A Figure of the Heavens and Elements

COSMOGRAPHY OR, A DESCRIPTION OF THE Whole WORLD, Represented (by a more exact and certain Discovery) in the Excellencies of its Scituation, Commodities, Inhabitants, and HISTORY: OF Their Particular and Distinct Governments, Religions, Arms, and Degrees of Honour used amongst Them.

Enlarged with very many and rare Additions.

Very delightful to be read in so small a Volum.

Psal. 24. 1. The Earth is the Lords and the Ful­ness thereof.


London, Printed by S. Griffin for Iohn Overton at the White-Horse in Little Brittain, next door to Little St. Bartholomews-Gate. 1667.

To the Reader.

VVE are so much Stran­gers to the World, that we know not Our Selves, that Great Maxime and Sen­tence of Divinity, Know thy Self, being from no other Causes de­ducible, than the scantling and nar­row Conceits of the Vniverse. Men reckon themselves by the Possessions and Revenues of a Mannor or two, and take them­selves [Page] to be the Grand Seigniours of the World, when compared with this Grand Machine, they are like Atomes in the Sun-shine of Worldly Felicity. I could wish every man could abridge His Ambition, as the Describers of the World have Epitomized their Discovery, and Govern them­selves by the Example of its History; which is here truly and compendiously recited. Wherein we may see how near a piece the two Globes are; and that which we call the New World, is no Changeling from the Old, War and Strife being as natural there as among us.

I confesse I am no Atlas to undertake the Burden of this Enterprize, but the Pleasure of it [Page] (as is usual with desperate Lovers) [...]vited me to the difficulty; and to [...]mmend it, as a Picture, or every [...]ans Looking-Glass, which I have [...]ought fit to contract, in its Repre­ [...]ntation to the Model of our Time [...]nd Leisure, and by its meer sha­ [...]ow onely, shew its great Self and [...] Magnificence.

Whatever this Endeavour is, I do [...]ot doubt but of its kind acceptance, [...]s Parvum in Magno, and layes open [...]e whole Magazine of the Earth, as [...] its Puissance, Government, Pro­ [...]ctions, Manufactures, Merchan­ [...]es, &c. its present State, Policy, [...]d Friendships, never before at­ [...]mpted in any one Volume, but [...]ow in this Manual. There is Truth [...]d Rarity in it as to Generals, be­ [...]ond the attainment of the Pen (it [Page] being the Felicity of the Needle; and the capatious Compass fully and clearly to investigate and disclose e­very particular) which will merit a pardon for

Yours, R. F.

THis is to advertise thee, that the Pricks, which are graven upon the firm Land are set to distinguish and di­vide the three quarters of the World, viz. Europe, Asia, and Africa, one from the other, as by near observation you may perceive; and that the pricks upon the Water or Ocean, are the Traces of that Course which Sir Francis Drake made in his surrounding the World. A Glo­rious and no less fortunate Adventure, affording Posterity the Pleasure and Profit of persuing his discovery both in reality and imagination, such as is exhi­bited in this Map, to which we refer you.


A DESCRIPTION OF The Whole WORLD. WITH Rules for the use of the GLOBES, and understanding of MAPS.

THe Heavens declare the Glory of God, and the Firmament sheweth the work of his hands, Psal. 19. 1. In the Creation of which and the whole earth, and sea, and all things therein contained, of mear nothing within the compass of six dayes; and in this wise and graci­ous ordering and guiding of all things, is abun­dantly set forth his infinite, and unutterable wis­dom, power, greatness, and goodness: His end herein is first and chiefly for his own glory, The Lord made all things for himself, Prov. 16. 4. And secondly, mens happiness, unto whom [Page 4] the dominion of all things was under God com­mitted, Gen. 1. Psalm. 8. 6.

That men may come therefore to some un­derstanding thereof, I shall first speak of the Heavenly and of the Earthly Globes, and the several matters incident thereunto. Then I shall also make a brief description of the four parts of the earth, and the Countries in each part, the several Religions professed in them; with the varieties of Trade and Commodities therein, never yet set forth in a Treatise of this nature.

The whole world therefore is divided into two parts, Etherial or Celestial, and Elemental; Of which there are two Globes accordingly, the heavenly and the earthly. Now a Globe is a proportionable representation of the heavens or of the earth; the Etherial, Celestial, or heavenly part doth compasse the Terrestial or earthly, and containeth the ten upper Spheres, or nearest un­to the earth, 1 the M [...]on, 2 Mercury, 3 Ve­nus, 4 the Sun, 5 Mars, 6 Jupiter, 7 Saturn, 8 the starry Firmament, 9 the Crystalline heaven, having no stars at all, 10 the Primum Mobile, or first mover, containing all the rest within it, and moving from the east to the west, carrying about with it in violence all the other Spheres. The rest of the Spheres have contrary motions, every one in his kind, though far flower than the other, and the motions are contrary from the west to the east; and so are carried about oftentimes by the [Page 5] first mover, before they make one perfect revo­lution in themselves.

The Crystalline or ninth Sphere his motion is almost insensible, and is called the Trembling motion, performed (according to the opinion of latter Astronomers) in four thousand nine hun­dred years.

The eighth Sphere being the Starry firmament, in seven thousand years, the Sphere of Saturn in thirty years, of Iupiter in twelve years, Mars in two years, the Sun passeth the Zodiack in three hundred sixty five dayes, Venus ends her course in somewhat more than a year, Mercury holds equal pace with the Sun. and the Moon courseth about the Heavens once every eight and twen­ty dayes.

Thus much for the Coelestial or heavenly part of the world, wherein I shall need say nothing of the Religion of Angels, and the spirits of just men made perfect, seeing it is manifest enough to e­very one, that there they keep their first estate; The Religion also of the fallen Angels (who are held by many to be thrust out of Heaven, and to abide in the Air, whereupon Sathan is called the Prince of the Air, Eph. 2. 2.) is so notorious for enmity against God, and all manner of wick­edness; that poor man is more sentient of sor­row, for their tentations, then furnished with words to express their wickednesse to the life.

The Elemental part of the World is fourfold, [Page 6] earth, water, air, fire, as may be seen in that round Figure of the frame of the heavens and e­lements one within another; the inmost and middlemost circle containing earth and water in­termixed together; the next the three Regions of the air; and immediately above that Orb is the element of fire: all which you may easily discern by their several names in their proper places. And thus much shall suffice to have spoken of the Globe of the whole World.

I shall now speak first generally and briefly of the Globe of the whole Earth, and things inci­dent thereunto; then more particularly of the several parts thereof, and every remarkable Country in each part, as I promised in the be­ginning.

The Globe of the earth therefore is defined to be a spherical body proportionably composed of earth and water, the two parts thereof.

The parts of the earth are either real or ima­ginary.

The real parts are either Continents or Islands, A Continent is a great quantity of Land not in­terlaced or separated by the Sea, wherein many Kingdomes and Principalites are contained; as Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.

An Island, called in Latin insula quasi in salo, is a part of the earth environed round with wa­ter; as Brittain, Iava, St. Laurence Isle, Ber­moodes.

Now these again are sub-divided into a Pen­insula; [Page 7] Isthmus, and a Promontory. A peninsu­la is such a tract of Land, which being almost in­compassed round by waters, is nevertheless joy­ned to the firm land by some little Isthmus, as Peloponesus, Taurica, Cymbrica, and Pervana.

An Isthmus is a little narrow neck of land which joyneth any peninsula to the Continent; as the straits of Dariene in Peru, and Corinth in Greece.

A Promontory is some high mountain which shooteth it self into the Sea, the utmost end of which is called a Cape: as that great Cape of good hope; and Cape Verde in Africa, Cape Gomerie in Asia, and that of St. Michaels mount in Corn­wall, the North Cape in Norway, and divers others.

There are also other real parts of the earth, as mountains, valleys, fields, plains, woods, and the like.

The other general part of the Globe is the wa­ter, divided into the Ocean. Secondly, the Sea. Thirdly, the Straights. Fourthly, Creeks.

The Ocean is the general collection of all wa­ters, which invironeth the whole world on every side.

The Sea is part of the Ocean, to which we can­not come, but through some strait, as the Medi­terranean Sea, the Baltick Sea, and the like.

These two take their names either from the adjacent places, as the Brittish Ocean, the Ger­man sea, the Atlantick sea, and the like: Or from [Page 8] the first Discoverer, as the Magellanick sea, For­bushers Straits; or from some remarkable acci­dent, as the Red-sea from the red colour of the sands, and the like.

Thirdly, a Straight is a part of the Ocean, re­strained within narrow bounds, and opening a way to the sea, as the Straits of Gibralter, Helle­spont, Anian.

Fourthly, a Creek is a crooked shore, thrust­ing forth as it were two arms, to embrace and af­fectionately to hold the Sea, as the Adriatick, Per­sian, and Corinthian Creek. Hitherto belong Ri­vers, Brooks, and Fountains, engendred of con­gealed air in the earths concavities, and seconded by Sea-waters, creeping through hidden crannies thereof.

Thus much of the real parts of the Earth in general.

The compass of the whole earth is cast by our latest learned Geographers, twenty one thousand six hundred English miles, which we thus com­pute. We see by continued experience, that the Sun for every degree in the heavens, gains sixty miles upon the earth towards his circuit round, and after three hundred sixty degrees returneth to the same point in respect of us as before it was. Add the number of sixty so oft, and you will find the account the same, and so by pro­portion of the circumference to the Diameter, which is, tripla sesqui septima, the same which twenty two hath to seven.

[Page 9] We may count likewise the earths thickness to the center: The whole Diameter by rule being less than a third part of the circuit. That in the proportion to twenty one thousand six hundred, will be six thousand eight hundred seventy two, half the number will reach the middle of the world, and that is, three thousand four hundred thirty six, being considered with great exactness, as the measure of such a great bulk as the earth is, can easily be taken and comprehended.

Geographers attribute unto the earth five circles.

The first is the Equinoctial; when the Sun in his course is come thereunto, about the eleventh of March and September, the day and the night are of equal length through the whole earth. It is also termed the Equator, and by the Sea-faring men the middle Line; because it divideth the earth into two equal parts, of which the one ly­eth towards the north, the other towards the south, and because it is in the middest between the two poles of the world, one in the north, the other in the south. The second circle is called the Tropick of the Crabb, because when the Sun is come thither about the tenth of Iune, it returneth by little and little unto the Equator. And then unto them that dwell on the north-side of the Equator, is the day longest; and shor­test to them that dwell on the south-side thereof. This circle is distinct from the Equi­noctial Twenty three Degrees, three Mi­nutes [Page 10] and an half, Northward.

The third is called the Tropick of Capricorn, because the Sun being come thereto on the ele­venth of December, turneth his course backward to the Equator; and then contrariwise, to them who live on the north of the Equator is the day shortest, and longest to them on the south there­of; it is distant from the Equinoctial southward twenty three degrees, thirty one minutes and an half.

The fourth is called the Artickcircle; the fifth the Antartick; of which the one is distant twenty three degrees, thirty one minutes and an half from the north pole; the other just so many from the south pole. And are described by the revolu­tion of heaven from the poles of the Zodiack, which is the Sun. Mercator the ancient Astrono­mer understood by the Arctick circle not onely that aforesaid, but also every circle whose half Diameter answereth to the pole in any place whatsoever, and containeth, according to the Al­titude of every Countrey, certain stars, which never set, but alwayes are above the earth; so that in all regions differing in Latitude, this circle is diverse, as also is the Antartick. Now the four lesser circles, the two Tropicks and polar circles, do fitly part the earth into five Zones, that is to say girdles, because they compass, like bands, the round Globe of the earth. The first of these Zones lyeth under the Artick or north circle, and is called the cold north Zone; the second [Page 11] lyeth under the Antartick or south circle, and is called the cold south Zone; the third is situate in the middle between the two Tropicks called the scorched Zone; the fourth lyeth under that which is between the north circle and the Tro­pick of Cancer, and is called the temperate north Zone; the fifth also is under that space which is between the Tropick of Capricorn and the south circle, and is called the temperate south Zone.

Now to understand rightly the situation of Countries, their Longitude and Latitude accor­ding to the mind of Geographers is to be known. The Latitude of places which with the height of the Pole is alwayes one, beginning at the Equi­noctial, is taken two manner of wayes; either to­wards the south, or toward the north, unto the number ninety. The Longitude is returned from the Meridian circle, and about the west Islands called Carva and Flores, beginning right at the E­quator easterly, and running forwards unto the number three hundred sixty. As for example, London lyeth from the Equinoctial northward, fifty one degrees and a half, which is the Latitude; and the Longitude thereof is twenty degrees an­swering unto that degree of the Equinoctial, reckoning from the Meridian.

And now that I have briefly touched upon the Longitude and Latitude of Countries, and having often spoke of the Meridian and Horizon: I shall, I hope, not unprofitably take time in a word or two, to tell you what each of them are.

[Page 12] The Meridian is a great circle rounding the earth from pole to pole. There are many Meri­dians according to the divers places in which a man liveth. But the chief and first Meridian pas­seth through the Islands Saint Michael and of the Azores.

The Horizon is a great circle, designing so great a space of the earth as a quick sight can ken in an open field: the use of it is to discern the divers ri­sings and settings of the stars.

I shall now speak a little of the Climates, and Parallels, and then, I hope, I have done with things generally concerning the earth.

A Climate is a space of the earth included within the space of two parallels.

The use of them is to shew the difference of length and shortnesse of dayes over all the world, as you may see in the midst of every climate, the number of the longest day in the year, under that climate; the longest day in one climate dif­fering half an hour from the longest of another, so that there are twenty four climates, consisting of forty eight parallels, ere the day come to be twenty four hours of length, which is twelve hours longer than the Equinoctial day is. Now under the Equinoctial line, and thirteen degrees, that is, three parallels on either side thereof, the dayes exceed not the length of Twelve hours, but after in every clime encrease the length of half an hour; and when they come to forty eight parallels and twenty four climates [Page 13] (as I said before) the dayes being then twenty four hours long, their increase is then by whole weeks and months, till in the twenty fourth clime about the pole, the day is full half a year long; and as it is thus between the Equator and the north pole, so it is between the said Equator and the south pole: wherefore there are two sorts of climes, that is, twenty four northern, and as ma­ny southern: touching the names of which and other circumstances, I shall say nothing here, but leave the readers to other more large discourses, thinking this enough in a Tract of this nature to have spoken of things generally concerning the whole earth.

The whole Earth is now divided into four parts.

  • Europe.
  • Asia.
  • Africa.
  • America.

Of each part, and their several Regions, Em­pires, Kingdoms, Dominions, Common-wealths, Titles of honours and Laws, as briefly as I can, together also with their sundry trade and com­modities.

Europe, though the least of the three first parts of the world, nevertheless excelleth all other parts in worthiness, power, renown, multitudes of well­builded Cities, and of People skilful in all kind of arts; also excelling in virtue, and the knowledge of God, better than all the riches of the world.

[Page 14] Through the Grecian and Romane Empire in it: it hath had once the Dominion over Asia and Africa. Mr. Heylin mentions in it fourteen mother Tongues, which I will not stand now to name.

It hath plenty of grain, plants, fruits, coals, rivers, and fountains of admirable virtue; it needs nothing but what may be well spared, as hot spices, not so fit for our temper; precious jewels, the nourishers of vain and soul-destroying pride; and wild beasts which cause desarts where they breed; yet of gold, silver, and other commodi­ties it hath a part: it is divided on the east from Asia, partly by the Rivers Duina and Tunnis, and partly by the lake called Meotis, now termed Mare de le Zabacche, & pont Euxine, or Mare Maggiore.

From Africa it is severed by the midland Sea; on the west and north side it hath the great Oce­an. I shall follow Mr. Heylin's method in the description of the Regions and Countries thereof, beginning with, first, Italy, then going, secondly, to the Alps, thirdly France, fourthly Spain, fifthly Brittain, sixthly Belgia, seventhly Germany, eighthy Denmark, ninethly Swetheland, tenthly Russia, eleventhly Poland, twelfthly Hungary, thir­teenthly Solavonia, fourteenthly Dacia, and the fifteenth Greece; speaking of the several Islands as they relate to some or other of the greater Countries.

Italy, the Mother of all Latine Learning, [Page 15] stretcheth out easterly on Asia, between the A­driatick and Thuscan Seas, and borders towards the west upon France, and towards the north on Germany, and is severed from those countries by the river Varus, and the mountains called Alpes, the rest being compassed with the Sea. It hath had seven kinds of Government, first Kings, se­cond Consuls, third Dictators, forth Decemviri, fifth Tribunes, sixth Emperours, seventh Popes. It flourished most in the time of Christ, and a lit­tle afterwards by means of the great and wide dominion of the mighty city of Rome, which then reigned as Queen of the world, over many Lands of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

This land excelleth all the lands of Europe, in fruitfulness and pleasantness, the inhabitants are witty, industrious, and frugal, yet hot and lascivi­ous. And withall the men very jealous, and that taken to be not without cause. The religion there now professed, is the Popish religion, unto which they are more straightly kept by the Inquisi­tion.

The chief Wares which are carried out of Italy into other Countries, are rice, silks, velvets, sat­tins, taffaties, grogrems, rashes, stamels, bum­basins, fustians, felts serving for Clokes, costly ar­ras, gold and silver thred, allum, galls, Venetian drinking and looking-glasses. It containeth at this day the Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia, the lands and patrimony of the Church so called, which the Pope posseth; the great Dukedomes [Page 16] of Urbin and Tuscany, the Common-wealths of Venice, Genoa, and Luca, and the estates of Lumbardy, being the Dukedomes of Millain, Mantua, Modena, Parma, Monferrat, and the Principality of Piemont; of all which I shall ob­serve somewhat.

The Kingdome of Naples in Italy, is enviro­ned on all sides with the Adriatick, Ionian, and Tuscan Seas, excepting where it joyneth on the west to the Lands of the Church, from which se­parated by a line drawn from the mouth of the River Tronto or Druentus, falling into the Adria­tick, to the spring head of Axofenus, it taketh up all the east of Italy, one thousand four hundred sixty eight miles; it hath anciently been called the Kingdome of both the Sicilies. The fertilest place of all Italy, abounding in all things neces­sary for life, delight, and physick. Hence are also brought the Neapolitan Horses. It hath had thirteen Princes, twenty four Dukes, twenty five Marquesses, ninety Earls, and nine hundred Ba­rons, not Titular only, but men of great Estates; It hath had twenty six Kings of several Countries, beginning first with the Norman race, and now being in the hand of Spain. The disease called now the French Pox, was first in all Christen­dome found here. The Arms of this Kingdome are Azure seme of Fleur de Lices, Or, a file of three Labels Gules.

Its revenue is two millions and an half of Crowns, whereof twenty thousand are the Popes [Page 17] for his chief rent, and the rest so exhausted in maintaining Garrisons upon the Natives, and a strong Navy against the Turks, that the King of Spain receiveth not a fourth part the [...]eof clearly. It hath twenty Arch-bishops, and one hundred twenty seven Bishops-seas.

This Crown and Kingdom hath been in long dispute between France and Spain. Charles the Eighth of France won and lost it in a Dream, so transitory was his possession of it; much blood be­ing spilt in the quarrel. The Duke of Guise of the Family of Lorrain, now pretends a right to it, and hath attempted the Conquest of it, of late years twice, being called in by the Citizens of Naples in 1647. after that famous insurrection in the City of Naples, under M [...]ssianelio the Fisherman, who led and commanded 100000 men at his beck and pleasure for 14. dayes, at the end whereof, he and his mutinous Government expired, being supposed to be poysoned by the Artifice of the Spaniard.

In the year 1654. the same Duke of Guise, ha­ving better retained in mind the Courtsh [...]ps of the Neapolitans, than his own misfortunes and his promises made at Madrid, where he was kept prisoner, from the time that Naples was reduced 1647. equipped another Fleet from that King­dome from Toulon and Marseilles, which n [...]r­rowly escaped the English Fleet under General Blake; designed against it, and after much bad weather, landed and was defeated by the Spanish [Page 18] Vice-roy; his Lieutenant General, Marquis du Plessis being killed in the place with 2000 more: and so the French were forced to re-imbarque, and the Expedition frustrated.

The Spaniards how quietly hold it from the Pa­pacy, by a fealty Present, yearly, of a White Horse to his Holyness.

The Kingdom of Sicilia in Italy is situate un­der the fourth climate; the longest day being thirteen hours and an half; it shoots forth into the Sea with three Capes or Promontories.

The People are Ingenious, Eloquent, and Pleasant, but withall very inconstant and full of talke; they Invented Oratory, Pastorall Eclogues, Hour-glasses, with Military Engins. The Soyl is incredibly fruitfull in Wine, Oyl, Honey, Minerals of Gold, Silver, and Allum; together with plenty of Salt, and Sugar; there are also gems of Agats, and Emeralds; it yield­the also great store of the richest Silk, hath most excellent and delicious Fruits both for tast and colour; with abundance also of all sorts of Grain. Here is the hill Aetna, which many have taken to be Hell, and ignorant Papists Purgatory; be­cause of its sending forth of flames of fire, which eth brimstone there causeth. It hath many Ci­ties, Rivers, and Lakes, of which I cannot stand to treat.

There were eight Kings of Sicilia, six of the first whereof were called to rule. In the year one thousand two hundred eighty one, the house of [Page 19] Arragon governed it, and there hath succeeded ten Kings. It is now united to the Crown of Spain; the revenue is eight hundred thousand, some say a million of Ducats disbursed again on the enter­tainment of the Vice-Roy & defence of the Island; the Arms are four Pallets, Gules Sable, being those of Arragon between two Flanches Argent, charg­ed with as many E [...]g'es Sable beaked Gules.

It hath had seven Princes, four Dukes, thir­teen Marquisses, fourteen Earls, one Viscount, and fourty eight Barons; the People are Pa­pists, and have three Arch-bishops, and nine Bishops.

The Island and Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy, lieth west from Sicilie from the neerest point, Cape Boy, or Cape Bara.

It is distant about two hundred miles, it is in length one hundred eighty miles, ninety in breadth, five hundred sixty in the circuit; and is situate under the fourteenth Climate, the longest day being fourteen houres; there is neither Wolf nor Serpent, neither venomous or hurtful beast, but the Fox only, and a little creature like a Spider, which will by no means endure the sight of the Sun, except held by violence: Some pools it hath, very plentiful of Fish, but general­ly are so destitute of River-water, that they are fain to keep the rain which falls in winter for their use in summer; by means whereof, and for that there is no passage for the Northern Winds, being obstructed by the high Mountains [Page 20] neer Cape Lugudori, the air is generally unheal­thy, if not pestilential. The soil is very fertile, but ill manured, well stored with all sorts of cat­tel: the horses hereof hot, head-strong, and hard to be broken, but will last long: the bullocks naturally gentle, so that the Country-man doth as familiarly ride them, as they do in Spain on Mules or Asses. Here is also the beast called Mu­fr nes or Muscriones, found in Corsica also, but in no other part of Europe; somewhat resembling a Stagg, but of so strong an hide, that it is used by the Italian: in stead of Armour; of the skin of which carryed to Cordova in Spain, and there dressed is made the right Cordovant leather: also there is an Herb whereof if one eat, it is said that he will die with laughter; the Herb being of such a poysonous nature, that it causeth the Man to die with such a convulsion of sinews, that he seemeth to grinn, or laugh, at the time of his death. The People are small of stature, their Complexion inclining unto swarthiness, rude in Manners, very slothful and rebellious, yet given to Hunting; their Diet mean, their Apparel in Towns Gorgeous, in Villages base; their Religion Papistically formal, little Curious, their Clergy being counted the most illiterate and ignorant in that part of the World called Christendome; it is now in the hands of the King of Spain, governed by a Vice-Roy, who resides at Calaris, and must of necessity be a Spaniard, under whom are two Deputies-Governours, Spaniards also; inferiour [Page 21] Officers of command may be of the natives: what profits arise here to the King of Spain, I have no where found. The arms hereof are said to be Or a cross Gules betwixt four Saracens heads Sable curled argent. There are also divers small Islands belonging thereunto. And lastly, it hath three Arch-bishops and fifteen Bishops.

