Roger L'Estrange.

Festa Anglo-Romana: OR, The Feasts of the English and Roman Church, with their Fasts and Vigils.

Being an Exact and Concise Accompt of their various Etymologies and Appellations, with the Reasons and Grounds of their Ce­lebration.

Together with a Succinct Discourse of several other Grand Days in the Univer­sities, Inns of Courts, and the Collar and Offering Days at White-Hall;

Tending, To the Instruction of all Persons in all Capacities, and the Dilucidation of several seeming Difficulties in the Ancient, as well as Modern English and Roman Calendar.

By a True Son of the Church of England.

London, Printed for William Jacob, and John Place, and are to be sold at the Black Swan, and Furnivals-Inn-Gate in Holborn. 1678.


To the READER.

I Design not to Preface this small Tract with a Prolix Epistle; for that were to make the Porch larger than the Temple; but only to acquaint you, that it is an Historical Collection of all the Feasts (with the Fasts Vigils and Octaves) Registred both in the Eng­lish, and Roman Rubrick; together with their approved Etymologies, Various Names, and the True Grounds and Reasons of their Ce­lebration; A Treatise which differs from all others of this Nature that are hitherto extant, both in its Method and Compendiousness; for it begins (according to the old Roman Computation of the year) at the 1st [Page]of January, and ends with the last of December, giving an account of all the Festivals, as they are placed successively in the Calendar. And withal, I must Advertise you, to avoid Confusion, that our Festi­vals are Intituled in an English, and the Roman in an Italick Letter. And thus I leave the Reader, with these few necessary Instructions, to the perusal of the Contents of this Book, which may (I presume) tend to his more ample and plenary satisfa­ction.


  • NEw-years Day. Pag. 4
  • Epiphanie. Pag. 6
  • St. Paul. Pag. 10
  • Ianuary the 30th. Pag. 11
  • Purification of the Blessed Virgin. Pag. 12
  • St. Matthias. Pag. 15
  • Sunday. Pag. 20
  • Valentines-Day. Pag. 23
  • Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima, and Quadragesima. Ibid.
  • Shrovetide. Pag. 27
  • Ash-Wednesday. Pag. 28
  • St. David. Pag. 29
  • St. Patrick. Pag. 36
  • [Page]St. Joseph. Pag. 37
  • Annunciation of the Holy Virgin. ib.
  • Palm-Sunday. Pag. 39
  • Good-Friday. Pag. 42
  • Easter. Pag. 44
  • Low-Sunday. Pag. 51
  • St. George. Pag. 52
  • St. Mark. Pag. 53
  • Misericordia. Pag. 54
  • Phillip and Iacob. ib.
  • Holy-Cross. Pag. 56
  • Rogation-Sunday. Pag. 58
  • Holy Thursday. Pag. 63
  • King Charles Birth & Return. Pag. 65
  • Penticost, or Whitsontide. Pag. 67
  • Trinity-Sunday. Pag. 68
  • St. Barnabas. Pag. 69
  • Corpus Christi. Pag. 72
  • St. Iohn Baptist. Pag. 74
  • St. Peter and St. Paul. Pag. 75
  • Visitation of Mary. Pag. 78
  • St. Swithins-Day. Pag. 79
  • Dog-Days. ib.
  • [Page]Spanish Invasion. Pag. 81
  • St. Iames. Pag. 86
  • St. Ann. ib.
  • Lammas-Day. Pag. 87
  • Gowrie's Conspiracy. Pag. 91
  • Transfiguration. Pag. 94
  • St. Lawrence. Pag. 95
  • Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. Pag. 96
  • St. Bartholomew. ib.
  • Decollation of St. John Baptist. Pag. 97
  • September the 2d. the burn­ing of London. Pag. 98
  • Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Pag. 99
  • Holy-rood-Day, or Holy Cross. ib.
  • St. Matthew. Pag. 100
  • St. Michael the Arch-Angel. Pag. 102
  • The Apparition of St. Michael. Pag. 103
  • St. Luke. Pag. 104
  • Ursula a Brittish Virgin. Pag. 105
  • St. Simon and Iude. ib.
  • All Saints. Pag. 108
  • All Souls. ib.
  • Gunpowder-Treason Day. Pag. 110
  • [Page]Queen Catharines Birth-day. Pag. 119
  • Presentation of the Virg. Mary. Pag. 120
  • St. Clement. Pag. 121
  • St. Andrew. Pag. 123
  • Advent Sunday. Pag. 124
  • Conception of the Virg. Mary. ib.
  • St. Lucia. Pag. 125
  • St. Thomas. ib.
  • Christ Mass-Day. Pag. 126
  • St. Stephan. Pag. 128
  • St. Iohn. Pag. 130
  • Innocents. ib.

In the Press a Printing in a Poc­ket-Volume, Englands Remarks, very much enlarged; a fit Com­panion for all Travellers and others.

Festa Anglo-Romana.

HOly-Day, in the Sacred Phrase, is the same as separate, or set apart to God; being taken out of ordinary Days, and dedi­cated to the Holy Service of God, and his Worship; tho none of them are certainly declared in the New Testament; nor is any Chri­stian obliged to the observance of those in the Old: But the Holy Church hath thought fit and ne­cessary for the Confirmation of Faith, and the Exercise of the true Christian Religion, that peculiar days should be cull'd out of the common, whereon we should [Page 2]convene (Politick affairs being laid aside) in the Publick Assem­bly, to hear God's Holy Word, and to offer up the Calves of our Lips in Prayers to, and Praises of the Almighty, with Reading and Meditation. Now, as there is a Holy Feast, Nehemiah the 8th, and the 10th. which our Church hath dedicated to the Religious Commemoration of some eminent Mercies and Blessings received (among which some Festivals are of a superior degree, in regard of the greatness of the Blessing re­membred, and the solemnity of the Service appointed to that pur­pose) so there is an Holy Fast, Joel 2. such as are Ash-Wednesday, Good-Friday, and the whole Week before Easter, which the Church hath dedicated to God's solemn Worship in Fastings and Prayer.

The Holy-Days we divide into General and Particular. The Ge­neral [Page 3]are such as are generally ce­lebrated by all Men, and term'd Solemnities; as the Circumcision, Epiphany, Purification, Annuncia­tion, Resurrection, Ascension, &c. the Particular are solemnized by some particular Church, or some Coun­try, call'd Commune; as those dedicated to the Apostles, or by some Bishop's Sea, Parish-Town or call'd the proper Holy-Days of the Place.

They are again divided (in re­spect of the days whereon they fall in the Calendar) into Move­able, and Fixed.

The Moveable are those, which tho celebrated on the same Week­day, have no fixed seat in the Calendar.

The Fixed are such, which fall upon divers days of the [Page 4]Week, yet upon one and the same day of the Month.

New-Years Day.

The first of January, commonly called New-years Day, of the old Roman Account, which began the year from that day; otherwise the Circumcision of our Lord, being celebrated eight days after his Birth inclusively, as it was on the Male-Children of the Jews, accor­ding to the Judaical Law, in me­mory of his Circumcision, as the old Law commanded, Genesis the 17th, and the 12th. when he was named Jesus, (Gr. a Saviour) as the Angel had foretold, St. Luke 1.32. Circumcision is deriv'd from the Latin Circumcido, which signi­fies a cutting round about; and in truth to speak more properly, it is the cutting away of the Praepuce, or double fore-skin, which enfoldeth [Page 5]the Head, or Extremity of the Vir­ga Virilis; and was perform'd with a very sharp Stone, ordered and fitted for that use; and not with an Iron Knife steel'd, as some are of Opinion, tho mistaken. It was a Ceremony Prescribed by the Great Jehovah, to Abraham, the Father of the Faithful, and his Posterity, who were Heirs of the Divine Promise, and Commanded to be sacredly observed by the He­brews, upon the severe penalty of Death; as a sign and seal of the Covenant betwixt God and them, and a mark of Distinction from all other Nations; which Ceremony was always strictly observ'd among them; but abrogated after the Resurrection and Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ. This Fast is one of His Majesties Offering-Days at Court, whereon Gold, Myrrh and Frankincense is offered; and be­ing celebrated on the first of [Page 6] January; the second is term'd the Octave of St. Stephan, the third of St. John, and the fourth of the blessed Innocents.


The next we meet with in the or­der of the Calendar, is Epiphanie, or Twelfth-day. Epiphanie is a Greek word, [...], & signifies an Ar­parition, so called and celebrated in memory and honour of our Sa­viours manifestation made to the Gentiles by a miraculous Comet, or Blazing-Star, by virtue where­of, the three Magi, or Sages (vul­garly called the three Kings of Colen) were conducted to him, who, upon Discovery of that Star, came out of the East to Palestine, or Jewry, to adore him in the Manger, where (a Twelve-month after Christ's Birth) the first of them is (as Tradition delivers it [Page 7]down to us) nam'd Melchior, an aged Man, with a long Beard, who offered Gold to our Saviour, as to a King, in testimony of his Rega­lity; the second Jasper, a Beard­less Youth, who offered Frankin­cense, as unto God, in acknow­ledgment of his Divinity; the third Balthasar a Black, or Moor with a large spreading Beard, who offered Myrrh, as to a Man, that was ready or fit for his Sepulchre, thereby signifying his Humanity; of which this Distich is extant,

Tres Reges Regi Regum tria dona ferebant;
Myrrham Homini, Uncto Aurum, Thura dedêre Deo.

Englished thus,

Three Kings the King of Kings Three Gifts did bring;
Myrrh, Incense, Gold; as to God, Man and King.

And the Poet Prudentius sings sweetly on this Subject, in this following Tetrastich.

Hic pretiosa Magi sub Virginis ubere Christo
Dona ferunt Puero, Myrrhae (que) & Thuris, & Auri;
Miratur Genitrix tot casti ventris honores,
Seque Deum genuisse, Hominem, Regemque supremum.

And thus Translated by Dr. Spark in his Primitive Devotion.

The Wise-men here choice Treasures do dispence
To Christ, and Mary, Myrrh, Gold Frankincense;
While thus astonish'd at this Glo­rious thing;
A Maid at once to bear God, Man, and King.

Or 'tis so call'd from the appear­ing of the Holy Ghost in the shape of a Dove, at his Baptism, 30 years after (for this sixth of January was the day of our Saviour's Baptism, and is Celebrated as such by the Church) and therefore 'tis term'd by Alcas Cyriacus, an Arabick Ma­nuscript of Astronomical Tables in the Archbishop's Archives, in the Library of Oxford; the Feast of Epiphanie, or Benediction of Wa­ters. On this day also is comme­morated the first Miracle perfor­med by our Saviour at the Wed­ding in Cana of Galilee, where he turn'd Water into Wine. The Vigil (or Eve of this Festival, so nam'd from Vigilia in Latin, Wat­ohing; because then Christians were wont to Watch, Fast, and Pray in their Churches) was call'd in the Primitive Times, Vigilia Luminum; and the Ancients then were accustomed to send Lights [Page 10]one to the other. This day was of old Celebrated in honour of Augustus Caesar by the Romans, for his Conquest of Media, Aegypt, and Parthia, which were after added to their Empire; but the Holy Church willing to alter that So­lemnity, and introduce a better, instituted this Feast of the Epipha­nie in lieu of it. 'Tis styl'd Twelfth-Day, because Celebrated on the 12th day after the Nativity of the Blessed Jesus exclusively, not taking in Christmas-Day for one. This is also one of His Majesties Offering­days at White-hall.

St. Paul.

January the 25th. is kept the Festival known by the Name of the Conversion of St. Paul, that once bloody Persecutor of the People of God; tho through his Mercy, he afterward became the [Page 11]great Apostle of the Gentiles, and was Martyr'd at Rome for the faith of Christ; but inserted in our Ru­brick since His Majestie's Restaura­tion, Anno Dom. 1664.

January the 30th.

January the 30th. A Day — Nigro carbone notandus;—and not to be thought upon without Horror & Consternation. 'Tis kept annually, as a solemn Fast for the barbarous, unexampled Murder of the best of Kings, Charles the First, of blessed Memory, and is by Act of Parliament, 12. Car. 2di. set apart to implore the Mercy of God, that the guilt of the innocent Blood of this Royal Martyr may not hereafter be visited upon us, and our Posterity, &c.

Purification of the blessed Virgin.

