Banner of Justification DISPLAYED: OR; A DISCOURSE, Concerning the Deep, and Important Mystery of the Justification of a Sinner: Wherein the severall Causes thereof, being both numerous and various, are from the First to the Last diligently enquired after, and their severall Contributions towards so great and happy a Work, clearly distinguished, and assigned to their proper Causes (respectively.) AND More particularly is shewed, How God, how the Grace of God, how the Decree of God, how the Soveraign Authority of God; How Christ, how the Active Obedience Christ, how the Passive Obedience of Christ, how the Resurrection of Christ, how the Knowledge of Christ; How the Spirit of God, how Faith, how Repentance, how Works, how Remission of Si [...], how the Word, how the Minister of the Word, how the P [...] himself which is justified, may all truly, though upon severall Accounts, and after different Manners, be sayd to Justifie.

By his knowledge shall my righteous Servant iustifie many, Isa. 53. 11.
Solet Scriptura, cum ad unum effectum multae causae concurrunt, modo uni, modo alteri, effectum tribuere. Chamier. Panstrat. Tom. 4. L. 22. C. 4. §. 39.
Scire, est per causas scire.
Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas.

LONDON, Printed by E. C. And are to be sold by H. Evers [...] at the Sign [...] the [...]

Brief Passages of Scripture clearly shewing, and proving, that all the Particulars mentioned in the Title Page, as Causes of Justification, or Contributors hereunto, are acknowledged, and supposed, for such in the Scriptures themselves.

[IT is God that justifieth, Rom. 8. 33. Being justified freely by his Grace, Rom. 3. 24. This is the Will, [i. The Decree, or fixed pleasure] of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, should have everlasting life [and consequently, be antecedently justified.] It is God that justifieth: who is he that condemneth? [meaning, that his Authority in justifying is Soveraign and Paramount, and so lyable to no reverse] or contradiction, Rom. 8. 33, 34. But if while we seek to be justified by Christ, &c. Gal. 2. 17. For as much as yee know that yee were not redeemed [and consequently, not justified] with corruptible things—but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a Lamb without blemish, and without spot, 1 Pet. 1. 19. Much more being now justified by his bleod, Rom. 5. 9.—and was [i. Christ was] raised again for our Justification, Rom. 4. 25. By his knowledge shall my righteous Servant justifie many, Isa 53. 11. But yee are washed, but yee are sanctified, but yee are justified, in the Name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God, 1 Cor. 6. 11. Therefore being justified by Faith, we have peace with God, &c. Rom▪ 5. 1. John did Baptize in the Wil­derness, and preached the Baptisme of Repentance for remission of sins, Mar. 1. 4. Yee see then how that by works a man is justified, &c. Jam. 2. 24 Blessed are they whose Iniquities are forgiven, and [...]ose sins are covered [i. Who is justified, as appears from v. 2. and [...] Rom. 4. 7.—And how shall they believe in him [and consequent­ly be justified] of whom they have not heard. So then Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God, Rom. 10. 17. And how shall they hear, without a Preacher, Rom. 10. 14. Take heed unto thy self, and unto thy Doctrine: for in doing this, thou shalt both save thy self, and them that hear thee [and consequently, shalt justifie both, in as much as salvation presupposeth justification] 1 Tim. 4. 16. Even we have believed in Christ, that we might be justified by the Faith of Christ, Gal. 2. 16.]

[Page] having charged the English Tilenus with making the Try­ers to ask such questions of those that come before them, as in all probability never came into all their thoughts to ask, up­on this his probable mis-de meanour (himself making no more of it) he advanceth this Radamanthine and severe Sentence, both against him, and me; Which (sayth he) Is such a piece of Impudence, as no one hath ventured to imitate him in, but that Ishmael of Colemanstreet, whose hand be­ing against all men, hath provoked all men, even to the com­mon Pamphleter, to lift up an hand against him. The best is, (in case Mr. Hickman's reproach here, could, without the help of the Figure [...], be admitted for true) That Jeremy of Jerusalem was a man of strife, and a man of contention to the whole Earth, as well as that Ishmael of Colemanstreet, and yet was a true Prophet, and never the less like so to have been for the numerousness of his Contests. Noah also was a Preacher of Righteousness, yet his proportion of Opposers in the World, far exceeded mine, and the number of those, who embrace my Do­ctrine with their whole hearts, far exceedeth the number of those, who upon such terms received his. Yea, our Saviour himself testifieth, that in the Church and Nation of the Jews, they who had the more generall approba­tion and applause, were the false Prophets, not the true, Luk. 6. 26. Wo unto them when all men shall speak well of them, for so did their Fathers to the false Prophets.

But because Mr. Hickman judgeth himself Orthodox, in charging me with Impudence: what if it be found that the Ingredients in the composition of his Charge here levied against me, and proclaimed as with sound of Trumpet and Drum in the Ears of the World, be notwithstanding all Errors, and broad untruths? may he not make a cover­ing of shame for his own Face of the Accusation, which he hath here drawn up against me? Let us fairly examine the Case, and with as much Favour to the Examinate, as he, or his Friends, can reasonably expect.

[Page] First, Whereas he chargeth me with imitating his Eng­lish Tilenus, is not here a palpable and un-scholar-like Jeofail? Did Shemei in reviling David, when his Condi­tion was low and mean in the World, imitate Mr. Hickman, in reproaching a Minister of Christ being under Hatches, and trampled upon by men; or did not Mr. Hickman in this Action rather imitate him? He that acteth before another, what ever his Action be, doth not imitate him that followeth him in the same kind of acting, but on the contrary, he imitates who follows the Example or Pat­tern that have been set before. If there be any similitude between Tilenus and me, in our respective handling of Mr. Hickmans Tryers, Tilenus must bear the Crime of I­mitation, not I, who was before him in what was done by me, relating to those his Clients.

Secondly, Whereas he chargeth me with venturing to imitate Tilenus, in making the Tryers to ask such Questions of those that come before them, as in all probability never came into all their thoughts to ask: The truth is, that he chargeth me with the Crime of such a Courage, or boldness, where­of I was never Conscious. I never made any venture to imitate Tilenus, in such an Attempt, as is here charged upon him; nor did I ever go before him in any such. I no where, either challenge them, or charge them, With asking such questions of those that come before them, which in all probability never came into all their thoughts to ask. If I charge them with asking any questions in the Case, they are only such, which themselves and their own Consci­ences know that they do, or did ask frequently, and from time to time. And for the Questions which Tilenus him­self maketh them to ask, as far as I remember, if they were not the same formally, & in terminis, yet they were the same materially and in reality of import, which they were wont to ask. And for a man in his own words, to report another mans sense uttered in his, is no such vente­rous piece of Impudence: it is rather a piece of this Calcula­tion, so to call it. But,

[Page] Thirdly, Whereas my Accuser chargeth me with ha­ving my hand against all men; neither is he Orthodox in this, unless he takes Sanctuary under the Wing of the good Figure Synechdoche, which hath had a priviledge time out of mind, to grant a pardon to men for this Delin­quency in speaking, viz, When meaning only some, they say, all; or, intending only a part, yet mention, or name, the whole. For otherwise, Mr. Hickman himself is (doubtless) a man, though (to measure him by himself, and so to please him, if it may be) one of a thousand. Yet my hand (certain I am) was never against him; no, nor his against me, that I know of, untill Mr. Pierce of late touched him, where (it seems) he was very tender, and hereby provoking his Choler and Scholarship together, put him into an Athletick Passion: under the fiery and fierce conduct whereof, in his March, his hap was to fall foul upon me, and so it fell to my share also to feel, as well as others, the weight of his learned Faculty in re­proaching. But it is a good sign on the Truths side, when her Enemies retreat, and flee to their Patheticals. For this argues that their Intellectuals fall short, and that their heart serveth them not to confide in them any further. Yet I cannot but mention this by the way, as matter of sad consideration, although of too too frequent occurrency; that men, who have competent Gifts and Parts of Wit and Learning, whereby they might serve their Genera­tion, and be usefull unto many, yet suffering themselves to be over-grown with a Conceit, that these Gifts and Parts are far greater then they are, they hereby stifle their Opportunity, and give Hostages unto sin, and Satan, that they will never do any great matters against them. Such a Conceit as this, is a dead Fly in their Oyntment, cau­sing it to cast forth a stinking savour, and betrayeth them into many, and sometimes into sad, inconveniencies. But to return to Mr. Hickman; although the Figure Synech­doche interposeth with the best of her Authority for the salvage of his, both Credit, and Conscience, in charging [Page] me with the being of my hand against all men; yet this Fi­gure will prove but a Cypher unto him for any such Ser­vice, if his words in the Charge be but strictly interpre­ted. For in true Construction and propriety of speech, his hand is with men, and for men, not against them, which i [...] stretched out, or lifted up, against their Errours only. These are they that are against them, and they that wage War against these, fight on their side. I am not con­scious to my self that my hand hath been against any man in [...]ny other sense, then this. Nor is my severe Accuser able (I believe) to prove the contrary: However, though I am no great Lawyer, yet (me-thinks) Charges and Accusations against men should be of little value, or force, which cannot be verified, or made good, but by the favour of Figures. Yet,

Fourthly, (and lastly, for this) the remaining Article of his Charge [Viz. That I have provoked all men, even to the common Pamphleter, to lift up an hand against me] will keep him out of new Jerusalem also, without the media­tion of the sayd Figure, Senechdoche. See Revel. 21. 27. and Revel. 22. 15. I know it would be offensive to the Gentleman, if I should relate how many Letters, and Messages otherwise, of thankfull acknowledgments of the Grace of God given unto me, for the clearing of those Doctrines, of Election, Reprobation▪ &c. and of Christi­an Encouragements, to proceed in my way, &c, I have received time after time, from severall persons of conside­rable wo th, for Godliness, and Knowledge, inhabiting in several parts of the Nation, some of them Ministers of the Gospel, and others of them Studients in the University of good standing, &c. But because such a story as this, would (I presume) be a heavy burthen to a tender and weak shoulder, I shall forbear it. In the mean time, Mr. Hickman must give me leave to tell him, and all the Wo ld this plain story, Viz, That I know certainly, in­f [...]ll [...]bly, above and beyond all possibility of mistake, that he spake not by the Spirit of God, when he said, That my [Page] hand hath provoked all men even to the common Pamphleter, &c. He is an Athenian, and seems to have some sympa­thy in blood with him, that [...]ayd claim to all the Ships that came into Pireus, as his own. But he may know, if he please, that there are seven thousand (and seven thou­sand more to them twice told) amongst the Israel of God in this Nation, who either never bowed the Knee of their Judgment, to the bloody Molech of his Reproba­tion, nor, to any of his Confederates, or else have repen­ted of that superstitious and unadvised Homage. But what emphaticall reach, or Design he should have in men­tioning the poor Common Pamphleter disparaging-wise (as it is evident enough that he doth) and yet make him one of the Retinue of those, whom I have provoked to lift up their hands against me, I verily understand not▪ Doth he pre­sent him as an Index, or Significator of the manners, quali­ty, or condition of the whole Retinue? Would he have an Estimate made by him, who, or what sort and kind of persons they are, whom I have so provoked, as to move them to lift up their hand against me? Or is it his mind, in singling him out from his Company, and shewing him personally and particularly, to say unto his Reader, Cri­mine ab uno Disce omnes; i. Know this vile persons and know all the rest. I can hardly think that he should understand himself no better, then thus to prevaricate with his Inte­rest and Cause, and to associate himself, and his best-respe­cted Friends with the Common Pamphleter. And yet I am to seek what other Treasure he should think to make of him here. However, there is somewhat in the old Saying;

Noscitur ex comite, qui non dignoscitur ex se.

Mens Wayes and Manners when they hidden lye, Are oft betrayed by their Company.

[Page] If those whom I have provoked, make one Genius with the Common Pamphleter, Res mea est in vado, I am in no danger of just blame for doing that, by which they have been provoked. For that Saying of Seneca will at this turn guard me round about: Recti argumentum est, pessimis displicere. The worst men are commonly most displeased with that which is best. And thus we see with how great weakness, and unworthyness, Mr. Hickman hath quitted himself in levying the sore Charge mentioned, against a person, that never did him, nor thought him the least harm.

But in the Passage now examined, he hath only Chasti­zed me with his Rods: elsewhere he makes a Scourge for my Back of Scorpions. For thus my Transcription repor­teth him. And indeed a spirit of most Childish Insultation seems to have possessed as many as have lift up an English Pen against the Orthodox in this Quinquarticular Controversie. I'le instance only in Mr. John Goodwin, who in the Preface of his Triumviri, sayth, That he hath not met with any thing in the Writings of any, or of all the three men contesting with him, which had in the least shaken his Confidence concerning the truth of the things by him asserted, or that for the least space of time put him to any stond, or loss in his understanding concern­ing them, or to seek what to answer to any thing they offer or ob­ject against any of them. Which Lines the greatest Charity must look upon as so much vapouring Rhetorick dropt from his Pen in the absence of Judgment and Conscience, or as an Essay of the Spartans Valour, who being struck down by a mortall blow, used to stop their mouthes with earth, that they might not be heard to quetch, or groan, thereby to affright their Fel­lows, or animate their Enemies. Here is work enough for all day: But,

1. I perceive the truth of the old Saying is not yet out of date;

Obsequium amicos, veritas odium parit.
Comply, and Friends thou shalt create,
Speak truth, and look for mortall hate,

[Page] I perceive, if instead of speaking the truth in the Passage cited by Mr. Hickman, I should have comported with him in his sense and notion, and have sayd that the three men had given my confidence a Mortall wound, and had obje­cted such things against my Tenents, which put me to a stand, and that I knew not which way to turn me for an Answer unto them, or the like, this might have purchased me the right hand of his Fellowship, and have restored me to the Synagogue of the Orthodox, out of which I was cast long since, and have remained an Out-cast severall years. When the Lord Christ had said unto the Jews, that God was his Father, and that he knew him, which they did not, this Saying (as it seems) was ill resented by them, their desire being that he should unsay it, and that he should not assume unto himself, any other, or any more knowledge of God, then what they had. If I should say, (sayth Christ) I know him not, I should be a Lyar like unto you: But I know him, &c. John 8. 55. If I should have sayd, that I met with that in the Writings of the three men, of whom Mr. Hickman speaks, which did put me to a stand, &c. I should herewith have pleased him, because in so saying, I should have complyed with him, and made my self like unto him. But,

2. Mr. Hickman Arraigning me for the High Misdemea­nour of speaking untruth, (for his charging me to have written, as I did, in the absence of Judgment and Conscience, amounteth to no less) he should have done well to ob­serve the due process of Law and Reason, and first have made substantiall proof of the Crime, or matter of Fact objected, before he had proceeded to a sentence of Con­demnation; and have produced some Argument, or Ob­jection, one, or more, out of the W itings of some of the three men, which he should substantially prove did put me to a stond or loss in my understanding what to answer. If he could name any such Argument, or Ob [...]ection from any of the said men, that to his knowledge did the Feat, which he presumes was done, though I deny it (I mean, [Page] which did put me to a stond, &c.) this would not justifie him, unless he could give a sufficient account of such his knowledge unto others. For the Rule is; Non esse, & non apparere, aquiparantur in jure: That which is not, and that which appears not, are of the same consideration in Law. And yet I judge it an easie matter for him to give an account of all the knowledge he hath in this kind. But the Law of Conscience and Christianity, forbids the sacri­ficing of any mans Reputation, at the loudest instance of Probabilities, or Conjectures; at least or such, which have no more weight, or reason in them, then those, upon which Mr. Hickman hath offered up mine upon the Service, whether of his pleasure, or displeasure. But if either he, or any of his Colleagues in Judgment, could, and would be pleased, to afford me the inter-view of any such Argu­ment, or Objection, against my Tenents (by-named Er­roneous) whether out of the Writings of some of the three men, or out of their own Treasuries, or out of the abundance of any of their Judgment, which would put me to such a stond, that I should not remove, or to such a loss in my understanding, that I could never recover, or repaire, they would be the best Benefactors unto me in the good things of this World, that I have met with these many years; especially they would have been such unto me, had they be-friended me in that kind heretofore, whilst, and when, I was more capable of the Courtesies and Bene­factures of the World, then now I am, expecting daily to remove into that Climate, where the Sun-shine of this world hath no warming, or cheering influence at all. For certain I am, that those Tenents, from under the Con­science whereof I might well have been delivered by the means specified, have divided between the world, and me, and kept many the good things thereof from me, by reason of their insupportableness unto the greater part of men, and more especially unto the great men in the state of my sojourning, and to those, who by their con­sent (yea, they love to have it so) exercise Dominion [Page] over their Faith, under the importune claim of being Or­thodox, and sound in their Judgments from the one end of them even unto the other, in matters appertaining unto God. I have neither any disposition within, nor occasion without, to turn Plaintiff against the World; a man with a competency of wisdome may very well be content with my portion in it. For my good God, (Etiam in vitâ mun­di Minerva) hath fed me, and mine, with food conve­nient, yea, and cloathed and harboured us accordingly. And the truth is, that for things greater then these, it is best receiving them at the Resurrection. Or,

3. If it be not matter of untruth (in my words of his angry Observation lately mentioned) wherewith, and for which, my Accuser intended to humble me, but rather the subject matter, or inward thought, imported in the words, as that I should arrogate unto my self an attain­ment so incredible and rare, as not to be put to a stond, or be at a loss in my understanding, what to answer to any thing I had met with in any the Writings of the three men; if this (I say) be the Sword that passed through the Soul of my Accuser, and be apprehended by him so highly Crimi­nall, as to deserve that heaped measure of Indignation, which he hath troubled his Learning to pour upon it, I shall, for the composure of his Spirit, and for the dissol­ving of the unhappy appearance of so much guilt, where none was, administer unto him that well-approved Dosis of Augustine; Non est arrogantia, sed [...]ides, praedicare [...]a, quae accepisti: Upon occasion, to professor declare, what a man hath received of undeserved favour and bounty from God, is no point of arrogance▪ o [...] pride, but of Faith. And the truth is that God hath so blessed me in the labour and travail of my Soul, about those great Points of Election, Reprobation, the Intent, or Extent of the death of Christ, &c. wherein I have with some diligence, and with no less integrity and simplicity of heart, exercised my self for se­verall years past, that before the coming forth of any thing Printed by the three men against me, I was Master [Page] of such Principles and Grounds, partly from the light of Nature, and common Impressions found in the Hearts and Consciences of all men concerning God, partly from the Writings of learned and worthy men, as well of the Contra-remonstrant party, as Calvin, Beza, Musculus, &c. as the Remonstrant, but chiefly from the Sriptures, by which I was able to give my self present satisfaction, about any thing I met with objected in my way by any of those three men. And I partly believe that Mr. Hickman him­self, though but a young man (comparatively) yet con­ceiveth of himself at not much a lower rate, then to be able without much study to maintain the peace of his pre­sent Judgment, against all the Attempts, that either I in any of my Writings, or any other of my Judgment, in theirs, have made upon him to disturb him. However if he should make a Declaration, or profession of such a Te­nor, or Import, I judging him to be a man of Conscience, and sober minded, should not reflect upon him (nor do I judge it my duty so to do) as a man speaking that which was not, nor yet conclude him to be a man of a lofty, and confident, arrogating, or self-willed Spirit; much less should I arraign him openly as a person guilty of such mis­demeanours. I confess it is very incident to men to a­bound in their own sense to such a degree, as to presume that they want nothing wherwith to answer any man that shall oppose it. Indeed if he should declare, or profess, after this manner, or the like, Viz, That he is resolved, whatsoever hath been written, or whatsoever shall be writ­ten by any man, or men whatsoever, yea, or whatsoever can be written, in opposition to his present Judgment in those Points, that yet he will stand by this Judgment un­to death, this (I confess) would put me into thoughts of another nature concerning him. But I have not put him to the trouble of any such consideration as this about me, my Profession, with which notwithstanding he vex­eth his impatient Soul, being of a far different Spirit. But

4. (and lastly) As to those words; And indeed a spirit [Page] of most Childish insultation, seems to have possessed as many as have lift up an English Pen against the Orthodox in this quin­quarticul [...]r Controversie; I am reall in believing the truth of the [...]e words, but not in the meaning of him that wrote them. But admit his sense and meaning in them for truth, never was the Spirit of Childish insultation, more Childish­ly reproved, or with less authority and power, in respect of the Tenor and notion of the reproof. For the credit of that old saying of grave Cato, is Authentick to this day:

Turpe est Doctori, cum culpa redarguit ipsum;
A burning shame it is, when Teachers will
Reprove, and yet themselves commit the ill.

