THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL, From the first Ages of the World, to the late great REVOLUTION, un­der King JOHN IV. in the Year MDCXL.

Written in Spanish, By Emanuel de Faria y Sousa, Knight of the Order of CHRIST.

Translated, and Continued down to this present Year, 1698. By Capt. JOHN STEVENS.

LONDON, Printed for W. Rogers and Abel Roper, in Fleet-street; J. Harris and J. Nicholson, in Little-Britain; T. Newborough, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and T▪ Cockerill, in Pater-Noster-Row, MDCXCVIII.

TO RICHARD MINSHULL, OF BOURTON, In the COUNTY of BUCKS, Esq

SIR,

AMidst that great Variety of Read­ing, wherewith Learned Men have furnished the World, to the end that each Person may be provided of a Subject suitable to his Genius, there is none so universally pleasing, or, indeed, [Page] more profitable than History. It is a ge­neral sort of Learning, fitted for all Ca­pacities; the Meanest are-not below, nor the Greatest above it, because it contains nothing so abstruse, that may not be easi­ly comprehended; nor any thing so tri­vial, that may not be worth observing. All Arts and Sciences are purchased by much Study and Labour; and, even so, they are not attained in any Perfection, but by those whom Nature has particu­larly moulded to receive such an Impres­sion. History alone delights at once, and instructs; it informs, without perplexing the Understanding; it improves, without burthening the Memory; it rectifies, with­out thwarting the Will; and, in short, it leads away our Affections, without mis­guiding them. The Advantages we reap by it are inestimable, in regard we re­ceive a perfect Knowledge of what was before us; and are thereby enabled to make a Judgment of what will be after us: For, as the Wise Man, so many Ages since, said, There was nothing new under the Sun; so may we believe there neither is in our Times, nor will be in those to come: For the Lives and Actions of Men are only a continued Repetition of those that preceded them; because all this [Page] inferiour World is but a perpetual Conca­tenation of the self-same Revolutions, how­ever surprizingly disguized in the Dress and Methods. Now, to know what pas­sed since the Creation, and thence judi­ciously to inferr what is likely to ensue till the final Consummation; and this not only in one City or Kingdom, but through­out the vast Circumference of the Uni­verse, is a sort of Knowledge that appears to be somewhat more than Humane; or rather, not far removed from Divine. It is a Knowledge so important, that God himself did not disdain, for our Benefit, to fill up the greatest part of his Sacred Volume with History, whereof he himself was the Compiler. God himself it was, that, through the Mouths of the Prophets, transmitted down to us the History of the Creation, and Restauration of Mankind, the Genealogy of the first Patriarchs, the Acts of the Children of Israel, the Lives of their Judges and Kings, and all that is Historical in Holy Writ. Nay, to come nearer; What are the Four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles, but the History of our Blessed Saviour, and those his glorious Followers. Thus the Prophets and Evangelists seem to authorize and recommend History, they themselves be­ing [Page] Sacred Historians. Nor is it only on this Religious Foundation, that its Credit is supported: To omit many things that might be urged to testifie its great Va­lue, let us only consider whence it is that we have the Knowledge of our Ori­ginal, and what it is that has eternized the Memory of Great and Worthy Per­sons; and we shall find, it is all due to History alone. To this also must those who now live, and are ambitious of per­petuating their Memory, owe the Trans­mitting of their Names and Merits to Posterity. To this Kings and Princes are beholding, for the rare Examples it fur­nishes them with of their Illustrious Pre­decessors; thereby stirring up their Minds to imitate their Heroick Actions, and be­come Partakers of their lasting Praises. To this, States-men are obliged, for the politick Presidents it affords them to go­vern themselves by in all extraordinary Exigencies of State. To this, all accom­plished Persons stand indebted for the Or­nament of their Discourse, and for the perfecting them in the true Knowledge of the World. And, to conclude, From this, the Generality of Mankind is furnished with Variety of Instances exciting to Ver­tue, and deterring from Vice. But, though [Page] too much cannot be said upon so deser­ving a Subject, let this suffice, since it is not to inform, but to obtain a favourable Acceptance, that so much has been said.

If then, Sir, the Dignity and Value of History be such as I have represent­ed, well may it merit an Honourable Pa­tronage from Persons of Worth. Empty Titles are not the Worth I mean; those too often are bestowed upon the vilest of Men, and even for submitting to the most infamous of Crimes. That is true Worth, which, being derived from Ho­nourable Ancestors, though without the Addition of gaudy Epithets, is preserved unblemished, and without Stain. To ascend to those the World calls Honours, such as Lordships, Earldoms and Dukedoms, by in­direct, scandalous and unjust Means, is ra­ [...]her to descend: To embrace them, offered under those Circumstances, is the Act of an abject, rather than a noble Spirit; and to aim at, and aspire to them through those Means, rather betokens a sordid Pride, than a generous Ambition. Such Patrons are neither capable of Receiving or Communicating Honour; their Names, [Page] in History, are branded with Infamy, not to be covered by all the Sycophant Addresses and Flatteries of a Dedication: And even the Work which seeks Shelter under them, sucks in the Infection of their poysonous Shadow. Malice may, perhaps, endeavour so to pervert my Words, as if they implied a Reflection up­on Great and Honourable Persons; but it is plain, only Malice can so mis-inter­pret my Meaning, as to force it to such an invidious Sense. Those who are tru­ly Noble, cannot suffer in the Character of such as only mimick their Grandeur; and they alone will find themselves af­fected, whose Consciences shall accuse them of having aspired to a Counter­feit Nobility, through mean and sordid Practices.

These, Sir, are the Men, whose Names I most abhor to prefix to my Labours; from them I fly to your Protection, as to one whom Envy it self cannot asperse with Want of real Honour, or with af­fecting that which is not such. If Illu­strious Birth and Parentage be Honour, yours is too well known, to be capable of receiving any Addition by any thing my Pen can express in its behalf. If a [Page] plentiful Fortune be the Support and Or­nament of Honour, you have received it from your Ancestors, by a Legal Inheri­tance; when others, to raise their Fami­lies, found Estates upon Extortion, Fraud and Oppression. But, above all, If Generous Actions and Vertuous Principles be true Honour, none that knows you, is igno­rant, how great a Share you possess. Nor would I pass by this so material a Point, without enlarging upon it, but that it will not suit with your Mode­sty, to hear your own, though just, Commendations: Nor will the Malice and Virulency of our Times bear with the Mention of solid and real Praises. What you are, and what you merit, nei­ther is, nor will be unknown; it may prove the Subject of an abler Pen, when those who know, shall see a fit Time to recommend your Memory to Poste­rity.

All that remains, Sir, is, to beg a fa­vourable Acceptance of the Tender I make. It is the entire History of a King­dom, from its first Plantation, to this present Time. The Original was dedica­ted to a King: The Translation has not, I hope, so much degenerated, but it may [Page] be worthy of you. If you think it so, I have gained my Point; and shall reap a singular Satisfaction, if it gives you any. I am,

SIR,
Your most Obedient, Humble Servant, JOHN STEVENS.

THE PREFACE▪

POrtugal, though a Kingdom of but a small Extent, and which for these latter Years, has not furnished us with any great sub­ject of History; yet in past Ages, it did so largely extend its Dominions, and raised such admiration throughout Europe, by its wonder­ful Discoveries and stupendious Conquests, that it is much to be admired, all its past Glories should be Buried under its present obscurity. Nor is it less to be wondred at, that England, which so lately received from thence a Queen, yet living, should know so little either of her Country, or Progenitors: This, I say, in re­gard, that till now there has not appeared abroad in the English Tongue any History of that once so famous Kingdom, unless we will reckon as such some small fragments which at several times have crept into the World, and which seem ra­ther to stir up our curiosity to know, who those [Page] People were, than any ways to satisfy our desire of Knowledge. This fault I conceive must be chiefly imputed to the Portuguese themselves, whose care it ought to have been to deliver to Posterity and Foreigners their own honourable Actions, so methodized, that they might de­light in seeing them together reduced into the form of a compleat History. But they, though furnishing so much matter for Authors to em­ploy their Pens, were yet supinely negligent in duly recording and publishing of it. It is true, they had many Writers, who snatched their Actions from utter oblivion, by leaving that piece-meal which ought to have been reduced in­to one Work; but this was a labour most Men were averse to, as believing it above their strength, because those Writings were partly so voluminous, that it required almost a Man's Age to reduce them to a less compass, and part­ly so scattered abroad in sundry parts of the Kingdom, that they despaired of ever being a­ble to bring them together.

Emanuel de Faria y Sousa, our Author, was the first that I can find ever undertook to digest and publish to the World, the compleat History of his Country, and give a perfect ac­count of the Actions of his Countrymen in all parts of the World. He not only undertook, but performed it with general applause, not only of the Portuguese who are the subject of his great Enterprize, but even of the Spaniards, in whose Language he Wrote. This his labour [Page] was not finished till the Year 1640. and appear­ed not in publick till many Years after. He has observed a strict method of History, without running out into endless Digressions, which only serve to swell Volumes, and are no way material to the subject in hand. Being a Portuguese, I cannot affirm him to be altogether impartial, for there is no Man whom the love of his Na­tive Country does not a little sway, yet this can be no exception against him, because, if such, all History would be lyable to the same censure; and besides he was a Man that pro­posed to himself no interest in flattering the great ones, living always a private retired life, which will plainly appear in that he spares not often to expose the Vices and Enormities of no­table Persons for the sake of their Posterity, and no where extols any, though never so migh­ty for the hope of pleasing their descendants. But to be short, let the History speak for it self, for my commendation, as being a party too much concerned in it, cannot add much to its Reputation, and yet this I must say, that I can­not at all doubt of its meeting applause, because having run through the Kingdoms of Spain and Portugal, with a general esteem in its original Language, I cannot be perswaded that the Transla­tion can have so much detracted from its first value, as to render it unacceptable to the judi­cious lovers of this sort of Learning.

Thus much may suffice as to the History in General, but to descend to particulars, The [Page] first Book contains all that hapned in Portugal, from the time it was first peopled by Tubal, the Grandson of Noah, till the time of the fa­mous Viriatus. The second begins with Viriatus, and ends at the Birth of Saviour. The third reaches from the Birth of our Saviour till the Conquest of Spain by the Moors▪ The fourth from the Moorish Conquest, till the erecting of Portugal into a particular Kingdom, under its first King, Alonso the First, or rather his Fa­ther Count Henry. The fifth from the said Count Henry, till King Sancho the second. The sixth from him till King Ferdinand inclu­sive. The seventh from King John the First, to King John the Second. The eighth from King Emanuel, till Henry the King and Car­dinal, and the Governours left by him at his Death. The ninth Book has the lives of the three Philips Kings of Spain and Portugal, till the Year 1640. where the Author concludes, and the Supplement begins.

Having given this short account of the main History, and named the Supplement, I must not omit to say somewhat in relation to it. Ema­nual de Faria having concluded, as has been said, just at the Year 1640. there ensued that very Year the great Revolution, in which the Portuguese cast off the Dominion of the Spa­niards, and set up a King of their own. This mighty work was in a manner done in a day, all places submitting to the new King, and expell­ing the Spaniards with such success as is scarce [Page] credible, but that the thing is still fresh in the memory of many persons▪ living. However, though the Portuguese in so short a time had asserted their Liberty, and cast off the Foreign Yoak; yet the consequences of so great an En­terprise, were a continual War for the space of almost Twenty Eight Years. Now this War is the principal subject of the Supplement, and indeed a matter well worthy to be known, as a most material Transaction of this Age. Being a thing so remarkable and near our times, I have been very particular in it, and therefore given an exact account of the Transactions of every Year apart. I have not been sparing of any labour in perusing such Authors as have writ of it, and extracting from them as much as my intended Brevity would permit, and tho' I designed to have been much shorter, the va­riety of accidents is such, that it has obliged me to run it out to a much greater bulk than at first I designed. Neither have I wanted infor­mation in many particulars touched in this Sup­plement, from Persons who were present and Eye­witnesses, to the Actions therein related. Nay one of my Authors, viz. the Count de Ericeyra, who has handled this subject very largely, was not only a Commander in the Army, but also a Councellor of State, and therefore a most fit Man to give an account as well of the Warlike Exploits in the Field, as of the private Trans­actions at Court. But now to come to the last part of all, which I call the Conclusion of the History, it is so distinguished from the rest of [Page] the Supplement, in regard that therein we look back into several Years before treated of. This, as is there said, was so ordered to avoid in­terrupting the series of the War, with the re­lation of Factions and Animosities at Court. And the Councels and Practises which tended to that extraordinary change, which was made in the Government, in the imprisoning and con­fining a King for many Years, being matters meriting a special observation, I thought it better to lay the whole series of them together, so that they may appear at one view, than to interrupt them with other Narrations.

Monarchies as all other wordly things have their rise and fall, and consequently those which have once been glorious, ought to merit our e­steem for what they were, no less than those which are now great, are admired for what they are. It is no disgrace to a famous General, that he is grown old and worn out with labours; nor ought it to lessen our esteem for a Kingdom, because we see it sunk under the too great Bur­then of its undertakings. This has hapned to Portugal, which being of its self but a small spot of Ground, yet adventured, and that with success, to spread its Conquests into the four parts of the World, to build Cities and Forts among People before unknown to the Europeans, to traffick among Rude and Barbarous Nations, to engage Multitudes, not of naked Indians, but such as had the use of all sorts of Fire-arms, to Preach the Gospel to inhuman Infidels, who [Page] had never heard the sacred Name of Christ, and in fine, to People the vast Ocean, if I may so call it, with their Fleets, to pierce through dangers of unknown Seas, and to discover to us the course of the Sun, by tracing his Carrier round this Terrestrial Globe. These are the mighty Actions, which gained Portugal that renown it stood possessed of, and these very ex­ploits have helped to sink it into that obscuri­ty, which now in a manner hides it from us. The greatness of the attempts gained them re­nown, but their own and their Neighbours boundless avarice proved the bane of all their Glories. Their own, because being but so small a People, they yet set no limits to their desires, but rather stretched forth their greedy hands to catch at all the Riches of the East, and turn them to their peculiar use, without considering how much easier it has always been found to ac­quire much, than to preserve what is so unrea­sonably acquired. It was their Neighbours a­varice, as I said, that hastned their ruin, be­cause there was scarce a nation of any considera­tion in Europe, which did not strive to pluck a Feather from them, and to gain footing, where such mighty prospect of profit appeared; and a­bove all, the Dutch have been the Cormorants that have devoured their Lands, their Metals, and their Spice. Such was the downfall of the Portuguese Nation, raised by their Ambition and Valour to the highest pitch of Honour, and cast down by the Covetousness and Envy of their Neighbours. Nor has the late War, which in­volved [Page] the greatest part of Europe, contribu­ted less to the obscuring of their Name, for all Mankind being wholly taken up with the thoughts of those that were active, had not l'easure to cast an Eye upon a People, that lay happily obscu­red under the Blessed cloud of Peace. Yet tho' the calm they have of late enjoyed, may have put them by the Honour of any fresh martial Atchievments, an Honour it is their greatest felicity to want; nevertheless their more glori­ous former Exploits are not worthy to be buried in Oblivion. The Empires of the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks and Romans, have long since perished, and still we read their Actions with Delight and Admiration. The Kingdoms of the Parthians, the Goths, the Huns, and o­ther barbarous Nations, are now no more, and still the remembrance of their Valour, their Victories, and their success is the subject of ma­ny Volumes. Portugal still stands an indepen­dent Monarchy, and though but the skeleton of what it was, still its former Glories merit to be Recorded, either for what that Kingdom then was, or for what it may possibly be a­gain.

But it is high time I look about for fear of transgressing in too long a Preface. Hitherto something has been said concerning the Author, concerning his Works, and concerning the King­dom he treats of. What now remains is to re­move some objections which may be raised by such as would have all Histories as infallible [Page] as the Holy Scripture, both as to Time and Actions: This is what all Men may wish, but none ever yet could attain to. He that would read no History, in which there is a fault, may resolve to spare his Eyes, or apply them to some other study. The first thing I find in this Book, which may be carped at, is the account of the first planting this Kingdom, and the succeeding race of Kings, till the coming in of the Cartha­ginians. Nothing more can be said in defence hereof, but that all Antiquity at such a distance is obscure, every Nation has laboured to de­duce it self from the nearest time to the Flood it could; and what is most; even the Ancient Jo­sephus writes, that Jobel or Tubal, the Grandson of Noah, came into Spain, and other Greek and Latin Authors make mention of Spa­nish Kings here named; therefore in such a mist of Antiquity, it may be reckoned a great Happiness, that such lights as these can be found to lead us to any part of it that we may rely upon. The next objection will be against many passages of somewhat a latter date; as for example, the strange life of Abidis, the coming of Nebuchadnezer into Spain, and several o­ther things very incredible to those who have not heard of them before. The answer is, That these things, though strange to us are not at all impossible, that they are left to us upon credit of very Authentick Authors, and that if in them there be any thing fabulous, yet that must not blast the Reputation of this History, no more than the English Chronicle ought to be [Page] wholly condemned for the far fetcht History of Brutus and his Trojans, or Livy for his Poe­tical Noursery of Romulus and Remus by a Wolf. What follows till the Birth of our Sa­viour, and some time after, will not be liable to much censure, by reason there is little in it, but what has been delivered by Roman Wri­ters, who have for the most part passed current in the World; or, if any of them have not, it is no way the Business of this work to vindicate them. After the first Preaching of the Gospel, we shall here and there meet with some account of Miracles wrought, which perhaps, may not sute with all Palates. Most Christians do al­low, that the first spreading of Christianity, was wrought with the help of stupendious Wonders, God so ordaining it for the convincing of the hard­ned Painyms, who being carnally Educated, could never be brought to comprehend the sacred Doctrine of Christ, unless they had been convin­ced by the working of some supernatural Opera­tions. Most Christians, I say, do allow of this at least in the Infancy of Christianity, and these I believe will not much reflect upon the credit of such as they shall here meet withal; and for those pretended Christians, who cry down all that is not suitable to their own Enthusiastick Notions, it is not material whether they give credit to these things or not, since many of them have had the prophane Impudence with sacrile­gious Tongues and Pens, to endeavour to abo­lish the use of the Lord's Prayer and Creed; and it is no discredit for a Christian Author to be [Page] disesteemed by those who made so little account of Christ himself, and his Apostles. However, I do not urge this to oblige the believing of all such miraculous Relations, as shall occur in this History; it will appear, I am not over-fond of them my self. Doubtless in all parts of the World, God permitted Miracles to be wrought for his own Glory, and for the Salvation of Souls, but whether the same, or in the same manner, as they are here related, is left to e­very one to believe or dis-believe at his plea­sure. To proceed, there follows for some hun­dreds of years, after the Redemption of Man, a most obscure and uncertain account of what hapned not only in Portugal, but throughout all Spain. From the total Conquest made by Augustus, till the coming of the Barbarous Goths, Suevians, Vandals, Alans, and the rest, there was for the most part a continual Peace throughout Spain, which being, during that time, a Province subject to the Empire, either yielded no matter worth the Writing, or else wanted Writers to transmit it to Posteri­ty. The barbarous Nations above mentioned, were so far from the thoughts of recording their own Acts, that their greatest care was to root out and destroy all Learning and Civility; for which reason, their History is transmitted to us so interrupted and imperfect, that scarce any Connection can be found in it. But when these Savage People by the receiving of Chri­stianity had been somewhat Civilized, and it might have been hoped the Clouds of ignorance [Page] would have been dispersed, then their griev­ous Sins called upon them a heavy Judgment from Africk, which was an inundation of Moors, who in the space of eight Months, o­verran all Spain, destroying not only Books, but all Monuments of Antiquity that were then remaining, and driving the miserable Christians into Dens and Caves upon the Moun­tains; whence afterwards issuing out, they had so much continual employment for the Sword, that none had time to perpetuate with the Pen, what the Sword performed. Hence followed such a profound ignorance in this King­dom of Portugal, the perpetual Wars ta­king away all thoughts of Learning, that for many Years after it had Kings of its own, yet it wanted Writers to perpetuate their Me­mory.

These are in short the defects of this Hi­story, if they may be termed such, since as we have said before, there is none perfect in the World, and those I think are sufficiently an­swered to satisfy such reasonable persons as will not expect impossibilities. Of the Supplement it will be needless to add more than has been already said, unless it be a word touching the conclusion of it, and in relation to the account there given, of the hard usage of the unfor­tunate King Alphonso. Yet because I think, as much has been said there, as is requisite to justify what I have Written, I will not tire the Reader's patience, only once for all, assure [Page] him, that nothing has been there Writ by me for Favour or Affection, since I may rather ex­pect to be condemned than rewarded for any thing that seems to vindicate that unhapy Prince. I must confess, I could not without Concern, read a Book published here in the Year 1677. and Entituled, The Portugal History: Or, a Relation of the Troubles that hapned in the Court of Portugal in the Years 1667. and 1668. For in that Treatise, I find King Alphonso treated in so cruel a manner, that it would afflict the hardest Heart that has any remorse or consideration for the Majesty of Kings. It was not the im­prisoning and dethroning of that poor Prince, which was the hardest part of his Misfortunes; this Book I mentioned, and others like it, have yet gone farther, by blasting his Memory to po­sterity, and representing of him as a Monster, rather than a Man. These enormities I have laboured the best I could, to rectify by giving the truest Character of that Prince I could, and the most impartial account of his Misfor­tunes. In this part I have made use of o­ther impartial Authors, and also of authen­tick informations, from such persons as knew that King, and were Witnesses to the whole contrivance of his Deposition and Imprison­ment.

Thus much may suffice to inform, not to pre­possess the Reader. All Books that appear in publick are exposed to Censure, and few or [Page] none escape it, even the best are not exempted, and therefore I cannot hope this should. But let it take its Chance, there are sundry sorts of tasts among Men, what one likes, another loaths; and even so it falls out in Books, some Men extoll, and others cry them down; this cannot be so unfortunate, as not to please some body. Those who like it, will have their re­ward in pleasing themselves, and such as are disgusted with it, will have no recompence for their Dissatisfaction.

THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.

The First BOOK.

CHAP. I.
Of the Dispersion of the People after the Deluge. The Coming of Tubal into Spain: His Life, Death and Burial. The Succession of Iberus, Jubalda, Brigus, Tagus, Gerion, and his Sons.

AFter the World had suffered the just Punish­ment of its Guilt in the Universal Deluge,Noah's Flood. the Wrath of Heaven being appeased, and the Elements restored to their first Harmony, the Ark that for the space of a Year had preserved in its Bo [...]els the Hopes of the Propagation of Human Kind [...] vast Ocean of the over-flowed Earth, at length [...] on the top of the famous Mount Ararat, in Arme­ni [...] Noah coming out, offered Sacrifice to GOD, to in­cli [...]e him to bestow new Bounties and Mercies upon him. H [...]ving received a Promise, he descended from that [...] Heighth, to a Plain called Sennaar, at that time [Page] [...] [Page 1] [...] [Page 2] covered with Carcases; in horrid Scene of Humane Vanity. Those few Restorers of Mankind, and small Remnant of that wonderful Desolation, cleansed the Place, and laid the Foundation of the first City in the World, after its Destruction. That it was called Saga Albina (as the Rabbies will have it, whom some learn­ed Authors follow) is very uncertain, as are all other Things depending on Humane Faith, which is very fallible, though depending on the Credit of that very Age; much more, when delivered so long after. The Infallible, as being Divine, Historian clears this Doubt, when he calls it Babel; for this Name belonged to the City before the Erecting of the Tower, which was no more than a part of the other. It is no less uncertain that Araxa, a Daughter of Noah, (according to the same Authors) remained as Sovereign of that City; when the Inhabitants, being grown too numerous, were ob­liged to divide, and spread themselves farther about the Earth.

2. It was not so much their Multitude that obliged them to separate,W [...] the Of- [...] of Noah dispersed. as the Discord that began to grow among them; and even their Vices; for they all ra­ther chose to follow the Example of their wicked An­cestors, who had suffered, than to take Warning by their Punishment. Even the Memory of that Chastise­ment, instead of reclaiming, served only to make them the more guilty: For, after having begged and obtain­ed Mercy from God, they proudly attempted to raise Works against Heaven, and brave his Omnipotence. They had the Presumption to believe they could secure themselves against another Deluge, without the Assis­tance of God: And whereas the surest Fence Mortals have against the just Indignation of the Almighty, is, his Mercy, when humbly sued for; yet they began that so famous Tower; which, as it was a Work prodigious for Men in that Infancy of their Reparation, so it [...]ro­ved so meer a Nothing to GOD, that He made [...] of no other Engines to destroy it, but the Tongues o [...] the Builders. Hence, many Ages after, sprang that Greek Fable, Of the Giants destroyed with Lightning, for [...]mpt­ing to climb up to Heaven by laying Mountains upon Moun­tains. Thus the most favoured Part of the Creation [...] in Heaven and on Earth, both Men and Angels, [...] gave themselves up to Pride and Rebellion.

[Page 3] 3. Nimrod, The Tower of Babel built. Grandson to the wicked Cham, was the Founder of this fond Structure, which perished before it could be finished. Wherefore, finding now, that GOD needed no other Power against the Machinations of Men, but themselves; and Discord still increasing more than the People, which yet multiplied to Excess, Life being granted for so long a Term of Years; they con­cluded there was no Way to escape the Hand of GOD, without they could find out Means to avoid one ano­ther; the greatest Grievance being then, to tolerate themselves. This made them resolve to spread them­selves farther than the narrow Bounds of the adjacent Provinces, to seek the remote Parts of the Earth, and commit themselves to the Sea, in Vessels made after the Pattern of the Ark. So they marched into distant Coun­tries, and touched remote Shores; still stretching far­ther and farther, till they had filled the Circumference of this Terrestrial Globe. The Heads of this first Trans­migration were, the Sons of our Second Father, Sem, Cham and Japhet. Some say, Asia, Africk and Europe were their three Portions, which were called the Three Parts of the World, till Experience taught us they were but one of the two Continents which divide this Lower World, and may seem to have been divided into three Parts, in respect to them three.

4. After these three first Universal Planters had sepa­rated themselves, and inhabited the nearer Regions, the Multitude still increasing, their Children thought of sub-dividing, and travelling to find out some remoter Habitations, where every Head of a Family might erect himself a Sovereignty.Tubal lands in Portugal. Among these, Tubal, the fifth Son of Japhet, sailing the Mediterranean, passed out of the Mouth of the Streight [...]; and leaving the Cape formerly called Promontorium Sacrum, now Cape St. Vincent, behind, landed in the most Western Part of Europe; and being invited by the Pleasantness of the Soil, and Sereneness of the Air, founded on the Edge of the Sea, not far from the Mouth of Tagus, the City Setubal. Other Countries pretend he first built Cities among them; I will not dispute it with them, so I be allowed he came hither. This happen'd about the Year of the World (not to be too precise in such dark Anti­ [...]uities) 1800, about 150 Years after the Deluge, and [...]070 before Christ; and, till the time that the Divine [Page 4] WORD was made Flesh, we will reckon thus, dimi­nishing still the Years.

5. These first Antiquities to most Men seem fabu­lous, and therefore I will lightly run them over, till those Times that afford us more Light of History; there being no solid Grounds to fix the Credit of what passed before the Time of the Romans and Carthagi­nians. Only, as for the first Peopling of Spain, by Tu­bal, we have the Authority of Josephus; who says, That of Jobel came the Jobeli, afterwards called Iberi, Celtiberi and Spaniards.

6. The first Form of Government, as the most per­fect, was Monarchical; and that not confined, or re­strained, as, since, the Insolence of Subjects has made it; but absolute. There were no Laws to bind the So­vereign, or People; the Will of the Monarch was po­sitive Law. Princes at first studied rather how to main­tain,Tubal the first King of Spain. than enlarge their Dominions. In this manner Tubal governed Spain the Term of an Hundred Years, and then gave them a Form of Law, or rather Advice, in Verse, to be transmitted to Posterity. He also settled a Form of Divine Worship; as knowing, that The Fear of GOD is the Beginning of Wisdom. Tubal having reigned 155 Years,2009. died, and was buried in that farther Part of Spain, which, in respect to his Ashes, was called Promontorium Sacrum; and which, for many Ages, the Natives thought it profane to tread: And this Name continued, till the first King of Portugul, Don Alfonso Enriquez, changed it to that of Cape St. Vincent.

7. By the Death of Tubal, Iberus the second King the Monarchy of Spain devolved upon his Son Iberus; of whom, some say, the River Ebro took Name; and Spain, that of Iberia. He invented the Art of Fishing, reigned 37 Years, and died in the Year 1972.1972. before Christ. Observe al­ways, that the Year one died, the other commenced his Reign.

8. Jubelus, Jubelus the third King. Jubalda, or Idubeda, Son and Successor to Iberus, spent most of his time in the Study of Astrology, or Natural Magick, and ended his Days, having reign­ed 64 Years.

9. Upon the Death of his Father,1907. Brigus took upon him the Sovereignty,Brigus the fourth King who built many Towns and For­tresses which still preserve his Name, as appears in Laco­briga, Conimbriga, Medobriga, Brigancia, and others. [Page 5] From his erecting so many Castles, it is supposed Castile still retains a Castle for its Arms.1875. He reigned 32 Years.

10. Tagus succeeded his Father Brigus, Tagus the fifth King. and bent all his Cares to the extending and improving his Domini­ons. Hence he was Sirnamed Orma, which signifies a Building, or Monument. From him the River Tagus took its Name, and in his time the Portuguese began to stretch themselves through the yet uninhabited Coun­try, and to People and till many at that time waste Moun­tains and Valleys. His Reign lasted 29, or 30 Years.

11. His Successor was Betus, Betus the sixth King. which signifies Happy or Fortunate. Of him Spain was called Betica, which Name is still continued to the Province of Andaluzia, and in the famous River Betis. The Multitude being now greater than Portugal could bear, they spread them­selves into Andaluzia, where Betus founded several Towns, the Inhabitants whereof were called Betuli, or Bastuli. Till this time the Portuguese acknowledged one only God, without worshiping Idols, or following other Superstitions, which then were rife in other parts of the World.

12. This was the happy Estate of Lusitania, Gerion c [...]m [...]s into Portugal. when a wicked and vicious Man came out of Africk into Spain, his Name was Gerion, which, in the Chaldean Tongue, signifies a Stranger; and with him came o­thers.1830. He durst not at first enter Lusitania, but fix'd his Abode near it in the Island Erithrea, Ernea, or Junonia, lying in the Western Sea, which in the Year of Grace 580. overflowed it. The Piece of Land called Erithrea (which Name fell afterwards to the Island of Cadiz) af­forded such rank Pasture, that the People were obliged at certain times to bleed the Cattle, lest they should die being overflowed with Blood. Gerion passing over from, thence to the Continent, began to commit Violences, carrying away some Cattle, which the Portuguese, un­skilled in Arms, had no way to prevent, but by remo­ving their Habitations. He growing bolder, commit­ted so many Robberies, till he was forced to enlarge his Territory to contain his Flocks, which, in the Infancy of the World, was the greatest Treasure. But being taken with the Delightfulness of the Island, he only watched the Death of Betus, which happened the 31th Year of his Reign.

[Page 6] 13. Gerion lost not the Opportunity he had wished for,Gerion be­comes K. of Portugal. but immediately, upon the Death of Betus, passing over into Portugal, and bountifully bestowing upon the Natives what he had got by his Robberies, so far gained upon them, that they suffered him to assume the Title of King.He introdu­ces Idola­try. He, to establish his Sovereignty, introduced a new Superstition and Sacrifice never before known to the People; and they, looking upon him as more than Man, took him for their Legislator. All other parts of Spain followed the Example of the Portuguese, and received him as their Sovereign. Of him it is thought the City Girena took its Name. But he having usurped the Crown, held it like a Tyrant; and the People, feel­ing the Oppression, wished, but knew not how, to get rid of their unsupportable new Lord.

14. The People of Andaluzia meditating how to deli­ver themselves from this Oppression of the Usurper,1794. and hearing that Osiris victoriously ranged the World, ma­king it his business to assist the distressed, gave him an Account of their miserable Condition, worse in the Ap­prehension of what was like to follow, than even in their present Sufferings; for the Dread of what a known Tyrant may do, is a greater Calamity than what he does really act. Osiris soon accepted the Invitation, and flew with Diligence to the Relief of that Distressed People. Gerion understanding the Danger that threat­ned him,Osiris comes into Spain, kills Gerion, and gives the Crown to his three Sons. sent before his three Sons, with some chosen Troops, to give a Check to Osiris, while he came up with the main Body of his Army. The two Hosts met upon the Banks of the River Guadiana, where they char­ged one another with such Fury, that Osiris was near losing the Honour he had before gained by so many no­table Victories. For Gerion and his Sons were brave, and the Lusitanians, though not then used to handle Weapons, were strong of Body, and bore the Brunt with Resolution. But the Fortune of Osiris never fail­ing, and Gerion being slain, his Men despairing of Suc­cess, placed all their Hope of Safety in Flight. Osiris used this Victory with such Clemency, (a Quality in­herent to such as fight for Justice, and do not conquer to tyranize▪) that he appeared to the Conquered, rather as a mercifull Judge of their Differences, than an haughty and successful Commander; and therefore yielded the Crown of Spain to the three Sons of the Deceased Gerion, who were called Lominii.

[Page 7] 15. This was the End of Gerion, such will that of all Tyrants be. Some Authors are of Opinion he was slain by Hercules the Grecian; and the reason of this Mistake is, that then the Name of Hercules was rather titular to all Heroes, than peculiar to any one. Gerion was the first in Spain that made Account of any Trea­sure besides Cattle, discovered Mines of Gold, and taught the Value of it. From the Riches he thus ga­thered he got the Name of Chryseus or Deabus, which, in the Lybian Language signifies a Man of Gold, or Lord of great Riches. This Humanity of Osiris, in restoring the Sons of Gerion to the Crown, so far gained upon the Portuguese, that in return they gave up their very Souls, receiving the new VVorship which the Idolatrous Osiris brought among them. Of him they learnt to make their Year but of Four Months, after the manner of the Egyptians; which Custom continued in Spain, till the Romans, having subdued it, reduced the Account to their own Form. Osiris is allowed to have taught the People an easier way of Tilling and Sowing than they used before. Gerion reigned 34 years, and was the first that oppressed and fleeced the People, the Property of Usurpers, who when they do best, treat their Subjects with more Cruelty than Lawful Princes do at worst. Osiris returned to Egypt, Osiris re­turns into Egypt. leaving behind him some of his Companions, who were Ar [...] of those called Sce­nitae, and took their Seats near the Mouth of the River Guadiana. From them Cape St. Vincent was also cal­led Promontorium Scen [...]icum. This Battle fought between Osiris and Gerion near the place where Tarifa now stands, was the first that ever happened in Spain. Gerion was buried by his Sons in the Island Erithrea, in the same manner as is used at present, and was the first so interred in Spain. Some will have the Family of Osorios to be de­scended from Osiris; but that is hard to prove, and no Task of mine.

CHAP. II.
Of the Lominii, Hispalus, Hispanus, Hercu­les, Italus, Sic-Orus, Sic-Anus, Sic-Ce­leus, Lusus, Sic-Ulus, Lisias, Licinius, Palatuus, Gargoris, Abidis, Argentorius, and Baucius Capetus, Kings of Lusitania.

1. THE three Gerions, 1780. or Lominii, began their Go­vernment with such Brotherly Love,The Lomi­nii, three Sons of Ge­rion, reign. and such perfect Union, that they gave occasion to the Fable, That Spain was ruled by a King with three Heads. Such was the Entrance of their Sway, that it seemed they were resolved to preserve with Justice, what their Father had gained with Violence: But it was not long before it appeared they had rather be thought Sons of such a Father, than Fathers of their Subjects. They were good no longer, than till they had the Power to be wicked; which was, till Osiris was removed. Then remembring the People of Andaluzia, Aragon and Va­lencia had been the Cause of their Father's Death, by calling in Osiris, they removed towards those parts, on pretence of Affection, but in reality to wreak their Re­venge.

2. Osiris, being basely Murdered by his Brother Ty­phon, his Son Orus Lybicus succeeded him, having slain the Murderer. The People of Andaluzia, now again oppressed by the Tyranny of the Lominii, who upon the departure of Osiris, were exercising their revenge on those their Subjects,Orus Ly­bicus, or Hercules, comes into Spain, [...] the Lomi­nii, [...] makes his Son Hispa­lus King. sent for and to Orus Lybicus, called also Hercules, who speedily came to their relief, as his Father had done out of Africk, where he had killed the Giant Anteus, and marched after the Enemy who were retired to the Fastnesses of Lusitania, and there resolutely waited his approach. The Lominii had posted them­selves in a secure place, called formerly Saltus Terceno­rum: Hercules, seeing them in place almost inaccessible, resolved to save his Men, and avoid the hazard of a Bat­tle, by challenging the three Brothers to fight him hand to hand, which he did, and they accepting of it, were [Page 9] all three slain successively.1718. The Portuguese seeing their Princes slain, began to move to revenge their Death; but Orus making use of perswasions, rather than force, appeased them, and calling the Nobles to him, he made a Sacrifice of Thanksgiving. This done, he ad­vanced as far as the Promontorium Sacrum, where he built a magnificent Temple, wherein the Aegyptian Ce­remonies taught by the Founder were for many Ages af­ter Religiously observed. The People in acknowledg­ment for the Benefits, received by Hercules, or rather swayed by fear, joyfully received his Son Hispalus for their King, who continued in Lusitania with many of his Aegyptians.

3. Hispalus was installed 42 Years after the Gerions had begun to Reign, and being peaceably seated on the Throne, his Father Orus Lybicus marched away for Italy. The gentle Government of Hispalus, was the reviving of the hearts of that People after so many Ca­lamities, but Prosperities are not durable, for he died the 17th Year of his Reign: Among the memorable Cu­stoms introduced by him, were those of Burying the Dead, and wearing Mourning for them; what sort of Mourn­ing it was appears not, but that which many Ages af­ter was used till the time of King Emanuel of Portugal, and Ferdinand of Castile was on the lightest occasions rough Canvass, and the deep used for Kings and such like occasions, of the coursest Sack-cloth, and that al­ways White, as is still used in China.

4. Hispanus succeeded his Father Hispalus; and was Proclaimed in the Temple of Hercules with great Cere­mony. The Spaniards in those days held it a crime to look upon the setting Sun, therefore those that lived up­on the Coast, used to turn their backs towards it; those who lived near the Promontorium Sacrum, retreated at Night far off from it, believing the Gods spent the Night there in Sport and Pastimes, not to be seen by Mor­tal Eyes: Only the Priests and the King on the Night of his inauguration, were permitted to stay on that point of Land, and look towards the West, but as soon as the Sun quite disappeared, they prostrated them­selves on the Ground▪ and then retired to the Temple, where they continued till break of day, when the King returned to the same place, and continued there till the Sun again spread its Beams over all that part of the [Page 10] Country. Then he returned joyfully to the People, offered Sacrifice, and was thence forward esteemed wiser than all others, as being one that had seen Di­vine Secrets and Hidden Mysteries. It is a common Opinion among the vulgar, that Hispalis now Sevil, was built by Hispalus, and that the Name Hispania came from Hispanus, 1169. who died when he had Reigned 32 Years, leaving no Issue.

5. Hercules, Hercules Governs Spain, and leaves the Crown to Hesperus after the Death of his Grandson Hispa­nus returned to Spain, which he Governed Nineteen Years in Peace with singular Wisdom and Goodness, and finding his end draw on, he appointed Hesperus, one of his Officers, his Successor. The Funeral Obsequies being performed,1650. Hesperus took upon him the Sove­reignty, but the giddy People being dissatisfied with his Government, revolted from him to his Brother Atlas Italus, who came out of Italy, pretending a right as being the Elder Brother, though neither had any other Title, but the choice of Hercules which was of the Younger.Hesperus deposed, and Atlas set up in his place. By this desertion of the Subjects, Hesperus was easily deprived of the Crown, and flying into Italy, outlived not long his Misfortune. Italus having Reign­ed in Portugal the space of Ten Years, returned into Italy, 1618. leaving the Dominion of Spain to his Son Sic-Orus, He leaves the Crown to his Son Sicorus. during whose Reign the Noise of Arms was not heard; he left his Name to that River of Catalonia, that washes the Walls of Lerida, and is now called Segre, but formerly Sicoris, and a great part of that Country was of him long after called Sicoria, he Reigned 55 Years.

6. Sicanus the Son of Sicorus succeeded his Father;Sicanus Succeeds them, and Sicceleus him. he is reported to have waged War in Italy, and thence to have passed over and conquered Sicily; which, of him, our Author will have to take the Name of Sica­nia, and he to have Reigned 31 Years. His Son Sicceleus immediately entred upon the Government, and of him also is continued that Romantick Story of going in­to Italy with an Army, where also he is said to have died in the 44th Year of his Reign, 2453 from the Creation; 797 from the Flood; and 1509 before the Birth of Christ.1509.

7. After the Death of Sic-Celeus his Son Lusus was proclaimed King,Lusus as­cends the Throne. and for the singular Affection he shewed to the Western part of Spain, where he spent the most of his life, that Country took his Name, [Page 11] being afterwards called Lusitania. Under this Name was comprehended all the Country between the Rivers Guadiana and Duero; the main Ocean bounded it on the West, and its limits on the East were formed by an imaginary line drawn almost straight from the turning of the River Duero near Castrominho, down to Guadiana, which River divided it from the Province Betica. No­thing else is recorded of Lusus, but that he reigned 33 Years,Siculus the next King. and dying, left the Kingdom to Siculus, who being born in Lusitania, preserved the same Affection his Father had done for that Province and People. He also is supposed to have passed over into Italy, and to have overthrown the Aborigines, whence sailing into Si­cily, 1416. he subdued that Island, and left his Name to it, where he ended his Days, having reigned 61 Years.

8. The Death of Siculus was so much resented by the Spaniards, and particularly the Lusitanians, that, he leaving no Heir,An inter­regnum for 100 Years. they resolved not to submit themselves to another King. Above an Hundred Years they lived at their Liberty, referring all Controversies to the anci­entest Men,Bacchus in Spain. and standing to their Decision, till Bacchus the Son of Semele, with a numerous Army of sundry Nations came into Spain. The Fame of so mighty an Army terrified the Spaniards, but they were no less de­lighted with their Luxurious manner of living, all their Martial Exercises being intermixed with Pleasures and Delights. Hence the Sports used to this day in Portu­gal, called Folias, are supposed to have deduced their Original, which consists of Dancing. Taboring, and Singing: The Word is either derived from the Latin, Folia, or leaves, because the Bacchanals were so Crown­ed, or from the Italian, signifying Madness, which is proper enough to such Divertisements, and to the Feasts of the Bacchanals.

9. Bacchus finding the Lusitanians, opposed his Com­mand, and cut off many of his Army, retiring to the Mountains after doing the Mischief, employed his Tu­tor Silenus to work upon them by fair means, which he did so effectually, that they submitted themselves to him, only upon condition he should not use the Name of King, which they would allow to none since the Death of their beloved King Lusus. However, Bac­chus finding them an Ignorant and Credulous People, perswaded them that the Soul of Lusus was transmi­grated [Page 12] unto his Son Lisias, Lisias made King. who for the Love they bore him, was returned to Reign over them. This Fiction so took with the People, that they put themselves whol­ly into his Power, congratulating with themselves the Happiness of having recovered their admired King. Bacchus returned into Italy, and his Son remained pos­sessed of this great part of Europe, which he enjoyed not full Three Years:1299. He dying, the Lusitanians would not admit any other King, but chose for their Com­mander,Cacus chose Gene­ral. one Cacus a bold Fellow, and one of Lisias his Companions; he raising a powerful Army, marched against Palatuus King of Andaluzia, whom in a Bloody Battle he overthrew, and by that means remained possessed of the greatest part of all Spain; puffed up with this Success, he became Insolent and Cruel, which rendred him Odious to the People.

10. Palatuus, who lay lurking in the Mountains, laid hold of this opportunity, sent some to sound the affections of the Multitude, and finding them well in­clined towards him, adventured to raise Forces and march towards Lusitania. Hercules the The­ban in Spain o­verthrows Cacus. At the same time, Hercules the Theban, with the rest of the Argonauts, being by stress of Weather cast ashore in Spain, near the mouth of Guadalquivir, was lovingly received and entertained by Palatuus; this Courtesie obliged him to espouse his Quarrel, and so joyning their Forces, they overthrew the Tyrant Cacus, or Licinius, who fled into Italy, whi­ther presently after Hercules returned. Still the Lucita­nians preserved their Liberty as before, as they did whilst Erithreus, whom some call the Son, others the Cousin of Palatuus reigned in the other parts of Spain. Palatuus seems to have Reigned 67 Years, and Gargoris is said to have been his Son, but for this there is no man­ner of Authority.

11. The Tyranny of Cacus or Licinius, lasted Thir­ty Six Years, which are to be included in the 70 of Palatuus his Reign, and many more Lusitania remained free from any subjection, being governed only by the Rules of Reason,1158. and some of Tubal's Laws which re­mained in Verse.Gargoris finds the use of Ho­ney and its making. It fell out accidentally, that a Man called Gargoris (which formerly signified a burning Coal or Flame) found a Swarm of Bees in a hollow Oak, and discovering their Honey, taught the use of it to the People. This sweet Discovery was worth a [Page 13] Crown; which the Multitude, i [...] Requital for that Benefit, freely bestowed upon him. He was after­wards, by the Latins, called Melicola, for discovering to the Spaniards the Use of Honey. Whilst Gargoris reigned, he had a Daughter got with Child by some Gallant, or, as some thought, by her own Father; for as soon as the Child was born,Abidis ex­posed; Brought to Court; Teaches the People to yoke Oxen, plow and sow. he caused it to be expo­sed to the Wild Beasts: But they, instead of destroy­ing, nourished the Infant; of which he being inform­ed, caused him to be cast into the Sea; and that Ele­ment, milder than the Grandfather, carried it up the River Tagus, as far as Santarem, formerly called Scala­bis, where it was suckled by a Doe. Of her, being grown up, he took to a natural Swiftness; so that they that hunted in the Mountains admired to see in him the Figure of a Man, and the Wildness of a Beast. Gargoris hearing hereof, and not imagining it was his Grandson, caused him to be taken in a Gin; and be­ing brought before him, he, by known Signs, perceiv­ed it was the same he had exposed. His Hatred now turned into Love; he called him Abidis, causing him to be carefully instructed: And he was so great a Pro­ficient, that it was he who first civilized that barba­rous Multitude: He also taught them to yoke Oxen, to plow and sow.

11. Troy being reduced to Ashes,1130. Ʋlysses, with a part of the Grecian Fleet, driven by Storms out of the Mouth of the Streights, arrived at length at the Mouth of the River Tagus; Ulysses in Portugal. and entring, landed; where he found, already built, a City on the Hill; to which he left his Name, which remains to this Day, being called Ʋlys­sippo, which is the famous City Lisbon. Here, in Me­mory of the Favours received of the Goddess Minerva, he built a stately Temple, and dedicated it to her. Gargoris, upon the News of his Arrival, marched to­wards him with an Army; but they both meeting, and conferring together, parted Friends: And not so con­tent, Gargoris gave to Ʋlysses his Daughter, the Mother of Abidis, in Marriage. However, the Greeks commit­ting several Insolences in the Country, they became odious to the People, who rising up in Arms against them, Ʋlysses stole away to Sea, leaving his new Wife behind. How long Gargoris reigned, cannot positively be set down; the best Guess that can be given, is, Se­venty [Page 14] seven Years.1105. At the same time that Ʋlysses sail­ed out of Tagus, Diomedes enter'd the River Mino, in the North of Portugal: There he founded a City, which, after the Name of his Father Tideus, he called Tide; and in process of Time, by Corruption, is now called Tuy.

12. The wonderful Abidis succeeded his fortunate Father Gargoris, Abidis reigns. in the Kingdom of Spain; and, in Gra­titude to the Mountains, where he was bred, built the City Santarem; and reigned 35 Years, much beloved of his Subjects.1038. About this time happen'd that won­derful Dearth in Spain, A wonder­ful Dearth. which lasted 26 Months; du­ring which time it never rained. Some there are, who extend this to 40 Years; others, to 30. Such it was, that all the Country became Desart, the Inhabitants ei­ther perishing for Want, or fleeing to other Places. Long after this,952. a Multitude of the Celtae, the ancient Inhabitants of France, came into the Southern Parts of Portugal, where they built several Towns, and re-edi­fied others, before ruined. They, being mixed, and well united with the Natives, stood them in good stead when the Phoenicians possessed themselves of the Island of Cadiz. Sidonians in Spain. Not content with settling themselves there, they began to incroach upon the People of Andaluzia, and fortified themselves at Sidon, now Medina Sidonia; whence they were expelled by the united Forces of the ancient Natives,752. and intruding Celtae. Which done, the Lusitanians chose Argantonius for their King▪ who governed them many Years, with general Applause; some Authors stretching his Life to 140 Years; others, only to 120.

13. The Celtae inhabiting Lusitania, The Celtae settle in Portugal. being vastly in­creased, so that the Country they possessed could not contain them, passed over the River Tagus, with their Flocks and Families, with a Design to settle along the Sea-Coast, beyond the Promontory of the Moon, now called the Rock of Sintra. Those People fearing their intruding Guests, marched out to oppose them; but be­ing overthrown, were forced to submit to those that came with Intention only to be their Companions. The Turduli, for so those People were called, joining with the Inhabitants of Lisbon, formed another Army; and joining Battel with the Celtae, gained the Field, but with such Loss, that they had no reason to boast of [Page 15] their Victory. Both Parties considering the Loss sus­tained, came to an Agreement, and divided the Pro­vince betwixt them.

14. The Turduli thought themselves secure after this War with the Celtae, when a more dangerous Enemy assaulted them.The Moun­tainous Peo­ple descend into the Plain. These were a savage Mountainous Peo­ple, who having, till then, lived upon the Milk of their Goats, and Wild Fruit, came down to seek a bet­ter Country to inhabit; but being defeated, they passed the River Tagus: There the Celtae cut off a good Num­ber of them; which obliged the rest to march along the River Tagus, to the Sea-side, where, finding no Bo­dy to oppose them, they settled themselves: And from them, that Cape near Setuval was called Promontorium Barbaricum, now Cabo [...]de Espichel.

15. Nabuchadonosor having taken Hierusalem, Nabucho­donozor in Spain. and sub­dued a great part of the then known World, came at last into Spain with his mighty Army, composed of all Nations. Having besieged the Island of Cadiz, where the Phoenicians inhabited, by Sea and Land, he was dri­ven thence by the united Forces of Spain; and so, with his whole Army, put to Sea again. He had before over-run the greatest part of Spain; and now departing, left behind him the greatest Plague that ever infested it. Thus was a great Number of Jews, dispersed in se­veral Parts of it; who fixing then, could never since be rooted out. The Phoenicians delivered of the Danger of Nabuchodonosor, refused to pay the Lusitanians, whom they had called to their Aid; who offended thereat, demanded more than was their Due. The Controver­sie came to be decided by Blows, wherein the Lusita­nians were worsted, yet not so discouraged, but that, ga­thering fresh Forces, they came on again so furiously, that having vanquished their Enemies, they put them all to the Sword, without Mercy. By this Victory they became Masters of the greatest part of Andaluzia; so that great Numbers of them went over, to inhabit there, calling it Turdetania; where they built many Cities.

16. In the mean while,The Car­thagini­ans come to relieve the Phoenici­ans. the Phoenicians, shut up in the Island of Cadiz, craved Aid of the Carthaginians, their ancient Allies, against the Lusitanians, who Lorded it over all Andaluzia. The Carthaginians were not back­ward to undertake this Expedition, but Rigging a migh­ty [Page 16] Fleet, sent it to their Relief, under the Command of Mezerbal, a valiant and wise Captain. At their first Landing, in some Skirmishes, our Men found their Valour would not avail against the Africans, without some Martial Discipline: Therefore they made Choice of one Baucius Capetus, (or, as others call him, Bachius Carupus,) a Man of a Gigantick Stature, and great Con­duct, for their General. He observing the manner of the Carthaginian Warfare, instructed his Men accordingly. About Break of Day the two Armies joined Battel, with terrible Out-cries, and no less Effusion of Blood. Mezerbal observing his Troops disordered, and giving way, with some chosen Bands renewed the Fight, and made the Victory more bloody than it would have been, had not so great a General commanded: Yet, at last,The Car­thagini­ans defeat­ed. he was forced to give way, and save his Life by Flight. Baucius having pursued the Enemy, and taken the Spoil of the Field, returned Victorious, and erect­ed lasting Trophies in the Temples of his Idols. The future Actions of Mezerbal, being the Beginning of the Carthaginian Dominion in Spain, require a new Chap­ter. These Things were done about the Year of the World, 3403; after the Deluge, 1747; which is 559 Years before the Birth of Christ.

CHAP. III.
The Actions of the Carthaginian Governors, Mezerbal, Sappho, Hanno the First, Hi­milco, Gisgo, Hannibal the First, Hanno the Second, Boodes, Maherbal, Hamilcar Barcinus, Asdrubal, and Hannibal the Se­cond: The Planting of many Colonies; and Beginning of the Roman War.

1. MEzerbal and Carthaginian, though overthrown, quitted not his Pretensions; but contrived, by Policy to compass what he had failed of by open Force. He began to treat amicably with the Lusitanian [Page 17] Turduli; 559. and sped so well, that they intrusted him with several Places of Consequence;Mezerbal subdues Portugal. whereof being once possessed, he began to Lord it over them. This was the Beginning of the African Dominion in Spain. Mean while, that barbarous People who inhabited along the Coast of Setuval, invented a new and bloody Sacrifice, which continued for many Years:550. The Sea cast up a Whale, of a wonderful Bigness; whereat that ignorant People being terrified, and thinking it had been some Sea-God,A barba­rous Sacri­fice. they killed a Young Man and a Maid, and left them by the Whale: The Tide rising, it carried away the dead Bodies, which they looked upon as an Acceptance of their Sacrifice, and therefore they eve­ry Year after repeated it, even after the Coming of Christ.

2. About the same time 15000 of the Turduli, seek­ing new Lands to inhabit, passed into the Territories between Cerolico and Trancoso; but finding it difficult to settle in that wild Country and among [...] People so rude,Se [...]ral People plan [...] new Colonies. that they scarce understood one another's Lan­guage at two Miles distance, they waded over the Ri­ver Coa, and there Peopled all that Country, building several Towns The Barbarians of the Coast of Setu­val understanding that the Turduli wander'd to find new Seats, they passed-over the Tagus, to possess their Lands. Those who were left behind endeavoured to oppose them, but in vain; and finding they looked not after Towns, but lived in the open Fields, they desisted. But the Barbarians, with the same Ease, passed on; and crossing the River Mondego, settled about Viseo, stretch­ing by Degrees to the River Duero. The Greeks also, that inhabited Galicia, attempted to pass the River Minho; but they were repulsed by the People of the Province, with a great Slaughter on both sides. It will not be amiss to give an Hint of the Customs of those People.

3. Their Idols were,Customs of the Inhabi­tants. Mars and Minerva, for the ob­taining of Valour and Wisdom. To them they offer'd the Right Hands, and sometimes the Bodies, of their Enemies, taken in War. In the Entrails of the Sacri­fices they made their Observations of future Events. In their Feasts, an He-Goat was a great Dainty; and they did eat upon Round Tables. Whilst the Dinner lasted, some played upon Noisy Instruments; and any Guest [Page 18] might rise, and dance. Their Sports were, Wrestling, Running, and Pitching the Bar. The Young Men sung the Praises of those that died in Battel. Their Weapons were Swords and Daggers; and they gave Battel drawn up in close Battalions. Their Apparel, in Times of Peace, was long and wide; and their Hair long▪ The Women wore Gowns down to the Ground, and Mantles on their Shoulders, which served them for Beds. Their manner of Dancing, was, in a Ring. Marriages were made to please the Bridegroom, not the Father, or Friends: The Portion was, a few Goats: And the Chastity of the Women was such, that Adulte­ry was scarce to be heard of. There were no Physicians among them; But the Sick were set in a publick Place, and all that passed by advised what they thought best for them. Criminals were stoned to Death: And all Passengers were obliged to cast a Stone, to compleat the Burial of the dead Body. No Money was used; but all dealt by way of Barter. They passed Rivers, and fish­ed, in Boats made of one Tree, hollowed, like the In­dian Canoes.

4. The People inhabiting between the Rivers Duero and Minno, 480. passed over into Gallicia; and having, in a bloody Fight, wherein the Women, as well as the Men, shewed exceeding Valour, vanquished the Greeks who possessed that Country, they setled amongst them. Twelve Thousand Spaniards were entertained by the Carthaginians, in their Expedition against Gelon, King of Sicily; but they, and all that Fleet, perished. The Carthaginians then bent their Thoughts upon the Con­quest of Spain, Sappho the Car­thaginian gathers Gold in Spain. whither they sent Sappho General; who gathering much Gold in the Mines, enriched his Coun­try; but was forced to return against those Africans who demanded a certain Tribute, which, they said, Queen Dido paid at the Foundation of the City. He carried with him 7000 Spanish Foot, and 400 Horse, who did him good Service, and returned home victorious. Sap­pho being called away, the Carthaginians sent in his Place Hanno and Himilco. Hanno coasting along Spain, landed at Cape St. Vincent, where he shewed great Re­verence to the Place, to win the Hearts of the People; and having discovered the Country, and traded with the Inhabitants, returned home. Himilco sailed forward to Cape Espichel, where some of his Men landing, to [Page 19] get fresh Provisions, were, for the most part, cut off by the savage People. Thence they continued their Voyage, and ran up the River Tagus; where being well received, and furnished with Pilots, they made Cape Cascais, and the Berlings. The Carthaginians had some Commerce with the Turduli, living between the Rivers Tagus and Duero; and of them had some Information about the Inland Parts. Hamilco continued his Course to the River Mondego, and by Stress of Weather was forced to put into the Vouga, on whose Banks he found a Co­lony of Greeks; and so continued his Discovery to the River Minho. After sounding all the Coast of Lusita­nia, many of his Ships perished in a Storm; the rest were put into the Port Gaya, so shatter'd, that several of them sunk there, but the Men were saved. Part of them put to Sea again with Himilco, who went away to his Brother Gisgo, in Andaluzia: The rest staid among the Natives,The City Braga founded by the Cartha­ginians. and afterwards founded the City Brag [...] in Memory of the River Bragada, in Africk, running through their Country. Some will have this City to be first built, and take its Name of the Gaules, called Braccasi. Hannibal the Elder succeeded Himilco, in the Government of the Affairs of Spain. He hear­ing of the new Carthaginian Colony, resolved himself to visit the utmost Point of Europe, or Cape St. Vincent; and there founded a City, upon a convenient Bay, which was called Hannibal's Port.

5. After this,420▪ the Lusitanians and Andaluzians fell at Variance;Several great Bat­tels for those Turd [...]tani who had settled in that part of the Country, endeavouring to extend their Li­mits to those Plains, which afterwards took Name of the Vandals, were opposed by the ancient Inhabitants, and, after much Blood spilt, put to Flight, leaving be­hind them a rich Booty. But they seeking Revenge, gathered a Multitude of the bordering Lusitanians. And the Andaluzians, to oppose them, called Hanibal, with his Carthaginians, to their Aid. These powerful Ar­mies encountring, fought most obstinately the whole Day, till Night parted them; leaving the Field co­ver'd with 80000 dead Bodies, among which was Han­nibal himself. This so weaken'd the Lusitanians, that those barbarous People living along the Sea-Coast, durst take Arms against them, and overthrew the Celtae, who first offered to withstand them. The Turdetani re­tiring [Page 20] out of Andaluzia, and joining with the Celtae, they fell upon the victorious Barbarians; of whom they made such Havock, that few returned home to carry the News of their Defeat.

6. The Carthaginians, 403. in their Wars with the Agri­gentines, among other Spaniards, used the Aid of 3000 Lusitanians; by whose Valour they destroyed that City. With the like Number they overthrew Dionysius, the Tyrant of Sicily: But Sickness did what the Sword had not done, for none of those Men returned home. In the mean while,Great Dearth and Storms. Spain suffered by the Indignation of Hea­ven; for the Storms and Dearth were so excessive, that the Wild Beasts came out of the Desarts, to the Towns, to look for Shelter and Provender. Hanno the Second came from Carthage, to govern Andaluzia; and landing at Hannibal's Port, in Lusitania, raised 7000 Lusitanians, to subdue the Andaluzians, who had revolted, provoked thereto by the Avarice of their late Governor. Soon after,400. the Celtae of the Province of Alentejo, their Terri­tories being thronged by the Turdetani who came out of Andaluzia, resolved to move farther into the Country; and to that purpose made a solemn Sacrifice, and swore ever to continue Friends. Whilst they were busie in that Solemnity, they descried four Sail, which made towards the Shoar; and understood they came from Laconica, in Peloponnesus, seeking some Place to settle in: The Celtae received them into their Society; and they together pas­sing the Tagus, and coming to the River Mondego, left there a Company of the Lusitanian Turdetani, called Co­limbrii, or Columbri, who there settled a Colony, which, of them, was called Colimbria, now known by the Name of Condeixa the Old: the Ruins which still are to be seen about it, being a Testimony of its former Grandeur. Yet some will have that City to have been built by Her­cules Lybicus; Several Towns foun­ded. others, by the Carthaginians. The Lusi­tanians and Greeks going on▪ they founded Eminium, now Ageuda, a great City, and a Bishop's See in the time of the Romans and Goths. They also were the Founders of Talabrica, now Aveyro; of Lavara, of La­meca, or Laconia, now Lamego; and some other Places, whereof there is now no Memory. The last Place named was built by the Greeks and the Celtae, who con­tinuing their Progress, fell at Variance (forgetting the Oath made at their Setting out) in such manner, that [Page 21] in cruel Battle among themselves the greatest part of them perished. Such as remained spread themselves a­bout that Country, and some of them are supposed to be the Founders of Araduca, now Guimaraens.

7. The Lusitanians and Africans about the Port of Ha­nibal were at Peace,359. when Boodes came to succeed Han­no the Carthaginian, Commander in Spain. He intro­duced himself politickly by fair means into the Affecti­ons of the People,The Pro­gress of the Carthagi­nians in Spain. and they together sacrificed to Her­cules. Having thus setled Friendship, Boodes, with the Consent of the Natives, built a Town called Lacobriga in Algarve, now Lagos. After Boodes came Maherbal, who so managed the People, that he became ab­solute over all that part, which is now the Kingdom of Algarve; and hearing of the Greatness of the City Elvas, marched thither with a good Body of Men, and by Kindness so won the Hearts of the Inhabitants, that they wholly submitted themselves unto him. Maherbal falling sick here, was told by the Diviners, that there was no way to recover his Health, but building a Tem­ple to the God Cupid, which he did, and recovered. This Temple was famo [...] many Ages after, and the Idol called Endovellicus. T [...] Image had its Eyes shut, a Heart in its Mouth, and Wings on its Feet. The Priest when he sacrificed to this God stripped himself na­ked, and then put on a loose Garment which trai [...]ed on the Ground, his Back and Left Arm remaining na­ked; then with the Right Hand he ripped up a Lamb, and took out his Heart, which, with the Left Hand, he cast into the Fire.

8. The City Tyre being destroyed by Alexander the Great,318. 15000 of the Inhabitants were saved by the Si­donians who served in his Army. Some of them by means of the Carthaginians came into Lusitania, The City Mirtiri built by the Tyrians. where they founded a Town which they called Mirtiri, that is, New Tyre, now Mertola. This same Year Gatelus sailing from Egypt with his whole Family, is reported to have landed in Portugal, and it is supposed it was at the City Porto. He had two Sons Iberus and Humecus, the first of them some will have to have sailed into Ire­land, and given the Name Hibernia to it; these are meer Suppositions. Some Years after the Greeks between the Rivers Duero and Minho, 310▪ encreased by the coming of the Celtae and Turdetani, finding their Multitude too [Page 22] great for that Province, by common Consent sent their Sons to find new Seats. Some of them settled in the Mountains of Asturias, and others along the Banks of the Rivers Erla. 303. The Carthaginians being at War with Pyrrhus Prince of the Epirots, who was possessed of Si­ci [...]y, drove him thence by the Assistance of the Spa­nish Auxiliaries, among whom were 2000 Lusitanian Celtae.

9. Hamilcar Barcinus, a Man extraordinary well qua­lified, was sent from Carthage to promote the Interest of that Commonwealth in Spain. His mighty Zeal in the Worship of their Idols endeared him to the People, and the more to oblige them, he resolved to marry a Wo­man of the Country by her he had Hannibal the Se­cond by Name, but far the greatest in Renown. His Project of marrying a Lusitanian to gain the Affection of the Natives,Hamilcar subdues all Spain. was so highly approved of by the Cartha­ginians, that returning home he was sent back to finish what he had so well begun. He brought with him his Wife, by whom he had Five Children, Hannibal, As­drubal, Mag [...], Hanno, and a Daughter. After he had settled the Affairs of Andaluzia, he passed thence into Lusitania, intending to make [...] [...]he Seminary of Soldi­ers. Having gathered a might [...] Army, he set forward so fortunate, that he subdued all the Country from the Streights of Gibraltar to the Pyrenean Mountains. Ha­nibal, then a Youth, was present at these Exploits, and then learnt his first Military Rudiments. In the mean while the Vectones, who lived betwixt the Rivers Duero and Coa, down as far as Tagus, and were ancient Enemies to the Celtae of the Province of Alentejo, and to the Turdetani, considering that the Flower of these Peo­ple was drawn out under Hamilcar Barcinus, laid hold of this Opportunity, and invaded their Territories. The Celtae asked leave of their General to return Home to defend their Country; and he careful of their good Fortune, marched back with them. The Vectones being strengthened with Supplies, waited his coming in a convenient place, with a great number of Carts loaded with Wood before them, as if they had been upon the March. Hamilcar admired their Resolution, but under­stood not the Stratagem. He caused the Celtae to give the Charge; but neither their Courage nor Martial Discipline availed them; for the Vectones setting Fire to [Page 23] the Wood, the Oxen being frighted, ran so furiously with the Flaming Carts into the midst of them that they were put into Confusion, notwithstanding their Gene­ral did all that was possible to restore the Battle. In the heat of the Action he was killed, leaving a bloody Vi­ctory to the Vectones. Asdrubal his Son-in-law and Han­nibal gathering the Relicks of the Army, fell upon the Phocentians, who had assisted the Vectones; but these co­ming to their Relief, the two Generals were obliged to raise a greater Power, with which they not only sub­dued the Phocentians, but put all to the Sword that were able to bear Arms. This done, he marched towards the Vectones, who continued to insult the Celtae, and suf­ficiently revenged their Wrongs. But the Celtae not so satisfied, ceased not to destroy the Enemies Country. This obliged the Vectones to choose one Tagus for their General, under whose Conduct, for some time, they put Asdrubal to his Shifts, till in one Battle he cut off most of their Horse. Thus Tagus was constrained to make Overtures of Peace, which being admitted and sworn to, Asdrubal, contrary to his Oath, made Tagus, and many of his principal Men, Prisoners. They, re­solving to sell their Lives at a dear rate, put many of the Carthaginians to the Sword; but, in Conclusion, were all foully murdered by Asdrubal. He remained Governour in Spain, and Hanibal went over into A­frick.

10. The Romans, envying the Fortune of the Car­thaginians in Spain, by the Mediation of the People of Marseilles, joined in League with the Sanguntines, and other Cities. This made Hanibal haste back into Spain, where he found his Brother-in-law Asdrubal was dead,Hannibal settles in Spain. as he had deserved. For a Slave to that Tagus, whom he perfidiously slew, stabbed him as he was sacrificing, in revenge of his Masters Death. Nor did he afterwards endeavour to escape; but, being put upon the Wrack, bore all his Torments with a Countenance unmoved, Hanibal made it his Business to gain the Good Will not only of the Africans, but of the Natives. To this in­tent he contracted Friendship with one Viriatus (not he that held War so many Years against the Romans) who was a principal Man, or little Prince among the Celtae, of the Province of Alentejo. Next to bind the Andalu­zians faster, he married a Wife among them, called Hi­milce, [Page 24] born at Castulon, now a poor Village, known by the Name of Carlona. By her he had his Son Aspar. Having thus secured his Interest, and gathered a mighty Army from all parts, his next Thought was to break the Peace made some Years before with the Romans. In order to it he resolved to invade Saguntum, a City in League with them. By the way he subdued the Vocei, and other Nations. From them he marched against the Vectones, who had killed his Father, and laying Siege to Salamanca, so distressed it, that the Inhabitants were forced to buy their Peace. This Accord was broke by the Lusitanians, who getting into the City, violated the Conditions; whereupon the Siege was again continu­ed. At length the Besieged capitulated to depart with only their Apparel, and unarmed. They marched out, but the Women carrying the Weapons under their Gar­ments, and delivering them to the Men, they made such use of them, that had not Hanibal's Army been so numerous, it had been dubious which side should have been victorious; but the Multitude overcame Valour, and most of the Vectones perished. All things succeed­ing prosperously, Hanibal sets down before. Saguntum with 150000 Foot and 20000 Horses.Sagun­tum de­stroy'd. After a Siege of Eight Months he took and destroy'd that City, which made the War between Rome and Carthage to be no more doubted of▪ Hanibal gathered supplies from all parts, and many out of Lusitania; Viriatus, that little King, going in Person with a good Body to accompany him. Asdru­bal, Hanibal's Brother, drew together considerable num­bers of those rude People between the Rivers Duero and Minho. Nor were the Vectones, with whom his Father and Brother-in-law had such cruel Wars, backwards, being most willingly entertained by him for their extra­ordinary Valour. Balarus a Lusitanian commanded a brave Body of Light Horse.

CHAP. IV.
Hanibal's Actions in Italy, the Romans come into Spain, the Carthaginians expelled thence. The Wars between the Romans and Lusita­nians from the Expiration of the Cartha­ginian Command, till Viriatus began to Sway.

1. HAnibal having subdued Spain, Hanibal marches▪ to Italy. leaves his Bro­ther Asdrubal there with 12000 African Foot and 2500 Horse; he sends 15000 Spanish Foot and 1200 Horse to Carthage, and marches himself over the Pyreneans with 102000 Fighting Men. Five Months he spent, in his long and tiresome march through France, and over the Alps, with the loss of 36000 Men: With the rest he enters Lombardy, forces the Consul Cornelius Scipio, who came to oppose him, to retire to Plansen­cia, and overthrows him, being joyned by T. Sempro­nius, at the River Trebia, killing 30000 Romans. This done, he passes the Apennine, where with watching and labour, he lost an Eye, and coming to the Lake Thrasim again Defeats the Roman Army under the Consuls C. Servilius, and C. Flaminius. Qnintus Fabius sent against him with a fresh Army, tired him without Fighting, next came the Consuls Emilius Paulus, and [...]erentius Varro, who through the rashness of the latter, adventuring to give Battle,216. were totally discomfited with the loss of 50000 of their Men.

2. Whilst Hanibal victoriously traversed the best part of Italy, Gneyus Scipio was sent from Rome into Spain, with him Asdrubal Hanibal's Brother had several Conflicts, and after some fortunate Successes, was forsaken by For­tune,The Ro­mans come into Spain. and forced to retire into Lusitania to raise new Forces▪ there he joyned in League with a King called Mandonius, with whose assistance he checked the Pro­gress of Scipio. Yet Asdrubal marching with an Army towards Italy, was overthrown by him, and returning again to Lusitania, gathered fresh Forces, with this Power he not only curbed the Romans, but having kil­led the two Scipio's, Cornelius and Gneius, took most of [Page 26] the Roman Garrisons in Catalonia and Andaluzia. Be­sides, the Calamities of the War, Spain laboured under the Miseries of Plague and Famine, which principal­ly raged in Lusitania: After which ensued a general Earth-quake throughout Europe, on the same day the Battle at the Lake Thrasimenus was fought, which tho' so violent, that it ruined many Towns, was not felt by the two Armies that were engaged.

3. Such was the posture of Affairs in Spain, The Car­thagini­ans expel­led by the Romans. when Claudius Nero was sent thither from Rome, and after him Publius Cornelius Sipio, who was very successful against the Carthaginians. Asdrubal marched with a great pow­er out of Portugal, to retreive those losses at such time as Massinissa landed with a number of Numidian Horse, and some Elephants to joyn him; all this mighty Mul­titude was overthrown by the Fortune and Valour of Scipio. Asdrubal thus broke, resolved to march into Italy, to the assistance of his Brother Hanibal, leaving the Command in Spain to the other Asdrubal, the Son of Gisgo, who as he was directed, retired with the Cartha­ginian Forces into Lusitania, and having made up a body, he broke into Andaluzia, but was there discomfitted by Marcus Sillanus Scipio's Lieutenant. Mago understand­ing that Asdrubal his Brother, with the whole Army he led into Italy, had been cut off by the Consuls Claudi­us Nero, and Livius Salinator, and despairing of main­taining the War in Spain, shipped himself with his Forces at Cadiz, and having done much harm along the Ligurian shore, returned to Carthage: Scipio now in Africk, threatning the City Carthage, Hanibal was call­ed home to defend his Country; there having in vain treated of Peace, he was in Battle overthrown, and flying to Prusias King of Bithinia, there Poisoned him­self, fearing to be delivered up to the Romans.

4. When the Africans had for 300 Years lorded it in Spain, 196. they were at length expelled thence and out of Italy by the Romans. Spain di­vided by the Ro­mans. The Senate divided Spain in­to two Provinces under as many Pretors, calling them Citerior and Ʋlterior; the first lying between the River Ebro and the Pyrenaean Mountains, the latter extending from that River to the Ocean. Several of these Pretors being unsuccessful, the Consul Marcus Porcius Cato was sent over with a Consular Army; he gained much a­mong the Lusitanians by his Valour and Conduct, as [Page 27] still appears by several Inscriptions on Stone, bearing his Name.192. Scipio Nasica succeeded him in the Com­mand, and had it prolonged to him after the Expira­tion of his time, with the Title of Propretor: In his time the Celtiberi entring into Arms, perswaded the Lusitanians to give the Romans a Diversion in Invading their Province, and by that means forcing them to di­vide their Forces. Nasica marched first against the Lu­sitanians, whom overtaking loaded with Booty,190. and ti­red with long Marches, after a most bloody Fight, he Discomfitted, taking 134 of their Colours: The next year came into Spain, Marcus Fulvius as Pretor, who twice Defeated the Lusitanian Vectones; Encouraged with these Victories, he laid Siege to Toledo, where the Vectones assailing [...] him, were again after a doubtful Fight overthrown. Lucius Emilius Paulus being come Propretor into Spain, the Noise of Arms began to be heard in Portugal; Paulus marching against the Bassetani on a sudden, found the Lusitanians upon him; the Battle was furious, insomuch, that had the Day lasted, none of the Romans had escaped to carry the News. But Paulus retiring in the Night, was again the next day assaulted by the victorious Enemy, who pursued him in great disorder, which proved his good Fortune; for he slew of them 20000, and by this Action, hum­bled the Lusitanians, so that they stirred not in two Years. After which time, on a sudden, they broke out, bearing down all that owned the Roman Government, particularly in Andaiuzia, where the City Asta Regia, for fear of their power, joyned with them. Here Caius Catinius gave the Lusitanians Battle and routed them, but attempting to Scale the Walls of Asta, was him­self killed, and the Lusitanians joyning with the Celtibe­ri, appeared again stronger in the Field than before.

