The Compleat Gentlem …


In Two Treatises.

By I. GAILHARD Gent. Who hath been Tutor Abroad to several of the Nobility and Gentry.

In the SAVOY: Printed by Tho. Newcomb, for Iohn Starkey at the Mitre in Fleet Street, near Temple-Bar, 1678.


Guil. Sill, R. P. D. Henrico Episcopo Lond. à Sacris Dom.
Septemb. 22. 1677.


The First Part. About their Breeding at Home.


Vae tibi qui praees & non prodes, si quia praeesse nequis, prodesse recusas.

Adde quod ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes,
Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros.

In the SAVOY: Printed by T.N. for I. Starkey at the Mitre in Fleet-street, near Temple-Bar, 1678.

To the Right Honorable, THEOPHILUS, Earl of Huntingdon, Lord Hastings, Hungerford, Ho­met, Botreaux, Moelis, Molins and Peverel, &c.

My Lord,

AS the Tempers of men are different, so are their Conditions, according as they are placed by Pro­vidence, Nature, or their Industry; but all priviledged men, whether with nobleness of Birth, ful­ness of Riches, or greatness of Parts, and Vertue, are equally bound in their station to act according to the mea­sure of their power.

They who are in elevations ought [Page] to avoid making idols or cyphers of themselves; as if they were thus placed only for their own sake, or for a shew to others: but the higher they are, the nearer they are to God; and the more lively images of him, whose influences are more immedi­ately derived on them; not there to rest, but to be imparted to those of an orb inferior to theirs; which ends, if they do not answer, they may well look upon themselves in their eleva­tion as standing on the edg of a dread­ful precipice. For the higher they are lifted up, the greater and more dan­gerous will be their fall; and to their own shame they will undergo the fate of those fiery vapours, elevated in the air; which to the eyes of men seem to be Stars, and placed amongst them; but on a sudden, by their fall, vanish away; and then it appears what they were, namely, an illusion without reality. No man endued with [Page] Judgment and Reason, will believe him who acts the part of a Prince up­on the Stage (though for a time he borrows Royal Ornaments, and as­sumes over his equals a Sovereign Au­thority) to be indeed what he seems and pretends to be; 'tis so but for a time, and to give delight to his Spe­ctators: so will he off, who being a man of quality, is useless to those, who, because he is above them, have their eyes fixed upon him, and gives them neither good Precepts, Advises, nor Examples. There is no Star but hath its influences within her sphere, no good Tree but produces good Fruit; but he who is noble, and doth not act his part, is but a vain shadow.

Your Lordship knows, and is con­cerned to know these things; for not only you are born to be under our Sovereign, one of the chief Pillars of the State, as a member of the most illustrious House of Peers, whereof [Page] few go before you; but also you are so highly advantaged by your Birth, that the Blood of many Princes runs in your Veins. This Priviledge is so far improved by the care and ten­derness of the extraordinary Person who brought you into the world, and your own good dispositions, that in your Lordship we find this to be true, Men of a superior Orb are not tied to common Rules, neither doth ver­tue in such persons as you, stay for years. You make a good use of such advantages, and in your Lordship these good causes produce good ef­fects: that which into others would in­fuse pride and loftiness, in you breeds meekness and humility; so that you never give occasion to the ordinary dispute in the world, between Supe­riors and Inferiors, caused by want and excess, too little, and too much; for often great men are apt to require and exact too great respects and sub­mission [Page] from the lower sort, who, on their parts, are too prone to deny yielding the Honour and Obedience which they owe to those who are above them.

My heart not satisfied some years ago to have vowed it self to serve your Lordship, is now ambitious to make it known to the world; and that which first of all was the effect of a choice, being attended with my inclination, is at last become a strong and necessary duty, grounded upon those Vertues, which, for a competent time, I could perceive to spring in you, but now are ripening and draw­ing towards perfection: whereupon I must express my joy to your Lord­ship, pray for an increase, and beseech him who will honour those that honour him, to make you like a new shining Star in the Firmament of the State, to raise you from one degree of light to another; that you may have Chri­stian [Page] and wise influences over those that are round about you, and to sea­son your tender years with his true Grace, which none will be more glad of, than

Right Honorable,
Your Lordships most Humble and most Devoted Servant, J. Gailhard.


THE Subject I now handle is as important and necessary as any to humane Society; inasmuch as being reduced to Rules, and these Rules brought to practice, it will have great influences, and prove very bene­ficial▪ if any ways I can treat it suta­bly to its worth, it will afford variety of things for several sorts of persons; for all the parts of it joyned together, are very comprehensive, and of a large extent: What time I could spare from my necessary Employment, for part of a Summer which I passed at Angers in France, I bestowed upon this; but since, it was laid aside for about seven years, by reason of my farther travelling into [Page] France, Italy, Germany, &c. but now that God hath been pleased to bring me back again, I think sit to impart it to the world.

I will not go about giving an account of it, but leave it to the judgment of the Reader; only I hope none will take exceptions at any thing I say, in some places of the other parts; for I can as­sure them I never intend, but rather avoid offending others in what I do or say; and much less do I point at any when I speak of the tricks of vicious and debauched persons, which I believe none but those who are such, will take notice of: and in such a case, I will not much trouble my self with what they can say or do; because they are like those whose wounds are so sore, that they cannot en­dure the Chyrurgion should touch them in the least, let his hand be never so gentle; so if one mentions the vices of such, they cannot abide it, but start thereat.

A wise man said of old, that four [Page] good Mothers had begotten four good Children, viz. Familiarity, Contempt; Prosperity, Pride; Confidence, Danger; and Truth, Hatred: Hence comes the Proverb, Veritas odium parit, in the delivery whereof one ought to be very cautious; specially when any ways it reflects upon great men: thus Il Ferr­ante Palavicini suffered for his An Itali­an Book. Divortio celeste, &c. and witty Boccalini at Ve­nice, was beaten to death with bags full of sand for his Pietra del Paragone, and some things in his Raguagli di Parnasso; and a poor Italian Poet was made suffer the Strapata for this general expression of his, Biasimare un principe é pericolo é lodarlo, bu­gia. To blame a Prince is dangerous, but to commend him is a lie. Subjects of this nature ought not to be handled at all, or at least very sparingly: The mark of Majesty which God hath prin­ted upon the forehead of Princes, ought [Page] to be respected by all men; but the faults of particular men may be more freely censured upon occasion; specially when it is for the publick good.

For my part I look upon this world as a stage, and I value men only ac­cording as they act their part in it: He who is but a Countreyman, and lives well as such, seems to me more commend­able, than he who is a Gentleman born, and doth not the actions of a Gentle­man: so that esteeming every one for what he is, and not for what he hath, I equally value those who have the great­est Charges and Dignities, and those who carry burthens upon their backs; except Vertue makes a difference be­tween them: Indeed Birth, Places, and Authority, in whatsoever Subject they be found, ought to be respected; but Ver­tue alone makes men to be esteemed.

I am neither so ignorant, nor so in­considerate, as not to think that there are those who are as illustrious for their [Page] Merits, as for their Birth and Fortune; and that this age is not so barbarous, but that some in it have good Inclina­tions, and do good Actions; but that number is small, and the multitude is usually affected to evil.

This consideration hath put me upon this matter; for as my genius cannot long allow me to be idle, so I have chosen a subject, which being satis­factory to me, might prove useful and beneficial to others. What few things I have learned in my Travels, I think my self, upon serious consideration, ob­liged to impart to others, who may thence receive some small instructions, and directions, if they have a mind to see the world: though the chief thing I propound herein to my self, is to shew the necessity, benefit, and excellency of a good Breeding, becoming none so much as a Gentleman, who, by his Vertue and Merit, more than by his Extraction, should be raised above the Commonalty; [Page] for Vertue first of all made a diffe­rence between man and man, there be­ing an equality between all the Children of Adam, as to Birth and Nature; and certainly when the Nobility and Gentry want Merits to Command, and Abilities to Govern, they must change place with the lower sort of People, whom Parts and Virtue, (though not without favour) will raise to the great­est Charges and Dignities in the Land.

Of Breeding Children at Home.

TO have Youth well brought up, is so necessary to Humane Society, that all Nations ought to make it one of their chief cares: If Egyptians, Caldeans, Persians, Grecians, Romans, and other Hea­thens were so studious of it, how much more are Christians (who have greater lights than they had) bound to mind it? For that which to others was a natural and politick duty, is enforced upon us by the Gospel, which the more men do conform to, the better they under­stand their duty; which not only themselves will [Page 2] practise, but also [...]uggest to those who have any dependence upon them, and so infuse into them Vertue and Sciences. The better a Christian is, the more humble, civil, and gentle he will be, and the greater care he will take to teach those who are related to him, to be so too. This more near­ly concerns Parents, who have a tie to instruct their Children, beyond any other Relation whatsoever. 'Tis not enough to have brought them into the world, except they instruct them to live well therein; nor to have given them being, unless they direct them how to attain to a well-being. Nature alone is no great matter, for Beasts do not want a sensitive principle, and even amongst them there are those which are not satisfied to have brought forth their young ones, but they tend, and take care of them till they are able to shift for themselves. Birds of prey will lead them to it, and Eagles which use to be about Rocks and Mountains, and to fly very high, expose their young ones to the beams of the Sun, to the end they may abide it when it shineth clear and hot upon them; Cats lead theirs to catch Mice, Dogs their Whelps to hunt, and those creatures which are apt to be destroyed with snares, will often teach their little ones how to avoid them: This natural instinct should not have more power on Beasts, than reason in men.

How much greater is the obligation which Pa­rents lay upon their Children, when to being they add breeding, when not only they make them men, but also teach them how to be know­ing and vertuous men? As to the first, nature makes us all alike, it produces us all with body and soul; flesh and blood, the essential parts of [Page 3] humanity; but Education makes a difference, and sets a mark of distinction; wherefore 'tis well called a second nature: For want of this, a poor Country-man's Son will be fit only to handle a Plough, and follow vile and mechanical employ­ments; though perhaps he has within him dispo­sitions to learn great things, and to receive good impressions if they were given him. Contrariwise▪ a great man's Son's dulness and weakness are of­ten overcome by a constant care taken of his Edu­cation, whereby his bad natural qualities are men­ded, his imperfections and defects corrected, and what seeds of good dispositions he hath in him are improved; whereas if he had been neglected, he had perhaps been unfit for any good thing.

How often hath Breeding proved a better and a surer estate and inheritance than Lands, Riches, and Honours; all these things are subject to losses, chances, and revolutions; but Breeding is an un­estimable treasure, unseparable from him who hath it. A man may be fooled out of his Estate, but not out of his Wit: providence hath put such a difference between the means and fortunes of men, to leave a field to Virtue, which being ex­ercised, may attain rewards which men of worth do often obtain; and though sometimes they miss them, yet they have in themselves the satisfaction to deserve them: And certainly 'tis more honour­able not to have, yet deserve, than to have and not deserve. Now when a man wants Birth and Means, Education will supply them; for it re­forms what is amiss in nature, and perfects what good we have; it helps a man to get what he hath not, and to preserve what he hath; so that at one time or other it proves necessary and useful to all [Page 4] sorts of persons. Breeding and Dis­cipline (saith Plato) when they are good,In the fourth Dialogue of his Republic. make parts to be good; and if they were good before, they be­come better thereby.

From the School of good Breeding will come good Christians, loyal Subjects, obedient Children, faithful Servants; in one word, persons good in every relation. On the contrary, what often causes Impiety, Atheism, Blasphemy, Disobedi­ence, Rebellion, &c. but the want of care of Youth, which once being fallen into a debauched course of life, care neither for God nor men. Hence do arise Disorders in Families, troubles and civil Wars in States? for often God punishes men for negle­cting (though but in part) this duty; as in the case of Ely's Children,1 Sam. 3.13. by a special Judgment of God his whole Family was destroyed, because his Sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not: if therefore every Parent would take care of his Fa­mily, every Magistrate, of the Town he is in, of every Province, and so of every Kingdom, the world would go better than it doth, and Youth would not generally prove so unruly: thus evil would be cut off by the root, and thereby much mischief prevented.

The nature of Youth for the most part is like Wax by the fire; and what Aristotle saith of the mind, that it is a smooth table upon which any thing can be written, may be applyed to the present sub­ject; 'tis like the materia prima of Philosophers, apt to receive any form: though, I confess, evil rather than good, by reason of the depravation of humane nature: therefore the whole care, pains, [Page 5] and industry of Parents is required. To this purpose Frantzius a­nimal. Hist. Sacra, cap. 26. fol. 394. one speaking of the Nightingale, saith, that it sings before the young ones to teach them: and he adds, It hath been observed, that with much attention they hearken to it, and then repeat it one after another: Far­ther, saith he, It hath also been taken notice, that it doth interrupt their singing, to correct them when they sing amiss, in order to perfect them in the quality wherein that Bird doth excel. What a precedent is this for Parents?

The Manners of a man usually are suitable to his Breeding, which teaches to speak, and to do well:Educatio mo­res facit & id sapit unusquis­que quod didi­cit, &c. ait Se­neca. Breeding frameth the manners of men, and every one knoweth what he hath learned: there­fore a good custom must remove that which a bad one hath introduced. In­deed it hath great influences upon the temper, not only to perfect it when it is good, but also to alter it when it is otherwise, rooting out what is amiss in it. Let Nature be what it will it may be changed by Education; for

Invidus, iracundus, iners, vinosus, amator
Horat. lib. 1. ep. 1.
Nemo adeo ferus est qui non mitescere possit,
Si modo culturae patientem praebeat aurem.

This was well known to the Lycurgu [...]. Law­giver of the Lacedemonians, who to recommend his Laws to his Valer. max. Ci­tizens, and to withdraw them from the corruption [Page 6] and effeminate pleasures they were in at that time, took care to breed up two whelps, the one a Greyhound, the other, a currish breed; the for­mer he kept at home, and fed him with good meat; but the last he often carried into the Field to hunting: one day he brought forth both before the people, and set down good victuals of one side, and let out a Hare on the other; whereupon the Dogs did run each after his usual meat, the Grey­hound after victuals, the other after the Hare: then he said to the people, do you see what a dif­ference, diversity of Breeding hath set between the two whelps, and how it hath had over them a greater power than nature?

We also see that young Children, who, by rea­son of the innocency of their age, are not capable to dissemble, love their Nurses more than their Mothers; so that Breeding makes on them a great­er impression than Generation; ac­cording to the opinion of Euripides, Ipsa educa [...]io inter homines frequenter ma­ [...]orem vim ex­citat amoris quam ipsa ge­neratio. Alexander the Great, being asked one day whom he loved best, his Father Philip or Aristotle? My pre­ceptor, said he, Ille enim ut essem▪ hic ut praeclare institutus essem au­thor fuit. Commonly Education is a rule to a man as long as he liveth. The Disciples of that great Philo­sopher,Plutarchus. when they were arguing up­on a point, used often to say, The Master said so, St. Paul sends some to their rudiments and former instructions; and in another place, he saith, But you have not so learned Christ. That which he saith upon the account of Religion, may be appli­ed to the purpose of Education; how men, though [Page 7] come to age, ought to remember lessons given them in their Youth, and bring them to practise. The advice of a Roman Poet is very good,

—Te ipsum
Concute num tibi quae vitiorum inseve­rit olim,
Horat. lib. 1. Satyr. 3.
Natura aut etiam consuetudo mala, namque
Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris.

If it be necessary at last to come to this trial and examen of himself, there must be a necessity first to receive instructions about it, which are part of, and depend upon Breeding.

And because 'tis not enough to convince men of the necessity of this, except some ways be shewed how to bring it about, hereupon I confess my heart begins to fail me, specially when I consider how many thousands in the world have a riper judgment, and greater experience than I; and therefore am unwilling to give my advice about it: For I know how different the ways, and how contrary man's opinions are about it; yet being so far engaged in it, I must go through, but submit to the censure of ingenious readers.

I could wish in the first place to see the care of Parents extended upon Children immediately af­ter they are born, and (if it were convenient) the Mother to suckle them; for Children are by half, more obliged to Mothers who take these pains, than to those who do not; it being known that a Nurse is a second Mother. I say this, not only because it is possible for them to be changed by those Nurses when they are born to great Estates, and have others put in their room, but [Page 8] also because all have not that care and true tender­ness of Mothers who have carried them nine months in their Womb: However, in case they are resolved to save themselves this trouble, they must be careful in the choice of a Nurse; seeing a Child for the most part retains much of her hu­mour and temper, communicated through the Blood, out of which is formed the Milk, which is the food, and is turned into the very substance of the Child; the spirits also being therein con­veyed: therefore I would choose a healthful, jovial, and vertuous woman; all which are neces­sary qualifications for a Nurse: for as we use to say, such the Father, such the Son; such the Mo­ther, such the Daughter. Though this be not uni­versally true, yet the reason why it should be so, being better than why it should not be, the like we may affirm of the Nurse and the Child.

This reason some give why Tyberius the Empe­ror was so given to Wine, because his Nurse was a drunkard, and used to feed him with Bread sopt in Wine. This vice did not only attend him in his retirement in Caprea, but also followed him to his grave. Others do affirm that the famous Gre­cian Achilles was so valiant, and so courageous, be­cause Chyron fed him with the Marrow, Hearts, and Livers of Lions, and other stout Creatures. Many other things of this nature might be produ­ced to the same purpose.

It is the practice of some Nurses and Servants about Children, to fright them with stories and representations, which make so deep an impression upon them, that they can never break it as long as they live: This sometimes frights them out of their wits, or makes them so timerous, that they [Page 9] hardly dare walk a step in the dark, sleep without company in their chamber, or without a burning candle all night; and other effects it produces, which make them ridiculous to others. I know those who are very rational, yet cannot shake it off, though they strive to do it: they know it to be a very great imperfection, yet cannot remedy it. Thus a coward knows he is so, and would be glad to be courageous, but cannot help it. This sometimes is an effect of having been frighted, rather than a natural defect. Let them also avoid giving them blows, whereof the marks or effects remain upon them till they are carried to their grave; and very often a lameness, crookedness, and such deformity, yea, death, are caused by a blow, a fall, or the like.

I would have Children to be taught something betimes, and almost as soon as they are able to crawl, and to speak any ways intel­ligibly.Quo semel est imbuta recens servabit odo­rem, testa diu. Hor. l. 1. ep. 2. A vessel ever retains a scent of the liquor that was first put into it: Prov. 22.6. Train up a Child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it. 'Tis true, impressions in Youth are easily taken away, as a young plant is soon rooted out; but when acts are turned into habits, and these contracted through a long succession, 'tis ve­ry difficult, especially if they are bad, and in this sense the Rule is good, Principiis obsta.

Care is to be taken at first, that Youth be not inticed or drawn to evil practices and customs, for the inward principle being naturally corrupt, namely, the mind darkened, and so unabled to di­scern true from false, the will and affections de­prav'd [Page 10] and prone to evil, if these natural dispo­sitions be strengthened with evil practise, and be­come habitual, all that will not only be setled and confirmed, but also it will become inveterate and past remedy, without God's special grace. And this is to be minded the more, because the disturbance which passions work in Youth, and the being possess'd with evil habits, makes such a confusion between the images of true and real good, and of that which only appears such, that reason, which is born after them, and amidst this storm, is framed within us, is not in a capacity at that time distinctly to put a difference, by which means the soul is mistaken in her choice.

But the first and chief thing I would have them to be taught, is, piety, and the fear of God,Psa [...]m 111.10. which, as David and Solo­mon say,Prov. 1.7. Is the beginning of wisdom and knowledg: wherefore the same Prophet saith,Psal. 22.9. Thou art my God from my mothers womb, thou didst make me hope when I was upon my mothers breast: And the wisest man that ever was,Eccles. 12.1. bids us Remember our Creator in the days of our youth. St, Paul commends his Disciple Timo­thy, 2 Tim. 1.5. because from his youth up, by the care of his Mother, and Grand­mother, he was instructed in the Faith, and fear of God; and that from a child he had known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make us wise unto salvation. Let prophane and wicked men talk what they will, the best and safest is God's way. This Principle, and others of our Religion I wish were early and continually infused into [Page 11] them, by learning some easie Catechism, reading in the Bible as soon as they are able, and using them to go to Church, behave themselves reve­rently, and as much as they are able, to give atten­tion to what is preached; and when they are come home, they must be asked what they remem­ber of the Sermon, censuring them for their neg­lect, and praising and encouraging them for their diligence.

Above all things they ought to be put upon the duty of prayer, I would have them persuaded of the dependence they have upon God for food, rai­ment, and other necessaries for this and the life to come: when they fall upon their knees, they ought to be made sensible of the glory, power, purity, and mercy of [...]od, and (as much as they are capable) of their own unworthiness, sinfulness, and misery, craving pardon for their sins, in and through the Merits and Sufferings of our Saviour alone, (and this will begin to work humility in them) they must be thankful for mercies received, and crave those they stand in need of, especially the constant protection of God.

Moreover, Parents must ever be giving them good precepts, and never bad examples. The Spartans to cause their Children to abhor drun­kenness, made their servants drunk, and then ex­posed them to the sight of their Children; who seeing what a vile vice this is, did thereby loath and hate it. So upon other accounts, the use of such demonstrations will make a deep impression upon the minds and memories of youth.

Hereupon I must express my dissenting from the opinion of many, who think it not fit to en­tertain youth with serious things, and others which [Page 12] are or seem to be above their capacity, and not suitable to their years; but certainly experience doth confute this error; tell them nothing but of toyes and trifles, and their mind will run about such things: their mind is never at rest, but is constantly taken up with something: now 'tis with it as with the ground, sow Oats in it, and it will bring forth Oats, but sow Wheat, and it will produce what it hath received: therefore my rea­son is, that though Children have not ripeness of judgment to use it, yet memory is the faculty wherein that age doth excel, to which they com­mit the things they hear: and though for the pre­sent the benefit of it doth not appear, yet it is as the seed in the ground, which doth not im­mediately come to maturity, but it falls in first, then corrupts, afterwards it buds, and springs up, and at last gives us fruit; so in time youth will remember good things taught them, and reduce them to a practice.

Morality is the second thing they ought to learn, and this flows from the former; for where there is a right Principle of Piety, it will appear in life and conversation: and though infancy be hardly capable of the strict and severe rules of Mo­rality, yet at least they must have a view of the Principles of it; which, as judgment ripeneth, may be refined; and come to perfection. The Heathens, by the light of Nature, and the help of Learning, have given notable lessons about it; and whosoever is able to read and understand the Writings of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Se­neca, &c. will subscribe to what I say, and also admire to see them so much go beyond many Chri­stians in the knowledg and practise of moral ver­tues, [Page 13] yet for want of Faith their Chastity, Sobrie­ty, Fortitude, &c. were but shining sins, Splendida peccata, as St. Austin calls them.

Now, though I could wish Parents to be remiss in those things which are of an indifferent nature, yet stifly they must be set against vices, and things contrary to good manners; but the chastisement is to be left to their prudence; ever making a di­stinction between the person and the thing: but of this hereafter we will speak more at large, as of the difference of irregularities, committed out of ignorance, humane weakness, or of set purpose; yet one must never allow them the gross breaches of the Law of God, as Swearing, Lying, Steal­ing, &c. not in the least degree thereof; for from a low degree one easily rises to a higher, and so persists till he be consummated in that sin, and then consuetudo peccandi tollit sensum peccati, the custom of sinning takes away the sence of sin.

It is very ill done of some who allow Children to use by-Oaths, merry-Lyes, and petty-Thefts of Toyes and Trifles, and do not consider how the Devil is thereby intruding sin, though in a disguise, and not in that horrid shape which is natural to it. No, no, he who takes the Name of God in vain, if not prevented, will at last be brought to Swear, Forswear, Curse and Blaspheme; from merry Lyes he will proceed to those which are pernicious: He who steals a pin, will at last steal a pound. What men allow when 'tis in their power, and their duty to hinder, they are appro­vers of, and so guilty of the sad consequences that arise therefrom. To mak [...] Youth abhor sin, it must be represented to them odious, vile, and in its own colours. Justice [...] d [...]eply to be printed [Page 14] in their hearts, and they to be made perfect in this Rule, Quod tibi fieri non vis alteri ne feceris, Deal with others as you would be dealt by.

Now as there are many of a stubborn humour, and naturally inclined to mischief▪ so admonitions ought to be used: and if this cannot serve, corre­ction must be applied. Indeed some Parents are sometimes the cause of their Childrens destructi­on; like Apes they so dally, embrace, and make so much of them, that they choak and stifle them. This unnatural tenderness (I must so call it) is so pernicious; that they who are afraid of keeping a Rod in the house to correct a Child, sometimes see him drawn to the Gallows for want of timely cha­stisement. This saying too often proves true, He who hath not a rod in his house for his Son, keeps a rope for him. A wiser man than such,Prov. 22.15. further saith, Folly is bound in the heart of a Child, but the rod of correction shall drive it off. This sparing of children is so far from being a sign of true love, that it is a strong demonstration of hatred or in­differency. Let what Solomon saith to this purpose be taken notice of,Prov. 13.24. He that spareth his rod hateth his Son, but he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes; that is, in his childhood and infancy: yet this correcti­on is used with different success; some under it like wax by the fire, are softned and bettered, others like clay and dirt are hardened.

On the other side, some Parents, far from being too indulgent, go to an extreme of severity or cru­elty. When Children are chastened, it must be in measure, and with moderation, by Fathers, not by Hangmen. When God chastiseth his Chil­dren, [Page 15] he doth it in mercy, and not in fury, to heal, and not to destroy;Hos. 11.8. His heart is turned within him. Some are so unreasonable, that if they are vexed at any thing, and a Child lies in their way, out of a fro­lick, or folly, this Child who at that time hath done nothing amiss, must be beaten, and a Father or Mother will pass their anger upon him: a stran­ger so doing may happen to be excused; for he is not obliged to the natural affection which a Fa­ther and Mother ought to have. In the case of the two Harlots,1 Kings 3.26. she who was not the Mother of the Child alive, was content he should be divided; but the tenderness of the true Mother could not allow of it, she had rather lose him altogether, than see him destroyed: So that 'tis more natural and pardonable for Parents to be too indulgent, than too severe; though I do not deny there ought to be a proportion between the fault and the cha­stisement. But before I pass farther, I must take notice of a thing considerable in it self, though it be not to the present purpose. How the case of the two Harlots is an emblem of the difference between Kings and Tyrants; Kings are Fathers of their people, whom they deal with like children whom they love, and are tender of their good, peace, and happiness: but Tyrants care not for them only to serve their ends; and let them sink or swim, 'tis all one to them.

But to return to the matter in hand, fatherly corrections ought to be inflicted seasonably: there is time and season for every thing: a chastisement as well as a word in season is very effectual, it must also be done gently; for natural tenderness [Page 16] must not be forgotten. Yet I do not deny, as I said before, it should be somewhat sutable to the offence; and in this Parents ought not to be actua­ted by any violent passion, only out of a desire for the Childrens good. In a word, a rod in their hand is to be physick, to heal, and not poison to kill: and this is spoken to fathers more than to Mo­thers; because these last are commonly more in­clined to tenderness than to severity: Wherefore we see how God, to shew his kindness in Scri­ptures, compares himself to Mothers, oftner than to Fathers, upon four accounts, of Love, Indul­gency, Allurements, and Condescension.

Erudition, or learning is the third thing, I wish Children to be put upon; but it must be a learn­ing proportionable to their capacity; provided it be no prejudice to their health: for upon this ac­count one is not to venture the substance for the accident, which yet I would not have to be un­derstood of the two former, especially of Piety, which includes a necessity to salvation; for then I could speak in the words of that pious man, who being dissuaded from his study, and reading of godly Books, as a thing contrary to his health, answered thus, For life sake I must not lose that for which I ought to live. ‘Nec propter vitam vivendi perdere causam.’

Let them begin with Reading, Writing, and what thing else is fit for their age and capacity; but Parents must be able either by themselves, or others, to know not only the capacity, but also the temper of the Tutor, or School-master; for Scholars have much of the nature of Preceptors: [Page 17] and this I may give for a true observation of mine (which I do not pretend to be of an universal truth) upon several persons; the reason is clear, for the fear which the one strikes into the others, makes these last study the temper of the former, to conform them [...]elves to it; so that if those prove melancholick, or cholerick, these, out of fear or complacency, will imitate them thereby to become the more acceptable. And indeed how can a young man, apt to receive impressions, not fall into the temper of a man whom he is constantly with, and whom he looks upon as given him to shew good examples, as well as to give good pre­cepts; besides, that his temper and actions do creep, and insensibly, or unawares insinuate into the young man.

The way of some, first to have a Tutor at home, then send them to a Free School, so to the University; when they are fit for it, is often at­tended with success; but as 'tis usual almost in eve­ry thing to meet with letts and hinderances, in this it falls out so sometimes; for at home often the fondness of a Mother will spoil all, Experience shews how few become emi­nent for learn­ing, of those who are born in a place wher [...] is an Universi­ty if they stay in it. accusing the Tutor one time of too much severity, another of neg­lect, and another time for giving too hard tasks, so that a young Boy who is not willing to be tied to his Book, perceiving this, abuses it, and then there is no dealing with him. Farther, in some Schools except one hath a great care of him, he will neglect his Book, and fall into a disorderly course of life, often running too and fro, which some Masters will wink at for their interest, to [Page 18] perpetuate them in the School. As for the Uni­versities, there is often so much corruption, by reason of the great concourse of Scholars, who debauch one another, one alone being sufficient to corrupt many, that instead of learning they some­times forget; and when they should improve themselves in Vertue, Arts, and Sciences, they ab­jure all good manners, and become proficient on­ly in Vices.

Yet for all this, my intent is not to speak against the use of those things, because they are abused▪ only, I desire the abuses so to be taken away, as to be reformed: for I am not so singular, and un­reasonable as to condemn things setled by the ad­vice of good and judicious men, by experience found to be useful and necessary: only, I point at some inconveniences which sometimes happen in't, to the end they may be avoided. And seeing the best things are liable to be corrupted, I will never think the worse of Schools, and Universities, such corruptions creeping in through the fault of some persons and times: Contrariwise, I consider them as Seminaries of Learning; than the which, as yet, the wit and prudence of men could find no better; therefore, mending what I said to be amiss, a Tutor is very necessary in a house; for being under the eyes of Parents, he will the better mind his Duty; and his Advices and Precepts being strengthened with the authority and presence of Parents, will have greater influences upon the Scholar. In Free Schools there will sometimes be an emulation who shall learn best, when they who perform their Duty receive praises and encourage­ments; and the University breeding will be very beneficial, when the good Orders of every Col­ledge [Page 19] shall be put in execution; for indeed Uni­versities are the center and spring of Learning. One thing more I add in relation to Schools, that when there happens to be an unruly and uncorrigi­ble young man, 'twill be the credit and interest of the Master to dismiss him, for fear he should spoil the whole School; for a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

Some Masters have a pernicious method, which is also too common, to affect being formidable to Scholars: Obedience I know to be the ground which whole Education is to be builded upon; but I think a voluntary obedience, when it can be had, is much better than a forced one. Fair means ought to be tried before one makes use of severity, and rigour; but there are those who would have Scholars to quake in their presence, and to fall up­on their knees, and as it were, adore them. Who­soever it is that teaches us any thing, we ought to honour and respect him upon that account; yet I cannot approve to see extorted such respects, and in such a degree as are not due. This indeed is a very bad precedent to young men; for when things which they ought not, are exacted, they are put in the way, and authorised to deny those which are due.

I say therefore, that too great and unseasonable severity produces often sad effects; they would fright young men into learning, instead of inticing them to it: this is the way to make them hate and abhor all manner of erudition. The first rudi­ments of Learning are crabby, and bitter enough in themselves, without any farther mixture of gall and wormwood▪ The will of men will be per­swaded, but not forced: 'tis as of the string of a [Page 20] Watch, if it be wound higher than it should be, it will break. Learning must be represented to them as a pleasure and advantage, and not as a wrack or a torture. Difficulties ought to be cleared and le­velled, and, as much as is possible, they should be led to it by a smooth way: yet for all this I know Muses do not sit upon a level ground, but upon a high hill, so that none can go up without some difficulty: but withal, I say, they ought to be led up not through the steepest, or thorniest, but the easiest way, which will prove more pleasant and beneficial to both Tutor and Pupil. When there is a bad step, or any crabby pass, the young man should be cheared up, and encouraged, and not run him out of breath.

I do not deny, but that 'tis sometimes necessary to chastise them, specially some, whose temper re­quires it; but I would have it done with mode­ration, and only when it is fit and necessary; yet avoiding injurious and unbecoming expressions, and giving those blows, whereof the marks do re­main so long after, not correcting them ad libitum, or out of a fancy, but when there is a just cause, and that as Fathers, not like Tyrants or Hangmen.

Here I cannot forbear inveighing against those Schoolmen,Petrus Lom­bardus, &c. who have corrupted Sciences, specially Phi­losophy and Divinity, which they have stript of their natural habit, and cloathed with a strange dress, under several barbarous names and notions, to make a monopoly of it to themselves; many things in both Philosophy and Divinity were clear and intelligible, but now they have drawn a curtain about, and darkened it with phantastical terms and expressions, which signifie [Page 21] nothing but what they have been pleased to al­low: this is the cause of many disputes and vain contentions, which since the year 1130. or there­abouts have troubled the wit and quiet of men.

The way of teaching Youth in Schools, is so well known, and so common, that it were in vain for me to speak any thing of it; besides, that eve­ry one follows the method he thinks best, and it is natural for men to stand out in their opinion: yet I must say, that with some the ordinary method will not do; but ways ought to be found out su­table to the young mans genius. Sometimes Con­versation will be more effectual than reading and learning by heart, though by all means these must be used; the young man is to help, for the School-master cannot infuse it; therefore the Scholar must take pains: however, I say there are some me­thods easier and better than others. When I speak of Conversation and Reading, I do not oppose, but distinguish one from the other; and I would have discourse used sometimes by way of diversion. When a Scholar is not in a humour, or disposed to learn one thing, then he must be put upon an­other; or instead of making him learn with read­ing, one should teach him with telling, or take some other way to cheat him, as it were, into lear­ning.

But this is better done by a Preceptor in a House, than by a Master in a publick School. He, who at once hath but one or two to mind, can better take his time, and hath more leisure to stu­dy his or their temper, and accordingly order or alter his method; but he who hath many to look to, hath generally one common way, which every one coming into his School is to submit to; and [Page 22] certainly this cannot be alike fit for every Scho­lar.

I love to hear a young man asking the reasons of the rules and precepts given him by his Tutor. It is recorded of Cato, that as soon as he had re­ceived any document from his, he enquired after the cause of it: this is necessary; for if things be committed only to memory, this may happen to fail, or else sometime they will be like a Bird that whistles the tunes he heard often: so that put them out of their tune, they are gone, and silent; or if the words of the things learned are changed, or out of place, though the sense remaineth, they are at a loss; like those who (when they begin to Dance) can do't only in the same Room where they are used to do't; or if they go about it in an­other end of the Chamber, then presently they are out. The same it is of some School-boys, who if in the least they are put out of their ways, will hardly say any thing to the purpose, or speak three words together of good sense; or if they do it will be by a meer accident. Thus we read of a Parre in Rome, which in the days of Augustus was (as many more) taught to salute the Emperor with his Ave Imperator, which he said one day, as Au­gustus was going by, who answered, I heard many such salutations: after which the Bird said, Oleum & operam perdidi, I lost my time and my pains: whereof the Emperor took such notice, that he caused the Master of the Parret to be called to him, and gave him some tokens of his Liberality. Now the Master never intended to teach him these last words; but as the Bird was dull, and did not learn well, often he complained he had lost his time, and his pains, in teaching of him; which [Page 23] the Parret remembring at that time, it came in as well as could be. And indeed some of these crea­tures take notice of words sometimes more than men do imagine, and can remember words which they heard but once. One day in one of the chief Courts of Europe, upon a discourse about Parrets, made by a Lady, who exceedingly commended her own, the Queen desired to see it, and it was sent for; and as soon as the Cage was set down in the presence of the Court, in the language of the Country where this was, he said, Let evil take the sluts who are the cause I am all wet. The truth was, it rained when it was brought through the streets, and the Footman that carried it, spoke the same words which the Parret did well remem­ber. I doubt in Schools are too many such Par­rets who superficially know something, but are not acquainted with the grounds and causes there­of.

Wherefore, to get Youth the more willing to learn, I would endeavour to make them sensible of the great and many advantages which come by Learning; whereof the first is the informing of the judgment, and enlightning of the understanding, which to understand the better, one must know there is a faculty of the soul, called intellect, which is a door and inlet into the soul: for whatsoever objects senses do convey into the soul, they of ne­cessity must pass by this, whose office is to hear, and to judge after examination: In the first part it is called passive, and in the second active: This intellect is as the eye of the soul, whereby she dis­cerns true from false, which is its proper object; as good from evil is the object of the will, yet as this last doth determinate her self according to the [Page 24] last dictate of the former, the notions of good and evil do necessarily fall under its serious conside­ration: for the intellect is as a judgment-seat at whose bar stand all propositions about things sug­gested to the soul, whether or not to be done, chosen or rejected: to the end, that after Discursus. reasons pro and con re­presented, it may pass a sentence, and take a final resolution. Hence it is that often we see men so slow, staggering and unresolved by reason of scruples remaining in their mind; which till they be cleared, and difficulties remo­ved, they will come to no conclusion: so that comparing inconveniencies with advantages, and finding them of an equal weight, the predomi­nant passion doth often intervene to make the scales cast on one side, so that a timerous man will not dare to undertake a thing for fear of dangers: but a bold man will venture through with this con­sideration, ‘Audaces fortuna juvat timidosque repellit.’ But this intellect hath its darkness and ignorance, it is naturally blind, because of Adam's fall: for as promises to Adam were not for him alone, but also were extended upon all mankind, so threat­nings concerned all his posterity; he was not as a private man, but a publick person, representa­tive of all mankind: as therefore through his disobedience, he not only lost his supernatural priviledges, as holiness, righteousness, the image of God and innocency; so all his natural gifts and faculties were thereby corrupted, and this depra­vation hath reached all his successors: no wonder therefore if the intellect of every young man is [Page 25] still involved in that blindness which is also much increased by the suggestions of Satan, and other inward corruptions: the Devil ever goes about to beguile it, disguising as much as he is able the true nature of objects, insinuating evil for good, falshood for truth; so that many times it is misera­bly deceived in its judgments, especially about spi­ritual things; in which operation the grace of God must intervene, and the morning Star must shine till the Sun of Righteousness, being come to his noon, doth dissipate the clouds of darkness, and ignorance: therefore saith St. Paul, Eph. 1.8. the eyes of your understand­ing being enlightned, that you may know it: for in the new Creation, as in the first, darkness is before light; so that now God saith as he did then, Let there be light; and there is light; or else man proceeds from one de­gree of sin of those expressed in St. Iames, Jam. 1.14, 15. he is tempted by those ob­jects which by his lust are received; and by them and the enticements he is deceived; after this, sin is conceived, then brought forth, lastly finished or consummated.

Although the mind be not so blind in, and ig­norant of natural and humane things, as of Di­vine and Spiritual; yet there is a great cloud drawn over it, which in some degrees may be dissipated by learning. In these days knowledg is not infused, but acquired with time and pains. We are not born learned, but we become so by degrees: though alas, if we would speak seriously, and come to an examen of our selvs, we would say with a wise man,Socrates. Hoc unum scio quod nihil scio, one thing [Page 26] I know, that I know nothing; for indeed, what we are ignorant of is much more than what we know. I will say farther, that the most learned man in the world hath but a superficial knowledg of things: nay, more than this, let a man never so much have studied a question, one or other coming after him can have such notions of it as the other never thought upon. Amongst Grecians, when Sciences first of all came out of Egypt, the bravest wits suffered to be called Magi [...] Wise­men; then after some proficiency with Pythagoras, they took the name of [...] Philosophers, friends or lovers of Wisdom; and when they were come to a higher pitch of learning, they would with Socrates be called Rhetores, Speakers, or men discoursing of Wisdom: that is, the more learned they did grow, the better they knew their igno­rance. 'Tis an observation made of Solomon, Eccles. 1. that first he calls him­self King over Israel, then King in Ierusalem; and for once he calls himself King, three times he takes the name of Preacher, to shew that the nearer he was drawing to God, and the more he was looking upon himself, the humbler he was. Just as when a man goes down a River, he can see the bottom of it, and thereupon hath great thoughts of himself: but when he comes to the main Sea, he can discover no bottom there; all are abysses and depths: then he sees the vanity and lightness of his former thoughts.

Indeed Learning, except it be sanctified, makes a man swell with pride, Knowledg pusseth up:1 Cor. 8.1. Hence it is, that as Cor­ruptio optimi est pessima, Nothing is so insufferable as the pride of a man of Learning▪ [Page 27] because wanting experience of the world, he com­mits many absurd errors: indeed he is altogether impertinent; so that having conceived a high opi­nion of his learning, though it be in imagination more than in reality, slights all the world, as if they were ignorant and fools: looks he on others as did the Pharisees on the people, But this people who knoweth not the Law are cursed. John 7.49. If such a Scholar (as now we speak of) once out of his Study goes into company, either he will act many tricks of pedantry, or else be as mute as a fish; he can hardly speak of any thing but Books, of Logick, Metaphysick, &c. without any consideration, whe­ther it be sutable with the company he is in; and yet in whatsoever he saith, would be accounted an Oracle, applauding himself, and desiring to be applauded by others. An empty vessel makes a sound, when a full one makes none; an ear full of corn hangs down, when that which is blasted, and hath nothing in't looks up and stands up­right.

I must not omit a reason why Learning instru­cteth ones understanding, because it teaches us to know things by their causes, effects, de [...]initions, descriptions, and attributes; so that the intellect being so well informed, will hardly admit to be imposed upon by any sophistical arguments; for thereby he is put in a capacity of discerning right from wrong, and acquainted with the several me­thods and ways, even with some rules (which sel­dom admit of any exceptions) not to yield to any probable, likely, and specious words and expressi­ons to be defrauded of the knowledg of truth.

[Page 28]A second benefit of Learning, is the good in­fluences it hath upon the will, not so much imme­diately as by the means of the intellect, which being so well informed, as we said, will conform her self to his last determinations: for though the will, which is a most free agent, doth suffer no co-action, nor violence, yet it is moved, inclined, and persuaded.

Learning doth also afford us help, and rules, how to master our passions, though not always, yet oftentimes, when they would break out with violence and impetuosity. In man is, that which is called the inferior part of the soul, wherein un­der the appetites irascible and concupiscible are that we call passions, which all men are subject to, though some more, some less, the best and wisest of men strugling against, and striving to bring them under. Hor. lib. 1. S [...]t [...]r. 3.Vitiis nemo sine nascitur, optimus ille est qui minimis urgetur.—’ Now these passions are seated in the heart, where­in reason ought to preside, and sit, as a Queen; which if things were in a due order and subordi­nation, all passions ought to obey, and be subser­vient unto: but this part of man is much sensible of the sad effects of Adam's sin. For as through pride and infidelity he disobeyed his God, so his natural affections are become rebellious to him, tyrannizing the best part of his soul, and some­times usurp that power, which they ought to sub­mit to: for as they are in the most brutish and sen­sitive part of man, so 'tis harder to rule them. God, who is able to subdue all things unto himself, [Page 29] and who in the day of his power, from unwilling, Psal. 110.3. makes us a willing people, when he pleases, doth curb, tame, break, and bruise those unruly and inordi­nate affections, let them be never so stiff and stub­born; wherefore the best remedy for those who are much subject to these disorders, and who de­sire to be rid of them, is to address themselves to God for his assistance, who can bring every thought and affection under to the obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ.

After this, Humane learning is of great use and advantage; for thereby we are not only acquain­ted with the nature of the distemper, but also are taught the best and most sutable remedy, and the fittest way to apply it. Men who are acted by sensual principles, aim at the satisfaction of their senses; but they who have learned and felt the cor­ruption of these, will fence against, and bridle them. Not to be hindered in following the di­ctates of reason, they will know how these passi­ons make us like unto brutes, which infinitely we ought to differ from; specially by reason of our immortal souls, created after Gods image and likeness. Philosophy can teach us the vast diffe­rence, which God in his mercy hath set between us and brutes: whether it be in our principle or in our end; whether in our essence or existence: and though as to the matter, there be some con­formity, as to the form there is such a disparity, as between mortal and immortal, corruptible and uncorruptible? How many examples can History afford us, of those, who having prostituted their reason, and inslaved themselves to their passions, were brought to troubles and miseries: And as we [Page 30] see, that in States, when those, whose duty it is to obey, take upon them to govern, all things go in­to a confusion. So when in man passions are ex­alted above reason, nothing follows but disorders, mischiefs, and unavoidable ruine both within and without.

I need not to mention any of those precepts and rules, which Divinity teaches us upon this subject. Scripture which is the fountain of it, is full of arguments to that purpose; and any one who exercises himself in the reading thereof, will up­on this account, find a great deal of help and com­fort therein. Divinity, which as I said, is deri­ved from thence, doth much enlarge and explain it, and affords us the best directions we can wish for to master our passions.

But to proceed to another thing, of all humane Sciences, Moral Philosophy teaches us best there­in; she wants no motives, incentives, precepts, rules, and examples, to bring us to it. By the help of these, great men of Antiquity, as Socrates, Alex­ander the Great, Scipio, Cato, and many others, made their chastity, patience, constancy, tempe­rance, and other vertues so famous: for having found out by the light of Nature, and the rules of Morality, how necessary it was for them to con­quer their passions, they undertook it with success, and forced their enemies to admire and love them: And amongst all these examples, there is hardly any but was a learned and understanding man: the Conquerors themselves, as Alexander, Caesar, &c. were so; the former having been carefully in­structed by his Tutor Aristotle; and Caesar's Com­mentaries shew what a manner of man he was. One day, Aristotle being asked, what a difference [Page 31] there was between learned men and unlearned; Such, said he, as between the living and the dead: being of opinion, that a man without learning is a statue more than a man.

And now I am upon this subject, I must shew how beneficial Learning is; sure I am, 'tis neces­sary to many, and convenient to all; it doth en­rich the mind, rectifie the will, regulate affecti­ons, quickens and perfects natural parts, and is an ornament to the whole man, whom it doth fit and dispose almost for every thing: But this is most certainly true, that it is neither a burthen nor a hinderance to any. And first, if I consider it in relation to a man in his retirement, when he is far from company, and wants conversation, then he hath reading and meditation. Sometimes ones affairs will call him into the solitariness of the Country, or his Distempers will keep him within doors; whilst those who love Hawking and Hunting only, want Hawks and Hounds; and others who love nothing but Gaming, want Money or Company: he will not want entertain­ment, he can converse with the dead, who sin­cerely, and without fear or flattery, do condemn Vice, and commend Vertue; without stirring from his study he can know the world, without any danger he can see Battels, breaking and overturn­ing of Kingdoms: so that whilst others do not know what to do when their sports fail them, this is content, and satisfied, and with one may well say, Non minus solus quam solus, I am never less alone than when I am alone: for in his Book he will find the company and experience of great men who went before him, examples to be follow­ed, and dangers to be avoided.

[Page 32]Moreover, is a man in any company? he is able more or less to discourse upon most matters; and is he obliged himself to entertain company in his own house or elsewhere? he hath stock and vari­ety to do't: and a Traveller, if he be learned, is a fit companion for any honest and vertuous man he meets with; of whom one finds abroad a great variety.

I hope no body will deny, how every one who is to speak in publick, if it must be well done, hath occasion of some learning. A Lawyer who desires to be eminent, must be versed in Rhetorick to give a form to, and set his speech in order; and under­stand something in Logick to deliver his reasons and arguments in a due method: Learning can af­ford him many things to enrich his discours [...], which rules of Rhetorick will make more elegant, more pathetick, and persuasive, and will perhaps render him more eloquent if he hath any disposi­tion towards it.

A Divine, who in the Pulpit is almost every day to instruct, correct, convince, and persuade; how can he teach effectually, and move affections with success, except all Arts and Sciences, which are servants to Divinity, do afford him plenty and va­riety of matter: People will respect and esteem their Pastors for their parts: learning and abili­ties by which respect they are disposed to give ear to, and follow exhortations and directions they receive from them: Daily experience teaches us how unlearned and ignorant Preachers are not much followed, and it is an effect of God's anger when he takes shining Stars and Candlesticks (for so the Scripture calls Ministers) from a people,Rev. 2.5. and gives them ignorant [Page 33] teachers. These, who being unsta­ble and unlea [...]ned,2 Pet. 3.16. do wrest Scri­ptures to their own condemnation. In a word, solidity and elegancy of a Sermon, and eloquence of a Pastor (which things receive great help from Learning) are ever acceptable to heaters, and necessary to a Preacher, who is to make good his cause out of Scripture, Nature, Rea­son, Authority, &c. and to defend it from the ca­vils and sophistry of his Adversaries.

Statesmen also, when they sit at a Council-Table to make their proposals, ought to back them with reasons, confirm them with examples and precedents, and to refute the grounds of contrary Opinions. In their Treaties with Foreign States, how nimble, wise, and circumspect ought they to be, to elude the designs of others, and to carry on their own: when any League is to be formed, or dissolved, Manifesto's to be published, and so many intrigues abroad and at home carried on: and in the management of all other State a [...]fairs, how beneficial will it prove to have a good pen used by a good head. Histories afford us examples of those who through Learning were so fitted for publick employments, that almost as soon as they began, they made themselves famous therein, some in politicks, others in martial affairs. The same I may say of every private Gentleman, who being a man of Estate and Interest in his Country, hath ground to hope for being chosen a Parliament man, where almost every day, when they sit, have occasion of making tryal of their parts and learn­ing, whereby they are cried up, come to be leading men in the House, and so are taken notice of, the whole Nation over, and become necessary to Court and State.

[Page 34]Though as yet I have not named Physitians, I suppose none will deny that Learning is necessary to them; and though I know the practical part is that which is required most of all, this is cer­tainly much helped and made easier by Theory: and indeed of all professions this of Physick re­quires reading as much as any. The object is so noble, hath so many dependencies, and is of so vast an extent, that it requires the whole man, and the whole life of man? How many thousands of Distempers is the body subject to, whereof they are to know the signs and symptoms, the causes, effects, and remedies? what a study is that of the temper and constitutions of men which they must know, and several circumstances to be observed by them; then the number of Books concerning their profession, which at one time or other, 'tis fit for them to read, written in Arabick, Greek, La­tin, and several other Languages; surely their task is great, seeing that, according to what says one of the Fathers, Adam through sin hath l [...]ft the soul of his posterity to the care of Divines, their body in the hands of Physicians, and their goods and estates are committed to Lawyers.