Or is there any species of Childish insultation, more im­pertinent and weak, then Ante pugnam canere victoriam, to sing Victory before the Battell be begun, or whilst it is yet with great heat of Courage and Confidence prosecu­ted and maintained by the opposite side? Or is there any Soloecisme in Logick broader, or more illogicall then that which they call, Petitio Principii, when that is presumed or taken for granted, which is the main question in Dis­pute? Or when Mr. Hickman takes the honour unto him­self, and his Party, in the Quinquarticular Controversie, of being, the Orthodox, and more signally and peculiarly such, in the said Controversie, doth he not cry, Victory, before the Battell, or whilst his Adversaries, in good order, with their Troops unbroken, yea, undaunted, without the loss of so much as an Inch of their ground, keep the Field? Or is it not by a neer-hand interpretation, the very Spirit and quick of the Controversie between him, and them, which of the two be the Orthodox? yet Mr. Hickman gives us this Pill to swallow without chewing, that he, and his, have the right end of the Staff, are the Orthodox, in the Points and Questions depending. He doth not walk by [Page] the King of Israels advice unto Benhadad (1 King. 20. 11.) For he hath but newly girded his [...]arness to him, and yet boasteth as if he were putting i [...] off. But I would gladly here know of him, how, by what Title, or right of Claim, he, and his, come to be, the Orthodox. I am affraid, they came not to the Honour as orderly, or honestly, as Aaron did to the Priesthood: but that they took it unto them­selves, being never called to it by God, or the Truth. Our Saviour even in his own Ca [...]e acknowledgeth equity in that Maxime of Law, That a mans Testimony of, or for, himself, is invalid. If I (saith he) bear witness of my self, my testimony is not true. [i. Not true, or valid, in course of Law, John 5. 31. I never heard, nor can I be­leive (unless Mr. Hickman, or some of his Friends could lend me their Faith) that they hold the Title of, Or­thodox, by any other right of Claim, then that by which the Jews held that honour, which they received one of ano­ther, John 5 44. No [...] do I know any reason why they should bear away the Bell of Orthodoxisme, from their Bre­thren (their friendly Adversaries) unless it be because they are the far better Ringers, ever and anon, upon occa­sion, and without occasion, Pealing and sounding it in our Ears, that they are the Orthodox And as the Jews of old made great treasure of the [...] Templum Domini▪ and thought themselves safe enough under the p [...]otection of it, ever and anon having it in their mouths, & importunely urging it to stave off the [...]h [...]e [...]nings of the Prophets of God against them [...] ( [...]s God himself by his Prophet Jeremy, expresseth thei d [...]votion in this kind, Jer▪ 7. 4.) The Temple of the Lord▪ the Temple of the Lord the Temple of the Lord are th [...]se. So is the cove [...]t of Orthodoxisme in sacred request with the men we speak of▪ when they have invested themselves with it they are as in a Castle of War; there is no coming [...]t them, no touching them with any Charge, or Imputation of Error, Heresie, Blasphemy, or the like; ever and anon in their Writings, in their Preachings, in [Page] their Discoursings, they are in effect saying, The Orthodox, the Orthodox, the Orthodox are these, [pointing at, or mean­ing, themselves, & those that are of their Judgment] When they have once given such an account of their Faith, as to be admitted to commence orthodox, they are as secure from infection in their Judgments, with any of those noy­some and poysonous Creatures Errors, Mistakes, Heresies, as a Room built, or seiled with Irish Oake, is from the danger of any Spiders Webb. But (doubtless) there can no sufficient reason, or ground, in equity, be given, why, Pendente lite, the matter being under so sober and serious a dispute between them, and their Brethren of op­posite Judgment, as it is, which of them are the Oxthodox, they should antedate the Issue and success of the Contest, & run away with the Crown upon their own heads, before they have won it; yea, if standers by, and unpartial men may have leave to judge, before they are like to win it. So, then let the word Orthodox (in Mr. Hickmans Passage lately mentioned) be taken Orthodoxly, and signifie those who are (as I verily believe) Orthodox indeed in the Controversie he speaks of) and then without controver­sie what he saith is most true; That a spirit of most Childish insultation seems to have possessed as many as have lift up an English Pen against the Orthodox in the Quinquarticular Controversie. Of the truth of the words in his sense of Or­thodox, he gave but one instance only and this strained and stretch'd beyond its Staple (as hath been proved.) But of the truth of them in my sense of the said word, Ortho­dox, I have prevented him (somewhile since) with two instances, pregnant, and uncontrolable of two men, both of them great Doctors, and men of Renown, famous in the Congregation of the Contra-remonstrants, Doctor Kendall, and Doctor John Owen, whom (in my Preface to my Triumviri, and in the Discourse it self) I have pro­duced as Witnesses (beyond exception) against them­selves as to the Point of the Delinquency (whereof Mr. [Page] Hickman speaks) I mean most Childish insultation: and in this Preface have given him measure heaped up, with a third instance in the same kind, of a person highly (I question not) esteemed by him, though not so well known unto him, I mean, himself.

As for his Spartan Valour, if his Breast be enobled with it, [...] if so much, as a spark of it warms his blood; I doubt not, but he will have an Opportunity to shew it, by that time Mr. Pierce hath done with him.

Good Reader, I have detained thee over-long with an Apologeticall story of no great consequence, in respect of my self, nor (haply) unto thee. Only my hope is, that the person concerned in it with my self, may, through the blessing of God upon his perusall and second thoughts of it, advance somewhat towards the better un­derstanding of himself. I call God for a Record upon my Soule, that I beare him not the least Graine of any Grudge, or ill-will; I love my self better, then not to love him. And that I do not neglect, or despise him: I think the pains I have now bestowed, to set my self streight in his thoughts, will sufficiently witness for me.

Nay, upon the account of what I have heard concern­ing the Genius and St [...]ein of his Book, I judge him a man commendably pregnant; and that, if he shall take heed of wronging his strength by over-pragmatickness, and confidence in undertakings, or his Conscience by unadvised clashing with the Truth, he may make happy Earnings of serving his Generation.

Thus far Mr. Hickman.

Concerning the sequell of the Papers now in thy hand; the Argument, or subject Matter of it, is an Essay or Endeavour to make,

[Page] 1. A discovery of all the Causes from the first to the last, as far as they are either held forth, or insinuated, in the Scriptures, of that mysterious and weighty Business, Justification.

2. To assign unto every of these Causes (respectively) their appropriate Interests, Interposures, and Contri­butions, in, and about, and towards this great and happy state of a Sinner.

As there is no ground in Christian Religion, that hath (I conceive) more Springs in it of Questions and sub­lime Contemplations, then this of Justification; so neither is there any about which the Holy Ghost (to my observation) hath employed so many Pens, espe­cially in that variety of Discourse, and enquiry. Intending only an Epitome, or Summary Comprisall, of the more materiall Points, or Difficulties relating unto the Sub­ject we speak of; we had no opportunity to insist upon any particular at large. That which was chiefly projected and desired by this little Piece, was to make diligent and narrow search after the different co-operations of those numerous Causes, which God hath judgded meet to imploy (ordinarily) according to their respective Natures and Capacities of acting, in, and about the investing of a Sinner with that great Blessedness of Justi­fication, which he hath contrived and provided for him. That knowledge in Matters of Religion, which is so commonly presum'd to be in Professors of this Age, above the former, is rather a Bulk, then a Body of Knowledge: and though it commonly passeth under the name of Knowledge, yet in propriety of speaking it is not so, but rather a confident perswasion, or belief that things are so, or so, as they apprehend them to be. Which belief, though it answers the reality and being of that which is believed, & so as it were by accident, be true, yet it is not knowledge, nor doth it argue Knowledge, unless the Believer understands the Reason of what he [Page] thus believeth, or at least, a substantiall Ground why he thus believeth it. Yea, in all matters of doubtfull Dis­putation from the Scriptures; for men to pretend, or alledge the Scriptures as a Reason, or Ground of what they believe, signifieth little, unless they should give a good and substantiall Reason to prove that to be the true Sense and meaning of the Scriptures, which must Coun­tenance and confirm their Opinion for truth against their Adversary. Yea, when two shall contend for their respective Opinions, being opposite the one unto the other, from, o [...] by, the Authority of the Scriptures, if neither of them be able to give any competent account why they interpret, or understand the Scriptures so, or so, in comportance with their Opinion (was some­times it happeneth) they do but beat the Aire with contesting, and both their Opinions after the Contest, are but in the same condition of uncertainty, or of being rejected, in which they were before. It was a right Say­ing of the Philosopher, Scire, est per causam scire, Know­ledge, emphatically so called, is when the Reason, or Cause of a Thing is known, as well as [...]he thing it self. But the Reason, or Ground of a mans Knowledge may be one thing, and Reason, or Cause of the thing known, quite another. A clear apprehension of the former may pro­duce certainty of Knowledge, but it is the like appre­hension of the latter, that causeth the more perfect and sa­tisfactory Knowledge.

In this brief Survey of the large Field of Justifica­tion, I have endeavoured perspicuity all along, and I trust with as good success, as brevity is wont to find, or well knows how to expect. The severall Causes of Justification I have caused to stand forth, one by one, (respectively) no one incumbring, or intangling his Fellow, yet all conspiring and ioyning hand in hand to help a poor Sinner on with his Royall Robe of Justifi­cation.

[Page] This [...]iece, though small, may (I conceive) do Service to some, that in some particulars, are at a loss in their Judgments, about the carriage and contrivance of the Business of Justification in the Counsell of God.

If thou mee [...]e [...]t with any thing, which at first sight doth not approve it self unto thee, lay it aside, but do not cast it away, untill thou hast considerately reviewed it the third time.

I have read of a Statuary, whose Workmanship look­ed better, and gave better contentment, by time. It may be, now and then I have taken a step or two out of the common Road; but it still hath been for thy profit, not for any pleasure I take in this kind of di­gression. For in matter of Doctrine I never leave the way that is most occupyed by pious, sober, and learned men, as far as I know it, unless it be either to carry some stumbling stone out of it, or else to fetch in some­what to make it more smooth and pleasant. And I be­lieve it would soon double and trebble my Accommoda­tions and Comforts in the World, if I could make a Covenant with my Judgment and Conscience to say, Amen to all that is sung for Orthodox.

—Sed ut valeas multa dolenda feres.

A good Conscience will not live upon Sacrifices that cost men nothing.

But (good Reader) I have (I fear) committed a Soloecisme in manners, in keeping thee thus long in dis­course by the way. That the ensuing Lines shall to any degree ballance thy inconvenience, or repair thy loss, I cannot undertake: in many Cases, it lyeth as much, or more, in the Patient, then in the Agent, what the issue, or success of the Action shall be. And I doubt not, but that an ingenious and prudent behaviour towards them, in thy perusall of them will win their heart unto thee, and teach them how to build thee up in thy most holy Faith, and [...]o to en ich thee with better Treasure, then of Silver, Gold, and precious Stones.

[Page] [...] of him that justifieth the Ʋngodly, that openeth the Eyes of the Blind, that raiseth them that are bowed down, that loveth the Righteous, be upon thine Un­derstanding, Judgment, Conscience, and Memory, in the reading of this little Piece, and upon all thy Consci­encious Applications of thy self otherwise, unto the things of thine eternall Peace.

Thine, Cordially addicted, Both to please Thee, And to displease Thee, FOR THY GOOD, JOHN GOODWIN.

A brief EXPLICATION OF THE SEVERALL CAUSES OF Justification: As they were mentioned in the Title Page, and are found in the Scriptures (as was shewed in the next Page preceding:) Together with their proper and distinct Interests in that great Work, and respective Contributions towards the Raising and Production of it.

GOD is the first and great Father and Foun­der Sect. 1 of that blessed Estate, into which a How God ju­stifieth, or what he con­tributeth to­wards Justi­fication.Sinner is translated by believing, and which the Scripture commonly terms, Justification. That which God contri­butes towards this Estate or Condition, is; 1. Will, or a willingness, that such a thing, as the justification of a Sinner, should be. 2. Contrivance. 3. Authority. 4 Assistance, or help for actuall attainment.

First, There was no necessity either of Justice, or E­quity, much less of Constraint, lying upon God, ever to [Page] permit such a thing, as the Justification of a Sinner, to be, or such a state, to be so much as once heard, or thought of in the world: Therefore he being at liberty in this case, whether he would cause the Justification of a Creature that had sinned, to be numbred either amongst the things that are, or amongst the things that are not, and there be­ing none but he, or without him, able to Umpire, or de­termine this great Affair; Evident it is, that he gave his Consent unto it, and that without his contribution of Will and good pleasure towards the being of it, it never had had being but in his own understanding only, where the World of pure Possibles, and Things that might have been, but never actually shall be, as well as the World of Things that are, and of things that shall be, is s [...]ituated.

Secondly, God contributes to the said happy effect of the Sinners Justification, contrivement also; and this 1. In respect of the nature or form of the thing it self. 2. Of such things, or means, which render it fecible or produ­cible with the salvage of his own honour, as well in point of Wisdome, as of Justice. 3. And lastly, In respect of such means by which it may be actually attained by the Sinner.

1. The nature, or form of that Justification we speak of, consists in remission of sins (as is more largely pro­ved in the sequel of the discourse) and this by divine con­trivement and disposure only.

2. God projecteth the method, means, and carriage of all things requisite for the orderly and regular fecible­ness, or producibility of it; As, That his only begotten Son should take flesh of a Virgin, and become man; That he should take upon him the form of a Servant; That he should be delivered up, or left unto the wills of sinfull, wicked, and malicious men, and so be obnoxious to suf­fer an ignominious and painfull death; That having suf­fered death, he should lye three Dayes and three Nights in the Grave, and then rise again (to omit severall other particulars in this kind) without which, could, or should [Page] it be supposed, that he would, or might have justified a sinner; it would, or must have been without such a De­claration, or manifestation, at least, of the Glory both of his Justice and Wisdome therein, as with which he hath now contrived it by the method and means specified.

3. And lastly, God hath projected likewise (and this with an eye too, to the glory of both those Attributes now mentioned) the way, and means how the sinner may come to interess himself in the blessed Estate of this Justification; as, Viz. By hearing the Gospel preached, the Counsell of God concerning his Justification opened, by understanding, considering, and believing it, with a sound and living Faith, and such which is operative by love. The Scripture gives a loud and distinct sound of all these things, and somewhat further of them hereafter.

Thirdly, God contributeth yet further towards the ju­stification of a sinner, by his Soveraign Authority: For by means hereof, that Law, or Decree, according to the Tenor, and by vertue of which, the sinner is justified (of which somewhat more presently) becomes inviolable, uncontrollable, and not lyable to any over-rulement, or nullification, by any power or Authority whatsoever: according to that of the Apostle Paul; It is God that justifieth: who is he that condemneth? Rom. 8. 33. Meaning, that there is no person, or creature whatsoever, that hath any authority or power to recind, or make invalid that Act, or rather, that Law of God, wherein, and according unto which he justifieth a sinner, which nevertheless might be done, and so the justification of the believing sinner fall to the ground, and his person, notwithstanding his justifi­cation by God, be lyable to condemnation, if the Autho­rity of God, by which he is justified, were subordinate, and not soveraign, or supream.

4. And lastly, God contributeth towards the justifica­tion of a sinner, In actu excercito, that reall help and assi­stance by his Spirit, in conjunction with other means of [...]n externall nature, by which the sinner is enabled to be­lieve [Page] in Jesus Christ, and this with a living and operative Faith, and so by vertue of that Decree, or Law of his, con­cerning Justification, He that believeth in my Son Jesus Christ, is, or shall hereby be, justified, he comes to be in­teressed in that state of blessedness (as David terms it) I mean, Justification.