5. Caius Culpurnius Piso, The Ro­mans de­feated by the Spani­ards. the Pretor, hearing of this great Power, sent to the other Pretor Lucius Quincius Crispinus, with all possible speed to joyn him, which he accordingly performed. Being joyned▪ they march­ed into the Province of Carpentania, which is about Toledo, where after several Skirmishes, the Spaniards cut off certain Roman Forragers, which the Pretors perceiv­ing, sent speedy succour to them, and by this means, both parties still increasing, at last both Armies joyned Battle, wherein the Romans were put to Flight and lost [Page 28] 5000 Men. Had the Spaniards known how to make use of their Victory, as well as how to obtain it, the Romans might have been expelled Spain; but they, proud of their Success, spent the time in Sports: In the mean while the Pretors gathered their dispersed Forces, and enga­ged the Spaniards near the River Tagus, gave them such a fatal Overthrow, that 30000 of them were put to the Sword; the Pretors returning to Rome, Triumphed over Lusitania. 180. The Pretorships of Aulus Terentius Var­ro, and Publius Sempronius Longus, and of Publius Man­lius, and Quintus Fulvius Flaccus were not very remark­able; at length Lucius Postumius, and Tiberius Sempro­nius Longus came into Spain. The first spent two years in War with the Lusitanians, sometimes Victorious, and sometimes Worsted: He understanding that the Vauci joined in League with the Interamnenses, to equal the Romans, with wonderful celerity, entred Lusitania, where finding the Enemy ready to march, he Entrench­ed: Then he sent out a Squadron of Horse to Skirmish with the Enemy, who received them so hotly, that the Pretor himself coming out to their relief, he was glad to secure himself in his Camp, making a disorderly re­treat.174. Night coming on hindred any further Action, but with the day, Postumius assailing the Lusitanians, put them to flight, 35000 of them being killed this and the day before.

6. The Fortune of Rome and Lusitania continued various, till Marcus Manilius came Praetor; and the Lusitanians, 153. chiefly stirred up by the Bracarenses, be­gan again to make head. These chose for their Ge­neral one of their Citizens, whom one Author calls Africanus; and another, Apimanus. Under his Conduct they gathered, to a mighty Number; and breaking in­to the Roman Provinces, they carried all before them. Manilius advanced out of Andaluzia, to meet the Ene­my, then loaded with Booty; which Apamanus consi­dering would be a great Obstacle towards obtaining the Victory, he caused it to be burnt; reserving no­thing but the Arms of his Soldiers, and Provision for four Days. The Lusitanians enraged at this Loss of their Plunder,152. so desperately charged Manilius, The Ro­mans twice defeated. that they put him to flight, with the Loss of the greatest part of his Army. Calfurnius Piso being sent from Rome, to retrieve this Disgrace, he increased it with his own [Page 29] Defeat, and the Loss of 6000 Romans. This Victory made the Lusitanians so absolute Masters of the Field, that they wasted all the Country, from the River Gua­diana, to the Streights of Gibraltar; and they perswa­ded the Vectones of Estremadura to join in League with them. Having subdued all the open Country, they next applied themselves to the Taking of Strong Holds, and leaving Garrisons in them, in Imitation of the Romans. Apimanus assaulting the Town of Blasto­fenizes, was killed; and the Army wanting such a Ge­neral, broke up; each Company taking its own Way home.

7. Apimanus being slain, as is before said, the Lusita­nians chose for their General one Caesaro, a Man capable of so great a Trust. He acquitted himself well of it, re­cruiting the Army with which his Predecessor had been so often victorious, and invading the Roman Territo­ries; where he raised such an Alarm, that the Senate of Rome, in great Haste, sent away the Consul, Quin­tus Fulvius Nobilior, Quintus Fulvius overthrows the Spa­niards. with a great Army, to subdue the Celtiberi, and particularly the Numantians, whom they began to grow jealous of. With Fulvius, came Lucius Mummius, as Praetor of Hispania Ʋlterior. In his Ar­my were 15000 Romans, with whom he marched, thinking to oppress Caesaro, loaded with the Booty of Andaluzia. Caesaro, to save his Prey, retired towards Lusitania. Mummius, who was still at his Heels, at length overtook him at the Ford of Guadiana; and he ordering the Prey, with some Troops of Light-Horse, to be conducted over the River, advanced with another Body to Villaviciosa, and there kept the Praetor in play till they that had carried off the Booty returned: Then he drew out into the Plain, and there began a bloody Battel, but the Lusitanians, not able to bear the Force of the Romans, were put to flight; Mummius pursuing them with a mighty bloody Slaughter. Caesaro played all the Part of a bold Soldier, and a prudent General; sometimes facing his Enemy, and at other times calling upon his Men:The Spa­niards re­turn and rout the Consul. At length, what with Intreaties, and what with Threats, having formed a Body, he char­ged the Romans, then dispersed, and out of Order, with such Gallantry that they were drove back to their Camp, with the Loss of 5000 Men. The Lusitanians taking Heart, and again gathering Strength, assaulted [Page 30] their Trenches, and beat them thence, killing 5000 more of them, but not without the Loss of 10000 of their own Men. Caesaro returned to Lusitania, victori­ous; and Mummius, with 5000 Men, retired to an Eminence, strong by Nature. Thence his Men came down, and defeated some Parties of Lusitanians, who dragged the Colours they had taken in their sight; and several Colours, and part of the Booty was recovered. Caesaro returned, and though he met with great Oppo­sition, obliged the Enemy to ascend the Mountain for Safety. Then Mummius vowed, if he were victorious, to build a Temple in that Place to Proserpina; and charging the Lusitanians, discomfited them, killing their General Caesaro. In pursuance of his Vow, he there built a Temple to Proserpina, which is supposed to have stood near the new Church of St. James the Apostle, by Villaviciosa, if it be not the same.

8. Whilst Mummius was busie in building his Tem­ple,151. the Lusitanians, nothing dismayed, chose for their General a Citizen of Lisbon, called Canchenus. He im­mediately marched to the City Cunesturgi, (situate near the Place where the Town of Niebla now stands) where was a Roman Garrison; and in a few Days he made himself Master of it, putting many to the Sword, and exercising great Cruelty. Proud with this Success, Canchenus marched to the River Guadalquivir, without meeting any Opposition; and thence, in like manner, to Gibraltar, plundering all the Country. Here the Ar­my was divided into two Parts, one designed to make a Conquest in Mauritania; the other, to expel the Ro­mans out of Andaluzia. Whilst the Former were em­ployed in building Vessels to carry them over the Streights, the Latter marched into the Province: And being come to the City Oraelis, (suppos [...] to be Origu­ela, among the Bastetani, they found the Enemy en­camped, and well fortified, before the Town. The Army being sate down before them, many of the For­ces marched out to plunder the neighbouring Villages. Mummius laying hold of this Opportunity, [...]ifteen Thousand Spaniards [...]in by Mum­mius. fell upon them, laden with Booty, and killed about 15000 of them; the rest fled into Lusitania, robbing the open Towns as they went. The Lusitanians, who inhabited that part of Estremadura where the Tagus runs into Por­tugal, ravaged all the Lands of C [...]stite: But Mummius, [Page 31] with his usual Celerity, coming upon them, and find­ing them dispersed, made a mighty Slaughter of them, and so ended his Praetorship with Honour.150. Marcus Atilius came from Rome, to command in Lusitania, which he found in Arms, and the neighbouring Provinces cruelly invaded.Atilius a­gain over­throws them. Atilius gave them Battel, and, though they behaved themselves with much Bravery, the Romans had the Victory. Atilius then laid Siege to the City Ostraze; and taking it by Assault, left no Creature alive that was in it: Nay, the very Stones he so dispersed, that nothing remains of that City, but the Name. This Desolation brought the Lusitanians to treat of Peace; and, upon tolerable Conditions, they submitted them­selves to the Romans. Many others also followed their Example.

9. This Peace was not lasting; for the Vectones per­ceiving that Atilius was far from them, they so managed the Affair, that they prevailed with the Lusitanians who lived about Ostraze to violate the League so lately made. Winter hinder'd Atilius from putting a Stop to their Proceedings; and Sergius Galba, his Successor, was now come into Spain: He, jealous of the Power of the Lusi­tanians, resolved upon a piece of Treachery, which laid an Eternal Blot upon the Honour of Rome. Actio [...]s of the Lusita­nians in Africk. But whilst the Winter passes, let us see what was done by the other half of Canchenus's Army, left at Gibraltar, to pass over into Africk. Their first Work was, to pil­lage and ransack all the open Country; then laying Siege to Tangier, they soon became Masters of it; but finding little to satisfie their Avarice, they embarked again, and returned over into Spain. At that time the Consul Lucullus was, with his Army, among the Turde­tani, who inhabited along the Coast of the Ocean, from Guadiana to S [...]ill. He immediately marched against them, and killing some, the rest retired to a strong Hill; which the Consul finding to be inaccessible, he laid Siege to them, and they began to be pinched with Hunger: Therefore, in Despair, they came down with such Fury, that they broke through the Roman Army, but left many Prisoners behind. Lucullus, after this, pierced into Lusitania, without meeting any Opposition, it being then Winter, when the Romans used not to wage War.

[Page 32] 10. Sergius Galba, Galba go­verns the Province. the Praetor, having taken a rich Booty, returned to Andaluzia. No sooner did the Spring begin to appear, but the Lusitanians, desirous of Revenge, broke into the Roman Province, obliging the Praetor to take the Field sooner than he had design­ed. He thought to have surprized them, but they re­ceived him in good Order, and a bloody Battel ensued, in which the Lusitanians was put to the Rout; Galba pursuing them with more Fury than Discretion: They that fled, observing his Army disordered, taking the Advantage, faced about with such Courage and Forti­tude, that the victorious Romans were cut down, only the Praetor, with a few Horse, escaping. Galba ga­thering 2000 Men, and perceiving the Enemy fol­lowed their Husbandry in great Security, he passed the River Guadiana, near Ayamonte, and brought his Army amongst the Turdetani of Algarve, burning all before him. The People being unprovided sued for Peace; which Galba, with a treacherous Design, seemed to ap­prove of; promising to admit of them as Friends, and to make an equal Distribution of Lands among them: To which purpose they were all appointed three seve­ral Places where to meet him, that each Man might receive his Proportion. Accordingly they met in three Valleys, not far distant from one another, but covered by the Mountains that encompassed them. Here Gal­ba, with fair Speeches, perswaded them first to lay down their Arms; which done as was directed, and his Army divided into three parts also, he caused each of them to fall upon one of those Parties of Lusita­nians; who being before disarmed, were slaughter'd like Sheep, to the Number of 9000. Amongst the few that escaped was Viriatus, afterwards the Terrour of the Romans; in killing whom, Galba had done his Country more Service, than in the Slaughter of all the rest.

CHAP. V.
The Exploits of the Great Viriatus, his seve­ral Victories over the Romans, with his last Actions, Death, and place of Burial.

1. THE Renowned Viriatus, who as has been said, escap'd from the Massacre, committed by Galba in the three Vallies, was a Lusitanian without the mixture of any other Nation. Some Authors say, he was a common Robber,Viriatus his Origi­nal. others will have him a Car­rier, others a Sheperd, and lastly, others say, he went through all these mean Employments. Whatsoever he was before, at the time that Galba offered Peace to the Lusitanians, and Murdered so many in Cold Blood, he was one of them that were willing to hearken to his Proposals, and made his escape from the Slaughter. His mind burning with desire of Revenge, as soon as he heard that Galba was departed, he returned to the place of the Massacre, where causing his Companions to thrust their Hands into the yet fresh wounds of some Maidens, they swore by their Souls, not to desist from seeking Revenge as long as they were able to bear Arms. This done, Viriatus ranging throughout Lusi­tania, stirred up the People, raised a good Body of Men, and breaking into Carpertania destroy'd all as he went, and returned home with a rich Booty. Then he caused his followers to reiterate the Oath they had taken, Sa­crificing one of their Prisoners, and a Horse; and so every Man passing by, thrust his Hand into the Belly of each Sacrifice, vowing to do the like to the Roman Army.

2. It was now the beginning of the Year, 148 be­fore the coming of Christ, 3114 from the Creation, and 2281 from the Deluge, when the Pretor Marcus Vetilius, a Man of known Valour, came to suppress the Tumults in Lusitania. Viriatus with 10000 Fighting Men was entring Andaluzia rather as every Mans Com­panion, than Commander, as not daring to chastise them; with his Example and good Words, endeavour­ed to draw back those that scattered to Plunder; but his Men not subject to Command, could not be con­tained [Page 34] within Bounds, which the Pretor perceiving, he he fell upon them,He is wor­sted by M. Vetilius. and having killed a great number, easily put the rest to flight. Viriatus gathering the re­mains of his scattered Forces, fled to a City near, and there provided to oppose the Enemy: It was not long before the Romans came and assaulted the City, but finding they had sustained great loss, the Pretor resolved to carry it by a long Siege: So far had he prevailed, that some principal Men among the Besieged began to treat of a Surrender, without consulting Viriatus, for as yet, they owned him not for their Superiour. Viri­atus understanding there was such a design, but not who were the Managers of it, having in a raging Po­sture ran about, and in that manner gathered the Mul­titude to him, so efficaciously perswaded them to stand upon their Defence, and to have no Faith in the Romans, that they lifted him upon their Shoulders, and carrying him about the Walls, with loud crys, Proclaimed him their General.

3. The next day after he was proclaimed General, Viriatus drew out 1000 Horse, which was all he had, and facing the Romans made show as if he designed to break through them, which Vetilius the Pretor per­ceiving, he kept his Men in a readiness to receive him. But Viriatus's design being only to amuze the Enemy, whilst his Foot escaped out of the City, he continued in the same Posture the greatest part of the day. At length understanding there was no Man left in the City, all his Foot being got into the Mountains, he stood the Enemies Charge, and kept them in play till Night, when through by-ways he hasted to the City Tribola, whether he had sent his Foot. This Ci­ty stood upon the Coast between the Mouth of Guadi­ana and Gibraltar, whence may be inferred that the other whence he came, was not far off. Vetilius in the Morning followed Viriatus, who having by the way increased his Forces, lay in wait on the Mountains that hung over a Valley, into which there were two nar­row Passes, capable of only three Horsemen go­ing in abreast: Into this place the Romans entred without fear, and turning their Horses to grass, took themselves to their rest. Viriatus giving the Sign to his Men to fall on, the Romans on a sud­den found themselves beset on all sides, and being un­armed [Page 35] armed,Vetilius Routed and Slain. were put to the Sword without Mercy. A­mong them dyed the Pretor; his Questor with such as escaped the Slaughter, and some Andaluzians, thinking to Revenge this Disgrace, engaging with Viriatus, lost 10000 Men. The next Year, Viriatus with Fire and Sword ranged all Carpentania as far as Toledo, 147. without meeting any Opposition. Thus was he employed when Caius Plaucius the Roman General, who came to Command in Lusitania with 10000 Foot, and 1300 Horse, thought to have surprized him and his Men, being now mostly dispersed about in burning the Country. Viriatus tho weak, kept the Romans in play still retiring till getting into the Mountains, on a sud­den they had lost him. Plaucius sent 4000 Men to pur­sue and impede his March till he could come up with the rest of the Army; but he turning upon them, cut them all off before the Pretor could Relieve them, and having gained the Ford of Tagus, speedily passed over it, and returned into Lusitania. Viriatus having ga­thered Strength, encamped in a strong place, now cal­led Pomares, near Evora, whither Plaucius followed him, and was so received, that his whole Army turn­ed their Backs.Viriatus defeats Plaucius. The Pretor fought with much Brave­ry, and with his Example brought back his Men, but all in vain, for they were again put to flight, and Plau­cius himself, with difficulty escaped.

4. Now was Viriatus master of the Field, ranging about Spain, 146. and the Romans shut up in their Garisons, when Claudius Ʋnimanus, a most expert Captain, was sent by the Senate to command in Lusitania: He Over­throws Cl. Unima­nus. Viriatus Marching with a strong Body of Lusitanians, the Pre­tor with a mighty Army met him, but soon found how little confidence was to be placed in a Heartless Multitude, for in the Field of Ourique he was over­thrown, scarce any of his Army escaping Death or Bondage. This done, Viriatus returned Victorious in­to Lusitania. In the mean while Ʋnimanus sent to Cajus Nigidius, the Pretor of the other Province, to give the Enemy a diversion. He entred the Territory of Riba de Coa, and marched along the River destroying all be­fore him. Viriatus with all speed made towards him, and overtook him near to the City Viseo; where Nigi­dius in a plain, strongly intrenched himself. There Viriatus kept him besieged till Hunger forcing him to [Page 36] break out,Nigidius escapes from him▪ with Loss. he with Difficulty escaped, having lost the best part of his Army, and all his Ensigns. About 1000 of those that fled, gathering together, began to plunder the Villages, as they passed; and meeting 300 Lusitanians, laden with Booty, fell upon them; But they were so hotly received, that having lost 300 of their Men, and killed but 70 of the Enemy, they were glad to suffer the rest to march off with their Plunder. Another Body of the Romans, having taken a rich Boo­ty, led 500 Captives away, the one half whereof were Women, who observing that no great Regard was had of them, only their Hands bound behind, in the dead time of the Night they unbound one another, and af­terwards the Men; then seizing the Arms of the Ro­mans, buried in Sleep, put most of them to the Sword before they waked; only a few escaped by the Favour of the Night. Next Morning the Victors put the Armour of the Romans upon their Women. Ormia, a modest Lusitanian Woman, being taken by another Party, and long courted by her Keeper to consent to his Lust, she at length seemingly complied; wherewith being delighted, he put himself into her Power; so that she waiting her Opportunity, when he slept, with his own Sword cut off his Head, and carried away both to her Husband, as a Token that she had preserved her Chastity: Which done, not so content, she killed her self before his Face.

5. Caius Lelius, 145. a Man of great Valour, came Prae­tor into Spain; but Authors do not mention any Suc­cess he had against Viriatus: Perhaps it was thought enough that he lost nothing.143. Two Years after, Fabius Emilianus was sent, with a Consular Army of 18000 Men, to put an End to the War. Viriatus, hearing of his coming into Andaluzia, broke into the Roman Pro­vince, doing greater Harm than before, and took two Cities, into which he put Garrisons. Fabius, that the Gods might be favourable to his Undertakings, went to offer Sacrifice in the Temple of Hercules, at Cadiz; strictly charging his Officers, upon no Account to stir out of the Camp before his Return. The next Day Viriatus appeared before the Roman Army, at such time as certain Foragers were returning, with a Guard; of whom he cut off the greatest part: A good Body of Horse issuing out of the Camp, to relieve their Compa­nions, [Page 37] drove back the Lusitanians to their Main Body; but they were there so fiercely charged, that few of them returned back. Fabius coming from his Sacrifice, stormed that his Orders had been disobeyed.Fabius E­milianus obliges Vi­riatus to retire. Some Days after, about Midnight, he marched, in great Silence, two Miles forwards, and surprizing the Lusitanian Camp, obliged Viriatus confusedly to retire to Vecor, a strong Place; where not thinking it safe to attack him, he marched away to recover the two Cities lately gar­rison'd by the Lusitanians. The Inhabitants of the Pro­vince between Duero and Minho took up Arms against those of Galicia: Hostilius Mancinus overthrows 30000 Spaniards▪ Lucius Hostilius Mancinus, the Consul, Emilianus's Colleague, fearing lest they should invade the Vaccei and Celtiberi, came so suddenly upon them, that he, without any Difficulty, overthrew 30000 of them, killing many, and putting the rest to flight. Popilius succeeded Emilianus in the Government of Lu­sitania, when Viriatus finding himself weak, made some Overtures of Peace deceitfully, for at the same time he stirred up the People about Numantia to make War; and he, in the Territories of Riba de Coa, committed all manner of Cruelties upon the Romans, even upon those that submitted themselves to him.Popilius routed. Popilius hast­ing to their Relief, was in a pitch'd Battel shamefully put to flight, with the Loss of the best of his Army.

6. Viriatus was far enter'd into Castile; but under­standing that the new Praetor,141. Quintus Pompeius, was marching towards Lusitania, he turned back to defend his own Country.Viriatus put to [...] by Pom­pey. The two Armies met near Evora, where a bloody Battel was fought; Pompey obtained the Victory, and Viriatus fled to the Mountain of Venus: Here he gathered new Strength; and encouraging the Ticii, Vaccei and Beli, who followed him, he marched again to meet the Romans, whom he forced to take Shelter in their Trenches, leaving behind them 27 En­signs, and 4000 Men slain, whereof 500 were Horse. The Praetor thus shut up within his Works, Viriatus enter'd Andaluzia, and summoned Ʋtica, which was kept by a strong Roman Garrison, who answered him with Scorn, calling him Robber. He, the better to compass his Revenge, marched away in great haste, as if he had fled, certain Troops of Horse, sent from the City, pursuing him in the Rear; whom he, without halting, repulsed; and so they returned to their Garri­son: [Page 38] But in the Dead of the Night he marched back; and cro [...]ing several Valleys, distant from the City, he left his Foot in an Ambuscade, himself, with the Horse, appearing before the City, so that many Morasses lay betwixt him and the Walls, which were impassable to any that knew them not as well as he. At Break of Day his Party being decried from the Walls, they were supposed to be some Straglers of the Lusitanian Army, and therefore the Garrison sallied out upon them: Viriatus at first withdrawing, as if he had fled, drew them into the Marshes, where, when they were fast stuck, he faced about, and put them all to the Sword. Those of Ʋtica, after this Action, expelled the Roman Garrison, and received one of the Lusita­nians. Viriatus moving thence, towards the Streights of Gibraltar, wasted the Territories of the Bastetani, Pom­pey not offering to oppose him.

7. The Consul,140. Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, was sent from Rome, with an Army of 20000 Men, to pro­secute this War; and Micipsa, the African King, came to his Aid, with 10 Elephants, and 300 Numidian Horse. With this Force he marched to Ʋtica, where Viriatus lay; who, after some Skirmishes, his Provision [...] failing, retired into Lusitania, to secure the Harvest, In the mean while, a good Body of his Men, com­manded by two noted Captains, called Curius and Apu­leyus, broke into Andaluzia. The Consul, with his whole Army, marched towards them; and for the more Expedition, left his Baggage behind him, with a small Guard.Fabius Maximus defeats the Spanish A [...]m [...], and kills Cu­rius, their General. The Lusitanians informed thereof, took another Way; and with a Compass, deceiving the Consul, plunder'd his Baggage. He turning suddenly upon them, whilst they were busie in robbing a Con­voy of Provisions, put them to flight, killing Curius, their Captain, and recovering the Booty. Thence the Consul moving, he took five Towns, Garrison'd by the Lusitanians, upon Articles, which he performed not, turning them over to the Fury of his Soldiers. Vi­riatus hasted to revenge this Breach of Faith; and be­ing come in sight of the Consul, he drew up his Foot in a Square Battel▪ with his Horse on both Wings, but far advanced before the Foot, whom he ordered not to stir till they saw how the Horse behaved themselves against the Elephants. They charged the Roman Horse, [Page 39] forcing them to retire to their Elephants;139. at the sight of which,Another Defeat of the Ro­mans. the Spanish Horse disorderly fled, the Ene­my fiercely pursuing: The Foot drew back in good Order; and Viriatus perceiving the Enemy's Battel broke in the Pursuit, rallying his Cavalry, he gave such a Charge, that Servilianus, with his Elephants, fled, leaving 6000 Men dead. Soon after this, Servilianus pursuing a Lusitanian Robber, called Corroba, besieged him in a strong Place, where Hunger forced him to surrender, upon Promise not only of Life, but that his Men should march off with their Arms; yet so, as to swear, never more to employ them against the Romans. But the Consul, unmindful of his Promise, when he had all the Troop of Robbers, consisting of 500 Men, in his Power, cut off all their Right Hands, except the Captain's.

8. Spring coming on, all Lusitania was full of War­like Preparations. Viriatus marched against the Con­sul, who had besieged the City of Erissana; and with wonderful Cunning, made his Way into it; where ha­ving well encouraged the Defendants, he sallied out so furiously, that Servilianus was glad to retire to a Place of Advantage.Viriatus makes Peace with the Ro­mans. Here he was so straiten'd, that he made Proposals of Peace, which were agreed upon, and Vi­riatus allowed a Friend of the People of Rome. This done, the Armies parted, one into Andaluzia, the other into Lusitania. One of those who approved of the Peace concluded, was Quintus Servilius Cepio, the Con­sul's Brother; yet afterwards considering how disho­nourable it was to Rome, he openly blamed his Brother, and by that Means obtained the Consulship, and a numerous Army, to better the Affairs of the Romans in Lusitania. The Peace broken. Cepio kept his Designs so private, that the Lusitanians thought of nothing but their Country-Af­fairs. They were awaken'd by the News brought, that the Consul had, by Storm, taken the City of Arsa not far from Sevil. Viriatus was then at Valencia, who im­mediately marched with some Troops towards Lusita­nia. By the Way he reduced Segorbe, which had re­volted; when Cepio appeared with a mighty Army: He finding himself too weak for so powerful an Army, with his Horse amused them, till his Foot were got into the Mountains. Cepio pursued him, to cut off his Retreat into Portugal. He, as he fled into the Heart of [Page 40] Spain, used excessive Cruelty to all that bore the Ro­man Name: But finding this turned not to Account, he sent an Ambassador to Cepio, to put him in mind of the Peace, so solemnly, and so lately concluded. The Consul having heard the Ambassadors, and sounded their Dispositions, with mighty Promises prevailed up­on them to murder Viriatus. Their Names were, Di­ctalcon, Minurus and Aulaus; all three Captains of Note among the Lusitanians. Viriatus killed by Treachery. These three having underta­ken this base Action, returned, and for some time kept Viriatus in hand with the Hopes of Peace, till, waiting their Opportunity, in the Dead of the Night, they en­ter'd his Tent, and slew him as he lay asleep. Thence they fled, to give the Consul an Account of what they had done, whose Countenance they found altered; as it generally happens to Traytors, after they have com­mitted the Treason.

9. In the Morning, the Lusitanians missing their Ge­neral, they went into his Tent, where finding him dead, the whole Camp was filled with Lamentation; and in Revenge of his Death, they put all the Roman Prisoners to the Sword.His Fune­ral-Pomp. To perform his Funeral-Rites with all imaginable Pomp, in the midst of the Field, they raised a vast Pile of Timber, leaving a Place for the Body. The Top of the Pile was adorned with Ensigns, and other Trophies of Arms. Then their Idolatrous Priest going up to the Top, called upon the Ghost of Viria­tus; and killing some Captives, with their Blood sprinkled the Arms; which done, he came down, and set fire to the Pile, which in a Moment consumed the Body. The Funeral-Rites thus performed, the Army chose one Tantalus for their General; but he wanting the Fortune and Conduct of Viriatus, could not so much as lead back his People into their own Country. Servilius, to gain the Reputation of a merciful Conque­ror, was content that the Lusitanians, delivering up their Arms, should be dispersed into several Parts. Vi­riatus, as to his Person, was of a large Stature, strong Limbs, curled Hair, large Eyes broad Eye-brows, a stern Countenance, and a large hooked Nose. As to his Qualities, he was modest, liberal, prudent, of a rea­dy Wit, and quick of Invention. Some of Viriatus's Soldiers gathering up his Ashes, brought them back in­to his own Country, and buried them, together with [Page 41] his Sword. In the time of King John the III. who reign­ed from the Year 1521 till 1557. in the Territory of Belas, two Leagues from Lisbon, and in the Lands of Peter Machado Carregueyro, in turning up certain old Ruins, was found a Stone Chest with this Inscription; Hic Jacet Viriatus Lusitanus Dux. In it was found a Sword, on which certain Characters were Engraven: The Prince and many other persons of Note saw it, and Machado offering to sell the Sword, they would give no­thing for it, so he gave it to a Friend of his of the Island Madera, and by that means it was lost. The Chest was broke in pieces, and no part of it remains.

CHAP. VI.
The Actions of the Lusitanians after the Death of Viriatus, from the Year 133. before Christ till the Year 80. when Sertorius takes upon him the Command, with his Exploits till the Year 70.

1. THE Lusitanians not loosing their Courage,130. though they had lost their General,Tantalus Commands the Lusi­tanians. broke out again under their new Commander Tantalus, but not with the same Fortune as before, being easily suppres­sed by the Consul Decius Junius Brutus, who reduced then to sue for Peace. It was granted upon tolerable Conditions, one whereof was, that he should assign them Lands to live upon: These Lands were along the delightful Southern Coast, upon the River Turia, now Guadalaviar, where they built the most famous City Valencia; the foundation whereof is therefore as­signed to Brutus the Consul. This Army thus Disban­ded, Brutus entred Lusitania, without meeting any op­position, till he came to Eburobricium, a City seated on the Sea-coast near to which now stands the Town of Alfazeyran; the Inhabitants of this place adventured to come out a League from their Walls, and give the Consul Battle. He in the heat of the Fight, vowed he would there build a Temple to Neptune, if he obtain­ed [Page 42] the Victory; and having without much difficulty overthrown his Enemy, performed his Vow: He laid Siege to the City, and soon was Master of it.

2. The next Year, Brutus with his victorious Army, passed over the rapid River Duero, and coming unex­pectedly upon the People that inhabited between that River and Minho, made a great slaughter of them, which obliged such as could escape to fly to the Moun­tains. Thence in Parties they came down, and cut off many of his Men, nay, the very Women showed such Valour, that the Consul was obliged to kill a great number of them; but perceiving the harm was done him from the Mountains, he fell to Burning all the plain Country, with such Fury, that People were glad to beg a Peace, which was easily granted: Thus the Consul was at leasure to Besiege the City Labrica, Brutus the Roman Consul takes the City La­brica. the Inhabitants whereof immediately submitted, but no sooner had he turned his back, than they began to fortify themselves, and falling upon such Romans, as were left in their Neighbourhood, cut them in pieces. This News being carried to Brutus, he turned back, and encompassing the City, forced the Inhabitants to come out without Arms into the open Field; there taking them into the middle of his Army, and having severe­ly reproved them for their Perfidiousness, when they expected nothing but present Death, he ordered them to return again to their City, and be more faithful for the future. From that time forward they continued in Subjection, but could not be brought to serve against their own Country.

3. The Roman Army advanced to Braga plundering the Country,125. but the Citizens sallying out in a good Body, surprized and carried away a Convoy of Provi­sions that was going to the Camp. Brutus, in revenge, destroyed all before him, and the Bracarenses more of­fended then terrified, marched six Miles out of the Ci­ty to give him Battle; the Women here played the part of most valiant Soldiers, and after the Fight had long stood doubtful▪ the Romans were put to flight: The Bracarenses over-secure in their Victory, lay a­bout the Fields without any Watch,He destroys the Country about Bra­ga. which Brutus ima­gining, having rally'd his Forces, he came upon them, and having well revenged his Disgrace with the Death of many, the rest fled to the Shelter of their Walls. He [Page 43] assaults the City which the Inhabitants disdaining, the Men sallied out, leaving the Women to guard the Walls; but they resolving not to be out-done by the Men, rushed out after them, and so together repulsed the Romans to their Trenches. This made the Consul give over the Attack, and changing his manner of proceeding, wa­sted all the Country about; in this manner the Con­sul came to the River Lina, formerly called Lethe. It was the common Opinion, that those who passed it, for­got their Countries; for which reason, Brutus his Sol­diers could not be perswaded to enter the Ford. He to undeceive them, snatching an Ensign from the Bearer, set Spurs to his Horse and passed over; then calling to his Soldiers, told them many things of Rome, to con­vince them he had not forgot it, and by this means he perswaded them to venture over the River. The Cam­poneses who inhabited on the other side, came to hinder their passage, but were repulsed, and the whole Army gained the farther Bank.N [...]ar 60000 Ga­licians de­stroyed. The People of Galicia, to the number of 60000, coming to the relief of their Neigh­bours, were by Brutus in their passage over the River Minho so intirely overthrown, that the greatest part was either Drowned, put to the Sword, or made Captives. The loss of this powerful succour so discouraged the Lu­sitanians, that they suffered the victorious Army to range about at pleasure, taking many Towns without the least opposition.

4. The City Cinania stood resolutely upon its De­fence, and Brutus offered them Peace if they would buy it. Their Answer was, That their Ancestors had left them their Swords and Valour to maintain their Liberty, not Gold to purchase it: Certain it is, this City was many Years after destroyed by another Power. Brutus, spent two Years in those parts,122. his Command being still prolong­ed to him, because he was Fortunate: He now stiling himself Conqueror of Galicia and Lusitania, marched against the Inhabitants of the Province of Beira, Brutus Conquers Lusitania and Gali­cia, and triumphs at Rome. who be­ing a fierce Barbarous People, put him to much trouble in passing Rivers, and piercing the uncouth Mountains, till at last coming to a Battle, he was worsted; yet re­covering again, he obtained a Victory, but at so dear a rate, that he would gladly have been without it, rather than have sustained such loss. After this, he again pas­sed over Tagus, and resided three Years in the City Mo­rus, [Page 44] then standing where now the Castle of Almourol is; he ended his Government with such Reputation, that the Roman Senate unanimously voted he should triumph over the Lusitanians and Gallicians.

5. Whilst the Proconsul Decius Junius Brutus trium­phed, and Rome wasted with Civil Wars, could not carry on its Foreign Expeditions, the Senate sent Go­vernours, who might supply their want of strength by policy and obliging the Natives. The project proved ineffectual, for a powerful Army broke out of Lusitania, consuming all that stood in its way belonging to the Romans; 120. Caius Marius the Proconsul,The Lusi­tanians re­volt, and are reduced who had gained Reputation at Numantia, put a stop to this Torrent. He brought not numerous but choice Forces from Rome, and joyning them to those he found in Spain, marched to repress the fury of the Lusitanians; he worsted them, but they assembling a greater power again, gave him a considerable Defeat: Nevertheless, the Proconsul no­thing terrifyed, as being well used to the various For­tunes of War, calling together the Celtiberi, and draw­ing his old Soldiers out of the Garrisons, in several ren­counters, overthrew the Lusitanians in such manner; that for some Years, we have no account of them. Af­ter that time of silence, they again began to disturb the Province of Hispania Viterior, 109. so that Calfurnius Piso was sent from Rome against them; it is natural to guess he had no great success, because very soon after Servius Sulpicius Galba was sent to succeed him; neither is it likely that Galba sped much better, for in the Town of Condeixa, there is still an antient Inscription which denotes some hot piece of service, in which Galba lost many Men of Note.107. His Successor was Quintus Servi­lius Cepio, Son to him that dishonourably contrived the Death of Viriatus; the particulars of what he did are not known,104. but sure it was much, since he was allow­ed to triumph at Rome. A powerful Roman Army ran­ged in Lusitania, but with such ill success, that not a Man escaped to carry home the News of their loss.99. This fatal stroke produced a quiet Peace for four Years, which ended in a great Victory obtained over the Lusi­tanians by Decius Junius Silanus. 97. Yet the vanquished gathering new Forces,L. Corn. Dolabella again sub­dues them. made a mighty havock in all the Province of Hispania Ʋlterior. Lucius Cornelius Do­labella was sent in hast Proconsul from Rome, to reme­dy [Page 45] this growing Evil. He behaved himself so prudent­ly, that the Lusitanians were obliged to lay down their Arms, and keep within their own Borders, for which it was granted him to triumph at Rome.

6. All these Calamities were not enough to subdue the Lusitanians, and therefore the Romans designing ut­terly to extirpate them, sent the Consul Publius Lici­nius Crassus against them. He behaved himself so well, that he was continued in that Government four Years, doing incredible harm in the Country, and at last tri­umphed at Rome: 90. The chief service that acquired him that Honour, was the War with the People between the Rivers Duero and Minho. There he had first know­ledge of the Islands called Cassiterides, which some im­agine to be those of Bayona in Galicia, The Islands of Bayona in Galicia. and other be­lieve they were swallowed by the Sea; they were ten in Number, one of them only inhabited; the Natives of a swarthy Complexion, their cloathing a long Gown down to the Feet, girt upon the Breast, all of them car­ried Staves in their hands.87. They traded with other Nations, particularly the Carthaginians, for Hides, and Lead, and Tin, whereof they had great Plenty; still the Proconsul Licinius Crassus, by fair means, drew them to the Roman Friendship. The cruel Wars be­tween Marius and Sylla, hindred the Romans from send­ing Supplies into Spain; 85. the Lusitanians took hold of that opportunity, and with a numerous Body breaking into the Roman Provinces, exercised the utmost Cruel­ty, sparing neither Sex nor Age, and this made the Roman Commanders quit the weaker places, and retire to those of more safety. But in the height of this their prosperity,83. came Caius Annius, (sent by Sylla after Ser­torius) who in two great Battles, though with much difficulty, overthrew the Lusitanians; This made them sensible, that they only wanted a General, and there­fore pitched upon Sertorius, who was then in Mau­ritania.

7. Sertorius was well known in Spain for the share he had in the War of Numantia; Sertorius his Origin. he was born in Italy a­mong the Sabini, of an indifferent Family, neither Great nor Despicable: His first Years he spent in the Schools, the best and last in the Army. Being ill treated at Rome, he fled into Spain, and then into Africk, where in the City of Tangier, he found the body of the Gyant [Page 46] Ant [...]us, and other pieces of Antiquity: Here Ambassa­dors sent from Lusitania found him, and in the Name of the People, invited him to come and Command them, which he immediately accepted, and came over with the Ambassadors. At his first Arrival, he gained the good will of all Men,He comes into Lusi­tania. by his Affability and Bounty, and chose Evora for a place of Arms; when he had taken an Oath of Fidelity of the Lusitanians, he visited the Province, accompanied with 700 Horse and 4000 Foot, and with all possible Diligence, provided all Ne­cessaries for War: The Neighbouring People perceiv­ing it, offered him their Service, as did others farther off, moved by their Example. Among them the City Osca, which Tradition will have to be that in Aragon, a strong Place, where Sertorius settled an University: This he did for his own Security rather than the In­struction of the People, that he might there have the principal Youth of the Country together as Hostages;His Pra­ctises. for the fixing of this University Professors of all Sciences, came from several Countries. To strenghten his En­terest the more, he made use of another practice, which is, that having a Hind brought him, he made her so tame, that she followed him in the Army, amidst the Noise of Arms, and the People admiring thereat, he gave out, it was sent him by the Goddess Diana, to give him advice how to behave himself in the War. When he understood that any of his Captains had gain­ed a Victory, he caused the Hind to be Crown'd with Flowers by him, he entrusted with the Secret, and as soon as let loose, she would run to him, and he putting his Ear to her Mouth, would discover what he had been told before, saying, Diana gave him that intelli­gence by the Mouth of the Hind: This Fraud made the People follow him, as if he were somewhat more than Man.

8. Sertorius having thus gained the Affections of the Lusitanians, His War­like Ex­ploits. and secured their Children, as Hostages, at Osca, ventured to take the Field, against the Romans, with only 8000 Men, whereof 5000 were Lusitanians, the rest Italians and Africans. Nine Years he maintain­ed War against Rome, and against four of its best Gene­rals, who brought over 7000 Horse, and 122000 Foot, besides the Spanish Auxiliaries. His first Exploit, was, the subduing most part of the Province of Carpen­tania; [Page 47] where he found little or no Resistance. Next, he defeated Cota, the Roman Admiral, who kept the Streights of Gibraltar, and hinder'd Supplies from com­ing to him out of Mauritania. Sailing victorious up the River Guadalquiver, he surprized, at Break of Day, the Roman Army, under the Command of Didius, who lay encamped upon the Banks of the River, and put the greatest part of it to the Sword. Herculeus, one of his Captains, was sent out by him, against Lucius Do­mitius, who, by Order of the Consul, Quintus Metellus Pius, destroyed all the Country between Andaluzia and the Pyrenean Mountains. Herculeus pursuing, overtook him in Aragon, where he overthrew his Army, and kil­led him. The Fame of this Defeat moved Manilius, Proconsul of Gallia Norbonensis, to pass the Mountains with a mighty Army of Romans and Gauls, in hopes to gather together the few scatter'd Remnants of Domitius's Army. But the Victor, flushed with his late Success, met him near Lerida, where a most bloody Battel was fought, and Manilius routed, with a terrible Slaughter of the Roman Legions; but, above all, of the French Horse. In the mean while, Sertorius stuck close to Me­tellus; who perceiving himself to be still upon the Lo­sing Hand, resolved to alter his Method of Carrying on the War, and laid Seige to Lacobriga, now called Lagos, in the Kingdom of Algarve. Want of Water pressed the Besieged; but Sertorius, with great Rewards, pre­vailed with 2000 Soldiers to break through the Roman Camp, with each of them a Skin-full of Water. This Supply encouraged the Lacobrigenses, till Sertorius could come to raise the Seige: But Metellus, hearing of his Preparations, marched away, and left it. Want of Provisions forced him to depart; for Sertorius had cut off a Legion that was coming to him, with a Convoy. Metellus marched into Andaluzia, Sertorius keeping close at his Heels, and came to Osca, where the Lusitanian Youths were, designing to take that Place; but it was well provided: Besides, the Lusitanian Army being up­on his Back, he marched away to Cartagena; and Ser­torius returned to Evora. Thus it appears, that Osca, where the University was erected, was not in Arragon, as some will have it; but in Andaluzia. At Evora, Ser­torius received Ambassadors from Mithridates, King of Pontus: He proposed to settle Amity, for the subduing [Page 48] of Italy; offered Ships, and asked some Lusitanian Sol­diers: Besides, he offered to Sertorius the whole Domi­nion of Asia. Sertorius received the Ambassadors with Majesty, promised the Supply of Soldiers, and after­wards sent it. The Ambassadors being dismissed, Ser­torius employed himself in making Provision for the next Campaign, and exercising his Men; knowing he could not expect long to enjoy Peace.

9. In the mean time came Pompey the Great, from Rome, and was joined by Metellus. Marcus Perpenna came also from Sardinia, with 30 Veterane Troops, to the Assistance of Sertorius. The Lusitanians, encoura­ged with this Aid, and lying now in sight of the Ro­mans, pressed their General to lead them out to Battel: But he weighing the mighty Power of the Enemy, me­ditated how to gain some Advantage by Policy. Part of his Army, carried away with Heat, and forgetful of good Discipline, adventured, contrary to his Orders, to charge the Romans, but came off with Dishonour; which nothing displeased Sertorius. Here it was, that he convinced his Men, by the Example of two Horses; One, very lean and poor, he gave to a lusty Young Man, ordering him to pull out the Hair of his Main and Tail; which he attempting to draw out by Hand­fulls, laboured much, but profited little. The other, being a beautiful, strong Horse, he gave to an ancient Man, for the same purpose; and he plucking Hair by Hair, did that with Ease, which the other could not do with great Pains. Thus, he said, they were to pro­ceed against the Romans, whom it was impossible at one Stroke to overthrow; but easie to compass at many. Sertorius laid Seige to Laurona, (now Leiria,) 4 Leagues from Valencia, on the Banks of the River Xucar. Pom­pey and Metellus came to raise the Seige, but lost 10000 Men in the Attempt; and endeavouring to gain a Ri­sing Ground, which lay opportunely for putting of sup­plies in the Town, they found Sertorius had prevented them. Next Pompey designed to besiege the Lusitanian Army, hemming it in between his own and the Town, but Sertorius having left 6000 Men in Ambush, they attacked him in his approach; so that he was glad to return to his Camp, and look on whilst the City was taken and Burnt. The Roman Army consisted of 1000 Horse and 30000 Foot, but the Lusitanians were 70000 strong.

[Page 49] This done, Sertorius returned victorious to Evora, which Place he fortified with strong Walls, and brought Wa­ter to it from several Springs, through a stately Aque­duct. His whole Family, at this time, consisted of an old Nurse, and three Slaves: And though he was So­vereign in Portugal for some Years, he had no House of his own. Now it was, he built one so small, that it would not contain an ordinary Gentleman of our Times. He married at Evora the Daughter of a Noble Citizen, called Firmius Liberius; by whom he had no Children.

10. Spring coming on,72. Pompey and Metellus drew out of their Winter-Quarters; and marching through Andaluzia, separately strove to recover those Places which Sertorius had Garrison'd. But he, losing no Time, advanced against Pompey, and met him on the Banks of the River Xucar. Pompey resolved to fight, that Metellus might have no Share in the Honour of the Action: And Sertorius thought best to have to do with them apart.Sertorius worsted by Pompey and Me­tellus. Thus agreed, they drew out; Sertorius facing Afranius, and Perpenna, Pompey. The Charge being given, Sertorius began to gain upon Afranius; when understanding that Perpenna gave way to Pompey, he hasted thither, and presently put the Enemy to flight. In the mean while, Afranius, encouraging his Men, had almost routed that Wing which Sertorius left near possessed of Victory; but he returning thither, soon restored the Battel. Now had Pompey's Army been entirely cut off, but that Metellus appearing, Ser­torius stayed his Soldiers from the Pursuit, and said, Halt, halt; for I would have sent this Boy to Rome, well scourged, had not that old Woman snatched him out of my Hands. However, Metellus did not attempt any thing upon the Victors; contenting himself to have saved the flying Army. Sertorius returning to his Camp, missed his Hind, lost in the Hurrey of the Battel, which made him extreamly melancholy: But some time after, certain Country-men bringing him Tidings of her, he ordered them to conceal the Matter; and, at a certain Time appointed, to turn her loose: Then cal­ling together his Chief Officers, he told them, The God­dess of the Woods had appeared to him, assuring him, that the Hind should return, with Instructions how he should be­have himself. Whilst he was yet talking, the Hind, set [Page 50] loose, came running to him; and laying her Head be­twixt his Knees, licked his Hands.

11. It is incredible, how much the whole Army rejoiced at the Return of the Hind: And Sertorius, to make use of that Heat, marched towards Valencia, where Metellus was, wasting the Country. He so hem­med him up in a Plain, that he must either perish, or fight. However, he sent Mummius, with a Party of Horse, to conduct a Convoy of Provisions to him. Sertorius having Notice thereof, marched out by Night; and in the Morning, putting the Guard to the Sword, he took the whole Convoy. Metellus contemn­ing Sertorius, marched to seek him; and Perpenna, af­ter him. Thus they were soon engaged, with such ill Success on the Romans side, that they began to fly. The old Metellus, disdaining to be thus disgraced, did Wonders exceeding his Age, till he fell wounded with a Dart:Sertorius routed by Metellus. And the Shame of losing their General bring­ing back his Men, they so fiercely charged the Lusita­nians, disorder'd in the Pursuit, that they recovered the Day; putting them to the Rout, with great Slaugh­ter. Sertorius did all that Metellus had done before, to stay his Men; but could only stop the victorious Romans, till his Army escaped: Which done, he fol­lowed after, to a strong City, standing on an Hill. Metellus encompassed the Place, thinking to starve it; but Sertorius had before laid in sufficient Stores. A few Days after, with a Party of Light Horse, he made his Escape, deceiving the Roman Guards, and returned safe into Lusitania, where he was received with unexpres­sible Joy.

CHAP. VII.
The remaining Actions of Sertorius, from the Year 70, before the Birth of Christ, till his Death, which was in the Year 68. What else happen'd in Lusitania, till the Coming of Julius Caesar; and his Exploits, till the Year 57, before Christ.

1. THE following Year Sertorius put to Sea with a Fleet,70. resolving to destroy all the Ships he found in the Roman Harbours;The Ro­mans sus­tain great Losses by Sertorius. and in a short time, scouring the Mediterranean, he did great Harm. This was a great Loss to Pompey and Metellus; but a greater they sustained by the Means of Herculeius, a Lusitanian Captain, who cut off six Troops of Horse and a Le­gion, which, under the Command of Probus Emilia­nus, were conducting a great Convoy of Provisions. This put the Roman Generals upon taking new Me­thods; Pompey went away to Navarre, whilst Metellus gave an Account of his Losses to the Senate of Rome, and pressed for considerable Supplies.69. They came ac­cordingly; and the two Generals took the Field again. Metellus marching apart from Pompey, near Italica, (which was not far from Sevil,) was met by Herculeius, and so pressed, that he betook himself to a Mountain. The Lusitanian Army lay at the Foot of the Hill, da­ring the Romans to give Battel. Metellus waiting an Opportunity, took it so aptly, that he killed and made Prisoners 20000 of Herculeius's Army, driving the rest out of the Field; and was so delighted with this great Success, that he caused Images of Victory, as he came into every Town, to be let down artificially, with Garlands of Flowers to crown himself; as also, his Praises to be publickly sung. Sertorius immediately marched to seek the Victor, who was on his Way to Catalonia: He did not overtake him, but cut off a Par­ty of Horse that was carrying the News of the Victory, and some of the Prisoners, to Pompey. Herculeius was so much ashamed of his Defeat, that he absconded, and [Page 52] would not be seen; but Sertorius comforted him, and, with much Difficulty, prevailed with him to appear again.

2. Sertorius leading a mighty Army against Metellus, who was in the Kingdom of Murcia, by the Way de­stroyed all the Province of Andaluzia; Metellus retiring to Valencia, where Pompey then was; who sent a Par­ty of Light-Horse, to discover the Strength of Serto­rius, and found his Army numerous, and in good Or­der. He passed the River Guadalaviar, near whose Banks the two Roman Generals lay encamped, on an advantageous high Ground. Both Armies being re­solved to give Battel, and being drawn out in order to it, they stopped to see the Event of a single Combat between two Soldiers, who had challenged one ano­ther: Pompey's Soldier having killed him of Sertorius, taking off his Helmet to cut off his Head, he found it was his own Brother; whereupon, he immediately kil­led himself. This strange Accident put off the Battel for that Day; but the next Day after, they engaged with great Resolution;Metellus and Pom­pey again overthrow Sertorius. when, in the Heat of the Action, a Soldier telling Sertorius that the General of the Horse was killed, he struck him through the Body, that he might not terrifie others with that News: Yet neither this, nor all he could do, was enough to prevent his being put to the Rout, with the Loss of 6000 of his Men. It was no less Grief to Sertorius, than the Loss of the Battel, that the City Valencia submitted to the victo­rious Romans; and much more, when other Places fol­lowed the Example of it; amongst which was Guada­laxara. Hither he marched with Speed; but the In­habitants being fled to a Place almost inaccessible, full of many great Caves, they scoffed at him, asking whe­ther he had Wings to come at them. He tried all Stra­tagems to reduce them, but nothing succeeded. At length he raised great Heaps of Sand and Dust oppo­site to the Mouths of the Caves; and waiting till a strong North Wind blew directly in upon them, caus­ed his Men, with Shovels, to cast up the Sand; which being so shaken, was by the Wind carried into the Caves so violently, that those within, being almost sti­fled, were glad to cry for Mercy. Sertorius forgave them all, and took nothing from them, but some ne­cessary Provisions for his Army.

[Page 53] 3. This last Action gained Sertorius great Reputa­tion, as well of Policy to overcome, as of Clemency towards the vanquished; but his Forces being very much broken, some of the principal Romans that fol­lowed him, proposed to come to an accommodati­on with Pompey. Sertorius utterly rejected their Advice, saying, Since the Romans would not treat with him in his Prosperity, he would never condescend to fue to them in his Ad­versity. And that his Actions might sute with his Words, tho' then weak and lately overthrown, hearing that Pompey had distressed Palencia, he hasted to the relief of the Besieged, and without loosing time, he Assaults the Romans, and his Men being much disordered in the Confusion, he was got so far among his Enemies, that his Horse being killed, he had inevitably perished, had not a Body of Lusitanians offered to Sacrifice their own lives for the defence of his. They desperately forced their way to the place where he was Fighting, and ta­king him into the midst of them, carried him off in safety. He thus brought back to his Men, so encou­raged them with his presence,He recovers and worsts the Ro­mans. that they obliged Pompey to quit his Camp, and with it his Tents and Engines: Had not the Night been so near, few Romans had esca­ped, but they under the shelter of it, got away to places of safety. In the mean while Metellus laid hard Siege to Calahorra, but the victorious Sertorius drove him thence by main force, with the Slaughter of 3000 of his Men, and entring the Town, Commended the Fidelity of the Inhabitants. Here he was informed, that Metellus and Pompey joyning their Forces, lay before Osca or Huesca his University; thither he hasted and Encamped at a small distance from them, so carelesly, that Metel­lus forced him to take shelter in the Besieged City in great Confusion, leaving behind him many Armes and Horses, and much Ammunition: This frown of For­tune moved the Romans, who had hitherto followed Sertorius, to conspire against him. Here by the way, it is to be observed, That doubtless there were two Os­ca's, since we Read, that before this time, they Fought in Andaluzia near Osca, and now again being in the Territories of Aragon, Sertorius fled to Osca.

4. Perpenna, that Roman who had hitherto so faith­fully served Sertorius, now tempted by the promised rewards, undertook to kill him: Sertorius himself in [Page 54] some measure forwarded his Design, by putting to death the Sons of many Spaniards, who had revolted from him to the Romans, which rendred him odious to the People, and ministred an opportunity to Perpenna to compass his intended Treachery. Sertorius understan­ding there was a Conspiracy against him,Sertorius Murthered. gave an ac­count thereof to the Lusitanians, who were his Guard, and they immediately put to Death Ten of the Con­spirators. None seemed more to commend this Exe­cution, than Perpenna, who as it were, to divert Serto­rius, invited him to a Supper, whither he, suspecting nothing, went; and; in the height of his Mirth, was killed with 21 Wounds. The first that struck him was a Roman, called Antony: There was no less mourn­ing at his Death among the Lusitanians, than had been for Viriatus, and many killed themselves at his Funeral. The Hind that had always followed Sertorius, seeing him Dead, smelling to him, and heavily Groaning, at length forbearing all Sustenance, fell down Dead by his side. The Lusitanians gathering his Ashes into an Urne, returned to Evora, where they were Honourably En­tombed. The Magistrates of Evora, then the chief Go­vernment of Lusitania, consulting how to secure the Common-wealth, resolved not to alter any thing, till they saw what was done by Perpenna, with whom was the greatest part of Sertorius his Army, tho' many had forsaken him, seeing Pompey pressing upon them with a mighty Power.

5. Perpenna failing of the promised Reward of his Treachery from Metellus, 68. was not content to have Murdered his General, unless he also usurped his Com­mand. Therefore calling together the Heads of the Army, after inveighing against the Cruelty and Perfi­diousness of Sertorius, he offered himself for their Lea­der: Many of them before bribed by him, easily con­sented, and others seeing Pompey so near, complied with necessity least they should want a Head in that time of Danger. Pompey resolving the first thing he did to make an end of Perpenna, Perpenna chosen Ge­neral of the Lusitani­ans. accordingly marched hastily to­wards him, and he nothing Daunted, advanced to meet him: Both Armies being in sight of one another, fell to Fortifying their Camps. The Work ended, they spent the time in Skirmishes before they would ha­zard a pitched Battle; but Perpenna's Forces decreased [Page 55] much, many by night Deserting, which obliged him to offer the Enemy Battle before he was quite forsaken: Tho' Pompey doubted not of the Victory, yet to make it secure, he laid an Ambush, and retiring, drew Per­penna into the Danger of it. Thus when he thought himself Victorious, he was fallen into the Snare, and immediately put to the Rout; he himself fled, and was as much afraid of his own Men,He is va [...] ­qu [...]shed by Pompey, and put to Death. as of the Enemy. The Romans followed the Chace without giving any Quar­ter; certain Horsemen carried on with this heat, found Perpenna among the Shrubs and Bryars. He falling down, begged his Life, assuring them, He would make great Discoveries of principal Men in Rome, who kept Correspondence with Sertorius, which he could prove under their hands. The Captain of those Horse acquainted Pompey therewith, who ordered his Head to be immediately struck off, and those Papers to be brought to him: The being accordingly performed, Men of Note, whom their Conscience accused, were in a great Consternation in Pompey's Army, for that they had secretly favoured Sertorius; But, he fearing the ill consequence of such a Discovery, publickly Burnt all those Papers, and so quieted their Apprehen­sions.

6. Afranius, a most Valiant Captain, by Pompey's Order, entred Lusitania; but finding the Camponeses were fled to the Mountains, and left all the plain Coun­try Desart, he suspected rather Policy than Fear, had carried them;Pompey subdu [...]s many pla­ces. wherefore he returned to inform Pompey, and both of them came before the City Caucia, which offered to embrace the Friendship of the Romans, but refused to admit a Garrison. Pompey requested, that whilst they could agree upon Articles, his sick Men might be admitted into the City, which being granted, he sent in a Number of his best Soldiers privately Arm­ed, who being let in, possessed themselves of the Walls, and so the Town was obliged to receive a Gar­rison, and pay a Sum of Money: With such like Arts, Pompey gained admittance into many Towns of Lusita­nia: Both Pompey and Afranius laid Siege to Oxama (now Osma) where no fair means prevailing, the place was furiously Battered, then Undermined, and a sufficient Breach being made, it was pertinaciously defended as long as any of the Inhabitants were left alive. They all [Page 56] died to the last Man, and Pompey having none left to kill, vented his passion upon the Buildings, leaving the place in a confused heap of Rubbish; then the Ar­my marched to Calahorra, but whilst they lay before it, Metellus sent to Advise Pompey, it concerned him more to return to Rome, than linger the time there: He lea­ving Afranius to continue the Siege, in his way, laid the Foundation of Pamplona, in Navar, and so went away to Rome, where it was allowed him to Triumph, as he had well deserved. Afranius left at Calahorra, tho' he suffe­red much by the Weather, it being then Winter, and also for want of Provisions, yet he reduced the Besieg­ed to that extremity, that having eaten all the Leather and Hides in the City, they killed and eat their Wives and Children. Nevertheless, Afranius broke in upon them, and found many Inhabitants looking ra­ther like Ghosts than Men, and many quarters of Wo­men and Children hanging up for Food.

7. The Roman Senate thought the Victories of Pom­pey and Metellus, 67. had sufficiently secured Spain; therefore they sent thether Publius Piso Pretor, a Man more addicted to Peace than War. He found all things quiet, but after a while, understanding that Warlike preparations were making in several parts of Spain, he sent his Questor Lucius Flaccus, to visit and put all Gar­risons into a posture of Defence; in the mean while he gathered an Army of Romans and Andaluzians, and ta­king the Field in several places, Defeated the Spaniards; but Authors do not mention the particulars. [...]000 Lu­sitanians slain by Pub. Piso. Certain it is, he vanquished a Body of Lusitanians, that had been plundering the Country and killed 5000 of them. His success was doubtless more considerable, since it ap­pears he triumphed at Rome. 63. Cneus Piso succeeded Pub­lius, he by his ill Government lost the Affections, not only of the Natives, but of the Romans, and marching into Lusitania, had his Legate cut off by some Light Horse of the Country, none of his Army stirring to res­cue him. The next Pretor was Quintus Calidius, who defeated several Parties of Lusitanians, 61. that Plundered the Country; after him came Tubero, who brought with him as his Questor Julius Caesar, to whom his future Fortune was foretold at Cadiz; For visiting the Temple of Hercules, and falling asleep in it, he Dream­ed that he lay with his Mother. This the South-sayers [Page 57] interpreted to Denote his becoming Sovereign of Rome, his Mother-Country, which he should deprive of its An­tient Liberty. There also seeing the Picture of Alexander the Great, he wept considering that mighty King had subdued so considerable a part of the World, at that Age which he then was of, and had yet done nothing worthy of Fame.60. These considerations made him quit his Employment and return to Rome to aim at greater.A great Earth­quake. About this time hapned on the Coast of Galicia and Portugal, so terrible an Earthquake, that many Build­ings being overthrown, the People fled to the Moun­tains for Safety. The Sea also broke in and drowned several places. At Cape St. Vincent, a Mare brought forth a Monster with the Head, Breast, and Fore-feet of a Bull, the Body of a Horse, and the Hind-feet like a Man's: This Monster was thought to foreshew the Calamities that afterwards befell Lusitania.

8. Some Years passed, that the Romans sent no Com­mander of Note into Spain, which the Lusitanians ob­serving, they broke into Castile with a great Power, putting all the Country to Fire and Sword. The chief among these People were the Herminii, inhabi­ting the deep Valley and high tops of the Mountain Herminius, now called Serra de Estrella, which crosseth the greatest part of the Kindom of Portugal. Julius Cae­sar comes into Lusi­tania. The next great Man that came was Julius Caesar; he to spread a Terror spared none of the Lusitanians that ranged in Castile and Andaluzia, but put all to the Sword, which made those that escaped home, give the Alarm to pre­pare the People for the Storm that threatned them. Caesar over-running all the Province of Alenteio, with his Victorious Army, used the utmost severity; the Andaluzians that followed him, revenging the wrongs before done to them by the Lusitanians; only the in­habitants of the Mountain Herminius perplexed Caesar. Tho' this Mountain, as was said, runs almost through the Kingdom, the chief habitation of those People was about the place where now stands Haramenha, which is near Portalegre and Marvan. The place of it self was inaccessible, and the People resolute, therefore Caesar sent Ambassadors to perswade them to come down and inhabit the plain: they kept these Ambassadors till they had shown them their Weapons, the strength of the Place, and number of the Defendants, and then [Page 58] dismissed them, with assurance that they would trust only to their Weapons and Courage. Caesar disdaining to be Braved by those Mountaineers, to appease the o­ther Lusitanians, much offended for that his Soldiers had plundered the Temple of the God Endovelicus, caused all that had been taken thence to be restored.

9. This done, he marched against the Herminii, who were in a readiness to receive him, and found the place much more difficult than it had been represented to him.He subdues the Hermi­nii. Understanding that the Herminii had placed their Wives, Children and weak People in a remote place of safety, he with great Gifts perswaded certain Lusitanians Ene­mies to the Herminii, to lead a number of Men thro' a private path to that place. Whilst they upon Hands and feet climbed the rough Rocks, he drew out his Ar­my, and began to ascend so as to divert the Defendants from minding those that were sent about. An advan­ced party was so hotly received by the Mountaineers, that they were forced to quit the attempt, and fly dis­orderly back to the Camp, Caesar never offering to re­lieve them for fear of running more Men into the Dan­ger. The Mountaineers, proud of this success, braved the Romans; but Caesar trusting to those he had sent a­bout, regarded them not: The third Night after they set forward, the Party that was sent to climb the Hill, fell in upon the Old Men, Women and Children, putting many to the Sword. But day appearing, and discover­ing how few had done that harm, the Women fell up­on them, and their Husbands taking the Alarm, quit­ted the Pass they defended to protect their Wives and Children. Caesar seeing the Pass clear, mounted the Hill till he came to a plain on the side of it, whilst the Herminii put all those Romans that had climbed the other side to the Sword. When they thought to re­turn to the place they had quitted, they found Caesar possessed of it, wherewith they were so terrified, that tho' they were above him, and might well have defen­ded themselves, they sued for Peace; thereupon he commanded them to go down and inhabit the Plain, keeping 200 of their Women as Hostages.

10. The Fame of this unexpected Conquest made many of the Neighbouring People resolve to quit their Dwellings,And routs a vast Multitude. and passing the River Duero, seek out new places to inhabit, if not more fruitful than their own, [Page 59] at least more remote from the Enemy. This they did in such numbers, that the Province was almost unpeo­pled; they marched in great Order, fearing the pur­suit of the victorious Army, which soon o [...]ertook them, at such time as they had passed over the River most of their Old Men, Women, Children and Baggage, on Planks, Skins blown full of Wind, Mares and Oxen. Caesar gave them not leasure to follow their Families, but falling upon them, was so hotly received, that his Army began to give way, till a Veteran Legion coming up, the Battle a long time stood doubtful. Caesar who could not be satisfied to part upon equal Terms, broke himself into the midst of his Enemies with such Reso­lution, that his Forces following the Example given, soon made him Master of an absolute Victory.

CHAP. VIII.
The remaining Actions of Julius Caesar, the Coming and Attempts of Cneus and Sextus, the Sons of Pompey the Great, and other Occurrences from the Year 57. before the Birth of Christ, till the Year 27.

1. CAesar concluded his late Victory, had wholly put an end to the Toiles of War in that Pro­vince,57. when he was given to understand that the Her­minii, or Mountaineers revolted again, had put to the Sword the Romans that Quartered about them, and stir­ring up their Neighbours to do the like, were now as­sembled in an infinite Number.The re­maining Actions of Caesar in Spain. He instantly marched towards them, and escaped all their Ambushes, being forewarned of them: The Lusitanians divided them­selves into two Bodies, each numerous enough to maintain a long and dangerous War against a greater Power than that of the Enemy. The lesser of those Armies was sent towards the Ocean, with all the Wo­men and Children as their Guard. The Roman and Lusitanian Armies meeting, stood a while looking upon one another, till Caesar who never knew what fear was, [Page 60] gave the Signal of Battle, and both sides gave the Charge with extraordinary Fury. Caesar, tho' hard pressed a while, remained Master of the Field, but by reason of the approaching Night, could not do so much Execution as might otherwise have been. The Lusi­tanians knowing all the Passes of the Country, made their way, and soon joyned those that marched to­wards the Ocean. Thus the 4th Day they discovered a Peninsula (now called Peniche) into which they all passed; so that when Caesar came, there was none be­hind on the shoar. The distance between the Island and the shoar, is at present above 500 Paces, which at low Water can be forded; Caesar waiting the Ebb, sent an Officer with a choice party to gain a Post from those in the Island, who bravely defended themselves: The Tide returning, the Romans fought up to the mid­dle in Water, and Caesar stood on the Shoar calling up­on them. When they would have returned, the Water was so high, that they were forced to land in the Island, where they were all cut off to one Soldier, who tho' Wounded, swam over to the other side. A Spanish Author calls him Sceva, but Dio, names him Publius Scevius: It was hard to gain the Island, without bring­ing Ships from Cadiz, but hunger began to prick the Multitude who had made no Provision, when they re­tired into that place. This and the sight of the Ships made them deliver themselves to Caesar, barely upon Discretion: He not only forbid any Wrong to be done them in their Persons or Goods, but supplied them with all they wanted, and so dismissed them wholly devoted to him, for this unexpected Clemency. At this time was found that wonderful Horse, which having his Feet like a Man, would afterwards suffer no body but Caesar to mount him, and when he died, Caesar cau­sed him to be Buried, as if it had been a Man, and his Statue in Brass to be set before the Temple of Venus.

2. Caesar having thus with Courtesy, as well as Force subdued Lusitania, departed to Rome to make interest for the Consulship,56. where we will leave him. Tubero left to Govern the Province,Pub. Cin­cinnatus succeeds Caesar. as Propraetor, kept it in Peace till the coming of the Proconsul Publius Cincinnatus, in whose time the Lusitanians began a­gain to raise Arms, but Authors do not give us any [Page 61] particular Relation of the Event of those Commotions, till the Time of the Praetor, Publius Cornelius Lentulus Spinter. About the same time there marched a mighty Army out of Spain, whereof a considerable part were Lusitanians: Crassus de­stroys near 40000▪ Spaniards The Gauls, oppressed by Julius Caesar, had called them to their Assistance. Publius Crassus, Caesar's Legate, overthrew them, killing and taking Prisoners almost 40000. Whilst this was done in France, Quintus Cecilius Dentatus, the Praetor in Lusita­nia, raised a dangerous War, by endeavouring to car­ry a great Quantity of Corn out of the Country, which moved the People to take up Arms; but having forced him to retire, and fortifie himself in the Mountain of Venus, (now called Pomares,) near Evora, they came to a Composition, he promising not to carry away the Corn.52. Quintus Cecilius Metellus was Successor to Denta­tus, and governed both Provinces of Spain. The Vec­tones of Estremadura, and the Vaccei of Old Castile, re­volting, he overthrew them; but with so little Loss on their side, that being recruited, they came upon him, then besieging Clunia, (now Corunna,) and drove him from the Siege:51. He, in like manner, making up his Forces, returned, and gave them a second Rout. Tu­bero succeeded Metellus, 30. as Proconsul. He continued the War against the Vectones and Vaccei, and was by them, in Battel overthrown. The Tumults raised by the Vaccei and Vectones, moved the Senate to send Pom­pey to pacifie the Province: But whilst he prepared to set forwards with the Grandeur becoming him, three Legates came; one of them was Petreius, whose Pro­vince was Lusitania, and the Care of quelling the Vac­cei and Vectones: With him joined the People of Beyra, and, together, they forced their Enemies to sue for Peace. After which, Petreius went to the Assistance of those of the Province of Beyra, 47. against a great Number of the People that came from between the Rivers Duero and Minho, who were going over to settle among them; and (though with considerable Loss) he secured the Pass, and drove them back.

3. Julius Caesar having drove Pompey out of R [...]me, was now coming again into Spain: The Legates ha­ving Notice thereof, prepared to oppose him; and Pe­treius joining Afranius, they together made up near 60000 Men, as well Romans as Spaniards. Caesar sent [Page 62] his Legate Caius Fabius, to gain the Passes of the Pyre­nean Mountains; which he performed so successfully, that Pompey's Party lying about Le [...]ida, saw Cesar's Co­lours before they had heard of the approach of his Ar­my.Caesar re­turns, and expels Pompey's Party. Soon after came Caesar himself, who reduced the two Legates to that Necessity, that they surrender'd themselves into his Power; he using no other Severity towards them, than to order them to lay down their Arms, and depart Spain: And they accordingly went away to Pompey, then raising Forces in the East. This done,44. Caesar returned to Rome, leaving the Govern­ment of Portugal and Andaluzia, with the Title of Pro-Praetor, to Quintus Cassius Longinus, a Man naturally cruel, and an Enemy to the Spaniards. He according­ly exercised his Hatred and Avarice, and at last laid Seige to the City Mirobriga, which offered to buy its Liberty; but he set it at so high a Rate, that they ha­ving 11 Days granted them to resolve in, chose rather privately to fly away to the Mountains. The Pro-Praetor finding the City empty, followed the Inhabi­tants, where he took from them all they had before sa­ved. The Herminii thus plunder'd, their Number in­creasing, resolved to possess themselves of the Plains along the River Tagus, turning out the ancient Pro­prietors. A great Number of them were cut off by the Citizens of Lisbon, as they endeavoured to pass that Ri­ver: Then the Mountaineers desisting from their first Purpose, encamped about Lisbon; but being there sur­prized in the Night, by their Enemies, almost all of them perished.

4. Cneus and Sextus, 43. the Sons of Pompey the Great, came into Spain, Cneus and Sextus, the two Sons of Pompey, in Spain. invited by the general Consent of the People. The Eldest was declared General at Cartage­na, and set out thence with a good Army, Garrisoning all the strong Towns. Sextus Pompeius was left at Cor­dova. Julius Caesar's two Legates, Pedius and Fabius Maximus, observed the Motions of the two Pompeys, and gave Caesar an Account of all that passed; and he travelled with all possible Speed into Spain. In the mean time, Philo, a Lusitanian, raised Men, and join­ed himself to Cneus. The Celerity of Caesar was incre­dible; yet came he not so soon, but that his Legates were before defeated by Cneus Pompeius, with a mighty Slaughter. The Legates fled to their Camp, where [Page 63] Pompey assaulted them three times, and was as often re­pulsed: At last he understood they stole away by Night, but in such good Order, that he durst not pursue them; especially, hearing that Caesar▪ was come to Sa­guntum, and that Andaluzia began to mutiny. Understand­ing that Caesar marched towards Cordova, he directed his Course thither; and to march the lighter, he left all his Sick at Capara. By the Way he laid Siege to Ʋlia, (now Montemayor;) but it being relieved by Caesar, he removed towards Cordova, 15 Miles distant; where he found his Enemy, expecting that the Towns-People would have delivered the Place to him; but the Vigi­lancy of Sextus, and the Arrival of Cneus, prevented the Design. Caesar thus disappointed, removed, and laid Siege to a strong Place, which Pompey had made his Magazin: It was then called Ategua; and now, Te­ba the Old. Pompey marched to relieve it; but finding the Besiegers too strong, returned with Speed to Cordo­va; yet, being sent for by the Besieged, he returned again to Ategua, and sent in some Succour, and Muna­cius Flaccus, to govern in the City: He, seeing no Hopes to hold out, surrender'd himself and the City to Caesar upon Discretion. This so enraged Pompey, that upon light Surmizes he put to Death almost 80 Men of Note; and by this Means made himself odious to all that followed him; whereof, many deserted.

5. In this manner their Affairs went on,Caesar o­verthrows Pompey at Munda till Caesar and Pompey met at Munda, (now a little Town, called Monda,) five Leagues distant from Malaga. This Ci­ty was Garrison'd by Pompey, and in it consisted all his Hopes; wherefore he lay to secure it with 60000 Men. Hither Caesar came, to engage Pompey; and the Battel began most furiously: Pompey behaved himself so gallantly, that Caesar was once in doubt whether he should not kill himself, as despairing of the Victory: But considering better, he lighted off his Horse; and, snatching a Buckler from a Soldier, ran desperately in­to the thickest of his Enemies; saying to his own Men, This Day will I end my Life; and you, the War: Thus lay your Arms across, since you have lost all Sense of Shame, and leave me in the hands of two Boys, after you had been victorious over all the Power of Spain. In this manner he broke into the Body of his Enemies, where he had pe­rished, but that his Horse coming in, rescued him, [Page 64] wounding Pompey on the Shoulder. Yet had not Caesar gained any Advantage, till Rogud, an African King, who followed him with his Troops, assaulted Pompey's Camp. Titus Labienus, a brave Captain, drawing out of the Battel, to oppose Rogud, the whole Army of Pompey thought he had fled, and they immediately took to their Heels; some fled to Munda, others to the Camp, 30000 were slain, whereof 7000 were Lusitanians. Pompey wounded, and overthrown, fled with 150 Lu­sitanians of his Guard, that were left. Being come to Algezira, Publius Calvicius sent him in an Horse-Litter to Cortega; the Inhabitants of which Place would have delivered him to his Enemies, but he escaped in a Gal­ley. Didius, Caesar's Admiral, pursued him so close, that he was forced to fly to Land; where he was hard chased by Cesonius Lento, till, not being able to go farther, he hid himself in a Cave, where he was be­trayed by a Servant of his own. Cesonius carried his Head to Caesar, then at Sevil, who caused it to be ho­nourably buried.

