The Graver here hath well thy Face design'd.
But no hand FULLER can expresse thy Mind
For That a RESURRECTION giues to those
Whom Silent Monuments did long enclose.

THE HISTORY OF THE WORTHIES OF ENGLAND, VVho for Parts and Learning have been eminent in the several COUNTIES. TOGETHER WITH An Historical NARRATIVE of the Native Com­modities and Rarities in each County. Endeavoured by Thomas Fuller, D. D.

LONDON, Printed by J. G. W. L. and W. G. for Thomas Williams, and are to be sold at the sign of the Bible in Little Britain. MDCLXII.

TO HIS Sacred Majesty.

Most Dread Soveraign:

THE tender of these ensuing Collections is made with as much Fear and Reverence, as it was intended with Duty and Devotion by the Author whilest living. The Obligation that lieth upon me to endeavour him all right, forced me unto this presumption. It is the first voice I ever uttered in this kind, and I hope it will be neither displeasing to Your MAJESTY, or blamed by the VVorld; whilest (not unlike that of the Son of Croesus) it sounds Loyalty to my Soveraign, and Duty to my Father.

The matter of this Work, for the most part, is the description of such native and peculiar Commodities as the several Counties of Your Kingdom afford, with a revival of the Memories of such Persons which have in each County been eminent for Parts or Learning. If this Age abound [Page] with the like, it is their Glory; if not, the perusal may perhaps beget in them a Noble Emulation of their Ancestors. May Your MAJESTIES Raign be Happy and Long, to see Your Countries COMMODITIES improved, and Your WORTHIES multiplied.

So prayeth, Your MAJESTIES meanest Subject, the Authors Orphan, JOHN FULLER.

To the Reader.


THou hast here presented to thy view a Collection of the VVorthies of England, which might have appeared larger, had God spared [my dear Father] the Author life. At his death there remained un­printed, the Bishoprick of Durham, the Counties of Derby, Dorset, Gloucester, Norfolk, Northampton, Nor­thumberland, Nottingham, Oxford, Rutland, with part of Kent, Devonshire, and the Cities of London and Westminster, which now at length (according to the Copy the Author left be­hind him, without the least Addition) are made publick.

It is needless here to acquaint thee with the nature of the Work, it being already fully set down in the first sixteen sheets thereof. Yet thou mayst be pleased to take notice, that (although the Title promiseth thee only the History of the Worthies of England) in the end there is added a short Description of the Principality of Wales.

The discounting of Sheets (to expedite the Work at severall Presses) hath occasioned the often mistake of the Folio's. What ever faults else occur in this Impression, it is my request, that thou wouldest score them on my want of Care or Skill in Correcting the same, that they may not in the least reflect on the Credit of my dead Father.



First Book
PAg. 27. Line 7. for mutive read mutire. l. 8. for Commoreat [...]. Commoveat. l. 13. for Proselytes r. Prose to its.
Pag. 366. l. 6. add, were many. l. 7. for may seem to be, r. many.
Pag. 213. l. 44. for unius r. unus. l. 45. for duellum r. duellam. l. 47. for suscipiendum r. suscipiendam, p. 214. l. 6. for primus acie r. primâ acie.
York shire
Pag. 220. l. 40. for Or, a Fess betwixt three Water bougets, Or, r. Argent, a Fess be­twixt threee Water bougets, Gules.
Preface l. 43. for grains r. pains, p. 4. l. 31. add phrase, p. 17. l. 16. dele half. p. 25. l. 23. for Castro r. Castor, p. 27. l. 9. for Gold r. no Gold, p. 34. l. 30. for is here, r. might have been here, p. 44. l. 19. for freed r. free, p. 47. l. 39. for must, r. might, p. 59. l. 39. for awarded r: avoided, l. 43. for as r. then.


CHAPTER I. The Designe of the ensuing Work.

ENGLAND may not unfitly be compared to an House not very great, but convenient, and the se­veral Shires may properly be resembled to the rooms thereof. No, as learned Master Camden and painful Master Speed with others, have discribed the rooms themselves; so is it our intention, God willing to discribe the Furniture of those rooms; such Emi­nent Commodities, which every County doth produce, with the Persons of Quality bred therein, and some other observables coincident with the same subject.

Cato that great and grave Philosopher did commonly demand, when any new Project was propounded unto him, * Cui Bono, what good would ensue, in case the same was effe­cted. A Question more fit to be asked, then facile to be answered in all undertakings, especially in the setting forth of new Books, Insomuch, that they themselves, who com­plain, That They are too many already, help dayl [...] to make them more.

Know then, I propound five ends to my self in this Book: First, To gain some Glory to God. Secondly, To preserve the Memories ef the Dead [...] Thirdly, To present Examples to the Living. Fourthly, To entertain the Reader with Delight. And lastly, (which I am not ashamed publickly to profess) To procure some honest profit to my self. If not so happy to obtain all, I will be joyful to attain some, yea, contented and thankful too, if gaining any [especially the First] of these Ends, the Motives of my Endeavours.

First, Glory to God, which ought to be the aim of all our actions, though too often our bow starts, our hand shakes, and so our arrow misseth the mark. Yet I hope that our discribing so good a Land, with the various Fruits and fruitful varieties therein, will ingage both Writer and Reader, in gratitude to that God, who hath been so bounti­ful to our Nation. In order whereunto, I have not only alwayes taken, but often sought occasions, to exhort to thankfulness; hoping the same will be interpreted, no stragling from my Subject, but a closing with my Calling.

Secondly, To preserve the Memories of the Dead. A good name is an oyntment poured out, smelt where it is not seen. It hath been the lawful desire of men in all ages to per­petuate their Memories, thereby in some sort revenging themselves of Mortality, [Page 2] though few have found out effectual means to perform it. For Monuments made of Wood, are subject to be burnt; of Glass, to be broken; of soft stone, to moulder; of Marble and Metal, (if escaping the teeth of Time) to be demolished by the hand of Covetousness; so that in my apprehension, the safest way to secure a memory from oblivion, is (next his own Vertues) by committing the same in writing toPosterity.

Thirdly, To present examples to the living, having here precedents of all sorts and sizes; of men famous for Valour, Wealth, Wisedome, Learning, Religion, and Bounty to the publick, on which last we most largely insist. The Scholar being taxed by his Writing­Master, for idlenesse in his absence, made a fair defence, when pleading that his Master had neither left him Paper whereon, or Copy whereby to write. But rich men will be without excuse if not expressing their bounty in some proportion, God having provided them Paper enough. [The John 12. 8. poor you have alwayes with you] and set them signal examples, as in our ensuing Work will plainly appear.

Fourthly, To entertain the Reader with delight. I confess the subject is but dull in it self, to tell the time and place of mens birth, and deaths, their names, with the names and number of their books, and therefore this bare Sceleton of Time, Place, and Person, must be fleshed with some pleasant passages. To this intent I have purposely inter­laced (not as meat, but as condiment) many delightful stories, that so the Reader if he do not arise (which I hope and desire) Religiosior or Doctior, with more Piety or Learning, at least he may depart Jucundior, with more pleasure and lawful delight.

Lastly, to procure moderate profit to my self in compensation of my pains. It was a proper question, which plain dealing Jacob pertinently propounded to Laban Gen. 30. 30. his Fa­ther in Law: and now when shall I provide for mine house also? Hitherto no Stationer hath lost by me, hereafter it will be high time for me (all things considered) to Save for my self.

The matter following may be divided into Real and Personal, though not according to the legal acception of the words. By Real, I understand the commodities and ob­servables of every County: by Personal the Characters of those worthy men, who were Natives thereof. We begin with a Catalogue of the particular heads whereof this book doth consist, intending to shew, how they are severally useful, and then I hope, if good as single instruments, they will be the better as tuned in a Consort.

CHAP. II. The Real Topicks insisted on in the Respective Counties.

The Native Commodities.

NO County hath cause to complain with the Grecian Acts 6. 1. Widdowes, that they are neglected in the daily Ministration. God hath not given all Commodities to one, to elate it with pride, and none to others to deject them with pensivenesse; but there is some kind of equality betwixt the Profits of Counties to continue com­merce' and ballance trading in some proportion.

We have therefore in this work taken especial notice of the several cōmodities which every Shire doth produce. And indeed God himself enjoyneth us to observe the variety of the Earths productions, in this kind. For speaking of the land of Gen. 2. 12. Havilah, (where saith he) there is Gold, and the gold of that land is good, there is Bdellium, and the Onix-stone. See here how the holy spirit points at those places where God hath scattered such trea­sure, and the best thereof in all kinds, that man (if so disposed) may know where to ga­ther them up.

I confess England cannot boast of Gold, and precious Stones, with the land of Havilah, yet affordeth it other things, both above and beneath ground, more needful for man's being. Indeed some shires, Joseph▪like, have a better coloured coat then others; and some with Benjamin have a more bountiful messe of meat belonging unto them. Yet every County hath a Childs portion, as if God in some sort observed Gavel-kind, in [Page 3] the distribution of his favours, Psal. 107. 8. O that men would therefore praise the Lord for his goodness, and declare the wondrous works which he doth for the Children of men.

Know Reader, when a Commodity is general to all England, then to avoid Repetition, it is entered in that County where there was the first, or else the most and best of that kind. And we have so contrived it, that generally; Three Commodities are treated of in every County.

The Manufactures.

Some heathen have causlesly complained of nature as a step-mother to man-kind, be­cause other creatures come into the world clothed with Feathers, furs, or fleeces &c. or armed with pawes, clawes, beaks, tusks, horns, hoofs, whilest man is exposed naked into the world. I say a causles charge, because providence having given men Hands, and Reason to use them, (two blessings denyed to other creatures,) all Clothing and fencing is emi­nently and transcendently bestowed upon him.

It is very remarkable to see the Manufactures in England, not knowing whether more to admire the Rarity or Variety thereof. Undoubtedly the wealth of a Nation con­sisteth in driving a native commodity through the most hands to the highest artificial perfection, whereof we have taken especial cognisance in the respective counties, yet so as (though breifly nameing) not largely handling that Manufacture whereon we have formerly insisted.

It must not be forgotten that there be some things which cannot properly be termed Natural commodities, because of their quality altered and disguised by mens industry, and yet they attain not the reputation of Manufactures. As salt, being water boyled, malt, barley dryed, Cider, Apples pressed; seeing therefore they have a mixt nature they are promiscuosly placed as suiteth best with my own conveniency.

Medicinal Waters.

The God of Nature hath not discovered himself so variously wonderful in any thing as in the waters of Fountains, Rivers, &c. England hath as large a share herein as any Country, and her springs wonderful on several accounts.

  • 1. Colour, Black, Red, Yellow, &c.
  • 2. Tast, Sweet, bitter, salt, acide, corroding, astringing, &c.
  • 3. Odour, stinking of Sulphur, like the scouring of a gun very fowl.
  • 4. Sound, beating somtimes like a March, sometimes like a Retreat on several occasions.
  • 5. Heat, Luke-warm, and gradually hot even to scalding.
  • 6. Weight, considerably heavier or lighter in proportion to other watters.
  • 7. Motion, though many miles from the sea, sympathizing therewith eb­ing and flowing accordingly.
  • 8. Effects, some being surgeons to heale sores, others Physitians to cure diseases.

The last is proper for our pen, being the Largess of heaven to poor people who cannot go to the price of a costly cure. Of these more have been discovered by casu­alty than industry, to evidence that therein we are not so much beholden to mans paynes as Gods providence. Many Springs formerly soveraign have since lost their vertue, yet so that other springs have found it, so that their sanative qualities may seem not taken away but removed. And as there are many mean men of great ability yet depressed in obscurity, so no doubt there are in our Land Aquae incognitae of concealed worth and vertue, in effect no whit inferior to those which in fame are far above them.

However the gift which nature holdeth forth may be doubled in the goodnesse thereof, if the hand of Art do but help to receive it, and the patients be prepared with Physick in the using of such water, otherwise fons vitae, may be fons mortis, if diet, due time, and quantity be not observed.

Some will say that our English waters must needs be raw, because so far from the fire, whilest those are better boyled, which lying more south are neerer the sun. But experience avow's the contrary, that England affordeth most sanative waters for English [Page 4] bodies, if men were as judicious in taking, as Nature is bountiful in tendering them.

As for the Proprietaries of such (or rather of the ground surrounding such) Medi­cinal waters, as I would not have them detrimented in the least degree by the conflux of people unto them: so it is injurious in my judgement for them to set them to sale and make gain of Gods free gift therein. I confess water was commonly sold in the land of Canaan proved by that passage in theIsay 55. 1. Prophet, H [...] every one that thirsteth come ye to the waters and he that hath no money &c. Yea so churlish were the Edomites to the Israelites that they would not give, that is afford them Deut. 2. 28. water for mony. But it is considerable, Well-w ater in those hot Countries, was acquired with vast pains and expence, it being dearer to sink a well then build an house, besides many frustrations in that kind before their indeavous found full effect, which made it the more equal for the owners, by such sales to make profit, or rather to make up their reparations. But no such cost be­ing expended in the case in hand, it may be accounted a kind of Simonie, in such as sell ease and help to poor people, though they may lawfully buy it, as passive and necessitated thereunto.

The Wonders.

Of these England affordeth many, which by several authors are variously reckoned up. One reckoneth foure as most remarkable,H. Hunting­ton. another accounted six, a third bringeth then up toSir John Sidney, Samuel Beauland on Ne [...]eius. thirteen, which since some have increased. Indeed if so many men, had all agreed in one Number, that had been a Wonder indeed.

But under this Title we compre hend all rarityes, which are out of the ordinary Road of nature, the illustration whereof may minister unto us matter of profitable discourse. Of these wonders, some were transient, lasting onely for a time, (like extraordi­nary Ambassadors imployed on some great affair,) others Liegers and Permanent, the most proper for our Pen to observe. And to prevent vacuitie in some Counties (that this Topicke of wonders might be invested with some matter) some Artificial Rarities are (but very sparingly) inserted, such as transcend the standard of ordinary performance, But thse are cast in as over weight, the former being onely our proper subject.

Our great design herein is that men may pay the Tribute of their admiration, where the same is due, to God himself, who, as David observethPsal. 136. 4. only doth great wonders. Only, exclusively of men and Angels. Doth, that is really solidly and substanti­ally, Iuglers doe shew not doe, whose pretty workes are not Praestationes, but Praestigiae. Great Wonders, called in Scripture MAGNALIA, and if the Latin alloweth the word, we could grant the Divel his Parvalia doing of petty feats, greatened into wonders by his cun­ning, and our credulity.

Wel let our admiration be given to God, seeing Deliberate Wondering (when the soul is not suddenly surprised) being raised up to an height is part of adoration, and cannot be given to any creature without some sacrile [...]ge. Such wondring consists of Reverence and ig norance, which best becometh even the wisest of men, in their searches after God his wayes. As for that unkind wondring, which melts not man's heart like wax into the praysing of God, but clay like hardneth it unto stupefaction, Behold you despi­sers and wonder Acts 3. 41. and perish, God keep all good men from being guilty thereof.

A secondary end I have herein to shew that England fals not short of forraign Coun­tries in wonderful sights the same in kind though not in degree. Italy hath her Grotta dela Sibilla, we in Summerset-shire our Wockley Hole. Spain her Anas, we our Mole, &c. Bnt wonders like prophets are not without honour save in their own Country, where constancy (or at least Commonnesse of Converse) with them abateth their respect and reputation.

The Buildings.

NextReader in our following Book we have inverted the Method, and more properly placed build­ings next to [...]. we take notice of the signal structures which each County doth afford. In­deed the Italians do account all English to be Gothish Buildings, onely vast, (and greatnesse, must have something of coarsnes therein) however abating for their advantage above us in Materialls, Marble, Pophery &c. their pallaces may admire the art in some English fabricks, and in our Churches especially.

Elisha beholding Hasael, wept by way of prophecie foreseeing that (amongst other [Page 5] many mischeifs) he would set fire on the strongKing. 8. 12. Cities (and by consequence on the Fair Houses) in Israel. But well may we weep when looking back on our late Civil war, remembring how many beautiful Buildings were ruined thereby, though indeed we have Cause to be thankful to God that so many are left standing in the Land.

But what said our Saviour to his Disciples, when transported with wonder at the goodly stones in the Temple, Luke 21. 6. are these the things you looke upon? such transitory buildings are unworthy of a Christians admiration. And let it be our care that when the fairest and firmest Fabricks fall to the ground, yea when our earthly house be dissolved, we may have an house not made with hands, but eternal in the 2 Cor. 5. 1. Heavens.

Local Proverbs.

A PROVERB is much matter decocted into few words. Hear what a learnedSalmatius è Levino VVar­nero. Critick saith of them; Argutae hae brevesque loquendi formulae, quamvis è trivio petitae et plebi fre­quentatae suas habent Veneres, et genium cujusque gentis penes quam celebrantur, atque acumen ostendunt.

Some will have a Proverb so called from Verbum a word and Pro (as in Proavus) signifying Before, being a speech which time out of mind hath had peaceable possession in the mouths of many people. Others deduce it from Verbum a word, and pro for Vice (as in Propraeses) in stead of, because it is not to be taken in the literal sence, one thing being put for an other.

Six esentials are required to the compleating of a perfect Proverb, Namely that it be.

  • 1. Short.
  • 2. Playn.
  • 3. Common.
  • 4. Figurative.
  • 5. Antient.
  • 6. True.

Otherwise it is no Proverb but a.

  • 1. Oration.
  • 2. Riddle.
  • 3. Secret.
  • 4. Sentence.
  • 5. Upstart.
  • 6. Libel.

I have only insisted on such local Proverbs in their respective Counties, wherein some proper Place or Person, is mentioned, such as suggest unto us some Historical [...]int and the interpretation thereof afford some considerable information, and conduce to the illust­ration of those Counties wherein they are used.

Herein I have neglected such narrow and restrictive Proverbs as never travelled be­yond the smoke of the chimneys of that town wherein they were made, and though perchance significant in themselves, are unknown to the neibouring Counties, so far they are from acquiring a National reception. Besides. I have declined all such which are Frivolous, Scurrilous, Scandalous, confining our selves onely to such whose expound­ing may contribute to the understanding of those shires wherein they are in fashion.


It is more proper for a person of your profession to imploy himself in reading of, and commenting on the Proverbs of Solomon Proverbs 1. 2 to know wisdome and instruction to perceive the words of understanding. Whereas you now are busied in what may be pleasant, not profita­ble, yea, what may inform the fleshly not edifie the inward man.


Let not our fellow servants be more harsh unto us then our Master himself, we serve not so severe a Lord, but that he alloweth us sawce with our meat, and recreation with our vocation.

Secondly, God himself besides such as I may call Supernatural Proverbs (as divine­ly Inspired) taketh notice and maketh use of the natural or Native Proverbs of the Coun­try, praysing, approving, and applying some,Luke 4. 23. Physitian cure thy self, 2 Pet. 2. 22. The Dog is re­turned to his Vomit, and the Swine which was washed to her wallowing in the mire; D [...]slik­ing and condemning others, and commandingEzek. 8. [...]. them to be abolished. The Fathers have eaten sowre Grapes, and the Childrens teeth are set on edge. Now seeing Antiquity with­out Verity is no just Plea that any thing should be continued; On this Warrant, I have in these our Country-Proverbs alledged more than I allow, branding some with a Note of Infamy, as fit to be banished out of our discourse.

[Page 6]Lastly, besides Information much good may redound to the Reader hereby; It was the Councel which a Wise gave to a Great man, Read Histories that thou dost not become a History. So may we say, Read Proverbs that thou beest not made a Proverb, as God threatned the sinful people of1 Kings 9. 7. Israel. Sure I am that David by minding of a Country, (no Canonical Proverb) viz. [1 Sam. 24. 13. Wickednesse proceedeth from the wicked] was thereby dis­fwaded from offering any violence to the person of Saul then placed in his power, whereby he procured much Tranquillity to his own conscience.

We have not confined our selves to Proverbs in the strict acception thereof, but sometimes insist on such which have onely a Proverbial Tendency or Lye (as one may say) in the Marches betwixt Proverb and Prophecie, where they afford us a fit occa­sion to salley forth into such Discourse, as may conduce to the History of our Nation.

The Medicinal Herbs.

Some maintain this Position, That every Country cures the diseases, which it causes, and bringeth remedies, for all the maladies bred therein. An opinion which grant not true, yet may have much of Truth therein, seeing every Country, and England especially affordeth excellent Plants were it not partly for mens laziness, that they will not seek them, partly for their ignorance that they know not when they have found them, and partly for their pride and peevishnesse, because when found, they disdain to use and apply them. Indeed quod charum, charum, what is fetch'd farr, and bought dear, that onely is esteemed; otherwise were many English plants as rare as they are useful we would hug in our hands, what we now trample under our feet.

For proof hereof let not the Reader grudge to peruse these words of a grand Herba­list, speaking of Virga Aurea, or Golden-rod, growing plentifully, but discovered lately in Middlesex.

Gerard in his Herbal. pag. 430.

It is extolled above all other Herbs, for the stopping of blood in Sanguinolent Ulcers, and bleeding Wounds, and hath in time past been had in greater estimation and regard then in these dayes; For in my remembrance I have known the dry Herb which came from beyond the Seas, sold in Bucklars-bury in London, for two shillings six pence the Ounce. But since it is found in Hamsted wood, even as it were at the Towns end, no man will give two shill [...]ngs six pence for an hundred weight of it, which plainly sets forth our inconstancy and suddain mutability, este [...] ming no longer of anything (how precious soever it be) then while it is strange and rare.

We may also observe that many base and barren heaths and hills, which afford the least food for beasts, yeeld the best Physick for man, One may also take notice that such places that are nearest to London, Cambridge, Oxford, Bath, or where some eminent Herbalist hath his habitation, afford us the greater variety of medicinal herbes. Not that more have growne but more are knowne there abouts, where the native plants are not better, but more happie in their vicinitie to such discoverers. And now to be always within the reach if not the touch of mine owne calling we may observe in Scrip­ture that Gods Spirit directs men to the gathering of such Simples of his owne planting. Is there no * balme in Gilead? True in a literal sense, as well as mystically of our Saviour.

Now the reason why I have been so sparing in this Topick, and so seldome insist thereon, is because these Herbs grow equally for goodness and plenty, in all Counties, so that no one Shire can without manifest usurpation intitle it) selfe thereunto. Besides they are so Common, and Numerous, they would justle out matter of more concern­ment. However we have noted it where the Herb is rare and very useful, and in our fol­lowing Book (though here the Method be transposed) have placed Medicinal Herbs, next Medicinal waters, conceiving that order most Natural.

CHAPTER III. Of the first Quaternion of Persons.

  • 1. Princes.
  • 2. Saints.
  • 3. Martyrs.
  • 4. Confessours.

WE take the Word, as it is of the Common Gender, inclusive of both Sexes, and extend it onely to Kings with their Wives and Children. Of the second sort we have but few, and those onely from the time of King Edward the Fourth, who first married his Subject, or Native of his Dominions.

We confine our selves to such as were born since the Conquest, otherwise we should be swallowed up, should we Lanch out beyond that date into the Saxon Govern­ment, especially into the gulph of their Heptarchie, where a Prince could not be seen for Princes. But if a British, or Saxon-King comes under our Pen, we preferre to take Cognizance of him in some other notion, (as of Saint, Martyr, Souldier, &c.) so to pre­serve the Topick of Prince ship intire according to our design.

We have stinted our selves onely to the legitimate issue of Kings. And after such who are properly Princes, we have (as Occasion is offered) inserted some who in cour­tesie, and equity may be so accepted as the Heires to the Crown, (in the Lancastrian difference) though not possessed thereof; or else so near a Kin thereunto, that much of History doth necessarily depend upon them.

We have observed these Nativities of Princes, because such signal persons, are not onely Oakes amongst under-woods, but land-markes amongst Oakes, and they directorie for the methodical regulation of History. Besides, in themselves they are of special remarke, as more or less remote from the Crown; not onely their own Honour, but the happiness of thousands being concerned in their extraction, and Divine Providence most visible in marshalling the order thereof. For although Nasci à Principibus fortui­tum est, may pass for a true instance in Grammar, it is no right Rule in Divinity; which, though acknowledging Job 34. 19. rich and poor the work of Gods hands, pronounceth Princes to be men Psal. 80. 17. of his right hand, made strong for himself, that is, purposely advanced to imploy their own greatness to his glory.

Let none Object that the Wives of Kings need not to have been inserted, as Per­sons of no such consequence in Government; seeing it is the constant practice of the Spirit of God, after the mention of a new King in Judah, to record the name of his Mother, and her Parentage; 2 Cor. 13. 2. His Mothers name also was Micaiah the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah: Chron. 22. 2. His mothers name was Althaliah the daughter of Omri King. 28. 31. His mothers name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libuah. And Divines generally render this reason thereof, that if such Kings proved godly and gracious, then the memory of their mothers should receive just praise for their good Education; if otherwise that they might be blamed for no better principling them in their Infancy.


This word accepts of several interpretations, or rather they are injuriously obtruded upon it.

  • 1. Saints of Fiction, who never were in rerum natura, as St. Christopher &c.
  • 2. Saints of Faction, wherewith our age doth fwarme, alledging two ar­guments for their Saintship. First, that they so call themselves; Se­c [...]ndly, that those of their own party call them so. Neither of these belong to our cognizance.
  • 3. Saints of Superstition, reputed so by the Court of Rome.
  • 4. Saints indeed, parrallel to St. Pauls
    1 Tim. 5. 3.
    Widows indeed, and both deserve to be honoured.

It is confessed, in this our Book we drive a great trade in the third Sort, and I cannot therefore but sadly bemoan that the Lives of these Saints are so darkned with popish Illustrations, and farced with Fauxeties to their Dishonour, and the Detri­ment of Church History. For as honest men, casually cast into the Company of Co­zeners, are themselves suspected to be Cheats, by those who are Strangers unto them, So the very true Actions of these Saints found in mixture with so many Forgeries, have a suspicion of falshood cast upon them.

Inquiring into the causes of this grand abuse, I find them reducible to five heads.

  • 1. First, Want of honest hearts, in the Biographists of these Saints, which betrayed their Pens to such abominable untruths.
  • 2. Secondly, VVant of able heads, to distinguish Rumours from Reports, Reports from Records, not choosing but gathering, or rather not gathering, but scraping what could come to their hands.
  • 3. Thirdly, Want of true matter, to furnish out those lives in any proportion. As Cooks are sometimes fain to lard lean meat, not for fashion but necessity, as which otherwise would hardly be eatable for the drynesse thereof; So these having little of these Saints more then their names, and dates of their Deaths (and though some­times not certain) do plump up their emptinesse with such fictious additions.
  • 4. Fourthly, hope of gain, so bringing in more Custome of Pilgrims to the shrines of their Saints.
  • 5. Lastly, for the same reason for which Herod persecuted
    Acts 12. 3.
    St. Peter, (for I count such Lyes a persecuting of the Saints memories) merely because they saw it pleased the people.

By these and other causes it is come to pass, that the Observation ofDe Trad. Dis­crip. l. 5. Vives is most true, Quae de Sanctis Scripta sunt, praeter pauca quaedam, multis foedata sunt Commentis, dum qui scribit affectui suo indulget: & non quae egit Divus, sed quae illum egisse vellet, exponit; What are written of the Saints, some few things excepted, are defiled with many fictions, whilst the Writer indulgeth his own affection, and declareth not what the Saint did do, but what he desired that he should have done. To this let me couple the just complaint of that honest Dominican Melchior Lib. 11. c. 6. Canus. Dolenter hoc dico, multò severius a Laertio vitas Philosophorum scriptas, quam à Chri­stianis vitas Sanctorum, longèque incorruptius & integrius Suetonium res Caesarum expo­suisse, quam exposuerint Catholici, non res dico Imperatorum, sed Martyrum, Virginum & Confessorum; I speak it to my grief (saith he) that the Lives of the Philosophers are more gravely written by Laertius, than Saints are by Christians, and that Sueto­nius hath recorded the Actions of the Caesars with more Truth and Integrity, than Catholick [...] have the Lives, I say not of Princes, but even of Martyrs, Virgins, and Confessours.

To return to our English Saints. As our Catalogue beginneth with Alban, it en­deth with Thomas Bishop of Hereford, who dyed Anno Domini 1282. the last English­man canonized by the Pope. For, though Anselme was canonized after him (in the Reign of King Henry the Seventh) he was no English, but a Frenchman, who dyed more then an hundred years before him. Since which time, no English, and few Foreigners have attained that honour, which the Pope is very sparing to confer. First because sensible, that multitude of Saints abateth veneration. Secondly, the Kalen­der, is filled (not to say pestered) with them, justling one another for Room, many holding the same day in copartnership of Festivity. Thirdly, the charge of Canonization is great, few so charitable as to buy it, the Pope too covetous to give it to the memories of the deceased. Lastly, Protestants daily grow more prying into the Popes proceedings, and the [suspected] perfections of such persons, who are to be Sainted; which hath made his Holynesse the more cautious, to canonize none whilest their memories are on the Must, immediately after their Deaths, before the same is fined in the Cask, with some competent continuance of time, after their decease.

Noble Martyrs.

St. Ambrose in his Te Deum doth justifie the Epithet, and by Martyrs all know such only are imported, who have lost their lives for the Testimony of a fundamental Truth.

[Page 13]However we find the word by one of the purest Writers in the primitive times, attributed to such who were then alive.

Cyprianus Epist. 77. as marshalled by Pamelian.

Cyprianus Nemesiano Felici, Lucio, alteri Felici, Litteo, Coliano, Victori, Faderi, Dativo, Coepiscopis; item, compresbyteris & Diaconibus, & caeteris fratribus in metallo constitutis, martyribus Dei patris Omnipotentis & Jesu Christi Domini, & Dei conserva­toris nostri, aeternam salutem.

See here how he bemartyreth such who as yet did survive, but in so servile a condi­tion (condemned to the mines) that they were almost hopelesse, without miracle to be released. Yet dare we not presume on this precedent of St. Cyprian (children must not do what their Fathers may) to use the word so extensively, but by Martyrs un­derstand persons (not in the deepest durance and distresse) but actually slain for the Testimony of Jesus Christ; which by an Ingenious pen is thus, not ill expressed.

What desperate Challenger is He?
Before he peris [...] in the flame,
What ere his pain or patience be,
Who dares assume a MARTYRS name?
For all the way he goes he's none till he be gone
It is not dying but 'tis Death,
Only gains a MARTYRS Wreath.

Now such Martyrs as our Land hath produced, are reducible to three different Ranks.

  • 1. Britons, suffering under Dioclesian, the persecuting Roman Emperor, as Alban, Amphibalus, &c.
  • 2. Saxons, massacred by the Pagan Danes, as King Edmund, Ebba, &c.
  • 3. English, murdered by the cruelty of Papists, since the Year 1400. as William Sawtree, John Badby, &c.

In the two former of these we are prevented, and they anticipated from us, by the Popes canonizing them under the Title of Saints. The third and last only re­main proper for our pen, martyred by the Romish Prelates for above an hundred and fifty years together.

I confess I have formerly met with some men, who would not allow them for Martyrs, who suffered in the Reign of Queen Mary, making them little better then Felons de se, wilfully drawing their blood on themselves. Most of these I hope are since convinc'd in their judgement, and have learn'd more charity in the School of af­fliction, who by their own Losses have learn'd better to value the Lives of others, and now will willingly allow Martyrship to those, from whom they wholy with-held, (or grudgingly gave) it before.

We have reckoned up these Martyrs according to the places of their Nativity, where we could find them, which is my first choice, in Conformity to the rest of this work. But in case this cannot be done my second choyce is, (for know Reader tis no refuge) to rank them according to the place of their death, which is their true birth-place in the Language ofOrigen lib. 3. Commen [...] in Job Albinus [...]. de divin. Offic. cap. de Sexta Feria pag. 60. Antiquity. Hear how a right Antient Authour expresseth himself to this purpose,Nichol. Papa in Epist. ad con­sulta Bulgaro­rum cap. 5. in fine. Apte consuetudinem tenet Ecclesia, ut solennes beatorum Martyrum vel Con­fessorum Christi Dies, quibus ex hoc mundo ad regionem migraverunt Vivorum, nuncu­pentur Natales, & eorum Solennia non funebria, tanquam morientium, sed, (utpote in vera vita nascentium) Natalitia vocitentur. Now if the day of their Death be justly entituled their Birth-day, the place of their Death may be called their Birth-place by the same Analogy of Reason and Language.

We have given in a List of Martyrs names in their respective Countyes, but not their Total Number, only in [...]isting on such who were most remarkable, remiting the Reader for the rest, to the voluminous pains of Mr. Fox, who hath written All, (and if malicious Papists be believed more then All) of this Subject.

Worthy Confessors.

All good Christians are concluded within the Compase of Confessors in the Large acception thereof.Rom. 10. 10. With the Mouth Confession is made unto Salvation: But here we re­strain this Title to such, who have adventured fair and far for Martyrdome, and at last, not declined it by their own Cowardize, but escaped it by Divine Providence. Confessor is a Name none can wear whom it cost Nothing, It must be purchased for the Maintenance of the Faith, with the Losse of their Native Land, Liberty, Livelyhood, Limbs, any thing under Life it self.