Therefore there is no doubt to be made, but that Learning will prove a great advantage to old and young, Doctors and Scholars, and to every one according to his capacity: It is then necessary betimes to put Children upon it; there being so Ars long a vita brevis. long a course to run, and the life of man being so short. Amongst Heathens Learning was so considerable, that one of their Sects accounted it to be the chief good of men: as others decla­red themselves for vertue. St. Paul desires to be [Page 35] delivered from unreasonable men: 2 Thes. 3.2. the word is [...] without Topicks or Logick, to shew that this Art or Science which is the door into all the rest, is essential, or at least necessary to man as such; Reason being an essen­tial principle of humanity.

Hitherto I specified nothing of what Books, Arts, and Sciences Youth are to be taught; be­cause in my discourse about Learning, I have been drawn to speak of that which is proper and neces­sary to men of all ages. Indeed to treat of this ex­actly and methodically, I ought to have made a distinction of ages, as Childhood, infancy, &c. but as in so doing many things had fallen under consideration, which are not of my purpose, I thought fit to wave it till now, when I intend in few words to tell my mind of it.

First, I know that not only every Nation, but also almost every School, and every particular Pre­ceptor have different ways and methods, and read some different Books, excepting Accidence, Gram­mars and Dictionaries; which though, as to the substance and rules they be every where alike, yet they are digested and compiled in a different way; so that every Nation hath these fundamental Books particular to her [...]elf: but as to Classical Authors, they use very much the same every where; the choice which hath been made of them being uni­versally approved of, and with good reason too; for they are the productions of as sine wits as ever Rome had, I mean the Poets; as Ovid, Virgil, Horace, and These two for Comedies. Terence (though an African) with Plautus, &c. for the Latins: Hesiode and Ho [...] for the Greeks. For Prose of the lower orb, [Page 36] Corderius, Vives, Erasmus his Colloquies, then Quin­tus Curtius, Florus, Iustin, Caesar's Commentaries, and of a higher form for Poets, Lucanus, Iuvena­lis, Persius. For Historians, Livius, Suetonius, C. Tacitus, Plutarch, and several others, all which I may reduce under the notion of Humaniores lit­terae taught in Schools to several forms, besides, Fa­bles, whether Poetical or Moral, as Ovid's Metamor­phoses, AEsop's, and others.

But there are some nice spirits, who would have the use of these Books forbidden only because they are the works of Heathens; yet I think they ought to be satisfied, considering they are univer­sally used amongst Christians: but I add, they are not made use of upon any account of Faith or Religion, but only for the Wit, Learning, Lan­guage, and sometimes good Morality, found in them, and for want of better in that kind.

In all this, I would have them to proceed by degrees, as first of all, being perfect in their Acci­dence and Grammar, to turn English into Latin, and to learn by heart some of the Works of the fore-named Poets, with the English of it, or else if that be too hard to begin with Cato's Di­sticha de moribus, or Verini Di [...]ticha, because, besides the tongue, they may therein learn very good sen­tences of morality: All this time I do not exclude the private Exercises they ought to make in their Studies, when they are come from School; for having done the task required of them in the School, they may, and must fall upon reading of some History or other good Book, whether Latin or English, commended to them, or of their own chusing.

[Page 37]Poetry they ought not to neglect, specially they who have any genius towards it; and therefore they must exercise themselves in all manner of Ver­ses, whether Exameter and Pentameter, Sapphick, Asclepiade, Phaleuck, Iambick, Choriambick, or others; for thereby they will attain to a greater facility of understanding Latin Poets, who ex­pressed themselves in those kinds of Verses. In all this I wish, that as the School and age do bring the young man's parts to maturity, so Tutors would advance their Lectures. I said before, those ought not to neglect making Verses who are inclined and disposed towards it; such as Ovid, who saith of himself, Quicquid conabar dicere carmen erat: and it had been pitty his Father had prevailed with him, when through hard usage he extorted this promise from him, ‘Parce mihi genitor, post hac hand carmina condam.’ As to Cicero for want of this disposition he did better to follow the prose wherein he so admirably well could express himself, and leave off his — O fortunatam natam me Consule Romam.

In the mean time I wish them not to neglect the Tongues, or School Languages: first, the La­tin; I know all this while they have been learning of it; but I desire the purity, the Idiome, and the critick part, and as much as can be to perfect them­selves in't; for most ancient Authors have writ­ten in this tongue, which is the door of Sciences, and the universal character, whereby all Nations may understand one another, it ought to be loved not only for the use and necessity, but also for the beauty and elegancy. Hence it is that some call it [Page 38] Lingua Regina, the tongue which is the queen of all the rest. The difficulty of this consists in speak­ing.

Then the Greek called Lingua Copiosa, because it abounds very much in words and expressions; and for the composition of words, none is so fit as this. Many good Books are written in't, out of which the Romans borrowed part of their learning: and once at Athens, which was the great School of the world, all Arts and Sciences were taught in this Tongue. Cicero himself was there to learn it: this is of a great use, specially to Divines, to understand the Septuagint, or 70 Interpreters, but chiefly the New Testament, originally written in Greek. When St. Paul did write to the Romans it was in Greek, though he knew well the Latin Tongue, which he spoke when he was amongst them: the knowledge of Tongues being one of the gifts which God had bestowed upon him. This he expresses when he saith, I speak more tongues than you all:1 Cor. 14.18. This is also a Tongue necessary to Phy­ [...]itians to understand the works of Hypocrates, Dios­corides, Galenus, and others who have written in't; besides that, most parts of man's body, great many Diseases, and the names of several Drugs are ex­pressed in that language; the difficulty of this consists in writing.

The Hebrew Tongue, called Lingua Sancta by reason of the many holy things written in't, is ve­ry necessary to Divines for the understanding of the Old Testament, which is originally in this. In the confusion of Languages, at the building of the Tower of Babel, this remained in the house of one Heber, whence I think it was called He­brew; [Page 39] besides the reason I already mentioned why it is called holy, there may be this, that it contains no unhandsome or unbecoming word, but it doth express things in terms very decent and modest: where there is a question about a Text, or the true signification of a word, to be able to discourse of it, one must be versed in the Original, which also hath a peculiar idiome, and a singular energy, which it loses in part, being translated into other Languages: Furthermore, if one hath a mind to understand the Targums, Talmuds, and other Ra­binical Writings, he must be skilled in the Hebrew Language, out of which most other Languages, whether antient or modern have borrowed some­thing. Under this I comprehend the Samaritan, whereof the letters differ only in figure from the Hebrew, We have only the Pentateuch, or five Books of Moses written in this; the difficulty of it consists in reading.

The Chaldaic Language will also prove useful and necessary to Divines, not only by reason of the affinity it hath with the Hebrew, of which it is a Dialect; the character of both having the same name and figure, but also by reason of the Paraphrase written in that language, which was necessary for the understanding of the Text after 70 years captivity; for the people born in Babylon and other places of Chaldea, wherein they were dispersed, being forced to speak the language of their Masters, forgot their own (for here it was not as in Egypt, where they were altogether in the Land of Goshen.) After they had leave to return home, this Paraphrase was compiled to make them understand the Text, as I said before, which came to be of an Authority almost equivalent to [Page 40] the original. Hence came that affinity, and some mixture of both; and there is whole Chapters in this tongue in the Prophesie of Daniel, some ver­ses in Ezra, and elsewhere.

The Syriack, which is derived from the He­brew and Chaldaick, or as others think, is almost the same with this, only of a different Dialect, is also necessary, because of the version of the Old and New Testament made into it; which com­pared with the Hebrew, gives a great light to the sense of the Text, and much more in relation to the New Testament; for this in Iudea was the common tongue in the days of our Saviour, and of his Apostles; wherefore, in several places of the Gospels and Epistles, we find several idiomes and phrases of this tongue, which are no ways proper to the Greek; so that 'tis thought the Evangelists (except St. Luke, who specially well understood the Greek tongue) conceived first in Syriack their Gospels, and then put them into Greek. This Syriack then was their mother tongue; so that true Hebrew was not commonly understood; as appears by this, that our Saviour on the Cross,Matth. 27.46, 47, 49. crying out Eli Eli Lamma sabactani, The standers by amongst them, the Inhabitants of Ierusalem being the greatest part, did not under­stand it, but said, he calls for Elias; and the rest said, let us see whether Elias will come: which words could not be pronounced but by Jews, who were acquainted with the name and history of Elias.

The Arabick tongue is very considerable upon the account of her antiquity and usefulness; for it did not only begin to be known in the days of [Page 41] Ismael son of Agar, who went into Arabia the De­sart; but it was so after the confusion of tongues at Babel, when Sabi, a Nephew of Cham, went in­to't, whence it was called Sabea. That people cal­led Arabians, have been careful to keep it from mixture with other Languages; for they had no communication with other Nations. Hence it is that they call themselves the best Gentlemen of the world; their blood in matter of alliances ha­ving not been mixed with other people: They have gotten the name of being the greatest Rob­bers in the world. This tongue is very copious and easie to be learned, there being but few rules, with fewer exceptions: This, as I said, is of great use to Divines, not only by reason of the affinity it hath with the Hebrew, but also because of the tra­duction of the Bible into it: which compared with the original, gives a great light to the Text. All Books of Mahumetan's super [...]tition are written in't, as well as the Alcoran; in all their Services they use it; and where they have Schools, they learn it, as here we do Latin and Greek. It is al­so useful to Physicians, because there hath been of that Nation great men in that profession who have written in that language; besides those Books which are extant about other Arts and Sciences, as Mathematicks, Politicks, Historical and Chymi­cal.

Other tongues there are, which, if a man's geni­us inclines him to learn, he will find help and plea­sure in't; but these I think to be the chief and most necessary to be learned in Schools, which indeed for the most part are commonly taught in them.

But I must leave off speaking of tongues to re­assume [Page 42] my discourse where I left it, when I be­gan to fall upon this subject. I would have the young Scholar to be put upon Declamations assoon as he is fit for it; this will not only try, but also improve his parts; for then he must read Books to get a stock upon occasion: and also this will give him confidence to speak in publick, which he will endeavour to do to his credit: Herein he can be much helped by Rhetorick, whose end is to per­suade; therefore he must perfect himself in all the common places thereof; whence he may learn In­vention and Elocution, of which the first will af­ford him matter enough for the subject he shall have in hand; and the last can teach him a way and a method how to dispose of it into a good or­der: then the [...] and figures will be an ornament to his discourse, whether it falls under the Genders demonstrative, deliberative, or judi­ciarie, to state well a case, then ground it upon solid reasons, neatly delivered, and in a good language and to have the way of conciliating or getting the good will of Judges and hearers, are certainly the essential parts of the art of Oratory. By these means the two great Orators, Demosthenes and Ci­cero; the one among the Greeks, the other amongst the Romans, spoke so often with the good success which every one knows: This can enable a man not only to speak in publick, but also fit him with dexterity, privately to manage a business.

Logick will teach him to speak Categorically, and in few words to say much, to put an argu­ment in form, and to know the fallacy of those made against the moods of every figure, and all manner of sophistry: there he may learn what is an ens rationis, what universals, what substances, [Page 43] accident, and other predicaments are: in a word, dialectick can give him a taste of all other Arts and Sciences, this being the right door into them all.

Natural Philosophy can instruct him of the Principles of natural being, and of the natural body it self; besides all things in't, from it, or re­lating to it, the subject of generation and corru­ption so necessary and useful to be known; and the matters concerning the soul may therein be clear­ed to him. This is necessary to Physitians, speci­ally, according to the maxim, Vbi desinit Physicus ibi incipit Medicus.

Metaphysick treateth of supernatural things, that is, in comparison of those relating to natural Philo­sophy, therein one shall hear of ens transcendens, essences of things, unum, verum, bonum, and se­veral other things very obstruse, except they be judiciously and methodically cleared. Hence is the next step to Divinity; for, Vbi desinit Metaphysicus, ibi incipit Theologus.

Ethicks direct how to guide our actions and rule our passions; it makes Vice odious, and Ver­tue lovely; it resolves several dubious cases, and represents the four Cardinal Vertues to be followed by us, Justice, Fortitude, Temperance, and Pru­dence are therein set forth in such a dress as is able to make us strive to attain to them. In a word, hence are derived the good precepts of what is called morality, which (specially those of pru­dence) are of great use to Statesmen, according to the saying, Vbi desinit Ethicus, ibi incipit Politicus.

History also must be known; it hath two parts, one called natural, which is a general collection of the particular works of nature; the other is civil, and this is a collection of the life and works of [Page 44] particular men; Chronology and Cosmography, both depending upon natural History, are the Basis and Foundation of that we call civil: they afford the circumstances of time and place, without which nothing can be done, or preserved in order. Na­tural History relates to the productions of Nature, as the Civil to the actions of men. Indeed it is an uncertain, difficult, and almost unpossible thing for Modern Authors to examine the motions and acci­dents of former times, to find out the natural in­clination of persons whom we never have seen or known, to declare the unresolvedness of a councel we were never called to, to dive into the secrets of a Prince, whose confident we never have been, and to describe things unknown: Wherefore the best is to find Historians who lived in the times when things related were acted, and were well ac­quainted with the things they did write: yet the thing shall still be liable to exception; namely, that such Writers have perhaps been partial, and may be mis-informed: nevertheless, although such an History be defectuous in her circumstances, yet it is solid in the main, and as to matter of fact re­lating publick actions of times past.

The study of History is very beneficial to all sorts of persons, 'tis instead of Learning to the unlearned, and supplies some, not only with know­ledge, but also, with prudence; several other things are merely speculative, and for theory on­ly; but this is altogether for practice. Politicks and Morals are two of the most practical things that are; for what speculations they contain, do rend only to lead to a practice; yet this goeth fur­ther, for it contains the effects of what they only shew reasons for; it is not satisfied to give rules, as [Page 45] they do, but also strengthens them with precedents, and illustrates it with examples. In the reading of it we make a reflection upon the manners and a­ctions of good and evil men, and observe therein that which kept order in Corporations and Socie­ties, and what caused disorders in them; whence are drawn judicious consequences of what is to be done or avoided, whether in publick or private: out of this Morals and Politicks are derived.

Further, History is so pleasant, that every one delights in't; for it contains many things to ex­ [...]ite the curiosity of men, and is free of those crabby things and difficulties which other sorts of Learning are attended with. Other Sciences are sometimes subject to decay: but on the contrary, this is renewed every day by the access of new matter and transactions; so that 'tis so far from losing any thing of its lustre, that it is increased every day: which advantage she imparts to those who are acquainted with her; for by her help young men grow old in experience, without any decay of strength; and old men go back to their younger da [...]s, and lose nothing of their wisdom. Whensoever History gives us councels, it declares the events of it, and all actions it doth publish; one way or other it makes known the motives and causes; so that we may perceive thereby, which either prudence or hazard had nearer influenc [...]s upon great events. In a word, there is such a va­riety of things pleasant and profitable, that he who will not value it must be thought to have forfeited common sense and reason.

But the great and general advantage we get by History, is the experience of so many ages, that so we should enjoy the fruit of other mens labors, be [Page 46] wise at their own costs, and receive benefit from every thing they have done, whether bad or good, avoiding them in one, and imitating in the other; having marked to posterity, and as it were, set a buoy to warn us from dangers and places, where others have been dashed or sunk. This commen­dation of History I can conclude no better than with what the Emperor Basilius in his excellent instruction exhorted his Son Leon to follow, when he should come to the Empire. Son, neglect not the reading of ancient Histories, for without pain you may find therein that which others have collected with mu [...] labour; you can learn what virtues made some to be honest men, and for what vices others were accounted wicked. In it you may observe all the differences of humane life, and how many changes all things are sub­ject to: the inconstancy o [...] worldly affairs will appear to you, and the notable falls of the greatest Empires of the world: In short, you may observe how bad actions ever are followed with some punishments; and how good ones at one time or other are attended with re­wards: so that you must avoid the first for fear of fal­ling into the hands of Divine Iustice, and give up your self to these last to deserve the rewards which in­fallibly you shall receive.

Nothing can be added to these instructions, which deserve to be written in letters of gold; but I must say, that Histories are to be read with some caution; for most are censured for one thing or other, there being nothing perfect in this world.Hist. lib. 4. Cornelius Tacitus, who thought amiss of Providence, doth nevertheless flatter Vespasian, with being a minister chosen by the gods to work miracles, and give sight to a blind man, and health to one who [Page 47] was sick in the City of Alexandria. In which two things,Lipsius. as one saith well, he contradicts himself to be­come a flatterer: this makes Tertullian call him a forger of lies. Others do shew themselves partial thus, by reason of jealousie between Plato and Xenophon:The Wars of Cyrus, lib. 2. this last speaks ill of Menon, because he was Plato's good friend. So because Herodotus had been ill used by the Corinthians in his Wri­tings, contrary to truth, makes them run away in the Battel of Salamina; so he omitted some things tending to the commendation of that people which might have been an ornament to his Histo­ry. Amongst the rest, the solemn Prayer of the Corinthian Women to Venus, This is Plu­tarch's obser­vation against Herodotus. to the end she would en­flame their Husbands hearts to the Battel against the Persians: And be­cause Salustius was an enemy to Cicero, he passes by the honour done to him after the suppression of Catalina's Conspiracy. This vice Thucidides is cleared from by Marcellus in the History of his Life.

The same Herodotus and others have written some fabulous and false things, not out of any de­sire they had so to do, but for want of a true in­formation: Indeed to make credible a History, it were to be wished, that he who writes it had been present to the actions he mentioneth, or had heard them from those who were present; and yet he must not indifferently make use of every ones notes, but chiefly of those, who being concerned, are able to declare the causes, councels, and ends aimed at; which qualification makes me esteem [Page 48] Thucidides in the Athenian Wars: And to speak the truth, Ministers of State are the fittest men to write Histories, or at least to furnish matter for it; for they are acquainted with the true estate of af­fairs, the grounds, deliberations, secret and under­hand Treaties, and with the will and interests of their Princes; but either they have no time to do't, or else dare not, thinking it not fit nor safe for them.

Lastly, most are partial for their Nation or them­selves, and then say nothing to the advantage of their enemies, but what is not possible for them to conceal: 'Tis as when the Children of Israel had no Cutlers amongst them, they were forced to go to the Philistines to whet their Knives and Swords, who were sure never to set them the right edge; so either they will be silent of the brave Exploits of the enemies of their Nations, or derogate very much from them to lessen their own losses, and make greater their victories: Upon this reason I judge of Annibals transcendent me­rit and warlike capacity: For if Livius a Roman could not avoid to speak well of so dangerous an ene­my of his Country,Yet born in Pado [...]. what had it been if we could have seen his History written by a Carthaginian.

As for Divinity, for certain the more one knows of it the better it will be; yet because every one's genius and calling doth not require to be a Doctor of it, I must shew how much is necessary for every one to know. First, it is required all should be instructed in the Principles of Religion, common to all Nations; namely, that there is a God, who is the first cause of all things, and hath his being from [Page 49] from himself, and so through the Articles of Chri­stian Reformed Religion, as they are set down in our Confession of Faith and Catechisms, whether they be the Churches, or of particular men, as Ball's, Perkins's, which is one of the plainest, clearest, easiest, yet as much methodical as any; and of Primate Vshers, which is an excellent one, but for Christians of a higher form; the Assemblies Catechism is full, intelligible and excel­lent.

Then they must be versed in Scriptures, because their Faith is to be built upon't; wherefore they should have at hand one or two Texts at least, to ground upon every Article of their Belief. In a word, I would have every young man well princi­pled, and so well grounded in his Religion, that according to the Precept of Saint Peter, 1 Pet. 3.15. they may be ready to give an account of their Faith to every one that asks it, not only declaring what it is that they believe, but also giving their reasons and proofs for it, and answering objections which others can make against it; for 'tis not enough to assert, but also one must defend his Religion, for fear, when he goeth abroad, he should be moved and shaken from it.

Having affirmed that we ought to be versed in Scriptures, because our Faith is grounded thereup­on, and it being known, how in some places they contain things difficult, and above any ordinary ca­pacity, I think it necessary to enlarge more up [...]n this, the more, because the simple and ignorant ought as well to know what they believe, as the greatest Scholar; every one being to answer for himself, [Page 50] and to be justified [...] In fide sua, Habak. 2.4. Psal. 119. and others. by his own Faith, waving here the great que­stion we have with the Roman Church, concerning reading of Scri­ptures by common people, which is not only lawful, but also necessary for them. David bearing this testimony that it makes wise the sim­ple, gives knowledge to the ignorant, opens the eyes of the blind, and many things more to this purpose.

I say, Scriptures contain things necessary to be known; first as to the substance, that there is one God the maker of the world, and of all things therein, and that he is the preserver thereof; all what he saith we must believe to be true, and in him we ought to trust and put our confidence: al­though there be but one God in nature, yet there are three Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, co-essential in nature, co-eternal in time, and co-equal, or together equal in power: these persons are distinguished, not divided: amongst them is an order without confusion; the nature is spiritual, and consequently immaterial and uncorruptible; simple without any composition, whether meta­physical of substance and accident, physical of matter and form, or moral of act and power: It is infinite, eternal, unchangeable, and indepen­dent. Now this God is known to us in his Na­ture, Attributes, whether incommunicable, such as we named just now, or communicable as are his Justice, Goodness, Mercy, and Wisdom; whereof he is pleased to impart some drops to his creatures; and in his works which his word doth inform us of, either explicitly or by clear and ne­cessary consequence.

[Page 51]Now therefore that there is a God, in Acts 16.28. whom we live, move, and have our being, w [...]o Rom. 2.6. is a re­warder of all men according to their deeds, who having made the world, formed man after his image; and that man through his disobedience, infidelity, and pride, fell from that estate of innocency and integrity, wherein he was created, which not only brought guilt upon him, and all mankind, but also punishment and misery consisting in death, of afflictions, natural, spiritu­al and eternal; insomuch that thereby we are all fallen into temporal, and become guilty of ever­lasting pains and damnation, out of which we cannot be delivered by any strength, wisdom, or capacity of ours: th [...]refore, God out of his won­derful and infinite mercy, promised a Saviour, from time to time, renewed the promises, sealed and con­firmed them by several types & figures, who would come in the fulness of times to satisfie his Justice, appease his Wrath, make a full expiation for our sins, and reconcile us to God: This Saviour was to represent our person, put himself in our place, and suffer the pains and torments we had deserved. Because humane nature had offended, he was to be a man, otherwise it had not consisted with the justice of God to punish that nature which had not sinned; and as farther it was necessary he should be a man to die, so he was to be a God to conquer and overcome death.

In three words, the substance of it is, that there is one God, and that through the fall of Adam we had been all damned, if God had not given us a Saviour. The knowledge of these things is ne­cessary to salvation, and except we believe it we [Page 52] cannot be saved: now all this is clearly and intel­ligiby expressed in Scripture; so that any ordinary capacity may easily be brought to understand it, and this we call necessary to be known as to the sub­stance. Under the Old Testament, to know and believe this was sufficient to salvation, for their Faith was extended upon a Messias to come, and not upon one already come; so that till the time of the Declaration, who this Saviour was, the object of their Faith was an Individuum Vagum, and they were in the dark who that particular person should be. Wherefore Iohn the Baptist confesses his ignorance in this point, when he saith,John 1.33. As for me, I knew him not, but he that sent me to baptize with water, said, &c. Hence it is that he sent two of his Disciples to ask him,Matth. 11.3. Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another. He knew him by the Spirit's de­scending and remaining upon him. This was the characteristical note.

But now there is a second thing necessary to salvation to be known by all who lived since the coming in the flesh of our Saviour, and under the Gospel; and this is necessary as to the declaration, namely, that the Saviour promised, prophesied of, and typified, is that particular person Jesus Christ, both God and man, Son of the Virgin Mary, born in Bethlehem, in the days of Herod; and when by the command of Caesar Augustus the world was to be taxed: In a word, the same that was Con­ceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Ma­ry, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried, and who did and suffered all things mentioned in the Gospel; and in few words, [Page 53] contained in the Apostolical Creed. This same we ought to believe to be our only Saviour and Re­deemer, whom we ought to rely upon, and put our trust in, apply him to us by Faith; and except we know and believe this, there is no hope of salvati­on for us, as Scripture doth fully and clearly de­clare; so that this Principle may be infused into the meanest capacity.

Si Christum discis nihil est si caetera nescis,
Si Christum nescis nihil est si caetera discis.

But in the third place, there are some things con­tained in Scriptures, concerning which the Spirit of God hath not been pleased clearly to reveal his mind to us. As revealed things belong to men, so secret things belong to God, which we must not pry into, nor presume beyond what is written.1 Cor. 4.6. Prophecies are certain­ly dark, till they become a History; for to understand them before they are fulfilled, one must be endued with a Prophetical Spirit: Be­sides Prophecies, there are other Points attended with many difficulties which Doctors themselves labour and study very hard to understand. Such are the ways and manners of things: That things are, is a matter of fact; and after God hath said in his word they are so, it admits of no difficulty out of this Principle, That God is the God of Truth; but the manner of things is that which breeds scruples, the word being either silent or dark about it. As for instance, that there is one God in Nature, and three Persons, Scripture doth clearly set it forth in several places: and if this truth be obscure in one Text, some other place [Page 54] of Scripture will clear it, it being proper to Scri­pture to explain it self by it self; yet how this Unity and Trinity can consist together: though learned men be able to apprehend, yet mean per­sons and low capacities are not capable of it: so is the mystery of Incarnation, how the second Per­son who hath Divine Nature can assume Humane Nature, and yet the Father and Holy Ghost who have both Divine Nature should not be Incarna­ted; and again, how both Natures can be united in one Person and the idiomes and proprieties of every Nature should not be united; but every Na­ture should retain her own attributes, without mix­ture or confusion; yet this we know to be true, but cannot dive into the manner how this is done.

There are also other things, as the day when the great judgment shall be, and where it is to be, and what places Heaven and Hell shall be in, which arise from vanity and unnecessary Curiosity. Other questions there are, which men ought not to dis­pute too much about▪ because they are somewhat problematical and good and learned men do differ in their opinion concerning them, as may be this: Whether there will be degrees of Glory, and whe­ther this world shall be changed, as to the substance, or only in the accidents? all which points Scripture is not so clear about, as it is in others, because the two first I named are necessary to salvation; and these are not, so that a man may very w [...]ll be saved without knowledge of them: and though they are beyond the reach of ignorant people, it will be no hinderance to their salvation: because whatso­ever is necessary to be known in order to it, is plainly and clearly set down in the word. And to make this be understood in few words, there are [Page 55] three parts of Divinity; the first called Dogmati­cal, or Didactical, explains; the second Practical, for the practice, applies; and the third Polemical, for Dispute, decides▪ It is necessary to salvation to know the two former, but not the last. If any one who understands Latine hath a mind to some methodical insight into these things, he may read some systeme or other of Divinity, as may he Wol­lebius, which is compendious, but excellent: Wen­delinus is very good, specially in the Polemical part, Altingius and others.

Having shewed what is necessary and conve­nient for Youth to know; I must not forget to bring them to the knowledge of themselves: [...]. Know thy self was a great lesson amongst Heathens, which to do, is a great duty incumbent upon Chri­stians: therefore, whether a man considers himself in his essential parts, Soul and Body, he ought to understand the duty of both, and to apply both to some good and honest exercise; or whether he doth reflect upon the whole as he is a man, that is the most excellent of God's Creatures: He must endeavour not to degenerate from this excellency, specially seeing every creature hath some particu­lar quality, and every quality of them all, ought to be found in man in a higher degree of perfection: And indeed the knowledge of these Creatures should lead us to our duty: At their first creation they were all for the use and service of man, but he having rebelled against his Maker, other creatures have so dealt with him. Now there are of three sorts; some still are serviceable to man, as Horses, Dogs, &c. Others hurtful to him, as all ravenous and venomous Serpents, Vipers, Wolv [...]s, Tygers, &c. [Page 56] Others are as Hyeroglyphicks to him,2 Pet. 2.22. the Dogs returning to his vomit, the Sow to her wallowing in the mire,Isa. 1.3. the Asse's knowing his owner, and the Ox his Masters Crib testifie against his ungratefulness. The Stork, the Crane, the Swallow, knowing their appointed time witness against his obstinacy in evil ways.

Other Creatures give good examples, some of Piety towards their Parents; as the Stork which carries and takes care of them when they are no longer able to flie: Others of charity to their young ones, as the Pelican bleeding himself for their sake; some their thankfulness, as Horses, Elephants, Camels, who serve those from whom they receive their meat. Others fidelity, as Dogs; some prudence, as Ants, Bees; some valour and courage as Lions; others subtleness, Justice, &c. Now man, who is an epitome of the wonders of God, comparing himself with these creatures, will find himself more excellent than they, and having an absolute or relative knowledge of himself, he will strive to answer the gifts he hath received from God and Nature, and to walk accordingly. ‘Cui dedit erectos ad sydera tollere vultus.’ This they will do of themselves, when they come to riper years; in the mean time, and whilst they are young, these Principles ought to be infused into them: First, how to carry themselves with their Superiors, as Parents, with that respect and obe­dience due to them; the like they must do to Princes, and Magistrates appointed by them, pay­ing them Tributes, Customs, and Honours; sub­mitting [Page 57] to the Laws of those under whose prote­ction they live, hating innovations; according to Solomon's saying,Prov. 24.21. My Son, meddle not with them that are given to change. And because they are members of the civil Society, they must sometimes deprive themselves of particular advantages for publick good; thereunto sacrificing their interests, and suffering some prejudice upon the same account: so they ought to be respectful to any particular per­sons, who are their superiors in quality, place, parts, or age.

Secondly, with their equals they must be civil and courteous, provided it be not to the prejudice of their Rights and Priviledges; specially with those whom there is ground to contest with; though what a man doth in his own house in point of civility, doth no ways derogate from him; neither in England is it drawn into consequence: one must by all means be careful to avoid every oc­casion of dispute and contention.

Thirdly, with their inferiors they must be kind, loving, affable, bountiful, generous, and liberal up­on occasion: civil, provided this civility be not abused, forbearing to do any thing whereby they may be slighted by them.

Fourthly, they must be taught how to behave themselves with friends, so as not to lose their ami­ty, using all lawful possible means to preserve their friendship, not putting them to any trouble, but upon a good account; for he who doth not so va­lue and esteem them, as to avoid as much as he can being importunate with them, doth not deserve to have friends. 'Tis a great part of wisdom to make a right use [...]f them, and not trouble them [Page 58] upon any triflle or trivial account; but one is to take heed of those whom the Poet speaks of.

Iuven. Satyr.
Quos sportula fecit amicos.

Fifthly, with enemies one ought to be wary and circumspect, and not give them any advantage▪ yet one must have charity for them, using lawful means to prevent the mischiefs they intend against us. In a word, they should be taught with all man­ner of persons to carry themselves with civility and prudence.

Polititians prescribe these rules; if thy Birth or Charges give thee authority over some, use it with justice; for one must obey his condition if he will not be exposed to the contempt of the world: against thy equals wait for the advantages of For­tune, to use it yet with moderation; and do so behave thy self towards thy Superiors, that they be not forced to go beyond the limits of modesty, and to prove insolent, and hard with thee. In a word, let thy whole carriage, thy very thoughts and desires, be sutable to thy condition, for fear of bringing t [...]y self into danger, harm, shame, and infamy: This some great men have known and practised. Once Parmenion having said these words, If I were Alex­ander, I would accept of the proffers of Darius; Alexander answered, so would I if I were Parmeni­on. The words of Lewis XII of France were very notable; for once being advised to avenge himself on those who had wronged him before he was a King, answered, It is not becoming a King of France to avenge injuries done to a Duke of Orleans, for such he had been.

[Page 59]When I said Youth ought to be taught the ex­cellency of Humane Nature, it was by way of motive for them to good actions, and not as a ground of pride and loftiness in them; for I ne­ver intended to exclude the knowledge they must have of their weaknesses and imperfections which I could desire them to be humbled under; yet In­structions about this should not be given by way of perpetual elegy and constant lamentations; as the way of some is to talk of nothing but of the miseries of times, and of Humane Nature, Hera­clitus like in this. It is not enough to speak so much of the Wound, and nothing of the Cure, to lay open the Distemper, and yet neither shew nor apply any Remedy: Young men must neces­sarily know what is amiss in their Nature and Per­sons; but withal they must be acquainted with what they are and ought to do, that they may mend and reform.

Although hitherto I have distinctly spoken of Learning and Morality, wherein Youth ought to be instructed, I do not mean they should be taught at several times and ages; for these things may very well be contemporary; only there are degrees of both, which require a greater maturity of years than others; which I must refer to the prudence of the Teacher, to use according to the capacity of the young man. It is certain, that practice of of Vertue is the end of Science, as Science is a per­fect disposition to Vertue; so that not only they consist together, but also are a mutual help one to another.

Parents, who have several other things to mind, either publick or private, according to their sta­tion, do chuse and appoint those who are to make [Page 60] this their whole business, yet both these things, Learning and Morality, are of so vast an extent, that men of means and quality think it a sufficient work for two; whereof one called Preceptor, takes care only to instruct them in Arts and Scien­ces; and the other under the name of Governor, hath the oversight of their actions; but this must be no hinderance to either, to teach or advise ac­cording as there is occasion: for both these parts were performed by those famous men who had care of Princes whom they taught not only Scho­larship, but also Maxims of State. Aristotle was such an one to Alexander the Great, who amidst his Victories, by Letters asked his advice about seve­ral emergencies. Polybius not only instructed Scipio the African in his younger years, but also follow­ed him in his Expeditions, and had considerable Employments in his Armies. Titus Livius had the care of Tiberius's Education: so had Seneca of Nero's. This last, according to the opinion of some, having discovered in his Disciple a great inclination to cruelty, compiled his Book of Cle­mency, De Clementia, thereby, if possible, to alter his temper: which cruel inclination, Nero, being come to riper years, dissembled for a time.

Indeed, often men make a sure judgment of Children and Youth in their tender years, of what they are like to prove, their nature being then not capable of dissembling; but appearing nakedly such as it will be. Thus Alexander gave signs of his future greatness in the questions he made to Embassadors sent to his Father; and of his am­bition when he wept for his Fathers Victories;Plutarch. who as he complained, left nothing for him to conquer: [Page 61] yet I know every thing done or said by persons of that quality, are lookt upon with magnifying and multiplying-Glasses. Cato also at his going out of infancy, shewed how one day he would be zea­lous of the liberty of the Republick; one day se­ing in Sylla's House the Heads of some who by his command had been put to death, asked, Why is not this Tyrant made away? and being told of the danger there was in such an undertaking, by rea­son of the great care he took of his safety;Valer. Max. lib. 3. cap. 1. He resolved to carry a Dag­ger under his cloaths, and stab him at the first opportunity. This de­sign his Governor had very much ado to dissuade him from.

These are strong signs of the passion which is like to be predominant in young men, when they come to riper years; though others who know how important it is to understand the genius of Children, to make instructions profitable to them, go up higher, and do consult the nature of Parents; concluding with Horace, Nec imbecillem, generant aquilae Columbam; as if with the Blood of the Fa­ther, all fatherly good parts and qualities were transmitted into the veins of the Son; which rule, though sometimes it proves true, yet is not cer­tain, and admits of exceptions: The Soul is not produced by the Father; and though her faculties do often follow the temper of the body, yet wit and goodness are not begotten: otherwise this proverb were not true, which hath been so often confirmed by experience, Filii heroum noxae: there­fore I must say, that though it be much to be well born, yet it is much more to be well brought up: Nature is potent and strong, but Institution and [Page 62] Breeding go beyond: For as I said before, Infancy is tractable to any habit; and as it is ignorant of what are Vertue and Vice, so it [...]s as susceptible of one as of the other.

Indeed it seems strange to an ordinary eye, that a Father full of Courage and Generosity should be­get a base and a cowardly Son; neither is it very probable, but that a Son, who is part of his Fa­ther, should have something of his qualities: for some particular Vices or Vertues are running in the Blood of some Families, as of Nations. Sensitive creatures do communicate their Nature, and trans­mit their essential Qualities to that which they be­get: A Lion by Nature is courageous, a Wolf ra­venous, &c. And some have been of opinion, that it should be so with men; for Suetonius relates in the life of Nero, that his Father, a very wicked man, said, that Nothing could be born of him and Agrip­pina which were not detestable and hurtful to the Pub­lick: But if this were always true; why shall not the children of one Father and Mother be all of one and the same Nature, which yet proves so much to the contrary.

Once it was a question concerning that famous Aleibiades, which were greater in him, his vices, or his Vertues? a thing never so disputable about any one as about him; for he had excellent good qualities: also strong and dangerous Vices, so bal­lanced the one by the other, that no body could tell whether he would at last prove to be the best or worst of men. Two things which he boasted of, were his extraordinary Beauty, and his illu­strious Extraction. But Socrates the first Author, as far as we can find, of the Precepts of Morality, upon which account men said of him, that Having [Page 63] found Philosophy, travelling through Heavens and Elements, he brought it to dwell in Houses and Ci­ties; made him understand one day▪ that Quality, Riches, and Honours, without Honesty, could on­ly make him able the more to do wrong and injury to others: and he so proved to him, that though he was of a noble ex­traction,Cicero lib. de Tuscul. quest. except he was qualified with Vertue and Merit, he was no better than a Porter, that Alcibiades shed tears, and earnestly intreated the Philosopher to shew him the way to Vertue.

Montague in his Essays hath something to this purpose; but specially concerning the inclinations of Youth, If, Lib. 1. cap. 25. saith he, the Disciple be so minded, as to hear a Tale, rather than a Relation of a considerable Iourney; if he leaves following of a Drum which led him to the way of honour, to go after another inviting him to see Mountebanks, who takes more pleasure to come from a Tennis-Court, or from a Ball or Dance, with advantage, than to return dusty and vi­ctorious from a Fight: I [...]ind no fitter way for such an one than to make him a Cook in same good City, though he were the Son of a Duke; according to the rule of Plato, that Children are to be disposed of, not according to the means and quality of their Fathers, but according to the faculties of their own Souls. So that let a Young man be never so well qualified from the side of his Parents, except he hath good Dispositions, vertuous and honest Inclinations in himself, he will never be the more esteemed, be­cause, Simia est semper simia etiamsi purpura ve­stiatur. But of this I intend hereafter to speak more at large.

[Page 64]Because we have already more than once men­tioned honesty as the quality without which others are insignificant, we must now tell what it is. Diogenes Laertius, in the life of Plato, saith, this great Philosopher called honesty, That which is rea­sonable, commendable, profitable, decent and conve­nient This is the Spirit which gives life to eve­ry action; without this salt there is no savour in any thing we do? How acceptable to God and men is an honest heart; many a learned, valiant, and wise man can be found in the world; but how hard is it to find a true honest man.

But to return to my purpose; to the end the endeavours of a Tutor be effectual upon a young Scholar, 'tis very necessary for him to understand his genius and inclination; this is the most judici­ous and methodical course that can be taken; and herein, besides what he can observe in his Con­versation, Physicians can help him; for in every man they find four essential qualities, dry, moist, hot, and cold: Driness is by Galenus accounted the principle of Prudence; and moisture of Folly. These are qualities of [...]our Principles, constituting the body of man, all which are to be found in eve­ry man; but usually one is predominant over all the rest: the better they are mixed and tempered, the better is the Constitution, and the longer the life of man: these answer to the four Elements which Natural Philosophers affirm to be in every mixt and compound; of which the one is hot and dry, the other hot and moist; the third cold and dry, the fourth cold and moist.

These Principles are called Choler, Melancholy, Phlegm, and Blood; every one of which is adapted to, and prevalent in one season of the year: The Flai a [Page 65] bilis or Choler doth abound in Summer, which season doth well agree with her quality, hot and dry. Atra bilis, or Melancholy abounds in Au­tumn, which are both dry and cold: Phlegm is prevalent in Winter, which is moist and cold; and so it is, for certainly this is the coldest of all Hu­mors; but in Spring the Blood doth abound, which agree in this, that both are hot and moist. Now as the humor of Melancholy is sowre, of Choler, bitter; of Phlegm, salt, and of Blood, sweet; so they make the tempers of men harsh and troublesome, rough and severe, churlish and soft; and every one of these is to be discerned by the Complexion: Choler makes lean and yel­lowish; Melancholy, dark and black; Blood, fat and ruddy; and Phlegm, white: These qualities, more or less, according as they are predominant, do tyrannize over a man, except by the use of Rea­son and Prudence, he doth correct and qualifie them.

When Choler abounds in the Brain, it drives men into madness; as the Atra bilis impells them into Melancholy. As we said before, Phlegm be­ing cold, they who are predominated by it, are sub­ject to want Memory and Prudence: when there­fore old people fall a raving and doting, it is be­cause of this coldness, whereby every office of the Soul is hindered, and not by reason of dryness at­tending that age. Now Blood hath a mixture of the three others, and is esteemed the best temper of all: the hotter and thicker it is, the greater strength it gives to the person; but the thinner and colder it is, the better the sences and understanding do act: yet though we see creatures who have it so to be more prudent and ingenious as Bees, than [Page 66] others, 'tis not to be attributed to the coldness of Blood, but to the thinness and pureness of it: those creatures which have it thinner, are the most timerous, because fear cools it: contrariwise, they which have it thick, are more courageous, chole­rick, and furious as Bulls, Lions, Bears, wild Boars; because Choler makes hot: and solid things that are hot will heat much more than moist. The na­ture of youth, saith Plato, is wild and almost mad, when that of old men will be full of austerity, rough­ness, and tediousness: For Youth is a hot age, and full of blood, which old age wants, and is very cold: so that the very age is to be observed in point of Education. No man, saith Galenus, is willingly evil; but he is such from the natural depravation of his body, and from a bad breeding. But this must be well understood, or else it is much liable to ex­ception.

I am much of the mind of that learned man, who proves, in a Treatise made on purpose,Mores animi [...]equuntur cor­poris tempera­mentum. Gal. that the manners of the Soul do follow the temper of the body. Indeed the union of these two parts is so great, that necessarily there must be a great communication of their parts, and faculties: sences do convey objects to the intel­lect, and the faculties of the Soul do operate through the organs of the body, which too often defile the purity wherein the Soul should abide: The Body doth afford the Soul too much matter, and incentives to sin, and the law of the Members is hard enough for the law of the Understanding; therefore in some measure we may well refer the vertues and vices of the soul, to the temper of body. Men of a cholerick humor are quick and [Page 67] dexterous: Melancholy gives integrity and con­stancy with Luxury; Phlegm makes one mild and gentle, and the great abundance of blood casts them into simplicity, and stupidity: what more shall we say to this? from all these humors arise rashness, impatience, dulness, suspicion, and mi­strustfulness, which often lead men to cruelty; hence arise discontentedness, murmurings, indiffe­rency for any thing, and a number of passions which so much disturb the peace and quietness of men, are effects of these tempers and humors predominant in man: which if a Tutor were able, and would take pains to find out, it would be easie for him to remedy several inconveniences, where­of the causes would thus be known to him.

I add that to undertake this upon good grounds and better hopes of success, the genius and age of the young Gentleman are not only to be lookt into, but dealt with accordingly; which to effect, one is to consider, that to understand, to imagine, and to remember, are proper operations of the rational Soul; inasmuch as the intellect, the wit, and the memory are faculties of the same: As Memory is for things past, so it may be said the Intellect and Wit are part for present, and part for those which are to come; and both these last receive a great help from the first: for it doth afford matter to discourse, and to be exercised upon. These fa­culties of the Soul have their working in the head, where, upon occasion, are drawn the spirits into the brain: Hence it is that there is more brains in the head of a Man, than in that of the greatest Oxe; and it is observed, that those Brutes which draw nearer to men, as dogs, apes, and foxes, have more of it than others.

[Page 68]A man excels in one faculty or other, according to the temper he is of at such a time; or as it is al­tered, either through accidents, or the usual course of nature, that is, according to the several ages; which age and genius (I say it again) if not well observed, and dealt with accordingly by the Instructor, he will build upon the sand: and if he succeeds, as to him it will be by meer ha­zard, but when he hath found it out, he must put him forward in that way, according to the faculty best in him, whether Memory, Wit, or Under­standing; yet let not the others be idle, and let no time be lost.

I named just before the four Principles of the temperature of man; yet I say, cold doth nothing of it self, only helpeth to temperate the rest, therefore the good one is to be neither too moist, nor too dry, nor too hot, nor too cold: for when one is too predominant, it ever disturbs, and at last destroys the rest. The Memory, to be good, must be moist, the Intellect dry, and the Wit hot; yet every one within certain degrees; and as these qualities are contrary, so it happens seldom that one who hath a good wit, hath also a sound judg­ment; because the first requires heat, whereby this last is weakened; and he who hath a good judgment, hath seldom a good memory; because that must be dry, and this must be moist: yet I do not deny, but that sometimes a man of a good judgment may also have a good Memory, or a good Wit; yet all in a moderate degree; but the stronger and more predominant one of the faculties is, the weaker the others are.

Hence, as I say elsewhere, it will appear how Memory is the prevalent faculty in the most ten­der [Page 69] years, because that age abounds in moisture: therefore Plato had reason to say, In the presence of children we should ever speak of good and honest acti­ons, inciting to Vertue; because the memory, softned with moisture, is better able to receive impressions than when it is dried up: As one sees the diffe­rence between hard and soft, clay and wax; yet a Child must not be troubled with many several dif­ferent matters at the same time, because they breed a confusion for want of being duly placed: besides that, to every Science are prescribed some bounds which must not be trespassed; and there­fore see you perfect him in some measure, before you proceed to other things. Arts and Sciences gotten with Memory, and proper to't, are Gram­mar, some Theory of the Law, the Principles, but not the Controversies, of Divinity, Arithme­tick, reading of History, and Languages which are learned by Children, better than by men of riper years; yet, remember Memory grows better for being used.

When one is passed from childhood to infancy, the mind begins to understand; and therefore pro­portionable things must be offered to that present capacity; as good Authors, and something of Lo­gick: but when by degrees that moisture ceases to abound, then the Understanding grows stronger; as we see it by experience with people who live in hot Countries, who are wiser and more judicious than those who inhabit cold Climates; where reigns more simplicity and stupidity, because the Sun and heat cannot dry up part of their moisture; as it doth where it shines with more strength. Now to the Intellect belongs to distinguish, to discourse, conclude, judge and chuse; and things proper to [Page 70] it, are Dialectick, Natural Philosophy, Theory of Physick, the practice of the Law, Polemical and School Divinity.

To Wit, belong invention and composition of things; it hath in its operation a beginning, a pro­gress, and a decay, as the other faculties: when it turns too much into fancy, and arises to some hot­ter degree than it should, it becomes destructive, and falls into delirium, making one light-headed: they who go so far, fancy high and great things; their brains being over-heated with too much working, or reading Romantical Adventures, which they should be forbidden to do, this humoring and elevating that fancy. Yet certainly, true Wit is of a vast extent, for to it do belong all Arts and Sciences, consisting in figure, harmony, and pro­portion; as Musick, Picture-Drawing; Eloquence, the practice of Physick, Mathematicks, Astrology, application to several things at the same time, which yet is not an ordinary effect of it. Poetry, for some young men can sooner make twenty good Verses in two hours, than learn by heart ten lines in two days; whereby is seen the difference of Wit and Memory: as the example of Socrates makes it visible between Wit and Understand­ing; for the Oracle pronounced him to be the wi­sest man alive, when he never had the wit to make one good verse; though as much as in him lay, he had learned the rules of Poetry. Lastly, to pen well, Cards and several other Games, are under the compass of Wit, which must be taken up with good things.

I make much depend upon the temperature of the body (yet detest the consequence of Galenus) but I make most depend upon a rational Soul; yet [Page 71] I think it fit for men to endeavour to know the natural causes of things; for Nature is a Book to be read and observed by us, leaving all to the con­course and influences of the All-mighty and wise God, Maker of our immortalSouls. One must endea­vour to get all former Rules confirmed by expe­rience; because in some cases, general Rules fail.

Some, the better to know the temper of men, will proceed farther, and consult Physiognomy; whereof Aristotle hath given some Rules: and to begin with the forehead, accord­ing to the Proverb Which to gain say, others have made this Proverb, Fron­ti nulla sid [...]s. Frons hominem praefert; they who have it great are lasie; if little, they are light and inconstant; if it be large and broad, they are easie to be moved and unsetled in mind. If the eye-brows be straight as it were in a line, they signifie one to be effeminate; if they bow towards the nose, he is sower and churlish: if they be turned towards the temples, he is a jearer and dissembler: long eye-lids are a sign of corrupt manners, short ones a mark of pro­bity; they which almost constantly look down, denote envy; an over white eye, or whose apple seems divided by a streak of white, signifie good nature; that eye which is neither very big, nor ve­ry little, hath a very advantageous signification; that which moves too much, shews inconstancy; that which fixeth much upon objects, betokens impudency; but that which moves neither too much, nor too little, is a sign of goodness, and prudence. Little ears signifie corrupt nature; long ones and upright, folly or pratling; but indiffe­rent ones are a good sign; so of the nose, mouth, [Page 72] &c. if a man be hairy very much, he is either strong or given to luxury. But enough of this.

Others would consult Chyromancy, and by the help of some lines in the hollow of the hand, en­quire into several things; not so much to know the nature, as to dive into several accidents which are certainly or likely to befal one.

Astrologers will tell us of Constellations, As­pects, Conjunctions and Influences, which Stars have upon those who are born under them: but this casting of Nativities and Horoscopes, and Fortune-telling are (to my opinion) things no ways to be minded or lookt after; the Science thereof being conjectural, uncertain, and forbid­den by Scriptures. Rather I will consider the Country, and nature of the Climate under which one is born; some Nations are fiery and hasty, others slow and phlegmatick; some are of a sweet nature and civiliz'd, when others are wild and not sociable: yet I would not consult the twelve Signs, nor enquire into the twelve Houses, though 'tis certainly true, that many things have influences up­on the temper and constitution of men; the very weather pretends to it: rainy and moist makes them dull and heavy; cold, lusty; hot, weak and heavy.

When I said that Stars and heavenly Signs are not to be minded, I do not intend any ways to derogate from that vertue which God hath prin­ted in them; for it is certain they were not crea­ted in vain; for God and Nature do nothing in vain: not only they are signs of times and seasons, and distinguish the day from the night, but also they have influences upon sublunary and earthly things. It were trivial for me to say that in sow­ing [Page 73] of seeds in the ground, and planting of plants in the garden, the motion and time of the Moon is to be minded, which Spring-Tides declare, in a higher way; and the Sun forms mines of Gold under ground, purifies things, and ripens the fruit of the ground. But why should I insist on these things; doth not a Maxim of Philosophy affirm, that Sol & homo generant hominem, it is not only the principle of light, but also of life to many things; yet none of these Planets or fixed Stars have any coactive influences, inclinant non necessitant: so that out of them nothing can posi­tively be affirmed, but only guessed at, and by way of conjecture.