The lands of the Church, or the Popes Do­minions in Italy, lie west of the Realm of Naples, extended north and south, from the Adriatick to the Tuscan-Seas, bounded on the north-east with the river Trontus, on the south-east with the Axofenus, by which two it is parted from that Kingdom as on the north-west by the rivers Poe and Frore; by which it is separated from the State of Venice: and on the southwest by the river Pisco, by which it is divided from the mo­dern Tuscany, or the State of the Florentine. It is the middle of Italy, having in breadth from one Sea to another, above one hundred miles, and in length above three hundred miles; the land ex­ceeding fertile, abounding with multitudes of people, seldom consumed with wars: they are good husbands for their ground, but no trades­men for Manufactures: there have been fifteen Exarches of Ravenna in Romandiola: which Pro­vince became wholly subjected to the Papacy, by the inhumane treachery of Casar Borgia, Nephew, or indeed Son to Pope Alexonder the sixth, who having waged a war, with the Nobility and States thereof, who refused his absolute So­veraignty, [Page 22] fraudulently entered into a Treaty with them, whereby it was concluded as the main Article, that he never should assemble the said Estates together, they suspecting his malicious per­fidiousness against them would then find an advantage of destroying them together; which nevertheless he by policy and dissimulation ef­fected, and then murthered them; which being related to the Pope, and the perjury of his Ne­phew upbraided: He answered, it was not his Nephew had broke the Articles, but the Estates themselves in coming altogether, meeting there Seventeen Dukes and Marquesses of Ferrara: the revenue whereof was two hundred fifty thou­sand crowns yearly, but now it is not worth so much to the Pope: There have been also six Dukes of Urbin, the revenues are one hundred thousand crowns; but the chiefest glory they have, is of the City of Rome, sometime the Empress of the world: there are accounted to have pas­sed in it sixty five Bishops before it usurped the spiritual supremacy over Christendom; Boni­facius the third, in the year of Christ six hun­dred and six, making the sixty sixth Bishop, so fulfilling the mark of Antichrist. Rev. 13. 18. of the number six hundred sixty six, which also the numeral letters make up in his arrogant Title, GeneraLis VICarIVs DeI In terrIs.

The Bishops taking this Title in the year one thousand six hundred forty four, had been one hundred seventy nine, and both added together, [Page 23] two hundred forty four; and how many more they shall be, he only knoweth, who knoweth all things; the ordinary temporal revenues of the Pope, are two millions of Crowns, but the extra­ordinary spiritual, twice as much. There were several Orders of Monks installed at several times called the Orders of Saint Basil, Austin, Ierome, Carmelites, Crouched Fryers, Dominicans, Bene­dictines, Franciscans, Iosuites, and Oratorians: And of women the Orders chiefly of Clare and Bridget, which to name onely, I think may suf­fice in a Treatise of this nature. The Arch­bishops here are forty four, The Bishops fifty seven.

The Italian Provinces of the State of Venice, lie northward of the lands of the Church from Romandiola to the Alps, bounded on the South with the Territory of Ferrara and the rest of Ro­mandiola on the west, with the Dukedome of Millain on the north, with the main body of the Alps; and on the east with the Adriatick Sea, and the river Arsia, by which it is parted from Liburnia, a Sclavonian Province. It a­bounds with wise people and fruitful Cities and Countries; their Religion is Popish, but not so absolutely slavish as the rest. They baptize the Sea yearly, and their Duke marryeth [...] it as often.

Their government is Aristocratical, of the No­bility; they have had neer one hundred Dukes of Venice; They have two principal orders of [Page 24] Knighthood, of Saint Mark the Patron of the City, instituted one thousand three hundred thirty, and renewed one thousand five hundred sixty two. They are to be of noble blood, at least a Gentleman: their word or Motto is, Pax tihi Marce: the other is of the glorious Virgin, in­stituted one thousand two hundred twenty two: their charge is to defend the Widows and Or­phans, and to procure (as much as in them is) the peace of Italy. The arms of the order is a purple cross between certain stars: the Habit a white Surcoat over a russet cloak, and seems to be religious as well as military: there are in this Italian part of Venice, two Patriarchs, and sixteen Bishops.

The Venetians are now, and for more then twenty years last past, have been engaged in a war against the great Turk, which is carried on at Sea, in the Archipelage, in Dalmatia, and most fiercely in the Isle of Candia, which is equally possessed by them both, with little difference of success, having been so maintained twenty four years and like to continue as many more: though the Venetians lost the Island and Kingdom of Cyprus as big again, to the said Turkish power, in Sultan Selymus's time, in less than half a year: This Mai­den-Common-wealth, is the bulwark of Christen­dom.

For besides the famous Battel of Lepanto, where they defeated all the naval power of that Empire: in the year 1654. General Morosini [Page 25] gave them another overthrow as the Turkish Fleet was endeavouring to come out of the Dardanellces, on the 14. of Iuly: who lost in the fight, 16. Ships, 6. Galleys, 2. Mahoons, and many other Vessels; 4000 men taken prisoners, who were made slaves, and as many killed. Their whole Navy consisted of a hundred Ships, the Venetians not a­bove fifty.

The Dukedom of Florence or the estate of the Great Duke of Tuscany, is divided in the east from Saint Peters Patrimony by the river Pisca, on the west, from the Common-wealth of Genoa, by the river Macra, and the strong Fort of Sarezana; on the north from Romandi­ola, and Marca Anteritana by the Appeninne hils: and on the south-side, it is bounded with the Tuscan o [...] Tyrrhenian Seas: It was a while a Free-state, having Princes of the House of Me­dici, but now it is governed by the Duke of Flo­rence, or great Duke of Tuscany, of the same Fa­mily. The length of this State is two hundred sixty miles, the breadth in some places much in­feriour: the only order of Knighthood here, is that of Saint Stephen, instituted one thousand five hundred sixty one. It is kept August the 6. year­ly, and hath all the priviledges of them of Malta, upon the condition that they of the order should make a vow of charity, of continual chastity and obedience: they are to be nobly born, and in lawful wedlock; of the Romish Church, and without note of infamy: their Robe is of white [Page 26] Chamlet, with a red Cross of their left side sewed upon their midday garments, or their wear­ing Cloaks: the number is uncertain; the great Duke is the supreme Master of it; the reve [...]es are very great; besides the great Duke is a Mer­chant, and taketh Excise almost of every thing: the Arms are, Or, five Torteaux, Gules, two, two and one and one in chief, Azure charged with three Flower-de-luces of the first. Here are three Arch-bishops, and twenty six Bishops.

The free State of Luca in Italy, lieth betwixt the State of the great Duke, and the Common-wealth of Genoa; they are a free, courteous, modest People, of good judgement and dis­creet, wisely preserving their liberty against the strength of potent neighbours, they are industri­ous, also well seen in Manufactures, especially in weaving cloth of gold and silk. The Domi­nions of it are eighty miles, the revenue is eighty thousand crowns yearly; it can raise for war fifteen thousand foot, and three thousand horse; the Government is mixed of Aristocracy, and Democracie: the principal Magistrate, called Gon Falinere, is changeable every second month, assisted by a certain and determinate number of citizens, whom they change every sixth month also, during which time they lie together in the Palace, or common-hall; their Protector is also elective, of some neighbour King or State; their Religion is Popish: they have two Bishops, onely acknowledging the Arch-bishop of Florence for their Metropolitan.

[Page 27] The Common-wealth of Genoa in Italy lieth west of Tuscany, from which it is divided by the river Macra. They were anciently a large State, but have now onely Liguria and the Isle of Corsica in their power; the men were good warriors, Merchants, and given to usury, which they learned of the Jews. Mr. Heylin reporteth, that it was the saying of a merry fellow, that in Christendome there were neither Scholars enough, Gentlemen enough, nor Jews enough: not Scholars enough, for then so many would not be double or treble-beneficed: not Gentlemen enough, for then we should not have so many Pesants turn Gentlemen: nor Iastly Jews enough, for then so many Christians would not turn Usurers.

The Women here are priviledged above all Italy, having liberty to talk with whom they will, and be courted by any that will, both publikely and privately: from hence and some other parti­culars, they have made this proverb, of the State of the Countrey: Mountains without wood, Seas without fish, Men without faith, and Women without shame. They have a Duke and eight more assistant with him, all subject to the gene­ral Councel of four hundred men: the Duke and his eight assustants hold but two years: Spain is their Protector, and they have one Arch-bishop, fourteen Bishops.

This Common-wealth hath maintain'd it self in perfect peace at home, and free Commerce [Page 28] at Sea, by its good Government for many ages past: having sometimes been troubled by the quarrelling interests of its Neighbour potent Princes, viz. the Duke of Savoy, the French, and the Dutchy of Millain, belonging to the Spani­ard. They are the King of Spain's constantest Exchequer.

The State of Lumbardy in Italy, is bounded on the east with Romandiola, and the State or Ter­ritory of Ferrara; on the west with that part of the Alps which divides Italy from France: on the north (reckoning Marca Trevigiana within the bounds thereof) with that part of the Alps which lyeth towards Germany: and on the south with the Apennine, which parteth it from Liguria, or the States of Genoa: as Italy is the Garden of Europe, so Lumbardy is the Garden of Italy for the fruit­fulness.

The Dukedome of Millain in Italy, hath on the east the States of Mantua and Parma, on the west Piemont, and some part of Switzer­land one of the Provinces of the Alps, on the north Marca Trevigiana, and on the south the Apennine, which parteth it from Liguria or the States of Genoa: It hath had several Lords and Dukes of Millain, accounted the chief Dukedom in Christendom, but now under the Spaniards: the annual rent worth eight hundred thousand Duckets: but considering all charges, the Spani­ard is taken to lose in keeping it. The arms are Argent, a Serpent Azure crowned, Or, in his [Page 29] Gorge an infant Gules. There are one Arch-Bi­shop, six Bishops.

The title to this Dutchy was, as above, long contested for by the two Crowns of France and Spain, but was finally vested in the most Catho­lique King: during the last rupture between those two Monarchs, this was a sad Theatre of War and Bloodshed. The last parting blow, not to recite more, before the whole general peace concluded, 1659. was at the City of Pavia, besieged by Prince Tho. of Savoy General for the French, and the united strength of Savoy and Prince of Modena, which by the valour of the besieged, and the succour brought them by the Marquess of Caracena Governour of Millain, was freed af­ter four months siege: and the two aforesaid Princes put to the rout with the loss of 3000. Men, some Cannon, Bag, and Baggage, the said Duke shot in the Arm, and the Prince thereby contracted such a Feaver, that it soon after ended him.

The Dukedome of Mantua in Italy, is boun­ded on the west with Millain, on the east with Romandiola, on the north with Marca Trevigia­na, and on the south with the Dukedom of Par­ma; the Soyl is reasonable good, and yieldeth all sorts of fruits, being well manured, plentifull in Corn, Pastures, and abundance of Vines, but the Inhabitants not so civil and well bred as the rest of Italy, childish in their Apparel, without Manly gravity in entertainment of friends, and exacting [Page 30] all they can from strangers; it is a Soveraignty and hath had many Dukes thereof. The chief Order of Knighthood in these Dukedomes is of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, instituted Ann. one thou­sand six hundred eight; it consisteth of 20 Knights, whereof the Mantuan Dukes are Soveraigns. The collar hath threds of gold, laid on with fire, and enterwoven with these words, Domine pro­basti.

To the collar are pendent two Angels suppor­ting three drops of blood, and circumscribed, Nihil isto triste recepto. It is accounted a great circuit, but not worth above five hundred thou­sand Ducats: the arms are Argent, a cross Patee Gules between four Eagles sable, membred of the second, under an Escuchion in fise charged quarterly with Gules, a Lion Or, and Or three bars Sable: here are, one Archbishop, and four Bishops.

In the year 1627. the 26 of December, Duke Vincent of Mantua deceasing without Children; the succession fell to the Duke of Nevers, a Peer of France, of the illustrious kin and family of Gonzaga; who received it, and precipitated his investiture therein, without the knowledge of the Emperour to whom that Dutchy is Feudatory. The Spaniards out of jealousie, the Savoyards out of an old pretension, seized of many places in Montfer­rat, and besieged Casal. The Duke of Never [...] garrisoned many tenable places, and joyned with the Venetians untill such time as the French forces [Page 31] arrived, who had been detained at the seige of Rochel, under the command of the Duke of Crequi, who opposed those Armies, and at last came an Army of twenty thousand out of Germany sent by the Emperour to assert his own Autho­rity. By these numerous Hosts the Country was almost depopulated, the Churches robbed, the Germans being most Lutherans, and so enemies to the Romish Superstition; till at last by the power­full instance of Cardinal Richleiu who set up this Duke in spight of the Emperour; and to allay the greatness of the House of Austria; a peace was concluded at Vienna, (wherein the Duke of Nevers was established, and did his Homage) and published, just as the Armies of the French and their Confederates were ready to joyn in battell at the Seige of Casal, defended by the brave French Marquess De Toyrass, who maintained the Isle of Rhee against the Duke of Buckingham newly be­fore. This Ducall Family is now by Marriage principally allyed to the Emperour and House of Austria.

I shall pass by the Dukedoms of Modena, Par­ma, and Mountferrat, as being all three but small estates of Italy, and havin [...] but four Bishops amongst them all: the arms of Modena the same with the Dukedom of Ferrara; and the arms of Mountferrat, Gules, a chief Argent: thus much for Italy.

These three small principalities, have afforded very excellent Couragious Princes. Not to [Page 32] mention the exploits of that renowned Alexander Duke of Parma, Governour of the Low-Coun­tries for the King of Spain in the time of Queen Elizabeth; it shall suffice to say that they bal­lance the over-growing Power of either of the Monarchs of France or Spain, siding alwayes with the weakest, lest they become a prey to the Conqueror; and to that purpose are com­monly divided in the Quarrel, siding in oppo­sition, yet exercise no Hostility upon each others Dominions. Moun ferrat is now annexed to the Dutchy of Mantua, whose Duke is Prince of the same.

The Principality of Piemont, a part of the Alpes, situate at the foot of the Mount, is bounded on the east with Millain, and Mountferrat, on the west with Savoy, on the north with the Switzers, and on the south it runneth in a narrow valley to the Mediterranean, having Mountferrat on the one side, Provence and a part of the Alpes upon the other: it is very fertile, compared with Sav [...]y, and Switzerland, but thought to be inferiour to the rest of Italy: the Arms of this Principality are Gules, a Cross Argent, charged with a Label of three points Azure▪ It is now subject to the Duke­dom of Savoy.

This Principality hath been often made the seat of War, especially in the Reigns of Hen. the 4. and Lewis the 13th. of France, in the passage of their Armies into Italy, and the Duke of Savoy, who is Prince and Soveraign thereof, hard put to it, [Page 33] most of his strong holds being seized while he partaked with the Spaniard: but since the alli­ance of that Duke with the French, it hath had a refreshment, which hath been inte [...]rupted by some intestine troubles about Religion, a great part thereof being of the Reformed Religion; witness that Massacre there, for which such liberal Collections and Contributions were made in [...] for those Protestants, in time of Oli­ver.

Savoy strictly and specially so called, is bound­ed on the East with Wallisland, and part of Pi­emont, on the west with Daulphin and La Bresse, on the south with some parts of Daulphine only, and on the north with Switzerland and the lake of Geneva. The Country is altogether Hilly and Mountainous; very healthful, but not very fruitful: The Common People are naturally very dull, but the Gentry pleasant, ingenious, and ci­vil: There have been near thirty Earls and Dukes of Savoy: It is a very strong place with fortifications of nature; the Revenue ordinarily a million of Crowns yearly. The onely Order of Knighthood here is that of the A [...]nunciado, ordained one thousand four hundred and eight; their Collar is of fifty links, to shew the mysteries of the Virgin; at the end is her pourtraicture with the history of the Annunciation; in stead of a Motto these Letters, F. E. R. T. i. e. For­titu [...]o ejus Rhodum tenuit, are engraven to e­very plate or link of the Collar, each link being interwoven one within another in form of a true [Page 34] lovers knot; the number of Knights is fourteen beside the Duke the Soveraign of the Order; the Solemnity held annually on our Lady-day: the Arms are G. a crosse A. Geneva is a City of the Dukedome of Savoy, now a free State, having cast off both the Pope and their own Duke, and kept free by their neighbours jealousie each of other touching it; the Religion is Calvinist Protestant, the Government Presbyterial, the Language the worst French, the People industrious, and Mer­chants; their situation for neighbours advanta­gious thereunto.

Of the Duke and this Dutchy enough hath been said before, in the Historical description of Mantua and Piedmont, onely thus much may be added, that the present Duke is Cousin Ger­man to our Soveraign King Charles the Second, by his Mothers side, who is Sister to our present Queen Mother; and that he is the powerfullest Arbitrator of the Affairs of Italy, and hath the peculiar stile of His Highness Royal, as a preten­der to the Kingdoms of Cyprus, as also Ierusalem, and Portugal.

Wallisland reacheth from the Mountain de Burken to the Town of St. Maurice, where the hills do close and shut up the valley, which is so narrow in that place, that a bridge laid from one hill to another, (under which the River Rosne doth passe) is capable of no more than one Arch onely, and that defended with a Castle, and two strong Gates; on other parts, it is invi­roned with a continual Wall of steep and horrid [Page 35] Mountains, covered all the year long with a crust of Ice, nor passable at all by Armies, and not without much difficulty by single passengers, so that no Citadel can be made so strong by Art, as this Countrey is by nature. The Valley is ve­ry fruitful in Saffron, Corn, Wine, and most delicate Fruits, having Meadows and pleasant Pastures. They have also a Fountain of Salt, and many hot Baths and Medicinal VVaters; they have Cattel enough to serve them; also a wild Buck, equal to a Stag in bigness, footed like a Goat, and horned like a fallow Deer, leap­ing with wonderful agility, and not so easily caught, but in Summer time, for then with the heat he is blind. The People are courteous to­wards Strangers, but very rough and churlish towards one another: They are of the Romish Religion, and subject to the Bishop of Sion. The Deputies of the seven Resorts having not onely voices with the Cantons in his Election, but be­ing chosen they joyn with him also in the Diets for choosing Magistrates, redressing grievances, and determining matters of State.

Of this Countrey few Military Occurrences are historified, for that it is by Nature as it is described, no way fit for the entertainment of Mars; and is onely a nursery, no residence for Souldiery.

Switzerland hath on the east side the Grisons, and some part of Tyrol in Germany, on the west the Mountain Iove and the lake of Geneva, which parts it from Savoy and Burgundy; on [Page 36] the north Suevia, another Province also of the Upper Germany; and on the south Wallisland, and the Alpes which borders on the Dukedome of M [...]. It is totally in a manner over-grown with craggy Mountains, but such as for the most part have grassy tops, and in their hollowness rich Meadows and nourishing Pastures, being two hundred fourty miles in length, and one hun­dred eighty in breadth: The Inhabitants are rich, and rugged of disposition like their Land, good Souldiers, and mercenary almost to every one; their Religion mixed, some Papists, some Protestants-Zwinglians, yet they have agreed to tolerate one another; their Government popu­lar.

These People first knew their strength by the defeated Ambition of Charles Duke of Bur­gundy some Ages since, whom, after their re­quest to him for Peace, which he would not admit without Subjection, intending also to swallow Italy, they utterly overthrew at the Battel of Nancy; but Francis the first of France made them know they were not invincible, at the Battel of Serisolles in the Dutchy of Millain, where he slew near 20000 of them, and brought down their stomachs. They are now the best strength the Kings of France have for Infan­try, of which there is a constant standing Force maintained; but so Mercenary, that upon any failure of their Pay, their cry, grown into a Pro­verb, i [...], No Money, no Switzer. The Cantons of the two different perswasions Roman and [Page 37] Zuinglian, were lately at feud, and several skir­mishes happened to the Breach of the Confede­racy and Union, but all was at last Composed by the mediation of the French Ambassadors; no lesse a Person then the Duke of Longoville, being employed in that affair, to prevent the designs, and intrigues of the Spaniard and the Pope, who pro­moted that difference.

The Country of the Grisons is bounded on the east with the Country of Tyrol, with Switzerland on the north, with Suevia and a part of the Swit­zers, on the south with Lombardy, on the west a very Mountainous and barren Land: the People now Protestant, their Government popular; in these Alpine parts there are two Arch-bishops, thirteen Bishops.

This Countrey is modernly called the Valto­line, being the passage out of the Emperour's Hereditary Countrey in Germany, into Italy, and therefore anxiously and jealously look'd upon by both the Crowns of France and Spain, lest the Spaniard should have it open for any assistance, suddenly to overwhelm the Princes thereof: upon which account these Grisons suffered by both Armies in the business of Mantua aforesaid; but in that Peace were re-established in their own Signiory as it now continues, more out of others distrust then its own impregnabi­lity.

In this Country of the Grisons some thirty years agoe a Mountain by an Earth-quake fell and covered a Village called Pelura, burying [Page 38] the Town and Inhabitants together in its pon­derous Sepulchre, so irrecoverably, that not the Cry of any of those miserable persons was ever heard, and were swallowed up quick in that ter­rible manner.

France hath alwayes been held the principal and worthiest Kingdome of all Christendome; it is bounded on the east with Germany, and southward with the Mediterranean Sea, south-east with the Alps, and on the north with the British Sea. It is very fruitful in all sorts of grain, and whatsoever is needful for the maintenance of life, especially it hath great abundance of wines, wherewith many other Lands are also served. It is divided into many great Dukedoms and Pro­vinces, it hath in it also divers great, mighty, and famous Cities; the People are heady; but ingenious, and good Warriours. The Govern­ment is meerly Regal, and at the pleasure of the Prince, of which it hath had many great and powerful ones: The Religion of the Land is Popish, but there are many Protestants there, who although they have been greatly persecuted, yet sometimes their number hath indulged them in the exercise thereof: The chief Orders of Knighthood yet extant here, are, first of St. Mi­chael, instituted one thousand four hundred and nine. It consisted first of thirty persons, but after, of three hundred: the Habit of the order, a long Cloak of white Damask, down to the ground, with a border interwoven with cockle­shels of gold, interlaced and furred with Ermins, [Page 39] with a Hood of Crimson Velvet, and a long tippet about their necks; they wear a Collar woven with Cockle-shels: the word Immensi tre­mor oceani; the Picture of S. Michael Conquer­ing the Divel was annexed to the Collar, the Seat thereof, antiently, Saint Michael's mount in Norm [...]dy, and the day Saint Michael's day. Se­condly, of the Holy Ghost, ordained one thou­sand five hundred seventy nine. The order of St. Michael is to be given to none but such as were dignified with this, whereunto none were to be admitted, but such as could prove their Nobili­ty by three descents: their Oath, to maintain the Romish Catholick Religion, and persecute all opponents to it: their Robe, a black velvet man­tle, pourtrayed with Lillies and flames of gold, the Collar of Flower-de-luces, and flowers of gold, with a Cross, and a Dove appendent to it: The Arms of France are Azure three Flower-de-luces Or; it hath seventeen Arch-Bishops, one hundred and eight Bishops, and one hundred thirty two thousand Parishes.

The Pyrenean hills are only a bound between France and Spain, two potent Kingdoms; the whole length, not reckoning in the windings and turnings, affirmed to be eighty Spanish Leagues at three miles to a League: the People barba­rous, but of what Religion my Author saith not: It may be, he esteemed them so barbarous, that he thought they could live without any Religion at all.

The Kingdom of France hath been Govern­ed, [Page 40] and possessed by three several Races of Princes since the failure of the Issue of Charle­mayn, the last of whose name Chilperick the fourth was deposed, first by the Pope, and then by the common Consent of Parliament: and Pepin the Great, Son of the Mayre of the Pallace (which Officer a long space, of 120 years and upwards, had successively mannaged the State both for Peace and War) was advanced to the Crown, which after a long descent vested in the name of Valois: which for some centuries of years, and during the Wars with England, valiantly and prudently swayed the Sword and Scepter. This line was extinct almost in memory in the Person of Henry the 3. of France, stabbed at the Siege of Paris by a Iacobine Monk, when by vertue of the Salique Law, which admits of no Females to the Crown, it devolved after a long and bloody war, worse then their three Civil Wars concerning Religion, (the Head of the Prote­stant Armies being this very Prince,) to Henry of that name the fourth, of Bourbon. This was a Son of Valour, the Great Captain, who by as­sistance of Queen Elizabeth, by some Forces under the Earl of Essex, broke that abominable League of the Guisians against him, and establish­ed his Throne: and preparing for some great design, was stabbed by one Francis Ravilliac in h [...]s Coach in the Streets of Paris. His Son Lewis the 13 succeeded, in whose Reign, in the year 1627. was that unfortunante Expedition of the English to the Isle of Rhee, in relief of [Page 41] the Rochellers: where, the French taking advan­tage; the English, as they were retreating after four Months Continuance in that Island, defying the whole strength of France (but in vain besieging the strong Citadel of St. Martins) were at last ventured on as they were passing over a Cawsey to their Ships. On both sides this way there were Salt-pans, the way it self broad enough but for four Men a Breast, where they were put unto some Confusion, and a great many perished in the Salt-pans; but the Van that had passed resolutely returning to the assistance of those Companies in the Reer thus endangered: the French, their first fury being over, fled back over the same Cawsey with more Confusion than the English were driven before, and durst never attempt any further upon them, but permitted them, and gladly too, to embarque, where the Duke of Buckingham stayed eight dayes, resolv­ing to do something more if the supply under the Earl of Holland had come sooner. This In­vasion of the English put the French into another pannick Fear of their Victorious Armes; but Providence, and the Policy of Cardinal Rich­leiu secured them, by whose Conduct the Raign of this Prince was very fortunate, though em­broyled in a War with Spain and the House of Austria, for some years before his death, which a while after the decease of the said Lewis 14, and Cardinal Richleiu, by the prudence of Cardinal Mazarine was Concluded in a Peace and Marriage betwixt Lewis the 14. present King [Page 42] of France, and the Infanta of Spain, by which Treaty, France gained some Provinces, and since by the Surrender of the Duke of Lorrain, is pos­sest also of that Soveraignty. The Nobility are Couragious and valiant, but the Plebe or Pea­sants the most abject heart-less People in the World; the Gentry also of a like temper with the Nobility, so that if they have no War abroad to spend that fury, they will waste it among them­selves in intestine troubles, as long Experience hath demonstrated it.

