CISTA MILITARIS, OR, A Military Chest, Furnished Either for Sea, or Land, With Convenient MEDICINES, and necessary INSTRUMENTS.

Amongst which is also a Description of Dr LOWER'S LANCET, for the more safe bleeding.


Englished for publick Benefit.

LONDON, Printed by W. Godbid, and are to be sold by Moses Pitt, at the Angel in St. Paul's Church-yard. M. DC. LXX. IV.

[Page 1] A Description of a LANCET, FOR The more secure Letting of BLOOD, By Dr LOWER.

FOrasmuch as it hath been thought convenient by seve­ral good Chirurgeons, to con­trive a safe way of Blood-letting, for the benefit of young Beginners in that Profession; and whereas Dr. LOVVER of late, in his Trea­tise of the Heart, hath discovered a plain and secure way of Blee­ding, and given a figure of the [Page 2] Lancet, which he commends for that purpose, I have been advised, for the publick Good, to translate what he hath written, and like­wise give the figure of the Lancet, and description of the Ʋse of it, as it is printed in the 166 page of the last and truest Edition of his Book, Printed at Amsterdam 1671, in the Author's own words.

HOw great Ebullition sometimes happens in the Blood, in what vessels, and with what swift motion it is cast about every where through the Body, and if an Artery be opened how quickly, and with what force it breaks out, it hath been hitherto trea­ted of in the foregoing Discourse; by which it appears, how necessary some­times Blood-letting is, to diminish its Quantity, or to stop its Career, and how dangerous the Administration [Page 3] of it is, if it be performed by a rude and unskilful hand.

For it often happening, either by want of skill, or common practice of Bleeding, (which makes the Mind fear­ful, and consequently the Hand trem­bling and uncertain) that an Artery is opened, or a Nerve or Tendon cut or prick'd, Inflammations, Gangrenes or Convulsions, which put the member in danger of being cut off, or render'd useless, I thought it might not be be­yond the scope of my Treatise, if, by way of Appendix, I should shew by what means and Instrument any Vein might be safely and securely opened, (if it swell upon a Ligature) though it have an Artery, Nerve or Tendon im­mediately under it.

Forasmuch therefore as never any harm happens in Blood-letting, unless a Vein be prick'd through, or slipping aside, the Lancet be put too deep into the part, the Fabrick of this Lancet is such, and ought to be so put into the Vein, as both may be easily prevented.

[Page 4] For the Laneet is so contrived, that it is not cutting on each side, unless it be near the point, but is purposely blunt, and made round on the lower side, which is to be applied next to the skin, that it may more easily slide over it, as it appears by the following Table, in which


a the Lancet.

b the place where the upper edge of the Lancet ends in a plain.

c where the under edge of the Lan­cet ends, the rest of the under part being polish'd round, and thick, (but not made thicker than the upper plain part) that it may not grate or tear the skin (upon which it must be applied) by its compression.

[Page 5] Which figure of the Lancet differs nothing from a common ordinary Lan­cet, but that the under edge of it is blunted almost to the point.

The way of using it is only this, that the Member being tied, and the Vein swelling, the Lancet must be applied as neer to it as possible, but so that the Lancet may be depress'd as much as may be; then the Point of it being directed upwards, it must be gently, and by an oblique transverse Incision be put into the Vein: which if so directed, neither can the Vein a­void the point of the Lancet, or the parts underneath be any way offended. Which way of Blood-letting, as it is most easie, so it will never prove un­happy to any one, though but meanly skilful.

And though I do not write this to Physicians and Chirurgeons, who are ex­pert, and frequently exercised in blee­ding; yet having seen many peoples health and life endangered, either by ill Blood-letting, or because a good Chirurgeon could not timely be called [Page 6] in by Physicians, who most commonly forbear the Practice of it, therefore I have devised this figure of a Lancet, that they may more securely and con­fidently use it.

CISTA MILITARIS, OR A Military Chest, Furnished either for Sea or Land, With convenient Medicines and Instruments.