Yet in this confined sense of Confessors, we may say with Leah, at the birth of Gen. 30. 11. Gad behold a Troop cometh, Too many to be known, written, read, remembred, We are forced therefore to reconfine the Word to such, who were Candidates and Probationers, for Martyrdome in proxima potentia. There was not a stride, but, (to use Davids ex­pression)1 Sam. 20. 3. but a step betwixt them and Death, their Wedding Clothes were made (but not put on) for their marriage to the Fire. In a Word they were soft Waxe, ready chafed and prepared, but the Signature of a violent Death was not stamped upon them.

Manifold is the use of our observing these Confessors. First to show that God alone hath Parramount power of Life and Death. Preserving those who by men arePsal. 79. 11. appoin­ted to Dye. One whose Son lay very Sick, was told by the Physician, Your Son Sir, is a dead man, To whom the Father (not disheartned thereat) returned, I had rather a Physician should call him so an hundred times, than a Judge on the Bench, should do it once, whose Pronouncing him for a Dead man, makes him to be one. But though both a Physician in Nature, and a Judge in Law, give men for Gon, The one passing the Censure, the other Sentence of Death upon them, GOD, to whom belongeth the Issues from Death, may Preserve them long in the Land of the Living. Hereof these Con­fessors * Psal. 68. 20. are Eminent Instances, and may God therefore have the Glory of their so strange Deliverances.

Secondly it serveth to comfort Gods servants in their greatest distress. Let hand joyne in hand; let Tyrants piece the Lions cruelty with the Fox his craft; let them face their plots with power, and line then with policy all shall take no effect. Gods ser­vants (if he seeth it for his glory and their good) shall either be mercifully preserved from, or mightily protected in dangers, whereof these Confessours are a Cloud of Witnesses.

We have an English Proverb, Threatned Folks live long, but let me add, I know a Threatned Man who did never dye at all, namely the Prophet Elijab, Threatned by cruel and crafty Iesabel, The 1 King. 19. 2. Gods do so to me and more also, if I make not thy Life like one of their Lives by to morrow at this time, Yet did he never tast of Mortallity, being conveyed by a fiery (hariot into Heaven. Now although our ensuing History presenteth not any miraculously preserved from Death, yet affordetb it Plenty of strange preserva­tions of Persons to extream Old age, though they wear the Marks of many, and mighty mens Menacies, who plotted and practised their Destruction.

We have persued the same course in Confessors, which we embraced in Martyrs, viz. We have ranked them according to their Nativities, where we could certainly ob­serve them, to make them herein Uniforme with the rest of our Book. But where this could not be attained, we have entred them in those Counties, where they had the longest or sharpest [...]. And this we humbly conceive proper enough, see­ing their Confessor-ship in a strict sense did bare true date, from place of their greatest Persecution.

CHAPTER IV. Of Popes, Cardinals and Prelates before the Reformation.


I Meet with a mess of English Natives advanced to that Honour. Pope John-Joan is wholly omitted, partly because we need not charge that See with suspicious and doubtful crimes, whose notorious faults are too apparent; partly because this He-She, though allowed of English extraction, is generally believed born atGodwin in Catal. Cardi­nal▪ p. 159. Ments in Germany.

Wonder not that so few of our Countrymen gain'd the Triple-Crown. For first, great our distance from Rome, who being an Island or little World by our selves, had our Archbishop of Canterbury, which formerly was accounted Alterius orbis Papa. Secondly, [...] [...]talians of late have ingrossed the Papacy to themselves, and much good may their Monopolie do them, seeing our English may more safely repose themselves in some other seate, then the Papal Chair, more fatal, (it is to be feared) to such as sit therein, than ever1 Sam. 4. 18. Eli's proved unto him.

Yea, I assure you, four Popes was a very fair proportion for England; For having perused the voluminous book of Pantaleon, De Viris illustribus Germaniae; I find but six Popes Dutchmen by their Nativity, viz. Stephen the Eighth, Gregory the Fifth, Silvester the Second, Leo the Ninth, Victor the Second, and Adrian the Sixth. Seeing therefore Germany in the Latitude thereof, a Continent five times bigger than England, measu­red by the aforesaidHe taketh in all the Nether­lands. Pantaleon with advantage, I say, seeing Germany, the Emperour whereof is, or ought to be Patron to the Pope, produced but Six of that Order, Eng­land's four acquit themselves in a very good appearance.

I need not observe that our English word Pope, came from the Latine Papa, signi­fying a Father, a Title anciently given to other Bishops, but afterwards fixed on the See of Rome. One would have him call'd Papa by abbreviation, quasi PAter PAtriarcha­rum, flitting only the two first syllables. A prety conceit, which I dare no more avouch than his Fancy, who affirmed the former syllable in Papa to be short in verse, for the Pope personal, who indeed are short-lived; whilest the same syllable is long, the word being taken for the succession of Popes, who have lasted above a thousand years.


A word of their Names, Numbers, Degrees, Dignities, Titles and Habit. Cardi­nals are not so called, because the Hinges on which the Church of Rome doth move; but from Cardo, which signifieth theVitruvius, lib. 10. c. 20. end of a Tenon put into a Mortais being accord­ingly fixed and fastned to their respective Churches. Anciently Cardinalis imported no more than an Ecclesiastical Person, beneficed and inducted into a cure of Soules; and all Bishops generally made Cardinals as well as the Pope of Rome.

In proof whereof, there were anciently Founded in the Church of Saint Pauls, two Cardinals chosen by the Dean and Chapter out of the twelve petty Canons, whose Office it was to take notice of the absence and neglect of all in the Quire, to give the Eu­charist to the Minister of that Church and their servants, as well in health as in sickness, to hear Confessions, appoint penance, and to commit the dead to convenient sepulture. And two of them lie buried in the Church of Saint Faiths with these Epitaphes.

Hic homo Catholicus VVilielmus VVest tumulatur,
Pauli Canonicus Minor Ecclesiae vocitatur,
Qui fuerat Cardinalis bonus atque sodalis, &c.
Perpetuis annis memores estote Johannis
Good Succentoris, Cardinalisque minoris, &c.

[Page 14]Many other Churches besides Saint Pauls retained this custome of Cardinal making.

Viz. Ravenna, Aquileia, Millain, Pisa, Beneventana in Italy, and Compostella in Spain.

But in processe of time Cardinal became appropriated to such as officiated in Rome, and they are reckoned up variously by Authours, Fifty one, fifty three, fifty eight, sixty I believe their number arbitrary to ben creased or diminished, ad libitum Domini Papae. They are divided into three ranks.

CardinallBishops, Assessors with the Pope.
Priests, Assistants to the Pope.
Deacons, Attendants on the Pope.

The former of these have Chaires allowed them, and may sit down in presence of his Holynesse, and these are seven in number, whose Sees are in the Vicinage of Rome, and some Englishmen have had the honour to be dignified by them.

Bishop of 1 Hostia,

Bishop of 2 Porto, R. Kilwardby.

Bishop of 3 Sabine,

Bishop of 4 Alba, Nic. Breakspeare.

Bishop of 5 Preneste, Bernar. [...]. Simon [...].

Bishop of 6 Rufine.

7 Bishop of Tusculane.

Cardinall Priests succceed, generally accounted twenty eight, divided into foure Septe­naries, whose Titles are here presented with such Englishmen, Sometimes there were▪ se­veral English Cardinals suc­cessively of the same Ti­tle whose names and numbers will be exhibited in their respe­ctive Counties. who attained to be honoured with such Churches in Rome.

1. St. Maries beyond Tyber
2. St. ChrysogonSteph. Langhton A. D. 1212
3. St. Ce [...]ily beyond TyberThomas Wolsey, An. D. 1515
4. St. AnaftasiaJohn Morton An. D. 1493
5. St. Laurence in Damaso
6. St. Marke
7. St. Martin in the MountWilliam Alan, An. D. 1587
8. St. SabineJohn Stafford, An. D. 1434
9. St. PriscaReginald Pole, An. D. 1540
10. St. Balbine
11. St. Nereus & AchileusPhil. Repington, An. D. 1408
12. St. Sixtus
13. St. Marcellus
14. St. Susan.
15. St. PraxisAncherus, An. Do. 1261 Chr. Bambridge, An. D. 1511
16. St. Peter ad vinculaAncherus, An. Do. 1261 Chr. Bambridge, An. D. 1511
17. St. Laurence in Lucina
18. St. Crosses JerusalemBoso An. Dom. 1156
19. S. Steph. in Mount CeliusRobert Curson, An. Do. ▪1211 Robert Summercote, A.D. 1234
20. St. John and St. PaulRobert Curson, An. Do. ▪1211 Robert Summercote, A.D. 1234
21. The4. Crowned Saints
22. The holy Apostles
23. S Cyriacus in the BathsThomas Bourchier, An. D. 1464
24. St. EusebiusRobert Pullen, An. Dom. 1144
25. St. PuntianaBoso. An. Dom. 1160
26. St. Vitalis—St.—John Fisher, An. Dom. 1535
27. St. Marcelline & Peter
28. St. Clement.

Observe I pray you this Catalogue of Titles (taken out of Sir Henry Spelman his Glossary) is imperfect, Bish. Godwin in his Cata­logue of Car­dinals, p. 165. St. Pastor, being omitted therein, whereof Boso was at last made Cardinal. For these Cardinals were not so mor [...]aised to their Churches, but that they might be removed, especially if advanced a Story higher (from Cardinal Deacons to Priests, from Priests to Bishops) and sometimes though remaining on the same flore, they were removed (to make room for others) to some other Title. Many more Englishmen we had created Cardinals, whose certain Titles are unknown. But let us proceed to the Cardinal Deacons 16. in number,

  • 1. St. Mary in Dompusinica.
  • 2. St. Lucy.
  • 3. St. Mary the new.
  • 4. St. Cosmus and St. Damian
  • 5. St. Gregory.
  • 6. St. Mary in the Greek School.
  • 7. St. Mary in the Porch.
  • 8. St. Nicholas by the Prison.
  • 9. St. Angelus.
  • 10. St. Eustachius.
  • 11. St. Mary in the water.
  • 12. St. Mary in the broad way.
  • 13. St. Agathe.
  • 14. St. Lucia on thto p of Sabine.
  • 15. St. Quintin.
  • 16. St. The last lost by the Scribe, in Curia.

I onely find one Englishman Boso by Name made Cardinal Deacon, of St. Cosmus and St. Damian, but it was not long before he was advanced to be a Cardinal Bishop.

[Page 15]The habit of Cardinals is all Scarlet, whereof Theodore Beza tartly enough, thus ex­presseth himself.

Crede meae nullo satur antur murice vestes,
Divite nec cocco pallia tincta mihi.
Sed quae rubra vides Sanctorū caede virorū
Et mersa insonti sanguine cuncta madēt.
Aut memor istorū quae celat crimina vestis
Pro Domino justo tincta pudore rubet.
My clothes in Purple liquor ne're were stewd
Nor garments (trust me) richly di'd in grain.
These Robes you see so red, I have imbrew'd
In gore of guiltless Saints, whom I have slain.
Or mindful of the faults thay hide, with shame,
The bashfull clothes do blush their wearers blame.

They wore also a red Hat of a peculiar fashion to themselves, and rid abroad on hors­back on scarlet Foot-clothes, and Platina in e­jus vita. Pope Paul the Second, made it penal for any beneath their Order in Rome, to use the same. Yea to such a height of pride did they aspire, that we read this Note in the Roman Pontifical, Notandum, quod Caesar antequam coronetur simplici diademate sedet post primum Episcopum Cardinalem, & si quis Rex adest, sedet tunc post primum omnium Presbyterum Cardinalem. Indeed making their own Canons, and being their own Heralds to Marshal their own precedency, they had been much to blame if not carving a good portion of Honour to themselves, whilest devout Princes, abused by bad Instructors and their own erroneous Consciences, gave to the Clergy what they were pleased to demaund.

None might elect the Pope, save such as were Cardi. yea none out of that Order were eligible into the Papacy, as in England, one must first be a Sergeant before he be a Iudge. Cardinal Deacons were, in equal capacity of being Popes with Cardinal Priests, and oftentimes, were preferred before them as they could strenthen their faction, which carried all in these (and I could wish in no other) Elections.

WILLIAM ALLEN, who died Anno 1594, was the last Englishman advanced to this Honour, so that our Country hath not had a Cardin [...]l these sixty years, which from the former six hundred years, was never without one or two of that Order. This may seem a wonder, our Nation being as meriting as any for the Romish Cause, and having as good Heads as any, why should they not weare as gay Hats as others? nor will the reasons assigned for the contrary give satisfaction, viz.

  • 1. That the Pope commonly makes Cardinals to gratifie Foreign Kings, whilest our English Soveraigns have ever since been of a different Religion from his Holinesse.
  • 2. That our English Catholicks living beyond Seas in the nature of Exiles, and under persecution (as they call it,) so high an honour is inconsistent with their suffering condition.
  • 3. That our Englishmen want preferment and Estates, to maintain the di­stance of so great a dignity.

There are at the present two English Natives in France of noble extraction and Ro­mish perswasion, much voyced in common discourse for their probability to such pre­ferment; but on what grounds I do not know, and list not to enquire.

Surely the matter is not great, seeing that dignity hath been observed to be rather fatal then fortunate to the English, and attended with some sad and sudden casualties.

  • 1. Cardinal Mackelsfield was four moneths buried before his Cap was brought him.
  • 2. Cardinal Sertor dyed in Italy in the Juncture of Time, Inter Pileum da­tum & susceptum.
  • 3. Cardinal Fisher, when his Cap was come to Calis, had his head struck off at Tower-Hill.
  • 4. Cardinal Somercot was poysoned in the very Conclave to prevent his selection to the Popedome.
  • 5. Cardinal Evosham was sent the same way on the same occasion.
  • 6. Cardinal Bambridge was poysoned at Rome, by one of his servants be­ing an Italian.

If such their successe, I suppose it far easier for Englishmen to have their caps (though courser and cheaper) made of our own Countrey-wool, which will be more warm, and may prove more healthful for the wearers thereof. I have done with this Subject, [Page 16] when I have observed that there is a Cardinal, Bishop of Sabine, a place near Rome; and a Cardinal Priest of Saint Sabine a Church dedicated to her Memory in the same City; the not heeding whereof I suspect hath bred much confusion in our English Writers. The best is, our Englishmen, when they write of Places in Italy cannot commit greater and grosser mistakes, then what Italians have done, when they have wrote of Towns and Places in England; Though perchance such is their pride, that they will say it is our duty to be exact in Italy, and their courtesie to take any notice of England.

Let not the Reader wonder if Cardinals inserted in others, are omitted in our Cata­logue, viz. Ulricus, Ancherus, Theobaldus, Bernardus de Anguiscello, &c. Seeing I am unsatisfied in some of them, whether they were Cardinals; in others, whether they were Englishmen, Forreign Countries laying more probable claim unto them. Nor will it quit the cost of a Contest, nothing more then their names being left in History with­outa ny other observeables.

Prelates before the Reformation.

Next succeed such eminent Clergy-men who attained to the honour of being Arch­Bishops and Bishops in England, and were famous in their generations.

Objection. These Popes, Cardinals and Prelates, were superstitious persons and Limbs of Antichrist, whose names are better lost then kept. Yea, it mattered not much, if some good Josiah served their bones as those of the idolatrous Priests of 2 Kings 23. 16. Jeroboam, even burn them to ashes, that so their bodies and memories might perish together.

Answer. I am afraid our age affords those, who if they were to manage that Act, would together with their bones, sans difference (notwithstanding the distinguishing Epitaph) burn the bodies of the young and old Prophet, I mean utterly extirpate the Ministerial Function. But I answer, it must be confess'd they were deeply died with the Errors and Vices of the Age they lived in, yet so that some of them were for their Devotion exemplary to posterity; and the very worst of them, though yeelding nothing fit for our Imitation, may afford what is well worth our Observation.

And here be it remembred, that the same Epithete in severall places accepts sun­dry Interpretations. He is called A GOOD MAN in common Discourse, who is not Dignified with Gentilitie; A GOOD MAN upon the Exchange, who hath a responsable Estate; A GOOD MAN in a Camp, who is a tall Man of his Armes; A GOOD MAN in the Church, who is Pious and Devout in his Conversation. Thus whatsoever is fixed therein in other Relations, that Person is A GOOD MAN in History, whose Character affords such Matter as may please the Palate of an Ingenious Reader, and I humbly crave the Honour to be his Taster in this Behalf.

Now of Bishops before the Conquest, the most were meerly nuda Nomina, Naked Names. As for such appearing Clothed with remarkable History, most of them move in an higher Sphere of Saints, and so are anticipated. Since the Conquest; for the first seven Kings, many Prelates were Foreigners, generally French, and so Aliens from our Subject. It will therefore be seasonable to begin their Catalogue about the time of King Henry the Third, deducing it unto the Popish Bishops, who were deprived in the first of Queen Elizabeth.

CHAP. V. Since the Reformation.

NExt those Prelates before, follow such as were since the Reformation, much different (not in Title but) Tenure from the former, holding their places not from the Pope, but their Prince, and practising the principles of the protestant Religion, for the term of a hundred and twenty years, since the latter end of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth. Amongst these, Malice it self meets with many, which it must allow for their Living, Preaching, and Writing, to have been the main Champions of Truth against Error, Learning against Ignorance, Piety against Prof [...]ss, Religion against Superstition, Unity and Order against Faction and Confusion, verifying the judicious observation of Forreigners, Clerus Britanniae, Gloria mundi.

These Prelates, may be Digested into Five Successive Setts, or Companies, under their respective Arch-bishops, allowing each of them somewhat more then twenty years, as large a proportion for the life of a Bishop; as seventy years for the age of a man.

  • 1. Arch-bishop Cranmers, whereof four, besides himself, were burnt at the stake, and the rest exiled in Germany.
  • 2. Arch-bishop Parkers, in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth leading Halcion-days, without any considerable Opposition against the Hierarchy.
  • 3. Arch-bishop Whitgifts, much Pen-persecuted, and pelted at with Libellous Pam­phlets, but supported by Queen Elizabeths Zeal to maintain the Discipline established,
  • 4. Arch-bishop Abbot's, fortunate all the peaceable Reign of King James, and be­ginning of King Charles, though the Skie was Red and Lowring, foretelling foul wea­ther to follow, a little before their Death.
  • 5. Arch-bishop Juxton's, whose Episcopal Chairs, were not only shrewdly shaken, but (as to outward appearance) overturned in our late mutinous Distempers.

I know the man full well, to whom Mr. Charles Herle (President of the Assembly) said somewhat insultingly, Ile tel you News, last Night I buryed a Bishop, (dashing more at his profession then person) in Westminster Abbey, to whom the other returned with like Latitude to both, Sure you buried him in hope of Resurrection, This our Eyes at this day see performed, and it being the work of the Lord, may justly seem marvellous in our Sight.

It is also very remakable, that of this Fift and Last Company, [all Bishops in 1642.] Nine are alive at this present, viz. (Pardon me if not enumerating them exactly according to their Consecration) London, Bath, Wells, Ely, Salisbury, Bongor, Covent. and Lichfield, Oxford, Rochester and Chichester. A Vivacity hardly to be parallel'd of so many Bishops in any other age, providence purposely prolonging their Lives, that as they had seen the Violent Ruining, they might also behold the legal Restitution of their Order.

Now although not the Quick but (the) Dead Worthies properly pertain to my pen, yet I crave leave of the Reader in my following work, to enter a brief Memorial of the place of their Nativities. Partly because lately they were dead though not in Law, in the List of a Prevalent party, partly because they are dead to the World, having most attained, if not exceeded the age of man threescore and ten years.

To conclude, though the Apostles words be most true that the Lesser are Blessed of the Greater, and that Imperative and Indicative Blessings, allways descend from the superiour, yet an Optative Blessing (no more then a plain prayer) may properly proceed from an inferiour, so that a plain Priest and submissive Son of the Church of England, may blesse the Bishops and Fathers thereof. God Sanctifie their former afflictions unto them, that as the Dan. 3. 25. Fire in the Furnace only burnt the bonds (setting them free who went in fetterr'd) not the cloths (much lesse the bodies) of the children of the captivity, so their sufferings without doing them any other prejudice, may only disingage their souls from all Servitude to this World.

[Page 16]And that for the Future, they may put together, not only the parcels of their scattered Revenues, but compose the minds of the divided People in England, to the Confusion of the Factious and Confirmation of the Faithful in Israel.

CHAPTER VI. Of such who have been worthy States-Men in our Land.

THe word STATESMEN is of great Latitude, sometimes signifying such who are able to manage Offices of State, though never actually called thereunto. Ma­ny of these men concealing themselves in a private condition, have never ar­rived at publike notice. But we confine the term to such, who by their Princes favour have been preferred to the prime places,

Of 1.
Of 2.
Lord TREASURERS of England.
Of 3.

To whom we have added some Lord ADMIRALS of England, and some Lord DEPUTIES of Ireland.

Lord Chancellours.

The name is taken from CANCELLI, which signifies a kind of wooden Network, which admitteth the eyes of people to behold, but forbids their feet to press on Persons of Quality, sequestred to sit quietly by themselves for publick imployment. Hence Chancells have their denomination, which by such a fence were formerly divided from the body of the Church; and so the Lord Chancellour had a Seat several to him­self, free from popular intrusion.

I find another Notation of this Office, some deducing his name à Cancellando, from Cancelling things amisse, and rectifying them by the Rules of Equity and a good Consci­ence, and this relateth to no meaner Author then Johannes In his book called Nugae [...], or Polyeraticon. Sarisburiensis.

Hic est qui Leges Regni Cancellat iniquas,
Et mandata pii Principis aequa facit.
Siquid obest populis, aut legibus est inimicum
Quicquid obest, per eum desinit esse nocens.
'Tis he, who cancelleth all cruel Lawes,
And in Kings Mandates Equity doth cause,
If ought to Land or Laws, doth hurtful prove,
His care that hurt doth speedily remove.

He is the highest Officer of the Land, whose principal imployment is to mittigate the rigour of the Common Law with Conscientious qualifications. For as the Pro­phet complaineth that the Magistrates in Israel had turned Amos 5. 7. JUD [...]MENT into WORM­WOOD, the like would dayly come to passe in England, where High Justice would be High injustice, if the bitterness thereof were not sometimes seasonably sweetned with a mixture of Equity.

He also keepeth the Great Seal of the Land, the affixing whereof preferreth what for­merly was but a Piece of written Parchment, to be a Patent or Charter. For though it be true what Solomon sayes Eccles. 8. 4. Where the word of a King is, there is power; yet that word doth not act effectually, until it be produced under the publick Seal.

Some difference there is between learned Authours, about the antiquity of this Office, when it first began in Eng [...]and.

Polydore Virgil, who though an Italian, could (when he would) see well into English Antiqui­ties, makes the Office to begin at the Conque­rour. And B. Godwin accounteth them sufficient­ly ridiculous, who make Swithin Bishop of Win­chester, Chancellor of England under K. Athelwolfe.

Severall persons are alledged See Master Philpots Cata­logue of Eng­lish Chancel­lors, p. 1. 2, 3. Chancellours to our English Kings before the Conquest, and King E­thelred appointed the Abbat of Elie, ut in History of E [...]ly. Regis Curia Cancellarii ageret dignitatem.

[Page 18]The Controverfie may easily be compremized by this distinction; Chancellour be­fore the Conquest, imported an Office of credit in the Kings Court (not of Judicature, but) of Residence, much in the nature of a Secretary. Thus lately he was called the Chancellour (understand not of the Diocess, but) of the Cathedral-Church, whose place was to pen the Letters belonging thereunto. Whereas the notion of the Kings Chancellour since the Conquest, is inlarged and advanced to signifie the supreme Judge of the Land.

The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, is in effect the same with the Lord Chancelour of England: save that some will have the Lord Chancellours place ad Terminum Vitae, and the Lord Keepers ad placitum Regis. Sure it is, that because Nicholas Heath late Arch-Bishop of York, and Chancellour of England, was still alive, though outed of his Office, Sir Nicholas Bacon was made Lord Keeper, and in his time the power of the Keeper was made equal with the authority of the Chancellour by Act of Parlia­ment.

We have begun our Catalogue of Chancellours at Sir Thomas More, before whose time that place was generally discharged by Clergy men, entered in our Book under the Title of Eminent Prelates. If any demand, why such Clergy-men, who have been Lord Chancellours, are not rather ranked under the Title of Statesmen, than under the Topick of Prelates? Let such know, that seeing Episcopacy is challenged to be jure Divino, and the Chancellours place confessed to be of Humane Institution, I con­ceive them most properly placed and to their best advantage.

If any ask, why the Lord Chancellours who meddle so much in matters of Law, are not rather digested under the Title of Lawyers then under that of Statesmen? Let such know, it is done, because some Chancellours were never Lawyers ex professo, studying the Laws of the Land, for their intended Function, taking them only in or­der to their own private accomplishment. Whereof Sir Christopher Hatton was an emi­nent instance. As we begin our Catalogue with Sir Thomas More, we close it with Sir Thomas Coventry, it being hard to [...]ay, whether the Former were more Witty and Facetious, or the Later more Wise and Judicious.

Lord Treasurers.

Kings without Treasure will not be suitably obeyed, and Treasure without a Trea­surer will not be safely preserved. Hence it was that the Crowns and Scepters of Kings were made of gold, not only because it is the most pure and precious of metalls, but to show, that wealth doth effectually evidence and maintain the strength and state of Majesty. We may therefore observe, not only in prophane but holy writ; not only in Old, but New Testnment, signal notice taken of those who were Ezra 1. 8. [...] Neh. 13. 13. over the Treasury, in which great place of Trust, the Eunuch served Candace Queen Acts 8. 27. of Ethiopia.

The Office of Lord Treasurers was ever beheld as a Place of great charge and profit. One well skilled in the Perquisits thereof, being demanded, what he conceived the yearly value of the place was worth? made this Return, That it might be worth some thousands of pounds to him (who after death) would go instantly to Heaven, twice as much to him, who would go to Purgatory, and a Nemo Scit to him who would adventure to go to a worse place. But the plain truth is, He that is a Bad Husband for himself, will ne­ver be a good one for his Soveraign, and therefore no wonder if they have advanced fair Estates to themselves, whose Office was so Advantagious, and they so judicious and prudent persons, without any prejudice to their Master, and (for ought I know) Injury to his Subjects.

We have begun our Catalogue at William Lord Powlett Marquess of Winchester. For although before him, here and there Lay-Lords were Intrusted with that Office, Yet generally they were Bishops, and so anticipated under our Topick of Eminent Prelates, and blame me not if in this particular, I have made the Lustrè of the Lords Spiritual, to Eclipse the Lords Temporal, drowning their Civil Office in their Ec­clesiastical Employment. We close our Catalogue of Lord Treasurers, with Francis Lord Cottington.

Secretaries of State.

There were but two of these at once in the Kings time, whereof the one was styled the Principal Secretary, the other the Secretary of Estate. Some have said that the first in the Senioritie of Admition, was accounted the Principall, but the Exceptions in this kind, being as many as the Regularities (the Younger being often brought over the head of the elder to be Principal) Their chiefnesse was Penes Regis Arbitrium. Nor was the one confined to Forreign Negotiations, the other to domestick businesse, (as some have believed) but promiscuously ordered all affaires, though the Genius of some Secretaries did incline them most to forreign Transactions. Their Power was on the matter alike, and Petitioners might make their Applications indifferently to either, though most addressed themselves to him, in whom they had the greatest Interest. Their Salaries were some Two hundred pounds a piece, and five hundred pounds a piece more for Intelligence and Secret Service.

Before the Reformation Clergy-men (who almost were all things) were generally Secretaries of Estate, as Oliver King, Secretary to Edward 4. Edward 5. and Henry the 7. and those came under our Pen in the Notion of Eminent Prelates. We there­fore begin our Catalogue of Secretaries from Sir Thomas Cromwell, in the Reign of King Henry the Eighth, because from him until our Time a continued Series of Lay­men ha [...]e discharged that Office.

We [...]onclude our Secretaries of State with Sir John Cook, who perceiving his aged body not so fit for such Active times, resigned his Place about the beginning of the Long Parliament, though surviving some years after in a private condition. We will for the more safety follow the Pattern of so wise a States-man, and where he gave over his Office, we will give over writing of those Officers, for fear we tread too neere on the Toes of the Times, and touch too much on our Modern distempers.

Amiralls or Admiralls.

Much difference there is about the Original of this word, whilst most probable their Opinion who make it of Eastern Extraction, borrowed by the Christians from the Saracens. These derive it from Amir, in Arabick a Prince, and [...], Belonging to the Sea, in the Greek Language, such mixture being precedented in other words. Besides, seeing the Sultans Dominions in the Time of the Holy War, extended from Sinus Arabius, to the North Eastern part of the Midland-Sea, where a barbarous kind of Greek was spoken by many, Amirall (thus compounded) was significatively com­prehensive of his Jurisdiction, Admirall is but a Depraving of Amirall in vulgar mouths. However it will never be beaten out of the Heads of the Common sort, that seeing the Sea is Scene of Wonders, something of Wonderment hath incorporated it self in this Word, and that it hath a Glimps, Cast, or Eye of Admiration therein.

Our English Kings following the Precedent of the Politick Romans, who very sel­dome entrusted places of great importance (especially during life) in a single person, as also that they might gratifie more and trust less, divided the Over-sight of sea-matters betwixt a Triumvirate of Amiralls, and (like wary Merchants) ventured the charge in several bottoms for the more Safety.

1. The North Amirall.2. The South Amirall.3. The West Amirall.
His jurisdiction reached from the Mouth of Thames, to the outmost Orcades (though of­ten opposed by the Scots) and had Yarmouth for his prime Residence.His Bounds stretched from the Thames Mouth to the Lands end, having his sta­tion generally at Portsmouth.His power extended from the lands end to the Hebri­des, (having Ireland un­der his Inspection) Milford Haven the chief Stable for his Wooden Horses.

I find that Richard Fitz-alin Earl of Arundell, was by King Richard the second, made the first Amirall of all England, yet so, that if Three Co-Admiralls were restored as formerly, his Charter expired. John Vere Earl of Oxford, was, the sirst of Hen. the seventh, Amirall of England, and kept it until the day of his Death. After­wards [Page 19] Men were chequered, at the pleasure of our Princes, and took their turns in that Office. For this cause I can make no certain Catalogue of them, who can take with my most fixed Eye, no steddy aime at them (the same persons being often al­ternately In, and Out of the Place) whilst Officers protermino vitae, may be with some certainty recounted.

Yet have we sometimes inserted some Memorable Amiralls under the Ti [...]le of States­men; and Vice-Amiralls under the Topick of Seamen, because the former had no great knowledge in Navigation, (I say great) it being improper, they should be sea­masters who in no degree were seamen) and were imployed rather for their Trust, then skill, to see others do their Duty, whilst the latter were allwayes persons well ex­perienced in Maritine affairs.

Lord-Deputies of IRELAND.

Ever since King Henry the second conquered Ireland, few of our English Princes went thither in person, and none continued any long time there, save King John, and King Richard the second, neither of them over-fortunate. But that Land was governed by a Substitute, commissioned from our Kings, with the same power though sometimes under several names.

Lord Lieutenants.Lord Deputies.Lord Cheif Justice [...].
These were also of a double nature, for Some staid in Eng­land and appointed Deputies under them, to act all Irish Affairs. Others went over into Ireland, trans­acting all things by presence, not proxie.Immediately deputed by the King to reside there. We insist on this title, as which is most constant and current amongst them.Not of the Kings Bench or Common­Pleas but of all Ireland. This power was sometime sole in a single person and sometimes [...] in two toge­ther.

Thus these three Titles are in sense Synonima, to signifie the same power and place. Some erroniously term them Presidents of Ireland, a Title belonging to the particular Governours of Mounster and Connagh.

It is true of Ireland what was once said of * Edom, their Deputies were Kings. No1 King. 22. 47. Vice-roy in Christendome (Naples it self not excepted) is observed in more state. He chooseth Sheriffes, and generally all Officers, save Bishops and Judges, and these also, though not made by his commanding, are usually by his commending to the King. He conferreth Knighthood, hath power of life and death, signified, by the Sword carried commonly before him, by a person of Honour. His attendance and House-keeping is magnificent, partly to set a Copy of State to the barbarous Irish, by seeing the difference betwixt the rude rabble routs runing after their native Lords; and the solemnity of a regulated retinue; partly to make in that Rebellious Nation, a reverential impression of Majesty, that by the Shadow they may admire the Sub­stance, and proportionably collect the State of the King himself, who therein is re­presented. Our English Kings were content with the Title of Lords of Ireland, until King Henry the Eighth, who, partly to shew his own power to assume what style he pleased, without leave or liberty from the Pope (whose Supremity he had suppres­sed in his Dominions) partly the more to awe the Irish, wrote himself King thereof, Anno Dom. 1541. from which Year we date our Catalogue of Lord Deputies, as then, and not before, Vice-Royes indeed.

