragan Bishop of Treves, 365 Children born at one Birth by the Countess of Heneberg, Daughter to Florent the 4th Earl of Holland. (6.) The Remarkable Stone Quarry near Maestricht, which looks like a vast Subterraneous Palace, it reach­ing under a large Hill, supported by some Thousands of square Pil­lars [commonly 20 Foot high] between which are spacious Walks and many private Retirements of great Use in time of War, they serving as a sure Refuge to the neighbouring Country People, who commonly resort thither with their Goods when alarm'd by an ap­proaching Enemy. (7.). The Room where the Synod of Dort was held Anno 1619, with the Seats as they then stood, is shewn to Stran­gers as another Curiosity of this Country. To these we may add the stately brazen Statue of the famous Desid. Erasmus in the City of Rotterdam, as also the little obscure House where that Great and Eminent Man was born, which is likewise shewn to Strangers, ha­ving this Distich over its Door.

Aedibus his ortus, Mundum decor avit Erasmus
Artibus ingenuis, Relligione, Fide.

Here is but one Archbishoprick in this Country, (viz. Utricht) and that only Titulary. Archbishopricks.

Under the Archbishop of Utrecht are Five Titular Suffragans; viz. Bishopricks.

Those of

  • Deventer,
  • Groningen,
  • Harlem,
  • Leuwarden,
  • Middleburgh.

Universities in this Country are those of Universities.

  • Leyden,
  • Utrecht,
  • Franeker,
  • Groningen,
  • Harderwick.

[Page 110] The Natives of this Country are reckon'd none of the Politest sort of People either in Thought or Beha­viour, Manners. especially the latter, in which they so little en­deavour to follow the various Modes and nice Punctilio's of Cere­mony in Use among their Neighbours the French, that they choose rather to run to the other extream. The chief, if not only Quality of this People, (besides the singular Neatness of their Houses) is that wonderful Genius to a laudable Industry, wherewith they seem to be Universally inspir'd; Persons of all Ages, Sexes and Stations, being some way or other usefully imploy'd. By which industrious Hand, in carrying on several profitable Manufactures at home, and mana­ging a prodigious Trade abroad, they have of late advanc'd them­selves to such a height of Power and Treasure, as to become even terrible to crown'd Heads.

The Language here spoken is the Low Dutch (a Dialect of the German) having several corrupted French and La­tin Language. words intermixt: a Language that hath nothing to recommend it to Strangers. How it differs from the High German, will best appear by their Pater Noster, which runs thus; Onse Vader die in de hemelen [Ziit] Uwen Naem werde geheylight. Uw' koninckritche home. Uwen wille geschiede geliick in den hemel [alsoo] oock op der atrden. Ons' dagelicks broot geef ons heden. Ende vergeeft ons onse schulden geliick oock wy vergeven onse schuldenaren. Ende en lept ons niet in versoeckinge [...]naer verlost ons van den boosen. Amen.

The seven Provinces of Holland, being under a De­mocratical Government, are (as it were) several Com­monwealths, Government. each Province being a distinct State, yea and every City, having an independent Power within it self to judge of all causes, whether Civil or Criminal, and to inflict even Capital Punishments: But all joyning together, make up one Republick the most considerable in the World; which Republick is govern'd by the Assembly of the States-General, consisting of Seven Voices, each Pro­vince having One To this Assembly (whose place of Meeting is ordinarily at the Hague) belongeth the Power of making War or Peace; receiving and dispatching of Ambassadors; inspecting into the Condition of Frontier Towns, and Assigning what Summs of Money must be levied for the publick Service. Matters are not de­termin'd here in this Assembly by Plurality of Voices, but all the Provinces must come to an unanimous Consent; and each Repre­sentative returning to his respective Province, must propose the Matter in a Provincial Assembly, consisting of Deputies from all Ci­ties of that Province; which Deputies must also return, and receive the Consent of their Principals, otherways nothing can be concluded. In this Assembly of the States-General, the seven Provinces have still given their Voices in order following; viz. Guelders and Zutphen [Page 111] first, (because Guelders is the eldest, and her Plenipotentiaries did first propose the Union) then Holland; 3dly, Zeland; 4thly, Utrecht; 5thly, Friesland; 6thly, Over-Yssel, and lastly, Groningen. Assistant to this Assembly is the Council of State, compos'd of twelve Persons, (whereof Guelderland sends, 2; Holland, 3; Zealand, 2; Utrecht, 2; Friexland, 1; Over-Yssel, 1; and Groningen, 1;) whose business is to deliberate Previously upon those Matters which are to be brought before the States-General; as also to state the Expence for the suc­ceeding Year, and to propose Ways and Means how to Levy the same. Subservient to this Council is the Chamber of Accounts (com­pos'd of two Deputies from each Province) whose Office it is to examin the publick Accounts, and dispose of the Finances. And whensoever the States do Order the fitting out a Fleet, the Care of the same, and Ordering of all Marine Affairs do rely upon the Coun­cil of the Admiralty, to which are Subordinate five Colledges in the three Maritime Provinces, viz. Holland, Zealand, and Friezland, who take Care to execute all Orders of that Council according as they are sent to them from time to time.

The Ensigns Armorial of the Seven United Provinces or States of Holland are Or, a Lion Gules, holding with Artns. one Paw a Cutleas, and with the other a Bundle of seven Arrows closely bound together, in allusion to the seven Confederate Provinces, with the following Motto, Concordiâ res parvae cres­cunt.

No Country in Europe can boast of more Religions, and yet perhaps no part of Christendom may be truly said to Religion. be less Religious than this is. Here indeed we may see all Sects and Parties in the open Profession of their respective Tenets (all Professions being tolerated for Tradings sake) and yet that which the Apostle St. James (chap. 1. v. 27.) calls the pure and undefiled Re­ligion before God and the Father, is as little (if not less) known here than in any Christian Country whatsoever. That publickly profess'd and generally receiv'd is the Reform'd Religion according to the Tenets of Judicious Calvin. Christianity was first planted in this Country about the same time with Upper Germany; of which after­wards.

§. 2. FLANDERS.

THis Country (the ancient Gallia Belgica) it term'd by the Italians, Flandra; by the Spaniards, Flandes; by the Name. French, Flandres; by the Germans, Flandern; and by the English Flanders, so call'd (as some imagin) from Flamdebert, Nephew to Clodion the 2d King of France, who flourisht about the beginning of the fifth Century. But others are willing rather to derive it from Flandrina, Wife to Liderick the 2d, who was Prince of Bun, and Grand Forester of Flanders, and govern'd it according to the Orders of Charlemaigne and Lewis Debonnaire.

The Air of these various Provinces is generally esteem'd indifferent healthful, yet the Moistness of the Soil doth fre­quently Air. occasion thick Fogs in the Winter, which would prove very prejudicial to the Inhabitants, did not dry Easterly Winds from the main Continent purify the Air, and occasion hard Frosts for several Months. The opposite Place of the Globe to Flanders, is that Part of the vast Pacifick Ocean between 205 and 210 Degrees of Longitude, with 49 and 51 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 9th Northern Climate) is not the same in all Parts, being in some con­siderably Soil. better than others, but yet good in all; So fer­tile is it in Grain, Roots, and many sorts of Fruits, that 'tis hardly to be parallel'd by any Spot of Ground in the same Climate. In the Counties of Hannonia and Namur, as likewise in the Bishoprick of Liege, are found some Mines of Iron and Lead, with Quarties of Marble, and several Pits of excellent Coal. The Length of the Days and Nights is the same, as in the North of France and South of England.

The chief Commodities of this Country, being the Product of their Manufactures, are Tapestries, Commodities. Worsted-Stuffs, Linnen Cloth, Wrought Silks, Cam­blets, Lace, &c.

Near to St. Omers is a large Lake, in which are divers floating Islands, most of them inhabited, and moveable Rarities. by Ropes ty'd to strong Poles fixt fast in the Ground; and in one of them is a Church with a Monastery of the Order of St. Bernard. At Tongres (10 Miles North-West from Liege) are to be seen some Monuments of ancient Temples, and other Buildings, erected by the Romans. In the stately Cathedral of Antwerp (dedi­cated to the Blessed Virgin) are no less than 66 different Chappels. At Ghent is a Tower call'd Belfart, in which hangs a Bell nam'd Ro­land, which weighs 11000 Pounds. Remarkable is the Sounding-Gallery [Page 113] in Brussels, which repeats an Echo 15 times; and Spaa or Spaw (a Village in the B. of Liege) is famous, all the World over, for its curious Springs of Medicinal Waters.

Arch-Bishopricks in this Country are those of A. Bishopricks.

  • Malines,
  • Cambray.

Bishopricks in this Country are those of Bishopricks.

  • Liege,
  • Antwerp,
  • Gaunt,
  • Bruges,
  • Ypres,
  • Ruremond,
  • Bois le Duc.
  • Arras,
  • Tournay,
  • S. Omers,
  • Namur.

Universities in this Country are those of Universities.

  • Louvaine,
  • Doway,
  • Liege.

The Inhabitants of these various Provinces being (for the most part) a mixture of Spanish, French and Dutch; Manners. their Character in general will be best learn'd by consi­dering the respective Characters of these three Nations (which may be seen in their proper places) and comparing them one with ano­ther.

The Language vulgarly us'd in Flanders is that call'd the Waloon, (excepting those Provinces which border on Language. Holland, where the Dutch prevails) which is a corrupt French, with an intermixture of several Dutch, and many Spanish words. How it differeth from the pure French, will best appear by their Pater Noster, which runs thus: Nos peer qui êt au Cieux; sancti­fie soi te Nom, Adveen ton Rejam; ta Volonté se fait en terre comme es Cieux; Donne noy ajord 'huy no pain quotidien: & pardonne no det comme no pardonnon a nos detteux; & ne no indu en tentation; mais delivre nos des maux. Ansi soit il.

This Countrey (viz. all those Provinces belonging to the Spaniard before the late War, and now restor'd) doth Govern­ment. acknowledge his Catholick Majesty as Supream Lord, who Rules the same by his Substitute, styl'd Governour-General of the Netherlands. Which Post is at present enjoy'd by his Electoral Highness Duke of Bavaria, and now made Hereditary to him since Anno 1692. For his Assistance he is allow'd three Coun­cils, viz. (1.) The Council of State, in which are transacted the [Page 114] weightiest Affairs; such as relate to Peace and War; Leagues and Alliances, &c. (2.) The Privy-Council, which determineth the Li­mits of Provinces, publisheth Edicts, and decideth Matters brought thither by Appeal from other Courts of Judicature. (3.) The Coun­cil of Finances, to whom belongeth the Care and Management of the Royal Revenue and Taxes, supervising the Accounts of Receivers, and proportioning the Expence or Charge of the War. To Levy Money, and to Enact new Laws, is the Business of the Convention of the Estates, (consisting of the Nobility, principal Persons of the Clergy, and Deputies of the chief Cities) who ordinarily Assemble at Bruxels when call'd by the Governour-General. For the better maintaining the Peace through all the Provinces, and taking due Care of the Standing Forces, each Province hath a particular Go­vernour appointed in Subordination to the Governour-General. And for an Universal Administration of Justice, every Province hath its peculiar Provost, and over all is appointed one Grand Provost, whose Power in Criminal Matters is reckon'd very great.

See Spain. Arms.

The Religion predominant in all the Provinces of the Netherlands, before the dawning of that happy day of our Religion. Reformation, was intirely the Doctrine of the Roman Church: But the Errors and Absurdities of that Doctrine being openly expos'd to the World by our wise Reformers; the King of Spain (to hinder a farther Progress in that matter) set up the most severe and barbarous Court of Inquisition, which occasion'd no small Disturbance, and at last a bloody War, that ended in a total Alie­nation of the Seven United Provinces, the other Ten still remaining in the Profession of the Romish Religion (as at this day) and that in its grossest Errors. Christianity was planted in this Country about the same time with the United Provinces.

§. 3. UPPER GERMANY.

THis Country (containing only a part of Ancient Name. Germany as also a little of Gaul, Illyricum, with some of Old Italy) is term'd by the Italians Alta Allemagna; by the Spaniards, Ale [...]nia al [...]a; by the French, Haute Allemagne; by the Germans, Overteutschland; and by the English, Germany: Why so call'd, is much Controverted by our Modern Criticks, some Ger­man Authors being willing to derive its Etymology from words in their own Language as [...]or-mannen, i. e. very much Men. Others from Geren signifying to Gather, because the Germans seem'd to be an [...] of many Nations; others from Gar and Man, to denote that [Page 115] they were a Warlike People. Some (tho' with little ground) would fain allow it an Hebrew Derivation: But the most probable Opi­nion of all is, that the Inhabitants of this Country were called Ger­mani by the Romans, either because they were a sincere and honest sort of People, or thereby to denote that they were Brothers to their Neighbours the Gaules.

The Air of this Country differeth considerably accord­ing to the Situation of the various Parts of this large Con­tinent. Air. Towards the North, it's generally very Cold; but in the Southmost Provinces it's of the same Temper as in those places of France which lie under the same Parallels. The opposite Place of the Globe to Germany, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean between 215 and 225 Degrees of Longitude, with 45 and 55 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th North Climate) is very different according Soil. to the Situation of its different Parts. In the Southern Circles, as also those in the middle part of the Continent, particu­larly the Upper and Lower Rhine, there is hardly any Country in the World can excel them for plenty of Fruits, Corn and Wine: but towards the North, namely the two Saxonies and Westphalia, the Soil is not near so fertile, especially in Wine (Grapes never coming to full perfection there;) however as for Corn and Pasturage, they are abundantly furnisht with them; and the whole Country in the main is tollerably pleasant, healthful and profitable, abounding not only with all things necessary, but also with many of the Comforts of hu­man Life. The longest Day in the North-most Part is about 17 Hours ¼. The shortest in the South-most, 8 Hours ½, and the Nights pro­portionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country are Corn, Metals, Allom, Salt, Wine, Flesh, Linnen, Quicksilver, Commodities. Armours, and Iron Works, &c.

What Things do mostly merit the Epithet of Rare and Curious in this vast Country, are reducible to these Rarities. following Heads; viz. (1.) Some very observable Springs; as That near Geesbach in Alsace, whose Top is covered with a foul fat Oily substance, ordinarily us'd by the Peasants thereabouts, as common Wheel Grease; Another near Paterborn in Westphalia, call'd Methorn, which hath three Streams very different from one another, both in Colour, Tast, and Qualities; and a Third in the Diocess of Pater­born, observable in that it loseth it self twice every 24 Hours, returning always back at the Interval of 6 Hours, and that with such Violence as to drive three Mills not far from its Source. Here also are many Salt Springs; particularly That near Lunenburg, in the D. of Lunenburg; another at Hall in Upper Saxony, and a third at Saltzwedel in the [Page 116] Marquisate of Brandenburg. To these we may add a vast multitude of Springs, whose Waters are highly priz'd both for Purging and Bathing, especially the latter; as particularly Those at Stugart in Wirtenburg; Those at Aix le Chapelle in Westphalia; and those in the Marquisate of Baden, from whence the whole Country derives its Name. (2.) Some strange kind of Lakes; particularly that in Car­niola, call'd the Zirchnitzer-Sea, in length about two German miles, and one broad; Observable for its many subterraneous Caves and Passages, into which both the Water and Fishes of the Lake do yearly retire in the month of June, and return again about September. As also another in Suabia; the Nature of whose Waters is such, that they actually singe Fishing-Nets, when sunk to the bottom. (3.) Re­markable Caves, particularly that near Blackenburg in Lower Saxony, commonly call'd Buman's Hole; of which none hath yet found the End, tho' many have travell'd a vast way into it on purpose to come at the same. Another call'd Grotto-Popetschio, with many other sub­terraneous Caverns in Carniola, near the Zirchnitzer-Sea above-men­tion'd And finally that near Hamelen (about 30 miles from Hanover) at whose mouth stands a Monument expressing the Loss of 130 Chil­dren, who were swallowed up alive in that very place above 400 Years ago. (4.) Stately Edifices, especially some famous Cathedrals, as particularly those of Strasburg and Magdeburg, (in the latter of which are 49 Altars) as also that of Ulm, Remarkable for its curious Organ so much talked off, it being 93 Foot high, and 28 broad; being likewise furnish'd with 16 pair of Bellows, and having Pipes of such a prodigious Bigness, that the largest of them is 13 In­ches Diameter. (5.) Some Observable Rocks and Stones, particularly those two Rocks nigh to Blackenburg (above-mention'd) which na­turally represent two Monks in their proper Habits, and that as exact­ly as if design'd for such; and near to Blackenburg, are several Stones dug out of the Ground, having on them the Representation of di­vers Animals, especially Fishes in a neighbouring Lake; and some­times the Resemblance of a Man. In another Lake, in the Earldom of Mansfeild, are Stones exactly shap'd like Frogs and various sorts of Fishes. Add to these the Remarkable Stones commonly found upon Count Calenberg (about two German miles from Vienna) having the lively Impression of Trees and Leaves of Trees upon them: As also a Quarry in those Parts, out of which are dug some Stones equally transparent with refin'd Sugar-Candy. (6.) Many choice Cabinets of Rarities, especially That in the Palace of Inspruck, with another at Dresden; but the chief of all is that in the Emperour's Palace at Vi­enna, whose Curiosities are so vastly numerous, that a bare Catalogue of them makes a compleat Volume in Folio. To all these add that modern Curiosity kept at Mentz, and commonly shewn to Strangers, viz. a Leaf of Parchment, on which are fairly written twelve different [Page 117] sorts of Hands, with variety of Minatures and Draughts, curiously done with a Pen, and that by one Thomas Schuveiker, who was Born without Hands, and perform'd the same with his Feet. As for the famous Tun of Heidelberg (being 31 Foot long and 21 high) 'tis so notoriously known, that we need say nothing of it.

Arch-Bishopricks in this Country are those of A. Bishopricks.

  • Mentz,
  • Magdeburg,
  • Triers,
  • Saltzburg,
  • Cologn,
  • Bremen.
  • Prague.

Bishopricks in this Country are those of Bishopricks.

  • Metz,
  • Brandenburg,
  • Paderborn,
  • Brixen,
  • Toul,
  • Havelberg,
  • Constance
  • Gurk,
  • Verdun,
  • Spire,
  • Halberstadt
  • Vienna,
  • Liege,
  • Worms,
  • Bamburg
  • Newstadt,
  • Munster,
  • Strasburg,
  • Freisenghen
  • Lubeck,
  • Minden,
  • Wirtzburg,
  • Ratisbon
  • Ratzburg,
  • Osnaburg,
  • Aichstat,
  • Passaw
  • Scheweirin,
  • Meissen,
  • Verden,
  • Chiemse
  • Olmutz,
  • Maesburg,
  • Ghur,
  • Seckaw,
  • Leutmeritz,
  • Maumburg,
  • Heldesheim,
  • Lavant,
  • Koningsgratz.

Universities in this Country are those of Universities.

  • Vienna,
  • Leipsick,
  • Francfort on Oder,
  • Helmstadt,
  • Prague,
  • Erfurt,
  • Marpurg,
  • Sigen,
  • Mentz,
  • Friburg,
  • Strasburg,
  • Paderborn,
  • Cologn,
  • Ingoldstadt,
  • Gipswald,
  • Altorfe,
  • Triers,
  • Tubingen,
  • Dillinghen,
  • Olmutz,
  • Liege,
  • Rostock,
  • Jena,
  • Kiel,
  • Heidelberg,
  • Wittenberg,
  • Lewenghen,
  • Gratz.

This People hath a mighty Genius for Mechanical sort of Learning; and several of them are famous for Manners. some singular Inventions, particularly that of the fatal Instrument the Gun, accidentally discovered by one Bartholdus Swart a Friar, when making a Chimical Experiment with a Crucible set over the Fire, having Saltpetre and Sulphur, and other such like In­gredients, intermixt. They are also said to have found out that most useful Art of Printing; but the Hollanders do eagerly deny them the honour of that Invention, ascribing the same to one Laurence [Page 118] Coster of Harlem; and upon strict enquiry, it appears that the Germans had indeed the first hint of this Art from Holland, and that they only improv'd and perfected the same at Mentz. The most noted of the many mechanical Operations of this People of late, is that curious Watch of the Emperour Charles the Fifth, set in the Jewel of his Ring; as also that Clock of the Elector of Saxony's fixt in the Pom­mel of his Saddle. As for the Iron Fly and Wooden Eagle of Regio­montanus, they are so well known, that it's superfluous even to name them.

The Language here us'd is that call'd the High Dutch; a Language very Ancient, and generally esteem'd both Language. Noble and Manly in the Pronunciation, more becoming a General than a Courtier. None of the Western European Tongues hath less Affinity with the Latin than it has. The Maternal Langua­ges of several Kingdoms and different States in Europe, are Originally from the German. It's now divided into a great many Dialects, very different from one another; The purest of which is generally e­steem'd that spoken in Misuia. Pater-Noster in the High German runs thus: Unser Vatter der du bist in himmel, geheyliget werde dein Nahim. Zukomm uns dein Ritch; dein Wille geschene uf erden, wte im himmel. Unser taeglich brodt gibbuns heut: und vergibuns unser schuldt, als wir ver­goben unsern schuldigern; und fuchr uns nicht in Versuchung; sonder erlaese uns vom ubel. Amen.

This great Body comprehends above three hundred different Soveraignties, but all (or most of them) are Homagers to one Head, own'd as Supream, viz. the Govern­ment. Emperour of Germany. The Empire is Elective, and Go­vern'd by Dyets, almost like the General Estates of France. The standing Law of the Empire (which bindeth all the several States as the various members of one Body) is the Civil or Roman mix'd with the Canon; to which add the ancient Customs of the Germans, and the various Statutes of the Dyets made from time to time. The se­veral States have their peculiar Laws obligatory within themselves. The whole Empire being divided into Ten Circles, each of them (excepting Belgium, or the Circle of Burgundy, which now is allow'd no Vote in the Dyet) hath one or more Directors who preside at their Assemblies; viz. For Westphalia, the Bishop of Munster and Duke of Neuburg are Directors. For Lower Saxony, are the Marquess of Brandenburg and Duke of Brunswick by turns. For Upper Saxony is the Elector of Saxony. For the Lower Rhine are the Elector Palatine and Bishop of Worms. For Franconia, are the Bishop of Bamberg and Marquess of Gulemback. For Suabia, are the Duke of Wirtenberg, and Bishop of Constance. For Bavaria, are the Elector of Bavaria, and Arch-Bishop of Saltzburg. And lastly Austria, its Director is the Arch-Duke of Austria, or his Imperial Majesty. Two or three Circles may [Page 119] meet when one of them is attackt from without, or in any Confu­sion within. The General Dyets consist of three Bodies, viz. Electo­ral Princes, other Princes, and Imperial Cities. But more particularly; In this great Body we may reduce all Soveraignties to these Five; namely,

  • The Emperour,
  • The Ecclesiastick Princes,
  • The Electors,
  • The Secular Princes,
  • The Free Cities.

I. The Emperour, who (being of the House of Austria) doth claim three sorts of Dominion, viz. that of Austria as Hereditary; Bohe­mia, as his Right; and Hungary by Election. In his Life-time he causeth his own Son or Brother, or (failing of these) one of his nearest Kinsmen to be Crowned King of Hungary, afterwards King of Bohemia, and then (if the Electors are willing) he is also Chosen King of the Romans, whereby he is Successor Presumptive to the Em­pire. The Power of the Emperour is much impar'd by several Ca­pitulations betwixt him and the Princes of the Empire. It's true, that only he can confer Honours, create Princes, affranchize Cities, institute Universities, and such-like: Yet as to the Legislative Power, and that of Levying Taxes upon the whole Empire, that is wholly lodg'd in the General Dyet conjunctly with him; and by a late Capi­tulation, he is not to enter into Alliance, or make War with any Fo­reign Prince without Consent of the Electors. However, if we con­sider only his own Hereditary Dominions, he is a Powerful Prince; and to support the Grandeur of the Imperial Dignity, he is served by the greatest Princes of the Empire; is addressed unto by the Au­gust Title of Caesar, and the Ambassadors of all Crown'd Heads and Free States in Europe, give place to those sent by him, at what Fo­reign Court soever it be.

II. Electors, who are now Nine in Number, viz. these following: (1.) The Arch-Bishop of Mentz, who is Great Chancellor of the Empire in Germany; sits on the Emperour's right hand in the Dyet, and did formerly Crown the King of Bohemia. (2.) The Arch-Bishop of Triers or Treves, who is Great Chancellor of the Empire in France; claims the first Vote in Electing the Emperour; and sits over against him in the Dyet. (3.) The Arch Bishop of Cologn, who is Great Chan­cellor of the Empire in Italy; claims the first Vote in choosing the King of the Romans; setting the Crown on his Head; and sits next the Emperour. (4.) The King of Bohemia (who hath only a Seat in the Election) is Cup-bearer, and in the publick Procession, walks next the Emperour or King of the Romans. (5.) The Duke of Bavaria, who is Great Steward, and in time of the publick Procession car­rieth the Globe before the Emperour. (6) The Duke of Saxony, who is Great Marshal of the Empire, and at the publick Procession [Page 120] carrieth the naked Sword before the Emperour. (7.) The Marquess of Brandenburg, who is great Chamberlain, and at the publick Pro­cession, carrieth the Scepter before the Emperour. (8) The Prince Palatine of the Rhine, who is Great Treasurer, and in the Procession at Coronations scattereth Medals among the People. (9.) The Ninth Elector is Ernestus Augustus Duke of Brunswick, Lunenburg, Hanover, who was added to the Electoral Colledge in the Year 1693. These Princes have much greater Authority, and enjoy, more ample Priviledges than the other Princes of the Empire. To them belong­eth not only a Right of electing the Emperour and King of the Ro­mans (as aforesaid) but also some allow them even a Deposing Power. When the Emperour calls a Dyet, he is oblig'd to ask their advice; and during an Interreign, two of them (viz. the Elector of Saxony and Prince Palatine of the Rhine) have Power to govern the Empire; the Jurisdiction of the former extending over the Northern, and that of the others over the Southern Circles of the Empire: but this Right of the Count Palatins is now disputable by the Elector of Bavaria, who upon the Death of the last Emperour did actually undertake and exercise the same.

III. Ecclesiastick Princes who (besides the first three Electors) are chiefly these following, viz. Arch-Bishop of Saltzburagt [Great Ma­ster of the Teutonick Order] the Bishops of Liege, Munster, Spire, Worms, Wurtzburg, Strasburg, Osnaburg, Bamberg, Paderborn, &c. and many Abbots and Abesses who are Absolute over the Temporality of their Benefices; The Election to their various Dignities belong wholly to their several Chapters, and they govern the People in subjection to them as Soveraign Princes, without any cognizance of a higher Power.

IV. Secular Princes, who are chiefly the Dukes of Lunenburg, Wur­temburg, Mechlenburg, Sax-Lauenburg, &c. Marquess of Baden, Culem­bach, &c. The Landgrave of Hess, Princes of East-Friezland, Nassau, Anhalt, &c. Counts of Solms, Aversburg, &c. and many other Dukes, Marquesses and Landgraves; as also some Earls and Barons who ex­ercise a Soveraign Power over those in their own Dominions.

V. Free Cities, which are either Imperial or Hans-Towns. Imperial Cities are those who bear the Eagle of the Empire in their Arms, and have Right to send their Deputies to the Dyet of the Empire. Hans-Towns are those which about the End of the 13th Century entred into a firm League of mutually assisting one another in time of Di­stress, as also in carrying on such a Regular Commerce as might uni­versally tend to their advantage, and the publick good of the Empire; which Society encreased to the Number of eighty Cities, who en­joy'd great Priviledges, and exercis'd a peculiar Jurisdiction among themselves. For the better Administration of which, they were di­vided into four Circles, distinguish'd by the Names of four prin­cipal [Page 121] Cities, in which were establisht their Courts of Judicatory, viz. Lubeck, Cologn, Brunswick, and Dantzick. But this Society hath been on the declining hand almost two hundred Years, and is now become very inconsiderable.

Chief Courts in Germany for hearing and determining the great Causes of the Empire, are two, viz. The Imperial Chamber, and Chamber of Vienna. (1.) The Imperial Chamber (consisting of fifty Judges, call'd Assessors, whereof the Emperor appointeth the Presi­dent, and four of the Principal Officers, each of the Electors chu­sing One, and the rest being nominated by the other Princes and States of the Empire) whose business is to determine all Disputes which arise from time to time between the Princes, as also other Causes brought thither by Appeal from Inferior Courts. The Seat of this Judicatory was formerly at Spires, but now at Wetslar in Hesse. (2.) The Chamber of Vienna, whose Office it is also to decide all Causes brought to it by Appeals from Inferior Courts, and claims the same Authority with the Chamber of Spires. The Seat of this Court is the Emperor's Palace, and either he himself, or his Deputy sits as Chief, being assisted by a competent number of Judges, whereof several are Professors of the Protestant Religion. In both those Courts the Emperor as Sovereign, Judge, and Pre­sident, pronounceth Sentence when there in Person; and in his Absence, those deputed by him, who representing himself are al­low'd to carry the Imperial Scepter as a Mark of their Dignity. In particular Courts they follow the Laws of the Empire, which con­sist in many Ancient Constitutions; the Golden-Bull; the Pacification of Passaw; as also the Treaties of Westphalia in the Saxon-Law establish'd by Charlemain; and the Roman by the Emperor Justinian; which last they observe wheresoever the Saxon has not been receiv'd. All Princes, States, and Members of the Empire have (and actually exercise) a Sovereign Power within their own Territories, except in some particular Cases, wherein People may Appeal either to the Imperial Chamber of Spires, or that at Vienna, commonly call'd the Aulic Council.

After the Government of Germany, we may add that of

  • Switzerland.
  • Geneva.

I. Switzerland (a large Commonwealth, consisting of several little ones, viz. Thirteen Cantons, every one of them being abso­lute within their own Jurisdiction) is under a Popular Govern­ment in the main, yet not strictly so in respect of every particular Canton, those of Bern, Zurich, and Lucern, being more properly [Page 122] under an Aristocracy than any other, since the Authority of the Gentry doth most prevail in them. However, the whole Body of the State, consider'd as one Complex Republick, consisteth of three distinct Parts, viz. The Switzers themselves distributed (as afore­said) into Thirteen Cantons. Secondly, Those States Confederate with them for their Common Liberty and Protection. And Third­ly, The Prefectures subject to them, whether by Gift, Purchase, or Chance. (1.) The Body of the Cantons, is govern'd by each Can­ton having its particular Magistrate of their own chusing; by whom (with a standing Council consisting of Persons elected out of the People) all particular Controversies of the Canton are heard and dertermin'd. But when any Publick Cause occurs, which relates to all the Cantons, then each of them sends its Com­missioner to the General Diet, (which ordinarly meets at Baden) where every Canton hath one Vote, and Matters are determin'd by the major part. (2.) Confederate States; The Chief of which (besides Geneva) are the Grisons, an adjacent Commonwealth, go­vern'd in like manner as the Switzers. Of all the Allies of the Swit­zers, there's none more Potent than these. They entred first into a League one with another, Anno 1471. and afterwards with the Switzers in 1491. Their Country lies among inaccessible Moun­tains, and hideous Precipices, and they divide themselves into six Parts, viz. The Grey League. The League of the House of God. The League of the Ten Jurisdictions. The Valteline. And lastly, the Countries of Chiavana and Bormio. Some believe they deriv'd the Title of Grisons from the Custom of wearing Grey Scarfs, when first they entred into the League together. (3.) Prefectures of the Swit­zers, particularly those Countries and Cities of Baden and Sargans, with many other Towns and Villages situated nigh unto, or among the Alps.

II. Geneva being a Free Republick, is govern'd by its own Magistrates, and is in Confederacy with the Cantons of Switzer­land, whom it resembles very much in the Constitution of its Government. The Sovereignty of the State is lodg'd in a Council of Two hundred, out of which a lesser Council consisting of Twen­ty five is chosen (both which being for Life, serve for Checks one to another) and finally out of these Twenty five, are elected four Principal Officers, whom they call the Syndicks, who have the sole Management of the Commonwealth, except it be in some great Matter, as making of Peace or War, Offensive or Defen­sive Leagues, hearing Appeals, and such like General Concerns, which is the Business of the Great Council to consider and deter­mine.

[Page 123] The Emperor of Germany for Armorial Ensigns bears Quarterly. 1. Barwise, Argent and Gules of eight Arms. Pieces, for Hungary. 2. Argent, a Lion, Gules, the Tail noved, and passed in Saltier, Crowned, Langed, and Armed, Or, for Bohemia. 3. Gules, a Fesse Argent, for Austria. Party and bendwise, Argent and Azure, a border Gules, for Ancient Burgundy. 4. Quarterly in the first and last Gules a Castle triple towered Or, pur [...]led Sable, for Castile. In the second and third Argent, a Lion purple, for Leon. The Shield crested with an Imperial Crown, closed and raised in shape of a Miter, having betwixt the two Points a Diadem surmounted with a Globe and Cross, Or. This Shield environed with a Coller of the Order of the Golden Fleece, is plac'd on the Breast of an Eagle, displayed Sable in a Field, Or, Diadem'd, membred and beck'd Gules, holding a naked Sword in the right Talon, and a Scepter in the left. The two Heads signify the Eastern and Western Empire; and for the Motto are these words, Uno avulso non deficit alter. But the Emperor's peculiar devise is, Pax & salus Europae.

The Laws of the Empire give free Toleration to the publick Exercise of three Religions, viz. the Lu­theran, Religion. Calvinist, and Popish; and in some Places all three Parties celebrate Divine Worship in one and the same Church, at different times of the Day, as among others, at Manheim in the Palatinate, before it was ruin'd by the French. The Reformation of Religion was begun here by Martin Luther about 1517. and embrac'd by the Electors of Saxony, Brandenburg, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, Landgrave of Hesse, the Duke of Brunswick, and most of the Free Cities. Whereupon followed continual Wars and Trou­bles about Religion, and the Lands of the Church, which the Protestants had possess'd themselves of, till at last, by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. 'twas concluded, That they of the Confes­sion of Ausburg should not be molested in any manner whatsoever; but to be secur'd from all Prosecutions of Law and Violence. In this Posture things continued, till of late, that the French King broke in upon the Empire, and took so many Towns and Cities of it: In all which he dispossess'd the Protestants of their Rights, and establish'd the Exercise of the Roman Religion. And this he hath endeavour'd to confirm by the last Treaty at Reswick, where his Plenipotentiaries in Conjunction with the Emperor's, prevail'd to insert into the said Treaty a Clause, whereby 'tis agreed, That the Roman Catholick Religion shall remain within the Places restor'd by France to the Emperor and Empire, in the same Condition as 'tis exercis'd at present. And though the Pro­testants long contested, and at last sign'd the Treaty, with a Pro­testation, [Page 124] that the Clause in dispute should not be drawn into pre­cedent for the future; yet there's too great Reason to fear that the Popish Party hath gain'd a considerable Advantage in this Point. The various Parts of this Country receiv'd the Light of the blessed Gospel at various times, and that by the preaching of va­rious Apostles, especially St. Thomas, Sirnamed Didymus, one of the Twelve,

[Page]

POLAND by Robt. Morden▪

SECT. V. Concerning Poland.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween3430of Long.its greatestLength is about 780.
5330
between4800of Latit.Breadth is about 600.
5820

Being divided into Three Classes, viz.East.
Middle.
West.

East Class com­prehendsLithuania—Chief TownVilna—N. to S.
Volinia—Kiou—
Podolia—Camenick—
Middle Class comprehendsCurland—Mittaw—N. to S.
Samogitia—Ros [...]ie—
Polaquia—Bie [...]ko—
Little RussiaLemberge—
West Class com­prehends—Prussia—Dantzick—N. to S.
[...] [...]
Polonia prop.Cracovia—

Of all these in Order.

§. 1. Lithuania, a Dukedom.

 Palatinate ofTroki—Chief TownIdem—W. to E.
Wilna—Idem—
Braslawen—Braslaw—
Poloczkien—Poloczk—
Contains theWitepskien—Witepsk—
NovogrodeckIdem—W. to E.
Minskien—Minski—
MscislawenMscislaw—
D. of Sluczk—Idem—W. to E
Territory ofRohaczow—Idem—
Rzeczica—Idem—Southward.

§. 2. Volinia, a Province.

Contains thePalatinate of Lucke, W.Chief TownIdemW. to E.
Territory of Kiow, E.Idem

§. 3. Podolia, a Province.

Contains the Pala­tinate ofKamienieckChief TownIdemW. to E.
Braclaw—Idem

§. 4. Curland, a Dukedom.

ContainsD. of Curland—Chief TownGoldingenW. to E.
Seineg [...]llen—Mittaw

§. 5. Samogitia, a Dukedom.

Contains the Territ ofRos [...]enneChief TownIdemS. to N.
MidnickIdem
SchwndenIdem

§. 6. Poloquia, a Province.

Contains the Pala­tinate ofBressiti—Chief TownBressteS. to N.
BeilskienBielsk

§. 7. Little Russia, a Province.

Contains the Palatinate ofChelmCh. T.Idem—N. to S.
Belz—Idem—
LembergIdem, or Lwow, or Leopolis

§. 8. Prussia, a Dukedom.

Divided intoRoyal, WestwardChief TownDantzickW. to E.
Ducal, EastwardKoningsberg

§. 9. Warsovia, a Dukedom not divided.

Its Chief Town is Warsaw, upon the Weisel.

§. 10. Polonia, properly so called.