WHilst I was in the Low Coun­tries in the year 1612, in the City of Morsk, I was entertained with great kindness by that Noble and Valiant Gentleman, Alexander de Schmetchel, Governour of the Place and Works, who amongst the other things wor­thy seeing, shewed me the Military Chest of the most Illustrious Heroe, Maurice, Prince of Orange, &c. wherein not onely Medicines and In­struments, but also Linnen, Rowlers, and other Necessaries were prepared, and disposed all in order in a Room, but [Page 8] not as then put into the Chests, which were fitly contrived for that purpose, because that the Garrison-Soldiers might be supplied with what they needed for their healths; and also that the Medicines that were wanting or decayed, might be forthwith renewed: an evident sign, and great demonstra­tion of the Piety, Prudence, and Care of this Prince towards his Sol­diers. This Chest, as often as necessi­ty required, march'd with the Camp, and in the greatest and most dange­rous occasions the Soldiers were for the present succoured, and assisted from it. Then afterwards they were carried to the next Cities, where they were taken care of by Physicians and Chirurgeons, appointed and paid by the States: and if by chance any Sol­dier lost a Limb, or was lame, he was relieved, and had an Annual Pension from the States. This pious and Christian Constitution made the Sol­diers despise all dangers, and incoura­ged them to be both valiant and daring.

[Page 9] Therefore that Generals may under­stand what things are most necessary to furnish a Chest with, I thought good to set down both the principal Medi­caments, and Instruments, that a Chi­rurgeon, following the Camp or Sea, ought to be provided with; and if there should be occasion for any others, he may furnish himself at the next Shop he comes at.

The Chest ought to be so divided into Partitions and Classes, that all con­fusion and intermixing of Medicines may be avoided, and the Virtue and Propriety of each preserved. To this purpose I have divided it into twenty classes.

The first contains purging Simples, which must be put up in Leather-bags, except Manna and Cassia extracted, which may more conveniently be kept in Galli-pots. Those Bags again are to be put into other larger, and writ upon in great Characters, Pur­ging Simples.

In the second classis are contained Purging Electuaries, which are to be [Page 10] kept in Gally-pots, writ upon, Purging Compounds: and so of the rest.

Syrups, and distill'd Waters, are to be put into double Glasses, close cork'd, and tied down with Bladders. They must be so plac'd, that they may not move, and so break each other, and their cells lined with Baiz.

Pills are to be wrapt up in white lea­ther, rubb'd first with oyl of sweet Al­monds.

Cordial Powders and Electuaries, be­ing put into leather bags, are to be so plac'd in a separate classis, that they may not mix with the Purgers.

Roots, Herbs, Flowers, and Seeds are likewise to be kept in bags of Leather or Linnen, and to be so distributed, that in the first Classis the Roots, second Herbs, &c.

Oyls, and common Balsams, in Glass­bottles, with screwed Pewter-heads; but the pretious Chymical Oyls, as of Cinnamon, Cloves, Maces, Nutmegs, &c. ought to be preserv'd in double Glasses well stopt with Cork, and waxt. The Balsams likewise of these are to be kept in Glasses, or Silver.

[Page 11] Unguents, and Fats are best kept in Gally-pots, or of Pewter, well tied down with Paper and Leather. And Turpentine so likewise.

Plaisters, Gums, Wax, the Sewet of Bears, Cows, Goats, and the like, which are of a solid consistence, are to be put in Bladders wrapt afterwards in Pa­per.

Metals, and subterraneous Medica­ments, as Vitriol, Allum, Letharge, Bole, &c. as also Meals, must be put in­to Leather-bags: but prepared Tutia, Seif album, Ostiocolla, and the like, which are to be used in Colliriums, or given inwardly, are to be wrapt up in Paper, and put into Leather-bags, and plac'd amongst the Cordials. Let all the Bags be tied close, and written upon in great letters, to prevent con­fusion.

Arsnick, Orpiment, crude Mercury, sublimate, praecipitate, caustick, Minium Troches, Spirit of Vitriol, Aqua fortis, and the like corrosive Medicines, are not to be plac'd in the Chest, lest the Glass, or what other things they are [Page 12] contained in, break, and so spoil and prejudice the other Medicines, and withall endanger the lives of the sick; therefore to prevent this, it is more convenient to keep them in some Box or Chest apart by themselves.

The Instruments are to be preserv'd in this manner. Those that are for cut­ting, and edged, as Rasors, Scissors, Inci­sion-Knives, &c. are to be kept in Cases, the rest are wrapt in Paper, or rather in Flannel.