Spain is severed from France by the Pyrenaean Mountains, on all other sides it is environed with the Sea: it containeth at this day divers King­doms; One, Goths: Two, Navars. There have been fourty one Kings: The Arms are Gules a Carbun­cle nowed, Or. The chief Order of Knighthood was of the Lilly, their Blazon a pot of Lillies with the pourtraicture of the Virgin ingraven upon it; their Duty, to defend the Faith, and daily to repeat certain Ave Maries: Third, Bis­cay, and Empascon, it hath had nineteen Lords: Their Arms Argent, two Wolves Sable, each of them in his mouth a Lamb of the second. Four, Leon and Oviedo, hath had thirty Kings; The Arms are Argent, a Lion passant crowned, Or; Five, Gallicia hath had ten Kings: the Arms A­zure semee of Cressets ficed, a Chalice crowned, Or; Six, Cordu [...]a hath had twenty Kings; the Arms Or, a Lion Gules armed and crowned; of the first a border, Azure charged with eight Towers Argent: Seven, Granado hath had twenty [Page 43] Kings, the Arms Or, a Pomgranate slipped, Vert: Eight, Murcia; Nine, Toledo, hath had eleven Moorish Kings: Ten, Castile hath had twenty Kings; the Order of Mercy is the chief Order here: their Arms are a Cross Argent, and four Beads, Gules in a field, Or; their Habit white: the rule of their Order, that of St. Au­gustine: their Duty was to redeem Christians ta­ken by the Turks with such Money as was be­stowed upon them: Eleven, Portugal hath had twenty one Kings; the principal order of Knight­hood here, are, first of Avis, wearing a green Cross; second of Christ, instituted one thousand three hundred twenty one: their Robe is a black Cassock under a white Surcoat, wherewith a red Cross stroked in the midst with a white line: their duty, to expel the Moors out of Boetica the next neighbour to Portugal: the Arms of this King­dome are Argent on five Escouchins Azure, as many Besants in Saltire, of the first pointed sa­ble, within a border Gules, charged with seven Towers, Or: Twelve, Aragon hath had twenty Kings: the Order of Knighthood is of Mintsea, their Robe a red Cross upon their breast; the Arms Or, four Pallets Gules: All these, but Por­tugal and Navar, are united in one Monarchy of the King of Spain: their Religion is Popish, whereunto they are kept by the violence of the Inquisition. The Land yields all sorts of Wines, Oyles, Sugar, Grain, Mettals, as Gold, and Silver: it is fertile enough for the Inhabitants, whose ambitions for the most part are base, the mean­est [Page 44] proud, the best superstitious and hypocrites, many of them lascivious, yet good Souldiers, by patience in enduring hunger, thirst, labour. The King is not rich, by reason of his great expences to keep his Dominions, in which he hath eleven Arch-bishops: fifty two Bishops.

This Kingdome of Spain is risen to this gran­deur and united strength within the Memory of our Grandfathers. Ferdinand King of Aragon, by his valour in vanquishing the Moors, and ex­pelling them out of Spain, and his prudence and happiness in marrying with the Heir of the Kingdome of Castile, made it of many one en­tire Realm. The wealth of the Indies by the offer and fortunate discovery of Columbus, be­ing thrown as an addition to his Felicity. This was further aggrandized and increased by the Marriage of his Heir Ioan to the House of Au­stria, who by a late Marriage with the Heir of Burgundy, was reckoned the most considerable Prince in Europe. This was Philip, the first of that name, King of Castile, Son to Maximilian Arch-Duke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy; and from which Marriage with Ioan descended Charles the fifth, Emperour of Germany, who had Issue Philip the second, King of Spain, who, by pretence of a Right by his Wife, and by Force of Arms, wrested Portugal from the right Heir, the House of Braganza; This Philip long Coveted an universal Empire, and for which ambition many thousand lives, and more hundred thousand pounds drawn from his inexhaustible [Page 45] Mines have been expended. His War in the Low-Countries [...] the United Provinces which re­volted from him, lasted above 80. years, during which time He had several ruptures, with the French and English, both being his constant Ene­my all Queen Elizabeths Reign.

Yet since the Peace of the United Provinces, he hath been as hard put to it as before; his Pro­vinces in the Low-Countries much harassed, and his Forces over-powered by the united French and English Forces, sent by Oliver Cromwell, to attaque him there, while a Fleet was sent to the West Indies, to seize his Mines, that his Treasure, by the great charge, difficulty, and danger, in bringing it from thence, was neer exhausted; so that a Peace was very requisite for him, whereby he regained Catalonia, who revolted at the same time, in the year 1640. with Portugal, and hath advantage of employing his Armies solely against that Kingdome; but it is not to be doubted with but little success, so that he will be constrained to abandon his pretences, as he did to the Hollan­der. He hath quitted the Provinces of Artois and Henault in Flanders, and the County of [...] to the French, as Dower with his Daughter.

England together with Scotland, on the north part thereof, maketh the greatest Island of Eu­rope, and the richest in the World, situated in a very temperate Soil and wholesome Air, and ex­ceeding fruitful in Wheat and other grain; hath many pleasant Rivers, plentifully stored with [Page 46] Fish, excellent Havens both commodious and safe, Mines of Silver, Lead, Iron, especially of fine Tinn; bearing fine Wool, of which is made Cloth that serves not onely themselves, but is also transported into other parts: their chief City is London, the Inhabitants are brave Warriors both at Sea and Land, and many of them learned and witty: The Orders of Knighthood are, of St. George, or of the Garter; there are twenty six Knights of it, whereof the King of England is the Soveraign: the Ensign is a blew Garter, buckled on the left leg, on which these words are embroidered, Hony soit qui mal y pense: about their necks they wear a blew Ri­bond, at the end of which hangeth the Image of Saint George, upon whose day the Order is for the most part celebrated. Secondly of the Bath, instituted one thousand and nine. They use to be created at the Coronation of Kings and Queens, and the installing of the Prince of Wales: Their duty, to defend true Religion: Widows, Maids, Orphans, and to maintain the Kings Rights: the Knights thereof distinguish­ed by a red Riband, which they wear ordinarily about their necks, to difference them from Knights Batchelours, of whom they have in all places the precedence, unless they be also the Sons of Noble-men, to whom the Birth gives it before all Orders. Thirdly of Baronets, an he­reditary Honour: the Armes are Mars, three Lions passant gardant Sol.

This Kingdome famous for Warlike Exploits [Page 47] abroad (there being no Nation in the known world, but where their dreadful Arms have been carried, witness our Holy-Land Expeditions, our Atchivements in Spain, several Times; our Con­quests in France, our defence of the Netherlands, our Triumphs over Scotland, and subduing of Ireland: our Naval Power not less formidable, in 88. and lately with the stubborn Dutch, whom for all our more than uncivil Broyls we humbled into an intreaty of Peace,) was infinitely more terrible to it self, in the late Convulsion and Subversion of the Laws and Government by a fatal Quarrel of the Parliament with the King. A Prince no doubt of the greatest vertues, pie­ty and abilities that ever Swayed this Scepter: nor could the Malignity of our Distempers have seized one of a sounder Constitution, as to Ho­nour, Conscience, Clemency, Justice, or what ever good quality is requisite for a King: being absolutely the best of all the Princes that ever Reigned in this Island. It will be alike grievous and tedious, to relate the Miseries of this unna­tural War, the Battels, Seiges, and Surrenders that happened therein: It will be too much to say, that after a bloody Contest, the King was worsted, and with him the Laws, and afterwards, by his own rebellious and traite ous Subjects brought to a new unparallel'd High Court of Ju­stice, and by Sentence thereof, beheaded before his own Court-Gates at White-Hall, Ianuary 30. 1648.

By the perpetration of this Murder, and by a [Page 48] thing called an Act of Parliament, Monar­chy seemed to be actually dissolved, it being made Treason to Proclaim the Prince, or any other Person, King or Queen of England. All Empires have their certain periods and measures of Time, at the Expiration whereof, they tast of that Vicissitude and Change to which all o­ther sublunary things are more frequently sub­ject. This Monarchy had [...]asted, without any great alteration, in a direct Line (the Name only changed from Plantagenes, which begun in Henry the second (who restored the Saxon Line, to T [...]wdor, in the Person of Henry the seventh) (who united the two Houses of York and Lan­caster) after to Stuart, in the Person of King Iames, who united the two Kingdomes of Eng­land and Scotland, and continuing, and long may it, in our present Soveraign) six hundred years and upwards, till this fatal Revolution was come when we were under an Anarchy, no Govern­ment at all in reality. There are reckoned, during this interregnum, no less then seventeen Forms of Authority we were under, in the space of eleven years, betwixt the Parliament, Protector, and Army.

In the year 1651, our present Soveraign, to regain his Right, entered England from Scotland, (where Cromwell had p evailed, and very like to carry all before him) and got a start of three dayes march, and came to Worcester, where he was not long after defeated, but most miraculous­ly escaped into France, where Divine Pro­vidence [Page 49] preserved him safe, and after many strange over-turnings; (after we had been ridden by a Rump of a Parliament, and tyrannised over in our Lives and Estates by the Protector Oliver Cromwell, (who by wicked means had scrued him­self into the Supreme Power,) and wearied with the lording Insolencies of an Army) by the Con­duct of General Monk, returned him in Ho­nour and safety to his Kingdomes, and his King­domes to Peace and Prosperity on his most happy Birth-day, May 29. 1660. since which His Ma­jesty is most happily Married to the Infanta of Portugal, and such an alliance made, as will be most beneficial to the Trade, and consequently promote the Glory of these Nations.

Scotland, invironed with the Sea, except on the south side, where it bordereth with England, is not so fruitful, yet hath of all things enough to fustain it self; the head-City, is Edenborough. Scotland giveth many sorts of course Woollen, Cloth, Wool, Mault, Hides, Fish. The principal Order of Knighthood here, is that of St. Andrew. The Knights did wear about their necks a Collar in­terlaced with Thistles, with the picture of St. An­drew appendent to it. The Motto is,

Nemo me impune lacesset.

Secondly of Nova Scotia, ordained by King Iames, one thousand six hundred twenty two, hereditary; but the Knights thereof distinguished by a Riband of Orange Tawney: the Arms of the Kingdome are Sol, a Lion Rampant, Mars [Page 50] within a double Tressure counter-flowered.

Little can be said of Scotland, because its sto­ry is all one with England, as to latter Times. But be it remembred, that soon after the union of the two Kingdoms was dissolved by dividing the Head thereof by the hand of Violence, that Realm was totally Conquered by the English, which all the English Prowess and valour of our Ancestors could never effect. This was atchei­ved by the incomparable Felicity and conduct of the thrice renowned General Monck, who in 1653. marched over Hills, Rocks, and Praecipi­ces, into the furthest Northern parts of Scotland, and there forced General Middleton to fight, where the said Middleton was overthrown, and the whole Countrey thereupon submitted to the Conquerour.

Ireland is full of brooks, marshes, waters and woods, hath good pasture, and abundance of tame and wilde beasts, but little grain: the Inha­bitants are rude and wilde People, yet through the conversation and Government of the English are daily more and more brought to Civility; the air here is very temperate, cooler in Summer and warmer in Winter than in England: the Arms of Ireland are Azure, an Harp Or, stringed Argent.

This Kingdom was never in a better consti­tution of Government as to appearance, than in the beginning of our Troubles in 1639. by the prudent steerage of the Earl of Strafford De­puty thereof, but in 1640. the 23. of October, [Page 51] such a sudden and bloody Rebellion broke out, that from that day to the 25. of March 1641. but five months, there are reckoned 150000. Protestants slain and murthered by the Catholick confederate Rebels. After many Combats and change of Fortune and Governors in that King­dom, it was by Ireton, Cromwel's Son in Law, totally reduced, and the prime ringleaders of the Rebellion (with Sir Phelim O Neale of the Fa­mily of Tyrone, their Generalissimo) deservedly ex­ecuted.

The Isles belonging to Great Brittain are the Surlings or Scillies, Garnesey, Iarsey, Wight, Anglesey, Man, Hebrides, [...], and many others. All which three Kingdoms and Islands aforesaid, make up one Realm, restored to the Government of his most Sacred Majesty Char [...]es the second, whom God long preserve. Their Reli­gion is Protestant, their Church Government by Gods mercy, again Episcopal.

The Low Countries contain seventeen Provin­ces, the Dukedoms of Erabant, Guelderland, Lymburge, and Luxenburge [...], the Counties of Flanders, Artois, Utrecht, Henault, Holland, Zeland, N [...]men, Zutfen, the Marquisate of the Holy Empire, the Lordships of Freezland, Mechlen, Overysel and Graving; All which are Lands a­bove measure well tilled and inhabited, conta [...]n­ing two hundred and eight Cities, fortified with Walls and Ditches, and about six thousand three hundred Villages, with Parish-Churches, beside▪ [Page 52] the Castles, Forts, and Noble-Mens Houses, which are almost infinite in number. This Land is watered with many excellent Rivers, as the Rhine, the Mose, the Mard, the Scheld, and o­thers. It hath also many commodious Sea-Ha­vens, abounding in Ships, and very skilful and expert Mariners and Pilots, as by their Navi­gations may appear, whereby they have com­passed, as it were, the whole World. The Inha­bitants are also very valiant, and notable Warri­ours, as well by Sea as by Land, as their Enemies themselves will witness. They are excellently well skilled in all cunning and handy-crafts. Ma­ny attribute unto them the Invention of the Sea-Compass, as also the Needle, and laudable Art of Printing Books: they send abroad into other parts all sorts of Linnen and Woollen Cloth; Camerick, Pasement-lace, of Gold, Silver and Silk, Taffata, Wrought Velvet, Grograms, Sayes, whole and half Velvet Bags, Silk Laces, Say, and Li [...]en.

All manner of twined Thred, wrought Silk, re­fined Sugar, prepared Buff, and Ox-hides, as also Spanish Leather; Pictures, Books, Cables, Ropes, and other Ship-furniture; Cards, Pins, and all kind of Mercery; dried and salt Fishes, Herrings, Butter, Cheese, and Bisket; the People are of the Reformed Religion, except the Spanish Provinces, and they are Papists; they suffer any Religion among them: the principal Order of Knight­hood ordained by these Princes, is that of the [Page 53] Golden Fleece, instituted one thousand four hun­dred thirty nine; ordained, as some [...] conceive, from Gideons Fleece: Their Habit is, a Collar of Gold interlaced with Iron, seeming to strike fire out of a Flint, Or; Ex ferro flammam being the word, at the end whereof hung the Foison'd Or, or a Fleece of Gold; the King of Spain may now make as many of them as he please. There are in these parts three Arch-bishops, fifteen Bi­shops.

These Provinces have been Governed by se­veral distinct Soveraigns, as the Dukes of Bra­bant and Guelderland, Earls of Flanders, Hol­land, Henault and Zeland, &c. All which by several Marriages of the Co-heirs, for want of Issue-male, at last devolved the entire Soveraignty into the House and Family of the Dukes of Burgundy, the Male-line whereof expiring, the Heir Ge­neral Married with Maximilian Arch-Duke of Austria, in the time of H. 7. and conveyed these seventeen Provinces to her Son Philip the 1 of Spain, by Marriage with Ioan, Daughter and Heir of Castile and Arr [...]gon, in whose Posterity they continue; the Emperour Charles the fifth, in his division of his Estates, leaving these to his Son Philip the second, who by the Tyranny of the Duke of A [...]va, and the Esta­blishing the Inquisition, and a bloody Council, like our High Courts of Justice, contrary to the Fundamental Laws of those People, so alienated the Affection of those Provinces, that they (the [Page 54] most of them) revolted, and being Headed and led by William Prince of Aurange Count of Nass [...]n, and a Feudatory Subject of Burgundy, shook off the yoke of Spain, and declared themselves a Free Estate; for that the King of Spain had forfeited his Right, Title and Authority over them.

The Wars thereupon are so famous both for the length, vigourousness, and policy thereof, both in Battels and Seiges, it becoming a Trade in which most of the young Gallants of all Nations were bred, and also for the renown of those Captains Generals on both sides, such as Prince William (assissinated by a B [...]r­gundian) Prince Maurice and Prince Frederick Grandfather to this prince of Aurange on the Estates side (who were mainly supported by the English, and by their blood raised to this Gran­deur, and partly also by the French;) and Alex­ander prince of Parma, natural Son to Charles the fifth, and the Marquiss of Spinola, on the King of Spains; who by more moderation and Arms regained some provinces of the Defection: but seven of them, to wit, Holland, Zeland, and [...]trecht; and Overysel, part of Brabant, and most part of Guelderland, and Zutfen could ne­ver be reduced, but after a War of 80. years, he was constrained to acknowledge them a Free State or Commonwealth, now Governed in Common by the States General, and in particu­lar, by the Estates of each individual Pro­vince.

[Page 55] This peace was concluded on at Munster in 1647. to the great content of the Spaniard, who was embroiled in a fierce War against the French, who therefore mightily obstructed the proceeding thereof; but after this calm there arose such a Tempest at Sea, that had neer sunk them to their former condition of the distressed Estates; by a difference between the up-start Common-wealth of England and them, concern­ing Traffique and Soveraignty of the Sea. The usurping Protector after six terrible Naval Fights, to secure his invasion of the Government granted them peace in 1653. which hath been better confirmed by our Soveraign Charles the second since his Restitution, of which they seemed to be as exceedingly and pompously (during his stay in their countrey just before his happy re­turn) as concernedly joyous. Of the ten o­ther provinces belonging to the Spaniard, two of them Artois and Henault, are conveyed and transferred to the French, in portion for the late Marriage: and a part of West-Flanders, in which is seated that memorable and well forti­fied Port of Dunkirke, at present acknowledg­eth the Dominion of the Crown of England, being put into English Hands during the Usur­pation in 1658. after the joynt Conquest of it by their, and the French Forces the same year.

Germany is one of the greatest Provinces in Europe, (and is in the midst thereof) bounded [Page 56] on the East with Hungaria and Polonia; on the South with Italy and Bolonia; on the West with France; and on the North with the North-Sea, and with the Sea called Mare Balticum. In the midst whereof lieth Bohemia, wherein stands Prague, where the Emperour commonly keeps his Court: It is adorned with magnificent Towers, well for­tified, and furnished with such a number of Ca­stles, and Villages, such abundance of People, and with such Politique Government, that she may compare with any. The Soil is fruitful both in Corn and Wine; it hath many Navigable Ri­vers, stored with plenty of Fishes, most excel­lent Fountains, and hot Bathes, Mines of Gold, Silver, Tin, Copper, Lead, and Iron; it hath ve­ry Learned Men, skilful in all Sciences and Me­chanick Arts: The Religion is here very diverse: for there being many free Provinces, some are Papists, some Protestants; and of these again, some Calvinists, some Lutherans: There are six Arch-Bishops, and thirty four Bishops.

The Wars of Germany, ushered in by the Comet or Blazing-Star in 1618, have had dire and prodigious effects; first the Prince Elector Palatine undertaking the Crown of Bohemia, was worsted at Prague; and the King of Den­mark seconding him, was likewise brought very low by Count Tilly the Emperour's General, and glad to accept of a Peace upon hard terms; when in 1629 enters Gust [...]vus Adolphus the King of Sweden, whose victorious Armes con­quered [Page 57] Tilly at the Battel of Leipsick, and pre­sently over-run all Germany, defeated the Em­perours next General Wallestein Duke of Freid­land at Lutzen, where, notwithstanding he was killed, his Army had the Day; of whom it was said, that Before Death, in Death, and after Death he was victorious. At the Battel of Nordling [...]in the Fortune of the Swedes failed, a great slaugh­ter being made on them by the Imperial Army, and so a Peace was afterwards patched, and again interrupted, till the solemn and general Pacifica­tion at Munster; since which time, the Princes and People have been in quiet. The Prince Elector Palatine losing the one half of his Estate, as forfeited to the Emperour, who hath invested the Duke of Bavaria, the Electors neerest kins­man, in the upper Palatinate.

Denmark and Norway are very great Regions, bordering southward upon Germany; they extend toward the north to seventy one degrees and thir­ty minutes, north Latitude; towards the east they border upon Sweden, and on the west and north-side they are invironed with the Sea; they at this time are under the Government of one King, who is Lord of Seland, Greenland, Hitland and Goth­land. These Kingdomes afford unto other Lands Oxen, Barley, Mault, Stock-fish, Tallow, Sand, Nuts, Hides, Goat-skins, Masts, Deals, Oaken­boards, Wood to burn, Pitch, Tarr, Brim­stone, and the like: their Religion is the Lu­therans.

[Page 58] The chief Order of Knighthood in it is that of the Elephant, their Badge a Collar powdered with Elephants, towered, supporting the Kings Arms, and having at the end the Picture of the Virgin Mary. The Arms of the Land are, Quarterly Of, three Lions passant, Vert, crowned, of the first, for the Kingdome of Denmark, and two Gules, a Lion rampant; Or, crowned and armed, of the first in the Paws, a Dansk hatchet; Argent, for the Kingdome of Norway; there are two Arch-Bishops, thirteen Bishops.

This King is allyed to the Crown of England; Queen Ann, Wife to King Iames, being Aunt to this present King Frederick. Twice in twen­ty years (not to mention other Wars before) hath this Crown been endangered by the Swedes, but more neerly in 1657, and 8, when the King of Sweden, Carolus Gustavus being drawn out of Poland to prevent the Dane, then in Arms against him, with strange success almost over­run his Countrey. In a most hard Winter, he passed his Arms and Canon over the Sea, from the Continent unto the Island of Funen, where he overthrew the Dane, took Cronenburg Castle, which Commanded the Sound, and at last laid Seige to Copenhaguen, the chief City of Den­mark, where, attempting a Storm by night, he was repulsed, with the loss of three thousand Men; and, soon after, the Hollanders, with a Fleet, in spight of his Navy, and the said Castle, entered, and relieved the Town; with Conceit [Page 59] whereof, and a violent Feaver, the said King not long after deceased: and the Danes, in gratitude and Honour of their King Frederick, who had so bravely defended and stood by them, consented to make that Kingdome hereditary, (as now it is established, all the Estates having done Homage) which before was onely Elective: the Family of this King afore, injoying onely the Crown of Norway by descent and inheritance. This Prince suffered much; for, siding with the Dutch against the English, in the late difference, seizing there twenty of our Merchant-men, on pretence of his Aunts Dower, but was forced at last to make re­compense for the dammages, which the Dutch un­dertook for him.

Sweden is a great and mighty Kingdome, bor­dering on the East upon Muscovia, on the south upon the Baltick Sea and Denmark; on the West upon Norway: and on the North upon the Fin­mark and the Zurick Sea. The Merchandises it sel­leth are Copper, Iron, Lead, costly Furrs, Buff, and Ox-hides, Goat-skins, Tallow, Pitch, Barley, Mault, Hazel-nuts, and such like things: their Re­ligion is Lutheran. the Arms of the Kingdom Azure, three Crowns, Or: It hath two Arch-Bi­shops, eight Bishops.

It is a wonder, and Men can scarce com­prehend, how this Nation is come to this great­ness, to make War in so many parts of Europe, being to pass over the Sea: or how they get so many Men in Arms, the Dominions thereof [Page 60] being large, but not populous, so that there never came from thence, sixty thousand Men. It was reported that many Women in Mens clothes sup­plyed their places, and fought like Amazons. The beginning of this upstart greatness, was from Charles Duke of Sunderman, who being Uncle to Sigismond, King of Sweden by Descent, and of Poland by Election, upon his seating him­self in that Kingdom, and constituting his Uncle Vice-Roy of his Native Kingdome of Sweden; he, with the consent of the Senators, assumes the Crown, and maintaines it against his Nephew; whereupon ensued divers Battels, the Usurper wafting over his Swedes into Poland, and be­ginning an offensive War: when he dying, his Son, the Great Gustavus, prosecuted it afresh, till after various Successes a Truce was concluded on; before the expiration of which, he fell with that strange success into Germany before said. After his death, his Daughter Christina was Crowned, and Reigned seventeen years, when another occasion of War hapning, they judg­ing her not capable to mannage it, procured her to renounce her right to the Crown, and resign it to her kinsman Carolus Gustavus, who with a powerfull Army invaded Poland, prompted thereunto by Cardinal Mazarine, and the Usur­ping Protector of England, who by an Ambassa­dor Mr. Whitlock, projected that Invasion, to keep the Arms of the House of Austria in suspence and attendance of the issue of that War, which [Page 61] were raised to the assistance of the Spaniards, then in War with both French and English. Carolus Gu­stavus dying, as aforesaid, the Crown is placed on the head of his Son Charles, (a Child of five years old,) by his Wife, the Daughter of the Duke of Holsteyn: Of their late Conquests, within these fourty years, there remains to that Crown, all Pomerania, and the Arch-Bishoprick of Br [...]men in Germany, besides other less Provinces gained from the Dane, and several Islands in the Baloick Sea; with Riga, the chief City of Liefland, a wealthy Maritine City, being seated as the Grand Empo­rium of the more remote North-east Countreys, as Russia, &c. and was the onely Port of Trade thi­ther, before the passage about the North-Cape to Arch-Angel was found out. The Swede (a mi­racle) is now in full peace with all his Neigh­bours; but no doubt according to Custome, is con­triving another Invasion upon some of his Neigh­bours.