Sect. 2 Secondly, The Grace of God, as it importeth the divine How the Grace of God contributeth towards the justification of a Sinner.Attribute commonly known by that name (for some­times the word signifieth the Act, or acting of this Attri­bute, and otherwhile the happy success, or effect of this acting) contributeth towards the justification of a sinner, as it effectually disposeth him to shew kindness and do good, where there is no preceding Merit, nor any provo­cation, Motive, or Inducement administred, why he should either shew the one, or do the other; and more particularly, as it thus disposeth him, to give his only be­gotten Son, unto those, to whom he was no wayes indebt­ed or engaged for any Courtesie, and to impute Faith for Righteousness unto [that is, to justifie] a believing sinner, who hath deserved no favour or respects of love, either in this kind, or any other, from him; but the con­trary. In this respect and consideration, we are sayd to be Justified freely by his Grace, Rom. 3. 24 Tit. 3. 7. and to be sa­ved by Grace, Eph. 2. 58. We are sayd to be justified freely, [or Gift-wise, [...]] by his grace, not so much (I conceive) if at all, because we are justified upon the ac­count of the satisfaction made by Christ for our sins in his death: in this respect, we may rather be sayd to be justi­fied righteously, or justly, then freely, & by Grace: But we are sayd to be justified freely by the Grace of God, be­cause Jesus Christ, by whom we are justified, and this justly, and righteously on Gods part, was given freely and out of meer Grace by God, to bring this great blessedness upon us, we having no wayes, not only not obliged him to do any such great and worthy thing for us, but on the other hand, wholly dis-obliged him from us as his Creatures, and provoked him by our rebellion against [Page] him. So that in strictness of notion, the Grace of God, by which we are sayd to be freely justified, is not meerly, or simply Grace, but in the Apostles Emphaticall expres­sion, [...], (Rom. 5. 20) that is, Grace in her greatest super-redundancy, and height of exaltation. To do good, where, or from whence, none hath been re­ceived, is the genuine property of Grace; to do good a­gainst evill, or where, and from whence injury and un­kindnesses have been received, is the property of grace wel advanced, and of considerable growth and strength in the Soul: But to do the greatest good, which the Doer is ca­pable of doing, where, and from whence, he hath recei­ved the greatest evill, which he is capable of suffering, is the property of grace [...] (as it were) over­grown, and magnifying it self above it self, in any limited or created perfection. This is a true and lively Character of that grace, by, from, or through, which (as the Scri­ture speaks) we are justified and saved. So then the grace of God justifieth us, as it moved and prevailed with him, first by the gift of Jesus Christ, to put himself into a capa­city of justifying us, as, or though, Sinners and Offenders: and 2. By acting according to this capacity, to, and in, our actuall justification.

Thirdly Justification may be attributed to the Decree Sect. 3 of God [I mean, to the Decree of God concerning it] How the D [...] ­cree of Go [...] worketh to­words Just­fication.because, or as, this ratifieth and establisheth it, accor­ding to the terms, on which it is granted, and taketh place. This is that, which maketh Faith in Jesus Christ available and effectuall unto Justification, which giveth vertue and force unto it [I mean, unto Faith] for the production and raising of so glorious and blessed an effect, as the justification [and consequently, the salvation] of a Sinner is. This is the will [i. The pleasure, purpose, or Decree] of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life, [which includes his Justification▪ John 6. 40. By the way, these words in this passage, which seeth the Son, do not express [Page] any essentiall part of the Will, or Decree of God, concern­ing either the justification, or salvation of a Sinner, but are inserted by Christ occasionally only, viz. because the Jews, with whom he now reasoned, had the corporeall or externall sight of him, and yet believed not on him, v. 36. without which he affirmeth unto them (in the place ci­ted) that such a sight of him would stand them in no stead, as to matter of justification, or salvation; because the Will of God required of men, Faith in him, as well with the sight, as without the sight of him, in order to the obtaining of this. For that the corporeall beholding of Christs person, is not necessary, by any Decree of God, or otherwise, either for the justification, or salvation of men, is evident by those words of Christ unto Thomas, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed, Joh. 20. 29. Now there is no blessedness [of man] without justifica­tion, Rom. 4. 6. 7, 8. So then it is the Decree, purpose, will, or pleasure of God that gives being unto justification, in that way wherein, and upon those terms whereon, it is now obtained. Faith in Christ, considered in it self, and apart from the Decree of God in that behalf, although it be a means, or condition, of the best and most proper complexion, or consideration, for God to entertain, or pitch upon in a Decree for justification, yet would it not be a proper, or sufficient means to justifie any man; be­cause, in such a consideration (I mean, as separated, or divided from the justifying Decree of God) as it hath neither any naturall, nor morall dignity, or worth com­mensurable to so high and sacred an effect, as Justification; so neither would, or could it have any Instituted, or Su­peradded authority from any other hand whatsoever, wher­by to carry, or atchieve it: whereas, if it be meet to sup­pose, that the justifying Decree of God, could, or would have joyned it self, or taken into communion wi [...]h it self, any other thing, habit, or act; as suppose, love, humility, patience, or what ever, besides Faith in Christ, for the [Page] work of Justification; this, by vertue of the soveraign Authority, or force of the divine Institution, or decree, in conjunction with it, would have justified all those, in whom they had been found. Those Ordinances, Vest­ments, Ceremonies, and Observations recorded and de­scribed, Levit. 8. and elsewhere, as enjoyned by God un­der the Law, for the creation and consecration of Aaron and his Successors, together with the inferiour Priests of the Tribe of Levi, into their respective Offices of the Leviti­call Priesthood, were, simply and in themselves consider­ed, very comely and proper for the investiture and making of Priests of this Order, yet would no use, or application of them, to any person, or persons, of what Tribe, or Fa­mily soeve [...], have made any Priest, to serve at Gods Al­tar, either with acceptation unto him, or benefit unto the people, had there not a Divine Institution, or Law from God, interceded for the authorizing, or validating of these things, to the making, o [...] constituting of such Priests: In which respect, the Law is sayd to make men high Priests (Heb. 7. 28.) and consequently, may as well be sayd to make Priests of the inferiour Order likewise. In like man­ner, though the [...]e be an aptitude in Faith in Christ, above any other Grace, or qualification, for the justification of a Sinner; yet that which makes it actually and effectually justifying, is the Decree, or Will of God in that behalf. Yea, the death of Christ it self would not be justifying, as now it is, did not the Will of God interpose for the au­thorizing of it in that kind; according to what we read, Heb. 10. 10. By the which Will [viz. of God] we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. So that the Offering, of it self, of the body of Jesus Christ, doth not sanctifie [and by the same reason, doth not justifie] men, but as appointed, or ordained by the Will of God hereunto; or (to speak more warily, and properly) not without the authoritative concurrence of the Will of God with it for the exhibition of such a bene­fit, or blessing unto the World.

[Page] Sect. 4 Fourthly, The Authority of God, being (as hath been [...]ow, or what [...] Authori­ [...] of God con­ [...]ibuteth to­ [...]ards Justi­ [...]ation.sayd) soveraign and supream, and so the act, award, and determination of it, not obnoxious to any defeisance, check, or annulment, by any other Authority whatsoe­ver, contributes unto the justification of a sinner (I mean, unto the Justification, which himself hath contrived, and declared, for such, in his word) full, and finall, and irre­versible ratification and establishment. This is that which the Apostle cleerly supposeth, or implies, where he de­mands, Who shall lay any thing to the charge of Gods Elect? [i. e. Of those who believe, as is evident] It is God that justifieth; as if he should say: If it were any other but God, who should justifie them, although in the same way wherein God now justifieth them, yet might their Justification be repeatable, at least by God, and further matter of accusation might be layd to their charge. But now God being he that justifieth them, and there being none above him, nor yet equall unto him in Authority, the [...]e is no fear that their justification should be obstruct­ed, recinded, or made invalid by any whosoever; or that any further Crime, or matter of guilt should be charged upon them, that should be of force by any equitable Law whatsoever, or otherwise, to condemn them.

Sect. 5 Fifthly, Christ, as God, may be sayd, to justifie in all How Christ [...]ustifieth.those considerations, or respects, wherein Justification hath been ascribed unto God: yea, being one and the same God, in nature and essence with the Father, he acteth and doeth all the same things, in reference to the Creature, in conjunctiou and communion with him.

Secondly, Being [...], God, and Man, or Man subsisting in the humane Nature personally united to the Godhead, by the willing offering up of himself as a Lamb without spot, in Sacrifice unto God the Father, he made Attonement for Sinners, in such a sense, wherein the Scri­pture is to be understood, when it so speaketh, notwith­standing his Justice, and perfect hatred of sin; yea, not­withstanding his threatning of Adam, and all his Posterity [Page] with death, in case of his sinning. The death of a Person of that transcendent worth and dignity, was in true e­steem, and so judged by the un-erring understanding and wisdome of God, a valuable and equitable consideration, why he should actually, and without any other thing in­tervening, pardon the [...]in of the world (as it is called, Joh. 1. 29.) that is, the sin of Adam, as imputed, or commu­nicated in the guilt of it, unto all his Posterity, together with all the actuall sins of all such of his Posterity as should believe in him. To say that Christ by his suffer­ings merited either the justification, or salvation, of those who should believe in him, as it is no Scripture expression, so neither is it exegeticall, or explicative of any Scripture expression, nor (as far as at present my memory serveth me) expressive of any Scripture notion: and however, it is too narrow and scant an expression of that Grace of of God in the death of Christ, herein commended by him both unto men and Angels; unless we shall exclude from this Grace all Infants dying in Infancy, or before they are arriv'd at a capacity of believing. And as it is not so proper to say, that the blood of Bulls and Goats, &c. under the Law merited those Leviticall purgations, or sanctifications, which yet they who were ceremonially unclean, obtained by them; as to say, that they were a competent and sufficient satisfaction, and so esteemed by God, for such uncleannesses, and so dissolved the guilt contracted by them; In like manner, it is more agreea­ble to Scripture, both notion, and phrase, and to the na­ture of the thing it self, to say, that Christ, in, or by his death, being so highly considerable, as it was, made, or gave, satisfaction for the sins of men, and hereby made way for the pardon and remission of them by God, then to say, that by his death he merited the pardon of these sins, or the justification of a sinner. For, in propriety of speech, a person is not sayd to merit any thing for another, but for himself only. When a man hath unjustly taken away any thing from another, or hath any way injured him, his [Page 10] friend, by giving a reasonable, or valuable consideration to the person injured for the damage sustained by him, may properly be sayd to make satisfaction for him, or for the wrong done by him; by reason whereof he is in e­quity free from being impleaded, or moles [...]ed by Law, or otherwise, by him, to whom he had done the wrong. But it is somewhat improper to say, that a man in this case by making satisfaction for his friend, merited that freedome for him. So when a man gives a price, or summ of mo­ney, for the ransome of a Captive, it is not usuall nor proper to say, that hereby he meriteth his liberty. A man is very unproperly sayd to merit that which he purchaseth at a price, whether for himself, or for another. Now that which Christ in, or by his death contributeth to­wards the justification of a sinner, is frequently in the Scriptures expressed under the notion of a purchase, of a price payed, of a ransome, redemption, &c. but no where, of merit.—And yee are not your own: for yee are bought with a price [meaning, out of the hand and power, and from under the guilt, of sin, by the blood of Jesus Christ, whose therefore you are by right of purchase, to honour and serve him.] 1 Cor. 6. 20. See also the following Chap­ter, v 23. with 2 Pet. 2. 1. So Mat 20. 28. and Mar. 10. 45.—And to give his life a ransome for many. So again, Who gave himself a ransome for all men, 1 Tim. 26. So also; Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniqui­ty, Tit. 2. 14. So Christ hath redeemed us, &c. Gal. 3. 13. And hast redeemed us to God. And Revel 5. 9. see also Rom. 3. 24. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Eph. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14. Heb. 9. 12. &c. And besides, I do not see any reason why it may not be as tru­ly, and properly sayd, that God the Father, in giving his only begotten Son out of his bosome, to dye for the ju­stification of men (and salvation thereupon) contributed by way of merit, towards their justification and salvation, as Christ by dying. And verily, why that Act of God the Father should not be reputed every whit as great in point of merit, in reference to the great business of justifi­cation, [Page 11] as the Act of Christ in offering up of himself by death in order thereunto, I apprehend not. Certain I am, that the Scripture commendeth and setteth it forth, upon the same, o [...] as great, terms of grace, honour, and admira­tion, as the other, Joh. 3, 16 Rom. 8. 31, 32. Rom. 5. 8. (To o­mit other places of like import.) Now of the two it is (I conceive) less probable, and Gospel-like, that the respective contributions of the Father, and the Son, to­wards justification, should be of the one and the same kind, then of a different. Yet of the same kind they would be, if both should contribute thereunto by way of merit. Nor do I see how any clear place will be left for praise and thanks unto God the Father from persons justified, for their justification, in case it may be sayd, that Christ properly merited their justification. For to render or give unto a person, only that which in rigour, or strict­ness of justice, either himself, or another hath merited, or deserved for him, especially where no occasion, or tenta­tion is in the way to perswade him to do otherwise, is scarce any matter of praise to him that doth it, nor of en­gagement unto thankfulness upon him, who receiveth only his own in such a case. It is true, there is somewhat a [...]i [...]e consideration upon a valuable price payd for that which is bought, or purchased. If a friend layes down a summ of money for the purchase, of procurement of my liberty, and this fully commensurable therewith, and ac­cording to agreement with him, of whom he is to pur­chase it, I am thus far, or in this respect no great Debtor of thanks unto him, who sets me at liberty upon such terms. But in case he from whom I am to receive my li­berty (if I ever enjoy it) being a prudent and just man, and withall at liberty, to keep me in bondage for ever, what terms soever should be offered for my ransome, and moreover shall be so principled, that in regard of my foul misdemeanor, by which I became a Captive, he could not condescend to grant my liberty, but upon terms highly materiall and considerable, in this case (I say) I shall [Page 12] be a signall Debtor unto him for my liberty, if he shal so far commiserate my misery, as to move any of his Friends, or Relations, to stand by me in this my great Exigent, and to do, or suffer that for the procurement of my liberty, upon which he can, and will willingly grant it, and especially he being no wayes engaged unto me by any service done by me, or courtesie received from me.

Now this is the case between God the Father, and men, in the gracious business of justification. First, He was at full liberty, men having sinned, whether ever to have justified any person, or not, on what terms soever. Secondly, Being by nature infinitely prudent and just, he could not judge it meet for him, in case he should be willing, or inclinable to justifie men, to do it, otherwise then upon terms every wayes becoming those his Attri­butes. Thirdly, Such terms as these were not to be pro­cured, or had, but only from Jesus Christ, and him volun­tarily submitting himself unto death for this end. Fourth­ly, (and lastly) Jesus Christ, though willing both to do, and to suffer, what ever he did in either kind, for the justi­fication of men; yet would not have undertaken the bu­siness, nor actually either done, or suffered, any thing in order to their justification, had not the Father been wil­ling to part with him, yea, and actually sent him into the world with order and commission from himself, both to do, and suffer, whatsoever should be requisite on his part thereunto, Joh. 3. 16. & 12. 10. 18. 12. 44, 45. 49. In these respects (besides others) the generation of men are most signally indebted unto God the Father for their ju­stification, notwithstanding a valuable consideration, or price layed down for the procurement of it.

But concerning the word, It is not un­like but that in some of my former wri­tings, before I made [...] m [...]e narrow search into the di­strict import of the word, I my self have used it in that ordinary no­tion▪ Merit, since it is so generally used by Protestant Divines, and other learned and worthy men, in their writings and discourses about justification, to express the congruity, compleat sufficiency, yea, and super-sufficiency, of the doings, and sufferings of Christ, for the procuring of it, and this without any inconveni­ence, [Page 13] as far as I know, occasioned thereby; I shall not contend for the laying it aside, or censure in the least those that shall use it: only, I conceive that in Points & Doctrins of so mysterious a nature, and so weighty a con­sequence, as the Doctrine of justification is, it is safest and best for edification, to use such terms, which do with greatest propriety and strictness of notion, answer, and un­sold the words, and phrases, wherein God himself hath in the Scriptures delivered his mind and counsell in such things unto us.

If it be here (Objection-wise) demanded; But if Christ made a full and compleat satisfaction by his death, for the sins of men, and hereby satisfied the justice and wisdome of God, so that he cannot justly, or equitably, require any thing further, either from men themselves, or from any other on their behalf, in order to their dis­charge, absolution, or justification from their sins, how, or upon what account doth he still capitulate with men, about their justification, imposing Faith upon them (a Faith working, or apt to work, by love; yea, and works themselves too, according to the judgment of some; whose words in this case are not guilty, if their sense be innocent) in the nature of a condition, without the performance whereof no justification is to be had, not­withstanding the satisfaction made by Christ for their sins? Or how is the satisfaction made by Christ com­pleat and full, if justification be not given upon it, with­out the addition, or intervening of some qualification, or performance in men? And if God having received full satisfaction from Christ in his death, for the respective debts, or sins of men, should yet require satisfaction at their hands also in punishment, for the same debt, whe­ther they believe in him, or no, should he not be unjust? Or is it consistent with Justice to demand the same debt twice, or to exact a second satisfaction, when one hath been given already, and this every wayes compleat and full, and so acknowledged by the Creditor and Receiver himself? I answer,

[Page 13] 1. The compleatners, or fulness of Christ's satisfacti­on, is not to be o [...] imated by the will, or counsell of God about the application of it, or actuall communication of the vertue, o [...] benefit of it unto particular men, but by the proportion which it beaneth unto the [...]n, unto which it relateth in the nature of a p [...]i e, ransome, consideration, or satisfaction. If it be commensurable in rationall worth, or value unto these, i. If it be a matter, or thing of that Nature, consequence, and consideration, that God may with the salvage, or sufficient demonstration, of the glory of his Justice, or perfect hatred of sin, wisdome, &c. par­don the sins and transgressions of men, without any thing added thereunto, by way of satisfaction, or punishment, it is in reason to be [...]udged a sufficient, or compleat satisfa­ction, although, upon some other account, he suspend the benefit, or actuall application of it unto particular men, upon reasonable requirements of them otherwise. In case a Prince, or Nobleman, charitably and bountifully disposed, should intend the redemption of a company of persons out of captivity, and in order hereunto, should freely give unto him, under whom they are in bondage, and who hath power to set them at liberty, a summ of money, fully answerable, according to the usuall rate in such cases, to the liberty of these persons, but should with­all desire of, or covenant with, him, to whom he hath gi­ven, or payd the sayd money, and who is the present Lord of these Captives, that he should not actually discharge, or set at liberty, any man of them, untill they had tende­red▪ or made a thankfull acknowledgment of his Grace and bounty towards them; In this case (I say) the con­dition of acknowledgment required of these Captives, by their great Benefactors before they are permitted actual­ly to partake of the benefit of the price of their redemp­tion; doth no waies argue any scantness, or insufficiency in this price, but only declares the will and pleasure of him that ransometh them concerning their behaviour, be­fore their actuall redemption.

[Page] If it be here demanded; But what if any, or all the C p [...]ives in this case, should so far forget themselves, or be neglective of their own welfare, as not to tender, or make such an acknowledgment to their Benefactor, what becomes of that money, or price layd down by him for their redemption? would it not argue want of wisdome, o [...] providence, in him that should lay down a vast summ of money for the redemption of such persons, the far greater part of which he knew before-hand would be ne­ver the better for it, nor accept of their liberty upon such terms, as he meant to impose on them, in order there­unto?