Divided into

  • Lower, Northward.
  • Upper, Southward.
 Palat. ofPosua—Chief TownIdem—W. to N. E.
Kaliskic—Gnesna—
DebrizinIdem—
Lower cont­tains thePlokskeinPloczko—
Siradia—Idem—W. to E.
LanciciaIdem—
Rava—Idem—
Provin, of Cujava—Uladislaw N. of Lancicia.
Upper contains the Pa­latinate ofLublin—Idem—N. to S. on the Weis­sel.
SandomiriaSandomirz
CracoviaCracow—

[Page 128] THIS Country (being a considerable Part of the Ancient Sarmatia Europaea) is term'd by the Ita­lians Name. and Spaniards, Polonia; by the French, Pologne; by the Germans, Polen; and by the English, Poland; so call'd (according to the best conjectures) from Polu or Pole, which in the Sclavonic Language, signify a Plain or Champagne Country fit for Hunting, there being none of old more esteemed for that than it was.

The Air of this Country is of a different Nature, according to the Nature and Situation of the different Air. Parts of that Kingdom; for in the Provinces towards the North-West it's very Cold, yet withal very pure and whole­some; but towards the North-East, particularly Lithuania, it's not only cold, but also very gross and unwholesome, which chiefly ariseth from the vast number of Lakes in that part of the Country, whose standing Waters send up Infectious Vapours, which inter­mixing with the Air, do easily corrupt the whole Mass thereof. The opposite Place of the Globe to Poland, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean lying between 215 and 234 Degrees of Longitude, with 48 and 58 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Nature of the Air having still a great Influence on the Soil: The North-West Provinces of this King­dom Soil. (it lying in the 9th, 10, and 11th North Climate) are abundantly fertil, affording many sorts of Grain and Fruits, not only enough for the Inhabitants, but also to supply the wants of their Neighbours. In the middle part of this Kingdom are some Mountains, and those well stor'd with several Mines of Silver, Copper, Iron, and Lead. The Provinces towards the North and North-East are very barren i [...] Fruits and Corn, being full of Woods, Lakes, and Rivers. The longest Day in the North most Parts of this Kingdom is 17 Hours ½; the shortest in the Southmost is 8 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Wax, Linnen, Boards, Masts for Ships, Pitch, rich Furs, Commodities. Salt, Amber, Potashes, Soap, Corn, Butter, Cheese, Rozin, Flax, Cordage, Brimstone, &c.

In the Cathedral of Gnesna is kept an inestimable Treasure of Gold, Silver, and enamelled Vessels given Rarities. by divers Kings of Poland, and Prelates of that See. Under the Mountains adjacent to Kiow are divers Grotto's, wherein are preserv'd, a great number of Humane Bodies, still entire, al­though buried many Years ago; [...]ing neither so black, nor hard as the Egyptian Mummies; among these are two Princes array'd in the same Habit they usually wore when alive, who are shown to Travellers by the Russian Monks. The place where those Bodies [Page 129] are preserv'd is a dry sandy Ground, much of the same Nature with the Catacombs at Rome. In the Southern parts of Poland are divers Mountains, out of which is dug Salt in large Masses as Stones out of a Quarry; and out of others they dig natural Earthen Cups, which being expos'd for some time in th'open Air, become as hard as a Stone. In the Deserts of Podolia, is a Lake, whose Waters do condense into solid Salt, and that purely by the Heat of the Sun. Near to Cracovia are the Mines of Sal-Gemme, which being two hundred Fathoms deep, do constantly imploy above a thousand Men, and yield a vast Revenue to the King. Near to Culm, in D. of Prussia is a Fountain which constantly sends forth a mighty Sul­phureous Steem, and yet its Waters are never hot.

Archbishopricks in this Kingdom are two, viz. those of Archbishopricks.

  • Gnesna,
  • Leopol.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are these following, Bishopricks.

  • Cracow,
  • Colmensee,
  • Camieniec,
  • Kranostaw,
  • Posna,
  • Vilna,
  • Window,
  • Mednick.
  • Ploczkow,
  • Culm,
  • Lutzko,
  • Faussemberg,
  • Premislaw,
  • Kiow,

Universities in this Kingdom, are those of Universities.

  • Cracow,
  • Koninsberg,
  • Posna,
  • Vilna.

The Polanders are generally Men of handsome, tall, and well-proportion'd Bodies: Men of a good and Manners. durable Complexion, and of so strong and vigorous Constitutions, that many of them prove the best of Soldiers, being able to endure all the Fatigues of a Military Life. The Nobility and Gentry do mightily affect the greatest Pomp and Grandeur they can, whether in Diet, Apparel, or Equipage. They are ge­nerally reckon'd very Affable and Courteous to Strangers, ex­treamly Jealous of their Liberties and Priviledges, but most Tyrannical towards the meaner sort of their own People, treating the Peasants no better than mere Slaves; and in some Places they exercise a Power of Life and Death upon their Domestick Ser­vants: Which absolute Power and severe Usage of the Nobles to­wards the Commonality, together with the many Feuds between one another, have produc'd not only many lamentable Disorders in this Kingdom, but also occasion'd the final Revolt of the Cos­sacks. One remarkable Quality of this People, is their singular Care in Instructing of Youth in the Latin Tongue, which Persons [Page 130] of most Ranks do usually speak very fluently; yea, and even many of the Female Sex are also good Proficients therein.

The Poles being Originally descended from the Sclavi, do still speak a Dialect of the Sclavonian Language. Tongue; but the Poverty and Barrenness of their Language has oblig'd them to borrow many Words from the Ger­mans, especially Terms of Art. It is hard for Strangers to learn the same to perfection, the Pronounciation being extreamly harsh by reason of the vast multitude of Consonants they use. The Li­thuanians have a particular Language of their own, which mightily abounds with corrupted Latin words. In Livonia they have a Lan­guage peculiar to themselves, which is a Dialect of the Lithuanian, however the German Tongue doth mostly prevail in several Cities, and the Russian in others. Pater-Noster in the Polish Tongue, runs thus: Oyeza nasz ktory testes w niebissich swieczszie imie twoie: Przydz krolistwo twoie, badz wola twa jake w nibie, tak y waziemi. Chleba naszego pows reduie day nam dzisziay. Vodpusc nam nasze winy, jackoymy odpuszezamy naszym winowayzem. Ynie wwodz nas na pokuszenie: a le nas zabw ode zlego. Amen.

The large Body of Poland is subject unto, and go­vern'd by its own King, who is Elective, and that by Government. the Clergy and Nobility alone, the Commons having no hand in it. His Government is term'd Monarchical, but (if rightly considered) we may reckon it rather a Real Aristocracy, the Nobility in their Elections having so limited the King's Power, that without the Consent of the States-General, he may neither make War nor Peace, nor do any thing of Importance that concerns the Publick. Considering the true Nature and Constitution of this Go­vernment, we may easily imagine that 'tis frequently liable to In­ter-reigns, whether by Death, Deposition, or Resignation, as also In­testine Broils and Commotions (witness the late Election) when the Parties electing do jarr in their choice. During an Inter-reign, or when the King is absent from his Kingdom, (as sometimes in the Field against the Turks) the Archbishop of Gnesna doth ordina­rily officiate as King; but if no Archbishop of Gnesna, then the Bi­shop of Ploczko exerciseth that Power; and in case that that See be also Vacant, then the Bishop of Posna undertakes the same. The whole State is commonly considered, as divided into two principal Parts, viz. the Kingdom of Poland, and Grand Dutchy of Lithuanta. The Great Wheels of Government in both of these, are the Senate and General Dyets. The Senate is compos'd of Archbishops, Bi­shpos, Palatines, Principal Castellans, and Chief Officers of the Kingdom. The General Dyer consists of the same Members, toge­ther with Delegates from each Province and City, both of the King­dom and Dutchy; which Dyet is either Ordinary, as when summon'd [Page 131] (according to Law) once every two Years; or Extraordinary, as when call'd by the King upon some emergent Occasion. The Cal­ling of this Dyet is always perform'd by the Chancellor's Letters, term'd Literae Instructionis to the Palatines, acquainting them with what the King designs to propose to them, and the time he would have them come to Court. Having receiv'd the King's Proposal, each of them hath full Liberty to examine the same in its own Na­ture and Consequences, and to return their Thoughts about it with all the freedom they can desire. The King's Letters are likeways sent to the Gentry of each Palatinate to chuse a Nuncio to be their Representative in the Dyet; in which Election the Candidate must be unanimously pitch'd upon, for if the Suffrage of only one pri­vate Gentleman be wanting, the Election is void, and the Province is depriv'd of its Vote in the approaching Dyet. The Elections being over, and the various Senators and Nuncio's come to Court, the King array'd in his Royal Robes, and attended by the Chan­cellor, renews the Proposal in their Publick Assembly. The Pro­posal having been duly weigh'd by each of them aforehand, they come to a speedy Resolution in the Matter, either Pro or Con. As the aforesaid Election of the various Nuncio's requires an unani­mous Assent in all Persons electing, or else the Election is void; even so the thing propos'd by the King in the General Dyet must be assented unto by all, otherways the Proposal was made in vain; for if they differ, (which frequently happens) then the Dyet breaks up without doing any thing, and each Member returns to his own Home. Subordinate to the Senate and Dyet, are a great many Courts of Judicatory, whether Ecclesiastical, Civil, or Military, for determining all Causes in the various Parts of the Kingdom; which Courts are much the same with the like Subordinate Judica­tories in other civiliz'd Countries of Europe, particularly those here in England.

The Arms of the Crown of Poland, are Quarterly, in the first and fourth Gules, an Eagle Argent, crown'd Arms. and arm'd, Or, for Poland. In the second and third Gules, a Cavalier arm'd Cap-a-pe Argent, in the Dexter, a naked Sword of the same; in the Sinister, a Shield Azure, charg'd with a double barr'd Cross Or, mounted on a Courser of the second, barbed of the third, and nail'd of the fourth, for Lithuania. For the Crest, a Crown, heighten'd with eight Fleurets, and clos'd with four Demy-Circles, ending in a Monde, Or, which is the Crest of Poland. For the Motto are these Words, Habent sua sidera Reges.

The Inhabitants of this Country are (for the most part) Professors of the Doctrine of the Church of Rome; Religion. yet all Religions being tolerated, here are many of the [Page 132] Greek Church, as also Armenians, Lutherans, Socinians, Calvinists, Jews, Quakers, &c. Those of the Church of Rome are dispers'd over all Parts of the Kingdom but most numerous in the Provinces of Cujavia and Warsovia: The Lutherans are mostly to be found in Prussia; The Armenians in Russia, and all the rest appear in greatest Droves through the various Parts of Lithuania. Besides, in Samogitia is a sort of People, who differ little or nothing from mere Hea­thens The Reformation of Religion began in this Country, Anno 1535 but did not meet with due encouragement. The Christian Faith was planted in the various Parts of Poland at several times, and by several Persons; it being establisht in Poland, properly so call'd, Anno 963. in the time of their Prince Miecislaus, Son of Me­momislus. In Livonia, Anno 1200. by the Preaching of one Meinar­du [...] In Lithuania, not until the Year 1386. at the Admission of [...] to the Crown of Poland, and then done (as some affirm) by Thomas Waldensis, an Englishman. In Samogitia and Volhinia, at the same time with Livonia. In the rest, at other times, and upon other occasions.

SECT. VI. Concerning Spain with Portugal.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween0805of Long.its greatestLength is about 620.
2130
between3615of Latit.Breadth is about 480.
4430

It being divided into 3 Classes, viz.

  • 1. Towards the N. and W. Ocean.
  • 2. Towards the Mediterran Sea.
  • 3. Towards the middle part.
1. Class compre­hendsBiscayChief TownBilbo, or BilboaE. to W.
AsturiaOviedo
GalliciaCompostellaN. to S.
PortugalLisbon
AndalousiaSevillaW. to E.
2. Class compre­hendsGrenadaIdem
Mur [...]Idem
[...]Idem
CataloniaBarcelonaE. to N. W.
3. Class compre­hendsArragonCaragoca
NavarPamplona
Old CastileBurg [...]N. to S.
New CastileMadrid
LeonIdem S. of Asturia.

Of all these in Order▪

§. 1. Biscay, a Lordship.

ContainsIpuscoCh. T.TholossE. to W.
Biscay properly so calledBilbo
[...]lavaVitoria, Southward.

§. 2. Asturia, a Principality.

ContainsAsturia [...] viedoChief TownOviedo, Westward.
Asturia de SantillanaSantillana, Eastward.

§. 3. Gallicia, a Kingdom.

Contains theArchbishopr. of CompostellaChief TownIdemS. W. to N. E.
Bishopr. ofMondonedo—Idem
Lugo—IdemN. E. to S. W. upon the Minho.
Orense—Idem
Territory of Tuy—Idem

§. 4. Portugal, a Kingdom

ContainsThe Provin. ofEutre Minho DouroChief TownBraga—W. to E.
Tralos Montes—Miranda
Beira—CoimbraN. to S.
Estrema dura—Lisbone
Entre Ta [...]o Gu [...]ian [...]Evora
The Kingdom of Alg [...]ave—Tavira

§ 5. Andalousia, a Province.

Contains theBishoprick ofJaen—Chief TownIdem—E. to S. W. up­on the Gua­dalquivir, or nigh to it.
Cordova—Idem—
Archbishoprick of Sevilla—Idem—
Bishoprick of Cadiz—Idem—
D. of Medina Sidonia—Idem, Southward.

§. 6. Granada, a Kingdom.

Cont. theBishoprick ofAlmeria—Ch. TownIdem,Southward upon the (Sea-Coast.
Guadix—IdemE. to S. W.
Archbishoprick of GranadaIdem
Bishoprick of Malaga—Idem

§. 7. Murcia, a Kingdom.

ContainMurcia, properly so call'dCh. T.MurciaE. to W.
Territory ofLorca—Idem
CartagenaIdem,Southward upon the Sea-Coast.

§. 8. Valencia, a Kingdom.

Contains the Provinces ofMillaresChief TownVilla Hermosa.N. to S.
XucarValencia—
Segura [...]

§. 9. Catalonia, a Principality.

Contains the Territ. ofPuigcerda—Chief TownIdem—N. E. to S. W. upon the Ebro.
La seu d' Urgel—Idem—
Balaguer—Idem—
Lerida—Idem—
Tortosa—Idem—
Girona—Idem—E. to W. nigh unto, or upon the Sea-coast.
Barcelona—Idem—
Villa Franca de PanadesIdem—
Terragona—Idem—

To these add the Country of Rousillon (Chief Town Perpignan) S. of Narbone in Lower Languedoc.

§. 10. Arragon, a Kingdom.

Contains theBishopricks ofJaca—Chief TownIdem—N. W. to S. E.
Huesca—Idem—
BalbastroIdem—
Archbishopr. of Saragosa or Caragoca—Idem, upon the Ebro.
Bishopricks ofTaraconaIdem—N. to S.
AlborazinIdem—
TervelIdem—

§. 11. Navarr, a Kingdom.

Contains the Major­ships ofPampelonaChief TownIdemN. to S.
Olita—Idem
Tudela—Idem
Estella—IdemW. to E.
SanguesaIdem

§. 12. Old Castile, a Province.

Contains the Ter­ritories of [...]rgos—Chief TownIdem—W. to S. E.
Rioja—Logronno
CalahorraIdem—
Soria—IdemE. to W. on the Douro.
Osma—Idem
ValladolidIdem
Segovia—Idem, 56 m. S. E.of Valla­dolid.
Avila—Idem, 63 m. S.

§. 13. New Castile, comprehending Extrema Dura.

Being divided into

  • North, the Tago.
  • Middle, between the Tago and Guadiana,
  • South, of Guadiana.
North contains the Towns ofCoria—W. to E.
Placentia—
Toledo—
Madrid—All 3 N. E. of Toledo.
Alcala de Henares
Guadalaxara—

Middle contains the Towns ofAlcantara upon the Tago.
Merida upon the Guadiana.
Truxille, 36 miles N. E. of Merida.
Cuensa upon the Xucar.

South contains the Towns ofBadajos.—From W. to E.
Ellenera.—
Cividad Rea—
Alcaraz—

§. 14. Leon, a Kingdom.

Being di­vided intoNorththe DouroC. T. in N. arePalencia—E. to S. W. on the Douro.
Toro—
Zamora—
Leon—N. to S. W.
Astorga—
SouthC. T. in S. areSalamanca—N. to S. E. S. W. of
Alva—
Cividad Rodrigo,S. W. of Salamanca.

THIS large Continent being now Subject to two distinct Sovereigns, viz His Catholick Majesty, and the King of Portugal, I shall separately consider these two Sovereigni­ties. Therefore

SPAIN.

THIS Country (formerly Iberia, Hesperia, and by some Spania) is term'd by the Italians, Spagna; Name. by its Natives, Espāna; by the French, Espagne; by the Germans, Spamen; and by the English, Spain; so call'd (as some fancy) from a certain King nam'd Hispanus; others from [...], (raritas, vel penuria) because of its scarcity of Inhabitants. But the most receiv'd Opinion is, That it came from Hispalis (now Se­ville) the chief City of the whole Country in former times.

The Air of this Country is generally very pure and calm, being seldom infested with Mists and Vapours; Air. but in the Summer so extreamly hot, especially in the Southmost Provinces, that 'tis both dangerous' and inconvenient for the Inhabitants to stir abroad about Noon, from the middle of May to the last of August. The opposite Place of the Globe to Spain, is that part of Zelandia nova, (or some of the ill known Continent) lying between 190 and 202 Degrees of Longitude, with 36 and 44 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 6th and 7th North Climate) is in many places very Dry and Barren, Soil. several of the Inland Provinces being either overgrown [Page 138] with Woods, or cumbered with Sandy and Rocky Mountains, and others (whose Soil is naturally fertil) are for the most part wholly neglected, lying waste and uncultivated for many Years, and that by reason of the fewness, (or rather) the detestable Laziness of its Inhabitants. But this defect of Corn, and other Grain, (which ariseth partly from the Nature of the Country, but more from the Temper of the People) is sufficiently supplied by various sorts of excellent Fruits and Wines, which with little Art and Labour are here produc'd in great plenty. The longest Day in the Northmost part of this Country, is about 15 Hours ¼; the shortest in the South, is 9 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Wines, Oyls, Sugar, Metals, Rice, Silk, Liquorish, Honey, Commodities. Flax, Saffrom, Annifeed, Raisins, Almonds, Oranges, Lemons, Cork, Soap, Anchovies, Sumack, Wooll, Lamb-Skins, and Tobacco, &c.

Nigh to the City of Cadiz, is an old ruinous Building (now converted into a Watch-Tower) which some Rarities. would fain perswade themselves to be the Remains of Hercules his Pillars, so much talkt off by the Ancients. In the City Granada is the large Sumptuous Palace of the Moorish Kings, whose in­side is beautifi'd with Jasper and Porphery, and adorn'd with divers Arabick and Mosaick Inscriptions. At Terragona in Catalonia, are to be seen the Ruins of an Ancient Circus in the Street, call'd la Placa de la Fuente; and at Segovia in Old Castile, are the Remains of a Noble Aque­duct, built by the Emperor Trajan, and supported by an Hundred and Seventy seven Arches in double Rows, reaching from one Hill to ano­ther. Without the Walls of Toledo was an ancient large Theatre, some part whereof is yet standing. Here also is an admirable Modern Aqueduct, contriv'd by Joanniltus Turrianus (a Frenchman) according to the Order of Philip II. At Orense in Gallicia, are several Springs of Medicinal hot Waters, wonderfully esteem'd off by the ablest Physicians. At the City of Toledo is a Fountain, whose Waters near the Bottom are of an Acid Taste, but towards the Surface ex­treamly Sweet. Near Guadalaxara in New Castile, is a Lake which never fails to send forth dreadful Howlings before a Storm. The Cathedral Church of Murcia (containing above four hundred Chap­pels) is remarkable for its curious Steeple, which is so built that a Chariot may easily ascend to the Top thereof. Many talk of a Ship of Stone, with Masts, Sails, and Tackling, to be seen in the Port of Mongia in Gallicia. As to the River Guadiana, its diving under Ground, (from whence 'twas formerly call'd Anas) the same i [...] so notorious, that we need say nothing of it.

[Page 139] Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Archbishopricks.

  • Compostella,
  • Granada,
  • Tarragona,
  • Burgos,
  • Sevil,
  • Valentia,
  • Saragossa,
  • Toledo.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Oviedo,
  • Malaga,
  • Jacca,
  • Segovia,
  • Lugo,
  • Cartagena,
  • Balbatro,
  • Cuenza,
  • Mondonedo,
  • Segorve,
  • Terver,
  • Cividad Reale
  • Corunna,
  • Origuella,
  • Albarazin,
  • Siguenza,
  • Tuy,
  • Barcelona,
  • Pamplona,
  • Leon,
  • Orense,
  • Tortosa,
  • Valladolid,
  • Salamanca,
  • Cordova,
  • Lerida,
  • Calahorra,
  • Toro,
  • Cadiz,
  • Solsona,
  • Placentia,
  • Astorga,
  • Jaen,
  • Vich,
  • Coria,
  • Palencia,
  • Guadix,
  • Tarazona,
  • Avila,
  • Zamora.
  • Almeria,
  • Huesca,

Universities in this Kingdom, are those of Universities.

  • Sevil,
  • Alcala de Hena­res.
  • Huesca,
  • Gaudia,
  • Granada,
  • Saragossa,
  • Barcelona,
  • Compostella,
  • Siguenza,
  • Tudela,
  • Murcia,
  • Toledo,
  • Valencia,
  • Ossuna,
  • Tarragona,
  • Valladolid,
  • Lerida,
  • Ona,
  • Baeza.
  • Salamanca,

The truest Character of the Spaniard, I any where find, is that of Dr. Heylin's, which in the main, runs Manners. thus: The Spaniards are a sort of People of a swarthy Complexion, black Hair, and of good Proportion, of a Majestick Gate and Deportment, grave and serious in their Carriages in Offices of Piety very Devout, not to say Superstitious; Obedient and Faithful to their King, Patient in Adversity, not prone to alter their Resolutions nor Apparel, in War too deliberate; Arts they esteem dishonourable, universally given to Laziness, much addicted to Women, unreasonably Jealous of their Wives, and by Nature ex­treamly Proud.

Of all the living Tongues that are deriv'd from the Latin, the Spanish comes nearest to the Original, though Language. no Country has been more harrast by the Irruption of Barbarous Nations. Yet they have borrowed several Words from the Goths and Mores, especially the latter. The best Spanish is gene­rally [Page 140] esteem'd that spoken in New-Castile; and in Valentia and Catalonia 'tis most corrupted. Their Pater Noster runs thus; Padre nuestro, que estas en los Gielos, Santificado sea tu Nembre; Venza a nos tu Regno; hagase tu Volantad, assi en la tierra, como en el Cielo. El pan nuestro de cadadia da nos lo oy; y perdona nos nuestras deudas, assi como nos otros perdonamos à nuestros deudores; y no nos dexes caer en tentation; mas libra nos del mal. Amen.

This great Body did formerly comprehend no less than fourteen different Kingdoms which being at Government. length reduc'd to three; viz. Those of Arragon, Ca­stile, and Portugal; the two former were united. Anno 1474. by Marriage of Ferdinand of Arragon with Isabel Heiress of Castile; and Portugal afterwards added by Conquest, Anno 1578. But it Revolting, (of which afterwards) the whole Continent of Spain, excluding Portugal, is at present subjected to one Sovereign, term'd his Catholick Majesty, whose Government is Monarchical and Crown Hereditary. The Dominions of which Prince are so far extended, that the Sun never sets upon them all; and as his Territories are very numerous, so also are the Titles which he commonly assumeth, being stil'd, King of Castile, Leon, Arragen, Sicily, Naples, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarr, Granada, Toledo, Valle [...]ia Gall [...]ia, Majorca, Seville, Sardignia, Gordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, Algarve, Alg [...]ire. Gi­bralter. The Canaries, East and West Indies; Arch Duke of Austria; Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, and Milan; Count of Flanders, Tirol, and Barcelona; Lord of Biscay and Mechelin &c. The numerous Cities and Provinces of Spain are ruled by particular Governors appointed by his Catholick Majesty, as also the Dutchy of Milan, the King­doms of Naples, Sicily, Sardignia, &c and the various Parts of his vast Possessions in the East and West Indies, are govern'd by their respective Vice Roys, who are generally very severe in exacting of the Subject what possibly they can during their short Regency, which is commonly limited to three Years; the King appointing others in their room, that he may gratify as many of his Grandees, as may be with all conveniency, there being still a great number of them at Court, as Candidates for a Government. For the better management of Publick Affairs in all the Spanish Dominions, there are establisht in this Kingdom, no less than fifteen different Coun­cils, viz. that call'd The Council of State. (2) The Council Royal, or that of Castile. (3) That of War. (4.) The Council of Arragon. (5) That of Italy (6) The Council of the Indies. (7.) That of the Orders. (8) The Council of the Treasury. (9.) That of the Chamber. (10) The Council of the Crosade. (11) That of Discharges. (12) The Council of Inquisition. (13.) That of Navarr. (14) The Council of Conscience. And lastly, that call'd, The Council of Policy.

[Page 141] The King of Spain bears Quarterly; The first Quarter Counter-quarter'd; in the first and fourth Gules, a Ca­stle Arms. tripple-tower'd, Azure, each with three Battlements Or pur [...]led Sable, for Castile. In the second and third Argent, a Lion passant Gules, Crown'd, Langued, and Arm'd Or, for Leon. In the second great Quarter Or four Pallets, Gules, for Arragon. Party Or, four Pallets also Gules, betwixt two Flanches Argent, charg'd with as many Eagles Sable, member'd, beak'd, and crown'd Azure, for Sicily. These two great Quarters grafted in Base Argent, a Pomegranete Verte, stalk'd and leav'd of the same, open d and seeded Gules, for Granada. Over all Argent, five Escucheons Azure, plac'd cross-wise, each charg'd with as many Baeants in Saltier, of the first for Portugal. The Shield bordered, Gules, with seven Towers Or, for Algarve. In the third Quarter, Gules, a Fesse Argent, for Austria, Coupie and supported by Ancient Burgundy, which is Bendy of six Pieces Or and Azure, border'd Gules. In the fourth great Quarter Azure, Semè of Flower de Luces Or, with a border Compony Argent and Gules, for Modern Burgundy; coupè Or, supported Sable a Lion Or, for Brabant. These two great Quar­ters charg'd with an Escucheon Or, a Lion Sable and langued Gules, for Flanders. Partly Or an Eagle Sable, for Antwerp, the Capital City of the Marquisate of the Holy Empire. For Crest, a Crown Or rais'd with eight Diadems, or Semi-circles terminating in a Mond Or. The Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece encom­passes the Shield, on the sides of which stand the two Pillars of Hercules, on each side one with this Morto, Plus ultra.

The Spaniards are very punctual followers of, and close adherers to the Church of Rome, and that in her Religion. grossest Errors and Corruptions, [...]ing up their Reli­gion on the Pope's Authority; and are therein so tenacious, that the King suffers none to live in his Dominions, who profess not their belief of the Doctrine of the Roman Church. For whose Care (or rather Bigottry) in this matter, the Pope hath conferr'd upon him, the Title of his Catholick Majesty. All other Professions are expell'd by that Antichristian Tyranny of the Bloody Inquisition, at first devised, and set up by P [...]d [...]e Goasales de Mendeza. Archbishop of Toledo, and that against such Converted Jews and Moors, as return'd again to their Superstition; but of late it hath been chiefly turn'd upon those (and others) of the Protestant Communion. So in­dustrious are the Ecclesiasticks in this Country to keep up the whole Body of the People in the thickest Mist of Ignorance, and so little is this Nation enclin'd of themselves to make any enquiries after Knowledge; that considering these things upon one hand, and the Terror of the Inquisition on the other, in case of such Enquiries, (especially if they have the least tendency to Innovation in Points [Page 142] of Faith) we cannot reasonably expect a Reformation of Religion in this Country, unless the Hand of Providence shall interpose in a wonderful manner. Christianity was planted here (according to the old Spanish Tradition) by St. James the Apostle, within four Years after the Crucifixon of our Blessed Redeemer.

PORTUGAL.

THIS Country (containing a great part of Old Lu­sitania, with some of Ancient Galleria and Boetica) Name. is term'd by the Italians, Porto Gallo; by the Spaniards, French, Germans, and English, Portugal; so call'd by some from Porto and Cale, (the first a Haven Town, and the other a small Village at the Mouth of the Douro) but by others from Portus Gallorum, that Haven (now O Porto) being the Place where the Gauls usu­ally landed, when most of the Sea-Port Towns in Spain were in the Hands of the Moors.

The Air of this Country is much more temperate, especially in the Maritime Places, than in those Pro­vinces Air. of Spain, which lie under the same Parallel, it being frequently qualifi'd by Westerly Winds, and cool Breezes from the Sea. The opposite Place of the Globe to Portugal, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 188 and 194 Degrees of Longitude, with 36 and 42 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 5th and 6th North Climate) is none of the best for Grain, it being Soil. very Dry and Mountainous, but yet very plentiful of Grapes, Oranges, Citrons, Almonds, Pomgranates, Olives, and such like. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts of this Kingdom is about 15 Hours, the shortest in the Southmost is about 9 Hours ¾, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Wine, Honey, Oyl, Allom, White Marble, Salt, as also Commodities. variety of Fruits, as Oranges, Almonds, Citrons, Pomgranates, &c.

In a Lake on the Top of the Hill Stella, in Portugal, are found pieces of Ships, though it be distant from Rarities. the Sea more than twelve Leagues. Near to Reja, is a Lake observable for its hideous rumbling Noise, which is ordina­rily heard before a Storm, and that at the distance of five or six Leagues. About eight Leagues from Coimbra, is a remarkable Fountain which swallows up, or draws in whatsoever thing only toucheth the Surface of its Waters; an Experiment of which is frequently made with Trunks of Trees. The Town of Bethlem [Page 143] (nigh to Lisbon) is noted for the Sumptuous Tombs of the Kings of Portugal.

Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Archbishopricks,

  • Lisbon,
  • Braga,
  • Evora.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Miranda,
  • Leiria,
  • O Porto,
  • Coimbra,
  • Lamego,
  • Viseu;
  • Elvas,
  • Portalegre,
  • Faro.

Universities in this Kingdom, are those of Universities.

  • Lisbon,
  • Evora,
  • Coimbra.

The Portugueses (formerly much noted for their Skill in Navigation, and vast Discoveries which the World Manners. owes to them) are wonderfully degenerated from their Fore-fathers, being now a People, whom some are pleas'd to Cha­racterize thus; That take one of their own Neighbours (a Native Spaniard) and strip of him of all his good Qualities, (which may be quickly done) that Person then remaining will make a compleat Portuguize. They are generally esteem'd a People very Treacherous to one another, but more especially to Strangers; extraordinary Cunning in their Dealings, and the meaner sort are universally given to Thieving.

The Language us'd in this Kingdom is a Compound of French and Spanish, especially the latter. The diffe­rence Language. between it and the true Spanish, will best appear by the Pater Noster in that Tongue, which runs thus: Padre nosso que estas nos Ceos, Sanoifioado seia o teu nome: venha a nos ò teu reyno: seia felta a tua vontade, assi nos ceos, como na terra. O paonosso de ca­da [...]ia [...] n'estodia. E perdoa nos fenhor as nossas di [...]das, assi como nos pendoamos a os nossos devedores. E nao nos dexes cahir em tenta­cio, mas libra nos do mal. Amen.

This Kingdom after many Revolutions of Fortune, was unjustly seiz'd upon by Philip II. of Spain, and de­tain'd Government. by him and his two Successors from the Dukes of Braganza the lawful Heir, till the Year 1640. that the Portuguezes being unable to bear up any longer under the Tyrannical Sove­reignty of the Spaniards, threw off that intollerable Yoke; and set the Crown upon the Head of John VI. Duke of Braganza (after­wards John IV. Surnam'd the Fortunate) notwithstanding of all [Page 144] that Philip IV. could do to the contrary Which Enterprize of theirs was happily brought about by the Assistance of some French Forces sent into this Country: and 'tis very remarkable how closely this their Design of Revolting was carri'd on, though known to above three hundred [...]rsons at once, and in Agitation for the space of a whole Year. Ever since which Revolt of Portugal, it hath continued an Independent Kingdom, subject unto, and govern'd by its own King (being of the Family of Braganza) whose Govern­ment is truly Monarchical and Crown Hereditary.

He bears Argent, five Escutcheons Azure, plac'd cross wise, each charg'd with as many Besants of the Arms. first, plac'd in Saltier, and pointed Sable, for Portugal. The Shield border'd Gules, charg'd with Seven Towers Or, three in chief, and two in each Flanch. The Crest is a Crown Or. Under the two Flanches, and the Base of the Shield appear at the ends of two Crosses, the first Flower-de-luc'd Verte, which is for the Order of Avis, and the second Pattes Gules, which is for the Order of Christ. The Motto is very changeable, each King assuming a new one, but frequently these Words, Pro Rege & Grege.

What was said of Religion in Spain, the same almost may be affirm'd of that in this Kingdom; the Tenets Religion. of the Church of Rome being here universally em­brac'd by the Portugucze, only with this difference, that they tolle­rate Jews, and allow several Strangers the publick Exercise of their Religion, particularly the English Factory at Lisbon. This Country receiv'd the Blessed Gospel much about the same time with Spain.

[Page]

ITALY by Rob. Mordon

SECT. VI. Concerning Italy.

 d.m.
Situatedbetween2530of Long.its greatestLength from N. W. to S. E. is about 760 Miles.
3900
between3815of Latit.Breadth from S. W. to N. E. is about 134 Miles.
4630

Being divided into three Classes, viz.

  • Upper.
  • Middle.
  • Lower.
The Upper [or Lombardy] con­tains theDukedom of SavoyChief TownChamberyW. to E.
Princip. of PiedmontTurin—
D. ofMontferratCasal—
Milan—Idem—
Parma—Idem—
Modena—Idem—
Mantua—Idem, N. to Modena.
Rep. ofVenice—Idem, on the bot. of the Adriatick Gulf.
Genoua—Idem, S. to Milan.
Bishoprick of TrentId. S. to Tyrol in Austria.
The Middle con­tains theLand of the ChurchRome—S. to N.
Duked. of TuscanyFlorence—
Rep. ofLuca—Idem, S. to Modena.
S. MarinoIdem.
The Lower con­tains theKingdom of NaplesIdem, Southward.

Of all these in Order.

[...]
[...]

§. 1. In the Upper-part, or Lombardy.

SAVOY.

Containing several remarkable Towns situated upon, or nigh unto four small Rivers that water this Country.

Viz.The Isere—runningWestward in the main.
The Arc—W. turning N. W.
The Seran—N. W. in the main.
The Arve—N. W.

Nigh unto, or upon theIsere are those ofS. Maurice—from E. to W.
Monstiers—
Beaufort—
Constans—
M. Melian—
Chambery—
Arc are those ofS. Michael—from E. to W.
S. Jaen de Maurienne
Seran are those ofRumilly—from S. to N.
Annacy—
Arve are those ofSalanches—from E. to W.
Cluse—
Bonne Ville—
la Roche—
PIEDMONT.
Comprehends theDukedom of AousteChief TownAouste 44 m. N.of Turin.
Marquisate ofJureaJurea 22 m. N.
SusaSusa 24 m. N. W.
County of AstiAsti 26 m. E.
Seignory of VercelliIdem 12 m. N. of [...]sal.
Territories of Nizza.Idem upon the Sea-Coast.
Princip of Piedinont properly so calledTurin upon the River Po.

[Page 147] Piedmont, properly so called.

Comprehends the Territo­ries ofTurino—Chief TownIdem—N. to S. upon the Po.
Chieri—Idem—
Carignan—Idem—
Carmagnola—Idem—
Salutzo—Idem—
Cavîgliano—Idem—
Lucerna—Idem 5 m. S. of Pignerol.
Cherasco—Idem—N. to S. upon the Tanaro.
Mindovi—Idem—
Ceva—Idem—
Tossano—Idem—N. to S. upon the Stura.
Coni—Idem—
MONTFERRAT.
Comprehends the Territo­ries ofTrino—Chief TownIdem—N. to S.
Casal—Idem—
Alba—Idem—
Acqui—Idem—
Spin—Idem 8 m. S. W. of Acqui.
MILAN.
Comprehends the Territo­ries ofAngiera—Chief TownIdem—from W. to S. E.
Novarese—Novara—
Vigevanasco—Vigevano—
Pavese—Pavia—
Lodegiano—Lodi—
Cremonese—Cremona—
Milaneze—Milan—S. to N.
Comese—Como—
Allessandrinese—Allessandria—W. to E.
Laumelline—Valenza—
Tortonese—Tortona—
Bobbiese—Bobbio—
PARMA.
Com­pre­hends theD. of [...] so call'd [...]Idem [...]E to W.
[...]Idem [...]
[...]. of [...] [...].—N. to S.
[...] [...]
MODENA.
Compre­hends theD. ofModena prop. so call'dChief TownIdem Eastward.
Regto—Idem Westward.
Mirandula—Idem Northward.
Corregie—Idem 11 m.N. E. of Regio.
Principality of Carpi—Idem 14 m.
MANTOVA.
Compre­hends theD. ofMontoua prop. so call'dChief TownMantoua, Northward.
Sabionetta—Id. 18 m. S. W.of Man­toua.
[...]Idem 18 m. S.
Principality of Bozzolo—Id. 18 m. S. W.
Marquisate of Castiglon—Castillan-de-Silver, 6m. (N. E. of Mantua.
VENICE.
Comprehends the Territo­ries ofDogado—Chief TownVenice—from E. to W.
Paduano—Padua—
Vicentino—Vicenza—
Veronese—Verona—
Bresc [...]ano—Brescia—
Bergamasco—Bergamo—
Frluli—Uddine—W. to E.
Istria—Cabo d'Istria
Aquileija—Idem in Friuli 22 m. S E. of (Uddin.
Cremasco—Crema 24 m. S. of Bergamo.
Pol [...]sin-de-RovigoRovigo 22 m. S. of Padua.
Marca TrevigianoTrevigio 17 m. N. W. of Venice.
Trevigiano contains the Territories ofTrevigiano prop.Trevigie—S. to N.
Feltrino—Feltri—
Bellunese—Belluno—
Cadrino—Codore—
GENOVA.
Compre­hends thePrincipality of [...]Chief TownIdem—W. to E.
Territory of [...]Idem—
Principality of [...]Idem—
Marquisate of [...]Idem—
Territory of [...]Idem—
[...]Idem—
  [...]Idem—
[...]Idem—
TRENT.
Comprehends only theBishoprick of TrentChief TownIdem upon the A. dige.