Russia is the last Region towards the East in Europe, a good part of it is Asia, it is bo [...] ­ded on the North with the Frozen Sea, on the East with Tartaria, on the West it borders upon Livonia, and on the Realm of Sweden, and on the South with the Sea called Mare C [...]spium; the greatest part is extreme cold, but for the help of the Inhabitants, Nature hath stored it with Furs, Sables, white Fox, Martins, and o­ther commodities, as Cattel, Corn, and Fruit: the whole Region is subject to the Empe­rour [Page 62] of Russia, a wast tract, and as wilde a Govern­ment.

The people are base, ignorant, and contentious, and foolishly superstitious; after the Greek Church, they deny the proceeding of the holy Ghost, they bury their dead upright, with many other Ceremonies: Muscovia is the Seat of the Empire. The Countrey affords very good flax, and hoops to make casks, and ropes, and store of hides as well of Oxen as of Elks, much salt-fish, and whales grease; the Arms are Sable, a partel open of two leases and as many degrees, Or. Here is one Patriarch, two Arch-Bishops, eighteen Bi­shops.

The Emperour hereof is the onely Tyrant for Government, in Europe, and the people more absolute slaves than in Turkey, which makes them though perpetually in War with the Tar­tars, and every other year with the Polanders, no better Souldiers; Slavery begetting in them mean and abject Spirits, so that of many years they have effected nothing considerable, save the taking in of the City and Dutchy of Smolen­sko, in the year 1654. taken from them thir­ty years before; where upon their besieging of it with an Army of an hundred thousand men, they were besieged themselves with an Army of Poles, not above ten thousand in the open fields, and were forced upon hard conditions to ren­der themselves; for which the Russian General nd his Son, lost their heads at their return to [Page 63] Musco, They attempted Riga also, in 1657. from the Swedes, but even as the place was by Famine and Scarcity of men ready to Capitulate, the Emperour in dispair, broke up his Siege, and departed. A peace is now concluded this year 1662. at Stockholm, by the Russian Am­bassadours sent thither in most solemn man­ner: But the Poles and they, are still at War with mutual success; some fifty years ago, the Pole (in behalf of Demetrius a counterfeit Emper­our) made an in-road into Russia, of above 1200. miles length, and was possest of the City of Musco, which by the valour and Conduct of one Collonel Hamilton a Scot, was rescued, and the Poles glad to depart, whose reward (of the great­ness whereof he was so confident, as that to make himself capable thereof, he turned Russian and renounced his Religion,) was but neglect, and jealous distrust of his abilities. This Em­perour is likewise forced to keep a constant Ar­my of fifty thousand men, to attend the Tartars and Cossacks bordering upon his Kingdom of A­stracan, who every year invade him, and make in­cursions some hundreds of miles, when in their return with their spoil and booty the Russian ei­ther way-lays or overtakes him, and gives Bat­tel. If the Russian prevail, he enters their Coun­trey and makes havock, with Fire and Sword; if not, the Tartar keeping what he has plun­dered, is content to leave his victory and re­turn home. Nevertheless every year Ambassadors, [Page 64] some hundred in number, come to Musco; but their main design is, to get Presents of Silken Vests and Rayments, they look, and are sure to receive from the Emperour.

The Predecessor of this Emperour shewed himself very affectionately respectful to our So­veraign, and regardful of his Cause, when, upon the murder of his Father, he presently seized all the Estates of the English, and would have sold them, and delivered the product thereof to my Lord Wentworth, then Ambassador from His Majesty, and for his use, if he had not wholly re­fused it, telling the Emperour, They were his Masters Subjects, whom he ought rather to pro­tect, than to spoil, for the Rebellion of other People in England: whereupon the Emperour lent a sum of Money freely himself, with pro­mise of further assistance, but would by no means grant the English their Priviledges, of be­ing Custome-free, till His Majesties Restituti­on. This Great Duke lives in great State and Splendor, in a most ample and Magnificent Pal­lace and Castle at Musco City, which is now half built from Timber with Brick-Houses; the Fire, when it happened before, usually burning down a third part thereof, the flame running three or four miles in an instant. He is also very wealthy (all his Subjects riches being his own when he pleaseth) and therefore very potent. The Patriarch now governeth Him and his Em­pire, being the Chief Minister, or Commander of [Page 65] State. The Emperours Name is Alexei Mi­chalowich.

Poland is bounded on the south with Molda­via, and Hungary, on the east with Muscovia, and with the Tartaries Praecopenses, on the west with Germany, and on the north with the Baltick Sea. Their Religion is partly with the Greek Church, partly with the Roman: and so there are here of the Romish Church three Arch-bishops, and ninteen Bishops; and of the Greek Church two Arch­bishops and six Bishops: The Arms are one Gem, and Eagle, an Ass Ar­gent Crowned and Nowed Or, for the Re­gion of Polonia: and two Gules, a Chevaleir armed Cap a [...]pe advancing his sword Argent mounted upon a barbed Courserof the second, for the Dukedom of Lituania: the commodi­ties sent hence, are, Spruce or Dantz Beer, Am­ber, Wheat, Rye, and other grain; Honey, Wax, Hemp, Flax, Pitch and Tarr: it hath also Mines of Copper and Iron.

This Kingdom, as well as the great Dutchy of Lituania is elective, and hath had Kings of­ten from their Neighbour Nations, such is the aemulation among the chief Nobility: They have of late years been addicted to the French, and now to the Duke of Anguien Son to the Prince of Conde, supposed to succeed King Casimir. It is reckoned one of the Bulwarks of Christen­dom, to the east, against the Turk and Tartar; but hath been lately miserably harrassed by the [Page 66] Swede and Transylvanian, who came to his assist­ance under Ragotzki. It proved luckily for this People, that the King of Denmark quarrell'd with the Swede, and raising a formidable Army, drew him to defend his own Countrey out of the Bow­els of Poland, and made him leave his design of Conquest thereof, which he had promised to him­self. The Marquiss of Brandenburgh assisted him in the beginning, but seeing his unreasonable En­croachments, and the injustice of his Arms, which he might afterwards upon the same pretences use against his Dominions, forsook his side, and turned enemy, a practise used to the Swedes by the Ger­man Princes before: for just so the Elector, Duke of Saxony, served them in the German War. This lost the Swede all he had got, save his plunder, who by a Peace now resigned the Dutchies of Prussia, which he had Garrisoned and possessed, and took a sum of Money in lieu there­of; like a cunning Merchant, as my Lord Bacon observes in Hen. 7. that gets by importing and exporting of Merchandize, such indeed is War to the Swede. But the Duke of Brandenburgh is invested and possessed of the Ducal Prussia: sel­dome is it also, that the Poles are without War, ei­ther at home or abroad; abroad now with the Muscovite: at home a difference betwixt the Se­nators and the Confederate Army, which threatens some danger, if not timely composed by the Prudence of the King, who is a most Ex­cellent Prince, and a [...]isted by very able Noble­men, [Page 67] such as is the Renouned old General Czarnecki, he who hath so often defeated th [...] Muscovites and Tartars, and once overcame the Swedes, whose Prince Adolph Iohn was wound­ed by Sandomiria, in 1657. They are a very warlike people, and the bravest enemy both for gallantry, in mind and body in the world, carrying most of their wealth with them into the field. Their arms, and horse-furnitures glit­tering with gold and silver. They serve most on Horseback, the Gentry mounting their Te­nants, and Servants, and charge furiously with Lances, and then expertly manage a Shabel or Scymiter: they have this year had two victo­ries against the Muscovites. They have been of­ten vexed with the Cossacks, a People (bordering upon the black Sea, where they annoy the Turk) mercenary and stipendiary to this Crown, who under [...] their Generall, often com­bated them, but are now in a better understand­ing and good complyance by a late Treaty. The Tartars are as well disposed to be quiet, so that at present Poland seems likely to enjoy some respite, and draw breath after so many Con­ [...]ulsions, and Concussions of its State and Go­vernment.

Hungary is bounded on the south with Bosnia and Croatia, on the west with Germany, on the east with Transylvania, Moldavia, and Walachia, and on the north with Polonia: A great and mighty King­dome and exceeding fruitful, it hath many [Page 68] Navigable Rivers, wherein are multitudes of Fish.

The People are strong, and shew their anti­quity to be of the Scythians, by their neglect of Learning, and barbarous manners; their Sons equally inherit without priviledge of Birth­right; their Daughters Portion is onely a new attire. The German Emperour and the Turk share it between them; the Commodities that go from thence are, divers sorts of colours, wheat, beef, salt, wine, and river-fish salted: the A [...]ms are bar-wise of eight pieces, Gules and Argent: there are here two Arch-bishops, thir­teen Bishops.

This Kingdom of Hungary was anciently that Fortress against the Turks, which now Po­land is, several of its Kings being slain in the fields thereof, in battel against them, so very re­markable is that War maintained by them throughout all the Turkish History. This Crown was devolved at last to Maximilian as Hereditary to the House of Austria, who a long while also grapled against the same power, to a greater expence of men and money than the Title, Revenue, and Possessions were worth; and could not expel nor drive them out, being put to it to defend his own; Sultan Solyman, in the raign of H. 8. carrying his Army to the Walls of Vienna the Emperours Imperial City in Au­stria. The Emperours chief City, and assem­bly of the States is Presburgh, where the King [Page 69] his Son is usually Crowned. The grand Siegnieurs is Buda upon the River Danubius, Governed by one of his Principal Bashaws. The Hungarians have enjoyed a long, though narrow peace, some part thereof being disquietted by the troubled affairs of their Neighbours, such as are the Way­vods of Moldavia, and Walachia (who are tri­butary Princes to the Grand Signiour, and are in­vested by him, who not seldome revolt, and as of­ten pay the price of it with their heads) and late­ly, and at this time, the Princes of Transylvania, Of which next.

Transylvania, a Principallity, is bounded on the north with Poland, on the east with Servia and Bulgaria, on the west with Hungary, and on the east with Moldavia and Walachia, two other small Principallities, Tributaries and Vas­sals to the Turks. This Country of Transylvania is notable for good Warriours, being beholding for their stoutness to the strength of their Countrey, which, toward the south-east, is surrounded with Mountains. For these four last years it hath been the Seat of a cruel War; for, the King of Sweden having invited Prince Ragotzki to the spoyles of Poland in 1657. The Pole com­plained of this Invasion to the Grand Seigniour, who commanded Ragotzki to withdraw, and withal sent an Army to depose him for pre­suming against his leave and permission to en­gage against the Pole. Ragotzki defended [...]m­self a while, but, being over-toyled, and spent [Page 70] with care and hard service against so potent an Enemie, dyed. Whereupon the States chose one Remini Ianosch to be their Prince, whom the Turks likewise rejecting the States stood by him, against Prince Michael Abassi, invested by the Grand Signiour. After severall encounters; and the loss of Waradin, Remini was taken and strang­led, and his head and quarters set upon the Gates of one of the chief Cities. Michael Abassi is now in authority, and the Country subdued, which makes the Emperour fear an invasion of the Turks in Hungary and his hereditary Coun­tryes, wherefore he is now in Treaty with those Infidel.

Sclavonia hath on the South the Adriatick Sea; on the west, part of Italy; Greece on the south­east, and Hungary on the north; part of it be­longs to the Turk, some to the Venetian Estate, some to the Hungarians, and some to the Austri­ans: The arms, Argent, a Cardinals Hat, the strings meeting in bsae Gules perpendant and placed in a true lovers knot; there are four Arch-Bishops, twenty six Bishops.

In a part of this Country called then Epirus, but losing now its name with its Liberty under the Turkish Yoke, was born that famous War­riour Scanderb [...]g the Scourge of the Turks, whose bones, he being dead, the Turks, long time after, took out of his grave, and made them Meddals and Rings therewith; there are few of this whole Nation left that have any spark of [Page 71] their Ancestors Spirit or valour against their Tyrannical Masters, but onely a People called the Morlacks, who valiantly side with the Ve­netians, and are a great assistance to them in keep­ing that footing they have in Dalmatia: The rest are buried im their slavery, and by the heaviness of their Fetters are so benummed, that they stir not a hand, either in holding it up to Heaven, or in putting it out to the aid of others, who would endeavour their redemption, so that the Country may better be called Slavonia.

Greece, once a Mother of Learning and Arts, now the Den of the Turkish Empire, who hath its abode at Constantinople: it is bounded on the west with the Adriatick Sea, on the north with the Mountain Hemus, on the south with the the Mediterranean Sea, and on the east Egypt, Hellespont, Propontis. The commodities brought from hence are, Gold, Silver, Copper, divers Colours, Wines, and Velvets, Damask, and Turkish Grogram; Their Religion hath in it some sub­stantial error, as that they deny that the Holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father and the Son, they hold also baptism of Fire to be necessary, yet they resist the authority of the Bishop of Rome.

This Greece that once had the Empire of the World, the great Mistress of Arts and Arms is degenerated into the like base servility of minde with their neighbours of Sclavonia. Here also the Gospel shone in its first purity, the seven [Page 72] Candlesticks being placed here, as we read in the beginning of the Revelations; and now is univer­sally over-spread with the thick darkness of Maho­metisme. Nothing left to comfort them in their Condition, but their Vines, and the Proverb, The Merry Greeks: that arose from the wretchless stupidity and carelessness of their Condition, which they know no better to put out of their mind than by making themselves Beasts; meta­morphosing themselves from Slavery, into Bruta­lity: nor are they falsly taxed with Bestiality, that crying sin of Sodomy. So that there is lit­tle hope left, of their recovering their liberty, who are fettered in the chaius of such abomina­ble impieties.

And thus now have I finished Europe, the first Part of the World.

The Names of the greatest, and most Famous Cities and Rivers in Eu­rope.

IN Italy the Cities of Genoa, Milan, Venice, Flo­rence, Rome, Bologne, and Naples: the Rivers most famous, are, Arnus, Tibur, and Po.

The Cities in France that are most famous, are, Amiens, Roven, Paris, Troyes, Nanles, Orleans, Diion, Lyons, Burdeoux, Toulose, Mars [...]illes, Gre­noble, Auvergne: the Rivers that are most remarka­ble, are the Loyre, the Garone, the Rhone, the Seyne.

The Cities in Spain that do most prefer them­selves to observation, are, Toledo, Madrid, Leon, Pampelune, Bilbo, Priede, Saint Iames of Compostella, Lisbone, Fax, Siville, Grenade, Mursy, Sarragosa, Barcelona, and Valentia: the Rivers there most fa­mous, are, the Dower, the River of Tagus, the Gadian, and the Guadelguiner.

The Cities in England that be most famous, are, London, York, Bristol: the Rivers most famous, are, the Thames, the Severn, the River of Humber, and the Ouze.

[Page 74] The Cities in Scotland most famous, are Edin­borough, Sterlin, Aberden, and Saint Andrews: the most famous River is the River of Tay.

The most famous City in Ireland is Dublin, and the greatest River, is the River of Shannon.

The chiefest Cities in the Netherlands belong­ing to the Catholicks, are Metz, Besancon, Cambeyr, Antwerp; the chief City belonging to the united States, is Amsterdam: the two most famous Ri­vers are the River of Scheld, and the River Mo­sa.

The most famous Cities in Germany, are Stras­b [...]rough, Colen, Munster, Norimberg, Ausburgh, Nu­remberg, Vienna, Prague, Dresden, Berlin, Stetin, and Lubeck; the chiefest Rivers are the Rhine, the We­ser, the Elbe, the Odor, and the [...].

The most famous Cities in Denmark are Cop­penhague, and Trondon; the chiefest River is the Wezer.

The chiefest Cities in Swedeland are Calmer, Stockholm, Ab [...], and Riga, the last whereof is in Livonia, but now in the possession of the King of Sweden; the most famous River, is the River of Torn.

The chiefest Cities of Russia, are Muscow, Wol­dimar, Saint Michael the Arch-Angel, Cazan, and Astracan; the most famous Rivers are the Dwine, the Volga, the Don, or Tana.

The most famous Cities in Poland are, Craco­via, Warsovia, Dantzick, Vilna, Di [...]n, [...], and Smolensc [...], which is part of Muscovy, and now [Page 75] again in the possession of the Great Duke: the chiefest Rivers in Poland are the Vistu [...]a, or Weisser, the Nieper, the Duna, or the Niester, and the Boresthenes.

The chiefest Cities in Hungary, Transylvania, Valachia, Moldavia, and little Tartary, are Buda Presborough, Hermonstade, Tergovius, Czucham, or Sozow, Craffa, and Burgos: the chiefest Rivers are the Drin, the River of Oxfeus, or A [...]feus, the Rivers of Peneus, the Vardax, the Marize, and the Danubius.

The chief Cities of Transylvania, are Weysen­lurg, Clausenburg, and Waradin.

The most famous Cities in Dacia, are Trieste, and Pedena.

The most famous Cities in Bohemia, are Prague, Cuttenburgh, Pilzen, and Budrozis

The most famous Cities at this time in Greece, Buda, Salonique, Andrianopolis, Scutary, Durazzo, La Valone, L Armire, Prevezza, Larta, Lepanto, Setino or Athens, Stines or Thebes, Corinth, Patras, Misira or Lacedemonia, which are all now in the possession of the Turks.

The most famous Cities in Bosnia, are Iucyza, Bagnalour, Fruansaray: in Croatia is the famous City of Whitz.

The chiefest Cities in Sclavonia, are Nona, Zara, Nonigrad, Tinu, Sebenico, St. Nicolo; Trau, Spala­to, Salon [...], [...], Starigrad, Vesiechio, Catara, Buda, and Dolcigno.

The most famous City in Walachia is called [Page 76] Tergovis: and in Moldavia, Zaczow.

In the Land of Sicily, there are the famous Ci­ties of Messina, and Palermo: in the Island of Sar­dinia, the City of Calari: and in Corsica, the City Bastic.

The renowned Cities in Romania, are, Constanti­nople, and Adrianopolis.


ASia is now the second part of the World separated from Europe by the floods, Tanais and Duina, and from Africa, by the narrow part of Lod de lakis, and the Red-Sea, bordering on Aegypt.

It is bigger then Europe, or Africa, and doth far exceed them in riches, as Precious-Stones and Spices: This Region hath been renowned by the first and second Monarchs of the World: There was Man Created, placed in Paradise, Seduced by Satan, and Redeemed by our Savi­our. In this part, was done most of the Histo­ries mentioned in the Old Testament; and many things also in the New: the eminent Per­sons that have the Rule of Asia, are the Kings of China, the King of Persia, the great Turk, the King of India or Indosthan, the King of Portugal, the King of Iapan, and the Emperour of Rus­sia.

Tartaria is bordered upon the north Sea, east­ward upon the Sea of China, southward upon the Provinces of China, and India, with the flood Oxdo, and the Sea Mare Caspium, and towards the west with the flood Mare Steneum, and Mos­covia.

The Tartarians, as they are divided into cer­tain Kingdomes, Principalities, and Commo­alties [Page 78] or Colonies, one from another, so they differ in manners, and trade of life: They are Men of a square stature, broad and gross faces, their eyes sunk into their heads, and looking somewhat a­squint; they are strong of body, and hardy: they eat Horses, and all other Beasts except Hogs, how­soever they are slain.

The Crim, or Precopense Tartar, is the greatest and most Potent Prince in this vast and uncultiva­ted Territory; He is next Heir to the Ottoman Family of the Great Turk, if the Male-line should fail, to whose service he is alwayes ready bound to attend on the designs of the Turks upon Chri­stendome. The other Chief is called the Czeremise Tartar, of whom, came that famous Conque­rour, the great Tamberlaine, who over-ran all Asia. Their greatest War now, is, either with the Chinese, or with the Russe; but the Crim Tar­tar is wholly Mercenary, being in the late War of Poland; employed, first by the Pole, and then by the Swede, and Transylvanian Prince Ragotz­ki.

China is bounded on the east by the east Sea, on the west with India, and Bramus, and on the north it is divided from Tartaria with a wonderfull Wall four hundred miles long, built between the Mountains: It is divided into fifteen Kingdoms, or great Provinces, each ha­ving a peculiar Prince, but all yielding obedi­ence to their great King: It is reported that he may bring into the Field three hundred thousand [Page 79] Foot and two hundred thousand Horse-men. The Land is fruitful of Grain, and Beasts wild and tame, Wines, of Precious Stones, Gold, Cop­per, Iron, Steel, Pearl, and good store of Silk: Also very great Cities well peopled: Paqu'n is the Royal City, of which, things be written that be incredible. The People are lively, witty, wonderous Artists, they make Waggons that sail over the land as Ships do over the Sea the Art of Printing, and making of Guns, is more ancient with them than with us: they have good Lawes according to which they do live; but they want the knowledge of God, for they are Heathens, and Worship the Sun, Moon, and Stars, yea, and the Devil himself, that he may not hurt them.

Of this Kingdome of China there is little writ either certain or true, because of its vast distance, which, if the North-west passage had been passable and not frozen, might have been throughly known. The last news from thence was, that the Tartars had invaded that King­dome, and had thrown down part of that emi­nent Wall abovesaid, that was built for a Fence against their incursions, and defeated the Chinese in several Battels. It hath been travelled of late by some forraign Friers, but our English Ships seldome thriving in the Voyage, is the rea­son no better account can be given of their Go­vernment, Lawes, and Customes. From thence come the China dishes, called Porcelane, which [Page 80] the Fathers prepare 40 years under ground, and lay up for their Sons, as an Estate, before it be fit for use: its fineness and transparency requiring such a time of perfection.

Iapan aboundeth so with Gold, that it is report­ed that the Kings Pallace was covered therewith, in the time of Paulus Venetius.

These Iapanneses are the best Navigators and Sailers of the Nations of those parts of the World, for which they are beholding to the situation of their Country, being an Island, so that they are very frequent, and use Commerce in all that Quarter, and prove good Auxiliary Souldiers to the several Princes. They are much entertained by the Dutch, as may be seen in the business of Amboyna.

India, situated between Persia and the Tar­tars, Sinca, and the Indian Sea, all Writers account the best and goodliest Land in the World: for it fills almost the whole World with precious Jewels and Pearls, Medicinal Drugs, and Perfumes, that it may be called an earthly Pa­radise.

The King of this Country, the Great Mogul, is certainly the richest and most Magnificent Prince in the World: which to shew to his Sub­jects, at the several seasons of the year, as it grows Hot or Cold, he removes his Court from City to City, of great distance, south and north, his Countrey being very vast, and well peopled. But his chief Imperial City is Agra [...] where, as [Page 81] most great Cities of the East, Lime trees and o­thers of great shade, and sweet sent are placed along the streets, most beautifull and pleasant to behold. The Mogul is altogether, if not more absolute than any of the Eastern Princes, all whose Governments are Monarchical Tyrannies. Every morning he shews himself in great▪ State to his Nobles and Princes, who prostrate, and adore him; and at the same time the Elephants (of which he keeps many hundreds) are brought to Salam, that is, to bow and bend their knee, which being taught, they will do very readily. To this Mogul, King Iames sent the Earl of Denbigh Ambassador, to Treat, or rather to Complement about our Trade in the East-Indies, Surrat being in his Dominions, where constantly one of his chief Nobles is resident as Governour. The Earl carried Presents with him, but was most magnificently and costly Re-presented by the Mogul, even to an Estate, and his Am­bassie civilly and effectually answered; we count them Barbarians, but they are a Nation of ex­traordinary Civility, as our Commerce wit­nesseth: where they love, they love ardently and constantly, and where they hate, they hate furiously and deadly. At present, they are enga­ged in a Civil War, for the Mogul Sultan Coram lately dying, left his Estate in Dispute, though divided to his three Sons, of whom, he most loved his youngest, who by the favour and pra­ctice of the chief of the Nobility having gained [Page 82] the Army which is alwayes kept standing, pos­sest himself of most part of the Empire, while his Brothers were disputing with one another, a­bout other the private Limits and Boundaries of their Lands. Both are now joyned against him, but with what successe is not yet known. The English Trade is neverthelesse no way mo­lested or impeached (their Governour now si­ding with the Younger Brother) but is carried on as formerly: the chief Merchants of that Nation being the Banians (a sect and preciser sort of People than the rest, the most of them being Mahometans) who are just dealers and very rich, and negotiate in all the Traffique of the East. The Hollanders have some places of Strength here also, and are in League with the Mogul, though in War with some of the adja­cent lesser Princes.