I answer 1. (to the former of these demands) in case any, or all, the Captives mentioned, should be so despe­rately careless of their own welfare, as not to accept of their deliverance upon those equitable and easie terms, on which it is offered them, and may be enjoyed by them, their Benefactor may notwithstanding have consideration for his money, satisfactory unto him, as viz. both the conscience and honour of his most worthy, and heroick Act, in sparing no cost to being men out of misery and th [...]aldome. Nor doth the Scripture any where suspend the glorious and high contentment which God takes in that transcendent Act of his Grace in the gift of his Son for the redemption of the world, upon the Faith of those who believe on him by means thereof, or upon the great benefit, which by means of their Faith, they actually re­ceive from it, but upon the intrinsecall and divine worth and adorableness of the Act it self. Yea, the Scripture seems to make that great Act of Grace we speak of, of one and the same consideration, or contentment unto▪ God, whethermen reap benefit by it, or no. For we are unto God (sayth the Apostle, 2 Cor. 2. 15.) the sweet sa­vour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that pe­rish. So that Christ, i. His Grace vouchsafed unto the world by Christ, for their salvation, is of the same, or like savour [sweet, and pleasing] unto God, whether men [Page] accept it (and so are saved by it) or whether they reject it, and perish notwithstanding it. It is true, upon ano­ther account God is highly oftended with men▪ when they reject his Grace; as viz. Because herein they act most foolishly, and irrationally, not because they dimi­nish, or make any breach, upon his contentment in vouch­safing such Grace unto them.

2. To the latter demand, whether it would not argue want of wisdome, or providence, &c. I answer;

1. That it argues neither want of wisdome, or provi­dence, in him that shall part with a great summ of money for the ransome of many thousand Captives, although he should know before-hand that the greater part would be never the better for it, nor accept of their freedome upon the terms imposed on them, in order thereunto, in case it be supposed that he knew that a considerable part of them (however) would accept of the favour, to the un­speakable benefit of their enlargement. Yea (as was lately argued) though he had fore-known that none of them would have accepted their liberty upon the terms required of them, yet had the honour, reputation, and conscience of such an Act, been a reasonable compensa­tion for the money disbursed. But

2. Such a demand as this is unproper to the case in hand. For it cannot be truly sayd, that God fore-knew, or foresaw that the greater part of men would reject his Grace in Christ, and so perish this notwithstanding, be­fore this Grace was given unto them at least in his un­changable counsell, purpose, and decree. For his Decree of sending, or giving Christ for the tansome of the world, was from before the world began, I mean, from eternity: and consequently there could nothing precede, or be be­fore it, especially in order of time, it being a Rule of un­questionable truth, that In aeternis non est prius, aut posterius. But,

2. To the first Objection, or Demand, I answer further; That Gods purpose, o [...] design in the death of Christ, was [Page 17] not simply, or absolutely, either to justifie, or save, men by it, neither did he judge it agreeable to his wisdome and righteousness so to do; but to do both the one, and the other conditionally, and upon terms such as he judged meet to prescribe and impose upon them for the obtain­ing of these great priviledges and blessings by it. So God loved the World (sayth our Saviour himself) that he gave his only begotten Son, [not, that all men, or that any man, simply and without any more ado] but, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life, Joh. 3. 16. Now the Collation, Application, or actuall bestowing of the fruits, or benefits of the death of Christ, not depending so much upon the intrinsecall worth, value, or satisfactoriness thereof, as upon the will and pleasure of him, who voluntarily gave him to dye for the justifi­cation, and salvation of men, and consequently had a right of liberty to make the terms for the collation of these benefits, what he pleased, he cannot with any co­lour of reason be deemed unjust, in case he denies them unto those, who refuse, or neglect to perform his terms, notwithstanding they were by Christ purchased for them; that is, with a full and clear intent on his part, that they should have possessed and enjoyed them, upon their be­lieving. So that,

3▪ (And lastly, for this) When God constraineth those who belive not, to pay their own Debts, and to make sa­tisfaction themselves for their sins, by being eternally pu­nished, he cannot be sayd to require, or take a double sa­tisfaction, or two satisfactions, for one and the same debt, although it be true in a sense (viz. that lately declared) That Christ satisfied for them. For that satisfaction which Christ made for the sins of any person who believes not (I mean, who dies in unbelief) was never received, or accepted, by God in the nature of an appropriate, parti­cular, or actuall satisfaction for their sins; but only as a potentiall satisfaction; that is, as a thing of compleat worth, and value, enough to have made a particular and [Page 18] actuall satisfaction even for such a mans sins, as [...]ell as for the sins of those who believe, and which he as fully intended to accept for such a satisfaction on his behalf, in case he had believed, which he might have done, as he did to accept it upon such terms for them, or for their sins, who do believe.

If it be objected; But if Christ made satisfaction, for the sins of him, who never believeth, and God accep­teth it not as a satisfaction for their sins; doth not God dis-approve, or dis-allow, either Christs doings, or his intentions, or both. For if Christ in, or by his death, made, or intended to make satisfaction for the sins of Un­believers, and God refuseth to accept this satisfaction, or that which Christ intended for a satisfaction, for their sins, doth he not reject that, which Christ desired, and intended, that he should accept?

To this, I answer, That an Answer (in effect) hath been already given. For in such a consideration, or sense, as Christ either desired, or intended, that his death should be a satisfaction for the sins of Unbelievers, dying in un­belief, doth God the Father accept of it. Christ neither desired, nor intended to make satisfaction by his death for the sins of Unbelievers, any otherwise, nor upon any o­ther terms, then that God the Father should upon the account thereof, justifie such persons from their sins, in case they should have believed: and in this sense he doth accept it as a satisfaction for them, being for the sake thereof, most ready and willing, to pardon all the sins, and so to justifie the persons, of all men without exception, as well theirs who never will believe, in case they should believe, as theirs, who shall believe, and be actually justi­fied thereupon. So that God, in causing, or compelling Unbelievers to suffer, or to satisfie, for their sins, doth not require, or exact, a second satisfaction for them, after a former received; but only puts them upon payment of their debt themselves, who despised his Grace in provi­ding for them that, which was indeed intended for the [Page 19] actuall and reall satisfaction hereof, upon condition of their believing, but was never upon these terms accepted by him, by reason of their non-performance of the sayd Condition of believing.

How the a­ctive Obe­dience of Christ justi­fieth. 6. What tho active Obedience of Christ contributeth Sect. 6 towards the justification of sinners, hath been in part de­clared already. Under the Mosaicall Law, the Beast that was to be offered in Sacrifice, to make any of those Levi­ticall Expiations, was to be perfect, and without blemish; it was neither to be blind, nor broken, nor maimed, nor having a Wen, nor seurvy, nor scabbed, not having any thing superfluous nor any thing lacking in his parts, &c. If it had any of these, or the like imperfections in it, it was not accepted. See Lev. 22. 21, 22, 23. Now that which the soundness, perfecti­on, and freedom from blemish, in the Legal Sacrifices, con­tributed towards their acceptation, and consequently, to­wards the efficacy of their respective Attonements, or expiations, the same, or the like in proportion, doth the active Obedience of Christ contribute towards the accep­tation of his Sacrifice of himself, in order to the effica­ciousness hereof forthe justification of sinners. This si­militude, or proportion is plainly taught and asserted by the Apostle Peter, where he sayth, Forasmuch as yee know yee were not redeemed with corruptible things, as with Silver, and Gold, from the vain conversation received by tradition from your Fathers, but with the pretious blood of Christ, as of a Lamb without blemish, and without spot. [i. As well without any Naturall Originall deficiency, or imperfe­ction, signified in the word, blemish, as without any ad­ventitious, or actuall defilement, intimated in the word, spot] 1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. So John Baptist looketh towards the same Analogy, saying unto the people concerning him, Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world, Joh. 1. 29. The Lamb of God, i. A Person highly accepta­ble with God, as being every wayes qualified with Inno­cency, Righteousness, Holiness, &c. and so meet by his death, to make Attonement for the sin of the World. [Page 20] So then, as that which the unblemishedness of the Beast for Sacrifice under the Law, exhibited towards that At­tonement which was made by the offering of it, was the meetness of this offering of it for acceptance with God, and consequently for this acceptance it self, in order to his pardoning, or passing by that ceremoniall impurity, or uncleanness, for which it was offered, In like manner, the active Obedience of Christ, in conjunction with the absolute holiness and inward purity of his person, ren­dered his death, or the Oblation of himself a Sacrifice, every wayes meet and worthy acceptance with God, and consequently, accepted with him, for the expiation, or Attonement of the sins of all men.

If Christ had been so much as touch'd with the least tincture of defilement with sin, he had not been a Priest af­ter the order of Melchisedech, holy, harmless, undefiled, separated from sinners, &c. but rather after the order of Aaron, who needed to offer Sacrifice for their own sins. Neither had he been in any condition, or regular capacity to have made Attonement for the sins of others, untill he had first fully expiated his own. That the active Obedi­ence of Christ doth not operate in, or about, or towards justification, in that way, or notion, which some have conceived, as, viz. by an imputation of the particular acts thereof (in the letter and formality of them) unto those that believe; whereby they should be constituted, or made properly and formally righteous, we have demon­strated at large in a just treatise upon that Subject, where it is made good upon several accounts, that the sayd notion, hath neither countenance from the Scriptures, nor any tolerable consistency wth the clearest Principles of reason.

Sect. 7 7. What place, or interest the Death, or passive Obedi­ence How the passive Obe­dience of Christ justi­fieth.of Christ, hath in, or about justification, we have in like manner Briefly intimated in our Fifth Section. It rendereth that great Act of God in the justification of a sinner, every wayes comely and honourable unto him, and worthy of him, and consequently makes him most wil­ling [Page 21] and free to it. The Holy Ghost speaks plainly e­nough of that comeliness, which the sufferings of Christ put upon the justification of a sinner by God, giving some intimation withall, that unless this Act had by one means or other been made thus comely for him, he would never have lift up his heart, or hand unto it. For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, [mean­ing God] in bringing many Sons unto Glory, to consecrate, [or make perfect] the Captain of their salvation through sufferings, Heb. 2. 10. That meetness, or comeliness for God (here spoken of) intending the salvation and glori­fication of many, to effect it in noother way then by the sufferings of him, who was to be the Prince, or Captain of their salvation, respecteth mainly, if not solely, his Act in justifying them, in order to their salvation, and glorifi­cation. For otherwise supposing them already justified, there needed more the life, then the death, of Christ, to save them; according to that of the Apostle Paul: But God commendeth his love towards us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ dyed for us. Much more then being now justi­fied by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if when we were Enemies we were reconciled unto God by the death of his Son; much more▪ being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life, Rom. 5. 8, 9, 10. We see here, 1. That our justification is ascribed unto the blood, or death of Christ: and 2. That our salvation ▪our justification, or reconciliation unto God, presupposed] unto his life, i. Unto that power, which is given unto him in that life, which now he lives in glory at the right hand of the Fa­ther, to exercise for the saving of all those that believe in him. Life frequently imports vigour, activity, liveliness of strength, or power, for action▪ as death imports weak­ness and imbecility for action.

If you ask me, But how, or in what respect, doth the passive Obedience, or death of Christ, render the act of justification, as now it is exerted, or performed by God, so comely, or honourable for him? Or how may we con­ceive, [Page 22] that either it would have been uncomely, or less comely for him to have appeared in it, in case his hand had not been strengthned by the death of Christ unto it? Or doth it not well enough become the great God to for­give sin freely and without satisfaction?

I answer, 1. Whether we conceive the import of those words spoken by God unto Adam, and in him, unto all his Posterity, being yet in his Loyns, In the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt dye the death, either in the nature, or notion of a dreadfull threatning in case of disobedi­ence, or of a most sacred, and severe Law, to restrain sin, and disobedience (the difference, I confess, is not much materiall, as far as at present I apprehend) it was no wayes honourable, or comely for God to suffer either the one, or the other, to be trodden, or trampled under foot by the Creature to whom they were given, without looking af­ter them, or calling for some satisfactory account for the contempt measured out unto them. It cannot reasona­bly be thought, but that God, by the denunciation of such a threatning, or promulgation, and sanction of such a Law, awakened and amused both Heaven and Earth, and raised great expectations in both what the issue, or conse­quence would be. Now then, Adam, and his Posterity, being (as was sayd) now in him, rising up in disobedi­ence in the very face (as it were) and presence of so ter­rible a threatning, if God should have passed by, and made no words of this high mis-demeanour, he might seem, either on the one hand to repent that he had so sorely threatned them, and therefore now proceeded not to execution; or else on the other hand, that he was content and willing enough to be neglected, or affronted by his Creature: both which, would have been very un­comely and dishonourable unto him. Nor would it have been of much more comely an interpretation, had he ac­cepted any thing of an inferiour value, or less considera­ble, instead of a Compensation, or satisfaction, and had not stood upon a just and full vindication of his Soveraign [Page 23] Authority, his excellent Wisdome, his Righteousness, and Equity in his proceedings with his Creature; the glory of all which were very injuriously handled, and suffered deeply in Adams prevarication. So then, Adam, and his mis-carrying with so high a hand of disobedience, there devolved a necessity upon God, if he meant to glo­rifie himself, like himself, and as God, either to punish the whole brood of Transgressours, according to the full exigency of their demerit, or (which is the same) accor­ding to the tenor and import of the threatning, or else to find out some other person to suffer for them, whose pu­nishment, or sufferings might be altogether as considera­ble, and argue as great respects to his Authority, Wis­dome, and Righteousness, as the punishment of Adam, and all that were now Delinquents in his Loyns (i. His whole Posterity, the second Adam only excepted) up to the line of their transgression and guilt, would have done. And thus the Apostle (as we lately heard) layeth it down indefinitely and in the generall, that if God meant to save and glorifie any number of Adams Posterity, it concerned him in point of glory to provide, that he, who ever he should be, by whom they were to be saved, should suffer to perfection, [i. Proportionably to what they ought to have suffered, whom he intended to save by him] For this I conceive to be the sense and import of these words; For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many Sons unto glory, to perfect [or make perfect] the Captain of their salvation through sufferings, Heb. 2. 10. That Description, or Peri­phrasis of God, For whom are all things, and by whom are all things, importing his transcendent Soveraignty, and great­ness, seems to imply, that these were considerations that made it necessary, and comely for him, in case he intended salvation to Adam▪ and his Posterity, to take that course, which now he hath taken for the effecting it, viz. To im­pose such sufferings upon him, by whom it should, or was to be atchieved, which might in a rationall estimation, an­swer [Page 24] the sufferings which they had deserved; and that had it been any, but God, or had God been any, but himself, the omission of such exactness of severity, or justice, in, or about the accomplishment of the Design, would not have been so uncomly for them, as now (it seems) it would have been for God to dispense with it, his Augustissimall and unparralleld Majesty and Greatness, being (as hath been sayd) considered. For it no wayes at no hand, be­comes him, to whom the whole Creation, Heaven and Earth, with all the Hosts of them, stand bound to do the deepest homage and service, and whose wisdome and power have so gloriously quitted themselves in the beauti­full Fabrick of the Universe, and in all the parts and par­cels of it, either to confess himself, either unadvised, or over-severe, in making a Law for the Nurture and Go­vernment of his Creature, or to minister any occasion in the least unto his Creature, so to judge, or conceive of him; which he should have done, had he taken a com­pany of his Creatures, who had despised and broken this Law, into his Bosome, yea, into part and fellowship with himself in his own blessedness and glory, without a just compensation for these transgressions, and fully commen­surable, in one kind or other, thereunto. Now there be­ing no Creature, no person to be found either in Heaven or in Earth, nor any to be framed, nor made by any appro­priate, or new Act of Creation (at least as far as the un­derstandings of men are well able to reach) capable of suffering upon the terms mentioned, in regard of the un­preventible inconsiderableness of their beings (Compa­ratively) and of their sufferings accordingly, and so not competent to make a just satisfaction for the high misde­meanour, or provocation of so many; hence there arose a necessity (a necessity, I mean, for Divine conveniency, and a salvage of Honour) either that the Son of God, being first put into a suffering capacity, by being made flesh, should willingly undertake and perform this suffer­ing Service for the Transgressors, or otherwise that the [Page 25] Transgressors themselves, from the first to the last, should have born their own sin, and fallen under it, and have pe­rished by it for ever.

2. Suppose we, that some Creature might have been▪ either found, or made; yea, suppose we, that some man might have been made upon like terms with Adam, whose sufferings might have amounted to a satisfactory conside­ration for Adams transgression (together with all theirs, who sinned in him, and with him) yet first, if he in one respect or other, had not really and truly descended from Adam, as Christ did, the satisfaction made by him had not been so proper, or so clearly salvant of the Glory of the Wisdome and Soveraignty of God in the Threatning, or Law, mentioned, In that day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt dye the death, as that now made by the death of Christ. For Christ was not only of the same nature with Adam, but al­so lineally, though not according to the course of common propagation, descended from Adam (Luk. 3. 23. compared with vers. 38. and the Verses intermediate) In which re­spect, the threatning, or penalty of the Law, In the day that thou eatest, &c. was inflicted upon him, to whom the Law was given, though not upon his Person (personally con­sidered) but as subsisting, and having a Being, in that spe­ciall Branch of his Posterity, Christ, as he had a Being likewise in every other Member of this his Posterity, even as they also, in a reciprocall consideration, had a be­ing in him, whilst as yet they actually were not. In this kind of Dialect, God kept Covenant with Abraham, when he performed those Promises unto him, as subsisting in his Posterity, or Seed, which yet he made unto him personally (unless we shall say, which haply may be true, and proper enough, that this and such like promises made unto Abraham, remain yet to be performed and made good unto him personally, in the first Resurrection, and during the Reign of Christ, and of the Saints on earth, for a thousand years▪) Thus he promised unto him yet personally subsisting, and present, that he would give him [Page 26] the Land of Canaan; Arise, walk through the Land in the length of it, and in the breadth of it: for I will give it unto thee (Gen. 13▪ 17.) So elsewere: And in thee shall all the Families of the Earth be blessed (Gen. 12. 3.) which yet was not verified in him personally considered, but as subsisting in that most glorious and flourishing Branch of his Poste­rity, Christ. In like manner, Christ assuming the humane Nature, wherein he suffered, from one of Adams naturall Race, and consequently from Adam himself, though in an appropriate and supernaturall way, the penalty of the Law, In the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt dye the death, being inflicted upon Chr st, may in a sense, and this not much remote from that which is literall, o [...] proper, be sayd to have been inflicted upon Adam himself. The Apostle having (as we lately heard) affirmed, that it be­came God in bringing [i. pu posing, or designing, and ac­cordingly attempting to being many Sons, [as viz. His Son Adam, Luk 3. 38. and all his Sons, which were many, and who, by reason of their descent from Adam, may pro­perly enough be tearmed the Sons of God also, the Scri­pture frequently giving the appellation of Sons, or Chil­dren, to all lineally descending from the same Progeni­tors] unto glory, to consecrate for so the word [...], very often signifieth ot to make perfect [i. Compleatly to qualifie] the Captain of their salvation [Christ that was to procure their deliverance from death, by making At­tonement for them] through sufferings [proportionable to so great [...]n Atchievement] and consequently, to put him into a capacity of suffering, by investing him with the humane Nature (as is plainly layd down, v. 14.) the A­postle (I say) having asserted this▪ he gives this account of it in the words following: For both he that sanctifieth, and they that are sanctified are all of one; meaning, that the one, and the other, are both of one and the same Original, or Descent; as viz. From God by the Line of Adam, and likewise of one and the same nature, or blood (as Act. 17. 26. And hath made of one blood all Nations of men.) And [Page 27] withall, that it was meet that thus it should be for con­formity sake unto the Leviticall Type, where the high Priest, and those that were Legally purified, or sanctified by him, were both of one and the same nature, and like­wise descended from one and the same Progenitors.