6. Many Lusitanians who had escaped the Hands of Cesonius, in the Pursuit of Pompey, not knowing what had happen'd, as soon as they perceived the Romans were gone, returned to the Cave to look for him; and finding only the Trunk of the Body, resolved to re­venge his Death. Didius the Admiral having left Ceso­nius, was then Careening his Vessels on the Shoar, without suspecting any Danger; but one Night the Lu­sitanians came down upon him in three several Bodies, and firing his Ships, put the Men to the Sword, and the Head of Didius they sent to Philo, their General. As soon as Sextus Pompeius, at Cordova, understood the Death of his Brother, he marched out of the City with all his Forces; and joining with the Lusitanians that were dispersed thereabouts, he met Cesonius, who be­headed Cneus, and put him to flight. In the mean while, Caesar went to take Possession of Cordova; and returning to Sevil, he found Philo, with the Lusitanians. in it; who was forced to fly, after massacring many of the Citizens. He fled into Lusitania, to raise Forces; where, in the City Lenius, he found Cecilius Niger, with a good Body: Both together got into Sevil, sur­prizing the Roman Army; but paid for it with the Loss of all their Men. This done, Caesar peirced in­to [Page 65] to Portugal; Caesar con­quers the Lusitani­ans; and settling Peace at Beja, calls that City Pax Julia. and with his Clemency towards the con­quered People, won their Hearts. At Beja he granted Peace to the Lusitanians; whence that City was after­wards called Pax Julia. Thence, he went to Evora, which, of his Bounty towards it, took the Name of Liberalitas Julia. In like manner, he left his Name to other Places: Mertola was called Julia Mirtilis; San­tarem, before Scalabis, Julium Praesidium; and Lisbon, Faelicitas Julia.

7. Asinius Pollio, 42. a valiant and wise Man, was left Governor of the Provinces of Andaluzia and Lusitania, in Caesar's Absence. He soon quelled some Troops that ravaged the Country about the Mountains of Algarve. About the same time Sextus Pompeius came out from among the Lacetani, where he had been hid after his Defeat, and was by Niconius Saxo conducted to Hanni­bal's Port, now Vill-nova de Portemao, in Algarve; where he continued in a miserable Condition, till a Ship of Pyrates came into that Place:Sextus Pompeius appears a­gain, an [...] makes great Com­motions. They, at the In­stance of Saxo, received him for their Captain; and un­derstanding who he was, set out joyfully, and took some Prizes, plundering the Coast, he gathered Strength; till coming to Cartagena, a whole Roman Le­gion joined him, besides many Companies of Spaniards. Caesar hearing hereof, sent Cartina to crush Pompey; but he was himself overthrown. Pompey hearing of the Death of Caesar, gathered all the Power he could, and defeated the Praetor, Asinius Pollio: But being now al­most Master of all Spain, he was called away to Rome by the Senate. After some Success at Sea, he was rout­ed by the Triumviri; and flying into Asia, had his Head cut off by Ticius, one of Mark Antony's Comman­ders.36. Whilst these Things were doing in the East, all Spain, Great Floods, Storms and Sickn [...]ss in Spain. but particularly Lusitania, suffered much by Floods, Storms, Sickness, and several other Calami­ties. Many that lived near the Coast, thinking to fly from these Miseries, ran headlong into greater; for, breaking in upon the Va [...]ei of Old Castile, they were repulsed with great Slaughter, by Cneus Domicius, Le­gate to Lepidus. Near this same time, one B [...]llas, who had been Quaestor to [...], fearing to be called to Account for his Extortion,Pogud the African [...]. fled into Africk, and perswaded King Bogud to invade Spain. He took the advice; and having plunder'd the Coast of Andaluzia, [Page 66] retired with a great Booty, upon the News that the Ro­mans and Spaniards had assembled a great Power against him.33. Three Years after he returned, but was repulsed with Loss, and retired to Tarifa; where having re­cruited himself, he set Sail for Hannibal's Port, in Lusi­tania; which being abandoned, he plunder'd, with the Country about it. Not content with this, he turned to Cape St. Vincent; and coming to Setuval, without the least Opposition, ransacked it, putting all he found in the Place to the Sword, and then setting fire to it. Some that fled to the Mountains, gathering more Strength, came down to revenge their Losses on the Mauritanians; but he was then sailing up the River of Alcazar, where he robbed and rased a Temple of the Goddess Salacia. Scarce was he returned to his Ships, when a violent Storm arising, destroyed the greatest part of his Fleet; those few Wretches that escaped the Fury of the Sea by swimming, being cut in pieces up­on the Shoar.

8. The Inhabitants of the City and Territories of Tuy, 28. in Galicia, The Gali­cians over­run the most part of Lu­sitania. passing the River Minho on a sudden, thought to have made themselves Masters of the Lands then possessed by the Bracarenses, and other People, be­tween Duero and Minho. These, though surprized with the unexpected Invasion, gathered in a great Body, and went out to meet the uninvited Guests. Between them passed many Skirmishes; but at last, coming to a Battel, the Interamnenses were overthrown, with great Slaughter. The Victors pursuing their Fortune, with­out Resistance, passed on to the Banks of the River Duero. The Inhabitants of the City of Porto, terrified at the Fame of their Success, sent Ambassadors to sue for Peace, and Friendship; putting them in Mind, they were all originally Greeks. This took so well with the conquering Galicians, that they allowed of the Kindred, and so exempted the City of Porto from being plunder'd and burnt, as all others they came at were. But a violent Pestilence raging among the Gali­cians, so wasted them, that they were obliged to return home, carrying the Contagion with them; so that the Harm they did at home was greater than the Profit of their Expedition.

9. The Bracarenses delivered from the Fear of two terrible Enemies, the Plague, and the Galicians, resol­ved [Page 67] to be revenged on the People of Porto, War be­twixt the People of B [...]aga and Porto. for having joined with those of Galicia, only for their own Preser­vation. War being declared, the Aggressors had the better; till in one Battel, those of Porto took some Pri­soners, on whom they exercised their Cruelty. Many of them they tied to Stakes upon their Walls, and in the sight of their Enemies, shot them for Sport. Mo­ved at this Sight, the Bracarenses sent certain Troops to take Revenge on them; but they being either killed or taken Prisoners, served only to revive their Sorrow. Among these were a Son and a Father-in-Law, whose Death so troubled the Wife of the one, and Daughter of the other, that associating her self with some despe­rate Women, and a good Number of Soldiers, she, in the Night, laid an Ambush, not far from the City; and scaling the Walls, silently stole thence the two Bo­dies: But being discovered by the Sentinels, she was pursued by the Towns-men, whom she led to the Place of the Ambush, where most of them were kil­led, or made Prisoners: The Prisoners she carried in Triumph to Braga, and there, on the Walls, made them suffer the same Death which their Country-men had inflicted on her Friends. This done, she ho­nourably buried her Father and Husband, and then killed her self. Now the Citizens of Porto, finding themselves hard beset by the Bracarenses, prayed Aid of Norbanus Calvius, Legate to Augustus, in Lusitania; with whose Assistance they twice overthrew their Ene­mies. Many Cities, seeing that of Porto victorious, sent to congratulate and curry Favour with them. One of the Cities that followed this Counsel was Cina­nia, lying nearer to Braga than Porto; but they had af­terwards Occasion enough to repent.

CHAP. IX.
The total Conquest of all Spain, by Augustus Caesar: With all other Occurrences, from the Year 27, before the Birth of Christ, till his Blessed Nativity.

1. MOre were the Bracarenses grieved to see their Neighbours slighted them, than at the Loss they had sustained; and therefore, gathering again their Forces, they marched towards Porto: An Hun­dred and fifteen Women and 200 Men, made up a Party of Light-Horse, which, leaving the rest of their Army in Ambush, went to draw the Enemy out. Nor­banus Calvius▪ marched out with all his Force, that Bo­dy of Horse before-mentioned sometimes flying, and sometimes fighting, till they drew the Romans to the Place of Ambush, where a mighty Slaugh­ter was made of the Romans, and the People of Porte. Norbanus was killed by a Woman, who retur­ [...]ed to Braga with his Head and Right Hand; as did se­veral others, with those of several Men of Note. The Bracarenses used their Victory with Insolency,The People of Braga subdue Porto. oppres­sing the City of Porto in the heavy Conditions of Peace they prescribed to them. Being delivered of that Ene­my, they bent their Force against Cinania, in Revenge for their having joined with those of Porto; and laid Siege to the City. The Besieged were not unprovided, nor did they want Resolution; so that many brave At­tempts were made on both sides. At length, Hunger beginning to pinch the Besieged, and the Besiegers be­ing sensible thereof, the Case grew desperate: When the Cinanians had devoured all that was to be found in the City, rather than submit themselves to the Cruelty o [...] their Enemies, they set open their Gates; and rushing out like hungry Lions, failed but little of obtaining the Victory; but at length, oppressed with the Multitude they were all put to the Sword, without Distinction o [...] Sex or Age. Nor was this all, for the Victors executed their Rage upon the very Stones, overthrowing the Walls, and rasing all the Buildings to the Ground.

[Page 69] 2. Octavius Caesar having now brought all the Roman Empire under his Subjection, found that only three Na­tions in Spain opposed his Authority; and those were, the Biscainers, Galicians, and Lusitanians, who inhabited between the Rivers Duero and Minho. Augustus Caesar comes into Spain. To the subduing of these, he came in Person, with a mighty Power; but being taken in Biscay with a violent Hypochondriack Distemper, he left there two Legates to continue the War, and went away to take the delightful Air of An­daluzia, where he gave himself up to the Care of his Physician, Anthony Musa; who effecting a great Cure upon him, was magnificently rewarded. Whilst he was under Cure, his Legates overthrew the Biscainers, be­trayed to them by the Tragicini. Such as escaped, fled to Lancia, a City near Oviedo in Asturias, where they made some Opposition, but at last were forced to submit. Thence the Victors advanced, bearing down all before them, quite through Galicia. We have no particular Account, how the People between the Rivers Ducro and Minho were subdued; whether they submitted, ter­rified with the Example of the others; or else were in­cluded in the Conquest of Galicia.

3. Augustus, Emerita Augusta (now Me­rida) foun­ded by Au­gustus. thus become Lord of the World, to re­ward his old Soldiers, who had served him so many Years, he assigned them Lands, and founded a City, which he called Emerita Augusta, (now Merida,) which he made the Metropolis of Lusitania, and gave it migh­ty Privileges. Some will not have Augustus to be the Founder, but rather Repairer of Merida. In Gratitude for this his Bounty, they raised Temples to him, and dedicated Priests to his Service. All the Cities in Spain followed their Example. That of Porto used all man­ner of Flattery, to oblige him to their Assistance, in or­der to cut off the heavy Yoke imposed upon them by their Enemies, the Bracarenses. Their Ambassadors were favourably heard, and brought back an Answer, such as they could have wished, that Caius Antistius and Marcus Agrippa were upon their March, to their Assistance. This so encouraged the Inhabitants of Porto, that before the Roman Forces could join them, they not only rava­ged the open Country, but entred the City of Braga, with great Slaughter; those Citizens suspecting no such thing: Yet, laying hold of their Weapons, they pur­sued them to the very Walls of Porto. Scarce had they [Page 70] encamped about the City, when they perceived the Ro­mans upon them, so numerous, that they were forced to fly with all speed, and take the Shelter of their own Walls, providing for a dangerous Siege. Before the Ro­mans could take their Posts about the City, the Bracaren­ses sallied out, and much Harm was done on both sides. Among the Prisoners taken by the Romans, was a young Maid, who had acted like a Virago: She was taken by a Trooper; and the Roman General, by her Beauty; who would have set her at liberty, promising to pay her Ransom: The Trooper pressed, he might either have the Money, or Liberty to make use of his Cap­tive: She snatching a Ponyard out of his Hand, ran to kill him; but missing her Stroke, stab'd her self. The Bracarenses retiring, the Romans took their Posts; and many Skirmishes passing between them, it happen'd that Antistius, one of the Roman Generals, was taken, and fell into the Hands of the Father of that Maid above-mentioned; who, for that he had honourably buried his Daughter, sent him away free, and honour­ably presented. Agrippa, to requite the Kindness shewn to his Colleague, raised the Siege, and obtained many Favours of Augustus, for the City; perswading him, that those of Porto were in the wrong. Thenceforth it was called Augusta Bracara; and had the Privilege of a Roman Colony.

4. The Emperor Augustus being at Tarragona, Augustus acknow­ledged Em­p [...]ror of the World, and Temples e­rected to him. received there Ambassadors from all Parts of the then known World, congratulating his happy Accession to so great an Empire. Then it was, he concluded himself an ab­solute Monarch, being complemented, flattered and fawned upon by all Nations; in so much that they beg­ged Leave to erect Temples to him, and give him Di­vine Honours. He granted their Request; and, among that Multitude, to the Ambassadors of Lusitania. At Santarem a Temple was built, in the manner of a Fort; which was afterwards thought to denote a greater Incli­nation to War, than to Devotion. On this Account, Ac­cidius Cestius, Augustus's Legate, obstructed the building of another at Lisbon. The People, to remove his Suspi­cion, erected it on the Rock of Sintra, upon the Ocean. No less than for these stately Structures, Augustus was re­nowned for the Computation of Time begun from him, and commonly called Aera [...] The Reason of this Name, [Page 71] is not our Affair to decide: Certain it is, it continued in Arragon till the Year of Christ, 1358; when K. Pe­ter IV. ordered the Computation of Time, for the fu­ture, to be from the Birth of our Saviour. K. John I, of Castile, followed his Example, in the Year of Grace, 1383. And King John I, of Portugal, imitated them both, in 1415.

5. It was two Years before the Birth of Christ, when all Portugal, Portugal, how divi­ded by Au­gustus. entirely subdued, enjoyed perfect Peace. Augustus had divided the Kingdom into four Provinces, subject to as many Courts of Judicature: These were, Merida, Santarem, Braga and Beja: In each of these was a Praetor, and other Officers of Justice. Augustus was still at Tarragona, when he published that memorable Decree for numbering of all the People in his Empire, and imposing on every Head a Tribute, or Poll-Tax; which, as some compute it, was, to the value of about 4d. according to others, 4d. half Penny; or, as others say, 9d. The first Court in Lusitania, where the Edict was published, was Santarem. By the Lists it appeared, that in Lusitania there were 5068000 Heads of Families; a wonderful Number, if true; but much to be doubted.

6. About this time,Corocota, a fam [...]ous Robber. in the Province between the Ri­vers Duero and Minho, there started up a Lusitanian, cal­led Corocota; who gathering a parcel of Outlaws toge­ther, after committing several Outrages, durst venture to give the Romans Battel in open Field: But being de­feated, they fled to Biscay, where they, in Warlike man­ner, followed the Trade of Robbing. Octavius the Em­peror promised 3000 Crowns, and a Pardon for all Crimes whatsoever, to any that should apprehend him. He fearing there could not be wanting Criminals desirous of Pardon, nor covetous Persons who would attempt any thing for Interest, resolved to gain the Reward and Par­don by a magnanimous, though dangerous Action: He presented himself to the Emperor, demanding both the Reward, and promised Pardon, since he delivered into his Hands Corocota, whom, perhaps, no Man else could have put into his Power. With which that generous Prince was so taken, that he proved much better than his Word; for he not only pardoned him, and gave him the Money,The Birth of o [...]r Sa­viour. but admitted him into his Guards.

7. It was now the Year of the World 3952, according to Bede, and the Hebrews; according to Eusebius, 5199; [Page 72] according to Orosius, 5200; according to Isidorus, 5219; according to the Astronomers, 5328; accor­ding to King Alphonso, 6980; according to John Lu­cidus, 3960, (such is the Variety of Computations;) and according to others, 3962. This last being, in my Opinion, the best Account, and followed in this Hi­story, it must then be 2432 Years after the Flood, when, on the 25th of December, about Midnight, the RE­DEEMER of Mankind was born in the Stable at Be­thlehem; wonderful Signs preceding his Birth. The Angels descended, singing, Glory to GOD on high, and on Earth, Peace unto Men of Good Will: They spread abroad the News of that wonderful Birth; and awaked the Shepherds, to behold the LAMB of GOD. In the mean while, the Three Kings of the East travelled, con­ducted by a miraculous STAR, to pay their Adorati­on to the KING of Kings. Signs of our Savi­our's Birth in Spain.

8. Spain wanted not its particular Signs of the Bles­sing communicated to Mankind that happy Night. That very Night was enlighten'd with a glorious bright-shi­ning Cloud, which not only diffused a Light equal to the Noon-day-Sun, but also an Heat nothing inferiour to it. This Cloud drove away to the West, and set in the O­cean; at such time as the Morning-Beams appearing, no Distinction could be made between Day and Night. And that Portugal might not want some singular Tokens of the Coming of the GOD of Peace, the Idol of the false God Endovelicus, whose Temple was near Villavi­ciosa, fell from the Altar, to the Ground; and though of Massy Silver, it was broke into several Pieces, which, for the Rarity, were sent to Rome, where many other Idols had been destroyed at the same Hour. Besides this, an extraordinary Light appeared (like that which was seen all over Spain) upon the Promontory called Barba­ricus, now Serra da Arabida.

The End of the First BOOK.

Note, That hitherto we have diminished the Years, from the Flood, till the Coming of CHRIST; hence­forward we shall increase them, from his Birth, to the End of the History.

THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.
The Second BOOK.

CHAP. I.
All that hapned remarkable in Lusitania un­der the Roman Emperors, from the Birth of our Saviour Jesus Christ, till the Year of Grace 260.

1. THE whole Universe being restored to Peace by the Birth of the King of Peace,Peace af­ter the Birth of Christ. Augustus Caesar caused the Gates of the Tem­ple of Janus to be shut. This was the third and last time those Gates were closed, and Augu­stus the remaining part of his Life, enjoyed a wonder­ful Felicity. Our Lusitania had its share in this Tran­quility, having entirely submitted it self to the Roman Yoak, and now reaping the Fruits of Peace under its Government. Quadratus, and Titus Flavius Caudianus were Legates or Pretors at this time, as appears by se­veral Ancient Inscriptions found upon Stones. Not [Page 74] far from this time the Lusitanians inhabiting Vouga, or Vacca, made an expedition as far as the Cities Assota, and Lacedemona, in whose Territory they founded a Town, which of the Name of their own Country they called Vacca. and being delighted with the pleasantness of the Place, they added the word Chara, whereby it came to be called Charavacca. The News of the Death of the Emperor Augustus, being brought into Lusitania, his Funeral Honours were performed with no less Grandeur than they had been at Rome. Hispania Ʋlte­rior which includes Portugal, was at this time Govern­ed by the Proconsul Vibius Serenus, whose unlimitted Avarice was the cause he exercised many Cruelties to­wards the People; nor were the Spanish Mines and Ri­vers, yielding Yearly three Millions of Crowns in Gold, sufficient to satisfy his unmeasurable Covetousness.

2. Tiberius having succeeded Augustus in the Empire,Tiberius succeeds Augustus in the Em­pire. appeared no less insatiable than his Lieutenant. The Lusitanians by their Ambassadors, asked leave to Erect a Temple to him and his Mother Drusilla, which he, pretending Modesty, refused: But in Reality was more desirous of their Gold, than of their Adoration. To shew that Learning was then esteemed here, several Lasitanians went into Italy, only to see the famous Hi­storian Titus Livius; with them went Ambassadors from Lisbon, to give an Account of a Prodigy there seen. It was a perfect Man coming out of the Sea, who sitting upon the Rocks, sounded a great Shell as if it had been a Horn, so loud and shrill, that it drew the People thither to see who it was. Admiring the sight of that Creature, they sent that Embassage, which is a token no such Creature had been seen before; tho' Authors affirm that several have appeared since. The Roman Emperors were Lords of our Kingdom of Lusitania for some Ages, but for Brevity sake, I will not mention them all as they succeeded one another, but only speak of those, who left something memorable among us.

3. After Tiberius, Caius Ca­ligula. the Imperial Crown was put upon the Head of Caius Caligula, whose horrid course of Life made the wickedness of his Predecessor be looked upon as innocence. Caligula in the 4th. Year of his Reign was Murthered,St. James the Apostle in Spain. as had been his Predecessor: During his Reign, St. James the Apostle came into Spain, where he Preached the Gospel, and converted many by vir­tue [Page 75] of the mighty Miracles he Wrought. Among the rest, he is said to have raised to life a Citizen of Braga by extraction, a Jew called Samuel the Younger, or Malachias the Elder Son, to the Prophet Ʋrias, who had been Buried near 600 Years; him he called Peter, and constituted the first Bishop of Braga, and the first in all Spain: 44. This Bishop suffered Martyrdom at Rates, four Leagues from Braga, and is therefore called St. Pe­ter of Rates. Another of his Disciples St. James left in the Church of Cinania, once a populous City, now a poor place scarce the shaddow of what it was, be­tween Braga and Guimaraens upon the River Ave. In this same place he was Martyred by the Neighbouring People, in memory whereof, they to this day as it were acknowledging the crime, resort to his Church bare-footed, and with Cords about them. The Martyrs name was Torquatus, now corruptly called Torcade; St. James embarking at Corunna, sailed into England, in whose absence Peter the Archbishop of Braga, having spread the Faith made several Bishops.46. As the Nupti­als of a little King's Son were Celebrating on the shoar of Bouzas, not far from Porto, the Bride-groom being on Horse-back among many others, suddenly there ap­peared a Ship at Sea; When it drew near, the Bride-groom was carried away by his Horse through the Wa­ter, and suddenly appeared upon the Ship covered with Crosses and Shells: Wondring what this should mean, he asked of those in the Ship, who told him, They brought the Body of St. James the Apostle, who had wrought that Miracle to convert him and the Neigh­bouring People; and a voice from Heaven said, it was the Will of God, that all those who went to visit the Apostle's Sepulcher, should be so adorned with Crosses. The Bridegroom returned ashoar, his Horse treading the Water, as if it had been firm Land, whereupon he and all present were Baptized: Thus much may suf­fice as to the Preaching of St. James the Apostle, and the bringing of his Body after his Death into Spain.

4. After Caligula Reigned,56. Claudius, a Prince as foolish as his Predecessor was wicked;The Empe­rors Clau­dius and Nero. no Memory of him remains in Portugal, it had been well if there were none in the World. Of Nero, his Successor, there are still many Monuments in Lusitania, and also of his Mo­ther [...]g [...]ippina, for to her they Erected Statues. In [Page 76] the time of Nero, Silvius Otho Governed Portugal, the Emperor conferred that Honour upon him, the more freely in his absence to enjoy his Wife Popea, whose incontinency gave occasion for him to fall in love with her Beauty. Ten Years did Otho Govern this Province, with so great Equity and Moderation, that he obliged the People afterwards to assist him to­wards obtaining the Empire. A great number of Mar­tyrs suffered under this cruel Emperor, as well in Spain, as in other parts:Galba. Next to Nero, Galba ascended the Imperial Throne, rather for the hatred all Men bore his Predecessor, than for any Merit of his own. Otho then Governor of Lusitania, in Revenge of the wrong done him in the Person of his Wife Popea, assisted him: Nevertheless, once possessed of the Government, he grew as odious as he had been before desirable, and therefore having held it but Eight Months was Mur­thered.Otho. His Death opened the way for Otho, who had won the hearts of all Men, with much Bounty and Clemency, to aim at the Crown. Otho, to gratifie the Affections of the Lusitanians, granted great Privi­ledges to many Towns, but particularly to Merida, then the Metropolis of the Province; only three Months lasted the Sovereignty of Otho, for understand­ing that Vitellius with the German Army, by which he was saluted Emperor, was marching against him, he in despair Slew himself;Vitellius. nor did Vitellius hold it above Eight Months.

5. Vespasian succeeded Vitellius, Vespasian and by his Prudence and Moderation, cheared the hearts of all his People: Lusitania was particularly favoured by him, for he a­dorned it with noble Works; one of them was the great Road he made from Braga to Orense the space of Fif­teen Leagues, which breaking through many rough and uncooth places, runs so smooth, there is not the least Ascent or Descent in it. Near to the Town of Chaves (of him called Aquae Flaviae) he built a Bridge over the River Tamaga, 80. with a large Inscription on it: Vespasi­an died, having Reigned Nine Years and a half, and left the Empire to his two Sons,Titus and Domitian Titus the Good, and Domitian the Wicked. During their sway, Lusitania was divided into three Districts, whose heads were Merida, Beja and Santarem. In the three were Forty Six Towns of Note, five of them were Roman Colo­nies, [Page 77] to wit, Merida, Medellia, Norba Cesarea near Alcan­tara, Braga and Santarem, besides others that had the Liberties of Rome or Latium, under the Name of Mu­nicipia. The Limits of Lusitania were along the Sea Coast from the Mouth of the River Guadiana, to that of Duero, and thence to the River Minho: Towards the inland, it ran from Guadiana to Medina del Campo, in­cluding the City Salamanca with all Estremadura, bor­dered by the River Duero. Nerva. Nerva, the succeeding Empe­ror, much mended the state of Rome and the whole Em­pire, but chiefly by adopting Trajan the Spaniard, so that still a better Emperor followed a good one. Portu­gal retains no Monument of Nerva; only it appears by a Stone found in the Ruins of Atilia, which was between Genoa and Tortona, that several Troops of Lusitanians served under the Imperial Banners.

6. Tho' Trajan began his Reign with great mode­ration,Trajan. yet as is usual in great Empires, many places Rebelled, which were afterwards subdued by his Ge­nerals. He adorned this Kingdom with many Publick and Majestick Structures, not laying the Burden of the Expence upon the People, but defraying it out of his own Revenue; among these Works is still famous the Bridge he Built over Tagus, called the Bridge of Tra­jan, till the Moores gave it the Name of the Bridge of Alcantara. It consists of six Arches, the two middlemost whereof being the largest reach over the River, when there are no Floods: The length of it is 670 Foot, the Breadth 28, and the height above 200; the Stones are all of one Bigness, four Foot in length, and two in Breadth. Between the two middle Arches on both sides, is an Inscription in Marble, to this Effect: ‘To the Em­peror Caesar Augustus Nerva Trajanus, Son to the Di­vine Nerva, Conqueror of Germany and Dacia, high Priest, Father of his Country, who was Eight times Tribune, and Six times Consul:’ On both sides of this Inscription, were the Names of the Towns that contri­buted towards the Fabrick; near to the Bridge is a Church, tho' little in it self, yet considerable in the Workmanship: It is but twenty Foot in length, and ten in breadth, but being cut out of the Rock, consists of only one Stone. It is now Dedicated to St. Julian, for­merly to all the Gods as the Rotunda at R [...]me; in it is a Roman Inscription containing these Words▪ Con [...]ecra­ted [Page 78] to the Emperor Nerva Trajanus, Caesar Augustus, Germanicus, Dacicus. Another Bridge, begun by Ve­spatian, at Chaves, was also finished by Trajan; as ap­pears by the Inscriptions upon it.

7. The Lusitanians, The Lusi­tanians re­volt, and are reduced by Trajan. under the usual Pretence of Op­pression, broke out into open Rebellion, and commit­ted many Insolencies. For the suppressing of whom, Trajan sent 14 Legions, which utterly destroyed many populous Towns and Cities. One of these Cities was Lamego, which now stands not far from its antient Seat, on the South side of the River Duero; and is one of the best Bishopricks in the Kingdom. In the 14 Legions were many Lusitanians, who, in that common Calami­ty, helped much to the preserving their Country from utter Extirpation. Trajan died a natural Death; which was then looked upon as no small Rarity. His Fleets had before sailed down the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates, into the Persian Gulph, and thence into the Indian O­cean; where taking some Vessels that came from Ben­gale, he got much Information concerning those Coun­tries: Age, and other Cares, hinder'd him from ma­king a farther Progress in those Discoveries.

8. Adrian next ascended the Imperial Throne;Adrian. who thinking it impossible to maintain all the Conquests of the Empire, he wholly abandoned them. To secure the rest of that vast Monarchy, he placed Foreign Go­vernors over all the Provinces. Over the Lusitanians, he placed Andaluzians; and over them, Lusitanians: These governed so well, that two of them had Statues erected to their Memory. Quintus Pontius Severus, one of the two, was born at Braga: And Caius Caretius Fu­sius, the other, at Chaves. Other Monuments there are of Adrian, in Portugal, but not material to History. He reigned almost 21 Years.140. Antoninus Pius, his Suc­cessor,Antoni­nus Pius. held the Empire 22 Years, but left no Memo­rial in Portugal. About these Times was laid the first Foundation of the City Basto, (afterwards Basta,) among the Bastetani: As also Basto, between the Rivers Duero and Minho; whereof only the Name is now preserved, in a miserable poor Village. Then also, or soon after, an Heretick, called Mark, laboured to infect the Peo­ple of Valencia, in the same Province, between Duero and Minho; and though driven thence, failed not of some Followers among the Women, but those of the [Page 79] meanest sort;162. for the others abhorred him. Great Troubles happen'd in Spain, Marcus Aurelius. but most in the Province of Lusitania, during the Reign of Marcus Aurelius. A vast Multitude of Mauritanians, The Mau­ritanians ravage Spain. being in Rebellion against the Emperor, came over into Spain; and ha­ving robbed the Sea-port Towns, they boldly pierced into the In-land. Portugal was so involved in this Cala­mity, that it came near to utter Desolation: All that lay along the Coast, from the Cape of St. Vincent, to the Mouth of the River Duero, was consumed with Fire and Sword: Lisbon held out several furious Assaults, by the Strength of its Situation: Porto, after a vigorous Resistance, was forced to Article. After having com­mitted all manner of Outrages, the Africans put to Sea, for fear of the Roman Legions, and Lusitanian Forces, which were upon their March towards them. For above 70 Years, in which 13 Emperors reigned, till Maximin, we are in Darkness as to the Affairs of Portu­gal: For, though there are some old Inscriptions extant, they only serve to prove there were such Emperors; which is not to our purpose, since our Subject is only what relates to Portugal.

9. The Memory of Maximin, 239. the Successor of Ale­xander Severus, Maximin is preserved in the City Braga, in a Street and Gate of his Name. He also made several Ways and Bridges in that Country, as appears by In­scriptions upon Stones. Some other Reigns passed, without any thing remarkable.269. In that of the careless Galienus, Galienus. a Plague came out of the East, bearing down all to the West; and raged so violently in Lusitania, that the Cities were almost left desolate, and the Fields untilled. Galienus, awaken'd at this Scourge, ordered the Persecution against the Christians, which had been continued ever since the Time of Decius, to cease. This Persecution had filled Heaven with Martyrs;Persecution under him. and also terrified others in such a manner, that they renounced the Faith. Among the latter, were, Marcialis, Bishop of Merida; and Basilides, of Astorga. Elianus, or Le­lius, Deacon of Merida, a Man of great Learning and Vertue, assembled a National Council in that City; where the two Idolatrous Bishops were deposed. They, to recover their Honour, feigned Repentance: And St. Stephen, then Pope, believing the Fiction, ordered them to be restored; but his Command was not obey­ed [Page 80] by the Council, who therein took the Advice of St. Cyprian, then Bishop of Carthage. Another Coun­cil was held at Braga, to decide whether the Baptism of Hereticks, done with an Intention, was valid: And it passed in the Affirmative. After the Plague, fol­lowed a no less Evil; which was, an Inundation of Germans, over all the Provinces of the Empire. Most Places now known in Portugal only by their Ruins, were by them overthrown, and not by the Goths: For, the Germans designing to return home, spoiled all they could not carry away; whereas the Goths, coming to settle, spared much, for their own Use. Thus ended the Empire of Galienus.

CHAP. II.
The Heresie of Priscilian. The Coming into Spain of the Vandals, Alans, Suevians and Goths. The Kingdom of the Suevians set­led in Portugal. And all other Passages of Note, from the Year 271, to the Year 448.

1. Claudius II. and Aurelianus were Successors to Ga­lienus, 271. in the Empire.Claudius and Aure­lianus. The latter was he that overcame the most Warlike Zenobia, Queen of Pal­mira. Under these Emperors suffered Martyrdom nine Sisters, the Daughters of Lucius Catelius, or Caius Ati­lius, Governor of Galicia and Lusitania; as some Au­thors have it, born at Braga; but others say, he was a German. These things are very obscure, and uncer­tain; as are all the Affairs of Lusitania, till the Time of Constantine the Great. Only this is certain, That a a great Number of Martyrs suffered under the Heathen Emperors,311. throughout all Spain; and consequently, Portugal had a great Share in them.Constan­tine the Great. The Emperor Constan­tine, after quieting the Troubles of Spain, the better to settle the Spiritual Government, assembled a National Council at Toledo: The Church settled. In it the Metropolitan Churches were settled; which were, Braga and Merida, for Lusi­tania; [Page 81] Toledo, Sevil and Cordova, for the rest of Spain. Another Council was afterwards held at Iliberi, which was near Granada, for settling many Things relating to the Affairs of the Church. There met at it 19 Bishops, 3 whereof went out of Portugal; which were, Vincentius, of Ossonoba, in Algarve; Januarius, of Alca­zar de Sal; and Quincianus, of Evora. Constantine re­gulated the Government of the Empire, reducing it to a better Form than any of his Predecessors had done. He employed Spanish Forces in remote Parts: In Egypt was a Body of Spanish Horse, and another of Lusita­nian Foot: Also Spanish Horse, in Arabia; and others, in other Places. Constantine favoured Lusitania, be­stowing great Privileges on it and eased it of heavy Taxes. These are all the Memorials that remain of him, in this Kingdom: Nor is there any of five of his Successors.

2. In this Age,Priscilian the Here­tick con­demned. the Heresie of Priscilian was con­demned at Rome, in France, and Spain; he having be­fore suffered Death for it. This Heresie was first broached in Egypt, and thence brought into Spain, by one Mark, who soon gained the Affections of some. La­dies, because he allowed (among his other Tenets) that Married People might be divorced, only upon Dislike of one another. A certain Lady, called Ag [...] ­pe, was the great Favourer of this new Doctrine, and in her House it was taught; one Helpidius, a Gramma­rian, being the chief Professor. Priscilianus, born in Galicia, with some Smattering he had of Rhetorick and Philosophy, and a little Skill in Magick, of a Disciple, in a few Days became so absolute a Master of this He­resie▪ that it ever after took Name of him. A Synod, assembled at Zaragoza, condemned all the Professors of this Heresie; yet they prevailed so far against this Decree, that Priscilian was made Bishop of Avila: Upon Complaint made to the Emperor Gracian, he ordered that Priscilian, and the other Heretical Bi­shops, should not only be expelled their Sees, but all Spain. After this, Priscilian, with Bribes, obtained an Order from one of the Emperor's Secretaries, to be himself restored to his Bishoprick; and the same for one of his Companions, the other being dead. The Catholick Bishops flying to the Emperor for Redress, Priscilian was▪ not only deposed, but beheaded for his [Page 80] [...] [Page 81] [...] [Page 82] Contumacy. The other Bishop, called Instancius, re­canted. Some of Priscilian's Disciples brought his Carcase into Spain, where he was reverenced as a Saint; and their most solemn Oaths were made by him. The Emperor Maximin would have put them all to the Sword, but St. Martin opposed it, being ve­ry angry that the Spanish Bishops had prosecuted Prisci­lian to Death: Nevertheless, Maximus defended the Bishops, and was offended at St. Martin for opposing them.391. A second Constantine filled the Imperial Throne, in the Person of Theodosius; so equal was their Justice, Clemency and Religion. About this time there is some Account, that the Lusitanians of Ambracia built Placensia, in the Province of Cantabria. There is still a Town there of this Name, and we find one Protasius Bishop thereof, mentioned in the Fifth Council of To­ledo. But let us come out of this Obscurity, though not into full Light, yet to somewhat more Clearness, and speak of the Coming of the Goths into Spain.

3. The Goths were descended of Magog, Goths, who they were. one of the Sons of Japhet, and Brother to Tubal, who first plant­ed in Scandinavia, that vast Northern Tract of Land which, in the manner of a Peninsula, contains Sweden, Norway and Gothland: Out of the last came the Goths, well known in the World, no less for their many Vi­ctories, than for their beastly Barbarities: After this, broke out the Suevians, The Suevi­ans, Van­dals, A­lans, Bur­gundians and Selin­gi. driven out of Sweden, by the Goths: And lastly, came that Inundation of Vandals, Alans, Burgundians, Selingi, and other Northern Na­tions, out of the Countries about the River Tanais and the Palus Maeotis. Whilst these Nations were yet em­ployed in Germany and France, the Roman Army in Great Britain saluted two of their Generals, Marcus, and Gracianus, Emperors, successively; and then kil­ling them both, promoted Constantius; who fearing the like End as the others had met with, passed over into France; where joining with the greatest Men, he made himself Master of most of that Country. Encouraged with this Success, he sent out several Commanders of Note to possess themselves of Spain, expelling those that govern'd there for the Emperor Honorius. There had been no Difficulty in compassing his Design, but for Didimus and Verinianus; who being then in Lusi­tania, hasted with a good Power, to secure the Passes [Page 83] of the Pyraenean Hills. However, Constans, the Son of Constantius, with certain▪ Veterane Legions, and some Troops of Alans and Suevians, all in Rebellion a­gainst the Empire, forced their Way: The two Bro­thers pursued; and overtaking him, they came to a Battel, in which the Imperialists were overthrown, and Constans obtained a compleat Victory. Thus the Spaniards were forced to submit themselves to Con­stans. The Guard of the Pyraenean Hills was commit­ted to the Su [...]vians and Alans that they might keep out the other Barbarous Nations, dispersed throughout France. Thus flushed with the rich Booty they had got in Spain, they invited the Vandals, Alans, Suevians and Selingi, whom they were to have kept out, into Spain. 416. Those People, though under several Comman­ders, unanimous in the same purpose, passed the Moun­tains: Guadericus was King of the Vandals▪ Hermeneri­cus, of the Suevians; and Resplandianus, of the Alans. They over-ran all the Country, gaining several Victo­rie; so that the Roman Authority was wholly abo­lished, and Spain entirely brought under that barba­rous Tyranny: All the Civility and Policy learnt of the Romans, reduced to a Brutal Disorder; and most of the antient Natives destroyed by Sword, Pestilence and Famine.

4. The Vandals and Silingi planted themselves in the Province of Betica: Alans and Suevians in Lusita­nia. The Alans and Suevians, in Galiciae and Lusitania. In this universal Desolation, the Relicks of the Saints being destroyed, together with the Churches, Panoracius, Archbishop of Braga, ga­thered a Synod of some Bishops, and ordered them to hide the Bodies of the Saints, so that some Memory of the Places might be preserved to better Times. This was the First Council of Braga. First Coun­cil of Bra­ga. In the mean while, the Invaders took Lisbon, Coimbra, Idanha, Me­rida, Astorga, and afterwards the rest. Having divi­ded the Lands,Kings of the Alans and Suevians. and Resplandianus, King of the Alans, dying, Attaces succeeded him in the Kingdom of Lusi­tania, and settled his Court in the City Merida. Her­menericus, King of the Suevians, Rept Lisbon, and all as far as Algarve, with a part of Galicia. Both these Nations, in process of Time, became more tractable, and joined with the Natives. Attaces now grown powerful, became terrible to his Neighbours; some­times [Page 84] breaking into Celtiberia, and sometimes into Car­pentania: Lastly, he fell upon Hermenericus, King of the Suevians, residing at Lisbon: From him besides other Lands, he took the City Colimbria, seated then where now is Conderia the Old. To ennoble this his Conquest, he laid the Foundation of another City, on the Banks of the River Mondego, which is now the University of Coimbra. This Prince, being an Arian Heretick, obliged the Catholicks, and even the Pre­lates before taken, to work at this Building. Whilst he was busie at this Structure, Hermenericus having gathered Forces, and joined with Gundericus, came as far as Porto, Porto re-built. then an Heap of Ruins: But fearing lest Attaces should there encounter him, he fortified him­self, and that so effectually, that People flocking thi­ther, the City was re-built, and called New Portucale, and Fistavole, which, in the Suevian Language, signi­fied, the New Shoar▪ This was the second Foundation of Porto. Hermenericus perceiving that Attaces came not to molest him in his new Work, marched to dis­turb him; but being overthrown, he was glad to sue for Peace. The Conditions were such as pleased the Alans; but particularly, that which contained his marrying Cindasunda, the Daughter of the Suevian King, a Lady of incomparable Beauty and Vertue. Hermenericus carried the Bride to the new City Coim­bra, where the Nuptials were solemnized with the greatest Magnificence that had been seen among the Barbarians.

5. Attaces, to express to his Father-in-Law how firmly he intended to observe the new-settled Friend­ship, caused Cindasunda to be painted on his Colours, standing upon a Pedestal; with a Green Dragon on the one side, and a Red Lion on the other. By those two Creatures, were signified, the two Kings, before Competitors, now united by her: The Work-men, to flatter their King, carved the same upon many Stones; which have been so preserved,Arms of Porto. that it is now the Coat of Arms of that City. Cindasunda, who was a Ca­tholick, privately favoured those that the King forced to labour at his Structures: But particularly, she took Compassion on the Priests and Bishops; and among them, the Bishop Elipanidus, and the Priest Esenus. She, with her Beauty and Intreaties, so mollified the [Page 85] King, that many Catholicks were delivered from that Slavery. They lived some Time together very una­nimously: He employed himself in endeavouring to subdue such Provinces as yet remained subject to the Roman Empire; but the Romans, joining with the Goths, defended themselves; as will appear by the Se­quel.

6. The Emperor Honorius, 417. then at Ravenna, seeing the mighty Decay of the Empire, for Constantius was possessed of a great part of France; while, Ataulfus, the Goth, held Gallia Narbonensis; and the Vandals, Suevians and Alans, Spain. Against all these Enemies, he made choice of Constantius, a Noble Roman; who besieged Constantine in Arles, and drove him, for fear, to enter into Orders: Yet this availed him not, for he was put to Death. Constantius designed next to turn his victorious Arms against Constans, but under­stood that he was killed by Geronicus, who rebelling, had proclaimed Emperor a Friend of his own, cal­led Maximus. This Geronicus passed over into France: And hearing that Constantius, having slain Constantine, was coming upon him, he returned into Spain, and, in Scorn, was murder'd by the Roman Legions. Ma­ximus fearing the like Death, fled, and ended his Days in Misery. In the mean time, Honorius having, by his General Constantius, reduced France and Great Britain, he employed him against Ataulfus, King of the Goths, The Goths enter Spain in Gallia Narbonensis. The Goth hard pres­sed, by the Way of Roussillon, broke into Spain, com­mitting greater Outrages than the Alans, Vandals, Sue­vians or Silingi had done.418. After many Events which appertain not to our History, the Goths came to Com­position with Honorius. But it was not so with the Alans, who possessed the greatest part of Portugal, and continued their Conquests; treating the Vandals and Suevians, not as their Fellows in Arms, but as their Vassals. This put all Spain into a Flame, every one standing up for his Liberty, as Attaces lifted up him­self, to Lord it over all. That each Nation might be the more at leisure to follow their desperate De­signs, they all writ to the Emperor, to this Effect: Preserve the Peace, Sir, with us all; Take Hostages from us all: Let us fight; for if we kill one another, the Loss is our own, and yours the Fruit of the Victory, whoever [Page 86] has the better: Your greatest Advantage, is, to see us all consumed. The War was accordingly begun, the A­lans commencing it against the Vandals and Silingi. Constantius came to th [...] War, bringing with him Wa­lia King of the Goths, whose Residence was in Gatalo­nia: And Attaces, not able to withstand that Power, fled into Portugal.

7. The Victors pursued, and Attaces giving them Battel, was overthrown, though joined by the Native Lusitanians: Those that escaped out of the Battel, fled; some into Galicia, to Gundericus; others to Lis­bon, to the Suevians; seeking the Protection of those they had before prosecuted as Enemies. Thus they rested a while, without any King: But Constanti­us being called away, to appease other Troubles in Italy, the Alans and Lusitanians, before dispersed, be­gan to take heart, and recover what they had lost; founding also many new Towns. Among these, were, Albuquerque and Terabrica; which last was ra­ther repaired, being called Alankerken, which signifies, The Church of the Alans; and now, corruptly, Alan­quer. Whilst the Alans, thus without any King, on­ly following their Generals, paid Tribute to the Em­peror;The Sue­vians in­corporate with the antient Lu­sitanians. Hermenericus, the Suevian King, at Lisbon, ap­plied himself to the repairing of the Towns that had been destroyed; treating the Native Lusitanians no otherwise than his own Country-men. The Lusita­nians having the free Liberty of their Religion, and being equally admitted to all Honours with the Sue­vians, the two Nations joined Marriage; and by that Means became so entirely one, that there was no know­ing the Suevian from the Lusitanian, or the contrary. Being thus joined into one Body, they could after­wards never be parted; but notwithstanding the Inva­sion of the Goths, the Inhabitants of Portugal were af­terwards called Suevians. Thus the Portugueses are de­scended from the Suevians, no less Noble than the Goths, if either of those Barbarous Nations deserve to be esteemed Honourable: And thus the Province of Lusitania lost that Name, and was long after called Suevia.

8. The Alans enjoyed Tranquility,419. without any King; as did the Suevians, or Portugueses, under their Sovereign Hermenericus; till Gundericus, King of the [Page 87] Vandals, thinking it easie to subdue the Alans in Lusita­nia, and the Silingi in Andaluzia, if Hermenericus were once oppressed, he broke the Peace with the Suevians; and rushing suddenly, with Fire and Sword, into their Territories; Hermenericus, though surprized at this unexpected Invasion, gathering his Forces together, received the Enemy so successfully, that he sent him to seek new Seats in the Islands of Majorca and Mi­norca; where we will leave him, to be spoken of by those Historians to whom it belongs.420. Gensericus, the Brother of Gundericus, The Suevi­ans, Alans and Silin­gi join in League a­gainst the Romans. succeeded him: Who under­standing that Etius, Honorius's General, was coming into Spain, to revenge the Wrongs done by his Bro­ther, he joined in League with Hermenericus King of the Suevians, and with the Alans and Silingi; believing none would dare to oppose their United Power. At Merida they Mustered their Forces, Etius dreading their Multitude; but much more surprized at the death of the Emperor,423. attempted nothing upon them. Thus Gensericus was left at leasure to pass over into Africk, where he utterly abolished the Name of the Roman Em­pire, and Hermenericus, 427. whilst the Vandals were employ­ed in Africk, enlarged the Borders of his Kingdom to almost the same extent it now bears.

9. Valentinian the Emperor,Wars be­twixt the Romans and Sue­vians. who succeeded Honorius, understanding the Vandals were gone over into Africk, Commanded his General Sebastian to invade the Alans left in Lusitania. Merida and all that Territory was easily taken from them, as was Lisbon and Estremadura from the Suevians. Sebastian now Victorious, forget­ting his Duty, caused himself to be Proclaimed King of what part he had recovered of Lusitania; yet his Friends failing him, he was soon killed, and by his Death the Alans and Suevians had an opportunity of re­covering Merida and Lisbon. Hermenericus grown Old and Infirm, caused his Son Richila to be Proclaimed King, who proved one of the most fortunate Princes of the Suevians; whilst Hermenericus rejoyced in the hopes of surviving in the Person of his Son, Andebalus the Im­perial General was on his march to recover what Seba­stian had lost. Richila to begin his Reign honourably, gathered a mighty Power, and meeting Andebalus on the Banks of the River Xenil, then called Silingus, slew him and the greatest part of his Army.

[Page 88] 10. All Andaluzia easily submitted to the Victorious King,Richila makes him­self Master of Lusita­nia and Andalu­zia. as did also Merida, where there had been an Im­perial Garrison ever since Sebastian took it. All Lusita­nia in like manner was brought under, and Richila be­came absolute in Andaluzia and Lusitania. Old Herme­nericus died contentedly, leaving such an Heir, in the Town of Britonium near Viana de Caminha on the mouth of the River Minho. 440. Another Author who calls him Monarch of Spain, says, he was drowned in the River Guadiana near unto Merida. Richila being sensi­ble how much more easie it is to gain, than to preserve▪ too large a Dominion, voluntarily resigned up Carta­gena and Carpentania to the Romans, and entring into League with them, by that means established a large and peaceable Kingdom.448. He died Eight Years after his Father, and left his Son Ricciarius to succeed him, being equal to him in valour, but more fortunate in the true knowledge of the Evangelical Law, which he pro­fessed living, and adhered to at his death.

CHAP. III.
The Kingdom of the Suevians subdued by the Goths, two Kings set up by their consent, all again reduced under one with the other re­markable occurrences between the Years of Grace 448 and 560.

1. RIcciarius succeeded his Father Richila, 448. not only in the Kingdom of Portugal, Ricciari­us his Reign. but the greatest part of Spain. The beginning of his Reign was di­sturbed with some Conspiracies of the Great Men, but he privately took off many of them, and by that means secured his Life and Kingdom. He Married a Daugh­ter of Theodoredus, King of the Goths; her Name is not known: Ricciarius after his Marriage, raising a great Army, made War upon those parts of Navarre, which were yet subject to the Roman Jurisdiction, and through them he forced his way into France, to see his Father-in-law Theodoredus. The old Man perceiving his aspi­ring [Page 89] Spirit, gave him considerable supplies for the car­rying on of his Designs. In his return, he conquered the Province of Tarragona and Carpentania, which his Father had abandoned to the Romans. In Aragon, he took Zaragoza, and Lerida in Catalonia; after plunder­ing the Province of Cartagena, he returned loaded with Booty and Honour into Lusitania. Ricciarius being now at rest,451. his Father-in-law Theodoredus died, and Theodoricus his Son succeeded him: Him Ricciarius thought to have been no less forward toward his As­sistance, than the Father had been, and upon this con­ceit, he resolved to conquer the other Lands of the Em­pire. The Goth who was in League with the Romans, and feared the Ambition of his Brother-in-law might involve him in his own Ruin, advised him to mode­rate his extravagant desires. Ricciarius offended at this wholesome advice, marched against his Brother-in-law with a powerful Army; Theodoricus was not back­ward to meet him, being strengthned with Succours from the Kings of France and Burgundy. He is over­thrown by Theodo­ricus King of the Goths. The two Ar­mies furiously ingaged in the Plains about Astorga, both Kings were present in all places, where the great­est Danger was, Encouraging their Soldiers, and the Men fought as those who had their Kings to be Spe­ctators of their Valour. At last Ricciarius was utter­ly overthrown with the Slaughter of all the flower of the Suevians.

2. Ricciarius after this rout fled to the Sea-side,Ricciari­us his end. and Embarking, thought to have got over into Africk, to call the Vandals and Alans to his assistance, but by a vi­olent Storm was drove to the River of Porto. Those People to gain the Favour of the Conqueror, who was now subduing the Province between the Rivers Duero and Minho, secured and delivered him up to Theo­doricus. He Governed by Passion, cut off his Head, and in him perished the Glory of the Suevian Kingdom, so that it never after rose to any Grandeur: His Death was the more lamented, for that he was a Prince zea­lous of the true Religion. Accordingly in his life-time, he assembled a National Synod at Aquae Celenae, a Town in Galicia, now called St. George of Codes [...]da; here several Heresies were Condemned, and particular­ly that of Priscilian. The Victorious Theodoricus laid Siege to Braga, which was soon Surrendred to him: [Page 90] Here he left one Aliulfus Governour, whilst he crossing the River Duero, went on to conquer all that had been subject to the Suevian King; all yielded to him with­out any opposition, except the City Merida, the Gar­rison and Inhabitants of which place were so hardy, as to meet the Goths in the Feild, which Theodoricus so highly resented, that he promised to rase the City, but the Virgin St. Eulalia is said to have appeared to him in a Dream, and deterred him from putting his design in Execution.

3. Theodoricus was upon his return to France, Theodo­ricus ha­ving con­quered Spain, puts it under Go­vernours. when he had intelligence, that Aliulfus whom he had made Go­vernour of Braga, had assumed the Title of King, and raised a considerable Army to maintain it. But giving Battle to Nepocianus Theodoricus his General lost his life: From that time the Suevians remained subject to the Goths. All things being thus quieted, Theodoricus went away to France, leaving Governours over all his Con­quests. The People considering the oppression they lay under, by the ill Administration of these Govern­ours, and wanting the power to Revolt, had recourse to the Bishops and Clergy, praying them to intercede with Theodoricus, that he would appoint a King over them, whom they might obey, and who yet might be subordinate to him. The Bishops undertook the Bu­siness, and Idacius Prelate of Lamego, having proposed the matter of the Embassy to Theodoricus in France, he tho' an Arrian, respecting the Character of the Em­bassadors, not only granted their request, but allowed the People to choose a King among themselves, to Go­vern them according to their Ancient Laws, only pay­ing some small acknowledgment to the Kings of the Goths. Two Kings set up in Lusitania. As soon as the Bishops returned to Braga, joyn­ing with the Laity, they chose for their King one Masdra the Son of Masila. This, which was inten­ded for the peace of the Country, proved its greatest Confusion, for some of the Nobility who were not pre­sent at the Election, set up for their King one Franta, who presently possessed himself of all the Lands along the Coast of Galicia, with the Cities of Astorga, Orense and Iria Flavia. Masdra held all Lusitania, and was accounted King of the Suevians; he thought by his sub­mission and paying the Tribute, to gain the favour of Theodoricus, and obtain Aid against his Competitor: [Page 91] But, the Goth politickly thinking it better the King­dom should be divided, as being thereby the less ca­pable of Rebelling against him, accepted of the sub­mission of them both; for Franta had sent to pay his o­bedience with no less speed than the other.

4. The Kingdom of the Suevians thus divided,457. fell into those Calamities which commonly attend States that depend between Competitors. Two Years the Wars continued very furious, during which time so many Towns about the Frontiers were subverted, as might well have contented either party; but at last both of them grown weary,460. gave over the strife. Masdra who had the better Title died, and left a Son called Remismundus his Successor; he considering how little had been gained on either side by the War, not only made Peace, but entred into League with his Compe­titor. Thus with their united Forces, they conquered several parts of Lusitania, which owned neither of them, but either followed their own Captains, or had again put themselves under the Roman Empire. Thus done, they both returned home satisfied, having enlarged their Dominions, which they would have wasted by waging War upon one another.A prodigi­ous Birth. Two Years Franta enjoyed Peace, at the end whereof he died, leaving the Crown to his Brother Frumarius: At this time hapned a Prodi­gy in the Territory of Braga, which was the Birth of two Children, each of them having two heads like one another, and of two several Sexes. Remismundus and Frumarius falling at variance about Precedency, took up Arms by force, whereof the latter [...]gained of the o­ther the City Flavia, now Chaves, in which and all its Territory, he spared not even the Stones, all the Coun­try was consumed with Fire and Sword. Remismundus was satisfied with doing as much harm in his Enemies Country, as he received in his own; he took by open force the Cities of Orense and Lugo, in which he exer­cised the utmost Efforts of his Fury.

5. This Desolation continued for the space of two Years,464. when Death put a stop to it by taking away Frumarius, The Suevi­an King­dom again united un­der Remi­smundus. and his subjects having left him, for whom before they had forfeited their quiet, submitted them­selves to Remismundus, who thus became absolute and sole King of the Suevians. He presently thought of re­covering all that remained of Lusitania, and passing o­ver [Page 92] the River Duero with his Army, marched to the Ancient Coimbra, now Condeixa, which the Romans had Rebuilt and Fortified. It was then a place impregna­ble, and accordingly put a stop for a while to Remis­mundus; but he persisting before it, had it at last surren­dred upon Honourable Conditions; though, contrary to his Faith given, he broke the Conditions, robbing the Garrison, and rasing the City. Lisbon made such a vigorous Defence, that he began to despair of carrying it; but a Citizen called Lusidius privately, gave him Entrance into it, so that he was within before the Towns­men could put themselves in order to oppose him. Re­mismundus thus possessed of all those Dominions before divided, fearing least Theodoricus the Goth might grow jealous of his great power, sent him an account of his Victories with the best of the spoiles,He Mar­ries the Daughter of Theo­doricus. assuring him of the continuance of his Fidelity to the Gothish Kings. Theodoricus overcome with this Generosity, sent him his Daughter for Wife, with a great Mass of Treasure, un­der the charge of his Ambassador Salanus.

6. This was an unhappy Match for Lusitania, The Arian Heresie first spread in Lusitania. for the Suevians being before true Sons of the Catholick Church, were now infected with the Arian Heresie, taught them by one Ajax a Galatian, whom the Queen being her self an Arian brought with her. The love of the Queen, and the perswasions of Ajax, wrought up­on the King so effectually, that he not only gave his Subjects the Example of embracing that Heresie, but persecuted those that continued firm in the Faith. All the care of the Prelates for repressing of this current was fruitless, for it spread it self during the space of 100 Years, in which time the Catholicks suffered Oppressi­on, Banishment, and cruel Deaths. There is no fur­ther memory of the Actions of Remismundus, after his Marriage till his Death; nor much of his Successors, Theodulus, Varamundus, Mirus, Faramirus and others, till Theodomirus, during the 100 Years that the Arian Heresie continued.490. In the Year 490, some Fishes were taken in the River Minho, which on their Scales had certain Characters, expressing that same number of Years.497. Not long after came into Spain, Euricus King of the Goths, with a design to subdue all the Country, and began with Lusitania, where having made great ha­vock, he returned Victorious into France and died at Ar­les. [Page 93] Amalaricus, 530. Grandson to Theodoricus, succeeded Euricus, he being Married to Crosilda [...]he Daughter of Clouis, and Sister to [...]hildebert, Clotarius, and Clodomi­rus Kings of France, treated her ill, because she was a Catholick, he being an Arian. She complained her Brothers by the means of Ausbertus Archbishop of Braga; 531. Childebert hereupon came into Lusitania, and having overthrown and slain his Brother-in-law, return­ed into France laden with Booty, and carrying away his Sister, who died by the Way:

7. In the Year 549,549. Agila was Proclaimed King of the Goths, he being overthrown at Cordova, retired into Lusitania. There he raised new Forces to withstand A­thanagildus, a valiant ambitious Captain, who being possessed of Sevil, stiled himself King of Spain: He was supported by Roman Forces, under the Command of Patricius Liberius, a General in esteem with the Em­peror Justinian. 554. Near to Sevil they came to a Battle, wherein Agila was otherthrown, and afterwards Mur­thered by his own Subjects at Merida. 555. Athanagildus thus became Sovereign of all that part of the Kingdom of the Goths, which lies between the Mouth of Tagus and Cape St. Vincent. The greatest part of this Domi­nion was again recovered by the Romans, notwithstand­ing that Athanagildus did all he could to oppose them, till he died at Toledo in the Year 567.567. In these times were famous for Piety and Learning,Men fa­mous for Learning. the Bishops St. Julian of Evora, Lucenius of Coimbra, Aprigius of Beja, Idacius of Lamego and Ausbertus of Braga, a Fleming by Birth: Also the famous Orosius born at Tarragona in Ca­talonia, flourished at Braga. The Prelates of Spain find­ing it not only convenient, but necessary to consult with St. Augustin then Bishop of Hippo in Africk, for the better settling and adjusting of matters of Religion, then much perplexed with Doubts, and Controversies; Bale­onius at that time, Bishop of Braga, made choice of O­rosius to be sent to him with this Message. The chief point given him in charge, was about the means of ex­tirpating the Heresies then spread about Spain; St. Au­gustin having therein given his own Opinion, ordered Oresius to pass over into the Holy Land, there to take the advice also of the other Pillar of the Church St. Hierome, who resided there at that time. There Orosius found the Priest Avitus a Lusitanian, who for the love he [Page 94] bore his Country, sent by Orosius at his return some re­licks of the Protomartyr St. Stephen, whose body had been about that time miraculous [...] [...]ound out. This may be supposed to be the same that was held in Venera­tion at Ossel, which Town some will have to be in the Territory of Beja and others of Bajadoz.

CHAP. IV.
The Reigns of the Tributary Suevian Kings, from the Year 560, till 585, when Lusita­nia was again subdued by Leovigildus, the Goth. And the Government of the Gothish Kings, till the Year 672.

1. WE are now come to the End of the 100 Years, which Historians pass over, without any con­siderable Mention of our Portuguese, or Suevian Kings. In Theodemirus, 560. the Memory of our Princes is happily renewed,Conversion of the Lu­sitanians from Aria­nism. since through his Means most of the Subjects returned to the true Faith. At the Beginning of his Reign he was an Arrian, but miraculously converted. He removed his Court to the City Braga, where his Son being desperately sick, and no Medicines availing, he asked, one Day, which had been the Religion of St. Gregory of Tours; this Saint being then famous for Miracles: It was told him, he had been a Catholick. Immediately four Gentlemen were sent, with as much Gold and Silver as the sick Person weighed, besides other Gifts, to offer at the Shrine; with a Promise, That if the Prince recovered, he should embrace the Catholick Religion. The Sickness hereupon decreased, yet the Prince recovered not perfect Health: Where­upon, the King begged some Relick of the Saint; pro­mising to renounce his Heresie. The Relick was refu­sed the Ambassadors; and they, at Night, spreading a thin Veil over the Sepulchre, said, They would reverence it as a Reliok, if in the Morning its Weight were consider­ably increased. Accordingly, the next Morning they [Page 95] found it as heavy as if it had been made of some weigh­ty Metal. This Veil the Ambassadors brought with them; and the same Day they landed, the Prince per­fectly recovered. The King performed his Promise, embracing the Faith; and by his Example, and the Preaching of another St. Martin, who then came out of France, according to some Authors; or, as others will have it, out of Greece, most of the People were converted. Theodemirus had before erected a Church, in Honour of St. Martin of Tours: Of this Church he made the other Martin Abbot first, and then Bishop; whence he was preferred to the Archiepiscopal See of Braga.

2. Two Years were spent in the Embassages, and other pious Works of the King,Several Sy­nods. for his Son's Health; and all things being now in Peace, he ordered Lucrecius, Archbishop of Braga, to assemble a Synod, for the bet­ter regulating the Affairs of the Church.563. Eight Bishops being met, they again condemned the Heresie of Priscilianus; and took Order for the propagating of the Faith.569. Another Synod met after that, at Lugo, to ap­point the Limits of every Diocess; which were after­wards confirmed, in the general Distribution made throughout Spain, 570. by King Wamba. Theodemirus dy­ing, the Crown came to his Son Ariamirus; who, with the Approbation of St. Martin, now Archbishop of Braga, ordered another Synod to meet in that City; which was accordingly done two Years after:572. Twelve Prelates assembled there; and one of the principal Mat­ters handled, was, the fixing the due Time of Observ­ing of Easter. After settling the Affairs of the Faith, the King raised Forces;577. and invading the People cal­led Rucones, now Rieja, subdued them. Luiva was now King of the Goths, and took for his Companion, and Successor, his Brother Leovigildus: Which done, he re­turned into France, leaving Leovigildus in Spain, to se­cure his former Conquests, and add others to them. He victoriously traversed the greatest part of Spain, and at last enter'd Galicia, Ariamirus in vain striving to put a Stop to his Progress; who now perceiving how inef­fectual Force proved, thought better to try if Fair Means would prevail: Therefore he sent Ambassadors to Leovigildus, to put him in mind of the Peace and Al­liance established betwixt their Predecessors, and to de­sire [Page 96] the Renewing thereof. Leovigildus, content with this Submission, curbed his aspiring Thoughts, conclu­ded a Peace, and retired.

3. Leovigildus had now two Sons, Hermenegildus and Recaredus. The first was married to Ingunda, Daughter of Sigebert King of France, and his Wife Brunechilde. Upon this Marriage, he lived apart from his Father, and had the Stile of a King given him at Merida. There, by the Means of his Wife, who was a Catho­lick, and of his Uncle St. Leander, Archbishop of Sevil [...] he embraced the Catholick Faith; and, in Baptism, was, called John. Leovigil­dus the Goth Wars upon his Son Her­menegil­dus, on Ac­count of Re­ligion. His Father being an obstinate Arian, was so offended at his Conversion, that he deprived him of the Regal Dignity. The Prince fled into Portugal, and was there protected by King Ariamirus, who was a Ca­tholick. Hermenegildus raised Forces; but his Father coming speedily upon him, he fled, with 3000 Men, to Ossela, a Place thought impregnable: But Leovigil­dus, for all that, enter'd it by Force, put all to the Sword, burnt the Town, and carried away his Son Prisoner to Toledo. From thence he made his Escape to Sevil, where he fortified himself. King Leovigildus laid Siege to that City, being assisted by King Ariamirus of Portugal; and having forced his Way into it, carried away Hermenegildus to Tarragona, where he was put to Death, in the Year 586. Which Passage is here rela­ted, to avoid interrupting the Narration.

4. Our King Ariamirus died at that Siege,583. and his Son Eburicus, then very young, succeeded him in the Crown of Portugal, under the Protection of Leovigildus the Goth. Endeca u­surps the Crown of Portugal. Endeca, a Noble-man in great Power at the Portuguese Court, taking Advantage of the King's ten­der Years, married Sisegunda the Queen-Dowager; and with the Help of his Friends, possessed himself of the Government, upon pretence of managing it for the young King. But having, in Process of Time, secured his Interest, he usurped the Regal Title, and put Ebu­rious into Prison at first, and soon after obliged him to take the Habit of a Monk, that so he might forfeit his Pretensions to the Crown. The Tyrant Endeca fearing Leovigildus the Goth, who was Protector to the deposed King, joined in League with Gunteranus the French King. But the Goth, whose Courage was not to be shocked, sent his Son Recaredus against the French, and [Page 97] himself invaded the usurping Suevian. He is depo­sed, and shorn a Monk, by Leovigil­dus the Goth, He soon took him Prisoner, and obliged him to take the same Habit he had before forced upon the Rightful King, and to enter into Holy Orders, banishing him to the City Be­ja, then possessed by the Goths. Yet Leovigildus, though he was thought to have conquered that Kingdom for Eluricus, kept it for himself; adding it to his other Do­minions. Thus ended the Kingdom of the Suevians, after it had, with various Turns of Fortune, lasted about 180 Years:585. It expired in the Year 585. The People, dissatisfied with Leovigildus, rose up in Arms, and proclaimed a Noble-man, called Malaricus, King; but he being soon overthrown, and taken Prisoner by the Forces of the Goth, the Kingdom of the Lusitanians, or Suevians, was entirely brought under the Dominion of the Goths. He perse­cutes the Catholicks, but dies one himself. The Lusitanians at this time continued firm in the Faith, and Leovigildus ceased not to perse­cute the Professors thereof; deposing the Catholick Pre­lates, and filling their Places with Arians, who pervert­ed many of the People. Leovigildus having raigned 18 Years, died at Toledo, a Catholick, though he had lived an Arian. His first Wife was Theodora, Daughter of Severianus, Governor of Cartagena, and his Wife Theo­dora, Daughter to Theodoricus, King of the Ostrogoths, in Italy; and Sister to Isidorus and Leander, Archbishops of Sevil; and of Fulgentius, of Cartagena. By her he had Hermenegildus, whom he put to death; and Flavius Recaredus, who succeeded him.

5. Recaredus, 586. born at Sevil, in the Year 566, now, in the 20th of his Age,Recare­dus suc­ceeds. inherited his Father's Throne. He proved an excellent Prince; and having embra­ced the Catholick Faith, restored all those that his Fa­ther had expelled.He becomes a Catho­lick. His pious Intention of Assembling a National Synod, was, for some time, obstructed by the Treasonable Conspiracies of the Hereticks. The first Council was held at Merida, under the Direction of Claudius, who governed the small Remainder of the Roman Empire along the Sea-Coast of Lusitania. Suna the Arian Archbishop, being now compelled to resign that See to Mansona the Catholick, before expelled by Leovigildus, conspired with other Hereticks, to mur­der him and Claudius. Witericus, who was afterwards King, now one of the Conspirators, laying his Hand upon his Sword, to execute his Purpose, he could not [Page 98] draw it; whereat being moved he discovered the Trea­chery, and was therefore pardon'd. Suna, the Hereti­cal Archbishop, was banished, as were the other Ac­complices, and their Estates confiscated. Amidst this Confusion, Gunteranus King of France made War upon Recaredus; sending against him an Army, under the Command of his General Bossus. Claudius, a Man for­tunate in War, marched to oppose him, and overthrew him near Carcassonne, with a great Slaughter. Some will have it, that Claudius, with only 300 Men, de­feated Bossus, who had 60000: But let every one judge thereof as he pleases.

6. Recaredus having thus subdued his Enemies, both at home and abroad, was at leisure to assemble the Council he had before designed at Toledo. 589. Seventy two Prelates met together there,A Syno [...] at Toledo. St. Leander, Archbishop of Sevil, presiding. The King himself made an Oration at the Opening of the Council. Now the Arian Here­sie was totally extinguished, the Catholick Faith trium­phed, and Recaredus, for his singular Piety, had the Title of Catholick, or Most Christian King conferred up­on him.601. After triumphing over his, which were the Enemies of Christ,Recare­dus dies. our Religious King Recaredus died at Toledo. He was born at Sevil, in the Year 565; reigned 16, and lived 37. His Coin has been seen in our Age, at several Places: Some at Lisbon, with this Inscription on the one side, RECAREDUS REX; and on the Reverse, OLISIBONA PIUS. Others at Evora, with RECAREDUS REX; and on the Back, ELBORA JUSTUS. Recaredus had two Wives; The first, before he came to the Crown, was Balda, Daughter to the famous King Arthur, or to Fonto, a Gothish Lord. The Second was Clodosinda, Sister to Ingunda, the Wife of his Brother, Prince Hermenegildus. Her chiefest Portion was, the Peace established between Spain and France, then at War. By his first Wife (though some will have him to be Illegitimate) he had Liuva, who succeeded him in the Throne; and was of such excellent Beauty of Person, and such amiable Behaviour, that all his Sub­jects rather adored than obeyed him; except Witericus, whom the late King had pardoned for discovering the Conspiracy at Merida. This Man, before enured to Treachery, now compassed his wicked Designs, appre­hending [Page 99] his natural Lord, cutting off his Right Hand, and depriving him of his Crown and Life, in the Se­cond Year of his Reign.

7. Witericus thus Tyrannically possessed of the Go­vernment and Regal Throne of all Spain, 603. held it seven Years;Weteri­cus usurps. which ended in an ignominious Death, yet such as he deserved: He died, miserably dragged about the Streets of Toledo, 610. by the People. Flavius Gundema­rus, of the Blood of Recaredus, Flavius Gunde­marus reigns. in that Right ascended the Throne, and proved no way inferiour to him for Valour, Moderation and Piety. He desiring to ho­nour the Church of Toledo, 611. made it the Metropolitan of all the Province of Cartagena: To which purpose, a Synod was held at Toledo, in which it was ordained, that Criminals should have the Benefit of Sanctuary. In this City Death cut him off so early, that it is doubt­ed whether he reigned full two Years.612. Our Lusitania, then subject to the Gothish Kings,Lusitania governed by Lieute­nants. was governed by their Lieutenants, whereof there was one in every Pro­vince, and some Comites, or Counts; for then this Ti­tle began to be honoured for being rare, as now it is little regarded for being so common. It is to be ob­served, that at this time the Name of Comites was not Titular, as now; but denoted a Power and Jurisdiction over Lands of the Crown. In Spain there is no Title given by the Kings, that is of 400 Years standing. Gundemarus, Sisebutus chosen King though married to Hilduara, leaving no Heirs, Sisebutus was chosen his Successor, by the Pre­lates and Nobility.616. He immediately, upon his Acces­sion to the Crown, commanded all the Jews to embrace the Christian Religion: Almost 100000 were bapti­zed; and as many chose rather to be banished Spain. Sisebutus, though absent from Portugal, adorned it with many Structures: Two Towers, with his Name on them, remain still at Evora, of the Walls then by him built. Some of his Coin is also extant, on the Reverse whereof is a Cross, and about it. CIVITAS EBO­RA DEUS ADJUTOR MEUS. He ordered Ships to be built upon the Coast of Lusitania; and ha­ving obtained some Victories, which appertain not to our History,621. died when he had reigned 8 Years and an half, much lamented, as extraordinarily beloved of his Subjects.

[Page 100] 8. Sisebutus left a young Son, called Recaredus; who dying soon after his Accession to the Crown,622. left it to Flavius Suintila, Flavius Suintila's Reign. Son to the Holy King Recaredus; so worthy a Man, that Silebutus always committed to him the Command of his Armies. No sooner had he grasp­ed the Sceptre,He utterly expels the Romans. but he changed it for the Sword, and soon drove out of Portugal the small Remains of the Ro­man Empire, which still, in much Variety of Fortune, had retained some small Hold there. During the first five Years of his Reign, he behaved himself with that Justice and Piety, that, among other honourable Ti­tles, he obtained that of Father of the Poor. Some of his Coin, in Gold, I have seen; whereof, one Piece had this Inscription, SUINTILA REX EBORA VICTOR: Another, SUINTILA REX EME­RITA PIUS. This King stained the Honour of the first five Years of his Reign, by the Lewdness of the en­suing five; which so incensed his Subjects, that he was forced to fly, and end his Days in Misery, in Lusitania, as some will have it; or in Toledo, according to others: Yet other Authors say, he and his Son Richimirus were killed by Sisenandus, their Successor. Some Writers af­firm, that Sisenandus was Brother to Suintila. Certain it is,631. he obtained the Crown by Election, with the As­sistance of Dagobert King of France, Sisenan­dus suc­ceeds in the Throne. whose Favour he had purchased with a great Summ of Money. At the Beginning of his Reign he made himself loved, and feared. He assembled a National Synod at Toledo, at which 72 Prelates met: Here, in regard of what Sise­butus had done with the Jews, it was ordained, That none should be forcibly constrained to embrace the Ca­tholick Faith.635. Sisenandus died at Toledo, having reigned four Years.

9. It is doubtful whether Sisenandus was Father or Brother to Chintila, King Chin­tila holds two Synods. his Heir. Two Synods were held in his Days. He reigned three Years and an half, and died at Toledo, much lamented of all Men. His Son Tulga succeeded him;638. who holding the Crown but two Years,His Son Tulga succeeds. could not do so much as was expected from his Justice, Prudence and Valour. He departed this Life at Toledo, leaving no Issue. Chindasuindus, by Force of Arms,640. possessed himself of the Kingdom. At Toledo he gathered a Synod of 40 Prelates.Chinda­suindus possesses himself of the Kingdom by Force. Rensiberga, Daughter to [Page 101] Evancius, the Brother of St. Eugenius Archbishop of Toledo, was Wife to this King: By her he had three Sons, viz. Recesuindus, 650. Theodofredus and Favila. Having reigned 10 Years, he died at Toledo, and was buried in the Monastery of St. Romanus, founded by himself, between Toro and Tordesilas. 655. Two Synods were assembled at Toledo during the Reign of Recesuindus, Two Synods held by Re­cesuindus the eldest Son of the late King: In the First were 52 Bishops, from all Parts of Spain. In the Second Council were first heard Debates and Disputes concerning the Primacy of all Spain: Braga pretended a Right to that Honour: It was decreed, that the Archbishop of Braga should be Metropolitan of all Galicia only. Another Council was assembled at Merida, to the same effect; but the Church of Braga still went down. About this same time the Gascoigns invaded Spain, but were overthrown, and ex­pelled, though no Particulars of the Action are to be found in History, nor of any thing that happen'd in the Space of almost 20 Years, which end with the Life of Recesuindus. 672. He was buried in the Church of St. Leo­cadia, at Toledo. Some of his Coin is still to be seen. His only Son Theodofredus was left so young, that he was thought incapable of inheriting so great a Monar­chy, as will appear in the Sequel. It is here very re­markable, that Pontamius, Archbishop of Braga, not content that he had done 9 Months private Penance, accused himself openly, in the Synod, of committing Incontinency; wherefore he was deposed from his Dig­nity, with extraordinary Horrour of all the Prelates who heard the Accusation, though from the Mouth of one so penitent. So rare was it then to see a Prelate guilty of any Crime; So rare now to see them endued with any Vertue.