The King of Portugal is possest of the King­dome of Goa, and other large Provinces and Territories, which were formerly distinct King­domes and Principalities, but Conquered and won by his Sword; but hath been disquieted and disturbed very often, as well by the Na­tives as the Dutch; but yet he hath made a shift to keep the greatest part still in his hands: and consequently a very rich Trade and Traffique, which he manageth himself. There is alwayes resident at Goa, his Vice-roy one of the Por­tugal Nobility, who lives in great Pompe and State in a very fair Palace. The City is strongly [Page 83] fortified and several out-Forts and Guards cir­cumjacent to prevent a sudden attempt of an E­nemy; and other Fortresses are erected in that Kingdome, some whereof are put into the hands of the English, by agreement, the Coast being beneficial to our Navigation into the Indies. The Portugal Inhabitants follow the Habit and Fashion of the Indians, as all Nations whatsoever Trading thither, do their Habit.

Persia is a mighty rich Land, governed by the Sophy: though he be a Mahometist, yet he warreth against the Turk for the Religion of Mahomet, concerning the expounding of the Alcoran: out of Persia are brought the Bezoar-stone and other precious Stones, Pearls of great value, and many Silk-works.

This Kingdom, once honoured with the Univer­sal Empire, as absolutely lost it self under the Turkish Slavery, as before under the victorious Arms of Alexander the Great, till the time of Isma­el some two hundred years ago; justly as great, as he, considering the contemptiblenesse of him­self and his Forces; he drove the Turk [...] out of all their Conquests, and left Persia to his Successors, an entire and Potent Dominion. Af­ter many changes in his Line and Family, it de­volved at last to as renown'd a Prince as himself; Sultan Abbas, but infamous for his unnatural Fact. He had a hopeful Son, his expected suc­cessor; of whom, by the flatteries and surmises of some Courtiers being jealoused, he resolved on [Page 84] his Death, and communicated it, with his com­mand of Execution to his General; and, being by him bravely refused, to another his Confi­dent, who likewise knowing the worth of the Prince, offered his own Head in lieu of his; with which not yet disswaded, he procured one of his Chams or Commanders to perform the Fact, which the Innocent Gentleman patiently suffered, being as he was riding, dragged off his Horse and strangled. After the preparation of it, the Tyrant was exceedingly sorrowful, and going to the relief of Bagdat alias Babylon, there besieged by the Turk, after he had caused the Executioner of his Son to be put to death, and was returning home in triumph, he deceased, declaring his Grand-son, whom he had named after his Father Mirza Sefi or Sofi, (from whence the Modern name of Sophy) to be his Successour, and commanded his Death to be kept secret till his Inauguration. This Injunction was duely observed, and the young Prince, after three dayes perswasion to get him from his Mo­ther, who feared the like Cruelty from the cun­ning Tyrant, solemnly enthroned. It was re­ported he was born with his hands full of blood, but very true it was, he dyded with them full, in the year 1642. in the middle of his Age when he began to be more Considerate, ha­ving caused by his Cruelties many of his chief Lords to revolt to save their Heads: His Son Sophy Abbas now reigns in great Splendor: at [Page 85] his return from Bagdat to his City of Issaphan, he passed to his Pallace through the streets filled with Roses up to the Horses Belly, and covered from the Sun by Carpets thrown upon Cords ty­ed from the opposite Windows, where in the middle hung great wax Lamps and Candles, which made an Artificial Day. The Persian hath had a lazy Peace of late, but a Rupture with the Turk or Mogul is to be expected, for they are excellently active, and indefatigable war­riours. As to our English Trade thither, it is greatly improved within these few years, from some immunities they have above other Nati­ons traffiquing there, by reason of the assistance the Persian had from them by Shipping, without which he could never have taken Ormus, the great Mart of the East, from the Portugals in 1620. but for all that destructive kindnesse to our selves, he hath saltered of his Articles and Agreement, in delaying that money which he was to pay to the English East-India Company for the hire of the said Ships. There is now two English Factories in his Dominions, one at Gomeron a Sea-port, and the other at [...] o [...] Ispahan aforesaid, to the no less reputation than profit and advantage of the said Company, and the whole Nation.

Natolia or Asia the lesse, wherein is that part of Land formerly called Canaan, by which lie the Arabians: this Asia is a good and fruit­ful Country, and hath been eminent in the true [Page 86] Religion; for therein were written the most part of the New Testament. It is almost divi­ded from Africa by the Red and Mediter­ranean Sea, and is now a part of the Turkish Empire.

The Body of this huge Empire is like a Mon­ster, that consists of several Heterogeneal parts, and members: It hath large Dominions in Eu­rope, larger in Africa, but largest in Asia; All which were meer Conquests, scarce a Cottage belonging to the first Founder of the Ottoman Greatnesse; who was little better than an un­ruly Shepherd, from whom are lineally de­scended twenty successive Monarchs, terrible to all the world, being seated in the very midst and Heart of it. Mahomet the Great, became terrible, by the subversion of the Greek Em­pire about Anno Christi 1400. when he took Constantinople, and soon after that the Empire of Trebisand in Asia minor; since which time, Selymus the first, conquered Aegypt, and Se­lymus the second, Cyprus: to omit the seizure of Dalmatia and Epirus somewhat before, Sul­tan Solyman perfected their invasions, and se­cured their possessions in Hungary, and made more absolute Tributaries and Vassals of the Princes, and Waywods of Transylvania, and Moldavia, advancing his Ensignes and Infidel Crescents to the walls of Vienna, but failed in his ambitious Design upon the Empire of the West. After his Decease they stood at a stay; [Page 87] not a Martial Prince succeeding, till Sultan Morat, in our memory, whose assumption to that Imperial Turbant, will not be unpleasant to relate. Sultan Achmat a voluptuary, and no way addicted to War, deceasing about 1615. left behind him two Sons and a Brother of his named Mustapha, whom, contrary to the un­natural and cruel policy of that Government, he had preserved alive, (though once over­perswaded by his Bashaws, he had sent for him to his presence, to strangle him:) and after his decease appointed him to succeed him; but he being of a Book [...]h and Contemplative nature, the Ianizaries weary of such a Log and idle Per­son, deposed him, and shut him up in a Prison, and advanced the eldest Son of Achmat named Osman a Child, to his Fathers Throne; and be­ing alike weary of him, not onely laid him aside, but murthered him, and set up Mustapha again, and then relen [...]ing of their ungrateful dealing to Osman, murthered Mustapha, and proclaimed Sultan Morat, Osmans Brother, to be the Grand Seigniour. He, during these alterations and fa­tal changes, was grown to discretion, and per­ceiving that those Distractions happened through the head-strong insolency of the Ianizarics, (in­somuch that it was verily believed by others that a period was near set to the Glory of the Em­pire) after therefore he had, as usually, de­stributed his Donatives among them at his first Assumption, and gained their affection; He re­solved [Page 88] with some private advice, to be rid of the whole order, and Militia of those Ianizaries, and to substitute a new standing Force in their room. In prosecution whereof, he denounced a War against the Persian, which hath alwayes been the Sepulture of the Turkish Infantry, and against all disswasions, marched to the siege of Bagdat, where in several Assaults, on purpose to put them to the Slaughter, he had well neer wasted the greatest part of them, when in the midst of his design, and in the flourishing years of his Hope, by over-labouring himself He contracted a Feaver, and dyed, but Victorious, with the For­tune of Alexander, who dyed at the Siege of the same place. Being asked upon his Death­bed whom he would name his successour, he star­ted up and with indignation, replyed, what do you talk of Successors? will there be any more Worlds when I am dead? But by his death the race of Ianizaries was preserved, and the Crown placed on the head of his Son Sultan Ibrahim, who continued it not long, before death trans­ferred it to Sultan Mahomet an Infant then, but now of Age, and at this time regnant, a Prince of hopeful Valour and Magnanimity, of which he gives great demonstrations in his prepara­tion for War, which he intends to prosecute in Transilvania, (where he hath lately chastised and deposed two Princes thereof, who disobeyed his Command, and usurped the Government after he had commanded them to quit it as we [Page 89] have said before in that Territory) and also in the Isle of Candia against the Venetians, where for these two years last past, he hath had but slow success. The King lately sent to the Port, that is, his Court at Constantinople, the Earl of Winchelsea his Ambassador, to confirm and continue the Treaty and Friendship that hath been these many years betwixt us. The two chief Residences of the English Merchants who have Factories at Grand Cairo and Damascus, are at Constantinople, by the Turks called Stamboly, and at Aleppo in Syrio in the bottome of all the Straits, Scanderoon be­ing the Port or Key where the Ships unload and take in their Merchandise; Besides the Mor­da.

The Emperor of Muscovia hath for his share in these Quarters of the World, the Kingdomes of Casan and Astracan, formerly belonging to the Tartar, but taken from him in this manner: He had made a terrible irruption into Muscovia, and had carried all to before him to the very Walls of Musco, which at last too he entred, and made the great Duke, upon certain Articles, to become his Tributary, and acknowledge him, as his Supreme Lord, and to hold his Dominions under him, which was confirmed by an In­strument in Writing under the Great Seal of the Empire. An. 1500. Whereupon with great riches he departed, and in his return laid Seige to a strong Castle, and seeing the Governour resolute (as the Russes are very good in maintaining places [Page 90] even beyond extremity to others) he acquainted him with what had passed, and that the great Duke had yielded him that place by agreement, and had further submitted, &c. Whereupon the Governour desiring to see the Deed, and promi­sing thereupon to surrender, the Tartar over­credulously parted with his Act of Homage, but could never gain either the Town or that back again. Encouraged by this, the Russe took heart and followed the Tartar, but was sorely beaten, till the Successour of that Emperor, the Tyrant Evan Vasilowich pursuing the quarrel, marched with Fire and Sword into those Countries, and at last sate down before Astracan, where in sundry attempts he was resisted, but being resolutely bent to lose his Army, Life, and Honour, or take the City, he commanded a general, though most hazzardous Assault ro be given, which last­ed almost a whole day, when with a most bloody Slaughter both of his own and his enemies he victoriously entred, and ever since, maugre all the Force and Attempts of the Tartars, the great Dukes have kept possession thereof, suffer­ing no Tartars to lodge in the City, or to wear any Arms. Both these Kingdomes are parted with the River Volga, where the Cossacks do ex­ercise frequent Piracies and Thefts, both upon the Inhabitants and Passenger-Merchants which Trade that way, and so by the Caspian Sea into Persia fo: Drugs and Silks, which are brought by Caravans to that Sea-side in great quantity.

[Page 91] The chief Islands of Asia are Zellant, whose ground is alwayes green, and the trees laden with blossomes and fruits, as Oranges, and Lemmons, the Cinamon grows here in whole Woods, for it is the second rind of a Tree, but being cut and laid in the Sun, becomes red: the Tree in three years space receives his rind again. Besides many other beasts, here are a multitude of Elephants.

Sumatra yieldeth besides other sorts of Spices, abundance of Pepper: here are also moneys of divers Mettals, of which the Inhabitants have learned to cast good Ordnance; very great Elephants are found here, which being learned are serviceable in War. The Rhinoceros, a deadly enemy to the Elephant, is found here: for though he be less, yet he warreth with him; having whet his horn on the Rock, he therewith seeks to rip up the Elephants belly. He is by many held to be the true Unicorn: every part of him, espe­cially his Horn, being sovereign against all poyson.

Iava is very fruitful in several spices and Indi­an fruits, especially Pepper.

Benda a second Island, but very famous, for herein are several Islands whereabout grow all the Nutmegs and Mace which are in great abundance sent into all the World: the Trees on which Nutmegs grow, yield three times in the year fruit, viz. in August, and December, but the most and best in April.

[Page 92] The Islands of the Mollucco's, though but sand, yet are known all over the world, by reason of the plenty of cloves which grow up here only, but are dispersed over all the world, they are five in number, Ternate, Tidon, Matir, Mantrian, and Bachion. Victuals are here scant, for there grows neither rice nor any other grain; it hath no cat­tel, but a few goats and hogs: they make their bread of certain trees and roots. In these Islands onely, are found the birds of Paradise, which for the strangeness and fairness of feathers exceed all the birds in the world.

Most of these Islands are in the occupation of the Hollander or Portugal, or so leagued to them by the Natives, that the whole profit and trade thereof is as good as theirs, which formerly by Articles of Agreement, were equally parted (to what the Dutch possest) betwixt them and us, wit­nesse that bloody Story of Amboyna, to the Southward of the Molucco's where the Dutch had a Castle and we a Factory, but the Trade a­rising from the Island proving so beneficial, they conspired the ruin of the English by a pretended plot of theirs, upon the said Castle, which by a Violation of the Articles on our part, if ad­mitted true, would be a good warrant for their procedure against them, which in short was af­ter this manner. They of a sudden as in immi­nent danger, seized and secured the principal English Merchant and others on shore, and two Japanese Souldiers in the Dutch pay, and put them [Page 93] to the Torture, which was by hanging them stretcht out, upon Planks broad as a Door, and muffling up their Chaps with Napkins, and pour­ing in water continually till they had almost sti­fled them, and burnt their Fingers ends besides, which grievious Torment extorted a kind of Confession of what they had designed, whereupon they were all sentenced to lose their heads, which was executed accordingly in the Castle Green, the poor wretches so cruciated with the pains they had suffered, that it was a Courtesie to murther them. Thus the Dutch got the entire enjoyment of that Trade, and keep it without giving that due satisfaction for the possession, or the blood the price of it.

Thus much touching the second part of the World.

The chiefest Cities of Asia with the Rivers.

THe chiefest cities in Asia which belong un­to the Turks, are, in Anatolia, Burse, Chiou­tai, Angoure, Trebisond, Sattalie: the Rivers there most famous are the Rivers of Alie, Ior­dan, Euphrates, and Tigris.

The most famous Cities in Syria are Aleppo, Tripoli, Damas, Said and Hierusalem.

The most famous Cities in Georgia are Mosul, Bagded, Balsora, Sanatopoli, Stranu, Derbent: The most famous Rivers in Georgia are the Ri­vers of Fazze and Arais.

The most famous Cities in Arabia, are He­rac, Ava, Medina, and Mectra; the most me­morable River, is the River of Cayban

The chiefest Cities in Persia, are Tauris, Gorgian, Coysolma, Hispahan, Erat, Sus, Schirae, and Ortmutz: the chiefest Rivers are the Rivers of Tirditiri, and Bendimur.

The chiefest Cities of India, are Amedabath, Cambaia, Gouro, Diu, Bengala, Pangab, or La­hor, Agra, Goa, Calicut, Visnagor, Pegu, Arra­can, Malaca, Camboge, and Facfo: the fairest [Page 95] Rivers in India are, the River Indus, Ganges, and Mecon.

The most famous Cities in China, are Paguin, Quinsay, Caneun, Macao, Mancian, and Nagaia, Hordo: the greatest River, is the River of Qui­nam, or Iamsu Quiam.

The most famous Cities in Tartary are, Za­haspe, Samarcanda, Thibet, Cambalu, Tatur, or Tartar: the chiefest Rivers are the Tatar, the Ieniscoy, the Oby, the Chezel, and the Albia­mu.

The Isles in Asia in the Ocean are the Isle of Iapan, where are the Cities of Bungo, Meaco, and Sacay.

The Phillipine Islands, in which are the Cities of Lusor, Manille, and Mindanao.

The Molucco Islands in which are the Cities of Gililo, Mucasar, and Aquen.

Not far from thence is Sumatra and Iava, where are the Cities of Candra, and Columbo, near unto it is Bornro, Manur, and Male.

In the Mediterranean Sea, there are the Islands of Cyprus, Rhodes, and Scarpanto, in which are the famous Cities of Nicosia, Famagusta, Rhodes, and Scarpanto.

In the Archipelago there are the Islands of Chios, and Metelin, which have Cities after their own names.


AFrica the third part of the world, is separa­ted from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, and from Asia by the Red Sea; she yieldeth Gold, Balm, Ivory, Ebony, Sugar, Ginger, Dates, Aloes, Myrrh, Feathers: also Madera, the countries in Africa now follow.

Barbary is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea northward, on the east with Egypt, on the south with the Mount Atlas, and westward with the Atlantick Ocean: the Inhabitants are faithless, crafty in promising, and also in performing; they are fraudulent, covetous, and beyond measure jealous of their Wives: their Countrey yields Olives, Figs, Dates, Oranges, and a certain kind Goat, whose hair makes a stuff as fine as silk.

This Countrey, once famous for the strife of Em­pire with Rome, while Carthage stood, and after that for the Iugurthine War, is now canton [...]zed and parted into several Principalities and as many Feuds, betwixt the Kings of Morocco, Fez, Tuny, and the Dy of Algier, the King of Bil­ledulgerid and others, to one of which Sebastian King of Portugal being invited, and inviting our Countryman Stukely and Glorioso to partake with him in the Enterprise, in favour of an ex­pulsed Prince, were all three of them killed in the plains of Alcazar, upon the Death of which [Page 97] Sebastian issueless, hath risen a worse Feud then that he engaged in about the Crown of Portu­gal. Some while before Charles the Fifth, Emper­our of Germany, invading this Countrey, took the City of Tunis, and the Castle Guletto: but the Turks coming with Supplies, and the unagree­ableness of the Climate to his Europeans, joyn­ed with the Witchcrafts of the Moors, for which they are infamous, made him quit his design and return home with loss. Ever since they have continued their bold Depredations and Piracies at Sea, countenanced by the Grand Seigniour, who receives therefore, or his Bashaws for him, good part of the spoil. Some kind of Traffique they use here, but among such Thievish Com­panions it can scarce be call'd so, though there are good Merchandises of the growth and Ma­nufacture of the Countrey. So that it may pro­perly be said of this place what we have in an English Proverb, Here is more Cry then Wooll, more Complaint then Commerce; the Captivi­ty and Slavery of People, and the Rapine of their Ships and Goods, being the common La­mentation of all Christendom. Our late Ge­neral Blake terrified them into a better Com­portment with the English, by his noble and brave exploit upon Porto Ferino, where he burnt their Ships, and battered down their Stone Castles upon their Heads; but no longer pipe with the Musick of the Cannon, no longer would they dance to any agreement, though they wil­lingly [Page 98] subscribed then to those Termes. Since the putting of Tangier into English Hands, and the attempt made upon Algier, the very Den and Nest of these Thieves, by the Earl-of Sandwich, they have again bethought themselves of the terrour and danger of the English Power, and are agreed to new Terms. This Tangier is a notable Fort in the mouth of the Straits, and may serve as a Bri­dle to their Piracies. There hath lately an Army presented it self before it, under one Guyland, and some Skirmishes have happened betwixt the Garri­son and them, but another Army coming against him, he being but a Rebel to his Prince Cidi Ali Benbucar, he drew off, and is Marched to oppose him; but what the Event will be, will neither advance nor prejudice the English Interest; though the King, now rebelled against, seemes to Court our Friendship.

Egypt hath Idumea on the east, and the Bay of Arabia; on the west Barbary, Numidia, and part of Lybia, on the north the Mediterranean Sea, on the south Ethiopia superior, or the Abas­sin Empire. It containeth in length five hun­dred sixty two Italian miles, and in breadth one hundred sixty; situated under the second and fifth Climates, so that their longest day in Sum­mer is not above Thirteen Houres and a half. The air is very hot and offensive; the soil is fruitful, by the overflowing of Nilus; it hath rich Pastures, wherein they feed great store of Camels, Horses, Asses, Oxen, greater of growth [Page 99] then usually in most places else: and by reason of the morishness of the Country, they have also great store of Fouls: it is furnished with great plenty of mettals, some precious stones, good wines, and fruits, as lemmons, oranges, pomgra­nets, citrons, figs, cherries, and such as these, excellent both for taste and colour: here grow the Palm-trees, which alwayes grow in couples, the male and female: both thrust forth cods full of seed, but the female alwayes fruitful; and that not except growing by the male, and having his seed mixed with hers: the pith of these trees is an excellent Sallade, better then an hartichoke, which in taste it doth much resemble; of the branches they make Bedsteds, Lattices, &c. of the leaves, baskets, mats, fans, &c. of the outward husk of the cod, cordage; of the inner, brushes: the fruit it bears, is best known by the name of Dates, which are in taste like figs: and finally it is said to yield whatsoever is necessary to the life of man: it is the nature of this tree, though never so ponderous a weight wereput upon it, never to yield to the burden, but still to resist the heavi­ness of it, and to endeavour to lift and raise it self the more upwards; a fit emblem of the re­surrection. The people are not black, but tawny or olive-coloured; they weep and mourn over the bodies of their dead, daubed over with dung: they hold it a great impiety to burn or bury them, but having embalmed them they lay them in some inner room: the men keep at home for [Page 100] the houshold business, the Women follow merchandise and affairs abroad; the men carry burdens upon their heads, and the women upon their shoulders: a witty and ingenious people, the first Inventers of Geometry, Arithmetick, Physick, Astronomy, Necromancy, and Sorcery, yea, they found out the very use of Letters. The Christians among them differ from all other Christians; first, using circumcision with baptism. Secondly, conferring all orders under priesthood on infants immediately after baptism; their pa­rents till they come to sixteen years of age, per­forming what they promised in their behalf, to wit, chastity, fasting on Wednesday and Friday, and the four Lents of the year. Thirdly, reputing baptism not to be of any efficacy except mini­stred by a Priest in the open Church, in what ex­tremity soever. Fourthly, and yet not baptising any children till the fortieth day, though they die in the mean time. Fifthly, giving the Lords Supper to Infants as soon as Christned. Sixthly, contracting marriages in the second degree with­out dispensation. Seventhly, not observing the Lords day, nor any Festivals, except in cities. Eighthly, reading the Gospel writ by Nicodemus. They differ from the Papists in these things: first, administring the Lords Supper in both kinds: secondly, with leavened bread: thirdly, admit­ting neither extreme unction nor the Lords Sup­per to those that are sick: fourthly, nor Purga­tory nor prayer for the dead: fifthly, nor using [Page 101] elevation in the act of administring: and sixthly, accounting the Roman Church for heretical, and esteeming the Latines no better then the Jews.

This Kingdom of Aegypt, was a long while possessed by the Mamalukes a kind of Stratocra­cy or Army-power, such as we had lately in Eng­land by Red-coats and Protector; the Sultan was always elected by the souldiery, who chose always one out of themselves; the last of that Dignity was Tomombejus, who being defeated by Sultan Selymus some 260 years ago, was taken in Grand Cayro, whither he fled out of the field, and had made a brave defence by bar­ricading the streets, for three days; He conti­nued not long in a condition of Captivity, for he was hanged at his Prison Door, and exposed to the view of the Egyptians, as a spectacle of the Vanity of humane greatness. By this Sely­mus this Kingdom was reduced into a province, where one of the principal Bashawes keeps Court, in great state: His Government being the richest in all the Turkish Dominions, from whence yearly many ships lading of wealth is brought to Constantinople, which is alwayes way­laid by some Gallies of Malta or Florence, but of late years with little success, they come so strongly guarded; and if they fear any dan­ger, have all the Coast of Cyprus, Rhodes, and the Continent to Friend. The Bashawes are sent thither as Spunges, for when they have sucked an [Page 102] incredible treasure by pilling, fraud, and rapine; they are sent for home and are squeezed to their skins, which sometimes they are forced to part with to boot.

There hath been no change but of the Gover­nours ever since the Conquest of this Kingdom, which is usual with other Bashawes, as namely those of Aleppo, who do often rebel and threat­en the Grand Seigniour, so that at present the E­gyptians continue in the same obedience and dumb slavery to which they have been so long accusto­med, changing in this Turkish Tyranny, the names, not the nature thereof, from that they suf­fered under the Mamalukes.

Mount Atlas is a ridge of hills, of exceeding height, and of no small length: it is above the clouds, and is always covered with snow in the midst of summer, full of thick woods; and against Africa so fruitful, that it affords ex­cellent fruits of its natural growth, not plan­ted, grafted, or inoculated with the hand of man.