These being thus prepared, and in readiness, you must take a Catalogue of all, that you may presently, and with­out trouble, find them when you have occasion for them.

As your Chest is divided into classes, after the same manner it is necessary to write your Catalogue; and as of­ten as any Simple and Compound Me­dicine is wanting, mark it on the Margin of the Catalogue, that you may supply its defect.

All which, kind Reader, I thought good to advise: the Classes following now in order.

Contains the Purging Simples.

  • Agarick.
  • Aloes.
  • Rhubarb.
  • Cassia.
  • Crocus Metallo­rum.
  • Colocinthis.
  • Diagridium.
  • Senna.
  • Hermodacts.
  • Manna.
  • Mechoacans.
  • Myrobalans.
  • Juice of Damask Roses.
  • Trochisci Alban­dal.
  • Turbith.

Purging Com­pounds.

  • Benedicta Laxati­va.
  • Confectio Hamech.
  • Diacarthamum.
  • Diacatholicon.
  • Diaphoenicon.
  • Diaturbith cum rha­barbaro.
  • Electuarium de succo Rosarum.
  • Electuarium Leni­tivum.
  • Pulvis Sennae praep: Brasssavoli.
  • Syrup of Roses solu­tive.
  • Pill: Aggregativae:
    • Aureae.
    • Cochiae.
    • de Agarico.
    • Lucis majoris.
    • Ruffi.
  • [Page 14] Extract: Rudii.
  • Species for Supposi­tories.

Electuaries, and Powders strength­ening the Heart, and noble parts.

  • Aromaticum Rosa­tum.
  • Bolus orientalis.
  • Camphire.
  • Confect: Alchermes. de Hyacintho.
  • Prepared Coral.
  • Burnt Harts-horn prepared.
  • Cremor Tartari.
  • Diaireos.
  • Diamargaritum fri­gidum.
  • Diarrhodon Abbatis.
  • Diatragaganthum frigidum.
  • Diatrion Santali­num.
  • Flower of Brimstone.
  • Bezoar Stone.
  • Prepared Pearls.
  • Mithridate.
  • Meconium.
  • Opium.
  • Laudanum Opiatum.
  • Ostrocolla, prepared to be given in­wardly.
  • Philonium Roma­num.
  • Pulvis ad Epithe­mata cordis.
  • Shavings of Harts-horn.
  • Sal prunella.
  • Tartarum vitriola­tum.
  • Seal'd Earth.
  • Theriac: Londinens:
    • Andromachi.
    • Diatessaron.

Aromaticks, or Spices.

  • Calamus Aromati­cus.
  • Cloves.
  • Cinnamon.
  • Saffron.
  • Gallingal.
  • Mace.
  • Nutmegs.
  • Pepper.
  • Sugar.
  • Ginger.

Distill'd Waters, and the like.

  • Of Sorrel.
  • Aniseed.
  • Burrage.
  • Bugloss.
  • Marigold.
  • Cinnamon distill'd without Wine.
  • Bawlm.
  • Plantain.
  • Roses.
  • Aqua Vitae.
    • Absynthii.
    • Minthae.
    • Theriacalis.
  • Juices of
    • Barberies.
    • Citrons.
    • Pomegranats.
  • Vineger of Roses.
  • Common Vine­ger.



  • Sorrel.
  • Unripe Currans.
  • Barberies.
  • Bugloss.
  • Citrons.
  • Quinces.
  • Pomegranats.
  • Limons.
  • Liquorice.
  • Poppies.
  • [Page 16] Roses not laxative.
  • Dried Roses.
  • Violets.
  • Mel Rosarum.
  • Oxymel simplex scil­liticum.
  • Diamoron.



  • Marsh-mallows.
  • Angelica.
  • Birthwort long, and round.
  • Bistort.
  • Briony.
  • Avens.
  • Onyons.
  • Succory.
  • Comfrey.
  • Sow-bread.
  • Elecampane.
  • Eringo.
  • Fennel.
  • Gentian.
  • Swallow-wort.
  • Orris.
  • White Lilies.
  • Liquorice.
  • Parsley.
  • Burnet.
  • Plantain.
  • Polypody.
  • Squills.
  • Tormentil.