CHAP. V.
The Succession of the other Gothish Kings in the Monarchy of Spain, till Roderick the last of them, from the Year of Grace 672 till 711.

1. NOw was the Monarchy of Spain in a dange­rous Condition, Theodofredus the Son of Rece­suindus (if there were any such, for it is dubious) be­ing left so Young, that he was wholly incapable of managing the Government; the Nobility consul­ting what was to be done, asked advice of the Pope, who by Divine Revelation, answered: It was the Will of God that Wamba should be preferred to the Crown. Wamba his strange advanc [...] ­ment to the Crown. He being a Man not known, many went out in search of him, and at last found him near Idanha, then a famous City in Portugal: he was then busie at Plow with a pair of Oxen. They told him what they came about, and he taking it for Jest, or believing it impossible, answer­ed: That when the Goad he held in his hand Blossomed, Wamba would be a King. The Goad accordingly shoot­ing out Flowers, he was immediately carried away and Crown'd at Toledo. At the time of Anointing his Head, a Vapour like a Cloud was seen to rise from it, and in the midst thereof, a Bee which ascending into the Air, at last vanished: This is in short, what some Authors relate, as to the Election of Wamba. Others wholly rejecting all that is miraculous therein, say, He was a Great Man at Court, and others, That he was Son to the late King Recesuindus, and proclaimed the 3d. day after his Death, so that there could not be time to repair to the Pope, and the working of the Miracles. These latter are the most suitable Opinions to Reason, and there is no­thing certain in these Antiquities; every Man may be­lieve as he pleases.

2. Wamba (howsoever it was) being placed on the Throne,His Wars in France and Spain. the People of Navarre, and other their Neigh­bours, took up Arms to shake off the Gothish Yoak; but the New King taking the Field against them, soon quelled that Rebellion. In the mean while, the Count [Page 103] Hilpericus revolted in the City of Nismes, which is in Gal­lia Narbonensis, then subject to the Dominion of Spain; which made Wamba raise new Forces against that Re­bell, and gave the Command of them to Paul a Vali­ant Grecian. He being Master of the Field, instead of punishing the Count, rebelled himself, and with him Ranosindus Governour of Tarragona and Hildigisius the Civil Magistrate. By these he was Proclaimed King of Spain, and Crowned at Narbonne with a rich Crown, offered by the Holy King Recaredus at the shrine of St. Felix Martyr of Gironne. Hilpericus the first Rebel, and all Gallia Norbonensis joned with the others; the same did Catalonia and Navarre. Paul strengthned with the ac­cession of so many Provinces, had the boldness to send a Challange in most insolent Terms to King Wamba. He at that time was in War with the People of Navar­re and Biscay, and having caused the Challenge to be Read in an Assembly of his chief Commanders, tho' most of them advised to the contrary, he resolved to march with speed against the rebellious Enemy; none hesita­ted to follow the resolute Prince. They entred Na­varre, which they entirely subdued in seven days, and being come into Catalonia, the King divided his victo­rious Army into three parts; one took the way of Per­pignan, another that of Ausetania, and the third kept a­long the Sea Coast. The King himself stayed behind with certain choice bands to be ready to repair to the place where most Danger was. He took Barcelona by Force, and was peaceably received into Gironne, for the Tyrant believing that Wamba would not have the Cou­rage to come to meet him, and that he should soon be there himself, had sent to order Amador the Bishop, That he should acknowledge as his Prince the first that came to the Walls. Wamba being the first, the Prelate did as he was ordered, and the King said to him, Paul has prophesied my coming hither. Immediately he advanced to the Pyrenean Hills, and at the foot of them took Co­libre and other strong places.

3. Whilst Wamba reduced the Rebels,The Rebells in France subdued by him. Paul retired to Nismes, leaving all he had provided for his Defence behind him at Narbonne. All that was not sufficient to secure that City to Witimerus, whom he had left there as his Lieutenant [...], for Wamba to avoid the Effusion of Blood, having offered him some good Terms, and he [Page 104] obstinately refusing, an Assault was given, which last­ed three hours, at the end whereof the City was taken, and in it Witimerus with others of his Associates. The same hapned at Magalona, Agate and other strong holds, all taken by force and with much Slaughter. Nismes held out longer despair fighting for Paul, but at last it sub­mitted to Wamba. The French in the Town thinking they were betrayed by the Spaniards in hope of Par­don, fell upon them, and so they slaughtered one ano­ther, whilst the Besiegers breaking in, put them all in­differently to the Sword.673. Paul quitting the Royal Robes, retired to an Amphitheater, a strong Roman Work, where he stayed two days, the Victors only keeping Guard least he should escape thence. The King coming to the City, Argebatus, Archbishop of Nar­bonne, one of the followers of Paul, came out to meet him in his Pontifical Robes, and casting himself at his Feet, begged Pardon for himself and all the rest. This action somewhat appeaseth Wamba, who Pardoned him and promised to moderate his anger towards the rest. He entred the City in Triumph, where Paul was brought Prisoner and fell down prostrate before him, as others did; their lives were granted, but they were committed to custody till it were resolved what punish­ment to inflict upon them; all the French were set free, and the City ordered to be repaired. It was voted, that Paul and his Associates should have their Eyes put out, their lives being before granted them, but Wamba was content they should only remain perpetual Pri­soners. When he entred Toledo in Triumph, they were all carried before him upon Camels, and Paul in the midst of them barefooted, with a Crown of black Lea­ther on his Head, instead of that of Gold he had aspi­red to; all their Beards long, and their Heads shaved; Penalties usually inflicted on Traitors at that time, and thus Peace was restored.

4. After this he assembled a National Council,675. where­in the bounds of all the Bishopricks of Spain were de­termined,The Afri­cans inva­ding Spain destroyed. which continued in the same form, till the Moores conquered Spain. The same Year another Sy­nod was held at Braga to reform Abuses; much about this time the Africans with a great Fleet scouring along the Coast of Spain, did much harm: The King sent his Forces against them, by whom they were overthrown, [Page 105] their Fleet burnt, and all their power both by Sea and Land consumed. It is thought that one Count Ervigi­us a Grecian, banished by the Emperor of Constantino­ple, was the cause of their coming; he aspiring to the Crown, thought that the Goths thus invaded, would easily have submitted themselves to him, because he had married a Niece of King Recesinudus, and that Wam­ba was then very Aged. Failing of his design, he gave Wamba a sort of Poison that disturbed his Brain, and at the same time prevailed with him to appoint him his Successor. Besides these his Contrivances, Wam­ba desirous of himself to lay down the burden of a Crown to him grown unsupportable, voluntarily quitted the regal Authority, and took the habit of a Monk in the Monastery of Pampliega, betwixt Burgos and Valladolid, on the Banks of the River Pisuerga, where he appro­ved himself as good a Religious Man, as he had been a King. Eight or more Years he Reigned, and lived Se­ven in the Monastery; it is not known that he had any Children, nor so much as a Wife, he was Buried at Pampliega. King Ferdinand the Saint, designed to Translate him to Toledo, and his Son D. Alonso the Wife, put it in Execution. There are two Tombs now in the Chappel of St. Leocadia, in the Cathedral of that City, one supposed to be Wamba,'s, and the other of King Recesiundus. King Philip the II. causing them to be opened in the Year 1575, one of the Bodies was found cloathed in the habit of St. Benedict, which was therefore concluded to be that of Wamba, because he wearing that Habit whilst living, was doubtless Buried in it. Some Authors will have him to be Buried at Cinanium, or Citania, a City in the Mid-way betwixt Braga and Guimaraens.

5. Ervigius Successor to Wamba, 681. was Son to Arde­bastus, Ervigius [...] Wamba. whom Ancient Records call Count, who was married to the Daughter of King Chindasuindus. Tho' he deserved not the Crown as being an unjust Usurper, he afterwards seemed worthy of it for his good Govern­ment, his ensuing Virtues attoned for his former Crimes. One of his first Actions was the assembling of a national Counsel,682. the chief intent whereof was to secure the Crown he had wrongfully got.684. Two Years after he called together another Council, which confirmed all the Acts of the former. A third also met the follow­ing [Page 106] Year to receive the Decrees of the sixth General Council of Constantinople against the Heresy of Apolli­narus. His Actions Ervigius though well settled in the Throne, the better to secure himself, married his Daughter Cixilona to Egica Wamba's Nephew, being the Son of his Sister Ariberga. A great part of Portugal was at this time Go­verned by Sala, a Noble and Valiant Commander: He repaired the Walls and Bridge of Merida, and other publick Structures. King Ervigius himself Built al­most from the Ground the Walls of Idaria; Ervigius Reigned Seven Years, and died at Toledo the same Year as did King Wamba at Pampliega.

6. Egica the Nephew of King Wamba, 687. the more to express his Aversion to Ervigius, King Egica whom he succeeded in the Throne, put away his Daughter, whom, as was said, he had Married; whereupon her Children were as ill treated, as were those of her Father. All the Brethren felt the want of right in their Father, be­ing cast out and not respected so much as Noble Men. However, Egica gave them some ease till such time as a Council could be assembled to order what ought to be done with them.689. This Counsel at length meeting, Decreed the King might lawfully prosecute all that were guilty of the Treason, whereby Ervigius ascended the Throne; Several were punished in different manners. Hereup­on ensued a Conspiracy against the King, in which Se­gibertus Archbishop of Toledo was the principal Actor. This design being discovered, Egica called together another Counsel to be the better able to proceed against the Archbishop. Sixty Bishops met, among whom were Ten Portuguese, who gave Sentence against the Archbishop, Excommunicating, Banishing, and De­posing him from his Dignity.693. Some dangerous Com­motions happened in Gallia Narbonensis, then subject to the Spanish Monarchs, fortune therein favouring the Rebels. These troubles were followed by Plague and Famine:The Jews conspire a­gainst the King, and are punish­ed. The Jews who were then numerous in Spain, took occasion herefrom to conspire against the King, and for the carrying on their Designs, held correspon­dence with others that lived in Africk, and other Fo­reign parts. The King informed thereof, called ano­ther Counsel at Toledo, 694. to punish the Guilty, except­ing those of Narbonne, because of the Plague and Fa­mine that consumed them. The Plot being proved, [Page 107] the Criminals were Condemned to serve as Slaves throughout all Spain, and to have their Children taken from them at Seven Years of Age, to be instructed in the Christian Faith.

7. About this time,Witisa Son to Egi­ca Reigns in Portu­gal. one Count Vitulus rebelled in that part of Galicia, that joyns to Portugal: His design was to usurp the Monarchy of the Goths, but his Pow­er being too small, he soon suffered the penalty of his Rashness. To prevent the like Practices for the future, the King gave the Kingdoms of Portugal and Galicia to his Son Witisa, the Grandson of Ervigius, being then of Age to Govern. To himself he kept the rest of Spain and Gallia Narbonensis; Witisa went into Portu­gal, and kept his Court in the City Braga, where by his unjust Actions, he raised many Troubles and much Blood was spilt, his Father having sent him thither to prevent Discord, which he seemed rather to sow. This Country was eased by his absence, for he remo­ved to Tuy in Galicia, where he lived till the Death of his Father. It is no new thing for a vertuous Father to have wicked Children; King Egica, besides Witisa, had Opas Archbishop of Toledo, famous for assisting to the Destruction of Spain; he was also Father of Fandi­na, Wife to the unfamous Count Julian, and Mother to Florinda, the only cause of that lamentable Tragedy.

8. Witisa being possessed of the Government of all Spain, 701. became so insolent,After [...] Death, he is Monarch of all Spain. that giving way to all man­ner of Vice, discouraging Vertue, and laying open all places of strength in the Kingdom, he may well be sti­led the Spanish Nero. I will not go about to relate all his Cruelties and leud Practices, but must not omit to say, he cast off all Obedience to the Pope, and gave great Priviledges to the Jews, so that they returned to Spain, and erected Synagogues: The Inhabitants of Braga sent Felix their Archbishop to Toledo, to Petition the King that the Walls of their City might not be De­molished, as he had ordered. He was not admitted to speak with the King, but only with Count Julian, then the great Favourite, of whom he obtained what he went about. This lascivious King, killed Favila, the Father of Pelayus, and Duke of Cantabria, thinking by that means the better to enjoy his Wife D. Luz; His Cruel­ties. he put out the Eyes of Theodofredus, Father to King Rode­rick and D. Luz, thereby to make him incapable of in­heriting [Page 108] the Crown; but, Roderick did the same by him,711. so that he died Blind, having Reigned Ten Years. There is no Account who was his Wife, but it appears he had two Sons, which were Evan and Sisebutus, who being Banished by King Roderick into Africk, fled to the Protection of Requila, Commander of Tangier their Fa­ther's Friend; and thence came over a Commander a­mong the Moores that destroyed Spain, and so died: Those Calamities require another Chapter.

CHAP. VI.
The Reign of King Roderick from the Year 711, till the coming of the Moores in 714; all Spain subdued by them in Eight Months; the Restauration began by Pelagius and his Suc­cessors till the Year 783.

1. SOme Writers who have obtained no small Credit,711. name Acosta or Aconsta, as Successor to Witisa; yet others there are who absolutely exclude him as fabu­lous. If any such was, he was Eldest Son to Theodofre­dus, and Brother to King Roderick; however it is, we have no account of his Actions, and if any were, being so dubious,Roderick last King of the Goths. they are scarce worth relating. Roderick then may be allowed immediate Successor to Witisa; he was Granson to King Chindasuindus, and Son to Theo­dofredus Duke of Cordova, by his Wife Recilona: Favila Duke of Cantabria was Brother to Theodofredus, and had Pelagus or Pelagius by his Wife, and Niece to the Lady Luz. Thus the Subversion and Restauration of Spain, had their Authors proceeding from the same stock; for as Roderick was cause of the Destruction, so Pelagus was the first that laid his Hand to the Reparation of it. Ro­derick ascended the Throne with no small hopes, con­ceived by his Subjects, of a better Government than had been before,Count Ju­lian Favo­rite to Ro­derick. but the event made him more odious than his Predecessor had been. Count Julian the great Fa­vorite and prime Master to Witisa, continued in the same Post under King Roderick: Julian was Father to [Page 109] her, whom the vulgar calls Cava, and our Historians Florinda; of her, Roderick became enamoured, that so the greatest Desolution might not happen without the help of a Woman. Having chosen her for his Wife, it fortuned that Egilona or Eilata an African Princess, or according to others, a Goth was droven by Tempest in­to a Port of Spain; she being brought to the King, her Beauty so captivated him, that forgetting Florinda, he took her to Wife: Thus she who thought to have been Queen, continued at Court as one of the Queen's La­dies. Julian her Father enraged beyond measure, im­mediately contrived how to be Revenged, and in or­der to it, perswaded the King to Dismantle all the strong places left standing by Witisa, and disarm his Subjects, which was accordingly done.

2. Soon after the King sent Julian Ambassador to Muza in Africk, Julian sent Am­bassador into A­frick. to request of him not to protect Evan and Sisebutus, the Sons of Witisa: The more to move Muza, he thought it proper to send him some conside­rable Present, and being informed, that in a Tower near Toledo, great Treasures were of Antient time re­ported to be hid, the Doors having many locks upon them, because it was a received Opinion, that when they were opened, great Calamities would ensue, the King resolved to enter this place. In it was found no­thing but a Chest, containing only a Picture represen­ting Men a Horse-back in Moorish Apparel, with seve­ral sorts of Weapons, and an Inscription denoting, that when those Gates were opened, Spain would be Inva­ded and Conquered by that sort of Men. The King thought the Prediction would be Averted by locking up the place again with what it contained, but it proved otherwise. Julian being gone upon his Embassage, King Roderick relapsed into the love of Florinda, and courted her, but without receiving any Favour, Fran­dina her Mother perceiving it, and desiring to be her self the Mistress of a King, caused one Bigamota, an at­tendant of hers, to deliver some Messages to the King as from Florinda, Roderick ravishes Florinda Daughter to Julian. tending to meet him in some conve­nient place, where shrowded with Darkness, she might supply the place of her Daughter; the King encoura­ged by those false invitations, watched his opportunity, and finding Florinda alone, ravished her.

[Page 110] 3. Florinda now doubly wronged first of the Throne, and then of her Honour, was touched with the highest Resentment; her Mother soon discovered the effect, being sensible of the cause and changing her love to the King into hatred, perswades Florinda to acquaint her Father by Writing with the loss of her Honour.712. Juli­an hereupon hasts back into Spain, Julian me­ditates Re­venge. dissembling his Rage, and appearing joyful before the King, having succeed­ed in his Embassy, obtained fresh Favours: He begged the Government of the Towns held in Africk, and thi­ther he went with his Wife, leaving his Daughter at Court to prevent all suspicion. Julian treated with Muza about betraying the Kingdom of the Goths unto the Caliphs, and he having received instructions from his Prince, agreed upon the Conditions without much difficulty; the Traitor not only encouraging the Bar­barian to pass over into Spain, but drawing over many great Men in his Government to take part with them. Having settled these Affairs at Malaga, he came to Court and obtained leave to carry away his Daughter with him,He brings the Moors into Spain. the King nothing mistrusting any Treason. Mu­za in pursuance of what was agreed upon, sent over 6000 Arabs under the Command of Tarif Abenzarca, to make the first incursion into Spain; 713. these being joyn­ed by the like number of the Rebels, broke through Andaluzia into Lusitania, where nothing being less thought of than War, Men, Women and Children were seen in droves flying to the Mountains. King Roderick alarmed with this invasion, sent his Nephew D. Inhigo Sanchez with some number of Men armed on­ly with Staves and Stones; yet such as they were, they had several rencounters with the Enemy, but at last their Commander being slain, and they overpowered, were put to flight. The Victorious Arabs returned into Africk with Booty and many Captives; this was the first Scene of the wicked Count's Revenge, and of the overthrow of the Spanish Monarchy.

4. Whilst Count Julian and the Caliph prepared for a more powerful Expedition, King Roderick now awake, raised the greatest number of Men he could, and with all possible speed provided Arms and Fortified his Towns. He thought the Barbarians would have given him more time, but they immediately passed over the streights of Gibraltar with a wonderful Fleet; [Page 111] 200000 Foot and 40000 Horse of them incamped on the Spanish Coast.200000 Foot and 40000 Horse of the Moors land in Spain. The King's Army consisted of 120000 Foot and 10000 Horse, a sufficient num­ber had they been well Armed, and Disciplined Men; he Encamped betwixt Xeres and Medina Sidonia, lea­ving the Sea open at the Enemies backs, whereby they received Succours: Upon Saturday the 1st. of September in the fatal Year 714. the two Armies came in sight of one another.The King's Army con­sisted of 120000 Foot and 10000 Horse. That day was spent in taking up their Lodgments along the River Guadalete; on Sunday with the day began the Battle, which continued very Bloody till Night parted them; all the Week the fight continued, still renewed with the Day as it was broke off by the Night.714. King Roderick appeared in all parts in his Royal Robes;A great and bloody Battle. over his Armour he wore a rich Garment, a Crown on his Head, a Scepter in his Hand, on his Feet Golden Buskins set with Pearl and precious Stones; he was carried in a high Ivory Chariot as was the manner of the Gothish Kings in Battle, and thence en­couraged his Men, who the 2d. Sunday began to faint. The King perceiving them give way, left his Chariot, and mounting upon a Horse, he called Orelia, rushed couragiously into the thickest of his Enemies, making them give way to his Valour.The Spa­niards o­verthrown▪ The Spaniards encou­raged at this sight, came on so vigorously, that the Battle for some time continued doubtful; but at Sun­setting, the Vigour of our Men quite failing, Victory appeared on the Enemies side, and the Darkness gave the Christians an opportunity to fly.

5. I cannot forbear remarking how fatal the number Eight has appeared upon this occasion;A remark upon the number Eight. Eight days the fight lasted, Eight months the Barbarians spent in sub­duing all Spain, and 800 Years it cost the Spaniards to recover it. The King seeing he laboured in vain, fled to a Mountain, where he changed his Apparel with a Shepherd: In this condition he came to the Monastery of Cauliniana, two Leagues from Merida, on the Banks of the River Guadiana. Here overcome with Trouble and Sorrow for his Sins, he fell into a Swoun, and was brought to himself by one Romanus a Holy Monk. With him he fled into Portugal, where they took up their Habitation on a Rock upon the Sea Coast, near the Town of Pederneira. They took two different Cells about a Mile from one another, where both of them [Page 112] ended their Days. Here, as is said, was found an Image of our Blessed Lady, in the Time of Alonso, our first King; and a Tomb, with this Inscription, HIC REQUIESCIT RUDERICUS ULTIMUS REX GOTHORUM; that is, Here reposes Rode­rick, the last King of the Goths. ‘Thus far our Au­thor, Emanuel de Faria, setting down this as an ap­proved and undoubted Opinion: But many others, and those of good Note, reject this, as fabulous; most Men agreeing, that King Roderick was drowned in the River Gundalete, where most of his Royal Appa­rel was found; he being never after heard of. Many more strange Stories have been spread abroad, as it commonly happens in such Cases, where the Bodies of Princes, in such Universal Calamities, are not found; but they are rather Romantick, than Historical, and therefore not fit for any, but least of all for the Brevi­ty of this History.’

After the Victory,The Moors over-run all Spain. the Moores spread themselves over all the Province, committing inhumane Barbarities; not without losing, in several Rencounters during the eight Months of their Conquest, 80000 Men, besides 20000 before slain in the great Battel. The chief Re­sistance was made at Merida: The Defendants, where­of many were Portugueses, that being then the supream Tribunal of Lusitania, were commanded by Sacaru, a Noble Goth. Many brave Actions passed at the Siege; but at length, there being no Hopes of Relief, and Provisions failing, the Town was surrender'd upon Ar­ticles. The Commander of the Lusitanians, with such as would follow him, traversing Portugal, came to a Sea-port Town; where gathering a good Number of Ships, he put to Sea; but to what part of the World they were carried, does not appear. ‘There is an an­tient Fable of an Island, called Antilia, in the Western Ocean, inhabited by Portugueses, which could never yet be found; and therefore we will leave it, till such time as it is discovered; but to this Place our Author supposes these Portugueses to have been driven.’ For­tune having now wholly forsaken Spain, the Moores ea­sily over-ran all that remained, as far as the River Min­ho, under the Command of Abdalaziz, Son to Muza: Yet the Andaluzians and Lusitanians, Muza being ab­sent, rose up in Arms, and put to the Sword the Moorish [Page 113] Garrisons of Sevil, Beja and Ilipula; which done, be­ing assembled to a great Number, they took Merida by Force, killing all they found therein. Muza, who was then at Zaragosa, hasted to quell this Commotion; which was easily done. Merida he spared; Sevil suf­fered much; at Ilipula there was not one Stone left upon another; but what he did at Beja, is not known, though it may be supposed not to have escaped, ha­ving been the Place of Rendesvouz for the People of Sevil.

7. The famous Actions of D. Pelayo, Pelagius the first that oppo­sed the Moors. or Pelagius, and the miserable Ends of Count Julian, his Wife, and Daughter, the principal Actors in this Tragedy, are treated of in the Chronicles of those Kingdoms to which they appertain. Pelagius, during the 19 Years he reigned, had no Command in Portugal, where the Moors were so predominant, that there were as many Kings as Cities. But because the Actions of Pelagius were so great in themselves, and in the Consequence of them, we will give some Hints of what others write at large. Pelagius was in the great Battel, with his Cou­sin-German King Roderick: After which, he fled, with 1000 Christians, to Asturias de Oviedo, where he took Shelter in a vast Cave, now called Covadonga, among the Mountains of Auseva; and was, in that miserable Condition, by his Men proclaimed King of Spain; a mighty Title, for so poor a Beginning; and yet here began those Victories, which, in the Space of 800 Years, recovered all Spain. Pelagius had a Sister, whose Name is not known; but Muza, Governor of Gijon, in Asturias, being taken with her Beauty, enjoy'd her, upon Promise of Marriage. The Desire of Re­venging this Wrong first moved Pelagius to appear in Arms: Thus it fell out, that as one Lady was the Cause of the Destruction of Spain, so another was the Motive of its Restauration. Pelagius was the Son of Favila Duke of Cantabria, Third Son of King Chinda­suindus, and of his Wife D. Luz, the Daughter of Theo­dofredus Duke of Cordova, and Brother to Favila. He was born at Toledo, and bred at Alcantara, by Grafes, Brother to the Lady Luz, his Mother. This was the first King that we find had the Title of Don annexed to his Name. His Wife was, Gaudiosa, of Cantabria; Fourth Grandchild to Ofilon, Brother to Stephen, the [Page 114] happy Father of the Archbishop St. Ildefonsus. By her he had Favila and Ermesenda, who succeeded him in the Regal Dignity.722. He took Leon in the Year 722: And hence came the Title of Kings of Leon, and the Bearing of a Lion for their Arms.737. He died at Cangas, at the Foot of the Mountain Auseva, in September, 737; and lies buried in the Church of Covadonga, built by himself, and his Wife, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

8. Favila, Favila succeeds Pelagius. who succeeded his Father Pelagius, had not Time to perform any great Actions, being killed in the Second Year of his Reign, by a Bear, as he was hunting. He lies buried in the Church of the Holy Cross, founded by himself, at Cangas. He married Froi­livua, and either had no Sons, or, at least, they came not to the Crown; for his Sister Ermesenda succeeded him, and took to Husband, and King, D. Alonso, Son to D. Peter, Duke of Cantabria, descended from Reca­redus J. During the foregoing Years, the Christians in Portugal enjoyed full Liberty of Conscience. Several Moorish Great Men ruled over them: Aliboacen, Grand­son to the General Tarif, was Lord of the City Coim­bra, and all the Territories betwixt the Rivers Alva-Mondego and Agueda; governing with Tyrannical Power. Thus the Portuguese lived in Subjection, when Heaven gave them Hopes of recovering their Liberty. Happy was the Kingdom in falling to Erme­senda, for that she was the Mother of the Victorious and Religious King Alonso, who conquer'd a great part of Castile, King A­lonso suc­cessful a­gainst the Infidels. Galicia and Portugal. He enter'd Galicia with a powerful Army, and took the Cities of Lug [...] and Tuy: Then passing over the River Minho, he over­ran all the Country, as far as Duero; entring the Cities and Towns of Braga, Porto, Agueda, Viseo, and Chaves; besides other Places of Importance: No Quarter was given to the Moors; and the Christians were carried away to Asturias, he not designing to keep all he gain­ed. This was the first King, after the Destruction of Spain, that had any Jurisdiction in Portugal. Thus he reigned,757. with great Honour, 17 Years; and died at the Age of 64. His and his Wife's Bodies were buried in the Church of Covadonga. He had Issue, Fruela, who succeeded him; Wimaranus, Aurelius, and Adosinda. By a Slave he had Mauregatus, who proved more like [Page 115] the Mother, than the Father, as will appear in the Sequel.

9. Fruela, K. Fruela kills 60000 Moors. who inherited his Father's Valour, as well as his Kingdom, marched to meet a mighty Ar­my, sent against him by Abderramen King of Cordova, (the first that, in Spain, durst cast off the Authority of the African Calyph,) under the Command of Omar, to revenge the Harm done by the late King Alonso, in Por­tugal and Galicia. He met with no Opposition in Por­tugal: But in Galicia, King Fruela discomfitted his migh­ty Army, killing him, and 60000 of his Men. This done, crossing Portugal, to besiege Setuval, he over­threw Aliaben Talib, who came to put a Stop to his Pro­ceedings▪ with 1500 Horse, and 14000 Foot: Of the Moors, 8000 were slain in the Fight; and of the Chri­stians, 2300. This Victory laid that Country open; and the King, after an hard Siege, had Setuval surren­der'd to him. This is his last Action, we know of, in Portugal: In other Places he performed many great Ex­ploits. He forbid Priests to marry, which had been allowed since the Time of King Witiza; and was the Founder of the City Oviedo. All his Vertues and Tro­phies were obscured by his putting his Brother Wima­ranus to death, upon bare Suspition that he intended to rebel, because he was exceedingly beloved by the Peo­ple, for his extraordinary Endowments. Most Authors agree, that this Wimaranus was Father to Bermudo the Monk, afterwards King. Fruela was married to Moni­na, the Daughter of Eudo Duke of Guienne, in France. Their Children were, D. Alonso, and the Lady Ximena. This King had also a Bastard-Son, called Raimund. He prospered no more after the Death of his Brother Wimaranus; for Abderramen, King of Cordova, recover­ed all that Part of Portugal which lies betwixt Cape St. Vincent and the River Tagus. 768. After this Loss, he was murder'd at Cangas, by his Brother Aurelius. His Bo­dy, and that of his Wife, were buried in the great Church of Oviedo, founded by himself. He reigned 11 Years in great Esteem with his People; and two more after the Death of his Brother, no less hated than he had been beloved.

10. We have no Account of any thing remarkable,Particular Affairs of Portugal done by Aurelius, the Successor of Fruela, in Portugal. But about this time, Marvan Ibenzorat reigned in Coim­bra: [Page 116] And Theodus, a Noble-man, descended of the Gothish Kings, was Governor of the Christians in these Parts, with the Title of Count. Aurelius reigned six Years, died at Cangas, and was buried in the Church of St. Michael. 774. He leaving no Children, Adosinda, the Daughter of King Alonso and Queen Ermesenda, and his Sister, succeeded him. She married Silo, whose Pa­rents are not known; but so he came to be King. He enter'd Portugal, to make War upon the Moors; and took from them the City Merida, in Estremadura. Thence he marched against the People of Galicia, who were in Rebellion; and finding great Opposition, af­ter the Victory, he treated them with much Severity. Having obtained these Victories, the King gave him­self up so entirely to his Ease, that the Queen managed all the Government. They had one Son, called Alde­gastus; who, with his Wife Brunilda, built the Mona­stery of St. Mary d' Ovanna, in the Territory of Tineo, for their Burying-place.783. The King died when he had reigned Nine Years, and was buried in the Church of St. John de Pravia, founded by himself. His Epitaph is thus: H. S. E. S. S. S. T. L. Each Letter stands for a Word; and are, HIC SITUS EST SILO SIT SIBI TERRA LEVIS.

CHAP. VII.
The succeeding Kings, from the Year 783, till 924. The Battels they fought, and their Conquests upon the Moors; but more parti­cularly, in Portugal.

1. QUeen Adosinda considering the good Qualities of her Nephew D. Alonso, the Son of Alonso the Ca­tholick King,783. she appointed him her Successor. Mau­regatus, the Bastard Son of the same Alonso, begotten on a Slave,Maurega­tus the Ba­stard u­surps the Crown. soon deprived him of the Crown. To compass his Design, he enter'd into a League with the Moors, and became Tributary to them, the Tribute consisting of 100 Noble Maids, to be deliver'd to them [Page 117] yearly: In case he gave not the Maids, in lieu of eve­ry one, he was to pay 500 Pieces of Money, supposed to answer to as many Crowns in our Days. This Tri­bute was conveyed to Cordova, and gathered and secu­red in several Parts of Asturias, Galicia and Portugal. Now some Authors affirm, this Tribute was paid in the Year 770; and if so, it must be in the Reign of Aure­lius, who governed from the Year 768, till 774; and then Mauregatus did not institute, but only continued to pay it. Whensoever it began, certain it is, it conti­nued till the Year 788, which was the last of Maure­gatus's Reign.788. He died without Issue, and was buried at Pravia.

2. Bermudo, Bermudo, advanced to the Throne, o­verthrows the Moors. then in Deacon's Orders, Grandson to the Catholick Alonso, being Son either to Wimaranus, or Fruela, his Brother, was promoted to the Crown after Mauregatus. The first Action of this King was very honourable; for Abderramen, King of Cordova, sending to demand of him the Tribute of the Maids, he not only refused to pay it; but, with a small Number, en­countring an Army of his, of 60000 Men, under the Command of Muza, overthrew it, and so recovered the Honour of Spain, delivering it from that heavy Im­position. Bermudo, though a Deacon, was married to Ousenda, or Ʋsenda; by whom he had Ramiro, after­wards King; and a Daughter, named Christina: He had also a Bastard-Son, called D. Nunho. Though the Action we have spoken of was great,793. his last was in­comparably beyond it;He resigns the Crown. for he not only resigned the Crown, but, having Children of his own, gave it up to D. Alonso, Son to King Fruela; from whom it had been wrongfully taken by Mauregatus. 795. This done, he took the Habit of a Monk, in the Monastery of Saha­gun; where he died, and was buried, but afterwards translated to Oviedo.

3. D. Alonso, who was restored to the Crown by Ber­mudo, Alonso▪ the Chaste. was born in the Year 758. Though married to the French Lady Berta, he had no issue, having lived continently with her; and therefore he was called, The Chaste, a Name rare among Princes. This Name of Alonso, as it was fortunate to Spain in general, so was it also to Lisbon in particular,798. for its Recovery, Restaura­tion and Defence.His Con­quests. This King took it from the Moors, killing a great Number of them in the Assault, and in [Page 118] several Battels he fought to come to it. Some Authors will have it, that Charlemaigne came over out of France, in Person, to his Assistance: Others deny his Personal Presence: But all agree, his Army was so great, that the Infidels could never make Head against it. The following Year,799. the King took the Cities of Viseo, La­mego, Coimbra, Braga, and other Places about Porto. Omar King of Merida, with a great Power, laid Siege to Benavente; but he and the greatest part of his Army were put to the Sword by Bernard del Carpio, command­ing the Forces of King Alonso. In the mean while, Alia­tan, by the Way of Estremadura, enter'd Portugal, put­ting all to Fire and Sword, with such Success, that he took Lisbon the 8th Year after it had been gained by King Alonso. Many other Places submitted to the Bar­barian; and he left Alchama, King of Badajoz, or Beja, to command there. This Alchama afterwards making an Expedition out of his Province, was killed by Ber­nard del Carpio, 812. at the City Zamora. Aliatan, to re­venge this Loss, raised great Forces in Barbary, which he divided into two Bodies; whereof, the one enter'd Castile; the other, Portugal; making great Havock in both Places: Both these Armies were cut in pieces; one, in which Alahaban commanded, by the King, near the River Cefa; the other, conducted by Melich, by Bernard, 813. in the Plain of Narnon. Abdalla, Governor of Valencia, and Mahomet, of Merida, rebelled at once against King Aliatan: He marched against Abdalla; but whilst he was there engaged, Mahomet joined in League with King Alonso; whereby he became power­ful enough to conquer a good part of Portugal and Estremadura. Aliatan returning with a mighty Ar­my, overthrew the Rebel, and possessed himself of all which he had conquered betwixt Merida and Lisbon.

Mahomet thus expelled his Dominion, fled with such as would follow him to King Alonso, submitting him­self to him as his Vassal. The King sent him with one Raymund, to subdue certain places then in Rebellion in Gallicia; they easily overcame the Mutiniers, and the King ordered Mahomet to reside in those parts, ho­ping to make his advantage of him against the King of Cordova, 814. as he did for some time: But Mahomet finding himself powerful, thought to recover what he had lost, [Page 119] and therefore privately conspiring with Raymond, they both Rebelled, usurping great part of Galicia: The King hasted thither with a considerable Army, Ray­mond presently submitted himself, and was not only Pardoned, but Married the King's Kinswoman. Ma­homet though he had then 60000 Men, durst not give Battle in open Field, but retired to the strong Castle of St. Christina, two Leagues from Lugo. There the King Besieged, and Hunger forced him to come out and give Battle, in which his Army was entirely rou­ted and he Slain. About this time was found the Se­pulcher of St. James the Apostle, and Patron of Spain, which had been hid almost 800 Years; it was discove­red by Theodemirus Bishop of Iria. King Alonso remo­ved it to Compostela, which he made a Bishoprick, e­recting there a Church capable of so great a Relick. Thus Crowned with Victories, and loaded with Years, for he lived Eighty Five,843. and Reigned Fifty Two; he died at Oviedo, Tryal by Ordeal in use. and lies Buried in the Church of St. Mary de Recasto, his own Foundation. At this time the old Gothish Law of trying People by Fire was in use in Portugal, as appears by the Tryal of Elosinda, accused of Adultery by her Husband Ariovigildus, she after this manner clearing her self, and he being Con­demned to be Burnt, as she should have been if Con­victed. Pope Honorius the III. abolished this Custom, yet afterwards, another worse started up, which was, that the Woman accused, should assign a Champion to fight the Accuser, and that party which had the Vi­ctory was held innocent.

5. King Bermudo by an incomparable Act of Justice, had taken the Crown from his own Children, to give it to Alonso, to whom of right it appertained; and God to reward this rare Equity, ordained that Alonso should live Chast,King Ra­miro his Actions. and restore it to Ramiro, the Son of the same Bermudo. Scarce was he seated on the Throne, when Count Nepocianus rebelled in Austurias, and usurped the regal Title: The New King with all the speed he could, marched against him, and having defeated and ta­ken him Prisoner, put out his Eyes and thrust him into a Monastery. Soon after he overthrew the Normans, who destroyed the Coast of Galicia, and the English who had laid Siege to Lisbon: Returning to the River Duero, he vanquished Mahomet Cid Atauf, Lord of the [Page 120] Fort and Town of Gaya, and also Muley Achim of A­gueda more to the Southward. Zuleyma Ibon Muza, the tributary King of Lamego, and Tarif Iben Rages of Viseo were admitted to grace upon their submission. Alha­mar King of Coimbra, boldly standing upon his Defence, was overthrown, and all the Country reduced, which done, Ramiro leaving good Garrisons in his Conquests, returned to Oviedo; in his way, he visited John the Ab­bot of the Monastery of Lorvan, and bestowed Lands upon the Monastery. The principal part of the Gift was the Town of Montemayor the Old, a strong place, the Garrison whereof the Abbot was obliged to main­tain. In this Town was one Garcia Yannez, a foundling brought up by the Abbot, and by him preferred for his Valour. This Fellow envying the Honour of D. Ber­mudo the Abbot's Nephew, and Governour of that Ter­ritory, fled to Abderramen King of Cordova, offering not only to renounce the Faith, but also to put into his hands Montemayor, and the other Conquests of King Ramiro.

6. Whilst Garcia Yannez was with the Moorish King, the Abbot and his Nephew Bermudo, took the two Re­bel Counts Alderedus, whose Eyes he put out, and Pinelus whom with his Seven Sons, he put to Death, as being more obstinate in their Crime. Knowing that Rages of Viseo was joyning in League with other Moorish Com­manders, he assaulted his City, and rased it to the Ground. Sebastian Bishop of Salamanca, with the Ab­bot's Consent, afterwards repairing of it, is said to have found there the Tomb of Roderick, the last King of the Goths. Garcia Yannez having renounced the Faith, and calling himself Zulema, had the Command of an Army given him to execute what he had proposed. He entred Portugal, committing greater Barbarites than the Infidels, and laid Siege to Montemayor which was bravely defended by the Abbot and his Men. Hunger beginning to pinch, they thought of an Expe­dient more to be wondered at than imitated, which was, that they slew all their Women and Children, the Abbot beginning with his Sister and Nephews. This done, they sallied out upon the Enemy with such Fury, that they soon put them to flight: The Rebel Zulema was killed by the Abbot, many of his Men were drown­ed in the River Mondego, and most of them perished by [Page 121] several means, so that few returned Home; 76000 were destroyed, and Night stopped the pursuit of the Victors. Morning discovered the Fields covered not only with dead Carcasses, but with plenty of rich Booty: This was a small comfort to them that had imbrued their hands in the Blood of their Wives,An incredi­ble relation Children and Relations, but some that had hasted to the Town after the Victory, brought back the News, that all those they had killed, were miraculously restored to life, and so all returned joyful with the Victory and Recovery of their Friends. The Abbot stayed in the place where he obtained the Victory, and there Built a small Her­mitage, and ended his days in Sanctity. His Monks endeavoured it, but could not remove his Body, and our first King D. Alonso Enriquez Founded a Monastery in that place, which was finished by his Son and Suc­cessor D. Sancho, and given to the Cistercian Order. This is what related to Portugal in the Reign of King Ramiro; he obtained many other Victories, particular­ly the memorable one, called of Clavijo, in which St. James the Apostle is said to have been seen fighting for the Christians, and was thence called the Patron of Spain. 850. The King Married Paterna, whose extraction is not known; he left the Crown to his Son Ordonno, and died at Oviedo, where he lies Buried.

7. D. Ordono was no way inferior to his Father for Valour,King Or­dono Re­builds ma­ny Towns. and being at full Age when he died, was very acceptable to all the States. His first care was to re­people the Cities of Leon, Astorga, Tuy, Amaya and o­thers,855. almost left desolate in the late Invasions; this done, he obtained two notable Victories, one over the rebellious Vascones, and the other over Muza by extra­ction a Goth, but turned Mahometan. This Muza had possessed himself of the greatest part of Spain, but was entirely defeated by our King in the Plains of Alvelda or Albayda, 857. two Leagues from Logronno. Many Moors upon this Defeat sent to Congratulate the Victor,He is over­thrown by the Moores. and others stood to see the Consequences of it. Mahomet King of Cordova, alarmed at this success of the Christi­ans, drew mighty succours out of Africk, and with a formidable Army began to conquer the Christian Ter­ritories. Ordonno met him in Estremadura, near the Ri­ver Tagus, and though he killed double the number that he lost, was forced to leave the Victory to the [Page 122] Barbarian, who recovered much of what the Christians had before taken. He took Santarem, Irena and Rotas; then returning towards Cordova, he took and Fortified many Towns betwixt the Rivers Guadiana and Tagus; the next Year was not so favourable to him, for the best part of his Fleet was cast away on the Coast of Galicia, and his Army was overthrown on the Borders of Na­varre, 859. by the King thereof D. Inigo Ximenez Arista. Ire­na is supposed to be the Town now called Leyria and Rotos Roda near Redina. Many Christians at this time ob­tained the Crown of Martyrdom, under the power of the Moors, but especially at Cordova. King Ordonno was Married to the Lady Munia, by whom he had D. A­lonso his Successor, D. Bermudo, D. Nunno, Odvarius and Fruela, whose Eyes the King their Brother caused to be put out for conspiring against him. He had also a Daughter called Aragonta, Wife to Sancho Abarca, King of Navarre. King Ordono was troubled with the Gout, and died of it at Oviedo, 863. having Reigned Twelve Years, his Body was Buried in the Chappel of King Alonso the Chast.

8. Authors do not agree upon the Age of King Alon­so the III.King A­lonso III. called the Great. when he came to the Crown; some say Nine, some Fourteen, and some Seventeen Years. The most is too little for the great Actions performed by him im­mediately after his Accession to the Crown; his Valour and other Vertues purchased him the Sir-name of the Great, only attributed to him among all the Kings of Castile and Leon. Fruela Bermudez a great Man in Ga­licia rebelled and came down so suddenly to Oviedo, that the young King was forced to fly to Alava, where ha­ing gathered his Forces, the Rebels put to death their Leader, and submitted themselves to him: Then he repaired the Cities of Oviedo and Leon, and built many Castles. In the mean while Count Eylon rebelled in Alava, but was oppressed by the King's Celerity: During this time he was at peace with the Infidels, Mahomet King of Cordova, and Lot or Lope the Son of Muza King of Toledo, being at War among themselves. They two being agreed, the King of Cordova sent Albuca­zen and Alemandarin his Generals, the one into Biscay, the other into Galicia, where they made great havock, the People flying before them from the Plains to the Mountains. But King Alonso marched with such ex­pedition, [Page 123] that he oppressed them both, before they thought he had been moving towards them; this suc­cess produced Peace, which he employed in rebuilding ruined places, among which were Braga, Porto, Chaves and Viseo, all in Portugal. The King of Cordova com­ing down suddenly with an Army, took Viseo first, and then Salamanca, and so returned to Cordova, refusing to give our King Battel, who thereupon wasted all the Country of Toledo: Then turning into Portugal, he re­took Viseo, and had Coimbra yielded to him.

9. It appears, by a Grant of his to Sisenandus Bishop of Compostela, that the Territories betwixt Duero and Minho, and that called Tras os Montes, or Beyond the Mountains, were Desart, from the first coming of the Moors till his time, when he Peopled and made them fit to with stand the Enemy. At this sametime the King continued the Structure of the stately Church of St. James the Apostle.The Church of St. James the Apostle in Galicia Dedicated. Seventeen Bishops were present at the Dedication of it, above half of them were Portu­guese. Next by Order of Pope John the VIII. the King held a National Council at Oviedo, to provide for the Bishops that were Expelled from their Diocesses, and erect the Bishoprick of Oviedo into an Archbishoprick; after which the King again applied himself to Peo­pling of the Country,903. and was come as far as the River Tagus, when he understood his own Sons conspired to depose him, being encouraged by their Mother and some of the Nobility. He voluntarily performed what they intended to extort from him;The Chri­stian Do­minions di­vided be­twixt the two Sons of King Alonso. to D. Garcia he gave Oviedo, Leon and Castile, to D. Ordono, Gallicia and Por­tugal. Having resigned his Kingdoms, he went in Pilgrimage to Santiago, and at his return, asked of his Son Garcia, some Forces to make an incursion into the Moorish Territories, which he performed successfully. He entred into League with the Kings of France and Navarre; to the latter he gave his Sister Ʋrraca in Mar­riage, and married himself Ximena, Daughter either of France or of D. Ynigo Ximenez Arista of Navarre. His Sons were Garcia, Fruela, Ordonno, Ramiro and Gonzalo, who was Archdeacon of Oviedo. He Reigned 48 Years, died at Zamora, 914 and was Buried at Astorga, where his Tomb is still to be seen, tho' the Body was translated to the Chappel of King Alonso the Chast in Oviedo, where also lies his Wife Ximena.

[Page 124] 10. D. Garcia having wrested the Scepter out of his Father's hand,Garcia has for his part Gali­cia and the North of Portugal. enjoyed it but three Years: Tho' he got the Crown by unlawful means, he Governed well, o­vercame Ayola Lord of Talavera, and is said to have ob­tained other Victories; he died at Zamora, was Buried at Recasto of Oviedo, and had been Married to the Lady Nunna, His Brother Ordonno Succeeds him. Daughter to the Count D. Nunno Fernandez de A­maya, but left no-Issue. His Brother Ordonno in his time Governed so much to the satisfaction of the People, that after his Death, he was unanimously allowed his Heir. He had not only preserved the Conquests on this side Tagus, but passing that River, took the City Beja, putting all the Inhabitants to the Sword, which so terrified the Neighbouring People, that they aban­doned the Towns before he came near them. Having received his Brother's Kingdom, after some other ex­ploits, he returned into Lusitania and wasted all the Country along the River Guadiana. Among other places, he took the Castle called Alhaje, where all the Treasure of the Moorish Kings lay as in a place inpreg­nable, whereby he so humbled all the Infidels through­out Estremadura, and as far as Algarve, that they sub­mitted themselves as tributaries to him; after which he returned to Leon. No sooner was he gone, but they en­couraged by Abderramen King of Cordova revolted, but King Ordonno speedily returning and ravaging the Coun­try, they as soon submitted themselves, begging Par­don. The chief of these were the People of Merida, Badajoz and the Territories adjacent then so fruitful and plentiful of all things, that thence came the name of Badajoz, He twice overthrows the Moors being a corruption of Beled Aiz, two Arabick words, signifying, The Land of Life. King Ordonno hear­ing that Abderramen was marching towards him, ad­vanced to meet him, and in a Battle near Talavera slew 25000 of his Men. This done, he returned to Leon, and applied the spoiles of the War to Building the great Church there. Mean while Abderramen having drawn vast supplies out of Africk, laid Siege to Santi­stevan de Gormaz; but the King surprising him in the Night, forced him with great Slaughter to fly back to Cordova. Still the Moore recruits his broken Army, and having wasted all the Country, sits-down before the City Porto, which was bravely defended by Count Hermenegildus. Our King came to his relief, and [Page 125] made a great Slaughter among the Besiegers,920. yet so, that he was not assured of the Victory, till the next day he found the Enemy had quitted the Field, leaving their Tents, Baggage, and warlike Engines behind them. Having obtained this Victory, the King returned to Leon.

11. Early the next Year,921. Ambassadors came to Or­donno from the King of Navarre, Ordonno vanquished by the In­fidels, re­covers and spoiles their Coun­try. to crave aid against a great power of the Infidels. He thought not enough to send, but went himself in Person, and Fortune here forsaking him, was overthrown near Valdejunquera, many Captives were taken by the Infidels, among whom were the Bishops of Salamanca and Tuy, and the Kings themselves escaped narrowly. Our King grieved at this loss, the following Year broke into the Moorish Ter­ritories, driving all before him even to the Walls of the City Cordova, which it was feared he would Besiege. Having struck an universal Terror into his Enemies, he returned to Zamora. He had a Daughter called Ximena, who falling in Love with a Courtier, ran away with him, carrying all her Jewels along with her, and he left her on a Mountain, having fulfilled his desires. She travelled on, and took up with a Farmer as his Servant, from which he raised her to be his Wife. The King long after, Hunting that way lost himself, and fell into this Cottage, where he was entertained, his Daugh­ter making a sort of Puff-past she knew he loved, and putting a Ring well known to him into it; the Ring caused him to suspect somewhat, and examining the matter, he found that was his Daughter, whom he for­gave, and preferred her Husband, whose Name was Tello, and the place of his aboad called Meneses. Hence some will have the Family of Meneses to proceed; o­thers Write that this passage hapned to the Lady Teresa Sanchez, bastard Daughter to King Sancho the First, and Wife to D. Alonso Tellez de Meneses, whom they esteem the Progenitor of this Family. King Ordonno had three Wives, the first Elvira, whose Parentage is unknown; by her he had D. Sancho, D. Alonso, D. Ramiro, D. Gar­cia and D. Ximena. The second was Aragonta of Gali­cia, whom he is said to have put away, suspecting she knew of the flight of his Daughter Ximena. The third was Sancha Daughter to the King of Navarre, by these two he had no Children.923. The last Action of his life [Page 126] darkn'd all the Glory of his former Triumphs: He sent for four Counts who governed Castile, upon safe Conduct, to Carrion, and there cut off their Heads: Which so incensed the People of Castile, that they only wanted an Opportunity to rebell, and take Revenge: But Death prevented their Designs,924. taking him away at Zamora. His Body was buried in the great Church of Leon; which City he had so entirely loved, that he took its Name for the Title of his Kingdom, leaving that of King of Oviedo and Galicia.

CHAP. VIII.
The Succession of the Kings of Castile and Leon, from the Year 924, till 985: With the Re­volt of Count Fernan Gonzalez: And the Desolation made in Portugal, by Alcoraxis and Almanzor, the Moors.

1. D. Fruela II. was Successor to his Brother Ordonno; Fruela II. usurps the Crown. usurping the Crown from his Children, who were then very young. He was nothing like to his Brother in Valour, for he ceased the Prosecution of the War against the Infidels; but was not unlike to him in the last Action of his Life; for, as Ordonno unjustly put to death the fore-mentioned Counts, so Fruela wrongfully executed certain Gentlemen, called Olmu­des. He became so odious to the Castilians, that the Nobility,Castile se­parates from Leon. and creates a Govern­ment under Judges. joining together, rebelled, and separated themselves from the Crown of Leon. To this purpose, they chose two Judges to rule them: The two first were, Nunno Rasura, and Lain Calvo. They were of the Middle Sort of People, neither of the Greatest, nor Meanest; that so they might neither be too power­ful, nor become contemptible: Yet, from them are the Kings of Spain descended. At the same time that this Government was instituted in Castile, we find Counts governing in some Parts of Portugal; as, D. Gutierre Arias, at Porto; and Hufo Hufez, at Viseo. A Leprosie [Page 127] consumed King Fruela so fast,925. that he died at Leon, ha­ving reigned scarce a Year; and was buried in the Ca­thedral. He had two Wives, D. Munia, and D. Ʋr­raca: By them he had Issue Ordonno, Alonso and Ramiro. King Ramiro II. put out all their Eyes, and thrust them into the Monastery of St. Julian, either upon Suspi­cion, or Proof, that they conspired against him. He had also a fourth Son, called Fruela.

2. Alonso IV,Alonso IV. resigns the Govern­ment to his Brother Ra­miro. Eldest Son of King Ordonno II, after the Death of Fruela, recovered his Right, and King­dom. He was not wicked, as his Predecessor; but as unprofitable to his Kingdom as he. His best Quality was, That he was sensible of his own Insufficiency; and therefore, first sent his Brother Ramiro to govern Portugal, and afterwards resigned the Kingdom to him, and became himself a Monk. Ramiro had chosen the City Viseo for his Residence in Portugal, whence he made Inroads into the Frontiers of the Moors; and by his gentle Government, gained the Affections of the People. Here he received Letters from the King, his Brother, calling him to Court, in order to resign the Crown to him; for that his Son, Prince Ordonno, was but an Infant. D. Ramiro fearing his Brother's Incon­stancy, hasted to Zamora, that he might not have Time to repent. The King immediately put the Crown up­on his Head, and was the first that did him Homage, as his Subject: Which done, he took the Habit of a Benedictine Monk, in the Monastery of Sahagun; and is therefore called, Alonso the Monk. He was married to Ximena, the Daughter of King Sancho Abarca, of Navarre; and had by her, Ordonno, who came to be King; and D. Alonso, who died young. He died in the Monastery of St. Julian, and lies there buried: But we shall see him repent, and disturb his Brother's Reign.

3. King Alonso being become a Monk,928. and repent­ing,Alonso repents, and raises a Civil War. his Brother Ramiro, now possessed of the Crown, resolved not to part with it: and thus began a Civil War, which was the Cause of much Mischief. The Moors making their Advantage thereof, recovered the Cities of Lam [...]go, Braganza and Porto, with all the Country lying between the Rivers Tagus and Duero. The Castilians also made use of this Opportunity, (their Judges, Nunno and Lain, being dead,) to raise [Page 128] up in their stead the Count Ferran Gonzalez. King Ramiro politickly winking at this Affront,932. which he could not revenge upon the Authors, invaded the Kingdom of Toledo, destroying all before him with Fire and Sword. King Alonso the Monk, held out two Years in Leon, against his Brother Ramiro: But then, despairing of Success, he stirred up Alonso, Ordonno and Ramiro, the Sons of his Predecessor Fruela, to raise a Rebellion in Asturias and Biscay, believing that would draw away the King, his Brother, from attending up­on him. Nevertheless, the King continued the Siege, obliged him to surrender, and afterwards put him into Prison. This done, he found Means to apprehend the three Brothers; and to prevent future Designs, put out theirs, and his Brother the Monk's Eyes. Two Years Alonso lived blind: But the King repenting of this Cruel­ty used towards his Brother, to testifie his Repentance, built the Monastery of St. Julian.

4. Two Months are said to have passed in the Year 934,934. in which Time the Light of the Sun was scarce seen;Prodigies in the Sky. at the End whereof a Breach or Yawning ap­peared in the Sky, along which great Flames of Fire were seen to run; and the Stars seemed to wander in the Region of the Air. Many Judgments were made upon these Prodigies; but most agreed, they portend­ed, the End of the World to be at hand. At last the Sun shined out; and whilst the Christians appeased God with Prayers, the Moors consulted their Wizards. Al­farani, of Meca, affirmed to King Abderramen, that this Prodigy threaten'd the Downfall of Christian Princes, if he would take in hand to pull them down. Divi­ners fore-tell what, they know, is pleasing to Princes; and Princes believe that which pleases them. Abderra­men declares War, and makes mighty Preparations for it, drawing great Succours out of Africk, under the Command of Almanzor. With an Army almost innu­merable, he broke into Portugal, bearing down all be­fore him, and putting the Christians to most cruel Deaths. King Ramiro having gathered the greatest Power he could, set forward to meet the Enemy, whose Multitude obliged him to retire to the Moun­tains of Clavijo. Ramiro destroys a great Army of Infidels Here the Apostle St. James is said to have appeared to him, promising, he should obtain a wonderful Victory in that Place. In the Fight, the [Page 129] Apostle was seen on Horseback, making great Slaugh­ter among the [...]. This Victory, some will have, to be the Cause of his being taken for Patron of Spain; though others say, it was that in the Time of King A­lonso I. as was before observed.

5. There is a very strange Story about this King,A Roman­tick Story of King Ramiro. which, because it looks rather Romantick, than Histo­rical, I will lightly pass over: It is as follows; King Ramiro was married to the Lady Ʋrraca; but under­standing that Alboazar, a powerful Moor, had a most beautiful Sister, called Zara, he fell in Love with her by Hear-say. He demanded her of Alboazar; but be­ing denied, had her betrayed to him for Money; then putting away his Queen, he married her. Alboazar, to revenge this Wrong, surprized and carried away Queen Ʋrraca, who was left at Millor, on the other side the River Duero. Ramiro hearing hereof, filled his Galleys with the choicest of his Men; and running up a River, near which she was kept, he planted the Gal­leys, all covered with Green, close under certain Trees that over-shaded the River: Then having laid an Am­bush, and ordered them to lie close till he sounded a Cornet he carried with him, he in Disguize approach­ed the Castle where the Queen was kept: There he met a Maid belonging to the Queen, carrying a Pitcher of Water for her; whereof, with the Maid's Consent, he drank, and dropped a Jewel into it well known to the Queen. She seeing the Jewel, caused him to be brought up to her; and having yielded her self up be­fore to the Lust of Alboazar, she now betrayed the King into his Hands. Ramiro seeing himself taken, begged Leave only to sound his Cornet; which being granted, his Men that lay in Ambush broke into the Castle, kil­led Alboazar, and carried away the Queen, whom the King caused to be cast into the Sea, with a Stone about her Neck; because, asking of her why she looked so melancholy; she answered, It was for the Death of the Moor, who was a better Man than he. To this Rela­tion, let every Man give the Credit he thinks it may deserve. This King Ramiro had two Wives, besides the Moor we have now spoke of: The First was, the Lady Ʋrraca; and by her he had Ordonno, his Succes­sor, Sancho and Bermudo. The Second was, Teresa, Daughter to Sancho Abarca, King of Navarre: Her Issue [Page 130] were, Sancho, Audonio and Elvira. By Artida the Moor, he had Alboazar Ramirez, and Artiga Ramirez. King Ra­miro reigned 19 Years;950. he died at Leon, and lies in the Monastery of Our Holy Saviour, founded by himself and his two Wives, Ʋrraca and Teresa.

6. King Ordonno III. was Successor to Ramiro II.King Or­donno III. disturbed by Rebels, subdues them. The Beginning of his Reign was blessed with Peace, which lasted not long; for he was soon disturbed by his Bro­ther Sancho, who aimed to usurp the Crown, assisted by the Count Fernan Gonzalez, who took part with him through Malice, and contrary to Right, and the Tyes of Affinity, for Ordonno had married his Daughter Ʋr­raca. The Count was guilty of many Enormities be­sides this, notwithstanding the vulgar. Opinion of his extraordinary Vertues and Merit. D. Garcia Sanchez, King of Navarre, and Uncle to Sancho, as well as Bro­ther to his Mother, favoured his Designs. With these Aids Sancho presumed to assume the Regal Stile, and enter'd the Kingdom of Leon, wasting that very Coun­try where he intended to reign. King Ordonno soon re­pulsed the Invaders; and the better to be revenged of the Count, he was divorced from his Daughter, and sent her back to him. Some Towns in Galicia had also rebelled; but the King reduced them, with a great Slaughter of the Rebels. No sooner had he quelled the Rebels, but he marched through Portugal, as far as Lis­bon, whither no Christian King had reached, since D. Alonso the Chaste. He takes Lisbon. After a fierce Assault, he took the City by Storm, and gave the Plunder thereof to his Ar­my: Which done, he returned to his Court, laden with Spoils, and bestowed them in rewarding those that had deserved best, and in Religious Works. Conve­niency made the King and Count Fernan Gonzalez, who had been long at Variance, agree, and unite their For­ces against the King of Cordova. They came to a Battel near Gormaz, where the Christians obtained a glorious Victory; which brought Peace to their Frontiers, be­fore subject to continual Incursions. This was the Po­sture of Affairs,955. when Ordonno died at Zamora. He lies buried in the Church of Our Blessed Saviour, at Leon, by his Father, with his two Wives, Ʋrraca, from whom he was divorced; and Elvira, whose Parentage is un­known: By her he had D. Bermudo, and Teresa, a Nun in the Monastery of St. Julian, in Leon.

[Page 131] 7. Sancho, Sancho, [...] Usurper, called The Fat. the Brother of King Ordonno, usurped the Crown from Bermudo, the late King's Son, then a Child. This Sancho was excessively swelled with the Dropsie; and thence, though improperly, called, The Fat. He had not long enjoyed the Crown, when those very Rebels who had unjustly set it upon his Head,957. took it thence,Ordonno, Surnamed the Wic­ked, ad­vanced to the Crown. to bestow it upon D. Ordonno, Surna­med The Wicked, Son to King Alonso the Monk. The Rebel Count Fernan Gonzalez was the chief Actor in promoting him to the Throne, and therefore gave him to Wife his Daughter Ʋrraca, before put away by the other King Ordonno. King Sancho fled to Navarre, and thence to Cordova, Sancho re­turns, and expels him. where there were famous Physicians, who cured him of his Dropsie. Being recovered of his Indisposition, he gathered an Army; and was so for­tunate, as to take the Count Fernan Gonzalez, and his Son-in-Law Ordonno. Though he had them Prisoners, he would not presently put them to Death, but kept the Count in Custody. D. Sancha, his Wife, coming to see him in Prison, changed Clothes with him, and by that Means he escaped, leaving her in his stead. A great Rebellion was raised by the Counts that go­verned Portugal; but the Presence of the King soon re­duced them. Only Count Gonzalo, who governed be­yond Duero, durst march with an Army, to meet his Sovereign; yet finding him too strong, he made a feign­ed Submission, and was pardoned. It was not long before he compassed by Poyson what he had failed of by the Sword. The Portuguese Counts being accused of this Treason, to clear themselves, challenged D. Gonza­lo; and Count Fruela Vermuiz, their Champion, over­came him at the Town of Salas, near the City of Perto. King Sancho perceiving his Death draw near, ordered himself to be carried to Leon, 96 [...] but died by the Way, at the Monastery of Castrillo, where he was buried, but was afterwards translated to Leon, where his Queen was also interred. Queen Teresa was Daughter to Assur Fer­nandez, Count of Monzon. By her the King had Issue, D. Ramiro III, his Successor; Ʋrraca, married to Count Nepociano Diaz; and Ermesenda, by whom the King, her Brother, is said to have had D. Sancho the Hairy. About this time Castile revolted from the Crown of Leon. Authors write, that the Cause was, because the King could not pay Count Fernan Gonzalez for an Horse [Page 132] and an Hawk he had sold to him upon Credit: But it appears very fabulous, that a King should part with a Kingdom upon so slender an Account. The true Reason was, the Rebellion of the People, headed by the wicked Count.

8. King Ramiro III.Ramiro III succeeds, under the Tuition of his Mother and Aunt. succeeded his Father, when he was but six Years of Age; his Mother, Queen Teresa, and his Aunt Elvira, the Nun, managing the Govern­ment with such Prudence, during his Minority, that there was no Want of him to be perceived. Besides, there was then a Truce with Hiscen King of Cordova, then but 11 Years of Age, and under the Tuition of the famous Ahagis, Surnamed Almanzor, a most cruel Enemy to the Christians. The Nor­mans in­vade Ga­licia, and are cut in pieces. This Tranquility was dis­turbed, by the Normans invading Galicia: But the Count Gonzalo Sanchez, falling upon them with a great Force, left not one of them to carry the News of the Defeat. At this time the City Coimbra was subject to the Kings of Leon; and the Christians about it, possessed their Lands in Peace. After all things had thus remained quiet 7 or 8 Years,975. Alcoracis (supposed to be King of Sevil) broke into Lusitania with such a Power, that the Christian Counts, not able to withstand him, fled from the Plains, to the inaccessible Mountains. The Barba­rians, destroying all the Country as they went, passed even the River Minho, and laid Siege to Compostela, where the Plague so violently raged in their Army, that few of them returned home.978. King Ramiro being come to Age, he shewed himself so incapable of the Govern­ment,Civil Broils. that the Counts of Portugal and Galicia took Oc­casion to proclaim another King, which was, Bermudo, Son to King Ordonno III, by his Second Wife Elvira. The King awaking at the News of this Rebellion, met the Rebels,981. and a Battel was fought between them, which lasted the whole Day: Night parted the Armies, and each returned home, neither victorious, nor over­thrown. In this Fight perished the Flower of the Spa­nish Cavalry, that used to withstand the Moors. Coim­bra was not concerned in this Rebellion; it then enjoy­ed Peace, under Portuguese Governors: The Chief, who commanded all the rest, was, Count Gonzalo Moniz.

9. The Civil Broils we have spoken of,983. encouraged the Moorish General Almanzor, spurred on by the Fugi­tive [Page 133] Count D. Vela, who had been expelled his Lands, to break the Truce.Many Pla­ces in Por­tugal ta­ken and destroyed by the Moors. Many notable Places in Portugal were again brought under, by the Infidels; and among them, Coimbra, Porto, Braga, and Britonium, which was laid level with the Ground, so that only the Memory of its Name remains. The same Fate attended Lame­go, and Viseo, in the Province of Beira. The King adventuring to give the Moors Battel, was overthrown, and forced to retire to the Mountains, being almost re­duced to the miserable Condition that Pelayus, or Pela­gius, had been, when first Spain was over-run. Count Garcia Fernandez, Lord of Castile, being persecuted by D. Vela, and his Adherents, always kept the Field, against the Moores; but being forsaken by the People of Leon, was not able to prevent the Loss of many Places. In Portugal only, the small Province between the Rivers Duero and Minho, and the Mountain-Country of Beira, now adhered to D. Bermudo, who still called himself King in Galicia. To these Parts, many great Men, who before lived in the Territories of Coimbra, withdrew themselves. The unfortunate King thus thrust into a Corner by D. Bermudo on the one side,985. and by the Moors on the other, died at Leon, in the 33th Year of his Age, and 28th of his Reign, was buried in the Monastery of St. Michael of Distriana, founded by his Grandfather, King Rami­ro II; and 200 Years after, translated thence, by King Ferdinand, to the Cathedral of Astorga. He was mar­ried to the Lady Ʋrraca, of whose Parentage we have no Account; nor did she leave any Issue. By his own Sister, Ermesenda, he had, incestuously, a Son, called D. Sancho el Velloso, or The Hairy.

CHAP. IX.
The Succeeding Kings from the Year 985. till 1037. with the coming of the Gascons into Portugal, and their exploits against the Moores; many places recovered by them, and others from the Infidels.

1. KIng Ramiro dying,985. D. Bermudo was left sole Posses­sor of the Crown.Bermudo [...] many places, and [...] by Almanzor At the beginning of his Reign, he wholly applied himself to the Government, but soon after he became so entirely given up to his Vices, and especially to incontinency, that he was slighted by his Subjects,989. and became contemptible to his Enemies. Almanzor laying hold of this opportunity, and promp­ted by the fugitive D. Vela, invaded again the Christian Territories, and without any considerable opposition, subdued all the Towns between the Rivers Due [...] and Ezla. Here King Bermudo came upon him so unexpe­ctedly, that he put his vast Army to the rout; but Al­manzor perceiving how disordered the Christians pursu­ed, rallying some of his scattered Forces, changed the fortune of the Day, and drove those that before were victorious, to the Gates of Leon. That City had im­mediately fallen into the hands of the Infidels, had not the matchless valour of Count William Gonzalez, a Portu­guese, placed there Governour by the King, defended it against the fury of the Infidels, tho' the King then lying at Oviedo took no care to relieve the place. In the year 996.996 Almanzor again incamped before the same City, resolving not to depart thence, till he were Master of it. Above a Year the Count held out against all the fury of Almanzor's Assaults and Batteries, in so much, that the Moore was about quitting the Siege, and had certainly done it, had the King either come or sent any Succour to the Besieged. At length a great part of the Wall shaken with a continual Battery, fell down, and the Moores gave a furious Assault, which obliged the Count, tho' then sick in Bed, to cause himself to be carried, as he was, to the Breach, to give the necessary Orders, and encourage his Soldiers. Three whole days [Page 135] did he make good the Breach with great Slaughter of the Assailants, till another Breach being made, the In­fidels broke in overpowering the Defendants. All the Inhabitants were put to the Sword, the City Plundered and laid level with the Ground. The same fate atten­ded Astorga, which done, Almanzor with his Army loaded with Booty, returned to Cordova to Winder.

2. Ataulphus Archbishop of Compostel [...], A strange trial of an [...] Archbishop. being wrong­fully accused before the King, he ordered him to be exposed to the fury of a wild Bull, who coming to him, instead of Tossing him upon his Horns, left them both in his Hand, which was a sufficient Testimony of that Prelates innocence. Almanzor again broke out like a Torrent, overturning all that the Christians had re­paired of the former Ruins, and destroying what was before untouched. Montemayor the Old, Viseo, Lamego, Porto and Braga, were rased down to the Ground: The Barbarian entring Galicia, Almanzor again makes great spoil. made a Font in the Church of St. James the Apostle serve for a Manger, and sent away the Gates and the Bells of the Church upon the shoulders of Christians to Cordova; but pre­suming to prophane the Sepulcher of the Apostle, he was drove back by flames which issued out of it. Al­manzor returning through Protugal heavy with Plunder, was overtaken with vengeance from Heaven for profa­ning the Church of the Apostle. A mortal Flux de­stroying great part of his Army; the rest marched lea­surely in several Bodies: King Bermudo sent some light Troops, who made such havock among them, that not the 20th. part of that great Army returned to Cor­dova, all the Country the way they went being covered with dead Carcasses. Count Fruela Vermuiz (who, as has been said, overcame Count Gonzalo that Poisoned King Sancho) fell upon Almanzor himself, who led the choice of the Army, and put him to flight with great Slaughter of his People. King Bermudo at length a­waking out of his dead Sleep, joyned his Forces with the King of Navarre and Count Garci Fernandez. They expected the coming of the Enemy near Aleantaroz, 999. four Leagues from Osma; here they fought from Morn­ing till Night, and then at length victory inclined to the Christians, who slew of their Enemies 70000 Foot and 40000 Horse. Almanzor flying towards Toledo, died of Grief near Berlanga; soon after, his Son Abdel [Page 136] Melich, to revenge him, invaded the Christian Territo­ries, but being met by Count Garci Fernandez, was de­feated and fled back to Cordova. King Bermudo had two Wives, the first called Velasquita, by whom he had no issue; the second Elvira, her Children were A­lonso, Successor to his Father; Teresa married to Ab­dala, King of Toledo, and afterwards a Nun, and San­cha a Nun also. The King gave great Scandal by keep­ing two Sisters at the same time publickly as his Mi­streses, one of them was Mother to Elvira, the other to Ordonno. By Velasquita, a Peasant, the King had a Daughter called Christina; he died in the Year 999. at Villabuena in Galicia, very penitent for his sins. There he lay Buried till his Son King Alonso translated him to Leon, where he lies with his Wife in the Church of St. Isidorus.

3. Let us look a little back to see the coming of the first Strangers,The Gas­cons come into Portu­gal and as­sist the Christians that assisted the Natives of Portu­gal in expelling the Moores. These were the Gascons who came in a mighty Fleet, and were Commanded by D. Moninno Viegas. There is a great dispute among Authors, whether this D. Moninno was a Gascon or a Portuguese, and whether he came with those People, or only headed them after their coming, he being by some supposed to be then a great Man in Portugal. All that is said on either part, being rather Suppositions, than Proofs, we will pass by this Dispute, leaving it free to every one to believe as he shall be inclined. This Fleet cast Anchor in the River Duero, on the one side where­of was the Castle of Gaya, Demolished by King Rami­ro II. when he killed Alboazar, and on the other, the City Porto destroyed long before by the Moores. Here they landed, and their first care was to repair the City, then only a heap of Rubbish; in the highest part of it they built a Castle, supposed to be the same that is now the Bishop's Pallace. The compass of the Walls was but small, and they weak for our times, but then con­siderable; some part of them is still to be seen in the midst of the City, which being increased, has hemmed them in. Two of these Ancient Gates are still stand­ing; the one called St. Ann's Gate, the other our Bles­sed Ladies, over which is an Image of the Blessed Vir­gin, with our Saviour in her Arms, which Image be­tween two Towers is the Arms of that City. Having [Page 137] Repaired and Fortified this place, the Natives and Strangers began joyntly to conquer the Neighbouring Country. Men remarkable among them were, Sise­nandns, Brother to D. Moninno, and D. Nonego of Ven­dosme. The first that felt their fury were the Moors, who possessed the Territories of Resende, and Bienviver, and all up the River Duero; this done, thinking their Conquest secure, they chose Sisenandus Bishop of the City, and yet he ceased not to appear in Arms till he died at Bienviver, and was Buried in the Monastery of Villaboa. D. Nonego of Vendosme, also a Bishop, carried on his Conquests on the other side, and four Leagues from Porto in the Mountain, built a Castle which he called Vendosme, and so streightned the Moores, that they were forced to abandon all that Neighbourhood. The Castle is ruined by time, but the name of Vendosme still continues in the Mountain. In this exercise he continu­ed till his Death, and was Buried in the Monastery of Aviaos. The conquered Lands were equally divided, as well among the Auxiliary strangers, as among the native Portuguese.

4. King Alonso V. succeeded his Father Bermudo; 999. he is the first of the Alonsos that appears without some Sir­name;King A­lonso V. for the First was called the Catholick, the Se­cond the Chast, the Third the Great, the Fourth the Monk. Not that this deserved less Titles, for he might have been called the Brave for his Valour; the Legi­slator for giving good Laws to his People; the Restorer for repairing Leon, and in fine, the Desired as being one who left the greatest desire of himself, and was most lamented by his People. He was Six Years of Age when he began his Reign,Under Tui­tion. under the Tuition of Count Mendo Gonzalez and his Wife the Lady Mayor, who had great possessions in Galicia, and some in Portugal, and Governed so well, that the King's minority was no prejudice to his Kingdom. The Christians in Portugal began to be so powerful, that under the conduct of some notable Commanders, they repaired many places before ruined, and conquered others possessed by the Moores. 1000. D. Alboazar Ramirez Son to King Ramiro II. by Zara or Artida, Many pla­ces recove­red from the Moors whom he stole from the Lord of Gaya, as was said before, wi [...]h many Gentlemen and Forces maintained at his own Charge, entred Portugal and drove the Moores out of all the Province betwixt the [Page 138] Rivers Duero and Minho. He took St. Roman, Gastro de Avioso, and Castro de Gondomar: Beyond the River Duero he forced them to retire as far as St. Martin de Moras and Lamego, making room for the Christians to dilate themselves. The lands of Arouca and that Neigh­bourhood were again Peopled; the Year following, he overthrew the Moores in many places,1001 took the City Braganza and other considerable Towns in those Moun­tains, and so extended the Christian Dominions, that he deserves to be accounted one of the principal Restorers of Portugal. His two Sons D. Trastamiro and D. Her­migio, or Hermiron Alboazar accompanied him in these Conquests, of whom are descended some Honourable Families in Spain.