But there are so many othe [...] things whereby to know young men, that one can never want means to instruct and satisfie himself therein; the looks, the gestures, the countenance, the very colours which passions spread over the face, do often tell us much of what is in the heart. Now I can see one blush for mode [...]ty, then another will grow pale for anger; love, fear, hatred are read upon the face, and seen in the eyes, which are well called the looking-glass of the soul: let one but endeavour sometimes to stir those passions, and they will soon discover themselves: let a Tutor invite his Disci­ple to talk and discourse, and if he be any way in­genious, he will soon find out what he is; then let him observe his actions, his exercises, his plea­sures, and his company.

Actions are certainly the surest rule whereby to judge of a man; for here I make no distinction of ages: every free agent will propound an end to himself of whatsoever he doth, whether it be Actus elicitus, or imperatus: this end to a wise [Page 74] agent is the first in intention, but the last in executi­on: for as he looks to the end, so he thinks on the means how to attain to it: Yet I would not have every single action of a man severely to be exami­ned; for it is hardly possible but there shall be one defect or other in't. I speak not only as in the sight of God, but also of men. To confirm what I say, many things must contribute to a good action, and the want in one single thing is enough to make it bad. Every action imports four things, a prin­ciple, a matter, a manner, and the end; there ought to be a rectitude in these four circumstances to make it good.

First, there must be a good Principle, which is of several sorts, and may be reduced to these three heads; as it is honest, profitable, or pleasant: un­der the notion of the first, is that which arises from Conscience, as being of Divine, Natural, or Politick Right; as to do Justice, and not act a­gainst Reason: but some act out of a principle of honour, as others of Conscience: wherein they consider themselves, and would do nothing where­by a stain or blemish should be laid upon their acti­on, person, or family: And a third sort do act out of a principle of decency, not looking upon them­selves obliged to such an act, but only they ac­count it to be fit, handsome, and convenient for them: though there be a difference between these three motives, yet they are all reduced under that we have called honest: but many act out of an­other principle, called Interest, wherein they are self-ended, and look only to their benefit and ad­vantage: This very often causes men to do things unlawful and unjust, so that many times it may be called pernicious, rather than profitable. A third [Page 75] Principle may be called of inclination, not derived from any rule or precept, but only from our mind and will to please one passion, or other; whether it be love, hatred, or the like, without any consi­deration of advantage, or any reason tending thereunto.

Non amo te Claudi nec possum dicere quaro
Hoc tantum possum dicere non amo te.

Then there must be the matter which is either good, or evil; according as it is consentaneous or contrary to law and rule▪ yet though it be evil, it is ever under the notion of good; for good is that which is multum appe [...]ibile, much to be desi­red, Now no body wishes evil as such, let the inclination be never so corrupt, and as bad as that of Medea in the Poet.

—Video meliora, proboque
Deteriora sequor.

Which answers to this of St. Paul, The good I would that I do not, Rom. 7.19. and the evil I would not, that I do ▪ not because it is evil, but some specious shew or pre­tence of good intervening, though but imaginary, through the inward corruption, the agent deter­minates himself, though with some difference; as the action is either spiritual, natural, moral, vo­luntary, or mixed.

In the third place there is the way of doing, which is called the manner or form of the acti­on, which is very considerable: for 'tis not e­nough to do a good thing, it must be done in a [Page 76] due form: this circumstance God requires very much, according to this,

Verba parum prosunt, prosunt adverbia multum,
Non bona tam pensat quam bene facta Deus.

Lastly, there is an end to every action, as I [...]aid already; and this circumstance is so considerable, that it doth denominate the whole action. Philo­sophers tell us, Bonitas petitur ab objecto, such as the end and object are, such the action will be, either good or evil. These four circumstances I will give an instance of, to illustrate what I say, let it be that of giving Alms, which is a good action, as to the matter; it being commanded and commended in Scripture. He who gives Alms and performs this good action, ought to do it out of a good principle of obedience to Gods precepts, and cha­rity to his neighbour, and not out of vanity or pride. Then this must be done in a good way, not publickly, and Pharisee like, causing the trum­pet to be sounded before one, but secretly, and so that the right hand doth not know what the left is doing: and lastly, th [...] end must not be to be seen and praised of men, but only to relieve the poor, and needy. Besides all this, there ought to be a gradual perfection, that is, that every one of these circumstances be observed in a competent degree; namely, whether my charity be not cold, whether I give as much as I am able, and is suta­ble with the present wants of the receiver: after all this, who can boast of his capacity to do a per­fect action?

Th [...]refore a Tutor can never expect it from a Pupil, only he will observe whether he hath a [Page 77] good bottom, and an honest heart; which good­ness and honesty he must endeavour to improve with judicious advice, wise precepts, and good examples, from himself and others, into whose company he doth introduce him; allowing him that honest liberty (yet free from licentiousness) which so much becomes a young man of quality, who ought neither to be humoured nor discoura­ged, so as to be driven into bashfulness.

Because often Children are apt to forget Pre­cepts and Admonitions after they have been given; if they were followed with an example of any Hi­story, true, or invented upon the matter, it would take a deeper root (thus to teach ignorant people, our Saviour used Parables so often) but to have it to make a greater impression, in my opinion the precept, not long after it hath been given, should be reduced to practise. Thus in the last age, a Preceptor to a great and young Prince having observed in him a hasty nature, and seeing all his advices could not prevail upon't, for his inclination did strongly draw him that way, all his general rules he redu­ced to a particular one, viz. Never to set his hand to any thing, till after he had read it, and considered on't. Yet a day or two after, he brought in great haste a paper to the Prince to sign, having pen and ink ready to that purpose; so the Prince signed without so much as reading what it was: which being done, the Preceptor said to him, Sir, you are King no longer; for you may see how by this paper you made over your Kingdom to me. In­ventions of this kind will certainly prove benefici­al to Youth; and the higher is the quality of the Pupil, the more their temper is to be studied, see­ing, if by their Education they may hope for great [Page 78] charges when they come to be of age; they will have great and publick influences, their actions being [...]o much taken notice of, and men so willing to follow their examples, according to this, ‘Regi [...] ad exemplum totus componitur orbis.’ Therefore when a Tutor sees his Precepts do not produce the effect he wishes for, he must not grow impatient, but still use his endeavours▪ some tem­pers are dull and heavy, which have much ado to understand and retain: it is of Wits as of Fruits, some are ripe sooner than others; so they being often gently, and in season told of their faults, will mend at last. Failings are natural to men, specially in that tender age, therefore one should be com­passionate to, and redress them, aliquando bonus dormitat Homerus, is an ordinary saying, the best and most careful are subject to miscarry: but with­al, a difference is to be made, when faults are com­mitted out of ignorance, and humane infirmity, or out of wilfulness and malice.

It is a great part of prudence to know when Youth must rest or work; 'tis the dexterity of a rider to know when to hold in, and when to put on; and to know his time is a great matter: some can learn more in one hour▪ than others in a whole day; therefore they who are not able, or have no genius, to be kept too long at it, must not be ti­red out, which would make them nauseate all Learning and Morality; they must have rest, and refreshment: for saith the Poet,

[Page 79]
— Neque semper arcum
Horat. lib. 2. od. 10.
Tendit Apollo.

But when the Tutor hath care, and capacity, and a good method to instruct, and when the Scholar is willing and able to learn, and to act what is ne­cessary; for there must be a disposition in the re­cipient, then there is hopes that God, who hath made all things by his power, and preserves them by his wisdom, will bless with success, their labor and mutual endeavours; but if not only there are no such good dispositions, but rather bad ones in him, certainly there is no good hopes; For ‘Sincerum est nisi vas quodcunque infundis acescit.Horat. lib. 1. ep. 2.

It is not only convenient, but also necessary to use Children to hardship, if their strength and constitution can bear it; for thereby not only they will take exercise, which is necessary to dissipate bad humors, and to use their joynts, whereby they will be more nimble and stronger, and which also will make them grow; but also they will use themselves to labor, and make it natural to them: it is a great matter when they are hardened from their childhood, for it makes their constitution strong and lusty: Hunting, Riding, Walking, and moderately using ones body, to the like exercises, can much contribute to it. Indeed some are brought up in so tender and effeminate a way, that 'tis a shame to think on't; so that if ever they be put upon any inconvenience, they are not able to hold out, but sink under any hardship, and are soon swept away; then those Parents who so much [Page 80] dally with, and seem to be so tender of them, may see their error, when any distemper comes upon them. It is natural and reasonable for every one to desire the health and life of his children, but the ways which men take to arrive to it, are much different, and the means often contrary to the end. I had reason to say elsewhere, that Breeding is a second nature, for Children will (may be as long as they live) retain that alteration which perhaps at that time was made in their temper: Look on a Country-man's, or an ordinary man's Son, he doth generally prove strong, and fit for hardship; and though it be necessary to proportionate the hard­ship to the Child's strength, 'tis no way requisite to stand so much upon the quality of the Parents; for besides what I already observed, that this is good for their health, I believe, great and little ones, rich and poor, noble and commoners, may at one time or other happen to be put to shifts; so that from the Prince to the lowest Subject, it is uncertain what one shall happen to be brought to: 'tis well to be fitted to wrestle against what difficul­ties we shall meet withal.

Besides that, the greatest Kings in the world, when they are put upon action, are glad of a bo­dy able to endure hardship; the greatest Conquer­ors do share in it: not only the common Souldiers, but also Officers undergo it. What a fine thing was it for Pompeius, to have to be his Souldiers, those young Romans, who, for fear of being cut in the face, whereby it had been spoiled, turned their backs in the day of battel. In a word, as there is none but one time or other of his life may happen to be put upon action, 'tis prudently done of Parents to fit them for it, from their youth up▪ [Page 81] and I am sure, that to be able to endure hardship is a qualification without which one can do no­thing, or very little in mart [...]al affairs. God, who had appointed David to many troubles and hard­ships, disposed him to it, through his former man­ner of life, when he kept his Father's sheep in the field, exposed to the heat of the Sun, Wind, Rain, and other injuries of Weather; and may be with a crust of dry bread in his pocket. I do not deny how decent it is that Children of men of quality should be brought up in a handsomer way than those of common people: but I speak against the fondness which some have for them, which is so far from deserving to be called care, that I more properly name it want of care.

Let the inconveniences of this manner of Breed­ing be observed, These young Gentlemen when [...]hey come somewhat to know themselves, they will eat no course meat, only the most delicate they can find for mony. They scorn to wear cloaths ex­cept they be very rich; they will think it is below them to walk, but if they go out, it must be in a Coach; they will not so much as take the pains to stick a pin about them; and if there be no servant to give them a glass of Wine, they will rather be choakt than take it themselves: Sometimes the wea­ther is not good for them to walk out, therefore they will sit at home, and Dice or Card away ma­ny a pound, or in a Tavern, and drink away their health, till the Gout, or Gravel comes upon them, or a Pleurisie, an Apoplexy, or some other sudden Disease carries them to their Grave: After this way of breeding, certainly we must not look for many manly spirits, and if there be any, 'tis their good temper, and strong constitution which keep [Page 82] them from being spoiled by this; and as h [...]reby the name effeminate given to these spirits hath been borrowed from women, so some manly spi­rits have passed into the bodies of women; for there are some of these whose heroick minds will shame the low and pusillanimous hearts of those, Ovid.Sint procul à nobis Iuvenes ut foemi­na compti.’

Seeing I am now upon this subject, it will not be amiss to speak of two contrary ways of Breed­ing; one effeminate, used by a people called Syba­rites; the other manly, by the Lacedemonians: the former studied nothing but how to soften and render effeminate their spirits and bodies: but the last as much as in them lay, endeavoured to frame their bodies to a strength necessary for war, and to infuse a true principle of valour into their soul. The Sybarites brought up their Children in the bosom of a lasie and idle voluptuousness, wherein they suckt vices as it were from the breast, and before they could know them: And as a sto­mach weakened through excesses can bear no solid meat, but that only which is very light; so their soul had therein contracted such a nausea and di­stast, that it could no ways savour and rellish the food of vertue. Insomuch that it wanted strength not only to digest, but also to keep it for never so short a time. The Lacedemonians nourished their children with sobriety, and without delicacy; they used them to injuries of weather, they made them fight and wrestle one against another; commend­ing some for their strength, others for their dex­terity, and constancy; they taught them to be re­spectful [Page 83] to old age, and often told them of the brave exploits and feats of their Ancestors, to en­courage them to vertue; they ordered them to be short, but sententious in their discourses, and con­stantly to mind generous actions.

But what manner of men must they have been, who for several years were kept as soft and warm, as if they had been in their Mothers womb; who would not so much as suffer workmen in their Town for fear their sleep had been interrupted with the noise they made; whose Cooks were the first Preceptors they gave their Children; Parents being careful how to refine their taste more than their wit; who made in bed most of their Exer­cises, and their most serious Discourses at Table; inviting people to their Feasts a whole year before, that they might have time to make extraordinary provisions, and those who were invited, geeat preparations to come to it, looking for excesses in every thing. Now I would fain know what good can be expected from such a Breeding?

On the contrary, the Lacedemonians who were brought up amidst noble and generous examples, and were as good as framed by the hands of ver­tue, could produce none but great and extraordi­nary actions, worthy of an immortal praise: and indeed the last of them were the first amongst o­ther Nations. But at last, what was the end of these two people? it is well known how, as long as lasted the Discipline by Lycurgus, setled in Spar­ta, thence came forth so many valiant men, that all their enemies were afraid of them, and durst not fight with an Army, wherein were but few of them; when three hundred thousand Syba­rites were overthrown by the Crotonians with a [Page 84] handful of men, and all their Towns taken with­in less than two months.

The antient Inhabitants of Crete (now Candia) used to hang up their Sons breakfast, which if they had a mind to get, they were to fetch down with Arrows: hence it is that they were so good marks-men. The same is said of those of the Islands Balearides, now Majorca, Minorca, and Yvica.

Here I need not to be told how this was of old, and now things are so much altered, that what Nation soever, or particular man would follow all the steps of antient Nations, would become ridi­culous: for I know every Nation had, and still hath some particular thing sutable to the genius and state of the generality of it: and even in eve­ry Nation, according to the several intents and quality of Parents, there is some diversity in breed­ing of Youth; they must be bred the way accord­ing to which they are to be disposed of Thus a difference is to be observed in the breeding of a Souldier, and of a Lawyer; these being particu­lar employments, which in time they are to be­take themselves to: But I speak of a general way of breeding, which is not to be tyed, either to times, or places; as Vertue, Knowledge, and the like: under which may be reduced the way of the Spartians, and others I named

How much doth this condemn those Parents, who only think upon building of houses, and rich­ly furnishing them; of getting Horses, Hounds, Hawks, &c. and hardly think upon him who is heir apparent to these things; and sometimes will take more care to have a Horse well dressed, than a Son well bred. Shall I confirm all I said against [Page 85] an effeminate (and consequently vicious) Educa­tion, by that which was given to one of the great­est Princes of Europe for these many age [...], I mean, Henry IV. born Prince of Bearn, lawful Heir to Navarre, afterwards King of France: his Grand­father Henry of Albret would not have him brought up with the delicacy used with persons of that quality; knowing well, how in a soft and tender body lodges usually a soft and a weak spi­rit: He did also forbid he should wear rich cloaths, or be flattered and treated with that submission due to Princes; because all these things infuse va­nity, and lift up the heart of children to pride, rather than to a true sense of generosity: he on­ly ordered him to be cloathed, and fed, as were other Children of the Country; and that he should be used to run and climb up the Rocks, which are thick in those parts to the end he might thereby be used to hardship, and his ten­der body might become strong and lusty, 'Tis reported, that commonly he fed upon brown Bread, Beef, Cheese, and Garlick; and that of­ten they made him walk bare-head, and bare-feet; and probably without this he had never been able to undergo so much hardship as he met with when he was forced to defend his right, and con­quer his Kingdom with the edg of his Sword. Pope Sixtus V. had reason then to say, that for certain he would overcome the League (a strong Faction in France) because the general of it, the Duke of Mayenne was longer at Table, than Henry IV. was in bed.

But I know every one hath not a constitution strong enough to bear this, in which case one ought not to go beyond his strength: However [Page 86] this is sufficient to shew how necessary it is for one to have a body used to hardship; specially for t [...]ose who intend to be Souldiers: which professi­on very often doth not depend upon men, being sometimes forced to it, by some accident or other; as may be a Civil War, an invasion of a Foreign Enemy, or a Conquest to be made by the Prince: besides that, 'tis well known to be a part of poli­cy in time of Peace, to be in a posture of War, and to stand upon the defensive. And that Coun­try which hath a number of men of service expe­rienced in warlike affairs, is considerable in her self, and formidable to her Neighbours: Arms are the usual way of conquering or preserving States; for indeed, counsel alone, at least without a mar­tial prudence, proves often successless, except the Sword be in a readiness to back it, therefore men able to command Armies, are so much respected by some, and feared by others; which prefer­ment, when 'tis bestowed upon their merit, they often have sweated for, and endured the brunt of the day, whereby they attained unto that experi­ence, which they were so considerable for: and hereupon I can but admire at the change which when there is occasion, this works upon the na­ture of men. Of this we have two notable ex­amples of two great men who were contemporary, and this not long ago, in the days of Henry IV. of France, lived the Duke of Bouillon, and Marshal Biron, both gallant men for War, but in a diffe­rent way: The former was of a wary, slow, one phlegmatick temper at a Council-Table, and in his ordinary actions: The other contrariwise was of a quick, hasty, and somewhat rash nature: yet when these two men were at the head of an Army, they [Page 87] were altogether other men: the Duke of Bouillon was so fierce and fiery, that he hardly could hold in, and was seen to foam when he went to the Charge: but the other did master himself so much, was so quiet, so calm, and as serious as if there had been nothing to do: in this condition the former was better disposed for a Soldier than for a General; and the last was more fit for a General than for a Sol­dier. Indeed it cannot be well enough admired what a change is wrought in some men when they were upon the point of action. We read of one Gar­zia Sanchio, King of Navarre, who when he met with his enemies, grew pale and quaked; whence he was surnamed the Quaker; who yet was like a thunder in a Battel. The like we hear of another, who trembled when his man did put his Armor on him; which he once asking the reason of, he was answered, My body hath reason to tremble, knowing what a danger my heart will anon bring it to. This in other men is an effect of fear, but in these, it is caused by a sudden raising of the blood.

As Children in their generation are to be mem­bers of a politick body, and of a civil society; I wish they were fitted to keep the bond of it, and therefore taught the practice of meekness, humili­ty, civility, &c. which qualities breeding a mutual respect and affection, do much contribute to keep peace in families, amongst Neighbours, and through whole Nations; and because Vertue begets plenty and riches, which cause pride and idleness, I would have them instructed as much as may be to avoid so bad effects of so good a cause; thereby to pre­vent calamity and destruction, as befel Sodom and Gomorrah: we had never thought that the sin of [Page 88] those places had been other than that abominable one named from that first one, if Ezechiel had not expressed it thus;Chap. 16.49. The sin of Sodom was pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of idleness, want of charity, and haughtiness.

To fence betimes against this, let Children be taught to study decency in their cloaths, modesty in their behaviour, sobriety and temperance in their diet; not so much to please their palate, as to nourish their body, using wholesome meat and keeping a good diet; for exuberancy of food cau­ses surfeits, which do endanger their life, or at least makes them unfit to learn or do any thing well, causing a dulness in their spirits: wherefore 'tis much necessary to make them use some exer­cise, whereby digestion may the sooner, and the more easily be made to prevent crudities and indi­gestions of stomach, which often trouble a man as long as he lives. This I say, not to retract of what I told just now, of using them to hardship, but for those only whose natural weakness cannot bear that manner of breeding; or to comply with those who do not like it; for all ever comes to this, that a plain food is more nourishing, and less hurtful, than that which is accounted more ex­quisite; because the palate is pleased with it, though it be otherwise with the stomach.

Here it will not be amiss to say in particular; some things of the civility which upon several oc­casions Tutors ought to teach Children committed to their care; for they are given not only to teach them their Book, but also to oversee their carriage and manners, and betimes frame them to a civil and handsome behaviour, that they may be the [Page 89] fitter to be admitted into company and conversa­tion: use him betimes to be civil, meek, and re­spectful, to do others all the pleasure he can, but no injury: not to be proud of any parts or advanta­ges he hath above others; forbear disputing, and too much contradicting what others say, and be­ing eager or obstinate in defending his opinions. To trust to every one, or to no body, are two ex­treams to be avoided; and to betray a mans secret is an evil not to be practised; he may mention fa­vours received, but not those he hath bestowed.

When he walks, if he meets with any Magi­strate, or other to whom respect is due, let him put off his hat, and give them the hand: when he is in conversation, let him look modestly on him who speaks; not interrupting him, or saying any thing till he hath done speaking: his gesture ought to be composed, not to turn his eyes to and fro, move his legs too much, play with his hat, bite his nails, scratch his head, blow his nose with­out turning aside his head, or pick it, or his ears with his fingers, spit often, wag his head, move his hand too much, whistle or sing when he hath nothing to say, or do the like unbecoming things: let him not speak too fast, or too loud, but softly and gently, not brag of himself, or any thing of his, despise or speak amiss of others: let his words be true, modest, not contrary to Piety, Morality, or Charity, only he ought not to speak any filthy or dishonest word, but he must not seem to approve of any (if spoken by others) with smi­ling or laughing thereat: Contrariwise he must shew his dislike, even censure the speaker if it be fit for him; or else he will do well if he seems not to have heard; and afterwards he is carefully [Page 90] to avoid such a mans company. In a word, let him abstain from every idle and vicious discourse, and every indecent gesture.

His Cloaths must be sutable to his age and qua­lity, neat, and clean; yet not proud at it if they be rich. let him keep his face, nose, teeth, and hands from being dirty and foul; and those parts covered which modesty forbids to be shewn.

At Table, he must not fit down till Grace be said by him or some other; the like is to be observed when he rises: as to washing, before or after meals, let him follow the custom of the Countrey, keep his mouth and fingers clean; cut his morsels, whether bread or meat, nor hold it in his hand, nor lean his elbow on the Table, his body must be upright: avoid being greedy in eating, or making too much noise with his mouth, which ought to be em­pty when he speaks, or drinks, and never too full; in which both eating and drinking, he ought to avoid excess, as licking his fingers, knawing of bones, &c. At table, avoid jearing, and o [...]fensive words: 'tis the custom of some to take that time to slander and speak ami [...]s of others. This St. Austin hated so much, that he caused these Verses in great Characters to be written over his Table.

Quisquis amat diciis absentum rodere famam,
Hanc mensam vetitam noverit esse sibi.

It were endless to insist upon these and many more things of this nature, which are better lear­ned with practise than by rule: for they are tri­vial, yet necessary things within the reach and capacity of any ordinary Tutor; to whose care and prudence it must be left to make use of it.

[Page 91]Towards a good breeding of Children, it is a great help to institute Schools where there is none; and to encourage those which are already setled; providing them with able, painful, and honest men, with a plentiful, or at least a sufficient al­lowance for their maintenance: for else take this away, and the rest will fall of it self. This saying, Languescit sine praemio virtus, is as true as common. Nature teaches us to seek for necessaries first of all; so that if one wants food or raiment, he can mind nothing else till he hath it, and other things which men usually have occasion for. Honest men will go carefully and faithfully about their work, but not with chearfulness, if they want necessary en­couragements. The benefit of these Schools, and rewards to those who kept them, being known to Iulian the Apostate, out of the violent desire he was possessed with to extirpate Christian Religion, took it by the root, and with his wicked policy which Christians called the worst part of his Per­secution, he first of all discouraged Schools, where­in Christians caused their Children to be taught and instructed in the Principles of their Religion, and other necessary things; then he altogether sup­pressed them: so that this ceasing, except a spe­cial care were taken by Parents in their Families, civility and neatness were thrust out of doors, and wild and ignorant Barbarism brought in.

For Virtue and Learning are not born with us, but acquired by us; they are not a gift of nature, but a reward or a purchase of pains and industry. Let Plato, and the Academians, yea the Stoicks say what they will; for Aristotle was in the right, when he saith, things which naturally are so and so, will not be otherwise, Quod natura dedit, [Page 92] tollere nemo potest, let stones be thrown up, and the air be pressed down; yet stones can never be used to ascend, nor the air to descend; gravity being the natural quality of one, and lightness of the other. Nevertheless, it is certain, that 'tis possible for men from being evil to turn to be good, as a vertuous man can become vicious; which could not be if we had brought vertue or vice into the world; besides, that in things we do by nature, power doth precede the act: whereof we see the contrary in vertue or vice; for vertue and vice do not consist in any single act, but in the habit formed of many: wherefore Cyril­lus Alexandrinus against Iulian the Apostate,Lib. 3. saith. If nature had filled our souls with vertue, vice could not have been intro­duced into them; so that we see she only made us susceptible thereof, as we are also of vice; because that which is disposed to receive one thing, is also ca­pable to receive the contrary of it. Vertue is a hid­den treasure, which we must take pains to find out by the help of Precepts, which by degrees are contracted into an habit; and that's properly what we call Art and Science. This was the opi­nion of the first Law-givers, who to that end in­stituted several Disciplines for Youth, and gave them rules sutable to the government which they would use them to: for although nature hath not given us vertue, she hath not denied us means to attain to't; she hath even given us some seeds and dispositions to it, having put in us affections, whereby upon occasion it doth receive some in­crease: for saith the Pythagorician Hyppodamus, Lib. de Rep Through desire and fear one grow; a notable proficient in virtues

[Page 93]Another great help to Education of Children, would be the suppression of all vicious and cor­rupt places, or any that engage Youth to deban­chedness; as may be publick Gaming places, ma­ny Taverns, of which the number is exceeding; which are all enticements to young men to fall in­to depravation, and an idle course of life. I would not except Plays, when prophane, lascivious, blas­phemous, or other vicious parts are acted upon the Stage; for else representing of Vertue in her live­ly colours, may be a motive to love and follow it: So when Vice appears in his own shape, it will make it odious to us; therefore much is depending upon the subject they act; to shew how ridicu­lous in all his wa [...]s is a covetous man, will instruct us of the vileness and sordidness of that vice: and this was the first use of Comedies introduced a­mongst the Romans in the days of grave and wise men, who had the government of the Republick, continued in Augustus's days, which multiplied to an excess, and degenerated under the Reign of Vicious Emperors: for, instead that first they were only instructive, they turned only to delight spe­ctators, and to flatter great men in their Vices; whereby the true end thereof was perverted. In­trigues of State were also represented; therein I can see Nerō either dissembling his natural incli­nation, or over-awed by his Mother, or else per­suaded by the wise and good advices of Seneca and Burrhus, live and reign vertuously for the space of five years; then flie out and break loose against those Counsellors, because they dissuaded him from violence and evil actions. To see the advice of those faithful and vertuous men slighted, and the suggestions of a base and infamous Narcissus, [Page 94] or other flatterers be received; and on the other side, Agrippina accusing Seneca and Burrhus, to be the authors of what evil counsels her Son took against her Authority, Reason, and Justice? doth not this shew the condition of few honest men amongst the wicked, they give the good coun­sels which are not followed; and yet suffer the blame of evil ones, which they ever spoke against. This, if any, is the good which can be learned from Plays; but on the other side, the life of Actors and Actrices, their gestures, actions, carriage, and what­soever else is in them joyned to the bad inclinati­ons of the generality of spectators, will quite hin­der any good effect, and destroy what good dis­positions might happen to be in them: besides that, History will instruct us of all these passages, which yet being acted, will make a deeper impression upon the faculties and passions of the soul, both to instruct, and to delight it. In one word, a good use may be made of Plays, though generally none but a bad one be made of them.

But setting Plays aside, I shall assert the necessi­ty of suppressing vicious things and places, which allure Youth to evil and debauchedness; Magi­strates being much concerned in it: vertuous Sub­jects will submit to Law▪ and obey Authority, when vicious men will cause troubles and distur­bances. This I press the more, by reason of the depravation which is in Youth, in every man, and in the whole man; and that not only original and inherent to their nature, but also contracted by a loose breeding, worse examples, debauched com­pany, and other accidents. Young men generally are not sound within, but there is a hidden and in­ward enemy apt to betray the whole man upon oc­casion, [Page 95] and to let in any outward foe; in them matter is very combustible, and ready to take fire with the least sparkle from without.

Now I return to the Tutors part, which is, ever to keep Children doing one thing or other. There are three sorts of life, one speculative, and the other active; one for learning, the other for practise: let them be kept to which they please, or rather both; but avoid the otiosam or idle life: standing water doth gather mud and corruption. Children (specially they who are quick and lively) when they have no good to do, they will rather do evil than be idle. It is a considerable saying of an ancient Doctor, that the whole life of man passeth, Vel nihil agendo, aut male agendo, vel aliud agendo, either, in doing nothing, or doing evil, or else doing that which concerns us not; playing the part of bu­sie-bodies; therefore there must be variety of things to put them upon: indeed some there are which Youth must learn to do by the by; others they ought to apply themselves seriously to; for they must not so much mind their Book, as to neg­lect conversation when they begin to be capable of it: neither must they be so taken with speculation, as to omit action altogether, and wholly to de­prive themselves of every innocent and lawful pleasure and recreation, which God, Nature, Rea­son, Health, Decency, and such like do permit or require. Seek ye first, saith Scripture, the King­dom of God, and the righteousness thereof: This first implies a priority, of which there is one of order; for an order is required in every thing. Such a priority of order there is in the persons of the most Holy and Blessed Trinity; another prio­rity there is of nature, but not of time; such is [Page 96] the Sun before his light, for the cause must be in nature before the effect; yet at the same time the Sun was he gave light: but another priority there is in time, and not in nature; so in time a Father is before his Son, for he was born many years before him; yet he is not so in nature, because he cannot be a Father till he hath a Child; these two being relative; which as Schoolmen say, Se mutuo po­nunt & tollunt, put one, and you put both; take away one, and you take away both.

In short, the Tutor is to keep his Gentleman in exercise, to have him get a stock of Learning, not suffering him, like the sluggard, to wallow himself upon his bed,Prov. 26.13. or to say,Prov. 22.13.29. there is a Lion in the way; but let him be diligent; for such stand not before mean persons, but even before Kings. Laziness is the pillow of Vices, Nam diuturna quies vitiis alimenta ministrat, Disticha de moribus. saith Cato. And David speaks of some who contrive mischief upon their bed: 'tis not upon it that vertue is to be found: for,

Non jacet in molli veneranda scientia lecto,
Ipsa sed assiduo parta labore venit.

Another saith very well, Nulla est sine pulvere pal­ma; a manner of speaking borrowed from those who used to exercise themselves in the Olympick Recreations; who to obtain the prize, were to run and endure heat, sweat, and dust. Now this stu­dy and application is beneficial in several ways; for not only one learns and instructs himself, but also thereby he resisteth those temptations, which, [Page 97] though some sooner, and some later, are exposed to, this was well known by the Poet, when he saith

—Et ni
Posces ante diem librum cum lu­mine, si non
Intendes animum studiis & rebus honestis
Invidiâ vel amore vigil torquebere—

Which is a lesson not for young only, but for old also: When we do ill, the Devil tempteth us; but we tempt him to work on us when we are idle. I found her upon my ground (said he, speaking of a woman whom he had possessed) and being idle. The same Poet advises men to read and to enquire how to pass well their life, free from vices, special­ly Luxury, which is cause of poverty to many. His words are these,

Inter cuncta leges, & percunctabere doctos
Hor. l. 1. ep. 18.
Quâ ratione queas traducere leniter aevum
Ne te semper inops agitet vexetque cupido.

These things and the like should ever be pressed upon youth by those who have care over them; they must be told, how glorious and beneficial it is to be pious, learned, discreet, and prudent; and how odious and destructive it is to be ignorant, and given to vices; how wisely done it is to ob­serve times, places, and persons; and how good to know his own work and strength; how necessary to think of death, and consider his latter end; the vanity and uncertainty of all things here, whe­ther [Page 98] it be vanity of pleasures, inconstancy of ho­nours, and deceitfulness of riches; and how com­fortable it is, and will be, to live and die well: and the conclusion of such instructi­ons,Pr [...]v. 12.13. or (as Solomon saith) of the whole matter, is, to fear God and keep all his Commandments.

Thus far may be extended the care over Chil­dren and young men, whilst they are at home; but one or other will object, How can a young man learn all things mentioned, before he goes abroad? or at what time would you have him to go? To this I have several things to answer; one is that I never intended herein to give an imagi­nary model of Education, to please fancy, more than to benefit young men: it is against neither reason nor custom, and I propound nothing but what can be done in part, or in the whole, in some degree. Not many years ago a Lord in this Land had a Son, who being but eight years of age, un­derstood the Latin and Greek Tongues. And one I have known, who being but eleven years old, had gone over his Common-places of Rhetorick, had a good introduction into Philosophy, and could give some account of Divinity: but these two died very young, and were like those fruits which are soon ripe, and soon rotten; and as those lights whose flashing and brightness is seen only as they fall from the sky; like those flowers which dum oriuntur moriuntur, one day sees them blossom and wither: therefore I grant such exam­ples to be rare, and the persons extraordinary: but such a forwardness I neither mean nor require, I keep within bounds of an ordinary course of learn­ing and improvement.

[Page 92]Furthermore, it is not to be expected, that a young Gentleman should be universally learned; this is more than what is required of Doctors, and Professors in Universities: besides, that na­ture hath not been so liberal to every man as to make one capable altogether of all manner of learning: Clemens Alexandrinus, Pedagogo, hath elegantly compared the soul of man to animated Fields; for as every Field is not fit for every Plant, so our spirits are not fit to learn every Sci­ence; some require a good and happy memory: it is in vain for us to pretend to others without a quick and pregnant imagination; and some others cannot be gotten without a great strength of judgment. But these three faculties very seldom meet good in one man, sufficient to render him ca­pable of all manner of Sciences. Therefore hi­therto the world hath afforded but very few ex­amples; four or five of those whose temper and genius hath been sutable to the variety and depth of Learning, and though in some very few, such an universal disposition was found; yet still it would be with inequality and difference to one Art and Science more than to another.

Besides, that one ought to apply himself most of all to that which is of his intended or actual profession: Doth one aspire to be a Divine, then Divinity must be his principal study; or else doth he intend to be a Physician, then he must parti­cularly apply himself to the study of Physick; and so of the rest. This is the maxim which men of riper years, and in publick employments ought to observe. For if a Judg was not well acquainted with the Laws and Customs of his Country; if a Secretary of State was not able to pen well, had [Page 100] no skill in Languages, and was not informed of the Treaties of Peace, Alliances, and Leagues; if he cared not to know the several Interests, Go­vernments of States, their Forces, Riches, where­in they consist, and the manners of the people; thereupon to regulate his Negotiations. If a Ge­neral of an Army was not able to order the march of his Troops throughout Friends or Enemies Countrey, to pitch a Camp, to Besiege or defend a place, to set his Army in order of Battel, and the like; would it not be a shame for them, and they unfit for such places? But if a Lawyer doth not know what belongs to War, or a Souldier what belongs to Law, 'tis no disparagement to them, because it doth not belong to their profes­sion.

Again, I do not expect Youth should have the fruit of every Art, Science, Language, or Vertue I have named; only let them have the seeds of it: and let these be dispositions thereunto, and founda­tions to build upon hereafter. To this I add that that which is very essential to my purpose, that the Principles which make up the greater part of my Discourse, are necessary to every one who pretends to be a Scholar: for, who is he who makes any considerable stay in Schools and Universities, but will be acquainted with the Classical Authors I named, with the Languages I spoke of, with Rhe­torick, Philosophy, Morals included; so that in all this I mentioned nothing but what every young man brought up a Scholar, ought to know in some measure, which they may attain unto if be­times they are put upon't, and have mind and abi­lities to follow it.

[Page 101]Withal, I do not intend to impose any thing upon others, only let the Reader suppose I writ what I think fit to be done, or would do my self, if that were my calling; for in such things, often opinions do differ, and as many heads as many minds: as in matter of taste, one likes the sweet, and another the sowre: one finds one meat very savory, and another cannot relish it; yet for all this, there are some Principles which most are agreed upon about this; (except some whose taste is perhaps depraved through some distemper or other accident) namely, that Gall and things ve­ry bitter have no good taste; and also that there are things insipid. So it is in relation to another of our sences, namely, th [...] eye. In the case of Beauty, one likes the fat, another is pleased with the lean; one is taken with the black, another with the white complection; and several other things to this purpose; as the blue and the black eyes: yet there are principles concerning this, which we are all agreed upon; namely, that a good complexion, a white skin, regular features, and an exact proportion of all parts, are marks of beauty: for if one would affirm, that a squint eye, or a nose awry were signs of beauty, he would make himself ridiculous. The same I may say of the subject in hand, though concerning Breeding of Youth, men do differ in the ways, and me­thods, or other things; yet we all agree that Eru­dition or Learning of Arts and Sciences, the pre­cepts of Morality, and the like, are essential parts of Education, or at least much contributing to complete one, As therefore this is the chief, not to say the only matter I have handled in this Trea­tise, I believe I may well conclude, that it contains [Page 102] nothing but what is possible and necessary to be done; not out of [...] principle which many are acted by, and which indeed is as natural for an Author to lick his work, as for a father to love his child; it being often with Writings, as with Whelps; which to make very smooth, the bitch takes great pains to lick over; so do some Authors with their productions, till they be polished to their mind.

I add one thing more, to wit, that there are se­veral cases and circumstances of Education, upon which one can hardly give any particular Rules▪ the genius of young men being so different, and so contrary, that many things must be left to the prudence of the Tutor▪ circumstances of persons, times, and places herein are much to be observed.

A TREATISE Concernin …


The Second Part. About their Breeding Abroad.


Quid brevi fortes jaculamur avo
Multa? quid terras alio calentes
Sole mutamus? patriae quis exul,
Se quoque fugit.
Horat. lib. 2. Ode. 16.

In the SAVOY: Printed by T.N. for I. Starkey at the Mitre in Fleet-street, near Temple-Bar, 1678.



WHen first I had the Honour to see you, thorough my own experience, I was confirmed in the o­pinion of a Sympa­thy between persons; for then my inclination was wrought upon with much respect and tenderness for you: these beginnings produced by sudden Causes, were soon grounded upon others better known, a [...]d strengthen'd with the consideration of your being committed to my Care, and I in­trusted with the direction of your [Page] Travels. Then that which was at first an effect either of inclination or choice, was enforced as a necessary duty of being diligent and faithful in the Trust I had taken upon me.

I was much encouraged, and re­ceived it as a good Omen, to see you in those very tender years, take a generous Resolution; and this as much out of your own motion, as upon the suggestion of others (yet in subordination to the direction of those who had right and authority over you) to leave Relations and Countrey, to strive after being bet­tered with an Outlandish Breeding.

But when I began better to be ac­quainted with you, all former Dispo­sitions and Engagements ceased or were suspended, to give place to new and greater Ties. I could perceive in you, all inclinations to be Good, free from Vice, and favourable Dis­positions to receive what good im­pressions [Page] I was able to work upon you▪ a Judgment desirous, or rather greedy to be informed; a Will ready to be directed, and Affections to be recti­fied: And in few words, by way of Reading, Conversations, propound­ing Doubts, asking good Questions, you were unwearied in your En­deavors to be instructed: And with your close following Riding the great Horse, Fencing, Dancing, Draw­ing Landskips, and Designing; Learn­ing upon the Gitar, the French and Italian Tongues, and following other Exercises, to acquire those Ac­complishments, which do so much be­come a Gentleman of your Age, Estate and Quality: It is very hard to find one as you; who would take so much Pains, and be so exact in making Observations about Persons, Places and Things; so that for the space of four years, thorough all France, Italy, part of Hungary, Bohe­mia, [Page] Germany, and Switzerland, hardly any considerable Person or Thing, hath escaped your fight. It is rare to see others as well as you, in the depth of Winter, to be with Masters of Ex­ercises by Candle-light, and some­times an hour before day, and not be satisfied with the explication of the Writings of your Master of Mathe­maticks, but also to take your self the Pains to Copy them.

But one of the greatest Commen­dations I can add, is, That you ever yielded to Reason, and were pleased to take my advice, and follow my counsel, which made my Task com­fortable to me, and your Travels be­neficial to your self: Hence it is, that in your Actions, one could perceive you had the two essential things ne­cessary to every one of them, name­ly Rule; that is, Grounds and Cau­ses, with Resolution; that is, Cou­rage and Constancy, whereby you [Page] know some difficulties lying in our way, have been overcome.

Your Moneys you did not trifle away, but bestowed them upon good Books, Medals, and other useful Ra­rities worth the Curiosity of a Com­pleat Gentleman; so that one may see you have been a good Husband of two precious Things, your Time and your Moneys.

After this, you may judge of my inclination, and the world of the ne­cessity of my Dedicating this to you, which, with the other Parts of my Book, you know were compiled the first Summer we were together in France; Accept it therefore with the full assurance of my ever being,

Your most Humble Servant, I. Gailhard.

The Preface.

THe Ends of Men are reduced to that which [...]is either honest, pleasant, or profitable; these give motion to all their actings: by right they should be unsepa­rable one from another, for that which is ho­nest, should be pleasant and profitable, and so of the rest: But the corruption of Men hath not only put a difference, but also made such a contrariety, that often just things do pre­judice, and dishonest will please the most: pleasure and profit, also are many [...]imes asun­der. All Moralists are agreed in their opi­nion (though they differ in their practice) how that which is honest, should be preferred to the rest; and that which is beneficial, to that which is only pleasant, specially when many are concerned in the profit, and when the plea­sure is of few particular Men.

Of Writers, some intend to please, and others have mind to instruct; to my opinion, these last are to be preferred to the former, because they are more usefull and ne­cessary: those who desire only to please, do often miss their aim; for as many Men as ma­ny [Page] Minds; and to agree with the fancies of Men, is very difficult: but he who instructs well, goeth upon better grounds, and more solid principles: this is a Work of necessity, when the other is of curiosity, and like a News Book, is to be read over only once, and then is as an Almanack out of date.

The Objects of the curiosity of Men are different, according to their inclination, or usual application, to some of the several Arts and Sciences, that are in the World; yet (not to speak of the avis aëria, the Bird which Naturalists affirm to live only with the Air) as some Creatures feed upon slight, and others upon substantial things; so some Men feed upon fancy, and use a Chymerical Food, leaving the Body for the shadow, and will be better pleased to hear a Tale, than the Relation of some important Atchievements; these I look upon as distempered Men; and they who in their Writings do humour them in't, are as Phisitians who do but dally with, and cure not their Patients, and in Job's words, Phy­sitians of no value; and who, though they be not the Authors, yet are accessary, and do much contribute to the continuation of such weaknesses. I, for my part, think it fitter to benefit the Mind which is rational, than to please the Fancy, which is [...]often extravagant, and to do something for the publick good, is more solid contentment, than to gratfie the [Page] itching desires of some few particular Men.

For all this, I do not deny but that debet misceri utile dulci, the Mind delights some­times to have pleasant and slight things; but it must be like the Fruit, as we use to afford our Palate after the Stomach is satisfied with substantial Meat, one may condescend to the several genius and capacities of Men; yet I conceive the Accessary is not to be made the Principal, nor the Accidents be put into the place of the Substance.

If one, writing a Relation of Italy, would (for example) onely say, or chiefly insist upon this, in the Church of San Giovanni in Parma, the Altar Piece is the transfigura­tion of our Saviour; by Coreggio, and in a Chappel there, are two others af the same; one is the taking down of our Saviour from the Cross, and the other the Martydom of one Felicetta, and of another of their Saints. Nay, if he went further, and said, in the great Altar, is room for 14000 persons, 80 Machines; in the middle is brought in water about 14 Foot high, so that Sea Fights are represented therein. Moreover, there is in the Stables a great number of rare and fair Horses; hard by are Coaches extraordinary rich, one of them being over-laid with Sil­ver; Fine Gardens, Walks, Fountains, and little Houses full of excellent Pictures. If [Page] further he said, there is the Colledge called De'i Nobili, wherein none but persons of quality are admitted; yet without difference of Nations, and for 50 l. a man by the year, they are taught Sciences, and Riding, Fencing, Dancing, and the like Exercises, who have certain Laws by themselves, and one whom they call Prince the Head of all; and that their San Francesco Borgia is their Founder, and are under the protection of the present Duke. I say for all this, except more neces­sary and substantial things be observed, such a Relation will be very defectuous.

I will suppose in another example, he went more exactly upon particulars, namely that in the Palace of the Duke of Modena, there is in several Chambers, a Madonna, or the Vir­gins Picture, made by Coreggio, a good Sa­maritan, taking care of the wounded Man by Bassano, Christ appearing to Mary in the Gar­den by Guido Reni; Judas offering Moneys to our Saviour by Titiano: another good Sa­maritan by Paolo Veronese; and the Wed­ding of Cana, by the same; St Jerome by Rubens; the Iudgement of Solomon by Paolo Veronese; Christ dead by Guarcini; St. Peter coming to Christ upon the Sea, by Tintoretto; one Venus, by Titian; an­other by Augustino Caracci; in another Room, three Pictures by the Caracci, one by Anni­bale, [Page] another by Agostino, and the third by Ludovico; another Room is full of Figures in Tapistry, all excellent Needle Work; in another are Hangings representing the History of St. Paul's Voyage towards Rome; and in the same, are two admirable pieces, by Ra­phaële di Urbino. Lastly, in another, are the Picture of some Princes of the Family; chiefly Borso, the first of it, and of the last Duke, that worthy Prince Francis, and of his Son Alfonso, who died in the same Room. There­in also is that incomparable Picture of Mag­dalena, lying down, leaning upon the Elbow, and reading, to be valued not so much by the many Iewels as Emeraulds, Hyacinthes and Opales, &c. which the Frame is full of: as for the transcendent skill of Annibale Ca­racci, of which the worth can never be praised, nor pay'd enough; but for brevities sake, I omit several more drawn by Perugini, Procac­cini, Julio, Romano, Albano, &c. all which Names, if the word Picture was taken out, to many Readers would seem to be Spells; and this way of taking observations, is the easiest of all, which every common capacity is able to do, by the means of those who shew these things, or of Guides, whom Italians call Interpreti, who are found almost in every City; so that there is but taking Pen and Ink, and Wri­ting what they say, which yet sometimes tends [Page] to make Strangers believe things which are not, except they can themselves discern things.

Hence it is, that in the Books of some Tra­vellers we read of several things relating to Religion, which are indeed, or at least are so like Tales, that a rational Man can but admire thereat; of this sort, is that of the Convertite in Rome disciplining, and lash­ing themselves till Blood came out; 'tis to speak with too much confidence of what passes in those places; if there be such Blood, and it be not sprinkled a purpose, 'tis that which they fetch out one of another, or that which they fetched out with stabbing themselves; and this I speak out of certain grounds. Of the same kind is that of the Casa Sancta, or the Virgins House, carried by Angels from Judea in [...]o Dalmatia, and thence to Loretto. Of the Picture of the Blessed Virgin began by St. Luc, and [...]inished by Angels, which I have seen in three several places. Of Sta. Cate­rina of Siena, being actually married to Christ, and walking bodily with him in a place, which is shewed in that City. The Stairs under which St. Alexis lay unknown for seventeen years in his Fathers House. The Miraculous Crucifix which spoke to Sta. Brigida, and the other which said to Thomas Aquinas, bene de me Scripsisti Thoma, and many such Piae fraudes? What shall I say [Page] of St. Francis of Paula, who being not suf­fered to come into the Passage Boat between Regio and Messina, because he had no Mo­neys for his Passage, he, like another Elisha, spread his Cloak upon the Sea, and thus he and his Companion crossed it. St. Denis, and two more, are said, after their Heads had been cut off, to have carried them upon their hands for some Miles, at least for some space of ground. And San Silve­stre, who upon Mount Oreste, having heard by Angel he was chosen Pope, got upon his Mule, which in three leaps thence carried him to Rome every leap being of about 8 miles; and for a Sign, there are Chappels with the print of a Mules Shooe be [...]ore it, in the way from Rome to Rignano. And at Rome is the print of our Saviours Foot, when he met with St. Peter, which is much bigger than ever was Goliah's. In Padoa is the print of Sta. Justina's Finger upon a Stone, and many more such things, the writing whereof I think may well be spared, by those who writ Books of Travels, as being of no use to a Reader: and I think it were as good to say, Tartary is a good place for Civility, Turky for Gen­tility, Moscovy [...]or Learning, Spain for good Chear, and Paris for Small Beer.

Neither must one trouble the Reader with the mention of every Fidler he meets with in [Page] his Travels, nor fill up Paper with every petty Accident. Shall I say, that the last time I was in Bologna, I saw executed a young Man of 24 years of age, who confessed to have murdered 22 persons, and had but ten shil­lings for killing some of them? Or shall I boast how in another Place the Governor did me the favour to invite me to Dine with him? or that in another City I went to see a Ball, and the like. These kinds of Triftes may well be forborn, and better and more substantial and necessary things put in their place.

Such (to the purpose of what I have already said) may be a description of the Person and Temper of the forenamed Princes or others, with some of the most essential things relating to their Families, Courts, Ways of Govern­ment, Nature of their People, &c. which will please Statesmen, and most who are curious to know the Fashions and Customs of strange Countreys, as Picture Drawers will delight in matters of Picture; Historians in things relating to History; and Geographers in Geo­graphy: So that when all is said, every one must be lest to his opinion and ways; onely every Writer is to see what manner of persons he is willing to please, or inform; and accordingly he ought to chuse and treat of Subjects.

Thus I do in this, for as I propound to my self to please and bene [...]it Travellers, so I endea­vor herein, to give some help and directions; which is the thing I chiefly insist upon.


HE who takes upon himself to be a Guide to others, if he be true and faithful in what he hath undertaken, he will not think he hath done enough to have led them through a near and smooth way, and then leave them in the lurch, when they are fallen into a bad one: he will rather guide them through, and bring them to the journeys end, knowing how of all Virtues, perseverance is the mother; without which none shall, or deserves to be crowned. So as hitherto I shewed how young men may be made Scholars; now I must direct them how to become Gentlemen indeed; not by Birth, for nature doth that for them, but by Merit and Virtue. I will [Page 2] bring them out of their study, and from amongst the dead, to converse with the living. We must now make them look abroad, raise them to a higher form, and teach them how to know the world; which to live in and not understand, is a shame and a disadvantage when one is come to a com­petent age. Having then gotten what a home Breeding can afford till a certain time, if domestick affairs do permit, Parents will do very well to send them into Foreign parts.