§. 2. In the Middle Part.

The Land of the Church of Papacy.

Comprehends theD. ofFerrara—Chief TownFerrara—N. W. to S. E.
Bolognese—Bologna—
Prov. of Romagna—Ravenn [...]
D. of Urbine—Urbino—
Marq. of Ancona—Ancona—
C. of Citta de Castello—Citta de Castello.N. to S.
Terr. ofPerugiano—Perugia—
Orvietano—Orvieto—
D. of Castro—Castro—
St. Peters Patrimony—Viterbo 14 m. S. E. of Orvieto.
Campagnia [...]Rome—S. to N.
Sabino—Magliano 20 m. N. of Rome
D. of Spoleto—Spoleto—
TUSCANY.
Comprehends theTerr. ofFlorence—Chief TownIdem—N. E. to S. W.
Pisa—Idem—
Sienna—Idem—N. E. to S. W.
Princip of Piombino—Idem—
Isle of Elbai—Cosmopoli—
D. of Carrara and MassaMassa 24 m. N. W. of Pisa.
State of Presidii—Orbitello 55 m. E. of Cosmopoli

The Republicks of

  • Luca,
  • S. Marino.
Comprehend only the Territories of these two free Cities of.Luca—Sltuated8 m. N. E. of Pisa.
S. Marino17 m. N. W. of Urbine.

§. 3. In the Lower Part.

The Kingdom of NAPLES.
Comprehends the Provinces ofAbruzzo the [...]Chief TownAquila—From N. W. to S. E. upon the Adria­tick Gulph.
Abruzzo the nigher—Civitta di Chie
Molissa—Bojano—
Capitinate or Puglia—Mandfredonia—
Terra di Bari—Bari—
Terra di Otranto—Otranto—
Terra di Lavoro—Naples—From N. W. to S. E. up­on the Tyr­rhenean Sea.
Further Principate—Benevento—
Nigher Principate—Salerno—
Basilicate—Cirenza—
Calabria the nigher—Cosenze—
Calabria the farther—Regie—

[Page 151] THIS Country (known of old by the Names of Hesperia, Saturnia, Latium, Ausonia, Oenotria, and Name. Janicula) is term'd by its Natives and Spaniards, Italia; by the French, Italie; by the Germans, Italien; and by the English, Italy; so call'd (as most Authors conjecture) from Italus, an Anci­ent King of the Siculi, who leaving their Island came into this Country, and possessing themselves of the middle part thereof, cal­led the whole Italia, from the Name of their Prince.

The Air of this Country is generally Pure, Tempe­rate, and Healthful to breathe in, except the Land of Air. the Church, where 'tis ordinarly reckon'd more gross and unwholesome, as also the Southern Parts of Naples, where for several Months in the Summer 'tis scorching Hot, being of the like Quality with the Air of those Provinces in Spain which lie under the same Parallels of Latitude. The opposite Place of the Globe to Italy, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, lying between 205 and 220 Degrees of Longitude, with 38 and 48 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 6th and 7th North Climate) is very fertile, generally yielding in Soil. great abundance the choicest of Corn, Wines, and Fruit. Its Woods are (for the most part) continually green, and well­stor'd with the best of wild and tame Beasts. Its Mountains do af­ford several kinds of Metal, particularly those in Tuscany and Naples, which are said to yield some rich Mines of Silver and Gold. Here is also a great quantity of true Albaster, and the purest of Marble. In short, this Country is generally esteem'd the Garden of Europe; and so stately and magnificent are its numerous Cities, that I can­not omit the following Epithets commonly bestow'd on divers of them; as Rome, the Sacred; Naples, the Noble; Florence, the Fair; Venice, the Rich; Genoa, the Stately; Milan, the Great; Ravenna, the Ancient; Padua, the Learned; Bononia, the Fat; Leghorn, the Merchandizing; Verona, the Charming; Luca, the Jolly; and Casal, the Strong.

The chief Commodities of this Country are Wines, Corn, Rice, Silks, Velvets, Taffaties, Sattins, Grograins, Commodities. Fustians, Gold-wire, Allom, Armour, Glasses, and such like.

To reckon up all those things in Italy, that truly de­serve the Epithet of Rare and Curious, would far sur­pass Rarities. our designed brevity; I shall therefore confine my self to one sort of Rarities, namely, The most noted Remains or Monu­ments of Reverend Antiquity, which in effect are most worthy of our regard, they being very useful in giving some Light to several parts [Page 152] of the Roman History. In viewing of which Antiquities, I shall reduce them all to Three Classes; viz. Those that are to be seen in the City of Rome it self. Secondly, In the Kingdom of Naples. And lastly, In all other Parts of Italy besides.

The most remarkable Monuments of Antiquity in Rome it self, are these following. (1.) Amphitheatres, particularly that, call'd the Old Amphitheatre, (now term'd the Coliseo, because of a Colossean Statue that stood therein) begun by Vespasian, and finish'd by Domi­tian. (2.) Triumphal Arches, as that of Constantine the Great (nigh to the old Amphitheatre) erected to him in Memory of his Victo­ry obtain'd over the Tyrant Maxentius, with this Inscription, Liberatori Urbis, Fundatori Pacis. That of T. Vespasian (the ancientest of all the Triumphal Arches in Rome) erected to him upon his taking the City, and spoiling the Temple of Jerusalem. That of Septimius Severus, to be seen nigh the Church of St. Martinas. Add to these, the Triumphal Bridge, (whose Ruins are still visible nigh Pont Angelo) so much reputed of old, that by a Decree of the Se­nate, none of the meaner sort of People were suffer'd to tread up­on the same. (3.) Thermae or Baths; as those of the Emperor Anto­ninus Pius, which where of a prodigious bigness, according to that of Ammianus Marcellinus, who (speaking of 'em) says, Lavacra in modum Provinciarum exstructa. Those of Alexander Severus, the good­ly Ruins whereof are to be seen nigh the Church of St. Eustachio [...]t and lastly, the Ruins of Thermae Constantinianae, still visible in Monte Cavallo, formerly Mons Quirinalis. (4.) Several remarkable Pillars, particularly, that call'd Colonna d' Antonino, erected by M. Aurelius Antoninus, the Emperor, in Honour of his Father, Antoninus Pius, and still to be seen in the Corso, being as yet 175 Foot high. That call'd Colonna Trajana, set up in Honour of Trajan, and now to be found in Monte Cavallo. That call'd Colonna Rostrata, (still extant in the Capitol) erected in Honour of Dulius, and deckt with Stems of Ships, upon his Victory over the Carthaginians, the same being the first Naval Victory obtain'd by the Romans. To these we may add the two great Obelisks (one before Porta del Populo, and the other before the Church of S. John de Lateran) formerly belonging to, and now the chief Remainders of the famous Circus Maximus, which was begun by Tarquinius Priscus, augmented by J. Caesar and Augustus, and at last adorn'd with Pillars and Statues by Trajan and Heliogabalus. We may also add those Three Pillars of admirable Structure (now to be seen in Campo Vaccino) which formerly be­long'd to the Temple of Jupiter Stator, built by Romulus, upon his Victory over the Sabines; together with Six others on the side of the Hill mounting up to the Capitol, three of which belong'd once to the Temple of Concord, built by Camillus; and the other three to the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, built by Augustus upon a narrow [Page 153] escape from a Thunder-bolt. And finally, In the rank of Pillars we may place the famous Milliarium, (still reserv'd in the Capitol) which is a little Pillar of Stone with a round Brazen Ball on its top, erected at first by Augustus Caesar in Foro Romano, from whence the Romans reckon'd their Miles to all parts of Italy. Other no [...]ed Pieces of Antiquity in Rome, and not reducible to any of the for­mer Classes, are chiefly these, (1.) The stately Ruins of Pal [...] Magiore, or the great Palace of the Roman Emperors once [...] over the greatest part of the Palatine Hill. (2.) The Ruins o [...] Templum Pacis (which are nigh the Church of St. [...] in Campo Vaccino) built by T. Vespasian, who adorn'd the same with some of the Spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem. (3.) The Ro [...]unda or Pan­theon, built by Agrippa, and dedicated to all Gods; many of whose Statues are still extant in the Palace of Justiniani, reserved there as a Palladium of that Family. (4.) The Mausoleum Augusti, near S. Rock's Church, but nowextreamly decay'd. And lastly, The very Plate of Brass on which the Laws of the Ten Tables were written, [...] still to be seen in the Capitol.

Remarkable Monuments of Antiquity in the Kingdom of Naples, are these following, (1) The Grotte of Pausilipus, being a large Cart-way about a Mile long, cut under ground, quite thro [...] Mountain, near the City of Naples, made (as some imagine) by Lucullus; but according to others, Cocceius Nerva. (2.) Some Re­mains of a fair Amphitheatre, and Cicero's Accademy, nigh Puzzuolo; as also the Arches and Ruins of that prodigious Bridge, (being three Miles long) built by Caligula between Puzzuolo and Baiae; to which Building Suetonius, the Historian, seems to allude when he taxeth that Emperor with his Substructiones insan [...]. (3.) The Foun­dation of Baiae it self, and some Arches with the Pavement of the very Streets, all visible under Water in a clear Sun shine day. (4.) The Elisian Fields, so famous among the Poets, and extreamly beholden to them for their Fame, being only an ordinary Plat of Ground still to be seen nigh the place where the City of Baiae stood. (5.) The Piscina Mirabilis, which is a vast Subterranean Building nigh the Elesian Fields, design'd to keep fresh Water for the Roman Gallies, who used to harbour thereabouts. (6) The Ruins of Nero's Palace, with the Tomb of Agrippa, his Mother, nigh to the aforesaid Piscina; as also the Baths of Cicero and Tritola, and the Lacus Avernus, so noted of old for its infectious Air. (7.) The Grotte of the famous Stbylla Cumaea, nigh to the place where Cumoe stood; as also the Sulphureous Grotta de'l Cane, nigh to the Grotte of Pausilipus abovemention'd. Lastly, The obscure Tomb of that well known Poet, P. Virg [...]itus Maro, in the Gardens of S. Severino, nigh to the entrance of the Grotte of Paustlipus. To all these we may here subjoin that noted and most remarkable Prodigy of Na­ture, [Page 154] the terrible Vulcano Vesuvius about seven Miles from the City of Naples.

Remarkable Monuments of Antiquity in all other Parts of Italy, are chiefly these, (1.) The Via Appia, a prodigious long Causway of five days Journey reaching from Rome to Brundusium, and made at the sole Charges of Appius Claudius during his Consulate. (2.) Via Flaminia, another Causway of the same length, reaching from Rome to Rimini, and made by the Consul Flaminius, who imploy'd the Soldiers therein during the time of Peace. (3.) Via Aemilia, reach­ing from Rimini to Bologna, and pav'd by Aemilius Lepidus, Collegue of Flaminius. (4.) The old Temple and House of Sybilla Tyburtina, to be seen at Tivoli, a Town about fifteen Miles from Rome. (5.) An Ancient Triumphal Arch yet standing near Fano, a Town in the Dutchy of Urbine. (6.) The very Stone upon which Julius Caesar stood when he made an Oration to his Men, persuading 'em to pass the Rub [...]con, and advance streight to Rome: The same is to be seen upon a Pedestal in the Market-place of Rimini. (7.) A rare Amphitheatre in Verona, erected at first by the Consul Flaminius, and repaired since by the Citizens, and now the intirest of any in Europe; as also another intire at Pola in Istria, being of two Orders of Tuscan Pillars plac'd one above another. (8) The Ruins of an Amphitheatre in Padua, part of whose Court (being of an Oval Form) doth still retain the Name of Arena. (9.) Many stately Tombs of famous Men, particularly That of Antenor's in Padua; St. Peter's in Rome; St. Augustin's and Severinus Boetius, both in Pavia, with that of St. Ambrose in Milan, and many others, together with vast multitudes of Statues both of Brass and Marble in most parts of Italy.

These are the most remarkable Remains of the Roman Antiquities that are now extant throughout all this Country. As for Mo­dern Curiosities, and other sorts of Rarities (which are obvious to the Eye of every ordinary Traveller) a bare Catalogue of 'em would swell up to a considerable Volume. It were endless to Dis­course of magnificent Buildings, (particularly Churches) Ancient Inscriptions, rare Waterworks, and many bold Pieces of Painting and Statuary, to be seen almost in every Corner of Italy. Every one is apt to talk of the bending Tower of Pisa, the Whispering Chamber of Caprarola, the renowned House of Loretto, with the rich Treasury of S. Mark in Venice; not to mention the famous Va­tican Palace and Library, with the glorious and splendid Furniture of the Roman Churches. To these I may add the several Magazines, or large Collections of all sorts of Rarities kept in several Parts of Italy; particularly those in Villa Ludovisia, belonging to Prince Lu­dovisio: As also those in the famous Gallery of Canonico Setali in Milan; but above all, are divers Rooms and Cabinets of exotick [Page 155] Curiosities and precious Stones, (among which is the famous Dia­mond that weigheth 138 Carats) all belonging to the Great Duke of Tuscany, and much admired and talkt off in all Parts of the Civiliz'd World.

Ecclesiasticks of the higest Order in this Country, are his Holiness the Pope, and the Patriarchs of

  • Venice,
  • Aquileia.

Next to these are the Archbishops of Archbishopricks.

  • Milan,
  • Fermo,
  • Benevento,
  • Frani,
  • Turin,
  • Ravenna,
  • Thieti,
  • Tarento,
  • Tarentaise,
  • Naples,
  • Lanciano,
  • Brindisi,
  • Bologne,
  • Capua,
  • Manfredonia,
  • Otranto,
  • Genoa,
  • Salerno,
  • Bari,
  • Rossano,
  • Florence,
  • Amalfi,
  • Cirenza,
  • Consenza,
  • Pisa,
  • Sorento,
  • Nazareth or Barletta.
  • Sanseverino,
  • Urbin,
  • Conza,
  • Reggio.

The respective Suffragans of these Ecclesiasticks, are as followeth,

§. 1. Immediately subject to the Pope, are the Bi­shops of Bishopricks.

  • Ostia,
  • Alatro,
  • Perusa,
  • Foligni.
  • Porto,
  • Ferentino,
  • Citta di Castello,
  • Assisi.
  • Sabius,
  • Velitri,
  • Citta di Sieve,
  • Ancona
  • Palestrina,
  • Sutri,
  • Castro,
  • Humana,
  • Frascati,
  • Nepi,
  • Arezzo,
  • Loretto,
  • Albano,
  • Citta Castellana,
  • Spoleto,
  • Recanali,
  • Tivoli,
  • Horta,
  • Norcia,
  • Ascoli,
  • Anagni,
  • Viterbi,
  • Ferni,
  • Jesi,
  • Veroli,
  • Tuscanella,
  • Narni,
  • Osmo,
  • Terracina,
  • Civita-Vecchia,
  • Amelia,
  • Camerin,
  • Sezza,
  • Bagnarea,
  • Todi.
  • Cometo,
  • Segni,
  • Orvieto,
  • Rieti.
  • Monte Fiascone.

As also these following being exempt from the Jurisdiction of their respective Metropolitans.

  • Mantua,
  • Cortona,
  • Atella,
  • Rapolla,
  • Trent,
  • Sarzana,
  • Cava,
  • Monte-Pelozo,
  • Pavia,
  • Fano,
  • Scala and Ra­vello,
  • Trivento,
  • Salusses,
  • Ferrara,
  • Aquila,
  • Mon-Pulician,
  • Aversa,
  • Melfi,
  • Marsico,
  • [Page 156] Faramo,
  • Cassano,
  • San-Marco,
  • Montellone.
  • Bisiguano,

§ 2. Suffragans to the Patriarch of Venice, are only those of

  • Torzello,
  • Chioza.

§. 3. To the Patriarch of Aquileia, are those of,

  • Terviso,
  • Trieste,
  • Petin,
  • Vicenza,
  • Feltri,
  • Cabo d' Istria,
  • Citta Nuova,
  • Verona,
  • Belluno.
  • Pola,
  • Padua,
  • Como.
  • Concorde.
  • Parenzo,

§. 4. To the Archbishop of Milan, are those of,

  • Cremona,
  • Tortona,
  • VerITEMes,
  • Acqui,
  • Novara,
  • Vighenano,
  • Alba,
  • Savona,
  • Lodi,
  • Bergamo,
  • Ast,
  • Vintemiglia.
  • Alexandria,
  • Brescia,
  • Casal,

§. 5. To the Archbishop of Turin, are those of

  • Yorée,
  • Mondovi,
  • Fossano,

§ 6. To the Archbishop of Tarentaise, are those of

  • Aoste,
  • Sion.

§. 7. To the Archbishop of Bologne, are those of

  • Parma,
  • Rheggio,
  • Carpi,
  • Borgo,
  • Placenza,
  • Modena,
  • Crema,
  • S. Domino.

§. 8. To the Archbishop of Genoa, are those of

  • Albegna,
  • Brugnato,
  • Mariana,
  • Nebio.
  • Noli,
  • Bobio,
  • Accia,

§. 9. To the Archbishop of Florence, are those of

  • Pistoya,
  • Colle,
  • Borgo san Sepulchro;
  • Fiesoli,
  • Volterra,
  • Citta di Sole.

[Page 157] §. 10. To the Archbishop of Pisa, are those of

  • Soana,
  • Piombino,
  • Mont-Alcino,
  • Aiazzo,
  • Chiusi,
  • Massa,
  • Livorno,
  • Sagona,
  • Grossete,
  • Pienza,
  • Luca,
  • Alerta.

§. 11. To the Archbishop of Urbine, are those of

  • Senigaglia,
  • Engubio,
  • Pesaro,
  • Fossombrona,
  • Cagli,
  • S. Leon.

§. 12. To the Archbishop of Fermo, are those of

  • San-Severino,
  • Macerati,
  • Montalt,
  • Tolentin,
  • Ripa Transona.

§. 13. To the Archbishop of Ravenna, are those of

  • Rovigo,
  • Britinoro,
  • Sarsina,
  • Cervia,
  • Comachio,
  • Forli,
  • Rimini,
  • [...]nestria.
  • Faenza,
  • Cosena,
  • Imola,

§. 14. To the Archbishop of Naples, are those of

  • Nola,
  • Pozzuolo,
  • Cerra,
  • Ischia.

§. 15. To the Archbishop of Capua, are those of

  • Tiano,
  • Caiazzo,
  • Sessa,
  • Mont-cassin,
  • Calvi,
  • Carniola,
  • Venafro,
  • Fondi,
  • Caserta,
  • Isernia,
  • Aquin,
  • Gaieta.

§. 16. To the Archbishop of Salerno, are those of

  • Campagna,
  • Policastro,
  • Sarno,
  • Nocera di pagni.
  • Capaccio,
  • Nusco,
  • Marsico nuovo,
  • Acerno.

§. 17. To the Archbishop of Amalfi, are those of

  • Letteri,
  • Capri,
  • Minori.

§. 18. To the Archbishop of Sorento, are those of

  • Vico,
  • Massa,
  • Castel à Mare di Stabbia.

[Page 158] §. 19. To the Archbishop of Conza, are those of

  • Muro,
  • Satriano,
  • Cedogna,
  • Cangiano,
  • Bisaccia.

§. 20. To the Archbishop of Benevento, are those of

  • Ascol,
  • Monte Marano,
  • Bovino,
  • Tremoli,
  • Fiorenzuola,
  • Avellino,
  • Toribolenza,
  • Lesnia,
  • Telezi,
  • Fricenti,
  • Dragonara,
  • Guardia,
  • S. Agatha di Go­thi,
  • Ariano,
  • Volturata,
  • D'alsieres.
  • Boiano,
  • Larina,

§. 21. To the Archbishop of Thieti, are those of

  • Ortona di Mare,
  • Civita di Penna,
  • Sermona,
  • Campti,
  • Cali.

§. 22. To the Archbishop of Lanciano, are none.

§. 23. To the Archbishop of Manfredonia, are those of

  • Troia,
  • Vieste,
  • San-Severa.

§. 24. To the Archbishop of Bari, are those of

  • Canosa,
  • Conversano,
  • Bitteta,
  • Giovenazzo,
  • Poligano,
  • Labiello,
  • Bitonto,
  • Monervino,
  • Ravo,
  • Molfetta.

§. 25. To the Archbishop of Cirenza, are those of

  • Malerano,
  • Turfi,
  • Gravina,
  • Venosa,
  • Potenza,
  • Tricarico.

§. 26. To the Archbishop of Nazareth, none:

§. 27. To the Archbishop of Frani, are those of

  • Salpi,
  • Andria,
  • Biseglia.

§. 28. To the Archbishop of Tarento, are those of

  • Montula,
  • Castellanetta.

[Page 159] §. 29. To the Archbishop of Brindisi, are those of

  • Ostuni,
  • Oria.

§. 30. To the Archbishop of Otranto, are those of

  • Gallipoli,
  • Castro.
  • Alessano,
  • Leeche,
  • Nardo,
  • S. Maria di Leuca.
  • Ugento,

§. 31. To the Archbishop of Rossano, none.

§. 32. To the Archbishop of Consenza, are those of

  • Montallo,
  • Mortorano.

§. 33. To the Archbishop of Sanseverino, are those of

  • Belcastro,
  • Strongoli,
  • Cariati,
  • Umbriatico,
  • Isola,
  • Cerenza.

§. 34. To the Archbishop of Reggio, are those of

  • Amantea,
  • Cortona,
  • Squillace,
  • Bova,
  • Nicastro,
  • Oppido,
  • Nicotera,
  • Taverna,
  • Tropea,
  • Gieraci,

Universities in this Country, are those establish'd at the Cities following, Universities.

  • Rome,
  • Florence,
  • Mantua,
  • Venice,
  • Bononia,
  • Pisa,
  • Pavia,
  • Padua,
  • Ferrara,
  • Sienna,
  • Naples,
  • Verona,
  • Perusia,
  • Milan,
  • Salerno,
  • Parma.

The Natives of this Country (once the Triumphant Lords and Conquerors of the World) are now less gi­ven Manners. to the Art of War, and Military Exploits, than most other Nations of Europe. However the Modern Italians are ge­nerally reputed a Grave, Respectful, and Ingenious sort of People; especially in those things to which they chiefly apply themselves now-a-days, viz. Statuary Works, Architecture, and the Art of Paint­ing. They're also reckon'd Obedient to their Superiors, Courte­ous to Inferiors, Civil to Equals, and very Affable to Strangers. [Page 160] They're likewaies in Apparel very modest, in Furniture of Houses, sumptuous; and at their Tables extraordinary neat and decent. But these good Qualities of this People are mightily stain'd by many notorious Vices which reign among them, particularly those of Revenge and Lust, Jealousy and Swearing, to all of which they're so excessively given, that even a modest Narrative would seem incre­dible. As for the Female Sex, a vulgar Saying goes of them, that they're Magpies at the Doors, Saints in the Church, Goats in the Garden, Devils in the House, Angels in the Streets, and Syrenes at the Windows.

The present Language of Italy is a Dialect of the Latin, which was the Ancient Language of this Coun­try: Language. Almost every Province and City hath its peculiar Idiom, but that of Tuscany is reckon'd the purest and best polisht of all others, and is that which Persons of Quality and Learning usually speak. Pater-Noster in Italian runs thus; Padre nostro, che sci ne Cielo, sia sanctificato il tuo nome: venga il tuo Regno: sia fatta la tua volonta, st come in ciclo, cosi encora in terra. Dacci hogli il nostro pane cotidiano; é rimetti [...]i i nostri debiti, si come encor noigli remet­tiano a i nostri d [...]bitori. E non ci indurre in tentatione ma liberaci dal male. Amen.

The Government of Italy can't be duly considered without looking back unto the Chief Divisions of Government. that Country abovemention'd; there being so many different Sovereignties therein, independent on one another, and not subjected to one Head. The whole being therefore divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower, according to the aforesaid Analysis.

I. The Upper (or Lombardy) being again divided into one Prin­cipality, five Dutchies, two Republicks, and one Bishoprick. That one Principality, viz Piedmont, is under the Duke of Savoy. The five Dutchies, viz. those of Montferrat, Milan, Parma, Modena, and Mantua, are under several Sovereigns: For Montferrat is partly un­der the Duke of Savoy, and partly under the French King. Milan is under the King of Spain, for which he is dependent on the Em­peror. Parma is mostly under its own Duke, who is feudatary to the Pope, paying yearly ten thousand Crowns. Modena is under its own Duke, who is dependent on the Emperor. And Mantua is mostly under its own Duke, who is feudatary to the Emperor. The two Republicks being those of Venice and Genoa, (of whom particularly afterwards) are govern'd by their Senare and Magi­gistrates. The one Bishoprick being that of Trent, is subject to the House of Austria.

[Page 161] II. The Middle Part being divided into the Land of the Church, the Dukedom of Tuscany, and the Republicks of Luca and St. Ma­rino. The Land of the Church (or St. Peter's Patrimony) is for the most part in the Hands of the Pope, and rul'd by several Gover­nors set over its various Divisions, who are generally not a little severe upon the Subject. His Holiness, the Pope, (by Virtue of the Jurisdiction of the Roman See) is both Temporal and Spiritual Sovereign thereof, and is commonly stil'd by Roman Catholicks, the Chief Ecclesiastick of all Christendom; the Patriarch of Rome, and the West; the Primate and Supream Governor of Italy; the Metrapo­litan of those Bishops Suffragan to the See of Rome, and Bishop of the most famous St. John of Lateran. The Dukedom of Tuscany is, for the most part, under its own Duke, except the Towns of Siena, (for which he is Tributary to Spain) and Orbitellio, which belongeth also to the Spaniard. This Duke is esteem'd the Richest and most Powerful of all the Italian Princes, but his manner of Government is generally reckon'd too pressing and uneasy to the Subject. The Towns and Republicks of Luca and St. Marino, are govern'd by their own Magistrates as free States. But of them afterwards.

III. The Lower Part of Italy being the Kingdom of Naples, is subject to the Spaniard, for which he is Homager to the Pope, and accordingly sends his Holiness yearly, a White Horse and 7000 Ducats by way of acknowledgment. It is govern'd by a Vice-Roy, appointed and sent thither by his Catholick Majesty, who is usually one of the Chief Grandees of Spain, and is commonly renew'd every thrid Year. These Vice-Roys (as in most other of the Spanish Governments) during their short Regency, do industriously endeavour to lose no time in filling their own Coffers, and that by most grievous Exactions on the poor Subject. So severe indeed are the Spaniards upon the Neapolitans, that the King's Officers are commonly said to suck in the Dutchy of Milan, and to Fleece in the Island of Sicily, but to Fley off the very Skin in the Kingdom of Naples; so that the People of this Country (which is one of the best in Europe) are most miserably harrass'd by these hungry and rapacious Vultures. Besides these Princes in Italy abovemention'd, there are several others who are under the Protection of some higher Power, particular that of the Emperor, the Pope, or the King of Spain.

[Page 162] To the Government of Italy, we may add the four following Republicks, viz. those of

  • Venice.
  • Genoua.
  • Luca.
  • St. Marino.

I. Venice, This Republick is under an Aristocratical Government, the Sovereignty of the State being lodg'd in the Nobility, or certain number of Families enroll'd in the Golden Book, call'd the Register of the Venetian Nobles. Their Chief Officer is the Duke, or Doge, whose Authority is a meer Chimera, and he no better than a So­vereign Shadow, Precedency being all he can justly claim above the other Magistrates. Here are establisht Five Principal Councils, viz. (1) That term'd the Grand Council, comprehending the whole Body of the Nobility, by whom are elected all Magistrates, and en­acted all Laws which they judge convenient for the Publick Good. (2) That term'd the Pregadi, (commonly call'd the Senate of Ve­nice) consisting of above an hundred Persons, who determine Mat­ters of the highest Importance, as those relating to Peace or War, Leagues and Alliances. (3) The College consisting of Twenty four Lords, whose Office is to give Audience to Ambassadors, and to report their Demands to the Senate, which alone hath Power to return Answers. (4) The Council of Ten, (consisting of Ten No­blemen) whose Office it is to hear and decide all Criminal Mat­ters: This Court (whose Jurisdiction is extraordinary great) is yearly renew'd, and Three of these Noblemen, call'd the Capi, or Inquisitors of State, are chosen Monthly; to which Triumvirate is assign'd such a Power in judging of Criminals, that their definitive Sentence teacheth the chiefest Nobleman of the State, as well as the meanest Artificer, if they are unanimous in their Voices, otherways all the Ten are consulted with.

II Genoua is under an Aristocratical Government, very like to that of Venice; for its Principal Magistrate hath the Name or Title of Duke. (but continueth only for two Years) to whom there are Assistant, eight Principal Officers, who with the Duke, are call'd the Seigniory, which in Matters of the greatest Importance, is also subordinate to the Grand Council consisting of Four hundred Per­sons, all Gentlemen of the City; which Council, with the Seig­niory do constitute the whole Body of the Commonwealth. This State is much more famous for what it hath been, than for what it is being now on the decaying hand. At present it's subject unto several Sovereigns, various Places within its Territories belonging to the Dukes of Savoy and Tuscany, some free, and others lately taken by the French.

[Page 163] III. Luca (being a small Free Commonwealth, enclos'd within the Territories of the Grand Duke of Tuscany) is under the Govern­ment of one Principal Magistrate, call'd the Gonfalonier, change­able every second Month, assisted by nine Counsellors, nam'd An­ziani, whom they also change every six Months, during which time they live in the Palace or Common-Hall; and Superior to them is the Grand Council, which consisteth of about Two hundred and forty Noblemen, who being equally divided into two Bodies, take their turns every half Year. This State is under the Protection of the Emperor of Germany, and payeth him yearly Homage accord­ingly.

IV. St. Marino, a little (but flourishing) Republick in the Duke­dom of Urbine, which still maintains its Previleges, and is govern'd by its own Magistrates, who are under the Protection of the Pope, The whole Territory of this small Commonwealth, is but one Mountain about three Miles long, and ten round, consisting of about five thousand Inhabitants, who boast of their State being a Free Republick about a thousand Years.

It being too tedious to express the Ensigns Armorial of all the Sovereign Princes and States in this Country Arms. and too superficial to mention those of one only; we shall therefore (as a [...]he Medium) nominate the Chief Sovereign­ties of Italy, [viz. the Pop [...]om, the Dukedom of Tuscany, and the Republicks of Venice and Genoua] and affix to each of these their peculiar Arms. Therefore (1.) His Holiness the Pope, (as Sove­reign Prince over the Land of the Church or Papal Dominions) bears for his Escutcheon, Gules, consisting of a long Cape, or Head­piece Or, surmounted with a Cross pearl'd and garnish'd with three Royal Crowns, together with the two Keys of St. Peter placed in Saltier. (2.) The Arms of Tuscany are, Or, five Roundles, Gules, two, two, and one, and one in Chief Azure, charged with three Flower-de-Luces Or. (3.) Those of Venice are, Azure, a Lion wing­ed, Sejant Or, holding under one of his Paws, a Book covered, Argent. Lastly, Those of Genoua are, Argent, a Cross Gules, with a Crown clos'd by reason of the Island of Corsica belonging to it which bears the Title of Kingdom, and for Supporters are two Griffins Or.

My unavoidable Prolixity in handling the various Heads contain'd in the foregoing Paragraphs, doth call Religion. upon me to attone for the same by a desirable Brevity in treating of this Head now before us. All therefore I shall say upon it, is, That the Italians (as to their Religion) are Zealous Pro­fessors of the Doctrine of the Roman Church, even in her grossest [Page 164] Errors and Superstitions; and that either out of Fear of the Barba­rous Inquisition: or in Reference to their Ghostly Father, the Pope: or chiefly, by being industriously kept in woful Ignorance of the Protestant Doctrine, of which they are taught many false and mon­stiuous things. The Jews are here tollerated the Publick Exercise of their Religion, and at Rome there's a Weekly Sermon for their Conversion, at which one of each Family is bound to be present. The Christian Faith was first preached here by St. Peter, who went thither in, or about the beginning of the Reign of the Emperor Claudius, as is generally testifi'd by some Ancient Writers of good Account.

[Page]

TURKY in EUROPE by R. Morden

SECT. VIII. Concerning Turky in Europe.

 d.m. Miles.
Situatedbetween3600of Long.its greatestLength is about 770.
5300
between3630of Latit.Breadth is about 660.
4920

Turky in Europe being divided into two ClassesNorththe Danuube.
South

North compre­hendsHungary—Chief TownBuda—W. to E.
Transilvania—Hermanstat—
Valachia—Tergowick—
Moldavia—Saczow—
Little Tartary—Crim—
South compre­hendsRomania—ConstantinopleE. to W.
Bulgaria—Sophia—
Servia—Belgrade—
Bosnia—Bosna Seraio
Sclavonia—Possega—
Croatia—Wihitz—W. to S. E.
Dalmatia—Spalatro—
Greece—Saloniki—

Of all these in Order.

Hungary divided into

Upper NorthChief Townsin Upper arePraesburge—W. to S. E. upon the Da­nuube.
Newhawsel—
Pest—
Colocza—
Esperies—N. to S. upon the Teyssa.
Caschaw.—
Tokay—
Agria—
Zolnock—
Segedin—
Zatmar—N. to S. on the E. of Teyssa.
Debreczen—
Great Waradin—
Gyulla—
Timesware—
Lower Southin Lower areRaab—W. to S. E. on the Danuube.
Gran—
Buda—
Kanischa—W. to E. upon the Drave.
Siget—
Quinque Ecclesiae
Stul Weissenburge, aliter Alba Regalis upon Zarwiza.

In Transilvania.

The Chief Towns areClausenburge—S. to N. upon the Samos.
Burgles—
Newmark—N. to S. upon the Maresh.
Wissenburge.—
Hermanstat upon the Alauta.

In Valachia.

The Chief Towns areTergvoick—From N. to S.
Buchorest—

In Moldavia.

The Chief Towns areSoczow—From W. to E.
Jazy—
Romani Wiwar, Southward.

In Little Tartary.

The Chief Towns areNigropoli—From N. to S.
Kaffa—

In Romania.

The Chief Towns areConstantinople—From E. to W.
Adrinople—
Philippipoli, aliter Philiba—

In Bulgaria.

The Chief Towns areSophia—From S. to N.
Silistria—
Nigopoli—

In Servia.

The Chief Towns areScopia—From S. to N.
Guistandil—
Viddin—
Nissa—From S. to N. W. up­on the Mar [...]wa.
Jagodna—
Belgrade.—From N. to S.
Bracco—
Prisren—

In Bosnia.

The Chief Towns areBosna-Seraio—From E. to W.
Jaycza—
Bomiahich, Southward.

In Sclavonia.

The Chief Towns arePossega—From W. to E.
Peter-Waradin—
Esseck upon the Drave.

In Croatia.

The Chief Towns areWihitsch—From S. to N.
Dubiza—
Car [...]lstat, Westward.

In Dalmatia.

The Chief Towns areNona—From W. to S. E.
Zara—
Sebenico—
Spalatro—
Narenza—
Ragusi—
Scodrant—
Cattaro—

Lastly, Greece [by the Turk's Rumelia] comprehends the following Divisions.

Viz.Macedonia—By the ModernsIdem—Northward.
Albania—Arnaut—
Thessalia—Janna—In the Middle.
Epirus—Idem—
Achaia—Livadia—
Peloponesus—Morea lying Southward of all.

[Page 169]

The Chief Towns ofMacedonia areContessa—N. E. to S. W.
Saloniki—
Zeucria—
Florina—
Cogni—
Albania areScutari—N. to S.
Alessio—
Croia—
Durazzo—
Vallona—
Thessalia areLarissa—E. to W.
Tricala—
[...]anna—
Epirus are—Canina—N. to S.
Chimera—
Butrinto—
Prevesa—
Larta—
Achaia areLepanto—W. to E.
Castri [olim Delphi]—
Att [...]es [olim Athenae]
Maraton—
Stives [olim Thebae]
Morea are—Corinto—Nigh the Sea-Coast, all round the Peninsula.
Napoli-di-Romania—
Maluasia—
Colochina—
Coron—
Navarino—
Chiarenza—
Patrasso—

[Page 170] THIS vast Complex Body comprehending these various Countries above-mention'd, and the most remarkable of 'em being Hungary, Greece, and Little Tartary. We shall first treat of these Three separately, and then conjunctly of all the rest under the General Title of the The Danubian Provinces. There­fore

§. 1. HUNGARY.

THIS Country (containing a Part of Pannonia, with some of Ancient Germany and Dacia) is Name. term'd by the Italians, Ungharia; by the Spaniards, Hungria; by the French, Hungrie; by the Germans, Ungern; and by the English, Hungary; so call'd from the Ancient Inhabitants, the Hunni or Huns.