5. The tranquility the King's Tutors endeavoured to preserve in the Kingdom,Count Froila a Portugues Rebels. during his Minority, was disturbed by the Portuguese Count Froila Vermuiz, who took up Arms against the King. They came to a Bat­tle in the Territory of Mafra, betwixt Villanueva and Betancos, where Froila got the Victory. The King now grown bigger, was much incensed against Count Froila, and his anger was increased by the insinuations of Q. Elvira, his Wife and Daughter to Count Mendo Gon­zalez. Froila being in disgrace, had again recourse to Arms, which not a little troubled the King, and the more for that at the same time, he received the News, that another had rebelled in the City Oviedo. Thi­ther the King hasted, leaving Froila till he was more at leasure: But he marched directly after the King, and overtook him at such time as he was ready to Assault the City. The King was advised to forbear the As­sault, least in the heat of it, Froila should fall upon him behind,His Sub­mission. but he Answered, Let the Assault be carried on, for the Count is so much a Gentleman, that he will not fall upon the backs of his Enemies. As he said, it fell out, for Froila overcome by that Generosity, joyned his Forces to the King's, and so forwarded the attack that the City was immediately carried. In this Action the Count behaved himself so bravely, that he lost both his Eyes, at which the King was exceedingly grieved, and bestowed large possessions on him, in some measure to recompense his loss: About this time, Count Garcia Fer­nandez of Castile, was killed in a Battle betwixt Alcozar and Langra, having behaved himself with great Bra­very, [Page 139] he being one of the most notable Commanders of that Age. His Son Sancho succeeded him as well in his Courage, as Dominions, and often revenged his Death upon the Moores. There being several preten­ders to the Kingdom of Cordova, he seemingly sided with each of them to have the better opportunity to ruin them all. The fugitive Count Vela, who used to stir up the Moores against the Christians was now dead, and his Sons Roderick, James and Innigo were restored to their Estates, and served the Count as their natural Lord. He the more to Honour them, made the El­dest God-father to his own Eldest Son D. Garcia, and yet he afterwards behaved himself like a Traitor, as his Father had done before.

6. The Divisions among the Moores at Cordova, were very advantagious to the Christians of Leon, Castile and Portugal. Those that had escaped the desolation made by Almanzor about Coimbra, dealt with the Infidels, and bought Lands of them at a very low rate; it appears by the original Deeds still extant, that Oborez a Moore, sold the Town of Botam to Arias Prior of the Convent of Botam for a Mare and her Fole;1012. either the Mare was worth much, or the Town very little. Till the Year 1020,1020. we have no account of any thing remarkable in Portugal. Out of it the King repaired the City Leon, and gave it a Charter, and great Priviledges to all that would come and inhabit there.1026. Six years after was Born the renowned Captain Roderick de Bivar, Roderick de Bivar, commonly called Cid, his Birth. com­monly called Cid, which in Arabick signifies Lord, of whom mention will be made hereafter. The Christian affairs throughout Spain were in a flourishing condition; the King entred Portugal, recovering many Towns in the Province of Beira, till he came and incamped be­fore Viseo. 1027. The City was obstinately defended, and the King going out in the Evening unarmed, to view the Enemies Works, was shot through the Body with an Arrow from the Walls.King A­lonso slain. Some write that he died there presently, others that he was carried to Porto. His death we shall hereafter see revenged as far as it could be. His body was laid in a stately Tomb at Leon; he lived Thirty Two Years, and Reigned Twenty Eight; being bred in Galicia by Count Mendo Gonzalez, Lord of Vierzo, he married his Daughter: By her he had Bermudo his Successor, and Sancha who afterwards came [Page 140] to be Queen; he had also a Bastard Son, called Nunno Alvarez de Amaya, or Roderick Anzures, Lieutenant of Asturias, and Lord of Gijon.

7. Bermudo III.Bermudo III. Suc­ceeds. of the Name, succeeded his Father Alonso V. but so young, it was much feared his tender Years might produce some notable Disorders in the Go­vernment. His extraordinary Abilities far above his Years, soon dried up the Tears his subjects shed for his Father, and made them rejoice in so unexpected a Blessing. He was extreamly Religious and Devout, and therefore applied himself to the re-establishing of many ruined Churches. Being of Age to Marry, he took to Wife the Lady Ximena or Teresa, younger Daughter to Count Sancho, Lord of Castile, by whom he had D. Alonso, who lived but a few days. He con­cluded a match between his Sister the Lady Sancha and D. Garcia, An inhu­man Mur­ther. the Son of Count Sancho of Castile. King Sancho of Navarre, who was Brother-in-law to D. Gar­cia, bore him Company to Leon to honour his Marri­age. The next day after their Arrival, the Bride­groom went out with the Bishop to hear Mass; in the way, he was assaulted by the Sons of the traitor D. Vela, before spoke of, and by them stabbed in several places, his own God-father being the first that wounded him. This News being carried to Court, the Bride forgetting her Grandeur, ran out to the place, and pittifully la­menting her loss, it was thought she would have given up the Ghost upon the dead Body. She railed at the Murderers, which Count Fernan Flavino hearing, had the impudence to strike her on the Face. The Mur­derers for the present escaped, but Sancho King of Na­varre, afterwards getting them into his power, burnt them alive, declaring all their progeny for ever infamous.

8. D. Garcia thus murder'd, and no Heir Male re­maining to the Earldom of Castile, Sancho King of Na­varre possessed himself thereof in the Right of his Wife, the Lady Elvira, Wars be­twixt the Christian Kings of Spain. Sister to the late Count. Grown Great with this Accession of Power, he made War up­on King Bermudo, about the Limits of Castile and Leon; and conquered much of the Country, betwixt the Ri­vers Pisuerga and Cea. More had been won by him, but that Sancha, 1034. only Sister to King Bermudo, was gi­ven in Marriage to Ferdinand, Second Son to King Sancho. This Lady swore she would never consent to [Page 141] the Match, unless Count Fernan Flaminio, who struck her on the Face as she lay upon the Body of the dead Count Garcia, was delivered up to her. This was ac­cordingly done; and she, with her own Hands, put him to a cruel Death,1035. but well deserved by him. The King of Navarre dying,Ferdi­nand of Navarre kills King Bermudo and be­comes sole Monarch of Castile, Leon, Portugal, Galicia and Na­varre. and his Son Ferdinand succeed­ing him, King Bermudo was in hopes to recover what Ferdinand's Father had taken from him. They came to a Battel in the Valley of Tamara, near Fromista, where, after a bloody Fight, King Bermudo was killed, and his Army overthrown. Ferdinand, now victorious, immediately laid Siege to Leon; and having made him­self Master thereof, he was there Crowned King of Le­on, Galicia and Portugal, in the Right of his Wife San­cha, the lawful Heiress of those Kingdoms. Thus, for want of Issue Male to the Kings of Leon, and Earls of Castile, those two Dominions fell to the House of Na­varre, 1037. by the Female Line.

9. What I am about to relate, happen'd in the Reign of King Bermudo; but in what Year, is not certain: Two Grandsons of Prince Alboazar Ramirez, Son to King Ramiro III, called Tedon and Rosendo, with a Body of resolute Men, broke into that part of the Country that lies betwixt the Rivers Tavora and Duero. Having drove the Moors thence,A Strata­gem of the Christians against the Moors. they began to Till the Land; and knowing well that the Infidels would not suffer them quietly to rest there, they fortified themselves on a Rock, over the River Tavora; which running round great part of it, makes it a sort of Peninsula; which, with the Steepness of the Rock it self, renders it inacces­sible any Way but one. Here they built their Habita­tion, and hence infested the Country of the Moors. At length, on Midsummer-Day, which is much reverenced even by those Infidels, in Honour of St. John the Baptist, the Moors of the Town of Paredes resorted, in great Numbers, to sport and divert themselves on the Banks of the River, and to bathe themselves in it. D. Rosendo cloathing his Men in Moorish Apparel, passed the Ri­ver, out of sight, and lay close in Ambush till he saw all the Banks covered with the Barbarians: Then, by degrees, coming out, as if he had been some of their own Company, he suffered his Men to mix with the Enemy, who took them for Friends. Being all mixed, the Christians fell upon them, and turned their Pleasure [Page 142] into Sorrow: However, many stood, and made a good Defence; and others coming to their Aid, the Success was doubtful, till D. Tedon, fording the River, with his Men, ended the Dispute, with the Slaughter of most of the Moors. This, and other Victories, put the two Brothers in Possession of many Lands in that Country: And in Memory of the Action, they took to themselves the Name of the River, which still continues in the Family of the Tavora's.

10. The Fame of the Exploits of D. Tedon, parti­cularly that upon the River, together with that of the Comliness of his Person, reaching the Ears of Ardinga, the beautiful Daughter of Aliboazen King of Lamego, she fell in Love with him by Hear-say.The Effects of Love. Love perswa­ded her to quit her Father's Palace, and, disguised in the Habit of a Man, through bye Ways, she found out the Abbot Gelasius, a solitary Hermit. She told him who she was, and the Cause of her Coming; and he baptized her, promising to perswade D. Tedon to take her to Wife. This took not effect, for her Father closely pursuing her, overtook, and put her to death. Tedon hearing of her Love, had promised to marry her, and she being dead, would take no other Wife; but was afterwards killed by the Moors, near a small Brook, which, of him, was called Tedo: So he took his Sur­name from one River, and gave his Name to another. There being nothing else remarkable, recorded in Por­tugal, during the Reign of King Bermudo, and he being the last King thereof of that Name, I must not omit to remark, that Bermudo is the same Name with Veremun­dus, which the Spaniards call Veremundo; so that, to make it Bermudo, there is, corruptly, an e and an n omitted; and to use B for V, is common in Spanish. Thus Bermudo and Veremundus appear to be the same Name.

CHAP. X.
The remaining Kings, from the Year 1037, till the Year 1108, and till the Establishment of Count Henry of Burgundy in the Sovereign­ty of Portugal, where begins the Line of the Portuguese Kings, and ends the Second Book.

1. FErdinand Prince of Navarre inherited the Crown of Leon, King Fer­dinand called The Great. in the Right of his Wife, the Lady Sancha, Daughter to King Alonso V, and Sister to King Bermudo III, who died without Issue. The Earldom of Castile fell to him by his Mother, the Lady Nunna; and the Crown of Navarre he inherited, from his Fa­ther: Three Crowns were united in him, and he was well worthy thereof; purchasing, by his Piety, Valour and Bounty, the Title of The Great. The Moors be­lieving King Ferdinand was wholly employed in recon­ciling his new Subjects in Castile, Leon, Galicia and Portugal, broke into Lustainia; but hearing he was pro­vided to receive them, they retired hastily. He, once provoked, would not put up his Sword without doing Execution.His Con­quests over the Infi­dels. He took the Town of Sea, and the Cities Merida, Badajoz, Beja and Evora, without any Resistance. Viseo, guilty of the Death of King Alonso, and fearing a Revenge, was strongly fortified, and governed by Cid Alafun, a notable Commander. The King sate down before it, resolving not to stir thence, till he were Ma­ster of it. Eighteen Days the City was battered, and bravely defended; at the End whereof, being the Eve of the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, it was enter'd by Force, and never after returned under the Yoak of the Infidels. The Man that shot King Alonso being taken in the City, had his Eyes put out, and both his Hands and one Foot cut off; which done, he was shot to Death. The Governor Alafun had, in Consideration of his Va­lour, Lands given him to live upon, paying a certain Tribute. His Name is still preserved in those Parts, in the Mountain called Alafun, the Council of Alaf [...], and other Places.

[Page 144] 2. The City Lamego held out no less obstinately, du­ring Twenty Five Days, at the end whereof it was surrendred upon Articles the 22th Day of July. It was not then used to expel the Moors, but to bring them to pay a moderate tribute. After these Conquests, the King crossed the Province between the Rivers Duero and Minho into Galicia, to visit the Sepulcher of the Apo­stle St. James, 1039. and make his Offerings there: The fol­lowing Year he conquered many places in the Province of Tras os Montes, and pierced down even to the River Tagus. King Ferdinand made glorious Conquests the ensuing Years; but they being out of Portugal, do not appertain to us.Coimbra taken by the Advice and Assis­tance of the Monks of Lorvan. Two Monks of the Monastery of Lor­van advertised the King, that the City Coimbra was ill provided, and worse fortified, and therefore it would be easie to gain it. King Ferdinand marched in Decem­ber, 1063, and laid Siege to it, where he continued till July following; so that 7 Months were spent in the Siege:1064. And it may be supposed, the Moors, before un­provided, upon Notice of his Coming, had prepared to receive him. Provisions grew so scarce in the Army towards the latter end of the Siege, that the King was about raising it, and departing: But the Monks of the aforesaid Monastery of Lorvan supplied him plentifully, and the City was taken the 8th Day after. The King offered the Monks to take what they pleased, in requi­tal for their Intelligence and Supplies; but they mo­destly begged only a Church in the City: However, he gave them many rich Gifts, and confirmed all the former Grants made by his Ancestors. In token of Gra­titude, the Monks presented the King with a Golden Crown, which Count Gonzalo Moniz, Governor of the Province between Duero and Minho, had offered to their Church: The King restored it, with 10 Marks of Sil­ver, to make a Cross. Roderick de Bivar, Surnamed Cid, that famous Captain, was at this Siege, and Knighted by the King, in this City. Here was also the renowned Portuguese, Roderick Frojas, Contemporary, and not much inferiour to the other for Warlike Exploits.

3. The King returning to Leon, left Sisnandus, a no­ble and valiant Man, Governor of Coimbra. He made War upon Abudad, a resolute and powerful Moor, who had much disturbed the King at the Siege; but being subdued, became a most loyal Subject. Soon after, the [Page 145] Moors, 1065. under the Command of Benalfagi, a great Lord in Estremadura, repaired the Fortifications of Monte­mayor the Old, that it might be a Check upon Coimbra. This Place was so obnoxious to it, that King Ferdinand was forced to come with a powerful Army, wherewith he laid Siege to it for many Days.1066. Here Roderick de Bi­var took great Pains to supply the Camp with Forage, all the Country about being kept by great Multitudes of Moors. Monte­mayor ta­ken, and demolished. At length the Besieged surrender'd, upon Pro­mise of their Lives; and the King, offended at the Re­sistance he had found there, demolished the Walls. The Governor Sisnandus repaired them again, in the Reign of King Alonso VI. King Ferdinand was born in the Year 1007; and in 1030, married the Lady San­cha, by whom he had the following Children, in Or­der as named, Ʋrraca, El [...]a, Sancho, Alonso and Gar­cia. By a Daughter of Raymund, Lord of Savoy, he had Ferdinand, who was a Cardinal; and D. Mininno Fer­nandez of Toro. Ferdi­nand dy­ing, di­vides his Dominions. The King finding his End draw near, divided his Kingdoms among his Sons: To Sancho he gave Castile; to Alonso, Leon; and to Garcia, Galicia and Portugal: To the Lady Ʋrraca he left the City Za­mora, with half the Principality of Leon; to the Lady Elvira, Garcia is King of Ga­licia and Portugal. the other half, [...]d the City Toro. Having thus settled his Affairs, King Ferdinand died, in the 60th Year of his Age, and the 30th of his Reign; and was buried in the Church of St. Isidorus, 1067. where, a Year after, his Wife Sancha was also laid.

4. King Ferdinand foreseeing, that the Division of his Kingdoms could not but produce Discord among his Sons, bound them by Oath to stand to this Distribu­tion; leaving his Curse upon him that should attempt to alter it. But, of what Force are Oaths, against Am­bition?The three Brothers fall at Va­riance. None of them was satisfied. Sancho, the El­dest, thought himself wronged, as having a Right to all. Garcia was grieved that the Cities of Toro and Za­mora were given to his Sisters. Alonso was offended that Sancho should think he had Right to his Dominions. Garcia was the youngest, and therefore the last in the Distribution: But he proved the first that took up Arms against his Sisters, and invaded the Lands of Toro, and others along the River Duero, which he would have to belong to Portugal. D. Sancho soon followed his Exam­ple in taking the Field, not to defend his Sisters, but [Page 146] to strip them all. King Sancho, before he undertook this Enterprize, asked the Advice of all his Noble­men; who unanimously disswaded him from the Un­dertaking, for fear of incurring his Father's Curses. However, finding him not to be moved, they counsel­led him to continue in Amity with King Alonso, and ask Leave of him to pass through the Kingdom of Leon, into Portugal. To this purpose he met his Brother A­lonso, at the Monastery of Sahagun; but could not pre­vail to have Passage granted him: Nevertheless, upon second Thoughts, they both agreed to conquer Portu­gal. 1069. Our King Garcia, taken up with his own ambi­tious Designs, had no Leisure to look into the Practices of his Brothers. What was yet worse, his Subjects were discontented, for that he made Account of none but his Favourite Verna, by whose Advice he began the War of Toro unsuccessfully.

5. The Portuguese Nobility and Gentry consulted together,The Portu­guese No­bility in­sult their King, on ac­count of his Favourite. how they might remove this mighty Favou­rite; and it was resolved, that D. Roderick Frojas, a migh­ty Man in those Days, should discourse the King upon that Matter. When he had made a long Harangue upon the Subject, all the Answer the King made, was, to turn his Back upon him, and go away. D. Roderick seeing how little his Words had prevailed, soon after killed Verna in the Palace. The Death of Verna troubled not the King so much, as the News that King Sancho was marching against him, and the small Confidence he had in his Subjects, especially for the Brothers of that D. Roderick conspired together to oppose his punishing the said D. Roderick. Necessity obliged the King to wink at Offences, and send for D. Roderick, who was fled into Navarre, designing for France. He immediate­ly returned, and came to Coimbra, then the Court of Portugal, at such time as King Sancho's Forces began to range in Galicia, and in the Province of Beira, without meeting with any Opposition.1071. The two Earls, D. Nunho de Lara, and D. Garcia de Cabra, advanced to the Walls of Coimbra, with some Troops of Horse. The King would have gone out to fight them,The Forces of Castile overthrown by those of Portugal. but D. Roderick Frojas said, It was not fit for him to hazard himself, where there was no King against him. D. Roderick went out, with his two Brothers, Peter and Vermui, to meet the Enemy; and in the Field called Agua de Mayas, over­threw [Page 147] them, killing 600, among whom were many of Note: 200 Portuguese were slain; and Frojas him­self received many Wounds.

6. King Garcia was gone to Santarem, when King Sancho, to revenge the former Loss, pierced through Portugal, with a numerous Army. Some advised to pro­tract the War, and not hazard a Battel; but D. Rode­rick Frojaz, now recovered of his Wounds, was posi­tive for Fighting. A Plain, not far from Santarem, was chose for that Purpose; where was fought as bloody a Battel as has been seen in any Age. The greatest Fu­ry was,King San­cho over­throws his Brother Garcia and takes him Prisoner. when the Portuguese strove to gain the Standard of the Castilians. King Sancho came thither in Person, to defend it; and being unhorsed by D. Egas Gomez de Sousa, was taken Prisoner by D. Roderick Frojaz, who delivered him up to King Garcia. No sooner had he delivered his Prisoner, but he fell down dead of the Wounds he had before received. King Garcia put his Brother into the Custody of certain Gentlemen, whilst he pursued the flying Enemy: But King Sancho making his Escape from them, made his Way to join Roderick Diaz de Bivar, called Cid, who was then coming up with fresh Troops, that had not been engaged: These charging the Portuguese, before tired, and now dispers­ed in the Pursuit, changed the Fortune of the Day: However, the Fight, thus renewed, lasted till Night. D. Peter and D. Vermui, Brothers to D. Roderick Frojas, were killed, and King Garcia was taken by his Brother, who not long before had been his Prisoner, and who now knew better how to secure him than he had been kept himself. Thus the Castilians recovered the Day, and the Portuguese, before victorious, were put to the Rout. King Garcia continued in Prison 10 Years, when he was released by Death. There are Authors who write, that King Sancho enlarged his Brother Gar­cia, contenting himself that he should be Tributary to him; and that D. Alonso, Brother to both, returned him to Prison, in the Castle of Luna, where he died, with Irons on his Legs: With those very Fetters, at his own Request, he was buried in the Church of St. Isido­rus, at Leon.

7. King Sancho having obtained the Victory over his Brother Garcia, all the Kingdom of Portugal and Galicia submitted to him. This Kingdom being sub­dued, [Page 148] he turned his victorious Arms against King Alon­so of Leon, Sancho, after sub­duing Por­tugal, [...]on­quers Le­on, and be­comes sole Monarch. who well deserved it for consenting to the Destruction of his Brother. The War continued bloo­dy for some time, with various Success, till at length King Alonso, overthrown, was taken Prisoner. To deliver himself from that Misery, he retired to Sahagun, pretending to become a Religious Man. Soon after, finding a fit Opportunity,1072. by the Advice of Count Pe­ter Anzures, King A­lonso of Leon flies to the Pro­tection of the Moors. he fled to Toledo, where the Moorish King Alimaimon entertained him with Royal Magnificence. Nothing now remained to disturb King Sancho's ambi­tious Thoughts, but his Sister Ʋrraca's possessing Za­mora. He laid Siege to that City, and had now redu­ced it to Extremity; but here, in this last Act, God permitted the Curses of his Father to reach him; for, in the Height of his Confidence, a Traytor, called Vellido Dolphes, coming out of the City, upon pretence of revealing some Secret to him, took his Opportuni­ty to strike him through the Body with a Spear, where­of he fell down dead. King Sancho reigned six Years, and was murder'd in 1073.1073. He was called The Brave, and was married to the Lady Blanch, Daughter to his Uncle Garcia Sanchez, King of Navarre; or, according to others, to Alberta of France. His Body lies in the Church of our Blessed Saviour at Onna.

8. King Alonso being generously protected by the Moor, Alimaimon King of Toledo, lived in hopes of bet­ter Fortune; when Advice was brought him from Za­mora, by Order of his Sister Ʋrraca, of the Death of his Brother,Alonso, after his Brother's Death, re­turne, and is received by the Peo­ple a [...] their King. King Sancho. He immediately came to take Possession of his Kingdoms, and was received with general Applause: Only Roderick Diaz de Bivar, called Cid, would not take the Oath of Allegiance to him, till he swore he had no Hand in the Death of King San­cho. It is strange, amidst the universal Satisfaction, the King should have need of one Man: But he resented this Affront so heinously, that he afterwards banished him; in which Exile, Roderick gained much Honour. King Alonso, the 6th of that Name, being settled in quiet Possession of his Kingdoms, approved himself worthy of greater Dominions, being one of the most victorious Princes of Spain, and that farthest extended his Conquests. He seemed rather to have fled to Toledo as a Spy, than for Protection; for he took that City [Page 149] from the Infidels, and valued himself so much upon it, that from thenceforwards he stiled himself Emperor;1085. and was the Honour of the Spanish Monarchy.

9. King Alonso had six Wives:Alonso's W [...]ves, and Issue. The First was, Ag­nes, her Parentage unknown, and she left no Issue. The Second was, Constance, Daughter to Duke Robert II. of Burgundy: She had a Daughter, called Ʋrraca, af­terwards married to Count Raymund of Burgundy; and her Portion was, the Kin [...] [...]om of Galicia: Her Hus­band came to Spain, with her Mother; and they had Issue, Sancha, and Alonso the Emperor. King Alonso's Third Wife was, Berta, Daughter to Philip I, King of France: By her he had the Ladies, Sancha and Elvira; the First married to Count Roderick Gonzalez Giron; the Latter, to Roger I, King of Naples and Sicily. The Fourth Wife was, Elizabeth, Daughter to the Empe­ror. The Fifth, Beatrix, a French Lady: Neither of them had any Children. The Sixth was, Zaida, her Christian-Name Elizabeth, Daughter of Almucamuz A­ben Hamet, King of Sevil: She bore him a Son, called Sancho, killed at Twelve Years of Age, in the Battel of Velez, in the Year 1100. The King, in his Youth, had to do with the Lady Ximena Nunez de Gusman, Daughter to King Garcia VI, of Navarre: By her he had three Daughters; The First, Elvira, married to Count Raymund of Toulouse; her Portion was, a great Summ of Money, with which he returned to France. The Second Daughter was, Teresa, Wife to Count Hen­ry, the Progenitor of the Kings of Portugal, Grandson to Robert I. Duke of Burgundy, being the Fourth Son to Henry, Eldest Son to the Duke. Of the Third Daugh­ter we have no Account, unless it was one that was married to Ferdinand Mendez the Elder, Son to M [...]m Alao, Lord of Braganza. Some Authors would make the Lady Ximena to be lawful Wife to King Alonso; but there are undeniable Proofs to the contrary in old Re­cords, specifying the Time when each Wife was mar­ried to the King, wherein none is left for this Lady, who, doubtless, was no other than a Mistress.

10. Count Henry, Count Hen­ry marries the Bastard Daughter of King A­lonso. after he had married the Bastard-Daughter of King Alonso, served the King in his Wars, and was some Times sent Governor into Portugal; as were several others, from the Year 1072, till 1098. For, tho' the Count was married in the Year 1072, the [Page 150] Kingdom of Portugal was not absolutely assigned over to him till after the Birth of his Son Alonso, which was in the Year 1094: And we find, that from the Year 1099, the Count continued settled in Portugal, as abso­lute Lord and Proprietor thereof; whereas before, be­ing only Governor, at certain Times he used to follow and serve King Alonso in his Wars. This King Alonso was born in Galicia, in the Year 1035; was married the first time in 1076; died at Toledo in 1108, having reigned 35 Years, and lived 73. His Body lies in the Monastery of Sahagun, with that of his Son Prince San­cho: There also lie four of his Wives, Agnes, Constance, Beatrix and Zayda; the other two, Elizabeth and Berta, in the Church of St. Isidorus, at Leon. Now we shall be almost 500 Years without returning to Castile, for now begins to bud the Tree of the most August Kings of Por­tugal; a Tree which has shaded much of the World.

The End of the Second BOOK.

THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.
The Third BOOK.

CHAP. I.
The Country, Extraction, Life and Death of Henry first Earl of Portugal, and proge­nitor of all the Kings thereof,Opinions concerning Henry the Progenitor of the Por­tuguese Kings. from the Year 1067 till 1112.

1. HEnry the first Founder of the Portuguese Monar­chy, is by all Men allowed to have been of noble Extraction; but others very much differ both as to his Country and Family. As to his Family, the Bi­shops D. Roderick Sanchez, and D. Alonso de Cartagena say, he was of the House of Lorrain, but do not name his Parents. Duarte Galvan, our Antient Chronologer, affirms, He was second Son to a King of Hungary, which Opinion the famous Poet Camoens, in his Lusi­ads follows: Damianus de Goes, in the life of King Ema­nuel, says, he was Son to William Baron of Joinville, and Duke of Lorrain, and Abida of Champagne. James de Valera, and Antony Beuter, bring him from Constan­tinople, [Page 152] grounding their Opinion upon the History of Spain, writ by King Alonso, mistaking a Quotation of the Archbishop D. Roderick, who Writes that he was of the Bisontine Province, meaning Besancon, the Ca­pital of the Dukedom of Burgundy, which they take for Bisantium or Constantinople. Wolfangus Lazius writes he was of Limburg; Duarte Nunnez de Leon endeavours to prove he was Grandson to Reginald Earl of Burgundy, by his Son Guido Earl of Verneuille in Normandy. Lewis Gollut in his History of that Earldom, says, he was Bro­ther to Raimund, both Sons to Earl William: All these doubts are cleared by the Antient Manuscript of Fleury, which being a fragment of French History, was writ in the time of our Count Henry, for the Author of it brings himself as an Eye Witness of the three Suns that were seen at the Town of Scyrs, on the Banks of the River Garonne, in the Year 1108. It was writ by a famous Benedictin Monk of that Convent, and reaches from the Year 897, till the Year 1110. Petrus Piteus a learned Man, published it with other like Manuscripts, and it was Printed at Francfort in the Year 1596. By this Antient Manuscript it appears, that Robert the first Duke of Burgundy, younger Brother to King Henry I. of France, had by his Wife Hermengarda, one onely Son called Henry, who died before his Father, leaving five Sons by his Wife Sibila, Daughter to Reginald Earl of Burgundy: These were Hugo, who was heir to his Grand­father, but being left a Widdower without Children, became a Monk of Cluni, and so died in the Year 1092. Eudo or Odoa, who succeeded his Elder Bro­ther, Robert Bishop of Langres, Henry our Earl, and Reginald an Abbot; many other Authors too long to insert, have hinted that he was of the House of Burgun­gy, tho' perhaps none specified it so particularly. His Family once allowed to be that of Burgundy, it will need no further proofs to shew his Country; besides, that it is more likely he should come out of France, which joyns with Spain, than from Hungary or Constantinople so remote. It is also a sufficient proof of his Country, that all his followers were French, which could not have been, were he a stranger to them.

2. ‘The Portuguese strive to clear two points for their Honour,A remark upon some Conceits of the Portuguese Authors. in which there is great difficulty, or rather [Page 153] an imposibility, for that all arguments are against them; the one is to make out, that the Sovereignty of Portugal was granted to Count Henry without any ac­knowledgment to Castile; the other that Teresa was lawful Daughter to King Alonso. The Arguments for the first, are, That no Records are to be found in Ca­stile or Leon, to prove the Title to such acknowledg­ment, and that their King Alonso the first, was anoin­ted King by Christ himself, and therefore owed his Crown to him. These proofs are meerly Suppositi­ous; for as to the first, whether such Record remains or not, it is not credible that a King would alienate a Kingdom to a Bastard Daughter, so as to reserve no Sovereignty to himself, nor if he had, is it in the pow­er of a Prince to give away the right of a Legitimate Successor to one Illegitimate? The second instance a­bout Christ giving a right to the Crown, seems so ex­travagant a Notion, that as it carries no proof, it needs no Confutation. The other point insisted up­on, is the Legitimacy of Teresa the Counts Wife, but that has been spoke of already; no Author of Note has named her otherwise than an unlawfully begotten, and the computation of the time her Father was mar­ried to, and lived with his six Wives, makes it im­possible to allow of a Seventh. There is another doubt about Earl Henry's going to the Holy Land, which some Pertuguese Authors insist upon without any sufficient Grounds, or rather without any probability; but whether he did or not, is not easy to decide, nor worth the discussing; let us go on to his Life, or ra­ther to the small fragments that remain of it, as of all other things before his time, but we begin now by de­grees to come into days of more light.’

3. By what has been said,Count Hen­ry of Bur­gundy. it appears that Earl Hen­ry was a Burgundian, the Son of Henry, Son to Robert the first Duke of that Country, and Hermengarda Daughter to Count Reinald of Burgundy. There he was Born in the Year 1035. being descended by the Fathers side of the Royal Family of Hugh Capet, and by his Mother from the Earls of Burgundy. The cause that moved Henry to pass over into Spain, was the desire of Glory to be purchased in the continual Wars, betwixt the Christians and the Moors. Authors do not agree about the time of his coming, but it appears by Ancient Re­cords, [Page 154] that he Governed Portugal in the Year 1073,His com­ing into Portugal. so that he must have been in Castile when King Ferdi­nand died, and when the fame of Roderick de Bivar's ex­ploits,1067. incited strangers to come from Foreign Parts to imitate his Actions. Roderick was then near Fifty Years of Age, and Henry about Forty: The Author of the Manuscript above mentioned, says, That succours were sent out of France to King Alonso, at his request to King Philip I. being then pressed with the War made by the Almoravides. It is likely that Henry came with the Command of these Troops, and having gained esteem, had the Government of the Province between the Rivers Duero and Minho committed to him, other great Men governing the others at the same time. Af­ter the death of King Ferdinand, who divided his King­doms among his three Sons, Sancho King of Castile ha­ving taken Portugal from his Brother Garcia, and Leon from Alonso his other Brother, obliged him to fly for safety to the Moors. 1071. Henry accompanied him in all misfortunes, till Sancho being killed, Alonso was not on­ly restored to his own, but seated in the Thrones of Ca­stile and Portugal. 1073. King Alonso considering, that he who follows a Prince,Gains the Affection of King Alon­so. deposed in his misfortunes, does some­thing more than Man, concluded that Henry was a pro­digy among mortals, and therefore from that time, re­solved to suit his reward to his Fidelity.

4. Beatrix the second Wife of King Alonso dying,1076. a match was agreed for him with the Lady Constance, Alonso marries his Aunt. Aunt to Earl Henry, and he was sent to France to con­duct her into Spain. With him went Raymund Earl of Toulouse, and with them both came Raymund Earl of Burgundy, which is the reason some Authors write they came all together; whereas the other two had been long before in Spain. Thus Henry became great at Court, the King being his Friend, and the Queen his Aunt, which his power he used with such moderation, that he was beloved by all Men.1081. He accompanied King A­lonso at the memorable Seige, and taking of Toledo, as also at the Battle of Sagulias near Badajoz, 1087. where the King was overthrown.1090. To reward all these Services, the King at last gave him to Wife his Bastard Daughter Teresa, He takes to Wife Te­resa Ba­stard Daughter to Alonso, and has in Dower the City Porto and its Territory. whom he had by the Lady Ximena Nunnez de Gusman. Her Dower was the City Porto with its Ter­ritory, [Page 155] then the best part of what was gained in Portu­gal, giving him leave to retire thither, and live with his Wife: His Age was the cause that he died, lea­ving Teresa young to marry a second Husband, which much disturbed the publick Peace. Soon after the Christian Princes joining in League to conquer the Holy Land, Earl Henry was chosen General of the Forces sent by King Alonso, in which employ he gained great Honour. He returned from this Expedition to Toledo, where the Court of Castile was then kept in the Year 1099. King Alonso at this time being of a great Age, sent his Son Prince Sancho, being but Twelve Years of Age, under the direction of D. Garcia Count of Cabra, with an Army to oppose Almanzor the Moor. With them went many Persons of Quality, among which the chief was Earl Henry; they came to a Battle in the Plains of Veles, where the Prince was unhorsed and killed,1100. though Henry and Garcia exposed themselves to save him.Overthrows the Infidels and takes Almanzor prisoner. Earl Henry meditating Revenge, met Al­manzor again in the Field, whom he dismounted and took Prisoner, delivering him to James Ordonnez for to carry him to the King; this done, Henry broke through the Infidels, putting them to flight, with a mighty slaughter.

5. As it is doubtful whether Henry went to Hierusa­lem with the other Christian Princes, so is it also, whe­ther he was present at the taking of Lisbon, Santarem, Sintra, and other strong places by King Alonso, but that he was at these latter Expeditions as most properly ap­pertaining to him is most likely.For his good services he receives o­ther Terri­tories of King A­lonso. But his great Age re­quiring some rest, the King at last gave him leave to retire to Portugal, giving to him for himself and his Heirs, all that was conquered there, which was the Cities Coimbra and Viseo, and the three Provinces; that betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho, Beira, and Tras os Montes, with that part of Galicia as far as the Castle Lobeira, and leave to conquer as far as Algarve. Earl Henry settled his residence at Guimaraens, taking the Ti­tle of Earl of Portugal; The Portuguese encouraged by the presence of a Prince of their own, did much upon the borders of the Province betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho, till then not entirely subdued, but we have no particular account of their Actions. Hecha Martin King of Lamego, being a tributary to Henry rebelled; [Page 156] and drawing together a powerful Army, did much hurt in the Christian Territories. The Earl with Egas Moniz, a Gentleman then famous, and afterward Tu­tor to King Alonso, marched to recover the Booty he had taken, and overtook him in a Valley near the Monastery of Arouca. The Moor for greater security, in case of any misfortune, placed his Wife Queen Axa Anzures, and all the Prey on the top of a Mountain he thought unaccessible, called Sierra Seca. The Chri­stian Army encamped along the River Alarda and Egas Moniz, seeing the Enemy advantagiously posted, un­dertook with a good party by Night, to go about the Mountains, and at break of Day, to be ready to fall upon them on the top,Another o­verthrow given by him to the to the Moors. whilst the Christian Army charged the Enemy below. This was accordingly put in Execution, and after a bloody Fight, the Queen was taken above and the King below; they becoming Christians, the Earl bestowed the City Lamego upon them, they paying tribute for the same.

6. The Moores rebelling against their King for chang­ing his Religion,1103. he fled to Guimaraens to crave aid of Earl Henry, A Moor­ish King restored by him. who by force took the City Lamego, and restored him: He fearing in the Earl's absence his Sub­jects would again revolt, desired of him to leave some Portuguese Gentlemen to secure those Lands, which was accordingly done, and the Country People with In­habitants brought from the Province betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho. He per­forms o­ther great Actions. This year some Writers will have it, that Earl Henry went to the Holy Land with Guy of Lu­signan and other Princes; all the likelihood there is there­of, is, That we have no account of him in Portugal from the Year 1103. till the Year 1109. King Ali Haben Joseph, with a numerous Army, laid Siege to Coimbra, which he furiously battered during a Month. Earl Henry marched to their relief, and coming to a Battle, overthrew the Infidels with a great Slaughter. Cintra and other places revolted and were overcome, but rising again, they could not easily be subdued: Whilst our Earl was diverted in the Wars of Galicia and Leon, where he took some Towns, Cyrus King of the Arabs taking the opportunity, laid Siege to Santarem, whither our Forces hasting to relieve the place, were by him overthrown, and so the Town being distressed, Surrendred. The Earl took several places in Leon, so [Page 157] that King Alonso was glad to abandon that City upon promise to relieve it in four Months. He overthrew King Alonso of Navarre in defence of Queen Ʋrraca, and about the Government of Prince Alonso; soon af­ter Henry being dissatisfied with the said Queen, took part with the King against her, and defeated Count Gomes who espoused her Quarrel.

7. Whilst he was absent from Astorga, those People of the Kingdom of Leon that he had subdued revolted,1112. and he returning,His Death and Cha­racter. laid Siege to Astorga. In the heat of the Siege, he died, and his Son Alonso rising with his Army, went away to Bury him at Braga. Thus Astor­ga with all its Territory was lost: The death of Earl Henry was much lamented of his Subjects, for that he was a Prince of extraordinary Piety, Valour, and Ge­nerosity. He overthrew the Moors in Seventeen seve­ral Battles, and took from them many Cities and places of Strength. He lived Seventy Seven Years, Govern­ed Portugal with the Title of Earl above Twenty, and was Governour of part thereof almost as many more. He was of a middle Stature, a beautiful and awful Pre­sence, his Complection fair, his Eyes blew, and his Hair yellow, inclining to red: In his antient Pictures, he is represented with his Sword in his hand; his Body lies in the Cathedral of Braga, with a modern Inscrip­tion on his Tomb, which mistakes his Country and Parentage. The Countess Dowager governed this Do­minion for some years, as being her Dower, and her Son being under Age. She might have ruled longer, had she not Married, or proposed to Marry the Earl of Trastamara D. Ferdinand de Trava; this or some other cause, produced Civils Wars betwixt the Mother and Son, which ended in her overthrow, her Son without regard to the duty he owed to a Mother, when she was made Prisoner, keeping her in the Castle of Lannoso, with Fetters on her Feet, till she died in the Year 1130. and was Buried by her Husband.

8. The Issue of Earl Henry was,His Issue. First, Alonso Enriquez, taking his Name and Sir-Name from his Father and Grand-Father. This being his Heir, is named before the Sisters, though they preceded him as to Birth. Se­condly, the Lady Ʋrraca Wife to D Bermudo P [...]z. Earl of Trastamara. Thirdly, the Lady Sancha, Wife to D. Ferdinand Nunnez, a great Man in the Kingdom [Page 158] of Galicia; they left no Children. Fourthly, the La­dy Teresa Married to D. Sancho Nunnez, Son to Count Nunno de Celanova. Fifthly, he had a Bastard Son by a Woman of Quality, his Name was Peter Alonso, of whose brave Actions we shall hear in the life of his Brother. Earl Henry for some Years wore a plain white Shield, till after he had obtained renown by his Sword, he added to it a plain blew Cross.

CHAP. II.
The Birth of Alonso first King of Portugal, he takes upon him the Government, is pro­claimed King by the Army, his wonderful Victory over the Moors at Ourique, he takes Lisbon, Santarem, and many other places, all from the Year 1094. till the Year 1148.

1. IN July, 1094. or according to others on the 15th. of August 1094. was Born D. Alonso Enriquez only Son to Earl Henry, The Birth of Alonso Enriquez Son to Count Hen­ry. and his Lady Teresa, at the Town of Guimaraens. He is said to have been Born with both his Legs cleaving together from the Knees down, and that his Governour Egas Muniz having devoutly beg­ged of Heaven to loosen his Feet, the Blessed Virgin ap­peared to him, bidding him carry the Child to an old ruined Church at Carquere near Lamego, and that re­storing the place, and setting the Infant upon the Altar, he should recover his Limbs. Egas for the space of five Years did as he had been ordered, and the Child reco­vered:1105. This Prince was but Fourteen Years of Age, when he began to follow the Wars under his Father, and was with him when he died at the Siege of Ast [...]rga, as has been said before.1112. Having paid the last Honours to his Father, to express his great respect towards his Mother, he committed the Government to her, though then of Age to undertake it himself. St. Bernard ha­ [...]ng at his Convent of Claraval in France, had a vision [Page 159] of St. John Bapist,M [...]nks of Claraval came into Portugal. directing him to send some of his Monks to found a Monastery in Portugal, in the place that should be shown to them by one John Cerita, whom they should find there, he accordingly sent seven of his Monks. They found Cerita who lived an Austere Eremi­tical life, and conducted them to Prince Alonso, by whom they were honourably received, and encoura­ged in their Foundation.1120. Being dismissed, they settled in a deep Valley, encompassed with high Mountains near the River Barosa, almost two Leagues from Lame­go, where they built a Chappel Dedicated to our Sa­viour, which is still in being in the Village called Pine­gro. 1121. The following Year, they built in a place where they had seen cert [...] Lights, during Nine Nights, as had been foretold by St. John Baptist to St. Bernard. Here Prince Alonso visiting them, enlarged the Stru­cture at his own cost; John Cerita took the order here, and reduced several who lived an Eremitical Life in the Mountains to follow his Example. The number of Monks thus increasing, he founded another Monastery called St. Christopher de Lafoens. Both these Churches were afterwards Consecrated, and great Gifts offered in them at the Solemnity.

2. Prince Alonso having now weilded a Sword long enough to gain Renown,1125. thought it requisite to be Knighted according to the Custom of those days,Alonso Knights himself. and thinking there was none about him great enough to Confer that Honour on him, by putting on his Armour, and girding on his Sword, as was then the Custom; he laid the Arms upon an Altar, and taking them thence, put them on himself, so taking the Honour at his own hands. Prince Alonso's Mother being about to marry the second time, it bred such Animosities betwixt them, that they finally came to Battle near the Town of Gui­maraens; 1128. the Mother overthrown, fled to the Castle of Lannoso, He besieges his Mother, takes and puts her into Irons. which is hard by, and was there Besieged by her Son. Alonso VII. King of Castile and Leon, came to her relief with a powerful Army. The Portuguese Alonso was not unprovided, but meeting him in the plains of Valdevez, put to the Sword the greatest part of his Forces, took seven Earls Prisoners, and the King him­self hardly escaped, having received two Wounds. This done, the young Prince returns to the Siege of the Castle, which being yielded to him, he put his Mother [Page 160] into Irons. She provoked at this dis-respect, as her Bolts were put on, prayed to God that his Legs might be broke, and her Prayers were heard as will appear hereafter.

3. Alonso now grown absolute,Being him­self besieg­ed by King Alonso of Castile, he Articles for his delive­rance, and breaks his Faith. and having provoked the King of Castile by the late overthrow given him, to revenge the Affront, that King marched with a Power­ful Army, and besieged Prince Alonso in the Town of Guimaraens. There being no hope of relief, nor pos­sibility of holding out, Egas Muniz was sent out by the Prince to treat of some accommodation with the King, which Business he managed so Dexterously, that the King upon Promise and Articles, that Prince Alonso should hold that Country of him▪ and do him homage for the same in a certain time prefixed, raised his Siege and departed. Prince Alonso delivered of that danger, thought of nothing less than performing the Articles agreed upon. Porteguese Authors will have it, that Egas Muniz, who managed this Treaty, because it was not performed, presented himself to the King of Castile, with a Halter about his Neck, for him to punish that breach of Faith, and was pardoned by the King. But this is as Romantick as what our Authors writes, that the whole treaty was concluded without the privity of Prince Alonso, as if the King could be so infatuated to treat with a private Man stolen out of a Town, where his Prince was closely Besieged, without seeing his Commission, or to conclude Articles, and depart upon his bare word without the Ratification of the principal Points. These Chimerical Notions are better passed by than to interrupt the course of History with them; however I would not wholly omit this wild imaginati­on of the Author.

4. Albucazan King of Badajoz did great harm in the Province of Beira, 1131. and took the Town of Trancoso be­fore Prince Alonso could come to relieve it.War with the Moors However, our Prince soon retook it, and repulsed the Moor who came to have hindred him from fortifying of it. In his return from this place, Alonso was worsted by the Moors, but recovering himself near the Town of Guimaraens, he overthrew a great multitude of them, and so entred that Town victorious,1135. where he hunged up the Colours taken in the Church.Th [...]n with Castile. The War broke out again be­twixt Castile and Portugal, in the Reign of Alonso VII. [Page 161] of Castile called the Emperor, and much harm was done on both sides, though with no great advantage to either.1136. At last our Prince broke into Galicia, where King Alonso meeting him, was in Battle overthrown, and the Earl D. Roderick Vela made Prisoner: After this our Alonso valiantly defended Coimbra, besieged by the Moor Eujuni, so powerful a Prince, that he is said to have covered all the plains about the City, with an Ar­my of 300000 fighting Men: But a violent Plague raging among his Troops, forced him to break up and depart much weaker than he came. Our Prince thus delivered, entred the Territory of Leyria, which place, tho' strong, he took by Escalade, putting most of the Defendants to the Sword. This being the first of his notable Conquests, he offered it up to God, delivering it to Theotonius, Prior of the Monastery of Santa Cruz, whether after the taking of Torres Novas, he returned to repose himself in order to prosecute greater Designs.

5. Ismar or Ismael, 1139. a powerful Moor, was Sovereign of all the Country beyond the River Tagus, A Fabu [...]ous Relation. called Alen­tejo. Our Prince passed that River, and made great Havock in the Territories of those Infidels; Ismael as­sembled twenty petty Princes, subject to five little Kings who were all under his Dominion. Each of those Kings led 80000 Men, wherewith they covered all the plains. With our Authors leave it is wholly incredible, ‘That such inconsiderable Princes, as they must be, whose Dominions extended not to above half the limits of Portugal, should raise so prodigious a Multitude, for it amounts to no less than 480000. This may per­haps be added to gain the greater Reputation to those strange miracles he talks of in the Sequel.’ The Chri­stians were not above 13000, and those wholly dis­mayed (as well they might) at the sight of such an Army as they could not be capable to number. How­ever, Prince Alonso reposing his confidence in God, ceased not to encourage and animate his fainting Forces. They encouraged with his undaunted Contenance, and resolute Expressions, took heart and offered their ready service: It was then Night when the Prince retiring to rest, read the History of Gideon and fell asleep▪ in a Dream there appeared to him a venerable Old Man, promising him Victory, and being awakened, was told there was such an one pressed to speak with him; being [Page 162] admitted, he found it was the same Man he saw in his Dream, and that he came to give him the same assur­ances. At break of day he went out of his Tent, and looking towards the East, saw a mighty Brightness, in the midst of which appeared our Saviour on the Cross surrounded with Angels, who promised him Victory over the Infidels, and commanded him to accept the Title of King, if offered to him by his Army. Soon after the Portuguese flocked about him,Alonso saluted King. demanding the signal of Battle, and unanimously saluted him King. He at first seemed to refuse that Title, but it being the consequence of the Vision he had seen, soon admitted it: ‘Let every one give that credit to this strange relation he shall think fit, I have briefly set it down, that I might not wholly cut off so extraordinary a passage in my Author; yet would I not extend it to that length as he has done, because I believe most Men will give as little credit to it as I do.’

6. Alonso thus encouraged, drew up his Army into four Bodies, the Enemy making twelve: The charge was seconded by a most hideous cry raised by both Armies,The Battle of Ouri­que. an incredible clattering of Weapons, and such showers of Darts and Arrows, as seemed to darken the light of the Sun. No Christian sought to save himself, all their study was to kill; the King encouraged all Men by his example, and every Man sought to out-do another. Six hours the fight lasted, in which time the plain of Ourique, where they engaged was all covered with dead Bodies, which almost floated in a Pool of Blood. At length the Victory fell to the Christians, and was one of the greatest ever obtained against Infidels.Reflections vpon this Battle. ‘It is very hard to reconcile the account of this Battle to any thing of probability; for whereas the Author says but a little before, there were five lesser Kings and one So­vereign of them all, with each 80000 Men▪ which a­mounts to 480000; now he says, they were above 600000. Doubtless there must be willful mistakes in these Numbers to magnifie the Action, which would seem great if not rendred incredible; Besides he rec­kons six Kings which are those of Silves, Merida, Se­vil, Badajoz, Lisbon, and Algezira, whereas all other Authors agree they were but five, and give that for the reason that the Portuguese Arms contain five small Scutcheons within the great one; nor is it any excuse [Page 163] to say, there were five Kings subject to one that was supream over them, for the principal could not be omit­ted in the Number, and if he was not, than the others must be but four. Another reason makes me incline not to credit this Story, which is, that we see the King's of Castile, Aragon, and Navarre have often joyned their Forces to oppose a much less power than is here spoke of, and it is not credible that such a Multitude could be now amassed on a sudden without their know­ledge, or much less that they knowing of it, should make no provision to oppose that Torrent. Nor was there ever such a number of Moors in one body heard of from their first invading Spain, till their last ex­pulsion. In fine, I cannot be reconciled to this mon­strous Story, and could show many other reasons a­gainst it, but look upon it as needless, this being on­ly a project to gain credit to the Miracles pretended for the founding of that Kingdom, which serve only to cover its revolt at that time from the Crown of Castile and Leon. I will insist no more upon it, but re­turn to the course of the History.’

7. Ismael provoked with this loss, and desiring revenge, battered the City Leyria, which he took, putting all the Defendants to the Sword, except D. Pelayo Guter­rez the Governor, whom he kept Prisoner. He for­tified this place to strongly, that King Alonso found much difficulty to recover it, but at length drove the Moors out of all that Territory. King Alonso VII. of Castile seeing that erected into a Monarchy, which but a little before was only the Portion of his predecessors Bastard Daughter, thought it convenient in time to pull down that rising greatness before it was too powerfully cemented together. Thus breaking into Portugal by the way of Galicia, he came to the plains of Vald [...]vez, where the Castilians had been before overthrown,1140. and where our King now again gave him Battle.Alonso [...] the King of Castile. The King of Castile was defeated, and several Persons of Note taken Prisoners. A French Fleet consisting of 70 Sail, arrived in the Harbour of the City Porto. The King invited them to assist him in the taking of the City of Lisbon, 1141. which having some years before been made tri­butary,A [...] of French at Porto. was again revolted: This united power of Christians attempted to scale it, but without any success, being forced to desist for that time.1142. The Moors obtain­ed [Page 164] a Victory at Soure over the Knights Templers, and among the Prisoners carried away to Santarem Martin Vicar of Soure esteemed a Holy Man, whose Father Aires Manuel, when his Wife died, led an Eremitical Life.

8. Ansciri a valiant Moor Governour of the Town of Santarem, 1144. with his often Excursions, had highly pro­voked King Alonso, who long meditated how to surprize that place. At length being at Coimbra, he took only four men of Quality with him into a Field, where ha­ving consulted with them of the method of putting their design in Execution,The taking of Santa­rem. he charged them upon pain of death, not to reveal to any Man what they had dis­coursed about. As they returned home along the Banks of the River Mondego, an Old Woman said to others that were with her so loud, that the King and his company heard it; ‘Do you know what the King and Noblemen have been about? They are consulting how to take Santarem; the King hearing this, said to those Gentlemen, if any one of you had gone a step from me before I heard that Old Woman, I would have cut of his head. So hard a matter is it for a Secret to be con­cealed. The King being resolved to gain that strong Town,1145. made a vow if he succeeded to build a stately Monastery at Alcobaza, and endow it with all the Land he could see at the time of making the Vow. At the minute he made this Vow, St. Bernard who was then at C [...]aravallis in France, by Revelation from God, sent two Monks to begin that Monastery. Five days the King spent marching from Coimbra to Santarem, and made himself Master of it in an hour; some of his Men had Scaled the Walls before they were discovered, and then in the confusion had time to break open a Gate, at which the King entred. The Booty was very consi­derable, and the Town remained in the power of the Christians; several lesser places followed the fortune of Santarem, but the King now bent his thoughts upon greater Conquests.

9. Our King being at the Rock of Sintra with an ardent design to possess himself of the City of Lisbon, discovered a mighty Fleet at Sea,A Fleet of English, French, and Flemings, in the River of Lisbon. which made towards the mouth of the River Tagus. This Fleet appearing▪ he understood was composed of English, French and [Page 165] Flemings, under the Command of William Long Espe, [...]nd other inferior Captains. Some Authors report, that Henry King of Denmark, a Duke of Burgundy, and Theodoricus Earl of Flanders were also in it. After strug­ing with a Storm, they were coming to Water and re­cruit themselves at the foot of that Mountain; the number of Vessels was 180 sail containing 14000 men designed for the Holy War; the King made proposals to them for conquering the City of Lisbon; they ac­cepted, and the Siege was formed. The strangers en­camped on that side,Alonso joins his strength to theirs and takes Lis­bon. where now the Church of St. Francis stands, and the King where is at present the Church of St. Vincent. For five Months the City was valiantly attacked, and no less resolutely defended. On St. Ʋrsula's Day, being the 21st. of October, a most fu­rious and bloody Assault was given to the City on all sides, with such mighty Resolution, that above 200000 Infidels are said to have fallen that day. But it is im­possible the place then could contain near that number of all Sexes and Ages, and yet my Author seems to speak only of Men. On the 25th. following, being the Feast of St. Crispin and Crispinian, the King entred the City in Triumph over the dead Bodies of his E­nemies.

10. The particulars of this famous Action would doubtless have been delightful,Some par­ticulars of the Siege. as they were great, but time and the want of Writers have Buried them in Ob­livion. It will not therefore be just to omit one glori­ous exploit, whereof the memory still remains. Martin Moniz entring a Gate▪ found such opposition from the Moors, that they were forcing him back and shutting to the Gate: to prevent which, being himself not able to oppose their Force, he let himself fall a cross the en­trance, and so lying in the way, the Gate could not speedily be put too, and his Men coming on, beat off the Infidels▪ making their way over his dead Body; nor must the Strangers be robbed of their part of the Glory▪ Many of them ended their days in this exploit, among them was one Henry of Bonneville near [...] at whose Tomb in the Church of St. Vincent, many Miracles are reported to have been wrought; many others were bu­ried, where now is the Church called that of the Martyrs from those that were buried there. The King according [...] what had been before agreed, offered to the Strangers [Page 166] half the City, but they satisfied with the Booty and some other rewards, departed to prosecute their holy designs, [...]or to their own Countries. Such as would stay, had Lands assigned them; many other strong places were taken soon after in this current of the King's good Fortune,1148. the chief of them were, Mafra, Almada, Pal­mela, Cintra, Obidos, Trancoso, Alenquer, Serpa, Beja, Elvas, Coruche and Cezimbra. Thus the Pride of the Mahometans began to be humbled, and this Christian Kingdom to lift up its head.

CHAP. III.
Continues the mighty Actions of the victorious King Alfonso, the Kingdom confirmed to him by the Pope, his Death, issue and descripti­on, all from the Year 1148. till 1185.

1. SInce we cannot give the particulars of all the He­roical Actions of this King,Alonso overthrows the Moors with a handfull of Men. let us at least in two of them represent somewhat of the grandeur of the rest. He sat down before Aleazar do Sal, with a small handful of Men; 500 Moorish Horse and 10000 Foot came to raise the Siege, whom he went out to meet with only 60 Horse, and a proportionable number of Foot. With this small Body, he put his Enemies to flight, but was himself wounded in the Leg, most mis­fortunes always lighting upon his Legs ever since his Mother laid that Curse on him, as was said before. Af­ter this Victory, returning to the Siege, he took it at the end of two Mon [...]hs; this done, he went with 60 Lances and a few Cross-bow-men to take a view of the Fortress on the Rock of Palmela. Being before the place, he discovered the King of Badajoz coming down a Hill with 400 Horse and 60000 Foot,Another like exploit but without any order. Our King lay a while betwixt certain Rocks out of sight, considering their disorderly march, whilst his Company meditated on their Numbers. At length breaking out suddenly with that handful, he soon co­vered the Hill with dead Bodies, and the Infidels be­lieving [Page 167] a greater Army had followed, fled in confusion, leaving all their Baggage to a few above 60 Conquerors. Palmela upon the News of this defeat, immediatly sur­rendred upon only promise of Life.1160. The City Tuy left him by his Father, and now revolted, he reduced to his Obedience, and at the same time, concluded a match for his Daughter Mafalda, then 12 Years of Age, with Raymund Prince of Catalonia.

2. Some time before, he had subdued the City Beja, after a tedious Siege, but the Moors who are faithful no longer than compelled by necessity, finding now a fit opportunity,1162. rebelled. Certain valiant Commanders, imitating the example of their King, assaulted this place by Night with such resolution, and so unex­pectedly, that they carried it making great slaughter among the Inhabitants. A Gentleman of Quality call­ed Giraldus, living like an outlaw on account of cer­tain crimes he had committed,A number of Christi­an Out-laws [...] Evora. entred into hopes of regaining the King's Favour, by some extraordinary action. Considering therefore that the City Evora was not guarded by the Infidels with that circumspection that was requisite at such a time, he resolved to surprize it. There was a Watch-tower, where the Centinel was kept by a Moor and his Daughter by turns; Giraldus knowing this, Scales the Tower alone, and killing both Father and Daughter, who were asleep, returns with their heads to his Men, being 500 Horse and a good number of Foot. They encouraged by this success, scaled the Walls then unguarded, and breaking open one of the Gates, let in their Companions: Thus with a mighty slaughter made of the Inhabitants, the City was gained. The King not only Pardoned, but Rewarded all those Out-laws, and made their Captain Governour of the City.

3, King Alonso thus become terrible to the Moors, fell at variance with his Son-in-law Ferdinand the Second King of Leon, 1168. and thereupon entred Galici [...] in the 75th. year of his Age.War with Leon. Here he took the Towns of Lima and Turon, and putting Portuguese Garrisons into them, turned his Forces against Badajoz, then a tributary City to the King of Leon. This City he assaulted and en­tred, but not the Castle: Mean while King Ferdinand came to defend that place which fell within the limits of his Conquest. The Portuguese Army encountring [Page 168] him in the Field,King A­lonso put to flight, breaks his Leg, ful­filling his Mothers curse when he put Fet­ters upon her. was overthrown, and King Alonso forced to fly into the City, whence thinking to make his escape, he struck his Leg against a bolt of the Gate so violently, that he broke it, and here his Mothers Curse reached him fully. Nor was that all, for in that condition, he was taken by the King of Leon, who treated him with extraordinary courtesy, and was con­tent that he should restore to him only such places as he had wrongfully taken in Galicia and Leon, tho' he of­fered others in Portugal. ‘Our Author will not allow that King Alonso promised any acknowledgment to the Crown of Leon for his Dominions, but all Spanish Authors are positive he did.’ Certain it is, that from henceforward he remained lame, so that he never after could ride a Horseback, but was carried in a Chariot.

4. The King had some time since taken the City Be­ja, but it was soon after lost. Gonzalo Mendez de Maya, called the Combatant, 1170. about this time made a Road into the territory of Beja, where was a great body of Moors, under the Command of Almo [...]mar, a Soldier of Repu­tation. These two Bodies encountred, and Maya re­mained Master of the Field; scarce had he vanquished this Enemy, when he was met by Alboazem King of Tangier, who was coming to the assistance of the van­quished. The fight was renewed on the same spot of Ground, and a second Victory added to the former. Maya was 95 Years of Age when he obtained these two Victories, but died immediately of the Wounds he had received▪ which made his Army return home in morn­ful manner. Albaraque King of Sevil made bold by the King's lameness, [...] Santarem by the Moors, [...] drawing a vast multitude out of An­daluzia, presumed not only to wast the Country beyond Tagus, but to set down before Santarem, where the King then in the 88th. Year of his Age reposed himself; he caused himself to be carried out in his Chariot to give the Besiegers Battle. The fight was so obstinate, he was forced to quit his Chariot, and appear at the head of his Men with his Sword in Hand. Hereat his Soldi­ers took so much Courage, that they soon put their E­nemies to the rout with a great slaughter; St. Michael the Archangel is said to have been seen by his side, hew­ing down the Infidels. Hence he went to the Monaste­ry of Alcobaca, to return thinks to God for this success, and staying there a Month, is said to have instituted a [Page 169] new order of Knighthood, called that of the Wing, for that in the Battle he saw a winged Arm near him fight­ing against the Moors, which the King supposing to be St. Michael, or his Guardian Angel, he dedicated the order to them both. The chief Rules were, that the Knights should wear a red Wing embroidered with Gold; that none but Gentlemen of Note should be ad­mitted to the Order; that in fight they should carry the Royal Standard; that they should take the Oath of Allegiance administred by the Prior of Alcobaca, who was to be superior of the Order; that they should eve­ry day say the same Prayers, as did the Converts of that Monastery; that their Feast should be observed on Mi­chaelmass Day. The King and principal Men were en­rolled in this Order, but it was not lasting.

5. At this time there was in the Portuguese Court,Gonzalo Hermi­guez his actions. a Gentleman called Gonzalo Hermiguez, much esteemed of the Ladies for his Eloquence and Art in Poetry, and no less envied of the Men, as well for those Qualities, as for that his extraordinary Actions had purchased him the Title of Moor Swallower. This Gentleman with a party that used to follow him, passed over the River Tagus, before it was light on Midsummer Day from Lis­bon to Almada, and there lay in Ambush. The Moors according to their Custom coming out that Morning with their Women to be merry upon the Banks of the River; he suddenly rushed out upon them, expecting no such Entertainment, and made a great slaughter of them. The Infidels strove to defend themselves, but in vain, for he carried off a rich Booty to his Boats. Being ready to put off, he espied a Moor carrying a­way a beautiful Woman, and leaping again ashore, he forced her from him, and so made over to Santarem with his Prey. Of all the booty he took nothing to himself, but the fair Captive, whom Baptized, he made his Wife: She soon after dying, he was so afflicted that leaving the World, he took upon him the habit of St. Bernard, in the Monastery of Alcobaca, and out of his own Patrimony, having no Children, founded the Mo­nastery of St. Mary de Tumaray [...] near Ourem. Much a­bout this time it is recorded, that the King being near the mouth of the River Mondego, found a small Chappel with the Image of our B. Lady, which restored to life one of his Servants killed with a fall from his Horse. An [Page 170] old Hermit told him it was the same that had preserved all the Women and Children, killed by John the Ab­bot (as was said in its place) when he sallied out of Montemayor, and unexpectedly overthrew a multitude of Infidels. This moved the King to erect a Monaste­ry there; called at present St. Mary de Seica, and the Image being several times removed from the poor Chap­pel, to the magnificent Church of this Monastery, is said always of it self to have returned to its own place. Peter the King's Bastard Brother ranging abroad, met a party of Moors conducting a Beautiful Lady with much Treasure, all which, having routed them, he took. Cide Achim a Moor of Silves, who courted this Lady, begged her of the King, or else desired him to keep him also for his slave. The King referred him to his Brother Peter, who not only restored to him the Lady, but all the Treasure taken with her upon condition he should send no succours to Lisbon, which it seems was not then taken.

6. Peter, of Peter, Bastard Brother to Alonso. Bastard Brother to King Alonso was sent in­to France, to prevail with St. Bernard, to use his interest with the Pope for to obtain his investiture and confir­mation of the new Kingdom of Portugal. To omit what is too Romantick concerning this Peter, he is said for his extraordinary valour to have been admitted in­to the number of the 12 Peers of France, and that pre­paring to accompany that King to Hierusalem, he was diswaded by St. Bernard, who advised him, rather to act against the Moors in Spain. He followed his ad­vice, and was at the taking of Santarem, Lisbon, Tran­coso, Badajoz, and other great Actions: After this he was chosen Master of the new instituted order of Knight-hood, called that of Avis, which Honour he obtained of the King, that he might not be obliged by him to Marry. Returning one day with a party from an En­gagement with the Moors, he laid down in a Field and fell a Sleep, at which time St. Bernard appeared to him in a Dream, perswading him to take upon him the Habit of his Order, which he accordingly performed, and lived 13 Years in the Monastery of Alcobaca, with an extraordinary opinion of Sanctity.

7. The Dominions of Portugal being now enlarged from a small Dower, given by the King of Leon, with his Bastard Daughter to the proportion of a considera­ble [Page 171] Kingdom, King Alonso sued to Pope Alexander III. for his invessiture in the same, offering to pay to the See of Rome for ever, two pound of Gold yearly, as an acknowledgment of his holding that Crown of the Pope. His Holiness granted his request, and accordingly ex­pedited his Bulls to that effect in the Year 1172.1172. Here­upon the Cortes or Parliament was assembled at Lame­go, Pope Alex­ander grants the Investiture of the King­dom of Portugal to Alonso under a Tribute. in which pursuant to these Bulls, the King was crowned with a Crown of Gold by the Archbishop of Braga, and all the States there assembled, unanimously voted their Kingdom independent of the Crown of Le­on. For the better regulating of the succession, it was enacted, That the King's Sons should inherit, and for want of them his Brothers, whose Sons should not suc­ceed them, without consent of the People. That Daughters might Inherit, provided they Married not out of the Kingdom; that their Husband should not be called King, till the Queen had a Son; that he should not wear the Crown on his Head in Parliament; that if she Married a Forreign Prince, she should not inherit, least the Crown should be transferred to Strangers.

8. About this time the King made an incursion into Algarve, The body of St. Vin­cent tran­slated to Lisbon. as far as the Promontorium Sacrum, or Cape St. Vincent, desiring to translate the Body of that Saint which he understood to be there, but he could not per­form it, and retired: Afterwards the Council of Lis­bon sent People to discover it, who brought it away to that City, where it is kept with great Veneration, a number of Crows following the Body, from the Moun­tain to the great Church where it lies, and there they also continue to this Day. Abenjacob Son to the Mira­mamolin, or Emperor of Morocco, with a mighty Ar­my, besieged and much streightned the Town of A­brantes, but certain Portuguese Gentlemen raising the greatest Power they were able, gave him Battle and put him to flight. D. Fuas Roupinno commanded in the Castle of Puerto de Mos, at such time as Gami King of Merida came to attack it. D. Fuas hearing of his ap­proach with a small body, went out and lay close in Ambush. The Moor giving an Assault to the Castle, he fell upon him so unexpected and furiously, that most of the Moors being slain, Gami and many others were made Prisoners. Gami and his Brother were sent for a [Page 172] present to old King Alonso, who then reposed himself at Coimbra. This same D. Fuas being Admiral at Sea, destroyed the Gallies of Mauritania the first time near Cape Espichel, 1182. and brought nine of them to Lisbon; others he burnt in the Sea of Ceuta. Engage­ments by Sea. Returning thither afterwards with 21 Galleys, he fought 54 of the Ene­my, but was totally destroyed, and found a Grave where before he had raised Tropheys. Joseph Aben, Ja­cob Miramamolin of Morocco, Andaluzia, Murcia and Va­lencia, with 13 Kings, and the mightiest Army that till then had been seen, to revenge the harms suffered from the Portuguese, passed the River Tagus, and having de­stroyed Torres Vedras, 1184. and whatever else stood in his way, laid Siege to Santarem, where Prince Sancho then was. During 6 or 7 days, he incessantly Battered the Town, and gave several assaults to it, so that many of the Defendants were killed, the Prince wounded, and the Walls shaken. At this time King Alonso being 91 years of Age, came to relieve the Town, but scarce had the occasion to draw his Sword, the Infidels flying precipitously at the very sight of him. Both the Fa­ther and Son pursued the flying Enemy with such Exe­cution, that the River was dyed with their Blood. The Miramamolin ended his days, in the very River, being first wounded by the Prince.

9. The most glorious King Alonso having Governed 17 Years without the Title of King, and 46 with it, and having lived 93, at length departed this life in the month of December, 1185. and year of our Lord 1185. In his life time he is said to have overthrown 30 Kings,The Death of King A­lonso. besides a number of lesser Princes and inferior Com­manders. It must be observed, that most of these were Kings of particular Cities. His Piety appears in the great number of Churches he Erected, reported to a­mount to 150. He instituted two Military Orders, that of the Wing before spoken of, which for want of Revenues died with the first Knights. And that of Avis (as our Author will have it, tho' I find no other to con­firm this Antiquity) which continues to this day. To the Knights Templers and Hospitallers, he assigned considerable Revenues. As to his Person, he was 11 Spans High, a Gigantick Stature, his Hair Red, a large Mouth, long Visage, and large sparkling Eyes. He lay in the Church of the Holy Cross at Coimbra in a [Page 173] wooden Tomb, till King Emanuel erected one more Majestick for him. His Sword and Buckler are there still to be seen;His Arms the Arms he bore on his Sheild were Argent, 19 Scutcheons Ar­zure, 10 of them in the nature of an Orle, the other nine in Cross and in Saltire, all joined together with twists of Silk, running from one to the other; each Escutcheon charged with Thir­teen Bezants.

[figure]

10. King Alonso was 53 Years of Age when he Mar­ried Mafalda, His Wife and Issue. the most Beautiful Lady of those times, and second Daughter to Amadee, 5th. Earl of Marien­ne, and first of Savoy. This Queen followed the exam­ple of her Husband in erecting several Churches and Monasteries. By her, the King had Issue, Henry who died young: Sancho who inherited the Crown, John, Malfalda Wife to Alonso the second King of Aragon, Ʋrraca Wife to King Ferdinand the second of Leon, from whom she was divorced on account of Consanguinity after she had by him Alonso who inherited that Crown. Teresa, second Wife to Philip the first Earl of Flanders, and Sancha; his Bastard Children were Peter Alonso, Teresa married to Sancho Nunnez, from whom her Fa­ther took her, and married her to Ferdinand Martinez, the brave Lord of Braganza, and the Lady Ʋrraca mar­ried to Peter Alonson Viegas, the Grandson to Egas Mo­niz the King's Tutor.

CHAP. IV.
The life and Reign of King Sancho I. from the Year 1154. till 1212, all his Actions in Peace and War, his Arms and Issue.

1. KIng Alonso had enjoyed the regal Title 15 Years when his Wife Queen Mafalda bore him his second Son and Successor Sancho. 1154. He was Born at Coimbra the 11th. of December, Sancho succeeds his Father A­lonso. which being St. Mar­tin's Day, he had that Name given him, together with [Page 174] the other. From his very Infancy, he was bred in the Field amidst the noise of Arms, and surrounded with Dangers.His Acti­ons under his Father. At the Age of 13 he engaged with the King of Leon, in the Plains of Arganal, and tho' not Victo­rious, came off with Honour: He was the first Chri­stian Prince, after the Conquest of Spain by the Moors, that advanced to the Walls of Sevil. His Father King Alonso had ordered him to pass the River Tagus, to de­fend that plentiful Country. The Moors suffered him to pass undisturbed by Evora and Beja, but having pas­sed Sierra Morena, he was met by the King of Sevil with a numerous Army in the plain of Axarafe; here they came to a Battle, which was obstinately fought on both sides till the valour of the Christians overcame the multitude of their Enemies, whom they pursued to the Gates of Sevil, making that River run Red with the blood of Infidels. In his return to Portugal, the Prince wasted all the Country carrying a vast Booty, without meeting any opposition. By the way he laid Siege to Niebla, and had now reduced it to great extremity, when advice was brought him that the City Beja was distressed by the Moors. Thither he hasted, and charg­ing the Besiegers, put them to the rout, and relieved the City. The King of Bajadoz had sent Ravadan, a fa­mous Commander, with an Army to spoil that part of Portugal, which he performed as was expected from him; being on his return, he was overtaken by the Prince, and forced to quit the Country, and his Booty with more hast than he came. This Prince valiantly defended Santarem against the Miramamolin, till his Fa­ther came to raise the Siege, and they both entred the place in Triumph. These were his principal Exploits till his Accession to the Crown, which was in the Year 1185.1185.

2. The third day after his Father's Death, in the 30th. Year of his Age, and the 10th. after he was mar­ried, Prince Sancho was Proclaimed King in the same place where he was Born. Since this is the first King that died in Portugal, we will set down the manner of publick lamentation made for his Death which conti­nues to this day,The man­ner of la­menting the death [...] a King. leaving the Formalities of the inau­guration of the new King for another place. The Judges and their Officers walk a foot from the Town­house, with long mourning Cloaks, with Hoods to [Page 175] them on their head. After them the Town Standard Bearer on a Horse with mourning trappings, with black colours on his Shoulder, the end whereof trails upon the Ground. Then follows the Sheriff with two others in Mourning like the others, each of them carrying a Buc­ler over his head. Next to them come the Aldermen, followed by a multitude of People; in this manner they proceed to the great Church, where the Sheriff having made a short Speech, declaring the King's death, and their great loss, he lets fall the Buckler from his head upon the Stones, and breaks it to pieces, at which the People raise a hideous lamentation. Then they go to the Mint, and so to the great Hospital, at both which places they perform the same Ceremony, which done, they return to the great Church and hear Mass. The third day after, is performed the Ceremony of inaugu­ration, which shall be spoke of in another place. This Ceremony was now performed at Coimbra, where Mar­tin then Bishop crowned King Sancho and his Queen Dulcis according to the custom of those times.