2. It was very agreeable both to the goodness and wis­dome of God, that he, who by his appointment, and at his instance, should serve Adam and his posterity, in so arduous and difficult an undertaking, as by his own death to re-instate them in a condition of life and peace, should be satisfied with, and enjoy this sore travail of his Soul, and not sink, or be wholly crushed under it: and conse­quently that he should not only suffer death, but over­come death, or (which is the same) be raised again from the dead, that so he might be capable of that great recom­pence of Reward, which so transcendent a Service both unto God, and men, well deserved. Upon this account also, the Lord Jesus Christ was the only person, either in actuall being, or in possibility of being, that was accom­plished, or meetly qualified for that great undertaking, of raising up the Tabernacle of Adam, which was fallen, and of saving that which was lost. For were it granted, or supposed, which yet I cannot encourage any man to sup­pose, that some Creature might have been found, or else made, so holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate from sinners, the shedding of whose blood, or whose death, for Adam, and his posterity, might have been so considerable in the sight of God, as that he could have judg'd it competently salvant of the glory of his wisdome, and of the awfulness, and dread of his Soveraignty, to have remitted the trans­gression of Adam, and his, upon the account thereof, yet is it no wayes probable, that the considerableness, or worth of this Sacrifice, would, or could have ab [...]unded so high above the purchase, or procurement of the redemp­tion of Adam, and his posterity, as to in-title, or to in­right him that should have offered it, to a glorious Resur­rection also, such as was meet for him, that had been, the [Page 28] Author of salvation to a lost World. And if the Glory wherein Christ appeared upon Tabor, was so exceeding great, that it only became the only begotten Son of God, being a Garment too above measure rich for any person to wear, but the only Son of the King of Kings (to which sense many of the Expositors carry that of the Evangelist, Joh. 1. 14) much more would such a transcendency in Glo­ry, wherewith God hath judged it meet to invest and dig­nifie him, that is now the Saviour of the World; As the making him higher then the Heavens, placing him at his own right hand, giving him a Name above every Name that is na­med, &c. have been vastly disproportionable to the Line of any meer created Being whatsoever. And yet the Apostle plainly declareth, that such an high Priest became us; [i. Was necessary for us to have, in respect of those high and vast Concernments, which were to pass through his hands, and to be transacted by him] who (amongst o­ther glorious Prerogatives) should be made higher then the Heavens, Heb. 7. 26. In these Considerations (and hap­ly in some others like unto them) the contributions of the passive Obedience and Sufferings of Christ, were sove­raignly necessary to render the high transaction, or dis­pensation of God, the justification of sinners, worthy of him, and of a regular and cleer consistence with his Glory. As for the Tenent of those, who resolve this great Act, or Dispensation of God we speak of (I mean, Justification) partly into the Soveraignty of his Greatness, or Authori­ty, and partly into the abundance of his Grace, and Good­ness, and liberty of his Will, and partly into the Obedi­ence, and regular Conversation of men themselves, ex­cluding the death of Christ from any part, or fellowship therein (at least by way of Attonement, or satisfaction for sin) I conceive it to be broadly inconsistent with the tenor and purport of the Scriptures in places and passages without number.

[Page 29] 8. The Resurrection, or raising of Christ from the dead, Sect. 8 (in conjunction with his Glorification which followed How the Resurrectio [...] of Christ from the dead justi­fieth.upon it) advanceth the business of Justification, by the assurance given hereby from God unto the Souls and Con­sciences of men, that he is well a paid, and fully satisfied concerning that great Debt of the sin of the World, the discharge whereof was undertaken by Christ in his death; hereby encouraging men, who had incur'd his displeasure by sinning, to believe in him accordingly, for their justifi­cation. This is the express Doctrine of the Apostle Pe­ter,: Who verily was fore-ordained (speaking of Christ) be­fore the foundation of the World, but was manifested in these last times for you, who by him do believe in God that raised him up from the dead, and gave him Glory, that your Faith and hope might be in God, [and consequently, that you might be found, or put into, a state of justification (without which, Faith, and hope in God were little available) 1 Pet. 1. 20. And in this consideration (doubtless) it was that the Apostle Paul affirmed, Christ to be raised again for our justification. Who was (sayth he, speaking of Christ) de­livered [viz. unto death] for our sins, and was raised again for our justification, (Rom, 4. 25.) meaning, that he was raised again from the dead: [including in his Resurrection, by a kind of Synecdoche, the great Glory and Dignity given him by God upon it] that hereby a rationall way might be made for sinners to believe in him, or in God, [for the Gospel indifferently useth the one expression, and the other, to the same effect] in order to their justifica­tion. Whilst the Surety, o [...] he that hath undertaken the payment of a Debt, is kept in Prison, there is no likely­hood that the debt is payd, or the Creditor satisfied. And upon this ground the Apostle Paul reasoneth first thus: But if Christ be not risen, then is our Preaching vain, and your Faith is also vain, 1 Cor. 15. 14. And again vers. 17. And if Christ be not raised, your Faith is vain: yee are yet in your sins; Meaning, that they could have no reasonable ground to believe that they were discharged, or acquitted by [Page 30] God from the Debt, or guilt, of their sins by means of the death of Christ, if he should be detained in the Prison of Death (the Grave) until now, and not have been raised a­gain, and set at liberty. So then the rising again, or ra­ther the raising again, of Christ from the dead by God the Father, justifieth believing sinners (as it were) argumen­tatively, and as exhibiting a rationall ground unto them, whereon to build their Faith, of a full and perfect Attone­ment made by Christ in his death for them, or for their sins; by which Faith, according unto, and by vertue of, that Promise made, or the Law enacted by God, in that behalf, they come to be justified.

Sect. 9 9. The Prophet Isaiah bringeth in God the Father, How the knowledge of Christ justi­fieth.speaking thus of his Son Christ: By his knowledge shall my righteous Servant justifie many: for he shall bear their Ini­quities, Isa. 53. 11. That the Particle, or Pronoun, His, is here to be taken objectively, not subjectively (a constru­ction frequent in Scripture) is (I presume) the award of every mans Understanding. So that by his knowledge, [the knowledge of Christ] is meant the knowledge of himself, which he shall propagate in the World by the Ministry of the Gospel, and by means of this knowledge of him many shall be justified; according to that of the A­postle; We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, knowing that a man is not justified by the Works of the Law, but by the Faith of Jesus Christ even we have be­lieved in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the Faith of Christ, [i. By Christ believed on] as he explains him­self in the verse next following; But if whilst we seek to be justified by Christ, &c. (Whence by the way it may be observed, that to be justified by Christ, and by Faith, or be­lieving in Christ, is of one and the same import) So then, the knowledge of Christ is, or may be sayd, to justifie men, in somewhat a remote sense; viz. As it is a ground of en­couragement unto them to believe on him; by which be­lieving they are immediatly justified.

[Page] 10. Men are sayd in Scripture, as well to be Justified, as Sect. 10 Sanctified, by the Spirit of God, and this as Justification is How the Spirit of God is, or may be say [...] to justifie men.distinguished from Sanctification. But yee are washed, but yee are sanctified, but yee are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God, 1 Cor. 6. 11. Some Exposi­to [...]s indeed understand the word [...], yee were ju­stified, not of Justification properly so called, or which standeth in remission of sins, but of such a justification, which consisteth in a progress, or proficiency in Righte­ousness, or in the profession and practice of Christianity. For the justification of which Exposition, they plead the exigency of the order, or gradation in the Text it self, as also the like use, or signification of the word [...], in that of Apocal. 22. 11. [...], Let him that is righteous [or just] be justified still. i. (As the Expo­siters we speak of interpret) Let him encrease and make forward in wayes of righteousness. It must be acknow­ledged, that to grow in grace and proceed in holiness and righteousness from day to day may be called a mans justi­fication in a declarative, or arguitive sense, viz. As they argue, or declare a man to be a justified pe [...]son, and his Faith to be of the right kind, a living and growing Faith: yea, they may be termed a mans justification, as they are just matter of his app [...]obation, and commendation, which in many cases are used in a sense parallel to that of the word Justification, as 'tis used sometimes. But the Justi­fication, wh [...]ch is the S [...]bject of our present Discourse, doth not consist in any Action, one, or more, nor in any Qua­lity, one, or more; but rather in a state, or condition, viz. Such whereinto a person is translated, or brought by the pardon of his sins▪ or sentence of absolution awarded by God. Nor need we take the word Justification in the Scripture lately cited (1 Cor. 6. 11.) in any other sense but this. For Justification (in this sense) may be asc [...]ibed to the Holy Ghost, as he hath a speciall and appropriate hand in raising the work of Faith, by which men are thus justified, in the hearts of those, who do believe: in which [Page 32] respect, Faith is registred by the Apostle Paul, amongst the fruits of the Spirit, Gal. 5. 22. and by his Fellow Apostle Peter, they who believe are sayd to obey the truth (speak­ing of the obediency of Faith to the Gospel) through the Spirit, 1 Pet. 1. 22. and Act. 18. 27. The Christians in A­ch [...]ia are sayd to have believed through grace, i Through the grace of God, in his vouchsafement of his Spirit unto them, by whom they were enabled to believe, yea, and actually believed. Now then (according to the known Maxime, or Principle in reason, Quod est causa causae, est causa causati, That which is the Cause of any Cause, pro­ducing an Effect, is the cause of the Effect it self, as well as of the Cause producing it) Faith being the cause, or means of Justification, and the Spirit the cause of Faith, Justification may as truly, and not much less properly, be attributed unto the Spirit, as unto Faith.

Sect. 11 11. That Faith justifieth, is the constant assertion of How Faith justifieth.the Scripture, and the Architectonicall Doctrine of the Gospel. Therefore being justified by Faith, we have peace with God, Rom. 5. 1. Again, Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by Faith without the Works of the Law, Rom. 3. 28. Yet once more (to spare Citations in a case so ge­nerally known) We, who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, Knowing that a man is not justified by the Works of the Law, but by the Faith of Jesus Christ; even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the Faith of Christ, and not by the Works of the Law, &c. Gal. 2. 15, 16. By the way, upon occasion of these (with ma­ny the like passages in the New Testament, wherein Ju­stification by Faith is, [...], expresly affirmed) I cannot but mention my dislike of their strein in teaching, who lay down and deliver it to the people for a Doctrine, po­sitively and plainly; that men are not justified by Faith, or by believing. Doubtless it is not convenient, or come­ly, positively to deliver, or assert that for a Doctrine of Truth, which is so diametrally opposite to the frequent, cleer, and express words of the Scripture. If there be a [Page 33] limited sence, to be put upon such passages, wherein a Truth is commonly, and from place to place held forth in the Scriptures, this may conveniently and timously e­nough be done in the Explication or Opening of the Doctrine: But I judge it very incongruous for any Mini­ster of the Gospel to set up a Doctrine as it were in de­fiance of, or in Contest against any thing so frequently, and so directly in terminis affirmed in the Scriptures, as Justification by Faith. And (doubtlesse) men need not be at all tender, or afraid, to deliver this positively for a Doctrine of Evangelical Truth, that men are justified by Faith, yea or by Faith alone, if they do but declare or sig­nifie withall 1. What the Scripture means by that Justi­fication, which it ascribeth unto Faith. 2 What it means by that Faith unto which it ascribeth Justification. For 1. that Justification, which the Scripture attributeth unto Faith, is precisely that which consisteth in Remissi­on of sins, as the Apostle plainly teacheth, Rom. 3. 25. but more largely, Rom. 4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. (to omit other places.) Now certain it is, that no kinde of works whatsoever, enjoyned in the Moral Law, have any thing at all, little or much, to doe, about Remission of Sins, or in the procurement or obtaining of it. For in case a man should transgresse the Law, or sin, only once, and this in the lightest manner, and should for ten thousand years together afterwards, with all possible exactnesse, observe and keep this Law, yet this long Tract or Series of Obe­dience, or good Works, would not make his Attone­ment for that Sin, nor bring him off from the Guilt of it with Peace and Safety. The reason is signified by the Apostle, Heb. 9. 22. Without shedding of Bloud there is no Remission. The Wisdome and Righteousnesse of God did not judge it reasonable, or meet, that the payment of one Debt by the Creature, though amounting to never so great a Summe, should satisfie for the Non-payment of another. Now the most exact Obedience that can be performed or yielded unto the Law of God by any Crea­ture, [Page 34] whilest it hath any being, is but a debt due from this Creature unto God: Therefore no Obedience in this kinde can satisfie for, or attone▪ either in whole, or in part, the least Disobedience or Transgression. So that Justification from sin (as the Scripture phrase is, Act. 13. 39.) i. which standeth in Remision of sins, cannot be purchased or procured, but by the Death or Blood-shed of him, that should undertake the Redemption of Sin­ners. Only God was pleased to decree, or make this for a Law (which the Apostle calleth, the Law of Faith, Rom▪ 3. 27.) that Faith, or believing in him through Christ, should interess men in the benefit or blessing of the Death and Bloud-shed of Christ, i. in that Remission of Sins which was purchased by his Death. And in this consideration Faith justifieth, viz. by vertue of the So­veraign Authority of that most Gracious Decree, or Law of God, wherein he hath said, or decreed, that it shall intitle men unto, or in-right them in, part and fellow­ship of that benefit of the Death of Christ, which con­sisteth in Forgivenesse of Sins; or (which comes much to the same) as it is a Qualification, or condition ordain­ed, covenanted, or appointed by God to bring upon those, in whom it shall be found, the great Blessing of that Pardon of Sin, which Christ hath obtained for Men by his Blood. And because God hath not passed any such Decree, nor made any such Law, concerning good works, as viz. that these shall bring men into Com­munion of the benefit of Remission of Sins purchased by the Death of Christ▪ therefore they have nothing to doe to justifie men in this notion, or sense, of the word, Justi­fication. If by Justification, we mean approbation, com­mendation, acquitting from blame, or the like, (in which sense also the word is frequently used in the Scriptures) See Job 11. 2 3 [...]. 2. 33. 32. Isa. 43. 9. [...]6. Isa. 45▪ 25 Jer. 3▪ 11. Ezek. 16. 5 [...], 52. Luk. 16. 15. 18. 14. 1 Tim. 3. 16. Jam. 2. 21, 24, 25.Good Works are proper and necess ry thus to justifie us both in the sight of God and Men; only with this Explication or Proviso, viz. that men live to meet with Opportunities for the doing of such works, after their [Page 35] true believing. For otherwise, if the case should so happen, that a true Believer should be taken away by Death, the next moment to that in which he first believed, it is not to be thought but that he should die, not simply with his sins pardoned, but under the approbation of God also. Therefore Good Works, in actu exercito (as the Schoolmen speak) or actually performed, are not absolutely, universally, or in every case that may possibly happen, necessary, no not to that Justification it self, which simpathizeth (as hath been said) in import with Approbation, Commendation, Vindication from blame imputed, or the like. It is true, in actu signato, or as they are Radically, Seminally, or Vertually included in that Faith which justifieth by Remission of sins (of which more presently) so they are universally, and in all cases possible, if we speak of persons capable by Years and Discretion of Believing, necessary thereunto. And God who accepteth the Will for the Deed, when men want opportunity or means, for Action, looketh upon those good Works, which are conceived in the Womb of a true and unfeigned Faith, as actually performed and done, when such a Faith wants means, time, or oppor­tunity to bring forth. In this notion our Saviour him­self must be understood to speak, at least in reference un­to many of those, to whom he speaketh, if he be con­ceived to speak unto all standing on his right hand (which I judge to be the more rational to suppose) Mat. 25. 34, 35, 36. Come ye Blessed of my Father—For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a Stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye cloathed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in Prison, and ye came unto me. Doubtlesse some, yea a con­siderable party, of those, to whom the Lord Christ will expresse himself thus in that Great Day, will be such, who had been poor in the dayes of their Flesh, and afflicted, and stood in need of being relieved by their Christian Bre­thren, better accommodated in the World then they, and [Page 36] in whose relief Christ will acknowledge himself relieved, v. 40. Therefore such as these had not been in a condi­tion or capacity to minister actually unto the wants and necessities of other poor Christians in those respective Supplies and Accommodations here specified: and yet we finde (according to our late supposition) that Christ gives the same testimony unto them for these services of Charity, which he gives unto those that had actually performed them. His meaning then must be, that even these poor distressed Saints, who had not wherewith either to cloath the naked, or to give entertainment unto Strangers, actually, yet had both one and other the same works and services of Christian commiseration and cha­rity here mentioned, in the Bowels of the same kinde of Faith, out of which they actually proceeded from their better World-provided Brethren, and were performed by them But this occasionally here, and by the way, for the better Explication of that Justification, which the Scripture so constantly, (as we have heard) ascribeth unto Faith.