The Air of this Country is generally esteem'd very unwholesome to Breath in; which is chiefly occasion'd Air. from much Marish Ground and many Lakes, where­with this Country abounds. The opposite Place of the Globe to Hungary, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 218 and 233 Degrees of Longitude, with 43 and 49 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 7th and 8th North Climate) is very fruitful in Corn and Roots, and Soil. various sorts of pleasant Fruit, affording also excellent Pasturage; and several of its Mountains produce some valuable Mines of Copper, Iron, Quicksilver, Antimony, and Salt. Yea, so noted is this Country for Mines, that no less than Seven Remarkable Towns go by the Name of Mine Towns, the Chief of which is Chrem­nuz, whose Mine hath been wrought in about 900 Years. The Length of the Days and Nights in Hungary, is much the same as in the Southern Circles of Germany.

This being an Inland Country, and thereby having no settl'd Trade with Foreign Parts, we may reckon Commodities. the Product of the Soil the Chief Commodities, with which the Inhabitants deal with their Neighbours.

Here are many Natural Baths, especially those at Buda, which are reckon'd the noblest in Europe, not Rarities. only for their variety of Hot Springs, but also the magnificency of their Buildings. There are likeways two Hot Bagnio's near Transchin, upon the Confines of Moravia; and others at Schemnitz in Upper Hungary. Besides which, there are Waters in several Parts of this Country of a pettifying Nature, and others [Page 171] that corrode Iron to such a degree, that they'll consume a Horse­shoe in twenty four Hours. Near Esperies in Upper Hungary, are two deadly Fountains, whose Waters send forth such an infectious Steam, that it kills either Beast or Bird approaching the same; for the pre­venting of which, they're walled round, and kept always cover'd.

Archbishopricks in this Country, are those of Archbishopricks.

  • Gran,
  • Colocza.

Bishopricks in this Country, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Angria,
  • Quinque Ecclesiae,
  • Vesprin,
  • Neytracht,
  • Raab,
  • Great Waradin.

What Universities are establish'd in this Country, since the retaking of it from the Infidels, is uncer­tain. Universities.

The Hungarians (more addicted to Mars than Miner­va) are generally lookt upon as good Soldiers; being Manners. Men, for the most part, of a strong and well propor­tion'd Body, valiant and daring in their Undertakings, but reputed Cruel and Insulting when Conquerors.

The Hungarians have a peculiar Language of their own, which hath little or no Affinity with those of Languages the Neighbouring Nations, save only the Sclavonic, from which it hath borrow'd several Words, and which is also spoken in some Parts of this Country, as the German is in others. Pater-Noster in the Hungarian Tongue, runs thus: My atyanc ki vagy az mennyekben, szenteltessec mega te neved: jojon el az te orszagod; légven megâ te akaratod, mint az menyben, ugy itt ez foldonois; az mimindennapi kenyirunket add meg nekunc ma: es boczasd meg miné cunc az mi vet keinket, miképpem miis megboczatunc azoknac, az kic mi elle­nunc vet keztenec: es ne vigi minket az kisertetbe, de szabadits meg min­ket az gonosztol. Amen.

This Kingdom at present is Elective; and being al­most wholly recover'd from the Ottoman Slavery by Government the late successful Progress of the Imperial Arms, is now dependent on the Jurisdiction of the Emperor, who is stil'd King thereof. The Assembly of the States consists of the Clergy, Barons, Noblemen, and Free Cities, who usually meet once every three Years; which Assembly hath Power to elect a Palatin, who (by the Constitutions of the Realm) ought to be a Native of Hungary; and to him belongs the management of all Military Concerns, as also the Administration of Justice in Affairs both Civil and Cri­minal.

[Page 172] See Germany. Arms.

The prevailing Religion in this Country, is that of the Church of Rome, especially since the late Conquests Religion. made by the Imperial Arms Next to it is the Do­ctrine of Luther and Calvin, which is zealously maintain'd by great Multitudes of People, and many of 'em are Persons of consider­able Note. Besides these, are to be found most Sorts and Sects of Christians, as also many Jews; and Mahometans, not a few. This Kingdom receiv'd the Knowledge of the Blessed Gospel in the be­ginning of the Eleventh Century, and that by the Industrious Preaching of Albert, Archbishop of Prague.

§. 2. GREECE.

THIS Country (formerly Graecia and Hellis) is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Grecia; by Name. the French, la Grece; by the Germans, Griechenland; and by the English, Greece; why so call'd, is variously conjectur'd of all, by our Modern Criticks; but the most receiv'd Opinion is, that the Name derives its Original from an Ancient Prince of that Coun­try, call'd Graecus.

The Air of this Country being generally Pure and Temperate, is reckon'd by all to be very pleasant and Air. healthful to [...]eathe in The opposite Place of the Globe to Greece, is that Part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 225 and 232 Degrees of Longitude, with 36 and 42 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying under the 6th North Climate) is not only very fit for Pasture, (there Scil. being much fertil Champaign Ground) but also it af­fords good slo [...] of Grain, where duly Manur'd; and abounds with excellent [...], and other delicious Fruits. The longest Day in the No [...] most part of Greece is about 15 Hours; the shortest in the Southmost, 9 Hours ½, and the Nights proportionably.

[...] Commodities of this Country, are reckon'd [...], Oyl, Turkey-Leather, Coke. Commodities. Soap. Honey, Wax, &c.

At [...] (a little Village on the South of M. [...] now [...], by the [...]) are some Inscriptions, [...] which [...]vince it to have been the Ancient Delphi, so famous all the World over for the Oracle of Apollo. (2) On the aforesaid Mountain is a pleasant Spring, which having several Marble Seeps descending [...]o it, and many Niches made in the Rock for Sta­tues, give [...] to think that this was the renowned [...]ons Castchue, [Page 173] or Caballinus, which inspir'd (as People then imagin'd) the Ancient Poets. (3.) In Livadia (the Ancient Achaia) is a hideous Cavern in a Hill which was very famous of old for the Oracles of Trophonius. (4.) Between the large Lake of Livadia and the Eubaean Sea, (whose shortest distance is four Miles) are upwards of forty wonderful Subterraneous Passages hewen out of the firm Rock, and that quite under a huge Mountain, to let the Water have a Vent, otherways the Lake being surrounded with Hills, and constantly suppli'd by several Rivulets from these Hills, would still overflow the Adja­cent Country. (5.) On M. Oneius, in the Isthmus of Corinth, are the Remains of the Isthmian Theatre, being the Place where the Isthmian Games were formerly celebrated. (6.) Here are also some Vestigia of that Wall built by the Lacedemonians, from one Sea to the other, for securing the Peninsula from the Incursions of the Enemy. (7.) Through most Parts of Greece, are still extant the Ruins of many Heathen Temples, especially that of the Goddess Ceres, at Eleusis (about four Hours from Athens) a part of whose Statue is yet to be seen. And at Salonichi are several stately Chri­stian Churches, (particularly those of S. Sophia, Gabriel, and the Virgin Mary) now converted into Mahometan Mosques, the last of which is a Noble Structure, environ'd on each side with Twelve Pillars of Jasper Stone, and as many Crosses upon their Chapiters remaining as yet undefac'd by the Turks. But the Chief Rarities of Greece may be reckon'd those various Monuments of Antiquity to be seen at Athens: The Chief of which are these following, (1.) The Acropolis or Citadel, the most Ancient and Eminent Part of the City. (2.) The Foundations of the Walls round the City, suppos'd to be those erected by Theseus, who enlarg'd the same. (3.) The Temple of Minerva (now a Turkish Mosque) as intire as yet as the Rotonda at Rome, and is one of the most beautiful Pieces of Antiquity that's extent this Day in the World. (4) The Pa­nagia Spiliotissa, or Church of our Lady of the Grotto. (5.) Some magnificent Pillars, particularly those commonly reckon'd the Re­mains of Adrian's Palace, of which there were formerly six Rows, and twenty in each Row, but now only seventeen stand upright, and are fifty two Foot high, and seventeen in Circumference at the Base. Here likeways is a Gate and an Aqueduct of the said Empe­ror. (6.) The Stadium, or Place where the Citizens us'd to run Races. encounter Wild Beasts, and celebrated the famous Games, term'd [...]. (7.) The Hill, Musaeum, (now call'd To Seggio by the Inhabitants) so [...] from the Poet, Musaevs, the Disciple of Orphens, who was wont there to recite his Verses. (8.) Some Remains conjectured to be those of the Ar [...]opagus and Od [...]um, or Theater of Musick. (9) The Ruins of many Temples, especially that of Augustus, whose Front is still intire, consisting of four Do­rick [Page 174] Pillars; as also those of Theseus, Hercules, Jupiter Olympius, Ca­stor and Pollux, &c. (10.) The Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhastes, or Temple of the Eight Winds still intire. (11.) The Phanari, or Lanthorn of Demosthenes, being a little Edifice of White Marble, in Form of a Lanthorn, which is also intire. For a particular De­scription of all these Rarities, both at Athens, and other Parts of Greece, with many remarkable Inscriptions, both in Greek and Latin. Vid. Wheeler's Travels.

Archbishopricks in this Country, are chiefly those of Archbishopricks.

  • Amphipoli,
  • Malvasia,
  • Saloniki,
  • Larissa,
  • Patras,
  • Adrianople.
  • Tarsa,
  • Napoli di Romania,
  • Janna.
  • Athens,
  • Corinth,

Bishopricks in this Country, are chiefly those of Bishopricks.

  • Scotusa,
  • Misitra,
  • Glykaeon,
  • Granitza,
  • Modon,
  • Argiro Castro,
  • Salona,
  • Thalanta,
  • Caminitza,
  • Delvino,
  • Livadia,
  • Amphissa.
  • Arges,
  • Butrinto,

No Universities in this Country, though once the Seat of the Muses; but in lieu of them are Twenty Universities. four Monastries of Caloyers or Greek Monks, of the Order of St. Basil, who live in a Collegiate manner on the famous M. Athos, (now term'd [...], or the Holy Mountain) where the younger Sort are instructed in the Holy Scriptures, and the va­rious Rites of the Greek Church; and out of these Colleges are usually chosen those Bishops who are subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople.

The Greeks (most famous of old, both for Arms and Arts, and every thing else that's truly valuable) are so Manners. wonderfully degenerated from their Forefathers, that instead of those excellent Qualities which did shine in them, par­ticularly Knowledge, Prudence, and Valour, There's nothing now to be seen among them, but the very Reverse or Contrary of these, and that in the highest degree. Such is the Pressure of the Ottoman Yoak, under which they groan at present, that their Spirits are quite sunk within 'em, and their very Aspect doth plainly declare a disconsolate and dejected Mind. However, the unthinking Part of them do so little consider their present Slavish Subjection, that there's no People more Jovial and merrily dispos'd, being so much given to Singing and Dancing, that 'tis now become a Proverbial [Page 175] Saying, As merry as a Greek. The Trading Part of them are gene­rally very Cunning, and so enclin'd to over-reach (if they can) in their Dealings, that Strangers do not only meet with much more Candour among the Turks; but if one Turk seem in the least to discredit anothers Word or Promise, his Reply is still at hand, I hope you don't take me for a Christian: Such is that Blot, which these Imprudent Professors of Christianity have cast upon our most Holy Religion, in the Eyes of its Numerous and Implacable Adver­saries.

The Languages here in use, are the Turkish and Vulgar Greek, (the first being peculiar to the Turks, and the Language. other to the Christians) a Specimen of the former shall be given in the last Paragraph of this Section. As for the other, I can't omit to mention the mighty difference there is betwixt it and the Ancient Greek, not only in respect of the many Turkish Words now intermixt, but also in the very Pronounciation of those which yet remain unalter'd, as I particularly observ'd by conver­sing with several of the Greek Clergy, and being present at some of their Publick Prayers. Yea, the knowledge of the Ancient Greek in its former Purity, is not only lost among the Vulgar Sort of People, but also almost extinguisht even among those of the highest Rank, few or none of their Ecclesiasticks themselves pre­tending to be Masters of it. Pater-Noster in the best Dialect of the modern Greek, runs thus: Pater hemas, opios ise ces tos Ouranous ha­giasthito to Onoma sou; na erti he basilia sou; to thelema sou na ginetez itzon en te Ge, os is ton Ouranon: To psomi hemas dose hemas simeron. Kae-sichorase hemos ta crimata hemon itzon, kae hemas sichorasomen ekinous opou, mas adikounkae men ternes hemas is to pirasmo, alla soson hemas apo to kako. Amen.

So many brave and valiant Generals did Greece for­merly breed, that Strangers usually resorted thither to Government learn the Art of War; and such were the Military Atchievements of this People, both at home and abroad, and so far did the force of their Arms extend, that under their Great Alex­ander was erected the third Potent Monarchy of the World. But alas! such hath been the sad Catastrophe of Affairs in this Coun­try, and so low and lamentable is its Condition at present, that nothing of its former Glory and Grandeur is now to be seen. For its poor and miserable Natives, are now strangely cow'd and dispi­rited; its (once) numerous and flourishing Cities, are now depo­pulated and meer heaps of Ruins; its large and fertil Provinces are now laid waste, and lie uncultivated. And lately, the whole, and still a great Part of the Country, doth now groan under the heavy Burden of the Turkish Yoke; and its various Divisions are rul'd by their respective Sangiacs in Subordination to the Grand Signier.

[Page 176] See the last Paragraph of this Section. Arms.

The establisht Religion in this Country, is that of Mahometanism; but Christianity (for its number of Pro­fessors) Religion. doth far more prevail. The chief Tenets of the Mahometan Religion may be seen §. 4. of this Section (to which I remit the Reader) As for Christianity, 'tis profess'd in this Coun­try, according to the Doctrine of the Greek Church, the Principal Points of which, as it differs from the Western Christian Churches (whether Protestant or Roman) are these following, viz (1.) The Greeks deny the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son, assert­ing that it proceedeth only from the Father through the Son. (2.) They also deny the Doctrine of Purgatory, yet usually pray for the Dead. (3.) They believe that the Souls of the Faithful departed this Life, are not admitted unto the Beatifick Vision till after the Resurrection. (4.) They celebrate the Blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist in both Kinds, but make the Communicant take three Morsels of Leaven'd Bread, and three Sips of Wine, in Ho­nour of the Three Persons of the Adorable Trinity. (5.) They admit Children to participate of the Sacrament of the Lord's Sup­per, when only seven Years of Age, because then it is (say they) that they begin to Sin. (6.) They allow not of Extream Unction and Confirmation, and disapprove of fourth Marriages. (7) They admit none into Holy Orders but such as are married, and inhibit all second Marriages, being once in Orders. (8.) They reject all Carved Images, but admit of Pictures, wherewith they adorn their Churches. Lastly, They observe four Lents in the Year, and esteem it unlawful to Fast upon Saturdays. In their Publick Worship they use four Liturgies, viz. That commonly call'd, St. James's, St. Chry­sostom's, St. Basil's, and St. Gregory the Great's, together with Lessons out of the Lives of their Saints, which makes their Service to be of such a tedious and indiscreet length, that it commonly lasts five or six Hours together. The Fasts and Festivals that are yearly ob­serv'd in the Greek Church are very numerous; and were it not for them, 'tis probable that Christianity had been quite extirpated out of this Country ere now: For by means of these Solemnities (which yet are celebrated with a multitude of Ridiculous and Su­perstitious Ceremonies) they still preserve a Face of Religion under a Patriarch, [who resides at Constantinople] and several Archbishops and Bishops, particularly those abovemention'd. But did we view those Ecclesiasticks in their Intellectuals, as also the lamentable State of all Persons committed to their Charge, we should find both Priest and People labouring under such gross and woful Ig­norance, that we could not refrain from wishing, that the Western Churches of Christendom [by their Divisions, Impieties, and Abuse of Knowledge] may not provoke the Almighty at last [Page 177] to plague them likeways with the same Darkness and Desolation. This Country was watered with the Blessed Gospel in the very In­fancy of Christianity, and that by the powerful Preaching of St. Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles.

§. 3. Little Tartary.

THIS Country (anciently Taurica Chersonesus, or Tartaria Procopensis, being the Lesser Scythia, and Name. a Part of old Sarmatia) is term'd by the Italians, Tarta­ria Minor; by the Spaniards, Tartaria Menor; by the French, La Petite Tartarie; by the Germans, Kleine Tartarey; and by the English, Little Tartary; so call'd to distinguish it from Great Tartary in Asia; as also Crim-Tartary from Crim, the principal City of the Country.

The Air of this Country is generally granted to be of a very temperate Nature, but yet unhealthful to Air. breath in. The opposite Place of the Globe to Little Tartary, is that part of Terra Australis incognita, between 240 and 250 Degrees of Longitude, with 48 and 52 Degrees of South La­titude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 8th North Climate) is very different in different Parts, some Soil. Places abounding with Grain and Fruits, and others pestered with undrainable Marshes, and barren Mountains. The Length of the Days and Nights here, is the same as in the Northern Parts of France.

The Commodities of this Country are reckon'd Slaves, Leather, Chalcal-Skins, and several sorts of Furs, Commodities. which they exchange with the Adjacent Turks for other Commodities they want.

Some Travellers relate of this wild and barbarous Part of the World, that few, or no, ravenous Beasts Rarities. are found therein: And others tell us, That many of its Fens and Marshes abound mightily with Salt, which is naturally there produc'd in prodigious Quantities.

Archbishopricks in this Country. None. Archbishopricks.

Bishopricks in this Country, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Caffa,
  • Gothia,

Universities in this Country. None. Universities.

[Page 178] The Crim-Tartars are generally Men of vigorous and robust Bodies, able to endure all the Hardships of Manners. a Military Life; and many of them (being endu'd with Courage and Vigour of Mind, conform to their Strength of Body) prove the best of Soldiers. They are reputed to be very just in their Dealings with one another, but far otherways with Stran­gers. Many of 'em are much addicted to Pillage, and they usually feed upon Horse flesh.

The Language of the Crim-Tartars is the Scythian, or pure Tartaresque, which hath such a resemblance to the Language. Turkish, as the Spanish to the Italian; these Tartars and Turks understanding one another, as those of Italy and Spain. The Arabick is here learn'd at School, as in most Parts of Turky. Pater-Noster in the Tartaresque, runs thus; Atscha wyzom Chy hokta sen algusch, ludor senug adougkel suom, chauluchong bel sun senung arkchneg aleigier da vkarhtaver visum gundoluch ot mak chu musen vougou kai visum jasuchen, den bisdacha hajelberin bisum jasoch namasin, datcha koima visu sumanacha, illa gar [...]a visenu, gemandam. Amen.

This Country is govern'd by its own Prince, com­monly term'd the Cham of Tartary, who is under the Government. Protection of the Great Turk, whose Sovereignty he acknowledgeth by the usual Ceremony of receiving a Standard. The Grana Signior actually possesseth some Part of this Country, and maintains one Beglierbeg, and two Sangiacks, in the Places of greatest Importance: As also, he detains as Hostage, the apparent Successor of the Cham, who is ordinarly either his Son or Brother. To all which, the Tartars readily yield, upon the Account of an Ancient Compact, whereby the Turkish Empire is said to descend to them, whenever the Heirs Male of the Ottoman Line shall fail.

The Cham of Tartary bears for his Ensigns Armorial, Or, three Griffins Sable, arm'd Gules. Arms.

The Crim Tartars (for the most part) are zealous Professors of the Mahometan Doctrine, except some Religion. who continue still Pagan; and intermixt with them are many Christians, especially Greeks and Armenians, besides a considerable number of Roman Catholicks. When this Country was first watered with the Blessed Gospel, is not very certain.

§. 4. Danubian Provinces.

THE remaining Part of Turky here considered un­der Name. the Title of Danubian Provinces, is so call'd from the Situation of these Provinces, they being near unto, or upon the Banks of the Danuube. But since each of 'em [Page 179] requires a peculiar Etymology, take the same as followeth: (1) Tran­silvania (the Ancient Dacia Mediterranea) so call'd by the Romans, Quasi trans sylvas, it being encompass'd with vast mighty Forests. (2) Valachia, (part of Old Dacia) corruptedly so call'd for Flaccia' which Title came from one Flaccus, an Ancient General, who made that part of the Country a Roman Colony. (3.) Moldavia, (the Seat of the Ancient Getae) so call'd from a Little River of the same Name. (4.) Romania, (the chiefest Part of Old Thrace) so call'd from Roma Nova, viz. Constantinople. (5.) Bulgaria, or rather Wol­garia, (the Old Moesia Inferior) so call'd from Volga, it being for­merly subdu'd and possess'd by a People which came from the Banks of that River. (6.) Servia, (of Old Moesia Superior) why so call'd, is not very certain. (7.) Bosnia, (Part of the Ancient Pan­nonia) so call'd from a River of the same Name. (8.) Sclavonia, (another Part of Pannonia) so call'd from its Ancient Inhabitants, the Sclavi. (9) Croatia, (heretofore known by the Name of Li­burnia) so call'd from its Inhabitants, the Creates. Lastly, Dalma­tia, (much of the Ancient Illyricum) but as for the Etymology of that Name, it's not yet agreed upon among Criticks.

The Air of these various Provinces doth mightily vary according to their Situation and Nature of the Soil. Air. The opposite Place of the Globe to them, is that Part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 220 and 235 Degrees of Lon­gitude, with 42 and 48 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of these various Provinces (they lying in the 7th and 8th North Climate) cannot reasonably be Soil. expected to be the same in all. Croatia is Cold and Mountainous, yet producing all Necessaries for the Life of Man, Servia much more Pleasant and Fertil. Bulgaria Unpleasant and Barren, being full of Deserts, and ill inhabited. Moldavia more Temperate and Fertil, but the greatest Fate of it uncultivated. Ro­mania affords great Quantity of Corn and Fruits, and several of its Mountains produce some Mines of Silver, Lead, and Allum. The longest Day in the Northmost Part is about 16 Hours; the shortest in the Southmost is 9 Hours, and the Nights proportionably.

Most of these Provinces being Inland [...] Coun­tries, (except Romania) and therefore little frequented Commodities. by Strangers; the Number of their Commodities can't be very great; save only those [...]ported from Stamboul which are chiefly Grograins, Camblets, [...], Carpets, [...]uni [...]eeds, Cottons, Galls, and most other rich Turkish Commodities.

In one of the Mines of [...], viz. that at Ri­mili Dominurdiz, are found sometimes large Lumps Rarities. of Virgin Gold, fit for the Miat without any purify­ing. Other Parts of this Country afford such vast Quantities of [Page 180] Stone-Salt, as to supply all the Neighbouring Nations with that useful Mineral. Near to Enguedine, in the same Principality, (the Ancient Annium) are several Monuments of Antiquity, especially the Remains of a large Military Way, or long Cawsway made by one Annius, a Captain of a Roman Cohort. At Spalatro in Dalmatia, are the Ruins of Dioclesian's Palace, in which he took up his Resi­dence when he retired from the Empire. Here is also an intire Temple consecrated to Jupiter, which is of an Octogonal Form, and adorn'd with several stately Pillars of Porphyry. At Zara in the same Province are many Ruins of Roman Architecture, and se­veral Heathen Altars, still to be seen. But what mostly deserves our regard, are those Monuments of Antiquity, as yet extant, in or near to Constantinople, the chief of which are these following, viz. (1.) The Hippodrome (now call'd Atmidan, a word of like sig­nification) in which remain some stately Hietoglyphical Pillars, particularly one of Egyptian Granite, fifty Foot long, and yet but one Stone; and another of Brass, only fourteen Foot high, and in form of three Serpents wreath'd together up to the Top, where their heads separate, and look three different ways. (2.) South of the Hippodrome, is that Column commonly call'd the Historical Pillar, curiously carv'd from Top to Bottom, expressing variety of warlike Actions (3.) West of the Hippodrome, is another Column of Porphyry, brought hither from Rome by Constantine the Great, which having suffer'd much Damage by Fire, is now call'd the Burnt Pillar. (4.) Nigh the Mouth of the Black-Sea, is a Pillar of the Corinthian Order, about ten Foot high, with an imperfect In­scription on its Base, vulgarly call'd Pompy's Pillar, which hath been probably erected for a Sea-mark by Day, as the Lanthorn at Fanari is by Night. (5.) From the Black-Sea to the City of Constantinople, reacheth that Noble Aqueduct, made by the Emperor Valentinian, (whose Name it retaineth) and repair'd by Solyman the Great. To these we may add, that noble Pile of Building, Sancta Sophia, formerly a Christian Temple, but now a Mahometan Mosque; for a particular Description of which, with the other Remarkables above mention'd, see Sandy's, Wheeler, Spon, with other Modern Travellers.

Here is one Patriarchate, viz. that of Constanti­nople, as also several Archbishopricks, especially those of Archbishopricks.

  • Calcedon,
  • Sophia,
  • Trasanopoli,
  • Antivari,
  • Rugusa or Ragusi.

[Page 181] Chief Bishopricks in these Provinces, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Posega,
  • Zagrabe,
  • Narenza,
  • Belgrade,
  • Scardona,
  • Cattaro.

Universities in these Provinces. None. Universities.

These various Provinces are inhabited by various sorts of People, particularly the Sclavonians, who are Manners. generally Men of a robust and strong Constitution, and very fit to be Soldiers. Next, the Croats, who are esteem'd to be Persons so Valiant and Faithful, that they are entertain'd by many German Princes as their Guards. Lastly, The Servians and Bulgarians, who are reckon'd very Cruel, and universally given to Robbery. But as for the Natural Turks, they are thus Characteriz'd, viz. Men of a swarthy Complexion, robust Bodies, of a good Stature, and proportionably compact'd: Men who (though generally ad­dicted to some horrid Vices not to be nam'd among Christians) are yet Persons of great Integrity in their Dealings, strict Observers of their Word; abundantly Civil to Strangers, extraordinary Charita­ble after their own way, and so zealous Observers of the various Du­ties enjoin'd by their Religion (especially that of Prayer) that their frequency in the same may justly reproach the general Practice of Christians now a-days. In their ordinary Salutations they lay their Hands on their Bosoms, and a little encline their Bodies, but ac­costing a Person of Quality, they how almost to the Ground, and kiss the Hem of his Garment. They account it an opprobrious thing to uncover their Heads; and as they walk in the Streets, they prefer the Left-hand before the Right, as being thereby Ma­ster of his Cymitar, with whom they walk. Walking up and down they never use, and much wonder at that Custom of Chri­stians. Their chief Recreations are Shooting with the Bow, and throwing of Lances, at both of which they're very dexterous.

The Sclavonian Language (being of a vast Extent) is us'd not only in all these Provinces, though with Language. some variation of Dialect but also in a great Part of Europe besides; The purest Dialect of which Tongue is generally esteem'd, that peculiar to Dalmatia. As for the Turkish (which is originally Sclavonian, and now the prevailing Language of these Provinces) Pater-Noster in the same, runs thus; Babamuz hanghe guiglesson: chuduss olssum ssenungh adun; Gelson ssenung memlechetun. Olsum ssenung istegunh nyesse gugthaule gyrde, cchame gumozi hergunon vere bize bugun, hem bassa bize borslygomozi, nyese bizde baslaruz borse­tigleremosi, hem yedm [...] bize ge heneme, de churtule bizy jaramazdan. Amen.

[Page 182] These various Countries consider'd under the Title of Danubian Provinces do acknowledge Subjection to Government. several Sovereigns, particularly as followeth; Transil­vania is subject to its own Prince or Waywode, formerly Tributary to the Turks, but now under the Protection of the Emperor since the Year 1690. Valachia being subject to its Waywode, (sometimes stil'd Hospadar, signifying Chief General of the Militia) is Tribu­tary to the Turk. Moldavia is subject to its Waywode, who is under the Protection of the Emperor since Anno 1688. Romania, Bulgaria, and Servia, are wholly under the Turk, and govern'd by their re­spective Beglierbegs. Sclavonia and Bosnia do own the Emperor. And lastly, Dalmatia, is partly under the Venetians, and partly under the Turk. To the Government of these Provinces we may subjoin the Republick of Ragusi, whose Inhabitants are so afraid of losing their Rights and Liberty, that every Month they change their Rector or Supream Magistrate, and every Night the Governor of their Castle, who entreth into his Command blindfolded, and all Military Officers whatsoever are not to keep the same Posts above six Weeks, lest if long continued they should either gradually or tracherously bereave them of their Priviledges, or make the Re­publick it self a Prey, either to the Turks or Venetians, whom they equally dread; however it payeth Tribute to both of 'em at pre­sent, as also a certain Acknowledment to the Emperor, his Catho­lick Magisty, and the Pope, by Virtue of a mutual Compact ratifi'd between them.

The Grand Signior (as Supreme Sovereign over all the Turkish Dominions, and Absolute Emperor of the Arms. Ottoman Empire) bears Verte, a Crescent Argent, Crest­ed with a Turbant, charg'd with three Black Plumes of Herons Quills, with this Morto, Donec totum impleat Orbem. As for the Ancient Arms of the Eastern Emperors before the rise of the Ottoman Family, They were, Mars, a Cross Sol betwixt four Greek Beta's, of the second: The four Beta's signifying, [...], [...], i. e. Rex Regum, Regnans Regibus.

The Inhabitants of these different Provinces, are very different in Point of Religion, but reducible to Religion. Three Classes, viz. Christians, Jews, and Mahometans. The Christians, for the greatest part, adhere to the Tenets of the Greek Church, (already mention'd §. 2.) some to the Church of Rome, and others profess the Reform'd Religion, both according to the Doctrine of Luther and Calvin. The Jews (as in all other Countries) are Zealous Maintainers of the Mosaick Law; and the Mahometans stick close to their Alcoran; by which they are taught the acknowledgment of One God, and that Mahomet is his Great Prophet. It also commandeth Children to be Obedient to their [Page 183] Parents, and approveth of Love to our Neighbour. It enjoins Ab­stinence from Swines Flesh and Blood, and such Animals as dye of themselves. It promiseth to Mussulmen (or True Believers) all manner of sensual Pleasures in a Future State. It allows of an unavoidable Fatality in every Thing, and favours the Opinion of Tutelary Angels. But to be more particular, The Followers of Mahomet do readily grant, That the Writings both of the Prophets and Apostles were divinely Inspir'd, but alledge that they're so cor­rupted by Jews and Christians, that they can't be admitted for the Rule of Faith. They further believe and assert, That of all Re­veal'd Institutions in the World, those in the Alcoran are only Di­vine and Perfect. That God is both Essentially and Personally One; and that the Son of God was a meer Creature, yet without Sin, and miraculously Born of a Virgin. That Jesus Christ was a Great Prophet, and that having ended his Prophetical Office upon Earth, he acquainted his Followers of the coming of Mahomet. That Christ ascended into Heaven without suffering Death, another being sub­stituted in his place to Die. That Man is not justify'd by Faith in Christ, but by Works enjoin'd in the Mosaick Law and the Alcoran. That Poligamy (according to the Example of the Ancient Patri­archs) is still to be allow'd of; as also to Divorce the Wife upon any occasion. In short, Mahometanism is a Medly of Paganism, Ju­daism, and Christianity; by which means, the Grand Imposture (its Founder) did cunningly imagine to gain Proselytes of all Professions. But whereas the Alcoran is the Turkish Rule of Faith and Manners, let us more particularly consider its Precepts, and that chiefly as they relate to the Principal Heads thereof, viz. Circumcision, Fasting, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, and Abstinence from Wine. (1.) Circumcision, Of the various Sacraments in the Old and New Testament, they admit only of Circumcision. This they reckon absolutely necessary to every Mussulman, esteeming it impossible to obtain Salvation without it; whereupon they are very careful to perform the same, and do celebrate the performance thereof with great Solemnity. (2.) Fast­ing, particularly that extraordinary Fast, or yearly Lent, call'd Ra­madan, observ'd every ninth Month, and of a whole Months con­tinuance; during which time, they neither Eat nor Drink till the Sun goes down; they also abstain from all worldly Business, and from smoking their beloved Tobacco, yea, even from Innocent Recreations; and living reserv'd austere Lives, do spend most of the time in their Mosques, frequenting them both Day and Night. They believe that during this Month, the Gates of Heaven stand open, and that those of Hell are shut. (3.) Prayer, This Duty is of mighty request among them, their Prophet having term'd the same the Key of Paradice, and the very Pillar of Religion; whereupon they are frequent and servent at their Devotions. They're oblig'd [Page 184] to pray five times every Day, and never fail of that number, let their worldly Business be never so urgent. (4) Alms, Every Turk is bound to contribute the hundredth Part of his Wealth towards the Zagat or Alms, for maintainance of the Poor. Besides which, they frequently make large voluntary Contributions; yea, their Charity doth not only extend it self towards their Fellow-Rational Crea­tures, but even the Irrational, as Dogs, Horses, Camels, &c. whom they carefully maintain in kind of Publick Hospitals, when through Age they become useless to their Masters. (5.) Pilgrimage, viz. That to Mecca, which every Mussulman is bound to perform once in his Life-time, or, at least, to send Deputies for him. Thither they resort in vast Multitudes, being commonly 40 or 50000 in Number, over whom the Sultan appoints a Commander in Chief to redress Disorders that may happen on the Road. This Officer is follow'd by a Camel carrying the Alcoran covered with Cloath of Gold, which sanctifi'd Animal upon its return, is adorn'd with Garlands of Flowers, and exempt from any farther Labour during the remaining part of its Life. The Turks do likeways visit the City of Jerusalem, but that more out of Curiosity than Devotion: They have also a great Veneration for the Valley of Jehosaphat, believing it shall be the particular Place of the General Judgment. Lastly, Abstinence from Wine is likewise a Precept of the Alcoran. But of this they are less observant than of any of the former, for many of the richest sort of Turks are great Admirers of the Juice of the Grape, and will liberally taste of the same in their private Cabals. These various Provinces were at first instructed in the Christian Faith at different Times, and upon different Occasions.

SECT. IX. Concerning the European Islands.

HAving hitherto Travell'd through the various Countries on the Con­tinent of Europe; let us now leave the Continent, and set Sail for its Islands. And whereas the Chief of such Islands, are those term'd the Britannick; let us first take a Particular Survey of them, and then a more General View of all the rest. There­fore,

I. Of the Britannick Islands.

THESE Islands being always consi­der'd as divided into Greater [viz. those of Great Britain and Ireland] and Lesser (namely those many little ones sur­rounding Britain) I shall begin with the former comprehending in them. Three distinct Kingdoms, and One Principality. And since our manner of Travelling through [Page 185] the various Countries on the Continent of Europe, hath been still to proceed from North to South, I shall therefore continue the afore said Method in Surveying the Isle of Great Britain, having no other Regard to the Two Grand Sovereignties therein, than the bare Situation of them: Begin we therefore with the Northern Part of the Island, viz.

[Page]

SCOTIAE Nova Descriptio­rer. Robert Morden▪
SCOTLAND.
 d.m.
Situatedbetween1000of Long.its greatestLength from N. to S. is a­bout 240 Miles.
1730
between5500of Latit.Breadth from E to W. is about 180 Miles.
5900

Being divided into two Classes, viz.South, the FrithC T.Edinburgh.
North, the FrithAberdeen.

South Class comprehendsGatloway—Chief TownKirkudbright—W. to E.
Nithisdale.—Dumfreis—
Anandale—Annand—
Eshdale with Eusdale—
Lidisdale—Hermitage—
Tiviotdale—Jedburgh—
The Mers—Duns—E. to W.
Lawderdale—Lauder—
Tweedale—Peeblis—
Clydisdale—Glascow.—
Kyle—Air—
Garrick—Bargenny—
Lothian—Edenburgh—E. to W.
Sterling—Idem—
Renfrew—Idem—
Cunningham—Irvin—
Isles ofBoot—Rothesay—
Arren.—
Peninsula of Cantyre—Kilkeran—
North Class comprehendsFife.—St. Andrews—E. to W.
Menteith—Dumblain—
Lennox— [...]
Argile—Innerara—
Perth—Idem—E. to W.
Strath [...] [...]
[...]
Lorn— [...].—
Merns—Bervey—E. to W.
Angus—Dundee—
Gaury—
Athol—Blair—
Marr—Aberdeen—E. to W.
Badenech—Riven—
I [...]chabar—Innerlochy—
Buchan—Peterhead—E. to W.
[...]Idem—
[...]Elgin—
[...]Taine—S. to N.
S [...]th [...]rland—D [...]rnock—
Strathnaver—Strathy—
Catchness—Wick lying N. E. of Strath­naver.

These are the various Divisions of Scotland, according to the best Maps, and the manner how they are found. But since that King­dom is ordinarly divided into Sheriffdoms. Stewarties, Balliaries, and one Constabulary, we shall also consider it in that respect; and seeing each of those Sheriffdoms and Stewarties, &c. comprehend either a part, or one, or more of the aforesaid Divisions, we shall here subjoin all the Sheriffdoms and Stewarties, &c. of the whole Kingdom, and annex to each of them their whole Content, whether more or less. Therefore,

Sheriffdoms of Scotland, are those ofEdenburgh—ContainingMiddle Lothian.
Barwick—The Mers and Bailliary of Lauderdale.
Peeblis—Tw [...]edale.
Shelkirk—The Forest of Etterick.
Wig [...]on—The N. and W. Parts of Galloway.
Renfrew—The Barony of Renfrew.
Lanerick—Clidisdale.
Dumbritton—Lenox.
Bute—Isles ofBute.
Arren.
Striveling—Striveling, on both sides the River Forth.
Linlithgow—West Lothian.
Glackmannan—A little of the E. parts of Strivelingshire
Kinross—A little of the W. parts of Fife.
Couper—The rest of Fife.
Forfar—Anguis, with its Pertinents.
Kinkardin—Mernis.
Elgin—The Eastern partsof Murray.
Nairn—The Western parts
Weik—Caithness.
Orkney—Isles ofOrkney.
Schetland.