Indeed it was no more then needs, for King Henry the Eighth to assume that Ti­tle, seeing, quod efficit tale magis est tale, and the Commission whereby King Henry the Second made William-Fitz-Adelme his Lieutenant of Ireland, hath this direction; Archiepiscopis, Episcopis, Regibus; Comitibus, Baronibus, et omnibus fidelibus suis in Hibernia, salutem.

Now, though by the post-poning of these Kings to Arch-bishops and Bishops, it plain­ly appears that they were no Canonical Kings, (as I may say) I mean solemnly invested with the Emblems of sovereignty, [the King of 6 Johannis Claus▪ membra­ni 18 Connagh, the King of Thomond] yet were they more then Kings, even Tyrants in the exercise of their 6 Hen▪ 3. Chart. m. 2. Dominions, so that, King Henry was in some sort necessitated to set himself King Paramount above them all.

CHAPTER VII. Of Capital Judges, and Writers on the Common Law.

BY CAPITAL JUDGES, we understand not those who have power to condemn Offenders for Capital Faults, as all the Twelve Judges have (or any Serjeant commissioned, to ride the Circuit,) but the Chief Judges, who as Capital LETTERS stand in Power and Place above the rest, viz. 1. the Chief Justice of the Kings Bench. 2. of the Common Pleas, 3. the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and the Learned Antiquary, Sr. Henry Spelman, In his glossary verb, Justiciarius. avoweth the Title of Capital Justicers, properly applicable to these alone.

The Chief Justice of the Kings, or Upper Bench, is commonly called the Lord Chief Justice of England, a Title which the Lord Chancellor (accounting himself Chief in that kind) looks on, as an injurious usurpation. And many alive may remember how Sr. Edward Cook was accused to K. James, for so styling himself in the Frontespiece of his Reports, Part the Tenth and Eleventh, insomuch, that the Judg was fain to plead for him­self, Erravimus cum Patribus, as who could have produced plenty of Precedents therein.

2. The chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Place beneath, is in Profit above the former. So that some have out of Designe quitted That, to accept of This: Amongst these was Sr. Edward Mountague, in the Raign of K. Henry the eighth, who being demanded of his Friends, the Reason of his Self-degradation? I am now (saith he) an Old Man, and love the Kitching above the Hall, the Warmest place best suiting my Age.

The Chief Baron is chiefly imployed in the Exchequer, to decide causes which relate to the Kings Revenue.

Their Brevia or Writts did commonly run with this Clause, That the Judg should have and hold his PLACE, quam diu se benè geserit, so long as he well behaved himself, on this Token, That Sr. John Walter, Lord chief Baron of the Exchequer, being to be outed of his Place, for adjudging the Loan-mony illegal, pleaded for himself; That he was guilty of no Misdemeanour, who had only delivered his Judgment according to his Conscience. Others are granted from the King, durante nostro beneplacito; to continue in their Office, during his will and pleasure.

We begin the Army of our Judges, (for some Few, like the Forlorne Hope, advance higher,) about the time of King Edward the first. It is impossible exactly to observe that Inn of Court, wherein each of them had his Education, especially some of them being so Ancient, that in their times, Lincolnes Inn and Greys Inn were Lincoln's Inn and Grey's Inn, I mean, belonged to those their Owners, from whom they had their Names, as being, before they were appropriated to the Students of our Municipall Lawes.

Here I will condemn my self, to prevent the condemning of others, and confesse our Characters of these Judges to be very brief and defective. Indeed, were the Subject we treat of overstrewed with Ashes, (like the floor of Bells Temple) it were easie to finde out and follow the Footsteps therein: But here is no such help to Trace the Footings of Truth, Time having almost out-worn all impressions thereof. I perceive though Judges leave more Land than Bishops, they leave lesse Memorialls behind them, of the time, place, and manner, when and where born, and dyed, and how they demeaned themselves.

In the same Topick with Judges, we have also placed such as have been Writers of our Common-Law, and such conjunction we hope) is no disparagement, considering many of them were Capital Judges, (as Broke, Dyer, Coke, &c.) and the rest, learned Men, of great repute in their Profession, insomuch that the Judges themselves, in several Cases, have submitted to their Judgments.

And here I can but admire at the comparative paucity of the Books of our Common-Law, in proportion to those written of the Civil and Canon Law. Oh how corpulent [Page 21] are the Corpus'es of both those Lawes. Besides their Shadows are far bigger than their Bodies; their Glosses larger than their Text.

Insomuch, that one may bury two Thousand pounds and upwards in the Purchase, and yet hardly compasse a Moity of them: whereas all the Writers of the Common-Law, (except they be much multiplyed very lately) with all the Year-Books belonging thereunto, may be bought for threescore pounds, or thereabouts, which with some men is an Argument, that the Common-Law imbraceth the most compendious course to decide Causes, and by the fewness of the Books, is not guilty of so much difficulty and tedious prolixity, as the common and civil Lawes.

Yet is it most true, that common Law-books are dearer than any of the same Proportion, Quot libri, tot librae, holdeth true in many, and is exceeded in some of them. Yea, should now an old common Law-book be new-printed, it would not quit cost to the PRINTRR, nor turn to any considerable account. For the Profession of the Law is narrow in it self, as confined to few persons, and those are already sufficiently furnished, with all Authors on that Subject, which with carefull keeping and good using, will serve them and their sons sons, unto the third Generation. So that a whole Age would not carry off a New Impression of an Ancient Law-book, and (quick return being the life of trading) the tediousness of the sale would eat up the profit thereof.

All I will adde is this, that, That TAYLOR, who being cunning in his Trade, and taking exact measure of a Person, maketh a suit purposely for him, may be presumed to fit him better than those, who, (by a general aim) at randome make Cloaths for him. In like manner, seing our municipal Law, was purposely composed by the Sages of this Land, who best knew the Genius of our Nation, it may be concluded more proper for our people, and more applicable to all the Emergencies in this half-Island, than the civil Law, made for the general Concernment of the whole Empire, by such who were unacquainted with the Particularities of our Land and Nation.

CHAPTER VIII. Of Souldiers and Seamen, with the necessity to encourage the Trade of Fishing.

SOULDIERS succeed, though it almost affrighteth my Pen to meddle with such Martial Persons. It is reported of the God of the Jews, That he would have no share in the Pantheon at Rome, except he might have (and that justly too) the whole Temple to himself. So lately we have been so sadly sensible of the boisterousness of Souldiers, one may suspect, they will [though unjustly] justle all others out of the Book, to make room for themselves.

But since their violence hath (blessed be God) been seasonably retrenched, we have adventured to select some signal Persons of that Profession, whose Prowesse made eminent impression on Forreign Parts (so purposely to decline all medling with the dolefull and dangerous Distractions of our Times) beginning our List in the Reign of King Edward the 3d. and concluding in the beginning of King Charles.


Surely Divine Providence did not make the vast body of the Sea, for no other use, than for Fishes to disport themselves therein, or, (as some do conceit) only for to quench and qualifie the drought and heat of the Sun with the moysture thereof, but it was for higher intendmens. Chiefly, That by sailing thereon, there may be the continuing of Commerce, the communicating of Learning and Religion (the Last from Palestine the Staple thereof) and the more speedy and convenient portage of Burthens, seeing, a laden Ship doth flie in comparison of the creeping of an empty Waggon.

Now to speak what Envy cannot deny, Our Englishmen, either for Fights, or Discoveries, whether for tame Ships, Merchants Men, or Wild Ships, Men of War carry away the Garland, from all Nations in the Christian World.

[Page 22]Learned Keckerman, Hoc certum est, omnibus bodie gentibus navigandi industria, & peritia, superiores esse Anglos, & post Anglos Hollandos. who being a German by birth, was unbiased in his judgment, and living in Dantz, (a Port of great trading, whither Seamen repaired from all parts) and writing a Book De re nautica, may be presumed skilful therein, alloweth the English the best Seamen, and next to them the Hollanders. And if the later dare deny the truth hereof, let them remember the late Peace they purchased of the English, and thank God, that they met with so conscientious Chapmen, who set no higher price thereon.

Yea, Let the Dutch know, that they are the Scholars to the English, in some of their Discoveries: For I find the four first Circumnavigators of the World thus qualified for their Nativities,

  • 1. Magellanus, a Spaniard.
  • 2. Sr. Francis Drake, an Englishman.
  • 3. Sr. Thomas Candish, an Englishman.
  • 4. Oliver Noort, an Hollander.

But be it known, That the last of these had an Englishman, Captain Purchase, his Pilgrims, lib. 2. Page 17. Mellis by name, Pilot to conduct him.

Yet let not my commending of our English Seamen be misinterpreted, as if I did not refer all successe to the goodnesse of God, the grand Admiral of the World. The praising of Instruments (by way of subordination) is no more detrimental to the honour of the Principal, than the praising of the edge of the Axe is a disparagement to the strength of the Arm which useth it. God I confesse by his Providence ordereth all by Land and by sea; yea, he may be said to be the first Shipwright; for I behold the Arke, as a Bird, wholly hatcht▪ but utterly unfledg, without any feathers of Masts and Tackling, it could only float, and not sail, yet so, that therein was left pattern enough for humane Ingenuity to improve it to Naval perfection.

Yea, God himself hath in Scripture taken signal notice of the dextrous in this nature, on which account we finde the Tyrians, or Men of 1 Kings, 9. 27. Hiram, praised, for that they had knowledg of the sea, when sent with the servants of Solomon to Ophir.

We begin our Catalogue of Seamen in the Raign of King Edward the 3d. before which time there were many good seamen in England, but few good English-seamen, our King using Mariners of the Hanse Towns. But it is no good huswifery to hire Chair­women to do that, which may as well and better be done by her own servants. In the time of Edward the third, England grew famous for Sea-fights with the French, and encreased in credit, especially since the Navy Royal was erected by Q. Elizabeth.

Some conceive it would be a great advancement to the perfecting of English Navigation, if allowance were given, to read a Lecture in London concerning that Subject, in imitation of the late Emperour CHARLES the fifth, who wisely considering the rawness of his Seamen, and the manifold shipwracks which they sustained in passing and repassing between Spain and the West▪Indies, established, not only a Pilote Major, for the examination of such as were to take charge of Ships in that voyage, but also founded a Lecture for the Art of Navigation, which to this day is read in the Contraction House at Sivil: the Readers of which Lecture, have not only carefully taught and instructed the Spanish Mariners by word of mouth, but have also published sundry exact and worthy Treatises, concerning Marine causes, for the direction and encouragement of Posterity.

Here it were to be wish'd, That more care were taken for, and encouragement given to the breeding of Fishermen; whom I may call the spawn, or young Frie of seamen; yea such as hope that Mariners will hold up, if Fishermen be destroyed, may as rationally exspect plenty of hony and wax, though only old stocks of Bees were kept without either Casts or Swarmes.

Nor can Fishermen be kept up, except the publick eating of Fish at set times be countenanced, yea enjoyned by the State. Some suspect, as if there were a Pope in the belly of every Fish, and some bones of superstition in them, which would choak a conscientious person, especially if fasting dayes be observed. But know that such Customes grew from a treble root, of Popery, Piety, and Policy; and though the first of these be pluck'd up, the other must be watered, and maintained; and Statesmen may be mortified and wise without being superstitious: Otherwise the not keeping of Fasting-dayes will make us keep Fasting-Dayes, I mean, The not forbearing of Flesh, for the feeding on Fish, for the good of the STATE, will in processe of time prove the ruine of Fishermen, they of Seamen, both of Englishmen.

[Page 23]We are sadly sensible of the truth hereof in part, (God forbid, in whole) by the decay of so many Towns on our North-east Sea, Hartlepool, Whitebay, Bridlington, Scarborough, Wells, Cromer, Lestof [...], Alborough, Orford, and generally all from New castle to Harewitch, which formerly set out yearly (as I am informed) Two Hundred Ships, and upwards, inployed in the Fisherie, but chiefly for the taking of Ling, that Noble Fish, corrival in his Joule with the surloin of Beef, at the Tables of Gentlemen.

These Fishermen, set forth formerly, with all their male Family, sea-men, sea-youths, I had almost said, sea-children too, (seeing some learn'd the Language of lar-board, and star-board, with Bread, and Butter,) Graduates in Navigation, and indeed the Fishery did breed, the natural and best elemented seamen.

But since our late Civil Wars not three ships are imployed yearly for that purpos [...], Fishermen preferring rather to let their Vesse [...] lye, and rot in their Havens, than to undergo much pain and peril; for, that would not at their return quit cost in any proportion.

So that it is suspicious, That in processe of time we shall lose, (the Masters being few and aged) the Mystery of Ling-catching, and perchance the Art of taking and handling some other kinde of sound and good Fish▪ no Nation (without flattery to our selves be it spoken) using more care and skill in ordering of that Commodity.

Yea, which is a greater mischief, it is to be feared, that the seminary of sea-men will decay. For (under correction be it spoken) it is not the long voyages to the East­Indies &c. which do make, but marr sea-men▪ they are not the Womb, but rather the Grave of good Mariners, it is the Fishery which hath been the Nursery of them, though now much disheartened, because their Fish turn to no account, they are brought to so bad Markets. Nor is there any hope of redressing this, but by keeping up Fasting-Dayes, which our Ancestors so solemnly observed. I say, Our Ancestors, who were not so weak in making, as we are willfull in breaking them, and who consulting the situation of this Island, with the conveniencies appendant thereunto, suited their Lawes and accommodated their Customes to the best benefit thereof.

Nor was it without good cause why Wednesdayes and Fridayes were by them appointed for Fish-dayes: I confesse some Forreigners render this Reason, (and father it upon Clemens Alexandrinus) that, Because those dayes were dedicated by the Heathen, the one to Mercury the God of cheating, the other to Venus the Goddesse of lust, therefore the Christians should macerate themselves on that day with Fasting, in sorrowful remembrance of their Pronity to the vices aforenamed: But waving such fancies our English Fish, or Fasting-Dayes are founded on a more serious consideration.

For our English Fishermen, in Kent, Sussex, Hants [...]re, &c. set forth on Monday, and catch their Fish, which on Tuesday they send up to London, where on Wednesday it is sold and eaten. Such therefore, who lately have propounded to antidate Fish-eating, and to remove it from Wednesday to Tuesday, must thereby occasion the encroaching on the Lords-Day, to furnish the Markets with that Commodity. Again, such Fishermen as returned on Tuesday, set forth afresh on Wednesday, to take Fish, which on Thursday they send up to London, to supply the remainder of the Week; It being observable, that so great is the goodnesse of God to our Nation, that there is not one week in the year wherein some wholesome Fish, caught on our own Coast, is not in the prime Season thereof.

As for Staple or Salt-Fish, there are those that are acquainted in the Criticismes thereof, and have exactly stated, and cast up the proportions, who will maintain, that it will do the deed, and set up the Fishery as high as ever it was, if every one in England able to dispend a Hundred Pounds per annum, were enjoyned to lay out Twenty Shillings a Year, in staple-fish, a Summ so inconsiderable in the Particulars, that it will hurt none, and so considerble in the total, it will help all of our Nation. If any censure this for a tedious Digression, let it be imputed to my Zeal for the good of the Common-wealth.

CHAPTER IX. Of Writers on the Cannon and Civil Law, Physick, Chemistry, and Chirurgery.

I Sometimes wondered in my self at two things in the Primitive Church, during the time of the Apostles, First, That seing they enjoyed all things in Acts 4. 32. common, what use they had of Lawyers, seing no Propriety, no Pleading, and such a Communion of all things gave a Writ of Ease to that Profession. And yet I find mention made ofTit. 3. 13. Zenas the Lawyer, no Scribe of the Law, (as many amongst the Jews) but [...] an Advocate, or Barrister therein.

Secondly, I wondered what use there was of Physicians in the Church, seeing the Apostles miraculously cured all Maladies, and so (in my apprehension) gave a Supersedeas to the Practitioners in that Faculty, and yet I find honourable mention made ofColos. 4. 14. Luke, the beloved Physician.

But since I have wondred at my wondring thereat; For that Communion of Goods was but t [...]mporal, for a short continuance, and topical, of a narrow compasse, practised onely in Judea, or thereabouts, whilest the Churches amongst the Gentiles continued their propriety, and particularly at Rome, where Zenas had his Habitation, and had work enough, no doubt, to exercise his Profession, even amongst Christians themselves.

As for the Apostles, they had not alwayes power at their own pleasure to work Mi [...]acles and cure diseases in all Persons, no, nor allwayes in themselves (witnesse 2 Cor. 1. 8, and 9. sick St. Paul, receiving in himself the Sentence of Death) but as they were directed, for the glory of God, and other occasions: And therefore notwithstanding their miraculous Power, St Luke might have plenty of Practice in his Profession. Not was it probable, that God (the Authour of all Ingenuity) would by the giving of the Gospel utterly extinguish any literal Calling, which formerly had been publickly, lawfully, and needfully professed.

We have in our following Book, given in the List of some Eminent LAVVYERS, Civilians, and Cannonists, who have wrote on that Subject, though we confess them very few in Number, their Profession being lately undeservedly disgraced, though now we congratulate the probability of the Restitution thereof to its former Dignity. Sure I am, in the dayes of Queen Elizabeth, when an Embassadour was sent to Foreign PRINCES, if it were an Affair of grand importance, and more than a mere matter of magni [...]ent complement, some able Civilian, [as Doctor Hadden, Dale, Fletcher, &c.] was joyned in Commission with the Noble-man, imployed on that Embassie. And as the Iron Doggs bear the burthen of the fuel, while the Brasen-Andirons stand only for state, to entertain the Eyes; so the Negotiating part was loaded on the Civil [...], whilest the Pomp-pageantry was discharged at the cost of the Noble-man.

Writers on Physick.

The P [...]ecept in the Apocrypha hath a Canonical Truth therein, Honour the Physician for necessity sake; and although King Asa justly received little benefit by them, because of his preposterous addressing himself to them, before he went to 2 Chron. 16. 12. God: and the. Woman in the Gospel (troubled with the Issue) reaped lesse ease by Luke 8. 43. their Endeavours; because God reserved her a Subject for his own Miraculous Cure; yet in all Ages Millions have been cured by their Practice.

The Ancient Bri [...]tans, who went without Cloathes, may well be presumed to live without Physick; Yet, seing very Beasts know what is good for themselves (the Dear, the Cretan Dictamum, and Toad, his Antidote of plantaine) sure they had some experimental Receipts used amongst them, and left the rest to Nature, and Temperance to cure: The Saxons had those they termed Leaches, or Bloud-letters, [Page 25] but were little skilled in methodical practise. Under the Normans, they began in Eng­land, (and would we had ferch'd Physicians onely, and not Diseases from France.) Yet three hundred years since it was no distinct Profession by it self, but practiced by men in Orders, witness See their se­veral Chara­cters under their Names in our ensuing Book. Nicholas de Fernham, the chief English Physician and Bishop of Durham, Hugh of Evesham, a Physician and Cardinal, Grisant, a Physician and Pope. Yea, the word Physician, appears not in our Statutes, till the days of King Henry the eight, who incorporated their Colledge at London, since which time they have multi­plied and flourished in our Nation, but never more, and more learned then in our age, wherein that Art, and especially the Anatomical part thereof is much improved, our Civil Wars perchance occasioning the latter.

We begin our Catalogue at Richardus Anglicus our first Physician, flourishing Anno 1230. and continue to Doctor Harvey, whom I may term Gulielmus Anglicus, such honour he hath done England by his worthy Writings. Thus wishing them all happy success in their Practice, I desire a custome in France, and other for­reign parts, naturalized in England, where a Physician is liable to Excommunication, if visiting a Patient thrice before he acquainteth a Priest of his sickness, that so the Medicine for soul and body, may go hand in hand together.


Chimistry is an ingenious Profession, as which by Art will force somewhat of worth and eminence from the dullest substance, yea the obduras'st, and hardest hearted body, cannot but shed forth a tear of precious liquor, when urged thereunto with its intreaties.

They may be termed Parcel-physicians, every day producing rare experiments, for the curing of many diseas es. bu

I must confess there occurs t few, (and of those few, fewer Modern ones) through the whole series of our Book: Yet may we be said to have extracted the spirits (I mean such as were eminent therein) of this Profession, being confident the judicious Reader, will value one Jem, before many Barly Corns, and one Drop of a true extract, before many Bottles of worthless water.


Necessary and ancient their Profession, ever since mans body was subject to enmity and casualty. For, that promise, John 10. 39. A bone of him shall not be broken, is peculiar to Christ. As for the other, Psal. 91. 12. To keep them in all their ways, that they dash not their foot against a stone, though it be extended to all Christians, yet it admitteth (as other tem­poral promises) of many exceptions according to Gods will and pleasure.

It seemeth by the Parable of the good Luke 11. 34. Samaritan, who bound up the Passengers wounds, pouring in Oil and Wine, that in that age, ordinary persons had a general in­sight in Chirurgery, for their own and others use. And it is reported to the just praise of the Scotch Buchanan Re­rum Scoticarum lib. 13. sol. 138. pag. 1. Nobility, that anciently they all were very dextrous thereat, particu­larly it is written of James the fourth King of Scotland, Quod vulnera scientissime tractaret, He was most scilful at the handling of wounds. But we speak of Chirurgery, as it is a particular Mystery, Professed by such as make a Vocation thereof. Of whom we have inserted some (eminent for their Writings or otherwise) amongst Physicians, and that (as we hope) without any offence, seeing the healing of diseases and wounds were anciently one Calling, (as still great the Sympathy betwixt them, many diseases causing wounds, as Ulcers, as wounds occasioning diseases, as feavers,) till in process of time they were seperated, and Chirurgions only consigned to the Manual Operation. Thus wishing unto them, the three Requisits for their practise, an Eagles Eye, a Ladies Hand, ond a Lions Heart, I leave them, and proceed.

CHAP. X. Writers.

BEING to handle this Subject, let not the Reader expect that I will begin their Catalogue from Fabulous Antiquity, or rather fanciful Fabels. For if the first Century of J. Bale or J. Pits. their British Writers were Garbled, four parts of five would be found to be Trash, such as

  • 1. Samothes Gigas
  • 2. Magus Samotheus
  • 3. Sarron Magius
  • 4. Druys Sarronius
  • 5. Bardus Druydius
  • 6. Albion Mareoticus
  • 7. Brytus Julius
  • 8. Gerion Augur
  • 9. Aquila Septonius
  • 10. Perdix Praesagus
  • 11. Cambra Formosa
  • 12. Plenidius Sagax, &c.

Of these some never were men, others (if men) never were Writers, others (if Writers) never left Works continuing to our age, though some Manuscript-Mongers may make as if they had perused them. It is well they had so much modesty, as not to pretend inspection into the Book of life, seeing all other books have come under their Omnividencie.

We are content to begin our number, at Gildas (commonly surnamed) the wise, (flourishing about the year 580.) and are right gald to have so good a General, to lead our Army of Writers, taking it for a token of good success.

Now these Writers were either such who wrote before, or since the Reformation of Religion. The former again fall generally under a treble division, as either Histo­rians, Philologists, or Divines, and we will insist a little on their several imployments.

Of Writers on Philology and Divinity.

Doctor Collens Kings Professor in Cambridge, and that Oracle of Eloquence once founded his Speech (made to entertain Strangers at the Commencement) on the words of Rom. 16. 15. Saint Paul, Salute Philologus and Olympas. Under the former, he comprised all persons persent, eminent in Humane Learning, under the later, all skillful in Heavenly Divinity.

Indeed Philology properly is Terse and Polite Learning, melior literatura, (married long since by Martianus Capella to Mercury) being that Florid skill, containing onely the Roses of learning, without the prickles thereof, in which narrow sense thorny Phi­losophy is discharged as no part of Philology. But we take it in the larger notion, as inclusive of all human liberal Studies, and preposed to Divinity, as the Porch to the Palace.

Having passed the Porch of Philology, we proceed to the Palace of Divinity. The Writers in this Faculty, we distinguish into two sorts. First, Positive Divines, such I mean, whose works are either Comments on, or else expositions of some portion of Sacred Writ. Secondly, School-men, who have made it their business to Weave find Threads of nicer Distinctions.

Writers on History.

This is either Ecclesiastical or Civil. Of both these, England presenteth many, but generally Moncks before the Reformation, who too much indulging to Holy Fraud, have farced their Books with many feigned miracles, to the prejudice of truth. How­ever, herein foreign Historians have been as guitly as English-men of the same Age, witness the complaint of In his book of the coming of Saint James the Apostle in­to Spain, ch. 1. Mariana the Jesuit, which one may justly wonder how it passed the Index Expurgatorius. Quis enim negare possit Fastos Ecclesiasticos, aliquando adulatione Temporum, aut potius incuria hominum, multis maculis contaminatos, libris aliis, [Page 27] quibus preces Ecclesiasticae ritusque sacrorum continentur, multas fuisse inspersas confusas­que fabulas & commenta: Addam nonnunquam in Templis reliquias dabias, prophana Corpora pro sanctorum (qui cum Christo in coelo regnant) exuviis sacris fuisse proposita. Est enim miserum negare non posse, quid sit turpe confiteri; at nescio quo pacto fictis saepe fabulis, & prae posteris mendaciorum nugis, populus magis quam veritate ac synceritate capitur, ea est mentis nostrae inanitas, has sordes, ubi semel irrepserunt in Ecclesiam sacrorum ritus libros Ecclesiasticos, nobis fortassis dormientibus, attrectare nemo audet, mutive nemo, ne impietatis suspicionem commoreat, scilicet, & Religioni adversarius esse videatur.

Nor hath our Land been altogether barren of Historians since the Reformation, having yielded some of as tall parts, and large performances, as any Nation in Christendome.

Besides these, we have adventured to adde such as have been eminent in Poetry, which may not unfitly be termed the binding of Proselites good behaviour, tying it to the strict observation of time and measure.

Amongst these, some are additioned with the Title of Laureat, though I must con­sess, I could never find the root whence their Bays did grow in England, as to any so­lemn institution thereof in our Nation. Indeed, I read of Petrarch, (the pre-coeta­nean of our Chaucer) that he was crowned with a Laurel, in the Vita Petrac. Capitol, by the Se­nate of Rome, Anno 1341. as also that Frederic the third Emperour of Germany, gave the Laurel to Holdastus lib. tom. 3 p. 482. Conradus Celtes, and since the Count Palatines of the Empire claime the priviledge, solemnly to invest Poets with the Bays.

The branches hereof, in all ages have been accounted honourable, in so much that King James in some sort, wav'd his crown (in the two and twenty-shilling-pieces) to wear the Laurel in his new twenty-shilling-pieces. On the same token, that a wag passed this jeast thereon, That Poets being always poor, Bays were rather the embleme of wit then wealth, since King James no sooner began to wear them, but presently he fell two shillings in the pound in publique valuation.

As for our English Poets, some have assumed that style unto themselves, as John Kay in his Dedication of The Seige of Rhodes to King Edward the fourth, subscribing himself his humble Poet Laureat. Others have in complement given the title to such persons as were eminent in that Faculty, and nothing more usuall then to see their pictures before their Books, and Statues on their Tombs, ornamented accordingly. However, all this is done by civil courtesie, or common custome, no ceremonious crea­tion in Court or University. I write not this, as if I grudged to Poets a whole grove of Laurel, much less a sprig to incircle their heads, but because I would not have any specious untruth imposed on the Readers belief.

Yet want there not those, who do confidently averr that there is always a Laureat Poet in England, and but one at a time, the Laurel importing Conquest and Sove­reignty, and so by consequence soleness in that faculty; and that there hath been a con­stant succession of them at Court, who beside their salary from the King, were yearly to have a tun of win, as very essential to the heightning of fancy. This last I conceive founded, on what we find given to Geffery Chaucer,

Vigesimo secundo anno Richardi secundi concessum Galfrido Chaucer unum dolium vini per annum durante vitâ, in portu Civitatis London, per manus capitalis pincernae nostri.

But Chaucer, besides his poetical accomplishments, did the King service both in war and peace, as Souldier and Embassadour, in reward whereof, this and many other boons were bestow'd upon him.


Musick is nothing else, but wild sounds civilised into Time and Tune. Such the ex­tensiveness thereof, that it stoopeth as low as bruit beasts, yet mounteth as high as Angels. For Horses will do more for a whistle then for a whip, and by hearing their bells gingel away their weariness.

The Angels in Heaven imploy themselves in Musick, and one ingeniously expres­seth it to this effect The Conceipt is Mr. Walle [...]s, whose book is nor by me at the present to transcribe the very words.

We know no more what they do do above,
Save only that they Sing, and that they Love.

[Page 28]And although we know not the Notes of their Musick, we know what their Ditty is, namely Hallalu-jah.

Such as cavil at Musick, because Gen. 4. 21. Juball, a descendant from wicked Cain, was the first founder thereof, may as well be content to lye out of dores, and refuse all cover to shelter them, because Jaball, of the same extraction, being his own brother, first in­vented to dwell in Tents.

I confess there is a company of pretenders to Musick, who are commonly called Crowders, and that justly too, because they Crowd into the company of Gentlemen both unsent for, and unwelcome; but these are no more a disgrace to the true professors of that faculty, then Monkies are a disparagement to man-kind.

Now right antient is the use of Musick in England, especially if it be true what I read in a worthy Father, and I know not which more to admire, either that so memo­rable a passage should escape Master Camdens, or that it should fall under my observa­tion. Clemens Alexand. Strom. lib. 6. pag. 632.

[...] In [...] Insulâ. S [...] Syl. Burgius Latines it. [...].

They say, even those which compose histories, that in the Island of Britanny, there is a certain Cave, lying under a Mountain, in the top thereof gaping. The wind therefore falling into the Cave, and dash­ing into the bosome of a hollow place, there is heard a tinckling of Cymbals, beating in Tune and Time.

Where this musical place should be in Britain, I could never find; yet have been informed, By Master Stephens, a learned ser­vant to the Bishop. that Doctor Miles Smith, Bishop of Hereford, found something tending that way (by the help of an active fancy) in Herefordshire. But waving this natural, the antiquity of artificial Musick in this Island, is proved by the pra­ctice of the Bards, thereby communicating Religion, Learning and Civility, to the Britans.

Right glad I am, that when Musick was lately shut out of our Churches, (on what default of hers I dare not to enquire) it hath since been harboured and welcomed in the Halls, Parlors and Chambers, of the primest persons of this Nation. Sure I am, it could not enter into my Head, to surm se that Musick would have been so much discouraged by such who turned our Kingdome into a Commonwealth, seeing they prided themselves in the armes thereof, an impaled Harp being Moity of the same. When it was Ask'd what made a good Musitian, one Answered a good voice, another that it was skill, but he said the truth, who said, it was incouragement. It was there­fore my constant wish, that seeing most of our▪ Musicians were men of maturity, and arrived at their full age and skill, before these distracted times began, and seeing what the Historian wrote in another sence, is true here in our acception and application thereof, Res est unius seculi populus virorum; I say, I did constantly wish, that there might have been some semenary of youth set up, to be bred in the faculty of Musick, to supply succession, when this Set of Masters in that Science had served their ge­neration.

Yet although I missed of what I did then desire, yet thanks be to God, I have lived to see Musick come into request, (since our Nation came into right Tune) and begin to flourish in our Churches and elsewhere, so that now no fear but we shall have a new generation skillful in that Science, to succeed such, whose age shall call upon them to pay their debt to nature.

If any who dislike Musick in Churches, object it useless (if not hurtful) in Divine Services, let them hear what both a learned and Hookers Eccle. Pol. pag. 858. Sect. 38. able Divine alledgeth in defence thereof.

So that although we lay altogether aside the consideration of Ditty or Matter, the very Harmony of sounds being framed in due sort, and carried from the Ear to the spiritual faculties of the Soul, it is by a native puissance and efficacy greatly avail­able to bring to a perfect temper, whatsoever is there troubled, apt as well to quicken the spirits, as to allay that which is too eager, soveraign against melancholy and dispair, forceable to draw forth Tears of Devotion, if the Mind be such as can yield them, able both to move and moderate all affections.

In recounting up of Musitians, I have only insisted on such who made it there pro­fession, and either have written books of that faculty, and have attained to such an eminence therein, as is generally acknowledged. Otherwise the work would be end­less to recount all up who took it as a quality of accomplishment, amongst whom King Henry the eighth must be accounted, who (as Erasmus testifies to his knowledge) did not onely sing his part sure, but also compose services for his Chappel, of four, five, and six parts, though as good a Professor as he was, he was a great destroyer of Musick in this Land; surely, not intentionly, but accidentaly, when he suppressed so many Quires at the Desolution.

Romish Exile Writers.

After the Writers before the Reformation, succeed those Romish banished Wri­ters since the same, all living since the reign of Q▪ Mary which might have been distanced from the former with a black line interposed, as beheld under a far different (yea worse) qualification. For the superstitions of the former were the more pardonable, as living in a dark age, which are less excusable in these since the light of the Gospel.

I confess the word Exile carries much of commiseration therein, and with cha­tably minded men bespeaks pitty to the persons, untill the cause of their banishment be well considered. For some in the first of Queen Elizabeth willfully left the Land, and so in effect banished themselves, others having their lives forfeited by the Laws, had their deaths mercifully commuted by ou [...] Magistrates into banishment.

Objection. These men might have been lost without loss, and been omitted in your book as no limbe, but a wen, yea an ulcer thereof.