  • Wormwood, com­mon, and Ro­man.
  • Agrimony.
  • Ladies Mantle.
  • Jack by the hedge.
  • Marsh-mallows, Leaves, Flow­ers, and Tops.
  • Betony.
  • Carduus benedictus.
  • Centaury.
  • Knotgrass.
  • Cuscuta.
  • [Page 17] Dittany of Crete.
  • Horsetail.
  • Eye-bright.
  • Fumitory.
  • St. Johns-wort.
  • Marjerome.
  • Balme.
  • Mint.
  • Mercury.
  • Nep.
  • Origanum.
  • Plantain.
  • Self-heal.
  • Winter-green.
  • Ribwort.
  • Rosemary.
  • Rue.
  • Sage.
  • Sanicle.
  • Scabious.
  • Scordium.
  • Golden Rod.



  • Dill.
  • Betony.
  • Borrage.
  • Bugloss.
  • Marigold.
  • Camomile.
  • Pomegranats.
  • Melilot.
  • Primrose.
  • Roses.
  • Rosemary.
  • Sage.
  • Elder.
  • Mullein.
  • Violets.



  • Dill.
  • Anise.
  • Caraways.
  • Coriander prepar'd.
  • Cummin.
  • Quinces.
  • Foenugrick.
  • French Barley.
  • Linseed.
  • [Page 18] Parsley.
  • Plantane.
  • Raddish.
  • Mustard.


  • Almonds.
  • Bay-berries.
  • Acorn-cups.
  • Figs.
  • Preserved Cherries.
  • Quinces.
  • Galls.
  • Acorns.
  • Limons.
  • Lupins.
  • Oranges.
  • Pomegranats.
  • Mirtle-berries.
  • Cypress-Nuts.
  • Rose-cups.
  • Prunes.
  • Tamarinds.
  • Raisons.



  • Almonds, sweet, and bitter.
  • Dill.
  • Aniseeds.
  • Balsam of Tolu.
  • Vigo's Balsam.
  • Oyl ofCarawayseeds.
  • Cloves.
  • Wax.
  • Camomile.
  • Cinnamon.
  • Quinces.
  • Fennelseed.
  • St. Johns-wort.
  • Juniper-berries.
  • White Lillies.
  • Earth-worms.
  • Mastick.
  • Mint.
  • Myrtles.
  • Nutmegs.
  • Olives.
  • [Page 19] Roses.
  • Scorpions.
  • Turpentine.
  • Violets.
  • Yolks of Eggs.
  • Petroleum.
  • Foxes.
  • Elder.
  • Linseed.


  • Aegyptiacum.
  • Album Rhasis.
  • Apostolorum.
  • Aureum.
  • De Minio Campho­ratum.
  • Defensivum Chal­metaei.
  • Dialtheae.
  • Diapompholigos.
  • Nicotianae.
  • Populeon.
  • Rosatum.
  • Ad Ambusta Hilda­ni.
  • Basilicon.
  • Linimentum Arcei.
  • Martiatum.



  • Geese.
  • Beef.
  • Capons.
  • Deer.
  • Goats.
  • Men.
  • Hens.
  • Hogs.
  • Bears.


  • Apostolicum.
  • Basilicum.
  • De Betonica.
  • Diapalma.
  • Diachilon simplex & compositum.
  • De Melliloto.
  • [Page 20] De Mussilaginibus.
  • Oxycroceum.
  • De Ranis.
  • Paracelsus.

Gums, &c.

  • Ammoniacum.
  • Benjamin.
  • Wax, white, and yellow.
  • Colophony.
  • Elemni.
  • Euphorbium.
  • Mastick.
  • Myrrh.
  • Olibanum.
  • Pitch.
  • Stirax Calamita.
  • Turpentine.
  • Tragaganth.

Minerals, and their like.

  • Alome, crude and burnt.
  • Antimony crude.
  • Arsnick.
  • Lime wash'd.
  • Ceruse.
  • Crocus Martis.
  • Gypsum.
  • Lapis Calaminaris.
    • Causticus.
    • Medicamentosus Crollii.
    • Sabulosus.
  • Lythargirium aure­um, & argente­um.
  • Mercurius crudus.
    • Sublimatus.
    • Praecipitatus.
  • Nil praeparatum.
  • Niter crude, pre­pared.
  • Burnt Lead.
  • [Page 21]Realgar.
  • Seif album.
  • Brimstone.
  • Tutia prepared.
  • Vitriol crude, and burnt.