2. Concerning that Faith, unto which the Justifica­tion mentioned, is ascribed, the Scripture describeth it with much variety in respect of its object. Sometimes it calleth it a Believing God, Rom. 4. 3. Jam. 2. 23▪ Some­times a Believing on God, Joh. 12, 44. Sometimes a be­lieving in God, or in the Lord, Act. 16. 34. Joh. 14. [...]. Act. 9. 42. Once it is called, the Faith of the operation of God, who raised Christ from the dead, Col. 2. 12. Sometimes a believing on Christ, or, on the Son of God, or on the Lord, Act. 11. 17. Joh. 3. 18 & 12. 37. 1 Joh. 5 10. (besides many other places) Sometimes again it is called a believing in Christ. Joh 3. 15 and so, in Jesus, Rom. 3. 26 (and oft elsewhere) Otherwhile it is expressed, by believing Christ, or the Son, Joh. 3. 36. Sometimes, by a believing that Christ is Christ, the Son of God that was to come into the World, Joh. 11. 27. and again a believing that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, Act. 8. 37. See also Joh. 8. 24. and [Page 37] again, Joh. 11. 47. Sometimes it is called, a believing in Christs name, Joh. 1. 12. & Joh. 2. 23. & Joh. 3. 18. It is very possible that yet there may be in the Scriptures a greater variety of Denominations or Expressions of that Faith, which justifieth, in reference to its object, then that now represented. But all these that have been men­tioned (and I doubt nor, but those others also super­numerary unto these, if any such there be) are of an easie and ready reducement into one and the same no­tion and import. But that distinguishing character (one, or more) of the justifying Faith, which we are at pre­sent enquiring after, respecteth not the Object, but the Intrinsick nature or complexion of it. The Scripture, in reference hereunto, sometime describeth it to be a be­lieving in the heart, Rom. 10. 9. Other while, a believing with the heart, Rom. 10. 10. Sometimes again, a be­lieving with all the heart, Act. 8. 37. It is twice called, a Faith unfeigned, 1 Tim. 1. 5. 2 Tim. 1. 5. The Faith of a spurious kinde, and which differs in nature, worth, and value from it, is termed [...], a dead Faith, Jam▪ 2. 17. 20. 26. and by consequence the true Faith which justifieth, must be understood to be a living Faith. But the most appropriate nature of this Faith, or the property of it, which is most considerable, and which indeed (upon the matter) includeth all the other now mentioned, and most emphatically differenceth it from all other kindes of Faith, which want the Seal of God to make them justi­fying, is that declared and asserted by the Apostle Paul, Gal. 5. 6 where the Holy Ghost guided his Pen to these words For in Jesus Christ [i. e. in the Doctrine of Jesus Christ, and by the tenor, and import of the Gospell] nei­ther Circumcision availeth any thing [viz. towards any mans Justification before God] nor uncircumcision, but Faith [...], effectually operative, or throughly working by love. His meaning is, that such a Faith in God, which is raised, or wrought in a man by means of Jesus Christ as given by God unto men for a Saviour, and [Page 38] which, withall is spiritfull, lively and active in provoking the Soul in which it resides, to the love of God and Men, and to wayes and works suteable to such an affection, is the only thing or means designed, authorized and ap­pointed by God to bring men into part and fellowship of that Justification, or Remission of sins, which hath been purchased or procured by the death of Jesus Christ▪ for men. A Faith of this Genius, temper and complexi­on, borroweth no aid, help or assistance from any of her children (I mean from any of those good works, which pro­ceed from her) for or towards that justifying of men with that Justification, which standeth in Remission of Sins: she is by vertue of that authority derived unto her by God, self-sufficient to give this great and happy investiture unto men; yea should she die before she had opportunity to bring forth, she would do that worthy service to him that had conceived her. It is true, as concerning that Justifi­cation, of which the Apostle James speaks so much in his second Chapter, which is a Justification of a person testi­fied, declared, published, or made known, the Faith we speak of standeth in need of the help and Co­operation (as the same Apostle there speaks v. 22.) of her Children. God himself will not report any man justified (I mean, any man capable of Good works) nor would he have any man (of this capacity) judged or reputed by others a justified person, who hath not justified or commended his Faith by such works. But this by the way to vindi­cate and clear the Interest of Faith in the great business of Justification, and to sever it from that of Works, not more contended for, then confounded with it, by some.

To conclude this Section; The vertue or power, by which Faith justifieth, it receiveth from the designation, ordinance, appointment, or Decree of God: The man­ner how it justifieth, is by the giving of men Interest or part in the great benefit of Remission of sins purchased by Christ, according to the tenor of Gods Ordinance or Decree in that behalf. They who conceive or teach [Page] that Faith justifieth as it is an Instrument receiving Christs righteousnesse, or Christ himself, unadvisedly stamble at that Popish notion (as it is frequently charged upon men of that perswasion, by Protestant Writers) which placeth the justifying nature or vertue of Faith in somewhat, in some worth that is essential and intrinsick to it. For evident it is, that there is nothing more in­ward or essential unto Faith, then the receiving of Christ, or Christs Righteousnesse, this being the very nature and substance of it. Whereas the Ordinance, Will, or De­cree of God, which investeth Faith, or the receiving of Christ, with the great priviledge or power of justifying men, is apparently extrinsecal and extra-essential to it, and so ministreth no occasion in the least unto Faith to boast of any excellency or considerablenesse of worth in it self, but resolves that which is of that high and Sacred concernment in it unto men, as viz. to justifie and to save them, into the Grace and good pleasure of God. But I have given an account of my judgement touching this point somewhat more at large elsewhere. And this at present may serve to clear the Interest of Faith in, or a­bout Justification, and to shew particularly and distinct­ly what part it acteth in the Investiture of men, who have sinned, with that Blessednesse.

12. Concerning Repentance, that it also is no Stran­ger Sect. 12 unto Justification, or Remission of sins, but hath a How, or in what respect, Repentance, is, or may be said, to justi­fie.very material imployment or part assigned unto it by God about the enstating of sinners therein, is the fre­quent and distinct voyce of the Scriptures. Repent ye therefore (saith Peter unto the Jewes, Act 3. 19.) and be converted, that your sins may be bloued out &c. It is said of John, that he baptized in the Wildernesse, and preached the Baptisme of Repentance for the Remission of sins, Mar. 1. 4. I suppose the great and blessed effect here mentioned, Justification, or Remission of sins, is not intended by the Evangelist as the effect of Baptisme, either only, or so much (if at all) but rather of Repentance: And that [Page] Baptisme is therefore called, the Baptisme of Repentance for, &c. (if Repentance it self be not here rather termed, metaphorically, a Baptisme, i. e. a washing or cleansing a mans self from the defilement of sin, but if this be not probable) Baptisme (I say) may be called, the Baptisme of Repentance for the Remission of sins, because it is a Sacra­mental Pledge or Ordinance of God vouchsafed unto the Christian World, to insure Remission of sins upon Repentance, in such a character or form of speaking, as that of the Prophet Elisha upon the shooting of an Arrow by the King of Israel as he was directed by this Prophet; And he said, the Arrow of the Lords deliverance, and the Ar­row of deliverance from Syria; meaning, that the Kings shooting the Arrow by order from God signified unto him by the Prophet, was a confirmatory sign unto him, and so intended by God, that he and his People should be delivered out of the hand of their Enemies the Syrians, 2 King. 13. 17. Of the like construction is that of Peter to his new Converts, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the Name of Jesus Christ for the Remission of sins, &c. Act. 2. 38. The coupling of Remission of sins so close with Re­pentance, as is found, Luk. 24. 47. and Act. 5▪ 31. is (I con­ceive a pregnant Argument that the latter hath an indi­spensable Interest in procuring the former. The tenour of the former of these Texts, is this. And [Christ] said unto them, thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the Dead the third day: And that Re­pentance and Remission of Sins, should be preached in his Name among all Nations, &c. Of the latter, this: Him hath God exalted with his right hand, to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give REPENTANCE unto Israel, and FORGIVENESSE OF SINS. Upon the same account likewise it was, that those Christian Jewes, Act. 11. 18. termed that Repen­tance which they concluded from Peters relation, that God had granted unto the Gentiles a Repentance unto life [meaning, unto Justification, or, Forgivenesse of Sins, which the Apostle Paul calls, the justification of life, [Page 41] Rom. 5. 18. that is, a Justification, which restores a Sin­ner unto Life, i. e. unto a Right, Title, and Capacity of Eternal Life, who before was under a sentence of Con­demnation, and so dead in Law.

So then the Questionis, how Repentance may be con­ceived to operate towards Justification, or what it con­tributeth thereunto. I answer,

1. In the Generall, it seems to be joyned in the same Commission with Faith, and to be insisted upon, and re­quired by God in the nature of a Condition, or qualifica­tion, to render men meet for so sacred an Investiture, or Priviledge, as Justification, or, Remission of sins. And it is matter of ready observation, that the Scripture ma­keth the like great and precious Promises unto the one, and unto the other; yea and threatneth the want of the one, and of the other, with the same severe and terrible Judgements. This matter being so well known, we shall not need Quotation-proofs. Yea,

2. There seems to be a kinde of a mutual or reciprocal Involution between Repentance, and Faith; not such as is between ordinary causes, and their effects, but between such causes, and effects, which, in different considerati­ons and respects, are mutually both causes, and effects, the the one unto the other. Repentance, considered in the initiatory, or imperfect work of it, comprehends Faith in it, as Causes (especially Moral Causes) their Effects, i. e. dispositively, seminally, vertually, and the like. A­gain, Faith being brought into the Soul, by the oppor­tunity of such a Repentance, as a form into matter dispo­sed, or prepared, carries on that Repentance to greater perfection, by means whereof, whilest it was yet in its Minority, it self was furthered in its being. So that as Faith was dispositively, or preparative-wise in Repen­tance, whilest Repentance was imperfect; So is Repen­tance perfectively, or in respect of its consummation, in Faith. The Scripture speaks evidently of a Repentance precedaneous unto Faith; yea and seems to assert a [Page 42] necessity of the precedency of it, in order unto Faith. And ye (saith the Lord Christ to the chief Priests, and Elders of the Jewes) when ye had seen it, repented not after­ward, that ye might believe him (speaking of Johns testi­mony concerning him, as that he was the true Messiah, and Saviour of the World) Mat. 21. 32. So the Apostle Paul adviseth Timothy to instruct in meeknesse those that oppose themselves, if God peradventure will [or rather, shall] give them Repentance to the acknowledgement of the truth Tim. 2. 25., [i. e. a Repentance, which shall dispose, or put them in­to an immediate capacity to believe the truth of the Gospell. As on the contrary our Saviour expostulates thus with the Jewes: How can ye believe, who receive Ho­nour one of another (Joh. 5. 44.) clearly implying that there was a necessity lying upon them to repent of that their ambitious and self-seeking humor, to put them into a regular or hopefull capacity of Believing. Thus then we see that, according to the Scriptures, there is a Repentance, which is an Harbinger or Way-preparer unto Faith: In respect whereof, Faith may be said to be dispositively (as hath been sayd) and by way of prepara­tion, in Repentance. But this Repentance, notwith­standing the great service it doth unto men in accommo­dating their way towards believing, yea and proceedeth also from the Grace of God, and is to a degree and in its measure accepted with him, in whomsoever it is found, yet is it but imperfect, and wants many degrees of that strength and soundnesse, which afterwards it receiveth by its conjuction and communion with Faith. And so, in respect of this inlargement or additional perfection, it may be said to have a being in Faith. I doe not think it worth the making a Controversie, or Dispute, whether that Repentance which goeth before Faith, and qualifies the subject for a more ready or willing reception of it, and that which followes and accompanies Faith, be of one and the same species, or of different. Yet I rather incline to think, that they do not only not differ specie [Page 43] (unlesse it be specie accidentali, as a Man differs from a Childe, a Man Learned from a Man Illitetate, a Man that is poor, from a man that is rich, and the like,) but not so much as in individuo; as Paul was the same indivi­duum, when he was a Man, which he was when he was a Child. That the one hath Justification, or Remission of sins, annexed unto it by promise from God, and the other, not, doth no more prove them to differ specie, no nor yet individuo, then Pauls proving in time a great and faithfull Apostle, and chosen Vessel unto God, proveth him to have been, either of another species, or another individuum, when he was a fierce Persecutor, and (as himself acknowledgeth) of sinners the chief. But this Circle of Discourse, is (I confesse) somewhat Ec­centrical to our businesse in hand, which is not to distin­guish Repentance as preceding, and as accompanying Faith, but to inquire out, and declare, as God shall inable and direct, what, or how, Repentance, as included in, or accompanying Faith, operateth towards Justification, or Remission of sins. That which I conceive, is this. God not judging it meet to invest a person, who yet retains the love and liking of sinfull and wicked wayes, with so great, and sacred a priviledge, and Grace, as Forgive­ness of sins, was pleased to establish it for a Law, that no Man or Woman remaining impenitent, and without unfeigned remorse of Soul for their sins past, should ever be admitted into part and fellowship of that unspeakable Grace of his in Jesus Christ, which consists in pardon, or Remission of sins. Again, being highly pleased with that most regular, generous, and worthy deportment of Soul, in whomsoever it should be found, which consists in a genuine and real hatred and abhorrency of all un­righteousnesse, and of whatsoever is sinfull or unclean, enacted another Law in honour of this Heroick Act and Deportment, viz. that whosoever should with his whole heart and soul repent of all his sinfull miscarriages and misdoings, and stand resolved in heart for wayes of purity [Page 44] and uprightnesse for the future, should be translated by him into that blessed state, which standeth in Remis­sion of all sin. So that Repentance seems to operate two wayes towards Justification, or Remission of sins. First, in the nature, or after the manner, of that kinde of cause, which Logicians call Removens prohibens, i. e. which contributeth towards an effect, by removing that out of the way, which being not removed, would have hin­dered it. Thus the taking away of the Dignity, place, and power, of the Roman Emperors, was the cause of the discovery or rising up of the Anti-Christian Race, and their power, 2 Thess. 2▪ 7, 8. So Repentance, by remo­ving that wretched and wicked habit or frame of soul, which being un-removed, would have obstructed the Grace and Blessing of pardon of sin, contributeth to­wards the obtaining of it. Secondly, as Repentance includes in the nature and constituting Principles of it, a disposition or frame of heart so highly pleasing unto God, that he judgeth it no wayes unworthy of him, to honour and reward it with so great a reward, as Remis­sion of sins, so it may be conceived to contribute or operate towards Remission of sins, or Justification, tan­quam causa dispositiva, i. e. as regularly qualifying the sub­ject for the reception of the form to be brought into it.

By this (I suppose) the interest of Repentance, or that which it acteth towards, in, or about Justification, may be clearly distinguished from the Interest of Faith, and that which it acteth in reference to the same end. When God in Scripture is said to justifie the ungodly, the meaning is not that he justifies ungodly persons, whilest they are or remain ungodly; but he is said to justifie the ungodly, in like form of speech, as our Saviour useth, Mat. 11. 5. [...], &c. That is, The blinde see, the lame walke, the Leapers are cleansed, and the deaf hear. The meaning clearly e­nough is, not that the Blinde, whilest blinde, did see; or [Page 45] the Lame, whilest they remained Lame, did walk, or that the Lepers whilest their Leprosie was yet upon them, were cleansed, &c. but that such who had been formerly and untill Christ relieved them, Blinde, Lame, Lepers, Deaf, were by him miraculously restored, such as had been Blinde, to their Sight; such as had been Lame, to the usefulnesse of their Limbs for walking, &c. In like man­ner God is said to justifie the ungodly, when he justifies, or makes such persons righteous by the pardon of their sins, who had formerly been ungodly, prophane, &c. But he doth not justifie them, or make them righteous by the Forgivenesse of their sins, whilest they remain ungodly; but upon the alteration and change of the sinfull frame of their hearts, by believing, he conferres this Justifica­tion upon them, viz. the Forgivenesse of their sins. And the reason why God doth not judge it meet to justifie men, or forgive them their sins, whilest they remain un­godly, unrighteous, wicked, prophane, or the like, may be, partly to cut off all occasion from his Creature to conceive of him as a friend to sin, or to impenitent and obdurate sinners; partly also to contrive his Grace and high favour in Justification, into an alluring Argument, and strong motive to perswade men out of the love and liking of sin, and sinfull wayes, into the love and pra­ctise of Righteousnesse and true Holinesse. The Apostle Paul was put to Apologize for his Doctrine of the Grace of God in Forgivenesse of sins, because according to it, this Grace is promised and given unto sinners, though unto such sinners only, who repent, and bring forth fruits meet for Repentance. But if (saith he) whilest we seek to be justified by Christ, we our selves also are found sinners, is therefore Christ the Minister of sin? [i. e. doth Christ by justifying such Sinners, as he justifieth, viz. such who be­lieve and repent, countenance, abet, or promote sin in the world] God forbid, Gal. 2. 17. If then inconsiderate and unworthy men conceive that God would be liable to an imputation of favouring or cherishing sin in men, in [Page 46] case he should justifie or pardon all Sinners upon their Repentance, (which now he doth) how much more ob­noxious would he have been, in such mens opinions, to this imputation and charge, in case he should have in­dulged this high Priviledge of Justification unto sinners without Repentance? Upon this account then it is most probable, that God hath not judged it meet to admit or allow any other kinde of Faith to bring men into com­munion of the Death of Christ for the Forgivenesse of their sins, but only that which is accompanyed with an unfeigned Repentance, or which purifieth and cleanseth the heart (or at least is apt so to doe) from the love and liking of all unrighteousnesse and uncleannesse. If it be thus, then the interposure or interest of Repentance a­bout Justification is by way of Qualification, or of ren­dering the subject, the sinner, regularly capable of that high and sacred Priviledge. And though it doth not per­form the office or work of Faith about Justification, which is (as hath been said) to bring men into the fel­lowship of the Death of Christ where, and where only, Justification or Remission of sins, is to be had, yet it le­gitimates or authorizeth the person for the reception of this blessed Accommodation from the hand of Faith: And for this reason also it may well be conceived to have the promise of Justification, or Remission of sins, made unto it, as well as Faith it self.