February the 2d. is Candlemas-Day, or the Purification of the Bles­sed Virgin. Candlemas-Day 'tis call'd from the Saxon, Candlemaesse, the Mass or Feast of Candles (the old Saxons term all Holy-days, Mass­days, because they were obliged to hear Mass on those days, or be­cause High Mass was then Sung) for before Mass is said on that day, the Roman Church blesseth, depu­teth, or sets apart her Candles for sacred use; which do serve in the Church all the ensuing year, and goes in Procession with Hallowed Candles, carried by the Romanists, in commemoration of the Divine Light, wherewith our Saviour Illuminated the Universal Church, at his Presentation, when the Good & Aged Simeon styled him a Light to lighten the Gentiles, and the [Page 13]Glory of his People Israel, Luk. 2.32. and both by Simeon and Anna proclamed to be the true Messiah. 'Tis nam'd also the Purification, from Purifico, to Purifie; kept in memory, both of the Presentation of our Blessed Lord, and the Puri­fication of the Holy Virgin in the Temple of Jerusalem, within the space of forty days after her Happy Delivery of the Holy Child, Jesus; in obedience to the Mosaical Law, as it is set down, Leviticus, the 12th. and the 6th: not that the Blessed Virgin had contracted any Impurity by her Child-birth, which stood in need of Purification (being the Mother of Purity in the very Abstract) but partly because (as Mr. Lightf. says in his Harmony of the four Evangelists) that Christ in nothing might be wanting to the Law; and partly that this might be an occasion for the first publick Declaration of him by [Page 14] Simeon and Anna: The Dutch call this Day Lichtmiss, the Mass, or Feast of Lights; see the Saxon Di­ctionary by Summers: and was In­stituted by Justinian the Emperor, Anno Christi 542. Besides, 'tis one of the four Gawdy, or Grand-Days in the Inns of Court, which singly fall out in every Term: Candle­mas, or the Purification in Hilary; Ascension, or Holy Thursday in Ea­ster; Midsummer, or St. John Bap­tist's in Trinity; All Saints, or All­hollandtide in Michaelmas Term. These four are no Days in the Courts at Westminster: and in the Inns of Court on these Days dou­ble Commons are allow'd, and Musick and Revelling on All-Saints: and Candlemas-Day, as the first and last day of Christmas.

The Etymologie of the word may be taken from Judge Gawdy; who as 'tis affirm'd by some, was [Page 15]the first Instituter of these Days; or rather from the Latin Gaudium, because they are Days of Joy, and furnish the Tables in the Inns of Court with good Chear.

In the Colledges at the Univer­sities they are usually call'd Gawdy, in the Inns of Court Grand-Days, and at His Majestie's Court, White-Hall, Collar-Days; for on these Days at Court, the King, Knights of the Garter, and Judges wear their Collars of S.S. It is also one of His Majestie's Offering-days.

St. Matthias.

On February the 24th. (but in Leap-year the 25th) is Celebrated the Feast of St. Matthias, who was one of the 70 Disciples, and ele­cted Apostle by lot, in the room of that Arch Traytor Judas, after the Ascension of our Blessed Lord: [Page 16]He Preached the Holy Gospel in Macedonia (and after Travelled in­to Judaea) where he was first cru­elly stoned by the Jews, and then Beheaded according to the Roman Custom, Anno Dom. 51. and it is also one of His Majesties Collar-Days, without Offering; here we may properly come in with our Discourse concerning Bissextile, or Leap-year. 'Tis term'd Bissex­tilis, because the 6th of the Ca­lends of March are twice reckon'd, viz. on the 24th and 25th of Fe­bruary; so that Leap-year has a supernumerary day more than other years; according to that old Rhythm,

Thirty Days hath November,
April, June, and September;
February hath Eight and twenty alone,
And all the rest have thirty and one;
[Page 17]
But when of Leap-year cometh the time,
Then Days hath February Twenty and nine:

Observe also this Latin Distich; tho in old Monkish Rhythm, re­gardless of true Quantity,

Bissextum Sextae Martis tenuere Calendae,
Posteriore die celebrantur Festa Mathiae.

This Leap-year is observed eve­ry fourth year, and was first in­vented by Julius Caesar, the Perpe­tual Dictator of Rome, to accom­modate and even the year with the Course of the Sun; and takes the name of Julian Account from him, who before the Incarnation of Christ, the space of 44 years, observing the erroneousness of the Account then in use; ordered the [Page 18]year to consist of 365 days and six hours which six hours, in four years time, made 24 hours, or a Civil Day, and were added to the end of February; and upon this account every fourth year con­tained. 366 days, and was call'd Annus Bissextilis, for the reason pre­mention'd, and the thing it self Intercalatio, an Interlacing or put­ing any odd thing between even ones, meaning the odd day in Leap­year, in which account for many years there was no sensible Error discovered; yet in process of time it was found not to be so exactly agreeable with the Sun's natural Motion; for the Julian exceeded the true Solar year by 10 Minutes, and 48 seconds, and caused the Aequinoxes and Solstices, yearly, to alter and change their places, and recede or fly back so many Mi­nutes and seconds; in considera­tion whereof, Pope Gregory the [Page 19]13th of that Name, by the advice [...]nd assistance of Antonius Lilius, [...]is Brothers, and other Eminent Mathematicians, did, in the year of our Lord 1582. correct the Roman Calendar, appointing the year to contain 365 days, 5 hours, 49 Mi­nutes, and 12 seconds, and that the Vernal Aequinox which was then on the 11th of March, might be reduced to the 21th as it was at the time of the first Council of Nicaea; he commanded, that 10 days in October should be totally omitted, viz. from the 4th, to the 14th; so that the 4th day of the Month was counted the 14th. Hence it is, that the New, Foreign, Gregorian, or Lilian is 10 days be­fore the old, or our Julian account. Here it is also observable, that every Leap-year (to prevent all Ambiguities that may arise at Law) it is provided by the Statute de Anno Bissextili, 21 H. 3. that [Page 20]the 24th and 25th of February, in Suits at Law, shall be accounted for one day only. Britton f. 209. Dyer 17 Eliz. 345. but for keeping of Fairs, it is ordered, that those which use to be on the 24th of February, shall be kept on the 25th, because the Feast of St. Mathias is not till the 25th of February in the Leap-year. It is call'd Leap-year from the Dutch Loop-iare, qu. Leap­year, because it exceeds the bounds of other years by a day.


As for Sunday or the Lords-Day, it is the weekly Feast of the Re­furrection of Christ; not Instituted by him, or God himself, but by his own Apostles in the place of the rejected Sabbath of the Jews, for these ensuing Reasons:

1. That Christians should not be obliged to the observance of [Page 21]Judaical Ceremonies; but testifie the Abrogation of their Feasts, and the liberty receiv'd by the coming of Christ.

2. That as the Jewish Sabbath did continually put them in mind of the former World finished by the Creation; so the Lord's-Day ought to keep us in the constant Remembrance of a far better world begun by our Saviour, who came to restore all things, and make Heaven and Earth new; therefore for this Reason did they Honour the Last day, we the First in every seven, annually.

3. In regard that the Lord rose from the Dead on this day, and perfected the great and wonder­ful Work of Man's Redemption.

4. We cannot more congru­ously apprehend the Majesty of [Page 22]the Super-eminent and Puissant Jesus, by any other Creature than by the most resplendent and glo­rious Light of the Sun, the Ruler of this day; for it is written, Et in sole posuit Tabernaculum suum, & exiit de Tribu Judae, cujus Signum (Leo) est Solare Animal.

The Lord's-Day (when any happens) between Candlemas, and Twelfth-Day, hath no certain Name; but is call'd the first, or se­cond Sunday (on which it falls) after Christmas; but those that succeed the Epiphanie, are denoted accor­ding to the Numeral order, as the first Sunday after it is styl'd the first Sunday after Epiphanie, the next the second, &c. whereof there are five this present year, sometimes only four, but more or fewer, ac­cording to the greater quantity of the Intervallum majus, tho the Sunday immediately preceding [Page 23] Septuagesima is ever counted the last Sunday after Epiphanie.


Valentine's-Day is on the 14th of February, so call'd from Valen­tine (Powerful, Lat.) a Roman Bi­shop, whose Feast is kept this day: about this time the Birds make choice of their Mates for the en­suing year, and we among us of our Valentines; that is, Men and Women chosen for special Loving Friends; it signifies also Saints cho­sen for special Patrons for the year.

The next 4 Sundays are known by the Name of

Septuagesima, Seragesima, Quinquagesima, and Qua­dragesima.

The three first have their Names from the Order in which they precede the 4th Quadragesi­ma, and so of the rest.

Septuagesima was Instituted, as 'tis generally believ'd, for these three Reasons.

1. For Suppletion; i.e. making up what is wanting; for because some did not use to fast on the Friday (and therefore Sexagesima was In­stituted, as you shall understand by and by) neither upon the Sa­turday, in regard that our Saviour on that day rested in his Grave, to denote our future Rest (and 'tis observ'd by St. Augustin, that the Inhabitants of Asia, & some others, grounding their Practice on an Apostolical Tradition, would not Fast on the Saturday) therefore the Week call'd Septuagesima, was ad­ded to supply the seven days of Sexagesima.

2. For it's own Signification; in that thereby is signified unto us [Page 25]the Exile and Affliction of Man­kind from Adam to the last gene­ral Conflagration; and therefore all Holy Hymns, and Sacred An­thems of Joy are intermitted by our Holy Mother the Church, during the time of Septuagesima.

3. To represent the 70 years Captivity of the Jews in Babylon: and as at that time the Israelites laid aside their Instrument, saying, Quomodo cantabimus Canticum Do­mini, &c. so the Church leaves off her Songs of Praises during this time. Sexagesima was instituted by Melchiades Bp. of Rome, a Martyr, who flourished, An. Dom. 311. and ordained, that none should Fast on Friday, because of the Lord's Sup­per, and his Ascension on that day; so neither on the Sunday (which be­ing the first day of the Week) solemnizeth our Saviour's Resur­rection, to distinguish between [Page 26]Christians, and Gentiles; there­fore the Ancients (to redeem the Fridays in Quinquagesima) added this other Week to the Fast, call'd by them Sexagesima.

The next Sunday is Quinquagesi­ma. The Holy Church Commands a Fast to be observ'd, consisting of 40 days, before Easter, styl'd Qua­dragesima, or the Holy time of Lent, wherein there are but 36 days, besides the Lord's-Days, on which she fasts not, for joy of the Resur­rection; now to supply this De­fect, four days of the foregoing Week were added to the Quadra­gesimal Fast; and afterward it was (first by Telesphorus Bishop of Rome and Martyr, who flourished, Anno Dom. 142. and since that by Pope Gregory the Great) Decreed, that all Priests should begin their Fast two days sooner, viz. two days before the additional four [Page 27]pre-mentioned; that as they pre­ceded the Laity in Dignity, they might also in Sanctity and Holi­ness; therefore this Week Quin­quagesima was added to the Week Quadragesima.


Next we come to Shrovetide or Carneval, which is derived from the Saxon Shrive, or Shrift; and the Belgick Tyde or Tijdt, i.e. the time of shriving or confession of Sins; for about this time the Ro­man Catholicks use to confess their Sins. and receive the blessed Sacrament; to the end they might more Religiously observe the Holy time of Lent then immediately en­suing. 'Tis call'd Carneval (being a dissolute Season, or Licentious Time) qu. valeat caro, because then they bid adieu to eating of Flesh, and feed on Fish.


Ash-Wednesday is the Begin­ning, or Head of the Fast of Lent, and was by Gregory the Great, (Pope of Rome) Dedicated to the Consecration and sprinkling with Ashes (and therefore call'd in La­tine, Dies Cinerum, or Ash-Wednes­day, by the Ancients Caput Jejunii, the Head of Fasting, or first be­ginning of Lent) yet (as Hospi­nian affirms) there is extant an Homily composed by Maximus Bishop of Tours, in France, with this Inscription, In Die Cinerum, which shews the Institution there­of to be before his Time, because Maximus Taurinensis liv'd 170 years before him, viz. Anno Dom. 420. 'Tis call'd Ash-Wednesday, from the ancient Ceremony of Blessing Ashes on that Day; and therewith the Priest signeth the [Page 29]People on the Forehead in the form of a Cross, affording them withal this wholsom Admonition; Memento Homo quod Pulvis es, & in Pulverem reverteris; Remem­ber Man, that thou art Dust, and to Dust thou shalt return; to mind them of their Mortality, and pre­pare them for the Holy Fast of Lent; the Ashes used this day in the Church of Rome, are made of the Palms consecrated the Sun­day Twelve-month before: and formerly in the Easterin Countries, they usually on this Day wore Sack-cloth, and sprinkled Ashes on the Heads of the People, which was done in token of sincere Hu­miliation, and a true and unfeigned sorrow for Sin.

St. David.