  • Bay-berries.
  • Beans.
  • Barley.
  • Lentiles.
  • Darnel.
  • Lupines.
  • Wheat.
  • Mill-dust.
  • Pulvis ad sistendum sanguinem.


Besides the above recited Medicines, it is also most requisite, that a Chirur­geon should be furnished with necessa­ry Instruments, without which he cannot perform his duty as he ought. They may be divided into two sorts, some to be fitted for a Box, which he ought continually to carry about him in his Pocket; these ought to be made small and little, that they may neither load him, nor afright the Patient: the [Page 22] others are to be kept in the Chest, whilst occasion calls for their assi­stance. I never visited my Patients without a Box of Instruments in my Pocket, in the which were contained the following:

A Razor.

A pair of Scissors.

Two Incision Knives.

Four Lancets to bleed withall.

A crooked Knife to open Apostems.

A Flegme, to divide the Gums in the Tooth-ach.

An Extractor, to take out forreign things out of Wounds.

A pair of Forceps for the same use.

Needles, to stitch up great Wounds, which are to be of different Sizes, some great, others small, &c.

A stitching Quill, which is used in stitching Wounds: it ought to be of that length, as to contain the Needles within its hollowness. Wounds of the fleshy parts only are to be sticht, ner­vous parts in no wise. In wounds of the face I never use Needle, but that which is called the dry stitch.

[Page 23] Spatula's, great and little.


Speculum oris; one end of which, in affects of the Jaws, and Throat, is to depress the tongue, the other to scrape it.


A Burrus quill, to sprinkle Powders upon Wounds or Ulcers.

A Hook, single at one end, and two at the other.

A Hone, to set the Incision-knives, Lancets, &c.

I had all these Instruments, and ma­ny more, made me by a skilful Artist in Silver, which I used only within the Town, Patients being less afraid of them than of Iron: but at Sea and at Camps it is not so safe for a Chirur­geon to have them of Silver, therefore they may be very conveniently made of Iron or Steel, except the Probes, which ought to be made of Lead, Cop­per, or Latin.

These Instruments a Chirurgeon ought always to have about him, as al­so a Salvatory with six divisions, [Page 24] which ought to be furnish'd 1. with unguentum Basilicon, 2. with ung. Aure­um, 3. Apostolorum, 4. Nutritum, 5. Al­bum Rhasis, the 6. with Rubrum Exsicca­tivum, or de Minio: it ought to be made of Horn, or some solid wood, as Ebony, Guaiacum, or Box, for Un­guents are better preserved in wood, than in Silver, Copper, &c. It is also requisite that he hath about him in a Pewter Bottle some oyl of Roses, to a­noint any wounded part, it easeth pain, &c. as also another pot with a digestive.

Thus much for the Instruments, which a Chirurgeon ought to wear about him; now follow the others, and first of those that are us'd about the Head.

1. Trepans, by which the Skull is perforated in great Contusions, to give passage to extravasated and concre­ted blood collected in the head.

2. Levatories, to raise the depres­sed skull.

3. Scalpra's, to scrape the carious skull.

4. A great Speculum oris, by which [Page 25] the Tongue, in great inflammations of the Jaws and Throat, is depress'd.

5. Another speculum oris, to force open the Mouth, which, as I have seen sometimes in spasmus's, to be so close shut, that a drop of Broth could not be poured in.

6. Several Instruments to draw Teeth.

7. And because sometimes in eat­ing, a fish-bone or the like is fixt in the Throat, and so would suffocate the person, therefore it is necessary for a Chirurgeon to have in his Chest such an Instrument, as I have described in the 36 Observation of the first Century: but if he hath it not at hand, let him forth with make fast a piece of Spunge to the end of a Catheter, and thrust it down the Throat.

8. Instruments to draw forth Bul­lets from Gunshot-wounds, of which there are diverse set down by Authors. I esteem that the most convenient, whose Description you may see in the 88. Obs. of the first Century.