Lybia hath mount Atlas on the north, by which it is parted from Barbary and Asrenaca, on the east with Lybia, Marmarica interposed be­twixt it and Egypt, and part of Ethiopia superior, or the Abassine Empire, on the south with Ethio­pia inferior, and the land of Negroes, and on the west with the main Atlantick Ocean; the coun­trey abounds with dates, the chief diet of the people, which commonly rotteth out their teeth: [Page 103] their Goats they feed with the stones, wherewith they grow fat, and yield store of Milk; the Air is so sound, that it cureth the French Pox without any Physick; the Inhabitants are base and vile People, Thieves, Murderers, Treacherous, and ig­norant of all things, feeding most on Dates, Bar­ley, and Carrion, counting Bread a diet for Ho­lidayes; their Garments of the coarsest Cloth, so short, that they cover not half the body; the richer sort wear a Jacket of blew Cotton with great Sleeves, they ride upon Camels without Stirrup or Saddle: a Leather thrust through an hole made in the nose of the Camel, serves them for a Bridle, and to save Spurs, they use a Goade; their Religion is Mahometisme.

The land of Negro's is bounded on the east with Ethiopia superior, on the west with the At­lantick Ocean, on the north with Lybia Deserta, and the south with the Ethiopick Ocean, and part of Ethiopia inferior: the Country very hot by reason of the situation under the Torrid Zone, yet very well inhabited, full of People, and in some places alwayes grassy; well watered, special­ly where the River N [...]ger overfloweth; well sto­red with Corn, Cattel, and Garden ware, well wooded, having store of Beasts wilde and tame; they want fruit Trees; they have both Gold and Silver Mines very pure; the Inhabitants are of little wit, and destitute of all Arts and Sciences, prone to Luxury, and for the most part Mahome­ans.

[Page 104] Ethiopia superior is bounded on the east with the Red Sea, and the Sinus Barbaricus, on the west with Lybia inferiour; the Realm of Nubia in the Land of Negroes, and part of the King­dome of Congo in the other Ethiopia, and on the north with Egypt, and Lybia Marmarica, and on the south on the Mountains of the Moon: it is in length a thousand five hundred miles; in breadth half as much. The religion of the people is, they use to circumcise their children both males and females. Secondly they baptise the males at forty, and the Females eighty dayes af­ter Circumcision. Thirdly, after the Lords Supper they are not to spit till the Sun-set. Fourthly, they professe but one nature and one will in Christ. Fifthly, they accept only the three first generall Councils. Sixthly, their Priests live by the labour of their own hands, for they allow them nothing, nor permit them to beg. Seventhly, they baptize themselves eve­ry Epiphany in lakes and ponds, because that day they suppose Christ to have been baptized of Iohn in Iordan. Eightly, they eat not of those beasts which in the old Law are reckoned for unclean. Ninthly, and they keep the Jews Sabbath equally solemn with the Lords day Tenthly, they minister the Lords Supper to Infants pre­sently after baptisme. Eleventhly, they teach the reasonable soul of man is derived from the parents by seminal propagation. Twelfthly, that In­sants dying unbaptized, are sanctified in the [Page 105] womb by vertue of the Lords Supper received by the mother after her conception. And final­ly they shew a Book of eight volumes, writ as they say, by the Apostles assembled at Ierusalem for that purpose; the contents thereof they ob­serve most solemnly, and they differ from the Papists as the Christians in Egypt: they are un­der the Government of Prester Iohn and the Turk.

I pass by Ethiopia inferior, the people being Pagans where we may observe the distinguishing goodness and grace of God, who by people under the same climate and Region is known and unknown; a peculiar Kingdom, surrounded e­very where with Pagans and Mahometans, wor­shipping the living God, and believing in Christ though erring in many circumstantials of Or­thodox Doctrine, imputable chiefly to remedi­lesse Tradition. This is the Abassine Empire, from whence the Eunuch (that was converted by St. Philip) the Treasurer to Queen Candace came, and which is now the Realm and Dominions of Prester Iohn, a Prince of large Territory, but of scant and narrow fame for any atchievment, and may be supposed more beholding to credulous reports for his Greatness than any real existence thereof. However he serves with others to fill up that great Desart, and truly Terra Incognita of the world (the curiosity of travel being no way competent to the danger among such inhospitable and savage people) as that quarter does the Map [Page 106] to idle or no purpose, and therefore it shall take up no further room for the Description of it, we will only touch a little upon the Southern Coast, where we are concerned in matter of Trade.

Guinea stretching all along the South-west Shore of the Atlantick Sea, is bounded on the North and East with Lybia, famous for Mines of Gold hidden in the Bowells of some of its in­land Mountains, for which it is very much traffiqued by all the European Nations, even the Swedes, Danes, and Dantzickers, though lockt up by a dangerous Sea at home: such is the sacred thirst of that Mettal, that through all hazzards and difficulties it is attempted. The Hollander, to secure his footing there, and to make a pro­priety, hath built several Forts, and established a Guinea-Company in imitation of the English, who justly claim the right possession, being the first discoverers, and that made Essay of the place, and are still better liked and entertained by the Natives then the Dutch are. Since His Maje­sties Restitution they have quitted and delivered several Forts built upon the passage into the Countrey to the English Fleet, sent thither to set­tle the Trade and former Factory according to its former Regulation.

Here may not be omitted that little spot of earth lying in the Mediterranean Sea, the Isle of [Page 107] Malta, which by Geographers is reckoned as part of Africa, for no greater reason I suppose then St. Pauls character of the Inhabitants upon his Shipwrack there in his Voyage to Rome, where he calleth them Barbarians, a term appropriate to the adjacent Continent; for, this Island is scituated South from Sicily, from whence it is not half so far disjoyned as from the Coast of Afri­ca; and is the Diamond to that large circum­ference. It is very notable for the famous repulse and defeat of the Turkish Armado about 1490. being besieged by Sea by Mustapha B [...]ssa, when Mounsieur de Valette a Frenchman, was grand Ma­ster, in honour of whom and their deliverance, they have built and called their chief City Valette. The Knights that are called of this place, were formerly of Rhodes (which Solyman the Great, conquered) and from thence setled here. To this Order, none but Gentlemen of three Descents are admitted, and must be Pa­pists. The whole Order consisted of Seven Colledges, French, Spaniards, Germans, Italians, English, Portugals, and S [...]voyrards; but since the Reformation in England, we have had none of the Order, which mindes me of a Speech of Queen Elizabeth concerning for­reign Honours conferred on some of her subjects; That she would have her Sheep to be known by her own Brand. It continues at present in Statu quo, a great vexation and terrour to the Turkish Navigation, with whom they are to [Page 108] be at perpetual Enmity by their vow of Knight­hood.

And thus much may suffice to be spoken of Africa, we will next Enumerate the perticular Cities and Rivers.

The chiefest Cities of Africa, with the names of the Rivers, which are there most famous.

IN Barbary which containeth the Kingdoms of Fez, Morocco, Tremiser, Algeir, Tunis, Tri­poli, and Barca, there are the famous Cities Mo­rocco, Fez, Tangier, Telensin, Oran, Algeir, Con­stantine, Tunis, Tripoli, and Barca.

The Rivers there most famous are the Tensife, the Ommiraby, and the River of Cebus, Mulvia, Rio Major, and the Magrida.

In Belledulgered, which containeth the King­doms of Suz, Daza, Sagelmosse, Tegorarin, Bi­ledulgerid, and the Desart of Barca: there are these famous Cities, Taradante, Dara, Segelmoss, Tegorarin, Zeb, Billedulgerid: the chiefest Rivers are the River of Sur, the River of Darba, and the Ghir.

In Egypt are the famous Cities of Sabod, Cai­ro, Alexandria, Rascha, or Rosesta, Damiett [...], Co­sir, [Page 110] and Surs: the renowned River is the River of Nilus.

In the desert of Zaara are these memorable ci­ties, Zauhaga, Zuenzera, Targa, Lemta, Berdoa, Gao­ga and Borno.

In the Country of the Negroes, are these re­markable Cities, Gue, Eata, Gueneha, Tombu, Agados, Cano, Cassena, Gangara, Tula, Catan, or Senega, Guinala, Beria, Melli, Songo, Gago, Wuber, Zegzog, and Sanfara: the rivers here that are most famous, are, Sernoga, Gambaea, and Rio De­grand.

In Gniomy are these famous Towns, Serze-Li­onne, or Cachieu, Saint George De la Mine, and Benin.

In Nubia are these remarkable Cities, Gor­ham, Cusam, Nubia, Dancala, Iulac, Bugiha, Can­fila, and Dafila.

In the upper Ethiopia, which containeth the Kingdomes of Barnegus, Tigremahon, Amara, Da­mont, Cafatos, Innari, Gogame, Baga, Medri, Meroe, Ximenchi, and Dambaea: There are these famous Cities, Barone, Caxumo, Amara, Damont, Gefates, Narre, Goyame, and Adeghena: the Rivers which are here most memorable, are, the Rivers of Zaire, and Quilmanci.

In that part which is called Zanguebar, are these remarkable Cities, Dambea, Mosambique [...], Quiloa, Monbaze, Melinda. On the side of Ai­an, are, Brav [...], Magadaxo, Adea, Adel. On the side of Abex, Erocco, or Arquico, Su [...]quem, Biafra.

[Page 111] In the lower Ethiopia, which comprehendeth Congo, Caffrare, and Monomotepa, are the famous Cities of Banza Loanga, S. Salvador, Cabazze, or Dongo, Safula, Simbaos, or Messapa, and Bu­tua, and Tang, or Tete: the Rivers are Cuana, Spiritu Sancto, and the River Dos infantes.

In Africa are divers other Islands besides Malta: In the Western Ocean, the Canaries, the Cape Verd, and the Isle of Saint Thomas: the chiefest in the Canaries is called Saint Iago; and in Saint Thomas, Panoasan.

In the Eastern Ocean there is the Isle of Ma­dagascar, or Saint Laurence; and the Isle of Zoco­tora, which hath a City after her own name.


THE Vain and Ambitious lamentation of Great Alexander, had he extended his Life to the same prodigious length as he did his vi­ctorious Arms, might have found new Worlds to conquer, when he might have past from his Conquest of the Sea of the East, to the Shore of the West-Indies. It hath been observed by those that have curiously calculated the rise, growth, and perfection of Arts and Learning, that they have alwayes followed the fortune of Arms and Empire, which having traversed the East, and verged Westward to Grecia setled in the Roman Greatnesse among the rest of those Arts, Astro­nomy, and Geometry, and the product of those Navigations, have been by the Europeans highly improved, who scorning the pusillanimity of for­mer Ages, that crept in their Vessels by the Shore, have adventured into the dangerous Main, and by skilfull presumption have disco­vered new Lands, and so far advanced the know­ledge of them by frequent Voyages, that it is concluded, so far as Sea and Land is passable there can be no other Countries undiscoverable. Since which fortunate adventures, the course of the World and Governments have been altered, for Empire hath followed Arts, to wit, the dis­covery of those Treasures and Mines which in­nocent [Page 113] Nature had so long obscured, and hidden from these parts of the World; For, the King of Spain being possest of these Mines, as we shall see presently, a wonder it is how formidable he grew, and to what greatness he arose, even to the aspi­ring ambition of an Universal Monarchy; dis­daining to be numbered the Fifth (the other Four being indeed but partly so) whereas this aimed to be one and all: and Thomas de Campa­nella, a Learned Iesuit, hath written a very elabo­rate Tract, shewing the means and feisible wayes thereunto.

The first Discoverer of this Fourth part of the World, was Christopher Columbus, a Genoese; who, having studied Geometry, and been bred at Sea, had more then strong imaginations, that there were great and vast Regions to the West­ward of Europe; and thereupon communicated the Project to several Merchants: who, unwil­ling, or unable to hazard so much Money as was requisite to such an undertaking, advised him to address himself to some Prince, whose Domi­nions were accommodated to the Design, if it did succeed; by whom he might be set forth up­on the Voyage: which he so importunately pro­secuted, as it is natural with all Men, who fancy to themselves a single and sure way to Honour and Profit. VVhereupon he addressed himself first to our King Henry the Seventh, and laid open to him and his Council the fair possibilities of the Design, and the advantages which would [Page 114] thence accrue to this Crown, being so conveni­ently scituated for that Navigation: King Henry heard him, but gave little credit to his Discour­ses, affecting a secure Exchequer, which he had unknown wayes (before) to fill, beyond the un­certain hopes of unknown Mines, which, like the Philosophers Stone might have no other ex­istence than in projection. He then made offer of this his service to Ferdinand King of Arragon and Castile, a wise and prudent Prince; who publickly weighing the small charge against the exceeding Honour and Gain, consented to His desires, and furnished him with fifteen Ships, Men, and Victuals for the Vovage, giving him Commission and Authority in his name, to pur­sue the adventure.

Our Chronicles indeed report, that after this fruitless proffer, which was in the year, 1488. King Henry gavea Commission to one Iohn Can­b [...]t, and his three Sons, Sebastian, Lewis, and Santius; Iohn and Sebastian setting Sail, ranged a great part of this unknown Land in one thousand four hundred ninety and seven, which Columbus had only touched in 1492, and it was 1498 ere he saw the continent. Americus Vesputius came long after, though the whole Continent, at this day is called America after his own name. This Sebasti­an discovered more than them all, and was there­fore Knighted by K. Henry the Eighth, who made him grand Pilot of England, with a pension of 166 l. 13 s. 6 d. yearly, but the Spanish Sei­zure [Page 115] and Landing prepossessing the Countrey, we got nothing there, more then our pains for our labour till a great while after.

For it was almost 100 years after, before we set footing in any part thereof. The first that pro­moted it was Sir Walter Rawleigh in 1584. who with Letters Patents, assisted by Sir Richard Greenvile, great Unckle to the now Earl of Bath, and other Gentlemen, set out two ships from the Thames, who in less then three Moneths time, by an undue course to the Southward, passing the Canaries, fell in with the Coast of Florida, and entring there into Harbour (after they had sailed an hundred and twenty miles in sight of land) they took possession of it for the Queens Maje­sty, which from the tops of the Hills behol­ding the Sea on both sides, they reputed to be an Island, which they named Florida, by reason of its flowery green soyl, and flourishing herbage. The Continent was then called by the Salvages, Wegan [...]aca; but afterwards upon the return of the Fleet, Her Majesty was plea­sed to honour it with her own unmarried State, and to call it Virginia, the first Governour there­of being Mr. Ralph Lane. Hither, during the aboad of the English that were left, while the Ships returned, came Sir Francis Drake, and seeing the men in distress, lent the Governour and them a ship to carry them home. The next were those in 1485 that came with Sir Richard Greenvile from Plimonth with seven sail, who [Page 116] in a Months time came to St. Domingo in Hispa­niola; and within a fortnight after, anchored at Florida; and in 1586. Sir Richard Greenvile came again, but the Colony he had left were all killed: so he returned, and sent Mr. White, who made a successeful Voyage, and was Governour there; who, returning into England, and leaving another Colony, they were all destroyed at his coming again: which so dis-heartned all further under­takings, that it was twelve years before another Voyage was begun, under Captain Gosnol, in the year 1602. who, passing by the Azores, made the Voyage shorter by 500. Leagues, which was also seconded by two Barks from Bristoll 1603. and another from London 1605. But still no conveni­ent Harbour for Ships, nor Security for the Men that should stay there was yet found, till the Arri­val of Capt. Smith in 1606.

Virginia is seated between the degrees of 34. and 45. North Latitude; the Bounds thereof on the East-side are the great Ocean; on the South lieth Florida; on the North Nova Francia: as for the VVest thereof the limits are unknown. The English Plantations, as they were in that year 1606. were under the degrees of 35, 38. and 39. the temperature thereof agreeing very well with the English Constitution. The Summer is as hot as in Spain: the Winter as cold as in France, or in England. The Heat of Summer is in Iune, Iu [...]y, and August; but the constant breezes at that time of the year, do much allay its vehemency. [Page 117] The extreme cold of the Winter is, half Decem­ber, Ianuary, February, and half March. The Winds are variable, but no such Thunder or Lightning as in Europe: all the varieties of needful Fruits which we have here, may, by the industry of men, be in great plenty there.

There is but one entrance by Sea into this Country, and that is at the Mouth of a very goodly Bay, eighteen or twenty miles broad: The South Cape is called Cape Henry: and the North, Cape Charles, in honour of those two Princes. The Land may have the prerogative over most places known, for large and pleasant Navigable Rivers, Mountains, Hills, Val­leys, and Champion Fields. In the Bay which lieth North and South, are many Isles, both great and small: the water floweth herein neer 200. miles, and hath a Channel for 140. miles, of betwixt 6, and 15 Fathom deep, being in breadth some 10 or 14 miles. The Mountains are of divers natures: for, at the Head of the Bay, the Rocks are of a Composition, like Mill­stones, some of Marble, &c. the Colour of the Earth did in some places resemble Bole Arme­niac, Tirra Sigillata, Fullers Earth: but gene­rally it is a black Sandy Mould: In some pla­ces again fat slimy Clay, in others a very barren Gravel: The whole Country is neither Mountainous nor yet low, but bestowed into pleasant Hills, and fertile Valleys, one prettily crossing another, and watered conveniently with [Page 118] fresh Brooks and Streams, no less commodions then delightful. There is little Grass, for all the Country is over-grown with Trees, whose continual Droppings causeth their Grass to turn to Weeds, by reason of the ranckness of the Ground, which is now well amended by the Plantations. The Wood is commonly Oake, and Walnut; many of their Oakes so tall and streight that they will bear two foot and an half square of good Timber for twenty yards long: there is also some Ash and Elm, Mulberries, Chesnuts which taste like Damsons; and Vines, but they are wild and bear few Grapes. There are also Gums, Ce­dars, Saxafras-Trees, Berries, Herbs and Roots, Pellitory and Oranges.

For Beasts, there are Deer, Squirrells, Bea­ver, Otters, Foxes, Dogs, Martins, Pole-cats, and Weasels. For Birds, there are all sorts of Hawks, Partridges, Turkeys, Blackbirds, Thru­shes, and divers of our small Birds. In Winter there are great plenty of Swans, Geese, and such Wilde Foul; as also Parrots and Pigeons. For Fish, there is Sturgeon, Grampus, Porcupisce, Seal, Mullets, white Salmons, Trouts, Soales, Plaise, Herrings, Pearch, Crabs, Stromps, Eeles, Lampreys, Oysters, Cockles and Mus­cles.

The Inhabitants differ much in stature, but generally they are tall and streight, they are of colour Brown; or enclining to an Olive when at Age, but are born white. They are incon­stant [Page 119] in every thing but what fear constraineth them to keep, Crafty, Timorous, quick of apprehension, and very ingenious. They are soon moved to anger; and so malicious, that they seldome forget an Injury. Their Buildings and Habitations are for the most part by Rivers, or not far distant from some fresh Spring; their Houses are built like our Arbours of small young Twigs, bowed and tyed; and so close-covered with Mats, or the Barks of Trees, very handsom­ly, that notwithstanding either Wind, Rain, or Weather, they are as warm as Stoves, but very smoky, yet at the top of the House they have a Hole to let it out. The Men use Fishing, Hunting, and other Manly Exercises; while the Women sow and reap, and carry burdens, and do all the Drudgery.

Their Chief God they serve is the Devil, whom they call Okee, more out of fear then love. In their Temples, which are Houses 60. foot high, built Arbour-wise, are placed the Images of their Devils and Kings, and their Tombes. They have a Chief, and Inferiour Priests, but keep no Day more Holy then another. They use also di­vers Conjurations, and have Altars, but they stand from their Temples. In some parts of their Country they have yearly a Sacrifice of Children: Upon some conference with them concerning their Religion, although they could not be per­swaded to forsake their False Gods, yet they did believe, that our God as much exceeded theirs, [Page 120] as our Guns did their Bows and Arrows.

Many encounters the English had with these Natives, who, by treacheries and open assaults endeavoured to disturb their possession: but they were so frighted with the noise, and so terrified with the Execution of the Guns, that they were kept in some awe, while Iames Town was finished which by the constant supplies sent yearly by the Council for Virginia, was at last well built and fortified and pallisadoed, and the Salvages awed into a good Comportment, untill the comming of the Lord de La Ware, just as through want the English were resolved to qui [...]t the Country: a little before which time, as they had taken the same resolution, Sir Thomas Gates, and Sir George Sommers prevented them by arriving from the Bermudas, where they had been in great danger by a leaking Ship.

His Lordship arrived the 9. of Iune. 1610. accompanied with Ferdinando Waynman, Cap­tain Houlcroft, Captain Lawson, and divers o­thers in three ships well appointed with a years provision, who built Fort Charles, and Fort Henry, that were afore but bare Capes; and soon after good store of Kine and Swine were sent by Sir Thomas Dale, who was Governour after my Lord De la Ware was returned, who built a Town called Henrico, and portioned out the adjacent Country into Hundreds: as also he built another Town, and called it the New Bermoudas, about fifty miles from Iames Town, and the [Page 121] English Collony fell to planting their Corn, about April every year; every man having been allotted three Acres of Ground, in the nature of Farms (the first Farmer there being one William Spence) who were to supply their stores for it, with a small quantity of Corn yearly, by which means it was wonderfull to see how in so short a time this Colony was thriven in its repu­tation.

But it advanced faster soon after, by the means of the standing Lottery and a perfect peace, made with Powhatan the King of the Country; whose Daughter, being surprised, one Mr. Rolfe had married. She proved a very good Christian and Vertuous Woman being Christened Rebecca. They begun also now to plant Tobacco, every year changing their Governour, and had a dis­pute with the French in their new plantations. A Convention also in the nature of a Parliament was called, and several gifts to charitable uses for bringing up the Indian Children, transmitted to the Governour and Council, so that they were by the year 1620 in a very flourishing condition, that year arriving no less than eleven ships, and 1216 persons, which were thus to be disposed, 80. for Tennants to the Governors Lands, be­sider 50. sent the former Spring for the Compa­nies Land, and 150. for the Colledge, 100. for the Glebe-land, 90. young Women to make Wives, 50. Servants for publique Service, and 50. more, whose Labours were to bring up 30. of the [Page 122] Infidels Children, the rest were sent to private Plantations. The year before the Lord De la Ware had mainly promoted this good and great Work, passing over thither, though he had hard­ly escaped before, dyed, to the great grief and discouragement of the Plantation; most of the Nobility entred now also into the undertaking, and were Treasurers for it to the further promo­ting of these good beginnings, by whose Dire­ctions order was taken for suppressing the Plant­ing of Tobacco, Planting of Corn: but all to little effect, the stream of the Inclination of the Planters, or good nature of the Soyl to cherish that Plant, preferring it before all Grain what­soever, to the incredible profit of that Colony, as it afterwards proved. Now also there was much suit for Patents for Plantations; and several Per­sons transported themselves upon their own Ac­compts, bu, twe shall see, met with a miserable en­tertainment.

For, on the 22 of March 1622. these perfi­dious Infidels, though they had promised to hold the League inviolable, till the Sky should fall, as they termed it, resolved upon a General Mas­sacre; which, by reason of the English separating themselves, for the better Soyl, and commodi­ousness of Ground, no way in the least distru­sting these Miscreants (whom, in hope of their Conversion, they had used with all Familiarity and Civility imaginable, and therefore every way unprovided of defence, their Guns never used [Page 123] but against Deer or Wild-foul) they had very near effected, if it had not been discovered by one of their own Nation that turned Christian. There were murthered in this attempt 347 Men, Women, and Children, all with their own wea­pons, they comming upon them in the disguise of the same familiarity, but hurting none that op­posed them. By the discovery of the Indian afore­said, eleven parts of Twelve of the English escaped, for it being revealed at Iames Town, most of the Plantations dispersed thereabours among the Indi­ans (who commonly keep not above a 100 or 200 in a division of ground) took the Alarm and stood upon their Guard, which the Indians per­ceiving fled, but the plantations far distant to a 140 miles, were most destroyed, which after­wards for more security, were reduced to five or six; and these inhumane Barbarians so severely dealt withal, that in a short time the Country was wholly subjected to the English, and became very well peopled and of great Trade, and continued so, proving a receptacle and good retreat for ma­ny families in our late confusions, and now yiel­deth great emoluments to the Inhabitants and Planters; and so we will leave it, and take a short view of the Bermuda's Islands.

The Islands of Bermuda's.

THese Islands lye in the main Ocean, and 200 Leagues from any Continent, scituat­ed in 32 degrees, and 25 Minutes of Norther­ly Latitude, and distant from England, West, South-west, about 3300 miles, some twenty miles in length, and not past two miles and a half in breadth, environed with Rocks, which make it naturally very strong, but infamous for Shipwrack; there being but two pla­ces, and those not very wel known, The Earth. where Shipping may safely come in, and those now are exceedingly well fortified, but within is room to entertain a Fleet Royal, The Island is very uneven, distributed into Hills and Dales; the Mold is of divers colours neither clay nor sand, but a mean between both: un­der the Mold two or three foot deep, and some­time less, is a kind of white hard substance which they call the Rock, but Trees will fasten root in it, being pumice like and spungy.