St. David's, vulgarly and ludi­briously nick-nam'd St. Taffie's [Page 30]Day, which is on the first of March, is a British Holy-Day, and observ'd by them very solemnly, in Honour and Commemoration of St. David, their worthy Patron, who is by their Records and Tra­dition, justified to be a Prelate of Eminent Holiness and Austerity of Life, a Person of great Learn­ing, a most Florid and Eloquent Preacher of the Word of God, and Archbishop of Menevy, now taking from him the Name of St. David s in Pembrokeshire. He flourished in the fifth and sixth Age after the In­carnation of Christ, and died aged 140 years, as Dr. Pits testifieth in his Treatise Intituled, De Illustri­bus Angliae Scriptoribus: The Bri­tains on this Day constantly wear a Leek, in Memory of a Famous and Notable Victory obtain'd by them over the Saxons; they, du­ring the Battel, having Leeks in their Hats, for their Military Co­lours, [Page 31]and Distinction of them­selves, by the perswasion of the said Prelate, St. David.

The first Sunday in Lent is call'd Quadragesima, the second Remini­scere, the third Oculi, the fourth Laetare, the fifth Iudica, the fixth Dominica Magna; of these in order.

Quadragesima, or the first Sun­day in Lent; so call'd because it is distant 40 days from the grand Feast of Easter, containing the Lenten Fast, as it was observ'd by the Primitive Christians, in imi­tation of our Saviour's Fasting in the Desart 40 days, and 40 nights; it is call'd also Invocavit, because on that Day the Church sings In­vocavit me, & ego exaudiam eum, or that taken out of Psalm the 90th, v. 3, 4. 'Tis styl'd Lent, so call'd from the old Saxons, who nomi­nated March, Lenct Monat, i. e. [Page 32] Length Month, because the Days then begin to lengthen, and exceed the Nights. Now this Month be­ing so named by our Ancestors, when they did first imbibe or em­brace Christianity, and therewith also the ancient and Religious Cu­stom of Fasting; this Season is pe­culiarly term'd the Fast of Lent, by reason of the Lenct-Monat, or Month of March, wherein the ma­jor part of the time of this Grand Fasting always hapned. Sir Ri­chard Baker saith in his Chronolo­gy, that it was first commanded to be observ'd here among us in Eng­land, by Ercombert the 7th King of Kent, in or about the year of our Lord 641. So that it is of An­tiquity in this Nation, and no up­start and new-fangled Fast.

Then we meet with Ember-Week, so named from the Greek [...], i. e. Dies; Days, by way [Page 33]of Emphasis, the Grand Days of Fasting, as some are of opinion; others conceive, that they are call'd the Days of Ashes, or Ember-Days from that as Ancient, as Reli­gious Custom of wearing Hair-Cloth, and using Ashes in times of Publick Penance and Piety, or from the Antiquated usage of eat­ing no other Food on those Days, till Night, only a Cake baked under the Embers or Ashes, which they call'd, Panem Subcineritium, or Ember-Bread, Turb. Cath. Yet Sir Henry Spelman saith, De Conci­liis, that the true and genuine word is Imber, from the Saxon Imbren, i. e. a Circle; because the Ember-days move round the year, as it were in a Circle. These Ember-Weeks are four in the year; and they of old, in every one of them fasted on Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, as you will find it in this ancient Couplet.

Post Cineres, Pentec: post Crucem, postque Luciam.
Mercurii, Veneris, Sabathi, Jeju­nia fiant.

That is, the next Week after Ash-Wednesday, Whitsunday, Holy-Rood, or the Exaltation of the Cross, and St. Lucie's Day. They are of great Antiquity in the Church, being times of Publick Prayer, Fasting and Procession, and styl'd Quatuor Anni Tempora, by the An­cient Fathers; for besides the first Institution of them for quarterly Seasons of Devotion, proportion'd to every part of the year, that the intire year, & each Division there­of might be blessed thereby; they were partly instituted for the suc­cessful Ordination of Priests in the Roman Church, and partly to beg a Blessing on the Fruits of the Earth, and render thanks to God [Page 35]for the same; nay, besides their answerableness to those Jejunia Quatuor, or solemn Fasting-days instituted by the Jews, and men­tioned by the Prophet Zachary, ca. 8. that we Christians might not be inferior to them in so Holy a Duty; the Church hath assigned them an Excellent use, in imita­tion of the Apostles, Acts 13.3. See a Book Intituled, A View of the Directory, fol. 56. Much about this time the Aequinox happens, which is an Imaginary, phancied Line, passing just between the two Poles in the midst of Heaven, which Lines the Sun travels to twice a year (namely about the 11th of March, which is call'd the Vernal, and the 11th of Septem­ber, the Autumnal Aequinox) and equals the Day and Night for length throughout the Universe (except with the Inhabitants dire­ctly under the Poles) and therefore term'd Equinox.

The second Sunday in Lent is nam'd Reminiscere, from the En­trance of the 5th Verse of Psal. 25. Reminiscere miserationum tuarum Domine, &c. Call to Remembrance, O Lord, thy tender Mercies, &c.

The third Sunday in Lent is call'd Oculi, from the entrance of the 14th v. of the 25th Psalm, Oculi mei semper ad Dominum, &c. My Eyes are ever looking unto the Lord.

March the 17th. St. Patrick's-Day; a great Saint, Worker of Miracles, and the much honoured Patron of Ireland.

The fourth Sunday is call'd Lae­tare, from the beginning of the 10th v. of the 66th Chap. of Isaiah, Laetare cum Jerusalem, &c. Rejoyce with Jerusalem, &c. It is also term'd Dominica de Rosa, from the Golden [Page 37]Rose which the Pope of Rome car­rieth in his hand when he walks before the People in the Temple; as also, Dominica de Panibus, or Refectionis; because the Miracle of the five Loaves in the Holy Gospel is explained on this Day in the Roman Church; but we here in England truly style it Mid-Lent Sunday.

March the 19th. in the Roman Church is Celebrated in Comme­moration of St. Joseph Confessor, the Husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Annunciation of the Holy Virgin.

The 25th of this Month is the Feast of the Annunciation of the Holy Virgin, the Conception of our Saviour, vulgarly Lady-Day; and this is Celebrated in Commemoration of that most [Page 38]Happy Message, or rather Embassy from God, which was pronoun­ced by the Angel Gabriel, in which she was Declar'd and Proclam'd the Blessed Mother of God, St. Luke 1st. 31, 32.

The fifth Sunday in Lent is call'd Judica, and Passion-Sunday; from the entrance of the 35th Psalm, Judica me Deus, Discerne Causam meam, &c. Judg me, O Lord! Plead thou my Cause, &c. 'Tis term'd Passion-Sunday, from the Passion of our Lord, which is then near approaching, and was Instituted to prepare us worthily for the Re­ligious Celebration thereof.

On this Day the Romanists clothe all their Crucifixes in their Chur­ches with Mourning Colours, in remembrance of our Saviour's go­ing out of the Temple, and ab­sconding Himself, in order to [Page 39]Dispose us to a Compassion with him.


Palm Sunday, Dominica Palma­rum, or Dominica Magna, is the 6th and last Sunday in Lent, im­mediately preceding Easter. 'Tis call'd Palm-Sunday, or Dominica Palmarum (which is the same in Latin) from the Branches of Palm which the Jews strewed under his feet, at his Triumphant Entrance into Jerusalem upon an Ass, crying Hosanna to the Son of David, St. Matth. 21.25. and hence it is that the Romanists do annually on this day, blesse the Palm, and go so­lemnly in Procession, in honour of our Saviour's Triumph, all the people carrying Boughs, or Bran­ches of Palm in their hands. It hath the Name Dominica Magna, or the Great Lord's-Day; because [Page 40]of the Great and many Infallible good things that were confer'd on the Faithful, the Week ensuing; namely, Death abolished, Slander and the Tyranny of Satan re­mov'd, by the painful and igno­minious Death of our Saviour.

This is call'd the Holy-Week, because Men gave over their worldly employ, Courts were shut up, Prisoners freed, and many Prayers and Offices perform'd by the Holy Church, in order to our Preparation for the Grand Feast of Easter, and the Week of Fasts, because fasting was then in­creas'd, with Watching & Prayer, for they did lye on the ground, and when they did eat on these six days, their Food was only Bread, Salt and Water.

The next Wednesday after Palm-Sunday, was the Day whereon the Scribes and Pharisees sate in [Page 41]Council against the Lord of Life; the Thursday following, the Pa­rasceue (Greek) or Preparation of the Legal Passeover, and the In­stitution of the Lord's Supper, that very night, which is otherwise nam'd Maundy Thursday, quasi Mandati Thursday (being the last Thursday in Lent, and first before Easter) from fulfilling the Man­date or Command of our Saviour, which arose from an ancient Ce­remony frequently practis'd by Prelates in Cathedral Churches and Religious Houses, and is in imitation of Christ; who on the Evening of this Day, after his last Supper, and before he Instituted the Blessed Sacrament, washed his Disciples feet; acquainting them withal, that they must do so like­wise to one another; which is the Mandate whence the Day takes Denomination. At the beginning of the said Ceremony, Christ ut­ter'd [Page 42]these words, soon after he had washed their feet, Joh. 13.34. (which are sung as an Antiphone) Mandatum novum do vobis, ut dili­gatis invicem, sicut dilexi vos.

Good Friday.

The next Day is styl'd Good-Friday, because the Good Work of Man's Redemption was then Consummated; the Cause of all our good, and true ground of all our joy; it being the most Sacred and Memorable Day of the Bloody Passion of Christ on the Cross; which was a sufficient Attone­ment or Satisfaction for the Sins of Mankind.

And here it will not be amiss for the Reader to take notice (in order to his understanding it, when he meets it in Authors) that in the Roman Church, the Offices [Page 43]call'd Tenebrae, are Sung on Thurs­day, Friday, and Saturday, of this Holy, or Great Week, and that in Lamentation of our Saviour's Passion; and because these are still anticipated in the Rehearsal, the Evening of the foregoing Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, hath obtain'd the Appellation of Tenebrae-Days from the Latin Tene­brae, or the French Tenebres, Days of Darkness, or Dark Days, because thereby they represent the Dark­ness that attended and accompa­nied our Lord's Crucifixion; and then also that Church extinguish­eth all her Lights; and after some si­lence, when the whole office is con­cluded, they make a sudden great noise, to represent the rending the Veil of the Temple, and the disor­der the whole frame of Nature was in at the death of her Maker.

Their Matins also, or Morning-Service [Page 44]is, on the first three days before Easter begun with very many Lights, but ended in Dark­ness; representing thereby the Night-time wherein they seized and apprehended our Saviour in the Garden Gethsemani; in which Office there are 15 Tapers lighted at the first, and placed in a Candle­stick of a Triangular form, viz. as many as there are Canticles in the Office; and at the conclu­sion of every Canticle or Psalm, one of the 15 Tapers or Lights is put out, and so gradually, till they are all extinguished.


The next to this great Week, that Great and High Feast of Easter, or the Resurrection of the Holy Jesus, after his three days Interment in the Grave, succeeds; and is styl'd Pasche, (Pascha) or Easter. 'Tis [Page 45]call'd Pascha, a Passeover (not in memory of the Angels transit in Egypt, (the Jewish Passeover being a Holy Action appointed by God in the killing and eating of a Lamb; partly that the Church of the Jews might remember the Be­nefits God confer'd upon them in passing over the Houses, and not smiting them, Exod. 12.11.) but our Feast is celebrated in Com­memoration of the Resurrection of Christ; tho we still retain the Name Pascha, not only because the Lamb that was kil'd by the Jews of old in their Passeover, was a true Type of the Lamb of God, Christ Jesus, which was sacrificed for Man's Salvation; but because at that very time he passed to his Father from this World [...] Pe­sach, signifies Transitio, a passage from [...] Pasach, Transire, to pass) or because then there was made a passage from an Old to a New [Page 46]Life; in Span. nam'd Florida a flo­rido & vernanti anni tempore, from the flourishing and Spring-time of the year in which it falls. 'Tis call'd Easter, from Eoster, a God­dess of the ancient Saxons, whose Feast they kept in the Month of April, Cam. or as Minshew gives it in regard that then the Sun of Righteousness did rise, as the Sun in the East; and therefore Easter comes from the East. Now this is the Basis of all the Lord's-Days in the year, tho it be a Moveable Feast, and falls sometimes higher, sometimes lower, (as all the Move­able Feasts do) but the time of Easter being known, the rest are soon discovered; and thus you may know when Easter will fall:

Post Martis Nonas, ubi sit Nova Luna requiras,
Et cum transierit bis Septima Pascha patebit.

Or thus, Inde dies Solis tertia Pascha venit.