I know there are those who disapprove Travel­ling, and they are of two sorts; some do absolute­ly reject it as a thing not good in it self; but the [...]e are so unreasonable, that I have little to say to them; for I account them to be people wanting experi­ence; who condemn what they do not under­stand: who are like AEsop's Fox, whose tail having been cut off, would have advised all the rest to have theirs so too: for having not travelled, they wish others to follow their example: or if they have, perhaps they have conceived a preju­dice against some Nations, caused through their own miscarriage; in which case they could wish every one would espouse their quarrel, and would be sorry to see others better than themselves.

Others more reasonable are not for Travelling, not because of the thing it self, but out of fear of several inconveniencies which often Travellers fall into. Of this sort are fond Mothers, who cannot suffer their Children to go out of their sight; but if they be so minded, 'tis as good to pin them to their elbow, or tie them to a Chimney-corner; not that I should disapprove natural tenderness, only excess is what I dislike in it: they fear for the life and health of their Children, be [...]ause of a [...]cidents [Page 3] which may happen to fall out; besides the change of Air, and Climate, the vices of the Countries they go into, the dangers they run in; weighty considerations for those who have but one Son, or few, to leave Heirs of their Estates, and successors of their Names; and many more reasons of this nature, which I will grant.

But to argue the case with such, I would fain know, whether Sicknesses, Death, and Vices do not reign at home as well as abroad: this indeed were a good argument, if as long as one is at home he could be free of these inconveniences; but dai­ly experience teaches us the contrary, and more too: first, for health, several examples we have of those, who being sickly at home, have recovered their health abroad; the moisture of our Climate caused by the neighbourhood of the Seas, Fenns, Moorish Grounds, Ponds, Rivers, and the like, is the cause of some Distempers, as Scurvy, and Consumptions in our Nation more than in others. Then for Death, some in England have sad expe­rience how their Sons having for several years been abroad in health, died not long after they were come home; as if they were come over only to give up the ghost in the arms of their Friends: To this I add, that our days as our hairs are numbred; and God who is not tied to times nor places, is able to protect us every where; so that whether or not our hour be come, it is not in our power to reverse the decree of God.

As to Countrey breeding, which is opposed to the Courts, to the Cities, or to Travelling; when it is meerly such, it is a clownish one. Before a Gentleman comes to a settlement, Hawking, Cour­sing, and Hunting, are the dainties of it, then [Page 4] taking Tobacco, and going to the Alehouse and Tavern, where matches are made for Races, Cock-fighting, and the like; and if a Gentleman be not as forward as they are, then he is proud, he is an enemy to good fellowship, and is not a man fit for society: thence Dicing and Carding will follow, which at last are attended with loss of Estates, and destruction of Families. I desire to know, what good employment is such a one fit for? indeed to speak the best of him, we use to say, he is an honest Country Gentleman; that is, often apt to be fooled, who hath neither much wit nor experience: but when a man is abroad, he studies the temper of men, and learns their several fashions; he becomes a fit companion for every one, he observes the good and evil of others, he knows how to avoid tricks put upon men, refines and fits himself for any employment, and fixes in a certain manner of life, not forgetting himself to be an Englishman, nor with becoming a French­man, an Italian, or a German, but building upon the true foundation of an Englishman, and making use of the different ways of those several Nations, as Ornaments only, and not as a bottom; for why should he transform himself into, and, as it were, become a Foreigner, who is to live in England all the rest of his days: it is enough for him as it were to squeeze the quintessence of what ways, manners, and other good things those Countries do afford.

Yet God forbid I should, by what I said a little before, in the least speak amiss of that we call a Country life; which to many proves so quie [...], and so satisfactory; and which for a time most of the Nobility, and of the Gentry are glad to lead [Page 5] out of choice, or by reason of their concerns and interest: but I mean the Countrey life, merely such; when a Gentleman is able to talk of nothing but of a Plough, Corn, Horses, Hounds, &c. which yet doth not reach persons of the highest quality, whose Houses in the Country are like petty Courts: therefore 'tis necessary for the compleat­ing of a Gentleman, to know more than Farmers, Faulconers, and Park-keepers: but without insist­ing any longer upon this, the third part of this work wherein I treat of a private life, will suffi­ciently shew how well I speak of a Countrey life.

Concerning dangers which Travellers are expo­sed to, I hold they ought to be avoided with care and prudence, and the occasions too; but to be so timerous, as to be afraid of that which perhaps shall never be, and hath no probability of being, it is to have a groundless fear; as if I were afraid to go out, because it is possible for tyles to fall up­on my head: so can a Chimney, when I am sit­ting by the fire. These, as to means and occasions we ought prudently to avoid; and for the event, to submit it to Gods Providence: For if dangers ought to be so much minded, no body must drink out of a Gold or Silver Cup, because some were poi­soned out of the like; no body go to Sea, because some are drowned; none must go to War, because [...]everal are killed: so that take away dangers, there is no reward, no merits, nor virtue.

Now the two ends of Travelling are profit and pleasure; the last subordinate to the former, arising from the satisfaction one hath about the first, and from the variety of objects: for that which French­men call divertissement, or recreation, comes from diversity, which certainly causes a pleasure, almost [Page 6] every day one seeing different things: but benefit is a thing I mind most of all, 'tis a thing gotten by Travels, as confirmed by the practice of all polished and civilized Nations, ancient and mo­dern. Not to look farther, than the Romans sent their Sons in­to Grecia, to learn Arts and Sciences; and into Tuscany to be instructed in the Mysteries of their Reli­ [...]ion. Romans, who travelled into Greece; and men of several Nations to Rome and Italy: And now all those who send their Children out of England, Sueden, Germany, Holland, &c. to travel into Foreign parts, must needs have some good grounds for what they do: Kings themselves and So­vereign Princes do the same, not rashly, but doubtless upon mature deliberation: and there are several, who seeing their Children follow a bad course at home, send them abroad on purpose to reform them; as often they do, though to their own costs: for rash quarrelsome men will find those who are able to tame them; and there­fore are forced to learn wisdom; which coming to a daily practise, is at last contracted into an ha­bit. When they are abroad, they are remote from those many occasions they have to be debauched at home. As for an instance, in matter of Drink­ing, if one should practise this in Italy, and most parts of France; namely, South and South­west, he would be a laughing-stock; so that he will be mocked out of this vice. Now for men to learn sobriety, civility, frugality, and an univer­sal compliance with all manner of tempers, to be acquainted with persons and places, the most con­siderable in Europe, to be instructed in the way of Government of several Nations, and with their forces, riches, and nature, to gather all the good [Page 7] there is in them, and at last to know and rule him­self, are matters of no small concernment to be gotten by travelling: to say nothing of the advan­tage of Languages, whereby one is fitted for con­siderable employments at home, and one is capa­ble of improving himself out of all Books writ­ten in several Tongues.

But because young Gentlemen are hardly capa­ble to benefit themselves, they want help and di­rections which they receive from those who usu­ally go under the name of Governors, Compani­ons, or what other notion you please; whose of­fice is to take care of the Gentleman's person, im­provement, and affairs; therefore upon this last account in Italy they are called Majordomo, or Steward. These Governors so called, because they have the government of their Pupils, are of two sorts, some capable of that employment, and some not: Of these last there are several, who go as much to improve themselves, as the young Gen­tleman; so that these make that to be their end, which to others is but the means. They intend first to go abroad, and to bring it about, they seek for an opportunity of Travelling at the costs of others▪ instead that others go abroad to discharge the trust committed to them. These indeed want Gover­nors themselves, and are much at a loss about the Language, Fashions, Ways, and Places of Improve­ment, when they come abroad, and are unacquain­ted with the best conveniences of Travelling, value of Moneys, and price of things; upon which accounts I have known some sadly cheated: And suppose such a Tutor, having been a year or two in France, for the first time should begin to un­derstand these things (which yet, specially the [Page 8] Language, are difficult for men come to riper years) if he be to go into Italy, he must begin all again, and will be at a loss as much as before; new Language, new Persons, new Fashions will breed new difficulties: So that he who is able to be a Governor in France, will be an ignorant one in Italy; so after of Germany, Holland, Spain, &c, the Fashions of these Nations differing as much as their Languages.

Out of these, what shall we say to those Pa­rents, with whom cheapness is the prevailing qualification, when they are about chusing a Go­vernor, not considering so much, whether or not he hath a competent prudence and experience. It is indeed a sad thing to see how sometimes when there are two Governors in hand, they will pre­fer him who takes less: thus they conclude, this I like, I believe he is an honest man, and will be content with a small allowance. Men who are wil­ling to spend 3 or 4 hundred pound, more or less, will be unwilling to gratifie a Governor with 20 or 30l. more than they have a mind to allow, which he who is knowing can save them once a year; they do the most, and refuse to do the least, and care not how they discourage a man capable to serve them; and will stand with them upon a small matter. I know every honest man will be careful of, true and faithful to his trust; but cer­tainly he cannot go about it with that chearfulness which is necessary.

The be [...]ter to examine this matter, I must name some of the qualifications more necessary to a Go­vernor: First, I would have him to be a Scholar, thereby on all occasions, and upon every subject, to be able to discourse with, and instruct a Gen­tleman; [Page 9] Scholarship will afford him Arguments and Reasons, as well as Precedents and Examples, to persuade him to, or dissuade him from what he thinks fit; yet I do not deny, but that one who is no Scholar may have some capacity to discharge his trust in this kind; the experience he hath of the world supplying his want of learning: but certainly he cannot do it so well: and no body can deny it to be better he were learned, at least in some degree, and in some kind or other of Learning; for it is not to be expected, that men shall be learned all alike. This learning will teach him a method how to infuse things into the young man's mind; so that both will be the better for it: for scholarship refines and strengthens natural parts. Yet I would not have the Tutor meerly a Scholar, and nothing else; for many things dif­ferent from scholarship are to be suggested to a young Traveller when he is abroad, which the other cannot do, if himself doth not understand it.

Secondly, A Governor must be a Traveller▪ one thing it is to be at School at home, and an­other to be abroad: as the ends, so the ways o [...] these two manners of Breeding are different. He who speaks out of his own knowledge and expe­rience, doth it with a greater weight and efficacy, because upon surer grounds; for he who acts on­ly upon trust, and by hearing say, will find his knowledge very defectuous, and the changes of some circumstances will often put him clearly to a loss; for he who Travels where he was before, is better able to order his going or staying, and his whole Travels: and certainly 'tis a greater advan­tage for a man to know his ground, and what [Page 10] things are worth seeing, as he stays at, or goes by a place, He who hath seen things before, is bet­ter able to discourse and make observations upon, and make others take notice of it.

Thirdly, I would have a Governor gentile, well brought up himself, who hath seen the world, and frequented the Courts, whereby he hath po­lished and civilized himself, and hath gotten a more plausible and insinuating way; whose pre­sence, action, and behaviour, are acceptable, and who in some measure is himself a pattern of a Gentleman: he being such, a young man will strive to imitat [...] and make him his model; for 'tis usual with youth to follow the ways of those whom they converse with, and insensibly, as it were, to transform themselves into them; Youth in his tender years being so apt to receive impres­sions; so that the person and carriage of one they see and converse with almost every hour, must needs have great influences upon them, and will polish whatsoever is rough and clownish in them: and this is a mark of distinction between a meer Scholar and a Traveller; between a Country Clown and a Gentleman, who thereby will be­come meek, sweet, courteous, and affable; all qua­lities fit to win the hearts of men. Furthermore, I pity those Governors who never travelled before, nor ever frequented any Courts, by reason of the many inconveniencies they often are liable to. When they know places and persons, where they are, they may bring their Gentlemen into good, safe, and honest companies; for Youth will not ever be doing his Exercises, keeping his Cham­ber, seeing the same Companies; but sometimes they will look for change, and have variety: be­ing [Page 11] of this temper, in case they have no virtuous society to keep with, they will fall into bad and vicious, where they may happen to be debauched, trepann'd into Marriages, and abused otherwise: and in this last case, when a Tutor hath neither friends nor acquaintances, he will not know what to do, nor which way to right himself.

See what a Governor was Aristotle, he was both a Philosopher and a Courtier; therefore Philippus of Macedonia very often could not for­bear expressing his joy, because there was such a man alive to commit the Education of his Son to, not only able to teach him much learning, but al­so instruct him how to live and reign well over himself and his Subjects: How few Aristotles in the world? how few Alexanders also?

Diogenes was much in the wrong, to think that to live at Court; did not become a Philosopher; because Aristippus being much esteemed by Alex­ander the Great, by reason of his Prudence, Learn­ing, Quaintness, and other good qualities, fol­lowed his Court; which made Diogenes to say, Aristippus was not content with his condition: but indeed it is very proper for such persons to come nigh Princes, that through a constant Conversa­tion they may infuse Knowledge, Wisdom, and Goodness into them, which are all Royal quali­ties, specially the last, as confessed by the King of Egypt; who hearing Alexander was called the Great, said, He is not greater if he be not better than I: But Aristippus gave the Cynick Philoso­pher a fit answer, Si scires regibus uti, olus ac men­dicitatem fastidires, If thou couldest but know how to make use of, or rather how to behave thy self, and live with Kings, thou wouldest de­spise, [Page 12] and be weary of a mean diet, and beggarli­ness. To this very purpose Horatius saith,

Si prandere [...] olus patienter regibus uti,
Nollet Aristippus, si sciret regibus uti
Fastidiret olus, qui me notat.—

Indeed Aristophanes had reason to say, that a a vir­tuous man makes a right use of every thing: where­unto answers what Ovid saith,

Pectoribus mores tot sunt quot in orbe figurae
Qui sapit innumeris moribus aptus erit.

Against what I said, some will object, all Gover­nors cannot be Travellers, and Courtiers; there must be a beginning to every thing, and there is a first time of doing it; this I confess to be true, but withal, I would never advise any one to send a Tutor to serve his prentiship with his Son; for those first essayes or tryals are often dangerous, or at least unprofitable: let them first travel at their own charges, if they are able; if not, in some other capacity, different from that of a Governor. Though a man of a discreet and prudent carriage can safely be trusted with this, and other Em­ployments; yet to do things well, it is requisite to have some experience in the thing we under­take. Here I cannot forbear speaking of a com­mendable custom they have in Germany, for that Nation is so fully convinced of the necessity of Travelling, and of the benefit arising therefrom, that they hardly value there, a man who hath not been abroad; their Princes not excepted. Now amongst them, are four sorts of those who go to [Page 13] Travel: some who are rich and have means of their own, Travel at their own charges; others who are not so, but are taken notice to be hopeful and of good natural parts, are commended to their Prince, who liking them, sends them to Travel at his own costs, allowing so much by the year, and a certain time to go and improve their parts, which if they attain unto, when they are come home, they bestow charges and employments upon them. The third sort of them, are those who either living in Republicks, such are many of their great Cities, or being of so low an extracti­on, as have no grounds to hope for the Princes protection, have all their friends joyning toge­ther to get for them a Purse of 500, or 600 l. more or less, and send them to travel and learn abroad; and when they are come home, they are preferred according to the improvement they made of their time and monies. The last sort of them are those who go abroad in the capacity of Valets de Chambre, and other sorts of Serving­men, and several turn Soldiers, and serve other Princes, which chiefly they use to do in France.

In the fourth place, a Governor should be com­municative, not dull, or silent, but able and ready upon all occasions to insinuate necessary and vir­tuous Precepts and Advices to his Pupil, univer­sally to instruct him as much as both their capaci­ties do reach: If this saying concerning all men be true, as it is, we are born for others more than for our selves; of which Kings and Princes are not excluded; for they are born, and are ob­liged to rule for the good of their Subjects. Cer­tainly, Governors are bound to promote the good of their Gentlemen more than their own concerns [Page 14] (though one doth not exclude the other) and therefore ought to infuse into them what virtue and learning they have in themselves. ‘Scire tuum nihil est nisi te scire hoc sciat alter.’ which yet in some doth imply much vanity and ostentation, both to be avoided.

Some would also have Governors well shaped, to the end their per [...]on may be the more accepta­ble; for those who have any defect in that kind, may happen not to receive the respect which otherwise they deserve from a Gentleman: others would have them healthful, that they may be the better able to go about their work; others require they should be neat, and cleanly in their Cloaths: in a word, the more good qualities they have with­in or without, the better, which I conclude all with this necessary one, that they be honest and virtuous men▪ for without this, as I said be [...]ore, all qualities are defectuous. Yet in the examina­tion of this, I wish men to be wary, and prudent; not indifferently to believe the report of every one: for sometimes the malice or interest of some men, make others to suffer horrid injustices. Some are apt to conceive a prejudice against others. I would not hereupon press men to u [...]e Charity (which yet is the duty of every Christian) thus far, as that when it is apparent, pro as con, one should believe the best, or at least suspend his judgment, till farther and better information, which may be given by those who commend the person for being well known to those who have occasion for such a one, 'tis to be supposed, for fear of disparaging themselves, have grounds and [Page 15] reasons for what they do, may be arising from for­mer trials they had of the person commended. Out of this it doth appear, how 'tis Charity and Prudence not to believe slightly what is reported amiss of another; there being no man in this world, but hath some enemy, and consequently may happen to be slandered by the same: and therefore it were well done to consider what makes men speak ill one of another, which is often be­cause of former enmities, and falling out; in which case the testimony of such is suspect; it being usual with many unjustly to condemn others, thereby thinking to justifie themselves, and to raise their reputation upon the ruine of that of others.

There are those who [...]end their Sons without Governors, which I say nothing to, because every one hath his reasons, and ought to know his af­fairs; but it will certainly prove beneficial to have the help of one who is qualified. I know some young men think it to be a discredit to them to have a Governor; but it is no more shame for a Gentleman to have a Governor, than for a Travel­ler to take a Guide when he is unacquainted with the way; and to refuse such an help, implies much presumption and imprudence. I believe there are Princes as able to govern themselves as many pri­vate men, and yet I have known some above thir­ty years old, who had one with them who went under such a notion; which certainly is more for honor and benefit, than to be without; though they did but take the care and management of their affairs: and there are those, who though they have no use of Governors, when they are come home, do keep them about their persons for [Page 16] greatness sake, or for advice and other uses. Some there are who have been, or are abroad without Tutors,Though com­mon use makes a difference be­tween a Tutor and a Gover­nor, yet I in­differently use both words, be­cause the office is but one and the same, both tueri debe [...]t; it is otherwise of a Pr [...]ceptor. who had not run themselves beyond Seas into such premunire's, if they had had one about them who had pre­vented extravagant expences, their being arrested, and such other dan­gers and shame, Those indeed who once were abroad, and had such Di­rectors, if they go again, are better able to mannage their affairs. Some will take a faithful Valet de Cham­bré, who hath some experience, which is better than none, or a raw one; and this when the Gentleman is passed twenty: but except the Master be of a good na­ture, the Servant will not dare to [...]ay to him any thing against his mind, or give him good advice: rather to get his love he will serve and comply with him in any thing for his own ends; whereof the consequences are often very bad. When a man is not able, or hath no mind to be at the charges of keeping abro [...]d a Governor with his Son, in my opinion the best way is to joyn with one or two more, to help to bear charges; or else to send one with him well qualified, to carry him over, and settle him in one place or other of France, or of other Countries, to be there with him two or three months, leave him there after he hath set him in a good way, and then come home.

'Tis fit to say also something of qualifications necessary to young Gentlemen, who are appointed to Travel; but because, though all agree in their ultimate end, to procure their good, the subordi­nate [Page 17] ones are so different, that in many these dis­positions are more to be wished than hoped for; in some it is to divert them from bad inclinations they are subject to, or to withdraw them from vi­ces they are given to, in others to mend and re­form their bad nature, in others to learn the Lan­guage and Exercises, in many to improve them­selves in one or several things, in others to get health, confidence, &c. so that often Parents have private reasons for sending them abroad. How­ever, though these things be not depending upon those who are to Travel with them, yet 'tis to be wished they had some or all the good qualities I am now ready to express.

Be [...]ides what I mentioned in the first part of this Book of Piety, Erudition, and Morality; it is to be wished a young Gentleman were of good parts, both acquired by study, and innate or by nature, when the understanding is naturally good, the apprehension quick, and memory happy, 'tis a great encouragement to a Governor, and in a young man a good disposition to receive and retain instructions; contrariwise, when he is dull and heavy, it is tedious, uncomfortable, and hard in­fusing things into him: This requires a good me­thod, and a great patience in the Teacher, who must tell again and again, things, before the Scholar can remember them; yet for all this he must not be discouraged, nor the young man: for, ‘Gutta cavat lapidem non vi sed saepe cadendo.’ And sometimes those who are slow, and so heavy in receiving, are strong in keeping what they re­ceived.

[Page 18]It is to be wished in the second place he be of a good nature, meek, and gentle; not froward nor humorsome, but easie to be dealt withal, apt and willing to be directed and advised: this is a great satisfaction to a man, who is to deal with such tempers; for he sees he bestows well his time and pains, and is like thereby to get credit and repu­tation, which to men is a great motive to act; but when a man sees that what he doth is in vain; that the more he strives to please, and to benefit, the less he is regarded, and that his labours are paid with unthankfulness; that whatsoever he doth is disliked, and that the young man grows so unruly and wild, that there are little hopes of re­medy to recal him: then he begins to feel the weight and burthen of his task, which he wishes to be discharged of, wanting strength and cou­rage to go through: this will make Travelling unpleasant and unprofitable to both; so that when it proves so, both do share in the hardness and the trouble.

Thirdly, In a young man is required an opini­on, that his Governor is worthy of, and able to perform the trust committed to him. Some young Travellers are so highly conceited of themselvs, and set themselves at such a value, that they look upon every one else as much their inferior, and every way below them: but they must learn not to over-value themselves, nor undervalue others; and not use like Serving-men, those whom their Parents thought fit and worthy to give them as Directors.

In the fourth place, I would have Gentlemen young when they begin to Travel abroad, and this for several reasons: First, what bad inclinations may happen to be in them, cannot be very strong [Page 19] in so short a time, and therefore are more easily rooted out, and better ones grafted in their place: As long as evil is not contracted into an ha­bit, still there is hopes of a remedy; but when it is inveterate, and hath been in possession for a long time, then it proves more dangerous and hard to be removed. Secondly, because when they be young, they are the more tractable, and receive impressions better; and though some think them to be less reasonable, than when they are come to riper years, I believe also their passions are wea­ker in them; and therefore are not so strong head­ed, and less obstinate. They do not go abroad to shew they are very rational, men of wit and parts, but to learn these things; and when they have it, to perfect themselves therein: Neither is a Governor given them to be a witness and spe­ctator of what good qualities they have, but ra­ther to shew how they may get them in case they want them▪ and raise them to a higher degree of perfection, if they are endued therewith. A Pre­ceptor will be pleased when his Scholar moves questions to him, and learns easily what he tea­ches him; but if, because the young man hath good parts, he would not mind his Masters instru­ctions, but constantly be a disputing against him, this is worse than if he were less witty, but more yielding to rule and advice: for I repeat here what I said elsewhere, how obedience is the foundation upon which all instructions are to be built, and the basis of good Breeding: God also loves Obedience better than Sacri­fice.1 Sam. 15.22.

It is a custom with many in England, to order Travelling to their Sons, as Emetick Wine is by [Page 20] the Physician prescribed to the Patient; that is, when they know not what else to do, and when Schools, Universities, Inns of Courts, and every other way hath been tried to no purpose: then that nature which could be tamed in none of these places, is given to be mended by a Governor, with many a woe to him; and all this, because the young Gentleman was not sent abroad betime, and before he was hardened in his evil courses.

Moreover, when they are young, they are more capable of learning Tongues, and Exercises; provided, in relation to these last, their bodies be able to bear the hardship of it; which, to know, must be left to the prudence of the Governor; there being some Exercises harder than others: so Parents must judg of the fittest time for them to begin their journey, whether they be young enough, yet not too young, out of the strength or weakness of their Complexion; only more care must be taken of them upon the Journey, when they are of a feeble Constitution: Some are sit to Travel at 13 or 14, others at 15, 16, and 17. but when they are passed 20, some who are of no good nature, will grow strong and stiff, reject in­struction, and think themselves wi [...]er than their Teachers: of these we may say, what St. Iames speaks of the tongue,James 3.6, 7, 8. Every kind of birds, of beasts, and of serpents, can be, and hath been tamed, but the [...]e can no man tame; so unruly they are.

Indeed, when Governors light upon wild and loose humors, they are to be pitied; it is a burden as heavy as any they can lie under, and a task as hard as any they can undertake; which it were well for them to be discharged of. When things [Page 21] succeed well, God receives the glory of it, young Gentlemen the profit and advantage, their Rela­tions content and satisfaction, and the Governor gets credit by it. See how many ways good is hindered by the unruly and untoward carriage of such. Certainly, when a man is able well to govern Youth, he will be fit for other things, and those not inconsiderable.

But in few words, in a Gentleman under my conduct, I could desire to be first a disposition in him to that I would put him upon; few succeed in what they are not fit for, nor capable of. Secondly, an inclination,Without a h [...]arty applica­tion no man can master any thing that con­cerns the un­derstanding. 'tis not enough to be able to do a thing, yet have no mind to it. Thirdly, an application, without which none of the former can come to any good; and all these ought to have a good direction, or else they prove useless, and can hardly do, or come to any good.

I wish every young Gentleman that travels a­broad, to know that his Parents have not rashly given them their Governors: 'tis well known what a strict perquisition they make about them for the most part; and except they be satisfied con­cerning them by men of probity and known in­tegrity, they will not employ them; for as they love their Children, as they look upon a Son to be the Heir of their Estate, the hopes and staff of their Family, whose Person , Education, and Af­fairs they wholly commit to him: certainly, men who have but common sence and reason will not do it, without good grounds; seeing upon the Breeding of that Son often depend the prosperity, or destruction of a Family. This being granted, [Page 22] why are young men so wanting in their respect and duty to Parents, as to slight the choice which they made, and do as good as accuse them of want of Prudence, Knowledge, and Judgment, by dis­approving, and, as much as in them lies, condemn­ing that election: after this rate they will be ac­counted wise, and their Fathers must be fools.

But besides this, they must not be ignorant how Parents have invested Governors with their power and authority, not to destruction, but to edification, which Parents at their departure have, or ought to have made an open declaration of, charging them to take their advice in every thing, and to do nothing without it, seeing they are wholly committed to his care, which he is obli­ged to perform for conscience sake, and for his own credit and interest, being to answer for mis­carriages happening through his fault; wherein if he doth well, he shall receive praise, or on the con­trary, shame: So that after this, a young man can do nothing against his Governor, but it will reflect upon his Parents, whom he represents, who will have all the reason in the world to be offended thereat, for contempt of their persons and autho­rity; for indeed, abroad to him he is instead of a Father, a Gentleman being considered as one under age: wherefore many people will be loth to trust him, though he be known to be a person of Qua­lity, and of a good Estate; and in case they do, without the Governors consent, this can be for­ced by no law beyond Seas to pay his debts, if the young men be out of the way. Let them also consider, that they and their Tutors are so nearly related to one another, that all their concerns they make their own, and share with them in the [Page 23] praise or the blame, the satisfaction or di [...]pleasure [...] However, I must say this, let discouragements be what they will, till Parents, (who weekly, or at least as often as conveniently can be, ought to receive from the Governor an exact account and information of what falls out) have taken order about things, he ought to mind his work never­theless, and steer the Ship for all the Storm: Di [...]fi­culties must not discourage him too much, [...], Difficilia quae pulchra, & nulla sine pulvere palma, time is a great Physician, and many a foul morning hath been followed with a fair afternoon, Co'l tempo é la paglia se maturono le nespoli, say the Italians.

Now I must pass to some preparatory dispositi­ons, which a Gentleman must use in order to his Travels: First, he would do well to get some­thing of the Language of the Country he is next to go to, as an introduction to it, though it were only to understand something of it, and be able to ask for necessary things; this can rid him of the surprizal others are subject to, who coming into a Foreign Country, and understanding not one word of the Tongue, look as if they were fallen [...]rom the Clouds: hereby their Journey is most pleasant to them, and they are sooner disposed to receive the benefit of it: so they ought to have something of the French before they go out of England, of Italian before they leave France, and of the German before they stir out of Italy, and so of the rest.

They must also take a Progress into the Coun­try to see what Curiosities and remarkable things are in't, to be able to give an account thereof to those who will ask about it; for it is very ordi­nary [Page 24] to some of those in whose Country one Tra­vels to put several questions concerning it; and then indeed it is a shame not to be able to sa­tisfie them in several things they ask. To have the curiosity of seeing other Countries, and yet neglect to know his own, is a strange sort of cu­riosity; as if a Master of a Family did not care to be acquainted with what passes in his Family, and yet were very inquisitive to know what is done in his neighbours house; to be ignorant of his own affairs, and yet be well informed of those of other men, is to invert the order of things, and put last that which should be first: let a man set his house in order, and then look abroad: and to make a more particular application of this, England is a Country of which much can be said, 'tis strongly and con­veniently seated under a temperate Climate, pro­ducing all things necessary for life, as Wheat and all manner of Corn; there is variety of Drink and Liquors, and though Wine doth not grow in't, we have it of all sorts: there are good Pastures, whereby abundance of Beasts and Cattel are fed, whose Flesh, Milk, Butter, and Cheese are dainty; very fine Cloth is made of the Wool of one, and extraordinary good Leather of the Hides of the other: Fewel is very plentiful, so is all manner of Wood and Timber to build, but specially Oak, to make Ships of. You see there is enough to eat, to drink, to be cloathed, to warm himself, and ship­ping to defend the Island, and to assault others. Besides this, it hath no less variety of Dainties, as all manner of Fowl and Fish, whether salt or fresh, of Sea, Ponds, and Rivers: as for Venison, there is hardly any Person of Quality, but hath his Park stored with Deers of all sorts, Warrens full of Ra­bits: [Page 25] What shall I say of the Mines of Tin, Iron, Lead, and of Coal-pits? Besides, England produ­ces the stoutest Cocks, finest Horses, and good for service, the best Dogs that can be: and if after the things I named just now, it was proper to mention Women, I could say they are the hand­somest in the world. Foreign Nations do value every thing which comes out of England, as Knives, Stockings, Gloves, Laces, Cloth, Hangings, Ribons, Watches, and all manner of Manufacto­ries.

All these things a young Gentleman must be acquainted withal, as with the constitution of the Nation, which hath the best of what could be drawn from Monarchical, Aristocratical, or De­mocratical Governments; so the settlement of Trade, wherein it consists, how many people live by it, and the several East-Indies, Turky, Spa­nish Companies of Merchants, &c. though 'tis not to be expected they should be perfect in these things, yet it will be well to have a superficial knowledge thereof, they must also be able to give some account of the Government, and of the Na­vy, which is the glory, and the strength of the Nation.

But this is most proper to what I am to say in the third place, which Gentlemen ought to be ver­sed in, viz. the fashions and customs particular to the Nation, though 'twere but Cock-fighting, Bull and Bear-baiting, running of Races, Wrast­ling, playing with Cudgels, Foot and Stool-ball, &c. because upon occasion beyond Seas, this may be matter of a discourse: but to wave these kinds of sports, and come to solid and more ne­cessary things, A Country Gentleman being come [Page 26] up to the City, if he hath none more urgent and necessary occasions to go about, let him go once a day, or every other day to Westminster-Hall, if it be Parliament or Term time, to Court once or twice a week, and as often to the Exchange▪ hereby he will get a superficial knowledge of things most important to the Nation; 'twere not amiss also to see the Quarter-Sessions in the Old-Baily: for I am of opinion, that a young Gentle­man before he comes to a settlement, ought to think that nothing is below him to be known; which rule he must observe, specially when he is beyond Seas: These things I mention but by the by, and as the heads of what they ought to be in­formed of, as much as 'tis possible and convenient before they go over; or else, if they be too young, put it off till they are come back, and then be sure to do it.

Thus things being disposed for the journey, the Governor must get as exact an information as is possible for him, of the nature and temper of the young man, which Parents are best able to do, and consequently of the best way to deal with him: Thus in an hours time he can know as much as would require whole months to make his Ob­servation; this indeed is the shortest and best way: but because persons and things are subject to alte­rations, to this information given him, he ought, for the future, to joyn his own Observations, and make it his study to know the young man's geni­us, to take a method accordingly; for every me­thod doth not sute with every temper.

The Governor being so engaged, the first thing he goes about must be to get the young man's love and affection, which he may do in several ways: [Page 27] First, being very tender of him, and upon the Road, procuring him all necessary and conveni­ent accommodations, remedying, as soon as may be, inconveniencies, giving good words when any thing falls amiss: Certainly, if he be not of a very bad nature, the care of him in such things will work upon him. Secondly, shew him Curi­osities worth seeing, as you stay or go by; this will divert, and please him, and make him like the Countrey: in the mean time help him to make his Observations of things, and desire him to set them down in writing. Thus he can see you take pains, and are willing to please him, and pro­mote his good and benefit; so that he cannot chuse but have affection for you. Thirdly, be civil and respectful to him, which will be a pre­cedent for him to be so to you; for he who is wil­ling to receive must give too; and we use to say, one hand washeth another: so you do give him an example of being civil to others, which is a to­ken of a sweet nature, and of good Breeding; and hereby one will appear to be much a Gentle­man. This in point of society, is very taking, it winneth the heart, works upon affections, dis­armeth an enemy, and extraordinarily obligeth a friend; and without it the friendship of a man is not to be valued a straw; for where is a real love, there is also respect and civility: and he doth not deserve a friend, who doth not use him this way. Lastly, please him in indifferent things, to make him comply with you in substantial, and necessary; and never stand with him upon trifles, which were a morosity in you; and in case he de­sires a thing, which is neither reasonable nor con­venient to do, dissuade him from it with strength [Page 28] of reason, and not by authority: if you give him reason of such actions, you lay before him a lead­ing case to give you an account of his; and here­in whether or not you do agree, you will ever shew your self the wisest of the two, which a man in your capacity is concerned and obliged to be.

This course being taken, probably love and uni­on will be setled between the Traveller and his Governor, which is the ground of a success in the journey, or else no pleasure nor profit in Tra­velling: to this effect, all occasions of dispute ought to be avoided; and because some conceived hatred against Governors in general, whom they look upon as curbs and bridles to hold them in, and restrain their courses; inso­much that they hate the very name,I do not say this to comply with the peev­ishness of those who are such, but I look on them asdistem­pered, and so would endea­vour to cure them. it will be well if that can satisfie, to avoid taking the name of Tutor, Governor, or any other odious to them, and use that of Companion or Camrade, which Germans use much, or any one else they will like, signifying equality, seeing they dislike the [...]ormer; because they seem to include a superiority: there­fore never domineer over them, and away with those who would keep them in a low, submissive and slavish way: this is the ground of hatred and differences, and the great hinderance to peace, union, and love. Indeed the word Tutor is more proper for Schools and Universities, and that of Governor is more honorable for the Gentleman, than for him who bears it.

One of the first Lessons the Governor gives him, must tend to remove prejudices in case he [Page 29] hath some against any Nation; for then he will dislike every thing he seeth there; and this may happen to prove an occasion of many troubles and quarrels: and let this be printed in his mind, ne­ver to blame a whole Nation for the fault of few particular men: for as we say, faults are personal, and in every Nation are both good and evil.

Another advice will be to make him leave off that jarring and wrangling humor, which usually is gotten in the Schools, whereby they gain-say every thing others speak; they hear others not to learn, but only to contradict; which to do they think to be a piece of wit: so far from being true, that thereby they make themselves absurd and in­sufferable in company: what right have they to take upon them to censure every word or action of others, and that so unnecessarily, impertinently, and unseasonably, that one can but admire it? Travellers must not discommend and dislike every thing they see in other Countries, and commend every thing in their own, without occasion to do it. Some make odious comparisons which is care­fully to be avoided.

Some Parents use to give instructions to the Go­vernor before they set forth, which he will do well to receive; for it may be a help to him, and thereby he will shew the respect he beareth to, and the dependency he hath upon the Father, who be­ing acquainted with the temper of his Son, must needs be able to give some use [...]ul Directions; which correspondency must hold as long as they are abroad: not only from time to time (as I said before) giving Parents an account of what is done, but also signifying, when occasion requires, some of his resolutions, and asking advice there­upon, [Page 30] before they be put in execution: but with­al, in several things a Governor must not be stin­ted. I heard of some Parents, who order their Sons to stay a fortnight in one place, eight days in another, five, and no more in another, and the like; which they who are upon the place, are better able to judg of; many accidents falling out every day: these things, and many more, ought to be left to the prudence and freedom of the Go­vernor, to provide according to emergencies; yet what resolutions he takes he must impart to the Gentleman, in case there is no inconvenience to do it, make him like it, and have his consent therein. In matter of moneys also he must not be so confined, but that he may sometimes dispose of some small sums; for let a man be never so exact in forecasting expences, still fall out some occasions of laying out which were not foreseen. Two ways there are of giving allowance; one is when a Father allows so much by the year, and no more; whereupon the Governor takes upon him to de­fray every thing: yet I think if he could make it ap­pear, he well laid out more than he received, Parents would not disown him therein; though it would be well for him, when he sees the sum not like to do it, to write about it, and know their mind be­fore he lays out any thing of his own, except there were extraordinary occasion for it: thus he se­cures himself from those who are very hard upon such accounts. The other way of allowing, is not to fix upon a sum, but to receive an account of what is spent, and to enter it, whether it be more or less. Thus when unexpectedly some charges happen, Parents receiving good grounds and satisfaction about it, will acquiesce.

[Page 31]But before I proceed further in point of monies, I must again (for I can never take too much no­tice of it) say it is to be known how Governors are given to young men, not to over-awe or offer them any violence, for there hath been an end of this when they left School; but to afford them help and directions; even as we see when a Child be­gins to stand upon his legs, and to walk, one or other holds him by the arm, or stands close by to hinder him from falling, though we see many times he will hardly suffer to be touched or helped: This indeed is to be admired at, when the Child begins to walk, he will not be helped, though he stands in need of it, when his will is, as it were, born, he will not suffer it to be guided: however a Governor is given, if possible, to keep a young man from those stumblings and falls, which youth and want of experience and knowledge do often expose them to in the world; and those who have any wit or good nature, will not be angry against, but rather kind and thankful to him for giving those counsels, and using those means which can keep them from miscarriages, shame, danger, hurt, and such other inconveniences which are so fre­quent in the world.

To return upon matter of monies, before they come away from home, such course is to be taken, as that upon all occasions they may surely be sup­plied with monies, which I believe is not so cer­tain by way of Bills of exchange, as by Letters of Credit; for Bills of Exchange may happen to miscarry, be lost, or refused: in which case a man is often left in the lurch. Upon this account I have known several who lost their time, and op­portunity, before they could receive timely and [Page 32] necessary supplies of monies; for sometimes they wait so long for the coming of a Bill of Exchange to discharge and be gone from a place, that it is spent before they can receive it; so they must be forced to stay till they have another: Let them forecast as much as they can, 'tis possible for them to fall short of their account, specially if they are very remote from home: but let them be never so far, Letters of Credit can secure them, for ever a man hath this along with him, which he ought to renew as he goes from one great place to another, but specially for those where he intends to make a considerable stay; only before he leaves the other Town, he may take monies, as much, or more than he thinks will be enough to carry him thither: And let a Traveller observe this (except he be in a place where is great danger of being rob'd) ever to have monies by him, yet not make a shew of it; for he doth not know what sudden occasion he may have of it, so many sad accidents falling out every day: and what, if when I am walking in the street, I am unhappily forced, or suddenly engaged in my own defence, or of a Friend, to draw, and wound, or kill a man, which thing is not impossible, what would become of me if I had no monies to get a horse-back, and be gone. Such a mischance may befal a Gentleman or his Governor.

Letters of Commendation are also necessary for those who Travel in parts, where they have no friends nor acquaintances; at least if they do no good they will do no harm, but often upon oc­casion they prove very beneficial and advantage­ous, whether a man doth but go by a place or stay in't any time; for a Traveller cannot tell what [Page 33] occasion he may have of Friends, and favour, when he is in a place, or before he comes to it. These Letters must be gotten from the best hands; for the more he who commends is considerable, the more respect, civility, and service he who is commended will receive.

These necessary provisions being made, the Governor will carry out of England his Gentle­man to Paris, where he ought to shew him some of the chief fair houses, and other curiosi­ties in or about that City, to refresh and divert him after his Journey to that place, which also will make the Gentleman like the Country more and more; which is very material for his intended and future improvement: Whilst he is there he must wait upon the Lord Embassador, in case the King keeps one there at that time; and in case there be no inconvenience, what other English persons of the highest quality are there: so once, or twice, he may visit any singular friend, if he hath any there, yet avoid too many acquaintances with his own Country-men. He will also do well to go, if he makes but a short stay in Paris, at least once to Charenton, to the Protestant Church there, whether or not he understands the Language, to give God thanks for his protection so far, and to crave his blessing upon the whole Journey: thus he will see that numerous Assembly. This being done, he will do well to be gone thence, to settle somewhere else.

Concerning the place of settlement, men differ in their opinions; all agree that one must be cho­sen to stay at, and to learn the Language, Fashi­ons, and Exercises; which cannot be done if one be constantly a Travelling, and ever upon a moti­on, [Page 34] but time of rest must be allowed to do't; for the▪ Proverb saith, the rolling stone gathers no moss. Some think fit to settle at Paris; and may be they are in the right, having reasons for it; but mine are to the contrary, upon the first setting out: first, one must have learned the Language, some customs of the Nation, and gotten some experi­ence before he be ripe for Paris; where a Novice cannot enjoy that society which is to be had in other Towns: It is not usual for Citizens to like strangers coming to converse within their doors, except they have particular reason for it▪ and peo­ple of Quality have not the patience to hear a Gentleman unable to speak two words together of good sense, but in other Towns it is otherwise. Secondly, the place is very chargeable and expen­sive [...]. Thirdly, debauched company of one Coun­trey-man or other, is almost unavoidable; for not being capable of conversing with people of that Countrey, he will do't with those he can meet with. Fourthly, Exercises are dear, and most Masters there do not take much pains with one, because of the number of Scholars, or the distance of places. Fifthly, there is a daily and universal occasion of falling into evil courses; and one will be hardly able to learn the Language, by reason of the number of his Countrey-men he will find there; this is for those who live in Pensions and Auberges: As for Academies, if there be not ma­ny of one Nation, there is a good Breeding in them, and think it a good way; but such orders are observed in them, as several Gentlemen would have much ado to be brought under; some being so much used to their liberty, that they could hardly submit to the r [...]les of keeping to certain [Page 35] hours, of coming in within such a time, and af­ter that, having no liberty to go out, nor at any time without asking leave, but when a man hath done what he went about, and is coming home, I would advise him to stay at Paris, at least half a year, to perfect himself in his exercises, to see the Court, and frequent the company of some persons of Quality, and of several witty, judicious, and learned men, and other persons of worth and me­rit: but of this more hereafter.

After Paris, places most frequented by strangers are along the River Loire from Orleans down­wards, seated in a pleasant and plentiful Country, their language is well spoken amongst people of some fashion, good and able Masters of Exercises are found in them, and the people thereof are ve­ry kind and civil to strangers, Orleans, Blois, Sau­mur, and Angers are such: yet though I like them all, to my mind Angers ought to have the prefe­rence; it being more considerable than the two last (which yet I think to be fitter than the for­mer) in greatness, number of Inhabitants, and of persons of Quality, it being the head City of a Province formerly belonging to England; it is in a good Air, hath fine Wal [...]s about the Town, very able Masters in all manner of Exercises, and people much civilized, of a sweet nature, according to their Proverb.Angevin doux & ven [...]n. Hitherto strangers have been free there from being trepan'd into Marriages, as 'tis usual in other places. In the way to that, or any other place, one hath a mind to go to, as I hinted before, one must b [...] careful to shew all curiosities to the Gentleman, and per­suade him to take notes of what he seeth and ob­serveth.

[Page 36]The method herein to be observed is this, as soon as you are come to a Town, and have ta­ken a short rest and refreshment (if you want it) in your Inn, which ever ought to be the best, or one of the best; the first thing you do must be to carry your Letters of Commendation, if you have any, to the persons they are directed to; and if in any thing you want their assistance, you may desire it of them, with all civility and excu­ses sutable to their and your quality. The second thing, in case you are not acquainted with the Town, must be to desire your Landlord to go with you, or give you some rational man, to car­ry you to see the Town, the Walls, and the For­tifications thereof, Walks, broad places, Churches, publick Buildings, Closets full of Rarities, or any other antient or modern Curio [...]ities. So when you walk up and down the streets, if any remarkable thing be obvious, desire to be informed of it, en­quire about the most potent Families, whether no­ble or not, of their Charges, Estates, and Interest in the place; then ask by what Trade or other means the Town or City doth chiefly subsist, and what are the customs and temper of the Inhabi­tants; afterwards of the policy, and of the way and form of Government; not forgetting to know how far doth reach the power and authori­ty of the Clergy, what are the Priviledges of the City and Citizens, what difference is amongst them, and what are the Prerogatives of the Nobi­lity and Gentry; and in case the Landlord, or he whom he hath given you, be not able to satis­fie you in these points, desire him to direct you to some body capable to do it; But this is when the Governor is a stranger to the place; for else he [Page 37] must himself acquaint his Gentleman with all these things. And here is seen the advantage of one who knows them already.

Having thus viewed the Town, and Castle, if there be any, and in the general being informed of the policy and constitution thereof, as you come back to your Lodging, you may meditate and discourse upon these things, yet very discreetly; with those you think capable of it, to get, if pos­sible, a more exact and particular information of every thing: After all this, when you are gone in­to your Chamber, you must take pains orderly to set down in writing in your Diary Book, what you heard and learned; and if you are many, or only two, it will be well for every one to have his own Book afterwards to compare notes, and know who hath been more exact, and what is most cu­rious therein; which upon occasion you may dis­course about, and find out the motives, causes, and authors of things. ‘Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas.’

Further, it will be well to have before you the Maps of every Province, and, if possible, of the Towns you are in, to know the right situation thereof (which also may be done by getting up­on some Steeple, or high place) and learn their Frontiers and Neighbours: It must not be negle­cted or forgotten to write down the Histories, merry Tales, notable Sentences, witty Replies, the good words, and every fine expression which every day you happen to hear in company, there­by to profit and make use of upon occasion: after all this you may receive the visits of those whom [Page 38] you were commended to, or return to take your leave of them, at which time you may be bet­ter able, and upon surer grounds to discourse with them upon every thing you have seen, and if pos­sible, get a clearer information of; and in case in the same City or Town, lived any person of emi­nent quality in a great state, keeping a kind of a Court, or other great Officers, and men eminent for learning or other parts; or according to the nature of the place, if there be any Princes, though Strangers or Embassadors, Residents, &c. you may enquire, whether they like to receive such visits as yours may be, you may desire those you are commended to, to procure you the ho­nor of kissing their hands, usually persons of high quality love to be courted, and take this as a civi­lity.

And because it would not be well to go to them, and be mute, or to speak non-sense, you may make to them a short▪ civil, and respectful complement, declaring your Nation, how you are English Gen­tlemen, who have undertaken to Travel▪ with a desire to fit your selves to serve your King and Countrey, and all their Frirnds and Allies (this if they be publick Ministers of Princes, friends to the Crown of England) and that you were loth to go by without kissing their hands, and tendering your humble services to them: when by the means of these visits, you are grown better acquainted, one may get a further information of the consti­tution of the place, or Province, where you are, of the nature of the Inhabitants, and of the state and inclination of the Neighbours; yet all this must be done with much respect, discreetness, pru­dence, and modesty, for fear of being accounted [Page 39] pedants, silly and ignorant, or giddy and rash, which would cause slightings and contempt.

And in case there be occasion given to discourse upon the manners, nature, or customs of both, or either Nation, viz. the Travellers, and his whom he is with, or of the Kings, Princes, great men, even of particular persons; the Traveller must carefully take heed not to let fall any word where­at any one might justly be offended, and perhaps resent it, bewaring to avoid nothing more than to slander or speak ill, or rashly, or presumptuously judge of others, which are the two dangerous rocks in conversation; contrariwise they must keep within general tearms, give the best inter­pretation to things, and no ways shew themselves partial, bold, or passionate; but if others speak or judge too freely of things, or persons, they ought to hear them with indifferency, and seem to ad­mire at, rather than approve of what they say, and not answer to't, as if they were ignorant of the matter: but of this more hereafter.

Only I will add two things, one is, that the Governor, who upon all occasions is to give ad­vice to his charge, must well know his quality, and judiciously understand what belongeth to it; for if he be of the highest or lower quality, he ought to carry himself with him accordingly, with more or less formality, at least before Strangers; for else freedom is wholly necessary, and he ought to advise him to carry himself towards others, ac­cording to his and their qualities. The other thing I add, is this; we see how Travellers must not make post haste when they go through places, but ought to take time to rest, and be informed of things, whereby the Journey will be more plea­sant [Page 40] and profitable: nay, one must take horse some­times, and go out of his way to see what deserves it.

Being then come to a place of settlement, the mind and endeavours of the Gentleman, and of his Governor, must wholly tend to be improved, yet more or less, according to every ones occasi­ons; for they who are Scholars and Travellers, to get either a livelihood, or a preferment, are most concerned to improve themselves; but their set­tlement must begin with the set rules of Piety, which from the first day of their setting forth, they ought daily to have practised. Every morning and evening one ought to fall upon his knees, and devoutly to call upon God; acknowledging his glory, and mercies, his own unworthiness, origi­nal and actual sinfulness, whether out of ignorance, or against the testimony of his conscience, the lights of Nature, and of Grace; beseeching God for Jesus Christ's sake, to look on him with an eye of pity and compassion, to be reconciled unto him, and to apply to him all the merits and sufferings, whereby his Son hath appeased his wrath, satisfied his justice, and made a full expiation for sins, whereof the filth may be washed clean in his pre­cious Blood, and the guilt so forgiven, that it may never rise up in judgment to accuse, convince, con­demn, or shame him in this world, or that which is to come: then he must thank God for the pro­tection which till then he hath afforded him, he hath brought him out of his own Country, through deep waters, and dry land; yet no harm hath be­fallen him: he must beg his help in the carrying on of the design he had in his going over; that in the first place he would teach him to fear his Ma­jesty, [Page 41] and to keep his Commandments; and then how to improve himself, to bless his weak endea­vors, and of those who have a hand in his Educati­on, enabling him to receive their instructions, and making him willing to be advised by them in eve­ry good thing, to the end the glory of all may be given to God, satisfaction to his Friends, and Re­lations, and he receive the benefit of it; wishing withal, in due time to meet with his Friends, if it be his pleasure, to their mutual comfort; beseech­ing God, till then, to take him into his protecti­on, and deliver him from those dangers which Travellers are exposed to.