The Air is most commonly clear, and very temperate, and moist with The Air. a moderate heat, very apt to nourish all things, so as many things transported hence, yield a far better increase; and if it be a living creature it becomes far better and fatter: by this means the Country is replenished with Hens and Turkeys; yet being, through their multitude [Page 125] not to be attended, they turn wild and forsake the Houses. There seems to be a perpetual Spring, which is the cause some things come not to that maturity and perfection which is requisite, and though the Trees shed their leaves, yet are they alwayes full of Green. The Co [...]n is the same they have in Virginia, and the West-Indies, of which, without plowing or much labour they have two harvests every year, in Iuly and De­cember (it hath no Grapes in perfection) and the Oranges and Lemmons grow twice a year likewise.

The Sun every day in the year shines upon it, for the temperature is beyond all others the most admirable, no cold greater than we feel here in April, nor heat much greater than an ordinary May. Frost and Snow is never seen here, and stinking and infections Mists very seldom by reason of the Main Ocean: the Winter they have keeps time with ours, but the longest dayes and nights are shorter than ours by two hours.

At its first Discovery 'twas all o­vergrown with Weeds and Plants The Fruits. of several kinds, many tall and goodly Cedars, infinite store of Palmito's and Mulberries, and Wild Olive Trees, with di­vers others unknown both by Name and Nature, there is also diversity of curious strange fowl, as also for Game and Diet, and likewise of Fish; the Sea as well as the rest of the Elemeets being abundantly liberal.

[Page 126] It is uncertain how it came by this name of Bermuda's, but that which is most noised for it, is the casting away of a Spanish ship called by that name, carrying black Hogs to the West Indies, who swam ashore and were found there in great numbers, so that it was called the Isle of Devils, and shunned as the rock of Perdition. One Henry May an English man, being cast away in a French Vessel by the presumption of the Pilots, who said they were twelve Leagues beyond it, with some Frenchmen, got ashore, and making a new Bark there, got to England in the year 1594. The next ship that was cast away, (or indeed rather to be said saved) was that of Sir George Summers, designed in 1609 for Virginia, which by a Hurricane being covered with water, and so leaking, that after three days the men gave over working, com­mitting themselves to Gods mercy, unexpected­ly, as Sir George was sitting at the Steerage, gui­ding the ship to keep her upright, came within sight of Land, to which they made, and ran her so even between two Rocks that she poised her self, where he unladed the goods, the storm ceasing, and came on shore, where finding such unhoped for plenteous refreshments, (though he went to Virginia in a Cedar-ship, in which he returned thither again and there died) two of his men which staid afterwards behind two years, and one he left, when he was carried home dead, when as they were contriving their departure and [Page 127] committing themselves to the Sea in a little Bark, a Ship appeared and stayed their resolutions.

During their abode here, they found in one en­tire Lump among the crevises of the Rocks a piece of Ambergreece, the greatest yet found, weighing 80 l. with other small crumbles,

This with much adoe was secured for the Com­pany of these Sumer-Islands, who to the number of one hundred and twenty, had purchased a Patent for the said Isle, whom the News of the Amber­greece much augmented. The first Governour was Mr. More, he departing, there was a monthly succession of six, till one should come from Eng­land, which was Captain Daniel Tucker: in the mean time the Fortifications were finished and the Isle secured from any attempt of the Span­iard, in whose time happened that memorable Voyage of five Persons, Viz. Richard Sanders, William Godwin a Ship-Carpenter, Thomas Har­rison a Joyner, Iames Barker a Gentleman, and Henry Puet; who making a Boat under pre­tence for Fishing, being hardly used and not suffered to depart in the Ships, by the assistance of a Compass, unknown to any person till they were gone, set to Sea having provided themselves of Victuals, and by a direct Course, the wind favouring them, in five weeks time (though a Pyrat to whom they sailed hoping to be taken in, took away from them their Compass and other necessary implements) arrived in Ireland, where the Earl of Thomond honourably received [Page 128] them, and hung up their Vessel for a Monu­ment.

It is now divided into eight Tribes, each Tribe having in it 50. Shares, of which there are some for their publike charge. The names of the Tribes are

  • Sandys
  • Southampton
  • Warwick
  • Paget
  • Pembroke
  • Cavendish
  • Smith
  • Hamilton, formerly Bedford.

And thus much for Bermuda's.

The Swedes Plantation.

The Swedes are seated between the Dutch and Virginia in a Village by a Fort, which lyeth eight miles within the River of Delaware in Virginia: on the northside of the River, they are few in num­ber, and their principle business is, their Com­merce with the Indians, for they have little or no Cattle: they furnish the Indians with Guns and weapons, as the Dutch do; and once in a year are supplyed by a ship or two from Swethland, that fetch away their Merchandise.


This Province is divided from Virginia by the great River Patomuck; it lyeth on the North side of the great River, and the west side of the [Page 129] great Virginia Bay, it is more wholesome then the parts of Virginia and seated better for the English grain. It is now better peopled than formerly, the Inhabitants being Papists and Pro­testants, a like countenanced, the propriety by Pa­tent is vested in the Lord Baltimore, a Catholick.


To the South-west of New-England, lyeth the Dutch Plantation: it hath good ground, and good air, but few of that Nation inhabiting there which maketh that there are few Plantations in the Land; they chiefly intending their East-In­dia Trade, and but one Village, whose Inha­tants are part English and part Dutch. Here hath been no news, or any matter of War or State since the first Settlement. There is the Port Orange, thirty miles up Hudsons River; they are mischievous neighbours to the English, for according to the European Mode, they sell Guns and Ammunition to the Common Enemy the Indians.


This Plantation was first undertaken in the year 1606. by Patent from King Iames, to se­veral Merchants of London, and the West-Coun­tries, with a special Inhibition not to plant with­in 100 miles of the former Colony of Virgi­nia, [Page 130] but never took effect till 1622 or therea­bouts, after many losses and discouragements of several adventures. At last Sir Francis Popham had the Happinesse and Fortune to establish it, though with much hazzard and difficulty by the Treachery of the Indians, and the unpropor­tionablenesse of the after-Supplies. The Planta­tion beginneth about 44. degrees and is indiffe­rently peopled with English as Southwardly at 41. At this day it hath three Divisions, the North, the middle, and the South. In the middle is Boston,. the best Seat and best inhabited; the South is the Government of New-Plimouth. Boston hath a Street neer half a mile long, full of Merchand [...]ze. Here is Resident, a Coun­cil, and a Governour, which is yearly chosen, and accommodated with a very good Port and Castle, furnished with Men and Ammunition. Near Boston lyeth Charles-Town; and five miles into the Countrey, is Cambridge an University of Nonconformists to the Church of England; This Country having alwayes been the Recepta­cle of such religious Male-contents.

The Land of all this Region is generally bar­ren and rocky, the Commodities are these ensu­ing, Pipe-staves, Clabboard, Fish, English Grain and Fruits, and Iron works; with these they drive a Trade to most parts of Eu­rope, especially to Spain, the Canaries, and Chariby Islands. They are at present very nu­merous, and deserve their Name, except their [Page 131] diversity in Religion, which hath made them dis­gustful to old England. Near adjoyning to this Colony, the French have a Plantation called Ca­nada or Nova Francia, not worth the mentioning save for some bickerings that have lately happen­ed betwixt us and them, concerning limits; where­in we have been successful, driving them out of some Forts they unjustly possessed.


This is the most Septentrional land of Ame­rica, but there is a straight of Sea not yet through­ly discovered, called Hudsons Straight, by which the North-west passage was concluded feasible, the Lands adjoyning being called Nova Brittannia or Nova Franmurcia. This Island stretcheth North and South from 46. degrees and a half to 50. and a half Latitude. The Natives of this place are few and Savage. The Commo­dity thereof is Fish, which is mostly Poor Iohn, traded for in great quantity by French, Biscayners, and English, chiefly of the West Country, who for the profit hereof, endure the Winter cold and Summer heat of the Climate, amidst other very great difficulties. This Island lyes at the mouth of the River Canada, distant from the continent at the north end near half a League and the South-west point is about a League from Cape Britton.


This is a small Island upon the Coast of New-England, the Governour thereof being appoin­ted by the Council of New-England. It is 20. miles long, and 10. miles broad, there is great plenty of Fish in this Coast. On the Southwest of this Island lieth Long-Island, in length 60. English miles, and in breadth 15, inhabited by some English, who, for their Sectary opinions have been put from New-England. They are claimed also by the Dutch, but depend of, nor pay duty to either. As also there are divers other Islands more particularly Cape Hatrash a part of Island in 36 degrees, from whence till you come to the point of St▪ Helena, which is in 32 degrees, all the Coast along are bro­ken Isles and uninhabited, the best whereof is Roantke of 18 miles compasse.

The Islands of Lucahos or Bahama.

These Islands are Southwest from the Bermu­da's, and to the North of Portorico, Hispani­ola, and Cuba; the most emment is Lucayneque in 27 degrees. There is likewise the Islands of Abacoa, and Yuma of 12. and 20. Leagues in 24. degrees, and a half. Yuemela is in 23. degrees and a half, 15. Leagues in Length, and North from Hispaniola lyeth Samana 7. Leagues each [Page 133] way. Between which two former lyeth Yalaque of 10 Leagues in 22 degrees and a half. There are also three small Islands that make a Tri­angle. The Islands of Magaquana, Quaqua, Ma­kre, and Alreo in 20 degrees, not now inha­ted, and never but once sailed to by the English; with losse too, although they go round them yearly.

St. Christophers, Mevis, and Montserat, and Antego.

This Island is of Ten Leagues in length, and seated by English and French, each having a Governour of their own Nation, so peopled by both, that Ground can hardly be obtained. The two Nations are so mixed in their planta­tions, that no secret design upon one another can long be kept so. They make some Sugar in this Island, some India, and Cotton Wool, but most Tobacco. Mevis is 5. Leagues in length, lying within a League of St. Christophers. Here is the best Sugar of the Chariby Islands, some Indico, but little Cotton or Tobacco: in 17 degrees lye Barbada and Redanda, in the hands of the Can­nibals. Montserat is inhabited most part by Irish, within 5 Leagues of the Redanda, plan­ted with Tobacco and some Indico. Antego lyeth between 14 and 15 degrees. It hath good Air, and is planted by the English with Tobac­co, Indico, Cotton-Wool, and Sugar. The [Page 134] other Chariby Ilands, are, Magelante, Domi­nica, Martinina, Santa Luca, Guarde-Lupa, Todos Santes, Deseada, inhabited by Caniballs, French, and Spaniards; and Barbadoes, or Bar­budoes.


This is a Lee-Iland, the Wind usually blow­ing one way. It lyeth in 13 degrees, 30 mi­nutes; inhabited all with English, and Negroes their Servants, to such a number, that it hath more people and Commerce than all the Ilands of the Indies. Their Principal Commodity is Sugar of the worst sort, Indico very good, Cotton, and little Tobacco. They buy and sell here, and scarce any where else in English Plan­tations, with pieces of 8. ready money. Here are store of Cattel, but Horses are the most wanting, by reason of their great Draught and Trade from place to place. It is the worst place either to live in or to make a Voyage or Return. For what is here is as well in the rest of the Ilands, and much more plenty: for here they have too many people, and in those there is too few, and Grain more then enough. Its strength in men makes that they have no fortification yet perfect, the reason that induced my Lord Wil­loughby of Parham sent thither Governour for the King in 1651, upon an attempt of Sir George Ayscoughs (sent thither by the Paliament to re­duce [Page 135] those Ilands to their subjection) who had then declared for the Royal Interest, and pro­claimed his present Majesty to land some force upon the Iland) to hearken to a Capitulation and agreement, and render it to him upon honourable Terms. This Plantation is now ready to be deser­ted, unless some expedient can be found for Wood or other Fuell to boyle their Sugar; divers having already transplanted themselves to Sury­nam


This Iland oweth its name to Columbus; who in his first discovery of this part of the World, landed here, and seized it for the use of the King of Spain, being sent out by him at the instance of his Wife Isabella, with 15. Ships, whose Dysasters it will be too tedious to relate. It will suffice to say, that for all his great Services he was at last imprisoned in these Countries, and sent home in Chains, from which he was by the fa­vour of the King released; and himself after­wards honoured with the Title of Duke de la Vega, a City in this Iland he himself had so na­med, which City is now in being.

After our unfortunate Defeat at Hispaniola in 1656. where a strange Consternation had seized upon the Spirits of the whole Army (none da­ring to shew their Faces to the Enemy, but Major General Hayns and three or four more with him, who honourably fell in Fight with that [Page 136] Negro, and Devil-like Molatto) for lack of Pro­visions, which would not have lasted the whole Army in their resailing to Windward to Barba­does, it was resolved the Fleet should steer for Iamaica, which was accordingly effected, and upon Landing, Proclamation made that it should be present death for any man to turn his back to the Enemy. They landed without opposition and while they were marching up the Country, the crafty Spaniard, the old pocky Governour, by a Treaty and Presents, so delayed the Mo­tion of the Army, that they conveyed away their incredible wealth and riches into the woods and other Coverts before it was possible to over­take them; He himself remaining as Hostage for the performance of some idle Articles. So the English were peaceably at present possest of the Country.

But not long after came a reinforcement from the Island of Cuba adjacent thereto, (Divers Spaniards and Molatto's, still keeping in the Woods and annoying the English) and fortified themselves at Rio Novo, where though they were strongly entrenched, and twice more in number, the Souldiers were so earnest to regain their lost Honour (being taunted to their hear­ing by the Enemy with St. Domingo, and under­valued for that Cowardwice) that they fell on with incredible Fury and Resolution, and forced their Trenches, and made them accept of very hard Conditions to depart with their Skins. The [Page 137] like they did to other Spaniards, who landed a­bout the same time near Poynt Pedro; so that there is little danger or expectation of another invasion; the Spaniard having such proof of our recovered valour; though the Island, if it were less fruitful, is worth the fighting for, though it should cost the Spaniard his best blood, for it lyeth within his bowels, and in the heart of his Trade. For all the Treasure that his Plate Fleet brings home from Cartagena, steers dire­ctly for St. Domingo in Hispaniola, and from thence must pass by one of the ends of this Island to recover the Havana, the common rendez­vouz of the whole Armado before it returns home through the Gulf of Florida; Nor is there any other way (whereby to misse the Island of Iamaica) because he cannot in any reasonable time turn up to the wind-ward of Hispaniola, the which though he might with difficulty per­form, yet he would thereby lose the security of his united strength, which at the Havana, from all parts of the Bay of Mexico, New Spain, and the riches from Nombre de Dios, and the South Seas, accompany each other home from the said Havana, and yet notwithstanding the private Eng­lish Men of War, snap up the Straglers, as they lie crusing upon the Coast of Iamaica, being fifty Leagues East and West, and North and South twenty.

It is seated between the Tropicks in seventeen and 18 degrees of Northern Latitude, and there­fore [Page 138] twice every year subjected to the perpendi­cular Beams of the Sun, but proving as happy to the Complexions and Constitutions of English men, as Virginia, New-England, Spain, or Portugal. The mortality that happened there at our first Landing, proceeding either from the griping Monopoly of some hoarding Officers, or through want of timely recruits, or through some fatal Conjunction of the superiour Luminaries. It is by good Experience found to be a temperate climate, for all 'tis scandalized with the Fiction of the Torrid Zone, the Heat in the day time be­ing alwayes allayed with the Sea-Breezes, which rise with the Sun, and the Nights are by an in­terchangeable and never-failing intercourse re­freshed with Land-Breezes.

Nor is the fertility lesse propitious than the temperature, producing in as great abundance, as any where in the Indies, Sugar-Canes, To­bacco, Cotton, Maez or Indian Corn, Pota­toes, Yaums, and Coco-Nuts; the Earth con­tinuing its Spring, and being green and florid, all the year long. Here are store of Hogs fatned by what drops from the Trees, whole Herds of Beeves, which, before they were frighted by our unskilful method of killing them by shot, fed by 1000 in the Savana's or large Champion fields, but now sculk in the Woods and Coverts, and appear not but by night. Here are also a number of wilde Horses, well shaped, and very serviceable, being all bred of Spa­nish [Page 139] Gennets, which may be bought for 3 l. ster­ling, and will yield 6000 l. of Sugar at Barba­does. There are likewise excellent plenty of choice Timber Trees, and Wood for the Dyers use, as Fustick, Brasiletta, and Ebony, and a kind of Logwood, China Roots, Gum, Gua­iacum, Lignum Vitae, Cassia, &c. There are also abundance of Cocoa Trees, which the Spaniard reckons one of his chiefest Incomes, which may be yearly improved.

There is one Rarity more, which is the Alliga­tor or Indian Crocodile, some of them 6 or 7 foot long: but they cannot hurt a man if he be aware of them, their motion being slow; and head and body must move together. There are no Mines found out yet, but they are not to be despaired of, in the prosecution of the Plan­tation

The English have built a new Town at Cagway point, of about 600. Houses, where at present the Governour resides, having quitted the City of S. Iago de la Vega, the Spaniards chief town, which is seated in a pleasant Savana. This City was some 30 years ago, plundred by General Iack­son, who came with 500 men from St. Christo­phers, and in spight of 2000 Spaniards, in a readinesse to receive him and 7 Barricadoes (such was the Mariners exceeding greediness of spoil) forced the Town and plundered it, and made the Spaniard give him a great sum to boot, to spare it from the fire: it had formerly 2000 houses, [Page 140] and 16 Churches and Chappels, and now but 600 Houses, the Skeleton of two Churches and an Ab­bey.

Point Cagway is very well fortified, and has Guns in it, as good as any the Tower had: there is also another Plantation of the English, in one Regiment at Port Morant, who have already made it considerable by planting several Commodities. After Venables left the Island, the Government was devolved to the eldest Collonel; and afterwards Cromwel sent Collonel Brain to command them, who died there: and then it was conferred on Col­lonel Doyley, who hath been happily active in promoting this Colony, and is yet Governour till the Arrival of the Lord Windsor, sent thither with a Patent from the King, and Grant of the whole Island, under whose care it is likely to flourish.

The King of Spain's Dominions in the West-Indies.

IT will be unnecessary and of no use, to insist much upon the Countries subject to the King of Spain in America, because we have no traffique in those parts; the King of Spain forbidding and keeping all men from thence, with as much di­ligent watchfulness, as the Dragon did the Gol­den or Hesperian Apples. With much difficul­ty he obtained his Mines, severall supplies be­ing lost, and his Colonies ready to depart: be­sides the frequent Fights betwixt themselves in point of private advantages, several Governours supplanting one another by Tragical means, the principal whereof was Columbus, that successeful Captain, Ferdinandus Cortesius, Marquiss of the Valley, Pizarro, Almagrus, Vasca; and Blasco: By Cortesius, Atabalipa King of Pe­ru was taken Prisoner, in which are his Mines of Potossi, &c. Who refusing a dangerous peace offered by the Spaniard, by the fortune of the [Page 142] War was made a Prisoner, and for his ransome, sending to his chief City of Cuscon, and other places of his Kingdome, filled his Prison, being a reasonable Hall, with Gold and Silver, and yet neverthelesse lost his Life, being strangled by the deliberate advice of his Enemies, who sub­stituted his Brother in his place. The Indians upbraiding the Spaniard with their Cruelty and Covetousnesse, and calling Money their God, bidding them to eat it. It is reported when they first entred the Country, they shooed their Hor­ses with Gold and Silver. To our discourse: this Countrey is divided into Mexicana and Peru­ana.

That part of America, which is called Mexi­cana, is divided into three several parts, accor­ding to the scituation of the Land, in Plains, Mountains, and lesse Hilly grounds. Out of these Countries are brought over into Europe, Gold, Silver, Bezoar, and other precious stones, Sarsaparilla, and Sugar in abundance, Brasil-Wood, Cotton, costly Plumes, Jackanapes, several sorts of curiously feathered Birds, and many more Drugs and Merchandize. We will run over only the several Countries, and so con­clude.

The first is the Island of Hispaniola, famous for our Defeat before the chief City of St. Do­mingo, though formerly sacked without much opposition by Sir Francis Drake. It is seated in 18, 19, and 20 degrees of Northern Latitude, [Page 143] being 150. Leagues long East and West, inha­bited chiefly by Negroes, which with the Spani­ards, make not in all above 500. the Commo­dities are Ginger, Sugar, Cotton, Wool, &c. and Tallow, and Hides 100000. yearly, gotten of the wild Cattel, which are the biggest in the World.

The next is the Ile of Cuba, lying West from Hispaniola 200. Leagues long, East and West, the broadest part not 45, the Commodi­ties the same with Hispaniola, the Land neither so pleasant nor wholsome. In it, is the Town of Havana, in 22. degrees, the great resort of the Spanish Fleet; the Harbour strongly secured by two Castles. Next Porto Rico 15 Leagues from Hispaniola, 45 Leagues long, East and West, 23 broad; then Sancta Crux in 16 degrees and a half, the Virgins, Virgin Gorda, Blances, Ana­gada, Sambrito, Angula, St. Martins, in 17 degrees and a half, once possest by the Spani­ards, now by the Dutch, as is Eustas likewise. More Southwardly is Trinidado Ile, 50 Leagues long, and 70 broad, Margareta, Tortuga, Gardi­ner, Caracute, Calava, and Tamasca.

On the Continent the Spaniard hath Florida, which begins in 34 degrees, the Gulf hereof is notable having two Entrances, the one between Youcatan and Cuba, where the stream cometh fiercely in; the other is between Cuba and the Cape of Florida, where it runneth more violently out.

New Spain.

Besides this Province of Florida, the King of Spain in this Nothern America, hath three great Kingdomes. The first and principal is the King­dome of New-Spain: The second is the King­dome of Galisia: The third, the Kingdome of Gutemalia, and the Province of Varagua, that adjoyneth to the Straight of Darian, and is pro­perly of the Council of Panama. The King­dome of Spain hath in it a Viceroy and Council, intituled the Viceroy of Mexico. And within his Government the Province and Bishoprick of Mexico, that of Tlascala, Guaxa [...]a, Mechoachan, Chiapa, Yucatan, and Panuco. The Indians of this Kingdome, are of two sorts; the Chickame­cans, which are a sort of Rogues, that live much after the manner of Toriges, or ancient Irish, by robbing and spoiling Passengers on the way, Towns and Villages; and the other live even as decently as the Spaniard, and are of all Trades and Vocations, as they are; of sharp wits, and of great agility of body, as appeareth by their extraordinary feats of Activity on the Rope, and tumblings. This Kingdome is a high Country, for the most part of it, and for riches, pleasantness, and wholesomeness, accounted one of the best in the world, as lacking nothing na­turally that is to be had, excepting Wine and Oil, which they might also have, but that it is [Page 145] forbidden, to plant Vineyards, or Oliveyards by the King of Spain, and it hath divers things not elsewhere to be had, both of Trees, Herbs, and Drugs.


THis Kingdome of New-Galicia, hath no Viceroy, but is governed by a Council, whose bounds is parted from New-Spain at the Port of Nativity on the South Sea to the North North-west, and North-east. It hath no bounds, but may inlarge their Territories, as they see occasion on the Indians. It hath already these Provinces. The first, Guadalaica, Xalisco, Saca­ticas, Chiamerla; Culiacan, New-Biscai, and Si­valoa. And this Kingdome is not much inferi­our to New-Spain, and it hath the same sort of Indians.


This Kingdome of Gutamalia is governed as the other by a Council, without a Viceroy; and is the Southwardliest Region of this North Ame­rica, and hath within its bounds the Provinces of Gutamalia, from whence the Kingdome ta­keth name; Soconusco, Chiapa, Suchi [...]epoque, Verapas, Honduaras, and Cacos. Saint Saviour, and Saint Michael, Nievaraqua, Chuluteca, Taquesgalpa, and Costarica, or the rich Coast. [Page 146] The Indians here are more warlike than the rest, and have more unwillingly submitted to the Spa­nish Yoke, and therefore they have had almost continual wars; the most of the Indians living, till very lately, after the manner of the Chickame­cians, though many of them are docible as the Indians of Mexico. This is a rich wholsome Kingdome, not inferiour to Galicia, but rather exceeds it. But when I come to each particular Province, I shall name them as they adjoyn on the Coast of the Sea.

Panuco is a Province near adjoyning to Florida, and parted from it by the River of Palms, which lyeth in 28 degrees of North Latitude.

That part of it that lyeth next to Mexico, is the best, and hath the greatest plenty of Victuals, with some gold: the other side, which is next Florida, is poor and barren.

The next to Panuco, on the Coast of the North Sea, lyeth the Province of Talascalia or Losangels. It hath abundance of Flax, Wheat, Sugar, and Ginger; diversity of herbs, and fruits; abundance of Cattel, Hogs, and Horses, ma­ny silver mines, 200 chief Indian Towns, and at least 40 Monasteries of Friers.

Youcatan. The North part of this Province adjoyneth to the South of Talascalia. It is a pen­insula, [Page 147] and in compasse 150 Leagues. The temperature is hot and moist: it hath no Rivers but is full of good willows. It is a woody coun­try, nor will it bear English grain, neither hath it gold or other mineral.