Answer. Grant them never so bad, being digested into a Classis by themselves, their mixture cannot be infectious to others. Secondly, Abate their errours, and otherwise many of them were well meriting of the Commonwealth of learning. Lastly, The passages of their lives conduce very much to the clearing of Ecclesiast­cal History.

In noting of their nativties, I have wholly observed the instructions of Pitse [...]s, where I knock off with his death, my light ending with his life in that subject, since which time I have neither list to enquire, nor conveniency to attain, of these Romish fugitives beyond the seas.

A just Complaint of the numerosity of needless Books.

Solomon was sensible of this vanity, even in his time, when pronouncing of Book there is no end. The Heathen Poet took notice thereof,

Scribimus indocti doctique Poemata passim.
Poems write a main we do,
Learned and unlearned too.

All this was before the invention of Printing, when books came but single into the publique, which since that Mistery is made common, come swimning into the world like shoals of Fishes, and one edition spawneth another. This made learned Erasmus for company sake to jeer himself, that he might the more freely jeer others, In prefat, in tertiam seriem quarti Tomi Hierom. p. 408. Multi mei similes hoc morbo laborant, ut cum scribere nesciant, tamen a scribendo temporare non possunt. Many men like my self, are sick of this decease, that when they know not how to write, yet cannot forbear from writing.

A worthy English Barronet in his book (incomparable on that subject) hath clearly and truly stated this point.

Here I expect, that the judicious Reader will excuse me, if I take no notice of many Modern Phamphliteers, seeing unlearned Scriblers, are not ranked with learned Writers; yea, it was, though tartly, truly said, to the Author of such a book,

Dum scateant alii erratis, datur unica Libro
Menda tuo, tot [...]m est intiger error opus.
Whilst others flow with faults, but one is past
In all thy book, 'tis fault from first to last.

[Page 30]Indeed the Press, at first a Virgin, then a chast Wife, is since turned Common, as to prostitute her self to all Scurrilous Pamphlets. When the Author of an idle and im­persect book, endeth with a caetera dessiderantur, one altered it non dessider antur, sed desunt. Indeed they were not (though wanting) wanted, the world having no need of them, many books being like King Joram, who lived not being desired, yea, the Press begineth to be an oppression of the Land, such the burden of needless books therein.

Some will say, the charge may most justly be brought against your self, who have loaded the Land with more books, then any of your Age. To this I confess my fault, and promise amendment, that God willing hereafter I will never Print book in the English tongue, but what shall tend directly to Divinity.

CHAP. XI. Of Benefactors to the Publick, wherein also Choise Charities are recommended to men of Estates.

These are reducible to several Heads, and we will begin with them who have been Builders of


SUch Centurions who have erected us Synagogues, places for Gods publick VVorship, seem to me to have given good testimony of their Love to our nation. Bitter was the Brave which railing Rabsheca sent to holy Hezekiah proffering him Isaiah 36. 8. 2000 Horses on Condition that the other were but able to find Riders for them. But it grieves me to see the Superstition of the former insult over the religion of this present age, bragging that she left us ten thousand Churches and Chappels more or lesse ready built, if we can find but repairers to keep them up: It is in my opinion both dishonorable to God, and scandalous to all good men to see such houses daily decay: But there is a genera­tion of people who to prevent the verifying of the old proverb, Pater noster built Churches, and our Father plucks them down; endevour to pluck down both Churches and Our Father together, neglecting, yea despising the use both of the one and the other. Be it here remembred, that it is not only equal but just, that such as have been Founders of Churches or Grand Benefactors unto them, should have due Respect in preserving their Monuments from Violation or Incroachment of others. I urge this the rather, because a­buses have been frequent in this kind, even to those that have deserved best. I can­not with patience remember the Story of Henry Keble Lord Maior of London 1511. who, besides other Benefactions in his Life time, rebuilded Alder-Mary-Church run to very Ruines, and bequeathed at his Death a thousand pounds for the finishing thereof. Yet within sixty years after, his Bones were unkindly yea inhumanely cast Stows Survey of London, pag. 89. out of the Vaute wherein they were buried, his Monument plucked down for some Wealthy Person of the* Idem p. 267. present times, to be buried therein, I could not but on this Occasion rub up my old Poetry;

Facit Indignatio Versus.
The Author to Alder-Mary Church.
Ungrateful Church, orerun with rust,
Lately buried in the dust;
Utterly thou hadst been lost,
If not preserv'd by Keble's cost:
A Thousand Pounds might it not buy,
Six foot in length for him to lie:
But outed of his quiet Tombe,
For later Corps he must make Roome:
Tell me where his Dust is cast,
Though't be late, yet now at last;
All his Bones with Scorne ejected,
I will see them recollected:
VVho faine my self would Kinsman prove
To all that did God's Temples love.
Alder-Mary Churches Answer.
Alas! my Innocence excuse,
My Wardens they did me abuse,
VVhose Avarice his Ashes sold,
That Goodness might give place to Gold;
As for his Reliques, all the Town,
They are scattered, up and down;
See'st a Church repaired well,
There a Sprinkling of them fell;
See'st a new Church lately built?
Thicker there his Ashes spilt:
O that all the Land throughout,
Kebles Dust were throwne about
Places scattered with that seed,
VVould a Crop of Churches breed.

I could wish this was the last Barbarisme in this kind, and am sorry that upon small Inquiry, I could insist on later Instances.

Free-Schools and Colledges.

I place Schools before Colledges, because they are introductory thereunto, intended for the b [...]eeding of Children and Youth, as the other for youth and men. And seeing much of Truth is contained in our English Proverb, It is as good to be unborn as un­bred, such may in some sort seem their Second-Parents, who have provided for their Education.

These Schools are of two kinds. First, those wherein only a Salary is given to the School-master to teach Children gratis, and these I confess are good. Secondly, such wherein a select number of Scholars have competent maintenance allowed towards their Living in the University, and these all will acknowledge are better. Some do suspect a surfet in our Land of the multitude of Schools, because the Nursery is bigger then the Orchard, the one breeding more Plants then the other can maintain Trees, and the Land not affording sufficient preferment for them, Learning is forced to stoop to mean Courses to make a Livelihood. But I conceive that Store in this kind is no sore▪ and if we must not do evil that good may come thereof, we must not forbear doing that which is good, for fear of accidental Evils which may arise from the same.


Builders of Bridges (which are high-waies over water) and makers of Caused-waies, or Causways (which are Bridges over dirt) though last in order, are not least in benefit to the Commmon-wealth. Such conveniences save the lives of many, ease the la­bour of moe painful travellers, and may be said in some sort to lengthen the day, and shorten the way to men in their journeys; yea, Bridges make and keep this our I­sland a Continent to it self. How great the care of the ancient Romans to repair them, for the safety of passengers, appears by the origination of Pontifex, having the inspe­ction over bridges, by his primitive institution.

Indeed the word bridge appears not in all Scripture, whereof this the reason; the rivers of Palestine were either so shallow, that they were passable by foords, as ofGen. 32. 22. Jab­bok, Isaiah 16. 2. Arnon andJudges 3. 28. Jordan, before it grew navigable; or else so deep, that they were ferried 2 Sam. 19. 18 over, as Jordan, when neer his fall into the Dead Sea: but most of ours in England are of a middle size; so deep, that they cannot be foorded; so narrow, that they need not to be ferried over. Hence come our so eminent bridges, in so much that such structures are accounted amongst our English Anglia, mons, pons, &c. Excellencies.

However Palestine was subject with England to the same inconveniences of bad high­waies, and there [...]ore in the List of Charitable Actours reckoned up by theIsaiah 48. 12. Prophet, he is accounted as a principal, The restorer of paths to dwell in; for indeed some waies may be said not-habitable, being so [...]eep and dirty that they cut off all intercourse, the End general of all mens dwelling together.

I will conclude this Topick of Bridges with this memo [...]able accident. Mawd Q▪ to King Henry the first being to pass the River Ley about Stratford, near the falling of the said River into the Thames, was almostCambd. Brit. in Essex. drowned in riding over it. But this proved the bad cause of a good effect; For hereupon she built the Beautiful Bridge there, for the benefit of Travellers: and the Village probably from a fair Arch or Bow therein, re­ceived (as some conceive) the addition of Stratford Bow. Far be it from me to wish the least ill to any who willingly would not have their fingers to ake, or an hair of their heads lessned. Yet this I could desire, that some Covetous churls who otherwise will not be melted into works of charity, may in their passing over Waters be put into Pe­ril without Peril. Understand me, might be en [...]angered to fright but not [...]urt, that others might fare the better for their fears; Such Misers being minded thereby to make or repair Bridges for publick Safety and convenience.


Because we live in an age, wherein men begin to be out of charity with charity it self; and there be many covetous (not to say sacrilegious) people, whose Fingers itch [Page 35] to be Nimming the patrimony of the poor; we will here present the Cavils of this against the charity of former ages herein.

Cavil. 1. Show us the foundation of such Structures in Scripture, either in the Old or New Testament. As for the place with fiue porches, wherein theJohn. 5. 2. impotent poor lay, near the Pool of Bethesda, it was of another Nature. Alsmhouses therefore not being Jure Divino may lawfully be abolished.

Answer. The Constitution of the Jewish was far different from our English Common­wealth, wherein every one originally was a Freeholder of some proportion of land, which, though aliened, reverted to the Owner at the year of Jubilee. There needs not an express or particular precept for all our actions, that general one,Prov. 19. 17. He that hath pity upon the Poor lenaeth unto the Lord, is bottome broad enough to build more Alms­houses on, than all ages will afford. Besides this precept, we have the practice of the primitive Christians in the time of the Apostles,Acts 4. 34. parting with the propriety of all their estate, and well then may we appropriate a part of ours, for the releif of the Poor.

Cavil. 2. The builders of them for the most part, have been people formerly guilty of oppression, who, having lived like Wolves, turn Lambs on their death­beds, and part with their Fleece to people in want. Having ground the faces of the poor, they give the Toll thereof to build an Alms-house, though too little to hold half the beggars which they have made.

Answer. The aspersion cannot be fastned on many Founders, so free from the same, that malice may sooner break her own Teeth and Jawes too, th [...]n make impression on their reputation. But, grant the charge true, in this sense, Beatum est fuisse, Blessed are they that have been BAD;1 Cor. 6. 11. Aud such were some of you: Let not envious man repine at that, whereat the blessed Angels rejoyce, the conversion of sinners, and their testifying thereof by such publique expressions.

Cavil. 3. Such Builders generally have a Pope in their Belly, puffed up with a proud opinion to merit by their performances.

Answer. When did the Caviller steal the Touch-stone of hearts? (for, God, I am sure would not lend it him, who saith,Isaiah 42. 8. My Glory will I not give to another) that he is so well acquainted with mens thoughts and intentions. Charity, saith the1 Cor. 13. 5. Apostle, thinketh no evil, whereas this Caviller thinks little good. We are bound to believe the best of such Founders, especially of such who lived Since the Reformation, whereby the dangerous Error of merit was exploded.

Cavil. 4. Grant them guiltlesse of Superstition, they are guilty of Vain-glory. Witness the building of such houses commonly by high▪way sides, whenas our Saviour saith, Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth.

Answer. The Objecter shall have leave to build his Alms▪house, in what private place he please; in the middle of a Wood, if he shall think fitting, (But we know* Matth. 5. 16. who saith) Let your Light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glo­rifie your Father which is in heaven. That they may see yours good works, though not as finis operis, yet as modus operandi thereby to provoke others to imitation.

Cavil. 5. As some affirm of Tobacco, that it causeth as much Rheume as it bringeth away: Alms-houses do breed as many Poor as they relieve. People in such places, presume to be idle, beholding Hospitals as their Inheritance, wherein their old age shall be provided for.

Answer. What is good per se, ought not to be waved for what is ill per a dens This calleth aloud, to the care and integrity of Feoffees intrusted, to be wary in their elections. Besides, I must stick to mine old Maxime, It is better that Ten Drones be fed then one Bee be famished.

Cavil. 6. Such places are generally abused against the will of the Founders. Statutes are neglected. What is said of the Laws in Poland, that they last but three dayes, is as true of the short lived orders in Alms-houses. Not the most indigent, or who have been the most laborious, but the best befriended reap the benefit thereof.

Answer. I could wish that Alms-houses were the only places, wherein Laws were broken. But grant too much truth in the Cavil, all will say from the beginning it was not so, and I will hope, Unto the end it shall not be so.

[Page 36] Cavil. 7. Hospitals generally have the Rickets, whose heads, their Masters, grow over great and rich, whilest their poor bodies pine away and consume.

Answer. Surely there is some other cure for a Ricketish body, than to kill it, viz. by opening obstructions and deriving the Nutriment to all parts of the same. But, enough of this unwelcome Subject, whereof what is spoken, is not to put new Cavils into the heads of any, but to pluck old ones out of the hearts of too many, who have entertained them. If these our Answers seem not satisfactory to any; Know, that as a left handed man hath great odds in Fencing, against one that is right handed: So in Con­troversies of this kind, Cavillers with their sinister inferences from mens frailties, have a vast advantage over those, who are of candid and ingenuous dispositions. Many faults must be confessed in such Foundations, which for the future may be amen­ded.

But, grant corruptions should continue in such foundations, it is not plea enough for their abolition. If the sentence of condemnation was pronounced on those, who saw Christ naked, and would not* cloth him; how heavy a doome will fall on such,Mat. 25. 43. who found Christ clothed, and stript him in his poor Members of endowments given to their maintenance?

Here let me recommend some choice Charity to bountiful Hearts and plentiful Estates.

It were arrant presumption for any to imprison freedome it self, and confine ano­thers Bounty by his own [pretended] Discretion. Let the charitably minded do what, when, where, how, to whom, and how much, God and their own goodnesse shall direct them. However it will not be amisse humbly to represent unto them the follow­ing considerations: The rather because many well affected to the publick good, have lately been disheartned with the frustrations of former Charity.

First, for the time: it is best to do it whilest they are living, to prevent all suspicions that their intentions should be misimployed. Sem will not be angry with me for saying Cham was a Mocker of his Father. Peter will not be offended if I call Judas a betray­er of his Master: Honest Executors will take no exception if I justly bemoan that too many dishonest ones have a [...]used the good intents of the Testators. How many Legacies sound and whole in themselves have proved before they were payed, as maimed as the Cripples in the Hospitalls, to whom they were bequeathed? Yea as the blinded Syri­ans (desiring to go, and beleiving they went to 2 King. 6. 20. Damascus) were led to their Enemies, and into the midst of Samaria, so is it more then suspicious, that many blind and con­cealed Legacies, intended for the Temple of God, have been imployed against the God of the Temple.

Next for the objects of well doing. Surely a vigilant Charity must take the Alarum from the Groans of the Prisoners.

The Schoolmen reduce all Corporal Charity to seven principal heads,

1 Visito1 Visit men in Misery1
Jer. 38. 11.
1 Jeremiah
2 Poto2 Give drink to the Thirsty2
1 Kin 18. 13
2 The Prophets
3 Cibo3 Meat to the Hungry3
Neh. 5. 17.
3 The Jews & Rulers
4 RedimoTo 4 Rescue the CaptiveAs 4
Gen. 14. 16.
did to 4 Lot
5 Tego5 Cover the Naked5
Acts 9. 39.
5 The Widowes
6 Colligo6 Dress the Wounded6
Acts 16. 33.
The good Jaylor
6 Saint Paul
7 Condo7 Bury the Dead7 The Devout men.7 Saint Stephen.
* Acts 8. 2.

See here how these 7. kinds of good Works are placed like the Planets, whilst to Redeem Captives, stands like the Sun in the midst of all the rest.

Indeed it may be sadly presumed; that such Captives oft times want Visiting, Meat, Drink, Clothes, Dressing, and all things but burying (except any will say, that they are buryed alive; Liberty being the Life of mans life) so that the Redeeming of Captives is eminently comprehensive of all these outward acts of Charity. Yea this Act may extend it self to a Spiritual Concernment; to save many Souls from Damnation; seeing it may be feared that many dispairing of Ransome, may put their Souls in Thral­dome [Page 37] to purchase the Liberty of their Bodies, and renounce their Religion.

could therefore wish, That there were in London, a Corporation of able and ho­nest Merchants (whereof that City affordeth a plentiful choice) legally impowered to receive and imploy the charity of well affected people for a General Goale Delivery, of all English Captives, in Tunis, Tripoli, Algier, Salli, &c. And our Countrymen first discharged, if there were any Surplusage running over, that it might be disposed for the ransoming of Christians of what Country soever. This were a Heroick Act indeed, whereby Christians endevour to be like Christ himself, who was the Grand Redeem­er.

Oh, that I might be but instrumental (in the least degree) to advance their En­largement; I should behold it as an advancement to my self. Two Reasons make me the more importunate therein; One, because the Papists had a Company of Fryers in England, of the Order of the Holy Trinity, De Redimendis Captivis, which being now extinct, I humbly conceive that we are bound in Conscience, as to quench the Superstition, so to continue the Charity of so good a design. Secondly, because whilst other Beggars can tell their own Tale, we must plead for them who cannot plead for themselves; There being so great a Gulf of distance betwixt us and them; And God grant, That we may never passe over to theirs, but they return to our Condition.

Objection, 1. It maketh Marriners Cowards, who presuming on good mens charity, that they shall be ransomed, do not fight it out valiantly against the Turks, as they ought and might, but surrender themselves on such expectations.

Answer. I see not but the same Objection lies with equal force against the Redeem­ing of Souldiers taken in land Fights, by what Foe soever, by exchange, or other­wise. Secondly, accidentall and sinister miscarriages, ought not to discourage any sin­cere intention. Lastly, let those, who have given the best testimonies of their Va­lour, be first redeemed, and let them lye longer, to suffer bad usage, till the fee­ling thereof, shall convert them into more valour, if (after their Liberty procured) ingaging again on the same occasion.

Objection, 2. The late Long Parliament made an Act, since (after some intermission) renewed, charging a Taxe on Merchants Goods (known by the name of Algier Dutie) for the Redemption of Captives in Turkey.

Answer. The blessing of God light on the hearts of those (if living) who first moved, and since revived it, as I doubt not but those departed this life, have found their Reward. I could heartily wish, that yearly a Catalogue were printed of the names of such prisoners thereby redeemed, not knowing whether it would be more honourable for, or Satisfactory to this Nation. But seeing such provisions fall short of doing the Work, and cannot strike home to break off the Fetters of all Prisoners, It will not be amiss to implore the auxiliary Charity of others.

Next I desire them to reflect upon aged sequestred Ministers; whom with theirReader, this passage being written some 3. years since, I could not command my own right hand to cross it out, but it must stand as it did. charge, the (generally ill paid) fifth part will not maintain, say not it will be in­terpreted an affront to the State to Releive them, which it hath adjudged Offenders. If the best of beings should observe this Rule, all the World would be starved. Secondly, some of them, abateing only that their Conscience inclined them to the Royal Cause, were otherwise unblameable both in Life and Doctrine. Thirdly, the better Divines they were, the worse they are able to shift for themselves, having formerly no excur­sion into secular affairs, so that applying themselves only to, and now debarred the exercise of the Ministry, they are left in a sad condition. Lastly, allow them faulty, yet quid teneri infantes? &c. It is pity their Wives and Children should be ruined for their offence, but enough hereof, seeing in motions of this Nature, a word is enough to the wise, and half a word too much for others.

Lastly, I recommend unto their Charity, such Servants who have nothing save what they have gained by their industry, and have lived seven years and upwards, with the same Master, I mean not Apprentices, but such Covenant Servants, which are bound to their Masters (their year being ended) with no other Indentures then their own discretion, and are sensible that they must run a hazard, and may loose with their alteration. Especially such Females, who prefer a good Master in certain, before a good Husband in hopes, and had rather serve in plenty, then wed and adventure Poverty.

[Page 38]I confess such is the cruelty of some Masters, no Servant can, and such the fickle­nesse of others, no Servant may stay long with them. Such a Master was he, who being Suitor to a Gentlewoman, came every time he visited her, waited on by a new man (though keeping but one at once) such was his unconstancy and delight in Change. Whereupon when taking leave of his Mistresse, he proferred to salute her spare your Complements (said she unto him) for probably I shall shortly see you again, but let me, I pray you, salute your Servant, whom I shall never behold any more.

However though sometimes the [...]ault may be in the Masters, or Mistresses, yet generally Servants are to be blamed in our Age, shifting their places so often without cause. The truth is, the Age that makes good Soldiers, marrs good Servants, cancel­ling their obedience, and allowing them too much Liberty. What Nabal applied false­ly and spitfully to David (There be many Servants now a dayes which break away every 1 Sam. 25. 10 man from his Master) was never more true then now. Yea, what Tully said of the Roman Habemus vi­gilem consulem qui in consulatu suo nunqu [...]m dormivit. Consull (chose in the morning and put out before night) some Servants have been so vigilant, they never slept in their Masters houses, so short their stay, so soon their Departure.

The Ficklenesse and Fugitivenesse of such Servants, justly addeth a valuation to their Constancy, who are Standards in a Family, and know when they have met with a good Master, as it appears, their Masters know when they have met with a good Servant. It is pity but such Properties of a Houshold should be incouraged, and Bounty bestowed upon them, may be an occasion to fixe other Servants to stay the longer in their pla­ces, to the general good of our Nation.

I desire these my Suggestions should be as inoffensively taken, as they are innocent­ly tendred. [...] I know there was in the water ofJohn 6: Bethesda after the Angell had troubled it, a medicinal power. I know also that such impotent folk as lay in the five porches, were the proper Subjects to be cured: But alas! they wanted one at the critical instant, to bring their wounds and the Cure together, and to put them seasonably into the water. I am as confident that there be hundreds in England, really willing and able to Releive, as that there are Thousands that do desire, and in some sort deserve their charity. But there wanteth one in the pr [...]per juncture of time, to present such poor objects, to their liberality, and if these my weak endevours may be in any de­gree instrumentall to promote the same, it will be a great comfort unto me.

I will conclude this Subject with a motive to Charity, out of the Road of, besides, if not against the ordinary Logick of Men.

Eccles. 11. [...].
Give a portion to Seven and to Eight, for thou knowest not what evill shall be upon the Earth.

To Seven and to Eight, that is, extend thy Bounty to as high a Proportion of de­serving persons, as can consist with thy Estate, for thou knowest not what evill will be upon the Earth, Matters are mutable, and thou mayest need the relief of others.

Ergo, saith the Miser, part with nothing, but keep all against a Wet day, not so, So­lomon, advising to secure somewhat in a safe bank, the backs and bowels of the Poor. Never Evil more likely to, never People less knowing of the same then our selves. And there­fore the Counsell never out of, is now most in season.

Why Benefactors Since, are distinguished from them, Before the Reformation.

I conceive it not fit to mingle both together, for these two Reasons▪ First, because of the difference of their Charity Since the Reformation, as not parched up by the Fear of the Fire of Purgatory, but kindly ripened by the Sun, viz. A Clear Apprehension by the Light of the Scripture, that they were bound to do good Works.

Secondly, because a RomishMr. Knot the Jesuite. Goliah hath defied our English Israel, taxing our Church Since the Reformation, as able to shew few considerable pieces of Charity, in comparison of those beyond the Seas, who may hence be easily confuted.

[Page 39]Indeed when I read the emulations between Peninna and Hanna, it mindeth me of the contests betwixt the Church of Rome and us, such the conformity between them.

Her 1 Sam. 1. 6. Adversary provoked Hanna sore, for to make her fret, because the Lord hath shut up her Womb.

But how did Hanna rejoyce afterwards? The See the Life of Mr. William Lambert in Kent. Barren hath born seven, and she that hath many Children, is waxed feeble.

It is confessed immediately after the Refor­mation, Protestant Religion stood for a while in amaze (scarcely recovered from the Mari­an Persecutitn) and was but1 Sam. 2. 5. barren in good works. But since her beginning to bear fruit, she hath overtaken her Roman Corrival, and left her fairly behind.

Let the extent of time, and content of ground be proportionably stated, and England cannot be matched for Deeds of Charity in any part of Spain, France, and Italy, as by the ensuing Catalogue of Benefactors to the Publick will appear.

Objection. You had better omitted them, leaving them modestly to multiply and in­crease in their own silence and secresie. You know how dear David paid for2 Sam. 24. 15 numbring the people.

Answer. David did not offend in meer numbring the people, but in not paying the Poll-money, appointed byExod. 30. 12. God in such cases (purposely to decline the Plague) which omission argued his Pride of heart. It is lawful for Protestants, without any just sus­picion of Vain▪ glory and Ostentation, to make a list, and take the number of Bene­factors in this kind, provided the Quit-rent of praise, be principally paid to the Lord of Heaven. Besides we are not Challengers, but Defenders of our selves herein, against the challenge of another, desiring to do it in all humility, in confidence of our good cause.

And here I can hold no longer, but must break forth into a deserved commenda­tion of good works. Glorious things in Scripture are spoken of you, yea fruits of the spirit. By them the Gospel is graced, wicked men amazed, some of them converted, the rest of them confounded, weak Christians confirmed, poor Christians relieved, our faith justified, our reward in Heaven by Gods free grace amplified; Angels rejoyce for them, Devils repine at them, God himself is glorified in them. Oh therefore! That it were in my power, to exhort my Countrymen, to pursue good works with all earnestnesse, which will add so much to their account.

Some will say, if the English be so forward in deeds of Charity, as appeareth by what you said before, any exhortation thereunto is altogether supers [...]uous.

I answer, the best disposed to Bounty may need a Remembrancer; and I am sure that Nightingale, which would wake, will not be angry with the Thorn which prick­eth her Breast when she noddeth. Besides, it is a Truth what the Poet saith,

Qui monet ut facias quod jam facis, ipse monendo
Laudat, & hortatu comprobat acta suo.
Who, what thou dost, thee for to do doth move,
Doth praise thy Practice, and thy Deeds ap­prove.

Thus the exhortations of the Apostles at Jerusalem, were commendations of St. Paul, Only they would that we should remember the poor, the same which I also was forward to do.

Lastly, though many of our Nation be free in this kind, there want not those, who instead of being Zealous are Jealous of good works, being so far from shining them­selves, that they enviously endevour to extinguish the light of others; whose Judge­ments I have laboured to rectifie herein.

The Stating of the Word REFORMATION, with the Extensiveness thereof.

No word occurs oftner in this our Book then REFORMATION: It is as it were the Aequator, or that remarkable Line, dividing betwixt Eminent Prelates, Leaed Writers, and Benefactors to the Publick, who lived Before or After It.

Know then that this Word in Relation to the Church of England, is of above twenty years extent. For the Reformation was not advanced here, as in some Forraign Free­States, [Page 40] suddenly not to say (rapidly) with popular Violence, but Leisurely and treatably as became a matter of so great importance, besides the meeting with much opposition, retarded the proceedings of the Reformers.

We may observe that the Jews returned from the Captivity of Babylon at three dis­tinct times, under the Conduct of several persons.

  • 1. When the main Body of the Captives was brought home by
    E [...]ra. 2. 2.
    Zorobabel, by whom the second Temple was built.
  • 2. When a considerable Company returned with
    Ezra 8. 5.
    Ezra, by whom the Church part (as I may tearm it) was setled in that Nation.
  • 3. When
    Nehem. 2 6.
    Nehemiah (no doubt with suitable attendance) came home and ordered the State moiety repairing the VValls of Jerusalem.

In like manner we may take notice of three distinct Dates and different degrees of our English Reformation, though in relation to the Jewish, I confess the method was al­together inverted. For,

  • 1. The Civil part thereof, when the Popes Supremacy was banished in the Reign of King Henry the Eight.
  • 2. VVhen the Church Service was reformed, as far as that Age would admit, in the first year of King Edward the Sixth.
  • 3. VVhen the same (after the Marian interruption) was resumed and more refined in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth.

The first of these I may call the morning Star. The second the dawning of the day. The third the Rising of the Sun; and I deny not but that since that time his light and heat hath been increased.

But now the Question will be, what is to be thought of those Prelates, Writers, and Benefactors, which lived in the aforesaid Interval betwixt the Beginning and Per­fecting of this Reformation. For these appear unto us like unto the Batable ground lying betwixt England and Scotland (whilest as yet two distinct Kingdomes) in so dubious a posture it is hard to say to which side they do belong.

It is Answered the only way to decide this difference is to observe the Inclinations of the said persons so far forth as they are discovered in their Writings and actions: such as appear in some good degree favourers of the Gospel are reputed to be since whilest those who are otherwise, are adjudged to be Before the Reformation.

CHAP. XII. Of Memorable Persons.

THe former Heads were like private Houses, in which persons accordingly Quali­fied, have their several habitations. But this last Topick is like a publick Inn, admitting all Comers and Goers, having any extraordinary (not vitious) Remark upon them, and which are not clearly reducible to any of the former Titles. Such therefore, who are over, under, or beside the Standard of Common persons; for strength, stature, fruitfulnesse, Vivacity, or any other observeable emi­nence, are lodged here under the Notion of Memorable Persons, presuming the pains will not be to Me so much in marking, as the pleasure to the Reader in knowing them.

Under this Title we also repose all such Mechanicks, who in any Manual Trade have reached a clear Note above others in their Vocation.

Objection. It is Deforme Spectaculum an uncouth Sight, to behold such handy-crafts­men blended with Eminencies in ingenious professions; such a mottley colour is no good wearing. How would William Cecill, Lord Treasurer of England, and Baron of Burgh­leigh be offended, to behold James York the Blacksmith, set with him at the same Table amongst the Natives of Lincolne-shire?

Answer. I am confident on the contrary, that he would be highly pleased, being so great a Statesman, that he would countenance and encourage his Industrious Country man, accounting nothing little, without the help whereof, greater matters can either [Page 41] not be attained or not long subsist. Yea, we see what signal notice the Spirit of God takes of the Gen. 4. 21, 22, 23. three Sons of Lamech, the first Founders of Tent-making, Organs, and Iron­works; and it is observable, that whereas all their names are forgotten, which built the Tower of Babel (though done on design to get them a Gen. 11. 4. name) these three Me­chanicks, viz. Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal Cain, are nominatim recorded to all poste­rity. Thus is it better to bottome the perpetuity of ones memory, on honest Industry and ingenuous diligence, then on Stately Structures and expensive magnificence.

I confesse it is easier to add to any art than first to invent it, yet because there is a perfection of degrees, as well as Kinds, Eminent Improvers of an art may be allowed for the Co-inventers thereof, being Founders of that accession, which they add there­unto, for which they deserve to be both regarded and rewarded.

I could name a worshipful Family in the South of England, which for 16. several descents, and some hundreds of years, have continued in the same stay of Estate, not acquiring one foot of Land, either by match, purchase, gift, or otherwise, to their ancient Patrimony. The same may be said of some handycrafts, wherein men move in the same compasse, but make no further progresse to perfection, or any considerable improvement, and this I impute generally to their want of competent encouragement.

CHAP. XIII. Of Lord Maiors of LONDON.

I Have concluded this Work with these Chief Officers in that great City. A place of so great Honour and Trust, that it hath commonly been said, that on the death of an English King, The Lord Maior is the Subject of the greatest Authority in England, Many other Offices determining with the Kings Life (till such time as their Charters be renewed by his Successor) whereas the Lord Maiors Trust continueth for a whole year, without any renewing after the Inter-Regnum.

Objection. Such persons had better been omitted, whereof many were little better then [...], Though by good fortune they have loaded themselves with Thick clay, and will be but a burden in your Book to the Readers thereof.

Answer. All Wise men will behold them under a better Notion, as the Pregnant proofs of the truth of 2. Proverbs, not contradictory, but confirmatory one to another.

Prov. 10. 22.Prov. 10. 4.
The Blessing of the Lord maketh Rich.The hand of the Diligent maketh Rich.

The one as the principal, the other as the Instrumental cause, and both meeting in the persons aforesaid.

For though some of them were the Younger Sons of Worshipful and Wealthy Parents, and so had good Sums of Money left them; Yet being generally of mean extraction, They raised themselves by Gods Providence, and their own Painfulness. The City in this Respect, being observed like unto a Court, where Elder Brothers commonly spend, and the younger gain an Estate.

But such Lord Maiors are here inserted, to quicken the Industry of Youth, whose Parents are only able to send them up to (not to set them up in) London. For wha [...] a comfort is it, to a poor Apprentice of that City, to see the Prime Magistrate there­of, Riding in his Majoralibus with such Pomp and Attendance, which another day may be his hap and happiness.

Objection. It commeth not to the share of one in twenty thousand, to attain to that Honour; and it is as impossible for every poor Apprentice in process of time to prove Lord Maior, as that a Minum with long living mould become a Whale.

Answer. Not so, the later is an utter Impossibility as debarred by nature, being Fishes of several kinds. Whereas there is a Capacity in the other, to arive at it, [Page 42] which puts hopes (the only Tie which keeps the heart from breaking) into the hearts of all of the attainablenesse of such preferment to themselves.

Doctor Hutton Arch-bishop of York, when he came into any Great Grammar School (which he did constantly visit in his visitations) was wont to say to the young Scholars, Ply your Books Boys, ply your Books, for Bishops are old men, and surely the possibility of such dignity is a great Encouragement to the Endévours of Students.