[Page 189]

Sheriffdoms of Scotland, are those ofAberdcen containingMarr with its Pertinents.
Buchan comprehending Forumart [...]n.
Strathbogie.
Perth containingPerth—as alsoGleushee.
Athol—Strathandel.
Gawry—Ramach.
Broad-AlbinBalhider.
Menteith—Glenurghay.
StrathyernStrormont.
Innerara containingArgile.
Lorn.
Kantire.
Isles W. ofLorn.
Kantire.
Bamfe containingBamfe.
Strathdovern.
Beyn.
Enzy.
Strathawin.
Balveny.
Inverness containingBad [...]noch.
Lochabyr.
The South Part of Ross.
A Part of Murray beyond Nairn, Westw.
Tayne containingSoutherland.
Strathnaver.
Roxburgh containingTiviotdale.
Lidisdale.
Eshdale with Eus [...]ale.
Aire containingKyle.
Carrick.
Cunningham.
Dumfreiscontainingall Nithisdale.
Cromartya little of Ross, S. of Cormarty.

[Page 190] Besides these Sheriffdoms, there are

  • Stewarties.
  • Bayliaries.
  • one Constabulary.
Stewarties areStratherncontain.Strathern.
MenteithMenteith.
AnnandaleAnnandale.
Kirkudbright.E. and S. parts of Galloway.
As alsoS AndrewsinFife.
KillemureAnguis.
AbernethyPerth.

Bayliaries areKyle—contain.Kyle.
Carrick—Carrick.
Cunningham—Cunningham.
Lauderdale—Lauderdale.

The One Constabulaty is that of Haddington, containing East-Lothian.

[Page 191] THIS Country (the famous Ancient Caledonia) is term'd by the Italians, Scotia; by the Spaniards, Name. Escocia; by the French, Escosse; by the Germans, Schot­land; by the English and its own Natives, Scotland; so call'd, as some fondly imagine, from Scota, (Daughter to an Egyptian Pharaoh) but more probably from Scoti, Schytti, or Scythi, a People of Germany, (over the Northern Parts of which the Name of Scythia did once prevail) who seized on a Part of Spain, next on Ireland, and from thence came into the Western Parts of this Country.

The Air of this Country is generally very pure, and so extraordinary wholesome to breath in, that several Air. Persons in the Northmost Parts of that Kingdom do frequently arrive to greater Ages, than is usual in other Nations of Europe. The opposite Place of the Globe to Scotland, is that Part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 190 and 196 Degrees of Lon­gitude, with 56 and 60 Degrees of South Latitude.

Notwithstanding this Country is of a Situation con­siderably Northern, (it lying in the 11th, 12th, and Soil. beginning of the 13th North Climate) yet it produceth all Necessaries, and many of the Comforts of Humane Life. Its Seas are wonderfully stor'd with most kinds of excellent Fish; Its Rivers do mightily abound with the choicest of Salmons; Its Plains do sufficiently produce most kinds of Grain, Herbs, and Fruits; and many of its Mountains are not only lin'd with valuable Mines, and the best of Coals, but also several of them are so cover'd over with numerous Flocks, that great Droves of Cattle do yearly pass into the North of England. The longest Day in the Northmost Part of this Country is about 18 Hours ½, the shortest in the South­most 6 Hours ½; and the Nights proportionably.

The Chief Commodities of this Country, are most sorts of Fish in great abundance, much Linnen-Cloath Commodities. and Tallow, vast numbers of Cattle and Hides; as also excellent Honey, Lead-Oar, Iron, Train-Oyl, Course Cloaths, Frizes, &c.

In Clydsdale are yet to be seen, for several Miles, the Remains of a large Roman Cawsway, or Military-way, Rarities. which commonly goes now by the Name of Watling­street. And in Teviotdale, are some Vestigia of Roman Encampments, and another Military-way, vulgarly term'd the Ruggid Cawsway. (2.) In the Stewarty of Strathern, are visible Tracts of several Ro­man [Page 192] Camps, especially that at Ardoch. (3) In Sterlingshire are di­vers Marks of the famous Roman Wall, (now commonly call'd Graham's Dyke) which was extended over the Isthmus, between the Rivers of Forth and Clyde: Its Form and Manner of Building will best appear by a Draught thereof; for which, Vid. Camden's Bri­tainnia late Edition, page 959. (4.) In Sterlingshire, were likeways found some Inscriptions upon Stones relating to the Roman Wall; particularly Two; one whereof is now at Calder, and informs us that the Legio secunda Augusta, built the said Wall upwards of three Miles; and another in the E. Marshal's House at Dunnotyr, which hints that a Party of the Legio vicesima victrix, continued it for three Miles more. As for the Inscriptions themselves, Vid. Cambd. page 920, and 1101. (5.) Hard by the Tract of the aforesaid Wall in Sterlingshire, are yet to be seen two pretty Mounts, term'd by the Ancients, Duni pacis; as also the Remains of an Ancient Build­ing in form of a Pyramide (now call'd by the Vulgar Arthur's Oven) which many reckon to have been a Temple of the God Ter­minus. (6.) Near Pasley and Renfrew, are the Vestigia of a large Ro­man Camp; the Fosses and Dykes about the Praetorium, being still visible. Here is also to be seen a remarkable Spring which regu­larly Ebbs and Flows with the Sea. (7.) Nigh to the City of Edenburgh, is a noted Spring, commonly call'd the Oily-Well, the Surface of its Waters being cover'd with a kind of Oyl or Bitumen, which is frequently us'd, with good Success, in curing Scabs and Pains proceeding from Cold. (8.) Near the same City is ano­ther Fountain, which goes by the Name of the Routing-Well, because it usually makes a Noise before a Storm. (9.) Near Brechin in Aagus, (where the Danes receiv'd a mighty overthrow) is a high Stone erected over their General's Grave, call'd Camus-Cross; with another about ten Miles distance, both of 'em having antique Letters and Figures upon them. (10.) At Slains in Aberdeenshire, is a remarkable petrifying Cave, commonly call'd the Dropping Cave, where Water ouzing through a spungy porous Rock on the Top, doth quickly consolidate after it falls in drops to the bottom. (11.) Near Kilross in Murray, is to be seen an Obelisk of one Stone, set up as a Monument of a Fight between King Malcolm, Son of Keneth, and Sueno the Dane. (12.) On the Lord Lovet's Lands in Straherrich, is a Lake which never freezeth all over before the Month of February; but after that time, one Nights Frost will do it. There's also ano­ther, call'd Lough-Monar, (belonging to the late Sir George Mac­kenzy) just of the same Nature with the former; and a third at Glencanigh in Strathglash, which never wants Ice upon the middle Part of it, even in the hottest Day of Summer. (13.) Towards the Northwest Part of Murray, is the famous Lough-Ness which never freezeth; but retaineth its natural Heat, even in the extreamest [Page 193] Cold of Winter. (14.) In Lennox is Lough Lomond, which is every whit as famous among the Vulgar, not only for its Floating-Island, but also as having Fish without Fins, and being frequenly Tempe­stuous in a Calm. (15.) In divers Parts of Scotland are some noted Mineral Springs, particularly those at Kinghorn and Balgrigy in Fife: as also Aberdeen and Peterhead in Aberdeenshire; several of which come little short of the famous Spaw-Water in the Bishoprick of Liege. Lastly, In most Counties of this Kingdom, are many Cir­cular Stone Monuments, (being a company of prodigious long Stones set on end in the Ground, and that commonly in form of a Circle) which are probably conjectur'd to have been either Funeral Mo­numents, or Places of Publick Worship in times of the Ancient Druides, or both.

Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, are Two, viz. those of Archbishopricks.

  • St. Andrews,
  • Glascow.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are Twelve, viz. those of Bishopricks.

  • Edenburgh,
  • Murray,
  • Ross,
  • Galloway,
  • Dunkeld,
  • Brichen,
  • Cathness,
  • Argile,
  • Aberdeen,
  • Dumblain,
  • Orkney,
  • The Isles.

Universities of this Kingdom, are Four, viz. those of Universities.

  • St. Adrews,
  • Edenburgh,
  • Aberdeen,
  • Glascow.

The Scots (for the most part) are an Active, Pru­dent, and Religious sort of People. Many abomina­ble Manners. Vices, too common in other Countries, are not so much as speculatively known among them. They generally abhor all kinds of Excess in Drinking, and effeminate Delicacy in Diet, chusing rather to improve the Mind, than pamper the Body. Many of them make as great Advances in all Parts of ingenious and solid Learning, as any Nation in Europe. And as for their singular Fidelity (although slanderously spoken of by some) 'tis abundantly well-known, and experienced abroad; for an undoubted Demonstration thereof, is publickly given to the whole World, in that a Neighbouring Prince, and his Predecessors (for almost three hundred Years) have committed the immediate Care [Page 194] of their Royal Persons to them, without ever having the least Cause to repent, or real Ground to change.

The Language commonly spoken in the North and North-West of this Country, is a Dialect of the Irish, Language. corruptedly call'd Erse (a Specimen of which shall be given when we come to Ireland). In all other Parts of the King­dom they use the English Tongue; but that with considerable difference of Pronounciation in different Counties, and all dis­agreeing with that in England, except the Town of Inverness, whose Inhabitants are the only People who come nearest to the true English; however the Gentry and Persons of good Educa­tion, usually speak English, (though not with the same Accent as in England) yet according to its true Propriety, and their manner of Writing is much the same. The vulgar Language (commonly call'd Broad Scotch) is indeed a very corrupt sort of English, and hath a great Tincture of several Foreign Tongues, particularly the High German, Low Dutch, and French, especially the last, a great many words still in use among the Commonality, being Ori­ginally from that Language. For a Specimen of which Tongue, Pater-Noster in it runs thus: Ure Fader whilk art in Heven; hallued bee thy Neme; thy Kingdoom cumm, thy Wull be doon inn Erth az its doon inn Heven. Geé uss this day ure daily Breed, an forgee uss, ure Sinns, az we forgee them that Sinn against uss; and leed uss nae intoo temtacion, batt delyver uss frae evil. Ameen.

This Kingdom hath hitherto had the good fortune to enjoy an Hereditary limited Monarchy; though Government. many times the immediate Heir, or next in Blood, hath been set a side, and another more remote hath mounted the Throne. Since its Union with England, both Kingdoms are under one King, who is stil'd the Monarch of Great Britain. The Go­vernment of this Kingdom is chiefly manag'd by a Council of State, or Privy Council, consisting of those call'd properly Officers of State, and others of the Nobility and Gentry, whom the King pleaseth to appoint. The Officers of State are eight in number, viz. the Lord High-Chancellor, Lord High-Treasurer, Lord-President of the Council, Lord Secretary of State, Lord Treasurer-Deputy, Lord Register, Lord-Advocate, and Lord Justice Clerk. The Ad­ministration of Justice in Civil Affairs is lodg'd in the Lords of the Session, who are Fifteen in number, whereof One is President, and to those are join'd some Noblemen, under the Name of ex­traordinary Lords of the Session. This Court is esteemed one of the most August and Learned Judicatories in Europe: From it there [Page 195] lies no Appeal but to the Parliament, which is now made up of the Peers, the Commissioners of Counties, and those of Free Bur­roughs. The King's Person is always represented in Parliament by some Nobleman, who bears the Title of Lord High-Commissioner. The Distribution of Justice in Criminal Matters is commited to the Court of Justice, which is compos'd of the Lord Justice General, the Lord Justice Clerk, and five or six other Lords of the Session, who in this Bench are call'd Commissioners of Justiciary. Over and above these two Supreme Courts of Justice, there are a great many Subordinate Judicatories, both for Civil and Criminal Af­fairs through the Kingdom, as Sheriff Courts, Courts of Regality, and the like.

The Royal Arms of this Kingdom, together with those of England and Ireland, (as they compose the En­signs Arms. Armorial of the Monarch of Great Britain) shall be particularly express'd when we come to England.

The Inhabitants of this Country (excepting a few, who still adhere to the Church of Rome, and an incon­siderable Religion. number of Quakers) are all of the Reform'd Religion, yet with considerable Variation among themselves in some private Opinions and various Points of Church Discipline: However the numerous Professors thereof are very sincere in their Principles, and do generally practise conformable to their Professions. No Christian Society in the World doth excel them for their exact Observation of the Sabbath day, and few can equal them for their singular Strictness and Impartiality in punishing Scandals: But lamentable are their Distractions of late in Matters relating to Ecclesiastical Polity, and how fatal such Heats and Divisions, both in this and the Neighbouring Kingdom may prove at last, is alas! but too well known to all thinking Persons among us. The smallest Privateer belonging either to Brest or S. Malo's may easily Attack, Board, and Sink the Royal Britannia her self, if she chance only to Spring a Leak under Water, when her whole Crew are at Blows between Decks. The Christian Faith (according to the best Ac­counts) was planted in this Country, during the Reign of Diocle­sian; for by reason of that violent Persecution he rais'd in the Church, many Christians are said to have fled from the Continent into the Isle of Great Britain, and particularly (as an Ancient Au­thor expresly testifieth) into that Part thereof, In quam Romana Arma nunquam penetrârunt; which (without all doubt) is Scotland; espe­cially the Northern Parts of that Country, they being still possess'd by the Scots, and never subject to the Roman Power. St Rule, or Regulus, is said to have brought over with him the Arm, or (as [Page 196] some affirm) the Lig of St. Andrew the Apostle, and to have bu­ried it in that place where now the City of St. Andrews stands. These first Propagators of Christianity seem to have been a kind of Monks, who afterwards, by the beneficence of the first Christian Kings of Scotland, came into the Seats and Possessions of the Pagan Druides, (a sort of Religious Votaries to the Heathen Gods) and had their principal Residence, or rather Monasteries, in the Islands of Man and Jona, and passed under the Name of Culdees.

[Page]

ENGLAND bu Robt. Morden.
ENGLAND.
 d.m.
Situatedbetween1200of Long.its greatestLength from N. to S. is a­bout 320 Miles.
2000
between5000of Latit.Breadth from E. to W. is about 290 Miles.
5550

Being divided into Six Circuits, viz.Western CircuitChief TownSalisbury.
Oxford CircuitOxford.
Home CircuitCanterbury.
Northfolk CircuitNorwich.
Midland CircuitLincoln.
North CircuitYork.

Western-Circuit containsCornwall—Chief TownLaunceston—W. to E.
Devonshire—Exeter—
Dorsetshire—Dorchester—
Hampshire—Winchester—
Somm [...]rsetshireBristol—N. of Dorsetshire.
Wiltshire—Salisbury—
Oxford.Circuit containsBarkshire—Redding N. of Hampshire.
Oxfordshire—Oxford—E. to W.
Glocestershire—Glocester—
MonmouthshireMonmouth—
Herefordshire—Hereford—S. to N. E.
Worcestershire—Worcester—
Staffordshire—Stafford—
Shropshire—Shrewsbury W. of Staffordshire.
Home-Circuit containsEssex—Colchester—E. to W.
Hartfordshire—Hartford—
Kent—Canterbury—E. to W.
Surry—Southwark—
Sussex—Chichester South ofSurry.
[...].
Norfolk-Circuit containsNorfolk—Norwich—E. to S. W.
Suffolk—Ipswich—
Cambridgeshire—Cambridge—
HuntingtonshireHuntington—
Bedfordshire—Bedford—
BuckinghamshireBuckingham—

[Page 198]

Midland Circuit containsLincolnshire—Chief TownLincoln—E. to W.
NottinghamshireNottingham—
Derbyshire—Derby—
Rutlandshire—Okeham—E. to W.
Leicestershire—Leicester—
Warwickshire—Warwick—
NorthamptonshireNorthampton S. ofLeicestershire.
Warwickshire.
North. Circuit containsYorkshire—York—S. to N.
Durham—Idem—
Northumberland.Newcastle—
Lancashire—Lancaster—S. to N.
Westmorland—Appleby—
Cumberland—Carlisle—

To England we here subjoin the Principality of Wales, divided into Four Circuits; each Circuit comprehending Three Counties, vix.

1. Those ofDenbighshire—Chief TownDenbighN. to S.
Flintshire—St. Asaph
MontgomeryshireMontgomery—
2. Those ofAnglesey—Beaumaris—N. to S. E.
CarnarvenshireCarnarven—
M [...]rionethshireHarlech—
3. Those ofCardiganshireCardigan—N. to S.
CarmarthènshireCarmarthen
PembrokeshirePembrook—
4. Those ofRadnorshire—Radnor—N. to S. W.
Brecknokshire—Brecknock—
GlamorganshireCardiff—

Besides the Six Circuits of England, (containing Thirty eight Counties) and these Four of Wales, comprehending Twelve; there remain as yet two Counties unmentioned, and which are not ordi­narily reduc'd to any of these Circuits, viz. Middlesex and Cheshire; the first because of its Vicinity to London, and the other as being a County-Palatine, having its own Judges and Counsellors peculiar to it self. These Two Counties, with the Thirty eight abovemen­tion'd in England, and Twelve in Wales, make Fifty two in all. But since England and Wales are Two distinct Sovereignties [one be­ing a Kingdom, and the other a Principality] we shall seperately Treat of them both. Therefore,

ENGLAND.

THIS Country (the Ancient Anglia, which with the rest of the Island, made up the Renown'd Name. Britannia or Albion) is term'd by the Italians, Inghil­terra; by the Spaniards, Inglatierra; by the French, Angleterre; by the Germans, Engel-land; and by the Natives, England; which Name is deriv'd from the Angles, a People of Lower Saxony, who Con­quer'd the greatest Part of this Country, and divided the same into Seven different Kingdoms: But Egbert (descended from the Angles) having united this divided Nation, and being the first Mo­narch of England after the Saxon Heptarchy, ordered (by special Edict, above 800 Years after the Incarnation) that the whole King­dom should be term'd Engle-lond, which Title in process of time, hath turn'd into the present Name of England.

The Air of this Country is far more Mild, Sweet, and Temperate, than in any Part of the Continent un­der Air. the same Parallel. The Cold during the Winter is not so piercing; nor the Heat in the Summer so scorching, as to recommend (much less to enforce) the use of Stoves in the one, or Grotto's in the other. The opposite Place of the Globe to England, is that part of the Pacifick Ocean, between 200 and 210 Degrees of Longitude, with 50 and 56 Degrees of South Latitude.

This Country (lying in the 9th, 10th, and 11th North Climate) is generally so Fertil, and produceth Soil. such plenty of Grain, Fruits, Roots, Herbs, &c. that the excellency of its Soil, is best declar'd by those Transcendent Elogies deservedly bestow'd on her, both by Ancient and Mo­dern Writers, who call England the Granary of the Western World, the Seat of Ceres, &c. that her Vallies are like Eden, her Hills like Lebanon, her Springs as Pisgah, and her Rivers as Jordan; that she's a Paradise of Pleasure, and the Garden of God. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts is about 17 Hours ½, the shortest in the Southmost is almost 8 Hours; and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Corn, Cattle, Tyn, Copper, Lead, Iron, Timber, Coals, Commodities. abundance of Wooll, Cloath, Stufts, Linnen, Hides, Tallow, Butter, Cheese, Beer, &c.

In most Counties of this Kingdom are still extant, some noted Circular Stone Monuments, (like those in Rarities. Scotland abovemention'd, page 193) particularly, The Seventy seven Stones at Saleeds in Cumberland, commonly term'd Long Meg, and her Daughters; Those call'd Rolle-rich Stones in Oxford­shire; [Page 200] Those near Enisham in Northumberland; Those upon the River Loder in Westmorland; Those near Burrow-Bridge in Yorkshire; Those near Exmore in Devonshire; and finally the Hurlers, and those at Biscaw-woun in Cornwall, &c. But most observable of all, is Stone­henge (the Chorea Gigantum of the Ancients) on Salisbury-Plain. Which Monuments are thought by some to consist of Natural Stones; by others, of Stones artificially compounded of pure Sand, Lime, Vitriol, and other unctious Matter. But if the Reader de­sires to see the various Conjectures of the Curious, concerning the Nature and Design of all such Monuments, together with the Draught of Stone-henge in particular, let him consult the late Edi­tion of Camden's Britannia, page 23, 95, 108, 269. (2.) In many Parts of England are yet to be seen the Vestigia, and Remains of divers Roman Military Ways; the principal of which is that men­tion'd in Leland's M. S. beginning at Dover, and passing through Kent to London, from thence to St. Albans, Dunstable, Stratford, Tou­cester, Littlebourn, St. Gilbert's Hill near Shrewsbury, then by Stratton, and so through the middle of Wales to Cardigan. (3.) In this Country are abundance of Medicinal Waters; whether for Bathing, as those especially in Somersetshire, (call'd the Baths, [...]) or Purging; particularly those of the Spaws in Yorkshire; Tunbridge in Kent; Ebisham and Dulledge in Surry; North-hall, Acton, and Islington in Middlesex. Here also are many other very remarkable Springs; whereof some are mightily impregnorated either with Salt, as that at Durtwich in Worcestershire; or Sulphure, as the famous Well at Wiggin in Lancashire, (of which afterwards) or Bituminous Matter, as that at Pitchford in Shropshire. Others have a Petrifying Quality, as particularly that near Lutterworth in Leicestershire; and the re­markable Droping-Well in the West-Riding of Yorkshire. And finally some Ebb and Flow, but that generally in a very irregular manner, as those of Peak-Forrest in Derbyshire, and Lay-Well near Torbuy, whose Waters rise and fall several times in one Hour. To these we may add that remarkable Fountain near Richard's Castle in Here­fordshire, commonly call'd Bone-Well, which is always full of small Fish-bones, (or such resemblances) though frequently empti'd and clear'd of them. (4) Many are the Roman Altars, which from time to time are dug up in this Kingdom, especially the Northern Parts thereof. As for their particular Shapes, and remarkable In­scriptions, with the places where now to be seen, Vid. Cambden, (late Edition) page 568, 570, 734, 782, 783, 826, 836, 844. and from 848 to 852. inclusively. (5.) In several places between Car­lisle and Newcastle, are some Remains of the famous Picts Wall, (so much talkt off by our English Historians) which did run through Cumberland and Northumberland, beginning at Tinmouth Bar, and ending at Solway-Frith, (6) In Cambridgeshire are Tracts of those [Page 201] large Ditches thrown up by the East-Angles, to prevent the Incursions of the Mercians, who frequently ruin'd all before them. And nigh to the Town of Cambridge, are some Vestigia of two spa­cious Camps; one Roman at Arborough, (a mile North of Cambridge) and the other at Gogmagog-Hills, on the other side of the Town. (7.) Near Wiggin in Lancashire, is the remarkable Well abovemen­tion'd, which being empti'd, there presently breaks out a sulphu­rous Vapour, which makes the Water bubble up as if it boil'd; and a Candle being put thereto, it instantly takes Fire and burns like Brandy. During a Calm, the Flame will continue a whole Day, and by its Heat they can boil Eggs, Meat, &c. and yet the Water it self is cold. (8.) In Whin [...]ield Park in Westmorland, is the Three-Brother-Tree, (so call'd because there were Three of 'em, the least whereof is this) which a good way from the Root is thirteen Yards and a half in Circumference. (9.) At Brosely, Bently, and Pitchford, with other Places adjacent in Shropshire, is found over most of the Coal-pits, a Stratum of blackish porous Stone, much impregno­rated with bituminous Matter; which Stone being pulveriz'd and boil'd in Water, the bituminous Substance riseth to the top, and being gather'd off, it comes to the Consistency of Pitch, and is us'd for such with good Effect. (10.) In Derbyshire is the famous Peak, and some hideous Cavities, as those call'd Pool's-Hole, Elden Hole, and another, which goes by the indecent Name of the Devil's Arse. In the first of these is dropping Water of a petrifying Nature; and at a small distance from it, a little clear Brook remarkable for consisting both of hot and cold Water, so join'd in the same Stream, that a Man may at once put the Finger and Thumb of the same Hand, one into hot, and the other into cold. (11.) Near Whitby in the North-Riding of Yorkshire, are found certain Stones resembling the Folds and Wreaths of a Serpent. And at Huntly-Nabb in the same Riding, are other Stones of several sizes, and so exactly round, as if artificially made for Cannon Balls, which be­ing broken, do commonly contain divers stony Serpents wreath'd up in Circles, but generally without Heads. (12) Near Alderly in Glocestcrshire, and on the tops of Mountains not far from Richmond, with several other parts of England, are Stones resembling Cokles, Oysters, and divers other Water Animals; which if once living Creatures, or the ludicrous Fancy of Nature, is not now my busi­ness to enquire. (13.) In Mendippe-hills in Somersetshire, is a prodi­gious Cave, call'd Ochy-Hole, which being of a considerable length, in it are discover'd some Wells and Rivulets. (14.) At Glassenbury in Somersetshire, are several ancient Pyramids, mention'd by William of Malmsbury, with imperfect Inscriptions; but why, when, and by whom erected, is meerly conjectural. (15.) In the Cathedral of Exeter is an Organ, which is reckon'd the largest of any in Eng­land, [Page 202] the greatest Pipe belonging to it being fifteen Inches Diame­ter, which is more by two, than the celebrated Organ of Ulm. (16.) In Dover-Castle is an old Table hung up, which imports that Julius Caesar landed upon that Part of the English Coast. Lastly, In the County of Surry is the English Anas, or the River Mole, which loseth it self under Ground, and ariseth again at some considerable distance; as doth also Recall in the North-Riding of Yorkshire. Camb­den, page 155 and 754. To these Rarities abovemention'd, I might here add some Stupendious Fabricks in this Kingdom, which may be fitly term'd Art's Master-Pieces: But to descend to particulars, would swell this Paragraph to a disproportionable bigness.

Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, are Two, viz. those of Archbishopricks.

Canterbury and York.

The Archbishop of Canterbury hath the Precedency of York, and is stil'd Primate of all England, the other being also Primate of England, but not of all England. A Controversy hotly debated be­tween these two Archiepiscopal Sees, but at last determin'd in favour of the former.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, (including Wales) are those of Bishopricks.

  • London,
  • Chichester,
  • Carlisle,
  • Durham,
  • Salisbury,
  • Exeter,
  • Winchester,
  • Worcester,
  • Chester,
  • Bath and Wells,
  • Lincoln,
  • Bristol,
  • Oxford,
  • St. Asaph,
  • Norwich,
  • Bangor,
  • St. Davids,
  • Glocester,
  • Rochester,
  • Peterborough,
  • Hereford,
  • Eli,
  • Landaff,
  • Litchfield and Coventry.

In point of Place, after the two Archbishops, followeth the Bishop of London; next to him, the Bishop of Durham; 3dly, the Bishop of Winchester, and then all the rest according to the Seniority of their Consecration.

Universities of this Kingdom, are those famous Seats of the Muses, or two Eyes of England, term'd Oxford Universities. and Cambridge; which for magnificent Buildings, rich Endowments ample Priviledges, as also number of Students, Li­braries, and learned Men are inferior to none, or rather not to be parallel'd by any in the World. The Names of the respective Col­leges and Halls in each of these Universities, (the most of which do surpass many of our Foreign Universities) are as followeth,

  • [Page 203]In Oxford are
  • In Cambridge are
  • University,
  • Magdalen,
  • Peterhouse,
  • Baliol,
  • Brazen-Nose,
  • Clare-Hall,
  • Merton,
  • Corpus Christi,
  • Bennet, or Corpus Christi,
  • Oriel,
  • Christ-Church,
  • Pembroke-Hall,
  • Exeter,
  • Trinity,
  • Trinity-Hall,
  • Queen's,
  • St. John's,
  • Gonvil and Caius,
  • New-College,
  • Jesus,
  • King's College,
  • Lincoln,
  • Wadham,
  • Queen's College,
  • All-Souls,
  • Pembroke.
  • Catherine-Hall,
  • Jesus-College,
  • Halls are Seven, viz.
  • Christ-College,
  • St. John's College,
  • Glocester,
  • Alban,
  • Magdalen-College,
  • St. Edmund,
  • St. Mary,
  • Trinity-College.
  • Magdalen,
  • New-Inn.
  • Emanuel-College,
  • Hart,
  • Sidney-Sussex.

The English being originally a mixture of divers Northern and Southern Nations, do still retain in their Manners. Humour, a just Mean, betwixt those two Extreams; for the dull Saturnine Genius of the one, and the hot Mercurial Tem­per of the other, meeting in their Constitutions, render them Inge­nious and Active, yet Solid and Persovering; which nourisht under a sutable Liberty, inspires a Courage both generous and lasting. This happy temperament of Spirit, wherewith this People is endu'd, doth eminently appear to the World, by that mighty Inclination they always had and still have, both to Arms and Arts, and that wonderful Progress they have hitherto made in each of them: For the matchless Valour and Bravery, the singular Prudence and Conduct of the English Nation both by Sea and Land, is so universally known, and hath been so frequently manifested in most Parts of the World, that many Potent States and Kingdoms have felt the Dint of their Sword, and been constrain'd to yield to the Force of their Arms. They have also so effectually appli'd themselves to all sorts of Ingenious Literature since the happy Days of our Reforma­tion, and are advanc'd to such a Pitch of True and Solid Learning; that they may justly claim a true Title to the Empire of Human Know­ledge. Finally, their manner of Writing (whether for Solidity of Matter, Force of Argument, or Elegancy of Stile) is indeed so transcendently Excellent, that no Nation hath yet surpass'd the English, and none can justly pretend to equal them.

[Page 204] The English Language being a mixture of the old Saxon and Norman, (one a Dialect of the Teutonic, and Language. the other of the French) having also some Tincture of the Ancient British, Roman, and Danish Tongues, is much refin'd of late and now deservedly reckon'd as Copious, Expressive, and Manly a Tongue as any in Europe. Harangues in this Language are capable of all the delightful Flowers of Rhetorick, and lively Strains of the truest Eloquence, nothing inferior to the most fluent Orations pronounc'd of old by the best of the Roman Orators: In a word, 'tis a Language that's rightly calculated for the Masculine Genius of those who own it. Pater-Noster in the English Tongue, runs thus: Our Father, which art in Heaven, &c.

The Kingdom of England is a famous Ancient and Hereditary Monarchy; a Monarchy which can seldom Government. admit of any Inter-regnum, and therefore is free from many Misfortunes, to which Elective Kingdoms are subject; yea, such a Monarchy (in the Words of that Worthy Gentlemen, Dr. Chamberlain, Author of the Present State of England) as that by the necessary subordinate Concurrence of the Lords and Com­mons in making and repealing of Statutes or Acts of Parliament, it hath the main Advantages of an Aristocracy and Democracy, and yet free from the Disadvantages and Evils of either. In short, 'tis a Monarchy (continues the aforesaid Author) as by most admirable Temperament, affords very much to the Industry, Liberty, and Happiness of the Subject, and reserves enough for the Majesty and Prerogative of any King, who will own his People as Subjects, not as Slaves. Chief Persons of this Realm, after the King and Princes of the Blood, are the Great Officers of the Crown, who are common­ly reckon'd Nine in number, viz. (1.) Lord High-Steward of Eng­land, an Officer indeed so great, or whose Power was esteem'd so exorbitant, that it hath been discontinued ever since the Days of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, (his Son Henry of Bullingbrook, being the last who had a State of Inheritance in that High Office) and is now confert'd by the King upon some of the Chief Peers only, pro illa vice, as upon occasion of the Crowning of a New King, or the Arraignment of a Peer of the Realm for Treason, Felony, or such like. (2) The Lord High-Chancellor, whose Office is to keep the King's Great Seal, to moderate the Rigor of the Law in judging according to Equity and not according to the Common Law. He also disposeth of all Ecclesiastical Benesices in the King's Gift, if valued under 20 l. a Year in the King's Book. In case there be no Chancellor, then the Lord Keeper is the same in Au­thority, Power, Precedence, only different in Patent. (3) The Lord High Treasurer, whose Office (as being Praefectus Aerarii) is to take charge of all the King's Revenue kept in the Exchequer; as [Page 205] also to check all Officers imploi'd in collecting the same, and such like. This Office is frequently executed by several Persons conjunctly in Commission, (term'd Lords of the Treasury) as at present. (4.) The Lord President of the Council, whose Office is to attend up­on the King, and Summons the Council, to propose business at Council-Table, and Report the several Transactions of the Board. (5.) The Lord Privy-Seal, whose Office is to pass all Charters and Grants of the King, and Pardons sign'd by the King before they come to the Great Seal of England; as also divers other Matters of smaller moment which do not pass the Great Seal. But this Seal is never to be affixt to any Grant without good warrant under the King's Privy-Signet, nor even with such Warrant, if the thing granted be against Law or Custom, until the King be first acquint­ed therewith. (6.) The Lord Great Chamberlain of England, whose Office is to bring the King's Shirt, Coif, and Wearing Cloaths, on the Coronation-day; to put on the King's Apparel that Morning, to carry at the Coronation the Coif, Gloves, and Linnen, which are to be us'd by the King on that Occasion; likeways the Sword and Scabard, as also the Gold (to be offer'd by the King) together with the Robe Royal and Crown; to Undress and Attire the King with his Royal Robes; to serve the King that Day with Water for to wash his Hands before and after Dinner. (7.) The Lord High Con­stable of England, an Officer, whose Power is so great, that 'twas thought inconvenient to lodge the same in any Subject since the Year 1521. and is now conferr'd on some of the chiefest Peers, pro re nata; as upon occasion of Coronations, or Solemn Tryals by Combat. (8.) The Earl Marshal of England, whose Office is to take cognizance of all Matters of War and Arms; to determine Contracts concerning Deeds of Arms out of the Realm upon Land, and Mat­ters touching Wars within the Realm, which the Common Law cannot determine. (9.) The Lord High admiral of England, whose Trust and Honour is so great, that this Office hath been usually given either to some of the King's younger Sons, near Kinsmen, or one of the chiefest Peers of the Realm: To him is committed the Management of all Maritime Affairs, the Government of the King's Navy; a decisive Power in all Causes Maritime, as well Civil as Criminal. He also Commissionates Vice-Admirals, Reer-Admirals, Sea-Captains, &c. and enjoys a number of Priviledges, too many here to be mention'd. This Office is commonly executed by several Persons conjunctly in Commission, (term'd Lords of the Admiralty) as at present.

After the Officers of the Crown, we might here subjoin the various Courts of Judicatory establisht in this Kingdom, especially the High Court of Parliament, which is Supreme to all others, and to whom all last Appeals are made. I might here likeways mention all the [Page 206] Subordinate Courts of this Realm, particularly that of the King's-B [...]nch, the Court of Common Pleas, the High Court of Chancery, the Exchequer, and the Court of the Dutchy of Lancaster, &c. as also the Ecclesiastical Courts in Subordination to the Archbishop of Canterbury; as the Court of Arches, the Court of Audience, the Prerogative Court, the Court of Faculties, and that of Peculiars. But to declare the Nature and Constitution, the ample Privileges and manner of Pro­cedure in each of them, would far exceed the narrow Bounds of an Abstract. I shall not therefore descend to particulars, only ad­ding to this Paragraph, that besides these various Courts above­mention'd, the King consulting the ease and welfare of the Subject, Administers Justice by his Itinerate Judges, and that in their yearly Circuits through the Kingdom; and for the better governing of, and keeping the King's Peace in particular Counties, Hundreds, Cities, Burroughs, and Villiages of this Realm. Counties have their respective Lord Lieutenants, Sheriffs, and Justices of the Peace; Hundreds, their Bailiffs, High-Constables, and Petty-Constables. Cities, their Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, &c. Burroughs and Towns incorporate, have either a Mayor, or two Bailiffs, or a Portrive, who in Power are the same with Mayor and Sheriffs; and during their Offices, are Justices of the Peace within their own Liberties. And lastly, Villiages are in Subjection to the Lord of the Mannor, under whom is the Constable or Headborough to keep the Peace, apprehend Offenders, and bring them before the Justice. Of such an admi­rable Constitution is the English Government, that no Nation what­soever can justly pretend to such a Model, and no People in the World may live more happy if they please; so that it may be justly affirm'd of them, what the Poet saith in another Case, only with change of Persons,

O fortunatos nimium sua si bona norint
Anglicanos!—

The Ensigns Imperial of the Monarch of Great Bri­tain, are in the first place Azure, Three Flower-de-Luces, Arms. Or; the Royal Arms of France quartered with the Im­perial Ensings of England, which are Gules, Three Lyons passant Gar­dant in Pale, Or. In the second place, within a double tressure Counter flowr'd de lys Or, a Lyon Rampant, Gules, for the Royal Arms of Scotland. In the third place Azure, and Irish Harp, Or, string'd, Ar­gent, for the Royal Ensigns of Ireland. In the fourth place as in the first. These Ensigns Armoral are quartered after a new man­ner since the late Revolution, the English Arms being put before the French, and the whole charg'd with an Escutcheon of the House of Nassau, which is Azure Semi-billets, a Lyon Rampant, Or, Languid [Page 207] and Armed, Gules; all within the Garter, the chief Ensign of that most Noble Order; above the same, an Helmet answerable to King William's Sovereign Jurisdiction; upon the same, a rich Mantle of Cloath of Gold, doubled Ermin, adorn'd with an Imperial Crown, and surmounted for a Crest by a Lyon passant Gardent, Or, Crowned, as the former, and an Unicorn Argent Gorged with a Crown, thereto a Chain affixt, passing between his Forelegs, and reflex'd over his Back, Or; both standing upon a Compartment plac'd underneath; and in the Table of that Compartment is express'd the King of England's Motto, which is, Dieu & mon Droit; but of late, J [...] Maintiendray.