3. The first action of the new King was paying his Obedience to Pope Ʋrban III.1186. after which he so much addicted himself to repairing of Towns and Castles and building others anew,He repairs and builds many Towns as also to encouraging of Tilling, that he was called the Peopler, and the Farmer or Til­ler. To the Military order of Santiago, he gave the Towns of Alcazar, Palmela, Almada and Arruda; to that of Avis, Alpedriz and Alcanede; to the Templars Idanha. He repaired the great Town of Covillam, to whose jurisdiction 300 Villages are subject, and gave a Charter to it, as he did to Gouvea, Viseo and Braganza. Ferdinand King of Leon entred into Portugal, 1187. with grea­ter force than success; for after several repulses, he was defeated in the Country of Cerolico Bebado, now called la Vera: The Governour of Villota, a Town on a Hill near the City Guardia, observing the King of Leon's Ar­my dispersed about the Villages for Plunder, gatherered all the Forces near him, and marching from Trancoso, recovered all the Booty, killing many, and putting the rest to flight. A Fleet of English, Flemings and Danes consisting of 53 sail,1188. Commanded by Jaques Lord of Avesnes, entred the Mouth of the River Tagus, being designed for the Holy Land. The King supplied them with all they wanted, and designing the Conquest of [Page 176] the City Silves the Metropolis of Algarve, Silves in Algarve taken with the help of a Foreign Fleet. and refuge of all the Moorish Pyrates, he proposed advantagious terms to these Strangers if they would assist him in that Expedition. They consented, Articling for the Plunder of the City, if taken: Forty Portuguese Gallies were joined to the Foreign Fleet, besides Tenders carrying Provision and warlike Munitions. The King march­ed with his Army by Land, whilst the Fleet made the best of its way at Sea. Both being come before the City, they furiously Battered, and gave several Assaults to it for the space of two Months, meeting a vigorous resistance in the Defendants. At the end of that time the Moors pressed with Hunger, and the continual at­tacks of the Christians delivered up the City, capitula­ting only for their lives.

4. This City of Silves taken,1189. as has been said, was again lost the ensuing Year:Algarve subdued, King San­cho adds that Title to Portu­gal. King Sancho soon returned into Algarve, and not only recovered it, but took also the Town of Albor and Castle of Abenabacci, besides o­ther places. This Country thus conquered, King San­cho stiled himself King of Algarve, and to the Royal Arms of Portugal, added an Orle of Castles. Some of his Coin has been seen, which in the Orle has 7 Ca­stles, which number is still used in the Armes of Algar­ve, when separated from those of Portugal. King Alon­so III. added more, making the Number uncertain; but King John II. long after fixed the Number again at se­ven. Betwixt this Year and that of 1200 were repeo­pled the Towns of Penamacor, Pinel, Torres Novas, Azambuja, Penucova, Gondomar, Ermelo, Covellinas, Soto de Panoyas and Povos. M [...]ntemayor the New was now first Built, as also the City Guarda on the side of the Mountain formerly called Herminius, now Serra da Estrella. 1190. King Sancho entred Andaluzia a second time, laid Siege to the Town of Serpa, overthrew the Moors that came to relieve it, and yet was forced to rise with­out taking it. Soon after it was taken by the Knights of the Order of Avis; Peter Fernandez de Castro, that famous Castilian, who taking offence at his King, of­ten led the Moors against him, being now General for the King of Morocco, did great harm in Portugal. All the territory of Tomar was wasted, and Abrantes plun­dered: As he was retiring loaded with rich Plunder, Martin Lopez a famous Commander encountred him, [Page 177] and after a most sharp dispute, recovered all the Prey and took him Prisoner.

5. The Miramamolin again overwhelmed this King­dom with an Army of 400000 Horse and 500000 Foot (I could wish a Cipher were cut off from each Number, and it would appear more credible.) He took Torres Novas without opposition, but Tomar was bravely defended by Galdin Paez, Master of the Tem­plers, who had done notable service in the Holy Land. The Moor offered to exchange the places he had taken for the City Silves, but this proposition being rejected by King Sancho, he in a fury laid Siege to Santarem, where the Plague raging in his Army,Robert Labril and Richard Cambil Englishmen with a fleet of 63 Ships arrive at Lisbon, and assist the Portu­guese a­gainst the Moors. he was forced to break it up and depart; 63 Men of War from the Northern parts arrived at Lisbon, commanded by two English Men of Note, called Robert Labril▪ and Richard Cambil. The first ten that came in, aided the King at Santarem against the Miramamolin; the others being joined to them, there arose such contention betwixt them and the Portuguese, as might have been the cause of much Bloodshed, had not the King prudently prevented it, and sent the Strangers away well contented. A most terrible Plague and devouring Famine followed all these great successes, and not only destroyed Men in their Houses, but even the wild Beasts in the Woods, or else they ran to the Towns for Prey whilst Men fled to the Mountains for Shelter.1191. The Monks of Alcobaca per­ceiving they must of necessity Perish,Great Fa­mine. hid an Image of our Lady in the Mountain, which being afterwards found,A total E­clipse of the Sun. a Church was built there, and called Our Lady of Help. To be brief, a great part of the Kingdom was altogether unpeopled; all this was foreshown by a to­tal Solar Eclipse.

6. As if all these Calamities had not been sufficient to humble so small a number of People and so narrow a Country, the Miramamolin Abenjoseph, Brother to him that besieged Santarem, assisted by the Kings of Cordova and Sevil, entred Portugal with 400000 Men.The Moors ravage the Country. All the open Country was by him miserably wasted, and the Towns of Alcazar, Almada and Palmela taken with all that the Christians had before gained in Algarve. Our King not able oppose so puissant an Enemy, conclud­ed a Truce with him for five Years, which ended in a wonderful Eclipse of the Sun. This was followed by [Page 178] Earthquakes,Earth­quakes, in­undations, and Storms for 8 Years Floods, Storms at Sea, and many other Calamities for the space of 8 Years. Men laboured under a horrid Distemper, for their Entrails consuming they died raving. A considerable body of Portuguese was at the famous Battle of Alarcos in Castile against the Moors, 1195. commanded by D. Ganzalo Viegas Master of Avis, who died honourably in that glorious Action. A multitude of Arabs after the Expiration of the Truce, o­verran a great part of Portugal, 1196. consuming all that was not before spoiled, and putting to the Sword all the Monks of the Monastery of Alcobaza. 1197. King Sancho at last provoked by these losses, marched out with his Forces, took Roca de Palmela and recovered Elvas, not long before taken from him. Next he made War on the King of Leon his Son-in-law, having obtained of Pope Celestin III.1200. the Croisade for all that fought against him, as a favourer of Infidels against Christians. He took from him the City Tuy, and Towns of Pontevedr [...] and St. Payo de Lombeo and recovered Contrasta, now called Valencia, before taken by the King of Leon. At length these two Kings were reconciled through the me­diation of the King of Aragon, who to that effect came to Coimbra, 1208. then the Court of Portugal. Some time af­ter there ensued Civil Wars in Portugal betwixt certain great Men; the most considerable betwixt Peter Rodri­guez de Pereyre and his Cousin Peter Mendez de Poyares, who coming to a Battle near Valongo, two Leagues from Porto, the latter was there slain with many other Men of Note.

7. The Holy City of Hierusalem being taken by Sa­ladin, the Christian Princes made preparations for re­covery of it, and our King Sancho designed to have gone thither himself; but being disswaded, sent sup­plies and encouraged the knights Templers and Hos­pitallers to proceed vigorously in that religious Enter­prize In this King's time was used in Portugal the weight called a Talent,A Talent used in Portugal. but less than the Roman, Greek, or Hebrew, being worth but four Ducats. I have seen silver Coin of this King's with his Image a Horse­back on the one side, his Sword held up a cross on his Reines, and about it these Words: In nomine Patris & filij & spiritus Sancti; On the reverse, the Arms of the Kingdom and this Inscription, Sanctius Dei Gratia Rex Portugaliae. King Sancho fixed not his abode in any one [Page 179] place, but often removed, that so all might equally enjoy his presence. He was a great Patron to the reli­gious and Military Orders, careful of rewarding Me­rit, a Friend to the Poor, an Enemy to Idleness, and true Father of his Country. The misfortunes during his Reign, and his own bounty might well have ex­hausted the Treasure; yet so well did he manage it, that at his death he distributed 7 [...]8000 Crowns and 1400 Marks of Plate, and 100 of Gold. His Lega­cies extended to Rome and Hierusalem; The death of King Sancho. he was of a mid­dle Stature, and strongly set; he Reigned 26 Years and lived 57, died in March, and lies Buried in the Church of the Holy Cross at Coimbra, opposite to his Father, whose Tomb is on the right side of the Altar. His Tomb being opened by King Emanuel to put him in­to a new one 400 Years after his Decease, the body was found uncorrupted.

8. Some Years before the death of his Father,His Issue. he married Dulcis or Aldonza, Daughter to Raymund Be­rengarius Earl of Barcelona, by whom he had issue, Alon­so his Successor. Ferdinand married to Joanna, Coun­tess of Flanders, Daughter and Heiress to Baldwin, Em­peror of Constantinople. Peter who married the Daugh­ter and Heiress of Earl Armengaud, in whose right he had the Earldoms of Ʋrgel and Segorbe, and Island of Majorca. Henry that died young, and Raymund that lived a short time. His Daughters were Teresa, married to the King of Leon, and parted from him on account of Consanguinity, when she had three Children by him, she is esteemed a Saint. Mafalda married to Hen­ry I. King of Castile, and divorced as well as her Sister on the same account of Consanguinity; she lies buried in the Monastery of Arouca, and is Worshiped as a Saint. Sancha who converted her own Pallace at Alenquer into a Franciscan Monastery, which was the first in Portugal, that holy Man being then alive. She also built the Monastery of Celas near Coimbra, and lies Buried at Lorvan with the same esteem as her Sisters. Blanch La­dy of Gaudalajara in Castile where she died, but was translated to the Church of the Holy Cross at Coimbra among her Parents. Berengaria died young at Lor [...]an, and lies there. His illegitimate Children were Martin Sanchez Earl of Trastamara, Ʋrraca Sanchez Wife to Laurence Suarez. Teresa Sanchez, second Wife to Alonso [Page 180] Tello the Elder. Giles Sanchez, who became a Priest▪ Constance Sanchez finished the Monastery of St. Francis at Coimbra. Ruy Sanchez killed in Battle, as will ap­pear in the year 1245. Nunno Sanchez, and Mayor San­chez; All these the King had before he was Married, by a Lady of Quality, called Mary Paez.

9. King Sancho left out all the small Scutcheons u­sed by his Father in his Arms,His Armes. only retain­ing the five principal in form of a Cross, with the strings that bind them together.

[figure]

In his time the Orders of St. Dominick and St. Francis first founded in Portugal, and those of the Holy Trinity and Carmelites were then also admitted.

CHAP. V.
The Life and Reign of King Alonso II. of the Name and third King of Portugal, his acti­ons and death, from the Year 1183. till 1223.

1. ALonso Eldest Son to King Sancho, 1185. and his Wife Queen Dulcis, The Birth of King A­lonso II. who was the third King of Por­tugal, and second of the Name, was Born the 25th. of April, in the famous City Coimbra: He falling despe­rately sick, and being given over by the Physitians, his Father had recourse to Heaven for his Health, which was obtained through the Prayers of the Holy Nun Sennorina, then living in the Mountains of Basto, of the Province betwixt Duero and Minho, as an ac­knowledgment for which benefit received, the King bestowed Lands and Possessions on that Church, as did some of his Successors. Soon after his miraculous re­covery, his Father sent him General against Torres Novas, whence the Infidels used to make Excursions, and Ravage all the Neighbouring Country. The young Prince gave good proof of his Valour at this Siege, and became Master of the place by plain force. [Page 181] King Sancho perceiving his Son to be worthy to con­tinue the race of Portuguese Kings, gave him to Wife Ʋrraca, Daughter to Alonso VIII. of Castile. The Bride and Bridegroom could not lawfully be Married without a Dispensation, being Cousins in the fourth degree of Consanguinity; yet without any, they had a Son the following Year 1208.1208. King Sancho lived but four Years after, and our Prince succeeded him, being then Twenty Six Years of Age. The first thing he did, was to give the Town of Avis to the Military Order of that Name; Ferdinand Y [...]nez being the Ma­ster of it, who removed thence from Evora, where he had resided till then.

2. King Sancho perceiving that his Son Alonso did not well agree with his Brothers and Sisters, as he left him the Crown, so he provided for them, giving the Brothers Money and Jewels, and to their Sisters the Towns of Alenquer and Aveiras. King A­lonso at­tacks the Towns gi­ven by his Father to his Sisters. King Alonso not satisfyed with the Crown, pretended his Father could not alienate any Towns from it, to give to his Sisters. The Brothers fearing his Power, fled, Ferdinand to Ca­stile, and Peter to Leon, and then to Morocco. The Sisters Fortifying the Towns, left them by their Fa­ther, provoked their Brother, who by force of Armes, took the Town of Aveiras. This done, he sent Forces to Besiege Alenquer, and sat down himself before Mon­temayor: These Sieges lasted four Months, the King of Leon who had Married Teresa, Sister to our King, forced him to quit that Enterprize. He marched with Prince Peter, through the Province between Duero and Minho, wasting all that Country, and besieged King Alonso as he lay before Montemayor. He is rout­ted by the King of Leon. Much Blood was shed, and all the Country ruined, but at last coming to a Battle, our King was Worsted, and the victorious Army in their return took the Towns of Valencia. Mel­gazo, Fulgoso and Freixa, with other places of less Note, which they Plundered, and Burnt what they could not carry away. The Portuguese in the absence of the King of Leon, again provoked him to send his Forces. Martin Sanchez, Brother to our King, but offended at him, commanded the Army of Leon, be­ing that King's Lieutenant. All things being in rea­diness to give Battle, he refused to Fight against his natural Prince in Person, who being informed thereof, [Page 182] with-drew himself to the City Porto: The Army left to Engage Martin Sanchez, was commanded by Mendo Gonzalez de Soufa, John Perez de Maya, and Giles Vas­quez de Soverosa. The King being gone, the Fight be­gan, in which singular acts of valour were performed. D. John Perez de Maya with his Lance overthrew se­ven Horsemen;Recovering defeats the Army of Leon. in short, the Portuguese obtained the Victory in the Plain called Vareza, betwixt Duero and Minho. The second day they Engaged near Bra­ga, and the third hard by Guimaraens, with the like success; so that the Enemy retired into Galicia. These and the like misfortunes, moved the Sisters to sollicite Pope Innocent III. to interpose his Apostolical Autho­rity, to oblige the King to do them Justice. Neverthe­less the Power of the Sword prevailed beyond Equity, or Spiritual Weapons.

3. Ten Years were spent in these Domestick Broiles,He is re­conciled to his Bre­thren. at the end of which the King was in some measure re­conciled to his Brethren, and had leasure to attend other Enterprizes, from which Civil Discord had di­verted him. Though he could not go in Person to the famous Battle of Navas in Castile against the Infi­dels, he sent some Forces under the Command of Ge­mez Ramires. Our King being now disposed to advance his Conquests on the Infidels, Heaven ordered it so, that a Fleet of 100 Sail from the North, under the Command of Walter de Avesnes, was drove by stress of Weather into the River Tagus. The King ordered the Bishop to relieve and cherish them, and then both perswaded them to give their helping hand towards the gaining of Alcazar do Sal. The King being hindred by Sickness, sent the Bishop General of 20000 Por­tuguese, who marched by Land whilst the Strangers steered the same course at Sea. At the first attacks, ma­ny fell on both sides, but the Besieged fearing so great Power, sent advice of their distress to the Kings of Ba­dajoz, Jaen, Sevil and Cordova, who came to their re­lief with 15000 Horse and 40000 Foot, besides 10 Gallies well provided. Providence ordered it so, that at the same time, Thirty Sail of French and Flemings arrived at Setuval; these immediately moved to aid the Christians, who gave the Enemy Battle whilst a­nother part attacked the Town. All the first day the Christians had the worst, but the next renewing their [Page 183] strength and courage, they obtained an absolute Vi­ctory with the slaughter of 30000 Infidels and two of the Kings, supposed to be those of Badajoz and Cordo­va, because the other two soon after appeared before Elvas. A bright Cross carried like the Standard of a Troop of Angels, with White Garments crossed with Red, is said to have been seen this day in the Air, not only by the Christians, but by the Infidels themselves, several of them confessing it after the Battle. The Victors prosecuted the Siege, and carried on a Mine, which being discovered by the Defendants, much Blood was shed under Ground; at length the Town was taken on St. Luke's Day, and the Governour ha­ving seen the strange signs mentioned, in the Sky, be­came a Christian.

4. The Kings of Sevil and Jaen, The Moors vanquished at Elvas. with a numerous Army, Encamped before the City Elvas, confiding they should carry it by their Multitude. Our King disappointed their expectation, giving them Battle, and overthrowing them in open Field, after which he en­tred Andaluzia victorious, overruning that Province with Fire and Sword. This done, he returned home in Triumph, and his Army laden with Plunder; this Action so daunted the Infidels, that they never after in­vaded that part of the Country. Nevertheless, Moura and Serpa were soon after Besieged by the Moors, but they were forced from both places with great loss by the King in Person. Out of the last Engagement, he was drawn almost stifled, being very corpulent and oppres­sed with the heat of the Weather, and weight of his Armour. Afterwards he overthrew the King of Bada­joz near Alcozer, killing 30000 of his Men. He [...]et [...] a Fleet to Sea, for the War in the Holy Land. To be short, in all his undertakings, he came off with Honour, as became the Son and Grandson of such a Father and Grand-father. Many other his Warlike Exploits are Buried in Oblivion.

5. Of the excellency of his politick Government, there are sufficient Testimonies. Till his time, this Kingdom was Governed according to the private Laws of every Town.Laws are enacted by him. He was the first that instituted gene­ral Laws, in the first Year of his Reign, holding a Parliament for that purpose at Coimbra. In these Laws great regard was had to the Church-Men, the prices of [Page 184] all things necessary for the support of life were settled, so that the meanest might buy as cheap as the greatest; the Extortions of publick Ministers were retrenched; Plaintiffs if cast, were ordered to pay a Fine; Sen­tence of Death passed by him, was appointed not to be Executed till 20 days after, to prevent the Effects of Passion. This King used extraordinary severity to­wards the Church-men,1221. for which being reproved by Stephen Suarez de Silva Archbishop of Braga, instead of amending, he set Officers to destroy all the Posses­sions of that See. He persisted so obstinately in this fury, that Honorius the third wrote a Letter to him full of most severe Expressions, calling him Tyrant: In fine, the King died before he was reconciled to the Clergy,His Death. or his own Sisters, the Kingdom at that time lying un­der an interdict. He lived 48 Years, and Reigned 21: His Body lies Buried with the Queen his Wife, in the Royal Monastery of Alcobaca, in a plain Tomb with­out any Epitaph or Inscription, as were all the first Kings of this Nation. Of Body he was extraordinary gross, and therefore called the Fat; yet his Gigantick Stature carried it off, his Countenance was Comly, his Forehead High,1223. his Eyes Chearful, and his Hair Yel­low, which he always wore long.

5. King Alonso Married Ʋrraca, His Wife and Issue. the Daughter of Alonso VIII. of Castile, called the Noble and Good, a most vertuous and beautiful Princess. His Issue by her was Sancho, who succeeded in the Throne; Alonso Earl of Bolen, in right of his Wife Maud, whence he was called to Govern the Kingdom by reason of the insuf­ficiency of his Brother, whom he succeeded: Ferdinand called de Serpa, married to Sancha Fernandez, Daughter to Ferdinand Earl of Lara. Lastly, Elenor who was Queen of Dacia. The King had one Bastard Son, called John Alonso, of whom there is no other memory, but that he lies Buried in the Church of Alcobaca. Tho' it be said before at the end of the last King's Reign, that then the orders of St. Dominick, St. Francis, the Blessed Trinity and the Carmelites came into Portugal; our Author repeats it again in the Reign of this King, which is the most likely.

CHAP. VI.
The Life and Reign of King Sancho II. he is deposed by his Brother, flies to Toledo, and there ends his days, all betwixt the Years 1207 and 1246.

1. SAncho II. of the Name,1203. and Fourth King of Por­tugal, Sancho II. ascends the Throne. Eldest Son to King Alonso, was Born on the Eighth of September at Coimbra. He was called Capelo, because being sickly in his Child-hood, his Mother confiding to obtain his Health, through the intercession of the Holy Father St. Augustin, caused him to wear that Habit. His Weakness rather than want of Years, must be the cause that he appeared not in any Military Action with his Father, for we have no account of him till he ascended the Throne, which was about the 20th.1223. or 21st. Year of his Age. His first Action was a Reconciliation with the Clergy, who had suffered much under his Father, but he soon fol­lowed his Example. After this agreement with the Church, the Ecclesiastical Censures were taken off, and those who died during the interdict, were now Buried in hallowed Ground. The controversies also between the late King and his Sisters ceased, they now swearing fealty to the King for the places they possessed. His next care was to visit his Kingdom, which he did taking a Progress through it leasurely, doing justice to all Men, and giving prudent Orders in all places. Then laying aside for a while the Civil Affairs, he ap­plied him to the Military, making several incursions upon the Moors, whence he returned with Honour. Our King, and Ferdinand of Castile met at Sabugal to adjust certain Differences, which they amicably put an end to; King Ferdinand delivering up the Town of Chaves which had been engaged to him.

[Page 186] 2. Still the Arabs ranged about the territory of El­vas, He entirely defeats the Moors at Elvas. wasting the Country and destroying the Villages. King Sancho assembling his Forces, soon drove them thence, but no sooner was his back turned then they came again, laid Siege to Elvas, and carried it by As­sault. Our King returning with speed, utterly discom­fitted those Barbarians, so that they never again at­tempted any thing there. Nor did he desist till he had Juremenha, 1226. Serpa, and other Castles, which had often been gained, and again fallen into the Enemies hands. For four Years there was nothing of Action, but in the Year 1230,1230. he made War on the Moors, in the Province of Alentejo. The following year he ad­vanced into Algarve, to recover what his Grand-father had conquered there, and was now again fallen into the hands of the Infidels.1232. Some places he re-took, conse­crated the Churches, and placed therein Evangelical Pastors.1235. After this, by his Commanders, the chief whereof was Payo Perez Correa, he took Aljustrel which he gave to the Military Order of Santiago; 1239. then the Towns of Mergola, and Alfajar de Penna, which also he bestowed on the same Order. Of late Years the insolencies of Favourites were grown insupportable, they abusing the King and their Kindred and friends them.Common complaints when sub­jects will rebell. The Subjects were treated worse than con­quered Moors, their Persons Imprisoned, their Estates Wasted, their Children Murdered, unless redeemed for Money, and their Wives and Daughters openly Ravished. Nor was the Sanctuary of the Church any refuge, for even in those Holy Places, all Vil­lanies were committed: The King knew nothing, but what his Favourites told him, and it was their study to keep him in ignorance, and hence proceeded the ruin of this unhappy Prince.

3. In the Year 1240. Cacela and Ayamonte were taken by Assault,1240. in which Actions D. Payo Perez Cor­rea particularly signalized himself,Complaints made to the Pope and all things adjusted. wherefore the King gave those places to the Military Order of Santiago, whereof he was Commendary. During this current of Affairs, the King was highly commended, and re­ceived Spiritual Favours from Pope Gregory IX. The Spiritual Graces were for such as died in the War, and for the King himself, who lay under Ecclesiasti­cal Censures, for having proceeded unjustly against [Page 187] Peter Bishop of Porto, who carried his complaints to Rome. Besides, he seized the Ecclesiastical revenues on pretence of urgent necessities, and of punishing Clergy Men who kept Women in their Houses. Sil­vester, Archbishop of Braga, had hereupon made ap­plication to the Pope, who therefore wrote to the King, and recommended the charge of reducing him to certain Bishops. But he prevented them by submit­ting himself, and so all differences were adjusted. The King considering the great merit of D. Payo Correa, be­fore spoken of, made him General for the conquest of Algarve. He acted therein with the success that was hoped of his conduct taking several strong holds, a­mong which were Estombar and Alvor. Garcia Rodri­gues who had travelled that Country as a Merchant, was his principal Guide, having forsaken the pursuit after Riches, to purchase Honour with his Sword. Paderne was also taken, but cost dear, the success re­maining a long time dubious. The Enemy having proposed a Cessation of Arms it was granted, because our forces fatigued with so many expeditions required some time of refreshment. During this Truce, the Commendary Peter Perez with five Gentlemen went out to hunt in the Mountains of the Village of Antas. In their passage by Tavira, a City belonging to the Moors, they were set upon by a greater number of In­fidels. Garcia Rodriguez, the Merchant above mention­ed, passing that way, hasted to their succour, and af­ter a brave resistance, they were all killed upon the place. D. Payo Correa could not come time enough to save their lives, though upon the first advice of the accident he hasted thither. Seeing his Friends could not be saved, he fell upon the Enemy for revenge, and they flying to the City, he entred it together with them, and though he met with a vigorous resistance, made himself Master of it. King Sancho hearing of the taking of Tavira, gave it to the Knights of San­tiago.

4. The conquest of Silves only was wanting to com­pleat our General's Glory.Silves a­gain reco­vered. His Policy and Celerity brought it about, the Enemy offering him a favourable opportunity: The Inhabitants of that place went out to assist King Aben Afan at the Siege of Estombar, D. Payo instead of relieving the Besieged, attacked Silves [Page 188] then forsaken of its Defendants, and easily made him­self Master of it. The Moorish King hasting to suc­cour the City, came late for his design, but in time for D. Payo, who rushing out of the City, put him to flight, so precipitately, that he was drowned on the Coast, which in memory of him is to this day called the Sea of Abenafan. Thus all Algarve was brought under the power of King Sancho: The Pope about this time having invited all Christian Princes to joyn their Forces against the Tartars, 1244. King Sancho provided a Gallant Army for that Expedition, but all his Pre­parations were disappointed, for he went not as he had designed. Roderick Sanchez, Son to King Sancho I. having been long at variance with Giles de Soverosa, a powerful Man in those days, they met with armed Troops near the City Porto, and after a sharp En­gagement, the dispute ended with the life of Roderick Sanchez, who was there slain. In this Encounter, Ro­derick Fafes, a Man of Note, having lost his Horse, asked Gonzalo Rodriguez de Abreu to give him his; he gave it upon condition the other should give him his Daughter Mencia in Marriage, which according to pro­mise, Fafes afterwards performed.

5. The King continued to bestow liberally most rich Possessions on the Church.The subjects ripe for re­bellion, tho' the King was blame­less. His goodly Actions deserved no less love of his Subjects, than any of his Predecessors, but it is not always Merit that gains e­steem among Men. Envy towards his Favourites pro­duced Malice against him, nor was the fault in his Government, or in choosing such Ministers, but that all who aspired to it, could not be Favourites. There never is wanting a pretence to subjects disposed to re­bell. The King easing himself on his Favourites, the Portuguese gave out he was uncapable to Govern, and therefore proposed to erect a Lieutenant to man­age affairs for him, and made application to the Pope hereupon, having fixed upon the King's Brother A­lonso to fill that place and succeed him. It was want of Loyalty in them, and not of capacity in him that produced this Resolution. One objection raised a­gainst King Sancho by his Enemies,They cavil at all his Actions. was, That he had married a Wife below his Quality, and was too fond of her. Weak motives to a Rebellion, especially con­sidering his Queen was the Daughter of D. Lope Diaz [Page 189] de Haro Lord of Biscay and of Ʋrraca, bastard Daugh­ter to Alonso IX. King of Leon, so that she was equal to him either as being both the Off-spring of the same King's Bastards, or as to grandeur, her Father want­ing nothing but the usurped Title of King, to make him as great as he of Portugal. It is true, the Queen favouring those who had been instrumental in advancing her to the Crown, hid some miscarri­ages from the King, which gave occasion to the multitude to commit several insolencies, and the King not punishing them whilst he could, had not after­wards the power to do it when he would. Some would have it that the Queen had given her Hus­band a Potion, the more to secure his love to her, and to divert him wholly from the care of the Go­vernment.

6. The tumultuous Cryes of the People not pre­vailing,The Clergy joins in the Rebellion with the Laity. the Clergy took upon them to espouse their Quarel, and had recourse to Pope Gregory IX. who thundered out Ecclesiastical Censures against the King on account of his being Married to Queen Mencia, who was his Kinswoman within the prohi­bited degree. The King making no account of the Spiritual Weapons, the People mutinied, being headed by Raymund Viegas Portocarreo, a Man of quality,The Rebels seize the Queen. and breaking into the Palace at Coimbra, took away the Queen and put her into the Castle of Ourem. This exasperated the King to that height, that gathering what force he could, he endeavoured to recover her, but all in vain, for the Rebels con­veyed her into Castile. The King betrayed by all his Mi­nisters. Now it plainly appeared, that King Sancho was rather Unfortunate, than unfit to Govern, for even the Ambassadors he employed abroad, betrayed him. He sent John Egas Archbi­shop of Braga, and Peter and Tiburicus Bishops of Porto and Coimbra to Rome, and they forgetting they were sent by their Prince, became Sollicitors for the Rebels, who held correspondence there. Hereupon a Council was held at Lions in France, assembled by Pope Innocent IV. and King Sancho having sent thi­ther his Ambassadors Ruy Gomez de Briteiros, Gomez Vie­gas, Peter Alonso, a Franciscan and Dominick de Bra­ga, a Dominican, they joyned with the mutinous [Page 190] Prelates,Alonso Brother to King San­cho, made Vicar of the King­dom by the Rebels. and thereupon Count Alonso, Brother to King Sancho, then Married in France to Maud Coun­tess of Bolen, was at Paris Sworn Vicar of the King­dom, and as such, confirmed by the Pope, yet so that King Sancho should still retain the Title and Preheminence of King, and his Sons if he had any, should inherit. This new Substitute brought more harm than good to the Kingdom, for his followers treated him as a King, and he assumed that respect which did not belong to him, whilst others acknow­ledged the true King, so that this difference came to be decided by the Sword.

7. The Dominicans and Franciscans were appoin­ted to put in Execution this unjust decree, and one Giles a Dominican durst notify it to the King.King San­cho flies into Ca­stile. He seeing himself deprived of his Wife and Government, and the People in Rebellion fled to Toledo, then the Court of Ferdinand the Holy King of Castile. By the way, King Sancho reposing himself at Moreira, certain Gentlemen came to him, offering to stand by him, and support his cause, provided he would put away his Favourite. The King disapproving of this conditional Loyalty, no better then open Re­bellion, continued his Journey. At Toledo he spent the remainder of his life in works of Grandeur and Piety. He expended a great Treasure in Alms, and Building the Royal Chappel in the Cathedral: having done extraordinary Pennance for his Sins, and given singular marks of great Piety,His Death. he departed this life the Thirty Ninth Year of his Age, and the Thir­teenth of his Reign, reckoning in those that his Bro­ther Governed for him. He is said to have had a special Devotion to S. Lazarus, and also that he ap­peared twice to him in his life-time, and was pre­sent at his Death. In the beginning of his Reign, he peopled the City Idanha, which had been de­stroyed by his Grand-father King Sancho when he took it from the Moors. He maintained the City Aleazer against the Infidels who Besieged it, who after much loss sustained, begged a Truce. He not only preserved his Kingdom, but recovered many places that had been lost, and may be accounted a­mongst the best of our Princes.

[Page 191] 8. In this King ended the direct line of the Kings of Portugal, His Person described. he being the Fourth King, and Second of the Name. His Countenance was Beau­tiful, his Hair fair and long, his Forehead high, his Eyes green and cheerful, his Nose large, and his Complexion inclined to pale. In his Anti­ent Pictures, he is represented in Scarlet Robes, a Crown on his Head, a Book in one Hand, and in the other, a Scepter with a Pigeon on the top of it, as the commonalty would have it, or else it might be a Stork as many Antient Kings used, denoting by the care that Bird has of its young ones, the love of a Prince towards his Subjects. He built from the ground the Mona­steries of St. Dominick, in the Cities of Lisbon and Porto. Some say his Queen accompanied him at Toledo, and others affirm, she was never heard of more after being taken from him. He had no Is­sue, and consequently his Brother suceeded him.

CHAP. VII.
The Life and Reign of Alonso the third of the Name, and Fifth King of Portugal; his Actions and Death, from the Year 1210. till 1279.

1. D. Alonso the Third of the Name,Alonso III. his Birth and Actions till his assump­tion to the Crown. and Fifth King, was Brother to King Sancho, whose lot it was to have a Crown without the power of the Government, and a Wife without Issue. He was Born in the City of Coimbra, on the 5th. of May, was the second Son of King Alonso II. and Married Maud Countess of Bolen in France, 1210. then Widdow of Phillip the curled Son of Philip Augustus King of France, and Grand-son to the Duke of Maravia, whose Daughter Queen Mary was.1245. His thoughts were employed upon the Holy War, when he was called to the Crown of Portugal. The Kingdom be­ing in confusion, the Nobles made suite to Pope In­nocent the III. that Alonso might ascend the Throne instead of his Brother Sancho. The Pope not to deprive the King of his right, and being informed he was not of Ability to Govern, consented that A­lonso should have the Authority of Regent, but San­cho should still have the regal stile and preheminence, and his Children if he had any should inherit. At Paris, Alonso took Solemn Oath as Regent, which was to this Effect: That he would preserve the Pri­viledges of the Clergy, Nobility and Commonalty; That he would constitute upright Judges, without Favour or Affection; That such as had committed Crimes against Priests, should be punished; That their Estates should be restored; That all Buildings erected to the prejudice of Prelates should be Demo­lished, and nothing for the future should be taken from them. This was the promise made, and con­sequently such were the miscarriages then in the Go­vernment, so that the King suffered for some miscar­riages in his Ministers.

[Page 193] 2. Alonso having taken upon him the Title of Re­gent,Alonso received as Regent. set out from Paris, and returned to his Coun­try, where he was received by most places; yet several having more regard to their Loyalty, than the present Danger, held out long after, and some till King Sancho died at Toledo. Alonso possessed of the Kingdom,He puts a­way his Wife, and Marries another. like an ungrateful Man, put away his Wife Maud, the Countess, who Married him when he had nothing, and took in her place Bea­trix, Bastard Daughter to King Alonso the Tenth of Castile. Some Authors say, the Countess was contrary to all Human and Divine Laws put a­way on account of Barrenness, but that is a mi­stake, for it will appear she had Children. Pope Alexander the Fourth thundered out Censures a­gainst this second Marriage as unlawful, but all to no purpose, the King continuing obstinate till the Death of Maud, put an end to the dispute. Alonso with the ambition of rule, pressed all Go­vernours to deliver up their Forts into his hands, and yet they that did so, were accounted no bet­ter than Traitors, and such as held out against him, were afterwards most esteemed even by him. O­bidos was the first Town Besieged by Alonso, but what the event was,1247. is not known. Ferdinand Ro­driguez Pacheco, valiantly defended Cerolico de los Bebados, or Bebado, and being reduced to great want one Morning, a Bird of Pray dropped a large Trout before him taken out of the River Mondego. The Governour sent it as a present to Alonso, who judging thereby there was plenty in the Town, raised the Siege and departed. Thus the Besieged were left at liberty to look abroad for Sustenance, so that the Trout may be said to have fed them all.

3. The Regent removed to Coimbra, A notable example of Loyalty. where he met with no better success, being opposed by the invincible Loyalty of D. Martin de Freitas. Both Parties resolved not to give way to one another. The Siege lasted long, and the Defendants waver­ing, their noble Governour performed more than Man to retain them in their Duty, insomuch that one day he brought out to the Parade his Daugh­ter, [Page 194] telling the Soldiers, That if want of Women obliged them to think of a Surrender, they might make use of that one. This act wholly confirm­ed the minds of the Garrison to him, insomuch, that they resolved to live and die with him. Such was the posture of affairs when News was brought of the Death of King Sancho at Toledo. The great Freitas demanded a Truce, whilst he went to Tole­do, to be assured of the Truth. There he caused the King's Grave to be opened, and seeing him Dead, delivered to him the Keys of the City he had entrusted him with, and asking leave to deliver them to his Brother,1248. took them again: Being come to Coimbra, he opened the Gates to King Alonso, who admiring so unparallelled a Gallantry, resto­red to him the Command, without demanding Ho­mage of him for it, which favour he extended to his Heirs; but he knowing how hard it was to make a return suitable to such a favour, refused to accept of it, and layed his Curse even to the fourth Generation, upon such as should admit of it.

4. Alonso now become absolute King by the Death of his Brother, resolved to imitate his Pre­decessors, or if it might be to out-doe them, by ad­ding to his Dominions the Kingdom of Algarve, and not suffering it to be lost again as had hap­pened to them. D. Payo Correa with the Forces under his Command, had already taken several places in that Kingdom, the King joyned him, and both together layed Siege to the Town of Faro. 1249. The King observing the place might be relieved by Sea,King A­lonso con­quers Al­garve. placed some Vessels at the Mouth of the River to guard the Passage, and then began to batter the place on all sides. The Besieged perceiving no hope to hold out, began privately to treat of a Surrender with the King; he taking only Ten Gentlemen that were privy to the Treaty, ventu­red into the Town so secretly, that none of his Army knew it. D. Payo Correa missing the King, and hearing no account of him, furiously assaulted the place, the Portuguese fighting like Lions instead of being discouraged at the absence of their Sove­reign. Many were killed, and more had perish­ed, [Page 195] but that the King appeared on the Walls, holding out the Keys of the Town. Thus this place was reduced, submitting to pay the same tri­bute it had before payed to the Miramamolin. The Government of it was given to Stephen Perez de Ta­vares. D. Payo Correa was sent before to invest the Town of Albufiera, and had signalized his Valour when the King came to second him. Both toge­ther finished the Conquest of the place, which was given to D. Payo for his good Service. I guess the motive of the King's staying behind, was the Beauty of the Governour of Faro's Daughter, with whom he fell in Love when he received the Keys of the Town; for by his Lady he had D. Mar­tin Alonso Chichorro, from whom is Descended the Family of Sousa of that Name. Fortune now bent upon favouring our King, caused other places to submit to him, before he could appear before them.1250. Loule surrendred, but not without some Bloodshed; Algezar, Perches, and other places were all reduced. The King before his departure pla­ced trusty Governours in all the Towns with sufficient Garrisons, so as to secure that new con­quered Kingdom, which never after offered to re­volt from him.

King Alonso having nothing now to employ his Arms within his own limits, entred Andaluzia and took the Towns of Arouche and Ara [...]na. 1251. This Action moved King Alonso, the Wife of Castile and Leon, to invade the Kingdom of Algarve which he conquered.1252. After much contention betwixt the Crowns of Castile and Portugal, Differences betwixt Castile and Portugal, [...] to Pope. Pope Innocent the Fourth composed all Differences, so that the King of Castile was to hold Algarve during his Life, and he of Portugal to marry his Bastard Daughter. Both Kings were so willing to embrace this accommoda­tion, that they never considered the Bride was not Twelve Years of Age, and the Bridegroom above Forty, nor that the Countess of Bolen was still a­live. It is true, Pope Innocent approved of this Match, and yet afterwards Pope Alexander would not allow of it. All Military Employment now ceasing, the King applied himself to the Civil Af­fairs, [Page 196] and held a Parliament at Leiria. Next he took a Progress through the Kingdom,1255. repairing the Forts, Towns and Churches that had been ru­ined during the War, He spared neither cost nor labour in those publick Works; he built from the Ground the Monastery of Santarem, the Towns of Estremoz, 1258. Odemira, Monforte, Valencia del Minho, then called Contrasta, 1259. and Viana de Lima. His whole study was bent upon the good of the Govern­ment, and knowing how necessary Trade is to sup­port it, ordered many Fairs, and cleared the Roads of Robbers to secure Commerce.

6. In the midst of these Employments came to him two Gentlemen to Freilas, The King's cruelty to­wards his lawful Wife. where he then was, sent by Maud the Countess his first and lawfull Wife, to advertise him, that she perceiving he did not send for her to his Kingdom, and hearing he was Married again, was come of her self to find him out, and lay then at Cascais. The King who had for the sake of his new Wife, regarded nei­ther Divine nor Human Laws, sent her such an Answer, that she was forced to return to Bolen, leaving a Letter for him, wherein, she taxed himwith Ingra­titude and False-hood, threatning him with the cen­sures of the Church, the Power of Christian Princes, and the revenging hand of God. Authors add, that she brought with her two Children she had by him, whom in revenge she left exposed upon the Rocks, which are ever since called Cachopos, that word in Portuguese signifying Boys. That the Coun­tess had Children by him is proved by the autho­rity of Antient Authors, and there is no proof, but bare surmises to the contrary; besides, that a Tomb has been seen with an Inscription, denoting, it con­tained a Son of theirs that followed him into Por­tugal, and was entirely beloved by him. King Alonso of Castile, 1260. Father-in-law to our King, ha­ving composed the difference about Algarve, march­ed into Andaluzia, his Son-in-law assisting him both by Sea and Land. In return for this kind­ness, the Castillian resigned up to him all his Title to Algarve, and delivered the Towns to D. John de Aboin, and his Son D. Peter Anes de Portel, up­on [Page 197] condition the Portuguese, should during his life, be obliged to assist him with Fifty Lances when­soever he should demand them. This obligation was also taken off when his Grandson Prince Denis be­ing Seven Years of Age visited him at Sevil, and desired to be knighted by him.1263. Before this time to prevent Broils and Animosites, the bounds of the Kingdoms of Leon and Portugal were marked out.

7. About this time hapned an unparallelled won­der,A strange action of a jealous Wo­man. a Woman perceiving she was not beloved by her Husband, acquainted a Jewish Woman there­with, desiring her assistance. The Jew per­swaded her, that when she received the Blessed Sacrament, she should keep the Host and bring it to her, wherewith she would work her relief. She tied the Host in the end of her Head-cloaths, and going home, the Blood trickled down, and she not observing it, was told of it by those that met her. Being come home, she locked the Bloody Hood with the Host in a Closet. In the dead of the Night, her Husband awaking, saw a great light upon the Chest, and calling upon his Wife, asked whether she saw it not? She then declared the truth to him, and he rising, ran to the Parish Church, and to the Dominicans. The Friers still preserve the White Hood or Vaile bloody in a Glass Case; the Parish keeps the Host and Blood gathered on a Ball of Wax. Some Years after the Prior of that Church, which is Dedicated to St. Stephen, going to show that Relick to the People, found it shut up in a Cristalline Pyramidal Case, with a hole so small, that neither the Host nor Ball could be put in unless it were miracu­lously. The Ball is still to be seen round with drops of Blood on it, the Host is bent and Bloody. Many Persons of Credit, have affirmed, That they have there seen our Saviour in several Postures of his Passion. Another Miracle is Re­corded of a Christian, who was slave to a Moor, and daily recommended himself to St. Dominick of Sovereira. His Master every Night loaded him with Irons, and laid him in a Chest upon which he [Page 198] made his own Bed. One Night this Chest with the slave in it, and the Master upon it, was brought to the Door of the Chappel of that Saint in the Town of Penamacor. This Miracle so wrought upon the Moor, that he imbraced the Faith, and the Slave and he lived there as Hermits all the re­sidue of their lives. The Chest and Chains are still kept in that little Church.

8. No sooner was the King seated on the Throne,Alonso re­sumes his former gifts, and opposes the Clergy. but he made it appear, that what he had before bountifully bestowed, was only to secure himself, and not to reward those that promoted him. He took from the Military Orders what he had before given them; neither did he make account of what he swore at Paris in order to be Regent for his Brother;1268. for he so treated the Clergy, that several of them had recourse to Rome for Redress, of which were the Bishops of Braga, Coimbra, Guarda, Porto and Viseo. Pope Clement the Fourth, and after him Gregory the Tenth,1272. reproved his oppressing the Clergy, and forbidding the Jews and Moors under severe Penalties not to turn Christians. The King at first shunned the Pope's Commissioners, but when he could no longer do so, appointed to hear them before the Cortes or Parliament summoned to meet at Santarem, where he shewed some dis­position to obey them, though at the same time he designed nothing less. The Pope offended at his proceedings,1274. issued out Bulls, containing the highest Censures, and in case the King was not re­claimed within three Months, absolving his Sub­jects from their Allegiance. The King continued obstinate, and the Nuncio went away leaving him Excommunicated,1175. and the Kingdom under an in­terdict. The Pope died, and the King no way relen­ted.1276. Pope John the 20th. or 21st. Born at Lis­bon, was promoted to St. Peter's Chair. He sent a Spaniard his Nuncio to perswade the King by fair means to comply. The Nuncio accompanied by Dominican and Franciscan Fryars, of which latter order he was, attended the King, and found him as obdurate as ever.1277. Sickness made the King begin to relent, and Death surmounted all difficul­ties. [Page 199] At his Death the King ordered his Son to per­form all he had refused to do.

9. During this King's Reign, certain devout Wo­men went from Evora to Rome, to obtain of the Pope the confirmation of a Monastery of Bernar­din Nuns in that City.A battle betwixt private Men and their forces There wanted not Civil Broils among the Subjects; for Peter Estevas de Ta­vares, and Ferdinand Alonso de Cambra, fought a Bat­tle in the Plain of Gouvea, in which much Blood was shed and many Persons of note killed; the latter obtained the Victory. The Holy Laurence Mendez, a Dominican of the Province betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho, walking in a Field, an Angel appeared to him, and gave him a small Box, which he said, contained many Relicks brought from a City then fallen into the hands of Infidels. Which Relicks are still preserved in the Monaste­ry of Guimaraens, where the said Laurence placed them.

10. King Alonso was of such extraordinary Stature,King A­lonso de­scribed. that all Men admired when King Sebasti­an caused his Tomb to be opened. His Counte­nance was Majestick, his Eyes little, but Sparkling, his Hair black, his Complexion fair. He died at Lisbon on the 20th. of March 1279.1279. being 64 Years of Age,His Death. and having Reigned and Governed 34. Ten Years after his Death, King Denis his Son translated him to the Monastery of Alcobaza, near to his Father, and opposite to his second Wife Queen Beatrix, whose Tomb being afterwards opened, she appeared as Beautiful as if she had been a live. His Issue,His Issue. by the first Wife most Authors a­gree he had two Sons, as they do in calling the se­cond Robert, who they say, succeeded his Mother in the Country of Bologne. About the Elder they vary, some calling him Ferdinand, others Peter, and lastly, others say, he is the same with Alonso Denis, counted among the illegitimate.

By his second Wife, he had Denis, who succeeded in the Throne. Secondly, D. Alonso Lord of Portale­gre, who lies buried in the Monastery of St. Domi­nick at Lisbon. Thirdly, Sancha; Fourthly, Mary; Fifthly, Vincent who died young, Sixthly, Ferdinand [Page 200] who died also in his Infancy, all these Buried at Alco­baza; Seventhly, Blanch Abbess of Lorvan first, and then of Huelgas at Burgos; Eighthly, Constance Buried at Al­cobaza; Illegimate he had Ferdinand, a Knight Tem­plar; Giles Alonso, Alonso Denis, Martin Alonso got­ten on the Governour of Faro's Daughter, as was said before; Ellenor Alonso, Ʋrraca Alonso, Elenor for whom her Father built the Monastery of St. Clare at Santarem, where she was famous for Sanctity, and Roderick Alonso who died Young.

11. The Arms of the Kingdom of Algarve, His Arms. gi­ven by this King, were Sanguine Semee of Castles Or. Over these he placed the Arms of Portugal, so that the Castles of the former made an Orbe to the latter. He also made an alteration in the number of Bezants, in each Escutcheon of the Portuguese Arms, leaving but Eleven in each, whereas before there were Thirteen. He was the first that stiled himself King of Portugal and Algarve. Men fa­mous in his time. Men famous for San­ctity in his time were St. Gonzalo, St. Laurence Men­dez, and St. Giles, all three Dominicans, at least the two latter without dispute. Also St. Walter of the Order of S. Francis; Pope John the 21st. famous for his Learning and Dignity, was Born at Lisbon. Many Men were famous for Military Exploits, the chief whereof was D. Payo Perez Correa, Master of the Military Order of Santiago.

CHAP. VIII.
The Life and Reign of Denis the first of that Name, and sixth King of Portugal, his Acti­ons and Death, from the Year 1261. till 1325.

1. KIng Denis, King De­nis his Birth and Succession to the Crown. Eldest Son to Alonso III. and Queen Beatrix, was born at Lisbon on the 9th. of Octo­ber, 1261. and was so called from the Saint whose Day that was. From his Infancy he was educated in all those Vertues and Accomplishments that make an Excellent Prince. In Truth, Justice, and Liberality, he exceeded most of them that had been before him. His Father dying when he was but Eighteen Years of Age, though he honoured his Mother in all other Respects, he would allow her no share in the Government. She resenting this as an Affront, went away into Castile, pretending her Journey was only to pay a Visit to her Father. That King, desiring to please her, took a Journey to Badajoz, and sent to desire King Denis to come as far as Elvas. Thither the Princes Peter, Sancho, Jayne, and his Brother Emanuel repaired to him, by whom the King of Castile desired they might meet at Badajoz. King Denis having entertained them magnificently for the space of three Days, sent them back, saying, He would soon be after them, but suddenly returned to Lisbon, thinking it a better Expedient not to meet his Grand-father, than to deny his Request. The Queen thus disappointed, went away with her Father to Sevil, where she continued, being convinced her Son would admit no Partner in the Throne.

2. The King being Twenty Years of Age,He Marries Elizabeth, the Daugh­ter of King Peter of Aragon. sent his Embassadors to Peter III. King of Aragon, to ask his Daughter Elizabeth, then but Eleven Years old, in Mar­riage. His Request was easily granted, and the Bride conducted to Braganza, where she was received by Alonso the King's Brother, who conveyed her to Trancoso, where the best King of Portugal, and one of the best Queens in the World were marryed. His next Care was, [...]o compleat what his Father had begun, which was to dear the Kingdom of Robbers and Out-laws, and to [Page 210] Protect the meaner sort against the Insolencies of Great Men, and particularly the Country People, whom he called the Sinews of the Commonwealth. For this Reason, and because he built many Castles, he was cal­led the Husbandman and Father of his Country. Ha­ving at his Entrance into the Government passed many extravagant Grants, when he came to the Age of 22, he recalled them all.1283. He had some Difference with his Brother Alonso, who refused to make any Acknowledg­ment for the Towns left him by his Father,Has Diffe­rences with his Brother Alonso. and had some Pretensions to the Crown, pleading that Denis was Born before the Death of the Countess of Bologne, and consequently must be Illegitimate, whereas he was Born after her Death, when the Pope had ratified the Match. They both took Arms, and Alonso was besieged by his Brother in Portalegre, yet at last they agreed. The chief Articles were, That Alonso should be allowed 30000 Crowns a Year out of the King's Revenue, and instead of the Towns he possessed, should have Sintra and Ourem, for that the others were more dangerous to the King, as lying on the Borders of Castile. Thus ended those Civil Broils.

3. A War broke out with King Sancho the Third of Castile, War be­twixt Ca­stile and Portugal. called the Fierce, for that he performed not the Covenants about the Marriages of the Princes, for Secu­rity whereof he had put into Portuguese Hands the Cities of Badajoz and Truxillo, as also the Towns of Moura, Serpa, Caceres, Allariz, and Aguiar de Neiva. All these Places he again suddenly surprized, and made several inroads into Algarve, and into Portugal, by the way of Leon, destroying all the Country before him. King Denis being then wholly unprovided for War, sent Em­bassadors to adjust Affairs, but to no effect. King Denis now moved to Wrath, challenged King Sancho, and at the same time caused his Forces to do much harm in the Enemy's Country. Sancho designed to answer the Chal­lenge, but was prevented by Death, at which time he ordered all that had been before stipulated, should be performed. Ferdinand the Fourth, his Successor, not answering what was expected from him, King Denis sent his Embassadors to demand the Restitution of the Towns taken by his Predecessor, and in case of Refusal, to fix the Challenge upon him. Restitution being de­nied, the Challenge was accordingly given, and the [Page 211] Embassadors withdrew. This done, King Denis with a Puissant Army marched from the City Guarda, and entred Castile, committing all manner of Hostilities. Prince Henry, who was Governour to the young King Ferdinand, put a stop to our King's further Progress, making him advantageous Proposals, and referring the Conclusion to Cuidad Rodrigo, where the two Kings met with the Queen-Mother of Castile, and concluded all Articles; the Towns demanded by the Portuguese being put into the Hands of Ferdinand Longominh [...], as a Pledge for performing all other parts. But this Compliance on the part of Castile being the Product of Fear, and not of any Friendly Intention, nothing of what had been promised, was performed.

4. King Denis draws together his Forces again,Denis en­ters Castile the second time. and furiously enters Castile, and with him Prince John, who stiled himself King of Leon, as Son to King Alonso the Tenth, and John Nunnez de Lara, who was in Rebel­lion against his Prince. Our Army being in the Pro­vince of Beira, near the Frontiers of Castile, there came to the King, Margaret, Daughter to the Earl of Nar­bonne, Wife to Prince Peter, the Son of King Alonso, and with her, her Son Sancho de Ledesma, who offered to serve our King, being disgusted with his own. Yet, tho he was much honoured, and received great Bounties from King Denis, he soon returned to his own Master, and served against him of whom he had received such Favours. King Ferdinand understanding that King Denis had invaded his Dominions, sent his Fleet from Sevil, under the Command of that Sancho we last spoke of, to Lisbon, where he surprized some Portuguese Vessels. Our Admiral having gathered what Force he could, pursued and overtook the Fleet of Castile without the Bar.The Fleet of Castile worsted by the Portu­gueses. There was fought a most obstinate Battle, till the Castillians were worsted, and their Commander, D. Sancho, brought back Prisoner. In the mean while K. Denis, with­out Opposition, ranged about the Territories of Cuidad Rodrigo and Ledesma, where he took the Castle of Torres, putting all the Defendants to the Sword. He passed by Simancas, where King Ferdinand was, and laid Siege to Possaldes, where neither Sex nor Age was spared, nor was any Reverence paid to the Churches, where the Altars were stained with Blood, nor did their Sacrilegi­ous Hands abstain from Plundering those Holy Places. [Page 212] The Castilians were not idle,1296. for many great Men laid waste our Borders. Alonso Perez de Guzman, who Commanded on the Frontiers about Guadiana, with a good Body of Andaluzians, shed much of our Blood, and carried away great Spoils. The Master of Avis, met him with some Portuguese Forces, but was over­thrown, and almost One Thousand Prisoners carried a­way, who were ransomed at an easie rate, not to re­tard the course of their Victory. He also recovered the Castle of Torres, where he spared no Portuguese, and thus Fire and Sword raged in all Parts. King Denis un­derstanding hereof, committed the greater Cruelties in the Villages, about Salamanca, where he then was. The Inhabitants fled to the Mountains, and to the Churches, but neither Churches nor Mountains could protect them, rage bore down all Divine, as well as humane Considerations.

5. The Moorish King of Granada laying hold of this advantage,Peace con­cluded be­twixt the Kings of Castile and Portugal. broke into Andaluzia, took Fifteen Castles, and retired with a mighty Booty. Mary the Queen-Mother, and Prince Henry, Governours to King Ferdi­nand, now sensible of their Danger, offered King Denis all manner of Satisfaction, as to the Points before pro­mised, which were, That King Ferdinand should marry his Daughter Constance, and Prince Alonso, Beatrix Sister to Ferdinand, and for performance they gave him sufficient Hostages. King Danis in his return, to be in some sort revenged on D. Sancho de Ledesma, took from him all the Towns he possessed in the Province of Riba de Coa. The King of Castile sent Alonso Perez de Guzman to the Portuguese, 1297. to sollicite that they might meet at Alcanizes, where this Discord was to have an end. There both Kings accordingly met honourably attended. A Peace was Concluded for For­ty Years, and it was Stipulated, that whosoever did in­fringe it, should be delivered up to the Party aggrei­ved. The Towns of Olivenza, Campo-Mayor, and S. Felices, were delivered up to the Portuguese in lieu of Aroche and Aracena. That King Denis should still hold all the Towns of the Province of Riba de Coa, and for the Title the King of Castile might claim to them, he resigned up to him Valencia, Ferreyra, Esparragal, Ayamonte, and other Places in Leon, and Gallicia.

[Page 213] 6. Articles being signed,The Peace confirmed with mutu­al Allian­ces. King Ferdinand presently Married the Portuguese Princess Constance, and delivered his Sister Beatrix to her Father-in-Law, as Wife to Prince Alonso, who expected the event of this inter­view at Trancoso. The Portuguese Princess being left in Castile, King Denis, with the Castilian, returned to Coimbra, then the Seat of the Portuguese's Court. Till the Princess came to Age. for Marriage, the King assigned her a competent Revenue, and appointed Mar­tin, Archbishop of Braga, and Count Martin de Sousa, his Standard-bearer, her Governours. The Day she was delivered to the Prince, the King added to what he had before given her, the Towns of Viana, Terena, Ourem, and Armamar. King Ferdinand of Castile, made this Accomodation in good time, being then pres­sed by the neighbouring Princes, in favour of D. A­lonso de la Cerda, Grand-son to King Alonso, X. from whom Sancho, Father to Ferdinand, and Uncle to the said Alonso, had Usurped the Crown, so that Alonso de la Cerda was the rightful Prince, and Ferdinand then in possession, and Usurper. The dispossessed Prince gave the Kingdom of Leon, to his Unkle John, and that of Murcia, to Jayme or James, King of Aragon, upon Condition they should assist him to recover his right. Both those Princes endeavoured to possess themselves of what was allotted them, before the Injured Prince could be Re-inthroned. King Ferdinand, overwhelmed with these Enemies, craved Aid of our King Denis, and that they might meet at Fuente Guinaldo, and Ba­dajoz. There having declared his wants, our King pre­sented him with a great Summ of Money, a Cap made of an Emerald of inestimable Value, and sent him such supplies of Men, as gained him a Superiority over his Enemies.

7. Pope Benedict XI. sent his Legate to compose these Differences,King De­nis chosen Mediator betwixt th [...] of Castile, and the lawful Heir, then Banished. and with the general Consent of all Par­ties concerned; our King Denis was appointed Media­tor between them. It was agreed that all Parties should stand by his Determination, to which purpose a solemn Instrument was signed, and Cautionary Towns given on all sides. King Denis set forward towards the Plain, where the Conference was to be held, with an Honour­able Retinue, to the number of One thousand Persons, and to avoid all disorders that might happen in Towns, [Page 214] lay all the way in Tents,1304. in the open Field. King Fer­dinand met him at Cuellar, they travelled together to Soria, and there parted; our King proceeding to Tor­rellas, in the Kingdom of Aragon, where Jamye or James, King of Aragon, and Blanch his Queen received him. Here King Denis entertained them with such Magnifi­cence, as had scarce been seen in Spain. The Arbitra­tors and Parties, being come to Taracona, the Kingdom of Murcia, An unjust Sentence given by King De­nis, against the right­ful Heir. was by them divided betwixt the Kings of Castile, and Aragon, and several Towns were assigned to D. Alonso de la Cerda, and he ordered to forbear stiling himself King of Castile. ‘This Sentence of King Denis, our Author admires for its equity, as if it could be any justice to deprive the rightful Prince of Three Kingdoms, and give him the Revenue of a few Towns in lieu of them, and those Towns to be held of that same Usurper who kept him out of his right.’ Judgment being given, they went away to Agreda, where King Ferdinand was with his Mother. There Kings dined at one Table, and Three Queens at another, which were those of Castile, Ara­gon, and Portugal. Hence King Denis went to Vallado­lid, to see his Daughter, Queen Constance, and so retur­ned to his Kingdom.

8. King Ferdinand now at Peace with the Christians, resolved to employ his Arms against the Moors of Gra­nada; To this effect he craved Succours of King Denis, who sent him Seven hundred Horse,1305. Commanded by D. Martin Gil de Sousa, his Standard-bearer, and lent him Seventeen thousand Marks of Silver, for which Ba­dajoz, Alconchel, and Burguillos, were given in pawn. This expedition was well begun by the taking of Gi­braltar, but its Progress was stopped; First, by want of Provisions, and next, by the Death of King Ferdinand. Phillip the Fair King of France, placed Clement V. (be­fore Archbishop of Bourdeaux) in St. Peters Chair,1309. up­on Condition he should remove the Papal Seat to Lions, that he should publickly burn the bones of his Pre­decessor Boniface VIII. give him the rents of the Church Revenues,The cruel suppression of the Knights Templars. for Five Years, and suppress the Order of the Knights Templars, that he might seize their Revenues. This Pope not willing to perform that part touching the burning of his Predecessor, thought to make the King amends, by falling the heavier on the [Page 215] Knights Templars. To this purpose, at the instigation of the King, those Knights were charged with most heinous Crimes, and their great Master with Sixty Knights were publickly burnt at Paris, to the astonish­ment of all the World. The Pope had sent Orders to all Parts, that these Knights should every where be ap­prehended on the same Day, but the Kings of Castile, Aragon, and Portugal obeyed not, esteeming the merits of that Noble Order, above the unjust Commands of a Byassed Pope. Yet after much Debate, the Order was wholly suppressed, their greatest Crime being their Riches, which nevertheless, in Spain were for the most part bestowed on the Knights Hospitallers of St. John, now called the Knights of Malta. But King Denis, begged of the Pope that the Revenues of the Knights Templars in Portugal, might be given to a new Order of Knighthood, he then instituted to serve against the bordering Moors. His suit being granted, this Year 1310. was erected the Order of Knights of our Saviour Jesus Christ,131 [...]. the King besides the possessions of the Templars, bestowing on it several Towns and Churches, that were in his gift. This from time to time, has been so increased that at present, the Order enjoys a Reve­nue of about 500000 Duccats, divided into 500 Com­mendaries, to Encourage Gentlemen with this reward, to the Conquest of Africk At present, those thoughts are quite laid aside, and those Revenues are almost be­come Hereditary: Many of the Knights Templars be­ing found innocent were admitted to this New Order; and a Master of it created. At first these Knights were obliged not to Marry, but that vow was abolished in the time of King Emanuel, by Pope Alexander VI.

9. King Denis, King De­nis at [...] with his Son. in his latter Days, had much Conten­tion with his Son Prince Alonso. This Prince took for the occasion of his Disgust, the great Favour that Duke Alonso Sanchez, and Count John Alonso, the King's Ba­stard Sons were in with him. Having drawn Peter, a­nother Bastard Brother to his Party, the Prince pre­sumed to ask of the King, to resign to him the Power of the Administration of Justice. Being justly denied so unreasonable a Demand, he drew over his Mother-in-Law, Queen Mary, to assist him towards obtaining his desires by Force, to which purpose she asked leave of his Father for him, to come to her into Castile, and [Page 216] being refused, the Prince went to her, to Cuidad Ro­drigo, against his Fathers Consent. Being returned to Portugal, the Queen sent to demand of the King, what he had before refused to his Son; and now again denied to her. This Project failing, the Prince contri­ved by his Servants, an Information to be drawn, as if left by a Man that died at Magaula: containing a De­sign of the Elder Bastard, the King's chiefest Favourite, to Poyson the Prince. A Copy of the false Informati­on he sent to the King, who having examined the mat­ter, found it was a piece of Forgery. Being again dis­appointed, he perswaded some of his Followers to Mur­der Alonso Sanchez, saying his Father negotiated with the Pope, to exclude him the lawful Heir, and leave the Crown to a Bastard; but he in this did not succeed nei­ther. All these practices failing, the Prince betook himself to open Hostility, robbing the King's Loyal Subjects, ra­vishing Women, sacrilegiously ransacking Monasteries, killing Giraldus, Bishop of Evora, and committing ma­ny other Enormities, without the reach of Justice, as acted under the Heir of the Crown.The Prince proceeds in his Disobe­dience.

10. The King advertised Pope John XX. of his Son's Disobedience, and he dispatched his Bulls, admonish­ing him to desist from force, and submit to his Father; but all to no effect. For he gathering a number of Cri­minals, and Out-laws, pretended to go in Pilgrimage to the Church of St. Vincent without Lisbon, designing to surprize that City. The King having timely Advice of it, hasted thither to prevent him, and the Queen after him to Mediate betwixt the Father and the Son. The Prince thus prevented, turned away towards Sintra, and his Father after him. Both Bodies stood as if they design­ed to give Battle, but on a sudden the Son marched off; and tho' the King might have overtaken him, he per­sued not. Being come to Coimbra, the Prince sent a­way his Princess to Alcanizes in Castile, and then gave out that his Father intended to kill him. After disa­busing the World of the falsehood of that Report, his Father declared all such as should adhere to the Son, Traitors; and knowing that the Inhabitants of Leyria had entertained him, he hasted thither, where Nine of the chief, as Rebels, had their Hands and Feet cut off, and were afterwards burnt. The Prince went away to Santarem, and flying thence before his Angry Father, [Page 217] possessed himself of the Castle of Coimbra, of Monte-Mayor the Old, of Feira, Gaga, and Porto, whither came to him his Bastard-Brother Peter, out of Castile. Guimaraens was defended against him, by Mem Rodriguez de Vasconcelos. In the mean while the King laid Siege to Coimbra, which obliged the Prince to quit Guimaraens, and return to relieve that City. Here were to be seen all the usual dire effects of Civil Wars. The Holy Queen Elizabeth ceased not to pass betwixt the Two Armies, mediating for a Reconciliation,1323. which at last she compassed, the King giving to the Prince, the Cities of Porto, and Coimbra, and the Old Town of Monte-Mayor, with some additional Revenue. Par­don was given on both sides, and the Prince took an Oath to be Obedient to his Father for the future. But notwithstanding this reconciliation, the Prince pressed his Father to call the Cortes, or Parliament, and yet would not be present at it, but went from Santarem, towards Lisbon, with armed Troops. The King came out in the like manner, commanding him to return, which he refusing,1324. the Trumpets sounded, and both Parties Engaged. Yet the Queen rushing through all dangers came to her Son, and upbraiding him with breach of Faith, and Obstinacy, at length the Battle was parted, and the Father and Son once more were Reconciled. That this agreement might be the more lasting, D. Alonso Sanchez, the King's Bastard-Son, was sent out of the Kingdom, and went to the Town of Albuquerque, which he possessed in Castile, by that means becoming a Subject to that Crown.

11. King Denis fortified many Towns and Cities,King De­nis his Structures, and other Works. en­compassing them with beautiful Walls, as is to be seen at Porto, Braga, Guimaraens, Miranda, and other Pla­ces. He Built from the Ground, above Fifty Castles, and some Towns, besides those he new Peopled. Nei­ther did he forget pious Work, and therefore he endow­ed many Churches. Pope John XXII. granted him the Tenths of Church Revenues for 3 Years, to the end he should keep his Gallies in the Streights of Gibraltar, to hinder the Moors from passing into the Kingdom of Gra­nada. He was addicted to Learning, especially to Poetry, and it was he that first erected the University at Coimbra. His Liberality was such that it became a Proverb, As liberal as Denis. The Presents he made to Kings, [Page 218] Queens, and Nobility, when he went to compose Af­fairs betwixt the King of Castile, and Duke Alonso de la Cerda, were inestimable, and cannot be reckoned. After that, a Gentleman of Castile telling him that none but himself had fallen short of his Bounty, he gave him the Silver Table whereon he dined. To reckon up the particular acts of his Generosity were too tedious, it may suffice to say, this above the rest was his peculiar Vertue, in which he exceeded most Princes. He knew all the Product of his Kingdom, and valued it so much, that he never desired to be supplied from abroad, with any thing that he could have at home. Of the Gold gathered in Tagus, he made a rich Crown and Scepter. But notwithstanding his prodigious Liberality he never oppressed his Subjects with heavy Taxes. He was of a middle Stature, his Hair black, full Faced, not so Beautiful as Majestick. He died at Santarem, the 7th. of January, 1325. at the Age of 64 Years,1325. having Reigned 46. It became a Proverb, That Denis could do all he would. His stately Tomb, built by himself, is in the Monastery of Odivelas, of Benedictine Nuns, near Lisbon, of the Invocation of St. Denis.

12. Elizabeth, His Wife, and Issue. Daughter to King Peter III. of Ara­gon, and his Queen Constance the Daughter of Man­fredus King of Naples, and Sicily, was the only Wife of King Denis. He being extreamly addicted to Women, she bred up all the Children he had by them, as if they had been her own; by which her patience she made him afterwards forbear that Vice, and punish it severely in others. To be short, she was a most holy Woman, and an excellent Queen, and was Canonized in the Reign of Phillip IV. of Spain. By her the King had, Alonso his Successor, and Constance, Wife to King Ferdinand IV. of Castile.

His illegitimate Issue were, by Aldonza Rodriguez, Alonso Sanchez, created Earl of Albuquerque.

By the Lady Grace, Peter, Earl of Barcelos, the first Title of that kind given by the Kings of Portugal; a­nother Peter, called also Earl.

By other Women, John Alonso, Ferdinand Sanchez, the Lady Mary, Married to Duke John de la Cerda; another Mary, a Nun at Odivelas.

CHAP. IX.
Yhe Life and Reign of Alonso the Fourth of the Name, and the Seventh King of Portugal, his Actions and Death, from the Year, 1290. till 1357.

1. THE Favour that King Denis shewed to Learn­ing made him reside where he had caused it to flourish.King A­lonso the 4th. wholly addicted to his Plea­sure. Having therefore resettled the Court at Co­imbra, on the Eighth of February, 1290. was Born to him in that City, of his Wife the holy Queen Eliza­beth, his Son Alonso 4th. of the Name, and the Seventh King of Portugal, 1290. who for his forward and fiery spirit, was called the Fierce. He, who as we have seen, was so eager to Rule whilst his Father lived, after his Death cast off all the care of Government; giving him­self wholly up to his Pleasure, and particularly to Hunting. Upon his Accession to the Crown, instead of settling the Affairs of the Kingdom, he went away to the Forrest of Sintra, 1325. where he spent a whole Month among the wild Beasts. Returning to Court, and ap­pearing at the Council-Board, instead of the Business of that Place, he gave them an Account of his Sport. Hereupon, one of the Counsellors took the Boldness to reprove him with threatning Expressions, which the King being offended at, all the Council stood up and said they would choose another King, if he did not alter his Course of Life. The King, tho he then went out in a Passion, being grown cool, thought good to curb his Inclination. Our Author here extols the Bravery of those Counsellors. ‘I find nothing to admire in the matter, but the Insolency of wicked and haughty Subjects, and the want of Resolution in him, he stiles a Magnanimous Prince.’ The King, not satis­fied with having, during his Father's Life, unjustly Persecuted his Bastard-Brother, and Expelled him the Kingdom,At Vari­ance with his Ba­stard-Bro­ther. still persisting in his ill grounded Malice to­wards him, laid many things to his Charge, and by for­mal, tho' unjust Process, Condemned him to forfeit all his Possessions in Portugal, at once endeavouring to de­prive [Page 220] him of his Fortune and Honour. D. Alonso Sanchez, modestly sued for Redress, but none was to be had from a byassed Judge. He was now powerful, and beloved in Castile, and Leon, and therefore raising a good Force, entred the Territory of Bragança, with Fire and Sword, whilst others of his Troops did the like from Medellin, and Albuquerque, in the Country about Guadiana. 1326. This done, he returned to his Town of Al­buquerque, where he Fortified himself, and made prepa­rations for open War. D. Gonzalo Vaz, Master of the Knights of Avis, being sent against him by the King, was put to the rout; and Duke Alonso, falling Sick re­turned to Medellin. In the mean time the King Be­sieged the Castle of Codesseyra, near Albuquerque, which being basely delivered to him by the Governour, was rased to the Ground.

2. The King proposed a Match betwixt his Son Prince Peter, 1327. and Constance the Daughter of D. John Ema­nuel, who was of the Blood Royal of Castile, and his Wife of that of Aragon. King Alonso IX. of Castile, broke off this Match, contracting himself to her, for she was under age, and yet afterwards he contemned her, and was Married to Mary, Marries his Daughter to the King of Castile. Daughter to King Alonso of Portugal. To that effect he came into Portugal, and re­ceived the Princess at the Town of Alfayates, whither her Father had Conducted her. At this Place a Match was concluded betwixt Henry, 1328. Prince of Portugal, and the Princess Blanch, Henry Prince of Portugal, marries Blanch, Aunt to the King of Castile. Aunt to the King of Castile. The following Year, the Portuguese received her at Fuente­grinaldo, where he again met with her Father Prince Peter, about some alterations to be made in the Hosta­ges given for exchange of the Ratifications. Two Years after the King of Castile was Married to our Princess, he became so intangled in the Love of the Lady Ellenor Nunnez de Guzman, 1330. that he treated her as Queen; and the Queen as if she had been but a Concubine. Our holy Queen Elizabeth met him at Xerez de Badajoz, to endeavour to reclaim him, but could obtain no­thing but promises; for he continued obstinate in his Amours.1332. D. John Emanuel desiring to be revenged of the King of Portugal, for that giving his Daughter to the King of Castile in Marriage, he had caused his Daughter Constance to be put by, made his interest with the Lady Ellenor the King of Castile's Mistress, per­swading [Page 221] her to prevail with the King to marry her; for his Marriage with the Princess of Portugal was void, by reason of Consanguinity. But that Lady considering the danger of aspiring, to rise from a Mistress to a Queen, slighted his Advice.

3. It was now found in Portugal, Blanch di­vorced from the Prince. that the Princess Blanch, by reason of the Tissick, was unfit for Matri­mony; and the King of Castile having sent his Phy­sitians to examine into it, they agreed in the Point. This Prince being on this score disengaged from that Bride,1334. it was proposed he should marry the Lady Con­stance, He Con­tracts with the Lady Constance Daughter to D. John Emanuel. Daughter to D. John Emanuel, whom the King of Castile had before put away. This King was con­sulted with thereupon, but he advised the contrary, yet seemed to allow of whatsoever ours should do. The Portuguese took this for Consent, whilst the Castilian used all possible means to obstruct the Match; telling her Father he designed her for the Prince of Navarre. Both seemed to mean as they spoke, and each designed to deceive the other. D. Gonzalo Vaz, Master of the Order of Avis, and Embassador from Portugal, came to D. John, to conclude the Match. The King of Ca­stile, sent D. John Orders, to apprehend the Embassador, as coming without his leave with armed Men, and ha­ving committed Extortion on his way. D. John doubt­ing, the Embassador advised him to conclude their Af­fair, and he would go deliver up himself to the King at Burgos. They agreed, D. John offered with his Daug­ter, 300000 Doubles. The Articles were, That the Lady Constance should be absolute over the Lands assigned her in Dower: That the Prince should keep no Mistress whilst his Wife was of Age to bear Children, or did not appear to be Barren: That there should be a League Defensive betwixt the Father, and Son-in-Law, that he might go visit his Daughter, whensoever he pleased, and that the Second Son should inherit D. John's Possessions in Castile, or else the First should inherit, in case she had but one.

4. The Embassador went immediately away to Bur­gos, 1335. and presenting himself before the King, was satis­fied with feigned excuses. At this time came one Mar­tin Catina, craving leave of the King,A single Combat. to Combat with Gonzalo Rodriguez Ribeiro, one who followeth the Em­bassador, and had killed his Brother. The King would [Page 222] have made them Friends, but Ribeiro opposing it, they were allowed to enter the Lists according to the Custome of those Days; where Catina had his Head clove asun­der by his Adversary. Many other notable Acts were performed by this Ribeiro, and Two of his Companions, in a solemn Tilting, wherein they gained much Repu­tation to the Portuguese Nation. But the King of Ca­stile, ceased not all this while, underhand, to endea­vour to break off the Match, writing to the King of Portugal by way of Advice, That he should not be too hasty herein;The King of Castile obstructs the Marri­age of the Lady Con­stance. for that D. John was rich, and would increase the Portion if he was backward. At the same time, he blamed D. John for offering so much, and last­ly, with his own Hand he wrote a Letter to the Lady Constance, assuring her of his sincere Affection to her, and declaring he had been ill advised in marrying the Princess of Portugal, but that by Reason of Consangui­nity, that Marriage was void, and he would not fail to be always hers. The Lady sent the Letter to her Fa­ther, who dictated an Answer, to this effect. That he had much wronged her Innocence, having by false in­sinuations gained her Love. That his ill Inclinations, did appear by his unjust proceedings towards Queen Mary, his present Wife. That she had so often found him false, that she could now find no Reason to give any Credit to his Words; and that she gave Thanks to Almighty God, who had delivered her from being his Wife, that she might not suffer as the Queen did, by his inordinate Affection, to the Lady Elenor Nunez de Guzman, who had entertained other Lovers before him.