Lord Maiors being generally aged, and always but Annual, soon make Room for Succession, whereby the Indevours of all Freemen in Companies are incouraged. But if they should chance to fall short, as unable to reach the Home of Honour (I mean the Majoralty it self, yet if they take up their Lodgings at Sheriffe, Alderman, and Common-Councellour with a good Estàtè, they will have no cause to complain.

I confess some Counties in our ensuing Discourse, will appear Lord-Maior-less, as Cumberland, Dorset-shire, Hant-Shire, &c. However though, hitherto, they have not had, hereafter they may have Natives advanced to that Honour, and it may put a lawful Ambition into them, to contend who shall be their Leader, and who should first of those Shires attain to that Dignity. As lately Sir Richard Cheverton Skinner descended (I assure you) of a right antient and worshipful Family, was the first in Cornwall, who opened the Dore for others (no doubt) to follow after him.

Nor must it be forgotten that many have been Lord-Maiors Mates, though never rémembred in their Catalogues, viz. Such, who by Fine declined that Dignity, and as I am glad that some will Fine, that so the Stock of the Chamber of London may be increased, so am I glad that some will not fine, that so the State of the City of London may be maintained.

I begin the observing of their Nativities, from Sir William Sevenoke, Grocer, Lord Maior 1418. For though there were Lord Maiors 200. years before, yet their Birth­places generally are unknown. It was, I confess, well for me in this particular, that Mr. Stow was born before me, being herein the Heir of Endevours, without any pain of my own. For knowing that Cuilibet Artifici in sua Arte est credendum, I have followed him and who him continued, till the year 1633. at what time their Labours do determine. Since which Term, to the present year, I have made the Catalogue out by my own Inquiry, and friends Intelligence. To speak truth to their due praise, one may be generally directed to their Cradles, though by no other Candle, then the Light of their good works, and Benefactions to such places.

CHAP. XIV. A Catalogue of all the Gentry in ENGLAND, made in the Reign of King HENRY the Sixth, why inserted in our Book.

AFter we have finished the Catalogue of the worthy Natives of every Shire, We present the Reader with a List of the Gentry of the Land, sollemnly retur­ned by select Commissioners into the Chancery, thence into the Records in the Tower on this occasion.

The Commons in Parliament complained, that the Land then swarmed with Pilours, [...]obbers, Oppressers of the People, Man-stealers, Fellons, Outlaws, Ravishers of Women, Unlawful Haunters of Forrests and Parks, &c. Whereupon it was ordered, for the suppressing of present and preventing of future mischeifs, that certain Commissioners should be impowered in every County, to summon all persons of Quality before them, and tender them an Oath, for the better keeping of the Peace, and observing the Kings Laws both in themselves and Retainers.

Excuse me, Reader, if I be bold to in [...]pose my own Conjecture, who conceive, what ever was intended to palliate the Businesse, The Principal Intent was, to detect and suppress such who favoured the Title of York; which then began to be set on foot, and afterwards openly claimed, and at last obtained the Crown. 2. Even-done,

Of the method general used in this Catalogue.

The first amongst the Commissioners is the Bishop of their Diocesse, put before any Earl, partly because he was in his own Diocesse, partly because giving of Oaths (their proper work) was conceived to be of Spiritual cognisance.

Besides the Bishop, when there were three (as generally) Commissioners, the first of them was either an Earl, or at least (though often intituled but Chivaler) an Actual Baron, as will hereafter appear: And which will acquaint us partly with the Peer­age of the Land in that Age.

Next follow those who were Knights for the Shire in the Parliament foregoing, and, if with the addition of Chivaler or Miles, were Knights by dubbing, before of that their Relation.

All Commissioners expressed not equal Industry and Activity in prosecution of their trust. For besides the natural Reasons, that in all Affairs, some will be more rigo­rous, some more Remiss by their own Temper, some more, some less fancyed their Imployment, insomuch as we find some Shires;

  • 1. Over done, as Oxford and Cambridge-Shires, whose Catalogues are too much allayed, descending to persons of meaner quality.
  • 2. Even done, as generally the most are, where the Returns bear a competent pro­portion to the Populousness and numerousnesse of the Counties.
  • 3. Under done, as Shropshire, York-shire, Northumberland, &c. where the Returns do not answer to the extent of those Shires.
  • 4. Not done. Which I sadly confess, and cannot help, being Twelve in number as hereafter will appear.

I dare not conjecture the cause of this Casualty, whether in such Shires, the Oaths were never Tendred, or tendred and not taken, or taken and not returned, or returned and not recorded, or recorded and not preserved, or preserved but misplaced in some Roll, which hitherto it hath not been my hap to lite upon.

It is possible that some disgusted the Kings Design, as who under the pretence of keeping the peace, indevoured to smother and suppress such, who should appear for the Title of York, whereof more in the Respective Countyes.

May the Reader be pleased to take notice, that in the Reign of Henry the Sixth, de such a place, began then to be left off, and the addition of Knight and Squire to be assumed. Yet because no Fashion can be generally followed at first, such additions are used in the Returns of some Shires, and neglected in others.

In some Counties we have the Names of a few Mechanicks, returned with their Trades, Brasier, Smith, Ironmonger, &c. Who no doubt were considerable, either in themselves, as Robustious Persons, or in their Servants as Numerous, or in their popular and tumultuous Influence of others. And grant these passing under the name of Valecti, (whereof formerly) it appears by the penalty imposed on their Recu­sancy of the Oath, that they were substantial [...] which stood (and propably could make others go) on their own Account.

Some Clergymen, not only Regular, as Abbots and Priors, but secular Parochial priests, are inserted in some Returns. These some will say might well be omitted, as nothing Informative to the Gentry of the Land, because dead Stakes in the Hedge, then un­concerned in posterity, because forbidden marriage. However I have here presented as I found them, intending neither to mingle nor mangle, conceiving that if I were found guilty either of Omissions or Alterations, it might justly shake the credit of the whole Catalogue. Indeed if the word Superstition importeth not Trespassing on Religion, and if the bare signification be adequate to the Etymology thereof, a Super Stando, for stan­ding in his own opinion too curiously, on a thing which in the Judgement of others, may not Merit so much Exquisitenesse, I here voluntarily confess my self Superstitious in observing every Punctillo according to the Original.

May the Reader be pleased to take notice that in mens proper names, some letters of like sound, are confounded in vulgar pronunciation, as V for F. Fenner and Venner, K. and C. Kary and Cary; F. and Ph. as Purfrey and Purphrey, though the name be the same in both. Sometimes the name is spelled, not truly, according to Orthography, [Page 44] but according to the common speaking thereof, which melteth out some essential Letters, as Becham for Beauchamp.

Again there is such an allusion betwixt the forms of some letters (nothing symbo­lyzing in sound) that as they are written (though not in ordinary) in Record-hand, they may easily be mistaken by Writer or Reader, through the similitude of their Chara­cter, as,


This hath put us many times to a stand, and sometimes to a loss, what letter, it hath been. But we have in all particulars conformed our Transcript to the original in all pos­sible exactness, though afterwards taking the boldness to interpose our opinion in our observations.

A later List might be presented of the English Gentry, towards the end of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth, but such would be subject to just exception. For, as the Gibeonites, though by their mouldy bread, and clouted Shooes, pretending to a long peregrination, were but of the Vicinage: So most of those Gentry, notwith­standing their specious claim to Antiquity, will be found to be but of one Descent, low enough in themselves, did they not stand on the vantage ground, heightned on the Rubbish of the Ruines of Monasteries.


REEVE (which hath much Affinity with the Dutch Grave) signifieth an Officer to oversee and order, being chief in the Shire. In Latin Vice-comes, or Vice­count. And, seeing shadows in effect are as ancient as the bodies, they may be beleived as old as Counts, and Counts as Counties, and Counties as King Alfred, who first divided England into Shires about the year of our Lord 888.

The late fashion was, that the Clerk of the Peace for each County, in Michaelmas­Term, presented to the Lord Cheif Justice of the Kings Bench, sixe or more names of able persons for that Office. The Lord Chief Justice calling the other Judges into the Exchequer Chamber (where the Attorney General, and the Sollicitour attends) pre­sented three out of that number unto the King, out of which the King pricks one, who stands Sheriffe of the County.

His Power is sufficiently known, to suppress Riots, secure Prisoners, distrain for Debts, execute Writs, return the choice of Knights and Burgesses for Parliament, empannel Juries, attend the Jud [...] [...] the Execution of Malefactors, &c.

Several Statutes9 Edward 2. Lincoln. 4. Ed. 3. 9, 5. Ed. 3. 4. have provided, that no man should be Sheriffe in any County, except he hath land sufficient in the same County, to answer the King and his people. And it is remarkable, that since the beginning of that Office, it appeareth not upon any Record, that ever any Sheriffe pro tempore failed in his Estate, but was responsi­ble in his place. Whereas it is too plain by sad Precedents, that some Receivers (being men of meaner estates) have.

Sheriffes are bound to abide in their proper persons, within the4 Hen. 4. 5. County, that they may the more effectually attend their Office. And in our Remembrance, some great persons, whose Activity in Parliament was suspected, have been made Sheriffes to keep them out of harms way, and confine them at home. But later years have dis­penced with such critical Niceties, (unreasonable that the Sheriffe himself should be a Prisoner in his own County) allowing him more liberty on the providing of an able Deputy in his absence.

Though I will not avouch it true, there may be somewhat of truth in their spiteful observation, who maintain, that the Shrevalty in ancient times was Honos sine Onere, in the middle times Honos cum onere, and in our days, little better than Onus sine honore, though [...] trust the Office will now be restored to its former honour.

[Page 45] Honos sine onere, An honour without a burden. As when Prince Edward the first, was for many years together High-Sheriffe of Bedford and Buckingham-shire; and many prime Peers of the Land, were Honorary Sheriffes, gracing the place with accepting it; living where they pleased themselves, and appointing their Substitutes to transact the businesse of the County.

Honos cum onere, An Honour with a burden, From King Edward the Third, till within our Remembrance. For the principal Gentry in every shire, of most ancient extractions and best Estates, were deputed for that place, keeping great At­tendance and Hospitality: So that as some transcripts hath for the fairness of their Cha­racter not only evened, but exceeded the Original, the Vice-comes have pro tempore equalled the Count himself and greatest Lords in the Land for their Magnificence.

Onus sine honore, A Burden without Honour, when it was obtruded on many as a punishment for the trouble and charge thereof, and laid as a burden, not on the back of that horse which was best able to carry it, but who was least able to cast it off, great persons by friends and favour easily escaping it, whilst it was charged on those of meaner estates: Though I do beleive it found all them Esquires, and did not make any so, as some will suggest.

Hence was it, that many Sheriffs were forced to consult principles of Thrift, not being bound so to serve their Country, as to disserve themselves and ruine their estates; and instead of keeping open houses (as formerly) at the Assises, began to latch (though not lock) their dores, providently reducing it to an ORDINARY expence, and no wise man will conclude them to be the less loyal Subjects, for being the more Provident Fathers.

At the end of every Shire, after the forenamed Catalogue of the Gentry, in the Reign of King Henry the Sixth, I have set down a List of the Sheriffes from the Be­ginning of King Henry the Second, untill the end of King Charles, carefully collected out of the Records. For I hope that by the former, which I call my Broad (repre­senting the Gentry of one Generation all over England) and this which I term my Long Catalogue, extending it self successively through many Ages, I hope, I say, both being put together, may square out the most eminent of the Antient Gentry, in some tolerable proportion. Most eminent, seeing I confess, neither can reach all the Gentry of the land.

For as in the Catalogue of King Henry the Sixth, many antient Gentlemen were omitted, who were Minors in age, and so uncapable of taking an Oath, so doth not the List of Sheriffs comprehend all the Gentry in the Shire, finding three sorts of peo­ple excluded out of the same.

Such who were1. AboveDischarging the Office.
2. Besides
3 Beneath

Above. Such were all of the Peerage in the Land, which since the Reign of King Edward the third were excused I am sure de facto, not imployed in that place, as In­consistent with their Attendance in Parliament.

Secondly, Such who were Besides the Place, priviledged by their profession from that Office, which may be subdivided into,

  • 1. Swordmen, Imployed in Wars beyond the Seas, thus Sir Oliver Ingham, and Sir John Fastoffe both great men, and richly landed in Norfolk, were never Sheriffes thereof, because imployed in the French Wars, the one under King Edward the Third, the other under King Henry the Fifth.
  • 2. Gownmen, as Iudges, Sergeants at Law, Barristers, Auditors, and other Officers in the Exchequer, &c.
  • 3.
    In relation to the present Mode, other­wise they also were Gown­men anciently
    Cloakmen. Such Courtiers as were the Kings Servants and in ordinary attendance about his Person.

Lastly, Such as were Beneath the Place, as men of too narrow Estates to discharge that Office, especially as it was formerly in the magnificent expensivenesse thereof, though such persons might be Esquires of right ancient Extraction.

[Page 46]And here under favour I conceive, that if a strict Enquiry should be made after the Ancient Gentry of England, most of them would be found amongst such middle­sized Persons as are above two hundred, and beneath a Thousand pounds of Annual Re­venue. It was the Motto of wise Sir Nicholas Bacon, Mediocria firma, Moderate things are most lasting. Men of great Estates in National Broiles have smarted deeply for their Visible Engagements, to the Ruine of their Families, whereof we have had too many sad Experiments, whilest such persons who are moderately mounted above the level of Common people into a Competency, above want and beneath Envy, have by Gods blessing on their frugality, continued longest in their Conditions, entertaining all alterations in the State, with the less destructive change unto themselves.

Let me add, that I conceive it impossible for any man, and difficult for a Corporation of men, to make a true Catalogue of the English Gentry. Because, what Mathematici­ans say of a Line, that it is Divisibilis in semper divisibilia, is true hereof, if the Latine were, (which for ought I know, if as usuall is) as Elegant, Addibilis in sem­per addibilia. Not only because New Gentry will every day be added (and that as I conceive justly too, for why should the Fountain of Honour be stopped, if the Channel of desert be running?) but because ancient Gentry will dayly be newly discovered, though some of them perchance for the present, but in a poor and mean condition, as may appear by this particular.

It happened in the Reign of King James, when Henry Earl of Huntington, was Lieutenant of Leicester-shire, that a Labourers son in that County, was pressed into the Wars, as I take it to go over with Count Mansfield. The Old man at Leicester, requested his Son might be discharged, as being the only Staff of his Age, who by his Industry maintained him and his Mother. The Earl demanded his name, which the man for a long time was loth to tell (as suspecting it a fault for so poor a man to confess a Truth) at last he told his name was Hastings. Cosen Hastings said the Earl, we cannot all be Top Branches of the Tree, though we all spring from the same Root, Your Son my Kins­man shall not be pressed. So good was the meeting of Modesty in a poor, with Courtesie in an Honourable Person, and Gentry I believe in Both. And I have reason to beleive, that some who justly own the Sirnames and blood of Bohuns, Mortimers, and Planta­genets (though ignorant of their own extractions) are hid in the heap of Common­people, where they find that under a Thatched Cottage, which some of their Ancest­ors could not enjoy in a Leaded Castle, contentment with quiet and security.

To return to our Catalogue of Sheriffs. I have been bold to make some breif histo­rical Observations upon them, which I hope will not be unpleasing to the Reader, whom I request first to peruse our Notes on Bark-shire, because of their publick Influ­ence on the rest, facilitating some Difficulties which return in the Sheriffes of other Counties.

After we have presented the Sheriffs names, we have annexed their addition, either of estate, as Esquire, or degree, as Knight, Baronet, &c. and this we have done always after, sometimes before K. Henry the Sixth. For, although the Statute of Ad­ditions, was made in the first of King Henry the fifth, to Individuifie (as I may say) and separate persons from those of the same name: And although it took present ef­fect in such Suits and Actions, where processe of Utlary lieth, yet was it not univer­sally practiced in other Writings, till the End of the Reign of King Henry the Sixth.

After their additions, we have in a distinct Columel, assigned the places of their Habitation, where we could proceed with any certainty, leaving some blanks to im­ploy the Industry of others. We have endevoured (as neer as we could) to observe proportion of time, in denoting their places, left otherwise our There be confuted by our Then, the date of the Kings Reign which is prefixed. If sometimes we have made a Prolepsis, with Virgil his Lavinia Litora, I mean if we have placed some Sheriffs too early in their possessions, a little before their Families were fixed there, I hope the can­did Reader will either wink or smile at the mistake.

It often commeth to pass, that the same Sheriff in the same Shire, hath two or more fair Seats. This should raise their Gratitude to God, whose own Son was not so well provided, not having where to lay his hand. In this Variety, our Catalogue presenteth but one, sometime the oldest, sometimes the fairest, and sometimes [Page 47] freely to confess) what comes first to my memory. The best is, truth doth not abate thereby, knowing so much Law; that where a man hath an houshold in two places, he shall be said to dwell in both of them; so that this addition in one of them, doth suffice.

Next to the place of Sheriffes, we set down their Arms, whereof largely in the next Chapter. We conclude the Catalogue of Sheriffes with a Comment upon them pre­senting their most remarkable Actions. Our Husbandmen in Middlesex, make a distin­ction between Dodding and Threshing of Wheat, the former being only the beating out of the fullest and fairest Grain, leaving what is Lean and Lank to be Threshed out after­wards. Our Comment may be said to have Dodded the Sheriffes of several Counties, insisting only on their most memorable actions, which are extant in our Printed Histories, otherwise my Eyes could not look into lock'd Chests (I mean) pierce into the private Records of Families, carefully concealed and kept in their choicest Cabinet. Besides, such unprinted Records are infinite (understand it in the same sense in which the strengthNahum. 3. of Tire is called * Infinite) too many for one Authour to manage, and therefore are left to such as undertake the Description of several Counties.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Coats of ARMS, affixed to such, who have been Sheriffs of Counties.

SOmething must be premised of Arms in general. They may seem in some sort to be Jure Divino to the Jews, having a Precept for the practise thereof. Every Numb. 2. 2. man of the Children of Israel shall pitch by his own Standard, with the Ensign of their Fathers house.

The use thereof is great both in War and Peace. I begin with War, because Arms had their first rise from Arms, and had a military Origination. VVithout these an Army cannot be methodized, and is but an heap of men. Like an Army (saith theCant. 6. 4. Scripture) terrible with banners. VVithout which an Army is not terrible, but ridicu­lous, routing it self with its own confusion. Now, as no Army without banners; so no banner without Arms therein. If the Trumpet give 1 Cor. 14. 8. an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battail. Now, as the Trumpet tells the time, so the banner pro­claims the place of meeting, and if it have not distinguishable Emblems therein, who shall know whither to repair to his Captain or Company?

Arms are also useful in peace, to distinguish one man from another. They be termed Nomina visibilia, visible names. For, as a name notifieth a man to the Ear, so his Arms do signifie him to the Eye, though dead many years since; so signal the service of Arms on Tombs, to preserve the memory of the deceased.

Arms anciently were either assumed or assigned. For at first men took what Arms they pleased, directed by their own fancy. A Custome still continuing in the Low­Countryes, where the Burgers chuse their own Arms with as great confidence as Trades­men make their mark, or Innkeepers set up their Signs in England. Assigned Arms were such as Princes, or their Officers under them appointed to particular persons, in re­ward of their Service. And, whereas Assumed Arms were but personal, these gene­rally were Hereditary and descended to their Families.

It is the rule general in Arms, that the plainer the ancienter, and so consequently more honourable. Arma primò nuda sine ornatu. And when a memorable Gentleman (understand me such an one, the beginning of whose Gentry might easily be remem­bred) was mocking at the plain Coat of an ancient Esquire, the Esquire returned, I must be fain to wear the Coat, which my great-great-grana-father left me, but had I had the happiness to have bought one, as you did, it should have been guarded after the newest fa­shion. Two colours are necessary and most highly honourable; though both may be Blazoned with One Word [as VARREY] (formerly born by the Beauchamps of Hatch in [Page 48] Wilt-shire, and still quartered by the Duke of Somerset) three are very honou­rable; four commendable; five excusable; more, disgraceful. Yet have I seen a Coat of Arms (I mean within the Escocheon) so piebald, that if both the Metalls, and all the Colours (seven in all) were lost elsewhere, they might have been found therein.

Such Coats were frequently given by the Heralds (not out of want of wit, but will to bestowe better) to the new Gentry in the End of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth. One said of a Coat that it was so well victualled, that it might endure a Siege, such the plenty and variety of Fowl, Flesh and Fish therein; though some done so small, one needed a magnifying glass to discover them; but such surfeited Coats have since met with a good Mr. Camd [...]n. Physician, who hath cured many of them.

I can not but smile at his fansie, who (counting himself, no doubt, wonderfully wittie) would be a reformer of our Heraldry, and thought it fine, if it were thus ordered, that all,

1 Descended of ancient Nobility.should give their Field1 Or.
2 Extracted from undoubted Gentry. 2 Argent.
3 Advancing themselves by Sea-adventures. 3 Azure.
4 Raised by their Valour in War. 4 Gules.
5 Gown-men preferred for Learning. 5 Sable.
6 Countrymen raised by good Husbandry. 6 Vert.

Indeed, as these Metals and Colours are reckoned up in order, so are they re­puted in honour, save that the contest betwixt Azure and Gules is not so clearly decided.

Or and Azure in composition are conceived the richest; Argent and Sable the fairest coat, because setting off each other discernable at the greatest distance. The Lion and Eagle are reputed the most honorable, the Cross the most religious bearing; A Bend is esteemed the best Ordinarie, being a Belt born in its true posture athwart, as a Fess is the same worne about the middle. Things natural in the charge presented in their proper colour are best; and herbes Vert far better than Or, as flourishing better than fadeing; even stained are no stained colours when natural. But seeing the whole mistery of Heraldry, dwells more in the region of fansie, than judgment, few rules of assurance can be laid down therein.

We meet with some few coats which have reasons rendered of their bearing. Thus, whereas the Earls of Oxford anciently gave their Coat plain, quarterly Gules and Or, they took afterward in the first a Mullet or Star Argent, because the cheife of the house had a Falling-star (as my Camdens re­ [...]ains in the [...]itle of Ar­mory. Authour saith) alighting on his shield, as he was fighting in the Holy-land. But it were a labour in vain for one to offer at an account, for all things borne in Armorie.

This mindeth me of a passage in the North, where the ancient and worthy Family of the Gascoignes gave for their Arms the Head of a Lucie or Pike, cooped in Pale; Whereon one merrily,

The Lucy is the Finest Fish,
That ever graced any Dish;
But, why you give the HEAD alone,
I leave to you to pick this Bone.

A Question which on the like occasion may be extended to Beasts and Fowle, whose single heads are so generally born in several Coats.

After the names and places of Sheriffs exemplifyed in their respective Counties, we have added their Arms ever since the first of King Richard the second. And, though some may think we begin too late (the fixing of Hereditary Arms in England, being an Hundred years ancienter) we find it sometimes too soon to attain at any certainty therein.

In peruseing these Arms, the Reader will meet with much observeable variety, viz. 1. That the same Family sometimes gives two paternal Coats, as,

Spencer in Northampton-shire. Quarterly Arg. and Gules, the second and third, charged with a Fret Or, over all on a Bend Sable 3. Escallops of the First. Azure a Fess Ermin betwixt 6. Sea Meaws heads erased Arg.

Sometimes two distinct Families and Names, give the self same Coat, as in Bark­shire,

FettiplaceGules 2 Cheverons Argent.

The same name; but being distinct Families in several Counties, give different Arms.

  • In Leicester-shire, Barry of 6. Argent and Azure, in Chief 3. Torteauxes.
  • In Northumberland, Gules a Lyon Rampant with a Border engrailed Argent.

The same Name in the same Shire, being distinct Families, gives different Coats, as in Northampton shire.

  • Of Greens-Norton, Azure three Bucks trippant Or.
  • Of Drayton, Argent a Cross engrailed Gules.

The same name and Family in the same Shire, gives the same Coat for Essentials, but disguised in Colours as in Northampton-shire.

  • Of Lifden.
  • Of Newton.

The same Family giveth a Coat this day, bearing some general allusion to, but much altered and bettered from what they gave some sixty years since, and forbearing to give an instance hereof, for some reason, I refer it to the Readers Discovery.

Contented with the Coat it self, I have not inserted the differences of younger Houses, Crescents, Mullets, Martlets, &c. Chiefly because they are generally com­plained of, and confessed as defective, subject to coincidence, and not adequate to the effectual distinguishing of the branches from the same root.

As the affixing of Differences if done, were imperfect, so the doing thereof, is not only Difficult, but also Dangerous. Dangerous, for it would bring many Old houses (and new ones too) on his Head, who undertakes it, so undistinguishable are the Seni­orities of some Families, parted so long since, that now it is hard to decide, which the Root, and which the Branch. I remember a Contest in the Court of Honour, betwixt the two Houses of Constable, the one of Flamborongh head, the other of Constable-Burton, both in York-shire, which should be the Eldest. The Decision was, it was never decided, both sides producing such ancient Evidences, that in mounting up in antiquity like Hawks, they did not only Lessen but fly out of Sight, even beyond the Kenn and Cognizance of any Record. The Case I conceive occurs often betwixt many Families in England.

Some names we have left without Arms. Physicians prescribe it as a Rule of health, to rise with an appetite; and I am loth the Reader should fill himself with all which he might desire. But (not to dissemble) I could not with all mine own, and friends skill and industry, attain their Coats, as of Families either extinct in those Counties before the first, or only extant therein since the last Visitation of Heralds. Yet let not my ignorance be any mans injury, who humbly desireth, that such Vacuities may hereafter be filled up by the particular Chorographers of those respective Counties.

This I am sure, A needle may be sooner found in a Bottle of Hay, (a task though dif­ficult, yet possible to be done) than the Arms of some Sheriffs of Counties be found in the Heraulds Visitations of the said Counties. For many were no Natives of that Shire, but came in thither occasionally from far distant places. Thus the Arms of Sir Jervis Clifton (thrice High-Sheriff of Kent in the Reign of King Henry the Sixth) are invisible in any Kentish Heralds Office, as not landed therein himself though living at Braburn, on the Jointure of Isabel his Wife, the Villare Cant, pag. 26. Widdow of William Scot Esq and I doubt not but instances of the same Nature frequently are found in other Coun­ties.

We will conclude this Discourse of Arms with this memorable Record, being as ancient as the Reign of King Henry the Fift.

Claus. 5. Henrici Quinti Membrana 15. in Dorso in Turre Londinensi.

Rex Vic▪ Salutem. &c. Quia prout informa­mur diversi [...]omines qui in viagiis nostris an­te haec tempora factis, Arma & Tunicas Ar­morum vocat. Coat Armours in se susceperunt, ubi nec ipsi, nec eorum Antecessores hujus­modi Armis ac Tunicis Armorum temporibus retroactis usi fuerint & ea in presenti viagio nostro in proximo Deo dante faciend. exer­cere proponant; Et quanquam Omnipotens suam gratiam disponat prout vult in naturali­bus, equaliter Diviti & Pauperi; volentes tamen quemlibet Ligeorum nostrorum predi­ctorum juxta status sui exigentiam modo de­bito pertractari & haberi. Tibi praecipimus quod in singulis locis intra Ballivam tuam, ubi per breve nostrum nuper promonst. facien­dis proclamari facias, quod nullus cujuscunq, status, Gradus, seu conditionis fuerit, hujus­modi Arma sive Tunicas [...]rmorum in se su­mat, nisi ipse jure Antecessorto vel ex dona­tione alicujus ad hoc su [...]ficientem potestatem habentis ea possideat aut possidere debeat. Et quod ipse Arma sive Tunicas illas ex cujus do­no obtinet, die Monstrationis suae personis ad hoc per nos assignatis seu assignandis manifeste demonstret Exceptis illis qui nobiscum apud Bellum de Agincourt Armu portabant sub poe­nis non admissionis ad proficiendum in viagio praedicto sub numero ipsius cum quo retentus existit, ac perditionis Vadiorum suorum ex causa praedicta praeceptorum, nec non rasura, & ruptura dictorum armorum & Tunicarum vocat. Coat-armours, tempore monstrationis suae praedicto, si ea super illum monstrata fuerint seu inventa, & hoc nulla tenus omit­tas, T. R. apud Civitatem,

Per ipsum Regem.

The King to the Sheriff health, &c.

Because there are divers men as we are informed, which before these times in the Voyages made by us, have assumed to themselves Arms and Coat-Armors where neither they nor their Ancestors in times past used such Arms or Coat Armours, and propound with them­selves to use and exercise the same in this present Voyage which (God wil­ling) we shortly in [...]end to make. And although the Omnipotent disposeth his favours in things Natural, as he pleaseth, equally to the Rich and Poor, yet We willing that every one of our Leige Subjects, should be had and Handled in due manner, according to the Exigence of his State and Condition. We com­mand thee, that in every place within thy Bailiwick, where by Our Writ we have lately shewn, you cause to be proclaimed, that no man of what State Degree or Condition soever he be, shall take upon him such Arms or Coats of Arms, save he alone who doth pos­sesse or ought to possesse the same, by the right of his Ancestors, or by Do­nation and Grant of some, who had sufficient power to assign him the same. And that he, that useth such Arms or Coats of Arms, shall on the day of his Muster, manifestly shew to such persons assigned, or to be assigned by us for that purpose, by virtue of whose gift he enjoyeth the same. Those only ex­cepted who carried Arms with us, at the Battle of Agincourt; uuder the pe­nalties not to be admitted to go with us in Our foresaid Voyage under His Command by whom he is for the pre­sent retained, and of the loss of his wages, as also of the rasing out, and breaking off the said Arms called Coat-Armours at the time of his Muster aforesaid, if they shall be shewed upon him, or found about him. And this you shall in no case omit.

Consimilia Brevia diriguntur Vicecom. Wilts, Sussex, Dors. sub eadem data.

I could wish a reviving of this Instrument in our Age, many Up-starts in our late Civil wars, having injuriously invaded the Arms of ancient Families.

CHAP. XVII. Of the often Altering of Sirnames, and the Various Writing thereof.

HAving dealt so largely in Sirnames, it is necessary to observe, that Sirnames of Families have been frequently altered, some Families deposing their Old, and assuming new names on several occasions: But cheifly for,

1. Concealment in time of Civil Wars. A Name is a kind of Face, whereby one is known; Wherefore taking a false name is a Vizard whereby men disguise them­selves, and that lawfully enough, when not fradulently done to deceive others, but discreetly in danger, to secure themselves: Thus during the Contest 'twixt York and Lancaster, Carington in Warwick-shire took the name of Smith. La Blunt the Name of Croke in Buckingham-shire, with many others.

2. For Advancement when adopted into an estate, as Newport the Name of Hatton, in Northampton-shire; Throckmorton the Name of Carew at Beddington in Surrey, as long before Westcoat the Name of Littleton in Stafford-shire.

Besides the same Sirname continued, hath been variously altered in Writing. First, because Time teacheth New Orthography, altering, spelling, as well as speaking. Se­condly the best Gentlemen anciently were not the best Scholars, and (minding matters of more moment) were some what too incurious in their Names. Besides, Writers ingrossing Deeds, were not over critical in spelling of Names, knowing well where the person appeared the same, the Simplicity of that age, would not fall out about Mis­nomer.

Lastly, Ancient Families have been often removed into several Counties, where several Writings follow the several pronunciations. What Scholar knoweth not, that [...] their Greek Name for Jupiter, is by their seven Dialects, written ten several wayes and (though not so many Dialects in England) there is a real difference betwixt our Southern, Western, and Northern Pronunciations.

Hence it is that the same Name hath been so often disguised unto the Staggering of many, who have mistook them for different.

Idem non Idem, quaeruntque in Nomine Nomen.
The same they thought was not the same,
And in their Name they sought their Name.

Thus I am informed, that the Honourable Name of Villiers is written fourteen se­veral ways, in their own Evidences, and the like (though not so many) Variations, may be observed in others.

And the Name of Roper in Darby-shire, changed from Musard to Rubra-Spatha, Rospear, Rouspee, Rooper, Roper. I insist the longer on this point, because in our Catalogue of Sheriffs, the same Sirname is variously written, which some (without cause) may impute to my carelesnesse, being the effect of my care, conforming the Orthogra­phy exactly to the Original, where such variation doth plainly appear, and however such Diversity appeareth in the Eye of others, I dare profess that I am delighted with the Prospect thereof.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Modern Battels.

IMmediately before our Farewell to the Respective Counties, we have inserted a Breviate of Modern Battels since our Civil Distempers. I need here premise no­thing of the difference betwixt a Skirmish (being only the Ingagement of Parties) and a Battle being an incounter betwixt Generals with their Armies. Nor yet of the difference betwixt Praelium a Fight or Battel, and Bellum a War, the former being a Fight in Field, the later the continuance of Hostility (which may be for many years) whilst the difference dependeth undecided. Peracto Pr [...]lio manet Bellum. And though a Truce may give a Comma or Colon to the War, nothing under a Peace can put a perfect Period thereunto.