The Inhabitants of this Country are (for the most part) of the true) Reform'd Religion publickly pro­fess'd, Religion. and carefully taught in its choicest Purity. In Reforming of which, they were not so hurri'd by popular Fury and Faction, (as in other Nations) but proceeded in a more Pru­dent, Regular, and Christian Method; resolving to separate no farther from the Church of Rome, than she had separated from the Truth, embracing that excellent Advice of the Prophet, (Jer. 6. 16.) Stand ye in the ways and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein. So that the Reform'd Church of England, is a true Mean or middle Way betwixt those two Extreams of Supper­stition and Phanaticism, both equally to be avoided. The Doctrine of which Church thus refin'd, is briefly summ'd up in the 39 Arti­cles, and Book of Homilies; and her Discipline and Worship are to be seen in the Liturgy, and Book of Canons. All which being seriously weigh'd and consider'd by a judicious and impartial Mind, it may be found that this National Church is for certain, the exactest of all the Reformed Churches, and comes nearest to the Primitive Pattern of any in Christendom. For her Doctrine is intirely built upon the Prophets and Apostles, according to the Explication of the Ancient Fathers; her Government (rightly considered) is truly Apostolical; her Liturgy is a notable extract of the best of the Primitive Forms; her Ceremonies are few in number, but such as tend to Decency and true Devotion. In a word, The Church of England doth firmly hold and maintain the whole Body of the truly Catholick Faith, (and none other) according to Holy Scripture, and the Four first General Councils, so that her Sons may truly say, (in the Words of an Eminent Luminary of the Ancient Church) In ea Regula incedi­mus quam Ecclesia ab Apostolis, Apostoli à Christo, & Christus à Deo accepit. At present all Sects and Parties are tollerated; and it's truly as Melancholly to consider, as 'tis hard to determine, whether our Heats and Divisions on one hand, or Open Prophaneness and Irreligion on the other, be most predominant. In the mean time this is most certain, that they're both equally to be lamented; [Page 208] the necessary Consequence of them both, being most dismal and dangerous in the end. But that it may please the Almighty to grant to all Nations, Unity, Peace, and Concord, is the daily and fervent Prayer of the Church of Christ; and the hearty wish and desire of every true Son thereof The Christian Faith is thought to have been planted in England, tempore (ut scimus) summo Tiberii Caesaris, according to Ancient Gildas; but afterwards more universally receiv'd, Anno 180. it being then openly profess'd by Publick Authority, under King Lucius, who is said to have been the first Christian King in the World; yet several doubt whether there was ever such a Man in the World. In general, this is certain that Christianity was propagated here in the earliest Ages of the Church.

WALES.

THIS Country, (the Seat of the Ancient Britains) term'd by the Italians, Wallia; by the Spaniards, Name. Gales; by the French, Galles; by the Germans, Walles; and by the English, Wales; so call'd (as some imagine) from Idwallo Son to Cadwallader, who retir'd into this Country with the remaining Bri­tains. But others do rather think that as the Britains derive their Pedigree from the Gauls, so they also retain the Name, this Coun­try being still term'd by the French, Galles, which using W for G, (according to the Saxon Custom) agrees pretty well with the present Title.

The Air of this Country is much the same as in those Counties of England, which lie under the same Air. Parallel of Latitude. The opposite Place of the Globe to Wales, is that Part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 190 and 200 Degrees of Longitude, with 56 and 60 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 9th North Climate) is generally very Mountainous, yet some of Soil. its Vallies are abundantly fertil, producing great plenty of Corn, and others are very fit for Pasturage. It's likeways well stor'd with large Quarries of Free Stone, as also several Mines of Lead-Oar and Coles. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts, is about 16 Hours ½, the shortest in the Southmost 7 Hours ¾, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Cattle, Butter, Cheese, Welch Friezes, Cottons, Bays, Her­rings, Commodities. Hides, Calve-Skins, Honey, Wax, and such like.

[Page 209] In several Parts of this Principality, especially Den­bighshire, are still to be seen the Remains of that famous Rarities. Wall, commonly call'd King Offa's D [...]ke, made by Offa the Mercian, as a Boundary between the Saxons and Britains. (2.) At a small Village, call'd Newton in Glamorganshire, is a remarkable Spring nigh the Sea, which Ebbs and Flows contrary to the Sea. (3.) In the same County, as also C [...]ermard [...]nshire are several An­cient Sepulchral Monuments, and divers noted Stone Pillars, with observable Inscriptions upon them. (3.) In Brecknockshire are some other remarkable Pillars; particularly that call'd Maen y Morynui [...]n, (or the Maiden-stone) near the Town of Brecknock: Another at Pentre Yskythrog in Lhan St. Ae [...]ed Parish: And a third in Form of a Cross, in Vaenor Parish. (4.) In Glamorganshire are the Remains of Kaer Phyli Castle, (taken by some for the Buliaeum Silurum) which are generally reckon'd the noblest Ruins of Ancient Architecture of any in Britain. (5) In Monmouthshire are many Roman Aitars dug up with variety of Inscriptions upon 'em. For all these Inscrip­ons abovementiond, Vid. Camden's Britannia, late Edition, from page 613 to 620. as also from 623 to 628 with page 593, 594, 600, 601, 605. But if the curious Reader would see the chief Rarities of Wales at one view, let him consult the aforesaid Author, (page 697.) where he will find the Remarkables of this Principality represented in Sculpture; particularly these following, viz. a cu­rious carved Pillar, call'd Maen-y-Chwyan, on Mostyn Mountain in Flintshire. Two remarkable Pillars at Kaer Phyli Castle in Glamorgan­shire. An Alabaster Statue found near Porth-Shini-Kran in Mon [...]outh­shire. And finally, some Roman Armour and Medals, with variety of Coins, both Roman and British, dug up at several times in several Parts of Wales

Archbishopricks in this Principality. None. Archbishopricks.

Bishopricks, 4. viz. those of

  • Bangor,
  • Landaff,
  • S. Asaph,
  • S. Davids,

already men­tion'd. Bishopricks, &c.

Universities. None. Universities.

The Welch are a People generally reputed very faith­ful and loving to one another in a strange Country, Manners. as also to Strangers in their own. The Commons (for the most part) are extraordinary Simple and Ignorant, but their Gentry are esteem'd both Brave and Hospitable. They're univer­sally inclin'd to a Cholerick Temper, and extravagantly value them­selves on their Pedigrees and Families.

The Welsh (being the Off-spring of the Ancient Bri­tains) do still retain their Primitive Language, which Language. yet remains freer from a mixture of exotick Words than any Modern Tongue in Europe; a Language which hath nothing to recommend it to Strangers, it being both hard to pronounce, [Page 210] and unpleasant to the Ear, by reason of its vast multitude of Conso­nants. Their Pater-Noster runs thus: Ein Tad yr hwn wyt yn y nefoedd, sancteidier dy enw: Deued dy deyrmas; bid dy ewyll s ar ydd [...]iar megis y mac yn y nefoedd dyro i ni heddyw ein bara beunyddiol: a maddeu i ni ein dyledion, fel y maddewn ni i'n dyledwyr: ac nar arwain mi brofe diageth, eithr gwared in rhag drwg. Amen.

This Principality was anciently govern'd by its own King or Kings (there being frequently one for Government. South, and another for North Wales, and sometimes no less than five did claim a Regal Power) but was fully Conquer'd, Anno 1282. by Edward I. who having then a Son brought forth by his Queen at Caernarven Castle in Wales, and finding the Welch extreamly averse against a Foreign Governor, proferr'd them the young Child (a Native of their own) to be their Lord and Master, to which they readily yielded, and accordingly swore Obedience to him; since which time, the King of England's Eldest Son is stil'd Prince of Wales, and all Writs in that Principality are issued out in his Name.

The Arms of the Prince of Wales differ from those of England, only by the Addition of a Label of three Arms. Points. But the proper and peculiar Divice, common­ly (though corruptedly) call d, the Princes Arms; is a Coronet beautifi'd with three Ostrich Feathers, with this Inscription round, Ich dien, i. e. I serve; alluding to that of the Apostle, The Heir while he is a Child, differeth not from a Servant.

The Inhabitans of this Country (at least the most Intelligent of 'em) are of the Reform'd Religion, ac­cording Religion. to the Platform of the Church of England; but many of the meaner sort are so grosly ignorant in Religious Matters, that they differ nothing from mere Heathens. For the remedying of which, the late incomparable Mr Gouge was at no small Pains and Charge, in Preaching the Blessed Gospel to them, and procuring and distributing among them some considerable number of Bibles, and Books of Devotion in their Language; which noble Design was afterwards reviv'd and further'd by the famous Robert Boyle, Esq;, and several other well disposs'd Persons, (particularly that much lamented Eminent Divine, Dr. Anthony Horneck) and we are willing to hope that the same will be kept still on foot, and happily promoted by the Aid and Encouragement of some serious Christians amongst us. The Christian Faith is said to have been planted in this Country towards the end of the Second Century.

[Page]

IRELAND. By Rob. Morden.
IRELAND.
 d.m.
Situatedbetween [...] [...]0of Long.its greatestLength from S. to N. is a­bout 265 Miles.
1210
between5100of Latit.Breadth from E. to W. is about 150 Miles.
5525

Divided into the Provinces ofLeinster—Ch. TownDublin.
Ulster—Londonderry.
Connaught—Galloway.
Munster—Limerick.

Leinster containsLouth County—Chief TownDrogheda—from N. to S.
Dublin—Idem—
Wicklow—Idem—
Wexford—Idem—
Longford—Idem—from N. to S.
Meath County—Molingar—
King's County—Philipstone—
Queen's County—Mari-burrow—
Kilkenny—Idem—
Kildare—Idem—E. ofK. County.
Caterlagh—Idem—Kilkenny.
Ulster containsDown-County—Down—from E. to S. W.
Armagh—Armagh—
Monogon—Idem—
Caven—Idem—
Antrim—Carrickfergusfrom E. to S. W.
Londonderry—Idem—
Tirone County—Duagannon
Fermanath—Inniskilling
Dunnagal—Idem, W. of Londonderry.
Conn. cont.Letrim—Idem—from N. to S.
Roscomon—Athlon—
Galloway—Idem—
Maio County—Maio—Westward.
Slego—Idem—

[Page 212]

Munster cont.Tipperary—Clonmel—N. to S.
Waterford—Idem— 
Clare County—Idem—N. to S.
Limerick—Idem— 
Cork County—Idem— 
Kerry—Dingle, Westward. 

THIS Country (the Britannia Parva of Ptolomy, mention'd by other Ancient Writers under the Name. Names of Jertia, Juverna, Iris, &c and by Modern Authors, Hibernia) is term'd by the Italians, Irlanda; by the Spani­ards, Irlanda; by the French, Irlande; by the Germans, Yrland; and by the English, Ireland; so call'd, (as some imagine) ab hiberno aere, from the Winter-like Air: but rather (according to others) from Erinland, which in the Irish Tongue signifieth a Western Land.

The Air of this Country is almost of the same Na­ture with that of those Parts of Britain, which lie Air. under the same Parallel, only different in this, that in several places of this Kingdom 'tis of a more gross and impure Temper, by reason of the many Lakes and Marishes which send up such a quantity of Vapours, and thereby so corrupt the whole Mass of Air, as to occasion Fluxes, Rheums, and such like Distem­pers, to which the Inhabitants are frequently subject. The oppo­site Place of the Globe to Ireland is that part of the Pacifick Ocean lying between 180 and 200 Degrees of Longitude, with 53 and 56 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 9th and 10th North Climate) is abundantly fertil, but natu­rally Soil. more fit for Grass and Pasturage, than Tillage. Much of this Kingdom is still overgrown with Woods, or incum­bred with vast Bogs and unwholesome Marishes, yeilding neither Profit nor Pleasure to the Inhabitants, but not near so much as formerly, there being a great deal of Wood cut down, and ma­ny large Marishes drain'd in this Age, and the Ground imploy'd for various sorts of Grain, which it produceth in great plenty. The longest Day in the Northmost Part of this Country is about 17 Hours [...]/4, [...]he [...] in the Southmost 7 Hours ¾, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Cattle, Hides, Tallow, Butter, Cheese, Honey, Wax, Salt, [...] Hem [...], Linnen Cloath, Pipe-Staves, Wooll, Friezes, &c.

[Page 213] About eight Miles North-East from Colrain, in the County of Antrim, is that Miracle, (whether of Art Rarities. or Nature, I shall not dispute) commonly call'd the Giants Cawsway, which runs from the bottom of a high Hill into the Sea, none can tell how far. Its length, at Low Water, is about 600 Feet; the breadth, where broadest, 240, and 120 in the nar­rowest; 'tis very unequal in height, being in some places 36 Feet from the level of the Strand, and in others only 15. It consists of many thousands of Pillars perpendicular to the Plain of the Hori­zon, and all of different Shapes and Sizes, but most of 'em Penta­gonal or Hex [...]gonal, yet all irregularly plac'd. A particular Draught and Description of this wonderful Cawsway, with an Es­say proving the same to be rather the Work of Nature than Art, Vid. Philosoph. Transact. N. 212 and 222. (2) In the Province of Ulster is the famous Lough Neagh, hitherto noted for its rare petri­fying Quality; but upon due Examination, 'tis found that the said Quality ought to be ascrib'd to the Soil of the Ground adjacent to that Lake, rather than to the Water of the Lake it self. (3) In se­veral Parts of this Kingdom are sometimes dug up Horns of a prodigious bigness, (one Pair lately found being ten Feet and ten Inches from the Tip of the right Horn to the Tip of the left) which gives occasion to apprehend that the great American Deer, (call'd the Moose) was formerly common in this Island. As for that excel­lent Quality of Ireland in nourishing no Venomous Creature, the same is so notoriously known, that I need say nothing of it.

Archbishopricks in this Kingdom, are Four, viz those of Armagh, Dublin, Cassil, and Tuam. The Archbishopricks. Archbishop of Armagh being Primate of all Ire­land.

Bishopricks in this Kingdom, are those of Bishopricks.

  • Meath,
  • Limerick, Ardfert, and Aghado,
  • Clonfert,
  • Kildare,
  • Elphin,
  • Ossory,
  • Waterford,
  • Rapho,
  • Leighlin and Ferns,
  • Cork and Ross,
  • Derry,
  • Kilaloe.
  • Cloyne,
  • Kilmore and Ardagh,
  • Killala,
  • Clogher,
  • Drommore.
  • Down and Conner,

Here is only one University, viz. That of Dublin. Universities.

The Irish (according to the best Character I find of 'em, viz. that of Dr. Heylin's) are a People that's ge­nerally Manners. strong and nimble of Body, haughty of Spi­rit, careless of their Lives, patient in Cold and Hunger, implaca­ble in Enmity, constant in Love, light of Belief, greedy of Glory. [Page 214] In a word, if they are bad, you shall no where find worse; if they be good, you can hardly meet with better.

The Language here us'd by the Natives being the Irish seems to be of a British Extraction, by compa­ring Language. the same with the Welsh. The English and Scots here residing retain their own. Pater-Noster in the Irish Tongue runs thus: Air nathir ataigh air nin, nabz far haminiti; tigiuh da riatiatche: deantur da hoilam hicoil air nimh agis air thalamhi. Air naran laidhthuil tabhair dhuin a' niomh; agis math duin dair shiaca ammil agis mathum viddar fentchunnim; agis na trilaic astoch say anausen; ac sarsino ole Amen.

The Government of this Country is by one Supreme Officer, who is commonly term'd the Lord Lieutenant Government. or Lord Deputy of Ireland. No Vice-Roy in Europe is invested with greater Power, nor cometh nearer the Majesty of a King in his Train and State than he. For his Assistance he's allow'd a Privy-Council to advise with upon all Occasions. As for the Laws of the Kingdom, (which are the standing Rule of all Civil Government) they owe their Beginning and Original to the English Parliament and Council, and must first pass the Great Seal of England. In absence of the Lieutenant, the Supreme Power is lodg'd in Lords Justices, who have the same Authority with a Lieutenant. The various Courts of Judicatory, both for Civil and Criminal Affairs, and their manner of proceeding in each of 'em, are much the same as here in England.

See England, page 206. Arms.

The Inhabitants of this Country are partly Prote­stants, partly Papists. The best civilized Parts of the Religion. Kingdom are of the Reform'd Religion, according to the Platform of the Church of England. But the far greater Part of the old Native Irish do still adhere to Popish Superstitions, and are as credulous of many Ridiculous Legends as in former times. The Christian Faith was first preached in this Country by St. Pa­trick, (Anno 435.) who is generally affirm'd to be the Nephew of St. Martin of Thurs.

[Page 215] And thus having travell'd through Britain and Ireland, [the Greater of the Britannick Islands] proceed we next to the Lesser, which in respect of Great Britain, are situated on the East, West, North, and South.

On the East areThe Holy Island—Remarkable Places areThe Old FortAll E of Nor­thumberland.
Fearn Islands—The Old Tower
Coket Island—
Sheppy Island—QuinboroughOn the Kentish Coast.
Thanet Island—
On the West areThe Lewes—Sowardil—found from N. to S.
Wiist—Kilfadrick
Sky—Kilvorie
Mu [...]Dowart-Castle
Jura—Kilardil—
Ila—Kilconan
Arren—Arren
Man—Russin—
Anglesey—Newburgh—
Scilly Islands—Castle Hugh—
On the North areThe Orkneys of which the chief areHoy—None—from S. to N. N. E.
MainlandKirkwall—
SapinshaElwick—
Westra—Periwa—
The Shetland of which the chief areMainlandYlesburg—
Yell—Gravelland—
On the South arePortland Island—Portland Castle S. of Dorsetshire.
Isle of Wight—Newport—S. of Hamp­shire.
Port-Sea Island—Portsmouth—
Isles ofJersey—St. Hillary—W. of Norman­dy.
Garnsey—St. Peter's Town
Alderney—Alderney—

The chief of which Lesser Islands being these following, viz.

The Oreades,The Isle ofMan,The Isles ofJersey,
The Schetland,Anglesey,Garnsey,
The Hebrides,Wight,Alderney.

Somewhat of all these, and in their Order. Therefore,

§. 1. The Orcades or Orknay Islands.

THE number of these Islands is indeed very great, and of 'em Twenty six are actually inhabited; the rest being call'd Holms, are us'd only for Pasturage. Most of 'em are bless'd with a very pure and healthful Air to breath in, but their Soil is very dif­ferent, being in some extreamly Dry and Sandy, in others Wet and Marish; however they're indifferently fruitful in Oats and Barly, but destitute of Wheat, Rye, and Pease. Many useful Com­modities are yearly exported from them to divers Foreign Parts. South-West of Swinna (one of those Islands) are two dreadful Whirl-pools in the Sea, [commonly term'd the Wells of Swinna] very terrible to Passengers, and probably occasion'd by some Sub­terranean Hiatus. In these Islands are several Footsteps of the Pictish Nation, from whom Pictland-Frith is commonly thought to derive its Name. The Inhabitants do still retain many Gothick and Teu­tonick Terms in their Language; and some Ancient German Sir­names (as yet in use) do plainly evince their Extraction. These Islands have been visited by the Romans, possess'd by the Picts, and subject to the Danes; but Christiern IV. of Denmark having quitted all his Pretensions to them in favour of King James VI. upon the Marriage of that Prince with his Sister, they have ever since ac­knowledged Allegiance to the Scottish Crown, and are immediately govern'd by the Stewart of Orknay, or his Deputy.

§. 2. The Shetland.

UNDER the Name of Shetland, are commonly comprehended no less than Forty six Islands, with Forty Holms, besides many Rocks. Of these Islands, about Twenty six are inhabited, the rest being us'd only for feeding of Cattle. They enjoy a very healthful Air, and the Inhabitants do generally arrive to a great Age. In several of them are some Obelisks still standing, with divers old Fa­bricks, made (as is commonly believ'd) by the Picts. The Gentry, who remov'd hither from the Continent, usually speak as in the North of Scotland; but the Common Sort of People (who are de­scended from the Norvegians) do still retain a corrupt Norse Tongue, call'd Norn. All these Islands belong now to the Crown of Scotland, and are reckon'd a part of the Stewarty of Orknay.

§. 3. The Hebrides.

THIS mighty Cluster of Islands (the Ebudes of Ptolomy, Solinus, and Pliny,) are commonly term'd the Western Isles from their Situation in respect of Scotland, to which Crown they belong. In Soil they're very different, but generally blest with a pure and healthful Air. They surpass Three hundred in number, though reckon'd by some but Forty four. Their Inhabitants use the Irish Tongue, yet with difference of Dialect from that in Ireland; and are much the same with the Highlanders on the Continent of Scotland, both in Habit, Customs, and Manner of Living. The most remarkable of all these Islands, are Two, viz. Jona and St. Kilda. The former (now call'd Columbkill, nigh the Isle of Mull) is noted for being of old the burying Place of the Kings of Scotland, and the chief Residence of the Ancient Culdees. The other (term'd by the Islanders, Hirt; by Buchanan, Hirta; and afterwards St. Kilda or Kildir) is the remotest of all the Hebrides, and so observa­ble for some Remarkables therein, and several uncommon Customs peculiar to its Inhabitants, that a Description thereof was of late thought worthy of a particular Treatise, entituled, A Voyage to St. Kilda, to which I remit the Reader,

§. 4. The Isle of Man.

THIS Island (call'd Monoeda, by Ptolomy; and by Pliny, Mond­bia.) enjoys a very cold and sharp Air, being expos'd on eve­ry side to the bleak piercing Winds from the Sea. Its Soil oweth much of its Fertility to the Care and Industry of the Husbandman. The Inhabitants (a mixture of English, Scots, and Irish, commonly call'd Mank [...]-men,) have in general a very good Character. The ordinary sort of People retain much of the Irish in their Language and way of Living; but those of better Rank strive to imitate the English. In this they're peculiarly happy, that all litigious Pro­ceedings are banish'd from among 'em, all Differences being spee­dily determin'd by certain Judges, call'd Deemsters, and that with­out Writings or Fees: If the Case be found very intricate, then 'tis referr'd to twelve Men, whom they term the Keyes of the Island. This Island with the Advowson of the Bishoprick, belongs to the Earls of Derby, who are commonly stil'd Lords of Man, though Kings in effect, they having all kind of Civil Power and Jurisdiction over the Inhabitants, but still under the Fief and Sovereignty of the Crown of England.

§. 5. Anglesey.

THIS Island (the celebrated Mona of the Romans, and Ancient Seat of the Druides) is bless'd with a very fruitful Soil, pro­ducing most sorts of Grain (especially Wheat) in such abundance, that the Welsh commonly term it, Môn mam Gymry, i. e. Môn, the Nursery of Wales, because that Principality is frequently suppli'd from thence in unseasonable Years. 'Tis commonly reckon'd as one of the Counties of North-Wales, and acknowledgeth Subjection to the Crown of England.

§. 6. The Isle of Wight.

THIS Island (term'd by Ptolomy, [...]; and by the Romans, Vecta, Vectis, or Victesis;) enjoys a pure healthful Air; and is generally reckon'd a very pleasant and fruitful Spot of Ground. 'Twas once honour'd (as the Isle of Man) with the Title of King­dom, for Henry Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, was Crown'd King of Wight by Henry VI. Anno 1445. but that Title died with himself about two Years after; and 'tis now reckon'd only a Part of Hamp­shire, and is govern'd in like manner, as other of the Lesser Islands.

§. 7. Jersey, Garnsey, and Alderney.

THESE Islands are all of William the Conqueror's Inheritance, and Dukedom of Normandy, that now remains in Possession of the English Crown. Their Soil is sufficiently rich, producing in great abundance both Corn and Fruits, especially Apples, of which they make plenty of Syder; and the Air is so healthful to breath in, that the Inhabitants have little or no use for Physicians among 'em. They chiefly imploy themselves in Agriculture, and Knit­ting of Stockings; and during War with France, they're much given to Privateering. It's observable of Garnsey, that no venomous Crea­ture can live in it; and that the Natives generally look younger by ten Years than they really are. These Islands being annext to the English Crown, Anno 1108. by Henry I have (to their great Honour) continued firm in their Allegiance to England ever since that time; notwithstanding of several attempts made upon them by the French. And so much for the Lesser Britannick Islands: But if the Reader desires a larger Account of 'em, let him consult [Page 219] the late Edition of Cambden's Britannia, from page 1049 to 1116. inclusively.

Having thus particularly survey'd the Britannick Islands, both Greater and Lesser, proceed we now (according to our propos'd Method) to the Second Part of this Section, which is to take a View of all other Islands belonging to Europe, whether they lie on the North, West, or South of the main Continent. Therefore,

II. Of all other European Islands.

European Islands being situated on theNorthof Europe.
West
South

On theNorth, are the Scandinavian Islands.
West areThe Isle of Ice-land.
The Britannick, [of which already.]
The Azores.
South are those in the Mediterranean Sea.

Of which in their Order.

§. 1. The Scandinavian Islands.

Such Islands are those belonging to

  • Sweden.
  • Denmark.
  • Norway.
To Sweden are chiefly those ofRugen—Chief TownBergen—W: to N. E.
Bornholn—Rottomby—
Oeland—Borkholm—
Gothland—Wishby—
Oesal—Arnsberg—
Dago—Dageroot—
Aland—Castleholm, Northward.

[Page 220]

To Denmark are chiefly those ofZealand—Chief TownCopenhagenCapital of all.
Funen—Odensee—W. to E.
Langland—Ruthkoping
Laland—Naxkow—
Falster—Nykoping
Mina—Steg [...]
F [...]meren—Borge—S. W. ofLaland.
Ais [...]n—SonderborgFunen.

To Norway are chiefly those ofCarmen—LyingW. of S [...]avanger—S. to N.
Hiteren—W. of Dronthem—
Sanien—Adjacentto Wardhus—
Suroy—Adjacent

Of all these Islands, Zealand is the most remarkable, and that only for the City of Copenhagen, as being the Seat Royal of the Kings of Denmark.

§ 2. The Isle of Ice-land.

THIS Island (taken by some for the much con­troverted Thule of the Ancients) is term'd by the Name. Italians, Islanda; by the Spaniards, Tierra elada; by the French, Islande; by the Germans, Island; and by the English, Ice-land, so call'd from the abundance of Ice, wherewith 'tis environed for the greatest part of the Year.

By reason of the frozen Ocean surrounding this Island, and the great quantity of Snow wherewith 'tis Air. mostly cover'd, the Air must of necessity be very sharp and piercing, yet abundantly healthful to breath in, especially to those who are accustomed with that cold Climate. The opposite Place of the Globe to Ice-land, is that part of the vast Antarctick Ocean, lying between 180 and 190 Degrees of Longitude, with 60 and 70 Degrees of South Latitude.

Considering only the Situation of Ice-land, (it lying in the 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st North Climate) we Soil. may easily imagine the Soil is none of the best. In some Parts where the Ground is level, there are indeed several Meadows very good for Pasture, but elsewhere the Island is encum­bred either with vast Deserts, barren Mountains, or formidable Rocks. So destitute of Grain is it, that the poor Inhabitants grind and make Bread of dri'd Fish-bones. In the Northern Parts they have the Sun for one Month without Setting, and want [Page 221] him intirely another, according as he approacheth the Two Tro­picks.

From this cold and barren Island, are yearly export­ed Fish, Whale-Oyl, Tallow, Hides, Brimstone, and Commodities. White Foxes Skins, which the Natives barter with Strangers for Necessaries of Humane Life.

Notwithstanding this Island do [...] lie in so cold a Climate, yet in it are divers hot and scalding Foun­tains, Rarities. with Hecla a terrible Valcano, which (though al­ways covered with Snow up to the very Top) doth frequently Vomit forth Fire and Sulphurous Matter in great abundance; and that sometimes with such a terrible roaring, that the loudest Claps of Thunder are hardly so formidable. In the Western Parts of the Island is a Lake of a petrifying Nature, and towards the middle, another which commonly sends up such a pestilentious Vapour, as frequently kills Birds that endeavour to fly over it. Some also write of Lakes on the Tops of Mountains, and those well-stor'd with Salmons.

In this Island are two Danish Bishopricks, viz. Archbishopricks, &c. those of Schalholt and Hola. Archbishopricks and Universities, none.

The Ice-landers (being Persons of a middle Stature, but of great Strength) are generally reckon'd a very Manners. ignorant and superstitious Sort of People. They com­monly live to a great Age, and many value themselves not a little for their Strength of Body. Both Sexes are much the same in Ha­bit, and their chief Imployment is Fishing.

The Danes here residing, do usually speak as in Den­mark. As for the Natives, they still retain the old Language. Gothick Tongue.

This Island being subject to the Danish Crown, is go­vern'd by a particular Vice-Roy, sent thither by the Government King of Denmark, whose place of Residence is ordinar­ly in Bestode-Castle.

For Arms. Vid. Denmark, page 69. Arms.

The Inhabitants of this Island, who own Allegiance to the Danish Crown, are generally the same in Reli­gion Religion. with that profess'd in Denmark; as for the unci­vilized Natives, who commonly abscond in Dens and Caves, they still adhere to their Ancient Idolatry as in former times. When Christianity was first introduc'd into this Island, is not very cer­tain.

§. 3. The Azores.
They are in Number 9. viz.St. Michael—Found from E. to W. Chief Town of all, is Angra in Tercera.
St. Maria—
Tercera—
Gratiosa—
St. George—
Pico—
Fyal—
Flores—
Cuervo—

THESE Islands (taken by some for the Cathite­rides of Ptolomy) are term'd by the Italians, Flan­drice Name. Isola; by the Spaniards, Los Azores; by the French, Les Azores; by the Germans, Flandersche Insuln; and by the English, The Azores; so call'd by their Discoverers, (the Portugueze) from the abundance of Hawks found in them. By others, they're term'd the Terceres from the Island Tercera, being chief of all the rest.

The Air of these Islands inclining much to Heat, is tollerably good, and very agreeable to the Portugueze. Air. The oposite Place of the Globe to the Azores, is that Part of Terra Australis Incognita, lying between the 165 and 175 De­grees of Longitude, with 35 and 41 Degrees of South Latitude.

These Islands are bless'd with a very fertil Soil, pro­ducing abundance of Grain, Wine, and Fruit, besides Soil. great plenty of Wood. The length of the Days and Nights in the Azores, is the same as in the middle Provinces of Spain, lying under the same Parallels of Latitude.

The chief thing exported from these Islands, is Oad for Diers, and that in great abundance, together Commodities. with variety of choice Singing Birds.

Here are several Fountains of hot Water, and one in Tercera of a petrifying Nature. The Island Tercera Rarities. is also remarkable for being the place of the first Me­ridian, according to some Modern Geographers.

Here is one Bishoprick, viz. That of Angra, un­der Archbishopricks, &c. the Archbishop of Lisbone.

The Inhabitants of these Islands being Portugueze, are much the same in Manners with those on the Manners. Contient.

The Portugueze here residing, do still retain and Language. speak their own Language.

[Page 223] These Islands being inhabited and possess'd by the Portugueze, are subject to the Crown of Portugal, and Government. rul'd by a particular Governor sent thither from that Court, who ordinarily refides at Angra in Tercera. Arms.

The Inhabitants of these Islands being Portugueze, (as aforesaid) stick close to the Roman Religion, and Religion. that in its grossest Errors, as universally profess'd, and by Law establish'd in the Kindom of Portugal.

§. 4. Mediterranean Islands.

ON the South of Europe are the Islands of the Mediterranean Sea: The chief of which are these following,

Viz.Majorca—Chief TownIdem—Lying E. of Valencia.
Minorca—Citadella—
Yvica—Idem—
Corsica—Bastia—Lying S. of Genoua.
Sardignia—Cagliari—
Sicily—Palermo—Lying S. W. of Naples.
Malta—Idem—
Candia—Idem—lying S. ofThe Archipelago.
Cyprus—Nicosia—Anatolia.

Of all which in Order, beginning with

Majorca, Minorca, and Yvica.

EACH of these Islands hath almost the same Mo­dern Appellation among the Italians, Spaniards, Name. French, Germans, and English; and were all known of old by the Name of Baleares, which is derived from [...] signi­fying to Dart or Throw, because their Inhabitants were famous for their Dexterity in throwing the Dart.

The Air of these Islands is much more temperate to breath in, than any where on the Adjacent Continent, Air. being daily fann'd by cool Breezes from the Sea. The opposite Place of the Globe to the Baleares, is that part of the Paci­fick Ocean, between 200 and 205 Degrees of Longitude, with 35 and 40 Degrees of South Latitude.

[Page 224] The two former of these Islands are somewhat Mountainous and Woody, but the last is more plain, Soil. and extreamly fertil, both in Corn, Wine, and divers sort of Fruits: It likeways so aboundeth with Salt, that divers Neighbouring Countries are suppli'd from thence.

From these Islands are exported to several Parts of Europe, Salt, Wine, Brandy, Coral, with variety of Commodities. Fruits, &c.

On the Coasts of Majorca is found abundance of ex­cellent Coral, for which the Inhabitants frequently Rarities. fish with good success. Yvica is said to nourish no noxi­ous Animal, and yet Formentera (an Adjacent Island, and one of the Baleares) is so infested with Serpents, that the same is uninhabited.

In these Islands is one Bishoptick, viz. that of Ma­jorca, (under the Archbishop of Terragon) where is Archbishoprick, also a famous University.

The Inhabitants of these Islands being Spaniards, are much the same in Manners with those on the Con­tinent. Manners.

What was just now said of the Spaniards on these Islands, in respect of Manners, the same may be affirm'd Language. of 'em in Point of Language.

These Islands being annext to the Crown of Spain, are rul'd by one or more Governors, sent thither by Government. his Catholick Majesty, and generally renew'd every third Year. Arms.

The Inhabitants of these Islands being Spaniards, are all of the Roman Communion, and as bigotted Religion. Zealots for the Popish Doctrine, as elsewhere on the Continent. They receiv'd the Light of the Blessed Gospel much about the same time with Spain.

Corsica and Sardignia.

THE former of these Islands (call'd first by the Greeks Tercepne, and afterwards Cyrne from Cyrnus, Name. reckon'd by some a Son of Hercules) is now term'd Corsica from Corsa Bubulca, a certain Woman of Liguria, who is said to have led a Colony out of that Country hither. And the other (according to the Opinion of its Inhabitants) is call'd Sardignia from Sardus, another Son of Hercules, who they say was the first that settled a Colony therein, and gave it this Name in Memory of him­self.

[Page 225] The Air of these Islands is universally reckon'd to be very unhealthful, especially that of Corsica, which is Air. the reason of its being so thinly inhabited. The opposite Place of the Globe to them, is that part of Nova Zelandia, or Adj­cent Ocean, between 210 and 215 Degrees of Longitude, with 37 and 43 Degrees of South Latitude.

These Islands differ mightily in Soil, the former be­ing (for the most part) very Stony, full of Woods, Soil. and lying uncultivated; but the other very fertil, af­fording abundance of Corn, Wine, and Oyl, &c. The length of the Days and Nights in these Islands, is the same as in the Middle and Southern Parts of Spain.

The chief Commodities exported from these Islands, are Corn, Wine, Oyl, Salt, Iron, and several sorts of Commodities. Fruits, especially Figs, Almonds, Chesnuts, &c.

In several Parts of Corsica is found a Stone, (com­monly call'd Catochite) which being handled sticks to Rarities. the Fingers like Glew. Sardignia is said to harbour no venomous Creature, no, nor any noxious Animal, save Foxes, and a little Creature, (nam'd Solifuga) which resembles a Frog. Those Animals, call'd Mafrones, or Mastriones, are peculiar to this Island.

Archbishopricks, are Cagliari, Gassari, and Ori­stagni, all in Sardignia. Archbishopricks, &c.

Bishopricks are those of Nebbio, Ajazzo, Mariana, Al­teria, Sagona, and Accia, all in Corsica, (whereof the Bishopricks. four last are now ruin'd) together with Villa d'Iglesia, Bosa, and Algheri, in Sardignia.

Here is only one University, viz. that of Cagliart. Universities.

The Inhabitants of Corsica are reputed (for the ge­nerality of 'em) a cruel, rude, and revengeful Sort Manners. of People; a People so given to Piracy in former times, that many think the Name of Corsaires is deriv'd from them. As for the Inhabitants of Sardignia, they being mostly Spaniards, are much the same with those in Spain.

Languages here in use are the Spanish and Italian, the former in Sardignia, and the latter in Corsica, but Language. mightily blended one with another.

The Isle of Corsica, being subject to the Genoeses, is rul'd by a particular Governor, (who hath for his Government. Assistance, one Lieutenant, and several Commissaries) sent thither by the Republick of Genoua, and renew'd once in two Years; and Sardignia (being in the Possession of the Spaniard) is govern'd by a Vice-Roy appointed by his Catholick Majesty, and renew'd every third Year.

[Page 226] The Inhabitants of both these Islands adhere to the Arms. Roman Church in her grossest Errors, and receive Riligion. with an implicit Faith whatever she teaches; and cor­respondent to their Principles is their Practice, especially in Sar­dignia; where the People are so grosly Immoral, as usually to dance and sing prophane Songs in their Churches immediately after Divine Worship. The Christian Faith was planted here much about the same time with the Northern Parts of Italy.

SICILY.

THIS Island (of old Sicania, Trinacria, and Tri­quetra) is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Name. Sicilia; by the French, Sicile; by the Germans, Sicilien; and by the English, Sicily. Its Name is deriv'd from Siculi, (an Ancient People in Latium) who being driven from their Coun­try by the Aborigines, were forc'd to seek for new Habitations, and accordingly came over to Sicania, (headed, as some alledge, by one Siculus) which from them acquir'd a new Name, viz. that of Sicily.

No Island in these Parts of the World enjoys a purer and more healthful Air than this does. The opposite Air. Place of the Globe to Sicily, is that Part of Nova Ze­landia, between 215 and 220 Degrees of Longitude, with 34 and 38 Degrees of South Latitude.