I conceive these heads are comprehensive of his ordinary wants and necessities; besides this, before he goeth to his Prayers, he must read at least two Chapters in the Bible every day: Fur­ther, he must be sure to observe the Lords day, which beyond Seas is too much prophaned; either going to the Protestant Churches, where it can be done, or else in his own Chamber, in prayer and reading Scriptures, and some good Book of De­votion, or doing both, and other works of Piety: and let this be performed without failing or inter­ruption. Therefore that one may be the better able and free to go about this, they must chuse a convenient Lodging, of which the people be ho­nest, affording good accommodation, and the Master, if possible, be a man of parts and learn­ing, whose conversation one may have at Table▪ which will prove pleasant and useful for the Lan­guage, and other things. Also, let them be Prote­stants, if it can be done; for union in judgment makes commonly union of affections, and one is free from snares, both of changing his Religion, [Page 42] and being brought to trouble, in case of speaking amiss of another: besides that, in case of sickness, one can receive comfort from a Minister, and will not be troubled with Priests, as it is usual in Po­pish Countries, upon such occasions, of which we have seen examples: then in a Protestant house one may have flesh, if he hath a mind to it up [...]n Fridays, and other forbidden days, which many of the contrary Religion would not give.

This being regulated, the young Traveller must immediately be put upon some Exercises fit for, and becoming a Gentleman, which his genius and strength ought to be consulted about: if he hath no mind nor disposition to't, it will hardly come to any good; some also of those Exercises requi­ring a greater strength than others. The time of the year is to be considered; for if he be weak, some violent Exercises, as riding the Great Horse, and, may be, Fencing could endanger his health in Summer: the quality of Exercises is to be lookt upon; first, to do those which are most neces­sary, and then others; according as he and the Governor do agree; he must have enough to take him up at least the greatest part of the morning, and some of the afternoon, yet so as not to be overburthened therewith; for then he would be tired, and do none well. When days are longer he can do more than when they are short; except the heat were so great, as to take his heart and strength from it; but in hot weather he must begin be­times in the morning: every Exercise commōnly takes up an hour, except the Great Horse, which requires much more▪ those he undertakes, he must be constant and diligent in.

[Page 43]The benefit coming from doing these exercises is manifold; first, thereby he learns and instructs himself; so hereafter upon occasion, being skilled in't, he may make use of them▪ then they take him up, and use him to be active and stirring; and [...]ome of them which make him stretch his joynts, help to make him grow: and this keeping him in action, makes him nimble, strong, and healthful: Furthermore, they keep him from idle­ness, and bad company, and are a pleasure and a recreation to him; for almost every hour he hath a new one, and thereby is diverted from evil thoughts, passions, and deeds: but let the time of these Exercises be so ordered, that in the morn­ing he may have a whole hour to himself, to eat his breakfast, to rest, to walk, or do what he hath a mind to. Let him also have time to read and study; for all his time must not be given to bodily exercises.

To tell my opinion of this more particularly, first, one must know how long he is allowed to be abroad in the whole; for then he must divide the time into so many parts, as an instance, some tra­vel no farther than France, and these must re­solve to be so long in Saumur, Angers, &c. so long in going the Grand Tour, and may be stay­ing at Montpelier, Lyon, Geneva, and so long at Paris. This must be known to a certain time, or thereabouts; for there ought to be a rule in order­ing of our time. Others intend besides France, to see Italy; others farther, will come home through Germany, and the Low-Countries; and of these some will only go directly through Ger­many, others will see the Emperors Court, some of the Electors, and of other Princes there; some [Page 44] have a curiosity of making a step into Denmark and Sueden: There are those who before they come home, will go into Spain and Portugal: In all this one can never take his measures well, or order of his journey, except he knows, so long I must be in France, so long in Italy, and so forth; which generally depends upon the pleasure of Parents; who will not have their Sons to be long in some places, and be very long in others, ac­cording to reasons they have for it, which yet may be altered, as they receive from the Governor ad­vice of conveniences, or inconveniences, not fore­seen in those places; whereby we see how much is referred to the prudence of a Director.

Now to state a case of this, I will suppose I am to be abroad three years, or thereabouts (I believe the time is never so much stinted, as to stand upon one month or two; the more, because the altering of our resolutions doth often depend up­on accidents, which are not in our power) and within this time I am to see France, Italy, Germany, and part of the Low-Countries, then I will resolve thus, in France I will be first 18 months, 9 or 10 in Italy, 5 in Germany, and the Low-Countries, and 4 or 5 at Paris, before I go home: Of every one I will speak in order.

Of the eighteen months I am to be in France, I will pass two in going from London to Angers, or the place I intend to settle at by the River Loire (which places I do prefer to those more Souther­ly, as Montpellier, &c. not only upon the account of the Language and Exercises, but also for health and safety sake; for one must not remove out of England into very hot Countries, upon a sudden, but by degrees) to rest and see what is worth [Page 45] seeing, upon the way: then I will reside 9 or 10 months in one place, 10 weeks, or 3 months to go the Grand Tour, 6 weeks to see Geneva, and make a step into Switzerland, or as far as Strasbourg, and the other six weeks at Lyon, till the season be fit to go into Italy. Note, that when I say 9 or 10 months, and do not just fix the time, which in that place the longer it is the better, my reason is, that ever I would be before-hand with my time, and have six weeks, or two months in case of Distempers, or other accidents; or otherwise to dispose of it, as I see occasion for: Let this be an essential rule for Travellers, To be good husbands of their time and monies.

In the space of nine or ten months I am to re­side in a place; the Governor ought not only to lay the foundations of, but also set very forward the work, for which his Gentleman went into France. As to the Language, Exercises, and Fa­shions, specially the informing of his judgment: all which things are better learned thus, than when a man is going forward on his Journey. To this end, in case he hath no experience of his own, who in that place are the best Masters of Exerci­ses, he is to ask the advice of those who are able to judge of it, and are not partial: and in case men in giving their advice, prove partial, as often it falls out, every one commending him whom he likes, and loves best; as it is not to be expected but that they will differ in opinion, then the general approbation will make me prefer one before an­other; yet no farther than to put him to a trial: for in case I were not satisfied with him, I would make no difficulty of changing him for another. Now these three qualifications I desire to find in [Page 46] every Master of Exercises, First, he must have a good way; for it is not so necessary▪ he should Dance well, as that he should teach well, which two things do not always meet in one; if he hath both the better: but the last I would prefer above the former: one may be an advantage of nature, which hath endued him with a good shape, and disposition; but the other is a reward of Art and Industry. Secondly, he ought to be constant and exact, not to miss his hours; but when there is a set one, he must be punctual therein. I would not have them at one time to come soon,It is better to go to the Fen­cing and Dan­cing Schools, than to learn at home. and at another late; and sometimes not at all; for not only this is a loss to the Scholar in that particular, but also it is a prejudice and a hinderance to him in his o­ther Exercises. Thirdly, I would have him civil and respectful to his Scholars, and not ranting, nor domineering; whereby not only their person, but the very exercise become odi­ous: he must civilly and gently tell him where he faileth.

For the three first months, specially if he is of a weak Constitution, I would not have him to ride the great Horse▪ because: at first that Exercise is tiresome, and takes up much time; specially if it be in Summer: but if he hath but a short time to stay in Town, and he be able, without inconve­niency, every morning to rise by break of day; and he already hath an introduction into the Lan­guage, he may the sooner begin the Exercise. That which makes me advise not to learn it at first, is, to the end he may have more time to learn the Tongue; for all other Masters may come [Page 47] to his Lodging; but if he will ride, he must go to the Academy: Indeed for those three months I would hardly have him to look abroad, except to walk, take the air, or go out upon some necessa­ry occasion; for till he hath something of the Lan­guage, he is unfit to go into company, or take pleasure, or receive profit thereby. Hence one may see how necessary it is to understand some­thing of it before they go over; it is not very fit neither, he should go to the Dancing and Fencing Schools till he hath gotten a garb, a posture, and the grounds of those Exercises; though the soon­er he goeth the better it will be.

Having often mentioned Exercises, I must now show what they are, some being more, and others less necessary: The Language is of the first kind, yea, the most usual and beneficial of all; without it no society to be had, nor company to be kept with profit and satisfaction. We go beyond Seas to learn what general or particular good things are in the places we come to; but, who can be bet­ter able to inform us of it than the people of the Countrey: but, how can we have any access or conversation about it with them, except we un­derstand their Language? How can we make use of the several good Books written in their Tongue, except we do somewhat understand it? no dis­coursing with Ladies (which in France is accoun­ted a part of a civilized life) without it? He who hath it not, finds him [...]elf exposed to daily incon­veniences, is a Barbarian to them, as they are to him, whereby he leads an unprofitable and un­comfortable life: Wherefore I would have every other Master of Exercise to be a kind of a Lan­guage-Master, to put him upon discourse; and [Page 48] the young man must neglect nothing to get it; he must first of all talk about any thing, though tri­fles, and not to the purpose: and although of ten words he could not speak two right, yet let him not be ashamed or discouraged at it; for it is not to be expected he should be a Master before he hath been a Scholar, Qui nunquam male nunquam bene, and to every thing there is a beginning. With speaking we learn to speak▪ Fabricando fabri simus. Let him not think any thing below him till he hath overcome the dif [...]iculty of it, which once being attained unto, then he may the better mind his words and expressions, and more exactly ob­serve himself and his actions. The Language-Master must teach him to read, write true Ortho­graphy, and to speak properly; to this effect, he must make use of some good Books, which besides the Language, may teach substantial things, as some History, Morality, or Politicks.

As the world goes, Dancing is an Exercise be­coming a Gentleman, it being one of the essential parts of an Outlandish, French Breeding: so that as a Gentleman who there goeth into company, hath daily occasions of practising it, it would be a shame for a young Gentleman not to have some skill in't; a natural disposition is required to it: so let a man measure his steps never so just or ex­act, except he carr [...]es his body well, and hath a good ear to hear and observe the Cadence, he wants that grace, which is the principal ornament of the Dance. A good Dancer takes well, special­ly with Ladies; but it is not enough to be able to Dance a Brau'e, a Gavote, a [...]ourante, a Boree, &c. I will have a Master to teach a Gentleman how to keep his body in a good posture, when he [Page 49] stands, sitteth, or walketh; how to come in or go out of a Chamber where is company; he must be taught how to carry his head, his hands, and his toes out, all in the best way, and with the hand­somest presence: In a word, how to do things with a Bonne grace, and in the finest and most gentile manner that the person is capable of; but both nature and art must concur to give a man a fair presence, which for certain is a great advan­tage: a Master teaches the steps, but the grace, the carriage, and the free motion of the body must chiefly come from us. As it argues a wild and a rude nature to despise this Exercise, so to follow it too much, is a sign of effeminacy.

Fencing was formerly the Exercise of vile and contemptible persons, whom Romans called Gla­diatores, who, upon publick and solemn occasions, were brought in to divert and give sport to spe­ctators; their number once was so great, that being gathered into a body, they very much trou­bled the Republick. Of this, as of many other Exercises, many things might be said in that kind, but being not to our present purpose, I will omit it, to say that Fencing is now accounted an honest profession, and a necessary Exercise, upon the skill of which often depends a mans life, either in a single, or more general fight; and pro­vided a man doth use it only in his own defence, or of his friends, it will be not only lawful, but also commendable: as often want of skill herein joyned to the consideration of the danger, takes away man's heart, so certainly one who is forced to use his Sword, being skilled in't, hath some­thing to trust to, whereby his courage is raised: And although this be not universally true, yet no [Page 50] doubt he who knows how to handle a Sword, hath an advantage against him who never learned it, They who have a martial spirit find this Exercise sutable to their genius, give a great application to't, and do usually succeed in't; which to effect, they must carefully observe, and diligently practise Les­sons given them, which at the three months end, if no sooner, they may be able to practice, if go­ing to the School, they Fence against other Scho­lars, and make Assault as French men call it, and [...]ome Masters, if you give them monies, before you part, will shew some singular trust, and some ma­ster-piece of their Art.

Riding the Great Horse is a noble Exercise which ever was esteemed amongst valiant Nati­ons, and is so to this day: Horsemanship is a very manly thing, and 'tis no small matter to manage so strong and courageous a Creature as Horses are, so to curb and hold them in, or else so to put on, tame, and govern them, as to make them use [...]ul and serviceable to us, To love and delight in hor­ses is accounted a Princely passion. Hence it is, that in every Kingdom there is one of the most important Charges exercised by one of the most eminent Noblemen, called, The Master of the Horse. Hence hath sprung up that supreme charge (if I may so call it) under Kings in Military Af­fairs of High Constable, or as in some places it is called Crown Marshal for the word Constable was Comes Stabuli, Earl of the Stable. Certainly then the Art teaching us to make use of, and to rule Horses, must needs be esteemed e [...]pecially by those who have a warlike [...]pirit, it being known that Horsemen and Horses are the strength of Nati­ons, though o [...] some more than of others: Here­in [Page 51] doth consist the whole strength of the Polander, now after the Cossacks are drawn from the obe­dience they owed to that Crown. To ride the Great Horse, teaches two things, one to be a good, the other to be a fair Horsemen: the good Horseman I call him who fits fast a horseback, whom all the turnings, running, and stopping of horses cannot shake, nor cast down, which can be gotten by a long and constant use of riding: but to be a fair Horseman, that is, to sit handsomely, and well, to compose the motion of his body, ac­cording to that of the Horse, to have grace and dexterity in the handling and managing of him: In a word, to have a martial look, posture, and countenance a horseback, according to grounds and rules, is the fit and proper work of an Aca­demy.

Young men do very well to follow those Exer­cises, which make the body healthful, lusty, and strong, for they are good: such are the forena­med, with Running, Wrestling, Leaping, if de­cent, which are of a great use in War, because they fit the body for hardship; yet of these last, one is to make his pleasure more than his business; I mean, not to be too hot upon't, specially if one be of a weak constitution and temper; for they cause (when violently used) a great dissipation of spirits, whereby the body is much weakened: therefore one must be moderate therein, as in other violent sports, though honest and innocent, as may be hunting, which should not be too much followed: indeed sometimes it puts off evil thoughts from the mind, but withal produces no advantage: Diana the patroness of it is chast, but barren also.

[Page 52]Other Exercises there are not so material as the forenamed, which yet, if a Gentleman hath a mind to, and time, he will do well to learn; such are, Vauting, Trailing the Pike, spreading Colors, handling the Halbard, or the two handed Sword: Also it will not be amiss to learn to play upon one Instrument or other, of Mu [...]ick; as the Lute, Git­tar, Violin, or other he hath a mind to; because when he is alone in his Chamber, he may use it sometimes for a diver [...]ion. Some also give them­selves to vocal Musick, and learn to sing, which is a fine quality, specially when they have a good voice; for Art can perfect that good disposition of nature; and though they have no very good voice, 'tis well to learn the Rules; for sometimes a man in his retirement singeth to please himself, and not others: and though he would not sing at all, yet 'tis a satisfaction to know when others sing well, or when they do not, and to be able to judge of it. A natural disposition to't, is not to be neg­lected, but withal, excess therein is to be avoi­ded, not to affect, or too much make use of it: so as to appear in publick meetings, and places, nor to abuse that gift with singing vicious, profane, or impious Songs. In a word, a Gentleman may learn any honest and decent bodily exercise, whe­ther it be Tennis, or others, provided this be no hinderance to better things; and be not followed with excess, or too much eagerness: for else, in­stead of contributing to one's health, it would en­danger it, specially in Summer, when heat is great and violent; for without that, is made a great dissipation of spirits, which maketh one weak and faint; yet I would advise him not to give himself to those sports, which none but an [Page 53] in [...]erior sort of people are at; for thus he makes himself contemptible to persons of Quality: there­fore as long as he is abroad, and takes any recrea­tion without doors, let him use those of the Coun­try he lives in, and which are followed by his equals; for else men would conceive thoughts of him very disadvantageous as if he were weak spi­rited or low minded.

Thus much concerning bodily Exercises; let us now come to those of another nature; for he goes abroad not only to frame his body, but also to in­struct his mind, and inform his judgment: there­fore he must add what he can to those Arts and Sciences I mentioned in the first part of this work, to bring them to a greater maturity and perfecti­on: so that where he finds an eminent Philoso­pher, there I would have him to close: the same he must do of a good Linguist, where he happens to light upon one; for it is the good fortune of Travellers in one place, to find a man who excels in one thing, and in another place one who is fa­mous for another; for those jewels are dispersed, and he is a wise man who makes use of the advan­tage, and draws out of them all what he can: for when the occasion is lost, 'tis not easily reco­vered. ‘Fronte capillata est, sed post occasio calva.Cato. One of the things, which above all, I would have him to be careful of, is, not to forget any thing he learned before in the Schools or University; for it were a greater shame to do so, than if he had ne­ver learned it: and let him not think it to be be­low him again to go over those things, for I have [Page 54] known some eminently learned men who every year read over their Grammar.

Some think a Governor hath no more to do herein, but to find good Masters of all sorts of Exercises, and see them perform their charge; but I am not of that mind, for I woul [...] not have him to be an idle spectator, whilst others are at work; but in time and place I wish him to impart to his Gentleman, some of the lights he hath in himself; for be is both, Censor morum, and Doctor rerum, teacher of things; not of Fencing, Dancing, or the Language, but of Sciences, whether natural or moral; but this specially by way of discourse: therefore I would have him to take pains briefly, to insinuate into the young man a general ground of History from the Creation of the world, to the present age, out of some good Books of his own choice: then also an Epitome of the particular History of the Country you are in, composed by an Author of the same Nation, esteemed the best, whether it be in France, or Italy, &c. and one treating of the present state of things, in France they have one which is often renew­ed,L'Estat de la France. called, The State of France, con­taining curious and necessary things for strangers and others.

The useof the Map will be very beneficial if he understands it, which he can do easily; this will give a great light to some parts of History, depend­ing upon Geography, which he must have an in­sight of, till in due time he comes to a place where he may dive farther into it: whereof I will speak in its place. In the mean time he must en­deavor to understand the use of the Terrestrial Globe, which can much help him therein.

[Page 55]The Science of Mathematicks is very curious, and much worth the pains of a Gentleman: In­deed, I think this of all others to be the most▪ fit and proper for a man of quality, though not eve­ry part of them; her demonstrations are so visi­ble, and so convincing, that of all humane Arts and Sciences this hath the clearest proofs. This is so generally received, that when we will say such a thing is undeniable, we call it a Mathema­tical demonstration: but as it requires ripeness of judgment, I would have him to learn it by de­grees, till he grows more and more fit for it: let him learn first the Principles and Elements of it; yet, if he can, he must perfect himself in the crab­by, yet very necessary part thereof, called Arith­metick, which is of a universal necessity. Geometry is one of the most important parts of it, necessary to many sorts of persons, pleasant and beneficial to all: The matter of Fortification is very impor­tant for the defence of places; and the rules of or­dinary Architecture are useful: they teach how to build well, to chuse a situation, pleasant, strong, and convenient, that is, having things necessary to subsist by, as Water, &c. what shall I say of Astro­nomy, Astrology, and other lawful parts of this curious Science, which of all humane ones are of the greatest extent, the most consummated there­in making daily new discoveries: they are so ta­king and recreative, that the more one studies them, the more he is enticed to do't; they are the delight of the greatest wits, to whom they afford matter enough to exercise themselves.

Chymistry is another curious Art, full of se­crets and rarities, very pleasant and useful; for certainly extractions made out of Metals and Mi­nerals [Page 56] can do much good, when applied well, and, if in the practice of it men could but confine them­selves within certain bounds, it would not prove so hurtful and dangerous to some as it is; but, in­deed 'tis so bewitching a thing, that many not be­ing gone very far into't, do seek for the philoso­phical Stone▪ in the pursuit whereof, they ex­haust their brains, and purse, and hope to find it out, which yet is harder to be done than a Qua­drature in the Circle, or malleable Glass that is harder than stones which can be broken with a hammer.

If a Traveller hath time, and happens to be in a convenient place, as may be Padoa, Montpellier, or other, it would be in him a commendable cu­riosity to learn something in Physick, not to be a Doctor of, or to practise it, only to be able to under­stand the grounds of it. A man having a body to look to, would be glad to know the temper and constitution of it, what manner of diet he must observe to keep it in health, and also to know the nature, causes, signs, and remedies of Diseases, it would be a satisfaction and a benefit to one; for at all times, and in all places one hath not a Doctor at his elbow to consult with: besides that, there is a great pleasure to read the strong and rational Books of great Writers in that profession, as Avi­cenna's, Averroes's, Hypocrates, Galenus's, and others; out of which here and there, I will col­lect curious things, and necessary to be known concerning our inward parts, viz. that the heart is the principle of life; that the Liver is the chief instrument of the nutritive faculty, and the shop of Blood; that the bladder of the Gall is a neces­sary sink to settle the flava bilis, or choler, that [Page 57] thereby the Liver is warmed and freed from cor­ruption, and other good offices it doth, and that the Spleen through several arteries, receiving heat from the heart, boileth the gross blood, which through certain little ramuli's or branches it doth convey into the neighbouring parts, for their nou­rishment, and that it draws it self the melancho­lick humor to disperse it into the ventricle, to strengthen and increase the retentive faculty, and many things more of this nature.

He will do well when he is at Orleans, Angers, or any such places, where are publick Schools of the Civil Law, to get one of the Doctors, or Pro­fessors thereof, to read it to him, which he will do privately in his own house; or perhaps, if you be a man of high quality, come to your lodg­ing: Let no man account this to be a disparage­ment to himself, for Learning and Virtue are a credit: and I have known young Noblemen, and of the greatest quality do't. And though this Ro­man Law be not every where received as a Law, yet in't is much of Reason and Equity, and con­tains the grounds of politicks; the parts of it were instituted by a wise Republick, and great Empe­rors, by the advice of judicious, wise, and able Counsellors; by the means of it several men were raised to great honor and fortune, according to the saying, Dat Galenus opes, dat Iustinianus ho­nores,— Pauper Aristoteles. This Civil Law once was received in many parts of the world; and though at present it hath not the strength of a Law in some places, yet it is much esteemed every where, and lookt upon as a thing judiciously com­piled. I could also wish the Traveller to inform himself of the most essential, municipal Laws of [Page 58] Countreys he comes into; much more would I have him to understand those of his own, which he is to live under, and to be ruled by: therefore when he is come home, or before he goes abroad, he would do very well to settle a year or two in one of the Inns of Courts, therein to be instructed of, and apply himself to it. A man who hath an Estate, is sometimes subject to be troubled about it, and he will be glad to know how to defend it from cheats, nor be forced to go to Lawyers upon every trivial account for counsel, nor always do things upon trust, and not know wherefore such and such courses must be taken, and let it be an encouragement to those who would get prefer­ments by it, that in most Nations they who are eminently learned, and versed in the Laws, are raised to great places, as to be Judges of the Land, Lords Keepers, and Chancellors of Kingdoms, and as to Estates, within these Dominions, many Fa­milies have been, and are daily raised to great means and fortune by the Law.

When he hath time and opportunity, he will do well to learn to draw Pictures, which is a gentile Exercise, when one doth it for his private use and recreation, it may serve to take the Plots, Situati­on, and Landskips of places he goes by; hereby imagination is much helped; so that a more per­fect and more lasting idea of things is formed within us, being conveyed through the eye. As he goes by any Courts, he must endeavor to get the Pictures of the Princes and Princesses, young Prin­ces and Ministers of State, and other great men, and the Maps of considerable Cities. Let him not neglect to see, and if possible to get some skill in ancient and modern Curiosities, whether Pictures, [Page 59] Statues of Brass, Marble, Alabaster, &c. Medals, and other fair and curious things, of which there is abroad such a variety, that it would be tedious to name them all; only I would wish him to en­deavor to get an universal, though it were but a superficial knowledge to be enabled upon occasion to discourse of any thing.

To the purpose of Medals I must say, the study thereof is not only pleasant, and curious, but also beneficial for the understanding of History; by their means we find the errors of some Authors, we learn some particulars, and understand niceties of History, which Historians were silent in. This is better than picture which doth not last, and Sculpture which doth not so much represent to the life, the faces or actions of great men; it contains the best parts of these two, Picture and Sculpture, and the surest of History; specially when they come from good Masters hands. Then as to the matter, the variety of Metals is considerable▪ whe­ther Gold, Silver, Corinthian Metal, or Brass; and of this last specially, there are several sizes, some of the greatest by Italians, called Medaglioni, then great; Mezzane or of a middle size, and at last those of the lesser sort, and these either Roman or Greek; the Roman either of Families or Empe­rors, the Greek of Cities. Of all these, those which are historical are the most considerable, and so worthy of the curiosity of Princes and great men, as to have one of the best places in their Closets: there is much learning in the knowledge of them, and sometimes one affords matter enough to dis­course a whole hour upon't: 'Tis true, it requires monies, some skill and time to put several toge­ther: in a word, it is a very enticing curiosity, [Page 60] and of great extent. And this as to ancient Me­dals, which some other time I may happen to en­large upon.

But besides these, there are also modern Medals; for when Arts and Sciences were restored within the last age, this was not forgotten; but indeed, Work-men were so ignorant, and so followed the Gothick way, that it is lamentable to see some of their Medals, which yet were better than those coined 4, or 500 years ago: but of late the way hath been so found out, that England and France afford admirable ones, and Holland too, but infe­rior to the former. Instead that formerly the best were of Brass, now they are of Silver or Gold. The ancient Roman ones, since the days of Augustus were daily better and better, till the days of Trajan and Hadrian, and so kept till Cara­calla, at which time good work-men began to fail. So modern ones, though they began to appear in the days of Henry VII. were hardly worth looking upon till within these thirty years,Having made an obscenous Medal of Pope Innocent the X. with Donna O­lympia, he was sent to the Pazarelli, or Bed­lam, where he died. when Corman in Rome, Wa­rin in France, and now in England some have restored that art to a great perfection, both as to the de­sign and working of the Coin. Thus by the means of twenty Medals, more or less, the whole History of a Princes life is laid open before us. Some great men also, but Subjects are by the means of a Medal made known abroad to the world. The inclination I have for these things hath made me enlarge upon the matter: but I return to my subject.

[Page 61]Every night before he goeth to bed, he must recollect and repeat what he hath seen and lear­ned that day, and also about the same time let him be sure to learn something by heart, which will take a deep impression, because when he is asleep, there are no objects to drive it out: this will also strengthen memory, which is the better for being used; for like a knife it grows rusty, ex­cept it be made use of. Let the Governor often see him do his Exercises, whose presence will make him and the Masters more diligent and care­ful: and if sometimes he happens to be ill-dispo­sed, let him put it off till another time; provided it falls out so but seldom; for being so released, he will return to't with more vigor and chearfulness. He must be taught to have a respect for all his Ma­sters whatsoever, and thankfully to receive their advice when they tell him of his faults.

And now I am upon this subject, the Governor himself must be very prudent in [...]t; for this is a delicate matter, most men loving to be praised, but not corrected and censured of their faults: in this he must use a very great dexterity, he lying between two extreams to discharge his duty in telling him of his failings, yet not exasperate him. If the young man was sensible that what advice is given him tends to his good, there would be no need of so many niceties, nor of so many cau­tions to be used: but the temper of several be­ing like that of some horses, which receiving a sudden check of the bridle, draw back, grow un­ruly, and play a thousand tricks; so they flie out, and cannot endure to be told what is amiss in them, which is an infallible sign of a bad nature: Hereupon he must observe these three things, the [Page 62] first must be a protestation of his real zeal and af­fection to his Service, which puts him upon tel­ling him something for his good; having thus prepared him, he must gently and civilly tell him what the matter is; But thirdly, he must tell it in private, and take his time when he sees him in a good humour, and fit to receive advise. Other times when he often sees him fall into a fault, he is to find out some Story of one or other subject to the same fault, which he ought to exaggerate as much as can be, and thereby make him who committed it ridiculous, ever speaking of a third person, which a young man can hear very patiently, and observe it too; but if he should come home and say to him, You are the man, perhaps he could not endure it; but when he hath done all that he can, and yet he will not mend, he must be patient, knowing he hath done his Part, and remember, That which cannot be cured, must be endured, though a pru­dent man will lay hold upon advantages some­times he receives from one occasion or other, and then he giveth advice with success; but let both the Gentleman and his Governor know this, that in every thing a decorum ought to be obser­ved.

As we all have failings, so we must seek to know and find them out; and when we have, 'tis not enough to hide and conceal them, we ought first mend and leave them off, for else they still remain and keep us in a continual danger.

But one of the most essential parts of the Of­fice of a Governor is to neglect no occasion of instructing his Charge in every thing which is fit for him to know, whensoever he is with him, [Page 63] whether sitting or walking, he must loose no time, but give him good and wholesome advice, infusing into him principles of Piety and Virtue, to make him loath and abhor Vice, improving his understanding by the light and knowledge he imparts to him of things; when he seeth him do well he must commend and encourage him, and make him know his error when he is in the wrong, he is to be told of so many things, and there is such a variety of occasions to speak, that certainly an ingenious man will not want matter to entertain him with, the Stock of a Scholar and a Traveller cannot ea­sily be exhausted, and though it were only certain things which may very well be told over again and again; every thing a man seeth, or any he hears will afford matter of speech, and one may reflect upon't; and make some spiritual, na­tural, moral, or political application of, and obser­vation upon; and rather than to say nothing, I will tell him Stories to divert him, which will make him love my company, render my person acceptable to him, delight to be with me, and so upon occasion to take my advice; for let others say what they please, a loving, civil, and obliging carriage will go nigh to win him, or else he must be of a strange humour, which yet I deny not to be possible. One thing which I would be constantly informing of him of, is the State of Affairs in Europe in gener [...]l, and of every Na­tion in particular, beginning at home, continuing by our Neighbors, and ending by those who are far off

From time to time, he ought to give Parents an account of the young mans carriage and im­provement, [Page 64] and in case he hath sometimes no good to write, he ought to mitigate things, and not mention every petty trifle he doth amiss in: one must be very careful and tender not to make division between Father and Son, between whom natural affection at last will awake; 'tis a good work to settle a good correspondency between them, but withal the young man must help, the Tu­tor alone cannot do't; for if his carriage were extra­vagant, it would destroy the good opinion he is willing to give of him, and would make the fa­vourable Character pass for a lye, or at least a flattery; but in this are many intrigues depend­ing upon accidents, to be left to the Prudence of the Governor, and which is not fit to declare, because they could not sute with the case of eve­ry one.

Hitherto I shewed what a Gentlemen being abroad, ought to learn and know: Now I am to speak of what he must learn and do, and how he must behave himself. Saint Paul reduces it under three Heads, To live in this World soberly,1 Tim. 2.12. justly, and reli­giously; by sobriety he understands our whole duty concerning our selves, by justice or righteousness that which hath relation to our Neighbors, and by Religion, that which we owe to God, in whom he will have us to end, and begin with our selves, so to continue by our Neighbors; for except we be well disposed in our selves, we cannot be so towards others,Isa. 1.16, 17, 18. and less towards God; Wash your selves, cleanse your hands, then draw nigh to me, faith the Lord. These are essential Duties and necessary to be [Page 65] practised by us upon all occasions: and though this be a command affirmative, yet it includes a negative one: not to infringe sobriety, justice, or piety at no time nor place; which negative pre­cepts do oblige one, semper & ad semper. All men in what Countrey soever are generally obliged to the observation of this.

But other things there are more particular than this, relating only to a civil life, consisting in some fashions and customs of Countries; for herein one Nation differs from another, which a Traveller ought to study, follow, and practise: this diffe­rence in some parts is greater, in others lesser; these must be learned by him who is willing to go into company, else he would appear absurd and ridiculous: and though it is not to be expected that a stranger should be perfect in the customs of a Countrey, as he who is born and bred in't, yet it is to be supposed they will labour to be infor­med of them. For a time one ought to leave off his Countrey fashions, to practise those of the Na­tions he conver [...]es with; for 'tis more fit and easie for one or few men, and strangers, to conform themselves to the ways of a whole Town, Pro­vince, or Kingdom, than for a whole Nation to learn those of a particular man, or of few, which yet some are so unreasonable as to desire and dis­like any thing which is not exactly as they have it at home: This may well be called the disease of their own Countrey, whence they brought it, and which they will have to attend them through the whole course of their Travels. Certainly they are no wise men, who say, what care I for such fashions and customs; which is the same as to say, I matter not to make my self ridiculous, and to [Page 66] do th [...]ngs wh [...] are absurd, one thing is well in one place, and amiss in another. As for instance, here in England the manner is for the Master of the house to go in before a stranger; this would pass for a very great incivility in France: so here the Lady or Mistress of the house uses to sit at the up­per end of the Table, which in France is given to strangers: so if we be many in a company, we make no scruple to drink all out of a Glass, or a Tankard, which there they are not used to do: and if a Servant would offer to give them a Glass before it was washed every time they drink, they would be angry at it: Here when a man is snee­zing, we say nothing to him, but there they would look upon't as a want of civility. Again, we use in England upon a Journey now and then to ask one another how we do; but in France they do no such thing: amongst them that question would answer to this, what aileth you that you look so ill? I could make a long enumeration of such things, and other obvious, when a man hath so­ciety with people in that Countrey; for not on­ly every Kingdom, but also every Province or Shire, and almost every Town hath some such particular thing, and some reason for't, which one is not to trouble himself about, provided he hath the ground of the general customs of France, Ita­ly, and other parts when he is in them.

A man's carriage in the street ought to be well composed, and according to the usual way of the place; in some, if they see one walking extraor­dinarily slow, they will say he hath the Gout: in others, I have seen people walk so fast, that one might have thought they were running for a Do­ctor, or a Midwife. The Italian and Spanish Na­tions [Page 67] walk with great gravity, and would see o­thers do so too. Some going through the streets, gaze and stare as if they were fallen from the Clouds, or had never [...]een Men, Houses, or Shops; others wag their head so much, jugg so their hands, and are so discomposed in their whole mo­tion, that one would think they are wild or mad: Another sort there is of those who seem to go o [...]t into the street a purpose to see what other men do, or wear; such a man's Hat, say they, doth not sit well, his Cloaths ar [...] not fashionable, the Lace of his Cravate is old, his Shooes are worn out, and such busie-bodies observations, that one would think they are authorized to be publick censors of these things. Others as they go, talk as loud as if they were speaking to deaf men, and that too in their own language, as if they had a mind to make people take notice they are strangers, and yet do not mind, or else scorn to return civility to those who shew it to them, with putting o [...]f their Hats, or otherwise.

A good behaviour at Table, is, to me, a strong proof of a good Education: here a Gentleman must put a difference between him and a Clown. Grace being said, and civility ended, about pla­ces, I mean when a man is a stranger in a place; for else every one knows his own, or else they will indifferently seat any where, still paying civility to him who is much above the rest, a handsome liberty is to be used. In France they hardly admit of any Ceremonies, the bashful countenance of some at Table ought to be put off, Forks are a neat invention therefore to be used to avoid greasing hands, with laying them upon the meat: having occasion of passing the hand before others, one [Page 68] must do't as seldom as he can; and when he doth, he is to crave pardon for the trouble from him he gives it to, and to make clean his spoon before he puts it in the dish, after he hath taken it out of his mouth. Sometimes I have seen Gluttons, and a rude sort of people, who, as soon as a dish is set down upon the Table, snap all they can out of it, as if they were afraid to want and starve; one can see often as much upon their plate, as there is in the dish; not considering that others as well as they must have their share: then leaning one or both elbows upon the Table, like pigs they hang their mouth over the plate, and with both hands to the mouth, greedily devour that which so un­civilly they have taken. Thus [...]atisfying their gluttony, they mind neither decency nor their health; little heeding whether such a kind of meat, and such a quantity of fruit will not give a sur­feit to their stomach; for some raw fruits are dan­gerous, as well as meat hard to be digested: they also will sin against sobriety with immoderate d [...]inking, thereby inflaming their blood and liver; and do not mind how at Table, men ought to have good and profitable discourse. In my Travels I have been in places where people are very neat in their houses, in linnen, plate, and dressing of meat; but as nasty in the eating as others are in the dres­sing of it: but as Gentlemen are not the Cooks, they cannot help when 'tis nastily dressed; but it is in their power to eat it cleanly. It is not good to be over-nice in his diet abroad, yet 'tis a great sa­tisfaction to sit at Table with clean linnen, knives, spoons, forks, and plate.

Furthermore, the Governor must be careful of his Gentleman's conversation, which is of two [Page 69] sorts; one improperly called to converse with the dead, and the other with the living, is pro­perly so named: to converse with the dead is to read Books; herein he must be as cautious of what Books he reads, as what company he fre­quents: evil company doth debauch the body, and evil Books do corrupt the mind, causing that er­ror in judgment which bad men do cause in the practice. A great deal of good hath been done by good Books, and much evil and mischief caused by evil ones: Some are so dangerous, that cun­ningly and inperceptibly they infuse a poison into the mind and heart of the readers. This was a known truth to Primitive Christi­ans,Acts 19▪ 19. who being converted to the Gospel, brought all curious Books they had and burned them. When once a man is used to read prophane and dishonest things, he will easily be brought to practise them; wherefore it should be the Governors care to see he reads no dangerous Book to shake him in his Religion; for this, without exception, ought to be his chief care to keep him stedfast to his Religion, nor any pro­phane, obscenous, and others apt to corrupt good manners.

There is abroad a sort of Books called Roman­ces, which have been occasion of much talk pro and con; some saying they are curious and inno­cent Books, which upon several accounts may prove beneficial; for therein Virtue and Vice are set down; the first to be followed, the other a­voided: besides that, the chief subject of them is grounded upon History; what ornaments it re­ceives from art▪ they rather add to, than take from the beauty of it, as it is with Poetry. A modern [Page 70] Author in France stands much in the defence of these sort of Books, he and his Si­ster having written several in that kind.Monsieur de Scudery. On the other side, other good pens have cried them down for corrupters of good manners; teaching Ladies to give meetings to their Gallants, run away from their Parents, &c. But to give every one his due, the invention, elegancy, style, and purity of the Language are to be commended, as far as I know, no body doubts of the two last: as to the former, when the Author undertakes to give the Chara­cter of a proud, ambitious, amorous, constant, cruel, base, and perfidious; or of a wise, witty, generous, and valiant man, he carries on well his design, and the Author makes him act his part well: But on the other side, passi­ons are so represented to the life,Guarini, Au­thor of Pastor Fido had a Daughter, who became debau­ched with the [...]eading of his Book. that it works them into the heart of the Reader, which naturally being disposed to receive evil rather than good, entertains the first, and neg­lects the last; specially when they are in the hands of weak brains; who seeing their passions flattered with a good success, at last, though through many crosses, they are encouraged to follow them, and will soon imagine themselves able to perform what others are therein said to have done. But if one hath a mind to know the way of them, he must read with this caution, that many things in them are not true, and consequently are for recreation rather than for instruction: no doubt but that some good and some evil are to be learned out of them: but if the harm that springs from that read­ing [Page 71] is greater than the good one can get by it, 'tis prudence to forbear reading them, specially youth, which easily receives impressions; but if they be read, let it be with moderation, seldom and with­out application, except it be for the Language; for certainly, reading of them much, steals some of our precious time, which might be better em­ployed: yet a Gentleman may be informed of what manner of Books these are, so as not to be altogether ignorant of them when he happens to be in a place and company where such things are to be spoken of: but let him do't so warily, as to fear being poisoned therewith; and like dogs in Egypt, which never stop when they lap in Nilus, for fear of Crocodiles that are in't.

The Tutor also is as much as in him lies to see he reads no Books which contain unsound and Heterodox Principles, or able to lead them to sin­ful practises; such are some Books of Jesuites, which hold any error in judgment, under the Doctrine of Probability; that is, if one single Do­ctor hath advanced an opinion never so false, or erroneous, it is probable he was in the right, and so, men may believe it with a safe conscience. Other Books of Jesuites do countenance any sin­ful practice, and corrupt wholly morality, under the notion and Doctrine of Directing the Intention: Thus one is allowed to steal, not to deprive others of their own, but with an intent to serve his oc­casions, and relieve his wants. These things are clearly set down in the Book, called the Mystery of Iesuitism, and at large in another, entituled, The Morals of Iesuites; both translated out of French.

Now I must speak of Conversation, properly so called; though to distinguish it from the other, it [Page 72] was named conversation with the living: This is one o [...] the most important things a Traveller hath to do; man, as I said somewhere else, being a so­ciable creature, ought to seek for company to en­joy the benefit of society: therefore it must be a Governors care to find him such company as is good and fit for him; and by this one may see what an advantage it is for those Gentlemen whose Governors know the Language and ways of the Countrey, and are already acquainted, then they are not to seek as others, so as to need being intro­duced themselves; however he ought to shew him company by degrees, and not all at once: for he would be like those, who having been a while in the dark, when upon a sudden they come to the light, have their eyes dazled with it; he must begin with inferior persons, as it were, to enter him, and see how he will behave himself in't; for with such he is more free: and it is not requi­red he should observe himself altogether so much as when he is with people of Quality; but in those sorts of companies I would not have him to stop very long for fear of contracting some of those imperfections which often do attend persons of that kind.

But before he engageth far in company, he must first know in general, the temper of the Nation, then the particular of the persons he is to be ac­quainted with: the former is known by the testi­mony of those who have been a long while a­mongst that Nation, or out of ones own experi­ence. Thus the temper of the French Nation is free, bold, jovial, witty, and civil; besides, they are branded with rashness and inconstancy. The particular temper he may get information about [Page 73] from his friends who introduce him, from whom also, upon occasion he may be instructed of par­ticular customs, and how he ought to behave him­self upon some accounts. When he is once resol­ved to go into company, he must be sure to keep neat and clean his face, hair, hands, and to have handsome and fashionable cloaths, yet without vain and superfluous singularity or affectation, ha­ving nothing contrary to modesty or decency; for 'tis a general rule, that a mans temper is com­monly known by his dress, wherein is sometimes set forth much of extravagancy, for the proverb saith, The Bird is known by his Feathers. Men by the outward shew often judging of the inward incli­nation and capacity: One must not be too forward to invent new fashions, or to add to those that are already introduced: as for instance, if the mode be to wear one single knot of Riband, he must not have twenty; if when others wear but one Feather, he would have five or six, he would be accounted a phantastical man; but withal, he must not follow the mode too far off, to use little narrow bands, when others have them broad and deep, or to wear a high crowned hat, when the fa­shion is to have it low: To all these things there is a middle way, which certainly is the best and wisest, and not to be so singular as to wear thick cloth in Summer, or silk or thin stuffs in Winter, contrary to the rule and practise of others. By all means avoid being singular in your ways, cu­stom is a great tyrant, and not to be ac­counted a fool, a man is to follow the common folly.

One saith well, that Meditation and Reading make a man learned, Writing makes him exact, [Page 74] and conversation ready: for a man used to com­pany, hath often occasion to discourse upon seve­ral subjects, whereby he acquires a facility of ex­pressing himself, and confidence to see and speak with others, without blushing or bashfulness: it inspires also a desire of pleasing and getting the esteem and approbation of those he frequents: whence it is, that he will observe his cloaths, stu­dy his words, and compose his gestures. It is true, that in this he will take pains, more or less, accord­ing as he likes the company; for the tempers of men are so different, and there is such a variety of humors, that certainly there must be, as it is, a greater conformity to, and liking of some than others. Hence it is, and also by reason of an anti­pathy, that a man will hate the company of ano­ther upon the very first sight, which another will love the reason of this contrariety not being vi­sible, but occult or hidden.

It is then a beneficial thing for a Gentleman, when it can be done in a strange Countrey, to see company; but let him frequent persons of Quali­ty, by whom he may well be informed of affairs, and of whom he will learn a gentile, and a good behaviour; and when he is known to frequent the chief and best companies in a Town, upon this account every one will shew him respect: he will also do well to be acquainted with another sort of choice persons, considerable, not so much for their birth and quality, as for their Virtue, Merits, Parts, and abilities, for to learn how to carry himself well in all kinds of company, he must see the variety of them, and learn how to comply with all manner of humors and tempers, yet excluding a vicious and sinful compliance; [Page 75] for as in every man there is some thing particular, so in every company he will find and observe that which he will hardly meet with in another; and to know well the several tempers of men, is, doubt­less a very considerable advantage; also to have over himself such a power as to become grave and serious with men of that temper: on the contrary, merry and jovial with those who are such.

But in France, they have a priviledge not to be enjoyed by strangers, in Spain, Italy, Germany, &c. which is, to converse with virtuous Women, and of quality; the manner of French Breeding ad­mitting a mixture of both Sexes; out of which, for the most part, results an excellent Behaviour and Education: that Nation is so fully persuaded of this, that they believe a man cannot be well ci­vilized without it: this is an universal practise in that Kingdom, from the highest to the lowest, which their wise, serious, and learned men do also follow: this is the way there for men to be cried up; and it is observed, that people is more courte­ous, a [...]fable, and polished, where this custom is pre­valent, than in others where it is not: upon this ground runs that French Breeding so much appro­ved of, and sought after by Foreign Nations, who send thither their Children to be instructed, and receive part of their Education: hence also ariseth that civility they shew to strangers, who enjoy there more priviledges, and have more liberty to come to Court to publick shews, and to some other places, than several of their own Nation; so that for the most part a stranger is admitted, when a French man, who is not well known, is excluded: therefore let not other Nations blame this custom, [Page 76] because it is not their own; for every custom doth not sute with every temper or Nation: and if Spa­niards and Italians had introduced it, may be they had had not so many grounds of jealousie as they have; for virtue and liberty not only may, but al­so very often do consist together: but a Traveller or other particular man must not undertake to condemn a custom approved by a whole Nation, received and continued for several hundreds of years. Now whatsoever I say to this, is not to approve or condemn that practise, seeing I am but a particular man, who must not think to make others subscribe to his opinion: I speak only as to matters of fact, and relate things as they are, not minding much what either licentious or scru­pulous humor will say to't.

However, not to be silent upon this subject, I will say something of it upon these grounds: to love and have a respect for women is natural to men, and that such a love and respect may well consist with vertue and honesty, I hope none will be so unreasonable as to deny. Now this general inclination being strengthened with the particular knowledge one hath of the merits and virtue of some persons of that Sex, the heart will not long be able to keep within that esteem and affection, but will seek for some ways to express it, which begins with a desire to please: and as the intenti­ons are pure, so the means made use of to please, will be innocent and commendable; otherwise they would not answer their end and might hap­pen to displease instead of pleasing: the usual ways to please, are, civility, meekness, humility, generosity, compliance, &c. which are all virtues necessary and essential to a Gentleman: besides [Page 77] that, this Sex having not the ferocity and rude­ness which are in many persons of ours, they who are subject to't, must leave it before they come in­to the company of Ladies; the generality of that Sex being mild and delicate, specially they who had a good breeding, which is ordinary to most persons of quality; so that considering the Sex, the quality and merits of those into whose com­pany a man comes, I leave you to judge of the care he will take to be welcome to them: and this is not all, for most of those persons have a great deal of wit, most of them from their infancy being used to be in the company of those who have understanding and experience, at­tending on their Mothers, Sisters, &c. when they make or receive visits; so that of ne­cessity in time they must be brought to a good frame, fit for a delightful and profitable conversation: besides that, as the world goes, if one hath a mind to hear news, or affairs, he can find in womens company wherewith to satisfie himself; there being hardly any intrigues in Towns, Provinces, Courts, and several King­doms, but they have a hand in't; and sometimes a publick Minister will as well speed in his Ma­sters concerns, by courting Ladies, as by frequent­ing Ministers of State. Within these fifty years al­most whole Europe hath been once governed by the authority or counsel of women; so that by their means several men have made their fortune, which is more than a civil carriage, and the Lan­guage to be learned in their company: who then can after this be against frequenting their compa­ny when they are well qualified, seeing with them we also can enjoy that of men.

[Page 78]According to what I said somewhere else, there ought to be a choice in matter of company; there is no society in multitude, the faces of men who meet in numbers, make no more impression in us than of those we see in a dream; the sound of their words can be distinguished no better than the noise caused by the fall of great waters: one is to look for a society innocent and delightful, able to perfect our mind and other faculties, to bring them into a good frame, and to divert it in persons we intend often to be with: we must look for the same qualifications which Platonical Laws require in those who pretend to Priesthood, namely, to be whole and sound in body, mind, and manners, born of honest Parents.

Having shewed of what persons the company is necessary, I must now give [...]ome rules how the young Gentleman is to behave himself in't: First, coming into the place where the company is, he must remember to practise the rules he was taught by his Dancing-master, modestly, and without af­fectation, yet with some difference, according to the high or low quality of the persons he salutes, the carriage and gestures of his body, to be so well composed as to be far from any shew of vanity or bravery; the first visits usually are of ceremony, and so short and serious, yet witty upon occasion, or of affairs, whereby it must be regulated. In this point are several circumstances, which ought to be ordered according to the custom of the Countrey wherein they do differ.

In the second place he must be careful of what he saith; he must never begin any discourse of Re­ligion when he is with those of a contrary, for [...]ear of bringing troubles upon himself; this mat­ter, [Page 79] most men being apt to be hot upon. St. Paul exhorteth to avoid vain disputes, though the sub­ject of Religion be the most important that can be spoken of; yet disputes of Travellers are usu­ally vain, as to the success of it; no good comes from such disputes, most men being for the Reli­gion they were born, bred, and instructed in; and after whole days of such disputes, every one re­tains his own, and all that hath been said upon it are words in the air, except it be when a man seems disposed to hear, and be better informed than hitherto he hath been: but when a man dis­courses of Religion meerly to bring another to embrace his own, such disputes commonly prove fruitless. When a man hath such an itching de­ [...]ire to talk of [...]uch things, let it be of those Ar­ticles wherein we do not differ: though we dif­fer in theory, and about means, we agree in the practise, and about the end; namely, that we ought to live well, if we desire to die well; that to be saved, we must believe in Christ: and in case others would provoke him to speak of Reli­gion, may be with an intent one way or other to bring him into snares, he must say he is satisfied in his own; therefore desires no disputes about it: only he prayes God to enlighten his under­standing, to the end he may more and more know his holy mind and will; saying with David, Lord teach me thy ways, and I will walk in thy truth; teach me to fear▪ thy name, and I will praise and glo­rifie it with my whole heart.