In describing these Battels, I am for distinction sake necessitated to use the word Parliament improperly, according to the Abusive acception thereof for these latter years. Let us think and judge with the Wise, but if we do not speak with the Vulgar, we shall be Dumb to the Vulgar. Otherwise I know a Parliament properly, is a compleat Syllogisme, the Lords and Commons being the two Propositions, the King the Conclusion thereof, and our English Tongue wanteth one word to express the dissenting part of a Parliament, and I trust in God, as our Language doth not afford the Name, so our Land shall not here­after behold the Nature thereof.

These Battels are here inserted, not with any intent (God knows my heart) to perpetuate the odious Remembrance of our mutual Animosities; that Heart burnings may remain, when House burnings are removed; but cheifly to raise our Gratitude to God, that so many Battels should be fought in the bosome of so little a Land, and so few Scars and Signs thereof extant in their visible Impressions. Such, who consi­der how many men we have lost, would wonder we have any left, and such, who see how many we have left, that we had any lost. In a word, as it is said of the best Oyl, that it hath no Tast, that is, no Tang, but the pure Natural Gust of Oyl therein, so I have indevoured to present these Battels according to plain Historical truth, without any partial Reflections.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Number of Modern Shires or Counties in England; And why the WORTHIES in this Work are digested County-wayes.

I Say Modern, not meaning to meddle with those antiquated ones, which long since have lost their Names and bounds, asRob. de Glou­cester, & Co­dex, Wigornien­fis. Winchelcomb-shire united to Gloucester-shire, Camdens Brit. Howdon-Shire annexed to York-shire, and Hexham-Shire to Northumberland. As little do we intend to touch on those small Tracts of Ground, the County of Poole and the like, being but the extended Limits and Liberties of some Incorporations.

We add Shires or Counties, using the words promiscuously as the same in sense. I confess, I have heard some Criticks making this distinction betwixt them, that such are Shires which take their Denomination from some principal Town, as Cambridge­shire, Oxford-shire, &c. Whilest the rest not wearing the Name of any Town, are to be reputed Counties, as Norfolk, Suffolk, &c. But we need not go into Wales to confute their Curiosity (where we meet Merioneth-shire, and Glamorgan-shire, but no Towns so termed) seeing Devon-shire doth discompose this their English Conceit; I say, [Page 53] English Shires and Counties, being both Comitatus in Latine.

Of these there be nine and thirty at this day, which by the thirteen in Wales, are made up fifty two, England (largely taken) having one for every Week in the year.

Here let me tender this for a real Truth, which may seem a Paradoxe, that there is a County in England, which from the Conquest, till the year 1607 (when Mr. Cam­dens last Latine Britannia was set forth) never had Count or Earl thereof, as hereby may appear,

In his Conclusion of Bark-shire.Immediately it followeth.
Haec de Bark shire, quae hactenus Comitis honore insignivit neminem.In hujus Comitatus complexu sunt Paro­chiae 140.

Now this may seem the more strange, because Comes and Comitatus are relative. But, under favour I humbly conceive, that though Bark shire never had any Titular, Honourary or Hereditary Earl, till the year 1620. (when Francis Lord Norris was created first Earl thereof) yet had it in the Saxons time (when it was first modelled into a Shire) an Officiary Count, whose Deputy was termed Vice-comes as unto this day.

Why the Worthies in this Work are digested County-ways.

First, this Method of Marshalling them is new, and therefore I hope neverthelesse acceptable. Secondly, it is as informative to our judgements, to order them by Coun­ties according to their place, as by Centuries (so oft done before) according to the time; seeing WHERE is as essential as WHEN to a mans being. Yea both in some sort may be said to be jure divino, understand it ordered by Gods immediate providence, and therefore are coupled together by the Apostle, Acts 17. 26. And hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation. If of their habitation in ge­neral, then more especially of the most important place of their Nativity.

The Spirit of God in Scripture taketh signal notice hereof,Psal. 87 6. The Lord shall count when he writes up the people, That this man was born there. John 1. 44. Philip was of Bethsaida, the City of Andrew and Peter; and all know how St. Paul got his best Liberty, where he saw the first light in Tarsus a City of Cilicia.

When Augustus C [...]ar issued out a decree to taxe the whole World, it was ordered therein, thatLuke 2. 8. every own should go into his own City, as the most compendious way to prevent confusion, and effectually to advance the businesse. I find the same to ex­pedite this work, by methodizing the Worthies therein according to the respective pla­ces of their Nativities. If some conceive it a pleasant sight in the City of London, to behold the Natives of the several Shires, after the hearing of a Sermon, passe in a decent equipage to some Hall, there to dine together for the continuance and in­crease of Love and Amity amongst them: Surely this Spectacle will not seem unplea­sant to ingenuous Eyes, to see the Heroes of every particular County, modelled in a body together, and marching under the Banners of their several Eminencies.

Here may you behold how each County is Innated with a particular Genius, inclining the Natives thereof to be dexterous, some in one profession, some in another; one carrying away the credit for Souldiers, another for Seamen, another for Lawyers, ano­ther for Divines, &c. as I could easily instance, but that I will not forestall the Rea­ders Observation; seeing some love not a Rose of anothers gathering, but delight to pluck it themselves.

Here also one may see, how the same County was not always equally fruitful in the production of worthy persons; but, as Trees are observed to have their bearing and barren years: So Shires have their rise and fall in affording famous persons, one age being more fertile then another, as by annexing the dates to their several Worthies will appear.

In a word, my serious desire is, to set a noble emulation between the several Coun­ties, which should acquit themselves most eminent in their memorable off spring. Nor let a smaller Shire be disheartned herein, to contest with another larger in extent, and and more populous in persons, seeing Viri do not always hold out in proportion to Ho­mines. Thus we find the Tribe of Simeon, more numerous than any in Israel (Judah and Dan only excepted) as which at their coming out of Egypt, afforded no fewer, [Page 54] thanNum. 1. 23. fifty nine thousand and three hundred. Yet that Tribe did not yeild Prince, Preist, Prophet, or any remarkable person; Apocrypha, Judith only excepted. Multi gre­garii, pauci egregii; and Multitude with Amplitude is never the true Standard of Emi­nency, as the judicious Reader by perusing and comparing our County Catalogues, will quickly perceive.

A Case of Concernment propounded, and submitted to the Equity of the Reader.

It is this. Many Families time out of mind, have been certainly fixed in eminent Seats in their respective Counties, where the Ashes of their Ancestors sleep in quiet, and their Names are known with honour. Now possibly it may happen, that the chief Mother of that Family, travelling in her Travel by the way side, or by some other Casualty, as visit of a friend, &c. May there be delivered of the Heir of her Family. The Question is, whether this Child shall be reputed the Native of that place where his Mother accidentally touched, or where his Father, and the Father of his Fathers have landed for many Generations.

On the one side, it seemeth unreasonable to any man according to his Historical con­science, that such a casual case should carry away the Sole credit of his Nativity. This allowed, & tota Anglia Londinizabit, a Moiety almost of the Eminent Persons in this Modern age, will be found born in that City, as the Inn-general of the Gentry and No­bility of this Nation. Whether many come to prosecute Law-Suits, to see and to be seen, and on a hundred other occasions, among which I will not name, saving of house-keeping in the Countrey.

One Instance of many. I find by the Register of St. Dunstans, in the West, Lon­don, that Thomas Wentworth afterward Earl of Strafford was born in that Parish, and Christned in the Church aforesaid, his Mother big with Child, probably coming thi­ther for the conveniency of a Midwife. Now what a wrong is it to deprive Woodhouse, Wentworth in York-Shire, where his Family hath continued in a noble Equipage for many years, there possest of a large Revenue, of the honour of his Nativity?

On the other side it is clea [...] in the Rigour of the Law (and I Question whether Chauncery in this case, will or can afford any Remedy) that the Minute of the Birth of any person at any place, truly entitles the same to his Nativity. This is plain by the Statutes of those Colledges in either University, that confine Fellowships to Counties, and it will be said, transit onus cum honore, the burthen as well as the Profit is to be conveyed on the same occasion.

Reader, the case thus stated, is remitted to thy own arbitration. However thus far I have proceeded therein, in this following Work, that when such Alterations (for I can give them no better term) and accidental Straglings from the known place of their Family shall appear unto me, I am resolved to enter them in those places accor­dingly. But until I receive such Intelligence, I will confidently admit them in that place which is generally known in persons of Honour for the principal habitation of their Family.

CHAP. XX. That Clergy-men formerly carried the Register of their Birth­place in their Sirnames, and why; As also that (Since the Reformation) the Sons of the married Clergy have been as successeful as others.

IT was fashionable for the Clergy (especially if Regulars, Monks, and Friers) to have their Surnames (for Syr-names they were not) or upper-names, because su­peradded to those given at the Font, from the places of their Nativity, and there­fore they are as good evidence to prove where they were born, as if we had the de­position [Page 55] of the Midwife, and all the Gossips present at their Mothers labours. Hence it is that in such cases we seldome charge our Margin with other Authors, their Sirname being Author enough, to avow their births therein.

Some impute this custome to the pride of the Clergy, whose extraction generally was so obscure, that they did [...], were ashamed of their Parentage. An uncharitable opinion, to fixe so foul a fault on so holy a function; and most false, ma­ny in Orders appearing of most honourable Descent. Yet Richard Bishop of London, quitted Angervill, though his Father SirBurton in his Description of Leicester-sh. Richard Angervil, was a Knight of worth and worship, to be called of Bury; where he was born, and William Bishop of Win­chester waved Pattin to wear Waynfleet, though he was eldest Son toGodwins in his C [...]tal. of the Bishops in Winchester. Richard Pattin an Esquire of great ancientry.

Others say, that the Clergy herein affected to be Levi-like, Deut. 33. 9. who said to his Father and to his Mother I have not seen him, practising to be Mimicks ofHeb. 7. 3. Melchisedech, [...], without Father, without Mother, without Descent, so to render themselves independent in the World, without any coherence to carnal rela­tions. Surely some were well minded herein, that as they might have no children, they would have no Fathers, beholding the place of their Birth, as co-heir at least to their estates, to which many did [...], plenti [...]ully pay for their nursing there­in.

Question. But oftentimes it comes to passe, That there be many Towns in England, the same to a Title both in spelling and calling. So that on such uncertain Evidence, no true Verdict can be found for their Nativity. One instance of many, William of Wickham was the famous Founder of New Colledge in Oxford. But how can his Cradle be certainly fixed in any place, when it is equally Rockt betwixt twenty Villages of the same Denomination.

1 WickhamBerksKentbury
2 High WickhamBucksBurnham
3 West WickhamBucksDisborough
4 Wickham westCamb.Chilforde
5 WickhamEssexThurstable
6 Wickham S. PaulEssexHinckford.
7 Wickham BonantEssexUttlesford
* Collected out of the use­ful Book of Villare Angli­canum.
8 WickhamHantsTitchfield
9 Wickham-brux.KentSt. Austins
10 Wickham EastKentSu [...]ton
11 Wickham VVestKentIbidem
12 VVickhamLinc.Ellowe.
13 VVickham BrookSuffolkRisbridge
14 VVickhamSuffolkWilforde
15 VVickham SkeythSuffolkHartesmer
16 VVickhamOxfordBanbury
17 VVickhamSussexBramber
18 VVickhamYorkRidall
19 VVickhamYorkPickering
20 VVickham AbbeyYorkIbidem.

See here a Lottery, and who dare assure himself of the prize, having Nineteen Blanks against him. Indeed if Election should be made by the Eminency of the place, High VVickham in Buckingham-shire would clearly carry it, as an ancient Borough Town, sending Burgesses to Parliament. But all these being VVickhams alike, bring in their Claims to the aforesaid VVilliam, and how shall the right be decided? The same Question may be demanded of several other persons on the same occasion.

Answer. I confess the case often occurs, though seldome so many places be Com­petitors; wherefore herein we have our Recourse to the Circumstances in the History of such a controverted Person, and Consult the most important of them with our greatest Diligence and Discretion.

Noscitur è Socio qui non Noscetur ab ipso.
We by their Company do own.
Men by themselves to us unknown.

[Page 56]Such Circumstances may be called the Associats of a mans Life, as where they most con­versed, had their Kindred; got their Preferment, &c. And these though not several­ly, joyntly se [...]ve as so many Lights to expound the place of his Birth, and clearing the Homonymi [...] of many places, state that Town justly wherein he was born.

Thus are we not only in Bivio or Trivio, but as I may say in Vigentivio being to find Wickhams Birth amongst twenty of his Namesake Villages. But discovering John Perrot his father, richly landed about Winchester, and the principal Actions of his Life presented thereabouts, with some other Remarks, all meeting on the same Scene, one may safely conclude, that Wickham in Hamp-shire, the Eight in the aforesaid Ca­talogue) is that individual Wi [...]kham wherein this Prelate took his first degree, I mean proceeded into the Light of this World. The like Evidence (though not always so clear) hath upon diligent search directed us in Differences of the same Nature.

An EXPEDIENT when several Places claim the Birth of the same Person.

It often cometh to passe that two or more places intitle themselves to the Nativity of the same Man; Here my Endevour is to keep the Peace (as well as I may) betwixt them, as in the Instance here inserted,

Bradwardin. Cast­rum, unde ortum & nomen T. Bradwardi­nus Arch. Cant. ha­buit. Camden Brit. in Herefordshire.T. Bradwardinus Hart­feldiae natus in Dioece­si Cicestriensi. J. Bale de Script. Brit. Cent. 5. pag. 435.Tho. Bradwardinus Patria Southsaxia, ex Civitate Cice s­tria oriundus. Joh. Pits de Ang. Scrip. anno 1350.Natus fertur Bradwardi­nus Hatfeldiae, in Comi­tatu Suffolciensi. Godwin. in Catal. Episc. Londini impres. anno 1616.

See here four places challenge one man, and I am as unwilling to accuse any of fals­hood, as I am unable to maintain all in the Truth.

However the difference may thus be accomodated, Bradwardins Ancestors fetch'd their Name from that place in Herefordshire, according to Camden; though he himself was born (as Bale saith) at Hartfeld in Sussex; within the City (saith Pits) of Chi­chester, interpret him ex [...]ensively not to the Walls, but Diocesse and Jurisdiction there­of. As for Suffolk in Bishop Godwin, I understand it an Erratum in the Printer for Sussex.

Our usual expedient in the like cases is this, to insert the Character at large of the controverted person in that County, which (according to our apprehension) pro­duceth the best Evidence for him; yet so, that we also enter his name with a reference in the other respective places, which with probability pretend unto him.

If equal likelyhood appear unto us on all sides, that County clearly carries away his character, which first presenteth it self to our Pen, in the Alphabetical Order.

Thus lately, when the same Living was in the gift of the Lord Chancellour, Lord Trea­surer, and Master of the Wards, that Clerk commonly carried it, who was first pre­sented to the Bishop. However, though in the disputable Nativities of worthy men, first come, first serv'd, a Caveat is also entred in other Counties, to preserve their Ti­tles unprejudiced.

It must not be forgotten, that many, without just cause, by mistake, multiply differences in the places of mens Births. The Papists please themselves with reporting a Tale of their own inventing, how the men of two Towns in Germany fell out, and fought together, whilst one of them was for Martin, the other for Luther, being but the several names of the same person. If one Author affirms Bishop Jewel born at Buden, another at Berinerber, let none make strife betwixt these two Writers, the former naming the House and Village, the later the Parish wherein he was born, a case which often occurs in the Notation of Nativities.

That the Children of Clergymen have been as successeful as the Sons of Men of other Professions.

There goeth a common Report, no less uncharitable than untrue, yet meeting with many Beleivers thereof, as if Clergy mens Sons were generally signally unfortunate, like the Sons of Ely, 1 Sam. 2. 12. Hophnies, and Phineaz's, dissolute in their Lives, and 1 Sam. 4. 11. doleful in their Deaths; This I may call a Libell indeed, according to Sir Francis Bacon his De­scription thereof; for first, it is a Lye, a notorious untruth; and then a Bell, some lowd and lewd Tongue hath told, yea Rung it out, and perchance was welcome Musick to some hearers thereof.

It is first confest, that the best Saints and Servants of God, have had bad as well as good children extracted from them. It is the Note of Illiricus on those words of Saint John to the Elect Lady: 2 Joh. 4. I rejoiced greatly, when I found of thy Children walking in the Truth. He saith not all thy but of thy children, intimating that she had mingled Ware, Corn and Tares in those who were descended from her. Thus Aaron (for I desire to restrain my self in instances of the Priests) had Nadab and Abihu, two Levit. 10. 2. strange Fire Offerers, as well as his Godly Sons Eliazar and Ithamar. Yea, I find one of the best Fathers, having two (and those I beleive all he had) of the worst 1 Sam. 8. 3. Sons, even Samuel himself.

Nor do we deny, but that our English Clergy have been unhappy in their off-spring, (though not above the proportion of other Professions) whereof some have not un­probably assigned these causes. First, If Fellows of Colledges, they are ancient be­ [...]ore they marry. Secondly, their children then are all Benjamins, I mean the chil­dren of their Old age, and thereupon by their Fathers (to take off as much as we may the weight of the fault from the weaker Sex) cockered and indulged, which I nei­ther defend or excuse, but bemone and condemn. Thirdly, Such Children after their Fathers Death are left in their Minority, to the careless Care of Friends and Executors, who too often discharge not their due trust in their Education, whence it is such Orphans too osten embrace wild courses to their own destructions.

But all this being granted, we maintain that Clergy-mens Children have not been more unfortunate, but more observed than the Children of the Parents of other Professions. There is but one Minister at one time in a whole Parish, and therefore the fewer they are, the easier they are observed both in their Persons and Posterities. Se­condly, the Eminency of their place, maketh them exposed and obvious to all dis­coveries. Thirdly, possibly Malice may be the Eye-salve to quicken mens Sight, in prying after them. Lastly, one ill Success in their Sons, maketh (for the reasons aforesaid) more impression in the Ears and Eyes of people, then many miscarriages of those Children whose Fathers were of another Function. (I speak not this out of Intent to excuse or extenuate the Badnesse of the one, by the Badnesse of the other, but that both may be mutually provoked to Amendment.) In a word, other mens Children; would have as many Eyesores, if they had as many Eyes seeing them.

Indeed, if happinesse be confin'd unto outward Pomp and Plenty, and if those must be accounted unfortunate (which I in the true meaning of the word must interpret un­providenced) who swim not in equal Plenty with others, then that Epithet may be fixed on the Children of the Clergy. Whose Fathers coming late to their Livings, and sur­prised by Death, not staying long on them (which at the best afforded them but nar­row maintenance) leave them oft-times so ill provided, that they are forced without blame or shame to them (as I conceive) to take sometimes poor and painful Employ­ments for their Livelyhood.

But by our following Endevours it will plainly appear, that the Sons of Ministers have by Gods blessing proved as Eminent as any who have raised themselves by their own Endevours. For Statesmen George Carew, Privy Councellor of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and as able a man [absit Invidia] as the age he lived in produced, was Earl of Totnes, the same place whereof his Father was Arch-deacon. Sir Edwin San­dys, Son to Arch-bishop Sandys, will be acknowledged even by his Enemies, a man of such merit, that England could not afford an Office which he could not manage. [Page 58] For Lawyers, Sir Thomas Richardson, lately, and the never sufficiently to be com­mended Sir Orlando Bridgeman, now Lord Chief Justice, with many others. For Seamen▪ Sir Francis Drake, that great Scourge and Terror to the Spanish Pride.

If any say, these are but thin Instances out of so thick a number, de tot modo mili­bus unus, few of so many Hundreds, know we have only taken some Eminent per­sons, leaving the rest, for fear to be counted Forestallers to the Collection of the Reader in our ensuing Book.

But the Sons of Ministers have never been more successeful, then when bred in the Professions of their Fathers, as if some Peculiar Blessing attended them, whilst they continue therein. Thus of the Prelatical Clergy, we have Francis Godwin a Bishop, the Son of a bishop, and Doctor John King Son to his Reverend Father the Bishop of London. And of other Clergy men we have three Generations of the wards in Suffolk. As many of the Shutes in York shire, no lesse painful then pious and able in their Professions.

Let me add, that there were at one time 3 Fellows of Kings Colledge, Sons of emi­nent Divines, and afterwards Doctors of Divinity.

  • 1 Samuel Collings.
  • 2 Thomas Goad.
  • 3 William Sclater.

And I believe there were not severally in their Generations, men more signal in their different Eminencies.

It is easie for any to guess out of what Quiver this Envenomed Arrow was first shot against the Children of Clergy men; namely, from the Church of Rome. Who in their Jurisdiction forbid the Banes of all Clergymen, against the Law of Nature, Scripture, and the practice of the Primitive Church. And in other places unsubjected to their power, bespatter the posterity of the Clergy with their scandalous Tongues. Yet be it known unto them, the Sons of English Priests or Presbyters may be as good as the Nephews of Roman Cardinals. However, because Antidotes may be made of poy­sons, it is possible that Good may be extracted out of this false Report; Namely, if it maketh Clergy-men more careful to go before their Children with good Examples, to lead them with good Instructions; to drive and draw them (if need so requireth) with Moderate Correction seasonably used, putting up both Drye and Wet Prayers to God for his Blessing on their children. As also, if it maketh the children of Clergy-men to be more careful, by their circumspect lives, to be no shame to the Memory and Profession of their Fathers.

CHAP. XXI. General Rules for the AUTHOR and READERS. Ease.

I Have ranked all persons under their respective Titles, according to their Seniori­ties, of the ages they lived in. Good the method of the Sons of Jacob, sitting down at the Table of their [unknown] brother Gen. 43. 33. Joseph, the first according to his Birthright, and the Youngest according to his Youth. If therefore, on this account, a mean man take place of a mighty Lord, the later (as being dead) I am sure will not, and the Living Reader should not be offended thereat.

Of the Dates of Time annexed to the Persons and their Actions.

The Sun, that Glorious Creature, doth serve Mankind for a double use, to lighten their Eyes with his Beams, and Minds with his Motion. The later is performed by him as appointed for Gen. 1. 10. Signs and for Seasons, as he is the great Regulator of Time, joynted into Years and Months, carved into Weeks and Dayes, minced into Hours and Minutes.

[Page 59]At what a sad loss are such, who living in Lone Houses, in a Gloomy Winter Day, when the Sun doth not at all appear, have neither the benefit of Watches, Silent Clocks, nor of Clocks, Speaking Watches, being ready oft-times to mistake Noon for Night, and Night for Noon. Worse Errors are committed by those, who being wholy ignorant in Chronology, set the Grand-children before their Grandfathers, and have more Hysteron­Proterons, than of all other Figures in their Writings.

The Maxime, He who distinguisheth well instructeth well, is most true in the observing of the Distinction of time. It will pose the best Clerk to read (yea to spel) that Deed, wherein Sentences, Clauses, Words and Letters, are without Points or Stops, all continued together. The like Confusion ariseth, when persons and their actions are not distanced by Years, nor pointed with the periods of Generations.

I have endevoured in my following work, to Time Eminent Persons by one of these Notations, First, that of their Morning or Nativity, the second, that of their Noon or Flourishing, the last, that of their Night or Death. The first is very uncertain, many Illus­trious Men being of obscure Extraction. The second more conspicuous, when Mens Lustre attracts many Eyes to take Notice of them. Many see the Oake when grown, (especially if a standard of Remark) whilst few (if any) remember the Acorn, when it was set. The last is not the least Direction, as which is generally observed. It com­eth to pass somtimes, that their Deaths acquaint us with their births, viz. when atten­ded on their Tomb with Intelligence of their age, so that by going backward so many years from their Coffins we infallibly light on their Cradles.

Some Persons in our Works are notified by all of these Indications, most with two, and all with one of them. When we find a Contest amongst Chronologers, so that with the mutinous Ephesians, Acts 19. 32. some cry one thing, and some another, being as much dispersed in their Opinions, as the Amorites in their Persons (when defeated by Saul) so [...] Sam. 11. 11. that two of them were not left together, in such a case, I have pitched on that Date (under correction of better judgements) which seemed to me of greatest Probability.

An Apology for Qualificatives used, and Blanks left in this History.

I approve the plain Country By-word, as containing much Innocent Simplicity therein,

Almost and very nigh,
Have saved many a Lie.

So have the Latines their prope, fere, juxta, circiter, plus minus, used in matters of fact by the most authentick Historians. Yea, we may observe, that the Spirit of Truth it self, where Numbers and Measures are concerned, in Times, Places and Persons, useth the aforesaid Modificatives, save in such cases, where some mystery contained in the number, requireth a particular specification thereof.

In times.In places.In persons.
Dan. 5. 33. Darius being about threescore and two years old.Luk. 24. 13. From Jerusalem about sixty furlongs.Exod. 12. 37. About six hun­dred thousand men on foot.
Luke 3. 23. Jesus began to be about thirty years of age.Joh. 6. 19. Had rowed about five and twenty furlongs.Act. 2. 41. Added to the church about 3 thousand [...].

None therefore can justly find fault with me, if on the like occasion I have secured my self with the same Qualificatives. Indeed such Historians who grind their Intelli­gence to the powder of fraction, pretending to cleave the pin, do sometimes misse the But. Thus one reporteth, how in the Persecution under Dioclesian, there were neither under nor over, but just nine hundred ninety nine Martyrs. Yea, generally those that Trade in such Retail-ware, and deal in such small parcells, may by the ignorant be commended for their Care, but condemned by the judicious for their ridiculous curio­sity.

But such who will forgive the use of our foresaid Qualificatives (as but limping and lamenesse) will perchance not pardon the many blanks which occur in this Book, ac­counting them no better then our Flat fallingto the ground, in default of our Industry [Page 61] where they found their best preferment, especially if Convents or Dignities of signal note; as Henry of Huntington, not born, but Arch-Deacon there; William of Malms­bury, and Matthew of Westminster, no Natives of those Towns; but Monks of the Monasteries therein.

However to prevent Cavils, and avoid Confusion, and to distinguish those from the former, their Names are marked with S. N. for second Nativity, to shew, that whence soever they fetcht their Life, here they found their best Livelyhood. But when a person plainly appears born beyond the Seas, We take no notice of him, though never so highly advanced in England, as without our Line of Communication, and so not belonging to this Subject.

What REM. for Remove when affixed in the Margin doth Denote.

We meet with some persons in this our Work, whose Nativities we cannot Reco­ver with any great Probability, neither by help of History, or Heraldry, or Tradition, or Records, or Registers, or Printed, or Writen books, which hitherto have come to our hands. Now if such persons be of no Eminence, we intend not to trouble our selves and Reader with them, Let Obscurity even go to Obscurity, when we find no great note in them, we take not any notice of them. But in case they appear men of much Merit, whose Nativities are concealed by some Casualty, we are loath that their Memories, who whilst living were Worthies, now dead should be Vagrants, repo­sited in no certain place.

Wherefore we have disposed them in some Shire or other, not as Dwellers, no nor so much as Sojourners therein. But only as Guests, and we render some slight Rea­sons, why we invited them to that place, rather then another, seeing a small motive will prevail with a charitable mind, to give a Worthy Stranger a Nights Lod­ging.

However, that these may not be confounded with those, of whose Nativities we have either assurance or strong presumption. We have in the Margin charactered them with a Rem. for Remove, it being our desire that they should be transplanted on the first convincing Evidence, which shall appear unto us, to their proper place. And therefore I behold them as standing here with a Staffe in their hands, ready to pack up, and go away, whither any good Guide shall give them direction.

Always provided, that as they are set here, with little, they be not removed hence with lesse probability; an unset bone is better then a bone so ill set, that it must be broken again to double the pain of the Patient. And better it is these persons should con­tinue in this their loose and dislocated condition, than to be falsly fixed in any place, from whence they must again be translated.

Now Reader (to recollect our marginal or prefixed characters) know it is the best sign when no Sign at all is added to a name, for then we proceed on certainty; at least wise, on the credit of good Authors, for the place of his Nativity, thus the best of the house giveth his Coat plain, whilst the following differences are but the Diminutions of the younger brothers, viz.

  • 1. Amp. Where our Evidence of a persons birth is but conjectural and craveth fur­ther instruction.
  • 2. S. N. When having no aim at the place of their birth, we fixe them according to their best Livelyhood.
  • 3. REM. When wholly unsatisfied of their position, we remit their Removal to the Readers discretion.

Now seeing order only makes the difference betwixt a wall and a heap of stones, and seeing, Quibene distinguit bene docet, we conceived our selves obliged to part, and not jumble together the several gradations.

How Persons belonging to several Topicks are ranked.

It often [...] to passe, that the same person may justly be entituled to two or more [...]opicks, as by the ensuing may appear. [Page 60] for not seeking due Information. But let such know, that those Officers, who by their place are to find out persons enquired after, deserve neither to be blamed nor shamed, when having used their best diligence, they return to the Court a Non est in­ventus.

For my own part, I had rather my Reader should arise hungry from my Book, than surfeited therewith; rather uninformed than misinformed thereby; rather ignorant of what he desireth, than having a falsehood, or (at the best) a conjecture for a truth obtruded upon him.

Indeed, I humbly conceive that vacuity which is hateful in nature, may be helpful in History. For, such an hiatus beggeth of posterity, to take pains to fill it up with a truth (if possible to be attained) whereas, had our bold adventure farced it up with a conjecture, intus existens prohibuerit extraneum, no room had been left for the ende­vours of others.

What Ampliandum, so often occurring in this Book, doth import.

It is sufficiently known to all Antiquaries, that causes brought to be heard and de­termined before the Roman Judges, were reducible to two kinds.

1. Liquets.2. Ampliandums.
When the case as clear and plain, was pre­ [...] decided.When, being dark and difficult, they were put off to farther debate, somewhat alluding to our Demurrs.

Hence it is, that we find the Roman Pro Cec. 290. a. Oratour complaining of an unjust Judge, Cum causam non audisset, & potestas esset Ampliandi, dixit sibi Liquere.

I should be loth to be found guilty of the like offence in rash adjudging mens Nati­vities to places, on doubtful Evidence, and therefore when our presumptions do ra­ther incline then satisfie, we have prefixed AMP. before the Names of such persons. For when they appear undoubted English, and Eminent in their respective Qualities, it would be in us a sin of omission not to insert them; and yet being ignorant of the ex­act place of their Birth, it would be presumption peremptorily to design it without this Note of Dubitation, though on the most tempting Probabilities. Know also that when AMP. is used in the Arms of Sheriffs, it is only done in such an Exigent, where there are different Coats of very ancient Families, and largely diffused, as [Nevil, Ferrers, Basset, &c.] So that it is hazardous for me to fixe on one in such great variety.

What S. N. frequently appearing prefixed to Mens NAMES doth signifie.

When we cannot by all our indevours inform our selves of the Nativities of some eminent person, we are forced to this Refuge (so creditable, that I care not what Eyes behold us entring under the Roof thereof) to insert such persons in those Coun­ties, where we find them either first or highest preferred: and this we conceive pro­per enough, and done upon good consideration. For the wild Irish love their Nurses as well (if not better) than their own Mothers, and affect their Foster-brothers, which suckt the same breast, as much as their Natural-brothers whith sprang from the same Womb. If any say these are the wild Irish, whose barbarous customes are not to be imitated, I defend my self by the practice of more civilized people.

The Latines have a Proverb, non ubi nascor, sed ubi pascor, making that place their Mother, not which bred, but which fed them. The Greeks have but one word, [...], both for Life and Livelyhood. The Hebrews accounted that place was to give a Man his Native Denomination, where he had his longest and most visible [...], from (though not sometimes in) his Infancy. By which common mistake Jesus was intituled on the cross, of Nazareth instead of Bethlehem.

Yea, we may observe; that though generally our English Clergy [...] [...] from their Birth places: Yet some few quitted them, to be named from those [...],

[Page 62]

Two ofBishops, Writers, Arth. Lakes.Two ofSeamen, Souldiers, Sir Francis Drake.
 Physicians, Benefactors, Jo. Caius. Statesmen, Souldiers, Sir Ralph Sadler.
Three ofBishops, Writers, Benefactors, Lancelot Andrews.Three ofStatesmen, Lawyers, Benefactors, Sir Nicholas Bacon.
 Martyrs, Bishops, Writers, Thomas Cranmer. Statesmen, Lawyers, Writers, Sir Francis Bacon.
Four ofSaints, Bishops, Writers, Statesmen, Tho. Becket.Four ofLawyers, Statesmen, Writers, Benefa­ctors, William Lord Cecil.
 Confessors, Bishops, Writers, Benefactors Ed. Grindall. Souldiers, Seamen, Statesmen, Writers, Sir Walter Raleigh.

The Question is now, under what head they shall be properly placed, seeing so many lay claim unto them?

Some will say, let them be ranked in that capacity wherein they excelled. This I humbly conceive is an invidious work for any to perform. Seeing none have made me, I will not make my self a Judge in this Case, many appearing equally eminent in their several capacities, but have embraced the following Order.

First, The Titles of Saints and Martyrs carrieth it clearly from all others, I be­hold them as heavenly honours, and Glory outshines Gold; next I deny not, I have an affection for Benefactors to the Publick, and much indulge that Topick, clean tho­rough this Work, Psal. 119. David saith to God himself, thou art good, there is a clear spring, and thou doest good, there is a comfortable stream. Benefaction therefore being a God-like▪act, blame me not if under that Title, those have been ranked, who otherwise had more outwardly honourable Relations. For the rest I am not asha­med to confesse, that Casualty in such who came first, and Conveniency in such, who agre­ed best with my present occasion, regulated them in their method, and so be it they be here, the placing of them is not so much material.