5. It was agreed betwixt the King of Portugal, and D. John Emanuel, that the Lady Constance should be brought into Portugal, in June, and the Bride and Bride­groom were contracted by Proxy. Embassadors were sent to Valladolid, where the King of Castile was to be acquainted with the Conclusion of the Match. He, tho much Displeased, expressed great Satisfaction, sent Presents to the Embassadors, and ordered publick De­monstrations of Joy to be made. The Portuguese sent Martin Lopez Machado, his Embassador, to return thanks for those Courtesies; But still the Castilian re­solved to hinder the Bride's Journey into Portugal, and to that purpose guarded the Roads, always pretending [Page 223] other Reasons for so doing. The King of Portugal, to remove this Obstacle, sent another Embassador, who being killed about Play at Valladolid, his Tutor, for he was a Young Man, continued his Journey to the Court of Castile, where he delivered to that King his Master's Letter, containing how evidently he was convinced of his ill Intentions, and made great Threats, in case he persisted to obstruct the Lady Constance's Journey into Portugal. The Castilian shewed that Letter to the Lady Ellinor his Mistress, who, with that Liberty that is Na­tural to such Women, spared not to blame his unjust Proceedings in that Particular; yet he forbore not to stop the Princess, tho' he excused himself to the Portu­guese. Our King, already disgusted at this ill Usage, was yet farther provoked, for his Admiral, Stephen Vaz de Barbuda, pursuing certain Pirates with five Ships, and three Galleys, was driven by stress of Weather to Cadiz, where, instead of a kind Reception, his Vessels were ta­ken by the Fleet of Castile, under the Command of Peter Ponce de Marchena. Our King gave Advice hereof to D. John Emanuel, and he making suit to his King, that he would suffer his Daughter to depart, received no An­swer, whereupon he openly declared against his Sove­raign. The Portuguese demanded of the Governours of the Cautionary Towns, for Performance of Articles, that they should deliver them up to him, since the fault lay on the side of Castile. They consulting together, sent one of their number to the King, to represent to him how unjustly he dealt with the Portuguese. He an­swered, That if they delivered the Towns, they would incur an infamous breach of Fealty, and that he would not depart from the Siege he had laid to D. John Nunnez de Lara's Garrison, till he had his Head. Yet consider­ing the Difficulty of that Design, he intimated he would desist, if the King of Portugal should request it of him. Queen Mary advertised her Father hereof, and he im­mediately wrote to the Castilian, desiring him to raise the Siege, and promising to make D. John Nunnez sub­mit himself as soon as the Princess was sent into Por­tugal. The Queen her self carried the Letter to the King, and he answered angrily, that he would raise the Siege for no Man. Which made her return disconsolate to Burgos. But tho some of the Nobles contrived that D. John might escape, yet the King was so watchful, they were disappointed.

[Page 224] 6. The King of Portugal, War be­twixt Ca­stile and Portugal. impatient of longer Disap­pointments, sent a Challenge to him of Castile, ground­ed upon these Reasons: That he treated ill the Queen his Wife, that he gave out, he would be divorced from her, and Marry the Lady Ellenor de Guzman, that he designed to declare Peter her Son his Heir, and that he hindred the Princess Constance from going into Portugal. While his Embassador executed his Commission, he made all manner of Warlike Preparations both by Sea and Land. He laid Siege to Badajoz, and at the same time his Parties ravaged all the Country about Arauna, Aroncha, and Cortegana. The Siege being tedious, the King left sufficient Forces to continue it, and he with the rest of the Army over-ran a great part of Anda­luzia as far as Sevil, which done, he returned to the Siege. His Brother, Count Peter, did the like in Ga­licia, the Archbishop, and other Commanders in vain endeavouring to oppose him. Numerous Forces were raising in Castile to relieve Badajoz, when the King, considering the difficulty of the Enterprize, and that Peter Alonso, one of his Officers, had been defeated, raised the Siege, and returned dissatisfied to Portugal. But whilst he prepared to return thither stronger than before, the Queen, without his knowledge, went away to Badajoz, where the King of Castile, her Son-in-law, then was, thinking her Prayers might prevail with him to desist from War, and comply with her Husband. The King received her with Respect, but demanded such Conditions as he knew could not be granted. Scarce was she gone from Badajoz, when the Castilian followed as far as Elvas, ravaging all the Country. Two days he spent Plundering that Territory, and then laid Siege to Aronchez, but understanding that the Portuguese Par­ties infested the Neighbourhood of Xerez, Badajoz, Bur­guillos, and Alconchel, he removed to meet them. Not meeting with them, he besieged Olivenca, and being ta­ken with an Ague, was forced to depart, and return to Sevil, leaving his Forces to do all the harm they could. Some Troops, under the Command of the Brothers, Ferdinand, and John Roiz de Castro, pillaged all the Country betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho, till be­ing met by the Archbishop of Braga with 1400 Portu­gueses, D. John de Castro was killed, with 300 of his Men, and a great Booty recovered. At Sea, 20 Galleys, [Page 225] carrying 2000 Men, put into Lepte in Andaluzia, where they landed, Plundering the Country, and being met by D. Nunno Portocarrero, there ensued a hot Fight be­tween them, in which 26 Portugueses and 80 Castilians were killed. Camello, the Portuguese General, was taken; and by the Portugueses, two Castilian Commanders, for whom he was exchanged. The Castilians set out 40 Sail to Revenge this Affront, but a Storm dispersed and wrecked both Fleets. Another Portuguese Squadron, commanded by Misser Emanuel Pissano, a Genoese, had spoiled the Coast of Galicia, and was now again sent against the Spanish Fleet, that did no less harm in the Kingdom of Algarve. They met about Cape S. Vincent, and fought with extraordinary Resolution, till the Por­tuguese Admiral, and many more, were taken, and the Castilian returned Victorious to Sevil. At the same time, Ferdinand Arraez lying in Ambush, took 70 Portu­gueses, and killed 180.

7. Our King,King A­lonso en­ters Ca­stile with an Army. leaving an Army to Besiege Salvaterra, pierced as far as Orense, destroying all before him, whilst Peter Fernandez de Castro, who commanded on those Frontiers for the King of Castile, refused to oppose him, on pretence of the Favours he had received from him and his Father. The Castilian, always ready to take Revenge, with 10000 Horse, and a number of Foot broke into Algarve, and having in vain besieged Castro Marin, laid waste without Mercy all the Country along that Coast.1337. Pope Benedict XII. sent Bernard, Bishop of Rhodes, his Nuncio, to endeavour to bring these two Kings to some Accommodation. Philip the Fourth, King of France sent the Archbishop of Rheims upon the same Errand. The Castilian turned them over to Portugal, and the Portuguese to Castile. Both were de­sirous of Peace, but neither would ask it. The Portu­guese carried himself highest with the Nuncio. At length a Truce was concluded for a Year.A Truce for a Year. After much Debate, the Pope was chosen Arbitrator betwixt them, but the Castilian fearing the Revolt of his Nobles, and an Inva­sion from Africk, required of the Portuguese to send his Embassadors to him, and they would agree, without going so far as Rome, 1340. or Avignon. Hereupon three Embas­sadors were sent from Portugal, who meeting with the Commissioners of Castile, concluded a Peace upon these Conditions. That all Places taken since the War, and [Page 226] Prisoners on both sides, should be restored; That neither, without consent of the other, should make Peace with the Moorish King Banarin; That the Princess Constance should be permitted to go into Portugal; That the Prin­cess Blanch, being unfit for Wedlock, should return in­to Castile; That all former Articles should continue in force; That the King of Castile should restore all due State to his Queen, and put away the Lady Ellenor Nunnez. The Castilian performed all Points, except putting away the Lady Ellenor, yet he behaved himself better towards the Queen.

8. Aliboacem, Alonso in Person aids the Castili­an against the Moors King of Morocco, being about to pass into Spain, as being sent for by the Moorish King of Gra­nada, the Castilian sent his Queen to ask Succours of her Father the King of Portugal, who immediately marched thither in Person with a better disciplined than numerous Army. The King of Castile having notice hereof, visited him at Jurumenna in Portugal. Our King was received at Sevil by the Clergy, singing Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Here a Council of War was held, to consult whether it were fit to fight the Moors, who be­sieged Tarifa, and were an innumerable Multitude, or no. While some were of Opinion to yield Tarifa to them, our King's Opinion prevailed, that the Place should be relieved. All the Mountains and Plains about Tarifa were covered with multitudes of Infidels, yet the King of Castile was overjoyed to understand they had resolved to give the Mahometan Battle. Both the Christian Kings advanced, and passed the River Guadalete. Being there joyned by some Troops that were not before come up, on Sunday, the 27th. of October, they marched to Penna de Cuervo, where they first discovered the Barbarians, cover­ing all the Land as far as they could see. It was agreed the Castilian should attack the King of Morocco, who lay along the Shoar, and the Portuguese him of Granada, that was at the Foot of the Mountain. On Monday, the 28th. at break of Day the Army heard Mass, many received the Sacrament, and the Archbishop of Toledo exhorted them to expose their Lives in Defence of the Faith. Being come before their Enemies, both Kings made short Speeches to their Men. This done, the Ar­mies engaged with such terrible shouts, that the Moun­tains seemed to shake. Nor was the noise of clattering of Arms less hideous. Vast numbers of Dead were soon [Page 227] trod under foot, and the wounded, in that Confusion, were scarce sensible of their hurts.The two Christian Kings over­throw the Infidels. Our King, rushing into the midst of the Enemies, made such havock, that the Moors soon turned their backs, and fled to Algezira, the Portugueses making a greater slaughter in the Pur­suit, than they had done in the Fight. The King of Castile, with no less Bravery, thrust himself into the midst of his Enemies, till stopp'd in his rash Carreer by the Archbishop of Toledo. Yet so did he press Ali­boacem, that despairing of Success, he fled to Algezira, and not thinking himself safe there, passed the Streights over into Africk. Both the Christian Princes followed the Chace as far as the Rivers Britabotellas and Guada­micil, which they dyed with the Blood of Infidels.

9. Queen Fatima, with many other Moorish Ladies, were killed by the Soldiers in their Tents. Some Princes also died, and two were taken. The quantity and va­lue of the Booty is not to be expressed,The number of the In­fidels, and greatness of the Booty. for they came to divide Spain among them, and brought over above 100000 Families, besides their innumerable Army, all which was so great, that they spent five Months in pas­sing the Streights, sixty Galleys being continually em­ploy'd in Transporting them, and twelve Galleys were fifteen days in carrying back the Remnants of this Over­throw. 450000 Infidels are said to have died in this Battle. Of the Christians so few were missing, that it will be scarce credited, if the Number were reported. The Victorious Kings entred Sevil in Triumph, the chiefest of the Captives dragging the Colours that were taken. Many Carts followed laden with Spoil, and then a multitude of Moorish Horses with all their Accoutre­ments. Several Colours and Horses were sent for a Pre­sent to Pope Benedict. The seventh day after the Vi­ctory, the Portuguese being obliged to return home, the Castilian laid all the Booty before him, to take what he liked best; whereof he only took some Arms, one of the Captive Princes,1347. and five Colours. The Prince he released without Ransom,E [...]lenor, second Daughter to K. Alon­so marry'd to Peter, King of Aragon. and hung up the Colours in the Cathedral of Lisbon.

10. King Peter the Fourth of Aragon, by his Embas­sadors, demanded of our King his Second Daughter Elle­nor in Marriage. His Request was granted, and her Por­tion settled at 50000 Doubloons. The King of Castile endeavoured to hinder this Marriage, but failing of his [Page 228] Design, the Princess was carryed to Valencia, and there marryed with great Solemnity.1348. The three following Years Portugal was infested with that Universal Pesti­lence,A great Plague. which began by the opening of the Earth after a terrible Earthquake in the Eastern Countries, whence issued such a destructive stench, as infected those Parts, and thence diffused it self into these. The Princess Con­stance dying after she had brought forth three Children, our King found that Discord at home, which had before drawn him thence. He thought to Marry the Prince, to strengthen the Succession to the Crown, but found he was in Love with the Lady Agnes de Castro, a Kins­woman, and one of the Ladies to the late Princess, and that enjoying her Person, he refused a second Wife; and enquiring farther into it,K. Alonso his Eldest Son pri­vately Marries the Lady Agnes de Castro. he was informed they were privately marryed by Giles, Bishop of Guarda, and yet the Prince, fearing his Father's Displeasure, denyed it, tho' he promised, if it were really so, to treat her as Princess. The Nobility envying the Lady Agnes her Happiness, perswaded the King to oblige his Son to Marry another Wife, or else to kill her; alledging, that if she came to be Queen, her Brothers, Ferdinand, and Alvaro, would destroy the Prince [...]s Son Ferdinand, that one of their Nephews might Inherit the Crown. They also said, the Lady Agnes was not of sufficient Quality to be a Queen; but in this they wronged her, for she was of Royal Blood, and her Sister came to be Queen of Castile. Upon these Pretences her Death was con­trived, and tho' the Prince had notice given him hereof by the Queen his Mother, and the Archbishop of Braga, yet he thought none durst attempt such an Action whilst he was in the way. The King, overcome by Perswa­sions, set out from Monte-Mayor, and went to Coimbra with a great number of armed Men, at such time as the Prince was gone out a Hunting. The Lady Agnes was in the Palace called S. Clare, The Lady Agnes cruelly murdered. and understanding the King came to kill her, went out to receive him, and falling at his Feet with the three Children she had, bathed them with her Tears. This sad Spectacle moved the King, and he turned back to depart. But those who had perswaded him to this Action, the chief whereof were Alvaro Gonçalez, James Lopez Pacheco, and Peter Coello, blamed the King's Remissness, and so earnestly pressed him to give them leave to execute what they came about, [Page 229] that he condescended, and they immediately, with more than barbarous Inhumanity, struck off her Head.

11. The Prince returning from Hunting,The Prince begins his Revenge. for some time was almost distracted with Rage. Being come to himself, he began to execute his Revenge, destroying all the Country betwixt Duero and Minho, where those Cruel Executioners had their Estates, with Fire and Sword. The City Porto he spared, for the sake of the Archbishop, who had given him notice of the Design. Thus King Alonso's Disobedience towards his Father, was now with more Reason punished by his own Son. The Prince marched to the Town of Canaveses, where the Queen his Mother, and the Archbishop met, and reduced him to submit to his Father, and disband his Followers, conditioning that both Parties should Par­don all Offences, and that in all Places where the Prince was, all Acts of Justice should be performed in his Name. It was visible enough, that the Prince would some time or other be revenged on the Murderers of the Lady,The Murde­rers fly in­to Castile. therefore the King, being near his End, advised them before his Death to shift for themselves. They there­upon fled to Castile, and we shall hereafter see what be­came of them. This was the end of King Alonso, an Unnatural Son towards his Father,The Death of King Alonso. and a Barbarous Fa­ther towards his Son. Yet he was an excellent King, either for Peace or War. He coined a new sort of Mo­ney, called Alfonsines, worth, in English Money, about Three Shillings. Many wholesom Laws were instituted by him, and his Government was equitable and just. He had a large Forehead, but with wrinkles in it; his Visage long, a proportionable Nose, a large Mouth, his Hair reddish, and curled, his Beard forked and long, his Limbs gross, and his Presence Majestick. He died at Lisbon in May 1357. being 67 Years of Age,1357. and having Reigned 31 Years and a half. His and his Queen's Tombs are to be seen in the Quire of the Cathedral of Lis­bon.

12. Queen Beatrix, [...] Wife to King Alonso, was Daugh­ter to King Sancho the Fierce, of Castile, and of Queen Mary, the Daughter of Prince Alonso de Molina By her the King had Issue, 1. Alonso, who died Young, 2. Denis, died much at the same Age. 3. John, died in his Infancy. 4. Mary, who was Queen of Castile, Wife to King Alonso XI. and Mother to King Peter. 5. Peter▪ [Page 230] who Succeeded his Father; 6. Elenor, Queen of Ara­gon, Second Wife to King Peter IV.

This King reduced the number of Castles in the Orle being the Arms of Algarve, His Arms. to 8. and the Bezants in each Escutcheon, to 10.

CHAP. X.
The Life and Reign of Peter the First of the Name, and the Eighth King of Portugal, with his Actions and Death, from the Year, 1320, till 1367.

1. KING Alonso, King Peter the first his Earth. and his Queen Beatrix, were Un­fortunate in their Children, who all died Young, But Peter the 5th. who was Born at Coimbra, on the 19th. of April, 1320. He was by some called the Cruel, by others,1320. Executor of Justice, and this last Title most properly appertained to him. His Accession to the Crown was in the 37th.1358. Year of his Age, being twice a Widdower by the Death of his two Wives; Constance, and Agnes. His First care was to secure Peace with his Neighbour,1357. the King of Castile, which was accordingly Ratified. The following Year, it was farther Con­firmed,Peace con­cluded with Ca­stile. and it was agreed that Ferdinand, Prince of Por­tugal, should marry Beatrix, Eldest Daughter to King Peter of Castile; and the Princesses Constance, and Eli­zabeth, should marry John, and Denis, Sons to the La­dy Agnes de Castro; That both Kings should Aid each other by Sea and Land; That the Portuguese should not joyn with the Aragonian, or any other Prince, without acquainting the Castilian; That he should assist him a­gainst the Aragonian, with whom he was then at War. King Peter having now the Power in his Hands,He punish­eth the Murderers of his Wife the Lady Agnes de Castro. and be­ing at leasure to meditate his Revenge, for the Death of his beloved Agnes, was grieved at nothing more, than that he thought the Lives of the Three Murderers, too small an Expiation for the Death of her, in whom he had lived. Yet for some farther Satisfaction, he resol­ved to make up in Torments, what was wanting of Life [Page 231] in them. We saw in his Fathers Life time, how far he proceeded in his Revenge, so as to raise a Civil War; But scarce was he now seated on the Throne, when the Three Murderers, Peter Coello, James Lopez, and Alvaro Gonzalez, were Attainted of Treason, and their Estates Confiscated. Next he contrived how to get them out of Castile, and soon found the means to effect it; for Peter Nunnez de Guzman, Lieutenant of Leon, Mem Roiz Tenorio, Ferdinand Gudiel de Toledo, and Fortun Sanchez Calderon, being f [...]ed from Castile, were then in Portugal: He knew that King was no less desirous to reach them, than he was to have the other Three; Therefore he agre­ed with the Castilian, that both should at the same time secure the Fugitives of the other, which was accordingly put in Execution.

2. James Lopez Pacheco, had the good Fortune to be abroad a Hunting, the Day the others were taken. He being missed, Guards were set upon the Gates, that none might give him Notice; but a Beggar got through unregarded, and not only informed him of what had happened,The Mur­derers Racked. but changing Cloaths with him, he got away with a Carrier to Aragon; and thence into France. Al­varo Gonzalez, and Peter Coello, were carried to Portu­gal; as were the Four Castilians taken there, conveyed to Sevil. King Peter was at Santarem when the two Prisoners were brought to him: He instantly put them to the Rack, to force them to, discover their Accomplices: But they continued silent or else answered far from the purpose; which caused the King to lash Coello on the Face; to which he returned nothing but reproachful Language. The King smiling hereat, said to the stan­ders by, Bring me Vinegar and Onion for this Rabbet; for Coello in Portuguese, signifies a Rabbet, and that was the Sauce then used, giving them thereby to understand he should be Burnt. Whilst they were yet Living, their Hearts were cut out, one at his Breast, and the other at his Back. Lastly, he caused them to be Burnt, and the Table he dined at to be set in sight of the Fire. Nor did King Peter's Amorous Flame expire here. But before we shew what farther Effects it had▪ we must observe in this Place, that the Kings of Castile, and Aragon being ready to break into War, our King sent his Embassadors to the latter,1360. to Mediate a Peace. That Prince com­plained to them, that their Master should take part with [Page 232] Castile against him, yet offered, in regard of the Ancient Friendships betwixt the two Crowns, and in respect to the Pope, to give ear to Conditions of Peace.

3. This was the posture of Affairs when our King dis­covered the Love he still entertained for the Lady Agnes, The Funeral Pomp, for the Lady Agnes de Castro. by performing her Funeral Obsequies. Being in the Town of Cantannede, in the Presence of several Persons of Note, he solemnly Swore, That he had taken to Wife the Lady Agnes de Castro, at Bragança, Six Years before that time. Then he caused the Witnesses of the Marri­age, which were Giles Bishop of Guarda, and Stephen Lobato Master of the Robes, to be Examined. This done, the Bishops of Lisbon, Porto, and Visco, the Prior of Sancta Cruz, and other Persons of Note, meeting to­gether published the said Marriage, and the Causes why it was concealed; as also, the Dispensation granted by Pope John the 22th. in regard that they were within the forbidden Degrees of Consanguinity. An authentick In­strument to this purpose being formed, several Copies were dispersed, and the Original is still preserved among the Records at Lisbon. Not content herewith, he cau­sed two Tombs of the whitest Marble, and most exqui­site Workmanship, to be erected; One of them for himself, and the other for the Lady Agnes, whose Image stood on the Top, with a Crown on her Head, that she might appear like a Queen after her Death. These Tombs were placed in the famous Church of Al­cobaça. Then entring the Church of S. Clare at Coim­bra, he caused the Body to be taken up, and being Crowned, and Cloathed in Royal Robes, placed it on a Chair, where his Subjects kissed those Bones that were once beautiful Hands, as being the remains of their law­ful Queen. After this Ceremony, being put into a Herse, the Corps was conducted to Alcobaça, to be pla­ced in that rich Urn, with the noblest Attendance, and greatest Grandeur, that has been seen; vast numbers of Noblemen, and Gentlemen, in long Mourning Cloaks, and Ladies in White Mourning Vailes, attended the Fu­neral. From Coimbra to Alcobaça, it is 17 Leagues, and yet all that Distance was filled with many Thousands of Men, in two Rows, making a continued Lane, with lighted Flambeaus in their Hands.

4. The Unfortunate King Peter of Castile, being drove out of his Kingdom by his Bastard-Brother Henry, as­sisted [Page 233] by the French, King Pe­ter of Ca­stile, flying from his Rebellious Subjects, is refused Protection in Portu­gal. and flying from Sevil, after loosing all the Treasure he had amassed, arrived at the Town of Coruche in Portugal, with his two Daughters, Constance and Elizabeth, and thence sent to Advertise our King, then at Coimbra, of his Arrival: That King's Daughter Beatrix, was Travelling another way, to be Married to the Portuguese Prince, her Father not having any fore­thought of what hapned to him. This Accident much surprized the Portuguese; some were for protecting a rightful King, their Neighbour and Confederate; others were for more safe than honourable Courses, not to em­broil themselves in the Quarrels of others. This Ad­vice was followed, and our King made the best Excuse he could, for not entertaining that Unhappy Prince. He failing of this Refuge, withdrew to Albuquerque; but neither was he to be admitted there. He sent to ask a Pass of our King, to Travel through his Dominions into Ga­licia, and the Earl of Barcelos, and Alvaro Perez de Ca­stro, were sent to Conduct him: But they not only for­sook him by the way, but stole from him Elenor, the Daughter of his Bastard-Brother Henry, whom he car­ried with him. From Galicia he passed over into Eng­land, where he so grievously Complained to the Prince of Wales against the King of Portugal, that he was forced to send Embassadors to Vindicate himself. In the mean while, the New King, or rather Usurper, Henry, Solici­ted the Friendship of Portugal; and Embassadors meet­ting to that Effect, betwixt Badajoz and Elvas, a Treaty was Concluded; And it was Stipulated, That the Casti­lian should solicite an Accommodation betwixt Aragon and Portugal; and also, That the Aragonian should suf­fer the Portuguese Princess Mary, Widow of Prince Ferdinand, to return to her Country, if she thought good.

5. About the end of October, Prodigi [...] seen in the Sky. almost Three Months before the Death of our King, was seen a prodigious Al­teration, or rather Confusion in the heavenly Lumina­ries. On the 27th. Day at Midnight, all the Stars in a Body began to run from East to West; then suddenly dispersing, they wandred through several parts of the Sphere; next, falling nearer to the Region of the Air, the nearness made them appear like vast Globes of Fire; so that the whole Heaven seemed to be in a Flame, and the Earth threatned to be reduced to Ashes. The Sky [Page 234] in many places seemed to gape, the Stars being removed. This Spectacle lasting a considerable time, Men stood amazed, expecting the Dissolution of the Universe. Three Months after this Prodigy,King Pe­ter's Death our King died. It will not be amiss, to give some Instances of his Justice and Magnificence.His Justice and Mag­nificence. He was not, as some have called him, Cruel; but a zealous lover of Justice, punishing Crimes with the utmost Severity, and rewarding Vertue with Liberality. The Punishments he inflicted, tho' in appearance terrible, were necessary, and well applyed. A Young Man having struck his supposed Father, and the King hearing thereof, called the Mother, and pressed her to tell him who was the Youth's Father; for it was impossible it should be her Husband. She confessed, in some time, a Fryar had got him. Thereupon the King went in Person to the Monastery, and putting the Fryar into a Case of Cork, sawed him in two. One of his Favourites lived in Adultery with a Judge's Wife, for which the King caused his Privities to be cut off. A Priest being suspended for killing a Man, he caused him to be put to Death by a Mason; saying, That the Eccle­siastical Judges condemned a Priest, for killing a Man, to be suspended from his Office; but he, in his Tribu­nal, would suspend the Mason from Working, for kil­ling the Priest. The Bishop of Porto he scourged, for having to do with a Citizen's Wife. He caused a Gentle­man to be beheaded, for staving a Country-man's Cask, that was full. A Clerk of the Treasury was hanged, for receiving a small Bribe. Hearing a Woman upbraid another with being forced, he asked the cause; and be­ing told, her Husband ravished her before they were marryed, he caused him to be hanged. Knowing that a Merchant's Wife cuckolded him, one day, when the Merchant was at some Publick Feast, he surprized his Wife, with her Gallant, and burnt them, and then congratulated the Merchant, that he was revenged. A Bawd having procured a Young Woman for the Admi­ral, Lancelote Pessana, the Bawd was burnt, and the Admiral hardly obtained Pardon, after several Years absence. A Country-man complaining, that a Gentle­man, to whom he had lent certain Silver Cups, would not restore them; the King kept him in hand a Year, and then caused the Gentleman to pay him Nine times the value, which was then the Penalty of Thieves; and [Page 235] farther told him, he should be always answerable for the Country-man's Life. A Pursivant complaining, that in the Execution of his Office, a Gentleman had struck him, and torn his Beard, the Gentleman was immedi­ately beheaded.

6. The Laws he instituted,Laws esta­blished by him. were religiously observed. One of them condemned Judges, who received Bribes, to Death. To avoid delays in Suits, he established, there should be no Counsellors, Sollicitors, nor Attorneys. He went about the Kingdom in Person, to administer Justice impartially to all Men. Tho' so much subdued himself by the Love of the Lady Agnes de Castro, he suffered no Crime of Incontinency to pass unpunished. Several new Pieces were coined by him, on the one side whereof, was his Effigies sitting in a Chair, holding a naked Sword; on the reverse, the Royal Arms, with these Inscriptions, Peter, King of Portugal and Algarve. God assist me, and make me Victorious over my Enemies. He was so Bountiful, that, like the Emperor Titus, he thought himself not a King the day he gave nothing: To this purpose, he kept always much Plate. He was much addicted to Musick, and used to go abroad at Nights, and dance to the sound of Trumpets. Notwith­standing his great Liberality, he left a considerable Trea­sure to his Successor, which he gathered without the least dissatisfaction to his Subjects. In fine, such was his Life, that his Death was generally lamented; and it was in all mens Mouths, That such Ten Years Government never were, nor would again be seen in this Kingdom. Others said, That either he should never have been born, or never have died.

7. This King was of great Stature,His Person, and Inter­ment. a Majestick Pre­sence, his Forehead large, his Eyes black and beautiful, his Hair reddish, which he wore long, his Mouth small, his Visage long. He somewhat stammered in his Speech, was addicted to Poetry, and some Verses of his are still extant. He Reigned Ten Years, wanting Two Months, and died in January, 1367.1367. He is buryed by the Lady Agnes de Castro, and his Picture, to the Life, on the Tomb. The Lady Constance, his first Wife, lies in the Church of S. Francis at Santarem. By her he had Issue▪ 1. Lewis, who died an Infant. 2. Ferdinand, who suc­ceeded in the Throne. 3. Mary, marryed to Ferdinand Prince of Aragon, Son to King Alonso the Fourth.

[Page 236] His Children by the Lady Agnes de Castro were 1. Alonso, His Issue. who died a Child. 2. Denis, who refusing to kiss the Hand of Queen Ellenor, Wife to King Ferdinand, went away to Castile, where he marryed Joanna, Bastard-Daughter to King Henry. 3. John, who by the Advice of Queen Ellenor, killed the Lady Mary Tellez de Me­neses, his own Wife, and the Queen's Sister. He should have succeeded King Ferdinand, but that King John of Castile kept him Prisoner, and in the mean while his Bastard Brother, called also John, usurped the Crown. In Castile he marryed Constance, Bastard Daughter to King Henry. 4. Beatrix, Wife to D. Sancho, Earl of Albuquerque, Bastard Son to King Alonso XI. of Castile.

King Peter had one Bastard Son, called John, Master of the Military Order of Avis; who, after the Death of King Ferdinand, usurped the Crown.

CHAP. XI.
The First Part of the Life and Reign of Fer­dinand the first of the Name, and ninth King of Portugal, from the Year 1340. till 1373.

1. FErdinand was the Second Son of King Peter, King Fer­dinand his Birth. and his Wife Constance. He was Born in the City Coimbra, and succeeded his Father at 27 Years of Age. The Peace and Treasures King Ferdinand inherited,1340. were not at all lasting;1367. for he engaged himself in a War against Castile, He engages in a War against Castile. pretending a Right to that Crown, after the Death of King Peter, as Great Grandson to King Sancho, Henry, the present Possessor, being a Bastard and Regicide. Many Persons of Note, who fled out of Castile, encouraged him in this Enterprize, and many Towns not admitting Henry, offered themselves to Fer­dinand. He bestowed vast Possessions on several of the Castilians that came over to him, as particularly to Fer­dinand, Earl of Castro Xeres, and Brother-in-law to King Henry, he gave Fifteen Towns, to D. Alvaro Perez de Castro, his Brother, Eight Towns, the Earldom of [Page 237] Arroyolos, and the Office of Constable; to Ferdinand Alonso de Zamora, Nineteen Towns, and so to many others, too long to recount, besides Gifts in Money and Jewels, which exhausted the Treasures left by his three Predecessors. Many Cities and Towns also of Castile declared for our King, where he immediately coined Money, bearing the Arms and Titles of both Kingdoms. Our King, in outward appearance, pretended more Zeal to Revenge the Murder of King Peter, than Ambition to joyn that Kingdom to his own. To inculcate this Opinion, he sent Embassadors to the Pope, the King of England, and other Princes, laying before them the hei­nousness of the Crime, as committed by a Brother a­gainst his Brother, and by a Subject against his Sove­raign.

2. Whilst the Embassadors were on their way,Enters into League with the Moorish King of Granada. the King concluded a League with the Moorish King of Gra­nada for Fifty Years, during which time they were to assist one another, and neither was to pretend any Right to whatsoever Places of Castile were taken by the other; nor was either of them, if assisted with any Troops by his Confederate, to allow them any Pay. For farther Security, King Ferdinand asked of King Peter, the A­ragonian, his Daughter Ellenor in Marriage, and Em­bassadors were sent on both sides to agree the Articles, tho' that Lady was before betrothed to John, the Eldest Son of King Henry. The Princess was marryed by Proxy to our King at Lisbon, the Aragonian Embassador repre­senting her Person. The Articles of Marriage were, That she should bring 100000 Florins Portion; That her Father should make War on Castile two Years; That the Husband should give three Months Pay to 3000 Horse in his Father-in-law's Service. Some Places in Castile were also allotted to the Aragonian, for every Man gives freely of what he has not. Soon after, the Bridegroom that was to have been, but never was, sent a Rich Pre­sent to Barcelona for the Bride, without expecting the Payment of the 100000 Florins. He also sent Eighteen hundred weight of Gold to be coined, to defray Charges there. To Convoy the Bride, seven beautiful Galleys were fitted out, whereof that which was to carry her, had her Sails of Silk, wrought with Gold, and all that was above Water was gilt. The Rowers were cloathed in the King's Livery, and many gallant Gentlemen went [Page 238] as Volunteers. Among other things of value there was car­ried a Crown of inestimable price for the Bride. D. John Alonso Tello, Earl of Barcelos, attended by the Bishops of Evora and Silves, and the Abbot of Alcobaça went Em­bassadors, and performed the Ceremony of marrying the Princess in his Masters Name. But her Father put off the delivering of her till the Pope's Dispensation was ob­tained, and times altering, all came to nothing.

3. King Ferdinand began the Wars in Galicia with a small Power; Coruna, and other Places, voluntarily submitted to him. Monterrey was taken by Force, af­ter it had made a vigorous Defence. But understand­ing that King Henry drew near with numerous Forces, Ferdinand went away by Sea, to Porto, leaving D. Nun­no Freyre, Master of the Military Order of Christ, with 400 Horse in Coruna, Alonso Gomez de Lira at Tuy, and others in other Places.1369. Henry to bring our King to Peace,Henry of Castile, in­vades Por­tugal. left them and entered Portugal, burning all the Country as far as Braga, where Lope Gomez de Lira made a vigorous Defence, but was forced to abandon the Place, after loosing 48 Men, because he was not re­leived, and the Town was not Walled nor Garisoned; having Articled to Surrender, if not releived by a cer­tain time. Henry finding the Place was not Tenable, Burnt it, and removed to Guemaraens, which being bet­ter Fortified held out against him: Seing he prevailed little by Force, he thought to take it by Stratagem, and to that purpose James Gonzalez de Castro, got into the Place disguished like a Country-Man, but being discover­ed was put to Death, and his Body exposed to the Dogs. Now it was that Count Ferdinand de Castro, Brother-in-Law to King Henry carried about by him as a Prisoner, made his Escape into the Town with his Keeper Rami­ro Nunez, and both went into the Portuguese's Service. King Ferdinand, who was then at Coimbra with a nume­rous Army, with all speed made towards the Castilian, sending before a Herauld to Challenge him, but he drew off by the way of Bragança, Vinaes, and Outeyro, which Places he took. Miranda was Surprized by certain Ca­stillians, who in Carriers Habit were admitted in: Ceda­vin after a vigorous resistance was Betrayed by Vasco Estevez, but his Treason tho' not discovered in time to prevent the Loss of the Place, was so soon found that he was Hanged for it. Henry having secured Bragança, [Page 239] hasted to Castile, for that the King of Granada was now acting with a great Power in Andaluzia.

4. Ferdinand having missed of his Enemy,Several Military Expediti­ons. divided his Army under several Commanders, Garrisoning all Pla­ces he was suspicious of. He had recovered most of what was lost, but the People not satisfied with his Proceed­ings, complained he only knew the way betwixt Lisbon, and Santarem, because he often went from the one Place to the other, whence it became a Proverb, That the Fool goes and comes betwixt Lisbon, and Santarem; when they would express a Man often does the same thing to no purpose. Giles Fernandez with 60 Horse, and 400 Foot, made an Incursion towards Medellin, where he took so great a Booty, that fearing to loose it if pursued, he cau­sed his Uncle Martin Yannez, to feign himself to be Prince John, and as such to discharge several Prisoners, who reporting his being there with a greater Force than really was, deterred the Enemy from following him. Gon­zalo Mendez being General, took this Giles Fernandez with him to make an Inroad to Badajoz. The Garrison issued out upon them, and both sides fought with great Resolution. In this Action a Butcher of Lisbon, called Laurence, killed several Castilians. In the mean while Prince John forcing his way into the Suburbs of Badajoz, Burnt them. Gomez Lorenço de Avelar, on the side of Cuidad Rodrigo, took S. Felices, Inojosa, and Cerralvo. Here John Roiz Portocarrero, with only 23 Horse, killed or took almost 80 of the Enemy from Ledesma. This Year ended with a Fire at Lisbon, which Burnt down all the then Smiths Street, it is now the Confectioners.

5. As the Last Year ended in Fire,1370. so this began with storms of Rain and Wind,Great Storms. which were so Violent, that the Gate of the Cathedral, tho' fastned with Iron Locks and Bolts, was carried into the middle of the Church; the Ships in the Harbour being drove from their Anchors were dashed into pieces; but the Gallies escaped better by lying in the Mouth of the River Guadalqui [...]ir. The great Rains, and also the Moors who infested his Fron­tiers, obliged King Henry to quit the Siege of Cuidad Rodrigo. The Queen his Wife in Person had distressed Alonso Lopez de Tejada, in Carmona, so that he agreed to Surrender the Place it not releived by a Day prefixed, and gave up his Two Sons as Hostages. Misser Gregorio a Campomor [...]o, with only 60 Men, made his way through [Page 240] the Camp into the Town, at the Day prefixed, the Queen threatned to execute his Sons; he bid her do so, for he was able to get others; and so he persisting Obsti­nate, they were beheaded; all Men calling that Barba­rity, which he thought would be accounted Magnanimi­ty; but it could not be such, being a breach of Promise. Thirty two Portuguese Galleys had been a Year upon the Coast, under the Command of the Admiral Lancelot Pes­sano, a Genoese. The Castilians, when this Fleet appear­ed before Barrameda, scoffed at our Men, for that having refused Aid to King Peter, The Portu­guese Fleet, wastes the Island of Cadiz. whilst living, they now pre­tended to Defend him after he was Dead. But they in Revenge, destroyed the Island of Cadiz, and the Shores of the Continent, till the severity of the Winter and Diseases almost consumed them. The Fleet of Castile coming out of Sevil, took a Portuguese Ship that had Money and Provisions on Board, and then shut up our Admiral Pessano in the River, to oblige him to Fight in that narrow Place. He fitted out Two Fireships which dispersed the Enemy, and in that time he escaped, ha­ving lost one Galley.

6. Carmona still held out,1371. but fearing the Power of King Henry, sent a Gentlemen to our King Ferdinand for Succour, according to his promise. This being refused, the Town was obliged to Surrender. There was in it a considerable Treasure of King Peter's, and Two of his Bastard-Sons who were cast into Prison. Pope Gregory the 11th. sent Two Nuncio's to Mediate a Peace betwixt the Two Kings, which was concluded at Alcoutin in Al­garve, upon these Conditions,Peace con­cluded at the in­stance of the Pope. That they should be obli­ged to assist one another; That the Portuguese should be a Friend to Charles King of France, that he should take to Wife Ellenor, Henry's Daughter; That he should have with her Cuidad Rodrigo, Valencia de Alcantara, Monte-Mayor, Alhariz, and a Summ of Money; That a general Pardon should be granted on both sides. Thus our King broke his Word with him of Aragon, who in revenge kept all the Treasure that had been sent to his Daughter. King Ferdinand finding his Treasures exha­sted, called in the Old Money, and enhanced the Value of the New, which did great Harm, and much more when he endeavoured afterwards to rectifie that Error. The Five Months allowed for the Princess Ellenor to come out of Castile were now expiring, when the King [Page 241] falling in Love with the Lady Ellenor Tellez de Meneses, forgot his Bride. This Lady Ellenor Tellez was Wife to John Lorenço de Cunha Lord of Pombeyro. He fell in Love with her at his Sister's, the Princess Beatrix, where he was always so assiduous, as gave occasion to suspect him guilty of a more than Brotherly Affection. This Lady being about to return into the Country, whence she came, the King ordered her Sister who attended the Princess, to stay her in Town, for he would marry no other Woman. The Sister objected, that he was enga­ged to the Princess of Castile, and her Sister Married. The First, he replyed, might be easily put by; and as for the latter, he said, she being Married to a Kinsman without Dispensation, the Marriage was void. All which gave the Lady Ellenor to understand the King's Affection was not at all Nice.

7. Scarce had she consented when her Marriage being called in question,The Lady Ellenor being di­vorced from her First Hus­band, the King mar­ries her. and the Husband not opposing it, Judgment was easily obtained for the K. Hereupon her Husband went away to Castile and there publickly wore a pair of Golden Horns. In fine, Ferdinand Married the Lady Ellenor. The whole Kingdom was astonished at this Action, but Lisbon shewed it self above all other Places. Here a Taylor, called Ferdinand Vasquez, a bold well-spoken Fellow, gathered 3000 of the People, and with them went to the Pallace, nothing being heard but Reproaches against the New Queen.A great meeting at Lisbon on account of the Marri­age. To appease them, the King protested he was not Married to her, and promised the next Day to hear them, when they were Calmer, at the Church of S. Dominick. By Day, the Multitude was in the broad Place before that Church; but the King fearing the popular Fury, was already gone away to Santarem. When the People understood it, they vented their Malice in Reproaches, and this made the Queen stir up the King to Revenge. The Taylor was apprehended, and many of his Followers; some where­of had their Hands, others their Feet cut off; many more fled, now too late understanding, that Subjects ought to have no other Redress against the Miscarrages of their Sovereigns, than by their Prayers to God. In the mean while, the King traversed the Kingdom with his beloved Consort, till being come to the pleasant Mon­astery of Leça, Two Leagues from Porto, he then decla­red, what he denied at Lisbon; to wit, That he was [Page 242] Married to the Lady Ellenor, and assigned her a greater Joynture than any Queen before her ever had.

8. All the Nobility kissing the Queen's Hand, only Prince Denis Son to the late King, by the Lady Agnes de Castro refused it, for which the King offered to Stab him, but was prevented, and the Prince fled to Coimbra. Tho many of the Multitude were punished, the clamours of the People against the King's Marriage ceased not, nor were they continued without reason, for that Mar­riage was in reality unlawful; she being the true Wife of John Lorenço. Ferdinand at last remembring he was contracted to the Princess of Castile, sent to inform her Father, That tho he could not perform that Article, he would fulfil all the rest. That Prince did not seem at all to be concerned, but Embassadors were sent on both sides to Ratifie the Peace.The New Queen gains Friends by her Genero­sity. The New Queen having gained a Crown by her Beauty, sought now to gain the Affections of the Nobility by her Bounty, and she at­tained her end in a great Measure, for many who before railed, having tasted of her Favours, began to extol her Generosity. Besides, the more to bend them to her, she married all her Relations among the Nobility.

9. King Ferdinand still pursuing his inconstant Hu­mour,King Fer­dinand joyns in League with John of Ghent against Castile. began again to break with Castile, taking some Ships of that Crown in the River of Lisbon, and enter­ing into a Confederacy with John Duke of Lancaster, Third Son to Edward the Third King of England, and married to Constance the Eldest Daughter of King Peter of Castile, in whose right he stiled himself King. It was agreed, they should joyntly make War upon the Kings of Castile and Aragon; That they should bear an equal part in the expence of the War, and that King Fer­dinand should have all he could take in Castile, except­ing Towns and Castles; That each should have what he could gain in Aragon. King Henry sent an Embassador to Protugal, to protest against these proceedings, but to no effect. Hereupon, Henry marched with his Army to­wards Lisbon, his Admiral Misser Ambrosio Bocanegra at the same time entring the River Tagus with 12 Galleys. About the middle of September he set forward from Zamora, Henry of Castile in­vades Por­tugal and by the way took Almeyda, Pinnel, Linnares, Cerolico, and Viseo, where Prince Denis offended at King Ferdinand, offered his Service to him. They marched to Coimbra, from whence Ferdinand was newly gone to [Page 243] Santarem, and here Henry quartered in the Suburbs. Our King being less forward to Fight than he had been to give the Occasion;1373. Henry marched without observing much order,He Quar­ters in the Suburbs of Lisbon. towards Lisbon, about the end of February. The King, and those that were with him, could from the Walls of Santarem discover the Enemy marching to­wards Lisbon, yet had not the Courage to attack them. Lisbon being surprized, Henry entred at S. Antony's Gate, and took up his Quarters in the Monastery of S. Francis; the People retired to the stronger parts of the Town. Our Fleet had been sent to hinder the Castilian Squadron from entring the Port, but our Ships were taken by them, and only 4 of our Galleys escaped, saving themselves in the Creeks. The People of Lisbon understanding there was a design to betray the City; dragged one of the Con­spirators about the Streets, and then cut him in pieces; a­nother was exposed to the sails of a Mill, which cast him into the River. The Franciscan Friars, where the King quartered, thought to have expelled him thence; but their design being discovered, he put them into Boats, without Sails or Oars, and exposed them to the mercy of the Sea; yet they got a Shoar. The Castilians posses­sed the Skirts of the Town, and many Skirmished dayly hapned. In the mean while, the Earl of Gijon, King Henry's Son, took Cascaes at the Mouth of Tagus, whilst several Parties wasted the Country.Most of the City Burnt The Lisbonians not able to expel the Enemy out of the Suburbs, fired the Houses; and they, in requital, set Fire to the Rua-nova, or New Street, and so the greatest part of the City was Burnt. The Country betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho, was no less infested by the Forces of Galicia, which routed a Portuguese Body that came to oppose them.

10. Such was the posture of Affairs,Peace con­cluded. when in the Month of March, Guido of Bononia, a Cardinal, was sent by the Pope to compose these Differences; and towards the latter end of that Month the Peace was concluded, upon these Conditions. That both the Kings should joyn with him of France, against the King of England, and Duke of Lancaster; That the Portuguese should fur­nish a Fleet, for Three Years, to be maintained by the Castilians; That the English should not be supplied with Ammunition from Portugal; That the Portuguese should expel the Castilians that followed him; That a general Pardon should be granted on both sides; That the Prin­cess [Page 244] Beatrix, Sister to King Ferdinand, should be mar­ried to Sancho Lord of Albuquerque, Brother to King Henry, The Two Kings meet in friendly manner. The two Kings met upon the Banks of the Ri­ver Tagus, and parted in Friendly manner. In pursu­ance of the Treaty of Peace, Count Sancho married the Lady Beatrix, and the Wedding was kept with great So­lemnity. A Match was also agreed betwixt Elizabeth, Bastard-Daughter to our King, and Alonso Earl of Gijon, Bastard-Son to King Henry. Thus ended the War, to the Satisfaction of both Kings; but with the Desolation of their Kingdoms.

CHAP. XII.
The remaining Part of the Life and Reign of Ferdinand the First of the Name, and Ninth King of Portugal, from the Year 1373. till 1383.

1. KIng Ferdinand had not yet forgot the Treasure de­tained from him by the King of Aragon, 1374. in re­turn of his Mutability.Ferdi­nand en­ters into a League with the King of Castile, a­gainst the King of A­ragon. He thereupon meditated Re­venge, but it was hard to compass. It happened the King of Castile fell at Variance with the Aragonian, and our King joyned in League with the former against the other. But the Castilian knowing the inconstancy of Ferdinand, soon came to agreement with the Aragonian. The more to bind the Portuguese to him, he proposed a Match be­twixt our Princess Beatrix, and his own Bastard-Son Fre­derick. 1375. This Match being approved of by the Cortes at Leyria; they were married by Proxy, and the King of Castile Swore to perform the Articles of the Treaty,1376. on the 19th. of January. 1377. Our King being forsaken by the Castilian, Prince John pri­vately marries Mary, Si­ster to Queen El­lenor. concluded a League against Aragon, with Lewis Duke of Anjou, Son to the King of France. Prince John of Portugal, falling in Love with the Lady Mary, Sister to the then Queen Ellenor, raised also by her Beau­ty to the Throne, he was privately married to her. But Queen Ellenor, instead of rejoycing at the Advancement of her Sister, fearing that the King dying without Issue, [Page 245] she might come to be Queen, contrived her Death; and to compass her ends, she perswaded the Prince she would Marry him to the Princess Beatrix, the King's only Daughter, and by that means secure him the Succession of the Crown. At the same time she accused her Sister of defiling his Bed.He Murders her. The Prince, moved with Hope and Revenge, hasted to Coimbra, and breaking in upon the Innocent Lady, murdered her as she leaped naked out of Bed, and taking Horse, fled to secure himself and his followers. As soon as the News of this Action came to Court,1378. the Queen went into deep Mourning. The Prince easily obtained his Pardon, and coming to Court, began to sollicit the Conclusion of the Match before pro­posed to him by the Queen, with the Lady Beatrix; but finding nothing in her but Deceit, he retired to the Province that lies betwixt Duero and Minho, and thence fled to Castile, where he was kept from the Crown of Portugal, which would have fallen to him, as we shall see in the next Reign, had he not fled for killing his Wife.

2. A mighty Solar Eclipse preceded the Death of Henry, A great Eclips [...] of the Sun. King of Castile, which happened on the 30th. of May. Embassadors went immediately from Portu­gal, to propose to John, the new King, a Match betwixt his Eldest Son Ferdinand, then a Year old, and Beatrix, Princess of Portugal, tho' she was before contracted to Frederick, 1380. King Henry's Bastard Son. The Castilian approving of this Proposal, sent his Embassadors to Portugal, who concluded upon the Articles of Marriage. But notwithstanding this so late Capitulation,King Fer­dinand underhand treats with the Dukes of Lanca­ster and York a­bout sub­du [...]ng of Castile King Fer­dinand, hoping to gain some Advantage over the Young King, resolved upon War. John Fernandez Andeyro, one of them expelled Portugal, upon the Pacification with King Henry, was at this time in England, to whom private Instructions were sent, to treat with the Duke of Lancaster, and Edmund, Duke of York, for Succours. They espoused the Cause, and Andeyro came away with the News to Portugal, where the King being at Estremoz, kept him up in a Tower, that the Design might not take Air, nor he seem to Entertain any of the Fugitives. It fell out the Queen spoke sometimes with Andeyro in this Retirement; and as Queens are but Women, their Familiarity became scandalous; for she who had for­saken her Lawful Husband for a King, now abandoned [Page 246] that King for a Private Man, whom she raised to the honour of an Earl. After some time, the King ordered him to appear publickly at Leyria, as if newly come from England, and there, as had been agreed, he was apprehended for coming into Portugal without leave. Within a few days he was again set at Liberty, and it was given out, he should lose his Head if he stay'd in the Kingdom. Under this Pretence he returned to England, to sollicite the execution of the Treaty concluded.

3. King John understanding that Edmund, Duke of York, raised Forces in England, to Conquer Castile for his Brother the Duke of Lancaster, who had a Right to it by his Wife, the Daughter of King Peter, and that he intended to assist the King of Portugal; marched now as far as Zamora, fitted out his Fleet at Sevil, and sent Ferdinand Osores, Master of the Knights of Santiago, to secure Badajoz. The King of Portugal had already fitted out 22 Galleys at Lisbon, and sent Commanders to all the Frontiers. The first Action of King Ferdinand was the demolishing the Walls of his own City of Evora, which were so strong, that three Years were spent in that Work. The Portuguese Fleet, commanded by the Earl John Alonso Tello, the Queen's Brother, set out from Lisbon, and in the Sea of Algarve met with the Fleet of Castile, consisting of 17 Galleys, under the Command of Ferdinand Sanchez de Toar. He being inferiour in number, endeavoured to shun coming to an Engage­ment: But our Admiral pursues and comes up with him off of Saltes, All the Portu­guese Fleet, ex­cept one Galley, ta­ken by the Castilians. having left behind 8 Galleys, that went to take in some Fisher-Boats. Toar seeing our Galleys dispersed, bravely boards and takes 12 of the first that came up, and afterwards, Seven of the Eight that were behind. Only one of our Galleys escaped, to bring the News to Lisbon, the rest were carryed in Tri­umph to Sevil. Few were killed in this Engagement, but the Prisoners amounted to 6000. In the mean time, the Master Ferdinand Osores, infested the Frontiers with frequent Excursions from Badajoz. Peter Alvarez Pe­reyra, Prior of Crato, marched with 1000 Lances, and 4000 Cross-bow-Men in quest of him, but came too late, for he was retired to Badajoz. King John streightly besieged the Town of Almeyda, thither came to him Prince John, who was fled from Portugal on account of killing his Wife, and offered, with the assistance of some [Page 247] banished Portugueses, to cause Lisbon to be delivered up to the King. Upon this, he appeared before Lisbon with six Galleys, but being disappointed of his Design, re­turned back to Sevil.

4. King Ferdinand sent his Chancellor, Laurence Yannez Fogaça, into England, to hasten the promised Succours. The Duke of York set Sail from Plymouth with 3000 Men,1381. and entred the River of Lisbon on the 19th. of July. The Duke of York arrives at Lisbon with 3000 Men With him came the Princess his Wife, and many Ladies, as also his Son Edward, and some of the ba­nished Portugueses, among whom was Andeyro, who came not so much to serve the King in his Wars, as the Queen in her Amours, the King's Sickness administring a favourable Opportunity. The King went aboard to receive the new Guests, who were lodged in the Mona­stery of S. Dominick, where Rich Presents were bestowed upon them, and they were sumptuously entertained. The King was by the Treaty obliged to furnish the Eng­lish with Horses, and he gave them more Mules than Horses, for there were scarce any in the Kingdom, and he gave such as could be had. The Duke of York ad­vised our King to adhere to Pope Ʋrban, and disown the Anti-Pope Glement, which the King willingly com­plyed with;A Schism in the Church. The Duke of York's Son con­tracted to the Princess Beatrix. for there being then a Schism in the Church, the English would not hear the Masses said by Portuguese Priests, because they acknowledged the Anti-Pope. Ed­ward, the Duke's Son, was solemnly contracted to the Princess Beatrix, they being both about six Years of Age. Elvas was at that time besieged by the Castilians, who hearing of the Arrival of the English, raised the Siege, and departed. The English committed many Outrages in Lisbon, and being ordered to March against Castile, did no less harm in the Country as they went, which was the cause that many of them were cut off by the Pertugueses. D. John Alonso, Earl of Ourem, and the Queen's Brother, dying, the Queen gave his Title and Honours to her Gallant, John Fernandez Andeyro. He was a marryed Man, and his Wife in Galicia. The King, to take him from the Queen, caused his Wife to come to Court, and the Queen endeavoured to gain her with Gifts, which she received, yet at the same time openly spoke of the Queen whatsoever her Jealousie dictated.

5. This Year another Powerful Fleet of Castile from Biscay entred the River Tagus, 1382. and meeting no Opposi­tion, [Page 248] destroyed some Vessels;The Fleet of Castile again ra­vages the Coast. then Landing, they burnt three Royal Palaces, and ravaged all that Coast. At lengh, Peter Alvarez Pereyra, Prior of Crato, with 200 Horse, cut off almost all the Party of the Enemy, and recovered the Booty they carryed away, which was some check to them for the future. Nunno Alvarez Pereyra lay in Ambush with 24 Horse, and 30 Foot, near the Bridge of Alcantara, there he put to flight 20 of the Enemy, who fled to the Shoar. The Enemy increasing to about 250, his Men refused to Engage at such odds, and he, to draw them on, run upon them alone, where his Horse fell upon him, but his Men coming to his Rescue, brought him off, the Castilians at the same time retiring to their Vessels. The Queen having in Publick rent a Veil in two, and given one half to her Gallant, John Fernandez Andeyro, and the other to Count Gonçalo, for that they were sweaty, and had no Handkerchiefs to wipe their Faces, for it seems they were not then used in Portugal; Gonzalo Vasquez de Azevedo, her Cousin, re­proached her with it; and she, in Revenge, accused him, and John, Bastard Son to the late King, of holding In­telligence with the Spaniards. Hereupon they were both committed to Prison. She contrived to put them to Death, but failing in her Projects, set them at Liberty, and shewed extraordinary Kindness to them both, the better to disguise her Practices against them, as also since she had failed to destroy them, to bind them to her In­terest.

6. The Master of the Knights of Avis being now at Liberty,The Eng­lish and Portu­guese take Towns in Castile. joyned with some English, and making toge­ther 200 Horse, and 4000 Foot, they marched to Castile, and laid Siege to Lobo [...], which they took, the English being the first that entred. Cortijo fell into their hands, and was more hardly used; for tho the Priests appeared on the Walls with the Blessed Sacrament, the English put all to the Sword, in Revenge of one of theirs that was killed. The Kings of Castile and Portugal were now at the Head of their Armies, the former at Badajoz, the latter at Elvas, ready to decide their Quarrel by Battle. King Ferdinand Knighted 24 of his own Peo­ple and the English; but being told, he could not, tho' a King, confer that Honour, because he had not received it himself, he caused the Duke of York to Knight him, and then repeated the Ceremony to those 24 Knights. [Page 249] The whole Day was spent by both Armies looking upon each other, and at last, the one drew back to Badajoz, and the other to Elvas. What the cause of parting so should be▪ cannot certainly be assigned; but some said, The Castilian feared the English, who had been before victorious in Castile, to which the Duke of Lancaster had a good Title, and had been once proclaimed by part of the Army. Whatever it was, a Treaty of Peace was immediately set a foot, none knowing who had first mo­ved for it. Embassadors being sent on both Sides, the Articles were at length agreed upon, without the Know­ledge of the English; Peace con­cluded without the Know­ledge of the Eng­lish. and were, first, That the Princess Beatrix, lately contracted to Edward, Son to the Duke of York, should marry Prince Ferdinand, King John's second Son, having before been promised to the eldest. But this Match was better liked, to prevent the Union of the Two Crowns. Secondly, That the Twenty two Gal­leys, taken by the Castilians, should be restored. Third­ly, That a general Pardon should be granted on both sides. Fourthly, That the King of Castile should fur­nish Ships to carry the English Home, as if he had sent for them. When these Articles were to have been rati­fied, the Castilian demurred, as to restoring the Gallies, and sending Home the English: The Embassadors here­upon challenged him, in their Master's Name; and he scornfully answered, I did not think he had so much Cou­rage. Nevertheless, through the Perswasion of the Ma­ster of the Knights of Santiago, he ratify'd the Peace.

7. The Peace was proclaimed at Elvas, which made the English rail,After the Peace, King Ferdi­nand a­gain sub­mits to the Anti­pope. for that it was concluded without their Knowledge; and the King put them off the best he could. At this time came to the Court Cardinal Peter de Luna, an Aragonian, sent by the Anti-Pope Clement, requiring King Ferdinand to acknowledge him again, for he had cast him off at the Request of the English. The King assembled some learned Men, and the worst Advice was followed, for he again submitted himself to the Schismatical Pope.1383. In the mean while died Ellenor Queen of Castile; The King of Castile marries the Daugh­ter of King Ferdi­nand. and King Ferdinand forgetting he refus'd his Daughter to the eldest Son of Castile, to pre­vent Disputes about the Succession▪ now offered her to the Father. His Offer was accepted, and this Princess at last found a Husband, the fifth time she had been con­tracted: For she was first promised to D [...]ke Frederick; [Page 250] secondly, to Henry Prince of Castile; thirdly, to Ferdi­nand his Brother; fourthly, to the Duke of York; and now lastly to King John. She proved a Pattern of Cha­stity, for her Husband dying whilst she was yet very young, and being courted by several Princes, she an­swered, That Women of Honour did not marry twice. The Archbishop of Santiago came to Portugal to receive the Bride, the King being then at Salvatierra, upon the River Tagus. It was agreed, That in case King Ferdi­nand died without Heirs, his Daughter should inherit, and after her her Issue; but if she had none, then King John should succeed; and that if King John, his new Queen, and the Princess Ellenor, Wife to the Prince of Navar, died without Heirs, before King Ferdinand, then he should inherit the Crown of Castile. That till the new Queen of Castile had a Son Fourteen Years of Age, Queen Ellenor her Mother should govern Portugal. Thus it appears, the future Pretensions of the King of Castile to the Crown of Portugal, were just, as were Queen El­lenor's to the Government; and that the succeeding King John was an Usurper, having no lawful Title to the Crown.

8. King Ferdinand being Sick,King Fer­dinand falls sick. his Queen Ellenor con­ducted the Princess, then not full Thirteen Years of Age, to Elvas. When both Parties had sworn the Per­formance of Articles, the King and his Bride met, in Tents near that City. Such was Queen Ellenor's Beauty, that the Castilians seeing her said, King Ferdinand were much to blame, had he not loved her, having seen her; or if, having loved her, he had not made her a Queen. Here the Cardinal of Luna produced a Dispensation for them to marry, they being within the prohibited Degrees of Consanguinity; after which there was a most splendid Entertainment. Then they returned to Elvas, where the nuptial Rites were solemnly performed with extraordina­ry Pomp; and after all publick Testimonies of Joy, and Demonstrations of Grandeur were over, the King of Castile gave rich Presents to all the Portuguese Gentry. Queen Ellenor returning to Almada, where King Ferdi­nand lay sick, and intimating, That she liked not the King of Castile; The Master of the Order of Avis, commended his Sense and Modesty; to which she an­swered, That is true, but I would have a Man be more a Man. At last, King Ferdinand being convinc'd of the extravagant Familiarity that was betwixt the Queen, and [Page 251] Count John Fernandez Andeyro, and being unwilling by punishing to expose her Weakness, or to lose her he so passionately loved, he ordered the Master of the Knights of Avis to make him away privately. But though he performed not at this time what was enjoyned him, yet afterwards he murdered him in the Revolution that happened when the Order was void.

9. The King now spent with Sickness, removed from Almada to Lisbon, 1383. where he died very Penitent, on the 24th. of October, 1383.Ferdi­nand dies▪ He was almost Forty four Years of Age, reigned Seventeen, and was buried with Pomp, in the Quire of the Monastery of S. Francis, at Santarem. His Presence was so Graceful and Majestick, that through any Disguise he appeared to be a King, his Visage was long, his Complexion fair, as was his Hair, and his Eyes sparkling.His Cha­racter▪ The great Expence of his Wars obliged him to enhance the price of the Money, where­of he coined several Sorts; but after his Wars ceased, all the Coin was restor'd to its intrinsick Value. He remo­ved the University, erected by King Denis at Coimbra, to Lisbon, but it afterwards returned to the same Place from whence he brought it. He was rather Prodigal than Liberal, which may appear by the many Towns we have mentioned he gave to the Castilians that came over to him. As to his other Gifts, one Instance will serve to demonstrate the rest. To John Alonso de Moxi­ca, one of the Castilian Gentlemen that came over to Portugal, besides Towns and Lands, he gave, in one Day, 50 Horses, 30 Mules, 3 Suits of Armour, 30000 Marks of Plate, and 4 Sumptures loaded with rich Tapistry. He pulled down the Roman Walls of Ebora, to build New. And thus, though unfortunate in all his Under­takings, he secured to himself the Love of all Men.

10. His lawful Issue was,His Issue. first, Beatrix, married to King John the first of Castile; they wronged her who said she was Daughter to Count Fernandez Andeyro, for she was Eight Years of Age when he begun to be fami­liar with the Queen. Secondly, A Son, who died in his Infancy. Thirdly, Another in the same nature. One Bastard Daughter he had, married to Alonso, Earl of Gijon, Bastard Son to King Henry the second of Castile, from whom sprung the Family of the Noronhas.

The END of THE THIRD BOOK.

THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL.
The Fourth BOOK.

CHAP. I.
The Birth, Education, and Actions of John, Bastard Son to King Peter of Portugal: His Promotion to be Protector of the King­dom; and Wars with Castile; from the Year 1357. till the end of 1384.

1. JOHN, Bastard Son to King Peter, by Teresa Alonso of Galicia, was born at Lisbon, on the 22d. of April, 1357.1357. In his Infancy he was kept by Laurence de Lyria, John, Ba­stard Son to King Pe­ter, aspires to the Crown. a noted Citizen; then deli­vered to Nunho Freyre de Andrade, Master of the Or­der of Christ, who presented him to the King at the Age of Seven Years, asking for him the Mastership of the Order of Avis, then vacant, by the Death of D. Mar­tin de Avelar. This was the first time his Father saw him, and having Knighted him, gave him that Honour. [Page 253] He was sent to receive it at Avis, a Convent of that Or­der, and was there educated, till of Age to bear Arms. His Actions till the Death of King Ferdinand, have been related; it now remains to recount what he did af­terwards. The late King, in his Will, left the Admini­stration of the Government to his Wife Queen Ellenor, in pursuance of what had been Stipulated with King John of Castile, upon his marrying the Lady Beatrix, lawful Daughter to King Ferdinand; tho the unbridled Malice of the Multitude Defamed her with the Name of Count John Fernandez Andeyro his Daughter. Queen Ellenor entred upon the Government with Extraordi­nary tokens of Grief for the Death of the King her Hus­band. The Council of the City of Lisbon advised her not to be so negligent in the Government as her Hus­band had been; and she answered them so graciously, that they went away well satisfied. The King of Ca­stile immediately sent Embassadors to condole her Loss, and at the same time to require himself to be proclaimed King in the Right of his Wife, and in pursuance of the late Capitulations. Scarce was this mentioned throughout the Kingdom, when a general reluctancy appeared in the Countenances of all Men. D. Henry Manuel de Villena, Earl of Sea, and Unkle to the King Castile, was ordered to Proclaim him in Lisbon, but was opposed by D. Al­vare Perez de Castro, in behalf of King Peter's lawful Issue by the Lady Agnes de Castro. The same happened at Santarem, Elvas, and in most Places of the Kingdom. King John proposed his Title, by his Embassador, to the City of Lisbon, but it was not favourably received.

2. The First contrivance of the Master of Avis, Before his Assuming the Crown, he Murders Count John Fernan­dez An­deyro. with some others, was to Murder the Count John Fernandez, the Queen's Favourite; and the said Master being ap­pointed General of the Country, betwixt the Rivers Ta­gus and Guadiana, he marched Three Leagues from Lis­bon, whence suddenly returning with armed Men, he rushed into the Place, and there Murdered the Un­happy Count. The Queen, when she heard it, said, He has died a Martyr, and I will to Morrow, in proof of it, undergo the Trial of Ordeal. Next, she went to know of the Master, whether she also must die; and a civil An­swer was returned, to quiet her. The Rabble, raised by the clamours of one of the Master's Pages, who cryed he would be killed in the Palace, flocked thither, and [Page 254] would certainly have destroyed the Queen, had not D. John, the Master of Avis, looked out at the Window. He seeing the Multitude on his side, went away, follow­ed by them to the great Market, called Recio, to Dine with the Queen's Brother, the Earl of Barcelos, who was consenting to the Murder. The Bishop of Lisbon was then also at Dinner at his House, and with him the Prior of Guimaraens, and a Notary of Silves. They hearing the Tumult, got up into the Belfrey, where the People seeing them, called out to have the Bells ring. They not regarding to obey these Tumultuary Shouts, the Rabble broke in, and cast them headlong from the Tower, then dragged them to the Market called Recio, where they lay naked and exposed to the Dogs, till the next Day. D. John, after Dinner, went to Court, to beg the Queen's Pardon for murdering the Count. She took little Notice of him, but threatned the Kingdom with the Power of Castile; yet fearing the Rabble, she went away from Lisbon to Alenquer, praying to God, at her departure, that she might see the City burnt.

3. Don John fearing the Power of the Queen, resol­ved to go away into England; but the more this was rumoured, the more the Multitude pressed him to stay, and protect them against Castile. He made some seem­ing opposition, but was soon brought to comply. A Council was named, where it was resolved that D. John should marry Queen Ellenor, for defence of the King­dom; and that if the King of Castile had ever a Son by Queen Beatrix, the Government should continue in D. J [...]n and the Queen, till that Son came to Age. Here ceased all the Reproaches that had been cast upon the Queen, who when this Overture was made to her, re­jected it with Scorn. Nevertheless he was declared Pro­tector of the Kingdom,He is de­clared Pro­tector of the King­dom. by the Commonalty, in the Church of S. Dominick; and because most of the Nobi­lity were absent then, they were summoned to meet in the Town-House, where the chief of them being dubious what to do, one Alonso Jannez, a Cooper, stept into the midst of them, and laying his Hand on his Sword, threatned such as should refuse their Consent; and they fearing the Multitude, consented to what had been done in the Church of S. Dominick. Thus was D. John, Ma­ster of Avis, entrusted with the Government and De­fence of the Kingdom. His First Action that gained [Page 255] him Reputation, was the Prudent Choice he made of Counsellors, not according to Men's Quality, but their Ability. Next, to secure many of his Party, he distri­buted a considerable Treasure belonging to those that followed the Queen, or sided with Castile, amongst them, and promised a general Pardon for all Crimes but Trea­son; not considering that the only Treason was to sup­port him.

4. The Queen began to think herself in Danger at Alenquer, The Castle of Lisbon taken by the Pro­tector▪ and therefore leaving Vasco Perez de Camoens Governour there, she went away to Santarem. Here Nun­no Alvarez Pereyra who had been Educated by her, for­sook her and went away to Lisbon, where he was admit­ted into the Council of State. D. John Alonso the Queen's Brother was Governour of the Castle of Lisbon, and Martin Alonso Valente was within as his Lieutenant. Alonso Yannez Nogueira got in with some Men, sent by the Queen to Re-inforce the Garrison. These refusing to deliver up their Trust to the New Protector, they were Besieged, and the Assailants threatning to Sacrifice their Wives and Children, before their Faces, if they held out; they surrendred the Place. The Nobility who op­posed D. John, called the Commonalty, that followed him, The People of the Messiah; because they seemed to Adore him. And the Rabble termed them Schismaticks and Traitors. Several Places then in the Hands of the Nobility, were easily wrested from them by the Com­monalty, as Beja, Portalegre, Evora, and others. Now the Rabble being uppermost, began throughout the Kingdom to commit the most execrable Villanies,Barbari­ties of the rebelliou [...] Rabble. un­der the Pretence of defending their Country. It was an unpardonable Offence, even to name Castile; And the Lady Joanna Perez Ferreyrim, Abbess of the Monastery of Castres, seeing a Man ill used for that pretended Crime modestly reproved their Cruelty, but such was their Rage, that tho' she fled into the great Church, and embraced the Sanctuary, in which the Holy Sacrament is kept, there they gave her several Wounds, then drag­ging her from the Altar, tore off her Vail; next they cut off her Coats so high, as modesty forbids to utter, which done she was dragged into the Market, and there hewed in pieces; Lastly, the Body was dragged to the Place where they shut up the Cattle, and left there; till some Charitable Body buried it by Night. To compleat this [Page 256] Sacrilege they returned to the Monastery, designing to Murder all the Nuns, but they withdrew themselves from their Fury.

5. Queen Ellenor seeing her self in manifest Danger,Queen E­lenor flies to Castile. fled to her Son-in-Law the King of Castile, who espous­ed his own Quarrel in her. The First thing he did was to secure Prince John, Son to the Lady Agnes de Castro; by that means to cut off the Hopes the Portuguese might have of a lawful Successor. But the Portuguese ceased not to Encourage D. John to proceed in the Defence of the Kingdom, and he the more to try them seemed doubtful, and spread some Reports, as if he would de­part the Countrey. But finding an inclination in the Multitude towards Prince John, the more to exasperate them against Castile, he caused a Standard to be made, in which that Prince was drawn to the Life, loaded with Chains;The Pro­tector his contri­vances to Usurp the Crown. which being carried about the City, enraged the People against the King of Castile. Thus pretending to Revenge the Wrong, done to the Prince, he gained the means of Establishing himself in the Throne; and stirred up all the Kingdom to defend it self, against Ca­stile. The Commonalty every where took his Part, but not the Nobility. Yet he believing he could not prevail without Forreign Aid, asked it of Richard King of Eng­land, at the same time perswading the Duke of Lanca­ster, to assert the Right he had to the Crown of Castile, by his Wife. The Embassador's Proposals were admit­ted, and much Money advanced to them for the Expence of the War, with which, and some good Troops they returned. The Earl of Gijon, Bastard-Brother to the King of Castile, and Elizabeth his Wife, Bastard-Daugh­ter to the late King of Portugal, were both secured in Castile, on Account of holding Correspondence in Por­tugal. The King and Queen of Castile, removed from Puebla de Montalvan, to Toledo, where against their be­ing proclaimed, Standards were made with the Arms of both Kingdoms. And now it was debated in Council, whether Portugal ought presently to be invaded. The wiser sort were for trying all obliging Methods First, but the hotter Youths, allowed of nothing but force of Arms; and this Advice as followed.

6. The King marched to the City Guarda, which was delivered to him by the Bishop, but Alvaro Gil, Gover­nour of the Castle would not Surrender. The Towns [Page 257] of Cerolico, The King of Castile in­vades Por­tugal. Bedado, and Linhares, were also put into his Hands. Some other Places submitted conditionally, that the King should fulfil the Articles of Marriage. Queen Ellenor sent to perswade the King to proceed, and meet her at Santarem. Several Places submitted them­selves to him in his way, and being come to Santarem, the First Resolution of Queen Ellenor was, to request he would revenge the [...] done to her. The K. answer­ed, he could not [...] quarrel, unless she would resign up the [...]; which she accord­ingly did, and then they [...] Town. Here the King took [...]. On the right side of the Royal [...], were the Arms of Castile and Le­on, and on the left, those of Portugal. The Royal Seal ran thus, John King of Castile and Leon, of Portugal, of Toledo, &c. Money was also coyned after that manner. Many of the Nobility adheared to the King of Castile, and he was possest of the best Part of the Kingdom; but the Multitude generally was inclined to the Bastard, D. John, Master of the Order of Avis. The King of Castile sent D. Peter Fernandez Cabeça de Vaca, with 1000 chosen Horse, and a proportionable number of Foot, to invest Lisbon. These Troops being advanced as far as Lumiar, John Fernandez Moreyra engaged them with a small Party, but was himself Killed with some others; many Prisoners were taken, and the rest fled. And now D. John the Protector, marched out to meet the Enemy; but they not expecting his coming, fled in great disorder to Alenquer, and T [...]rres Vedras, leaving all behind them.