Sect. 13 13. That good works have their part also in the great How good works are, and may be, said to justifie.businesse of Justification, is the expresse affirmation of the Scripture. Ye see then how that by works a man is justi­fied, and not by Faith only, Jam. 2. 24. Again: Was not Abraham our Father justified by Works, when he had of­fered Isaac his Son upon the Altar, Jam. 2. 21. We have al­ready upon occasion, argued and shewed the Interest of Works in, or about Justification. Peruse § 11. We shall here partly adde, and partly repeat; 1. That that Justi­fication, which consists in Remission of sins, and which enstates a person in a right of title and claim to Eternal [Page 47] Life, is not attained, but by sinners being brought into Communion with Christ in his Death; or (which is the same) into part and fellowship in this Death, which is the only procuring cause of this Justification, by way of purchase. 2. That whatsoever bringeth men hither, (I mean, into Communion of, or with the Death of Christ) must be sealed and authorized by God hereunto. 3. That a true and unfaigned Faith in God through Jesus Christ (sometimes called, Faith in Christ, yea and several other wayes expressed, as hath been already observed) and this Faith only, not any work, or works, of what kinde soever, or in what number soever, injoyned in the Moral Law, hath a commission or power from God to bring men into, or to give men part and fellowship in the Death of Christ. Therefore Good works have thus farre no part or interest at all in Justification, as it standeth in Remission of sins, being excluded here-from by the same Law, by which Boasting also is excluded, which the Apostle termeth, the Law of Faith. Where is Boasting then? It is excluded. By what Law? Of Works? Nay, but BY THE LAW OF FAITH? Rom 3. 27. By this Law, Faith hath the office or work of justifying men in this sense, and with this kinde of Justification, setled upon, and confirmed unto, it self, alone. There is another kinde of Justification, which the Scripture also fre­quently speaks of under this name (as was noted §. 11.) which consists in the approbation, commendation, or vindication of a person from guilt or blame, whether justly, or unjustly, imputed unto him. Of this kinde of Justification, when it is duely and justly given, or pro­nounced, Good Works, in one kinde or other, and for the most part those of the Moral Law, have a special and particular interest in it, being the only regular ground upon which the act, or sentence, of such a Justi­fication, can, or ought to proceed. And though God, by means of his appropriate priviledge of [...], or knowing the heart, can, and doth, upon a sufficient [Page] ground, secretly and in himself, approve of him, who as yet only believeth (I mean, with a true and unfeigned Faith) and before he hath any wayes justified or com­mended this his Faith by good works, yet he is not wont to signifie or declare, by one means, or other, this his approbation of any particular person, untill he hath shewed the World his Faith by his Works. Nor doth he require of any man to judge of any other per­son▪ as a man justified in his sight by a true and unfaign­ed Faith, who hath not given either unto him, or unto some others, from whom he may receive the informa­tion, a fair and reasonable account by works suteable, of such a Faith residing in him. And questionlesse it was this kinde of Justification, of which the Apostle James discourseth so largely in his Second Chapter, as appear­eth all along the Context, from vers. 14. to the end. Therefore when he demands, vers 21. Was not our Father Abraham justified by works, when he had offered his Son Isaac upon the Altar? Evident it is, that by Abrahams being justi­fied, he doth not mean, that Abraham had his sins par­doned; for he had been thus justified long before. And besides, his offering up his Son Isaac upon the Altar, could be no means of obtaining Remission of sins from God. But when he is said to have been justified by works, when he had offered, &c. the meaning is, that upon this great testimony given by Abraham of the truth and ef­fectualnesse of his Faith, God highly approved of him, loved him, and dealt by him as by a person righteous and just, and called him his Friend. The tenour of the story in Genesis fully accordeth herewith. For im­mediately upon Abrahams stretching forth his hand, and taking the knife to slay his Son, the Angel of the Lord called unto him [...]ut of Heaven, and sayd, Lay not thine hand upon the Lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing that thou hast not with-held thy Son, thine only Son, from me, Gen. 22. 11, 12. A se­cond time also, the Angel, upon this offering up of his [Page 49] Son, called unto him out of Heaven, and sayd; By my self have I sworn, saith the Lord: for, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not with-held thy Son, thine only S [...]n, That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying, I will multiply thy Seed as the Stars of the Heaven, and as the Sand which is upon the Sea shore; and thy Seed shall possess the Gate of his E­nemies: And in thy Seed shall all the Nations of the Earth be blessed, because thou hast obeyed my Voyce, Gen. 22. 15. 16, 17, 18. In these passages, is that justification of Abraham ex­pressed and contained; whereof the Apostle James speak­eth, affirming him to have obtained it at the hand of God by Works, as well as by his Faith, which he sayth, wrought together with them [meaning, towards the pro­curing, or obtaining of this justification, or approbation from God] and was by them perfected [or made perfect] i. Was declared to be perfect, that is, sound and good; or else, was perfected, [...], i. Became effectuall to the obtaining of its proper end [Viz. The approbation and love of God, with favourable and friendly respects from him] which is the perfection [Viz. Arguitivè, or Ar­gumentatively] of any thing. As on the contrary, when any thing, pretending to be a means for the compassing of such, or such an end, proves yet unable to effect it, this argueth, though (haply) not alwayes demonstratively, the imperfection, or weakness of it. In much a like sense to that, wherein Abraham (as we have heard) is sayd to have been justified by works, is Rahab the Harlot also, [i. Who formerly had been an Harlot] sayd to have been justified, v. 25. The meaning is, that upon Rahab's De­monstration of the reality and truth of her Faith,▪ in ex­posing her life to danger, by entertaining and hiding the Spies sent from Joshua, God entreated her, as a justified, or righteous person, by preserving her and her Fathers house, for her sake, with all that she had, when the City she dwelt in, with all that was in it, both man, and woman, young, and old (besides) were utterly destroyed with the edge of the Sword, Josh. 6. 21, 22, 23, &c. So that the [Page 50] word [...], to be justified, in this Coutexture of Dis­course, doth not signifie the proper effect of that Act of God, by which he constitutes▪ or makes men righteous, or just, or by which he justifies them; but the effect, one, or more, of some such Act of his, by which he expres­seth himself lovingly, graciously, and bountifully towards such persons, who are, or have been justified and made righteous by him, and hereby declares, and (after a sort) pronounceth them righteous. But he doth not judge it fit­ting, or meet thus to countenance them, or to entreat them as righteous, or justified persons, untill they have first given a good Testimony of the reality and soundness of that Faith, upon, and by which, he justifieth them. The expression wherein a person is sayd to be justified, when he is only respected, or dealt with, as being justified, i. As a justified person, is metonymicall, and frequent in Scri­pture, the Antecedent being oft put for the Consequent. Thus by Hunting, Gen. 27. 3. is meant, taking, or getting, by hunting: and Deut. 21. 16. to make a Son the first-born, signifies, to respect him, as the first-born, or to conser up­on him the Priviledge of the first-born. So also, Rom. 5. 19. to be made sinners, imports, a being made lyable unto punishment, or such a Condition which belongs unto sinners (to omit many the like) In this sense and no­tion of the word, justifie, the Lord Christ may be sayd to justifie those that shall stand at his right hand in the great day, in saying thus unto them; Come yee blessed of my Fa­ther, inherit the Kingdome prepared for you from the Founda­tion of the World. The reason, or ground in equity of this justification, is declared in the words next following: For I was an hungry, and yee gave me meat, I was thirsty, and yee gave me drink, &c. (Mat. 25. 34, 35, &c.) This most gracious address and application of Christ unto those that shall be saved, especially in conjunction with that most dreadfull and Soul-confounding address (immediatly following) unto those that shall eternally perish; De­part from me, yee Cursed, into everlasting fire, &c. together [Page 51] with the reason hereof (in the next words) For I was an hungred, and yee gave me no meat, &c. I say, these respective Decisions, or Adjudications of Christ, plainly evince and prove, that no person whatsover [of years of discretion, and actually capable of knowing Good, and Evill] shall receive the great benefit and blessing of justification, by means of any such Faith, which shall not utter and ap­prove it self before God and men, by fruitfulness in well­doing, according to such means and opportunities, as shall have been afforded unto them. And this also is the apparant drift and scope of the Apostle James in that Dis­course, some passages whereof we lately sifted, and insist­ed upon, out of his second Chapter. Thus we see what the interest and part of good works is in the great business of justification, according to the Scriptures.

14. That Remission of sins likewise is no Alien, or Sect. 14 stranger unto Justification, but in some neer imployment How Remis­sion of sins ju­stifieth.about it, is of ready demonstration from the Scriptures. The discourse of the Apostle Rom. 4. from v. 1. to v. 8. (inclusivè) is pregnant to this purpose; But to him (saith, he, v. 5.) that worketh not [Viz. With an intent, or hope of being justified by his working; or, that worketh not, i. That wanteth works competent, or sufficient to justifie him] but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly [mean­ing God, who justifieth even those that have been ungod­ly, and so must needs be without works meritorious of Justification, upon their believing] his Faith is counted for Righteousness, [i. He is made a righteous, or just man by means of his believing, and is accordingly looked upon by God] Even as David also describeth the blessedness: [i. Either the justification, or the blessedness accruing by it] Of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness] i. Whom he justifieth] Without works [Viz. Which are any wayes meritorious of Justification: For this Apostle, by works, in opposition unto Faith, in the business of Ju­stification, constantly understandeth, The Merit of Works: In which sense also his Adversaries the Jews understood, [Page 52] and urged it] saying, Blessed are they whose Iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin. By this Description from the Pen of David, Of the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth Righteousness. (i. Justifieth, as hath been been shewed.) It appears, that his Righteousness, or Justi­fication (passively taken) which is the cause, or means of his Blessedness, consists in the forgiveness of his Iniqui­ties, or which is the same in substance, though differing in consideration, or respect) in the non-imputation of sin unto him. By means as well of the one, as of the other of these, the mans sins are sayd to be covered; that is (I conceive) to pass unpunished, Indempnity from punish­ment, being a kind of Veyl by which the sins of Trans­gressors are kept from being much minded, or taken no­tice of by men: As on the other hand, when God open­ly judgeth, or punisheth men for their sins, he is sayd to un-cover, or dis-cover them, Ezek. 16. 37. 57. Ezek. 23. 10. and elsewhere. Now by that Description (as the Apostle termeth it) which David giveth (as we have heard) of the blessedness of the justified Person, placing it in this, that his Iniquities, or sins, are remitted, or forgiven, It is a clear Case, that Remission of sins justifieth Per modum cau­sae formalis, as the form, or formall Cause is sayd to give being to that which is caused by it. When a Painter ma­keth a Wall white, Whiteness is the Form, or formall Cause, by which the Wall is made white, or which ma­keth the Wall white. Nor can it be with reason reduced to any of the other kinds of Causes, as is evident; it be­ing no Efficient, or materiall, or [...]all Cause hereof, nor carrying the least semblance of any of these. In like man­ner, when God justifieth a sinner, that which he doth to him, or for him, is precisely this, He forgiveth him his sins; this is the very form of that his Action, i. The form which by his Act of justifying, he introduceth anew upon the sinner. Nor doth he any other thing, directly and imme­diatly, unto a person, when, and as he justifieth him, but [Page 53] only forgive him his sins. Of one and the same Act, or Action, there cannot be a plurality of Effects, immedi­ate and direct, really differing the one from the other.

It is true, as there may be sundry collaterall, constru­ctive, vertuall, or consequentiall Acts acted, or done, in the doing of some one; so there may be, nay, there al­waies is, an answerable variety of Effects produced by, and so Attributable unto, this one Act. When a Prince prefers some Head of a Family to a great place of profit and power in the State, or any other person, who is a Lo­ver of his Friends and Relations in blood, he may be sayd to cast honour upon this person, to better his condition in the World, to raise his Family, to give every particular Member hereof hope of being better accommodated in matters of this life; yea, in case he doth bestow this pre­ferment upon him for his Fathers, or any of his Ancestors sake, as for any worth in them, or for any good Service done by them, or the like; in preferring him, he may be sayd to impute the worth, or faithfulness of such an An­cestor unto him. But all such Acts as these, are but mediate, constructive, or consequentiall; and so are their respective effects to be interpreted likewise. A Prince when he pre­fers a man, in strict propriety of speaking, doth nothing else but prefer him, or (which is the same) confers some place of profit, or of honour upon him. In like manner, when God justifieth a man, he may be sayd to bless him, to translate him from Death to Life, to give him a lawfull Title, or Claim to eternall life, and his Heavenly King­dome: and because he doth it upon the account, and for the sake, of the Obedience of Christ, as well active, as passive (although in a more peculiar manner, upon the account of the latter, the Scripture constantly ascribing Justification, unto the blood, death, sufferings, &c. of Christ, and never, to my remembrance, unto his active Obedience, unless haply as presupposed unto his passive, and as qualifying it for its high Service) I say, because God justifieth men for the sake of Christ, and for what he [Page 54] hath done and suffered in serving his counsell and good pleasure, he may, when he justifieth any man, be sayd to impute the righteousness, or obedience of Christ unto him. And because, in order to this Act of his (I mean his Act of justifying a man) he requires Faith of him, and Faith only (in the sense formerly declared and asserted) when he justifieth him, he may be sayd, to count, or to impute his Faith unto him for righteousness. Again, when he justifieth a man, because he graciously confers upon him a righteousness of his own Invention and Contri­vance, and doth not justifie him, with, for, or upon, any righteousness found in him, whom he justifieth, therefore when he justifieth him, he is sayd, to impute righteousness unto him, i. (as it were) To gratifie him with a righte­ousness, remission of sins being a righteousness, properly enough so called, in as much as he, who is chargable with no sin, which is his priviledge, or case, who hath all his sins justly and authoritatively remitted, must needs be looked upon as an Observer of the whole Law. But when God justifieth a person, he doth none of these things to him in a direct, formall, or immediate way, but constru­ctively, or consecutively only. All that he doth upon such terms, is only this, he justifieth him, i. He remitteth unto him all his sins, remission of sins being that absolute and compleat righteousness, wherewith a sinner is invested by God in his justification, besides which, such a person is not capable of any, nor standeth in need of any, for the attainment of any end, or benefit of righteousness what­soever. And as for those that have been the greatest sin­ners, and neither gave Meat unto Christ, when he was an hungry, nor Drink, when he was thirsty, nor cloathed him when he was naked, &c. If so be God should remit these, and all other their sins unto them (which yet he cannot without their timely repentance, and contrary practising for a season, because this would be to deny himself, I mean, his righteousness and truth) they should hereby become as righteous, and as capable of the reward of [Page 55] righteousness, as the greatest Saints, and those who conti­nued for the longest time walking with God. This con­cerning remission of sins, and what part it beareth in the great, and mysterious work of Justification.

15. That the Scriptures, or Word of God, are not Sect. 15 meer Standers by neither, or Lookers on, in the business How the Scripture▪ or Word of God justifi [...]of Justification, but have somewhat to do in reference unto it, and for the promoting it, sufficiently appears from these and such like sayings of the Holy Ghost in the Scri­ptures. So then Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God, Rom. 10. 17. Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose Sirname is Peter, who shall tell the words, whereby thou and all thy House shall be saved, Act. 11. 13, 14. Abraham believed God [i. The word of God] and it was counted unto him for righteousness, Rom. 4. 3. True Faith (whether in the Act, or Habit, or both) ha­ving such an essentiall Connexion by the will and plea­sure of God (as we have heard) with justification, and never failing to obtain it, whatsoever any wayes worketh Faith, or contributeth towards the raising of it in the Soul, must needs in that respect, and so far, have an hand in justi­fication; according to that known Principle in Reason, (formerly mentioned) Quod est causa causae est etiam causa causati: That which in any consideration gives be­ing to the Cause, is in that respect, a Cause of the Effect produced by it. Now the Scripture, or the Word of God, (I mean, the Mind, Councell, or Will of God, which are the substance, matter, or truth, contained and held forth in and by the Scriptures, which we are taught in them to call the word of God, which matter, or truth, are held forth likewise, taught, and declared, in part, other-wayes then in the Scriptures, as by the light of Nature, Works of Creation, of Providence, &c.) I say, the Scripture, or Word of God, thus understood, is the only object, or subject matter, of that hearing, by which Faith (ordina­rily) cometh (as the Apostle even now informed us) meaning, that Faith by which men are justified. And as [Page 56] Sanctification is ascribed unto the Word o [...] God [San­ctifie them through thy truth: thy word is the truth, Joh. 17. 17.] Mediante fide, by the intervening and mediation of Faith, or the belief of it (Heb. 4. 2) So may Justification by the same mediation, be ascribed unto it likewise. Yea, Faith it self, which justifieth more immediatly and direct­ly (and consequently, Justification) may be ascribed unto it, not only as it is the subject matter, or object of that hearing, by which the Faith which justifieth is pro­duced (as hath been already sayd) but as it is such a word, or the matter of it so qualified and conditioned, that it is very apt, pregnant, and potent, to work, or raise that Faith in the hearts and minds of men, which by Divine Institution (as we have heard) is justifying. For it is eve­ry wayes, and on every hand, so [...], so worthy, meet, or fit to be believed, and so authoritatively, and with that power of Evidence and Conviction, commanding the obedience of Faith (as the Scripture speaks) unto it, that such persons, to whom it is preached, or set forth like it self, must needs have much, either of the Bruit, or of the Devil in them (if there be place for the distinction, and the Bruit in men be not the Devil in the shape, or like­ness of a So [...]) if they give not the honour and homage of Faith unto it. But of this I have reasoned more at large in a Treatise concerning the Divine Authority of the Scri­ptures. And thus we see, how, and after what manner the Scriptures also, or Word of God, are operative in their way towards the justification of a sinner, and may be sayd to justifie: they instruct and teach men the way that lead­eth unto justification; yea, they most effectually per­swade, urge, and press men to walk in this way (I mean, the way of believing) and by their innate property to convince the Judgments and Consciences of men, of the truth of what they teach, and say, they do much facilitate, or make easie bo [...]h mens entrance into, and their walking likewise in, this way. And as the Law is sayd to have constituted, or made men high Priests (Heb. 7. 28.) be­cause [Page 57] it directed and taught men how to make them, as viz. By the performance of all those Observations, Rites, and Ceremonies prescribed in this Law, to give this great and sacred Investiture, to a person capable by Gods appoint­ment of the Dignity, and then by declaring and authori­zing them for such in the Name of God. In like manner, the Gospel, or Word of God, may be sayd to constitute, or make men righteous, i. To justifie them, both because it teacheth and prescribeth unto them what they ought to do, and must do, that they may be justified; and then by authority derived from God, and in his Name, pronounce, avouch, and declare them for such (I mean for persons justified) when they have performed and done that, which they prescribe on this behalf.