CHAP. XXII. An Accommodation to prevent Exceptions about the Pre­cedency of several Professions.

IAm sadly sensible, that being to treat of the Worthies in several professions; I shall incur many mens displeasure, in not ranking th [...]m according to their own desires; the rather because there always hath been a Battel Royal about Precedency, betwixt,

  • 1. Swordmen and Gow [...]men.
  • 2. Swordmen and Swordmen.
  • 3. Gownmen and Gownmen.

Concerning the first couple, The Question▪ An doctor praecedat militem? hangeth as yet on the File, and I believe ever will, as which is often determined affirmatively in time of peace, but always Negatively in time of War.

Nor less is the contest betwixt Swordmen and Swordmen (I mean of the same side and Interest) about Priority, whether Land or Sea Captains should take place. The former they plead, that they fight on a fixed Element (not so subject as the Sea to ca­sual advantages) which being a setled Theatre of Valour, men may indifferently try their courage upon it. The Sea Captain alledgeth, that the greater danger the greater dignity, and precedency therefore due to their Profession, who encounter the Winds and the Water, besides the Fierceness and the Fury of their Enemies. Besides, it is very difficult if possible for a ship engaged in Fight, to escape by Flight, whereby [Page 63] many in Land battels easily preserve themselves.

I confess that Custome (the best Herald in controversies of this kind) hath adjudged the Precedency to Land Captains, but not without the great grudge and regret of [...] therein. We may observe in Nature, that though the water and earth make one Globe, and though Providence preserveth the Earth from being overflown by the Water, yet the Water as the lighter Element, challengeth the highest place to its self, and watcheth all opportunities, (especially when great Rain meet with low banks) to regain its superiority by Inundations. Sea Captains in like manner, though depres­sed by practice and custome to give place to Land Captains, do it with that distast and dislike, that thereby (though they cannot recover their right) they continue their claim to precedency, watching their opportunity, and now (in our so many Naval expeditions) not altogether out of hope to regain it.

Nor less the difference betwixt Gownmen and Gownmen, who should take the upper hand▪ witnesse the Contest betwixt Doctors of Phyfick, and of Canon Law, on that Accompt, the former pleading the following Instrument in their behalf.

Memorandum quod anno Domini 1384, in Vigilia Purificationis Beatae Mariae Virginis, in * Caius de Ant. Cantab. pag. 20. plena Convocatione Regentium & non Regentium, per fidem Convocatorum declaratum est, quod Doctor in Medicina dextram partem Cancellarii in Congregationibus & Convocationibus retineret & non Sinistram, Doctor vero in jure civili partem Sinistram & non dextram. Facta est haec Declaratio ex praecepto Regis Richardi Secundi post conquestum, anno Regni sui Octavo, Add to this what a great Nicholaus Vernias Thea­tinus in praefa­tione in Burle­um super Physici [...] Aristotelis. Professor of Philosophy, living in Padua anno 1482, concludeth after a long debating of the Question. Dicamus ergo cum SANCTA ROMANA Ecclesia, quod Medicina est Nobilior jure civili, quodque Medicinae Professores Domini mereantur Dici; Juristae vero Praecones.

But for all this, the Doctors of the Canon (since in England united with the Civil) Law, will not yeild unto them, pleading for themselves; First, That Professions are to take place according to the Dignity of the Subject they are employed about. Second­ly, That the Soul is more worth than the body, which is the Sphear of the Physician. Thirdly, That Canonists meddle with many cases of Soul concernment, and therefore ought to have the Precedency.

Wherefore, to prevent all exceptions about Priority, may the Reader acquaint himself with this our method therein.

  • 1. We place Princes; And both Loyalty and Civility will justifie us therein.
  • 2. Saints; As our Saviour said
    Ioh. 18. 6.
    My Kingdome is not; so their Dignity is not of this World, and therefore none I hope will repine thereat.
  • 3. 4. Martyrs and Confessors. If any grudge them this their high place, let them but give the same price they paid for it, and they shall have the same Superio­rity.
  • 5. Eminent Prelates; A distance which they might justly claim in those days above others, as generally the Lord Chancellours and Treasurers of the Land.
  • 6. Statesmen; Whose eminent Offices do warrant and avouch this their station a­gainst all opposition.
  • 7. Capital Judges; To whom this place doth of right belong.

These premised, in the next four we have observed an order without order. Some will maintain that sometimes a Ryot is as good as a Dyet: When at a Feast all meats cast together, help one to digest another. Qui vivit medice, vivit misere, sure I am, Scribit misere, qui scribit methodice, I mean, when tyed up to such strict terms of me­thod, in such cases that every misplacing is subject to exception.

I commend the no less politick then peaceable custome of the Skinners and Merchant Taylors of London, who after many long and costly suits betwixt their Companies for Precedency, to prevent future quarels agreed with themselves at last, to go first by turns or alternatly. The same method I embrace in ranking Souldiers, Seamen, Civilians, Physicians, sometimes one first, sometimes another, ringing no artificial but a meerly casual Change in the ordering their Professions. These thus ranked next follow,

12. Learned Writers. Though many of these since the Reformation, being Doctors of Divinity, may challenge Precedency of some named before, yet they will not be discontented to come last, having learned the Apostles rule, Rom. 12. 2. In honour preferring one another, and God make us as humble as we are humbled.

[Page 64]13. Benefactors to the Publick. It is good to conclude and go out with a good savour, on which account these worthy persons are placed last, to leave the grateful perfume of their memory behind them.

As for Memorable persons, they are last, last placed, because (as that Title [...] taken by us) they are cast in, as Superpondium, or Overweight, our work being ended before.

CHAP. XXIII. Of the AUTHORS from whom our Intelligence in the Following WORK hath been Derived.

THe plain English saying hath very much of downright Truth therein; I tell you my Tale and my Tale-master, which is essential to the begetting of credit to any Rela­tion. Indeed when one writeth with St. John (waving his Infallible Inspiration) that which we have heard, which we have seen with our Eyes, which we have looked * 1 Ioh. 1. 1. upon, and our hands have handled, such clogging a Book with Authors were superflu­ous, which now is necessary in him that writeth what was done at distance, far from, in time long before him.

First, to assert and vindicate the Writer. When Adam complained that he was naked, God demanded of him, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Intimating thus much,* Gen. 3. 11. that if he could not produce the person who first so informed him, he might justly be suspected (as indeed he was) the Author as well as Utterer of that sad Truth. Our Saviour said toIoh. 18. 34. Pilate, Sayest thou this thing of thy self, or did others tell thee? and all things reported are reducible to this Dichotomie, 1. The Fountain of Invention. 2. The Chanell of Relation. If one ignorantly buyeth stolen Cattel, and hath them fairly vouched unto him, and publickly in an open Fair payeth Tole for them, he cannot be damnified thereby: The case I conceive of him who writeth a falsehood, and chargeth his Margin with the Author thereof.

Secondly, To edifie and inform the Reader; Frustra creditur quod sine agnitione Ori­ginis creditur. It is vainly beleived, which is beleived without the knowledge of the Ori­ginal thereof. Yea, properly it is no Rational b [...]leif, but an easy, lazy, supine Credu­lity.

Such as designingly conceal their Authors, do it either out of Guiltinesse or Envy. Guiltinesse, when conscious to themselves, that if Inspection be made of such Quota­tions, they will be found defectively, redundantly, or Injuriously cited, distorted from their genuine Intention.

Or else they do it out of Envy. Tyrants commonly cut off the stairs by which they climb up unto their Thrones (witness King Richard the third, beheading the Duke of Buckingham) for fear, that if still they be left standing, others will get up the same way. Such the jealousie of some Writers, that their Readers would be as (if not more) knowing than themselves, might they be but directed to the Original, which they purposely intercept.

Some to avoid this Rock of Envy, run on as bad of Ostentation, and in the end of their Books, muster up an Army of Authors, (though perchance they themselves have not seriously perused one Regiment thereof) so that the Goodnesse of their Library, not Greatnesse of their Learning may thence be concluded, that they have (if with the Prophets2 King. 6. 5. Axe some were not borrowed) for I will not say have read, many books in their possession.

I have endevoured to steer my course betwixt both these Rocks, and come now to give in the particulars, whence I have derived my Information, knowing full well quantus Author, tanta Fides. These may be referred to 3. heads; First, Printed Books; Secondly, Records in Publick Offices; Thirdly, Manuscripts in the Possession [Page 65] of private Gentlemen. To which we may adde a fourth, viz. Instructions received from the nearest Relations, to those Persons, whose Lives we have presented.

We pass by Printed books, (cited in the Margin) and obvious to all who are pleased to consult them, and first pitch on the Records of the Tower. Master William Riley was then Master of those jewels, for so they deserve to be accompted, seeing a Scholar would preferre that place before the keeping of all the Prisoners in the Tower. I know not whether more to commend his care in securing, dexterity in finding, diligence in perusing them, or courtesie in communicating such Copies of them, as my occasions re­quired, thanks being all the fees expected from me.

I place next the Records in the Exchequer, for although I had a Catalogue of the Sheriffs of England lent me by Master High-more of the Pipe-office, which I compared with another, of that learned Knight Sir Winkefield Bodenham, yet bei [...]g frequently at aloss, I was forced to repair to the Originals in the Exchequer. Here le [...] not my gra­titude be buried in the graves of Master John Witt, and Master Francis Boyton, both since deceased, but whilst living advantagious to my Studies.

To these Authentick Records let me adde, the Church Registers in several Parishes, denied indeed by our Commons Lawyers, but stickled for by some Canonists to be Re­cords-fellows at least, and having though not the formality in Law, the force thereof in History, very useful to help us in many Nativities.

And here I cannot but bemoan the [...] that great G [...]lph, or broad blank left in our Registers, during our Civil Wars, after the laying aside of Bishops, & before the Re­stitution of his most Sacred Majesty. Yea, hereafter this sad Vacuum is like to prove so thick, (like the Aegyptian Darkness) that it will be sensible in our English Histories.

I dare maintain that the Wars betwixt York and Lancaster, (lasting by intermission some sixty years) were not so distructive to Church-records, as our Modern Wars in six years. For during the former, their differences agreed in the same Religion, im­pressing them with reverence of all Sacred Muniments, whilst our Civil Wars founded in Faction, and variety of pretended Religions, exposed all naked Church Records, a prey to their Armed violence.

Let me adde, that it conduced much to the exactness of Jewish Genealogies, that their children were solemnly Circumcised and Named on the Eight-day. On the con­trary, the omitting the baptizing of Infants, till they be adult, (which causeth, that though the weekly birth exceed the burials, the burials exceed the christenings in Lon­don,) will perplex those who in the next age shall write the nativities of such persons. Say not it matters not though their nativities be utterly forgotten. For though their fathers were factious Phanaticks, the sons (by Gods grace) may prove sober Christians and eminent in their generations.

The last Port to which I traffiqued for intelligence, towards our insuing Work, was by making my addresses by letters and otherwise, to the nearest Relations of those whose Lifes I have written. Such applications, have sometimes proved chargable; but if my weak pains shall find preferment, (that is acceptance) from the judicious Reader, my care and cost is forgotten, and shall never come under computation.

Here I cannot but condemn the carelessness, not to say ingratitude of those (I am safe whilst containing my self in general terms) who can give no better account of the Place, where their fathers or grand-fathers were born, then the child unborn, so that sometimes we have been more beholden to strangers for our instructions herein, then to their nearest Kindred. And although some will say Sons are more comfortably con­cerned to know the time of their Fathers death, then place of their birth, yet I could almost wish, that a moderate fine were imposed on such heirs, whose Fathers were born before them, and yet they know not where they were born. However, this I must grate­fully confess, I have met with many who could not, never with any who would not fur­nish me with information herein.

It is observable, that men born an hundred years since and upwards, have their na­tivities fixed with more assurance, then those born some eighty years since. Mens eyes see worst in the Twilight, in that intervale after the Sun is set, and natural light ended, and before candles are set up, and artificial light begun. In such a crepusculum oftime those Writers lived, who fall short of the history of Bale and Leland, yet go before the memory of any alive, which unhappy insterstice hath often perplexed us, and may easier be com­plained of, then amended.

[Page 66]To conclude, should I present all with Books, who courteously have conduced to my instruction, the whole Impression would not suffice. But I remember the no less civil then politick invitation of Judg. 1. 3. Judah to the Tribe of Simeon, Come up with me into my Lot, [to Conquer the Cananites] and I likewise will go with thee into thy Lot, if such who have lent me theirs, shall have occasion to borrow mine assistance, my Pains, Brains and Books, are no more mine, then theirs to command, which (besides my prayers for them, and thanks to them,) is all my ability in requital can perform.

CHAP. XXIII. A double Division of the English Gentry, 1. According to the Nation whence they were extracted, 2. According to the Profession whereby they were advanced.

THis discourse I tender the Reader, as a preparative to dispose him for the better observing and distinguishing of our English Gentry, in our ensuing Lives and Cata­logue of Sheriffs.

We begin with the Britains the Aborigines, or Native Inhabitants of the South of this Island, but long since expelled by the Saxons into the West thereof; None then remaining in, some since returning into our Land, of whom hereafter.

We confess the Romans Conquered our Country, planted Colonies, and kept Garri­sons therein, but their descendants are not by any character discernable from the British. Indeed, if any be found able to speak Latine naturally, without learning it, we may safely conclude him of Roman Extraction. Mean time, it is rather a pretty conceit, then a solid notion of that great Vestegan of Decayed In­telligence pag. 313. Antiquary, who from the allusion of the name collecteth the noble family of the Cecils (more truly Sytsilts) descended from the Cecilii a Sena­torian Family in Rome.

The Saxons succeed, whose Of-spring at this day are the main bulk and body of the English (though not Gentry) Nation, I may call them the whole cloath thereof, though it be garded here and there, with some great ones, of foreign Extraction. These Saxons though pitifully depressed by the Conquerour, by Gods goodness, King Henry the first favour, their own patience and diligence, put together the plankes of their Shiprack'd Estates, and aferwards recovered a competent condition.

The Danes never acquired in this Land a long and peaceable possession thereof, living here rather as Inroders then Inhabitants, the cause that so few families (distin­guishable by their Surnames) are descended from them, extant in our age. Amongst which few, the respected Stock of the Denizes, (often Sheriffs in See Camdens­Brit. in Devon­shire. Devon and Glouster­shire) appear the principal. As for Fitz-Hardinge, the younger son of the King of Denmark, and direct ancestour of the Truly Honourable George Lord Berkeley, he came in long since when he accompanied the Conquerour

I must confess, that at this day, there passeth a Tradition among some of the Common People, that such names which Terminate in Son, as Johnson, Tomson, Nicolson, Davison, Saunderson, are of Danish Origination. But this fond opinion, is long since con [...]uted by Vestegan, that ingenious and industrious Of decayed Intelligence. Antiquary. Yea, he urgeth this as an argument (which much prevaileth with me) why those Surnames were not derived from the Danes, because they had no such name in use amongst them, as John, Thomas, Nicholas, David, Alexander, from whence they should be deduced.

Yea, he further addeth, that it is more probable, that they made the Childs name, by adjecting the syllable Son to the Appellation of the Father; (a custome which is usual, even at this time amongst the Vulgar sort of the Dutch.) Yet is there not remaining any sign thereof amongst the names of our Age, which probably might have been, Canutson, Ericson, Gormoson, Heraldson, Rofolson, &c.

[Page 67]The Normans or French, under the Conquerour swarmed in England, so that then they became the only visible Gentry in this Nation, and still continue more then a Moity there­of; several Catalogues of their Names I have so largely exemplifyed in my Church-history, that some have taxed me for tediousness therein, and I will not adde an new obstinacy to my old error.

But besides these, we have some Surnames of good Families in England, now extant, which though French, are not by any diligence to be recovered in the lists of such as came over with the Conquerour, and therefore we suppose them to have re­mained of those Gentlemen and others, which from Henault attended Queen Isabel, wife unto King Edward the second. Of this sort was Deureux, Mollineux, Darcy, Coniers, Longchamp, Henage, Savage, Danvers, with many more.

Of the British or Welsh, (after their expulsion hence by the Saxons) some signal persons have returned again, and by the Kings Grant, Matches, Purchases, &c. have fixed themselves in fair possessions in England, especially since the beginning of the reign of their Country-man, King Henry the seventh, rewarding the valour of many, contributing to his Victory in the battle of Bosworth. Of the Welsh, now re-estated in England, and often Sheriffs therein, some retain their old Surnames, as the Griffins in Northamptonshire, the Griffiths and Vaughans in Yorkshire; some have assumed New ones, as the Caradocks, now known by the new Name of Camdens Brit. in Somerset­shire. the Newtons in Somerset­shire.

Many Scotch (long before the Union of the two Kingdomes under King James) seated themselves in this Land, flying hither for succour from their Civil Wars, and surely it was against their mind, if they all went back again: Distress at Sea hath driven others in, as the Stewards High-sheriffs in Cambridgeshire. As other accidents have occasioned the coming in of the Scrimpshires an hundred years since High sheriffs in Staffordshire, more lately the Nappers in Bedfordshire, and before both, the Scots of Scots-hall in Kent.

I much admire that never an eminent Irish native grew in England to any greatness, so many English having prospered in that Country. But it seems, we love to live there, where we may Command, and they care not to come where they must Obey.

Our great distance from Italy, always in Position, and since the Reformation in Reli­gion, hath caused that few or none of that Nation, have so incorporated with the English, as to have found Families therein. Yet have we a sprinkling of Italian Protestants, Castilian a valiant Gentleman, of Berkshire. The Bassanoes excellent Painters and Musicians, in Essex, which came over into England under King Henry the eight, and since in the raign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Horatio Palavicine, (Receiver of the Popes Revenues) landed in Cambridgeshire, and the Caesars (aliàs Dalmarii) still flourishing in Hartfordshire, in Worshipful Estates, though I never find any of these performing the office of Sheriff.

The High-Dutch of the Hans Towns, antiently much conversed in our Land, (known by the name of Easterlings) invited hither by the large priviledges our Kings con­ferred upon them, so that the Steel-yard proved the Gold-yard unto them. But these Merchants moved round in their own Sphere, matching amongst themselves, without mingling with our Nation. Onely we may presume, that the Easterlings, (corruptly called Stradlings) formerly Sheriffs in Wiltshire, and still famous in Glamorganshire, with the Westphalings, lately Sheriffs of Oxfordshire, were originally of German Extraction.

The Low Country-men frighted by Duke D'Alvas Tyranny, flocked hither under King Edward the sixth, fixing themselves in London, Norwich, Canterbury, and Sand­wich. But these confined themselves to their own Church discipline, and for ought I can find, advanced not forward by eminent Matches into our Nation. Yet I behold the worthy Family of De la Fountain in Lecestershire, as of Belgian Original, and have read how the ancestours of Sir Simon D'us in Suffolk, came hither under King Henry the eight, from the Dunasti or D'us in Gelderland.

As for the Spaniards, though their King Philip matched with our Queen Mary, but few of any eminence now extant (if I well remember) derive their Pedigrees from them. This I impute to the shortness of their Reign, and the ensuing [Page 68] change of Religions. Probable it is, we might have had more Natives of that King­dome to have setled and flourished in our Nation, had he obtained a marriage with Queen Elizabeth, (of Blessed Memory) which some relate he much endea­voured.

As for Portugal few of that Nation have as yet fixed their habitations, and ad­vanced Families to any visible height in our Land. But it may please God, here­after we may have a happy occasion, to invite some of that Nation to reside, and raise Families in England. Mean time the May's (who have been Sheriffs in Sussex) are all whom I can call to mind of the Portugal Race, and they not without a Mixture of Jewish Extraction.

Come we now to the second Division of our Gentry, according to the Professions whereby they have been advanced. And here to prevent unjust misprision, be it pre­mised, that such professions Found most of them gentlemen, being the (though per­chance Younger) Sons of wealthy Fathers, able to give them liberal education. They were lighted before as to their Gentility, but now set up in a higher Candlestick, by such professions which made a visible and conspicuous accession of Wealth and Dignity, almost to the ecclipsing their former condition. Thus all behold Isis, increased in name and water, after its conjunction with Thame at Dorchester, whilst few take notice of the first Fountain thereof, many miles more Westward in Gloucestershire.

The Study of the Common-law, hath advanced most antient extant Families in our Land. It seems they purchased good Titles, made sure Setlements, and entailed Thrift with their Lands, on their posterity. A Sir Edw. Coke. prime person of that profession hath pre­vented my pains, and given in a List of such principal Families, I say principal, many being omitted by him in so Copious a subject. Miraculous the mortality in Egypt, where there was not a Exod. 12. 30. House wherein there was not one dead. But I hope, it will be al­lowed Marvellous, that there is not a generous and numerous House in England, wherein there is not one, (though generally no first Born but a Younger Brother,) antiently or at this day Living, Thriving, and Flourishing, by the Study of the Law. Especially if to them (what in Justice ought) be added those who have raised themselves in Courts relating to the Law.

The City hath produced more then the Law in number, and some as broad in Wealth, but not so high in Honour, nor long lasting in time, who like Land-floods, soon come, and soon gone, have been dried up before the third Generation.

Yet many of these have continued in a certain channel, and carried a Constant stream, as will plainly appear in the sequel of our Worthies.

The Church before the Reformation, advanced many Families. For though Bishops might not marry, they preferred their Brothers Sons to great Estates. As the Kemps in Kent, Peckhams in Sussex, Wickham in Hampshire, Meltons in Yorkshire.

Since the Reformation, some have raised Families to a Knightly and Worshipful Estate, Hutton, Bilson, Dove, Neil, &c. But for Sheriffs, I take notice of Sandys in Worcester and Cambridgeshire, Westphaling in Herefordshire, Elmar in Suffolk, Rud in Car­marthenshire, &c.

Sure I am, there was a generation of People of the last Age, which thought they would level all Clergy-men, or any descendants from them, with the ground. Yea, had not Gods arme been stretched out in their preservation, they had become a prey to their enemies violence, and what they had designed to them­selves (and in some manner effected) had ere this been time perfectly com­pleated.

As for the inferiour Clergy, it is well if their narrow maintenance will enable them to leave a livelihood to their little ones. I find but one (See Benefa­ctours to the Publique in Lincolnshire. Robert Johnson by name) attaining such an estate, that his Grand-son was pricked Sheriff of a County, but de­clined the place, by pleading himself a Deacon, and by the favour of Arch-bishop Laud.

The Study of the Civil-Law, hath preferr'd but few. The most eminent in that faculty, before the Reformation being persons in Orders, prohibited mar­riage. However since the Reformation there are some Worshipful Families which have been raised by the Study in this Faculty.

[Page 69]Yet have our wars (which perhaps might have been advocated for in Turks and Pagans, who bid defiance to all humanity, but utterly mis-beseeming Christians) been a main cause of the moulting of many Eminent and Worthy persons of this Profession. Nor could it be expected that the Professors of humane laws should have been allowed favour, during our unnatural Dissentions, (the promoters thereof having a constant pique at whatever bore but the resemblance of Order and Civili­ty) when the true dispensers of Gods Laws, yea the Law of God, yea God himself, was vilified and contemned.

The best is, that as Divine Providence hath in his mercy been pleased to restore our Soveraign, so with him we have received both our ancient Laws and Liberties. And now it begins to be [...] fair weather again, as with this so with all other necessary and useful Vocations, which in due time may repair their decayed fortunes.

Physick hath promoted many more, and that since the reign of King Henry the eighth. Indeed before his time, I find a Doctor of Physick, Father to Reginald, first and last Lord Bray. But this Faculty hath flourished much the three last fifty years, it being true of Physick, what is said of Sylla, suos divitiis explevit. Sir William Butts Physician to King Henry the eight, Doctor Thomas Wendy and Doctor Hatcher to Queen Elizaheth, raised worshipful and wealthy Families in Norfolk, Cambridge, and Lincoln­shire, having born the office of Sheriff in their respective Counties.

Some have raised themselves by Sea service, and Letters of Mart, especially in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when we had war with the Spaniard. But such Estates, as flowing so have ebb'd, with the tide, seldome of long continuance. Such Prises have been observed best to prosper, whose Takers had least of private revenge, and most of publick service therein. Amongst these, most remarkable the Baronets Fa­mily of Drakes in Devonshire, sometimes Sheriffs of that County.

Some have raised themselves by their attendance at Court, rewarded by the Kings Favour. Court, where many have carried away more, for bringing the less to it. Here some Younger Brothers have found their lost Birth-right, mending their pace to Wealth, though they started late by their Nativity. But I only generally point at, without touching them, that I may not fore-stall the Reader, whose pains may be pleasant unto him, in his own discovery thereof.

Many have advanced themselves by their Valour in forreign Wars, especially in France, as the Knolls, a noble Family, and the [...]aveleys, often Sheriffs in Che­shire, so that Mars in this sense, may be said to be the father of Plutus, his Steel weapons procuring to his followers the more acceptable mettals of Gold and Silver. But the worst is, where foreign Wars have raised one, our late Civil ones, have ruined ten Families.

Some may object, that as they have destroyed, so they have raised many Families (which before in themselves were mean and contemptible) to high Titles, and large Possessions. All I shall return in answer thereunto, is that as most alive saw them rise (per saltum) by unwarrantable means to such a pitch of preferment, so there is but few alive, but may (if not willingly and willfully blind) see them deservedly thrown down with disgrace and contempt, to their former mean and despicable condition.

Clothing as it hath given garments to Millions of people, hath conferred Coats of Armes (and Gentility therewith) on many Families in this Land. As on the Springs High-sheriffs of Suffolk.

The Country with her two full breasts, Grasing and Tillage, hath raised many Families * Josephus rendreth a reason, as weak in it self, as wide from the truth, why Abells Sa­crifice was preferred before Cains, viz. Because Abell fairly took, what nature freely tendred in the increase of his Cattle, whilst Cain violently wounded the Earth with his ploughing. But Saint Heb. 11. Paul teacheth use better Doctrine, that faith caused the reception of the one, and unbelief the rejection of the other. Surely, both Callings are equally acceptable to God, who hath so blessed their indeavours, that thereby many have gained estates, inabling them to serve Sheriffs of their County. But I forbear to instance them, least what was the honour of their Ancestours to raise such Families, be counted in this Captious Age to be a dishonour to their Posterity, to be raised by so plain (though honest and necessary) an employment.

[Page 70]Some (the surer to hit the mark of Wealth) have had two strings to their Bow, a com­plication of prefessions, concurring to their advancement. Thus the Chichlies in Cambridgeshire, are descendants from a Lord Mayor; allied also Collaterally to an Arch­bishop of Canterbury.

On the main, we may observe, how happy a liberal (at least lawful) Vocation, hath proved to Younger Brethren, whereby Ephraim hath out-grown Manasse, the Younger out-stript the Heir of the Family. I knew a School-Boy, not above twelve years old, and utterly ignorant in all Logical terms, who was commanded to English the following Distick,

Dat Galenus opes, dat Justinianus Honores,
Cum Genus, & Species, cogitur ire pedes.

Onely they favoured the Boy so far, to inform him, that Galenus did signifie the Pro­fession of Physick, Justinianus of Law, on which ground he thus proceeded,

Galenus, the Study of Physick, dat, giveth, Opes Wealth,
Justinianus, the Study of Law, dat, giveth, Honores, honour,
Cum, When, Genus, high Birth, & Species, and Beauty,
[having no other calling (saith the Boy) to maintain them,]
Cogitur, is compel'd, ire Pedes, to go on Foot.

To prevent such foot-travailing, it is good to be mounted on a gainful Vocation, to carry one out of the mire, on all occasions.

CHAP. XXIV. Some General Exceptions against the Style and Matter of the AUTHOR prevented.

Exception. 1. You usurp the Style of Princes, speaking often in the plural; come we now, passe we now, proceed we now, &c. Which is false Grammar, from a Single, ill Ethicks from a private person.

Answer▪ First, I appeal to any exercised in reading of Books, whether the same be not used in other Authors.

Secondly, We, in such cases includeth the Writer and Reader, it being presumed that the Eye of the one goeth along with the pen of the other.

Thirdly, It also compriseth all other Writers, out of whom any thing is transcri­bed, and their Names quoted in the Margin.

Let me add to Gods Glory, my Friends credit, and my own comfort, that our We, is comprehensive of all my worthy Friends, who by their pains or purses, have been contributive to my weak Endevours.

Exception 2. The Worthies of England being your Subject, you have mingled many Unworthies among them, rather Notorious then Notable, except in the same sense wherein Barrabas is termed Math. 21. 16. Notable in the Gospel.

Answer. Such persons are so few, their Number is not considerable; Secondly, they are so Eminent in their Generations, that their Omission would make a maim in History; Thirdly, how bad soever their Morals, their Naturals and Artificials were transcendent, and the Oracle like Wisdome of wicked Achitophel, found praise from the 2 Sam. 16. 23. Pen of the Holy Spirit; Lastly, the worst of such men have a black line (serving pro Nigro carbone) prefixed to their Name for distinction sake.

Exception 3. You might better have omitted the mention of some Modern persons, reputed Reader, this being written in the Mid­night of our [...], I could not com­mand my hand to expunge it. Malignants by the present power, and blasted by these times in their estates.

Answer. All Persons unhappy, must not presently be accounted unworthy, especially in distracted Times. Have you not heard of that humerous Waterman on the Thames, who would carry none in his Boat, save such who would go along with the Tide, till by feeding his humour he had almost starved himself, for want of Employment? I should be as peevish as partial, should I admit those only into my Catalogue of Worthyes, who of late years did swim in plenty, seeing many have been great Sufferers, deservedly commendable by the testimony of their Adversaries.

Exception 4. You only report the Vertues, but conceal the Faults of many persons within our own memories.

Answer. I conceive my self bound so to do, by the Rules of Charity. When an Orator was to praise a person deceased, generally and justly hated for his Viciousnesse, it was suspected that he would for his Fee, force his Conscience by flattery to com­mend him, whose expectations he thus defeated, This dead person (saith he) must in one respect be spoken well of by all, because God made him; and in another respect, should not be spoken ill of by any because he is dead; & de mortuis nil nisi bonum. How much more, when men have many good Virtues, with some Faults, ought the later to be buryed in their Graves with forgetfulnesse.

Exception 5. You make many uncivil and unsatisfactory References of your Reader, to those Books which you have formerly printed, remiting them to be there further Infor­med, as if when you had invited Guests, you consigned them over (coming to dine with you) to fetch a Dinner at an house they do not know; It being probable that many may read this your Book, who never had your former Works.

Answer. Such Refferences are very sparing, only to avoyd Repetition in those Lifes, which I have formerly written at large, as, St. Dunstans, Cardinal Woolsey, Thomas Lord Cromwell, Sir John Cheek, Arch-bishop Whitgift, Mr. Perkins, &c. And I [Page 74] appeal to all Writers of many Books (of which fault I my self am guilty) whether such Refferences be not usual in the like Cases. I will not add that I have passed my promise (and that is an honest mans bond) to my former Stationer, that I will write nothing for the future, which was in my former Books, so considerable, as may make them Inter-fere one with another to his Prejudice.

Exception 7. You often apply the Word create to men, as to create a Cardinal, an Earl, &c. VVhereas consciencious people, allow that word appropriable to God alone, as importing the making of something out of Nothing.

Answer. I hope our Common Lawyers will plead for me in this Case, having the phrase so frequent in their Mouths, to create right, to create a Title. Besides, I observe, that such who scruple the useing the Simple Verb, boggle no whit at the compound to re­create and Recreations. Now seeing to Recreate is to Create twice, I understand not how the useing this word once should be a Sin, whilst it is no Sin in the Repetition or Re­action thereof. In a word, in words of this Nature, I conceive one may conform himself to the Custome of Common Language.

Exception 8. You out of Flattery, conceal the mean Extraction of many (especi­ally Modern) men, who have attained to great preferment, pointing at the place of their Birth, but suppressing their Parentage.

Answer. I conceive my self to have done well in so doing. If enquiry be made into all mens descents, it would be found true what the Poet doth observe.

Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuorum
Aut Pastor fuit, aut illud quod dicere nolo.
The first of all thine Ancestors of Yore,
Was but a Shepheard, or, I say no more.

Besides, it plainly proveth the Properness of their parts, and Tallnesse of their Indu­stry, who thereby, and by Gods blessing thereon, reached so high preferment, though disadvantaged by standing on so low ground of their extraction.

Exception 9. Hast makes Wast, you have hudled your Book too soon to the Presse, for a Subject of such a Nature. You should have sent to the Gentry of several Counties, to have furnished you with Memorables out of their own Pedegrees, and should have taken a longer time to compose them.

—Nonum (que) prematur in annum.
Eight years digest what you have rudely hinted,
And in the Ninth year let the same be printed.

Answer. That Ninth year might happen Eight years after my Death, being sensible of the Impression of Age upon me, and a Stranger to my method, would hardly rally my scattered and posthumed Notes. By the difficulty to get some few, I con­clude the impossibility to procure all the observeables out of Gentlemens Records, and therefore leave the Task to the Industry of others in their Respective Counties.