7. At First the Castilians behaved themselves modest­ly at Santarem, but after a few Days, they turned the Inhabitants out of their Houses, pillaged them, and a­bused their Wives and Daughters; and there being no re­dress, the Town began to be abandoned. The Office or chief Rabbi among the Jews being vacant, Queen Elle­nor begged it of the King for one Man, and he gave it to another, recommended by his Wife, Queen Beatrix. This repulse, and their different Humours, set Queen Ellenor at Variance with the King;The King of Castile and Queen Ellenor at Varia [...]. and she now repented her calling him in, and resigning the Government into his Hands, in so much that she advised many of her Follow­ers to go over to the Master of Avis, telling them he was their Natural Lord. The King and Queen went away [Page 258] to Coimbra, which City had promised to receive them; yet when the King was Quartered in a Monastery with­out the City,A Conspi­racy a­gainst the King of Ca­stile, disco­vered. they refused to admit him. Here a Con­spiracy was laid to Convey Queen Ellenor into the City, and Murder the King. This Design was betrayed by a Jew; some of the Conspirators fled, and Queen Ellenor was sent Prisoner to the Monastery of Tordesillas near Val­ladolid. As soon as the News of Queen Ellenor's impri­sonment was brought, the Town of Alenquer revolted to the Protector; but the King being Re-inforced, marched to Besiege Lisbon. At Aruda 40 Portuguese hid themselves in a great Cave, and Fire being applied to it, most of them died. Two hid themselves in the House where the King Quartered, designing to Murder him, but being discovered, were Hanged. Many Places in the Province of Alentejo, held for the Protector, and sent to him for one to Command over them; he sent N [...]nho Alvarez Pereyra, with an absolute Power, who having visited some Places of his Charge, and hearing that a great Body of Castilians was upon their March to Be­siege the Town of Frontera, he hasted with a much smal­ler number to releive that Place. His Men knowing how much more numerous the Enemy was, at First refused to follow him; but being encouraged by his Resolution, they gave the Charge, and put the Castilians to the Rout, killing many, and among them several Persons of Note. This done, he took Aronches by Force, and Ale­grete was surrendred to him.

8. The Protector understanding that a mighty Fleet was coming from Castile, ordered the Archbishop of Bra­ga to over-see the Equipping of his Vessels;Lisbon Be­sieged by Sea and Land▪ which performed with great industry, so that Twelve Galleys, some Galliots, and Seven Ships, were fitted out. The King of Castile spread his Army about Lisbon, where one of his Parties approaching to S. Augustin's Gate, was defeated by 200 Horse that Sallied out of the City. About the end of May, 13 Galleys, and 40 Ships of Ca­stile appeared in the River of Lisbon. The King drew nearer to the City, and encamping at the Foot of Mount Olivet, wasted the Country; then encompassing it on all sides, resolved to Starve it. In the mean while, a consi­derable Fleet was setting out at Porto, for the relief of Lisbon; and the King having notice thereof, with the Advice of his Commanders, resolved to give the Enemy [Page 259] Battle in the River. The Portuguese Fleet consisted of 17 Galleys, and as many Ships, which entred the River in this order: First 5 Ships, then the 17 Galleys, and af­ter them the other 12 Ships.The Portuguese Fleet, stops up the Ri­ver to Lis­bon. The Castilians furiously assailed the 5 Ships, where they met with a most vigo­rous Opposition, yet they took 3 of them; but whilst they were intent upon them, the rest of the Portuguese slipped by, and got safe up the Harbour. Soon after, the King's Fleet was re-inforced by several Vessels; so that now it consisted of 60 Ships, and 17 Galleys, be­sides Carracks, which made the Protector lay aside all thoughts of engaging.

9. The Fort of Almada opposite to Lisbon, after en­during great extremities for want of Water, was at length Surrendred to the King, who entred into that Place on the 1st of August. 1384. At this time, Ruy Freyre, and others discovered to the Protector a Design of be­traying the City to the Castilians, carried on by D. Peter de Castro, Son to Count Alvaro Perez, and his Accom­plices, who were all apprehended. Many also deserted to the King, and among them, D. Alonso Enriquez, who at Coimbra had plotted to convey away Queen Ellenor. Hunger now began to pinch in Lisbon, and was hard to be remedied, but that at the same time the Plague raged in the Castilian Army.Overtur [...] of Peace reje [...]d. Overtures of Peace were also made by the King to the Protector; but he would hear­ken to none. Nunho Alvarez Pereyra having ventured to pass the River in a Boat, through the midst of the Fleet of Castile, returned thence to Ebora, and had the Town of Portel betrayed to him by 3 Citizens. Twice he attempted Villaviciosa, but was both times repulsed with Loss. The Protector lay before Torres Vedras▪ and Nunho Alvarez understanding that several Parties of the Enemy provided to fall upon him, he hasted to his Suc­cour, which the Castilians understanding, they gave o­ver that Design; however the Protector was forced to quit the Siege. Nunho returning to his Ch [...]rge, took Monzaraz, defeated a Castilian Party near Badaj [...]z another before Almada, and made himself Master of Roca de Palmela, and Couna.

10. The Scarcity was now so great at Lisbon, that they turned out the Poor, and unserviceable People to the Enemy, who sent them back well lashed. No hopes now remained; but that the Plague raged so violently [Page 260] among the Castilians, The Siege of Lisbon raised, when it had la­sted five Months. that Two hundred died in a Day, and of them very many of Quality. But the King no way moved hereat, continued the Siege, till the Infecti­on touched the Queen and then he raised it, having lain Five Months before the City. Being come to Santarem, he sent Troops to re-inforce the Garrisons of such Places as still held for him; but passing by Torres Novas, he was not admitted into the Town by Gonçalo Vasquez de Azevedo, who before kept that Place for him. His Wife went out to visit the Queen, and there promised to re­duce her Husband; and not prevailing, she returned to the Camp, and the King sent to bid him Farewell, for that his Wife was going to Castile. He fearing to lose his Wife, delivered himself and the Town; but the King carried him and his Son away Prisoners, leaving their Wives behind, and a New Governour in the Place. Whilst the King marched home, the Protector granted large Immunities to the City of Lisbon, in recompence of its Fidelity to him. Next, he contrived how to re­cover some places out of the Hands of the Castilians. He marched by night, to surprize Sintra, but was disap­pointed by a violent Storm, and Floods that swelled the Rivers above their Bridges. Soon after, Almada was surrendred to him; notwithstanding that the King had carried away the Children of the principal Inhabitants as Hostages. Alcnquer summitted to him also, after ha­ving made some Defence; But Torres Novas held out a­gainst all his Attemps, and to add to his Grief, he under­stood that Nunho Alvarez had been also repulsed at Vil­ [...]avi [...]iosa, that the Master of the Order of Christ, the Prior of Crato, and Alvaro Gonzalez Camello, were taken Prisoners at Torres Novas; and that Two Galleys of Castile, stealing into the Port of Lisbon by night, had [...]urnt Three Vessels there.

CHAP. II.
John the Bastard-Son of King Peter, of Protector is declared King; he continues the War with Castile successfully, from the Year 1384. till 1393.

1. ABout the beginning of the New Year was disco­vered a Conspiracy against the Protector.138 [...]. Peter Earl of Trastamara, A Conspi­racy a­gainst the Protector discover [...] was stirred up by the King of Ca­stile to kill him, as he lay at the Siege of Torres Vedras. The Count communicated this Affair to D. Peter de Ca­stro, John Duque Governour of Torres Vedras, John A­lonso de Baeza, Garcia Gonzales de Valdez, and several o­thers, of whom only 3 Men were apprehended, and one of them burnt. In Revenge whereof John Duque sent out six Portuguese he had in Torres Vedras, with their Hands and Noses cut off. The Protector raised the Siege of T [...]r­res Vedras, in order to go to Coimbra, to meet the Cortes or Parliament he had caused to be thither Assembled, and most of the Inhabitants about Torres Vedras went away with him. In his way, Leyria refused to admit him; but he was well received at Monte-mayor, and Coimbra. In this City, [...] a­bout pro­claiming the Pro­tector King. some were for proclaiming the Protector King, and others for the Princes, John and Denis, lawful Sons to King Peter; but all agreed the present Protector should continue as long as Prince John should be Priso­ner; and in case neither he nor his Brother could come to Portugal, then the Protector was to be received as King. Dr. John de Reg [...]as, a famous Civilian, made two Harangues on behalf of the Protector, casting scandalous Reflections upon Queen E [...]lenor, to incapacitate her Daughter. Queen Beatrix, from succeeding in the Throne; the same he did on the Lady Agnes de Castro, Wife to king Peter, with an intent to exclude her Sons, the Princes John, and Denis. Some little Opposition was made at first, by se­veral of the Nobility; but at length they all consented the Protector should be proclaimed King; the so much celebrated Nunho Alvarez Pereyra, having offered to Mur­der Martin Vasquez, chief of the adverse Party, only be­cause he stood up for the lawful Heirs.

[Page 262] 2. The Protector with a counterfeit Modesty seemed to excuse himself from accepting of their Offers, but it was only to heighten their Zeal; and so on the 6th. of April he complyed with them. He immediately shewed great Favour towards the Cities of Lisbon and Porto, for having so constantly adhered to him. Thus it appears how little hopes of Salvation there can be left for Law­yers, who by false Interpretations invert Justice, as it appears in the case of this John de Reglas before-men­tioned, who standered the Queens, Beatrix and Ellenor, and the Princess Agnes de Castro, and excluded the Law­ful Heirs, the Princes John and Denis, only for his own private Interest, in promoting the Bastard Protector, who could have no Title to the Crown. I think it were bet­ter to breed up Children Thieves than Lawyers, for the former will at least Repent at the Gallows, but the latter are never permitted by Worldly Interest to Repent. All Parties thus agreed,The [...] the Protector was solemnly Pro­claimed King of Portugal, and accordingly chose all his Officers of State, and of the Houshold. Marching in­to the Field, he mustered 6000 Men, a small number, but resolute and unanimous; and Nunho Alvarez Pereyra, now made Constable of Portugal, was ordered to Sea with a Squadron from Porto, to engage the Castisian Fleet before Lisbon. Missing of that Enemy, he sailed back to the Province betwixt the Rivers Duero and Minho, to recover part of that Country, then holding for Castile. Here he took Neyva and Ponte de Lima by force; Villa Nova de Cerveyra, and Monçon opened their Gates to him.

3. The new-made King went from Coimbra to Porto, where he was received with great Joy. [...] the new King. Here he consul­ted with Alonso Lorenzo de Carvallo, a Man then Power­ful at Guimaraens, about betraying that Place to him, which was accordingly performed. The Castle held out some time, but there being no hopes of Relief, at last, it surrendred. The City Braga mutinying, drove their Governour into the Castle, and sending to the new King, offered to receive him. He ordered Nunho Alvarez the Constable, to take Possession of the City, and force the Castle, which was accordingly performed. The same happened at Ponte de Lima. The King of Castile, now at Cordova, having twice sent his Fleet against Lisbon, ordered a strong Party to enter Portugal by the way of [Page 263] Cuidad Rodrigo. They plundered all the Territory of Trancoso, and the City of Viseu; but as they returned laden with a Rich Booty, they were charged by a Por­tuguese Body, much inferiour to them in Number, yet with such Resolution, that of all the Castilians, only 200 escaped, not one Portuguese being lost in the Action (if Credit may be given to such a Relation, after affirm­ing the Fight was obstinately maintained.) In the mean while, the Fleet of Castile, consisting of Forty Ships, Ten Galeons,The Casti­lians enter Portugal some Galleys, Twelve Barks and other small Vessels, rode in the Harbour of Lisbon. That King also marched from Cordova with a numerous Army, and appeared before Elvas, which was resolutely de­fended; and now finding the general Aversion of the Portuguese to him, it was debated, whether Portugal ought to be invaded at all, but at last it was resolved to enter it by the way of the Province of Beyra.

4. The new Portuguese King understanding the ap­proach of the Castilians, marched out of Guimaraens to give them Battle, having drawn together his Forces from Coimbra, Porto, and other Places. On the 14th. of August in the Morning he entred the Plain of Aljubar­rota, where he Knighted several Gentlemen. The Ca­stilians designed not to fight, intending to march directly to Lisbon, T [...] Fam [...] B [...] [...] A [...]jubar [...] yet after some Consultation, they resolved to Engage. There was a great disproportion in Numbers, for the Castilians are reported to have been 33000 strong, and the Portuguese but 6500; besides which Disadvan­tage, they had the Sun and Dust in their Eyes. The Sun was going down when these two unequal Armies engaged. The Castilians at the first Charge broke through our Vanguard, but the new King then coming up, not only with Words, but with his Example, so animated his Men, that in less than an hour that multitude of Enemies was put to the rout. The King of Castile, who began the Fight on a Mule, being then troubled with an Ague, was forced to take a Horse to save himself. Most of the Portuguese who sided with Castile, and were in the Front of the Army, were put to the Sword, for no Quarter was given to them. The Royal Standard of Castile was taken, but many pretending to the Honour, it could not be decided by whom. The full Number of the slain is not known, but it was very great on the part of Castile, of whom about 3000 Horse are reckoned to [Page 264] have perished, and very many Men of great Account. This is the Famous Battle of Aljubarrota, so called, for that it was fought near the Village of that Name. The Booty was vastly Rich.

5. The Victorious King continued three days in the Field of Battle, erecting Trophies, it being then the Custom so long to expect the return of the Enemy. The King of Castile fled with speed from Aljubarrota to Santarem, which is Twelve Leagues, and having rested there a short time, went down the River to his Fleet, then Riding before Lisbon, where he continued two days, and on the 17th. of August left that Port, attended by Seventeen Galleys. He arrived at Sevil, and tired there with the Clamours of the People, went away to Car­mona. ‘Now we have heard what the Portuguese Au­thors write of this Battle,The Ac­count given of this Battle by the Spa­nish Histo­rians. which seems altogether in­credible; but let us give an hint of what those of Ca­stile write, which is much more probable. They say, the King of Castile advancing towards his Enemy, found him posted in an Advantageous Ground betwixt two Morasses, out of which Place he could not be drawn, because much inferiour in Number; That he was above 12000 strong, and before the Engagement made Overtures of Peace: That the Castilians would not be disswaded from giving Battle in that Place, so disadvantageous to them, because they exceeded their Enemies in Number; and in fine, that they lost the Day through their own Pride and Rashness, in assail­ing an Enemy so well posted, when they might have ranged all the Country at their own pleasure. This, I believe, to all Impartial Men, will appear nearer to the Truth, for we must allow all Authors to magnifie the Exploits of their own Country, and so let us re­turn to our History.’ The new King coming to San­tarem, had it delivered to him, and finding there many Ladies, whose Husbands were in the Service of Castile, he gave them all Liberty to go to them, which they gladly embraced.

6. The Portuguese King's next care was to Reward those who had signalized themselves in the Battle,The Consta­ble of Por­tugal upon the Fron­tiers of Castile. the chief whereof was the Constable, to whom he gave large Possessions, and the Title of Count of Ourem. He, encouraged by this Honour, resolved to invade Ca­stile. Having gathered 4000 Men, he met and defeated [Page 265] the Master of Calatrava, D. Martin Yanez de Barbuda, who had entred Portugal with a strong Party; and pur­suing his Success, took the strong Town of Villa Garcia. Thence he marched to the Plain betwixt Magaçela and Villa Nueva de la Serena, where he had a terrible and long, as well as doubtful Battle with D. Peter Moniz, Master of the Order of Santiago. Three several times the Fight was renewed, and lasted almost two days with incredible Obstinacy, but in the Conclusion, the Portuguese ob­tained a most Glorious Victory. This done, he went away to aid the King, then lying at the Siege of Chaves, which was surrendred to him. Moving thence, they laid Siege to Coria, but after having battered it some days with great Fury, were forced to rise and depart, the Constable to the Province of Alentejo, and the King on foot in Pilgrimage to Our Lady's Church at Guima­raens, as he had promised before the Battle of Aljubar­rota. Most of them that held any Fortresses for Castile, surrendred themselves now to the new King. He laid Siege to the Town of Chaves, whereof Martin Gonzalez de Atayde was Governour, who held it out till he had no Water left,1386. and then articled to Surrender in Forty days, if not relieved from Castile; and by consent of that King he at length delivered up the Place.

7. The Portuguese Embassadors in England stirred up the Duke of Lancaster to lay hold of this Opportunity to assert his Right to the Crown of Castile, The Duke of Lanca­ster, invi­ted by the Portu­guese, Lands in Galicia with 2000 Horse, and 3000 Ar­chers. to which he had a most Legal Title by his Wife, the Lady Constance, Daughter to King Peter, from whom Henry the Bastard had usurped that Kingdom. The Duke having this Right to the Crown of Castile, set Sail from Plymouth with a numerous Fleet, and arrived at Coruna in Galicia on the 25th. of July, where he landed 2000 Horse, and 3000 Archers, besides some other Forces, and several Persons of Note. The Duke was Sixty Years of Age, without any grey hairs, was tall and well shaped, affa­ble, modest in Discourse, of an excellent Deportment, and in all respects answerable to his Royal Extraction. With him came his Wife Constance, and his two Daugh­ters, Philippa by his first Wife, and Katherine by the second. Scarce was he landed at Coruna, when that Place owned him for its Lawful Sovereign, as did the City Santiago, and the greatest part of this Kingdom of Galicia. Our King was at Lamego when the Duke [Page 266] landed in Spain. The New King John and Duke of Lanca­ster meet. Thence he removed to Porto, and having agreed to meet the Duke at Ponte-Mauro, set forward with a numerous Retinue. They met upon the First of November, in a Plain near Melgazo. There it was a­greed, That if the Duke succeeded, he should give the Towns of Ledesma, Montilla, Melgazo, Plazenzia, Gri­mal, Canaveral, Caceres, Mendao, Fuente del Maestre, Zafra, Torres de-Medina, Fegenal, and other Places with their Territories to the King of Portugal; as Dower with his Daughter Philippa. The Pope's Dispensation being come, whereby the King was loosed from his Vow of Chastity, made as Master of the Military Order of Avis; and the Princess Philippa, being conducted to him they were solemnly married upon Candlemas-Day. Immedi­ately the Queen's Household was settled, and a plentiful Revenue assigned her;1387. which afterwards some other Queens of Portugal enjoyed.

8. The King having spent Two Months with his Queen at Porto, went with her to see her Father at Bragança, and thence sent her back to Coimbra. Many of the English were dead of Diseases. With the King, were 3000 Lan­ces, 2000 Cross-Bow Men, and 5000 Foot. They en­tred the Dominions of Castile, and took Castro Calvo, M [...]tila, R [...]sales, Valderas, and Villalobos. Tho' Gali­cia had received the Duke as lawful King, yet no Place in Castile admitted him, but by Constraint. Hereupon the King told him, That to make an absolute Conquest, it was requisite he should return to England for greater Forces. The Duke approved of his Advice, and they re­turned to Cuidad Rodrigo. By the way, they defeated a Party of the Enemies, consisting of 500 Horse, and some Foot. Another Skirmish happened near the City, upon the Passage of a Brook, with the same Success. The Duke being now in Portugal, Embassadors came to him from the King of Castile, Prince Henry of Castile, marries the Daugh­ter of the Duke of Lancaster. Peace is concluded. offering, that Prince Henry, Heir to the Crown, should marry Katherine the Duke's Daugh­ter, that so all Pretensions to the Kingdom might cease. The Duke assented, and Articles being agreed upon and performed, the War betwixt him and Castile ended. He being with the King at Coimbra, a Castilian was there burnt, for contriving to Poyson him. Soon after, he re­turned to England.

9. The King having held the Cortes or Parliament at Braga, 1388. set out to recover some Places which still held [Page 267] for Castile. Melgazo having held out to the last; was then delivered up, the Defendants having only leave to depart without Arms. It was remarkable at this Siege, that Two Women,A combat betwixt two Wo­men. one of the Town, and the other of the Camp, challenged each other, and fought; the lat­ter was Victorious. Hence the King marched to Lisbon, and in September, to the Province of Alentejo; where a­bout the middle of October, after a stout Defence, the Town and Castle of Campo-Major were taken by force. At the beginning of the following Year,1389. the King being at Lisbon, one of the Queens Ladies, called Beatrix, was found to have admitted Ferdinand Alonso, one of the King's Bed-Chamber, and his Favourite, to her Bed. Here­upon he was apprehended, and having made his Escape from the Officer, took Sanctuary in the Church. Thence the King himself went to drag him, and tho' he urged he was married, caused him to be burnt. The Lady went away to Castile to her Mother. Embassadors came to the King, being then in the Province between the Rivers Duero and Minho, proposing a Truce for some Months, and so Commissioners were appointed to treat with him; and in the mean while, the King, to lose no time, Be­sieged and took the City Tuy in Galicia. 139 [...]. At length a Cessation was concluded for Three Years,A Cessation of Arms, betwixt Spain and Portugal, for three Years. and some Pla­ces restored on both sides, but more to the Portuguese. Nevertheless, the King of Castile ceased not to make mighty preparations for War; but his Designs were pre­vented by Death, which happened to him by a fall from his Horse. After the expiration of the Three Years, the Nobles of Castile, 1393. and the Governours to King Henry, Son to the late King John, by his First Wife, the Lady Ellenor, advised him to desist from his Pretensions to Por­tugal, since he was not Born of Queen Beatrix, on whom that Title was grounded. Embassadors were sent to this Effect to Portugal, where a Peace was concluded for Fif­teen Years; all Prisoners on both sides to be released, and all Dammages done, during the late Cessation, to be made good; and then Hostages for performance, were given on both sides.

10. But these Articles were not faithfully performed on the Part of Castile, The Truce not duly observed. neither as to restitution of Dam­mages, nor releasement of Prisoners; wherefore the Por­tuguese resolved to do himself Justice, by taking some Towns; and accordingly surprized Badajoz, and Albu­querque [Page 268] Embassadors sent from Castile, promised per­formance of Articles upon Restitution of those Places; and it was only done to amuse the King, for at the same time Vessels were fitting out in Biscay against Portugal, and two Portuguese Ships laden with Warlike Stores, were taken off of Cape S. Vincent. At the same time, the Ca­stilians made Incursions, wasting all the open Country; But the Constable defeated a Party of 400 of them that was returning home with a rich Booty. Campo-Mayor was soon after taken by the King. Having thus secured themselves against their Enemy, the King and Constable gave themselves some Repose. The latter distributed most of what the King had bestowed on him for his Ser­vices, on such Gentlemen as had always adhered to him. On the contrary, the King now established on the Throne, took back to himself much of what he had be­stowed on many great Men for their good Service in the War. As the Constable had received most, this fell heaviest upon him; and therefore he resolved to depart the Kingdom; but the King returning part of what he had taken from him, with difficulty perswaded him to stay. The taking of Badajoz, and Albuquerque before mentioned, had renewed the War, and the Country was now again in Hostile manner wasted on both sides, where­in many notable Skirmishes happened.

CHAP. III.
The remaining Part of the Life and Reign of King John, the First of the Name, and Tenth King of Portugal, from the Year 1393. till 1433.

1. MAny great Men disgusted for that the King, as was before said, Had since his establishment recalled part of the Grants made to them during his Necessi­ty, went over to Castile; where settling themselves, they became the Heads of Noble Families. The King having taken Salvatierra, layed Siege to Tuy, which after a vi­gorous Defence, was surrendred to him. In the mean [Page 269] while,Denis, Son to King Pe­ter, enters Portugal with an Army. Prince Denis, Son to King Peter, by Lady Agnes de Castro; was by the King of Castile sent into Portugal with an Army, and the Title of King. At the same time, the Castilian Admiral, James Hurtado de Mendoza, en­tred the River Tagus with a Fleet of Forty Ships, and Fifteen Galleys. Nunho Alvarez Pereyra, with all the Forces he could make, marched to oppose Prince Denis, who upon the News of his approach returned to Castile. The King had given to the Constable the sole Govern­ment of the Province of Alentejo, and Algarve, which he for some time held, but soon after resigned, and went away to the King to assist him at the Siege of Tuy; but it was taken before he arrived there.1398. Misser Ambrosio Ma­rines, a Genoese, was sent Embassador from Castile to set­tle a Peace; in order to which a Cessation was agreed upon for Nine Months.1401. This Term expired, and nothing was concluded. Hereupon the King, about the middle of May, layed Siege to Alcantara; but was forced, after some Days, to desist from that Enterprize.

2. A Treaty of Peace was again set on Foot at Sego­via, Peace con­cluded be­twixt the Two Crowns. where, after long Debates, it was concluded upon the following Conditions: That no Money should be demanded of Castile, on account of former Breach of Articles; That Towns and Prisoners should be ex­changed on both sides; That the Castilian Hostages should be restored; That the Portugueses who fled to Castile should return to their Estates. On these Terms a Truce was concluded for Ten Years,N [...]t obser­ved. and Hostages were given on both sides for Performance. But this Cessation produced no more quiet than the former; continual Hostilities were exercised, tho' the Actions seem not ve­ry considerable; for there is no particular Account of them; but the 4th. Year after the conclusion of the last Truce, a perpetual Peace began to be discoursed of. King Henry of Castile was then dead, and Queen Katherine, Sister to the Queen of Portugal, had the tuition of King John the Second, not yet a Year Old. In her Husband's Life time, she had always advised Peace, and she now moved, That Embassadors from both sides might meet on the Frontiers of the Two Kingdoms; who did so ac­cordingly, but came to no conclusion, because the Casti­lians Demands ran high. After many Messages had pas­sed on both sides, and much time spent, the Treaty was again set a Foot, and now Embassadors employed to manage it, who at length agreed upon Articles, whereof [Page 270] the chiefest was,1411. That the Subjects of both Crowns, who had served against their Princes, should be restored to their Countries and Estates. Peace now established, and the Crown secured,Peace at length esta­blished. application was made to the Pope for Absolution of the Censures laid on the Kingdom, upon Account of promoting King John to the Throne, he being a Bastard, and having professed in the Order of Avis. Pope Boniface the 9th. granted his Request, and Absolved the Kingdom. The King had a Bastard-Son called Alonso; whom he loved no less than his lawful Is­sue, and therefore gave him to Wife Beatrix, the only Daughter of the Constable Nunho Alvarez Pereyra. They had a Daughter called Elizabeth, who was Wife to Prince John, Son to King John the First; and two Sons, which were Alonso, afterwards Earl of Ourem; and Ferdinand, Earl of Arroyolos, and First Duke of the House of Bra­gança.

3. The King now fixed in his Throne,The King bent upon publick re­joycings for the Peace. had bent his thoughts upon solemn entertainments, and publick re­joycings, designing to Knight his Five Sons with all ima­ginable Solemnity. But they advised him to expend that Money on some Forreign enterprize, since all was quiet at home, and it would be more honourable for them to be Knighted in the Field,1412. than in the Court. The Design they fixed upon, was the taking of Ceuta on the Coast of Africk, which they acquainted the King withal, and he approving thereof, enjoyned them to keep it secret. To this end, Two Gallyes were sent to view the Place, and sound the Port, and to conceal what they went a­bout they continued their Voyage to Sicily, as had been at First given out. Great industry was used in fit­ting out Vessels at Lisbon; and many more of Galicia, Biscay, England, and the Low-Countries, were hired. The Young Princes at the same time, raised Forces in all Parts of the Kingdom. Various judgments were made of the Intent of these Preparations, Castile began to grow jealous; the Aragonian was not well satisfyed and the Moorish King of Granada feared all the Storm would fall upon him. The Rumour of these preparati­ons drew many Martial Men from Forreign Parts, to gain Honour in this Enterprize.The Plague in Lisbon, the Queen dies of it. At this time the Plag [...]e had spread it self throughout Lisbon, and having entred the Pallace, Queen Philippa died of it. Her Body was found Fifteen Months after not only uncorrupted, but [Page 271] yielding a most Fragant smell. Her Life was a Pattern of Piety and Vertue; her happy Death was on the 18th. of July 1415,1415. in the 64th. Year of her Age. Many look­ed upon her Death as an ill Omen to the Enterprize in Hand, and therefore advised to desist from it; but the King and Princes could not be moved.

4. On the last Day of July, 1415. the Fleet sailed from Lis­bon, A great Fleet sails from Lis­bon, for the Con­quest of Ceuta. the 7th. of August it came to Faro, and the 14th. the City Ceuta was taken, to the Wonder of all Europe, and Terror of the Enemies of Portugal. The particulars of this Action, which are not many, the Place being ta­ken in Four Hours, are to be found in the Portuguese Af­frick. The King returning home, created his Second Son Peter, Duke of Coimbra; and his Third Henry Duke of Viseo. This done, he went to Ebora, and was there received in Triumph by the Princes John and▪ Ferdinand, and the Princess Elizabeth. The Ratification of the per­petual Peace with Castile, had been delayed till that King came to the Age of Fourteen, and took the Government upon himself.1419. He being at that Age, this Year 1419, Embassadors passed to and fro, and after much Debate, concluded a Truce for Eleven Years; conditionally, That both Kings should be obliged, if they designed to make War at the expiration thereof, to notify the same to the other Party Eighteen Months before. Several discoveries had been of late Years attempted through the industry of Prince Henry; 1420. and now this Year 1420, the Islands of Puerto Santo, and Madera, were First found; such were the beginnings that gave Encouragment to the Discovery of India and America. But of these Discove­ries we have writ particular Books.1422. In the Year 1422, the King changed the computation of time till then used in Portugal, which was from the Reign of Augustus, to that of the Year of our Lord, in imitation of King John the First of Castile, who had made the like Reformati­on there before.

5. This same Year, the Constable Nunho Alvarez Pe­reyra, being 62 Years of Age, took upon him the religi­ous Order of the Carmelites, 1423. in the Monastery of Lisbon, built by himself.Peace rati­fied be­twixt Ca­stile and Portugal. There he lived a very exemplary Life the space of 9 Years, and died aged 71 Years. To secure the Peace with Castile, the King sent his Embassadors thither; but one of them being overthrown, and almost killed at the exercise of Tilting, the Castilian sent an Em­bassador [Page 272] to Portugal, who exchanged the Ratifications. War now ceasing,1424. Prince Peter, the Kings Second Son, resolved to Travel; and setting out with a Train sutable to his Quality, he ran through a great Part of Europe, Asia and Africk. Four Years he spent in this imployment, having been nobly entertained in the Courts of all Prin­ces. These Travels being then rare, especially in such Persons, gave occasion to many fabulous Relations there­of, afterwards spread abroad, which rendred the Truth it self suspected. The King in the mean while applying himself to the Civil Government, Enacted many good Laws.1428. Prince Edward was now 26 Years of Age, and yet unmarried;Prince Ed­ward con­tracted to Ellenor, Sister to Alonso King of Aragon. therefore a Match was at this time con­cluded for him with the Princess Ellenor, Sister to Alon­so King of Aragon, and Naples. Her Dower was 200000 Florins. At the same time also, the Lady Elizabeth, Daughter to the Earl of Ʋrgel, and Grand-Child to Pe­ter the Fourth, King of Aragon, was contracted to Prince Peter, coming home after his Travels, and the following Year she was Conducted to Portugal. This same Year, Philip of Burgundy, 1429. Earl of Flanders, being the second time a Widower, sent to ask the Princess Elizabeth in Marriage; which was granted, and she sent into Flan­ders, with a Portion of 150000 Crowns.

6. The King sent two Embassadors to mediate a Peace betwixt the Crowns of Castile, 1430. Arragon, and Navarre, the two latter whereof were hard pressed by the other. The Castilian also, that he might not seem to proceed up­on unjust Grounds, dispatched an Embassador to the Por­tuguese, to acquaint him with the righteousness of his Proceedings.1431. Now at last came the final Conclusion of the long-desired perpetual Peace with Castile; for the ratifying whereof, Peter Gonzalez Malafaya being sent thither, he accompanied that King in his Expedition against the Moors of Granada. At their return from that War, the Peace was proclaimed in Castile, and an Em­bassador came thence into Portugal, to see the same per­formed there. This was the end of those Pretensions which had alarmed these two Kingdoms for the space of almost Fifty Years. The victorious King John at length, overcome with Age,King John falls sick. fell sick of his last Malady. He was removed to Alcouchete, to try whether the Air would do him good, but perceiving his Death draw on, he caused himself to be carried back to Lisbon. There on the [Page 273] Fourteenth of August, 1433.1433. having performed all the Parts of a good Christian,His Death. he gave up his Ghost. (‘Yet with the Authors leave, I cannot conceive with what Piety an Usurper can die,’ not having made Restituti­on.) The News of his Death being spread through the City, it is impossible to express the Sorrow the City was filled with. His Body was carried to the Cathedral, on the Shoulders of his Sons, the Nobility, the whole Mul­titude of both Sexes, and all Ages, following.

7. He had a pleasing Aspect;His Cha­racter. his Stature large, and his Strength proportionable; for his Helmet, kept to this Day, is too large for any Head, and his Battle-Ax too weighty for any Arm. Prosperity and Adversity he bore equally; was Constant, Magnanimous, Merciful, Bountiful and Religious. His Buildings were fair and sumptuous, as appears by the Monasteries of Pe [...]longa and Carnota, and the Palaces of Lisbon and Santarem, and above all, the prodigious Structure of the Church of our Blessed Lady of Batalla, or of the Battle, erect­ed in Memory of the famous Victory obtained at Alju­barrota. To describe this wonderful Pile would take up too much room in the small compass of this short Histo­ry, therefore we shall pas [...] it by. To this Place was the deceased King, with mighty Pomp, translated by his Son King Edward, just the Day 12 Months after his Death, that is on the 14th. of August, 1434.

8. King John had Eight Children by his Wife Phi­lippa, His Wife, and Issue [...] Daughter to John Duke of Lancaster: 1st. Blanch, who died in her Infancy. 2dly, Alonso, Born at Santa­rem, and lived but 10 Years. 3dly, Edward, who suc­ceeded him in the Throne. 4thly, Peter Duke of Coim­bra, a Man so learned, that he wrote several Books; he also travelled a great Part of the then known World, as was said before, and married Elizabeth the Daughter of the Earl of Ʋrgel, which also has been above intima­ted. Being Governour of the Kingdom during the Mi­nority of his Nephew King Alonso, he gained many Enemies, and was at their instigation put to Death by that King. 5thly, Henry Duke of Viseo and Master of the Order of Christ, who being studious in the Mathe­maticks, fitted out Ships at his own cost, to discover the Coasts of Africk, wherein he made a great Progress, and occasioned the Discovery of India. To the end he might wholly addict himself to these Affairs, he settled his abode [Page 274] at Sagres, near C [...]pe S. Vincent, in the Kingdom of Al­garve, where he died. 6thly, John, Master of the Order of Santiago in Portugal, and Constable. 7thly, Ferdi­nand, Master of the Order of Avis, accounted a Martyr for his great Sufferings, and Death in slavery among the Moors of Africk. 8thly, Elizabeth, married to Philip the third, Earl of Flanders, and Duke of Burgundy. This King's Bastard-Children were, Alonso, Earl of Bar­celos, and first Duke of Bragança; and Beatrix, married to Thomas Earl of Arundel, in England.

9. This King reduced the ten Bezants,His Arms. before used in each of the five Scutcheons of the Arms of Portugal, to five, the Cross of Avis appearing underneath, in Me­mory that he had been Master of that Order; and because he received the English Order of the Garter, which is of S. George, he used for his Crest, the Head of a winged Dragon; and from that time forward, the Portuguese use to call upon S. George in the time of Battle.

10. Discoveries in this King's time were made by John Gonzalez Zarco, Discove­ries, made in his time. Tristan Vaz Teixeira, and Bartholomew Perestrello, who being drove they knew not whither by a storm, found the Island they called Puerto Santo, in the Year 1418; and two Years after, that of Madera, where they found a little Oratory, and Inscription, declaring that one Machin, an English-Man, had been there before. Giles Yanez attempting what none durst before him, pas­sed beyond Cape Bojador, and there planted a Cross.

CHAP. IV.
The Life and Reign of Edward the First of the Name, and Eleventh King of Portugal; his Actions, and Death, from the Year 1391, till 1438.

1. KIng Edward was Born at Viseo, Birth of King Ed­ward in the Year 1391. He was with his Father at the taking of Ceuta, and married Ellenor Daughter to King Ferdina [...]d the first, of Aragon, 1391. in the Year 1428. The Body of King John be­ing deposited in the Cathedral of Lisbon, 1428. on the 14th. of [Page 275] August, the next Day his Eldest Son Edward was pro­claimed King.1433. An Astrologer advised him to pass by that unfortunate Day,An Astro­logical Pre­diction. for that all the Constellations were Conspired against him. But he religiously [...]lighting these Predictions, went on with the Solemnity, and was Crown­ed that very Day. Then began the Astrologer publickly (as he had before done in private) to denounce, that his Reign would be short as to time, but tedious for the Mis­fortunes which would happen in it. The New King went to divert himself at Sintra, where his Son Alons [...], not full 20 Months Old, was Sworn Heir to the Crown by the Nobility. This was the only time the like Ceremony was performed without the Concurrence of the Commonalty by their Representatives. He was also the first that had the Title of Prince given him in Portugal; Alonso, Son to King Edward the first that [...] the Title of Prince▪ in Portu­gal. his Father following the example of the other Courts of Chri­stendom. The first that used it, was that of England, where the Heir of the Crown was called Prince of Wales. From Sintra, the King sent his Summons to all the Pre­lates and Nobles, for them to meet, in order to attend the Translation of his Father's Body, to a noble Sepulchre designed for it in the Church of Batalla, belonging to the Dominicans, and of the invocation of the Assumption of our Blessed Lady, built by that King, in Memory of the Victory obtained in that Place.

2. It will not here be amiss,The Fune­ral of King John. in short, to say something of his Funeral, which may shew the Custom of those times. All the Nobility and Clergy Assembled at Lisbon. The Mourning then used, was either white Sack-Cloath, or raw Canvas. Such was the Apparel of all the Nobi­lity, and their Families. The Pallace was all Hung with Black. On the 25th. of October, all the Company marched in orderly Procession, from the Pallace to the Church, with great silence; the Bells of all the Churches ringing. At the Church, after a short Sermon, the Bo­dy was placed on a Mausoleum, and then the Divine Office for the dead, performed with great Solemnity. Prince Peter, and many other great men, stay'd in the Church all Night with the Body, and next Day, after Mass and Sermon, a costly Offering was made of Gold, Silver, and rich Brocados. This done, the Body was pla­ced on a Triumphant Charriot, which was drawn through the Streets by the King, his Brothers, and the Nobility. In the New Street, and in the great Place called Recio, [Page 276] Scaffolds were erected, on which Learned Men made Fu­neral Orations suitable to the Occasion. At S. Vincent's Gate, Four Horses were put to the Charriot. Four times the Funeral halted betwixt Lisbon and the Church of Ba­talla; at Odivellas, Villafranca, Alcoentre, and Alcobaça. The Fifth Day it came to the Church of Batalla, whither the Cortes or Parliament was summoned and there all that great Assembly assisted at Mass, and the other Fu­neral Rites.

3. The King hasted away to Leyria, King Ed­ward holds a Parlia­ment. flying from the Plague, for here began his Misfortunes. The Cortes or Parliament was held at Santarem, where the King gave general Satisfaction. Then he applied himself to the cares of the Government. He caused also the Laws to be epitomized, and reduced to one Volume, taking special care that they should be put in Execution. His next care, was to moderate excess in Apparel and Diet; and then he Ordered, That only one of the Princes, and such of the Nobility as were named, should attend at Court at one time; the rest being sent away to their Estates, and they to relieve the others in their turns.1434. Thus the en­suing Year was spent.A general Council. Pope Martin had before this time, summoned a general Council to meet at Basle, for Uni­ting the Greek and Latin Churches.1435. To this Council were sent Six Embassadors from Portugal. The Union of the Two Churches took Effect, but was not lasting; for the Greeks not finding those Supplies they expected from the Pope against the Turks, soon fell off. The Portuguese Em­bassadors obtained a Grant of the then Pope Eugenius, That the Kings of Portugal might be Crowned and A­nointed in the same manner as those of England, and France. This same Year, the King designed his Sons should receive the Sacrament of Confirmation, with great Pomp and Solemnity; but News being then brought, that the Kings of Naples and Navarre, Prince Henry, and above 100 Persons of great Note, were taken Prisoners in a Sea Fight, by Philip Duke of Milan, all publick Joy ceased, and the Court was filled with Mourning; never­theless the Young Princes were confirmed.

4. This same Year also it was,An Expe­dition a­gainst Tangier. that the Princes, Henry and Ferdinand, having first gained the Queen to their Party, perswaded the King to take in Hand an Expediti­on against Tangier, in Africk. It was long before they could prevail upon him; but at last, overcome by their [Page 277] importunities, he took the Fatal Resoluton. A Tax was laid upon the Kingdom, for the Expence of this War; and all the Preparations, for such an Expedition diligent­ly made. On the 17th. of August the Princes Embarked, and the 22th. they sailed from Belem. 1437. The particulars of this Unhappy Undertaking belong properly to the Portuguese Africk, where they are to be seen at large; but the even was,The Portu­guese Ar­my destroy­ed by the Moors, and the King's Bro­ther taken. That most of the Portuguese Army perished, and Prince Ferdinand remained in Captivity, he being left as an Hostage, for restoring Ceuta to the Moors, upon their suffering the Relicks of the Portu­guese to return home. Prince Henry the Adviser of this Enterprize, sent Notice to the King, how he left his Bro­ther in Servitude, and tho he was the chief Cause of his falling into that Misfortune, yet advised not to Ransom him at so dear a rate, as by restoring Ceuta, to the Infi­dels. Those many Portuguese who escaped out of Africk, most Wounded, Naked, and Starved, Landing on the Coast of Spain, in the dead of Winter, found such extra­ordinary Charity in the Towns of Castile, The Chari­ty of the Spani [...]ds▪ [...] through which they travelled, that I dare avouch, they had not met the like in their own Country. They were all bountifully Cloathed, their Wounds dressed, and Money liberall [...] be­stowed upon them. In every House they had the [...] Beds given them, and being well recovered, were suppli­ed with all they could desire to carry them home. The King informed by these People, of the charitable Enter­tainment they had found, ceased not to extol the good­ness of those who had shown such Favour to his Subjects, and to express his Gratitude, he sent Letters to Sevil, and other Places of Andaluzia, where his Subjects had been received, full of Acknowledgments and Commenda­tions, and offering himself, and his Kingdom, ready to require them.

5. The King, before the News came of this Disaster, was removed from Lisbon, to Santarem, flying from the Plague that then raged in that City.The Plague at Lisbon Having Advice there of the danger his Forces were in at Tangier, he made all possible Preparations to relieve them, but too late, for before any could set out, part of the vanquished Fleet re­turned.14 [...]8. The following Year the King summoned the Cortes or Parliament, to meet at Leyria. He gave them in Charge, to consider what was to be done, concerning Prince Ferdinand, left an Hostage to the Moors, for the [Page 278] delivery of Ceuta. Differences in the Cor­tes, about the ran­soming of Prince Fer­dinand. He produced a Paper written by that Prince, signifying that Ceuta could not be maintained, and therefore it was better to give it up, then suffer it to be taken. The Princes, Peter and John, with all the Commons, voted that the Place should be delivered, but the Archbishop of Braga, said, That a Christian Town could not be given away to the Infidels, for one Man, without the consent of the Pope. Others were for defer­ring the Exchange for some time, and in the mean while, to offer a Summ of Money and all the Moors in Portugal which were many, for the Prince; and in Case this were not received, that the Pope and Christian Princes should unite their Forces against Africk, which if it could not be effected, then Ceuta should be delivered.

6. The King stood dubious amidst such variety of Opi­nions. At length he resolved to have recourse to the Pope, and all the Christian Princes, believing they would all to­gether assist him to ransom his Brother. From them he received nothing but words of Comfort and Advice, not to surrender Ceuta. The Plague was now so diffused throughout the Kingdom, that the King wandred from Town to Town. Being on the way to Tomar, a Letter was given him, which he no sooner opened, but the in­fection it brought seized him.14 [...]. In that Town he di [...] on the 9th. of September, King Ed­ward [...] of the Plague. in the 47th. Year of his Age, ha­ving reigned Five Years and near a Month. In his Will, he ordained his Brother should be ransomed with Money; but in Case that were refused, then Ceuta should be given for him. That his Wife, Queen Ellenor, should Govern the Kingdom, and the Prince his Son. He was well Sha­ped, Strong, his Visage round, his Beard thin, his Hair black, his Eyes heavy, but taken altogether, his Counte­nance was graceful. He loved gay Apparel, and always appeard in Publick with Splendour. As to his Inclina­tions, he was Merciful, and a lover of Truth and Justice. For outward Accomplishments, he was an excellent Horseman, loved Wrestling, and was much addicted to Hunting. He writ some Treatises in Latin, favoured learned Men, and was very Religious. Several New sorts of Money were coined by him, and considering how pro­digal his Predecessors had been, in giving away the Re­venues of the Crown, he confirmed a Law invented by his Father, That no Female should inherit any Gift of the Crown.

[Page 279] 7. His lawful Issue (as he had no other) was as follows.His Issue. 1st. D. Alonso, his Successor. 2dly, Ferdinand Duke of Viseo, Master of the Military Orders of Christ and Santi­ago, and Constable of Portugal; and also Father to Ema­nuel, who was afterwards King. 3dly, Philippa, who died of the Plague at 12 Years of Age. 4thly, Ellenor, married to the Emperor Maximilian, who was Grand-Father to the ever-renowned Charles the 5th. D. John de Silva and Meneses, fell passionately in Love with this Princess, and followed her till he saw her married; after which he became a Franciscan Fryar, and led a very ex­emplary Life, at Montorio near Rome. 5thly, Katherine, contracted in England and Navarre, yet never married. 6thly. Joanna, Born after the Death of her Father, and married afterwards to King Henry the 4th. of Castile.

CHAP. V.
The First Part of the Life [...] Reign of King Alonso, the Fifth of the Name, and Twelfth King of Portugal, from the Year 1432. till 1469.

1. KIng Alonso the 5th.The Birth of King A­lonso. Succeeded his Father being but Six Years of Age. He was born at the Palace of Sintra, in the Year 1432. His Father in his Will, or­dained,1432. That the Queen should have the Government of the Young King and Kingdom;His Acces­sion to the Crown and Differ [...] between the Q [...]n and Nobility. but every Nobleman stri­ving to draw the Power into his own Hands, caused all to run into Confusion, whence ensued greater Destructi­on than had been produced by the preceding Plague. They blamed the King for committing the care of the Realm to a Woman, she a Forreigner, and what they most resented, a Castilian, as they termed her, tho' she was Daughter to the King of Aragon. The Princes, Bro­thers to the late King, were the Heads of these Factions, and particularly Prince Peter, who was always an Enemy to the Queen. Prince Alonso being proclaimed King, in the Sixth Year of his Age, on the Tenth of September, in the Town of Tomar, the Second Day after his Father's Death, Queen Ellenor took upon her the Government, as had [Page 280] been ordained by her Husband's Will, and so far laid a­side all former Animosity with Prince Peter, that they did nothing without his Advice, and desired him joyntly with her to Sign the Writs of Summons for the Cortes or Parliament. Before the Cortes could meet, Prince Peter, upon pretence of Zeal to secure the Succession, in Case the Young King should die before he was Marriageable, cau­sed his younger Brother Ferdinand to be Sworn Heir to the Crown conditionally, if the other died without Issue. The Queen pleased with these outward shows of Loyal­ty in Prince Peter, discovered to him, That the King her Husband had declared to his Confessor, it was his Will, that the present King Alonso should marry Elizabeth, Daughter of the said Prince Peter; to which she willing­ly consented, and desired it might be immediatly per­formed. The Prince, tho' astonished at so great a fa­vour, accepted the offer. No sooner was this noised a­broad, but Alonso, Earl of Barcelos, Bastard-Brother to Prince Peter, designing to marry the King to his own Grand Daughter, prevailed with the Archbishop of Lis­bon, the Queen's Fav [...]rite, to diswade her from that Re­solution. Prince Pet [...] understanding the Design, asked the Queen to confirm her Promise to him under her Hand; which she, tho her mind was altered, easily granted.

2. The Cortes being met at Torres Novas, The Cortes meet, and instead of settling Peace, wi­den the Breach. where Peace ought to have been established, there Discord broke out▪ The Nobility envying Prince Peter the Honour of mar­rying his Daughter to the King, Conspired against him. However, it was carried in this Parliament, That the Queen should have the Education of the King, and Prince Peter the Power of the Government. She was content; but his Adversaries stickled against this Resolution, so that they came to be divided; the Nobility affirming the Queen ought to Govern, and the Commons asserting it was their Right to nominate the Prince a Protector. Prince Henry mediated between them, allotting the Queen the Charge of the King and the Revenue, appointing the Prince to Defend the Kingdom, and allowing Earl Alonso to take Charge of the Administration of Justice, with the Advice of the Council, and Approbation of the Queen and Prince, directing the Cortes to meet Yearly to settle all greater Matters. Prince Peter, tho' nothing was left him but the bare Title of Protector, submitted rather [Page 281] than embroil the Kingdom. Earl Alonso, tho' he had more than he could have demanded, was dissatisfied; and the Queen, pushed on by the Prince's Adversaries, would part with nothing. The mutinous People obli­ged the Queen to accept of what was allotted her. Earl Alonso sent his Son to demand of Prince Peter the Note the Queen had given him, for Security of the King's Marrying his Daughter; he, in scorn, tore it in pieces, and so returned it.

3. Embassadors from Castile had been some time in Portugal, Embassa­dors of Ca­stile sent away with­out an An­swer. and could not be heard by reason of the pre­sent Disorders. At length they had Audience of the Queen at Lisbon, where they proposed, in the Name of King John the Second of Castile, That the Bishops, ex­pelled during the Schism, should be restored; That the Military Orders of Avis and Santiago in Portugal, should submit themselves, as they had been before, to those of Calatrava and Avis in Castile; That some Portuguese Bishopricks, formerly subject to the Archiepiscopal See of Sevil, should return to its Obedience. After some Debate, they were sent away without any Answer, which was to be given by Portuguese Embassadors appointed to follow them. The People were not at all pleased with the Queen's Administration, and pressed Prince Peter to take it upon himself. She flying from the Plague, then in the City, retired to Mount Olivet, where she was de­livered of the Princess Joanna, afterwards Queen of Ca­stile, and received Letters from the Pope, condoling the Death of the King, and advising her not to deliver Ceuta for Prince Ferdinand. Prince Peter, stirred up by the People to take upon him the Government, and advised to it by his Brother, Prince John, to prevent a Civil War, delayed the time. At length, the People, wholly averse to the Queen,The People averse to [...] Queen. ran in multitudes to oblige the Prince to enter upon the Administration of the Publick Affairs, and he, tho' displeased with the Queen, pacified the Multitude, perswading them to put off that Design till the Meeting of the Cortes or Parliament.

4. The Queen privately writ to all the Members of Parliament to come armed,Tumults a­gainst the Queen. that they might suppress the Rabble. But Prince Peter understanding it, as Pro­tector, charged them to be ready to obey his Orders. This done, he took leave of the Queen in a course man­ner, which President made her the more slighted, [Page 282] she being sensible of it, speedily removed to Alenquer. The Citizens of Lisbon elected a Standard-bearer, and held Seditious Meetings, in contempt of the Queen's Letters. The Archbishop fortified himself against the Citizens, they stopped his Revenue, sent Complaints against him to Rome, and he was forced to fly to Castile. The Multitude, headed by a Cooper, declared Prince Peter should Govern, and a Taylor ratify'd this Decree. Thus the Kingdom was disposed of by a Cooper and a Taylor. The Governour of the Castle of Lisbon held for the Queen, but being sore pressed by the People, was forced to surrender it to Prince John. Prince Peter sent to Summons the Queen to the Parliament; she replyed, she would not go, unless he resigned all Claim to the Government; but he rather chose to stand to the Election made of him by the Cooper and the Taylor.Prince Pe­ter made Regent by a Cooper and a Tay­lor, Heads of the Rab­ble. The Prince coming from Coimbra to Lisbon, accepted the Govern­ment at the hands of the Multitude, which was after­wards confirmed to him by the Cortes or Parliament, to which the Young King was brought, after sufficient Se­curity given his Mother that he should be restored to her. Nevertheless, he was forcibly taken from her, and she retired to Sintra. Thence she craved Assistance of her Brothers, the Princes of Aragon, who sent Embas­sadors to intercede for her, but they were dismissed with­out any Answer. She ceased not to make Friends in Navarre and Aragon, and the Prince secured Castile to his Party. The Queen, in order to make her Escape, sent away her Plate and Jewels, which were of a great Value, to be kept in the Castle of Albuquerque. Em­bassadors came from Castile to require she might either be restored to the Government, or have leave to depart the Kingdom. But no satisfactory Answer being given them, she hereupon made her Escape, with her Daugh­ter Joanna, born after the Death of the King.

5. The Queen being missing,Civil War in Portu­gal. all was in Confusion. Crato, and all the Castles subject to that Priory, held for her, and thus the Civil War commenced. Some Places were taken by the Prince, and he resolved to Be­siege the Queen in the Town of Crato, but she having called some Castilian Troops to her Assistance, after ma­king much havock, withdrew into Castile. Alonso, Earl of Barcelos, still held out for the Queen, but his Son following the Prince, brought him over to that Party, [Page 283] tho' not without difficulty. Thus, for some time, all Storms seemed to be blown over. About this time was brought from Rome a Dispensation for the Young King to Marry Prince Peter's Eldest Daughter Elizabeth, as also the Orders of Santiago and Avis in Portugal were exempted from any Subjection to the Orders in Castile. The Dispensation being come, the King was marryed by the Consent of the Cortes, then sitting, to the Regent's Daughter,1441. at Obidos on the 15th. of August, 1441. The Bridegroom was then Ten Years of Age,The Young King mar­ries the Regent's Daughter. and the Bride Seven or Eight. The Queen Dowager still pressed to be restored to the Government, and the King of Castile sent several Embassages in her behalf, which nothing availing, it was feared a War would ensue; but that King dying, all that Negotiation fell to nothing. Thus the Queen Dowager being forsaken on all hands, and having spent her Treasure in solliciting to make War upon Portugal, went away at last to Toledo, where she lived upon Charity, and there died, as was suspected, poisoned by the Regent, tho others say, by D. Alvaro de Luna, then Favourite to the King of Castile.

6. The King of Castile being jealous of the Aragonian, asked some Supplies of Men out of Portugal. They were accordingly sent him, under the Command of the Con­stable Peter, Son to the Regent; but there being no use for them, they returned home. However, the Con­stable, while he was in Castile, concluded a Match be­twixt that King and the Lady Elizabeth, Daughter to Prince John. 144 [...]. King Alonso of Portugal being now Four­teen Years of Age,King A­lonso take [...] upon him the Govern­ment, and confirms all that had been done by the Re­gent. according to the Custom of Spain, took upon him the Government in the Assembly of the Cortes or Parliament, thanked Prince Peter for his good Administration till that time, and desired him to con­tinue in it till he were of riper Years. Next, he ratified his Marriage with that Prince's Daughter, and then went away to Alcaçaras, where the Embassador of Castile was Proxy for his Master in the Ceremony of Contract­ing the Lady Elizabeth, Daughter to Prince John, to that King. There also the Lady Beatrix, Sister to Elizabeth, was contracted to Prince Ferdinand, Brother to that King. Prince Peter by this time thought he had wholly gained over all his Enemies that opposed his Advance­ment to the Government, but now it appeared it was but a counterfeit Reconciliation. The Duke of Bra­ganza, [Page 284] the Earl of Ourem, and the Archbishop of Lisbon prevailed with the King to remove him from the Go­vernment, laying Disloyalty to his Charge, and they at the same time displaced all Officers, as well Civil as Military, that had been preferred by him. Not so con­tent, they accused him of aspiring to the Crown, and so far prevailed, as to have him banished the Court; which done, several Libels were dispersed abroad, fraught with nothing but Reflections upon him, and many Articles laid to his charge, were Judicially examined. Prince Henry came from Algarve to Court, to vindicate his Bro­ther's Honour, but to little purpose, because he was look'd upon to be no less guilty than the other, and both of them were charged with poisoning King Edward, Queen Ellenor, and Prince John. D. Alvaro de Almada, Earl of Abranchez, in the King's Presence challenged any Man that should lay blemish on the Prince's Repu­tation; but the King was carryed away to Sintra by his Favourites, that he might not give ear to those that fa­voured Prince Peter.

7. The King from Sintra issued out his Orders,Prince Pe­ter, the late Re­gent, in Arms, and declared Rebel. for­bidding all Persons to Converse and hold Correspondence with the Prince; also Summoning all the Queen his Mother's Servants, who had been discarded, to appear, and put in their Claims; and Commanding the Prince not to depart from his own Lands without the King's leave. He was also commanded to deliver up all the Arms that were in Coimbra, which he refused to do. The Duke of Braganza being called to Court, was to pass through the Prince's Lands, and therefore intended to Travel well attended; but the Prince marched out with Forces to oppose him, and tho' several times Orders were brought him from the King, to return to Coimbra, he still advanced towards the Duke, who was forced privately to fly,1449. and make his escape to Santarem, where the Court then was. Hereupon he was declared a Rebel and Traytor, and Forces were raised with Expedition against him. D. Sancho de Noronha, Earl of Odemira, was sent with Forces against the Constable, Prince Peter's Son, who fled to Castile, where he found not such kind Entertainment as he expected. Queen Elizabeth being the Prince's Daughter, studied how to save her Father, and gave him Advice, that the Fifth of May was the day appointed to Besiege him. Then she went to the [Page 285] King to beg Pardon for him, which the King said he would grant, provided the Prince himself would beg it, acknowledging his Faults. He did so in a Letter to the King, but the Queen shewing him her Letter, wherein the Prince vindicated himself, and said, he complyed so far only to satisfie her; the King said, since he did not really acknowledge his faults, he merited no Pardon. The Prince's Enemies, to prevent the Queen's inter­ceding for him, kept him as much from her as they could, and imprisoned D. Alvaro de Castro, a Man of a most beautiful Person, and excellent Behaviour, as stand­ing accused of too much Familiarity with the Queen, but the King knowing well her Vertue, caused D. Alvaro to be set at Liberty, and did him great Honour.

8. The King had now gathered a numerous Army, but could not set forward for want of Provisions and Carriages.The King comes to a Battle with the Rebels. But the Prince on his part set forward from Coimbra with 1000 Horse, and 5000 Foot, and came within five Leagues of Santarem without meeting any Opposition. There he was advised to return to Coimbra, but he chose to advance towards Lisbon, and by the way put to Death about fifty Horse of the King's, that at a distance called him Traytor. Being come to a Brook called Alfarreveira, he there chose a convenient Ground for a small Body to oppose a greater, for he had not yet 8000 Men, and the King's Army consisted of above 30000. By that Multitude he found himself encompassed on the 20th. of May. Proclamation was made, declaring all Traytors that should thenceforth adhere to the Prince; yet none forsook him, but some of the King's Army de­serted to him. Some Shot of Musquets and Cross-bows flying from the King's Camp to the Prince's, he an­swered with some Cannon, one of the Bullets whereof falling near the King's Tent, so enraged his Army, that they immediately, without Orders, fell on, and in a moment broke and put to flight the Prince's Forces. He himself fighting resolutely,Prince Pe­ter killed. was shot through with an Arrow, and died. His inseparable Friend, the Earl of Abranchez, having sworn not to forsake him in Death, after having performed incredible Acts of Bravery, was there also slain. Most of the Prince's followers were ei­ther taken or killed. His Body was left three days in the Field, and then being laid upon a Ladder, four Country men carryed it to the poor Church of Alverca, [Page 286] where it was buried. The King was received at Lisbon in Triumphant manner. Many Persons were executed on Account of these Troubles, and their Heirs, to the Fourth Generation, declared Infamous. The Prince's Enemies fearing the Queen might some time or other Revenge the Death of her Father, advised the King to be divorced from her▪ but he received her with all the marks of True Love and Affection. They begged of him some Towns that had belonged to the Prince, which he freely gave them; but the Cities of Porto and Por­talegre would not submit to be given away to any Body, and were therefore annexed to the Crown.

9. The Princess Ellenor during this time was contra­cted to the Emperor Frederick the Third,The Prin­cess Elle­nor con­tracted to the Empe­ror Frede­rick the Third. and was now delivered in the Month of August to his Embassadors. They embarked at Lisbon, and landed at Leghorn, whence she was conducted to Sienna, where the Bridegroom met her, attended by Ladislaus King of Hungary, his Brother Albertus the Arch-Duke, and other Princes. Hence they travelled together to Rome, where they were crowned with the usual Solemnity.1451. Prince Ferdinand, who was marryed to the Lady Beatrix, 1452. Daughter to Prince John, privately built a Caravel, and went away in it to Ceuta, to employ himself against the Moors, but the King soon sent for him home, and to settle his Mind, gave him the Towns of Beja, 1453. Moura, and Serpa. The great Monarch of the Turks, Mahomet, having taken Constan­tinople, Pope Calixtus stirred up the Christian Princes to unite their Forces against the Common Enemy. Our King offered to serve in Person one Year with 12000 Men, but all these Projects fell to nothing. Our Queen had before this time brought forth a Son and a Daugh­ter, whereof the former died,1455. and now on the third of May she was delivered at Lisbon of another Son, whom she called John, as the first had been, for the special De­votion she had to that Name. He was sworn Prince, being but a Month old, with great Solemnity. The Queen upon this Occasion obtained leave of the King, that the Body of her Father, Prince Peter, might be placed in the Tomb he had built for himself at the Fa­mous Monastery of Batalla. At this time also a Match was concluded betwixt the Princess Joanna, King Alonso's Daughter, and Henry the Fourth, King of Castile. She was Seventeen Years of Age, and very beautiful, which [Page 287] was all her Portion, and she was conducted to Castile, by Count Alvaro Gonzalez de Atayde. Elizabeth our Queen died on the Second of December following,The Queen's Death. not without suspicion of Poison given her, by her Father's Enemies, fearing she might prevail with the King to Re­venge his Death. She was carried to the Church of Ba­talla, with the greatest Pomp that had been used at the Funeral of any Queen. For Beauty, Patience, Obedi­ence, and Piety, she was inferior to none. The Mon­astery of Xabregas of the religious of S. Eloy, was foun­ded by her.1456. The King ordered the Body of his Mother, Queen Ellenor, to be brought from Toledo, to be buried at the Church of Batalla. As far as Elvas it was con­ducted by the King and Queen of Castile, and there they were met by our King.

10. The Bishop of Silves brought the Croisade from Rome, 1457. granted to Encourage Christian Princes to joyn their Forces against the Turks. The Croi­sade brought in­to Portu­gal. Our King made Prepara­tions for that Expedition, and recalled Peter, the Consta­ble and Master of Avis, Son to Prince Peter, who was Banished to Castile. He also coined a New sort of pieces called Cruzadoes, from the Croisade and the Cross on them. These were of pure Gold, and great Weight, that they might pass in Forreign Countries, but the other Christian Princes not answering on their Part, he bent his Mind upon Prosecuting the Conquest of Africk. Tan­gier was first aimed at,1458. but this Resolution was changed for Alcaçer. Alcazer, on the Coast of Africk, taken by King A­lonso. Twenty thousand Landmen were appointed for this Service, who set sail from Setuval the 12th. of Octo­ber, in Two hundred Sail of Ships. They no sooner ar­rived than that they were Victorious, and reduced that Place; the Particulars of which Action are in the Portuguese Africk. A Peace was now established with the Duke of Britany, 1459. whose Subjects had taken many Portuguese Ships, which was repaid them in the same kind.1460. The following Year died Prince Henry, who first gave Encouragement, and promoted the Disco­veries on the Coast of Africk. A Year after he was fol­lowed by Alonso, Duke of Bragança, Bastard-Son to King John the First.1461. The King being advertised, That it would be easie to surprize Tangier, Tangier taken. set sail from Lisbon in November, and tho he met with many difficulties he be­came Master of that Place. The Catalonians rebelling a­gainst their lawful Sovereign, King John of Arag [...]n, sent [Page 288] to invite Peter, Son to the Unfortunate Prince Peter, to that Principality as being descended of the Ancient Earls of Barcelona. He hasted thither from Ceuta, but lived not long there, and lies buried in the Cathedral. King Alonso went over from Ceuta, to Gibraltar, to meet the King of Castile, who craved Aid of him against his Nobi­lity; that not content with staining his Honour, sought to deprive him of the Crown.1464. Here it was agreed, King Alonso should marry Elizabeth, Sister to the Castilian; and his Son Prince John, the Princess Joanna, but all this took no effect.1466. Queen Joanna of Castile, on whom those People cast all their Reproaches, accusing her of Adultery, only in malice to D. Beltran de la Cueva, the King's Fa­vourite, whom she treated with Courtesie; came to the City Guarda to crave Aid of the King her Brother against the Rebels, who called her Daughter a Bastard, and had opprobriously used a Statue they had erected to the King her Husband. King Alonso intended to have succoured her, but was prevented by the Death of Prince Alonso of Castile, who had been proclaim'd King, in opposition to the King his Brother; whereupon ensued some tranquility in the Affairs of Castile. King John of Aragon, made great Interest that his Son Ferdinand might marry Elizabeth, Sister to the King of Castile. Our King Alonso, also sent Embassadors to demand her according to the Articles con­cluded at Gibraltar. But these Embassadors could not prevail, for she was already engaged to Ferdinand, and much more to those who advised that Match, in oppositi­on to her Brother, that she might the better, with their assistance, deprive him of the Crown. That Match was concluded in February, 1469.1469. This is that Elizabeth, so much admired by the Spaniards for Sanctity, and yet, by this it appears she aimed to Usurp the Crown from her Brother, and actually did it from his only Daughter.

CHAP. VI.
The remaining Part of the Life and Reign of King Alonso, the Fifth of the Name, and Twelfth King of Portugal, and his Death; from the Year 1470, till 1481.

1. ON the 18th. of September, 14 [...]. died at Setubal, Prince Ferdinand, Brother to King Alonso, and Father to many Children; whereof one was Emanu [...]l afterwards King. Soon after his Death, his Daughter Ellenor was married to Prince John, he being Fourteen Years of Age, and she Thirteen. Twelve Portuguese Ships now coming from Flanders, were taken by the English; whereupon, our King ordered Reprisals to be made, and sent Em­bassadors to complain of it; which was followed by a lasting Peace. In the mean while, Persons were sent to discover the Port of Arzila, on the Coast of Africk, who brought an Account, that 30000 Men were requisite for that Expedition; 24000 Landmen, besides the Seamen, were shipped on Board 308 Sail of all sorts.14 [...]1. The King sailed to Lagos in Algarve, King A­lo [...]so [...] and Tangier. before he discovered his De­sign, then passing over to Arzila, took that Place, as he did Tangier, forsaken by the Inhabitants upon the first News of his approach.He change [...] his [...]. Upon this Conquest, the King changed his Titles, which before were, King of Portugal, Algarve and Ceut [...] for those of, King of Portugal, and both Algarves, that on this side, and that on the other in Africk. Prince Ferdinand, after he was taken in the for­mer Expedition, against Tangier, lived Six Years in Sla­very, and his Body remained Twenty more among the Infidels. But the King gave now in exchange for his Bones, Two Wives, and a Daughter of [...] Lord of that Place;14 [...] and afterwards King of Fi [...]. Th [...] Bones were brought over, and buried in the Famous Church of Batalla. King H [...]ry of Cast [...]e, and our King Alonso, had an interview between Bad [...]z, and Elvas, about a Match for the Prince of Portugal, with [...], Princess of Castile, but it had no Effect; for the rebel­lious Castilians, openly declared her a Bastard, and Eli­zabeth, that King [...] Sister was married to Ferdinand [...] [Page 290] Aragon, by the Name of Princess of Castile. It it hor­rid to think, with what Impudence they durst Declare that Princess a Bastard, seeing she was Born in Wed­lock; and for what they pretended of the King's Impo­tency, it was contrary to Reason; since it is notorious the Queen was Jealous of him, and she could have no occa­sion for jealousie, had she found the King unfit for the Company of Women. But the World is sufficiently con­vinced, there can be no true Reason given to justifie Re­bellion, yet Rebels never want pretences to Colour their Villany.

2. King Henry of Castile met his Sister Elizabeth at Segovia, Affairs of Castile. and he dying on the 11th. of December follow­ing, it was generally believed he was poisoned. In his Will, he appointed his Daughter Joanna to succeed him, and desired the King of Portugal, to take her to Wife. At the Hour of his Death, his Confessor pressed him to declare who was his lawful Heir; and he answered his Daughter Joanna. Nothing more could have been done to prove her Legitimate, but nothing will suffice against hardned Rebels. Scarce was the Princess Elizabeth assu­red of the King's Death, when she caused her self to be proclaimed Queen at Segovia. In the mean while, the Marquis de Villena, the Earl of Benavente, and the Bishop of Siguenza, appointed by King Henry, to see his Will executed, sent to the King of Portugal, praying him to set forward with all possible speed, and that not only they, but many more Nobles, and the principal Cities of Ca­stile, would declare for him. The King was then at Estremoz, where having consulted his Council, he resol­ved to accept of what was offered; and in order there­unto, sent his Lord Chamberlain, Lope de Albuquerque to Castile, who returned to him with fresh Assurances, in the Month of January, the King being then at Evora. Elizabeth the New Queen, sent some religious Men to advise our King not to engage in an unjust War (as she termed it) and to offer him another Joanna, Sister to her Husband Ferdinand, Alonso [...] War with Ca­stile in [...] of the [...]. in Marriage. He answered he was resolved to stand by his Niece, being obliged to it, as an Unkle, as a King, and as a Gentleman.

3. Whilst he made Preparations for War, he sent an Embassador to Ferdinand and Elizabeth, to demand that Crown, who returning with such an Answer, as he had expected; he immediately advances to Castile, by the way [Page 291] of Aronches, with 5600 Horse, and 14000 Foot. With this Army he came to Plasencia, and was there joyfully received by many of the Nobility. There he found the true Queen, and was contracted to her, those there pre­sent, and many absent, by Proxy, swore Allegiance to him. The King then stiled himself King of Castile, and Portugal, and nothing was wanting for Bedding with the Queen, but the Dispensation from Rome, which Ferdi­nand and Elizabeth, with all their might opposed. No sooner was this known to the Castilian King and Queen, but they also took the stile of Castile and Portugul, and sent Forces to invade that Kingdom, which having made some spoil returned without any opposition. Queen Joanna sent her Letters, to all the Towns of Castile, ex­horting them to return to her Obedience, since they had twice sworn her lawful Heiress to the Crown. The King marched to Arevalo, and thence to Toro, which City held for him, and the Castle he took by force. Zamora was delivered to him, and thither he conducted his Bride. Thence they returned to Toro, where Queen Joanna, Mo­ther to the Bride, and Sister to the Bridegroom, died on the 13. of June. Ferdinand and Elizabeth raised all the Forces they could, and had now gathered together 12000 Horse, and 30000 Foot. With this Force Ferdi­nand marched and encamped before Toro, where feigning Friendship, he sent to advise King Alonso to depart, or to decide the matter by single Combat; neither whereof, he well knew, could as circumstances stood be accepted. However, Peter de Avendanho so cut off the Castillian's Provisions, that he was forced to draw off his Army to Medina del Campo. Thither came Elizabeth to Ferdi­nand, reproaching him, that he had not accepted of a single Combat, on such terms as the Portuguese allowed of. But Money beginning now to fail them, and they fearing to tax the People, had recourse to the Clergy, who gave them half the Plate of the Churches.

4. Some Overtures of Peace were now made, [...] but came not to any head. Our King marching to relieve Burg [...]s, was recalled by the revolt of Zamora, which Elizabeth of Castile, laying hold of, gave out that he fled, which drew many to her Party. The Portuguese now grew weary of being abroad, and the King wanting Money, his Subjects refused to furnish him upon that Account; so that all his Affairs went backwards. King Alonso thus [Page 292] streightned, discharged many of his Army, and many more went away without expecting a Discharge. The Governour of the Castles on the Bridge of Zamora, being corrupted by Ferdinand and Elizabeth, some advised to build a Wall betwixt them and the Town, and they would perish; but the Archbishop of Toledo, and other great Men, perswaded the King to remove to Toro, lea­ving behind in the Castle, all his Equipage, because he could not then Travel with so much Baggage. Ferdi­nand immediately entred the City, and attacked the Ca­stle, but without success. King Alonso sent him a chal­lenge, and he refused any single Combat, for which he was again, severely reproved by his Wife Elizabeth; she being fitter to have been Ferdinand, than he was to be Elizabeth. 1476. In January the Prince of Portugal came to Toro, with some Troops, and was there received with great joy, except by the Duke of Arevalo, and Marquis de Villena, who began to incline to King Ferdinand. King Alonso however resolved to put all to the issue of a Battle, tho the Archbishop of Toledo, of all the Castilian Nobi­lity that invited him, was the only Person that stood now by him. Fifteen Days after the Princes arrival, King Alonso marched towards Zamora to meet King Ferdinand, leaving his Queen behind at Toro. He attacked the Bridge, but to no purpose. Overtures of Peace were again made without any likelihood of success, for it was decreed, no Accommodation should be purchased without Blood. King Alonso seeing he wasted his Army, lying before a Town in the dead of Winter, his Enemy lying close, re­turned towards Toro, his Forces braving the Castilians by the slowness of their March. Ferdinand ashamed to have been so long dared, at length sallied out to fall upon the Rear of the Portuguese Army. Alonso suspect­ing no such thing, was now marched down a Hill in great disorder, as being at the Gates of his own City. It was debated among the Castilians, whither they ought to pur­sue their Enemy, who they said fled, or return to Zamora; but the Cardinal, Peter Gonzalez de Mendoza, having from the top of the Hill, taken a view of the Portuguese Army, said it would be a shame to return without bid­ding Battle, and thereupon their Army advanced.

5. King Alonso perceiving the approach of the Enemy, [...] drew up his Army. In the Van he placed the Castilians, and his own Houshold. He himself [...]ed the main Body, [Page 293] Prince John the left Wing, and the Archbishop of To­ledo the Right. D. John de Castro, Earl of Monsanto brought up the Rear. The Sun was now going down, and a small Rain began to fall when the t [...]o Armies engaged. Prince John gave a vigorous Charge on his side, and was received with no less Bravery, yet forced the Castilian Wing to retire to the main Body. At the same time the King advanced before his Men, and the Fight was maintained on both sides for the space of an hour before any gave Ground, both Reserves coming up to second their Princes. The Portuguese, over-powered by the number of their Enemies, began to for­sake the Royal Standard, which was taken, after both the bearer's Hands were cut off. King Alonso in despair would have cast himself into the midst of his Enemies, if not disswaded by some of his Followers.The Portu­guese Ar­my route [...]. In Con­clusion, the King, and those Gentlemen that could bear him Company, fled to Castro Nunho, where they were honourably received by Peter de Avendano the Gover­nour. Prince John, who had defeated the Enemy's Right Wing, seeing the rout of the Army, with what Forces he could gather, stood firm on an Eminence, where he continued all the day. Most of the other routed Portuguese cast themselves into the River Duero, where more perished by Water than had done by the Sword. King Ferdinand (who never loved Fighting) did not lead his Men, but stood with a strong Party on a rising Ground, to secure his own Escape, in case of need, and seeing his Right Wing drove by Prince John, and the main Body hard put to by King Alonso, he with that Body of Guards hasted away towards Zamora, with­out expecting to see the Event of the Battle. Thus he came at Night to Zamora in a Consternation, not know­ing whether he was Victorious, or defeated. Such was his Cowardize and Precipitation.

6. The Prince continued all the Night on that Emi­nence,