Thirdly, he is carefully to observe the matter of his discourse; not to say any thing that's im­pious, prophane, dishonest, or unbecoming; let [Page 80] them all be seasoned with the salt of prudence; avoid saying any thing where those who are pre­sent or absent may be offended, and take excepti­on: Indeed the common vice of companies is to speak of the life, manners, and employments of our Neighbours, and ill of it too for the most part. Beware when thou speakest ill of another, whe­ther thou be not guilty of the same thing thou condemnest him for: avoid also idle words which we are to give an account of. If we use to chuse our meat, let much more our words be tried; for if we examine the meat that goeth into our mouth, we ought to do the like of the word that comes out of it; which often causes greater disturban­ces in families, than meat in the [...]tomach: Again, let words be plain and clear without equivocation or ambiguity; sometimes a word mis-understood and mis-reported, will cause a quarrel: More­over, let one's discourse upon a subject be to the purpose; for he who speaks of that he under­stands not, or at random, will suffer blame instead of the praise he expected. Others fall into this inconvenience, out of another cause, which is, that some bring their bodies into company, but leave their wits and minds at home; so that whilst the company speaketh of one thing, they rave of another; and often upon a sudden, returning to themselves, they will speak to that which they hardly heard, or else have the incivility to make others speak over again that which was spoken before. Let a man speak of things fit, and ada­pted to the company he is with; it were not proper to talk of Philosophy or Mathematicks in a company of Ladies, nor of Balls, Dances, and such pieces of Gallantry in the presence of wise [Page 81] and grave Senators, and Doctors. Furthermore, let him know,

Virtutum primam esse puta compescere linguam,
Proximus ille Deo qui scit ratione tacere.

Therefore let his words be few, for there is sin in the multitude of words; and so let too much talking be avoided. Socrates wish­ed in his Disciples discretion, silence,Est & fideli tuta silentio merces, Horat. lib. 3. od. 2. and modesty, contrary to impru­dence, pratling and impudence; that second Vice usually containeth the other two;Trop parler nu­it, trop grater cuit, saith the French Pro­verb. and 'tis certainly better not to speak at all, than to speak amiss. To the nine Muses, Nima Pompilius, added one he na­med Tacita, or silent; to shew that though all Sciences were in one, without silence they would prove useless. Indeed, as it is a great wisdom to hide his passions, and discover those of other men, so it is to speak little, and hear much; for whilst fools have their heart upon the tongue, wise men keep their tongue in the heart: These know how to keep a secret which they are trusted with, and which to them is a sacred thing, but the others are uncapable of it. Herein I am not so unjust as to advise one to leave off speaking, only I wish him to order his words, and observe what he is to say, and to take his time; for there is a time to speak, and a time to be silent, specially about cer­tain matters. The advantage of silence is clear; he who speaks empties himself, but he who hears fills himself.

[Page 82]Let his words be also true, that is, for what he knows; for to tell a lie is one thing, and to lie is another: one may tell a lie, thinking it to be a truth, when he hath been mis-informed; but to lie, implies an intention to deceive the hearer: This distinction was well observed by Nigidius, Lib. 11. cap. 11. as related by Aulus Gellius, An honest man takes care not to be a lyar, and the prudent man not to tell a lye. An honest, or as So­lomon saith,Prov. 13.5. A righteous man hateth lying The credit of a man is the truth of his words; without it he is accounted base and unworthy, not fit to keep company with honest men; when he is known to be a lyar, he is not believed, though he speaks the truth. Our Saviour would not suffer the Devils to confess him to be the Son of God, for fear this truth should be suspected coming out of their mouth; [...]o that when a man is come to that, I account him lost in his reputation, having thereby declared himself the true son of the Devil, who is a lyar from the beginning: therefore whensoever a man speaks, let him say the truth, though he be not always bound to declare it; nor the whole truth, which often 'tis prudence to conceal. Charitably one must not tell the Vices of others, specially of Pa­rents, Patrum pudenda non detega­mus, Gen. 9.22. saith a Doctor, as did Ham: A Son must not say his Father is a Drunkard, though it be true; but still I say, let all sorts of lyes be avoided, whether it be jucun­dum, officiosum, or perniciosum, pleasant, profitable, or hurtful; for if one uses himself to any of these, he will easily pass to the practise of the rest. It is a [Page 83] trouble to lye, and requires much of memory; it is easier to frame within us a real image of that which is, than a false idol of what is not so: truth can well be expressed without art or affectation, but a lye stands in need of both. Above all, let a man in his discourses avoid that horrid and un­profitable sin of Swearing; all other Vices have something of profit or pleasure to plead for, but this hath no such pretences; only a wicked mind, and a desperate custom. But will not God be avenged on those who call him to be a witness to a lye, with taking his name in vain, and forswear­ing themselves? He is called not only to be a wit­ness to what is agreed upon, but also to be aven­ger of the perjury when it is committed. His name is called in to help one man to cheat another, an affront which he will not forgive: Let Zedechia [...], the two of the ten, who broke their word to An­nibal and Vladislaus be witnesses of it, and let an Heathen, a Regulus shame and condemn such ones.

Let also a Gentleman avoid speaking ill or well of himself,Ne te collad­des, nec te cul­paver is ipsum ▪ saith Cato. no great danger of the first, but much of the last: and when there is a necessary occasion for't, let him do it modestly and sparingly. They who take a plea­sure to speak of their exploits, and to be trum­pets of their own praises, are laught at in compa­ny, and at last are a burthen to those whom they converse with: but alas, who can make an exact enumeration of the defects creeping into the mat­ter of mans conversation: some trouble the head of those whose company they keep with news of what passes in their Street and Parish; others make the ears ring with the miseries of the times [Page 84] and sufferings of people; some talk of nothing but of the weather, others of War, and in a Cham­ber they take Towns, overthrow Armies, and de­cide of the fortune of Kings; others can speak of nothing but of mirth, eating, drinking, or of cloaths a la mode; others of their Travels, Books, Horses, of Building, Hunting, Hawking, Cour­sing, and of thousands of such things: those who constantly are talking of one thing, and never but of that thing, are the plague and persecutors of reasonable persons. I would have a man able to discourse upon all these, but in due time and place. As there is no man infallible, so none ought to be too positive, peremptory, or obstinate in his opini­ons.

I must not forget to warn our Gentleman to compose his body so as to commit no absurdity in his posture, no more than in his discourse. When he is in company, he must forbear talking to him­self, muttering between his lips, often [...]pitting, nodding with his head, pointing the finger, leaning on his elbow, crossing of his legs, sudden and fre­quent turning of the eyes, looking awry, shutting his eyes, or looking upon the ground when he speaks, instead of modestly casting them upon the person he speaks to, frowning, making mouths and faces, a perpetual motion and disquietness of the body: and generally he ought to forbear any thing which is sign of lightness, threatning, an­ger, or of an inward fretting or disturbance. So when he walks in or out of the room, let him handsomely carry his body, avoiding every unbe­coming gesture, and that lofty walking of some who seem to have a mind to make the ground tremble under them, the best way is ever the most [Page 85] natural, which is no ways to be forced or counter­feit, except (as it falls out with some) it be ridi­culous, or hath a particular reason for it; as the office or profession of some men that requires a greater gravity, which yet must not be affected, nor with ostentation.

Hitherto I shewed how a young Gentleman may learn good, now I must teach him how to a­void evil: this is the whole of man, to do good, and flie from evil. Phy [...]icians do reduce their whole art to the practice of these two words, tene & abstine; so there are things which a Traveller must follow, and others which he must abstain from. I have advised him to go into good com­pany; now my work is to dissuade him from keeping that which is bad: many a one hath been undone by bad company, and evil counsel, which attend one another: for though a wicked man be sometimes able to give good counsel which he takes not himself, it is so by accident; for the spring being corrupt, the streams cannot be whole­some: To know good is one thing, and to do it is another▪ the former being easier than the la­ter. Of things to be avoided, some are evil by ac­cident, and others are so of their nature: things indifferent in themselves happen through some accident or circumstance, to produce some incon­venience upon which account prudent men will forbear it: this happeneth when men fall into the extreams of it, that is, to an excess, or to a de­fect, when men use a thing too much, or too lit­tle. Thus to walk or to play at some games, is a thing which may be done; but if a man doth it too long, or follows it too much, there is an ex­cess in't: and this is to be avoided, because it cau­ses [Page 86] him to lose other occasions; not the use, but the abuse of it: so of eating or drinking, which are necessary, or of eating of such a meat, or drinking of such a liquor, which are indifferent things; there can be an excess of eating or drink­ing too much of it, or a defect when some out of an extraordinary grief forbear eating, as if they intended to starve themselves: or when a Doctor prescribes Physick, the dose he hath prescribed must not be increased nor diminished; too much, or too little make it bad, one over-works nature, the other sets it at work, but helps it not.

I may say the same of some companies, which may be frequented, but with measure, and with­in bounds: amongst several I could name of this kind, I will only mention that of a Traveller's Countrey-men, who if they be sober and civil Gentlemen, may well be frequented; yet with moderation: for one must not be too often with them, wich is a hinderance to the end for which we travel abroad, to learn the language and fashi­ons, which is not to be gotten in our Countrey-mens company; or else one had better to stay at home, and save charges: they may be seen and visited as much as is decent, convenient, and ne­cessary to shew we have a respect for them; but if they be debauched, their company is absolutely (though handsomely and civilly) to be avoided, it being more dangerous than that of any other Nation whatsoever: and this I say generally for Travellers of whatsoever Nation they are: for when there is abroad a familiarity and friendship between some of the same Countrey, that conside­ration of the Countrey gives them a greater influ­ence of one upon another: and thus with greater [Page 87] ease they can spoil one another; for he who gives a bad example is capable of giving bad coun [...]el, but anon I intend to say more of this.

Amongst the several sorts of bad company, I would have one chiefly to be avoided, which may be called wicked; it is of those who are known to be of, and to profess impious, atheistical, and prophane Principles, who notoriously do give up themselves to vice, who live as if there was no God,Phil. 3.19. or whose God is their belly; as the Apostle speaks: but withal, whose end is destruction; a sad doom: of these a Poet saith, ‘Et quibus in solo vivendi causa palato est.Juven. Men who glory in their shame, who like Swine wallow themselves in their mire, and who like Dogs return publickly to their vomit, being past shame and feeling: the company of such is more carefully to be avoided, than of those who have the Plague, which only can kill the body, but that infects also and destroys the soul. After this I need not mention another loss considerable in it [...]elf, but not in comparison of this which is the loss of reputation and approbation of honest and worthy men: a long frequentation hath the same effect as precepts: and though it were possible for one to preserve himself from their corruption; yet still people will say, Noscitur ex sociis qui non cognoscitur ex se, and similis simili gaudet.

There is another sort not so bad as the former, but sufficiently bad to do mischief; they go ano­ther way to work; and at the first sight they ap­pear not to be what they are; but they are care­ful [Page 88] not to give a publick offence, but after a short time of acquaintance they will make themselves known to be debauch'd and vicious; yea, and some cheats and trapanners: now a tender spirit not well grounded or confirmed in the Principles and ways of Virtue, will be shaken and perver­ted by the suggestions of such, and he will hardly have strength enough to resist the violence of Vi­ces, which in great numbers will crowd upon him; therefore he who hath a mind to be good, must not go into the company of evil men: for Ioseph himself learned in Egypt to swear by the life of Pharaoh.

I said elsewhere that every Nati­on hath some particular Vices and Vertues;In the Preface of my Relation of Italy. experience teacheth us, that drunkenness is predominant in the North, and North-east parts of Europe, as Luxury is the Master sin of the South, and South-west parts of it. Now it is a sad case, when a North Countrey Gentleman co­ming into Spain, or Italy; not only learns the Vi­ces of those Countries, but also practises those of his own: to do't, he must have some of his own Countrey-men, who have learned that fashion at home, and are loth and unwilling to forget it: See here the inconveniency of frequenting abroad his own Countrey-men, for in all Italy and Spain you can hardly find ten men to drink and fuddle with Strangers. When a young man hath so great a mind to be with his Countrey-men, it were better for him to stay at home; but when he finds some sober and civil person, he may sometimes keep company with such an one if they be willing to forbear speaking their mother tongue, and falling [Page 89] into any evil courses; though except they be near relations, or very good friends, they will do well to be civil, but not very familiar one with another. Hereupon it must be the Governors pru­dence to prevent such acquaintances as are atten­ded with inconveniences; or at least let him take heed lest his charge be the worse for it: and as sometimes there is a necessity to remove, Parents must take care ever to have them supplied before­hand with monies.

Let drunkenness be avoided, and the compa­ny of those who by their example entice one to it. This Vice not only suspends the use of reason, and maketh it forfeited for a time; but also it renders men worse than beasts: Let a Horse, an Ox, or a Dog be led to the water, they will drink no more than they have need of, do what you can to them; because nature is thereby satisfied: but some men will force their own to take that which it wants not, and which it cannot bear; and is often for­ced with pains to be disburthened of: Hence arise Head-aches, indigestion of Stomach, Surfeits, Gouts, Dropsies, Apoplexies, and many other di­stempers, which do precipitate a man into his Grave. If men in drink could see their faces, their looks, their reeling and staggering postures; hear their stammerings, and non-sensical discour­ses, they would be ashamed so to abuse themselves, and the creatures which God hath given them to be used with sobriety and thanksgiving. Why should they be prostituted to the passion and inordinate lust of those who as St. Paul saith,Rom. 8. make the whole work of Creation sigh and groan, and expose it to that bondage, out of which it shall at last be [Page 90] delivered. Drunkenness is the cause of most or all mischiefs: hence come quarrels, blows, wounds, bruises, and often death. Who hath woe? Prov. 23. who hath sorrow? who hath contentions, babling, wounds without cause, redness of eyes, they that tarry long at the wine, &c. This Vice is commonly the fomenter of Luxury; for Sine Cerere & Baccho friget Venus, it is as the bait to it; and what wood is to the fire, that same drunkenness and gluttony are to Luxu­ry: therefore one said well,

Tollas ligna foco si vis extinguere flammas,
Si veneris motus, otia, vina, dapes.

Horace having said of Hercules, De Arte Poet. Multa tulit fecitque puer sudavit & alsit, addeth the Verse immediattly following, Abstinuit venere & vino. —He abstained from wo­men and wine, as of two great enemies to virtu­ous men.

It is said of one, who one day being asked which of these three sins he thought to be the least, Drunkenness; Murther of a Father, or In­cest, answered, Drunkenness, which he being gi­ven to, one night he went home drunk, went in and lay with his Mother, whilst she was asleep, and then killed his Father for censuring of him. Whether or not this was true, it matters not much; but this is a certain truth, how a drunken man is capable of doing or suffering any possible mischief. It is a wonder if a man given to this Vice be good in any relation; he is apt to kill, to steal, to commit Adultery, to play his Estate away; he is unfit for any employment: He who cannot [Page 91] rule himself, is not able to govern others, nor to manage any affair, whether publick or private; for he cannot keep a secret, whether his own or another man [...], in vino veritas: when he is known to be given to drink, others will play upon him in that way, and pump out what he hath in his heart. History both ancient and modern affords us ex­amples of great and important designs which mis­carried through this; which although it be every where a vile vice, yet 'tis more dangerous abroad than at home: for where a man is known, others will bear with him when he is in such fits, and not much heed what he saith or doth; but in Fo­reign parts, strangers will not suffer the extrava­gancies which men commit when they are in this condition, but will chastise them for't. St. Paul saith, they who are drunken, are drunken in the night, because darkness hides the vice, and frees them from the shame; but these seem to brave all the world, committing it in the sight of the Sun, and go abroad only, as it were, to let other Nati­ons see how vicious they are, which is a great dishonour to themselves, and disparagement to the Nation they are of; for others will be apt to think there is many such others in their Country: wherefore as they tender the credit of their Na­tion, the honor of their Family, and their own re­putation; if they pretend to any, let them avoid drunkenness, whereby their life is every day in danger, and jeopardy: and if they will be drunk, let them be so at home, and not do that wrong to sober persons of their own Nation, whom thus they cause to be thought to be such as they are, being all Country-men; if they have not the fear of God before their eyes, who excludeth drun­kards [Page 92] from the Kingdom of Heaven; let them tremble at the dangers which every day hang over their heads, they are loth to break good fellow­ship, but matter not to venture their soul, life, health, reputation, and estate: they will drink say they, but a glass of Wine with a friend, then the glass is followed with another, and this with a bottle, and many more; so that the Verse will be true.

Pinta traht pintam sequitur mox, altera pinta,
Et sic post pintas nascitur ebrietas.

Amongst the several laws made by Lycurgus, there was none against drunkenness, which he being asked the reason of, answered, that Vice is atten­ded with its punishments, shame, head-aches, di­stempers, &c.

The company of dishonest Women is also to be avoided, which is the more dangerous, because the desire of it is so natural; yet one must strive against Lust, which when it hath concei­ved,James 1. Gen. 3.12. it bringeth forth sin. Adam could say, the Wife which thou hast given me made me eat the Fruit of the forbidden Tree. This hath been a stumbling block to many a good and great man. David had a sore fall in the case of Bersheba; and Women turned away Solomon's heart from following his God: He who in his Book of Proverbs had given so excellent lessons against this sin, saying,Chap. 2. Chap. 5. Chap. 6. Chap. 7. from 10. to 24. Wisdom will deliver one from a strange woman, whose end is bitter as wormwood: she is cal­led an evil woman, by whose means [Page 93] a man is brought to a piece of bread: she leads one to death and destruction, and many such pla­ces. This caused the destruction of the Trojan Empire, which once was so flourishing. For this the Tarquins were expelled out of Rome, and by the accident of Virginia, the Decemvirs were turned out. And if King Rodrigo of Castille had not ra­vished the honour of Count Iuliano's Daughter, this Count had not brought into Spain the Sara­cens to be avenged of that injury. Solomon saith,Prov. 6. jealousie is the rage of a man, who will not spare in the day of vengeance. Sampson and Hercules pe­rished by these means, which made a Poet to say,

Quis Samsone fuit? quis fortior Hercule? constat,
Foemineis ambos succubuisse thoris.

Spaniards say well,

Guerra, Caca, y amores,
Por un placer mil dolores.

War, Hunting, Love, give bad morrows,
For one pleasure a thousand sorrows.

Without going so far back to find in ancient Histories, examples of damages befallen great States through an inordinate love for Women, there is a modern one very remarkable, which hath caused an unspeakable prejudice to the Spa­nish Monarchy.

Philip II. fell passionately in love with Anna Mendozza, a beautiful Widow of Ruygomez de Sylva, formerly a Minister and great Favorite [Page 94] of that King, and made confident of this passion, his Secretary of State Antonio Perez, who instead of serving his Master, spoke for himself, and had his desire, which could not be done so secretly, but that Escovedo, Secretary to Don Iuan of Au­stria, and newly arrived out of Flanders, heard of it, and acquainted the King therewith; with a design thereby to undo Perez, who in the Coun­cil opposed Don Iuan's concerns.

Whereupon the King incensed, took a resolu­tion to destroy both Escovedo and Perez: the first, because with his Counsels he encouraged Don Iuan to make himself Master of Flanders; and the last because he was become his rival and had betrayed the trust he had put in him: so he took Perez's advice to have Escovedo murthered, and committed the execution to the care of the Author of the Council, which was soon done out of a great desire he had to satisfie the Lady incensed against the other: but after the Murther, Escovedos Chil­dren prosecuting the business against the Lady and Perez, the first was sent to prison, and the last suspended of his Charges, and deprived of his Pensions, for the space of six years, living private­ly in Madrid; when a new accusation being brought against him by the same Children of Escovedo; namely, that he had received 10000. Crowns of Gold from the Grand Duke, and be­trayed the King's secrets to Don Iuan, he was condemned to pay 30000. Crowns of Gold, (worth about nine shillings a piece) to two years imprisonment, and eight of banishment. In the mean time, the King, by means of his Con­fessor, offered to him to make the Sentence null and void, if he would but deliver back the Let­ters [Page 95] he had under the King's hands concerning the Murther, which he refusing to do, was cast into a close prison, yet at last with the Kings con­sent, he came to an agreement with Escovedo's Family, to whom he payed 5000 l. which accord­ing to the King's desire, impoverished him: but at last, Philip being resolved to clear himself of the Murther, with bringing the Author to punish­ment, he was put to the Wrack, confessed the fact, and excused it upon the King's Command, whose Letters he produced: after which, know­ing the King would never forgive him, and that though he had accused his Master, yet he had not cleared himself, he made a shift to escape out of Prison, and in one day went a hundred and fifty miles into Arragon; his Country, where the Justice promised him protection: but the King having brought an Army, under this pretence to deprive that Kingdom of its priviledges, and prevailed, he fled into France, where he was well received, and found a sure Sanctuary, and discovered to the French King all the secrets and Mysteries of State of Spain, and how to oppose them; since which time the French have made an effectual use thereof against that Monarchy. See how many mischiefs link'd together, a great States-man mur­thered, a Lady exposed to a publick infamy, ano­ther great man undone, and brought to great troubles for that adultery and murther, the whole Kingdom of Arragon deprived of his Rights and Priviledges, and the foundation laid of the decay of the whole Spanish Monarchy.

This hath been the blemish of great persons in former and later days, who went not unpunished, for God will not suffer them to enjoy at home, [Page 96] that peace which they deprive o­ther families of.Oddo Antonio, Duke of Urbi­no, was killed by his people, for being too familiar with their Wives, Daughters, and Sisters. No doubt it is dif­ficult to be chast amidst so many enticements to voluptuousness, ex­cept through the fear of God they be overcome with a flight from occasions, mastering of our sences, and with Iob, making a covenant with our eyes. Men ought to consider, that the beauty they so much idolize is but as a flower of the field, which the least distemper can dry up, age wear out, death and worms destroy and corrupt.

These kind of Women love nothing but them­selves, or else love all men alike; because their monies are their end, and their own interest is the principle they are acted by: who can tell how ma­ny shares are laid against young men. Upon this account let a young Traveller seriously look to it; for in several places it is as much as his life is worth, which upon that account lies often at the stake; therefore he must take heed not to run in­to such premunires, which often distemper or de­stroy their body, and endanger their soul and life. Therefore one must carry himself with great pru­dence, avoiding evil and offence, falling upon the practice of temperance; which, that it be true, ought to receive Being from reason, whereby the appetite concupiscible must be ruled; for if she hath not the command of it to moderate the impe­tuosity of its motion, man is in a sad condition; for imagination having been corrupt by that ap­petite, whilst blood is young and hot, and used to please it, not being able to shake off that habit, will take her turn to solicit him thereunto, when his strength and vigor have failed him; so that a [Page 97] man shall not be free of disquietness, caused through incontinency, although he be not in a capacity to satisfie it: but when reason hath ma­stered this appetite, there is a pleasant harmony between the inward and outward parts, and a de­cent modesty appears in the ordinary actions of temperate men, Against this sinned Diogenes, who used sometimes to lie with his Wife in the open street; upon which account, as well as any other, he deserved the name of Cynick, or doggish. Things may be lawful at certain times and places, which are not so, nor expedient in others, but to perfect temperance, when reason hath so gotten the upper hand of Lust, and that appetite I named before, it is necessary there should be a fix'd and constant resolution so to continue, for to be tem­perate at one time, and incontinent at another, is not true temperance, but effects of an inconstant temper, seeing virtue is ever regular, always the same, and never contradicts her self: Farther, a man cannot be called chast and temperate, when either distempers, old age, or other accidents have mortified his lusts, which he left not, but hath been left by them, nor when he changeth that sin into another.

— Nani frustra vitium vitaveris illud,
Horat. lib. 2. sat. 2.
Si te alio pravum detorseris —

Fables do represent sensual pleasure in the shape of a Child, naked, blind, with wings in his back, a bow in one hand, and a torch in the other: a Child, because that passion becomes none so well as youth, and infancy is a mark of want of judg­ment; [Page 98] his ever being a Child is a sign of his con­tinuing foolish, and never growing wise: naked it strips of all, those who are given to it, and brings no good to any; blind, because it puts out the eye of conduct, and hinders it from seeing the imper­fections of what is loved: wings on his back, be­cause it is inconstant and apt to flie away: a bow in one hand, and a torch in the other, to shew how incontinency, causes nothing but war and fire. Hence also we learn, that seeing love is blind, he cannot pick us out of a crowd to hurt us, except we draw and stand near to him: let us stand at a distance, and with the light of his torch we shall be able to see his rash inconsiderateness in his in­fancy, his shame in his nakedness, and his errors and failings in his blindness. In the case of Pa­ris the Trojan, we see what miscarriages it causes men to commit; for a flower already gathered, it makes him leave the plenty of all things, and the glory of Arms and Sciences, which he might have chosen: to attain unto his lewd ends, it made him break the most sacred right of hospitali­ty, and during a War of ten years, which he was the cause of, he never appeared in the Counsel, or in Arms but twice; once in a cowardly way to kill a valiant man, and another himself to be overcome: who then can but abhor a desire so fil­thy in its beginning, perfidious in his progress, painful in the prosecution thereof, dangerous in its execution, whereof the end is so often atten­ded with distaste, shame, and utter ruine: there­fore let youth, whose hot blood boiling in their veins, are so disposed to entertain and be led by it, be taken up with good employments: thus one will overcome the son and the mother, a lascivi­ous [Page 99] love and idleness, and bridle those violent de­sires: I say lascivious, for there is an honest love, which having a good object, and being well dire­cted, doth tend to a good end, and causeth no in­conveniencies.

The company of Gamesters is also carefully to be avoided, because of the great and many in­conveniencies caused by gaming. I intend not herein to speak against honest sports, and lawful recreations; for this is necessary for young Gen­tlemen, to divert and refresh their spirits; but I mean those Games which have more of hazard than of skill; as are Dicing and Carding, of which there is no end, and go extraordinarily fast; and those Gamesters who make profession of Gaming, who live by, and cannot be without it. Sometimes one may for company sake, and for pleasure, play one hour or two, but not to be able to forbear, and be constantly at it, is a thing which prudent and rational men will disapprove and condemn: These kinds of sport are so bewitching, that when once a man is possessed with it, he cannot leave it off, specially when he plays for much, and is concern­ed: for when a man loseth, he is still in hopes the chance will turn on his side: if he gets, that gree­diness of winning more and more, will still make him stick to it, whereby he will be engaged to venture very deep; so that at last his whole estate will lie at stake: all other expences of cloaths, d [...]et, house-keeping, &c. may be regulated, but this hath no limits, and knows of no bounds: those who have nothing, or very little to lose, may venture when they have advantage upon others; but for men who have good Estates, to play whe­ther these Estates shall be theirs or others, is (I [Page 100] think) a great imprudence, if not a folly. Gaming is commonly attended with sad effects, as Oaths, Curses, Blasphemies, Cheating, Quarrels, Ruine, and Destruction of whole Families: In these kinds of things is a great deal of knavery; they who are much given to it, studying tricks, and cunning­ly how to trapan others: by these means, one who over night was rich, may happen to be a beggar the next morning; neither do we see them pro­sper who get monies by gaming, the chance tur­ning very often, so that the gain of one day shall be lost at another; and that [...]s constantly wheeling: for though many are undone with gaming, we hardly meet with one who made his fortune by it: although there may happen to be some very few, who having gotten something, do retire and give over for a time; yet at last that fancy cometh up­on them, and cannot forbear, but fall to it again, so they can never say any thing they have is their own; for as it is ill gotten, so it is usually ill spent; the inconstancy of fortune not allowing it very long to favour one man, her wheel being constant­ly upon a motion. This made the Emperor Charles V. to say, but upon a more noble account, Fortune being a Woman, loves to favour Youth more than old age: she is best pleased with new objects, for she forsook him to favour Henry II. of France; as of old she had left Annibals part to be on Scipio's side: it is therefore prudence to trust to her as lit­tle as can be. That which the world calleth For­tune, we must name Providence, even in things of seeming chance; for Solomon saith, The lot is cast into the lap, but that which comes is from the Lord; which providence men do tempt when they venture too far without grounds.

[Page 101]'Tis therefore a thing worthy the care of Prin­ces to stop gaming, and keep it within bounds; thereby to prevent the ruine of particular persons: whereas in some kind the State becomes a sufferer: therefore in some Countries Laws are made a­gainst it, to curb those frenetical fits which some men are taken with. There are too many of those who are so infatuated with it, that they will lose their meat and drink, and be deprived of their rest; sitting up late, and rising early▪ to humor themselves in it; their mind perpetually running upon't: so that this exorbitant passion must needs be a great torment to them, whereby they are kept from enjoying themselves. Whilst they are at play, ever they are greedy of gain, and fearful to lose; still tossed with uncertainty, that proves a pain to them: and when they do not play, they are restless, because far from their center, and from their element.

Tennis, Bowling, the Mall, and such like, are not Games, but Exercises, which men love ac­cording to their age, disposition, or inclination: these, as they promote health, so the worst they can do, is to tire the body, and bring little or no inconvenience upon the mind and purse: but for Cards and Dice it is otherwise. If one before he be given to them, would but see Gaming-houses, and take serious notice of the trouble and agitati­on of Gamesters, the disquietness of winners, the despair of losers, the quarrels, oaths, and blasphe­mies that are there, I am persuaded he would ab­hor them. Those sorts of sports, wherein so much doth not depend upon hazard, but part is left to conduct and skill, may be tolerable; but withal, as out of gaming, several get means to satisfie their [Page 102] pleasures so many are unfaithful in a thing whence they hope to reap much advantage, which is the cause of much cheating, and other evils, which I mentioned before.

After this, let every rational man judge of the weighty reasons a Governor hath to make his Gentleman avoid the company of such, when un­happily they meet with them abroad, and this whether or not they be Countrey-men; for in such a case all ought equally to be avoided; and often Countrey-men prove more dangerous than others, by reason of the conveniency of the Lan­guage, and because they are less suspected to be cheats: yet as our Saviour saith, a mans enemies are those of his own house. I have seen abroad men of other Nations, who, in an afternoon, ha­ving lost the monies they had, which should have served at least half a year, and then their cloaths, and what other things they had, were dragged to prison, and left almost to rot therein. Such exam­ples ought to make those who come after to be the more careful and wise, at the costs of others, not only to avoid the evil, but also the very danger and occasions; for such things in a foreign Coun­trey do sometimes reduce a man to great straights, so that in this one ought to know his strength, and how far he is able to go.

In the discharge of this, let the Governor be prepared to crosses, but let him resolvedly go on, and not be moved thereat; for some of those Countrey-men or others lighting upon a raw young man, conceive thoughts to make a prey of him: and as he is not cunning enough to deal with them, they will lay so many snares that it will be hard for him not to fall into one or other of [Page 103] them; they will play for what monies he hath, for his cloaths, then upon his parole, and his hand writing, when he hath lost, they will combine, and bett against him, then play false, when they are on his side; and in case he will not dance as they pipe, they will go about to huff and hector him to it: but when the Governor knows the world, and smells out these tricks, if he goeth a­bout to prevent them, they being angry to be dis­appointed, and to see their designs split, will flie out against him, raising a thousand lyes and slan­ders, and inventing many passionate stories to spit out their venom, which wise and prudent men will never mind nor believe; and which at last will turn to the shame and confusion of the au­thors. Let him not stumble at these blocks laid in his way, but go through in the faithful discharge of his trust, being satisfied with the testimony of his conscience, and the approbation of good, judi­cious, and impartial men, who also will slight an­other aspersion which such persons would cast up­on him, that he is an enemy to the Nation, and Countrey, because he hinders a young Gentle­man committed to his care from going into the company of debauched Countreymen. They who are inclined to, or guilty of such things as I na­med, will take exceptions at it, when persons of noble and vertuous principles will hate these things, and declare themselves against those who commit them.

However some young Gentlemen are of such temper, as to receive these impressions, and upon th [...] consideration of some different tempers, I had rather to deal with an ignorant, giddy young Gen­tleman, than with one who hath a malicious, dis­sembling [Page 104] and ungrateful nature; for there are hopes of the former, who may be capable of good counsel when he is far from evil company, he may learn, and know, and have his judgment in­formed by experience and advice; but when the heart is rotten and false, it is beyond remedy with­out a miracle, which none but God is able to ef­fect. Upon this account it is a great discourage­ment to see a young Gentleman act against his own interest; and to prefer the evil counsels of those who have designs upon him, or are debau­ched, before the advice of his Governor, whose care and interest are to keep him from inconve­niences: but the worst of all is, that when the Governor hath been about dissuading him from keeping such a mans company, for such and such causes; then upon the next occasion, he tells the party concerned, every thing his Governor said to him. Thus his care and faithfulness are ill re­quited, and instead of becoming his friend, as thereby he is bound, he makes him sensible of his ungratefulness, with raising new enemies against him; and when any thing happens amiss, the Governor who used all possible means to prevent it, must be charged with it; for some young men do sometimes think that the way to clear them­selves, is (though never so wrongfully) to father it upon the Governor, which to bring about, they make it their whole study, and as sometimes they engage some of their Relations to comply with them, these also do think their credit so far engaged, as right or wrong throughly to concur with the young Gentleman.

Hitherto I shewed how a young Traveller ought to avoid bad company, because through evil ex­amples [Page 105] he is led to evil courses. Now I will use an­other reason, viz. they give him evil counsel, which to speed in the be [...]ter, they will endeavor to insinuate themselves through flattery, which is ve­ry dangerous, because it suits with our inward desire, it being natural and ordinary for men to love to be praised and flattered. If they see this bait like to take, if he be prodigal they will say he is liberal; if he be covetous, they will call him saving and frugal; to their cruelty they give the name of justice, and of valour to their rashness and temerity: his cowardliness they will name [...]udence, his treachery a piece of wit, and his dul­ness a grave and serious temper: whatsoever he saith in his ordinary discourse, they will applaud unto, and approve of all his opinions, let them be never so false, unjust or unreasonable. I confess it is he sometimes to commend youth for what he hath not done, only to oblige and encourage him to do't, which perhaps is one of the best ways to excite Princes and great ones (to whom directly to speak, is dangerous) to vertue; and also be­cause truth leans upon justice, and modesty, as it is fit to be modest when a man speaketh of him­self, and just when he speaks of others; yet I cannot approve that a man's vices shall be called virtues, thereby to be confirmed and encouraged in evil courses. By the means of such flatteries, men often are much lifted up; as we read of the Physician Menecrates, who happily having cured several people, through a popular flattery was cal­led Iupiter; whereat he was so proud, that in the superscription of one of his Letters, he did write Menecrates Iupiter to Agesilaus, salus, or greeting, but that King knowing he wanted the Ellebore he [Page 106] gave to others, answered him thus, Agesilaus to Menecrates, sanitas health. Indeed the two com­mon vices of conversation are, to commend himself, and perpetually to applaud others: and there are those in the world, who as soon as they are in company, begin to flatter one or other, and expect the like returns; for, asinus, asinum fricat: but Italians wisely say,

Chi me fa carezze piú di quel' che suole,
O m'a tradito, ò tradïr me vuole.

that is, He who makes of me more than he u [...]es to do, either hath betrayed me, or hath a mind to betray me: ever flatterers have some ends of their own, yet such cannot abide to be told of their faults. A strange thing, that men would chu [...]e to be obliged (if I may so say) to their enemies for reproving of their faults, rather than to their friends, who would lovingly tell them thereof. But they who through flattery do corrupt the na­ture of Princes, or men in publick places, or infuse into them any thing else that is pernicious, ought to be as abominable as those who throw a deadly poison into a publick fountain.

Compliance is a good quality, very different from flattery, though to a common eye it appears very like: this is somewhat necessary, for it gives credit with those whom he is to deal with, whe­ther Princes or Subjects, and oftentimes this is successfully used to withdraw from vice, and set one in the way of virtue; but in't are required a great dexterity, and integrity: and I believe, hence I may draw one of the best advices, which in relation to a civil life may be given to a man, [Page 1107] whether young or old, though it may be more proper to what is called courtesie. If any one pro­pounds to himself to win the hearts in a commend­able way, and not by flattery, let him so behave himself in his receptions, discourses, and conver­sation that youth may therein find mirth, women modesty, men civility, old people respect, and all a taking sweetness; this is the way to be sought after for company. On the contrary, every one [...]lies from those whose conversation is troublesome, peevish, tedious, and difficult; who, under pre­tence of freedom and liberty, gainsay the opini­ons, break the designs, and never are of the mind of others. Lucullus at last was such a one, who thought it below a man of authority to com­ply with those that were under him: so after that, as Plutarch observes in his life, he did not so brave things as he acted before, for he lost the love of his Soldiers. No doubt but that Alexander the Great, and Caesar owed most part of their great atchievements and conquests to that obliging car­riage, whereby they got the affection of their Ar­mies; for it is most certain that a chearful look, a smiling countenance, a winning gesture, a demon­stration of a desire to serve, a care to enquire after occasions of doing pleasure and service to others, and to save them the trouble and shame to ask, preventing their petitions with a grant, and going about to do all good turns and offices of kindness and humanity, will certainly get an in­terest in, and power over the hearts of men, pro­vided one doth not degenerate into a sneaking flattery, and affected demonstrations of respect and humility.

[Page 108]These flatteries some are able to withstand. We read of Antigonus, how a Parasite having said to him upon a certain occasion, All things are honest and lawful for Kings, Plutarch in Apophtegmati­bus. answered, It is so for those who rule over Barbarians; but they who are set over civilized and rati­onal Nations, will govern according to rules, and not in an arbitrary way. Certainly, the superiority of some, and the subjection o [...] others, is not of a natu­ral right, but of the right of Nations; for nature makes all men equal: also it is much for the ease and convenience of those who command, and others who obey when there are laws known to them all; which Laws the Sovereign hath power and right to make to enlarge, and to explain which subjects may not pretend to.

With this way of [...]lattery, they who have de­signs upon others, dispose them to receive their impressions; if a Governor be a rub in their way, to seem wiser than the Parents who thought fit to give them one to direct their Travels: they will say, What need have you of a Governor, you are wise and old enough to govern your self? why will you any longer be ruled by such a one? Many more malici­ous things they will suggest to him, who not being wise enough to find out their end, which is to put a division between him and the Governor, there­by to take advantage of him, will be wrought up­on by such discourses; and the next thing will be to fall out with his Director, to slight his person, reject his advice, and gain-say him in every thing; he will neglect his Exercises, fall to unnecessary expences; and, out of spight to him, he will com­mit extravagancies, whereby he disparages him­self, [Page 109] and incurs his friends displeasure when they are acquainted with it.

In the next place, this will make him to be con­ceited of himself, think he is wiser than all his teachers, and able not to rule himself only, but the whole world besides, whereat he will swell with pride, and scorn every thing but himself; not considering, that God withstandeth the proud, and sheweth mercy to the humble; and that there is no humane power but stands in want of one thing or other (self-sufficiency being an incommunica­ble attribute of God) nor no condition so low but at one time or other may prove useful to some:Schaddai. why should a worm be puffed up as a bubble, up­on no ground but the suggestions of sycophants, and flatterers: Thus he becomes odious to God, and man; for the proud is an abomination unto the Lord: It is the sin of Adam, and of the De­vil; for evil Angels fall through pride, which, as Solomon saith,Prov. 16. Go­eth before destruction: See the effects of bad counsel given to credulous youth.

But he will go farther, and because he is of a noble and honorable family, he will boast of his great quality and extraction, and look very big upon others; but he ought to shew it by his car­riage, more than by his words, or else this makes against him: for 'tis vertue and merit which first of all did put a difference between men: by these means his Ancestors were raised to honor; not that he should brag of, but imitate them. Certain­ly it is a great advantage to be well born, for usu­ally there runs better blood in the veins of such, than in those of a lower extraction; because,

[Page 110]
Hor. lib. 4. od. 4. yet not always [...]rue.
Fortes creantur fortibus,
Nec imbecillem feroces,
Progenerant aquilae columbam.

Then care is taken to give them a breeding suta­ble to their quality, and want no means to ac­quire knowledge and virtue: but if they be vici­ous, they dishonor their families, become rotten branches of a noble stock, and their illustrious An­cestors do reprove, and are as many witnesses a­gainst them: Why then should one boast of what is not his own: for,

Quae genus aut proavi, aut quae non fecimus ipsi
Vix ea nostra voco.

They have given him an example, which he ought to follow, and to succeed in their virtues as well as in their honors and e [...]tates, to have meerly the ti­tle of nobleness, and not the good qualities of a Nobleman, is but a shadow, and a chimera in his fancy, not in reality. The denomination of a man must be from his better part; now if his soul, which is his noblest part, be void of good endow­ments, empty of noble ornaments, and stained with low, unworthy, and vicious inclinations, what can the body contribute to make him a No­bleman indeed, though he be begotten by noble Parents, which is sometimes questionable; for 'tis very hard to prove every Mother, Grandmother, and so upward, to have been chast and Lucretia like. I am of the mind of Iuvenal, in that excel­lent Satyr of his against those I am now endea­vouring to mortifie. [Page 111]Nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus.Satyr. if one be noble, I will respect that bare quality of his, and nothing else; but if he nobly born and vertuous, he shall receive my whole respect, e­steem, and admiration: it were better for a vicious idle man to be born amongst the commonalty, and of obscure Parents, than amongst the Nobility; for then he would not have so great influences upon others, so much to answer for, and his vices amidst the crowd of people, would not be so much taken notice of, instead that his quality makes them more conspicuous, and therewith do a greater mischief. In a word, whosoever grows proud on this or other accounts, will find the truth of a Proverb in an outlandish tongue, which I render in English,

He who flies higher than he should,
Can be brought lower than he would.

I will add, that they who are noble indeed, do consider they came into the world, and shall go out of it like others; for in this, nature hath made no difference, it being the lot of all that are born, to die; and therefore instead of growing proud of their extraction, they look upon themselves as lights set over others to have influences, give them good examples, and to be as much above them in virtue, as they are in nobleness of birth; and as they are so high by it, that they see no lawful means to ascend higher, they take another way wherein they succeed, which is, to raise them­selves by humility: the higher their extraction is, [Page 112] the lower they humble themselves; and this vir­tue which in men of a low degree may be an ef­fect of necessity, is in them a voluntary action. To see poor people humble, is no great matter, but to see illustrious persons practise humility, is worth the praises and admiration of all. This is the se­cret, and the way to be honorable, and great: they who are otherwise minded, let them remem­ber what said a great, a rich, and as glorious a King as ever was. Solomon more than once in his Book of Ecclesiastes, saith, Vanity of vanities, all is vanity, and a gnawing worm, vexation of spirit. I speak to Christians, who ought to consider the vanity and inconstancy of honors, by the experi­ence of all ages, which afford us so many exam­ples of revolutions; and the higher the fall, the more dangerous it is: all sublunary things being subject to change, alteration, and decay. One who is to day a beggar, sometimes can the next day be potent and mighty. Kings themselves are too of­ten tumbled down from their Throne, which if Princes are subject to, what must Subjects look for, let them be never so potent. To have ho­nor is not in our power, neither doth it depend upon us; they who bestow it upon us when we do not deserve, will sometimes deny it to us when we are worthy of it, or out of a groundless su­spicion deprive us thereof, after we enjoyed it for a time: and oftentimes we owe honor to favor or fancy, more than to merit. High charges, the Diadem, and Kingship it self are heavy bur­thens, subject to inconstancy and revolutions; therefore saith Maximilian an Emperor, if one knew well how difficult it is to rule, and how ma­ny thorns are fastened to a Royal Crown, if he [Page 113] see it on the ground he would not vouchsafe to take it up. And suppose we could have a quiet possession of all these honors and dignities, and they should not forsake us, yet at last we must leave them all, they cannot follow us farther than the Grave; Crowns Scepters, and Thrones, at last come to break and split at deaths feet, and be­tween Scepters and Ploughs she makes no diffe­rence: This the Poet knew when he said,

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas,
Regumque turres —

Let one seriously and with attention look into himself; and though he be never so highly born, he will find sufficient grounds of humility. No­tice may be taken of some good French lines on this subject; they run thus,

Qui bien se mire, bien se void,
Qui bien se void, bien se conoit,
Qui bien se conoit pe [...] se prise,
Qui pen se prise sage est
Qui sage est s'immortalize,
Et se rend un homme parfait.

In a word, the sense of them is this; he who looks well into himself, will know himself well; then he will not much value himself, wherein he will prove to be a wise and a perfect man. Thus it must be the care of a Governor to beat out of a young man's heart that pride and behaviour which ariseth from the consideration of his noble birth.

[Page 114]And as he must not boast of his Honor and Ex­traction, so I would not have him to brag of his Riches;Seeing a man hath no­thing but what he hath received, why should he boast o [...] it, even his ne­cessaries, as Cloaths, which make the greatest part of his pomp, though Purple and Scarlet were first upon the back [...] of Brutes, or he is behold­ing to Brutes for them. for the same evil flatterers will say to him, What need you to stand upon small charges, you are a per­son born to a great estate; you must live highly and accord­ing to it? which is only said to engage him to pro­fusene [...]s; but first the que­stion is not, what estate he is born to, but what his Father, who hath the Estate in his hand is plea­sed to allow him, who is not to undo his other Children to humor this in his debauchedness and prodigality: When a Governor saith to him, your Father allows but so much, therefore, according to the arm, the sleeve; and so you must forbear such and such occasions of spending: yet the Go­vernor may represent to the Father, that this al­lowance ought to be competent to bear his necessa­ry charges, and those which are fit and conveni­ent for his necessary improvement: however he cannot positively say how much a year will serve, there being accidental expences, and it being un­certain how expensive the young man will be; yet the Father is to decide how high and how low he will have him to live. It is fit and decent for one to live somewhat sutably to his quality; but still I say the mind and pleasure of Parents who have the purse, must be the rule of it: as for ne­cessary expences, they ought to be allowed: un­necessary ones, except one hath some credit there­by; and if they rise high, may very well be spa­red; [Page 115] for a small matter a young Gentleman must receive no distast or discouragement, yet he is to keep within bounds, for to be every day at it would prove a trouble and a burthen.

I will say farther, that a man doth not travel to spend as an end of his journey, but as means which he cannot travel without: and therefore let a man be of great quality, or heir apparent to a great estate, if in a Foreign Countrey he spends on all hands, and not upon good accounts, he will be laught at, and become ridiculous: it is no good argument to say, because they are Noblemen or Gentlemen, therefore they must lavish and be profuse; for nobleness and gentility are not to be known by vanity and extravagant expences, but by virtue and honorable actions: and that which upon this account some call generosity or liberali­ty, will be found to be profuseness and prodigali­ty. A young Gentleman under age, and in a strange Countrey, must not stand upon these things, because his time for it is not come; he doth not travel to make people see he is of a generous and of a liberal disposition, but to learn frugality, and how to manage an estate when it falls into his hands.

Matter of expences is indeed one of the most difficult parts of a Tutors task, youth being natu­rally inclined to spend, but some in an exorbitant and an extraordinary way, who make it their whole business how to spend, who would buy every thing they see, yet matter not how nor when it shall be paid; but as these tender their credit, and liberty, which is in danger if they pay not, let them buy nothing but what they are able and willing to pay; for to take and promise [Page 116] to pay, yet to laugh at people when they come to ask monies, is very dishonest, and unbecoming a Gentleman: at least let them give good words, A young man ought to say to his Governor, I have occasion for such things, and then they must agree amongst them, whether or not it is fit, ne­cessary, or convenient it should be done, then the Governor goes with him to buy and pay for it, or else he makes it his own debt; so that hereby the Gentleman is free from trouble: but if he would buy himself, as he doth not know the price of things, he is in danger of being cheated: and in case the Governor refuses to pay the debt, as being contracted without his knowledge and consent, and upon no necessary account, then those who trusted will fall upon him, and do him an affront; the same Governor must lay hold on such occasi­ons to make him sensible of the danger he runs in­to, and of the disparagement he brings upon him­self in so doing, and yet handsomely come off and pay the debt: but if the young man be wholly given to expensiveness, conceals it from him, stu­dies how to run into debt, and gives him a perpe­tual trouble to go to and fro, only to hinder he should not indebt himself, after he hath tried all fair and possible means to divert him from it, and acquainted Parents with the case, his last re­medy is as prudently and handsomely as he can to break his credit, and forbid people to trust him; or else Fathers would lay it to his charge, and blame him for these debts so contracted; thereupon he frees himself from farther troubles: for the Cre­ditors can do nothing to him, his Gentleman be­ing considered as one under age, who may not engage himself without his consent, and who is [Page 117] to him instead of a Father, by the universal care he takes of his affairs; and the Pupil hath no just ground to complain of this, for it is a service ra­ther than an injury to take by the hair, one who is upon the edge of a precipice.

Out of this a young Gentleman may see what a fine pass he brings himself to, with following evil counsel, or his own profuse inclination, he disho­nours himself, makes the rest of the time of his abode shameful and uncomfortable, bringeth a dis­credit upon his Nation, and deprives his Coun­treymen who come after him, of the marks of ci­vility and kindness, from people in those parts, which he hath forfeited; whereof the news being brought home, he lies under the shame and ble­mish also: but because out of every thing and accident, the Governor ought to have him make observations, whether Christian, moral, or politick, he will do well to lay hold upon this occasion, that he is born to a great estate; and let him know the vanity and deceitfulness of riches, which there­fore he ought not to trust to, it being uncertain whether he shall ever enjoy them, for they may be lost through so many accidents be­fore he is able to come to them,Matth. 6. Moth and rust do corrupt; and where thieves break through and steal: and though this should not happen, there is nothing more deceitful than riches;Prov. 23.5. for certainly they make themselves wings and flie away: upon this account St. Paul bids Ti­mothy to charge them that are rich in this world, 1 Tim. 6.17. that they be not high-mind­ed, nor trust in uncertain riches: [Page 118] very often they prove to be snares, for the love of them is the root of all evil, 1 Tim. 9.10. and they hinder the good ef­fect of the word, for they choak it, and becometh unfruitful; and lastly, they exclude us from the Kingdom of Heaven;Luke 18.25. for it is easier for a ca­mel to go through a needles eye, than for a rich man to enter into the King­dom of God; which St. Mark ex­plains of them that trust in riches. Mark 10.24.