But take it in English more plainly thus: Easter-Day is always the first Sunday after the first full Moon, which shall happen next after the 11 day of March, and if the full Moon fall on a Sunday, the Sunday after will be Easter Day. Now tho this Rule be true enough as to the Gregorian, yet it is not applicable to our Julian Accompt, which the Table of Moveable Feasts in the Common-Prayer Book Calculated for 40 years regardeth only, and must be followed till His Majesty Commands another; and one reason is, the Precession of the Aequinoctium Vernum, which from the first Nicene Coun­cil, to this time hath Anticipated 11 days, falling now the 10th of [Page 48] March; whereas it was on the 21th. and the reason of this Anti­cipation is, that the Julian exceeds the Solar year 10 Minutes, and 48 Seconds, or thereabout; which causes the Aequinoxes and Solstices yearly to change their Places, and go backward so many Minutes and Seconds. The Lunations also, by reason of the great quantity al­low'd them, do every 19 years anticipate almost an hour and a half, and in 312 years and a half, one whole day; and therefore not exactly to be found by the Golden Number, tho on those Lunations, Easter depends, as of it all the Moveable Feasts, which is the other Cause of those Errors, and both together the first occasion of the Roman Emendation, whereby that Church doth always produce Easter on the Sunday following the first full Moon next after the Vernal Aequinox, according to [Page 49]the Deeree of the Nicene Council. This occasion'd that Error that all the Astrologers were guilty of, viz. 5. Weeks Mistake in 1663, and one Week in 1664; and it is the 20th time it hath so happened since 1600: but in the Years 2437, 2461, 2491, there will be 42 days Error, and some time afterward no less than 49 days; and after the Year 2698, (if the Old Calendar be still retain'd) it will never agen happen according to the Rule of the Church, as before: Thus far Mr. G. Wharton.

Easter-Day, (and the rest of the Moveable Feasts) Anno 1668, ac­cording to the Julian Accompt, fell full as soon, or low in the Year, upon its nearest Limit or Boun­dary, as ever it could, which hath not hapned from 1573, till this Year; nor will so fall out agen in 247 years, till the year 1915, which [Page 50]will be 239 years from this Year, before it so happen.

Here you may also Observe, That Easter always falls between the 21th of March, and the 26th of April, these two dayes being ex­cluded; for it never happens on, but between them. Easter-day is one of his Majesties Offering-dayes at Court, being a Houshold-day also, when the Besant is given by the Lord Steward, or one of the other White-Staffe-Officers. All the Holy-dayes in Easter week are his Majesties Collar, but not Of­fering-dayes.

Next follows the Quinquagesimal Interval of 50 dayes between Ea­ster and Whitsontide, which the Primitive Christians observ'd as an intire Festival, in honour of the Resurrection and Ascension of the Holy Ghost, with great Exul­tation and exceeding Joy, it con­tains 6 Sundays.


The first is Low-Sunday, Domi­nica in Albis, or Quasimodogeniti. 'Tis styl'd Low-Sunday, because 'tis a Low Festival in comparison of Easter-Day, the preceding high Festival. It is the Octave of Easter-Day, nam'd Dominica in Albis, in regard of the Angels who appear'd at the Resurrection in White Gar­ments; and from the Catechumeni, or Neophyts (i.e. persons lately Converted to the Faith, newly taught the Principles of Religion, but not Baptiz'd; or if Baptiz'd, not yet admitted to the Eucharist, White Garments, (the Emblems of Innocence) which in old times they usually put on at their Bap­tism, and in the Church on this day were solemnly devested of them; or for that those who had been Baptiz'd, receiv'd then the [Page 52]Bishop's Confirmation, and put on other white Vestments, which they wore till the next Sunday. 'Tis call'd Quasimodogeniti, from the entrance, in the 1 Peter, 2.2. Qua­simodogeniti Infantes Rationabiles sine dolore lac concupiscite.

St. George.

April the 23th. is the Day De­dicated to the Memory of St. George, the Martyr, of Cappadocia, and is honoured by the Georgians the Inhabitants of a Country call'd Georgia. situated between Colchos, Caucasus, the Caspian-Sea, and Ar­menia, heretofore Iberia and Alba­nia; they do highly reverence and honour this Saint. He also is our Patron, and the same Person that the Knights of the Garter have formerly so much honoured, they being alwayes, on that day only, Install'd at Windsor. This [Page 53]is one of his Majesties Collar-days without Offering, at White-Hall.

St. Mark.

The 25th of this Month is St. Mark's Day. A Feast in Honour of the Evangelist, who wrote the Life, Acts, Miracles, Death and Re­surrection of our Saviour Christ. He was the first Prelate of Alexan­dria, where he Taught the Gospel, and also all over the adjacent Re­gions from the Country of Aegypt to Pentapolis. He was Martyr'd at Alexandria in the time of the Ty­rant Trajan, which was thus exe­cuted. They fastned a Cable-Rope about his Neck, wherewith they dragg'd him from the place call'd Bucolus, to another term'd Angels, where the raging Idola­ters burned him to ashes, (against whom he preached) Anno Domini 63. and was Interred at Bucolus [Page 54]praemention'd. This is one of his Majesties Collar-dayes without offering.


The second Sunday after Easter is term'd Misericordia, from the Entrance of the fifth Verse of the 32 Psalm, Misericordia Domini ple­na est Terra, &c.

Philip and Iacob.

May-Day, or St. Philip, and St. James, vulgarly, but falsly call'd Philip and Jacob; (Philip is a Greek word, and signifies a Lover of Horses. Jacob, Hebr. a Supplanter, May-day 'tis call'd, because the first of May, a day of Mirth and Jollity among the Common Herd; and Philip and James, because dedica­ted to the two Apostles and Mar­tyrs of that name. The former of the City of Bethsaida, who prea­ched [Page 55]in Phrygia, and Converted the Eunuch Candaules. It is af­firm'd by some Authors, that he sent 12 Disciples into our Coun­try of Britain, to work the Con­version of them. In conclusion, the Pagans seized him, and put him to the Ignominious death of his Lord and Master, at the City Hierapolis, about the Year of our Lord, 53.

The later, viz. St. James the Lesser, (James is a Name wrested from Jacob) was Son to Alphaeus and Pen-man of that Excel­lent Epistle which goes un­der his Name; for his Wisdome and Piety sirnamed the Just. He was created Bishop of Jerusalem after the Ascension; and Govern­ed that Church 30 years com­pleat; where he was most Inhu­manely first stoned, and afterward being placed on the Top of a Pi­nacle of the Temple, precipitated [Page 56]from thence, and being half dead, and his Thighes broken, and lift­ing up his hands to Heaven, he was knock'd on the head with a great Fuller's Club; this Bloody Butchery was Executed on this Saint in the Seventh Year of the Sanguinary Emperour Nero. This is also one of his Majestie's Collar­days without Offering.

Holy Cross, or Holy-Rood-day.

May the 3d, is Inventio Crucis, i. e. the Invention of the Holy-Cross, or Holy-Rood-day, and is in the Roman, tho not in our Rubrick; of which there are two call'd Ho­ly-Rood-dayes, viz. this, being on the 3d. of May, and the Exaltation of the Cross on the 14th of Septem­ber. 'Tis a Feast in Commemora­tion (as the Romanists believe) of the Miraculous and Wonderful Invention, or finding out the Holy [Page 57]Cross, on which the Blessed Jesus suffered, by St. Helen, the Mother of Constantine the Great, after it had been conceal'd and buried in the Earth by the Painims, the space of 180 years, in place where­of they had erected a Statue to their wanton Deity, Venus. 'Tis called Holy-Rood-Day, and Holy Cross, because of the great Sanctity it receiv'd, by touching and bear­ing the Oblation of the most pre­cious Body of Christ, and Rood is an old Saxon word, signifying a Cross, or the Image of Christ on the Cross, being compos'd gene­rally of Wood, and erected in a Loft for that purpose, just over the passage of the Church into the Chancel. Fuller.

The third Sunday after Easter as it falls in course here, is styl'd Ju­bilate, from the beginning of Psalm the 65. Jubilate Deo omnis Terra, &c.

The fourth Sunday Cantate, from the entrance of the 98th Psalm, Cantate Domino Cantieum Novum, &c.

May the 14th. our most Gra­cious and Soveraign Princess Don­na Catarina Landed at Portsmouth, in order to the confirmation of her solemn Nuptials, with His Maje­sty our Dread Soveraign, Charles the Second, whom God long pre­serve in health and happiness.


Next follows Rogation-Sunday, the fifth Sunday after Easter, (the Week following is call'd Rogation-Week, or Vocem Jucunditatis, the Institution or Restauration where­of, is by Historians attributed to Claudius Mamertus, or Mamercus Bishop of Vienne in France, Anno Dom. 452. or as some say, 466. [Page 59]being the fifth Sunday after Easter, from the like entrance Vocem Ju­cunditatis annunciate & audia­tur, &c. and Rogation Sunday, or Week, which is always the next but one before Whitsunday, à Ro­gando Deum, as being once (tho we cannot affirm that now) Conse­crated above all other Weeks of the year in an extraordinary man­ner, unto Prayers, Litanies, and Supplications, (and are still en­joyn'd by the Church to all per­sons among the Roman Catholicks on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednes­day) with Abstinence from flesh, for these Reasons: First, for a Devout Preparative to the Feast of Christ's most glorious Ascen­sion, and Pentecost, which is short­ly after. 2. Because the fruits of the Earth are tender, and in dan­ger, being in the Blossom. 3. For that much about this time of the year, Monarchs and Potentates [Page 60]begin to undertake their Wars; upon both which Considerations, all Good and Pious Christians have great Reason to be frequent with God in Rogations and Pray­ers, at this time, particularly; and for this cause it is, that the So­lemnization of Matrimony is pro­hibited by the Holy Church from the first day in this Week, until Trinity Sunday following. The Belgians or Dutch-men call it Cruys-Week, that is, Cross-week; and so 'tis also nam'd in some Parts of England, because the Priest on these days goes in Procession with the Cross before him.

In the old Saxon 'tis nam'd Gang­dagas, i. e. Dayes of Walking or Perambulation. In the North of England Gang-week, from the ganging or going in Procession (for Gang there, as well as in the Saxon, signifies to go) from an An­tient and Commendable Custome [Page 61](tho discontinued in the time of the late Unnatural Rebellion) to make Perambulations and Proces­sions with the Young Children in every Parish and Township with us, to view and understand the Ancient Limits and Boundaries of every Parish, to prevent all man­ner of Incroachments, Contenti­ons and Suits at Law. In the Inns of Court 'tis known by the name of Grass-week, because the Stu­dents Commons on some days that Week, consist much of Salads, hard Eggs, and Green-sauce.

The Robigalia and Ambarvalia of the Antient Romans, did, after their Heathenish manner, in some­thing, resemble these In [...]itutions; They were call'd Robigalia, from Robigus, one of their numerous Deities, to whom they ascribed the preserving of Corn from Blasting, therefore these Feasts were sacred [Page 62]to him particularly. And Ambar­valia, quòd victima arva ambiret, because the Sacrifice to be offered at that time did walk round the Fields.

May the 21th. 1662. K. Charles was Married at Portsmouth to Don­na Catarina, Infanta of Portugal, by Gilbert Bishop of London.

May the 22. is a Feast dedicated by the Romanists to one Julia, a Ho­ly, Devout Virgin, and is placed in their Rubrick, not mention'd in our Calendar.

Holy Thursday, or Ascension-Day.

The next Feast celebrated by our Holy Mother the Church, is Holy-Thursday, or Ascension-Day, which is the 40th day after Easter, or his Resurrection; call'd Holy-Thursday, because so Holy a Work was perform'd on this Holy-day; and Ascension-day, in memory of our Saviour's Ascension into Hea­ven, in the sight of his Apostles and Disciples then present, Acts 1.9. there to prepare a place for all true Christians, being preceded by whole Legions of Angels, and attended by Millions of Saints, whom he had discharged & set at large out of their imaginary Prison of Limbo: (as the Romanists fond­ly conceive) In short, and in truth, this Festival of Christ's Ascension, is the Consummation of all he did [Page 64]and taught, during his Residence here upon Earth, and therefore it was (not without great reason) termed by the Antients, Felix Clausula totius Itinerarii Filii Dei, the Sabbath, or Consummation of all his labour in the Great and stupendous Work of Man's Re­demption. This is one of his Ma­jesties Offering-dayes.

Next comes the 6th Sunday af­ter Easter, call'd Exaudi, from the beginning of the 27th Psalm, Ex­audi Domine vocemmeam, &c.