Fully answerable to the healthfulness of the Air, is the Fertility of the Soil, several of its Mountains Soil. being incredibly fruitful, even to the very Tops. The length of the Days and Nights here is the same; as in the Southern Provinces of Spain, they both lying under the same Par­rallels of Latitude.

The chief Commodities of this Island, are Silks, Wine, Honey, Sugar, Wax, Oyl, Saffron, and many Medi­cinal Commodities. Drugs, &c.

Near to Ancient Syracuse, are some Subterranean Ca­vities, where Dionysius the Tyrant, shut up his Slaves. Rarities. Over these Cavities was his Palace, and being anxious to over-hear what his Slaves spoke among themselves, here is still to be seen a Communication between the aforesaid Cavities and his Pa­lace, cut out of the firm Rock, and resembling the interior Frame of a Man's Ear, which makes such a curious Eccho, that the least Noise, yea, articulate Words and Sentences, when only whisper'd, are clearly heard. Here also is a large Theatre of the same Tyrant, [Page 227] cut out of the firm Rock. Known all the World over, is that hi­deous Vulcano of this Island, the famous Mount Aetna, (now Gibell) whose sudden Conflagrations and sulphurious Eruptions are some­times most terrible and destructive; witness those which happned in the Year 1669. and more lately. Anno 1693. For a particular Description of this remarkable Mountain, and all other noted Vulcano's in the World. Vid. Bottoni Leontini, his Pyrologia Typo­graphica.

In this Island are Three Archbishopricks, viz. those of Archbishopricks.

  • Palermo,
  • Messina,
  • Mont-Real.

Here likeways are Seven Bishopricks, viz those of Bishopricks.

  • Syracuse,
  • Cefaledi,
  • St. Marco,
  • Mazara.
  • Catana,
  • Pati,
  • Gergenti,

Here is only one University, viz. that of Catana. Universities.

The Sicilians being mostly Spaniards, are much the same in Manners with those in Spain, only with this Manners. difference, that they merit (according to some) a blacker Character than a Native Spaniard.

The ordinary Language of the Sicilians is Spanish, which is commonly us'd, not only by the Native opa­niards, Language. but also Persons of all other Nations, residing in the Island.

This Island belonging to the Spaniard, (for which he does homage to the Pope) is rul'd by a particular Government. Vice-Roy, appointed and sent thither by his Catholick Majesty, whose Government (as are most other of the Spanish Vice-Roys) is Triennial, and place of Residence, Palermo.

For Arms. Vid. Spain, page 141 Arms.

The Religion here establisht and publickly profess'd, is the same as in Italy and Spain. This Island receiv'd the Religion. Light of the Blessed Gospel in the earliest Ages of the Church.

MALTA.

THIS Island (known formerly by the same Name, or Melita) is term'd by the French, Malte; by Name. the High Germans, Maltha; by the Italians, Spaniards; and English, Malta; why so call'd, is not fully agreed upon among [Page 228] Criticks; yet most affirm, that its Name of Melita came from the plenty of Honey in this Island.

The Air of this Island is extremely hot and stifling, the many high Rocks towards the Sea obstructing the Air. benefit of cool Breezes from the surrounding Ocean. The opposite Place of the Globe to Malta, is that part of Nova Ze­landia, between 215 and 220 Degrees of Longitude, with 32 and 34 Degrees of South Latitude.

This Island can lay no just Claim to an Excellency of Soil, it being extremely Dry and Barren, and Soil. much encumbred with Rocks. It affordeth little Corn or Wine, but is suppli'd from Sicily of both. The length of Days and Nights in Malta, is the same as in the Southmost Part of Spain.

Malta being a place no ways remarkable for Trade, its Commodities are very few; the chief Product of Commodities. the Island being only Cuminseed, Anniseed, and Cottonwooll.

Worthy of Obervation, is St. John's Church, with its rich and magnificent Vestry, as also the Observatory, Rarities. Treasury, and Palace of the Grand Master. The In­habitants pretend that Malta hath entertain'd no venomous Crea­ture since the Days of St. Paul, who (they say) blessed this Island upon the shaking off the Viper from his Hand into the Fire.

Here are Two Bishopricks, viz those of Malta and Citta, or Civitta Vecchia. Archbishopricks and Archbishopricks, Universities, none.

The Inhabitants of this Island (not reckoning the Slaves) are for the most part very Civil and Courte­ous Manners. to Strangers; and follow the Mode of the Sicilians in Habit. They also resemble the Sicilians in some of their worst Qualities, being extremely Jealous, Treacherous, and Cruel.

A corrupt Arabick doth here mightily prevail, being hitherto preserv'd by the frequent Supplies of Turks ta­ken Language. and brought in from time to time. But the Knights and People of any Note, understand and speak several European Lan­guages, particularly the Italian, which is authoriz'd by the Govern­ment, and us'd in publick Writings.

This Island after many turns of Fortune, was pre­sented by the Emperor, Charles V. to the Order of Government. the Knights of St. John of Hierusalem, whose place of Residence it hath hitherto been since the loss of Rhodes, and is now govern'd by the Patron of that Order, stil'd the Grand Master of the Hospital of St. John of Hierusalem, and Prince of Malta, Gaules, and Goza. The Knights did formerly consist of eight different [Page 229] Languages or Nations, (whereof the English was the sixth) but now they're only seven.

For Arms, the Grand Master beareth a White Cross (commonly call'd the Cross of Jerusalem) with four Arms. Points.

The establisht Religion in Malta, is that of the Church of Rome, which is made essential to the Order, Religion. no Person of a different Perswasion being capable to enter therein. This Island receiv'd the Blessed Gospel in the Apo­stolick Times.

CANDIA.

THIS Island (the famous Crete of the Ancients) is term'd by the French, Candie; by the Germans, Name. Candien; by the Italians, Spaniards, and English, Can­dia; so call'd from its chief Town Candie, built by the Saracens, who from their new Town, gave the Island a new Name.

The Air of this Island is generally reckon'd to be very Temperate and Healthful to breath in; but the Air. South-winds are sometimes so boisterous, that they much annoy the Inhabitants. The opposite Place of the Globe to Candia, is that part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, between 231 and 236 Degrees of Longitude, with 34 and 37 Degrees of South La­titude.

This Island is bless'd with a very rich and fertil Soil, producing in great abundance, both Corn, Wine, Soil. Oyl, and most sorts of excellent Fruits. The length of the Days and Nights in Candia, is the same as in the Northmost Parts of Barbary. Of which afterwards.

The chief Commodities of this Island, are Muscadel-Wine, Malmsey, Sugar, Sugar-Candy, Honey, Wax, Commodities. Gum, Olives, Dates, Rasins, &c.

North of Mount Psilorili, (the famous M. Ida) is a remarkable Grotto dug out of the firm Rock, which di­vers Rarities. of our Modern Travellers would fain perswade 'emselves to be some Remains of King Minos's Labyrinth, so much talk'd off by the Ancients.

Before the Turkish Conquest of this Island, there was one Archbishop, who had Nine Suffragans; but since Bishopricks, &c. they chang'd their Masters, the number of such Eccle­siasticks is neither sixt nor certain.

[Page 230] The Inhabitants of this Island were formerly given to Piracy, Debauchery, and Lying, especially the Manners. last; and so noted were they for the same, that a notorious Lye was commonly term'd Mendacium Cretense. For this detestable Vice were they reproach'd by one of their own Poets, Epimenides, out of whose Writings the Apostle citeth these words, K [...], Tit. 1. 12. Their Experience in Maritime Af­fairs was indeed very great, and they're represented as a very considerable People among the Ancients for their Skill in Naviga­tion. The present Inhabitants being Turks and Greeks, their respe­ctive Characters are already given, page 174, 181.

Languages here in use, are the Vulgar Greek and Turkish, especially the former, the number of Greeks on Language. the Island, being far greater than that of the Turks. For a Specimen of which Languages. Vid. page 175 and 181.

This Island, after a bloody and tedious War of Twenty four Years, between the Turks and Vene­tians, Government. was at last constrain'd to submit to the Ottoman Yoak, Anno 1669. under which it hath ever since groan'd, and is now govern'd by a Turkish Sangiack, whose place of Residence is usually at Candie, the Capital City of the whole Island.

See the Danuubian Provinces, page 182. Arms.

Christianity according to the Greek Church, is here profess'd by Tolleration, but Mahometanism is the Religion. Religion establisht by Authority. This Island receiv'd the Light of the Blessed Gospel in the Apostolick Age.

CYPRUS.

THIS Island (known anciently by divers Names, besides the present, particular those of Acaman­tis, Name. Amathusa, Aspelia, Cryptos, Cerastis, Macaria, and Aerosa) is term'd by the Italians, Isola di Cypro; by the Spaniards, Chypre; by the French, Cypre; and by the Germans and English, Cy­prus; so call'd (as most imagine) from K [...], [i. e. Cypress] wherewith this Island did mightily abound in former times.

There being several Lakes, and some Natural Salt­pits in Cyprus, from which abundance of noxious Air. Vapours daily arise; these intermixing 'emselves with the Body of the Atmosphere, do render the Air very gross and unhealthful to breath in, especially during the sultry Heat of Sum­mer. The opposite Place of the Globe to this Island, is that part of [Page 231] the Pacifick Ocean, between 235 and 240 Degrees of Longitu with 33 and 35 Degrees of South Latitude.

Cyprus was formerly bless'd with so rich and fruitful a Soil, that from its Fertility, and several Mines Soil. found therein, the Greeks bestow'd upon this Island the desirable Epithet of [...], i. e. Beata. But now 'tis re­markable for neither of these, especially the former, being in most Parts extremely Barren, though commonly represented otherways. The length of the Days and Nights in Cyprus, is the same as in the Northmost Parts of Barbary, (of which afterwards) they both lying under the same Parallel of Latitude.

The chief Commodities of this Island are Silk, Cot­ton, Oyl, Honey, Saffron, Rubarb, Colliquintida, Commodities. Scammony, Turpentine, Black and White Al­lum, &c.

On the Eastern Part of this Island stands the famous Famagousta, remarkable at present for its Mordern For­tifications; Rarities. and Eterniz'd in Fame for the unfortu­nate Valour of the Venetians, Anno 1571. under the Command of Signior Bragadino, against the furious Assaults of Selymus the Second, with his numerous Army, conducted by Piuli and Musta­pha. (2.) Not far from the present Famagousta, are the Ruins of an Ancient City, generally esteem'd to have been that call'd formerly Salamina, and afterwards Constantia; which was ransack'd by the Jews, in the time of the Emperor Trajan, and finally de­stroy'd by the Saracens, in the Reign of Heraclius. (3.) Nigh that Promontory, commonly call'd, The Cape of Cats (but formerly Cu­rias) are the Ruins of a Monastry of Greek Caloyers, which gave the Cape its Name from a remarkable Custom to which these Monks were oblig'd, viz. Their keeping a certain number of Cats, for the hunting and destroying of many Serpents that infested those Parts of the Island; to which Exercise those Creatures are said to have been so nicely bred, that at the first Sound of the Bell they would give over their Game, and immediately return to the Con­vent. (4.) In the Maritime Village of Salines, is a ruinous Greek Church, where Strangers are led into a little obscure Tomb, which the Modern Greeks affirm to be the place of Lazarus's second Interment. (5.) Adjacent to Salines is a remarkable Lake, or Na­tural Salt-pit of a considerable extent, whose Water congeals into solid white Salt by the Power of the Sun-beams. Lastly, In this Island is a high Hill, (the Ancient Olympus of Cyprus) call'd by the Franks, The Mountain of the Holy Cross, remarkable for nothing at present save several Monastries of Greek Caloyers, of the Order of St. Basil.

[Page 232] Here is one Greek Archbishop, who commonly resideth nigh to Nicosia; and three Bishops, Archbishopricks, &c. whose places of Residence, are Paphos, Larnica, and Cerines.

This Island being inhabited by Greeks and Maho­metans, especially the former, (they being far supe­rior Manners. in number to the Turks) their respective Cha­racters are already given, [page 174 and 181.] to which I re­mit the Reader.

Languages here in use, are the Turkish and Vulgar Greek, especially the latter; but Lingua Franca is the Language. Tongue they commonly speak with Strangers, it being understood and us'd by all trading People in the Levant.

This Island hath been subject at different times to a great many different Sovereigns, particularly the Government. Grecians, Egyptians, Romans, once the English, (when Conquer'd by Richard I.) and lastly, the Venetians, from whom 'twas wrested by the Turks, Anno 1571. under whose heavy Yoke it now groaneth, and is rul'd by its particular Bassa, who ordi­narly resideth at Nicosia.

See the Danuubian Provinces, page 182. Arms.

The Inhabitants of this Island being Greeks and Turks, (as aforesaid) the former profess Christianity Religion. according to the Tenets of the Greek Church, [which may be seen, page 176.] and the latter Mahometanism according to their Alcoran; for the principal Articles of which, Vid. page 182. As for the Franks here residing, they make Profession of the re­spective Religions of the Country from whence they came. This Island receiv'd the Light of the Blessed Gospel in the Apostolick Age.

[Page 233] Other observable Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, are

Those ofNegropont—Chief TownIdem, Adjacent to the E. of Greece.
StalimeneIdem—In the Archipelago, from N. to S.
Tenedo
Metelino—Idem—
Scio—Idem—
Sdelle—
Samo—Idem—
Lango—
Rhodes—Idem—
Cerigo—Idem, lying between Candia and the Morea,
Zant—Idem—In the Ionian Sea, from S. to N. W.
Cephalonia—Argostoli—
Corfu—Idem—

Somewhat of each of these, and in their Order. Therefore,

I. Negropont (formerly Eubaea and Chalcis) is generally thought to have been annext to the main Continent, and separated there­from by an Earthquake. Its Soil is very fruitful, and M. Caristo is noted for excellent Morble, and the famous Stone Amianios or Asbestos. The whole Island is subject at present to the Turks, and rul'd by a particular Bassa, who has also the Command of Achaia, and is Admiral of the Turkish Fleet.

II. Stalimene (the Ancient Lemnos, so famous among the Poets) is also subject to the Great Turk; and observable only for a kind of Medicinal Earth, call'd formerly Terra Lemnia, but now Terra Sigillata, because yearly gathered, and put up in little Sacks, which are seal'd with the Grand Signior's Seal, otherways not vendible to the Merchant.

III. Tenedo or Tenedos, an Island much noted of old, as being dedicated to Apollo, and the place where the Grecians hid themselves when they feign'd to have lost all hopes of taking Troy. It's now in Possession of the Turks, and remarkable for nothing at present, except its excellent Muscadine Wine.

IV. Metellino, [now scarcely observable for any thing, save its An­tient Name of Lesbos,] which was the Birth place of Sappho, the In­ventress of Sapphick Verse. 'Twas for some time under the Venetians, but now the Turks, to whom it pays yearly the Sum of 18000 Pi­asters.

[Page 234] V. Scio (alias Chios) is an Island of much request among the Turks, for its great plenty of Mastick, which is yearly gathered by the Sultan's Bostangi's, or Gardeners, for the use of the Seraglio; 'twas lately taken by the Venetians, who possess'd it but a short time.

VI. Sdelle is also in the Hands of the Turk, and famous for no­thing at present, save only its ancient (now corrupted) Name of Delos, and some stately Ruins of Apollo's Temple still visible, with those of a large Theatre, and a Marble Portico.

VII. Samo. There's scarce any Island in the Archipelago more fre­quently mention'd by the Ancients, than this of Samo, formerly Samos. It went also by the Names of Parthenia, Anthemosa, Melam­phylos, Dryusa, Cyparissa, and several others. 'Tis now subject to the Turk, and hath reason to boast of nothing so much, as having been the Birth-place of that famous Philosopher, Pythagoras.

VIII. Lango, formerly known by the Name of Co, Coa, or Cos, and remarkable of old for the Temple of Aesculapius, and being the Birth-place of the renowned Hippocrates and Ap [...]lles. It belong'd to the Knights of Rhodes, but now to the Turks.

IX Rhodes. This Island is famous all the World over, for that huge brazen Colossus of the Sun, formerly here erected, and deserved­ly reckon'd one of the World's Wonders. The Inhabitants were likways so famous for their skill in Navigation, that for some Ages they were Sovereigns of these Seas, and made so just and excellent Laws in Maritime Affairs, as were afterwards esteem'd worthy of being incorporated in the Roman Pandects. This Island (after the loss of Jerusalem and St. John d' Acre) was taken from the Saracans by the Hospitallers, or Knights of St. John, Anno 1309. who continued Masters of it till 1522. when Solyman II. Conquer'd it by the Treachery of Amurath, a Portuguize. Since which time it hath own'd the Grand Signior for its Sovereign, and is now rul'd by a particular Bassa, sent thither from the Ottoman Port.

X. Cerigo (the Cythera of the Antients) being a considerable Island, inhabited by Greeks, and subject to the Republick of Venice, is go­vern'd by a Noble Venetian, in Quality of a Providitor, who is re­new'd every two Years. This Isle produceth some exceilent Wine, but in no great Quantity. It's also stockt with store of good Veni­son, and a competency of Corn and Oyl, sufficient for its number of Inhabitants. The Greeks here residing, have the greater Venera­tion [Page 235] for this place, upon the account of a Vulgar Opinion now current among 'em, which is, that St. John the Divine began here to write his Apocalypse.

XI. Zant (formerly Zacynthus) is another Island belonging to the Venetians, and one of the richest in the Streights, abounding with Wine and Oyl, but mostly noted for Currants, of which there is such plenty that many Ships are yearly fraughted with them for divers Ports of Europe. And such Advantage is that Currant-Trade to the Republick of Venice, that the Profits redounding from thence, do serve (according to the Testimony of a late Traveller) to defray the Charges of the Venetian Fleet. In this Island are several remark­able Fountains, out of which there bubbles up a pitchy Substance in great quantities. In the Monastry of Sancta Maria de la Croce, is the Tomb of M. T. Cicero and Terentia, his Wise, with two seve­ral Inscriptions (one for him, and the other for her) found upon a Stone, which, some time ago, was dug out of the Ground, nigh the place of the aforesaid Tomb. The Inhabitants (reckoning both Greeks and Jews) amount to about 20 or 25000, and are go­vern'd by a Noble Venetian, sent thither with full Power from the Senate.

XII. Cephalonia (or old Melaena, Taphos, or Teleboa,) is likeways under the State of Venice, and chiefly abounds in dry Raisins, (which the Venetians turn to good Advantage) and excellent Wines, espe­cially Red Muscadels, which many call by the Name of Luke Sherry. It hath its particular Providitor, whose Government lasteth Thirty two Months. This Island was bestow'd upon the Republick of Venice, Anno 1224. by Gaio, then Lord thereof, but master'd by the Turks in 1479. and possess'd by them till 1499 when driven thence by the Venetians, who re-peopl'd it with Christians, and afterwards fortifying the same against future Invasions, have hitherto continued Masters thereof.

Lastly, Corfu (formerly Corcyra) is bless'd with a veary healthful Air, and fruitful Soil for Wine and Oyl, but not for Corn, of which the Inhabitants are suppli'd from the Continent. It belongs to the Republick of Venice, and is deservedly term'd, The Port of the Gulf, and Barrier of Italy. The Government thereof is lodg'd in six Noble Venetians, whose Power lasteth for the space of two Years. The first of these Noble Men hath the Title of Baily. The second, of Providitor and Captain. The third and fourth, of Counsellors. The fifth, of Great Captain. And the sixth, of Castelan, or Governor of the Castle de la Campana in the old Town. The Greeks are very nume­rous in this Island, and have a Vicar-General whom they stile [Page 236] Proto-papa. In the time of Solyman II. no less than 25000 Turks did Land in Corfu, under the Command of the Famous Barbarossa; yet such was the Conduct of the wise Venitians, that they forc'd him to make a shameful Retreat

To speak more particularly of each of these Islands, and many others, reducible to the two Classes of Cyclades and Sporades, would far surpass our designed Brevity. Conclude we therefore this tedi­ous Section with the following Advertisement. That, whereas in treating of Islands, (after we took leave of the Continent of Europe) I esteem'd it most methodical, to bring all those in the Mediterra­nean Sea, under the Title of European Islands; yet the Reader is hereby desir'd to take notice, that all of 'em are not usually reckon'd as such; the Isle of Malta being generally accounted an African; and Cyprus with Rhodes among the Asiatick; as are also several others on the Coast of Natolia.

And so much for Europe and the European Islands. Now fol­loweth,

[Page]

ASIA a New Description by Robt. Morden

CHAP. II. Of ASIA.

Divided (page 43.) intoTartaryCapital CityChambalu.
ChinaPekin or Xuntien.
IndiaAgra.
PersiaIspahan.
Turky in AsiaAleppo.

To these add the Asiatick Islands.

Of all which in Order. Therefore,

SECT. I. Concerning Tartary.

 d.m.
Situatedbetween7710of Long.its greatestLength from E to W. is about 3000 Miles.
16300
between3700of Latit.Breadth from N. to S. is about 2250 Miles.
7504

Tartary comprehends five great Parts.

Viz.3 SouthKathay—Chief TownChambalu—From E. to W.
Turkhestan—Ihibet—
Zagathay—Samarchand-
2 NorthTartaria propriaMongul, or TenducFrom E. to W.
Tartary the DesertCumbalich—

THIS Country (the greatest Part thereof being reckon'd the Scythia Asiatica of the Ancients) is Name. term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Tartaria; by the French, la Tartarie; by the Germans, Tartarijen; and by the English, Tartary; so call'd from Tartar or Tatar, a River of that Country, which is said to empty it self into the vast Northern Ocean. But others chuse rather to derive the Name from Tatar or Totar, which in the Syriack Language signifieth a Remnant, imagining that the Tartars are the remainders of those Israelites, who where carried by Salmanasser into Media. It's term'd Tartary the Great, to distinguish it from the Lesser in Europe.

The Air of this Country is very different, by reason of its vast Extent from South to North; the South­most Air. Parts thereof having the same Latitude with the middle Provinces of Spain, and the Northmost reaching beyond the Arctick Polar Circle. What its real Extent from East to West may be, is not certainly known as yet; only this we will affirm in general, that 'tis much less than commonly suppos'd, if the Rela­tions of some late Travellers in these Parts of the World be found afterwards to hold true. The opposite Place of the Globe to Tartary, is part of the vast Pacifick Ocean, as also the Countries of Chili, Paraguay, and Terra Magellanica.

[Page 239] This vast Country towards the North (it lying in the 6th, 7th, 8th 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, &c. North Cli­mate) Soil. is extremely Barren, being every where encum­ber'd with unwholesome Marishes, and uninhabited Mountains; but in the Southern Parts, the Soil is indifferently good for Tillage and Grazing, especially the latter; and towards the East 'tis report­ed to be abundantly fertil in Corn, (where duly manur'd) and se­veral sorts of Herbs, especially Rhubarb. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts, is about two Months (the Sun not Setting for that time when near the Summer Solstice) the shortest in the Southmost, is about 9 Hours ¼, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Sable, Martins, Silks, Comlets, Flax, Musk, Cinnamon, and Commodities. vast Quantities of Rhubarb, &c.

In lieu of the Rarities of this barbarous and little fre­quented Country, we may mention that prodigious Rarities. Wall dividing Tartary from China, erected by the Chi­neses, to hinder the frequent Incursions of their unwelcome Neigh­bours, the Tartars; 'twas commonly reckon'd Three hundred Ger­man Leagues in length, Thirty Cubits high in most places, and Twelve in breadth. The time of its building is computed to be about Two hundred Years before the Incarnation of our Blessed Saviour. By our latest Relations of the State and Nature of this Country, we find that some remarkable Vulcano's are to be seen in the North and Eastern Parts thereof.

Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universities, in this Archbishopricks, &c. Country; none.

The Tartars are a People of a swarthy Complexion, strong Bodies, and middle Stature. The generality of Manners. 'em are Persons of broad Faces, hollow Eyes, thin Beards, thick Lips, slat Noses, and ugly Countenances. In Beha­viour they're very Rude and Barbarous, commonly devouring the Flesh of their Enemies, and drinking their Blood, so soon as they are in their Power. Their ordinary Food is Horse-flesh, which they greedily tear and eat up like so many Ravenous Vultures. Their manner of Living, is commonly in Tents in the open Fields, which they remove from place to place, according to the time of the Year, and conveniency of Grazing. Many of 'em make excel­lent Soldiers, being not only willing and able to endure great Fa­tigues, but also very dexterous and daring in time of Engagement. When they seem many times to fly before their Enemies, they'll unexpectedly send back a dreadful Shower of Arrows in the Faces of their Pursuers, and frequently turning about, do give them a violent Charge, and all without the least disorder. When their great Cham dies, 'tis reportd, That many of his chief Officers are [Page 240] immediately kill'd, and interred with him, that they may also at­tend him (as they imagine) in the other World, according to their respective Posts here.

The Language us'd by the Asiatick Tartars, is not much different from the Tartaresque, spoken by those of Language. Crim Tartary, (a Specimen of which is already given in Europe) and both have a great Affinity with the Turkish.

The vast Body of Tartary is said to be subject to several Princes, who are wholly accountable (in their Government. Government) to one Sovereign, who is commonly term'd the Great Cham, whose Government is most Tyrannical, and Crown hereditary. The Lives and Goods of his People are altogether in his Power. His Subjects stile him the Sun and Sha­dow of the Immortal God, and render him a kind of Adoration, never speaking unto him Face to Face, but falling down upon their Knees with their Faces towards the Ground. He looks upon him­self as the Monarch of the whole World; and from that vain Opi­nion, is reported to cause his Trumpets to sound every Day after Dinner, pretending thereby to give leave to all other Kings and Princes of the Earth to Dine. For the better management of Pub­lick Affairs, he's said to appoint two Councils, each consisting of twelve Persons, (the wisest and best experienced of any that he can pitch upon) of which one doth constantly attend the Affairs of State, and the other those which relate to the War. Yet after all, this mighty Cham is lookt upon by some Judicious Persons, as a meer Chimera; and those strange Relations concerning him (though hitherto current) are thought to have a near Affinity unto the Legenda Aurea of the Roman Church.

The most receiv'd Opinion about the Arms of the Great Cham, is, that (as Emperor of Tartary) he bears, Arms. Or, an Owl Sable. But what as King of China, see the following Section.

The Inhabitants of this Country are partly Pagan, partly Mahometan, and partly Christian. Paganism doth Religion. chiefly prevail in the Northmost Parts, the People being generally gross Idolaters in those places. In the Southern Provinces they're (for the most part) followers of Mahomet's Doctrine, espe­cially since the Year 1246. And towards the Caspian Sea are found a considerable number of Jews, thought by some to be the Off­spring of the ten Tribes, led away Captive by Salmanasser. Those of the Christian Religion (overgrown of late by Nestorianism) are scatter'd up and down in several Parts of this vast Country, but most numerous in Cathay, and the City of Cambalu. The Christian Faith was first planted in this Country, (as is generally believ'd) by the Labours of St. Andrew and St. Philip, two of the Apostles.

SECT. II. Concerning China.

 d.m.
Situatedbetween11800of Long.Its greatestLength from N. E. to S. W is about 1380 Miles.
14100
between2030of Latit.Breadth from N. to S. is about 1260 Miles.
4110

China contains Sixteen Provinces.

Viz.6 NorthLeaotung—Chief TownLeaoyang—E. to W.
Xantung—Chinan—
Peking—Idem aliter Xuntien
Xansi—Taiyven—
Honau—Kaijung—
Xensi—Sigan—
10 SouthNanking—Id. alit. KiangnanE. to W
Chekiang—Haugchew—
Kiangsi—Nanchang—
Fokien—Focheu—
Huquang—Unchang—
QuantungQuancheu—
Suchuen—Chingtu—
Queicheu—Queiyang—
Quansi—Quilin—
Junnan—Idem—

THIS Country (thought by most Geographers to be the Ancient Sinae, mention'd by Ptolomy) is Name. term'd by the French, la Chine; and by the Italians, Spaniards, Germans, and English, China; so call'd (according to the best Conjecture) from one of its Ancient Monarchs, nam'd Cina, who is said to have liv'd about fifty Years before the Nativity of our Blessed Saviour. Many other Names it hath had since that time; for when the Government falls from one Family to another, the first Prince of that Name is said to give a new Name to the whole Country; the latest of which Modern Names, are Tamin, signifying the Kingdom of Brightness; and Chuinque, i. e. The King­dom [Page 242] of the Middle; the Chineses imagining that the Earth is Square, and that their Country is situated exactly in the middle of it.

The Air of this Country is generally very Tempe­rate, save only towards the North, where 'tis some­times Air. intollerably Cold, and that because of several Mountains of a prodigious height, whose Tops are ordinarily cover'd with Snow. The opposite Place to China, is the South part of Brasil, together with the East of Paraguay

This Country (it lying in the 4th, 5th, 6th North Climate) is for the most part of a very rich and fertil Soil. Soil, insomuch that its Inhabitants in several places, are said to have two, and sometimes three Harvests in a Year. It abounds with Corn, Wine, and all kinds of Fruits. Its Lakes and Rivers are very well furnisht with Fish, and some afford vari­ous kinds of Pearls and Bezoar of great value. Its Mountains are richly lin'd with several Mines of Gold and Silver. Its Plains are extraordinary fit for Pasturage. And its pleasant Forests are every where stor'd with all sorts of Venison. In a word, the whole Country in general, is esteem'd one of the best in the World. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts, is about 14 Hours ¾; the shortest in the Southmost, is about 10 Hours ¾, and the Nights proportionable.

The Commodities of this Country, are Gold, Silver, Precious Stone, Quicksilver, Porcelline Dishes, Silks, Commodities. Cottons, Rhubarb, Sugar, Camphire, Musk, Ginger, China-Wood, &c.

Peculiar to this Country, is a short Tree, with a round Head, and very thick, which in respect of its Fruit, Rarities. may bear the Name of the Tallow Tree; for at a certain Season of the Year 'tis full of Fruit containing divers Kernels about the bigness of a small Nut, which Kernels have all the Qualities of Tallow, (being the very same, both as to Colour, Smell, and Consistency) and by mixing a little Oyl with them, do make as good burning Candles, as Europeans usually make of pure Tallow it self. (2) Here is a large Mountain full of terrible Caverns, in one of which is a Lake of such a nature, that if a Stone be thrown into it, presently there's heard a hideous noise as of a frightful Clip of Thunder, and sometimes there ariseth a gross Mist which immediately dissolves into Water. (3.) In the City of Peking is a prodigious big Bell, weighing 120000 Pounds, surpassing the noted Bell of Erfurd in Upper Saxony, by 94600 Pounds: In Dimension 'tis eleven foot Diameter, forty in Circuit, and twelve High. (4) In Nanking is another of eleven foot High, and seven in Dia­miter, and weighing 50000 Pounds, which also surpasseth the Bell of Erfurd, (weighing only 25400 Pounds, yet hitherto suppos'd [Page 243] the greatest in the World) by almost double its weight. (5.) In China are several Vulcano's (particularly that Mountain call'd Linc­sung) which vomits out Fire and Ashes so furiously, as frequently to raise some hideous Tempests in the Air. (6.) Here are some Rivers, whose Waters are cold at the top, but warm beneath; as also several remarkable Fountains which send forth so hot a Steam, that People usually boil Meat over them. (7.) In this Country are several Lakes, remarkable for changing Copper into Iron, or making it just of the like resemblance; as also for causing Storms when any thing is thrown into them. (8.) In the Island Haman, there is said to be Water (uncertain whether in Lake, River, or Foun­tain) of such a strange quality, that it petrifies some sort of Fishes when they unfortunately chance to enter into it. (9.) Many are those Triumphal Arches (to be seen in most of the noted Cities of this Empire) erected in Honour of such Persons as have either done some signal pieces of Service to the State, or have been con­spicuous in their times for their singular Knowledge. (10.) In this Country are several remarkable Bridges, particularly that over a a River, call'd S [...]ffruny, which reaches from one Mountain to ano­ther, being Four hundred Cubits long, and Five hundred high, and all but one Arch; whence 'tis call'd by Travellers Pons volans. Here likewise is another of Six hundred and sixty Perches in length, and one and a half broad, standing upon Three hundred Pillars without any Arches. Lastly, In China are many very observable Plants, Animals, and Fossils, especially the last, among which is the Asbestos. But for a particular Account of 'em. Vid. Kircherus's China Illustrata.

Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universities, are hardly to be expected her; however this Country (accord­ing Archbishopricks. to the Testimony of Popish Missionaries) is furnisht with some of these, Pekin, Nanquin and Macao, having each of 'em a particular Bishop nominated by the King of Portugal, and the other Provinces are under the Jurisdiction of three Apostolical Vicars. Under which Ecclesiastical Superiors, there are (by their Relations) above Two hundred Churches or Private Chappels dedi­cated to the True God.

The Chinois [Persons for the most part of a fair Complexion, short Nosed, black Eyed, and of very Manners. thin Beards] are great Lovers of Sciences, and gene­rally esteem'd a very ingenious sort of People. They're said to have had the use of Printing and Guns long before either of 'em was known in Europe. Many of 'em are great Proficients in several Parts of the Mathematicks, especially Arithmetick, Geometry, and Astronomy; and so conceited are they of their own Knowledge in these things; and so mean are their Thoughts of others, that 'tis [Page 244] generally reported of 'em, that (speaking of themselves) they com­monly say, That they have two Eyes, the Europeans one, and the rest of the World none at all. They who wholly apply themselves to the study of Sciences, and make such proficiency in them, as to become Doctors to others, are distinguish'd by their long Nails, suffering 'em sometimes to grow as long as their Fingers, that be­ing esteem'd a singular Characteristick of a profound Scholar, and a differencing mark between them and Mechanicks.

The Language of the Chinois is extremely difficult to be acquir'd by Strangers, and differeth from all Language. others, both as to its Nature, Pronunciation, and way of Writing. (1.) Its Nature. They use no Alphabet, as Europeans do, and are astonish'd to hear that by Twenty four Letters we can express our Thoughts, and fill Libraries with Books. In lieu of an Alphabet they formerly us'd Hieroglyphicks, setting down the Images of things for the things themselves; but this being ex­treamly tedious, and likeways defective, (there being no such Re­semblances of pure Abstracts) they then made Characters to signify Words, numbring them according to the number of Words they needed to express their Idea's; which Characters arise to such a prodigious multitude, that not only Strangers, but even the Natives themselves, sind it a very difficult matter to acquire an intimate acquaintance with them all. (2.) Its Pronounciation. Although all the Original Terms of this Tongue are Three hundred and thirty three, yet such is their peculiar way of pronouncing them, that the same Term admits of various, and even contrary Significations, according to the various Accent in pronouncing of it. And of these Accenrs, there are five applicable to every Term, which ex­tremely augments the difficulty of either speaking or understanding this Tongue to perfection; besides, the Pronunciation thereof is accompanied with such variety of Motions of the Hand, that a mute Person can speak almost intelligibly by his Fingers. And as to the Manner of Writing, they differ from all other Nations; for whereas Christians write from the Left hand to the Right; and the Jews from the Right to the Left, they usually make their Lines from the top of the Page down to the bottom.

This Great Kingdom was formerly under its own particular King or Emperor, but of late over-run and Government. conquer'd by the Tartars, to whom it's at present subject, acknowledging due Allegiance to the Great Cham, whose Government is as Despotical as any of the Oriental Monarchs; for he hath full Power over the Lives of his Subjects, the Princes of the Blood not excepted. His bare Word is the Law, and his Com­mands admit of no delay nor neglect. He is seldom seen, and never spoke with, but upon the Knees. Upon his Death-bed he [Page 245] may choose his Successor out of what Family he pleaseth. For the better managing the great Affairs of this mighty Empire, he's assisted by two Sovereign Councils; one Extraordinary, compos'd of Princes of the Blood only; and the other Ordinary, which besides the Princes, doth consist of several Ministers of State, call'd Colaos. But over and above these two Councils, there are at Pekin six Sovereign Courts, whose Authority extend over all the Empire, and to each of 'em belong different Matters; viz. (1.) Is that Court call'd Lupou, which presides over all the Mandarins, and confers upon, or takes from them their Offices. (2.) Ho [...]pou, which looks after the Publick Treasury, and takes care of raising the Taxes. (3.) Lipou, which inspects into Ancient Customs; and to it is committed the care of Religion, Sciences, and Foreign Affairs. (4.) Pimpou, which hath charge of the Soldiery, and other Officers. (5.) Himpou, which enquires and passes Sentence in all Criminal Matters. Lastly, Compou, which looks after all Publick Buildings, as the Emperor's Palaces, and such like. In each of these Courts, the Emperor hath one, who may be term'd a Private Censor; it being his business to observe all that passeth, and to acquaint him faithfully therewith, which makes all Persons very cautious in their Actions. Over each Province is appointed a Vice Roy, and under him a great many Publick Officers. To shun Oppression of the Subject by these various Ministers, the Emperor before the Tartarian Conquest, had a certain number of secret Spies in every Province, to have a watchful Eye upon the Actions of every Pub­lick Officer, and upon any visible Act of Injustice in discharge of his Office, they were to produce their Commission, and by virtue thereof did seize such an Officer, though of the highest Station: but this is laid aside, those Persons having mightily abus'd their Power. Yet in lieu thereof, they still retain one Custom which is certainly very singular, viz. That every Vice Roy and Publick Of­ficer, is bound to take a Note of his own Miscarriages in the Ma­nagement of Publick Affairs from time to time, and humbly ac­knowledging the same, is bound to find them in writing to Court. Which Task is undoubtedly very irksome on one hand, if duly perform'd; but yet more dangerous on the other, if wholly neg­lected. Very remarkable are three Maxims of State carefully ob­serv'd by the Chinesian Emperors, viz. (1) Never to give any Man­darin a Publick Office in his Native Province, lest being of a mean Descent, it might contribute to his Disparagement, or being well Descended, and belov'd, he should thereby grow too powerful. (2.) To retain at Court the Children of the Mandarins imploy'd in Publick Offices, and that under pretence of giving them good Education, but 'tis in effect as Hostages, lest their Fathers should chance to forget their Duty to the Emperor. Lastly, Never to [Page 246] sell any Publick Office, but to confer the same according to Per­son's Merits.