Besides, the wayes already na­med, wherewith these evil compa­ny of flatterers use to corrupt an unexperienced young man, they have another,Judges 16. which is, to advise him to cherish those Dalilahs which lay in his bosom, and to give himself to his plea­sures; hang't, say they, a thousand pounds of me­lancholy could never pay an ounce of debts; where­fore shall we break our hearts, and deprive our selves of the pleasures of life? but the Governor must shew him the emptiness of these, that they are but vanity, yea lighter than vanity it self, which may well be compared to the drop in the bucket, and to the dust in the ballance: I would know when they are past, what remaineth of them, no­thing but grief and repenting, the dregs thereof are full of trouble and disquietness; for to move sences, objects must be present; but when they are, as to the pleasure, 'tis just as if they never had been. This the excellent Greek Orator Demost­henes knew well; for one day being gone to see that famous Courtezane of his time, and asking what she would have to let him take his desire of [Page 119] her, she asked him a great sum, but he being come to himself, said, I will not buy at so dear a rate, a thing, which for certain I should repent of: but here I do not intend to speak against innocent sports, lawful and honest pleasures, which are allowable, provided one be moderate therein, and they take up not too much of his time; but those I mean which in Scripture are called pleasures of sin,Heb. 11.25. where it is said, Moses chose rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; as Ioseph also, who in Egypt had rather to suffer than to sin with his Masters Wife. A Governor ought often to tell his young Gentle­man of all these things, that they may sink into his heart, and make a deep impression upon him, for the care of his soul is committed to him at least as much as of his body.

From these particular Instructions the Gover­nor may proceed to more general, out of his con­dition as a Traveller he can put him in mind of this, that as he is a man, he doth not go abroad to stay altogether; but still he considers himself as a stranger in the places he comes to, only he en­deavours to fit himself to go home better quali­fied than when he came away: so men are but passengers in this world, out of which they must study to go better than when they came into't, they have here no sure habitation; like the chil­dren of Israel, they must go through a Wilder­ness before they can come into the land of pro­mise, heaven, of which Canaan was a type and a figure; and therefore let the young man consider of his later end, and make provision for it; for alas, what is this but a valley of misery, where [Page 120] every one from the highest to the lowest, have their crosses, sufferings, and thorns in the flesh, and of every side, Except our souls, nothing in this world but what is mortal and corruptible, dust which vilest creatures do trample under feet, is the matter out of which we were framed,1 Pet. 1.24. All flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass, saith St. Peter. He was not the first that said so, the Prophet Isaiah had told the same long be­fore his time,Isa. 40.6. James 1.10, 11. St. Iames his con­temporary speaking of the rich man,Dispunge & re­cense vitae tuae dies & vidobis paucos, quos­dam & rejicu­los apud te re­sedisse, Seneca de brev. vitae. saith, he shall pass away as the flower of the grass; and Scripture speaking of the greatest and best Kings, as David, Solomon, Hezekiah, Iosia, and of the worst, all those of Israel from Ieroboam, saith, he died and was buried.

And now I am upon this subject so important to all, I will somewhat enlarge upon it; and first, let us speak of our life, which is the dearest and most precious thing we have in this world; for herein the Devil was in the right, and the fa­ther of lies spoke the truth when he said,Job 2.4. Skin for skin, yea all a man hath, he will give for his life: yet David calls it his Pilgrimage, and saith, in another place,Psal. 39.5. I am a stranger here as all my Fathers were: He reduceth it to a small matter, to a hand breadth: And the Wiseman in one verse calls it twice by the name of vanity.Eccles. 9.9▪ This is one of the vanities [Page 121] he had found amongst the rest. Let Iacob be heard speaking of this, when being brought before Pharaoh in the 130. year of his age, he speaks thus,Gen. 47.9. The dayes of the years of my pilgrimage are 130, few and evil: He who was called a man according to God's own heart, speaking of his life, said,Psal. 102.3. My days are consumed like smoke, Psal. 103. and a mans days are as grass, as the flower of the field: not a flower of the garden sheltered behind hedges and walls, but a flower of the field exposed to all injuries of weather; our life then is only a dream that passes away, a shadow, a vapour of smoke,Psal. 102▪ ac­cording to Scripture phrases; and if we make a serious reflection up­on't,Psal. 90.10▪ David confining it to 70 or 80 years, out of which, if we take away the time we sleep, of our infancy, old age, diseases, and afflictions, it will hardly make up fifteen years: this is the time which a man may properly be said to live.

As to the world it self,1 John 2.17. it passeth away with the lust thereof: that which he names the lust, St. Paul calls it the fashion, 1 Cor. 7.31▪ to shew that in­deed it is not that which others imagine it to be, heavens not ex­cepted,2 Pet. 3.10. for the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with a fervent heat; the earth also, and the works that are therein shall be burnt up. Hea­vens [Page 122] and earth shall perish, Heb. 1.11. which St. Paul doth repeat, they all shall wax old as doth a garment, Ps. 102.25.26. as a ve­sture shall thou fold them, and they shall be changed.

Could these things be well printed in the heart of a young Gentleman, there would be less to do for Governors than there is; their task would be easier, and their burthen the lighter; pride and vanity grounded upon the quality and riches of Parents being left off, which are the cause of ma­ny miscarriages, then youth would not boast of empty, pretended priviledges of Fa­mily and Ancestors.Some say Dio­ge [...]es. Socrates whom the Oracle of Delphos had pro­nounced to be the wisest man then alive, answered one who asked him, who he was, and of what Countrey, that he was a Citizen of the world: Let him be where he would, he ne­ver was out of his own Countrey: first, to shew a man must not stand upon the place of his birth, or some such circumstances relating to it. Second­ly, that such questions to a man, who? what Country-man? what his name is? and what Re­ligion he is of, are questions without a special cause, not to be made to a man; and therefore deserve no answer: that curiosity being contrary to a good breeding and civility: yet with [...]ome particular reason, civil expressions, and a kind of complement with it such demands in some parts beyond Seas will be well taken, else it will thus be interpreted, Your person is so inconsiderable, that if you will be esteemed, you must be beholden for it to your Countrey and Family. It was a strange fancy of people of old in matter of quality under which men and women thought to shelter their [Page 123] faults; for if a Princess or other of high quality had been gotten with child, either before they were married, or in the husbands absence, they presently pretended it was by one god or other of theirs: how many such children were fathered upon Iupiter, Neptune, Mars, &c. so when men had gotten a child of Fornication or Adultery, they said 'twas by a Venus, Thetis, or by the like goddesses and Nymphs; and truly if we will take pains to examine what manner of men were they who were thus begotten, we will find that many of the bravest and most noted men in the world, were natural Sons: such were Theseus, Hercules, Romulus, Alexander, Abimelech, Son of Gideon, and many more mentioned in sacred and pro­phane Histories▪ and since that time, Charles Martel, William the Conqueror, and some others.

Because beyond Seas one meets sometimes with men of a rude and uncivil carriage, who are of­fensive and quarrelsome; perhaps young Travel­lers will be glad to know what to do, and how to behave themselves in such cases. I confess the point is difficult, and the question ticklish, there being so many accidents to be considered, and it depending often upon several circumstances, which only those who then are present can judge of; most particulars must be left to the prudence of the party; yet in general he may be advised to avoid quarrels, and all occasions thereof: but because often it doth not depend upon him, and that sometimes they are unavoidable through the faults of others, and not his own, whether or not must he suffer affronts, and injuries? To this I say, that the thing ought to be examined, whe­ther or not it be a real affront; for there is ma­ny [Page 124] an imaginary one; and herein one is to consi­der the person, whether a friend or a foe, a supe­rior, or an inferior; then the way of doing it is to be lookt upon; for some do offend others out of ignorance, and without malice or design. Thirdly, the condition the offender is in, is to be taken notice of, whether he be drunken or sober, in a fit of anger or in cold blood; for all these do either aggravate or extenuate the offence: then the fashion of the Countrey, one is in, ought to be the judge of the thing; for in one Countrey that is accounted an injury which shall not be so in an­other, as pledging ones health, or not pledging of him, spilling the salt upon the table, or wrest­ing of a word, spoken with no bad intent: and such things which in one Country will pass for tri­fles, and in others for affronts: but Sapiens domi­nabitur astris, a prudent man will often dissipate those bad influences, and the ill dispositions of some mans temper: a civil and a courteous carri­age, can for a time change another mans nature, and as it were force him out of his mad humor: I have known men come into company with an intent to quarrel, whose mind was soon altered by such a behaviour; this winneth, tameth, and disarmeth a man, shames him because it seems to reprove him for the rudeness, injustice, and un­handsomness of his carriage to one who is so ci­vil, and so well deserves of him.

After all this observe, that if a man hath done you an injury, and desires pardon, assuring he hath not done it out of any ill intent, this is a sufficient ground of forgiveness. Now 'tis no shame, rather praise-worthy for me to own a fault when I have committed it, and to ask pardon [Page 125] when I have offended another: whereof the con­trary is obstinacy and aggravation to the fault; yet some will still examine the nature of the of­fence, and whether it be publick or private; for accordingly they will desire satisfaction: But much is depending upon the nature of the party offen­ded, if he be gentle or hasty. Of those who are offended, some take exceptions at nothing, and others at every thing: these are two extreams to be avoided, one must resent affronts done to him, yet is not to flie out upon every toy or trifle: in­sensibility of these is an effect of stupidity, and a sign of a low soul, of a poor and fainting spirit, and of a heartless man condemned by Aristotle; and truly,Eth. lib. 4. cap. 5. as the world goes, he who will suffer one injury upon the back of another, will be accounted a pusillanimous creature, fitter to live in Woods, and Wildernesses, than in the society of mankind; and he must be resolved eve­ry day to suffer new insults: and I would not have this to be mis-na­med and taken for a virtue,To do and suf­fer no wrong is the part of a Gentleman: yet I would have him to know the point of honor consists in the practi [...]e of morals, and not only in shewing heart and courage. which deprives man of the qualities of his nature, and makes him like a stock or a stone, with calling it constan­cy or otherwise: but in good truth, can we attribute the virtue of pati­ence to a picture, because it answers not to injurious words spoken a­gainst it? shall we say that Moles are stout and strong to resist the heat of the Sun, or the coldness of the weather, because they neither pant nor quake at it; no, because being under ground [Page 126] they are no ways exposed to these things, but to call cowardliness prudence is certainly to give a wrong name to a thing.

May be some will say 'tis a Divine Precept to bear injuries, which I confess, when 'tis for con­science sake, and for the cause and glory of God, or upon the account of Religion; and this too must be from those who have power and autho­rity over me: but for me when I go upon the street, to suffer one to take my Sword and my Cloaths, or when I am a travelling to let High­way-men to take my purse, when I am able to defend it, and to suffer my self to be beaten when I can help it, , what am I then a prudent man, or a coward? this would set all earthly things in a confusion, and destroy all manner of propriety, right, and justice; and if a man will take away my estate, my life, and reputation, which I cannot subsist without, and which I value above all, must I sit still, be an idle spectator, and suffer it? no, the laws and customs of every Nation have provided against this: certainly no rational per­son will condemn this resentment, only will advise me to use honest and lawful means to get satisfacti­on; and herein I agree with them. By a contrary way to this, one who suffers for impiety or blas­phemy might call himself a Martyr, when it is known how non supplicium sed causa facit marty­rium, 'tis the cause and not the torment which makes one to be a martyr indeed.

Then after this, Parents ought to suffer the disobedience and abuse of Children, Princes the rebellion of Subjects, Officers of Soldiers. Seneca who hath given so excellent Rules how to sub­due anger, and master all irascible passions, yet [Page 127] confesses in several places of his works, that to for­give wicked men, is to wrong those who are honest; and that he who is so indulgent to private faults, doth propagate vices to posterity; wherefore one had much reason to complain in the days of Nerva, who fell into Domitian. the other extremes of his predecessor, this having been too cruel, and the other being too indulgent and re­miss,Dio Cass. lib. Hist. 68. that indeed it was an evil to have an Emperor, under whom 'twas not lawful to do any thing, but the license of doing every thing one had a mind to, with­out censure amd punishment, was a worse thing. If Magistrates must punish wrongs, I conceive pri­vate men in some degree may be allowed to resent injuries received from their equals and inferiors: indeed it is prudence to be silent where there is no remedy, or when this is like to prove as bad or worse than the disease; upon such a case one will do well to forbear.

But I believe all rational men agree in this, pro­vided the resentment be kept within bounds; for the case and difficulty is about getting satisfaction; when we have good and warrantable means one is bound to make use of them; for it is not fit a man should be judge or executioner in his own case: and as long as there are laws to see us right­ed, it is our duty to appeal to them; for that which is called Duels, or challenge into the field, is now forbidden by all civilized Nations, though formerly it was allowed by Princes who were wit­nesses and judges of these single combats. N [...]w great penalties being laid upon such wayes, men use to make encounters of it, and to put a cheat [Page 128] upon the law, they would make it pass for being done in hot blood, and things are so shuffled, that it is hardly known who is the aggressor; every one saying he only drew in his own defence: if one sends or makes a challenge to another, he will receive this answer, Sir, I dare not answer you, because Duels are forbidden at present: but I use to walk in such places, and if you fall upon me, I wear a Sword to defend my self.

But as these things usually fall out in point of honor, in some Countries, they are judged by a Marshal-law, namely in France, where this fight­ing was once so common, that a man was ac­counted low-hearted, except he had fought seve­ral times; and when they had no just ground of quarrelling, they used to fall out about a straw, and the most civil amongst them went to a Gen­tleman when they knew him to be a good Sword­man, and complemented him into the field thus. I hear you handle well a Sword, pray give me leave to measure mine with yours, which was thankfully accepted: And hence came the use of Seconds, to see there was no foul play. And a Gentleman took it very kindly, upon this occasi­on, to be employed by his friend, because herein he shewed he esteemed him to be a man of cou­rage. In Henry IV. days those things were much encouraged by a word, which he spoke; for once going to Fontain-Bleau, by the way he saw one who had been killed in a Duel, and out of the martial temper he was bred in, he said, This man is dead in the bed of honor; which being reported from hand to hand, made many a one to seek to die in the same manner: but the present King hath very wisely forbidden it, with much severity [Page 129] against Delinquents: And because there are af­fronts which cannot be well put up, they are re­ferred to the Court of Marshals of France, who have provided against all ordinary cases, and made Martial Laws, which Governors of Provinces, and others in Authority, whom it may concern, are to see put in execution within their Jurisdi­ction. Thus, if a man hath wrongfully recei­ved a box on the ear, the offender is commanded to go home to the other, ask him pardon (upon his knees, according to the quality of the offended) and receive blows with a Cane the other hath in his hand, if he hath a mind to strike him (yet generous men do not make use of this advantage) to shew he hath deserved it: So in other [...]ingular cases they have particular [...]atisfaction: and these ways of fighting are used in Northern, more than in Westerly and Southerly parts. In Italy, the Stiletto or Dagger, in Spain, the Scopetada or shooting of a Gun will do the work; every where they are sensible of injuries, but several Nations use different ways to get satisfaction; in Germany and other places with noise, but in Italy and Spain, with more secrecy and dexterity: therefore let a stranger who is to travel into those parts know their ways: but whether in case there were no ways for a man to right himself, nor no laws to procure him satisfaction, he might not take some course, and what, I leave it to every one's pru­dence and genius: yet let it be the Governors care to see he doth, or suffer nothing to the prejudice of his honor, which he ought to be very tender of. Thus much upon the point is fit to be known by a Gentleman who goes a Traveller beyond Seas.

[Page 130]To prevent Challenges, one must endeavour to cure the imagination, which is the distempered part, with making it to know that there is no offence, whatsoever nature it be of; which for its satisfaction can deserve any man's death, no not the lie, nor the blow. As to the first, Scripture saith every man is a lyar; so if there be any of­fence, Scripture, and not the neighbor is the offen­der. If I tell a lye, and another makes me take notice of it, it is no crime to do't, no more than to shew there is a little ink or dirt upon my face: If I tell the truth, and another gives me the lye, the injury which he intended against me, doth wholly fall upon him. Laws have provided against all ordinary ways of injuries, therefore he who is offended, is not to regulate it; for he ought not to be judge and party, I find two reasons to hinder challenges, and fighting: first, the life we venture is not ours, God hath given it to us, and to him we are to give an account of it: it is also of our Father, Mother, Brother, Sisters, Friends, and of the State. The second is, we must not have boldness to destroy the image of our Sovereign God, which is man, for it reflects upon the ori­ginal; and withal not to hazard the life, estate, and reputation of a friend, for being our second. One hath well observed, about Francis the first, King of France, who introduced Duels with the Challenge he sent to Charles V. Emperor▪ caused the loss of so much blood, that there remains none of his posterity. He had three Sons, whereof two died before him. Henry the II. his third Son had five, whereof three were married, and reigned, but left no issue, nor the other two; and of five Daughters there appeared no successor, except of [Page 131] Elizabeth married in Spain, and Grand-mother to Anna of Austria.

But I must pass to other things, and say, that as learning of Arts and Sciences, and exercises do much contribute to make one a compleat Gentle­man: he cannot be such without the practise of virtues: a thing necessary for a Traveller to keep himself free from vices he meets with in his jour­ney. Now to attain unto virtue, five things are necessary; first, never to be idle. Secondly, to be watchful over himself, and see whether in every thing we say, do, or intend, there be any thing contrary to honesty; and whether the ways and means we use to attain thereunto, are good and lawful. The most important secret of a civil life is to have the prudence of handsomely and honest­ly making virtue to agree with the times, and men with affairs. The third, is to look upon the acti­ons of others, which if good to be followed, if evil to be avoided and abhorred. The fourth, eve­ry night before one falleth to sleep, is to call to mind every thing one hath seen, heard, said or done all that day; we give our stomach time to digest what we have eaten: the same we are bound to do for the soul, and not deny her an hours time to make the digestion of her good actions, and to expel her impurities. The fifth is every where, always, and in all things to sub­mit to God's providence; all which, if one doth practise, he may justly be called a vertuous man.

Of virtues there are three kinds, Theological, Moral, and Heroical; the Theological, otherwise called Divine and Christian, I named heretofore as Faith, Repentance, and Charity; to which I may add only one, which is a branch of the last, [Page 132] but properly and only a Christian virtue, grounded on a Divine precept, to love our enemies, pray for those who persecute us, and bless them who curse us. I defie all the Morals of Heathens, to shew us such a rule; the Law is to love them that love us, and hate our enemies. Another Christian virtue is, that voluntary submission to punishments, and that wonderful patience amidst violent pains and torments for the cause of God. I know some others have undergone great pains, but not in that degree of constancy, or else did not so chearfully run to death; which when they saw unavoidable, they did bear it the more patiently: and for certain, of all Religions, the Christian more than any is for suffering, yet excludes not action, so much as affirmeth a great States­man;Machiavel. for it hath virtues active and passive, which to exercise all, or in part, a Traveller meets with occasions at one time or o­ther.

I think I have said enough to my purpose of moral virtues, which can hardly be acquired with­out many precepts, much time, and experience, though the principles of it may more easily be in­culcated; and if a Governor can but make his Gen­tleman wise and prudent, he gives him thereby the Grounds, Principles, and seeds of all moral vir­tues, without which they are no virtues; these being the life and spirit of them all: and though these two seem to be but one, expressed in two different words, which for the most part are joyn­ed together, wisdom and prudence; yet they do much differ: for the first consisteth in election, when of two things it doth chuse the best, and the last in foresight; for they are prudent who foresee [Page 133] and prevent dangers. Farther, wisdom is an intel­lectual habit of the soul; but prudence is an actu­al one: the propriety of that is to know, of this to operate. We know in three wayes, and do ope­rate in two; the three are Understanding, Science, and Wisdom; the two are Prudence and Art: the subject of the contemplation of those are ne­cessary, certain, and unchangeable things; and consequently infallible, for ever they conclude the same; because he who understands not well, is said to want understanding: he who doth not well know a thing, cannot be said to have the Sci­ence thereof: but the subject of the operation of prudence and art, are not so well regulated; for that often meets with passions rising against rea­son, which it makes use of, and must act accord­ing to several circumstances, which of necessity do alter her ways and method. Art indeed doth not light upon so much difficulty in its operation, nor opposition to her working, because use and cu­stom have prescribed what it must do: besides that, it hath a sure end, with means to arrive thereunto: Nevertheless, as it must have an organ to work by, it hath much ado to fit it for his pur­pose, and make it serve his turn. Wisdom is a thing hard to be found. Diogenes with a Lanthorn at noon was seeking for a wiseman amidst the wi­sest Nation that was at that time: this indeed gives the weight to, and tries the intellectual faculties of the soul, as prudence doth to her operation, ordering our actions, and bringing them under her rules: it gives form to moral Vertues, which are not single acts, but habits; and therefore difficult to be acquired: so that he who will have young men attain to't, ought betime to put them upon [Page 134] giving precepts, allowing time and experience, till they be contracted.

When once they are formed, they produce ad­mirable effects; for fidelity and truth of word and promise, Regulus is a known and extraordi­nary example, who had leave from the Carthagi­nians to go to Rome, to advise the Senate to make an exchange of Prisoners on both sides; yet con­trary to his particular interest, and the expectati­on of his enemies, he dissuaded them from it; which being done, he went back and suffered the cruel death prepared for him: namely, to be put up in a Tun, full of long and sharp nails, and thus rowled to death: this is an heroical virtue. Of which in another kind we have an example in Fabricius, who being sent to Pyrrhus, that King in two ways attempted against his probity. First, knowing him to be poor, he offered him great sums of money, which he refused, afterwards he thought to have frighted him with a sudden bringing of an Elephant upon him; but he turn­ing towards the King, and smiling, said, Sir, ye­sterday I was not tempted with your Gold, nor to day frighted with your Elephant. Of such Roman and Heroical Virtues, History doth afford us many examples; youth amongst them being framed to it with precepts and examples of Parents, and by the care of a good Education: in which case they are said to have sucked Virtue with the Milk. It is related in the life of a worthy Outlandish Gentleman,Du Plessis Mornay. that after his dispute with Cardinal du Per­ron in the presence of Henry IV, his Son said, My Father hath been sacrificed to the Pope. This coming to the King's ear, he was ve­ry [Page 135] angry at it; whereupon one to excuse it, said, what a child of sixteen years old hath said, is not to be taken notice of: the King replied, One of sixteen of du Plessis breeding, is as much as thirty of another. Let this be said by the by, to shew how a good Education hath great influences to make a young man knowing and virtuous. Virtue is a­bove all things under God and his Grace.

Marmore quid melius jaspis? quid jaspide? virtus,
Quid virtute Deus? quid Deitate nihil?

Virtue is indeed a precious jewel, which they that can attain to, are very happy: Moral virtues are millions of times more scarce than vices; but he­roical ones are certainly the scarcest of all, very ex­traordinary, proper to few rare men, to a Hercules, Cyrus, Alexander, &c. whose way was, Parcere subjectis & debellure superbos, a rare courage and valour, and an extraordinary generosity, have been some of the virtues of Heroes. Virtue is not of one act, but of many. Now if there be so few heroical actions in the world, how much fewer must be the virtues? It is not enough to have a fine Wit, a good Understanding, Reason strong, well regulated Passions, a good Nature, great Parts, and a Soul capacious of great and heroical things; occasions of exercising these virtues must concur with those dispositions, and capacity be put to many great tryals, or else no heroical virtue, no advantage but what accidents may happen to af­ford unto a man once or twice in his life time: so that it must be concluded, that few in the world are capable of transcendent actions, or else want occasions to set them forth: yet this should be no [Page 136] discouragement to those who would infuse a desire of it into youth; for though it be not easie to come to't, yet it is not impossible, as it hath been in some, it may be in others; therefore nothing is to be neglected: This like seed in the ground ri­peneth and cometh to maturity. Hear what a Heroe AEneas saith to his Son,

Disce puor virtutem, ex me verumque laborem,
Fortunam ex aliis —
Tu facito mox cum matura adoleverit aetas
Sis memor — Et Pater AEneas & avunculus excitet hector.

This may be an argument to excite youth to vir­tue, to commend to them the virtue of their An­cesto [...]s, whose footsteps they ought to tread up­on; because thereby they attained unto honors and dignities: Certainly, if they have any good inclinations, it will work in them a desire of imi­tation. Thus Alexander the Great attained to the perfection of Achilles, whom he took for his pat­tern; therefore he was seldom without Homer's Iliads, which he used to lay under his Pillow: and it is beneficial to take one to be his pattern, as he did. Homer amongst the Greeks, and Virgil amongst the Latins, in matter of Heroical Virtues ought to be consulted; for in their Books, ex professo, under several names they have given us an exact Character of great, wise, valiant, and vir­tuous men; in which kind of writing for certain they ought to be esteemed true Masters, and best Authors: but this subject being not so proper for this place, because Breeding and Travelling do not make youth do great things, but fits and dis­poses [Page 137] them for it. This is only a leader and a guide to action, when they are raised to prefer­ments, come to riper years, and in a capacity of doing their Country service, then directions to heroical virtues would prove fit and seasonable; but that should be the work of another Treatise: for here I intended only to carry him to travel, and then bring him home, and not shew him what to do, to get to a settlement, when he is come thi­ther.

Therefore to carry on my design, I would ad­vise the Governor after the nine or ten months ap­pointed to settle in a place are over, to remove; but if they have time, I think it would not be a­miss to shew him the Sea-coasts of Britany, before he leaves the River Loire; for by reason of the neighborhood one cannot tell what occasion he may meet with hereafter, thereabouts to serve his King and Countrey; therefore when he travels by those parts, he must observe the situation, and the strength or weakness of places: the same he should do of Normandy, of all Sea-Towns there: when he is come to Rouën, so of all the Sea-Coasts of France, and of other Nations he comes amongst; because our Nation being so potent at Sea, one cannot tell what occasion hereafter he may have to lead Fleets or Ships into those parts, either as friend or foe; for any thing relating to Navigation may prove very necessary for every Englishman; the situation of the Countrey being such, that we can have communication with no other Nation, but by the means of the Sea.

I had almost forgotten to say, that as common­ly at home in Schools young Gentlemen are kept seven or eight years in learning that which they [Page 138] should be taught within half of that time at most, whereby much of their time is lost: so abroad they will meet with those Masters of Exercises, who for some interest of little money will be a whole month in teaching that which they could learn in a week: this the Governor is concerned to prevent.

But before he leaveth the place he hath been at, all this while, he ought to take leave of his friends and acquaintances in't; giving them thanks for their civility, either in receiving his visits, or ma­king theirs to him: then in case they can conve­niently give him any Letters of commendation to their Friends, in the places he is to go by, he may ask of them that farther favor: but let him chief­ly be careful to leave behind him no bad name, but give every one his due, and discharge all debts he hath contracted there. An honest man never loves to go out like a snuff, and leave a stinking smell behind him, but rather he will so depart from a Town, as that he may dare to come thither a­gain and be welcome.

As he goeth through the Country, let him (be­sides what I said before) exactly enquire of the chief Families of every Province, as afterwards he must do about the greatest of the whole Kingdom, in time and place: This gives a great light and help to understand the constitution and interests of a State, specially that of France, where great men have much power and influences: and as that is a large Country, he may observe the different tem­per of the Inhabitants of the several Provinces; in some places they are more hasty than in others; as in Gascony: and formerly the Forlorn Hope of their Armies consisted of Gascons, fit for a quick and speedy execution. In other Provin [...]es men are [Page 139] fitter for Horse than for foot. Those who are near­er the Sea-side are better than others for the Sea: those who are amidst Mountains are good to keep or force difficult passages; so towards the Pyrene­an Mountains, or other; as in the Sevenes and the Alps, they climb up high Hills and Rocks, and are fitter to endure hardship, not being so impatient as others are. Now out of the knowledge of this, the use will be in case one had to do against Armies composed of these several sorts of men, he could better know how to deal with them, with tiring or taking other advantages over those who are impatient, drawing into level ground those who are used to Mountains, keeping in Plains, when stronger in Horse, or in harder places when strong in Foot: and though every one hath no occasion to be a Soldier, or is not fit for it, yet 'tis well for every one to know how to defend his King and Country, how to repulse a Foreign Enemy, or how to disturb others at home, when our Princes think fit so to do: for though Kingdoms be not ever gotten or preserved by the Sword, yet with­out it they cannot be maintained; for all Councels in the world, except they be back'd with Sword and Authority, and be in a martial posture, will be slighted, and not cared for, Silent leges inter arma.

France is a potent Monarchy, of a large extent, very full of daring and industrious people, from Dunkirk to Bayone, washed with the Ocean, and the Southerly parts with the Mediterranean, de­fended by the Pyrenean Mountains from Spain, by the Alps from Italy, and by strong places up­on her other Frontiers it hath a door into Spain, by the ways of Perpignan, and Bayone; into Italy by Pignerol, into Germany by Brisac, and many strong [Page 140] places in the Low-Countries: this Kingdom,In his Book Pietra dell' Paragons. as Boccalini saith, is a land, where at any time one can sow seed, and a Sea where one can sail with every wind; and this so conve­niently seated to disturb so many other parts of Eu­rope, and all commanded by an absolute Monarch, makes it the more considerable in it self, and for­midable to her enemies; and indeed that Nation, except in case of civil Wars, or with England, hath ever more offended others, than defended her self: These general things, and others more par­ticular, ought exactly to be observed by Strangers when they come into those parts, the more because of their present flourishing conditi­on,The present war hath made some alterati­on in this. which makes that Crown have so considerable influences upon most Counsels and affairs of Eu­rope, which through her credit, interest, and friends she doth ba­lance.

But this subject is so vast, that the meanest ca­pacities can observe much of it, and have matter enough to exercise themselves about; therefore I account it superfluous to enlarge upon so ample a subject; They who have mind to know more of the particularities of the Grand Tour, may hereaf­ter read some observations of mine on the Voyage of France, which may be a guide to a Traveller into that Country: and suppose one leaves his Winter Quarters, or the place he hath been at all this time, about the middle or latter end of March, according as the season or company prove; in May he may be at Lyons, the great Rendezvous of all those who intend for Italy, and yet have time [Page 141] enough to stay and see every curiosity by the way, and to get information of things necessary to be known: after some few days rest at Lyon, if he hath a mind, he may go for Switzerland, by Geneva, and bestow a matter of six weeks time in that journey, which he may begin in Iune, and come back in Iuly; for the Climate of those parts not being over-hot, a man may conveniently travel there in the middle of Summer: then he must set­tle at Lyon, till it be time to go for Italy, which is usually in September; for one must not be too late to pass the Alps, for fear of an early Winter. Whilst he is at Lyon, let him learn the Italian Tongue, and get the best information he can of Italy.

There also he must see the company of discreet and virtuous Women, the better to understand af­fairs of those parts; and in case he could not swim before, if he can conveniently and without danger learn it, 'twill be very well; for whether a man Travels in France, Solon ordered this by a Law. Italy, Germany, or Holland, one goes by Water sometimes, and in case of a mischance he can swim for his life, the Seine, Loire, Garonne, Saone, and Rhone in France; Po, Ti­cino, Adlge, Tyber, in Italy; the Rhine, Danube, Main, Nekar, Elbe, &c. in Germany; the Rhine, Vahal, Maes, and Issel; in the Vnited Netherlands, the Scheld, Lys, Sambre, Mosel, &c. In Flanders or thereabouts, a Traveller hath often occasion ei­ther to go long Journeys upon, or else to cross them. Now when a man is upon these Rivers, and can swim well, he is neither so fearful nor so much in danger as others are, whereby he hath more pleasure in those journeys: some when they [Page 142] travel, buy some of the Rarities of Towns and Countries, which are less cumbersome and easier to be carried, to shew and keep them when they are come home: but herein they ought to be ruled by their purses; in some places are good Arms, in others good works of several sorts; in others per­fumes, essences: so that when a Traveller comes into a place, he will do well to enquire what things are esteemed in't, and sent to Foreign parts: others learn what fine things are taught in such places: as for instance, in Geneva are those who teach to carve all manner of Fowl, nimbly and neatly, which at Table one hath daily occasion to make tryal of: in other places some teach quick tricks of the hand, with Cards, and the like; whereby often one doth divert a company. Some­times also in his travels one meets with men who have some curious secrets, whereof some are plea­sant, others profitable, and others both. Upon such occasions I would not have one to grudge little monies or time to learn it, whether they are secrets of Nature, or of Art. And though I know the genius of men to be different in this, for eve­ry thing doth not please every one; yet I believe in the great vari [...]ty there is of such things in the world, every one will find one thing or other wherewith to please himself: and let that be noted here, which I have hinted before, that to make one succeed in things he undertakes to learn, four things are necessary; the first is, a disposition in him, consisting in a good understanding, a quick apprehension, and a happy memory. The second inclination, for except one hath a mind to't, he can hardly succeed in't. The third application, labor improbus omnia vincit, and assiduity overcomes [Page 143] great and many difficulties. Fourthly, there ought to be a good method in the teacher.

Our Travellers being ready to go for Italy, their care must be to know which is the best, safest, and most convenient way, and wherein more things are to be seen; there is more than one way from Lyon, whereof some meet again not far off; but however they differ, beyond the Alps, Turin is the usual place for a rendezvous on the other side of Italy; there people do not account themselves to be Italians, by reason of their neighborhood with France; nor French-men because within the limits of Italy; of which their Sovereign is one of the Princes: they think themselves to be somewhat between both. Hence it is that in that City they ask whether you go into Italy or into France; there they have much of the French Language and Fashions: but this being passed, travellers must re­solve upon new fashions and customs; for the manner of life is clear different from that of France, and a Traveller is to begin here as much as when first of all he came out of his Country. No such thing here as society in the way of France, no such freedom and liberty as is there, no keeping company with virtuous Women; men themselves are not communicative, but retired and shy of what company they come into; which before they do, they consider whether or not they can be bet­ter for't; if so they frequent it, otherwise they forbear, because they are very much interessed in every thing they do: there men of business speak seldom positively to a thing, but they will have one to guess what they mean, being careful to give no grounds to men, hereafter to tell them, you said so and so, they speak by sign and gestures, as [Page 144] much as others do with the tongue. The Italian temper is generally wa­ry,See my present State of Italy. suspicious, prudent, cunning, revengeful, and covetous; but in­deed many good things are to be learned from them, wherein a great wisdom and dexterity must be used: amongst them one ought well to look to his tongue, so as to speak no offensive words, which is a quality necessary, not only in Italy, but every where else; specially when great men are the subject of our discourse: of the dan­ger whereof are many notable examples in France, thus.

In a conversation between three great men, of which Cardinal Richelieu, then chief Minister, was the subject, after a long censure of his actions, and ministry, one concluded he ought to be be­headed, but the other said, his dignity of Cardi­nal should secure his life, but would have him ba­nished out of France; but the third said, herein we could not find our security, for he would raise us troubles from thence: therefore the best way would be to commit him to la Bastille (the Tower of Paris.) This Conference having been reported to him by Monmorency, whom afterwards he cau­sed to be beheaded, he remembered it, and upon occasion retorted the Sentence upon every one of them;All three Mar­shals of France for Marshal Marillac's head was cut off, Toiras was made to run out of France, and Bassompierre was sent to the Bastille, and kept there all the Cardinals life time. Indeed 'tis very unfit for private men to speak ill of those who are in publick places, who seldom fail to hear of it, and at one time or other will find occasions of being [Page 145] avenged; also 'tis certain that very often a pri­vate injury done to a publick person will sooner be resented than if it had been done to him as a pub­lick one, or against the State; ever personal inju­ries being more sensible than those which are a­gainst the publick; as 'tis natural to reward par­ticular more than publick services, so to punish particular faults against Superiors, more than publick ones; men being not so sensible of gene­ral as of particular things: a private man can be troubled at a publick loss, but not so much as of his own: the punishment inflicted upon one for contempt of Authority, is but politick, when ven­geance for contempt of the person is natural, and consequently more sensible: but this is the truth, there is such a connexion of the person with the office, that one is never offended , but it doth re­flect upon the other.

The passage I related just now, about that great Statesman who in that Kingdom was so potent, as to destroy his enemies, very considerable men, puts me in mind to observe how sometimes it is dangerous to make a Minister or a Favorite too great, for two accounts; one is, that his Fortune being raised above that of all the rest, is envied and hated by the rest, or most great men in the Kingdom, who ever take this as a pretence for all disturbances they go about to raise in the State; the other is in reference to the Prince himself; for when the Minister doth distribute all graces and favors, he makes friends and creatures to himself, and by these and other means he may so settle his Authority, that it would prove hard for his Ma­ster to throw him down in case he had a mind to't▪ and having tasted so much of the sweetness there [Page 146] is in commanding, wherein he hath so great a share, his ambition might raise his thoughts to take it wholly to himself; for having already the power, it would not be difficult to get the name of it, and to blow off that shadow of Authority, which his Master doth retain: the example of the Maires du Palais hath clearly shewed this in France.

The fortune also of such extraordinary Favo­rites is not sure, not only from the side of all those who strike at it, but also from the Princes part, who sometimes conceiveth jealousies; ever fo­mented by the other's enemies. Ioab was a wise man in this case to prevent the jealousie which David might have had in case he had taken the City of Rabbah; for he sent word to him to come up and take the City, which could hold out no longer,2 Sam. 12.27, 28. Least, said he, I take the City, and it be called after my name— He knew how after Saul had heard once the peo­ple say,1 Sam. 18.7, 8. Saul hath killed his thousand, and David his ten thousands, he could never abide him. Lysander, Alcibiades, &c. Scipio Africanus, after considerable services done to their Countrey were exiled by their Republicks. Iustinian after very important services received from Bellisarius, turned him off, took away his whole Estate, and upon a meer, though groundless jealousie of State, caused his eyes to be put out. Hernando Gonsalvez, justly called the great Captain, who finished the Wars of Grenada, beat the French out of Naples, and who remained true to, and stood by his Master Ferdinand of Arragon, when the rest of the great men fell to his Son in law [Page 147] Philip of Austria; yet after all, these services were forgotten, and he turned out of all employment unrewarded, without the least reason or pretence. The consideration of this made Machiavel advise those who, through their virtues, were raised to great fortune, either to leave it betime, and of their own accord, or else to maintain it by force: His ground and reason is, because usually men miscarry for following a middle way not willing to be either very good or very bad.

Now the reason of such usage is when men are raised to such a height of greatness, as doth in the least over-shadow the sovereign authority, though these great men do not abuse it; yet this, Princes are jealous of, and either are forced with this jealousie of State, not to be just to them, in not rewarding them, for fear of putting them in a posture or capacity of doing harm; or else, if they see them unrewarded, their presence seems to upbraid them of unthankfulness and injustice, in denying Virtue that reward which is due to it: for every time a Prince looks upon such a one, his services do claim what they have deserved; for as liberality and generosity, rewards and pains, are [...]ffects of the justice of Princes, those who have grounds to hope for the one, as those who have done amiss to be afraid of the others; yet we must always stand to this truth, that when a Subject hath ventured his life, and done all he is able for his Princes service, he hath done nothing, but what was his duty to do: only this is a bad pre­cedent, and discourages others to do the like, in case they were able: as it fell out to Iustinian, who having undone Bellisarius, as I said just now, as soon as Narses, another General of his, did [Page 148] find he had a mind to begin with him, he left him off, and joyned with the Goths; whereby his af­fairs in Italy were undone; very ill done of him:Felix quem fa­ciunt aliena pericula cau­tum. for though his Ma­ster had not well done by him, he ought not to have rebelled: but'tis usual to hear men say, 'tis good to become wife at the costs of other men.

Here I must observe how 'twas not only the fear in Narses of being served as Bellisarius had been, that did work in him the resolution of acting a­gainst his Master: It was also an effect of the con­tempt of the Empress, because she heard what he had begun to act, she sent to him that a course would be taken to bring him to spin amongst wo­men (for he was an Eunuch, used to be a keeper of Women) to which he returned this answer, that he would spin such a thread as her husband and she could never untwist. This shews how those who are in power to do hurt, may not with­out danger be used with contempt; for slight and contempt are ever more sensible than injuries: For this cause Caligula was killed by Cassius Chereas, and Quintilianus made a Conspiracy against Nero.

Here I do not intend to speak of those who a­buse Princes favors; for so doing they deserve their misfortunes: because, being from a low con­dition raised to a great height of favor, they are like those men, who being used to keep in low places, if they be lifted upon the top of a Steeple, as they look down to the place whence they came up, their head turns, they grow giddy, and do not know what they do: just as if they had been lifted up so high only to make their fall the more precipitate, dangerous, and more conspicuous. [Page 149] Many who upon a sudden are raised from a low to a great fortune, are like one who from a Dun­geon or any dark and blind place, being brought to a great light, have their eyes dazled with it, and all objects above them appear of a different colour from what they are; therefore 'tis the pru­dence of a Prince to chuse those who are fit for such places: though Subjects must acquiesce to such a choice, when 'tis once made; for the Prince being the fountain of honor, may impart it to whom he pleases, yet therein he is chiefly to aim at the publick good.

But I must engage no farther up­on this matter,The 4th part of this Book doth speak of it. which is not just of my present purpose, but occasion­ally brought in, to return to the Travellers, whom I left in Italy; having only hinted to them some­thing of that journey: but if they desire to know more about it, and how to benefit themselves, let them peruse my Relation of that Country. That which I made of the Republick of Venice, can shew them a method how to make observations about Principalities and Dominions; only let them know that most mischiefs which in Italy befal Strangers, are upon the account of Women; as in France, about certain points of honor, and in Germany a­bout drinking; therefore in France let him have a special care to avoid Quarrels, Women in Italy, Wine in Germany, and Gaming every where.

To order well the journey of Italy, when one is come thither, he must be resolved upon two things; one is, how long he intends to stay there: the second is, which way he intends to come out of it; for as he hath time in the whole allowed [Page 150] him, he may accordingly distribute it into parts: for he who is to stay two years in Italy, will be longer in some places, than if he were to be there but one: and this as to the first. As to the second, some go only to see Italy; and as they went into't out of France, so they come back again into France: others go out of it into Germany. According then to the supposition I made before, that a Traveller will be ten months in Italy ▪ and that he intends to come back into France, he may thus order his jour­ney, according to the season he comes into that Country: some come in Spring, and pass there the Summer; others arrive in Autumn, and stay there a Winter, and part of the Spring; and this last is the best season: because they who come from Nor­thern and cold Climates, will find the inconveni­ences of hot weather in Summer: for not being used to so hot a Climate, this and Fruits may hap­pen to cause Fevers, Bloody-fluxes, and other di­stempers; I mean chie [...]ly to those who are of a weak and tender complexion: For as to some o­thers it is not altogether so, I can say for my part, I never found any such inconvenience in what Climate or Country soever I have been with the use of sobriety and temperance, which I thank God for. Now when a man comes into't in Au­tumn, this and Winter being seasons more mode­rate than Summer, one uses himself by degrees to the Climate and Country; in those parts heat and dust being very troublesome in that time of year, though in some more than in others; not only be­cause some are hotter than others, but also by rea­son of the remedies they enjoy in some places, which others do want: for in the Dukedom of Milan, and other parts of Lombardy, there are se­veral [Page 151] channels of water, wherewith when they please they can water the High-way, which cools it, and allays the dust: but they who travel in Summer, do't in the night time, and rest a great part of the day; which also is observed by those who are in Town: for Italians say in a Proverb, specially at Rome, that none but French-men, mad men, or dogs use to walk or go about streets in Summer, about the middle of the day.

But before I shew our Traveller which way to steer his course, I must give him one advice or two; the first is, to take Bills of Health from whatsoever Town he goes away; for being very sorely afraid of the Plague, they are very strict in often keeping Guards to question whence one doth come. Herein they are severe, indifferently to all, and let in no body till after a tedious qua­rantena. The second advice is, to make provi­sion of a good Bridle, Saddle, and things belong­ing to't; for in many places one is sadly put to't for these three things. Thirdly, he must take heed what Books he carries; for if they be Latin or Italian, forbidden, not only they will be lost, but also they may bring a man to a great trouble a­bout it. Fourthly, let him take heed what Arms he carrieth; for Daggers, Stileti, Pocket-Pistols, and long Knives with points, in most places are forbidden under pain of death. Fifthly, he must beware of the Inquisition, and therefore ought carefully to avoid speaking against the Pope or his Religion. Sixthly, I must add one thing more about Diet, to be sober; for their meat and drink are hot and nourishing, and apt to give surfeits; also to avoid drinking much of their cold and frozen waters, which are too commonly used [Page 152] there against the heat of aliments and weather; but which often prove worst than the Disease, se­veral dying for drinking too much of them, Last­ly, because few of our Englishmen are used to Oil, they would do well to accustom themselves to't; for most of their Sauces are made with it: But­ter there being very dear and scarce in most places.

As our Travellers did in France, so in Italy they must chuse a place in which to spend most of their time; whereof the most usual are first Rome, then Venice; others stay at Siena or Florence: For certain Rome is the best and fittest place of Italy for Travellers to be at, by reason of the great li­berty strangers enjoy in't, of the number of Arts and Exercises to be used there, and of the variety of ancient and modern Curiosities to be seen, and of the pomp and stateliness of that Court, and of the many Cardinals, Princes, Embassadors, and other publick Ministers. Venice is remarkable for the rarity of the si­tuation,See my pre­sent State of Venice the wisdom of the Senate, the antiquity and fame of the Re­publick; a month or six weeks time is enough for a [...]tranger who hath no business there to be in't, according to their saying, O Ve­netia chi non te vede, troppo te prezza, chi troppo te vede ti sprezza. The best time to come to it, is ei­ther in Carnaval time, or Ascension-day. Some strangers at Siena, specially Germans, by reason of the priviledges that Nation hath within all the Grand Dukes Dominions, because the Language is good there, and by reason of the late Prince Matthias, keeping his Court there: but most of all strangers flock to Rome, which he who is to [Page 153] come back into France, and to stay ten or twelve months in Italy may do in this way.

From Turin he may go the straight way to Asti, and other parts of Monferrat, to Alexandria della Paglia, Novi, Gavi, Ottagio, to Genoa; thence take a Felucca to Lerici, where take Horses through Sarza­na, Massa, A kind of Boat▪ and so either to Via Reg­gio, by the Sea-side, or on the left hand to Luca, which I think is the best, to Pisa, Legorn, back to Pisa, so to Florence; this is the usual way: but from Genoa he may take another way through Tortona, Voghera, Pavia to Milan; thence to Cre­mona, Piacenza, Parma, Regio, Modena, so to Flo­rence, or else to Bologna, Pistoia, Luca, Pisa, Le­gorn, and thence to Florence; for a man may see both ways, thence through Siena, Viterbo, and Ca­prarola to Rome: Herein I name not every petty place, but only those which are of some note. To do all this, and to see Turin, with the Duke's Pleasure-houses about it, he may bestow six weeks or two months; so that after this rate, against the beginning or middle of November he will come to Rome, which is the fit time for it; not being ve­ry safe to come to't till October be over; because the air of Campagna Romana, through part of which he must go, is usually corrupted, and some­what infected in Summer, through the violence of heat; but in October the wind beginning to blow, and rains to fall do purifie it, which it must have time to do.

After some few days refreshment at Rome, some use to go to Naples, which is a fortnights journey to go and come, and see all curiosities thereabouts; whence some use to go into Sicily in a Felucca to [Page 154] see Messina, Palermo, &c. and there wait for some opportunity to go and see Mal [...]ha; which Island is a whole Fortification: and so having seen it, to come back again the same way, which is usually a month or five weeks journey from Naples, so back to Rome; where if one goes no farther than Na­ples, he can come back about the beginning or mid­dle of December, and there stay till after Easter to see all Ceremonies used in the week by them cal­led Holy, which will be whole four Months; so he will also see those of Christmass; but if he go­eth to Maltha, he can hardly come before Ianuary: but in case it were not convenient for him to go his journey to Naples, immediately after his being come to Rome, it may be put off till Lent, at which time several undertake it: and indeed it is then a fitter time for those who have a mind to go to Maltha.

Whilst the Traveller is at Rome, let him learn the Virtues, and avoid the Vices of the place; there he may well satisfie himself, if he hath a mind to learn Picture-drawing, the Rules of Ar­chitecture, and Sculpture; of which I would have him to know so much as to be able to judge of, what is well or ill done in those Arts: there also he may learn Musick, whether vocal, which though at first seems not so pleasant to the ears of those who are not used to their way of it, yet certainly it is very learned; or with instruments of Musick, of which there is a great variety; but the Gitar is the most used amongst them: but elsewhere I have spoken at large of this, therefore I must no longer insist upon it.

From Rome, by the way of Loretto, Ancana, Fano, Senegaglia, Pesaro, Rimini, and other parts [Page 155] of Romagna, one must go to Bologna, or Ravenna; thence to Ferrara, so to Venice; whence through Padoa, Vicenza, Verona, the Mantoan, and some o­ther Cities of the Republick in Lombardy, through Milan, one may return to Turin, and into France, or else upon his leaving Venice, he may take a pro­gress to Mantoa, and some of the places of the Re­publick, as Crema, Brescia, Bergamo: Thus before he hath seen all this, the time intended to employ in Italy, will be nigh expired, from September till Iune exclusively, makes just ten months; and if he were to stay longer in that Country, I would advise him to spend it at Rome, where if he could be a whole year, it would be the better. When I said ten or twelve months, those two months I add in consideration of the Voyage of Maltha, of which the time cannot be certain just to a week▪ because the Seas are to be crossed.

But in case a Gentleman's journey into Italy was so ordered, as to come into it in Spring, he must pass the Summer in Rome, where he ought to be before Iune, for then 'tis accounted very danger­ous to come into't, though at any time one may come out, but not lie in any place within Campagna Romana, that is, about forty miles from Rome: There in Summer time they change night into day; for from nine of the Clock, till six at night, they read within doors, and do something, or else sleep in the afternoon: after that time people be­gin to stir abroad, to take the cool air; for as God hath provided in every Countrey a remedy against inconveniences felt in't, at that time commonly bloweth a cool and refreshing wind, which cool­ness is helped with their watering of some streets, and places, where company meets in Coaches; [Page 156] then they sit up, and go to and fro a great part of the night, till two or three in the morning, and when they are a bed at night, they dare not leave open their windows, for fear of catching some di­stemper: for my part, who have been there Win­ter and Summer, with the use of these things I found no alteration in me, Quando spirava il zefiro, ò quando tirava la tramontana. But I left the Travel­ler in Venice, disposing himself for his journey in­to Germany, which he must begin either upon the later end of Iune, or at the farthest the begin­ning of Iuly, which is the fittest time to Travel in Germany, specially for one who cometh out of Italy: upon which account he will feel no great inconveniency from the heat; there being a great difference between those two Climates, specially when he goeth Northward more and more. But I must say few things concerning that journey.