The Week after Ascension-Day is Expectation-Week; for now the Apostles were earnestly expecting the promise of our Lord; If I go away, I will send the Comforter to you, Jo. 16.7.

King Charles 2d. Nat.

May the 29th is Celebrated up­on a double account, first in Com­memoration of the Birth of our Soveraign King Charles the Second, the Princely Son of his Royal Fa­ther Charles the First of happy Memory, and Mary the Daughter of Henry the 4th, the French King, who was born the 29th day of May, Anno 1630. and also by Act of Parliament 12 Car. 2. by the Passionate desires of the People, in Memory of his most Happy Re­stauration to his Crown and Dig­nity, after 12 years forced Exile from his undoubted Right, the Crown of England, by Barbarous Rebels and Regicides; and on the 8th of this Month his Majesty was with Universal Joy and great Ac­clamations Proclaim'd in London & Westminster, and after through­out [Page 66]all his Dominions; the 16th he came to the Hague; the 23th with his two Brothers Embarqued for England, and on the 25th he happily Landed at Dover, being received by General Monk and some of the Army; From whence he was, by several Voluntary Troops of the Nobility and Gen­try, waited upon to Canterbury, and on the 29th 1660, he made his Magnificent Entrance into that Emporium of Europe, his Stately and Rich Metropolis, the Renown­ed City of London. On this very day also Anno 1662. the King came to Hampton-Court with his Queen Catharine after his Marriage at Portsmouth, as is before mention'd. This as it is his Birth-day is one of his Collar-days without Offer­ing.

Pentecost or Whitsunday.

After this succeeds the Grand Solemnity of Pentecost or Whit­sunday. Pentecost, from the Greek, because 'tis the 50th day from Easter or Christ's Resurrection; and Whitsunday, or White-Sunday, from the Catechumeni, who were apparell'd in White Garments, and on the Eve of this Feast admitted to the Sacrament of Baptisme. But Verstegan affirms, That it was of old nam'd by our fore-fathers, Wied-Sunday, or Wihed-Sunday, because Wied or Wihed, in the Saxon Tongue, signifies Sacred. Now this Festival was antiently celebrated among the Jewes on the 50th day after the Passeover, in the memory of Promulgation of the Divine Law of God on Mount Sinai; and our Whitsunday is kept 50 dayes after Easter by all [Page 68]True and Good Christians; to commemorate the Mission of the Holy Ghost, on that day, (which descended on the heads of the A­postles, in Tongues resembling fire, Act. 2.3.) who is the only and most Infallible Interpreter of the Divine Law. This is one of his Majestie's Offering-dayes, and a Houshold-day when the Besant is given by the Lord Steward, or one of the other White Staff-Officers, and all the Holy-dayes, in Whit­sun-Week, are Collar-days without Offering.

Ember-Week follows Whitsun-day, which is one of the 4 Grand Seasons of the Year, as is before specified at large.


Trinity-Sunday falls next in course, (which is always the Lord's [Page 69]day following, and the Octave of Whitsunday) so nominated in Ho­nour of the most Blessed Trinity; and to signifie unto us, that the holy Works of our Redemption and Sanctification, which were then Consummated, are common to all Three Persons in the Trinity. This Festival was first Instituted by Gregory the 4th, who then sate in the Episcopal Chair, in the year of our Lord 827. It is one of his Majesties Offering-days at White-Hall.

St. Barnabas.

June the 11th. St. Barnabas the Apostle comes next in the Calen­dar; commonly call'd Barnaby. The Name is Hebrew, signifying Son of the Master, of Prophecy, or of Comfort. The proper Name gi­ven him at his Circumcision was Joses, for Joseph, by a sweeter Ter­mination, [Page 70]or Cadence: From the Apostles he received the Sirname of Barnabas; He was born in the Isle of Cyprus, an Island in the Me­diterranean, between Cilicia, Syria, and Aegypt, whose Ancestors fled thither for their greater safety, in the Tumultuous and Distracted Government of Antiochus Epi­phanes, or as some imagine, when Pompey with his Romans Conquer­ed Judaea. He descended of the Tribe of Levi; his Parents were Opulent, and Pious; he was com­mitted to the Tutelage of the Great Doctor of the Law, Gamaliel, at whose Feet he was educated with his Fellow-Pupil St. Paul. He was an Eye-witness of the Miracle in the Cure of the Paralytick at the Pool of Bethesda, which soon con­vinced him of the Divinity of our Saviour. He was one of the 70; sold all his Lands on Earth to Pur­chase in Heaven; and when God [Page 71]gave Saul his Fiat for an Apostle's Place, they two were Joynt-Com­missioners for the Church, Fellow-Travellers, Consorts, and Zealots for Christ, &c. Dr. Brough on the Fest: And both Preached the Go­spel in Seleucia, Salamis, Paphos, Cyprus, Perga in Pamphilia; and here Mark the Son of Barnabas his Sister Mary, whom they took with them, as their Minister and Attendant, weary of this Trou­blesome, Itinerant Life, departed from them, (which occasion'd the unhappy Difference between these two Apostles Paul and Barnabas) afterwards they Travell'd to Ico­nium, Lystra, Derbe, and so back to Antioch, and then they parted with some discontent, because Barnabas would take his Cousin Mark with him, which St. Paul denied, by reason of his weak Desertion, and he went to Silas, but Barnabas with his Cousin Mark to his own Coun­try [Page 72] Cyprus, though some say Rome, but 'tis most probable Cyprus, in the last period of his Life, where he Converted great numbers; but some Syrian Jews coming to Sala­mis, where he then was furiously set upon as he was Teaching in the Synagogue, in a Corner whereof they shut him up till night; then brought him forth, and after un­expressible Tortures, stoned him. This Barnaby-day, or thereabout, is the Summer Solstice or Sun-sted, when the Sun seems to stand, and begins to go back, being the long­est day in the year; about the 11th or 12th of June; it is taken for the whole time, when the days appear not for 14 days together either to lengthen, or shorten.


June the 14th is Corpus-Christi-day, that is the Festival of the Body [Page 73]of our Lord, a Feast that owes its Institution to Urban the 4th Pre­late of Rome, about the year of God 1264. in honour of the Body of Christ, or Blessed Sacrament of the Altar. On this Day in all Catholick Countreys, during the Octave of this Feast, and the Sacra­ment is most solemnly carried a­bout in Procession, to be adored by the People; the Priests and they all Expressing their Devotion in Hymns, Songs, and Prayers, ac­companied with all the Testimo­nies of Pious Affections (as they term it) as Musick, Lights, Flowers strewed all along the Streets, their richest Tapestries hung out upon the Walls, &c.

The next Sunday is the first Sunday after Trinity, and the Sundays after are call'd 1st, 2d, 3d, &c. according to their Nume­ral order, from their succession [Page 74]of Trinity, till the 1st Advent-Sunday.

St. Iohn Baptist.

The 24th of June is St. John Bap­tist's, or commonly Midsummer-Day, which needs no interpreta­tion. The Name John in Hebrew is Gracious, and Baptist is a Greek word, signifying Washer or Dipper, by way of Eminence; because he Baptized our Saviour in the River Jordan, and was the first that Bap­tized. This Festival is in Comme­moration of St. John, the Son of Zachary and Elizabeth, who was one of the Tribe of Levi, and he that shewed us the Lamb of God, who taketh away the Sins of the World, yet was this Devout and Austere Saint, the Praecursor or Fore-runner of our Saviour, be­headed by Herod the Blood-thirsty Tetrarch, at the desire and request [Page 75]of Herodias (the Relict of his Bro­ther Philip) Anno Dom. 30. This is one of His Majestie's Offering-Days at Whitehall, and the day appointed for the Election of the two Sheriffs of London and Middle-sex.

St. Peter and St. Paul.

On the 29th of June is cele­brated the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul. Peter in the Greek sig­nifies a Stone, or Rock; Paul, He­brew, Wonderful, or worst; but Cardinal Baronius derives it from the Latin, and makes it signifie Little, or Humble. They are both joyned in one Solemnity for these Reasons; because they were both Principal and Joynt Co-operators under our Lord and Saviour, in the Conversion of the World; it falling to St. Peter's lot to Con­vert the Jews, and St. Paul's, the [Page 76]Gentiles; for this Cause St. Paul was nam'd the Apostle of the Gen­tiles; as also in regard they were both Martyr'd at Rome. St. Peter, the Chief and Head of the Apo­stles, Preached the Gospel in Pon­tus, Cappadocia, Bithynia and Gala­tia, and at last at Rome, where he was disgracefully Crucified under that Tyrant and Monster of Men, Nero, with his Head downward; for according to Tradition, it was his own desire, and there he was also Interred.

St. Paul, whose former Name was Saul (Hebr. Lent of the Lord, or as some will have it, Fox) before his Conversion; being a violent Persecutor; when St. Stephan was stoned; kept the Murderers Cloaths; and when cruel Com­missioners were sent to Scourge, Kill and slay all that called on the Name of Christ, he carried the [Page 77]Letters. He was a Jew born, brought up at the feet of Gamaliel, Learned and (his Principle par­doned) Conscientious too. The Voice of our Saviour to him out of Heaven, Acts 9.38. with a Light, strook him blind, and down, and did both unhorse and un-Jew him. He ask'd, and was directed what course to steer; goes to Ananias, and receives at once his Sight and Baptism; and thenceforth the World becomes his Charge, and Conquest; and the Gentiles his special care. Being thus called after Christ's Assump­tion, and Registred in the Cata­logue of his Apostles; he Preached the Gospel (the Professors whereof he formerly persecuted with so great fury and heat) from Jerusa­lem to Illyricum, Spain and Italy, and was beheaded by the bloody Sword of the Emperor Nero, on a Sunday, being the third Calends [Page 78]of July, or the 29th of June, ac­cording to our Julian Computa­tion, and so was also St. Peter; now as they both suffered, they both lye buried together. This Day the Church keeps, and we most concern'd (his Gentile-Converts) have greatest cause of all to observe to his Memory, but to thy Glory, O Christ! Dr. Brough of the Holy Feasts and Festivals of the Church of England. This is one of the King's Collar-days without Offering.

Visitation of Mary.

In July, the first we meet with, is the Visitation of Mary, instituted and observ'd by the Church of Rome, in Honor of the Mother of God; and in Memory of her vi­siting St. Elizabeth, after she had Conceiv'd the Son of God; at whose presence, St. John the Bap­tist [Page 79]leaped in the Womb of his Mother, St. Luke 1.41. This is a Festival in the Roman Rubrick, not in ours.

St. Swithin's-Day.

On the 15th of this Month is St. Swithin's-Day (Swithin Saxon comes from the old English Swith­eahn, that is, very High, as Celsus with the Romans.) This name was taken up in Honour of St. Swithin, the Holy Bishop of Winchester, about the year of our Lord 860, and call'd the Weeping St. Swi­thin; for that about this time Prae­sepe & Aselli, two Rainy Constel­lations in the Sign Cancer arise Cosmically (that is together with the Sun, or in the same Degree of the Ecliptick with him) and com­monly cause Rains. Cambden.

Dog-days, Dies Caniculares, or [Page 80] Sirius; certain days that begin to­ward the latter end of June, and end the latter end of August, so call'd of Canicula, the little Dog­star, which then riseth with the Sun, being Predominant, and greatly increaseth his heat, during the time of its Reign.

'Tis nam'd Sirius from the Greek, [...] h [...]e. Siccand [...], to dry up; Propterea quod & fluvios & fontes nimio calore exiccet, because it dries up the Rivers and Fountains by its Ex­cessive heat; vel [...] ab evacuando, from evacuating, quod Corpora nostra sudoribus evacuet; because it cleanseth our Bodies by sweat.

Here I presume we may ap­positely insert an account of the Spanish Invasion, abstracted out of History; because they [Page 81]were Engaged, and Discomfitted this Month,

In the 21th year of the Reign of Q. Eliz. Anno Dom. 1588. the Spanish Invasion hapned; Their Navy consisted of 130 Ships, in which there were 19290 Soldiers, 8050 Marriners, 2080 Gally-Slaves, 2630 Great Ordnance, and for the greater Sanctification of the Action, 12 of their Vessels were call'd by the Names of the 12 Apo­stles. The Commander in Chief of the Fleet, was Don Alphonso, Duke of Medina; the next in Au­thority was Martin Recalde, an Able Seaman. They came out of the Groyn in May, but were dis­persed, and the Queen in the mean time made the following Prepara­tions; the Lord Charles Howard Lord Admiral of her whole Navy, and Sir Francis Drake Vice-Admi­ral, were to be ready at Plimouth; [Page 82]the Lord Henry Seymor (second Son to the Duke of Somerset) with 40 English and Dutch Ships to guard the Coasts of the Nether­lands, and keep the Prince of Par­ma from coming forth for Land-Service. Thre were placed along our Southern Coasts 20000 Sol­diers, and two Armies of Trained Men Levied, the one commanded by the Earl of Leicester, consisting of 1000 Horse, and 22000 Foot, who pitch'd his Tents at Tilbury; over the other (appointed as a Guard to Her Majesties Royal Person) consisting of 24000 Foot, and 2000 Horse, the Lord Huns­don was General.