9. A great Saw, for amputating great Members.

[Page 26] 10. A little Saw for the dismem­bring Fingers, and Toes; it not be­coming a Rational Chirurgeon to se­parate them with Chissels, as I have more largely shewn in my Treatise of a Gangrene, &c. chap. 17.

11. Because in amputating, the greater part of Chirurgeons use a Knife, it is convenient to have one well set, and strongly sixt in a Handle.

12. A crooked Knife: its Descrip­tion see in the above named book of a Gangrene.

13. I, in the taking off of Mem­bers, instead of a Knife, use a Cautery, made in fashion of a Knife, well edged, and red hot: its description is in the above named Treatise. He ought like­wise to have ready other Cauteries, some larger, others lesser; some sharp, others round, which may be used to stop the flux of Blood after Amputa­tion, or other great and dangerous Hemorages.

14. And because Soldiers, from their debaucheries and impure copu­lation, are oftentimes troubled with [Page 27] the running of the Reins, Caruncles, and suppression of Urine, it is necessary a Chi­rurgeon should be provided with Ca­theters and Syrenges.

15. For the reducing of Broken Bones, and Dislocations there are seve­ral Instruments, both by Hippocrates, Oribasius, and other Authors, set down; but I have always found in my pra­ctice the Instrument of Ambrose Parey, which is with a Pulley, the most convenient; especially if you joyn to it the Girdle and Remora, as in the 86. Observation of the fifth Century: it is not onely the most convenient, but most useful Instrument for all Fra­ctures and Dislocations, except of the Fingers, Ribs, and Mandibles (which are set by the hand alone; it is also little, and therefore not troublesome to carry about one.

16. A Chirurgeon ought also to be provided with Splints of several big­nesses, some little, others big, accor­ding to the qualities of the members broken, which ought to be made of thin pieces of Wood, or of Scabbards.

[Page 28] He must be provided likewise with Mortars, Sives, Skillets to boyl Cata­plasms in, and also to mix up Oynt­ments; and with Glyster-pipes, whose use in Angina's, wounds of the Head, Feavers, &c. are very useful.

The Description and Cuts of the Instruments are given by Ambrose Pa­rey, Joh: Andreas à Cruce; but because this should be a compleat Treatise of Chirurgery, there is added to it seve­ral Copper-plates of the most useful Instruments for almost all operations, but especially of all those that relate any way to the operations mentioned in this Book.

Linnen Rowlers, and the like.

THE Chest cannot be perfectly furnished, if Linnen, and the benefit received from it, in the appli­cation of Medicines, be wanting; for what profit Medicaments, though the most excellent, without Linnnen? especially in great and dangerous flu­xes [Page 29] of Blood, fractures and dislocations of the Bones, and in other accidents, where there is danger in delay; there­fore you must have always in readiness Rowlers, both large, narrow, and mid­dle-sized, Linnen cloaths doubled, which we call Compressors, or Boulster­pledgets of Tow.

Lint, which we use to apply Medi­caments upon, and to keep the lips of the Wounds asunder, that they unite not again.

Tents also of Lint, of prepared Spun­ges, Gentian roots, and the like, which are to be of several sizes, some big, some little, &c. they ought to be prepared at leasure hours, that they may be rea­dy when occasion requires.

He must have also Spunges, and Oxe­bladders, which are necessary to tye down Pots and Glasses, and also used in Amputation.

If a Sea or Land-Chirurgeon be furnished with the above recited things, and have about him both faith­ful and expert Servants, he will be able to give assistance to a whole Fleet or [Page 30] Army, and preserve infinites from death.

Candid Reader, I have been some­what prolix in the setting down the Medicaments, and other things, by reason I designed to describe a most perfect and every way compleat fur­nished Chest; but if thou art to fur­nish one at thy one particular charge, thou mayst select out of them the most useful and necessary Medicaments; but be sure likewise that it be so pro­vided both with Medicaments and Instruments, that out of it, when oc­casion requires, thou mayst be able to assist and relieve the Sick; for what thou art imployed about here, is nei­ther Beast, nor Pretious Stones, but Man, for whom the Son of God shed his pretious blood upon the Cross: therefore if any thing be neglected, it must be answered before the Almigh­ty, to whom an account of all our Actions must be render'd.




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