16. That the Publishers, or Ministers of the Gospel, Sect. 16 are not without some part and fellowship in the glorious How the Minister of the word may be sayd to ju­stifie.and blessed business of Justification, and according to their Interest herein, may be sayd to justifie, is not a forc'd or far-fetch conclusion from the Scriptures. For when the Apostle Paul writeth to Timothy, that by doing what he had directed him to do, he should both save himself, and those that heard him, 1 Tim. 4. 16. and so assumeth unto himself a capacity of the same glorious Service, Rom. 11. 14. If by any means I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, and might save some of them: when (I say) he ascribeth that great Act and Service of saving men unto the Ministers of the Gospel, he doth implicitely, and by neer▪hand consequence, ascribe unto them the justifying of them likewise: For there is no consideration, or respect, wherein a Minister can be sayd to save men, but by a pre­cedaneous, or presupposed Act of justifying them. Nor is there any person capable of being saved by a Minister of the Gospell, in his way, or capacity of saving men, who is not as capable (or rather, more capable) of being ju­stified by him. Yea, Dan. 12. 3. where our English Trans­lation readeth, And they that turn many unto righteous­ness [shall shine] as the Stars for ever and ever. Junius [Page 58] and Tremelius from the Originall, render it, Et justificant e multos▪ &c. And they that justifie many shall shine, &c. so likewise Arias Montanus translateth, together with the late Dutch Annotators. The Scripture from place to place mentions it as the proper work of the Minister; and as principally intended by God in the erection of the Mi­nisteriall Function in the World, to make Men and Wo­men the Sons and Daughters of God by believing: The same [John] came for a Witness, to bear Witness of the light, that all men through him might believe, Joh. 1. 7. So the Apostle demands, Who then is Paul, and who is Apollo, but Ministers by whom yee believed? 1 Cor. 3▪ 5. And calls Timothy, his own Son in the Faith, 1 Tim. 1, 2. Now in such a sense, wherein men may be sayd to be made belie­vers by the Ministers of the Gospel, they may be sayd to be justified also by them; inasmuch as both these are ac­complished or effected by one and the same Act, the for­mer, directly and immediatly, the latter mediatly and consequentially. If you then ask me, What doth the Minister contribute towards the justifying of men, or in what consideration may he be sayd to justifie them? My Answer is, When he openeth unto them the Councell of God in the Gospell, concerning the justification and salva­tion of men by Jesus Christ, so effectually, so throughly, and with that evidence and demonstration of the Spirit, (as the Apostle speaks) that mens Reasons, Judgments, and Consciences are so far convinced, or perswaded of the truth of what is delive ed upon such terms, that they truly, unfeignedly, and with the whole heart believe it: Now, and upon this account, he may be sayd to justifie them. He that makes a man a Believer, Ipso facto, makes him righte­ous, that is, justifies him. There is nothing more familiar and frequent in the Scripture, then for the same Action, and so the same Effect, to be ascribed both unto God and Man: to the former, in respect of a superiour and more excellent interposure, proper unto him▪ to the latter, in respect of that subordinate Efficiency, or Subserviency▪ [Page 59] wherewith, God hath been pleased to honour him; Non novum est, verba quae Deo summo ju­re competunt, aut Christo, sen­su qu [...]dam sub­ordinato tribui h [...]minibu [...], H [...]g. Grot. M. 1 Tim. 4 16.yea, the Apostle Paul termeth the Ministers of the Gos­pel, [...], Fellow-workers, or workers together, with God [in, and about, the saving of the Souls of men] 1 Cor. 3. 9.

17. That there is a consideration and sense also, wherein the person justified may be sayd to justifie himself, the Scripture it self seems to acknowledge: For when it is sayd concerning Timothy, that by taking heed Sect. 17 to himself, and to tho Doctrine [taught by him] he should How a per­son may be sayd to justi­fie himself. both save himself, and them that heard him, (1 Tim. 4. 16.) there is an Action ascribed unto him, in reference unto himself, every whit as great, and as incompetent to him, in the ordinary signification of the word, as the act of ju­stifying. To save a mans self, sounds altogether as high, as to justifie a mans self: yea, he that believeth, may by much a neerer-hand consequence, and with more proprie­ty of speaking, be said to justifie himself, then to save him­self. When a man labours▪ in his Calling, and puts forth that strength of power which God hath given him to get Wealth [Deut. 8. 18.] for such a purpose, and withall thrives and prospers (through the blessing of God) in his way, he may properly enough be sayd to enrich himself, or make himself rich; yea, somewhat more properly, then when it is said, that the hand of the diligent maketh rich, Prov. 10. 4. In like manner, when a man doth that, upon which, or by means wherof, he shall certainly be justified, this fruit, or reward of his Action, his justification, may without the violation of any Rule, either of Grammar, or of Rhetorick, be ascribed unto him. Hence it follows, God having by a perpetuall and inviolable Decree setled the great benefit and priviledge of justification upon be­lieving, that when soever any person, man, or woman, shall life up his heart hereunto (I mean, to believe) by this Action he may be said to justifie himself; not indeed after any such manner, or upon any such terms, as God is said to justifie men upon their believing, as viz. Authori­tatively, [Page 60] or as having a soveraign right to justifie whom, or upon what terms he pleaseth, or the like; but in such a way, or sense only, wherein a person may be said to do that, which, upon his Action, is done unto him by ano­ther.

Of this Construction, or Dialect, there are instances more then a few in the Scriptures.

It may be here demanded, but is it meet, or tolerable to say, that a man, when he believeth, imputeth righte­ousness unto himself, or forgiveth himself his sins▪ and yet both these are done unto him by another (viz. God) upon his believing▪ yea, these are (as hath in effect been formerly sayd) but interpretative expressions of justification it self. And therefore it seems, that whosoe­ver may in any sense be said to justifie, may in the same sense be said to do both the one, and the other of these; and this in reference to any, or all of these persons, whom they are sayd to justifie.

To this I answer, 1. That the Expressions put to the Question in this Demand, are (indeed) uncouth and harsh, grating upon eares, that have any competent tast of Words; Nor do I judge them fitting to be applied to, or spoken of him that believeth. But,

2. When a man is said by believing to justifie himself, the meaning is not, that he absolveth himself from his sins, or pronounceth a Sentence of absolution over him­self, or that he imputeth righteousness unto himself, or the like; but only that he levieth, puts forth, or performs such an Act, whereby he prevaileth with God according to his gracious Covenant and promise, to justifie him, and therein to do all these things to him, or for him. As when a man is said to save himself (which, as we heard, is the Apostles own expression) the meaning is not ei­ther, that by a strong hand, or by any physicall power, he over-matcheth the Devill, and keeps himself out of his Clutches, and from being carried, or thrust by him into Hell, or that he invests himself with the state of blessed­ness [Page 61] and glory, which is signified and meant by Salvation; but that he takes such a course, as viz. By believing and persevering in it unto the end, whereby he shall find fa­vour in the sight of God, to do these things for him. Now to say a man by believing takes an effectuall and direct course to prevail with God to forgive him his sins, to im­pute righteousness unto him, &c. are as proper and conve­nient expressions, as to say, that he prevails with him to justifie him: yet,

3. (and lasty) It may be considered, that one and the same thing may admit of severall considerations, and different respects; and in, and under some one of these considera­tions and respects, may admit of some attributions, of which, it is not so regularly, or smoothly capable under another. As for instance, Salvation, or the saving of the Soul, is one and the same act; yet it may be considered, either as it is procurable at the hand of God by men, as, viz. by Faith, and continuance in well-doing: or as it is a rescuing, or vindication of men by strength of Arm, from the power of the Devill; or as it is an actuall insta­ting in, or putting men into a reall possession of that bles­sedness and glory, which God hath assigned by promise unto his Saints, and those that shall be saved. Now in either of these two latter considerations, it is not ascri­bable unto men, but in the first of the three, as we have heard, it is.

In like manner, the act of justifying is one and the same act; yet it admits of sundry considerations. (1.) It may be considered, either as an act of God imputing righte­ousness unto men, or as an act of his forgiving men all their sins, or as an act of Grace and high favour purchased at his hand by Christ for men: or (lastly) As an act at­tainable from God by men, for themselves, by perform­ing of such conditions, or terms, upon, and according un­to which, he hath covenanted and promised the vouch­safement of it. The former considerations of the act we speak of, are of that nature, and import, that in respect of [Page 62] none of them, it is attributable unto men, they all im­porting such things which are above the Line of men. But in the consideration last mentioned, it may in very passa­ble and convenient Language, be attributed unto men who believe, in reference to themselves. Nor need it be offensive unto any man, to hear it said, that men who believe, in that sense justifie themselves.

There are two other Causes of Justification yet remaining, not mentioned in the Title Page, amongst those that have been insisted on; Viz. The Materiall, and the Finall: of these in few words.

Concerning the materiall Cause of Justification, Sect. 18 they who make it to be either Christ himself, or the Concerning the materiall Cause of Ju­stification.Righteousness of Christ, either active, or passive, or both, express themselves very unproperly, and confound two Causes alwaies distinct, and contradistinguished; Viz. The efficient, and the materiall, the former being alwaies ex­trinsecall, the latter, intrinsecall, to the effect, or thing caused by them (in conjunction with the other two Cau­ses.) And besides, in so notioning the matter, or material Cause of Justification, they decline the ordinary Rule, by which, men who love exactness and propriety, as well in conceiving, as in speaking, are wont to walk in both, in Cases of like nature and import. For whereas no Action, (as no Accident besides) hath any matter, or materiall Cause (properly so called) yet being an effect, or some­what that is caused, there must be some Vice-matter, or somewhat answering the nature or consideration of such a materiall Cause, found in it, or relating to it. Now that which relateth unto an Action with greatest Affinity unto matter, or to a materiall Cause▪ properly so called, is, Subjectum recipiens, or Circa quod as Logicians speak) that is, the Subject receiving the Action, or the Object upon which the Action is acted. According to this no­tion, the believing, or repentant sinner, or (which is the same) the person justified, or to be justified, is the ma­teriall [Page] Cause of Justification. Such a person exhibits, or presents (as it were) unto God, matter duly fitted and prepared according to his mind, for him to work or act upon, or about, justifyingly. And when God doth justifie such a person, he doth introduce a new form, as, Viz. Righ­teousness, remission of sins, or justification passive (for these I take to be much the same) into matter rightly and appropriatly disposed for the reception of it; which mat­ter is (as hath been said) the sinner now believing. As when fire heateth the water that is hung over it, or other­wise applyed unto it, the water is the matter upon which the fire acteth in this act of calefaction, and the heat which it causeth in the water, is the form which it indu­ceth, or introduceth into it. This briefly for the materi­all Cause of Justification.

The finall Cause of Justification is commonly distingui­shed into that which is subordinate, or less principal, and Sect. 19 that which is ultimate, and supream. The former, is Concerning the finall Cause of Ju­stification.with one consent affirmed to be the great benefit, or blessedness of the Creature, or person justifi­ed; which Blessednesse standeth in two particu­lars (chiefly) deliverance from under the guilt of sin, (with all the misery consequentiall hereunto) and an investiture with a regular Title or Claim unto that immor­tall and undefiled Inheritance, which is reserved in the Heavens, to be enjoyed in due time by all those, who shall be found in a due capacity to be admitted into part and fellowship therein. The ultimate, or supream end, or materiall Cause of Justification, is concluded with a Ne­mine contradicente (as far as I know) to be the Glory of God, partly in the just vindication of a sinner from under the guilt of sin, and from the punishment incurred there­by, and partly in the Salvation, and eternall Glorification of the person so vindicated.

As for the opinion, or notion of those, who conceive that God designeth nothing, acteth nothing (in strictness and propriety of consideration) for himself, or for his [Page] own Glory, ultimately; but all for the good and benefit of his Creature: I shall not upon this occasion, either plead, or implead it; only I shall crave leave to say this, that as far as I have yet looked into it, and conversed with it, I do not find it so extravagant, or uncouth, or so hard of reconcilement, either with the Scriptures, where they seem most contradicting it, or with any the received grounds or principles of Christian Religion, as I suppose it is like to seem unto many at its first appearance and hearing. And though there may be more in the opinion, were it nar­rowly examined and scan'd, from the one end of it unto the other, as well for the glory of God, as for the benefit and comfort of the Creature, yet because such an examina­tion of it may haply require a just Treatise, and more of the ordinary rank of Professors are more like to be start­led or amazed at it, then to embrace it, I shall therefore forbear to encumber the commonly received Doctrine concerning the finall Cause, or ultimate end of Justifica­tion, with any further mention of it.

The Conclu­sion. Thus we have shewed, how great a number, and what variety, as well of things, as of persons, there are, all, both of the one kind, and the other, joyning hand in hand, and making (as it were) one shoulder to bring the great blessing of Justification upon the head of a poor sinner. God, who is wonderfull in counsell, and excellent in working, Isa. 28, 29.judged it meet, that a matter of so gracious and rare, of so profound and wonderfull a contrivance, should pass through many hands, before his Creature, Man, to whom it was meant and intended, should be invested with the actuall possession and enjoyment of it. There is scarce a­ny thing of a more humbling consideration to the height and pride of the Spirit of a man, then to be subjected to a multiplicity of dependences, especially upon such, either persons, or things, which he either judgeth but equal un­to, but most of all, if beneath himself, for the obtaining of that, of which he stands in need, and without which, he fully understands that it cannot be well with him. Such [Page] a posture, or subjection as this, sets him of [...] at the great­est distance in his condition from God in point of true Greatness and Glory. Nor is there any thing in all the unlimited circumference of the blessedness of God, that renders him greater, or more glorious in the eyes of his Creature, then his [...], or self sufficiency, and his absolute independency upon all, whether persons, or things whatsoever, besides himself. And (doubtless) in such cases, where the number of dependencies is not esta­blished by any indispensable Law, or Decree of God, they that can contract themselves to the smaller number of them, for the enjoyment of themselves with comfort and contentment, will reduce their present conditions to the nearest affinity, whereof it is capable, with the bles­sedness of God himself. But where God hath by any re­vealed appointment, or declared will, suspended the at­tainment of any spirituall enjoyment, priviledge, or bles­sing, upon mens application of themselves unto him in the use of such and such means, of what number, or kind soever, their non-subjection to this Law, or appoint­ment of his in the neglect of any one of these means, is of a very dangerous and sad presage, that they will fall short in the attainment of the blessing. And for this rea­son my Soul cannot but sadly lament over the case and condition, of all those, who have in the ignorance, vanity, and pride of their Spirits, turn'd their backs upon the Mi­nistry of the Gospel, setting their Faces towards Fancies and conceited Methods of their own (though of Satans Inspiration) for their justification in the sight of God; whereas it hath been evidently shewed and proved from the Mouth of Godhimself, that amongst those various A­ctors in and about, the great business of Justification, which have been presented upon the Theater of this brief Discourse, he hath assigned a worthy co-operation, or part, unto the Ministry, and Ministers of the Gospel. Therefore they, who disdain to have the royall Robe of [Page] Righteousness, or Justification, put upon them by men of this Function and Office, as judging them unworthy, and too mean to serve them in so high and sacred a Concern­ment, for any hope that I am able, upon any good ground, to give them of a better Issue, they are never like to wear it.


These Books following are to be sold by Henry Eversden, at the Grey-hound in Pauls Church-yard.

IMputatio Fidei, Or a Treatise of Justification; wherein the imputation of Faith for Righteousness (mentioned in Rom. 4. 5, 6.) is explained by Mr. John Goodwin, Minister of the Gos­pel: In Quarto.

Triumviri, Or the Genius, Spirit, and Deportment of the three Men, Mr. Richard Resbury, Mr. John Pawson, and Mr. George Kendall, in their late Writings against the Free Grace of God in the Redemption of the World, and vouchsafement of means of Salvation unto men; briefly described in their native and true Colours, borrowed of themselves in their Writings (re­spectively.) Together with some brief touches (in the Preface) upon Dr. John Owen, Mr. Thomas Lamb (of the Spittle) Mr. Jeans, Mr. Obadiah How, and Mr. Marchamond Needham, in re­lation to their late Writings against the Author: In Quarto, by Mr. John Goodwin.

The Tryers and Ejectors tryed and cast by the Laws of God and Men, by John Goodwin.

Mercy in her Exaltation, a Sermon preached at the Funerall of Mr. Thomas Taylor, by Mr. John Goodwin: In Quarto.

Anabaptists Meribah, or Waters of Strife; being an Answer to Mr. Lamb Merchant, by Mr. Price, one of Mr John Goodwins Congregation.

The Natural Mans Case stated, Or an exact Map of the little World, Man, in 17 Sermons, by Mr. Christopher Love; to which is added a Sermon preached at his Funerall, by Mr. Thomas Man [...]on of Newington: In Octavo.

A Comment on Ruth; together with two Sermons, one tea­ching how to live well, the other minding all how to dye well; by Thomas Fuller, Author of the Holy State.

Gospel publick Worship, Or the Translation, Metaphrase, Ana­lysis, and Exposition of Rom. 12. from Vers. 1. to 8. describing [Page] the [...]omp [...]eat Pattern of Gospel-worship.

Also an Exposition of the 18. Chapter of Matthew; to which is a [...]ded, A discovery of Adams theefold estate in Paradice, Viz. Mo [...]l, Legal, and Evangelical, by Thomas▪ Brewer: In Octavo.

[...]ds Glory in mans happiness, or the freeness of Gods Grace [...] us, by Francis Taylor of Canterbury: In Octavo.

The Lords Prayer unclasped, being a vindication of it against all Schismaticks and Hereticks, called Enthu [...]siasts and Fra­tricilli, by Harwood, B. D.

The Grand Inquiry who is the righteous man, by William Moor Minister in Whal [...]y in Lancashire.

The just mans Defence, being the Declaration of the Judge­ment of James Arminius, concerning Election & Reprobation.

Pearls of Eloquence, or the School of Complements, wherein Ladies, and Gentlewomen may accommodate their Court by practice, by William Elder, Gent: In 12.

The Universall Body of Physick, in 5 Books; Comprehend­ing the several Treatises of the Nature of Diseases, and their Causes, of Symptoms, of the preservation of Health, and of Cures. Written in Latine by that famous and learned Doctor, Laz. Riverius, Counsellor and Physitian to the present K. of France, and Professor in the University of Montpelier▪ Exactly transla­ted into English by William Car Practitioner in Physick.

An Exposition, with Practical Observations on the 9 first Ch. o [...] the Prov. by Fra [...] Taylor, Minister of Canterbury: In Quarto. An Exposition, with practical Observations, on the whole Book of Canticles, by Jo. Robotham, Minister of the Gospel: In Quarto.

An Idea, Or body of Church-Discipline in the Theorick and Practick, by Mr. Roggers: In Quarto.

The Right of Dominions, Or the Prerogative of Kings, pro­ved from Scripture, by Dr. Welden.

Lucas Redivivus, Or the Gospel-physitian, prescribing (by way of meditation) Divine physick to prevent Diseases, not yet en­tred upon the Soul, by John Anthony, Dr. in Physick: In Quarto.

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