Now all things on both sides being in a readiness, the Spanish Navy set forth in May, as before, but were drawn back and distres­sed, and their first Appearance was July the 21th. The Admiral [Page 83]of England, coming out of Pli­mouth, sent a Pinnace, nam'd, The Defiance, before; which, by a Great Shot, Challenged the Spa­niards to Fight, and they speedily fell to it, but the English had the better.

The 23th of this Month they had a second Fight, where there was little hurt done by the Spaniards; the 24th they rested on both sides, and the 25th which was St. James his Day, they fell to it the third time, and the English got the bet­ter; after which the Spaniards held on their Course, and turn'd no more upon us.

The 27th of the Month, towards evening, the Spaniards cast Anchor near Calice, the English then ha­ving 140 Ships; tho but 15 of them bore the brunt of the Battle.

The 28th the Lord Admiral made eight of his worst Vessels Fire-ships, and sent them in the Night to the Spanish Fleet; at the sight whereof, they made a hide­ous noise, cut their Cables with great confusion and astonishment.

The Spanish Navy being now destitute of many necessary Pro­visions, and no hope of the Prince of Parma's Assistance, resolv'd for Spain Northward, in which they lost many Ships and Men; the English Navy still pursued closely, till they were fain to leave them, for want of Powder.

Thus this Invincible Armada, (for so it was styl'd in a Spanish Bravado) that was three whole years preparing; in the space of one Month was often beaten, and at length put to flight; many of their men slain, above half their Ships [Page 85]taken and sunk; not above 100 of the English missing at the most; not so much as a Ship, but Cock's small Vessel; thus sailing about all Britain by Scotland, the Orkneys and Ireland, they return'd to Spain with as great dishonour, as they set out with Ostentation; for in­deed, Mendosa in France Trium­phed before the Victory in Print. Now Q. Elizabeth for this Happy Success, appointed Prayers and Thanksgiving in all Churches throughout England; and She (as it were in Triumph) came in Per­son attended with a numerous Train of her Nobility into the Ci­ty, went into the Cathedral of St. Paul's (where the Banners ta­ken from the Enemy were pub­lickly exposed to the view of Spe­ctators) and there gave thanks to Almighty God in a most humble manner, for so great a Deliverance from, and defeat of a Foreign Enemy.

St. James.

July the 25th, is the Feast of St. James (Hebr. the same as Jacob) the Apostle, sirnamed the Greater, Brother to St. John, the Sons of Ze­bedee, who was both an Apostle, and Martyr: This is he that Taught the Gospel to the 12 dispersed Tribes; and was Murdered by the Sword; or (as some say) Beheaded in Judaea by Herod Agrippa, Anno Dom. 45. where he was buried, and consequently the first of the 12 Apostles that was translated to the Kingdom of Christ.

This is one of the King's Collar-Days without Offering.

St. Anne.

The next day, being the 26th, is by some People Celebrated to [Page 87]the Memory of St. Anne (Hebr. Gracious) who was the Holy Mo­ther of the Blessed Virgin. This Day is not in our, but the Roman Rubrick.


August begins with a Feast; the first, being call'd Lammas-Day, the Gule, or Yule of August, St. Pe­ter advincula, or St. Peter's Chains. 'Tis nam'd Lammas, qu. Lamb-mass; because on that Day in the time of Popery here among us in Eng­land, the Tenants that held Lands of the Cathedral Church in York (which is Dedicated to St. Peter ad vincula) were obliged by their Tenure on that day, to bring a live Lamb into the Church, whil'st they were singing High-Mass, or (as some conceive) it may take its Derivation from the Saxon, Hlar­maesse, i.e. Loaf-Mass, or Bread-Mass [Page 88]so call'd, as a Feast of Thanksgiving to God for the first fruits of the Corn, and it seems hath been observ'd with Bread made of new Wheat; and accor­dingly it is a Custom in some Pla­ces, for Tenants to be bound to bring their Lord that years Wheat, on or before the first of August. Ham. Resol. 2.6. Quaeries p. 465.

'Tis call'd the Gule or Yule of August, which some Conjecture to be only a Corruption of the Bri­tish word Gwyl-Awst, that is, the Feast of August. Others again conceive (and I think more truly) that Gule comes from Gula in La­tin, or Gueule in French, a Throat; and St. Peter ad vincula for this Reason following, which you have in Durand's Rationali Divinor. l. 7. Ca. De festo Sancti Petri ad vincula: (a Catholick Story) [Page 89]that one Quirinus a Tribune of Rome, had a Daughter who was troubled with a painful Disease in her Throat; and therefore, (I presume, other means failing) Addressed himself to his then Ho­liness Alexander the 6th of that Name, from St. Peter; and de­sir'd to borrow or see the Chains that St. Peter was chained with under Nero; which Request be­ing obtain'd; his Daughter kissing the said Chains, was as miracu­lously, as Immediately cur'd of her Malady—(Credat Judaeus Appella, —Non Ego)—whereupon Quirinus with his whole Family turn'd Christians, and were bap­tized: Tunc dictus Alexander Papa (as Durand hath it) hoc Festum in Calendis Augusti Celebrandum In­stituit, & in Honorem Beati Petri Ecclesiam in Urbe Fabricavit, ubi Vincula ipsa reposuit, & ad vincula Nominavit, & Calendis Augusti [Page 90] Dedicavit; so that this Day being before only known by the Name of the Calends of August, was af­terward upon this very occasion termed, either of the Instrument that wrought this Miracle, the Day of St. Peter ad vincula, or of the part of the Daughter, namely, the Throat, whereon the Miracle was wrought, the Gule of August. This day is kept by the Papists, as they say, in Honour of those Chains, wherewith Herod caused St. Peter at Jerusalem; to be bound, from which he was disengaged by the Angel of God, Acts the 12th. by the sole Touch whereof, not only the fore-men­tioned, but many other Miracles were wrought; nay, some of that Church are so superstitiously Cre­dulous, as to believe their Mira­culous joyning together many years after into one intire Chain, with those Iron Fetters wherewith [Page 91]the Holy Apostle was loaden, when he was Imprisoned at Rome.

August the 5th. in some of our ancient Calendars, is known by the name of Gowrie's Conspiracy, and tho now omitted, (the reason thereof you shall soon under­stand) yet it was kept very de­voutly in the Reign of King James, as a Day of Thanksgiving to the Almighty for his Delive­rance from the Treacherous Con­spiracy of the Gowries in Scot­land.

The Story runs thus, as Baker relates it in his Chronicle, p. 382. out of which take this Abstract. The Earls Gowry, Marre, Lindsey, and others, Invited the King to the Castle of Reuthen (in the ab­sence of the Earl of Arran and Lenox) and there detain'd him, [Page 92]not permitting him to walk a­broad; all his Trusty Servants they remov'd from him, and Compel'd the King by Letters to Queen Elizabeth to approve and allow of this his Thraldom. After his Mother Queen Mary had sent to Queen Elizabeth, complain­ing of the Usage of her Son, he himself sent Colonel William Steward, and John Colvill to the Queen of England; and after the Death of Lenox in France, the Surprizers being lifted up in their Conceits, thinking they had him safe enough; he, on a sudden (tho scarce 18 years of age) with some few others, convey'd him­self to the Castle of St. Andrews, to whom the Nobility Repair'd, with Armed Bands, fearing some dan­ger might befall him; afterward with fair words he advised some of his Surprizers to go from Court to avoid Tumult, promi­sing [Page 93]them Pardon, if they would crave it; but Gowry only asked Pardon, and submitted himself, using this Distinction, that he had not offended in Matter, but in Form: and farther, Baker saith, p. 384. that Gowry was tried by his Peers at Sterling, Anno 1600. where being accus'd of many Treasons, tho he gave colourable Answers to them all; yet was found Guilty, Condemn'd, and Beheaded; whose Head his Ser­vants sewing to the Body, com­mitted to the Grave.

Baker farther saith, p. 428. At this time, Anno 1603. the King for­gat not a Deliverance he formerly had; which tho it were in Scot­land, yet he would have notice taken of it in England, which was this his Deliverance from the Conspiracy of the Gowries, on the 5th of August 1600. three [Page 94]years before, and thereupon, Fri­day, being the 5th day, was by Commandment appointed to be Holy-Day; with Morning-Prayer, Sermon, and Evening-Prayer read, with Bonefires at Night, which was then, and after, during his Life, solemnly observ'd.

August the 6th. is the Transfi­guration; (from Transfiguro, Lat. to change shape) a Feast Celebra­ted by the Papists in Memory of our Saviour's Transfiguring him­self upon Mount Thabor, and shewing a Glimpse of his Glory to his Apostles, St. Peter, St. James, and St. John; And his Face (saith the Text) shone as the Sun, and his Garment became white as Snow, Matth. 17.2. and in them also un­to us, for our encouragement to Vertue, Perseverance in Faith and mutual Love one toward ano­ther.

St. Laurence.

The 10th of this Month, is a Day Dedicated to St. Laurence (Lat. flourishing like a Bay-Tree; the same as Daphnis in Greek) who was Deacon to Pope Xi­stus, then sitting in the Chair at Rome, a very Zealous Person, ac­cording to Tradition, for the Ca­tholick Cause; who thereupon in the Primitive times, was by the Cruel and Barbarous Pagans, most inhumanely Broyled on a Grid­iron, for the Faith of Christ; which Martyrdom he suffered with undaunted and matchless Fortitude. This is in the Roman, but not in our Rubrick.

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The 15th of this Month is, The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of the Holy Jesus, so call'd from Assumo, Lat. to assume, or take up; 'tis observ'd in Memory of her being Assum'd, or taken up (as the Papists confi­dently maintain) into Heaven, both Soul and Body after her Dor­mition, or Dissolution, and this is a constant Tradition of their Church. This is also in the Ro­man, not in our Rubrick.

St. Bartholomew.

The next is the Festival of St. Bartholomew, solemnized on the 24th of August. The Name is Chaldee, and signifies the Son of him that makes the water ascend. [Page 97]He was Nephew (as some main­tain) and Heir to a King of Syria; yet both an Apostle, and Martyr. He Preached the Glad Tidings of the Gospel to the Indians, where he, by the Command of Polemius, King of India, was sorely beaten with Cudgels, the first day; the next Crucified and Excoriated, or flean alive, while he was fastned on the Cross; and finally (still breathing, and alive) Beheaded in the year of our Lord 51. For this Reason it was named Duplex Festum, some observing the 25th. as we the 24th of August. Here was a Complication of Punish­ments for no Crime at all. This is one of His Majestie's Collar-Days without Offering.

The 29th is the Decollation of St. John Baptist. Beheaded by He­rod, at the request of Herodias; which we have praementioned [Page 98]in the Festival of St. John Bap­tist.

Septemb. the 2d. On this day hapned that Dreadful Conflagra­tion of the City of London, about one of the Clock in the Morning, Anno 1666. beginning at the House of one Mr. Farryner, a Baker in Pudding-Lane, near New Fish-Street, which consumed in four days time the greatest part of this Flourishing Metropolis. 'Tis sup­posed to be fired by one Robert Hubert of Roan in Normandy, with one Peidloe, the chief, there being in all 23 Complices, as he confes­sed; for which he was hang'd at Tyburn, and dyed a Roman Ca­tholick.

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The 8th of this Month is the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Ma­ry, (Heb. Exalted, or from Marah, as some conceive, i. e. Bitterness) which is a Festival observ'd by our Holy Mother the Church, in Commemoration of her Happy and Glorious Birth, who brought into the World the Author of all Life and Salvation, our Blessed Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ.

Holy-tood-Day, or Holy-Cross.

The 14th. is the other Holy-rood-Day; or Holy-Cross, (the In­vention of the Cross being on the 3d of May, which we have given you an account of) 'tis call'd [Page 100] Holy Cross, or the Exaltation of the Cross, in Memory of the Exalta­tion, or setting up the Holy Cross which was found by St. Helen. (as we have already acquainted you) by Heraclius, the Emperor; who having regained it a second time from the Persians, after it had been given over for lost, the space of 14 years, carried it on his shoul­ders to Mount Calvarie, and there Exalted it with more than ordinary Solemnity.