The Province of Honduras adjoineth unto the South part of Youcatan: this coast stretcheth along the north Sea as far as Nicaragua, which is near 150 leagues.

It is a hilly Countrey, plentiful of all sorts of Cattel, and store of Wheat, and Mines of Gold and Silver.

Nicaragua, lyeth next to the South-side of Honduras: it is a plentiful Countrey of Coco, Cotten-Wool, Millet, Cattel, and much, gold. It hath five Spanish Towns, and abundance of peaceable Indians, which are most expert in the Spanish tongue.

The Province of Costarica, lyeth between Nickuragua, and Caragua, between which it hath 90 Leagues in length. It is a good Land, and very fruitful in Millet, Wheat, Flax, and Sugar, plenty of Mines, both of Gold and Silver, and it hath two Spanish Towns.

The Province of Varagua lyeth between Co­starica and Panama, adjoyning on the South part to the Straight of Dariana. The northerliest is in [Page 148] eleven degrees, it hath East and West 50 leagues, and in breadth 25, and is washed as Costarica, with the north and south seas. It is a Mountain­ous Country full of bushes, without Pasture or Cattel, Wheat, or Barley, but it hath some Mil­let, and is full of rich Mines of Gold. The Indi­ans are few, and they be in continual wars with the Spaniards.

And at the end of this Varagua beginneth the southern America. And therefore I shall return back to the other parts of this north America, which is not yet discovered.

The Province of Cibloa is the most northerly Province that the Spaniards possess in America. It hath but one Spanish Town.

Here are store of all sorts of our Cattel, and the Ox of the Countrey, which hath a bunch of Flesh on his back, of the bignesse of a mans head, and his hair is shaggy and long, his horns smaller then our Kines horns, but his body much bigger: this is an Inland Province, and lyeth from the Sea many Leagues.

The Province of New-Biskay lyeth on the south-west of Cibloa: it hath store of Provision and Cattel, and divers Mines of Silver. It hath two fair Spanish Towns, that is to say, Sancta Barbola, and the Baro of Saint Iohn, with divers peaceable Indians. It is an Inland Province but of much Commerce, by reason of the silver Mines.

[Page 149] The Province of Chiamerla lyeth in more than two and twenty degrees of hight. It is ten Lea­gues broad, and something more in length: it ly­eth along the south Sea, but hath no Ports of name.

The Province of Guliacan is the most northerly Province the Spaniards possesse on the Coast of the south Sea: It lyeth west of Chiamerla, there are much Cattel, Seeds, and Fruits of Eng­land.

Sacetas lyeth south-east from Biscay, It is ve­ry wholesome in some parts of it, and as sickly and unwholesome in other parts, which causes that in some places there is much want, and in other places as much plenty. But to amend all defects, there are in most places rich silver Mines.

The Province of Xalisco hath the City of Com­postella, near the south Sea in one and twenty de­grees, nineteen Minutes: there is the Village of the Purification south-west from Gudalaria, thirty leagues: this land is hot and sickly, but hath Mines of Gold and Silver, good store of provisions, and excellent Horses, that are well bred for any ser­vice.

Guadalaira is the best of all the Provinces of [Page 150] the Kingdom of New-Galicia, and the most Sou­therly: It hath all sorts of Grain, Herbs, and Fruits of New-Spain; and plenty of Kine, Horses, and Swine: It is a wholesome good air; and hath ma­ny silver mines: the chief City and Head of the Kingdom is Guadalaira in twenty degrees.

The Province of Mechoacan lyeth between the Province of Mexico, and the Kingdom of New-Galisia: it hath in breadth by the coast of the South Sea fourscore leagues, and threescore within land. Here are many good Mines, and it is a fruitful land, and hath much Wheat, Millet, Coco, all sorts of Spanish fruits, Cotton-wool, the rich drug of Choco­neel, store of Cattel and Fish, and the Indians are industrious, and given to labour: the chief City is Mechoachan: it stands in eighteen degrees, fif­teen minutes, and forty and seven leagues from Mexico.

The Province of Mexico falleth between Me­choacan and Talasvalia: it hath in length North and south one hundred and thirty leagues, and in breadth eighteen.

Guaxcaca Province, cometh to the Coast of the South Sea, and it lyeth between Mexico and Gu­tamalia Province, along the coast of the South Sea one hundred leagues.

Soconusco is the Westerliest Province of the [Page 151] Kingdom of Gutamalia, it joyneth to the Province of Guaxcaca, from whence it lieth on the South­east thirty four Leagues and far into the Land. It is plentiful of Wheat, Coco, Millet, and Cat­tel.

The Province of Gutamalia, is the head of the Kingdome of Gutamalia; it joyneth to the Province of Soconusco, and on the South Sea, it stretcheth 70 leagues; the Country is of a good temperature, and plentiful of Cotton-Wool, Wheat, Millet and Cattel, and other Seeds and fruits; the Winds and Rains in October are very furious.

This Province hath abundance of Gold, some Silver, store of Balm, and liquid Amber, Copal, Suchicopal, excellent liquors, and the Gumme a­nimi, with the Beasts that breed the Bezoar stone. But the Volcans here, are very noysome to those that lie near them, for they often burst forth, ca­sting out fire-stones and ashes. And here are more of those Volcans or fire-pits, than in all India be­sides.

The Province of Chiapa is an inland Province, it is Mediterrauean to Soconusco, Mexico, Tabasco: and Verapas, and in length forty leagues, and some­thing less in breadth. It hath store of Wheat, Mil­let, and other Grain and Seeds, much Cattel, but few Sheep.

[Page 152] Verapas is also an inland Province of Gutamalia, and is Mediterranean to Chiapa, Youcatan, Hondu­ras, and Gutamalia of thirty Leagues over: it is a moist Country, and it hath plenty of Millet and Wheat, Cotton-Wool, Coco, and much of that sort of Fowls, whose feathers make the rare co­loured Indian pictures, and this is a great Mer­chandise amongst them.

Panama hath a Council that hath for Jurisdi­ction no more then the Province of Panama, and the election of the Governour of Veragua, in regard they are appointed Principals of the Na­vigation for the dispatch of Peru, and ordering the King of Spains Treasure, which is yearly tran­sported to Porto Belio, over the straight of Da­rien, and from thence to Spain. It adjoyneth on Carthagena, and Popian, to the south-east, and south-West.

The air at Panama is extream unwholsome, and the place very sickly; but it is mended and made durable, by the Trade is brought in by the vast sums yearly brought there to carry to Spain, of which the Inhabitants get part.

The Countrey of Carthegena lyeth on the north sea, and is parted from the Province of Panama, by the River of Darian, from whence to the River Magdalen is fourscore leagues. The Land is mountainous and hilly, full of high trees; this Region is fruitful in some places, and in o­ther [Page 153] some as Barren. The Seed of England will grow but in few parts of this Countrey: but here are many Cattel, Horses, and Swine.

The temperature of this Countrey is hot and very rainy, neither is their Mines worked either of Gold or Silver, but much rozen and liquors, which they have from the Trees, and Sanguis Draconis.


THis Kingdome lyeth from the Sea, adjoyn­ing on the South part of Cartagena. It is a very rich Countrey in Mines of Emralds, Gold, Steel, and Copper, store of Pastures, with all sorts of Cattel, Wheat, Millet, Fruits and Herbs. The Indians are great Traders and able men of body, ingenious in the Sciences of the Spaniards. The Merchandise cometh up the River Magdalen, on which this Land lyeth.

The Province of Sancta Martha, lyeth between Cartagena and the River Hacha, on the North sea. It is a plentiful Country of Millet, Potatoes, much Gold, Emralds, and other rich Stones, and Cop­per.

The Province of Venesiula, lyeth on the north Sea, parted from Sancta Martha, by the River of Hacha, on the east is the Province of Suava, or New Andulesia, as the Spaniards call it.

[Page 154] The Coasts of the Sea is near one hundred and thirty leagues of length. In this Land are veins of Gold, of more than two and twenty Caracts and a half. It is plentiful of Wheat and other Seeds, for there are two Harvests in a year. It hath abun­dance of all kind of Cattel great and smal, Cot­ton, and Salsaparilla.

Guana. This Region comprehendeth all the Land that lyeth between the Province of Venesi­ula and Brasill, which beginneth at two degrees of South latitude; this Land is more famous for re­port, than for any certain knowledge of the riches thereof.

The Provinces of Plate, take name from the River on which they lie: the passage to them is up the said River, but they are almost on the back of Brazil. They are large and far wholsomer than Brazil, plenty of Sugar, Ginger, Wine, Wheat, Mil­let, all sorts of English Fruits, store of Cattel, Swine, and Horses, but no mines that are work­ed. They are subjected by the Spaniards, and u­nited to the Council of Peru, on the South Sea, for nearness of lying to that Kingdome, there is a common passage from these Provinces thither by land over the Mountains; the most of the Land is indifferently inhabited.

[Page 155] The Coast of Chilia reacheth to twenty eight degrees of South latitude. This Region is whole­some above all other in the Indies, being of an ex­cellent temperature, as neither too hot nor too cold. It is abundantly Rich in Gold and Silver Mines and all sorts of Cattel and Grain, Fruits, and excellent and pleasant Wine. The Country men are strong and valiant beyond compare, which the Spaniards know to their great cost: for they could never totally subdue this Nation.

The bounds of this Council of Charcas stretch­eth from Chilia to Peru: It hath abundance of Cattel of all kinds, great shag-haired Sheep bigger than Goats, that carry great burthens on their backs; store of Corn of all sorts, Fruits and Wine, much Gold and the greatest Mines of Silver in the World. There are few Spanish Towns, and but one but Port, in regard the Spaniards get neat the Hill of Potosi, to the City Imperial, which lyeth in nineteen degrees of latitude far from the Sea, and delivereth that which is exported, and receiv­eth the Merchandize imported at the City of Ari­ca.


THis Kingdom is governed by a Council and Viceroy. It hath to the North the Council of Quito, on the south Charchas, and to the west the south-sea, and to the east without limits. [Page 156] This Kingdom is well peopled with civil orderly Indians, that are in great subjection to the Spani­ards. Peru doth abound in all sorts of Fruits, Seed, Cattel, Horses, Sheep, Swine, rich Mines of Gold, Silver, Quick-silver, plentifull of Wine, Oil, and Sugar. The Andes runs through this Province within ten Leagues of the Sea. In all which Coasts it never raineth; but on the said hills it raineth continually, and beyond as in other Regions. The Plains between the Sea, and the said Hills have few or no Rivers, but the industry of the Inhabitants draw, in tren­ches, (which are artificially made) the water either from those few Rivers, or from the side of the said Andes, which maketh that the said plain is mighty populous, fruitful and pleasant, even as a Garden.

The City of Cusco is the head City of Peru, by a Title that it hath from the King of Spain. It lyeth in 13 degrees and a half south of the Equi­noctial. It is a very great City, and hath four great streets that go to the four parts of the World. It hath many Monasteries and Nunne­ries, with a Cathedral, and divers Schools of Indian Children.


THis Kingdome is governed by a Council, whose bounds lyeth between Peru and Pana­ma. It hath two mighty Countreys or Provin­ces [Page 157] within his circuit, that is to say, first Quits, and then Popyan. Quito lieth between Peru and Popyan on the south sea, and far into the land un­der the Equinoctial line: and, contrary to the o­pinion of the Ancients, it is a most wholsome temperate Countrey, and rather cold than hot in most places of it. In those places where the Snow continues all the year, it raineth from October to March, which they call Winter: This Province is rich in Mines of Emralds, and Gold, Silver, and Quick-silver, plentiful of English Grain and Cattel, Horse, and Swine. This Region is happy in the temperature of the Air, there being neither extreme cold nor heat, as lying Equinoctial to these extremes, and, which is more delightful to mans nature, always a clear Skie.

The Province of Popyan, lyeth between Quito and Panama; the greatest part of it is Inland, yet doth it for a good way lie on the south sea. The Eastern part bordereth on the Kingdom of Grana­do and Cartagena.

The temperature of Air, is very different in this place, for here are some places indifferent temperate and cool, other places are very hot and sickly. This Province hath some Indians peaceable, other some extraordinary savage, insomuch that about the Village of Arma and Canarna, they eat not only those that they take in War, cutting off slivers, eating one part while [Page 158] the other liveth; but sell their Children, and the Sons their Fathers and Mothers to the Butchers, who keep shambles of mans flesh.

This Countrey is exceeding rich in Gold Mines, which maketh that the Spaniards endure the other inconveniencies of the Countrey with great patience.


This Straight is famous for the troublesome passage of Drake, Candish, and Haukins, three English men Generals, each in a several Fleet: Drake and Candish being the first that sailed a­long the coast of Peru, and so to the East In­dies, and came home by the cape of Bona Speran­za, circum-navigating the Globe. The last be­ing much over-matched was taken by the Spani­ards on the coast of Peru, and conveyed from thence Prisoner to Spain. From whence with much difficulty he obtained his freedom, although solemn engagements passed from the General his Taker for his freedome.

The entrance into this Straight is in 52 de­grees, and the coming out into the south sea the same height.

It is an extreme difficult passage by reason of the meeting of the north and south seas in the channell, driving each other back, prevailing as they are favoured by the wind, which com­monly bloweth there exceeding boisterously and [Page 159] cold. There are divers Caves and Bayes in it, but no encouragement for a Seaman to adventure that way. The Inhabitants on this Straight are few, and extreme savage, neither is this passage any more in use: for those that will go by the south of America to the East Indies, or into the south sea, to any part of the west coast of Ame­rica, have a more convenient passage south of this Straight in an open sea. The entrance into it is called Lamair, but the sea was discovered by Sir Francis Drake, and Sir Richard Hau­kins, both which were driven back by foul wea­ther into those seas after they had passed the Strait.

On the coast of the south sea, which lyeth between the Straight and Chilli, there are no in­habitants save the wild Natives, but it hath the Bay of Horses in 52 degrees, and the Bay of Saint Iohn in 50. The cape of Saint Francis in 51. And 18 Leagues before you come to Port Hearnan the Bay of Galago in 48 degrees 40 Minutes: and north of it the Bay of Kings, and the Isle of Catilina; then the Cape of Saint An­drew in 42 degrees, where Chilia beginneth

There is a coast between the River of Plate, and the Straight of Magellan. The Straight ly­eth southwest from the mouth of this River, and is distant thence 400 Leagues. It hath on the said coast, first the point of Saint Helena in 37 de­grees, the point of Francis in 38, the River of [Page 160] Canobi in 45. And to the south the Isle of Ducks. And in 47 the River of Seriani, and in 49 the Port of Saint Iulian, the River of Sancta Crux in 50. And 12 leagues before you come to the Straight of Ilefonsus. But the Land possest with no other but the Natives, which are a Giantly people.

This Magellanica belongs to the King of Spain, which some Geographers would have now the fifth part of the World, it is since found out to be a very little part, as consisting only of some few Islands, on the southern side of the Magella­nick-Straights, so called, by Fredericus Magella­nicus, who discovered it in the year one thousand five hundred and twenty: writing moreover that there he had seen tall men about nine and ten foot high; and he saw many fires which the in­habitants had kindled, doubtless by reason of the coldnesse of the weather: he named it the land of fire, or smoky, whereby he presumed the more that it must needs be a very vast great countrey, reaching east and westwards unto new Guinney, according to which ghessing, it hath hitherto been delineated by the Maps of Geographers; but since hath there instead thereof a large and wide sea been found out, both by Iacob Le Mair, who in the year one thousand six hundred and sixteen, sayling about the southern coast of these Islands, entred into the Indies; and by Iohn Davis, in the year one thousand six hundred forty two, who [Page 161] sailing towards the North, about on thousand six hundred forty, further than Guinny, discovered divers Lands, and passing on the South-side, sail­ed about the East coast of New Guinny, and so go­ing on Westward he came to the Indies; whence we may certainly gather, that all the former de­scriptions and definitions of the Magellanick and unknown Lands are but mean abuses and certain devised Fables.

These Lands and Countries being subdued in the space of 60 years, with much blood and ha­zard, were settled as his Dominions in the year 1550, from which time they have continued with­out any remarkable alteration, setting aside some private inroads of the English, Dutch, and French, till the business of Iamaica, which now threatens some danger to the vast and potent body of the Spanish Empire.


This Province beginneth where Guana endeth, at two degrees of south latitude, where there is a point called the Cape of Snakes, from whence it lyeth along the Coast of the North-Sea to twenty five degrees, and on the back-side west, lyeth the Provinces of the River of Plate. The air is the whole year through very hot, the Winter; which your Summer, distinguished only with the rain that falleth at that season.

[Page 162] Here are many venemous Worms, and great Serpents; 'tis plentiful of Pastures, Cattel, and Horses, little Millet, and no English grain; wherefore their bread is Casabi or Potatoes, which are in great plenty. There are great shews of silver and gold, but none gotten, nor Mines certainly known. The chief commodity is Sugar Cotton-wool, Bombast, and Brazil wood. It hath near the Sea-coast about 20. Portugal Towns, many Ingeniowes, or Sugerworks: the first Town of the Country is called Tamerico, and five leagues to the south of that Farnambuck or Recif, then All Saints a hundred leagues from Farnambuck in fourteen degrees forty minutes. The Town of the Sure-haven in 16 degrees and a half, the Holy-Ghost in 20. There is another Town on the River Generio, in twenty three degrees, near which they cut much Brasil-wood. There are on the coast eight or ten Ports, more principal than the rest, which are the River Saint Dominick north­east of Farnambuck, by the Cape of Saint Augu­stine, which standeth in nine degrees. The Island of Tamerico before rehearsed, the River of Saint Francis in ten degrees and a half. It is very great. The Bay of All Saints is three leagues and thir­teen up into the land. The River of Trinidado and the River of Canamon in 13 degrees and a half, and the River of the Virgins in 16, and Portesceurae in 17. The River of Parague in twenty near the Town of Sanctus Spiritus, and in twenty three de­grees Cold Cape beyond Saint Vincent. This Pro­vince [Page 163] hath been in difference betwen the Portu­geses and West-India Company of Holland, and as the Dutch got great footing there without right, so the Portugals, since their falling from Spain, have surprized them again; and recovered them by the same slight they got the East-Indies from us, but not with such vile murthers, as they com­mitted on the English.

This Reconquest of it by the Portugal from the Dutch was in 1654, the strong Fort of Recif which held out the last, being delivered to them, with the whole Land, by certain Articles, which con­tained the whole surrender, for which the Dutch General there, Sigismond Schop, at his comming home into Holland was tried for his life, but his Friends, or the Justice of his Cause preserved him.

And thus now God enabling me, I have finish­ed the Description of the World, and the four parts thereof: and leave my endeavours herein to the judgement of the Reader.

The chiefest Cities of America, with the Names of the Rivers.

IN the Northern part of America, are Green­land, East-land, and Iceland, in which are the Towns of Bearford, and Scalbod.

In Canada or new France, are the Towns of Quebec, and Port-Royal, some degrees more southerly, are New-England, the New-Low-coun­tries, Virginia, the Isles of Bermudes, and more southerly of them, the Islands of Barbadoes and Saint Christophers: In Virginia are the towns of Iames: In New-England the towns of Plimmouth and Boston: the Rivers in Canada that be most famous, are the River of Canada, or Saint Lawrence: the River of Chesseapeac, or Powatan, Trinity, and the River of May.

The Cities in New-Mexico that are most re­markable, are the End, and the Granado.

In Hispaniola is the City of Domingo, in Cubai the City called Havana.

In the Isle of Iamaica, the City called Sevilla: In the Island of Boriquenrie, Puerto-Rico: In Flo­rida [Page 165] is Saint Augustino: In Mexico, or New-Spain, are these great Cities, Mexico, Mechoacan, or Wallodolid, Saint Estevan, Del Puerto, Los-Angeles, Antequera De la Vetoria, Meroda, Guada­laida, Compostella, Saint Sebastian, Saint Miguel, Gernada, and Zacateca.

There are also Saint Iago, De Guatimala, Gue­vetulan, Cividad Real, Verapax, Valadolid, or Com­magaiva, Leoa de Nicaragua, Cartago, La Concepti­on, Porto ello, and Panama.

The Rivers here most famous, are North of New-Mexico, Spiritu Sancto, towards the east, Spiritu Sancto towards the west; Econdido, Pa­nuco, Barania, Zacatula, and Desaguadero, de Ni­caragua.

In Terra Firma, are the famous Cities of Car­tagena, Saint Martha, Saint Fe de Bogatta, Na Sa de los Remedios, Veneznella, O Cori, Cordova, Lan­nuen [...], O Comana, Manoa, O el Dorado.

In Peru are these remarkable Cities, Cali Po­paian, Saint Francisco, de Quito, Bacca, Saint Iu­an de las Selinas, Lima O los Reyes, Cusco, Potosi, la Plata, Sancta Cruz de la Sierra, Saint Iago de Chili, and L' Imperiale.

The Rivers which are most famous in Terra Firma and in Peru, the River Grand, O de Dari­en: the River Grand O de Santa Martha, Pa­ria, Orinoque, Essequebe, and Desaguedero de Peru.

In the south part of America, is Terra Ma­gellanica, where is the City of Del Rey Felippe, there [Page 166] are the Magellan Isles, and Terra del Foco.

In Brasil are these fifteen memorable Cities Para, Maranhan, Ciara, Potenii, Paraiba, Tamaraca, Olinda, Seregippe, Saint Salvador, Los Isteos, Porto Seguro, Spiritu Sancto, Sancte, Sebastian, Los Santos, and Farnambuck.

The Rivers in Brasile are Orelane, or des Amazo­nes, Maragnan, O de Mirari, Tabacourn, the great River of Potengi, the River Zoyal.

In Ria de plata are the Cities of Saint Iago, del Festero, Cordova, de Tucuman, L. Assumtion, Cividad Real O Ontiveros. The River here that is most fa­mous is called Paraguay.


A Catalogue of some Plates, Maps, Pictures, and Copy-books, that are Printed and Sold by John Overton, dwelling at the sign of the White Horse next door to Little Saint Bartholomews Gate, in Little Brittain.

General Maps.

A Map of the World. A most excellent Map of England, Scotland, and Ireland. A Map of France. A new Map of England adorned and beautified with the chief Cities and Towns there­of more exact than hitherto.

Maps of Shires.

Kent two sheets. Essex. Surrey. Hartfordshire. Norfolk. Suffolk. Staffordshire. Warwickshire. Worcestershire. Leicestershire and Rutland in one. Cheshire. Lancashire. Virginia.

Pictures of Men in Quarto.

The Picture of Oliver Cromwell, Sir Tho. Overbury. Cardinal Wolsey. Sir Tho. Gresham. D. of Buckingham. Prince & Princess of Orange. Prince Rupert. Prince Maurice. E. of Salisbury. Mr. Brightman. Bish. Usher. Dr. Eravius. M. Shel­ton. Gen. Lashly. L. Say. E. of Pembrook. E. of Manchester.

Great Sheets.

The Pourtraictures of their most excellent Ma­jesties King Charles 2d. and Queen Katherine, most excellently Graven to the life beyond all Draughts before; in Imperial Paper. The Pour­traictures of all the Royal Progeny.

Battel of Nazeby 2 sheets with observations. Dunbar-battel in 2 sheets. 4 Plates of signs or bad­ges for Inns or Taverns, 42. The City of London, Gunpowder Treason, and 88. The Arms of the [Page] Trades and Corporations of London 74. A Death Jerusalem 2 sheets. Collonel Ludlow on Horse­back. X Commandments. X Persecutions of Chri­stians. Orpheus.


Some late Copy-Books by Ed. Cocker with se­veral Books of Flowers, Beasts, Birds, Flies, and Worms, very delightful and useful to all Natu­ralists. A Book of Flowers and Fishes with the same curiosity of Art. Davis Copy-Book. Billing­sley in Quarto. Billingsley in Octavo. One publish­ed by P. S. 2d. by Lewis Hews 2d. called Han­cocks 22. Plates. And all other sorts of Copy-Books that are to be had in London.

Books for Draughts of Men, Birds; Beasts, Flowers, Fruits, Flyes, Fishes, &c.

1 Book of J. Fullers Drawings, 15. plates.

1 Book of Draughts of Mr. Hollars work, and Mr. Vanderburghs 18 plates.

Flora 13 plates, Beasts, Birds, &c.

1 Book of Birds sitting on sprigs 16 plates.

1 Book of Beasts. 1 Book of branches 11 plates

1 Book of Flowers, 12 Plates for Cheese tren­chers.

Pictures in Sheets of their Excellencies.

Rob. E. Essex. Tho. L. Fairfax. Also O. Cromwell

Divers Pictures of Mr. Payn, Hollar, Faythorn, Pumbarp, Gaywood, and other Artists works. And all other sorts of Maps, Pictures, Copy-books, &c. that are usually sold in black and white, and in Colour.

Minerva and 7 liberal Arts.


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