Before one leaves Italy, I wish him to get what introduction he is able into the German Tongue▪ as also some information of that Country, which indeed is a very ample subject: to know the Fun­damental Constitutions of the German Empire, is a fit and a proper work for Statesmen; but some­thing of it must be known by Travellers; for one who goeth into a Countrey where he hath no particular businesses, ought to put this question to himself, what is it I am going to do or see? there­fore it is necessary for one to know thus much of it. When the Roman Empire of the world was divided into East and West, the former into the Family of the Paleologues continued fixt in Con­stantinople, but the later in the hands of Charles the Great, t [...]rned to be ambulatory, sometimes in France, Italy, at last was setled in Germany; not [Page 157] with that glory it was in before, by reason of di­visions between Emperors and Popes; so that this was very well represented by the Prophet Daniel with the legs of Nebuchadnezzar's Statue;Dan. 2.33. and with the feet partly of iron in the Turkish, partly of clay in the German Empires; yet at present all Christian Princes give place to the Emperor; and certainly Germany is in power and dignity, the most considerable State of any in Christendom, by reason of the extent of its Dominions, of the number of its Princes, which makes the Emperor to be called Rex Regum, King of Kings; and in the martial temper of the people: but these ad­vantages, that potent body doth not enjoy by rea­son of so many contrary and different interests of the Princes and States that compose it, upon the account of Religion, States, and Families interest, which have made a lamentable division in that Countrey; which through their fears, animosities, and jealousies, is gone so far, that they have called in strangers and foreign Powers to balance and bridle the Authority of one another; and the Au­thority of the Emperor hath been so curbed, that now it hath but a shadow of Authority divided between him and the States, represented in a Diet which is fitly signified by the Imperial Arms of an Eagle with two heads, of an equal height and bigness. This Dignity of late hath been as good as en­tailed upon the House of Au­stria, At present all Germany is united with the Em­peror upon the account of the present War, which being ended, likely things will be a [...] before, upon the occasion of some of her hereditary Countri [...]s, and the King­dom of Hungary, and part [Page 158] of that of Bohemia, which are a Bulwark against the Turk, to those parts of Christendom.

The Diets I mentioned are composed of three Bodies or Colledges; the Electoral, that of Prin­ces, and the third of the Imperial Cities; the Emperor sends one there to represent him, and take care of his concerns, who is the President or Speaker of the Assembly. Under, and next the Emperor are seven Electors, of which the three Ecclesiastical, Mentz, Colen, and Trier have that Dignity, only as personal, and by Election; but the four Secular are by right of Heritage and Suc­cession; these are the King of Bohemia, Prince Pa­latin, Saxony, and the Brandenbourg, but of late that Dignity which of right belonged to the Palsgrave hath been divided and imparted to the Duke of Bavaria, with this condition, that in case any of the two Families, or rather Branches of the Family be extinct for want of heir males, the whole Dignity, with the Upper Palatinate shall be devolved to the other: But this hath been a sad renting, caused by a lamentable War, which already in the last Election of the Emperor, hath been the occasion of much trouble, about the place of Vicary of the Empire, and like to prove the division and destruction of the Empire, in case the Electoral Colledge should happen to be divi­ded equally in matter of Election; for there being now eight, the casting voice is taken off; besides the wrong done to the illustrious Family of the Count Palatin,

After these Families come others, which though they have no vote in the Electoral Colledge, yet they enjoy it in the Imperial Diets; and these are of several sorts, as Dukes of Brunswick and Lu­nenbourg, [Page 159] Wirtemberg, &c. Markgraves or Mar­quesses, as Baden, &c. Landgraves, as H [...]ssen, &c. and several other Princes of the Empire. There are also several Imperial Hans and Free Towns; but of late this last sort hath been diminished; for the Bishop of Munster hath subdued that City, the Elector of Mentz that of Erford, Brandenbourg that of Magdebourg, and the Elector of Colen hath more than once threatned the City of that name with the like usage: What ornaments must so many Princes and their Courts be to a Country: for though some be weak, others are very consi­derable.

Now to see these Princes Courts and Coun­tries, strangers go into Germany, wherein they have a great choice; seeing there is such a variety: and as some of these Courts are well ordered, so others are ill regulated in point of drink, in the excess whereof they sin very much; Kettle-Drums and Trumpets are the instruments used in those Courts: Bears, Wild-Boar-Hunting, and the like are their Sports: so that if a stranger will be wel­come to many of them, he must drink, and seem to delight with them in these and other Martial Exercises. When one lights upon such company, he is often forced seemingly to be drunken, to avoid being so indeed; for then they let one alone: but withal, there are those Courts where sobriety is practised by several or by some. The German temper is sincere, constant, and high (specially the Nobility) with the [...]r inferiors; for the people is kept low by the Gentry, and they stand so much upon the title of a Gentleman, that often one who is poor will scorn to marry the daughter of one who is not such, let her be never so rich. But the [Page 160] commonalty is very well in Free and Imperial Ci­ties, because they are a kind of Republicks. And now I am upon the temper of Germans, I must not omit to set down two excellent Distichs, or four Latin Verses, above the different temper of some Nations,

Hispanus, Gallus, Germanus, Vasco, Sabaudus,
Constans, inconstans, fidus, avarus, ínops,
Victum, vestitum, promissum, furta, labores,
Temperat, alternat, servat, adauget, amat.

This is to be understood of the generality of those Nations▪ for 'tis not true of every one in't: and withal, it is according to common opinion.

But because strangers do but go by places in Germany, and stay only to see what curiosities are in them, I need not much to insist upon their fa­shions and customs, which according to places dif­fer much: Besides that, many who have been in France do understand the Language, and Fashions thereof; which, if a stranger practises, they are well satisfied with him; for of all the Nations of Europe, this most of all esteems a French Breed­ing: therefore other Nations do not use to go into Germany to learn Education, except it were in Martial Affairs, or in point of Trade, at Ham­bourg, Lubeck, Franckfort, and Leipsick; the two last both famous for the great Fairs kept there, and Franckfort besides, for the Election of Em­perors: yet in many Princes Courts are Masters of the Horse, and of some other Exercises; as at Dresden, Berlin, &c. but to my mind the best place in Germany for Education of Protestants, is, Heidelberg, where is a Court; there being very [Page 161] few so well civilized, but none more than it is: where sobriety reigneth, all manner of Exercises are to be learned; and it hath a famous University for Learning: besides that, it is seated in a Coun­trey (the lower Palatinate) called the Garden of Germany, most part of it lying along or about the Rhine, with plenty, delicacy, and variety of all things, when it is not the seat of War. Of all the Courts of German Princes that of Brandenbourg is to my mind the more stately and numerous, and I have seen some Royal Courts inferior to it.

Of all Rivers in Germany, the two chief, the Danube and the Rhine are most convenient for Travellers, by reason of the depth of their water, the swiftness of their stream, and the length of their course, and the many good Towns upon both: others as the Wesel, Elbe, Oder, Main, Ne­kar, &c. are not so convenient; for the Rhine crosses all Germany from South to North, and the Danube from West to East. He who goes into that Countrey must use himself to lie upon straw, for strangers in Summer cannot abide to lie between two great Feather-beds, as the fashion is in those parts. In great places one is well treated, but dear; there being a set ordinary in most parts, Landlords are not used to over-reckon: wherefore there is no disputing with them, as in most parts of France, but will be paid what they ask: when men of any fashion come in, the Master and Mistriss of the house bid them welcome. In Switzerland he and the Landlady shake hands with their Guests, and he waiteth on them at Table; and both there and in Germany they expect as a token they are satis­fied with their house, to hear this complement up­on their going away, I will lodge here when I come [Page 162] hither again. And if Erasmus was now alive, he would not find them to be so rude as he complaineth they were in his time.Coll [...]q. diver­sor. As to matter of Learning, this I must say of the Germans, their Wit is not quick, but they are strong and patient in their Studies and Labours, so that they know more things than others, though not [...]o well, they seem to be more desirous to teach than to learn, and do at least as much delight in Wri­ting as in Reading.

But I must remember I am not writing a Relation of Germans, therefore I am to insist onely upon that which is of my present purpose and compendiously too; so that having observed, that as in France they reckon by Leagues the distance of Places, in Italy by Miles, in most parts of Germany it is by Hours. I must now set forwards our Traveller towards this last Country.

Venice is the usual place of Rendevous for those who intend to go from Italy into Germa­ny, there are daily occasions of those men who go to and fro out of one Country into the other, and according to agreement do furnish horses and as to Diet, defray Travellers, which is very convenient for those who do not know the Coun­try, and understand not the Language; some go thorough Grats in Styria, and other parts of the Hereditary Countreys of the Archduke of Austria, to Vienna, to see the Emperors Court; they who delight to see strong Places, go thence thorough Presbourg to see Roàb and Komorrah, and other few places belonging to the Emperor upon the frontier of the Turk of the remainder of Hungary; [Page 163] thence they come back to Vienna, and so tho­rough Bohemia go into Saxony, and if they please, from Dresden thorough Magdebourg to Hambourg, where crossing the Elbe, they go into Holstein, [...]o into Denmark and Sueden: others from Vi­enna thorough Moravia, step into Poland as far as Cracow, thence thorough Silesia and Lusatia to Berlin, to see the Court of Brandenburg, whence some have the curiosity to step into Pomerania, and then to Dantzick; but others thorough part of Brunswick, Lunenbourg and Mecklebourg, go to Lubeck, thence to Hambourg, whence those who do not go into Sueden and Denmark, go into the Dukedom formerly Archbishoprick of Bremen, Westphalia, so into the Low Countreys.

Others do not go so far into Germany, but di­rectly from Venice they go thorough Trent, In­spruck, to Munichen, where the Duke of Bava­ria keeps his Court, and thence to Ausbourg; whence they either go to Vlm to take water, to go down to Vienna, which I take to be the best way to go to that Court; or else from Vlm to Stugard in Wirtemberg, thence to Heidelberg, to Francfurt, so to Mentz, and then down the Rhine to Colen; Noremberg is one of the Cities of Ger­many most worth seeing; from Colen either one goes by land to Brussels, or else by water down the Rhine, and so to Vtrech and Amsterdam, or upon the Vahal down to Nimegue, Lovestein▪ Vorcum, Gorcum, of which three places the Dutch Proverb says, —Vorcum, Gorcum, Lovestein, nam ist groet, Matcht is Klein; from these one goeth to Dort, Rotterdam, so to any parts of Holand.

He who travels into those parts, must know, that Germany was divided into upper and lower▪ [Page 164] the upper is that which now is properly called Germany, the lower is now called Nether­lands or Low Countreys, part whereof was called Belgia or Batavia; it contains seventeen Provinces, of which the seven United, from the particular one Holland, are named Hollanders, as the ten Flemingers from Flanders. Once all these Provinces were possessed by the House of Burgundy, which all with both Burgundies, part of Suisserland and Lorrain, Charles le Hardy or Bold, intended to have united and erected into a Kingdom, under the name of the Kingdom of the Lion, because a Lion is the Arms of most of those Provinces, but he miscarried in his design: all these Low Coun­treys, and the Country of Burgundy, otherwise called Franche Comte, by a Marriage fell into the hands of the House of Austria. In the year, 1568. &c. these Countreys in the days of Philip II. King of Spain were by extraordinary oppressions in their Consciences, Lives and Estates, forced to take Arms, and thus beginning was given to that War which with various successes lasted till at last in 1648. by a Treaty at Munster and Osnabru [...]k, 7 of these Provinces were by the Spaniards own-to be Soveraign States; hereupon is grounded the difference of Spanish and Vnited Netherlands.

This Republick was founded not only upon Dutch, but also English Blood, witnesses the Bat­tel of Newport, the Siege of Ostend, and several other occasions; although it be but new and mo­dern, it is raised to a great height, and is become very potent by Land, but especially by Sea, there­fore a stranger must see their Shipping, Store-houses, and strong Places, and be informed of their way of Trading, for herein doth consist [Page 165] their strength and riches; for the Province of Holand doth hardly produce any thing besides Butter and Cheese; but they have great many Manufactures, whereby a great number of people is kept in exercise; yet, for all this Holand is a Magazine for all manner of Wares, there being a distribution made between the Cities, of the Trade in several things; for every great Ci­ty hath her particular Staple Commodity: now this Trade is much helped not only with the neighborhood of the Sea, but also of many Na­vigable Rivers, and several Channels of Commu­nication between places, which are a great con­venience for Travellers, carriage of Merchan­dize, and for Merchants, who, at a certain hour, can be upon the Exchange in a Town, and at another hour in another, things being so well ordered, that they are sure within such a time to be at such a place. This people are flegmatick, therefore they suffered many oppressions before they could be brought to take up Arms, though now since they have been Masters of their Li­berty, and grown rich, there are some hasty enough amongst them; they are also very pati­ent to perfect designs, began by French and Ita­lians, which are hastier Nations; they are in­dustrious, taking great pains, and very frugal; so that whil'st English Seamen will feed well, they are satisfied with a small matter, and have but five or six men aboard some Merchant Ships, whil'st we have nine or ten in those of the same Bulk, whereby charges being saved, they are able to afford Wares at a cheaper rate than other Nations; and as in matter of Trading, they are cunning and subtle, and withal rich; [Page 166] to destroy the Trade of others, they will afford Wares at a cheaper rate, though with loss to them, whereby they will tire out Merchants of other Nations, who are not so monied as they; and experience hath shewed us how they have gone about (which, in part they have effected) to engross to themselves the trade of the whole World, which they understand as well, if not bet­ter, than any other Nation.

Those who know not these conveniences of Rivers and Channels, have admired how they could bring so many great Guns to the Sieges they undertook; but that which most of all was worthy of admiration is, that whil'st War lasted between them and the Spaniard, they sold Arms and Ammunition to their Enemies. The reason is, as long as they are Masters of the Sea, they are not afraid of wanting any thing, and they care not so much for an enemy by Land, provi­ded they have none at Sea, for as long as their trade goeth on, they are able enough to main­tain a War. I know some have written of them, that they are of a gentle nature, enemies to quarrels; which I will believe of several of them, but they must give me leave not to take this as a national Character; for though I have found there several of sweet and loving nature, yet so many faces flashed and cut with their Steecken en snee, are signs of quarrels; besides that, in some places without doors, they hang Knives to shew that within such houses one may find that sport if he hath a mind to't; hence it is, that they who are willing to't, do touch the Knife; and I heard of some so skill'd in this sport, that with a Crown-piece sharpned round [Page 167] about, they have flashed the face of those who with Knives after this manner were fighting against them; and though they say to me that this being to shew a sport, is not an effect of quarrels, I will add, that men who drink so hard, and are so concerned as that Nation is, must often fall into quarrels; it is true, they do not presently run one another thorough, because usually they wear no Swords, and carry no Pistols.

It is true, they mind not much what other Nations call point of honour, the Motto of many being this, No Honor but Profit; and when they fall out about greatness, they use to say one to another, If you be richer than I, you are the bet­ter man of the two. A thing which indeed all strangers are to observe, is their neatness and cleanness in their Cities, Market-places, Streets, Houses, Goods, and Furnitures thereof, not so much as the least sign of a cobweb in any Room, nor of the excrements of a Fly upon a Win­dow, whereof the Glasses are perpetually clear and shining, just as if they were new, any Keys, Locks, or other iron Works, are as if they were newly bought from the Smiths shop, the floors of the Rooms as well as the Roofs, are kept clean with Sand, and people must not spit upon, but in a corner they have a pot full of Sand to that purpose; and in some places they give Slip­pers to those who are to come in: In a word, their Kitchin-stuff Vessels, their very Stables, which are but few, or any other places in or about their Houses, are extraordinary clean, so that in eve­ry such thing, they are as clean as any Nation in the World; yet though their Table Cloaths [Page 168] and Linnen be very white and fine, and their Victuals very cleanly dressed, I cannot say so of their eating of it, for promiscuously they eat their Bread, Butter, Cheese, Dried Beef, Pork, which some will call nastiness; yet I dare not condemn the universal practice of a Nation, though such things be not used in other Coun­treys, it being of the manner of eating things as we say of the taste, de quo non disputandum.

Profit and Liberty are the two things which most of all they are taken with, and good reason too, because the first is gotten with great care, pains, and hazard, and the last was obtained with much difficulty, treasure, and blood; yet, for all this, those who have Means, are rich and [...]umptu­ous in their houses, for this they have learned by communication with other Nations. A thing wherein they are much to be blamed in, is, their being over indulgent to their children, by whom they suffer to be called Thou and Thee, injuri­ous language, and several other abuses of that nature.

Above all▪ let strangers, specially those who live under Monarchies, be very careful of two things, the one not to blame that form of Go­vernment setled amongst them; for it sutes bet­ter with the temper of the people; neither is it fit for particular men, specially strangers, to talk against a Government instituted by the advice and contrivance of judicious and understanding Men, and continued by the wisest and ablest Men that have been and are there still, much less, if a man receiveth protection from it, as all strangers do; even it is not safe, in case any thing was wanting, or amiss in't (as often it falls out [Page 169] in other places) to tell his mind about it, because Innovations are lookt upon as dangerous to States, and with such discourses are fomented: But the second thing I would have strangers there to beware, is receiving principles contrary to that form of Government which is setled at home, for fear of causing of disturbances, and let them consider the same reasons, why Monarchy at home should not be altered, as I used, why those Countreys should continue in a way of Republick.

This I would have the more to be minded, because of the danger there is of receiving such impressions, and corrupt principles in relation to the authority one is born under. This I speak, not only as to the Republick chiefly Democrati­cal, as Holand, but also as to those which are wholly Aristocratical, as Venice. The cause of troubles in Nations, hath usually been either the eager desire of the Nobles to command, or else the violent love of people to their liberty, which principles the minds of both sides being once possessed with, every one driving on his way, rentings and disturbances are unavoidable, and truly in such a case the parties are often so blind, that to avoid a present inconvenience and di­stemper, they fall into a greater and more dan­gerous disease, as it fell out in Rome, when the Nobles and the People being grieved, the one at the Tribunes, and the other at the Consuls, which were ballanced one by another, they abolished them all, and set up the Decemvirs, whose little finger was heavier than either Consuls or Tribunes; and certainly when divisions in States cause such courses to be taken, there are all dispositions in the World to Tiranny; for when one of the [Page 170] parties sets over himself a daring ambitious man of interest, he makes use of that party to de­stroy the other, which being done, he hath so fortified himself, that it will not be difficult to usurp over the rest. Thus if the Nobles be de­stroyed, the People having none to fly to, must submit, and be kept under. Appius the Decemvir had such a fair occasion, if he had had the wit to make use of it; for the people being confident he would bear his interest against the Senate, chose him; but he, instead of making use of this popular favour to undo the Nobles, begun to oppose the People who had raised him to that Dignity, and complyed with the Senate, who were all his enemies; some because they had the same ambitious designs as he, and all because they lookt upon him as a creature and the head of the people: they, who came after, and had the same designs, took a wiser way to bring them about. Marius being chosen by the People, and Sylla by the Senate, stook to their principles, and to those by whom they were to raised; and when these divisions were come to the greatest height, and the great revolution which not long after be­fel the Republick, was hanging over her head Pompeius for the Senate, and Caesar for the Peo­ple, did the like; for though Pompeius had the worst of it, the Nobles stood to him as long as they were able, and when they had no other way, they murthered Caesar in the Senate; whose steps being followed by his Nephew Octavius, Augu [...]tus gave the mortal wound to that party, by the overthrow of Brutus and Cassius, and he set himself over all the People, and so reduced the Government to a single person, which may [Page 171] be Pompeius or his Sons had done if they had had the better on the other side.

Something of this is also to be observed in Monarchies, where also are the different inte­rests of the Nobles, and of the People, which to balance is the Princes interest, and not to suffer one to be destroyed by the other; the Nobillty indeed are the Props and Pillars of a Throne; but the Barons War, and some Outlandish ex­amples, shew that they are sometimes the scourge of it and within these very few years, we have seen a King of the North make use of the People to bring down the power and authority of his No­bility. That Government is certainly the most happy, and the likeliest to last, where the No­bility encroacheth not upon the Liberties of the People, nor they on the Prerogatives of the No­bles: Therefore if a Traveller be from amongst the Nobility, so as to have right to hope one day to sit amongst the Noblemen, let him not learn am­bitious and tyrannical Principles, when he hath been in Poland, and other places, where the com­mon people are no better than Slaves; or if he be born amongst the common people, let him not be so desirous of a full liberty, such as he hath seen in Holand and other places where the su­pream authority lies in the people, so as to scorn when he cometh home, to yield respect, and that obedience, which according to the Law and cu­stoms of his Countrey is due to the Nobility and Gentry; for a Noble who makes a stay in Po­land, and a Commoner in Holand, finding those Governments suitable to their quality and in­clination; by the influence of the climate, customs and conversations with people, will be affected [Page 172] to't, and sometimes desire it should be so at home, which desire upon occasion, will pro­ceed to action, and strivings to setle it there.

What I said of the manner and customs of Holland, almost the like I may say of those of the rest of the Vnited Provinces, all having the same general way of Government, so I may almost say of those Spanish Countreys which are near them, as to manners and customs, having all for­merly been under the same Soveraign, though those under Spain, have a mixture of fashions, by reason of their constant communication with that Nation, as have with the French those of Artois, Hai­nault, and others, which either belong to the French, or are their very next Neighbors, which customs by degrees and succession, are introduced. Now what I say, is not as to their Laws and Govern­ment, which I know are different and particu­lar to some Provinces; but I speak in matter of society, conversation, and manner of life, which, as the Language, are near alike in all the Low Countreys, which being so nigh to us, their tem­per is the better known to every one here, and 'tis less necessary to insist upon't as much as on Countreys more remote.

When a Traveller hath seen most of all the Curiosities of those parts, which for the most part consist in fair and strong Cities, I will have him to come to Paris, there to re-collect what he hath seen and learned in all his travels, and to perfect himself in his Exercises, and take his last stamp before he comes home.

I had said, that from Hambourg or Lubeck some go into Sueden and Denmark, onely to see the former, being for the most part a barren, vast, [Page 173] wild Country, in comparison of the southerly parts of Europe, there is no pleasure, nor hardly profit to travel in't. Stockholme, where the Court resides, is to be seen. Vpsal, an Archbishoprick, and the Seat of the Primate of Sueden, where is also an University. Gottemburg also a great way from thence, where sometimes the States or Diet use to meet; but chiefly one must see the Copper Mines, of which there is much. So that Tilly used to call Gustavus Adolphus the Cop­per-Smith: there are half Crowns, and Five shil­ling Pieces very big, insomuch that I have seen some Countrymen carrying few of them upon the shoulders with a stick passed thorough a hole made a purpose, and with this sort of Coin are made their ordinary Payments, so that if sometimes one is to receive but 25 or 30 l. worth of English Money, a horse doth either draw or carry it; the best Lands of that Crown are now what the last King but one conquered in Ger­many, and what the last got from the Danes in Schonen, Holand, and Bleking, in the former whereof is a good and convenient Harbor,The present war hath made some alterati­on in this. called Lands­croon: In fine it is a brave and Warlike Nation, which stands too much upon the nicety of Honour, as they take it to be; so that if one hath in the least received an injury from another, he must fight him, or else he would be branded for a Coward, unfit to come into any Gentlemans company, and lay upon his reputation a perpe­tual blemish and note of infamy. I have taken notice that most Gentleman of that Nation, when they are abroad; follow their Exercises well, and succeed therein.

[Page 174]Of Denmark I have little to say; (that King­dom (except what they have in Holstein and Iutland) consisting all in Islands, which indeed are more plentiful and better Country than Sue­den; there are several little ones, as Longland, Loyland, Femeren, and Funen, bigger than all these, whereof the chief place is Odensea, but the great­est and best of all is Sealand, whereof Copenha­gen is the Metropolis; Elsenore is on this side the Sound, and Cronenberg Castle is the strongest place of all those parts; upon the same Island are also Roskildt and Fredericksburg, all worth see­ing more or less: The temper of this Nation in some things is like the Suedish, but more high and lofty, though upon account of State there be an antipathy between the two Nations, for the Kingdom, which was Elective, is now be­come Hereditary, and the Nobility hath lost the Priviledge of choosing them a King; for the late King, after the Suedish War, took an op­portunity of his standing Army, to bring this to pass, with the concurrence of the Commonalty; but as these places are not much visited by Stran­gers, except in case of Ambassadors, or upon the account of Trade, for the Sound is the inlet in­to the Baltick Sea, I will forbear any longer speaking of it. From Sueden and Denmark Strang [...]rs come back usually to Hambourg and Lubeck.

Something too should be said of Spain and Portugal, the former I have spo­ken of elsewhere; the other is a Kingdom lying South-west of Spain, In the cha­racter of Spain. along the Sea Coasts, their Language is the same, except some few words, [Page 185] and some difference in the pronunciation; there is an antipathy between the two Nations, ground­ed upon the interest of State. After the death of King Don Sebastian in Africa, Philip II. of Spain, took possession of that Kingdom, a [...]d was kept by Philip III. his Successor, and by Philip IV. till the year 1640. for that Kingdom took the first opportunity, and with­drew from the Spanish Yoak, to yield obedience to the right Owner Don Iuan, Duke of Bragan­za, the design being managed by the wisdom and courage of his Wife, of the Spanish Illustri­ous Family of Medina Sidonia, assisted by some prudent and loyal persons of quality, who con­tributed much to bring that design to pass, and to make use of the general disposition of the Nation to a Revolution; Portugal and the Al­garves, are not of any great extent, but that King is Potent in A [...]rica and the East-Indies, where they made considerable Conquests, and drive a great Trade, Goa being one of the most Merchant Cities of all those Indies; they un­derstand well the Art of Navigation, whereby that Kingdom is much enriched; there are not many strong, or otherwise considerable Towns, Braga, Braganza, Porto, Coimbra, Eluas, &c. are the chief, but Lisboa or Lisbon, is a good and rich City, the Metropolis of the Kingdom; it hath some things of the Spanish temper, but not altogether so slow; there are not many Stran­gers there, except those who are in the service of the Crown, Merchants, and some attending on foreign Ministers; for Gentlemen who tra­vel to see the World, and improve themselves, make no long stay there, but onely do go there, [Page 176] for in a short time one can see the chief things there: in it, and in Spain I was about ten Months. But now I must speak of other things.

After our Travellers are come to Paris, have refreshed themselves, and made fashionableCloaths, the next thing must be to take Masters of Ex­ercises; to be perfect therein; let them at lei­sure see every thing they did see before, and more too, and thereupon make exacter obser­vation; such are the Court, and all publick Pleasures and Solemnities performed therein, whether it be Hunting, General Musters, Balls, Plays, &c. they must renew good former acquain­tance, make what new ones they are able, speci­ally with men of virtue and quality, with Vir­tuosi and other Wits of Paris; they ought to get an exact information of the whole Court, and of great Persons of the Kingdom, whose authority and power therein is very great; this gives a great light to understand the constituti­on and interests of States; which is a thing I could desire them to mind, and be well versed in; to this effect, they must find ways hand­somely how to be acquainted with the Ministers of those Princes and Republicks, in whose Do­minions they have been, and of others too; which will come in by degrees; from them they can hear news of what passeth all Europe and World over, learn Wisdom, and the grounds of Policy; for though they will not acquaint one with their secrets, yet the continual course of affairs, being apprehended well, will teach one very much; also sometimes they reason upon things, and give their opinion about them. Be­sides this, Paris affords a great variety of good [Page 177] Company, wherein much is to be learned, so that six months at least can well be bestowed there, and whole years too, if one can and hath a mind to stay, and yet loose no time.

The Languages he hath learned in his travels, I would have him not to forget, but rather to pra­ctice upon all occasions, both by reading and speaking, for they are accomplishment for any Gentleman, and qualification necessary to a States­man, or to any employed in publick Affairs: He will also do well, if possible, to understand the peculiar way of speaking of other Nations: As for instance, here in England we speak much between the teeth; for when the letter H is pronounced after a T, the tongue lies between the teeth, which else are close for the most part: The French speak with a whistling of the tongue: The Italian with the lips: The German with the throat: And the Hollander with the nose. These differences are easily perceived by those who have any skill in those Languages, and to give an instance of the two last, the German and the Hollanders, between which two there should be the less difference, because this last is but a Dialect of the former; yet when one is come from Germany as far as Colen, he will find this difference very palpable. They also who are critical upon Languages, do find that they are adapted to Subjects; for upon certain mat­ters, some are more energetical and significa­tive than others; for not to speak of the He­brew, Greek, and Latin Tongues, which I men­tioned before, and are called dead Tongues, the Spanish is called Senatoria, for Grave Senators; the French Oratoria, for Orators and Courtiers; [Page 178] the Italian Amatoria, for Gallants and Lovers; the High Dutch Martialis Generosa, for Generous Soldiers; the Polonish Martialis ferox, for Wild and Barbarous Ones; the Suedish Nugatoria; for Trifles and Trivial Things; the Danish Plorato­ria, Weeping; and the Low Dutch Mercatoria, for Merchants, ‘And now I am upon this Subject, it will not be amiss for me here to insert a character of some Nations, out of which a Traveller may receive some Lights and Directions how to behave himself when he comes amongst them, which hath a re­lations only to the generality of the people, and doth no way reflect upon the Superiour Powers over those Nations, whose Governments, Councils, and Ministers, I confess to be much above all such kinds of observations.’

In Affection.
  • The French loveth eve­rywhere.
  • The Spaniard very well.
  • The Italian knows how to love.
  • The German knows not how to love.
In Behaviour.
  • French courteous.
  • Spaniard lordly.
  • Italian amorous.
  • German clownish.
In Body.
  • French hath it manly.
  • Spaniard so, so,
  • Italian indifferent.
  • The German tall.
In Buildings.
  • French build conveni­ently.
  • Spaniard meanly.
  • Italian stately.
  • German strongly.
In Cloaths.
  • [Page 179]French inconstant and changing.
  • Spaniard modest.
  • Italian poor.
  • German mean.
In Colour.
  • French like a chesnut.
  • Spaniard black.
  • Italian brown.
  • German white or read­ish.
In Conversation.
  • The French jovial.
  • Spaniard troublesome.
  • Italian complying.
  • German unpleasant.
In Councils.
  • French hasty.
  • Spaniard wary.
  • Italian subtle.
  • German slow.
In Courage.
  • The French as an Ea­gle.
  • Spaniard like an Ele­phant.
  • Italian as a Fox.
  • German as a Bear.
In Dancing.
  • The French danceth.
  • Spaniard walketh.
  • Italian Vaults.
  • German walloweth himself.
In Diet.
  • French delicate.
  • Spaniard sparing.
  • Italian sober.
  • German loves to drink.
In Favours.
  • French forgets good and evil.
  • Spaniard rewardeth all.
  • Italian ready to do good but revengeful.
  • German doth neither good nor evil.
In Gaming.
  • The French ventures all.
  • [Page 180]Spaniard makes a good shew with a bad. Game.
  • Italian takes excepti­ons.
  • German is often cheat­ed.
In Laws.
  • French hath good Laws, but observe them not.
  • Spaniard hath excellent Laws, and observeth them rigidly.
  • Italian hath good Laws, but is remiss in the observation.
  • German hath Laws which are so, so.
In Learning.
  • The French knows a little of every thing.
  • The Spaniard hath a deep Learning.
  • Italian like a Doctor.
  • German like a Pedant.
In Looks and Meen.
  • French looks like one inconsiderate, and is often so.
  • Spaniard like a wise Man, and often is so indeed.
  • Italian looks giddy-like, but is wise.
  • German hath seldom good look or Meen.
In Love.
  • The French giddy and inconsiderate.
  • Spanish boaster.
  • Italian noble.
  • German gross and rusti­cal.
In making Love.
  • French diverts his Mi­stress.
  • Spaniard adoreth her.
  • Italian serveth her.
  • German bestows Gifts upon her.
In contempt of Love.
  • French hasty, offends his Mistress.
  • Spanish proud, slights her.
  • Italian discreet, com­plains of her.
  • German rude, asketh for what he gave her.
In Magnificence.
  • [Page 181]In France consists in the Court.
  • In Spain in her Arms.
  • Italy in Churches.
  • Germany in her Princes.
In Plays.
  • French pleasant and merry.
  • Spanish serious.
  • Italian Buffoon and Je­ster.
  • German unpleasant.
In Pride.
  • The French commends every thing.
  • Spaniard praiseth none but himself.
  • Italian despises that which deserves it.
  • German is no boaster.
In Promises.
  • French light.
  • Spaniard deceitful.
  • Italian advantageous.
  • German true and faith­ful.
In Religion.
  • French zealous.
  • Spaniard superstitious.
  • Italian ceremonious.
  • German indifferent.
In Secret.
  • The French tells every thing.
  • Spaniard is very secret.
  • Italian saith not a word.
  • German forgets what he was told.
In Speech.
  • The French sings.
  • Spaniard speaks.
  • Italian acts the Come­dy.
  • German howls.
  • French speaks well, but writes ill.
  • Spaniard speaks and writes little, but well.
  • Italian speaks and writes well.
  • German speaks little, but writes much.
In Temper.
  • [Page 182]French jester and inju­rious.
  • Spaniard grave and re­spectful.
  • Italian pleasant and jea­lous.
  • German lofty and fan­tastical.
In Wit.
  • French hath it all the body over.
  • Spaniard in the head.
  • Italian in the arm.
  • German in the fingers end.
Concerning Husbands.
  • In France Companions.
  • In Spain Tirants.
  • In Italy Goalers.
  • In Germany Masters.
Concerning Women.
  • In France Ladies or Drudges.
  • In Spain Slaves.
  • In Italy prisoners.
  • In Germany Housewifes.
Of Servants.
  • In France Masters.
  • In Spain Subjects.
  • In Italy respectful.
  • In Germany Compani­ons.
Of Horses.
  • In France good for eve­ry thing, or for no­thing.
  • In Spain noble.
  • In Italy handsome and good.
  • In Germany dull and heavy.
In Diseases.
  • The French subject to the P—
  • The Spaniard to the Kings Evil.
  • Italian to the Plague.
  • German to the Gout.
Some Compare
  • The French to a Flea.
  • Spaniard to a — Louse.
  • Italian to a Punaise, a Bug.
  • German to a Louse.

[Page 183]As there is no Rule without exception, so in every Country some are of a temper different from what is here represented; but as some­times denomination is made from the greater, other times from the better part; so here are ex­pressed the vulgar imperfections, and the parti­cular good qualities of the better sort; and i [...] one and the same Countrey, men of all these different tempers may be found out.

To this I must add some particular advice and instructions for a Traveller how to order him­self when he is beyond Seas; for he can never be too much warned of what he must do when he is abroad, and what I am to say, I believe will do him good, at least I am sure can do him no harm, O Traveller, whosoever you are, pray take notice of the following Advices.

So order and regulate your time as to have certain set hours for every thing you are to do.

Imprimis venerare Deum. Forget not morn­ing and evening to ask God that which is ne­cessary for your Soul and Body, nor to give him thanks for favours received from him. Heathens themselves can say, à Iove principium, à Iove sinis erit. Follow wise Solomon's Council, To remem­ber thy Creator in the days of thy youth, and you know King David saith, The fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom.

Apply your self to the reading of Holy Scri­ptures, which is able to make you wise unto Salvation; it will afford you Lessons where­upon to settle your Faith, and convince the Ad­versaries thereof; besides this, it will furnish you with precepts and examples of Morality, [Page 184] History, Politicks, and other things necessary to knowing Men: In a word, it will teach you to live in this present World, soberly, justly, and reli­giously that is, to perform your duty in relation to your self, your neighbor, and towards God.

Observe an order and method in the reading of it, every morning you may read a Chapter in the old Testament, and another in the New, and do the like every night; so in time you may read it all. In a special way I commend the Prophecy of Isaiah, the Psalms of David, and above all the Proverbs of Solomon, and his Book called Ecclesiastes, (wherein is contained much of Divine and humane Wisdom) the Gos­pel according to St. Iohn, the Epistle to the He­brews, and the eighth Chapter to the Ro­mans.

Yield respect and attention in reading of it, and have a design of being instructed thereby, rather than to cavil and take exce­ptions thereat.

Verini disticha, Catonis disticha de moribus and les quatrains of Pybrac in French; deserve to be read. Apply your self to History Ancient and Modern in particular (as to this last) to that of the most considerable Countreys of Europe, be­ginning with that of England, which to you is the most necessary. History is the eye of Times, and the ground of Policy; it shews wherein great Men, and others, have done well, and wherein they have failed.

Do not neglect reading the Gazettes; for al­though they contain many trifles and false things, yet they give the ground of History, and will ac­quaint you with the most considerable places and persons of these times.

[Page 185]As much as in you lies, lodge in the house of honest people, and of good report, whose con­versation may be beneficial to you, and where you be not exposed to cheats, and unnecessary ex­pences.

Make acquaintance with Men of Parts, and virtuous: Be civil to all, but familiar with few.

See what curiosities, whether ancient or mo­dern, are in places you stay at, or as much as you can in or about those you go by; but above all endeavor to know, and be acquainted with Men learned or famous for any thing whatsoever.

When you stay in any place, be sure ever to learn one Exercise or other of those you are most inclined unto, and wherein the Masters are esteemed able Men: In the mean time there are those Exercises, which to you ought to be only a sport and recreation, but others there are which in earnest you ought to apply your self to, such are things instructing your judgement, and solid as Sciences, and some Arts, which you must make your study of, but Fencing, Dancing, and the like, should be onely the accessory which yet you ought not to neglect, because not only you get thereby outward accomplishments, but also you see company in those Schools, and thus a­void idleness the mother of Vices.

Endeavor to get the Language and Man­ners of the Country you are in; to that effect in­form your self of every thing, though it 'twere in­trigues of the neighbors, and interests of fami­lies; strive to be acquainted with the chief per­sons of the place, and to get into their friend­ship; for not only you will learn from them, but also receive good offices and services upon occasion.

[Page 186]Speak your Mother Tongue as seldom as you can, and not at all if it be possible.

When you come into a serious company, speak little, and to the purpose, and be sure not to in­terrupt the discourse of any man: Take heed you say nothing whereat people present or ab­sent may justly be offended, chiefly if the absent be friends of those who are present.

In matter of humane Society, one of the best Rules that can be given, is to consider men in relation to us as either our friends or our enemies, or strangers; that is, indi [...]ferent to us, and we to them, neither friends nor ene­mies; as to friends, we must so live with them as being possible for them to become our ene­mies; that is, we must not too much trust nor so unbosome our selves to them in every thing, for fear we should hereafter have reason to re­pent of it; with our enemies we must live as with those for whom it is not unpossible to become our friends; that is, to keep such measures, and bri­dle those violent effects of our hatred, which might happen to render enmity unreconcileable, with strangers we must so live as to endeavor to make them to be our friends, and avoid to have them to become our enemies.

Sis quod vis haberi, saith Socrates. Be indeed what you would be accounted to be; will you be thought to be an honest man, you must really be so.

Do nothing against conscience, honour, or de­cency; avoid gaming, (except sometimes for company, and out of compliance) drinking, and the company of dishonest Women: Forbear also, if you can, falling in love with virtuous Maids or [Page 187] Women; for when a man engages too deep there­in, he is often brought into great straits and diffi­culties, which hinders him from doing any thing, and puts him upon many extravagancies.

Yet I advise you all the while you are in France, to frequent the company of Women (when it is no hinderance another way) because one is po­lished and civilized in their company and con­versation, and the desire a man hath to please them, makes, he observes himself in his Cloaths, Discourses, and Actions, better than else he would do; their company gives some confidence neces­sary to a young man (provided it recedeth not from modesty, or doth not degenerate into im­pudence,) In fine, that inspires civility, sweet­ness, and complacency, which are all qualities necessary to a Gentleman.

Speak not about matters of Religion with those who are not of yours. Speak with re­spect of Princes and Ministers of State; or at least speak not ill of them, chiefly of those with­in whose Dominions you are; but ab [...]e all, of your own Prince, or of those who are about him, for fear they hear of it, and at last be avenged of you.

Say nothing but the truth, but do not always speak it; for there is time and place for every thing; and be careful not to discover the bosome of your heart to those you do not know, or when there is no necessity to do't.

Be just to all, and according to your power and abilities, charitable to those who deserve it.

In every action of yours, consider that God [Page 188] sees and hears every thing; and do nothing in private whereat you might be ashamed in pub­lick: often God brings shame on those who are afraid of that more than of his name, ‘— quicquid agis prudenter agas & respice sinem.’

Declare your secret to him only whose fidelity and discretion you had great trials of, rather mi­strust the world; distrustfulness is the mother of security, but take heed not to express it; for nothing is so disobliging as that.

In discourses about indifferent things, never gainsay what another tells, except you be con­cern'd therein, or your opinion be asked there­upon; and then speak with as much gentleness and civility as you are able; and if ever you are brought to a dispute, let it be carried on by strength of arguments, and not by number of in­juries.

In many things, audi, vide, tace, hear, see, and hold y [...]r peace; for, saith Cato, ‘— nulli tacuisse nocet, nocet esse locutum.’

Promise nothing of importance without deli­beration, and except you have a mind to perform it; for you are free not to promise, but when you have done it, you are engaged to perform what you promise; express it clearly and plainly, for fear people should think you promise more than you do.

It is not enough for you to study the fashions of a Country, except you [...]reduec them to a practice; because you will thereby become more [Page 189] acceptable to the people, and insensibly learn to know all manner of tempers, and agree there­with: do the like with the several companies in those Countreys; endeavor to be serious with those who are such, and merry when you are with men of that temper; you must also sute and fit your self to the subject of the discourses, serious when you speak of serious things, and jovial when you speak of merry ones.

Remember how the manner of doing or say­ing things gives them a great deal of weight; so if you oblige one handsomly, thereby you lay a double obligation upon him. One said of old, That to grant a man a favour with a frowning look▪ or hard words, is to give him Bread full of Stones.

Let not your Hat stick on your head, for ci­vility winneth the heart; and according to the Rule of Morality, Honor est magis in honorante quam in honorato.

When you do any thing which seems to put one to the least trouble and inconveniency, though only you passed your hand before him (which often happeneth at table) ask him per­mission to do't, or pardon when you have done it; and if ever you expect from others to receive respect and civility, you must give them some with advantage; for one hand washeth another, and never stand who shall begin; even in places where the order of the World gives you the hand, take it with so much discreetness, that though it be your rank, it may appear you rather receive it from the civility of him who yields it.

The character of a worthy Gentleman is not only not to suffer, but also to do no wrong, and [Page 190] express his repentance when he hath done any; but upon some occasions, it must be endured when it cannot be cured, nor hindred, at least without danger; and in such a case, you do well not to seem to take notice of it; for if you did, you will be obliged to resent it; whereupon you would make your weakness and want of power be seen, or else you would be suspected being a Coward.

Make not only acquaintances, but friends also, and get as many friends, and as few enemies as you can; often one enemy may do you more harm than ten friends can do you good; and friends do you no hurt when they have no occasion to do you good.

Disoblige no man, unless you be forced to't, or receive thereby some considerable advantage; yet still let it be seen to be against your mind;This and some other things I s [...]y, ought to be diversified according to circumstances of time, places, and persons. and when you are so unhappy as to be forced thereunto, do it in the most mild and gentle ways that are possible to you, still expressing the trouble you have thereat.

As much as in you lies, avoid the company of quarrelsome insolent, persons, and given to drink, for fear of becoming such as they are; from Wolves one learns to houl, or at least thereby you shall get a bad name, Dimmi con chi vai, ch'io te dirò queli' che tu fai, say the Italians, Tell me what Company you keep, and I can tell you what you are doing. Now Vi­ces cause men to be hated and slighted of God and Men.

Despise no man, and condemn nothing slightly, [Page 191] but upon good grounds; and when any one is ill spoken of for some bad action laid to his charge, if it be as probable he hath not done it, as that he hath done it, charity obliges you to be­lieve the best; therefore be more apt to believe good than evil about another. Speak not evil of any man within his hearing in whatsoever Lan­guage, for fear he doth understand you.

Try all things, saith the Apostle, and retain that which is good: By all good and lawful means, endeavor to get and deserve the esteem of honest men; and if it were possible, of all the World.

Do not imitate those who are so given to jest­ing, as trouble not themselves about what they say, who have rather to loose much, and be exposed to dangers, than forbear telling of a Jest when it comes into their head: that kind of people careth not for the displeasure they cause to others, nor for the wrong they do to them­selves; for at last it falls on their head.

Take well all advices given you, and return thanks to the Givers, specially if they be of the number of those whom you take to be your friends; then mend, and be the better for't; if not, learn thence to know the envy and malice of some, and the ignorance of others; ever taking well that which is told you with a good intent, and (at least seemingly) that which is on the contra­ry: what natural defects you know to be in you, strive to mend and master. Who can be long without a Looking-glass to see what is amiss in ones Face? they who tell us of our faults, are the Looking-glasses of our actions, which now and then are necessary to us.

[Page 192]All civilized persons are agreed, that civility is every where to be practised. But the manner and customs of doing it are different, according to the Countreys; therefore get of them as ex­act an information as you can when you are upon the places.

When you are setled in a place, every day be reading some good Latin Book or other, Nulla dies abeat quin linea ducta supersit, and when you read good Authors, never forget to take Notes of what doth deserve it.

To benefit your self with what you have seen, heard, or read in the day time, be sure to have a Table-Book or other Paper-Book to set down that which is remarkable in't (and this you may do thorough your whole journy) and every night before you go to bed (specially if you make abode in a Town) take an hours time to call it to your memory, which will much be helped, and make a greater impression upon't, if you have time enough to meditate and make reflections on't.

I would also advise you every day to learn something by heart; for that exerciseth and strengtheneth your memory, and is no burthen to you.

Before you leave a place to go to another, spe­cially if this last be remote, endeavor to find the company of one or two honest, civil, and so­ber Gentlemen, which will make your way more safe, pleasant, and comfortable to you.

Another thing ought to be done before you leave a Place or Country, which is to buy some of the best and most curious Books in that Language; by these means you will have the newest and best of what Books are in Europe; and being come [Page 193] home, you will have wherewith to entertain your self, and keep from forgetting what Lan­guages you learned in your travels: In the mean time observe that in every Country, for the gene­rality of Authors, there is a genius particular to something; as for instance, Italians write well in Politicks, the French in Memoires and Roman­ces, &c.

It were well also to have the Names and Pi­ctures of the Prince, and of his Ministers or other Magistrates, specially (this last) when you are within the Dominions of a Republick, with the names of men famous in one Profession or other, whether of Sciences or Arts, as are Di­vines, Mathematicians, Picture-Drawers, Archi­tects, Musicians, and the like.

Remember how difficult it is to find again oc­casions when once they are lost, and time lost can never be recovered; therefore whil'st you stay abroad, use your utmost endeavors to fit your self when you are come home to serve your King and Country.

Let there be a Rule and a Resolution in every thing you do, that is, have reasons for every thing you do,Some of these advices I have given else­where up and down, which I think fit to mention again in this, a [...] improper place. and be not fickle when you resolve upon some­thing; and if, as I said elsewhere, you have a good disposition, incli­nation, application and direction, you need not doubt, with the Grace of God, of a good success in your undertakings.

A Gentleman will be much the better by the knowledge and practice of these things, which are universal Truths, not tyed to any time or place, [Page 194] directing him how to get Knowledge and Wis­dom, if he inclines and applies himself to it for the time he is abroad, which being expired, he must prepare to come home, having got a good stock of learning, prudence, experience, and of Books, necessary not only to preserve, but also to improve it; upon his leaving Paris, he is to take leave of the chief of his acquaintances, and of all his friends, returning them thanks for their civilities, desiring them to continue their love to him in his absence; and of some parti­cular, he may ask leave now and then to trou­ble him or them with a Letter, and vouchsafe from time to time to answer thereunto. Thus when he is at home, he will have news of what hap­peneth abroad, and by this correspondency, he may more and more be informed of affairs, the sooner, and from good hands; hereby also he can oblige any one of his friends when they go over, commending them to those he hath beyond Seas.

As soon as he is come over, let him exactly observe himself in what he saith or doth; for the eyes of most that knew him will be fixed upon him and according to the opinion which at that time people conceive of him, whether good or bad, so he is like to be esteemed as long as he li­veth; a man whose reputation is setled, may do many things, and never be thought the worse for't, because men have a good opinion of him, which if those who have bad repute should do, they would be condemned and cryed down; it is usual to think well of those we love and honour, so on the contrary of those we care not for; when the person is acceptable, what he doth pleaseth us, but when we have a prejudice against him, we dislike [Page 195] every thing he doth: and indeed, 'tis strange a thing, yet true, that we should so much depend on the opinion of others; to obtain it generally, one must be not only prudent, but also very [...]or­tunate; and yet for all this, such is the variety of mans mind, and they so differ in their opi­nion, that nequidem Iupiter omnibus placet, saith one, God himself doth not please all men: therefore this universal approbation being so hard to be obtained, one must be content with that of the best sort, and with the testimony of his own Conscience, not minding the envying, jealousie, hatred and other principles, which several men in the world are actuated by.

Seeing then how necessary it is to get into the good opinion of the World, and how difficult to be obtained, one must be the more wary and careful, and labour the harder for it, specially at home the place of ones settlement, where he is to give a tryal of his Parts, Abilities, and Improvement in his Tra­vels; which being known, he will be cryed up in his Country, considered at Court, and respected every where, which will last as long as his life, in case, he abuses not that love and favour of men: but in case it should happen with him as it doth with some, who learn no good, but all the evils and vices practis'd beyond Seas, and who are not a jot the better for their travels, having only lost their time, and mispent their monies; to such we might apply the Story of the Ass, which having left his ordinary Pasture to go into those that were more remote, and having been there for a considerable time, at last being come back, he lookt about and stared, and made much ado, expecting from those fellows he had left, a great respect and [Page 196] admiration; which being deny'd him, he expostula­ted the case with them, saying, He had been very far, and had seen many things. That may be, said others, but still you are the same you were, an Ass when you went, and an Ass now you are come back; with this difference, that at that time you were a little one, and now you are a great one, your Ears being grown much longer than they were at that time. So it had been better for some Gentlemen not to have travelled, because they come home worse than they went. Socrates told one who asked him why he was not the better for all his Travels, Quid miraris, nihil tibi peregrin [...]tiones prodesse cum te circumferas ut animum possis conti­nere, prius corporis tui fugam siste, aegri animi est ista vagatio: like a Patient who lies abed restless, he thinks, but is mistaken, to be the better with often changing place; so with some, disquietness of mind, is often cause of travelling; to such Se­neca faith, Animum debes mutare non coelum: li­cet vastum trajeceris mare térraeque urbesque rece­dant, sequentur te quocumque perveneris, vitio. One ought to change Mind and Manners as well as Climate and Country. Horace spoke wisely upon this subject,Li. 1. Epist. 11 nequam cunque Deus, &c. and to the same effect as the former.

But he who travelleth with pru­dence and discretion, will mind his benefit and reputation, the content of his Friends and Relations, and the service of his King and Country, which by all good, lawful, and possible means he will endeavor to procure and promote, but how, and by what means this may be effected, 'tis a sufficient matter for an­other Book, and a particular Treatise.


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