Then follows the Ember-Week, according to the Rule before laid down, Post Cineres, &c. this be­ing the third in the year, fol­lowing Holy-Cross, or Holy-rood-Day.

St. Matthew.

On the 21th of this Month, is Celebrated the Festival of St. Mat­thew, [Page 101](Heb. Reward) an Apostle, and one of the four Holy Secre­taries of the most Sacred Gospel. He was by Birth a Jew, by Pro­fession a Publican, or Toll-Customer; was at length Converted, and became a Disciple, Apostle, Euan­gelist and Martyr. He wrote the Gospel of Christ in the Hebrew Language, and delivered it to James, the Brother of our Lord, who was at that time Bishop of Jerusalem. He Preached in the Kingdom of Aethiopia, where he was kindly entertain'd by the Eunuch (Chamberlain, or Chief Governor to Candace, Queen of Aethiopia; as it is Record­ed in the Acts of the Apo­stles, Acts the 8th. 27th.) and was so successful in his Teaching, that he prevail'd and perswaded Aeglippus the King, and his People to be Baptized; but after his Decease, there succeeded him [Page 102]one Hyrtacus by name, who De­tested the Apostle, and therefore Commanded him to be run through with a Sword; which was accordingly done, Anno Dom. 71. This is one of His Majestie's Collar-Days, without Offering.

St. Michael the Arch-Angel.

The 29th of this Month is the Feast of St. Michael (Heb. who is like God) the Arch-Angel who fi­gur'd Christ, or Michaelmas, that is, a Solemnity or Mass in honour of St. Michael, Prince of the Heavenly Host, and one of the Nine Orders of Angels, as­wel to Commemorate that fa­mous Battle fought by him, and them in Heaven, against the red Dragon (or the Devil) and his Apostate Angels, Apoc. 12. in Defence of God's Honour; as [Page 103]also (say the Romanists) to Com­mend the whole Church of God to their Patronage and Prayers; and by them 'tis nam'd the De­dication of St. Michael; because there is a Church at Rome, dedi­cated on that day to St. Michael by Pope Boniface. This is one of King Charles his Offering-Days at His Court of Whitehall. And on this day also the Lord Mayor of the City of London, for the year ensuing, is Elected.

There is another Feast observ'd by the Romanists, call'd the Ap­parition of St. Michael, and is in Commemoration of his Won­derful Appearance on Mount Gar­ganus, where (as the Papists fondly flatter themselves) by his own appointment a Temple was De­dicated to him, in the time of Pope Gelasius.

St. Luke.

October the 18th. is a Day Con­secrated to the Memory of St. Luke (Heb. Taken) the Euangelist. Sy­ria was the Place of his Nativity; by Profession he was a Physician of Antioch, after that an Euan­gelist, and the Holy Penman of the Acts of the Apostles in their Peregrination; but especially of St. Paul's. He died at Ephesus, in the 84th year of his Age, where he was inhum'd, Anno Christi, 74; and was (together with Andrew and Timothy) Translated to Con­stantinople, many years after, in the Reign of Constantius, Son of Constantine the Great; but Nice­phorus, the Historian says, that he was Hang'd on a Green Olive-Tree. This is one of His Ma­jestie's Collar-Days, without Of­fering.

The 21th of this Month Dedi­cated to Ursula (Lat. a little She-Bear) The Name of a Female Saint heretofore of great Honour, and still continued in the Calendar, and this Day was kept solemnly in Commemoration of a Famous, Religious British Virgin, who not­withstanding the Tenderness of her Sex, and her Zeal for the true Religion, was most Inhumanly Martyred under Attila King of the Huns; styled Flagellum Dei; a Bloody, but Valiant Scythian, who over-ran Italy, and Gallia; and at the Perswasion; or rather Intreaty of Pope Leo, retired into Hun­gary.

St. Simon and Jude.

The 28th is the Festival of St. Simon and Jude. Simon (Heb. Hearing, or Obedient) sirnamed [Page 106] Zelotes (Gr. Fervent) was born in Cana, a Town of Galilee, the Son of Mary and Cleophas, as Euseb. affirms, L. 3. C. 11. and taught the Gospel in Aegypt and Persia; from thence he returned, and suc­ceeded St. James in the Bishoprick of Jerusalem; where, under the Reign of the Emperor Trajan, he was Crucified in the 120th year of his Age, and consequently the last Martyr of all the Apostles. St. Jude (Heb. Jude, Judah, and Je­hudah; all three signifie Con­fession called also Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus) Preached the Holy Gospel to the Edessaeans; a sort of People of Edessa, a City of Syria, and throughout all Mesopotamia; he was Murdered at Berytus, a City of Phoenicia, in the Reign of Ag­barus, King of Edessa, according to the most Authentick Tradition, where he was very Honorably Sepulchred, in the year of our [Page 107]Lord 21. This is one of His Majestie's Collar-Days, without Offering.

The next day after, being the 29th, is a day whereon the Ele­cted Mayor for that year, accom­panied with the Aldermen of London on Horseback to the River of Thames; and the Com­panies of Freemen wait upon him in Barges, with Drums and Trumpets, to Westminster, and there he walks with the Aldermen round the Hall, and then goes up to the Exchequer, where he is Sworn, and returns to the City; and at his Landing, he is waited upon by several Companies of Sol­diers, and several stately Pageants are erected, and carried about in a Triumphant manner.

All Saints.

November 1st. Begins with the Festival of All Saints, or Allhallows, and this time is commonly call'd Allhallontide; Tis a Solemnity in Honour and Memory of all the Saints, (as the Papists maintain) that so at least they may obtain the Patronage and Prayers of them all; since the whole year is much too short to afford us a Particular Feast for every Saint.

All Souls.

The next day, Novemb. 2d. is All-Souls; a Day Instituted by the Church of Rome, in Comme­moration of all the Faithful de­parted this Life; that by the Prayers and Suffrages of the Liv­ing, they may be discharged of their purging Pains, and at last [Page 109]obtain Life Everlasting; to this purpose the Day is kept Holy till Noon. Hence proceeds the Cu­stom of Soul-Mass Cakes; which are a kind of Oat-Cakes, that some of the Richer sort of Persons in Lancashire, and Herefordshire (a­mong the Papists there) use still to give the Poor, on this Day; and they in Retribution of their Charity, hold themselves obliged to say this old Couplet, ‘—God have your Saul Beens and all.

Both these days were of such eminent observance with our An­cestors, that they still continue no Court-days at Westminster-Hall, but are the Lawyers and Judges Holy-days. All-Saints is one of His Majestie's Offering-Days at Whitehall, and one of the Hou­shold-days, when the Besant is [Page 110]given by the Lord Steward; or one of the other White-Staff-Officers.

November the 5th, commonly call'd Gun-Powder-Treason-Day, Anno 1605. and in the third-year of the Reign of King James, in England, of Happy Memory, of which take this Brief Narrative Collected out of Sir Richard Baker, in the said King's Reign. The 19th day of March-was a second Parliament appointed to sit at Westminster, & the said Parliament beginning, the King made a long and Loving Speech to both Houses wherein he signified the Cause of his Calling it; but in the time, when it should have pro­ceeded, there was suddenly dis­covered a Plot of Treason, so Dam­nable, and Foul, that Posterity will hardly think it true, when they shall hear of it. The Plot [Page 111]was to blow up with Gun-powder both Houses of Parliament, at a time when the King, Prince, and all the Nobility should be sit­ting in the Upper House, and all the Knights and Burgesses in the Lower.

The Principal Contriver of this Plot, was Robert Catesby; a Gen­tleman of great account in Nor­thamptonshire, descended from that Catesby, who had been a special Councellor of King Richard the 3d. to whose Family the Divine Providence had now ordain'd a disastrous Period. This Catesby, not able to perform the Work alone, draws in many to assist him; as namely, Tho. Piercy, Tho. Winter, John Graunt, Am­brose Rookwood, John Wright, Francis Tresham, Guido Fawks, and at last Sir Everard Digby, all earnest Papists, and all bound by [Page 112]Oath, and by receiving the Sacra­ment, To be secret for effecting this Plot, they hired a House close adjoining to the Upper House of Parliament, where they were to dig through a Wall for the fit placing of their Powder; about Candlemas they had wrought the Wall half through, and suddenly they heard a noise in the next Room, which made them fear they had been discovered; but sending Guy Fawks (who went now under the Name of John Johnson, as Mr. Piercy's Man) to see what the matter was, he brought word, that it was a Cellar, where Sea-Coals had been laid, and were now a Selling, and the Room offered to be Let for a yearly Rent: this Room there­fore, as most fit for their purpose, being right under the Parliament-House, Mr. Piercy presently went and hired, laying into it 20 Bar­rels [Page 113]of Powder, which were co­vered with Billets and Faggots, that they might not be dis­covered.

Thus the 1st part of the Plot was put in good readiness, it now remain'd to consider what was to be done, when the Blow should be given, intending to surprize the Duke of York, who was absent, and the Lady Eli­zabeth, at the Lord Harrington's, in Warwickshire, where she then lay, under pretence of a Match at Hunting, near Dunchurch; but their Tenderness, lest their Friends should Perish, overthrows them; for to prevent such Promiscuous Slaughter, a Letter was framed, and sent to the Lord Monteagle, Son and Heir of the Lord Morley, brought him by one of his Foot-men, which he re­ceiv'd from an unknown Man [Page 114]in the Street. The Letter was as followeth.

My Lord,

OUt of the Love I bear to some of your Friends, I have a care of your Preser­vation; therefore I would wish you (as you tender your Life) to forbear your Attendance at this Parliament; for God and Man have Concurr'd to Punish the Wickedness of this Time; and think not slightly ef this Ad­vertisement; for tho there be no Appearance of any stir, yet I say, they shall receive a terrible Blow, this Parliament, and yet shall not see who hurts them. This Counsel is not to be Con­temn'd, [Page 115]because it may do you good, and can do you no harm; for the Danger is past, as soon as you have burn'd this Letter; and I hope you will make good use of it.

My Lord having read this Let­ter, tho much perplex'd, yet went presently to the Court, (the King being then a Hunting at Roy­ston) and delivered it to the Earl of Salisbury, Principal Secretary of State; and the Earl having read it, acquainted first the Lord Cham­berlain with it, and then the Lord Admiral, the Earls of Worcester, and Northampton; who, as soon as the King was return'd from Hunt­ing, acquainted him with it; but the King apprehended some Vio­lent Motion, and that it must be some sudden danger by Blowing [Page 116]up with Powder; and diligent search being made by the Lord Chamberlain, and the Lord Mon­teagle, who entring the Cellar, found great store of Faggots and Billets, and more diligent search being made, there were found under the Billets 36 Barrels of Powder, together with other In­struments fit for their purpose, and apprehended Fawx there, and found in his Pocket a piece of Touch-wood, a Tinder-box to light the Touch-wood, and a Watch, which Mr. Piercy had bought the day before, to try the short, or long burning of the Touch-wood, that was prepared to give fire to the Train of Powder. Most of the Confede­rates met at Dunchurch, according to Agreement; but the Plot being thus Discovered, Catesby & Piercy were both slain, coming out of Mr. Littleton's House in Worcester­shire; [Page 117]so were John and Christopher Wright, the rest taken; and on the 27th of January following, a Commission was directed to divers Lords, and Judges of both Ben­ches, for Trial of the rest of the Confederates, who were all Con­demn'd, and had Judgment to Die; and on the Thursday following, Sir Everard Digby, Robert Winter, Graunt, and Bates, were accor­dingly Drawn, Hang'd, and Quar­ter'd at the West End of St. Paul's Church, London; and on Friday the other four, Tho. Winter, Keyes, Rookwood, and Fawks, were Exe­cuted in the Parliament-Yard at Westminster. This Plot was Dis­covered to the Rejoycing of all People; insomuch that the King of Spain's, and the Arch-Duke's Embassadors made Bone-fires, and threw Money among the People, in token of Joy.

And now King James, not to be unmindful of the Lord Mountea­gle, for being the means of Disco­vering this Treason, gave him in Fee-farm of Crown-Lands 2000 l. to him and his Heirs, and 500 l. a year besides, during his Life; and not to be Unthankful to God for the Deliverance, he caused the 5th of November, being the day of the Discovery, to be kept Holy with Prayers, and Thanksgiving to God, which was then solemnly perform'd, and hath been since, and is likely for ever to be conti­nued.