The Great Cham, as King of China, is said to bear for Ensigns Armorial, Argent, three Black-a-moor's Arms. Heads plac'd in the Front, their bust vested Gules, but (according to others) two Dragons.

The prevailing Religion in China, is Paganism or gross Idolatry; and in some Parts, the Doctrine of Ma­homet Religion. is entertain'd. Of the several Idols to whom the Chineses pay their Devotions, there are two of chief Note, viz. One in form of a Dragon, whom the Emperor, with his Mandarins do religiously Worship, prostrating themselves frequently before it, and burning Incense unto it. The other is call'd Fo or Foë, set up (as is conjectur'd) in favour of one of their own Nation, who is thought to have flourished about a thousand Years before our Bles­sed Saviour, and for his wonderful Parts and Actions was esteem'd worthy of being Deifi'd at his Death. They look upon him as the Saviour of the World, and that he was sent to teach the Way of Salvation, and make an Attonement for the Sins of Men. They mightily prize some Moral Precepts which they pretend he left, and which the Bonzes (or Priests) do frequently inculcate upon the Minds of the People. To this God are erected many Temples, and he's worshipped not only under the Shape of a Man, but in the Person of a Real Man, who, they say, never dies, being upheld in that vain Opinion by the Lamas, (or Tartaran Priests) who upon the Death of that Immortal Man, take due care [as the Egyptian Priests did their Apis] to put one of their own number in his room, and that of the same Features and Proportion, or as near as possibly they can. The Chineses have a mighty Spur to be cautious in all their Actions from an Opinion universally receiv'd among them, viz. That the Souls of their deceased Friends are always (at least fre­quently) present with them, and narrowly viewing their Deport­ment. If we may believe the Writings of some late French Missio­naries, Christianity hath obtain'd considerable footing of late in this Country, especially in the Province of Nankin, and that the present Emperor hath allowed of the same by a Publick Edict throughout all the Empire. The first Plantation of Christianity in this part of the World, was undertaken (according to common belief) by St. Thomas, or some of his Disciples. Which Opinion is confirm'd by an Ancient Breviary of the Indian Churches, containing these Words. Per D. Thomam Regnum Caelorum volavit & ascendit ad Sinas.

SECT. III. Concerning India.

 d.m.
Situatedbetween9200of Long.its greatestLength from N. W. to S. E. is about 1680 Miles.
13106
between0812of Latit.Breadth from N. to S. is about 1690 Miles.
4000

India [viz. all between China and Persia] comprehends

The Great Mogul's Em­pire containing many little Kingdoms, but chiefly those ofDelli—Chief TownIdemin the main Land.
Agra—Idem
Cambaia—Idemon the Sea-Coast.
Bengala—Idem
Peninsula Indiae intra Gangem, containing the Kingdoms ofDecan—GoaNorthward.
Golcond—Idem
Bisnagar—Idem in the middle.
Malabar—Calicute Southward.
Peninsula Indiae extra Gangem, containing the Kingdoms ofPegu—Idemfrom N. to S.
Tunqum—Idem
Cochinchin—Idem
SiamMartabanIdem
Siam—Idem
MalaccaIdem

THIS vast Complex Body, consider'd here under the Title of India, [viz. all between Persia and China] comprehends (as aforesaid) many distinct and considerable Kingdoms; but all reducible to Three great Divisions abovemention'd, to wit, the Mogul's Empire, and the two Peninsula's of India, one within, and the other without the Ganges. Of all which separately, and in their Order. Therefore,

§. 1. The Mogul's Empire.

THIS Country is a great Part of the Modern and Ancient India, remarkable in the History of Name. Alexander the Great, and term'd India from the River Indus, but now the Mogul's Empire, as being subject unto that mighty Eastern Monarch, commonly known by the Name of the Great Mogul.

In the Northern parts of this Empire, the Air is said to be extremely cold and piercing about the time Air. of the Sun's greatest Southern Declination; but in the Southern Provinces much more temperate. The opposite Place of the Globe to the Mogul's Empire, is that part of the [...]ast Pacifick Ocean, between 270 and 310 Degrees of Longitude, with 25 and 39 De­grees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this vast Country (it lying in the 3d and 4th North Climate) is extraordinary barren in se­veral Soil. Parts, being encumbered with formidable dry sandy Mountains, but elsewhere very plentiful, especially in Cot­ton, Millet, Rice, and most sorts of Fruits. The length of the Days and Nights in this Country, is the same as in the Kingdom of China, they both lying under the same Parallels of Latitude.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Aloes, Musk, Rhubarb, Wormseeds, Civits, Indigo, Laique, Commodities. Bor [...]x, Ogium, Amber, Myrabolans, Sal-Armoniac, Silk, Cottons, Callicoes, Sattins, Taffaties, Carpets, Metals, Por­celline Earth, and most sorts of Spices. &c.

In several Parts of the Mogul's Empire, particularly the Kingdom of Cambaia are divers noted Vulcano's, Rarities. which usually Smoke, and sometimes break out in terrible Eruptions of Fire and Sulphurious Matter. In and about the Imperial City of Agra, are the splendid Sepulchres of the Royal Family of the Mogul's; particularly that glorious Monument of the Empress to Ch [...]-G [...]han, erected nigh to the Grand Bazar, which is reported to be a very stately Structure, and of so vast a bigness, that Twenty thousand Artificers were imploy'd in erecting of it for the space of Twenty two Years. But what mostly deserves our regard, in the whole Kingdom of Indosian, is that Rich and Glori­ous Throne in the Palace of Agra, on which the Great Mogul doth usually appear during the Festival of his Birth Day, where he receives the Compliments and Presents of the Grandees, after the yearly Ceremony of weighing his Person is over. This stately Throne (so noted among Travellers in these Parts) is said to stand [Page 249] upon Feet and Bars, overlaid with enamell'd Gold, and adorn'd with several large Diamonds, Rubies and other precious Stones. The Canopy over the Throne is set thick with curious Diamonds, and surrounded with a Fringe of Pearl. Above the Canopy is the lively Effigies of a Peacock, whose Tail sparkles with blew Saphires, and other Stones of different Colours; his Body is of enamell'd Gold set with Jewels, and on his Breast is a large Ruby, from which hangs a Pearl as big as an ordinary Pear. On both sides of the Throne are two Umbrella's of curious Red Velvet, richly em­broidred with Gold, and encompass'd with a Fringe of Pearl; [...]he very Sticks whereof are also cover'd with Pearls, Rubies, and Diamonds. Over against the Emperor's Seat is a choice Jewel with a hole bor'd through it, at which hangs a prodigious big Diamond, with many Rubies and Emeralds round about it. These and seve­ral others not here mention'd, are the costly Ornaments of this Indian Throne, which (if all related of it be true) cannot be match'd by any other Monarch upon the Face of the whole Earth.

Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universities. None. Archbishopricks, &c.

The Inhabitants of the various Parts of this vast Empire, are Persons of various Tempers and Customs. Manners. What those of the Inland Provinces are, is not very certain, (our Intelligence of 'em being yet very slender) but the People of the Southern or Maritime places of the Mogul's Domini­ons, are Persons (for the most part) very tall of Stature, strong of Body, and in Complexion inclining some what to that of the Negroes. In Behaviour, Civil; in their Dealings pretty just; and many of the Mechanical sort prove wonderful Ingenious.

Both here, and in the two Peninsula's hereafter men­tion'd, are various Languages, and these again divided Language. into different Dialects; but the Arabick is still us'd in their Religious Offices. Among the several Languages spoken [...] the Mogul's Dominions, the Gazarate Tongue is reckon'd the chief, and is mostly us'd in the Kingdoms of Cambaya and Bengala; but the Persian is said to be the Language of the Court.

This vast Body comprehends a great many King­doms, some of which are free, some subject to Government. others, and most of 'em Tributary to one Sovereign, namely the Great Mogul, whose Government is most Tyrannical, for he hath both the Purses and Persons of his Subjects wholly at his disposal, and is Lord of all, being Heir to every Man's Estate. His Imperial Seat is ordinarily at Agra, which is a very Rich and Populous City, lying in the Province of the same Name, and the Metropolis of the whole Empire. If he allows paternal Inheritance any [Page 250] where, the same is revokable at his pleasure. His bare Will is the Law, and his Word a final Decision of all Controversies. The Indian Diadem is not intail'd by Primogeniture on the Sons, but is either ravisht by force, or carri'd by craft, of such who stand in Competition for it: he generally succeeding to the Throne, who hath mostly gain'd the Favour and Assistance of the Omrahs and Nabobs, with other Grandees at Court; and upon his Instalment therein, he commonly sacrificeth all his Rivals and nearest Rela­tions, reckoning his Throne to be but tottering, unless its Foun­dations be laid in the Blood of such Persons. His Revenue is in­deed so vast that a bare Relation would seem incredible, but pro­portionably to the same, are his necessary ways of imploying it; for to a we the prodigious multitude of People within the vast Extent of his Dominions, he's oblig'd to keep in daily pay many Legions of Soldiers, otherways 'twere impossible to Command the turbulent Rajahs, who (as it is) do frequently make Insurrections, and di­sturb his Government.

The Ensigns Armorial of the Great Mogul, are said to be Argent, Semé with Besants, Or. As for particu­lar Arms. Coats of Arms, peculiar to private Persons, as in Europe, here are none, no Man within the Mogul's Dominions being Hereditary, either to his Estate or Honours.

The Inhabitants of this Country are mostly Pagan, and next to Paganism the Religion of Mahomet pre­vails, Religion. it being chiefly embrac'd according to the Co­mentaries of Mortis Haly. Of the Pagans, here are various Sects and Orders among them, particularly the Banians, the Persees, and Faquirs. (1.) The Bantans, who believe a [...], or Trans­migration of Souls, and thereupon do usually build Hospitals for Beasts, and will upon no account deprive any Creature of Life, lest thereby they dislodge (as they imagine) the Soul of some de­parted Friend. But of all living Creatures they have the greatest Veneration for the Cow, to whom they pay a Solemn Address every Morning, and at a certain time of the Year they drink the Stale of that worshipful Animal, believing it hath a singular Quality to purify all their Desilements. Besides their constant Abstinence from the Food of any Animal, they frequently refrain from all eatables till Night. Of these Bantans there are reckon'd in India about Twenty four different Casts or Sects. (2.) Persees, (the Posterity of the Ancient Persians) who worship the Element of Fire, for which reason they're also call'd Gaures, i. e. Worshippers of Fire. Besides the Fire, they have a great Veneration for the Cock. To kill the one, or extinguish the other, is esteem'd by them a Crime unpar­donable. Their High Priest is call'd Destoor, and their Ordinary Priests Darcos or Harboods. Lastly, The Faquirs, (a kind of Religi­ous [Page 251] Monks) who live very austere Lives, being much given to Fasting, and several Acts of Mortification, and some (as a volun­tary Penance) make solemn Vows of keeping their Hands claspt about their Heads; others hold one (and some both Arms) stretcht out in the Air, and a thousand such ridiculous Postures, and all during Life. Which Vows once made, they sacredly observe, not­withstanding the Observation of 'em is attended with exquisite Pain. Most of the Indians believe that the River Ganges hath a sanctifying Quality; whereupon they flock thither at certain Sea­sons in vast multitudes, to plunge themselves therein. Dispers'd through the Mogul's Dominions, is a considerable number of Jews, and upon the Sea-Coasts are many European Christians, all upon the account of Traffick. Those Parts of India which receiv'd the Blessed Gospel in former times, were instructed therein (as is gene­rally believ'd) by the Apostle, St. Thomas.

§. 2. The Peninsula of India within the Ganges.

THIS large Country (comprehending several Kingdoms abovemention'd) was term'd Penin­sula Name. Indiae intra Gangem by the Ancients, particularly the Romans, and that upon the account of its Situation. being within, or on this side the River Ganges, in respect of the Empire of Persia, or Western Parts of Asia.

The Air of this Country is generally very hot, yet in most of the Maritime Places, 'tis frequently qualifi'd Air. by cold Breezes from the Sea. The opposite Place of the Globe to this Peninsula, is that part of the Pacifick Ocean, be­tween 230 and 245 Degrees of Longitude, with 17 and 25 De­grees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Peninsula is (for the most part) ex­traordinary Fertil, producing all desirable Fruits, Soil. Roots, and Grain, besides vast quantities of Medicinal Herbs. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts of this Country, is about 13 Hours ½; the shortest in the Southmost is 11 Hours ½, and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Metals, Silks, Cottons, Pearls, Drugs, Dates, Coco's, Rice, Commodities. Ginger, Cinnamon, Pepper, Cassia, &c.

In several places of the Kingdom of Decan, is a noted Tree, call'd by Travellers the Nure-Tree, whose Na­ture Rarities. is such, that every Morning 'tis full of stringy Red Flowers, which in the heat of the Day fall down in Showers to the Ground; and blossoming again in the Night, it daily [Page 252] appears in a new Livery. (2.) In the Island Salsete, adjacent to Goa, are vast Recept [...]les cut out of the main Rock, one above another some of [...]em being equal in bigness to a Village of Four hundred [...] and adorn'd throughout with strange frightful Statues of [...] representing Elephants, Tygers, Lyons, Ama­zons, &c. (3) In the Island Conorein, near Bombay, (belonging to the [...]) is a City of the same Name, having divers large Heathen Temples and many other Appartments, all cut out of the firm Rock; Which stupendious Work is attributed by some to Alexander the Great, but that without any shew of probability. (4.) In another adjacent Island, (belonging also to the Portuguese, and call'd Elephanco from a huge Artisicial Elephant of Stone, bearing a young one upon its Back) is another Idolatrous Temple of a prodigious bigness cut out of the firm Rock. 'Tis supported by sorty two Pillars, and open on all sides, except the East, where stands an Image with three Heads, adorn'd with strange Hierogly­phicks, and the Walls are set round with monstrous Giants, where­of some have no less than eight Heads. (5.) At a City in the Kingdom of Decan, known to Travellers by the Name of Dunge­ness, is another Heathen Temple, much the same with that above­mention'd.

Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universittes. None. Archbishopricks, &c.

The Natives of the various Provinces of this Penin­sula are much the same in Manners with those in the Manners. Southern Parts of the Mogul's Dominions already men­tion'd.

The chief of the Indian Tongues in this Peninsula, are Two, viz. the Carabine mostly in use about Goa, Language. and the Gazarate which is spoken in Bisnagar, and the Coasts of Coromandel.

In this Peninsula are a great many Princes, who assume to themselves the Title of Kings; the chief of Government. them being those of Calicut, Cochin, Cananor, Cran­g [...]ner, Travancor, and Taner; besides which, are several sorts of People in various parts of this Country, who acknowledge Subje­ction to none of these, nor to any other; nor can they accord among themselves, being commonly divided into various Parties, who pitisully harass one another; and those on the Coast of Mala­bar, are much addicted to Pyracy.

What are the true Ensigns Armotial of these Indian Princes, [or if any] is mostly conjectural; all we find Arms. of 'em, is, that some in Decan and Cambaia bear Verte, en [...]ompass'd with a Coilar of large precious Stones.

[Page 253] The Inhabitants of this Peninsula are generally Ma­hometans, especially those who live near the Sea-Coasts, Religion. but People residing in the Inland Parts are gross Ido­laters, worshipping not only the Sun and Moon, but also many Idols of most ugly and horrible Aspects; and in some Parts of Decan they look upon the first Creature they meet with in the Morning, as the proper Object of their Worship for that Day, ex­cept it be a Crow, the very sight of which will consine them to their Houses the whole Day. In most of the Sea-Port Towns and Places of Trade, are Jews in considerable numbers, and many European Christians, especially those of our English Factories. Chri­stianity was first planted in this Country much about the same time with the Mogul's Empire. Of which already.

§. 3. The Peninsula of India beyond the Ganges.

THIS last Division of India is term'd the Penin­sula beyond the Ganges, because of its Situati­on, Name. it lying beyond that famous River, in respect of the other Peninsula, or the Western Parts of Asia in general.

The Air of this Peninsula is somewhat different, ac­cording to the Situation and Nature of the various Air. Parts of that Country, yet generally esteem'd indif­ferent healthful, and temperate enough, considering the Latitude of those places. The opposite Place of the Globe to this Peninsula, is that part of Nova Zelandia, between 210 and 230 Degrees of Longitude, with 1 to 24 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying under the 1st, 2d, and 3d North Climate) is extraodinary Fertil, Soil. producing in great plenty all sorts of desirable Fruits and Grain; besides 'tis well stockt with invaluable Mines, and great quantity of precious Stones; yea, so vastly Rich is this Country, that the Southmost part thereof (viz. Chersonese d'or) is esteem'd by many to be the Land of Ophir, to which King Solomon sent his Ships for Gold. The longest Day in the Northmost parts is about 13 Hours ½; the shortest in the Southmost, near about 12 Hours, and the Nights proportio­nably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Gold, Silver, precious Stones, Silks, Porcelline Earth, Aloes, Commodities. Musk, Rhubarb, Alabaster, &c.

[Page 254] Among the Rarities of this Country, we may reckon the Golden House in the City of Arracan, be­ing Rarities. a large Hall in the King's Palace, whose inside is intirely overlaid with Gold, having a stately Canopy of Massy Gold, from the Edges of which hang above an hundred Comba­lenghe, or large Wedges of Gold in form of Sugar-Loaves. Here also are seven Idols of Massy Gold, of the height of an ordinary Man, whose Foreheads, Breasts, and Arms are adorn'd with va­riety of precious Stones, as Rubies, Emeralds, Saphires, and Dia­monds. In this Hall are also kept the two famous Caneques, i. e. two Rubies of prodigious Value, about which the Neighbouring Princes frequently contending, have drawn Seas of Blood from each others Subjects, and all from a vain Opinion. That the Posse­ssion of those Jewels carry along with them a just Claim of Dominion over the Neighbouring Princes.

Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universities. None. Archbishopricks, &c.

What was said of the Natives of the other Penin­sula in point of Manners, the same may be affirm'd of Manners. those inhabiting this. The various Europeans here re­siding, are much the same in Manners with the respective People of Europe, from whence they came.

The chief of the Indian Tongues in this Peninsula, is that call'd the Malaye, mostly us'd in Malacca; but Language. besides the various Indian Tongues, both in the Mogul's Empire, and the two Peninsula's, the Portugueze Language is com­monly understood and spoken in all Maritime Towns of Trade, it being the chief Language that's us'd in daily Commerce between the Franks and Natives of that Country.

In this Peninsula are a great many different States and Kingdoms, particularly that of Pegu, (a very Government. rich Kingdom) subject to its own Monarch, whose Sovereignty is acknowledg'd by divers other considerable [...]ates, as Asem, Aracan, and Tipra, besides the Ancient Brachmans, and other People living on the West of China, as the Layes, Timo­coues, Gue [...]es, and Ciocangaes, all Tributary to him. Here also are the rich and flourishing Kingdoms of Tunquin and Cochinchin, especially the former, whose King is esteem'd a mighty Potent Prince, able to bring into the Field vast multitudes of Men upon all occasions. And lastly, The King of Siam (to whom a great many Princes are Tributary) is esteem'd one of the richest and most Potent Monarchs of all the East, and assumes (as some al­ledge) the Title of the King of Heaven and Earth; and yet not­withstanding of his mighty Force and Treasure, he is said to be [Page 255] Tributary to the Tartars, and to pay them yearly a certain kind of Homage.

We find no satisfactory Account of what Ensigns Armorial are born by these Eastern Princes; or if any Arms. at all.

The Inhabitants of this Peninsula are generally great Idolaters. Those of Siam are said to maintain Pytha­goras's Religion. Metempsychosis, and commonly adore the four Elements. Wheresoever Mahometanism prevails, 'tis generally inter­mixt with many Pagan Rites and Ceremonies, as particularly in Cambodia, on the River Menan, in which City are almost three hun­dred stately Mosques, not only well furnisht with excellent Bells (contrary to the Turkish Custom elsewhere) but also with a great many Idols of all sorts. In the Kingdom of Pegu, they have a great Opinion of the Sanctity of Apes and Crocodiles, believing those Persons very happy who are devoured by them. They ob­serve yearly five Solemn Festivals, (call'd in their Language Sapans) and distinguish'd by the Names of Giachie, Cateano-Giaimo, Segienou, Daiche, and Donon. Their Priests are call'd Raulini, and are divided into three Orders, distinguish'd by the Names of Pungrini, Pangiani, and Xoxom. They have also many Hermits, whom they divided into Grepi, Manigrepi, and Taligrepi, who are all in great esteem among the People. Christianity was planted here much about the same time with the other Peninsula already mention'd.

SECT. IV. Concerning Persia.

 d.m.
Situatedbetween7030of Long.Its greatestLength from E. to W is about 1440 Miles.
9700
between2540of Latit.Breadth from N. to S. is about 1260 Miles.
4430

It's divided into many Provinces, but chiefly those to­wards theNorth, viz.Scirvant—Chief TownDerbent—W. to E.
Giland—Gilan—
Cherassan—Heret—
Middle, viz.Erach—Ispahan—W. to E.
Sablestan—Bost—
Sigistan—Sitzistan
South, viz.Cusistan—Susa—W. to E.
Fars—Schiras—
Kirman—Gombroon
Macran—Titz—

THIS Country (known to the Ancients by the same Name, and some others, but of a much Name. larger Extent than at present) is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Persia; by the French, Perse; by the Germans, Persien; and by the English, Persia; so call'd (as many alledge) from one of its Ancient Provinces, nam'd Persis, or (according to others) from Perses, an Illustrious Lord in the Country of Elam, who for his Merit is said to have obtain'd the Government of the People, and to have call'd both Country and Inhabitants after his Name. But finally others do eagerly plead for an Hebrew Etymology, deri­ving the Name from the word [...], i. e. Equites. For 'tis reported of the Inhabitants of this Country, that before the Reign of Cyrus the Great, they seldom us'd to Ride, or knew very little how to manage a Horse; and that such was their Dexterity afterwards in managing Horses, that this Country is said to assume its Name from that Animal. For the strengthning of which Opinion they farther observe that the Title of Persia is not found in those Books of Holy Scripture, which were written before the time of Cyrus.

[Page 257] The Air of this Country is very temperate, especi­ally towards the North, beyond the vast Mountain of Air. Taurus; but in the Southern Provinces 'tis scorching hot for several Months. The opposite Place of the Globe to Persia, is part of Mare del Zur, between 250 and 280 Degrees of Longi­tude, with 25 and 40 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 3d and 4th North Climate) is very different; for in the Northern Soil. Parts adjacent to Tartary, and the Caspian Sea, the Ground is very barren, producing but little Corn, and few Fruits. But South of Mount Taurus, the Soil is said to be extraordinary fertil, the Country pleasant, and plentiful of Corn, Fruits, Wines, &c. affording also some rich Mines of Gold and Silver. The longest Day in the Northmost Parts is about 14 Hours ¾; the shortest in the Southmost is 13 Hours ¼; and the Nights proportionably.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are curious Silks, Carpets, Tissues, Manufactures of Gold, Silk, Commodities. and Silver, Seal-Skins, Goat-Skins, Alabaster, and all sorts of Metals, Myrrh, Fruits, &c.

This Country (among its chief Rarities) doth yet boast of the very Ruins of the once proud Palace of Rarities. Persepolis, so famous of old, and now call'd by the Inhabitants Chil-manor, signifying forty Pillars: which imports that so many were standing some Ages ago, but at present there's only nineteen remaining, together with the Ruins of above eighty more. Those Pillars yet standing are of excellent Marble, and about fifteen Foot high; for a particular Draught of 'em, with the Copy of several Inscriptions in unknown Characters, Vid. Philos. Trans. N. 201, and 210. (2.) In the City of Ispahan is a large Pillar sixty Feet high, consisting purely of the Skulls of Beasts, erected by Shaw Abas the Great, (upon a Sedition of his Nobles) who vow­ed to rear up a Column of their Heads, as a Monument of their Obloquy to after Ages, if they persisted in Disobedience; but they surrendring upon Discretion, he ordered each of 'em to bring the decollated Head of some Beast, and lay at his Feet; which was ac­cordingly done, and of them he made the aforesaid Pillar in lieu of a Column of their own Heads. (3.) One of the Emperor's Gar­dens at Ispahan is so sweet and delicate a place, that it commonly goes by the Name of Heste Behest, i e. Paradice upon Earth; and the Royal Sepulchres of the Persian Monarchs, are indeed so stately, that they deserve to be mention'd here. (4.) About thirty Miles North East of Gombroon, is a most hidious Cave, which for its for­midable Aspect, is term'd Hell's Gate by our English Travellers, who have pass'd that way. (5.) At Genoe, about twelve or fourteen Miles North of Gombroon, are some excellent Baths, esteem'd very [Page 258] good against most Chronical Distempers, and much frequented for all inveterate Ulcers, Aches, and such like. (6.) Within five Leagues of Da [...]an is a prodigious high Pike of the same Name, from whose top (cover'd all over with Sulphure, which Sparkles in the Night-time like Fire) one may clearly see the Caspian Sea, though an hundred and eighty Miles distant; and nigh to this Sulphurous Pike are some famous Baths, where there's a great resort of People at certain times of the Year. Lastly, In several Parts of Persia, are Mountains of curious black Marble, and Springs of the famous Naphtha, with variety of other Minerals.

Archbishopricks, Bishopricks, Universities. None. Archbishopricks. &c.

The Persians are a People [both of old, and as yet] much given to Astrology, many of them making it Manners. their chief Business to search after future Events by Astrological Calculations. They are naturally great Dissemblers, Flatterers, and Swearers; as also very Proud, Passionate, and Re­vengful; excessive in their Luxury, Pastimes, and Expences; much addicted to Tobacco, Opium, and Coffee; yet with all, they are said to be (for the most part) very respective to their Superiors; Just and Honest in their Dealings, and abundantly Civil to Strangers. And most of those, who betake themselves to Trades, prove very Ingenious in making curious Silks, Cloath of Gold, and such like.

The Persian Language (having a great Tincture of the Arabick) is reckon'd not only much more polite Language. than the Turkish, but is also esteem'd the modish Lan­guage of Asia. It's divided into many particular Dialects, and the Characters they use are mostly Arabick. As for pure Arabick, that's the School-Language of the Persians, in which not only the Myste­ries of the Alcoran; but also all their Sciences are written, and is learn'd by Grammar, as Europeans do Latin.

This large Country is wholly subjected to one So­vereign, namely its own Emperor, commonly stil'd, Government. The Great Sophi of Persia, whose Government is truly Despotical, and Crown Hereditary, the Will of the King being a Law to the People, and he Master of all their Lives and Estates; his numerous Subjects render him a kind of Adoration, and never speak of him, but with the greatest Respect. As most of the Asia­tick Princes affect very vain and exorbitant Titles, so does the Persian Monarch in particular, he being generally stil'd—King of Persia, P [...]thia, Media, Bactria, Chorazon, Condahor, and Herl, of the [...] Tartar, of the Kingdoms of Hyrcania, Draconia, Evergeta, Pa [...]nia, Hydaspia and Sogdiana, of Aria, Paropaniza, Dra [...]g [...]ta, Arachosia, Mergiana and Carmania, as far as stately Indus. [Page 259] Sultan of Ormus, Larr, Arabia, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Geor­gia, Armenia, Sarcashia, and Uan. Lord of the Imperial Mountains of Ararat, Taurus, Cancasus, and Periardo. Commander of all Crea­tures from the Sea of Chorazan to the Gulf of Persia. Of true De­scent from Mortis-Ally. Prince of the four Rivers, Euphrates, Ty­gris, Araxis, and Indus. Governor of all the Sultans. Emperor of Mussulmen. Bud of Honour. Mirror of Virtue. And Rose of Delight.

Many and various are the Opinions concerning the King of Persia's Arms: It being affirm'd by some, that Arms. he beareth the Sun Or in a Field Azure. By others, a Crescent (as the Turkish Emperors) with this difference, that it hath a Hand added to it. By others, Or with a Dragon Gules. By others, Or with a Buffalo's Head Sable. But the most receiv'd Opi­nion is that he beareth the Rising Sun on the Back of a Lion with a Crescent.

The Inhabitants of this Country are (for the most part) exact observers of Mahomet's Doctrine, according Religion. to the Explication and Commentaries made by Mortis Hali. They differ in many considerable Points from the Turks, and both Parties are subdivided into various Sects, between whom are tossed many Controversies with flaming Zeal on either side. The main Point in debate between them, is concerning the immediate Successors of Mahomet. The Turks reckoning them thus, Mahomet, Aboubekir, Omar, Osman, and Mortis Hali. But the Persians will have their Hali to be the immediate Successor, and some esteem him equally with Mahomet himself, and call the People to Prayers with these words, Llala-y-lala Mortis. Aly vellilula; for which the Turks ab­hor them, calling them Rafadi and Cassars, i. e. Schismaticks, and themselves Sonni and Musselmen, which is, true Believers. They differ also in their Explication of the Alcoran; besides, the Persians have contracted it into a lesser Volumn than the Arabians after Gu­net's Reformation, preferring the Immaman Sect before the Melchian, Anesian, Benefian, or Xefagans, broached by Aboubekir, Omar, and Osman; from which four are sprung above seventy several sorts of Religious Orders, as Morabites, Abdals, Dervises, Papasi, Rafadi, &c. Here are many Nestorian Christians, as also several Jesuits, and ma­ny Jews. The Christian Religion was first planted in this Country by the Apostle, St. Thomas.

SECT. V. Concerning Turky in Asia.

 d.m.
Situatedbetween4800of Long.its greatestLength from S. E. to N. W. is about 2100 Miles.
8200
between1330of Latit.Breadth from N. to S. is about 1740 Miles.
4530

Comprehending six great parts, viz.Natolia—Chief TownBursa lying Westward.
Arabia—Medina—found from S. to N.
Syria—Aleppo—
Diarbeck—Bagdat—
Turkomania—Arzerum—
Georgia—Teflis—

Each of the foregoing Parts comprehends several Provinces; as,

NatoliaNatolia propria—Chief TownBursa—Northward, W. to E.
Amasia—Idem—
Caramania—Cogni—Southward, W. to E.
Aladuli—Maraz—
ArabiaB [...]ria [...]a or Arabia DesertaAnna—N. to S.
Barraab or Arabia PetreaHerat—
Ayman or Arabia FaelixMedina—
SyriaSyria propria—Aleppo—N. to S.
Phoenicia—Demask—
Palestinc—Jerusalem—
DiarbeckDiarbeck—Diarbekir—N. to S.
Arzerum—Mosul—
Yerack—Bagdat—
Turcoma­niaTurcomania propria—Arzerum—W. to E.
Curdes—Van—
GeorgiaMengralia—Fasso—W. to E.
Gurgestan—Teflis—

[Page 261] THIS vastly extended Body being divided (as aforesaid) into six great Parts, viz. Natolia, Arabia, Syria, Diabereck, Turcomania, and Georgia; we shall particularly Treat of the first three, and that separately (they being most remarkable); and then take a General View of all the rest conjunctly, and that under the Title of the Euphratian Provinces. Therefore,

§. 1. NATOLIA.

THIS Country (formerly Asia Minor, in contradi­stinction from Asia the Greater) is term'd by the Name. Italians and Spaniards, Natolia; by the French, Natolie; by the Germans, Natolien; and by the English, Natolia or Anatolia; so call'd at first by the Grecians, because of its Eastern Situation in respect of Greece, [...].

The Air of this Country is very different, being in some Provinces very pure and healthful; in others ex­tremely Air. gross and pestilentious. The opposite Place of the Globe to Anatolia, is that part of the Pacisick Ocean, between 235 and 250 Degrees of Longitude, with 34 and 38 Degrees of South Latitude.

The Soil of this Country (it lying in the 5th and 6th North Climate) is extraordinary fertil, abounding Soil. with Oyl and Wine, and most sorts of Grain and Fruits: But much of the Inland Provinces lie uncultivated, a thing too common in most Countries subject to the Mahometan Yoke. The length of the Days and Nights is the same here as in Greece, they both lying-under the same Parallels of Latitude.

The chief Commodities of this Country, are Raw Silks, Goats-Hair, Twisted Cotten, Cordovants of Commodities. several Colours, Calicuts white and blew, Wooll for Matrisses, Tapistries, Quilted Coverlets, Soap, Rhubarb, Galls, Valleneed, Scommony, Opium, &c.

Not far from Smyrna, (by the Turks Ismyr) is a cer­tain kind of Earth, commonly call'd by the Franks, Rarities. Soap-Earth, which boileth up out of the Ground, and is always gathered before Sun-rising, and that in such prodigious Quantity, that many Camels are daily imploy'd in carrying Loads of it to divers Soap-Houses at some distance, where being mix'd with Oyl, and both boil'd together for several Days, it becomes at last an excellent sort of Soap. (2.) Nigh to Smyrna, are the Vestigia of a Roman Circus and Theatre; and thereabouts is frequently found variety of Roman Medals. (3.) About two easy days Journey, [Page 262] East from Smyrna, are some Remains of the Ancient Thyatira, as appears from ten or twelve remarkable Inscriptions still to be seen, (for which, Vid. Wheeler's Travels, from Page 230 to 236.) and therefore Tyreth (a small Village twenty Miles South-East of Ephe­sus) is falsely taken for it by the Ignorant Greeks. (4.) At Mylasa, (formerly Melasso in Caria) are noble Remains of Antiquity; parti­cularly a magnificent Temple of Maible, built in Honour of Au­gustus Caesar, and the Goddess of Rome, as appears from an Inscrip­tion upon the Front which is still intire. Here also is a stately Co­lumn, call'd the Pillar of Menander, with a little curious Temple, but uncertain for what, or by whom erected. (5.) At Ephesus, (now call'd Aj [...] Salove by the Turks) are yet to be seen some Anci­ent Christian Churches, particularly that of St. John, the intirest of 'em all, and now converted into a Mahometan Mosque; as also the Vestigia of a Roman Amphitheatre, Circus, and Aqueduct, together with a large heap of stately Ruins, generally reckon'd those of the (once) magnificent Temple of Diana, the great Goddess of the Ephesians. (6) At Laodicea (by the Turks Eske-hissar, which is ut­terly forsaken of Men, and now the Habitation of wild Beasts) are still extant three Theatres of white Marble, and a stately Circus, all so intire as yet, that they would seem to be only of a Modern date. (7.) At Sardis (by the Turks, Sart or Sards, now a little nasty beggarly Village, though once the Royal Seat of rich King Craesus) are the Remains of some stately Ancient Architecture, with several imperfect Inscriptions. (8.) At Pergamos (which still retains the Name of Pargamo, and is observable for being the place where Parchment was first invented) are the Ruins of the Palace of the Atalick Kings. Here is also the Ancient Christian Church of Sancta Sophia, now converted into a Mahometan Mosque. As for Philadelphia, the last of the famous Seven Churches of Asia (now call'd by the Turks, Allach Scheyr, i. e. The City of God) 'tis remark­able at present for nothing so much as the considerable number of Christians dwelling in it, they amounting to two thousand, and upwards.

The State of Christianity being very deplorable through most Parts of the Ottoman Dominions, Archbishopricks, &c. and not only the chief Ecclesiasticks of the Chri­stian Churches, (viz. Patriarchs, Archbishops, and Bishops,) but also their very Sees being frequently alter'd, according as their Tyrannical Master, the Turk, proposeth advan­tage by such Alterations; and whereas a great many Titular Bi­shops, yea, Archbishops, and some Patriarchs are often created; it is equally vain to expect, as impossible to give, an exact List of all the Ecclesiastical Dignities in those Parts, whether Real or Nominal. Let it therefore suffice (once for all) to subjoin in this [Page 263] place the most remarkable of the Christian Ecclesiasticks through all Parts of the Asiatick and African Turky; still referring the Reader to the same as he travelleth through the various Parts of this vast Empire. These Ecclesiasticks being Patriarchs, Archbishops, and Bishops. The chief Patriarchs (besides him of Constantinople, already mention'd in Europe) are those of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and An­tioch; as also two Armerian (one of which resideth at Ecmeasin, a Monastry in Georgia; and the other at Sis in Aladuha); and lastly, one Nestorian, whose place of Residence is commonly at Mosul in Diarbeck.

The chief Archbishopricks (together with the European) are those of

  • Heraclea,
  • Adrianople,
  • Patras,
  • Saloniki,
  • Corinth,
  • Proconesus,
  • Athens,
  • Nicosia,
  • Amasia,
  • Malvasia,
  • Janna,
  • Scutari,
  • Amphipoli,
  • Monembasia,
  • Tyana,
  • Napoli di Romania,
  • Methynna,
  • Tyre.
  • Larissa,
  • Phanarion,
  • Berytus.

The chief of the many Bishopricks (besides the European) are those of

  • Ephesus,
  • Trebisonde,
  • Amasia,
  • Ancyra,
  • Drama,
  • Nova Caesarea,
  • Cyzicus,
  • Smyrna,
  • Cogni,
  • Nicomedia,
  • Metylene,
  • Rhodes,
  • Nice,
  • Serra,
  • Chio,
  • Calcedon,
  • Christianepeli,
  • S. John D'Acre.

As for Un