The 28th of March following, Henry Garnet, Provincial of the English Jesuits, was Arraign'd in Guild-hall, for concealing the afore­said Treason, where he had Judg­ment to be Drawn, Hang'd; and Quarter'd; and accordingly on the 3d of May, was Drawn from [Page 119]the Tower unto the West End of St. Paul's Church, and there Exe­cuted.

At his Death he Confessed his Fault, asked Forgiveness, and Exhorted all Papists never to At­tempt any Treason against the King, or State, as a Course which God would never prosper. By an Act 3d Jac. 'tis ordain'd, that all Persons appear at their Parish-Church, for the Observation of this Day. This is one of his Majestie's Collar-days without Offering.

Queen Katharines Birth-Day.

November the 15th, is the Birth-Day of our most Gracious Queen Katharine (Gr. Pure) whom God preserve, and grant her length of Days, Health and Happiness in this world, and in the world to come.

The 19th of this Month is Ce­lebrated in Commemoration of the Nativity of our King Charles the First, of Blessed Memory, a Royal Monarch, and Glorious Martyr, who was born this day, at Dunfernling, in Scotland, Anno Dom. 1600 and is placed in our English Rubrick.

Presentation of the Virgin Mary.

The 20th, or as ours hath it the 21th of this Month, is the Pre­sentation of the Virgin Mary, in the Roman Rubrick; a Feast in Com­memoration of her being presen­ted in the Temple at the age of three years, where she Vowed her self to God, both Soul, and Body.

St. Clement.

The 23th, is Dedicated to St. Cle­ment (Lat. Merciful) who was Fellow-Labourer with St. Paul, and according to all Probability, Rome was his Native Place, de­scended of a Noble Race; his Fa­ther's Name Faustinus, or as some think Faustus; he was the Youn­gest of three Sons; he had the good fortune to be under the Pupilage of St. Barnabas in Judaea, who came to Rome, and followed him to Alexandria, Judaea and Caesarea, where he met with St. Peter who Discipled, Baptized, and as some over-consecrated him Bishop of Rome. Now that which made him Martyr was this: He had Converted the Noble Roman La­dy Theodora, and her Husband Sisinnius, Kinsman and Favorite to the then late Emperor Nerva; [Page 122]and for this Torcutianus, a Grandee of Rome, with the Mutinous Rab­ble, charging him with Magick and Sorcery, the Emperor being ac­quainted therewith by Mamerti­nus, the Praefect, he return'd this Answer, That he should either Sa­crifice to the Gods, or be Banished to a disconsolate City, beyond the Pontick Sea, and was Transported thither to dig in the Mines, a hor­rid Punishment, Et mortiproxima; here he Converted great Num­bers, which incensed them so high­ly, that Aufidianus the President by the Emperor's Order, Com­manded he should be cast into the Sea, that the Christians might not find his Body. There are many Miracles handed down to us by Tradition of this Pious Man; for which, see Dr. Cave's Apostolici; for we design but an Abridgment. He was thus destroy'd on the 24th, or as some say, the 9th of Novem­ber, [Page 123]in the 3d year of the Emperor Trajan, about two years after his Exile, he having been nine years, and some controverted Months Bishop of Rome.

St. Andrew.

The 30th day of this Month, is the Festival of St. Andrew (Gr. Man­ly) the Brother of Simon Peter; by Profession an Indigent Fisherman, yet an Holy Apostle, and at length a Blessed Martyr, who Instructed the Scythians, Sacians, Sogdians, and the Inhabitants of the middle Sebastopolis, in the Gospel of Christ. After this he Preached in Cappa­docia, Galatia, Bithynia; and all along the Euxine Sea: Lastly, in Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly and Achaia; where in the Reign of the Emperor Vespasian, he was Cruci­fied by the King of the Edessaeans, Aegeas by Name, and Sepulchred at Patris a City of Achaia, Anno [Page 124]Dom. 80. or thereabout. This is one of his Majestie's Collar-Days without Offering.


The next is Advent-Sunday, so call'd ab Adventu Domini in Car­nem, and they are four in number Instituted by the Holy Church, to the end, that from the first of them, until the Nativity of our Blessed Lord, we might prepare our Minds for a sober Life, and Pious Medita­tion of his Birth then approaching. Parate viam Domini, rectas facite semitas Dei nostri; and this is the last of the Moveable Feasts in the Calendar.

The 8th of December, is the Con­ception of the Virgin Mary, a Feast among the Romanists, Celebrated in Memory of her Miraculous Con­ception, who was conceiv'd by her [Page 125]Parents St. Joachim and St. Anne in their old and infirm Age, and San­ctified from the very first instant in her Mothers Womb.

The 13th of this Month, is in remembrance of St. Lucia (Lat. Lightsom, or Bright) who is by Tra­dition reputed to be an Unspotted Virgin, and Resolute Martyress. This is usually counted the Win­ter Solstice, at which time the Sun comes to the Tropick of Capricorn.

The next Week ensuing is the 4th and last Ember-Week in the year.

St. Thomas.

The 21th is Dedicated to St. Thomas, the Apostle (Tho. is Hebr. a Twin, or as some will have it, Bottomless pit, he was sirnamed Didymus, Gr. a Twin, because a [Page 126]Twin-born, or on some such occa­sion) was our Saviour's Holy Apo­stle and Martyr, who instructed the Parthians, Medes and Persians in the Gospel; as also the Carama­nians, Hircanians, Bactrians and Magicians, and was at last wounded to death with a Dart at Calamina, a City in India; and there honora­bly Interr'd, Anno Christi 35. This is at White-hall one of the King's Collar-days without Offering.

Mat. Christ.

The 25th of December, beyond all Controversie, is the Day of our Saviour's Nativity at Bethlehem, or Christmas-Day (as the Saxons use to term their Feasts, from the Mass appropriated to the day, of which you have an account be­fore) which is sufficiently and Learnedly prov'd by Modern Au­thors, namely, Edward Fisher Esq; [Page 127]in his Vindication of our Gospel-Fe­stivals, and the Great Selden in his [...], or God made Man; and by the Ancients St. Austin and St. Chrysostom. And of old Epiphany (which is Manifestation) was ta­ken for Christmass Day upon this Identity of the word, it being the time, when our Saviour was in­carnated, or manifested in the flesh. In the North of England, 'tis commonly call'd Yule, from the Latin Jubilum, which imports a Time of Joy and Festivity. The Latin or Western Church nam'd it Luminaria, or the Feast of Lights; because therein were used abun­dance of Lights and Tapers; or rather, (as some conceive) because Christ the Light of Lights; the true Light then came into the World; and this is the Foundation and Basis of all the other Christian Festivals, and to be Celebrated with greatest Solemnity and Vene­ration. [Page 128]This is a Grand day in His Majesties Court, and one of the Houshold-days, when the Besant is to be given by the Lord Ste ward, or one of the White-Staff Officers.

Immediately after Christmas, fol­low as Attendants upon that high Festival, St. Stephans, St Johns, and St. Innocents; not that this was the very time of their Suffering; but because none are thought fitter Attendants on Christ's Nativity, who have laid down their Lives for him, from whose Birth they receiv'd Spiritual Life. Dr. Spar. Rationale of these as they succeed in the Calendar.

St. Stephan.

First of St, Stephan, (Gr. a Crown) The Proto-Martyr; the Holy Writ gives us no particular Satisfaction; of the Countrey, Parents, or Rela­tions [Page 129]of this Pious and Zealous Christian. He was a Jew without question, and by the Ancients a­greed to be ordained one of the 7 Proto-Deacons; Ut bona communia curaret, ea (que) viduis & Pauperibus rectè distribueret; which was but part of their Office; for they were elected by our Lord to be the Apo­stles Coadjutors and Fellow-Labou­rers, not only to distribute justly the Alms of the Church, accor­ding to their emergent Necessities; but to Baptize, Preach and Absolve too in some Cases. He zealously and strennously confuted the Jews in their erroneous Tenets concern­ing the true Messiah; maintaining that Jesus of Nazareth was the true one foretold by the Prophets; He was for this accused of Blasphe­my, Condemned and Stoned by the Jews at Jerusalem, An. Dom. 35.

St. Iohn.

The next in order is St. John's, (John in the Hebr. signifies Gra­cious) who was the Brother of James, an Evangelist, and the best Beloved Apostle. He taught the Gospel to the Asiaticks, but the Tyrant Trajan Banished him into Patmos, an Isle in the Aegean Sea, where he pen'd his Holy Gospel, which was afterward published at Ephesus by his Deacon and Host. After the death of the Emperor, he return'd to Ephesus, and conti­nued there till he lived 120 years, and then died of an Apoplexy, in the year of our Saviour's Incarna­tion 104.


The 28th. Innocents, or Childer­mass-Day, that is the Feast of the [Page 131]Children, the Holy Innocents of Bethlehem, who were Massacred by Herod the Great most Inhu­manely in our Saviour's stead, tho not for his sake; among whom, his own Son (as Historians affirm) escaped not the fate of his Cruelty; which extorted this saying, from the Emperor Augustus Caesar; Me­lius est esse Herodis Porcum, quam Puerum; It is better to be Herod's Hog, than his Son.

Dr. Sparrow in his Ration. saith upon the account of these three Festivals. There are three kinds of Martyrdom. p. In Will, and Deed, which is the Highest. 2. In Will, but not in Deed. 3. In Deed, but not in Will. In this order they attend. St. Stephan 1st, who suffered both in Will and Deed; next, St. John, who suffered Mar­tyrdom in Will, but not in Deed; being Miraculously delivered out [Page 132]of the boyling Cauldron into which he was put before Pont. Latin in Rome. Lastly, the Holy Innocents, who suffered in Deed, but not in Will; yet are reckoned among the Martyrs, because they suffered for Christ, whose Praise these his Witnesses Confessed and shewed forth, not in speaking, but in dying.

And thus we have done with the Festivals; only it is observable, that as the Romanists open, so they close the year with a Festival in the Popish Rubrick, tho not in ours, which is the last day of De­cember, and consequently of the year as to our Method, being a Day Dedicated to the Memory of Sylvester, who once sate in the Seat of Rome, and died a Confessor. This is in the Roman, not our Rubrick.

Now I conceive it will not be amiss to give you a just, but Con­cise account of the Vigils and Fasts of the Church on the Eves of the Feasts. Vigil comes from the Lat. Vigilo, and signifies to watch. In the time of the Apostles, and for some continuance after, when Persecuted and Dispersed Chri­stians durst not appear in Publick, by reason of the many Treache­ries and daily snares laid for them by their violent Persecutors, they were compell'd for their own Pre­servation, and Self-security to As­semble in private Holes, Corners, and Subterranean Places, to Exer­cise their Religion, and Perform their Devotion to their God. But in the Primitive times immedi­ately succeeding the Blessed Apo­stles, when they apprehended no danger of Persecution, they Fasted and watched in their Oratories all the whole Easter-Week (but those [Page 134]Fasts are now voluntary, and not injoyn'd; for there is no Fast commanded betwixt Easter, and Whitsunday, Christmas, and Epi­phany) and the Vigils of this Fe­stival, by large Waxen Tapers, were made as Light as day, through the whole City, to repre­sent mystically the Light of Salva­tion, then ready to diffuse it se [...] all over the Universe. And this is the Original of that usage among Christians, both Men and Wo­men, to Watch and Fast on the Eves of their High Solemnities in the Churches, and at the Tombs of the Saints departed; the Au­thors of which custom are credi­bly Reported to be Diodorus of An­tioch, together with Flavianus; but in process of time, this Usage at watching and fasting at Sepul­chres was at the perswasion of Leontius, then Bishop of Antioch, restrained to the Church only, [Page 135] Anno 375. The Watch by Night they used to divide into four parts: the 1st Vigil began at 6 in the Eve­ning, and continued til 9; the 2d. at 9, and continued till 12; the 3d. from 12 to 3; and the 4th from 3 to 6 in the Morning. But at length these Promiscuous No­cturnal Vigils were the Cause of Great Impiety, as some are of Opinion, therefore Women were denied admission, because as the Canon saith, under the pretext of Prayer, many Crimes were se­cretly Committed, at length the Vigils themselves were prohibited, (tho not for the reason aforesaid, others are of opinion; but rather because Zeal and Fervour in Reli­gion grew cool, and Christians became more remiss in their De­votion) and the Fasts now observ'd on the Eves of great Festivals were Instituted in their room; yet they still retain the name of Vigils, as [Page 136]being the Denomination of a Duty requir'd therein, this was con­firm'd by Pope Innocent the 3d, about the year of the Incarna­tion 1210.

Thus you have a short and true account of all the Feasts, Fasts, Vigils, both of the English and Romish Rubrick; with several o­ther Holy-days not heretofore ta­ken notice of in Treatises of this Nature.


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