Exception. 10. Some Instructions have lately been sent you, concerning some persons which appear not in this your VVork.

Answer. Lately indeed, though neither many nor considerable, since such Shires were put under the Press. In Holland, VVagons go to, and return from their Stages at set hours, though carrying but one Passenger, and sometimes altogether empty. Such the Condition of the Press it stays for no man, nor will attend the Leisure (not to say Lagging) of any, but proceedeth on with what it hath in present, be it never so little.

Exception 11. In your, Protestant Writers, you promiscuously mingle some very zea­lous for Episcopacy, others as active for Presbytery, these ought to have been sorted se­verally by themselves, seeing the great distance of Judgement betwixt them.

Answer. I hope such conjoyning of them, may happily presage a comfortable Ex­pedient betwixt them, who differ not in Fundamentals of Religion. 2. I had rather pri­vately bemoan, then publickly proclaim, the difference betwixt them when alive, charitably believing that being dead;

Jam bene conveniunt, & in unâ sede morantur
Now they are agreed well,
And in bliss together dwell.

[Page 75]However it is not without Precedents in the best Authors, to conjoine those in History, who dissent in opinion; VVitnesse Thuanus when concluding every year, with the Funerals of eminent persons, though fervent in opposite perswasions.

Exception 12. There is great disproportion, betwixt your Catalogue of Statesmen, beginning the Lord Treasurers, under King Henry the Seventh; the Lord Chancelours, under King Henry the Eighth; other Statesmen at other Epoches: whereas had you ob­served the same Aera in all of them, it had added much to the Uniformity of your VVork; And as all start not from the same place, they run not to the same mark, some being continued to this day, some concluded seven years since, such imparity making the List seem lame, like the Legs of a Badger.

Answer. I hope, that a more charitable fancy, with as good a judgement, will com­pare it to the Pipes of an Organ; which though of an uneven length, contribute to the better melody. A reason is rendred, in the respective places, where these gene­ral Topicks are premised, why such several Catalogues begin and end at such times. And I do believe, that they will prove Satisfactory to such ingenuous Readers, that come with no cavilling premeditation.

Exception 13. In your Catalogue of Learned Writers, you have omitted many, as may appear by Pitseus his Appendix Illustrium Angliae Scriptorum. For, of the four hundred by him mentioned, not fifty appear in your List of them.

Answer. Pitseus himself shall plead for me, who, in his Preface to his Appendix, ingenuously confesseth, Eos adhuc efficere non valeo dignos, qui inter illustres Scriptores locum obtineant. So that one may call them Obscuros illustres, little being known of the books which they wrote, less of the times when they lived, nothing of the pla­ces where they were born. However, seeing some persons of eminence have strag­led amongst them, I have selected such with my best care, and presented them in my Catalogue.

Exception 14 Of some men you have little save their Name, Life, and Death, and yet you tearm such eminent persons.

Answer. Surely they were so in themselves, and deserve more should be then is left written of them, through the injury of time. All that I will plead in my own De­fence is this; There is an Officer in the Exchequer, called Clericus nihilorum, or the Clerk of the Nichils, who maketh a Roll of all such sums as are nichill'd by the Sheriff upon their Estreats of the Green wax, when such sums are set on persons, either not found, or not found solvible. This Roll, he delivereth into the Treasurers Remem­brancers office, to have execution done upon it for the King; and thus the Clerk hath done his duty, leaving it to them to see, if they can make any thing of his Re­turn.

I conceive in like manner I have performed my utmost, in that I return such persons to have nothing more to be said of them, findable by all my endevours. However I consign them over to more able Historians, whose pains I will neither prejudice nor discourage; but if they be pleased to begin where I ended, I wish them more happy success in their discoveries.

Exception 15. Your Book is surcharged with Scripture observations, and reflections in Divinity, even when no necessity leadeth you thereunto.

Answer. The Reader hath Con [...]itentem, but I will never acknowledge Reum, plead­ing Custome and Conscience in my just excuse. Custome being habited by my profession therein. The Learned observe of St. Luke, that being a Physician by his function, and describing the great difference between Paul and Barnabas, he made use of an ex­pression in his own faculty,Acts 15. 39. and there was betwixt them a Dissention [in Greek [...]] that is, the height and heat of a burning Feaver. So that the Spirit of God guiding his Pen, permitted him to make use of the Language proper to his Vocation. And I presume the same favour will be indulged to me by all ingenuous persons, to have (I will not say a partiality) but an affection to the expressions of, and excursions into my own Calling. Secondly, I plead Conscience, that, seeing some may Cavil this Work to be a Deviation from my function (and I my self perchance sensible of some truth therein) I will watch and catch all opportunity to make a fair Regresse to my profes­sion.

Exception 15. You lay down certain Rules for the better regulating your work, and directing the Reader, promising to confine your self to the observation thereof, and break them often your self. For instance, you restrain the Topick of Lawyers to Capital Judges and Writers of the Law, yet under that head insert Judge Paston, and others, who were only puny Iudges in their respective Courts; You limit States­men to Lord Chancelours, Treasurers, English Secretaries of State, &c. and put in Sir Edward Waterhouse▪ who was Secretary but in Ireland. In a word, few heads are pre­served pure according to their constitution, without the mixture of improper persons amongst them. Why did you break such Rules, when knowing you made them? why did you make such Rules, when minding to break them? And this is an Exception of Exceptions against you.

Answer. I never intended to tye my self up so close, without reserving lawful Li­berty to my self upon just occasion. Indeed we read of St. Ranulph Ce­ [...]. in ejus vita Math. West. Anno 712. Flo­rent. Wigor. An. 708. Egwin the third, Bishop of Worcester, that he made for himself a pair of Iron Shakels, and locking them close unto his Leggs, cast the Key thereof into the Severn, desiring never to be loosed till he had made satisfaction for his Sins; Returning from Rome, a Fish leaped into the Ship, in whose Belly was found the Key, and so Egwin was miraculously restored to his Li­berty.

Had I in like manner fettered my self to the Topicks propounded, on presumption of so strange a release, none would have pitied my restraint, wilfully contracted on my self. But the best is, I resolved to keep the Key in my own hands, to enlarge my self when I apprehended a just cause thereof. However I have not made use of this Key, to recede from my first Limitations, save where I crave leave of, and render a reason to the Reader; such anomalous persons being men of high merit, under those heads where they are inserted.

Exception 16. You have omitted many Memorable persons still surviving, as meri­ting as any you have inserted.

Answer. The return of I. 8. Epig. 69. Martial in a case not much unlike, may much befriend me herein,

Mi [...]aris Veteres, Vacerra, solos,
Nec laudas nisi mortuos poet as,
Ignos [...]as petim [...]s Vacerra, tanti
Non est, ut placeam tibi, perire.
Deceased Authors thou admir'st alo [...]e,
And only praisest Poets dead and gone.
Vacerra pardon me: I will not buy
Thy praise so dear, as for the same to dye.

All men being like-minded with Martial herein, none surviving will distaste their omission in a work, for reasons afore-alledged (save in some cases) confined to the memories of the departed.

Exception 17. Speaking of the Commodities of several Counties, you say the Wool of Hereford shire is best, and yet Gloucester-Shire is best, the VVheat of Hereford-shire is best, and yet Middlesex best, the Lead of Darby-shire best, and yet Somerset-shire best, the Iron of Sussex best, and Stafford-shire best. The same may be observed in your praising of persons, making several men at the same time the best Poets, Divines, Schoolmen, &c. and this must be both falshood and flattery together.

Answer. Impute it (I pray) to my peaceable disposition, unwilling to occasion discord betwixt Eminencies, the rather because things of the same kind may severally be the best in sundry Qualities. Some Wool best for Cloath, other for Hats, some Wheat best for yeilding of most, other finest flower, some Lead best for Bullets, other for Sheeting Houses, some Iron best for Ordnance, other for Nails, Keys, and smaler U [...]ensils.

Neither is it without precedent in Scripture to Character several men best in the same Profession, both 2 K [...]ng. 18. 5. 2 Kin. 23. 25. [...] and Josiah being commended to have had none like unto them neither before nor after them.

Exception 18. During the later years of King Charles of blessed Memory, you have for the most part omitted the Sheriffs in your Catalogue.

Answer. There was then, (as I may say) a Schisme in that Office, betwixt the She­riffes and Anti Sheriffes. As for the former, made by the Kings Designation, and be­held as the only Legal Ones, I durst not Name them, as the times then stood, when [Page 77] I collected that Catalogue, for fear lest thereby I might betray some of them (till that time concealed) to a Sequestration. I therefore preferred to leave a void space in my List, and wish it were the worst Breach or Desolation made by our late Civil Wars.

Exception 19. But since the happy turn of the times, you might have inserted them, not only without any Danger, but with great Honour unto them.

Answer. When the Danger was removed, the Difficulty did deter me. For in those Tumultuary times; the Royal Sheriffes did not Regularly, (according to ancient Custome) pass their Accounts in the Exchequer at London, so that I was at a losse to recover Certainty herein. Wherefore according to my General Motto, [a Blank is better then a Blot] I left a Vacuity for them. For which Bald Place, the Reader (if so pleased) may provide a Perewake, and with his pen insert such Sheriffes as come to his Cognizance.

Exception 20. It was expected, that you should have presented the Maps of all Shires, which would have added much Light and Lustre to your Work, (which now is as an House without Windows, very Dark and uncomfortable) as also that you should have Cut the Arms of all Gentlemen, in Copper (at the least in VVood) which would have been more satisfactory to them, and Ornamental to your Book.

Answer. [...] are [...], as I have found by dear Experience▪ Besides, when they are done, they are not done, the working them off at the Rowling Presse being as expen­sive as the Graving them; both which will mount our Book to an unreasonable price; Secondly, it would be disgraceful to Cut those Maps worse, and difficult (if not impos­sible) to do them better then they are done already. Thirdly, such Gentlemen (not formerly furnished therewith) may procure them at a cheaper rate then I could afford them. Lastly, such new Re-Graving them would be injurious to the Owners of the Old Maps, and I will not bottome my Profit on another mans prejudice.

Exception 21. You betray unworthy partiality in omitting and inserting of Persons. For John of Gaunt, though son to a King, and worthy VVarrier, can get no room in your Book, whilst Simon de Gaunt a Bishop of Salisbury (both of them by their Sir­names equally appearing Forreigners) hath a place found for him therein. It seems a Prelate finds more favour from you then a Prince.

Answer. Is there not a cause, and that a Satisfactory one? I prefer not a Prelate before a Prince, but Truth before both, and the methodical regulation of my book, according to the rules premised, without which all will fall to confusion. It is as no­toriously known, that John of Gaunt was born at Gaunt in Flanders (and so an Alien from our Subject) as plainly it appeareth, that Simon de Gaunt (though his Father was a Fleming) was born in London, Magister Simon de Gaunt (saith Matt [...]ew of VVest­minster) Editus Londini, vir in arte Theologiae peritus.

Exception 22. You discover much negligence in dateing of particular persons, in­stancing the time only when they flourished, without observing when they were born or dye [...]; and this mindeth me of a passage in Tully in Ver­rem. Orat. Tully, charging Verres the Deputy of Sicily with notorious Lazinesse, quod nunquam solem nec orientem, nec occidentem viderat, that he never saw the sun rising, being in bed after, nor setting being in bed before it: Thus your Pen is altogether a Sluggard, only taking notice of them when shining in the Ver­tical Height, without either beholding them Rising out of their Cradle, or setting in their Coffin.

Answer. Let Tully tell out his Story, and it will befriend and furnish me with a just defence. Sicily (saith he) enjoyeth so clear a Skie, that the Sun is seen there every day in the year rising or setting. Intolerable therefore the Sloth of Verres (noble at no­thing but oppression) that he never saw the Sun either to rise or set, as Roosted after or before; Were it so that either the rising or setting of eminent persons (their Birth and Death) were (with the Sicilian Sun) ever visible, as always recorded by Authors, I would confess my self justly taxed with unexcusable Lazinesse: But seeing sometimes a Pannick silence herein, not meeting either with the Midwife, or Sexton, who deli­vered or buryed such people, we conceive our selves have satisfied, if instanceing only the time wherein such persons flourished.

Exception 23. It had been more proper and more Satisfactory for you to have placed your Exceptions and Answers, rather at the end then beginning of your Book, when the Reader had wholly perused it, only Premising you will be responsible to such Object­ions as would be made against your Endevours herein.

[Page 78] Answer. I am of his opinion, who said, Premising, is better then Promising. Sure it is a safer way to prevent a disease then to remove it. Besides I hope, that, clearing these obstructions in the Front of my Book, I shall smooth the Readers way, and invite him the rather to peruse it. However these Answers (whereever placed) are placed aright, if meeting (which I desire) a Candid acceptance thereof.

Exception 24. It is easie for one to cast down a Pillar of his own erection, but let another set it up, and then let him trye his Strength thereat. None will pinch them­selves so as to fetch blood, though others may do it. Your Exceptions are all of your own making to your own advantage.

Answer. I have endevoured to propound them without any Partiality. However if my labours meet with greater and more exception from others against them, I hope they shall also meet with the general Courtesie and Candor of Course, which Custome hath in some sort made due to Authors, to forgive their smaller faults, on which com­fortable confidence I proceed.

CHAP. XXV. An Apologie for the unvoluntary Omissions in this BOOK.

WHen I first communicated my design herein to a person of The truly Noble Robert Lord Bruce. Honour, he offer­ed this grand Objection against it, That no Industry could be so circumspect, or Intelligence so comprehensive, but that many Memorable persons would es­cape his Observation, and then Exception will be taken at such Omissions. This Objection many since have renewed and enforced, alledging that the Omitting of One shall get me more Anger then the inserting of many, gain me good will.

To this I Answer first in general. It is the priviledge of Divine Writ alone, to be so perfect that nothing may be taken thence, or added thereunto; The best humane Authors have had their failings in their best performances, far be it from me to pretend my dimme Eyes more quick-sighted then St. Bernards, who notwithstanding non vidit omnia; I trust therefore, that favour will be indulged to my Endevours, for my many Infirmities.

To Come to particulars, some seeming Omissions will appear to be none, on bet­ter Enquiry, being only the leaving of many persons (which belong not to our land) to their Forraign Nativities. If any ask, why have you not written of John a Gaunt? I answer, because he was John of Gaunt, born in that City in Flanders. Thus whilst our Kings possessed large Dominions in France (from King William the Conquerour, to King Henry the Sixth) many eminent English men had their birth beyond the Seas, without the bounds of our Subject.

Secondly, I hope real Omissions will neither be found many nor material; I hope I shall not appear like unto him, who undertaking to make a Description of the Planets, quite forgot to make mention of the Sun, I believe most of those who have escaped our Pen, will be found Stars of the Lesser Magnitude.

Thirdly, I protest in the presence of God, I have not wittingly, willingly or wil­fully shut the Dore against any worthy person which offered to enter into my know­ledge, nor was my prejudice the Porter in this kind, to exclude any (of what perswa­sion soever out of my Book) who brought merit for their Admission, Besides, I have gon, and rid, and wrote, and sought and search'd with my own and friends Eyes, to make what Discoveries I could therein.

Lastly, I stand ready with a pencel in one hand, and a Spunge in the other, to add, alter, insert, expunge, enlarge, and delete, according to better information. And if these my pains shall be found worthy to passe a second Impression, my faults I will confess with shame, and amend with thankfulnesse to such as will contribute clearer Intel­ligence unto me.

These things premised, I do desire in my omissions the pardon especially of two sorts, concerned in my History; first Writers since the Reformation, (having those be­fore it compleatly delivered unto us) who cannot be exactly listed.

[Page 79]First, for their Numerousnesse, and therefore I may make use of the Latine Distick, wherewith John Pitseus pag. 923. closeth his Book of English Writers.

Plura voluminibus jungenda volumina nostris
Nec mihi scribendi terminus ullus erit.
More Volums to our volums must we bind,
And when thats done a Bound we cannot find.

Secondly, for the scarcenesse of some Books, which I may term Publici-pri­vati juris, because though publickly printed, their Copies were few, as intended on­ly for friends, though it doth not follow that the Writers thereof had the less Merit, because the more Modesty.

I crave pardon in the second place for my Omissions, in the List of Benefactors to the Publick, for, if I would, I could not compleat that Catalogue, because no man can make a fit garment for a growing Child, and their Number is daily encreasing.

Besides if I could, I would not. For I will never drain (in Print) the spring so lowe, but to leave a Reserve; and some whom I may call Breeders for poste­rity, who shall passe un-named, in which Respect, I conceive such Benefactors most perfectly reckoned up, when they are Imperfectly reckoned up.

All I will add is this, when St. Paul writing to the Phil. 4. 3. Philippians had saluted three, by name, viz. Euodias, Syntyche, and Clement, he passeth the rest over with a Saluta­tion General, whose Names are in the Book of Life. Thus I have indevoured to give you the most exact Catalogue of Benefactors; but this I am sure, what is lost on Earth by my want of Industry, Instruction, &c. Will be found in Heaven, and their names are there recorded, in that Register which will last to all Eternity.

As for my omitting many Rarities and Memorables, in the respective Counties, I plead for my self, that mine being a general Description, it is not to be expected that I should descend to such particularities, which properly belong to those who write the Topography of one County alone. He shewed as little Ingenuity as Ingeniousnesse, who Cavilled at the Map of Grecia for imperfect, because his Fathers house in Athens was not represented therein. And their expectation in effect is as unreasonable, who look for every small observeable in a General work. Know also, that a mean person, may be more knowing within the Limits of his private Lands, then any Antiquary whatso­ever. I remember a merry challenge at Court, which passed betwixt the Kings Porter, and the Queens Dwarfe, the latter provoking him to fight with him, on condition that he might but choose his own place, and be allowed to come thither first, assigning the great Oven in Hampton Court for that purpose. Thus easily may the lowest domineere over the highest skill, if having the advantage of the ground within his own private concernments. Give me leave to fill up the remaining Vacuity, with,

A Corrollary about the Reciprocation of Alumnus.

The word Alumnus is effectually directive of us (as much as any) to the Nativi­ties of Eminent persons. However we may observe both a Passive and Active inter­pretation thereof. I put Passive first, because one must be bred before he can breed; and Alumnus signifieth both the Nursed child and the Nurse, both him that was edu­cated, and the Person or Place which gave him his Education. Wherefore Lau­rentius Valla (though an excellent Grammarian) is much deceived, when not admit­ting the double sense thereof, as by the ensuing instances will appear.

Passive Pro Educato.Active Pro Educatore.
Cicero Dolabellae. Mihi vero gloriosum, te juvenem Consulem florere laudibus, quasi Alumnum Disciplinae meae.Plinie lib. 3. de Italia. Terra omnium ter­rarum Alumna, eadem & parens numine Deum electa.
De finibus 122. b. Aristoteles, caeteri (que) Platonis Alumni.Augustinus lib. 70. Civit. Jovem Alumnum cognominaverunt, quod omnia aleret.

The Design which we drive on in this observation, and the use which we desire should be made thereof is this, viz. That such who are born in a Place, may be sen­sible [Page 80] of their Engagement thereunto; That if God give them ability and opportunity, they may expresse their Thankfulnesse to the same.

Quisquis Alumnus erat, gratus Alumnus erit.
A Thankful man will feed
The Place which did him breed.

And the Truth hereof is eminently conspicuous in many Persons, but especially in great Prelates before, and rich Citizens since the Reformation.

BARK-SHIRE hath Wilt-shire on the West, Hamp-shire on the South, Surry on the East, Oxford and Buckingham-sh [...]re (parted first with the Isis, then with the flexuous River of Thames) on the North thereof. It may be fancied in a form like a Lute lying along, whose belly is towards the West, whilst the narrow neck or long handle is extended toward the East. From Coleshull to Windsor, it may be allowed in length forty miles. But it a­mounteth to little more then half so much in the broadest part thereof▪ It partaketh as Plentifull as any County in England of the Common Commodities, Grasse, Grain, Fish, Foul, Wooll, and Wood, &c. and we will particularly instance on one or two of them.

Naturall Commodities.


It was given in instruction to the Spies sent to search the Land of Canaan, that a­mongst other enquiries, they should take particular notice, Whether there be Num. 13. 20. Wood therein or not? An important question, the rather because at that time the Israelites were in A­rabia the Desert, where they saw not a tree in many moneths travaile (in so much that it is Recorded for a wonder, that in Elim wereExod. 12. 27. seventy Palm trees) and now knew the worth of wood by wanting it.

But Bark-shire affordeth abundance of trees of all kinds, though her Oakes in Wind­sor-Forest for the present come onely under our commendation. First for their firm­ness, whereof our Ships are made. The Oake in other Kingdoms may be called cow­ardly, as riving and splitting round about the passage of the bullet, fearing as it were the force thereof; whilst our English, as heart of Oake indeed, though entred with bul­let, remaineth firm round about it.

Secondly, for the conveniencie of Portage. The wealth of a covetous man (want­ing an heart to make use thereof) may not unfitly be compared to the Oakes and Firre­trees, (good and plentifull indeed) in the High-lands in Scotland, but growing on such unaccessible mountains, no Strength or Art can render them usefull, nature in this kind having given them full coffers, but no key to unlock them.

Whereas so indulgent is Divine Providence to England, that our four principal Forests lie either on the Sea, or Navigable Rivers; viz. New-Forest on the Sea, Shire­wood on the Trent, Dean on the Severne, and this Windsor-Forest on the Thames, and I could wish more care were taken for preserving the Timber therein.


The very name of this Shire justly intitles us here to handle this Commodity, (though common to other Counties,) because Bark-shire (as some will have it) was so called from a stripped orCamd. Brit. in this Coun­ty. Bark-bared-Oake, to which signal place the people repair­ed in time of trouble to make their generall defence. It is essential for making good Leather, though lately one hath propounded a way to tanne it solid and saleable with­out the help thereof, on condition (and good reason too) he may be allowed rea­sonable profit for so rare an invention. But many think, that he that waits for dead mens shooes, and he that stays for Leather-shooes made without bark, may both of them go a long time bare-foot.


This is a pleasant and wholesom Fish, as whose feeding is pure and cleanly, in the swiftest streams, and on the hardest gravell. Good and great of this kind are found in the River of Kennet nigh Hungerford, though not so big as that which Gesner affirmes taken in the Leman-lake, being three cubits in length. They are in their perfection in [Page 82] the moneth of May, and yearly decline with the Buck. Being come to his full growth, he decays in goodness, not greatness, and thrives in his head till his death. Note by the way, that an hog-back and little head, is a sign that any fish is in season. Other commodities of This, return in other Counties, where they may be mentioned with more conveniencie.

The Manufactures.


It is plyed therein, and because we meet with the best of our Manufactures in the first of our Shires, a word of the Antiquity thereof.

1. Cloth sure is of the same date with Civility in this Land. Indeed the ancient Brittains are reported to go naked, clothed onely with colours painted, custom ma­king them insensible of cold, with the beggar, who being demanded how he could go naked, returned, all my body is face. But no sooner had the Romans reduced this Island, but cloth though course, such as would hide and heat, was here generally made and used.

2. Fine Cloth (though narrow) for persons of worth at home to wear, and for for­reign Exportation began in England about the beginning of the Reign of King Edward the Third. Before which time our Statutes take no Cognizance of Clothing as in­considerable, (Wooll being transported in specie) and needing no Rules to regulate it, save what prudence dictated to private Husbands with their own families.

3. Broad Cloth (wherein the wealth of our Nation is folded up) made with broad loomes, two men attending each of them, began here in the Reign of King Henry the eighth. And I have been informed that Jack of Newberry was the first that introduced it into this County. Well may the Poets feign Minerva the Goddess of Wit, and the Foundress of Weaving, so great is the ingenuity thereof.

The Buildings.

Windsor Castle was a Royal seat ever since the Conquest, but brought to the mo­dern Beauty, chiefly at the cost of King Edward the Third. It is a Castle for Strength, a Palace for State, and hath in it a Colledge for Learning, a Chappel for Devotion, and an Almes-house (of decayed Gentlemen) for Charity. In this Palace most remarkeable, the Hall for greatness, Winchester-Tower for height, and the Terrace on the North-side for pleasure, where a dull eye may travaile twenty miles in a mo­ment. Nor boasteth so much, that it consisteth of two great Courts; as that it con­teined two Great Kings [John of France, and David of Scotland,] Prisoners therein to­gether, as also that it was the seat of the Honourable Order of the Garter.

Many neat Houses and pleasant seats there be in this County, both on the Kennet and Thames, which seem dutifully to attend at distance on Windsor Castle, as Aldermaston, Inglefield, &c. most sweet in their situations.


I meet with [but one] in this County, but either so narrow that they stretch not be­yond the bounds thereof, or else so broad, that all other Counties equally share in the cause and usage of them. Wherefore seeing this is the first English Shire in the Alpha­betical Order, to avoid a Vacuity, we will here insert such Proverbs, wherein England or English-men are by express mention concerned. But first we will dispatch that sole Pro­verb of this County, viz.

The Vicar of Bray, will be Vicar of Bray still.]

Bray, a Village well known in this County, so called from the BIBROCES a kind of ancient Britons Inhabiting thereabouts. The Vivacious Vicar hereof living under King Henry the 8. King Edward the 6. Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, was first a Papist, then a Protestant, then a Papist, then a Protestant again. He had seen some Mar­tyrs burnt (two miles off) at Windsor, and found this fire too hot for his tender temper. This Vicar being taxed by one for being a Turn-coat, and an uncon­stant [Page 83] Changeling, Not so, said he, for I alwaies kept my Principle, which is this, to live and die the Vicar of Bray. Such many now adayes, who though they cannot turn the wind, will turn their Mils, and set them so, that wheresoever it bloweth, their Grist shall certainly be grinded. Proceed we now to the Proverbs General of England:

When our Lady falls in our Lords lap]
Then let England beware a sad clap]
Then let England beware a mishap]


Then let the Clergy-man look to his cap.]

I behold this proverbial prophecy, or this prophetical menace, to be not above six score yeares old, and of Popish extraction since the Reformation. It whispereth more then it dare speak out, and points at more then it dares whisper; and fain would in­timate to credulous persons, as if the blessed Virgin offended with the English for abolishing her Adoration watcheth an opportunity of Revenge on this Nation. And when her day (being the five and twentieth of March, and first of the Gregorian year) chanceth to fall on the day of Christs Resurrection, then (being as it were fortified by her Sons assistance) some signal judgment is intended to our State, and Church-men especially. Such Coincidence hath hap'ned just fifteen times since the Conquest, as Elias Ashmole Esquire, my worthy friend, and Learned Mathematician, hath exactly computed it; and we will examine by our Chronicles, whether on such yeares any signal fatalities befell England.

A. D.Anno Reg.D. L.G. N.Signal Disasters.
1095W. Rufus 8.G13K. Rufus made a fruitless invasion of Wales.
1106H. first 6.G5K. Hen. subdueth Normandy, and D. Robert his Brother.
1117H. first 17.G16He forbiddeth the Popes Legate to enter England.
1190R. first 2.G13K. Richard conquereth Cyprus in his way to Palestine.
1201K. John 2.G5The French invade Normandy.
1212K. John 13.G16K. John resigneth his Kingdom to the Pope.
1285Ed. first 13.G13Nothing remarkable but Peace and Plenty.
1296Ed. first 24.AG5War begun with Scotland, which ended in Victory.
1380R. second 4.AG13The Scots do much harm to us at Peryth Fair.
1459H. sixth 38.G16Lancastrians worsted by the Yorkists in fight.
1543H. eighth 34.G5K. Henry entred Scotland, and burnt Edenburgh.

Hitherto this Proverb hath had but intermitting truth at the most, seeing no con­stancy in sad casualties. But the sting (will some say) is in the taile thereof, and I be­hold this Proverb born in this following year.

1554Q. Mary 2.G16Q. Mary setteth up Popery and Martyreth Protestants.
1627Charles 3.G13The unprosperous Voyage to the Isle of Rees.
1638Charles 14.G5The first cloud of trouble in Scotland.
1649 G16The first complete year of the English Common-wealth (or Tyranny rather) which since, blessed be God, is returned to a Monarchy.

The concurrence of these two dayes doth not return till the year 1722. and let the next generation look to the effects thereof. I have done my part in shewing, remit­ting to the Reader the censuring of these occurrences. Sure I am so sinfull a Nation deserves that every year should be fatal unto it. But it matters not, though our Lady falls in our Lords lap, whilst our Lord sits at his Fathers right hand, if to him we make our addresses by serious repentance.

When HEMPE is Spun
England is Done.

Though this Proverb hath a different Stamp, yet I look on it as Coined by the same Mint- Master with the former, and even of the same Age. It is faced with a Literal, but would be Lined with a Mysticall sense. When Hemp is Spun, that is, when all that necessary Commodity is imployed, that there is no more left for Sailes and Cordage, [Page 84] England (whose strength consists in Shipping) would be reduced to a Doleful Condition. But know under HEMPE are Couched the Initial Letters of Henry the 8. Edward the 6. Mary, Philip and Elizabeth, as if with the Life of the last, the Happiness of England should expire, which time hath confuted. Yet to keep this Proverb in Countenance, it may pretend to some Truth, because then England with the Addition of Scotland lost its name in Great Brittain by Royal Proclamation.

When the Black Fleet of NORVVAY is come and gone]
ENGLAND Build Houses of Lime and Stone,]
For after Wars you shall have none.]

There is a Larger Edition hereof, though this be large enough for us, and more then we can well understand. Some make it fulfilled in the eighty eight, when the Spanish­Fleet was beaten, the Sur-name of whose King, as a LearnedThe Lord Bacon in his Essaies. pag. 215. Author doth observe, was NORVVAY▪ Others conceive it called the Black Fleet of Norway, because it was never black (not dismall to others, but wofull to its own Apprehension,) till beaten by the English, and forced into those Coasts according to the English Historian.

They betook
J. Speed in his History of Great Brit. in the year 1588.
themselves to Flight leaving Scotland on the West, and bending to­wards Norway ill advised. (But that necessity urged, and God had Infatuated their Councells) to put their shaken and battered bottoms into those Black and Dangerous Seas.

I observe this the rather, because I believe Mr. Speed in this his Writing, was so far from having a Reflexion on, that I Question, whether ever I had heard of this Prophecy.

It is true that afterwards England built houses of Lime and Stone, and our most hand­some and Artificiall Buildings, (though formerly far greater and stronger,) bear their date from the defeating of the Spanish Fleet. As for the Remainder, After Wars you shall have none; We find it false, as to our Civil Wars by our woful Experience.

And whether it be true or false, as to Forreign Invasions hereafter, we care not at all, as beholding this prediction either made by the wild fancy of one foolish man; and then, why should this many wise men attend thereunto? or else by him, who alwaies either speaks what is false, or what is true with an intent to deceive; So that we will not be ellated with good, or dejected with bad success of his fore-telling.

England is the ringing Island.]

Thus it is commonly call'd by Foreigners, as having greater, moe, and more tune­able Bells than any one County in Christendom, Italy it self not excepted, though Nola be there, and Bells so called thence, because first founded therein. Yea, it seems, our Land is much affected with the love of them, and loth to have them carryed hence into forreign parts, whereof take this eminent instance. When Arthur Bulkley the covetous Bishop ofGodwin in his Bishops of Bangor. Bangor, in the Reign of King Henry the eighth, had sacri­legiously sold the five fair Bels of his Cathedral, to be transported beyond the Seas, and went down himself to see them shipp'd, they suddenly sunk down with the Vessell in the Haven, and the Bishop fell instantly blind, and so continued to the day of his death. Nought else have I to observe of our English Bells, save that in the memory of man, they were never known so long free from the sad sound of Fu­nerals of general infection, God make us sensible of, and thankfull for the same.

When the sand feeds the clay, England cryes
An old In­terjection of Lamentation.
Well a-day:]
But when the clay feeds the sand, it is merry with England.]

As Nottingham-shire is divided into twoCamd. Brit. in Nottingh. parts, the sand and the clay, all England falls under the same Dicotomie, yet so as the sand hardly amounteth to the Fifth part there­of. Now a wet year, which drowneth and chilleth the clay, makes the sandy ground most fruitfull with corn, and the generall Granarie of the Land, which then is dearer in other Counties; and it is harder for one to feed foure, than foure to feed one. It is fur­thermore observed, that a drought never causeth a dearth in England, because (though parching up the sandy ground) the clay, being the far greatest moiety of the Land, ha­ving more natural moisture therein, affordeth a competent encrease.

England were but a fling,]
Save for the crooked stick and the gray-goose-wing.]

[Page 85] But a fling That is, a slight, light thing, not to be valued, but rather to be cast away, as being but half an Island. It is of no great extent. Philip the Second, King of Spain, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth called our English Ambassadours unto him, (whilst as yet there was Peace betwixt the two Crowns) and taking a small Map of the World, layed his little finger upon England, (wonder not if he desired to finger so good a Countrey,) and then demanded of our English Ambassadour, where England was? In­deed it is in greatness inconsiderable to the Spanish dominions.

But for the crooked stick, &c.] That is, use of Archery. Never were the Arrows of the Parthians more formidable to the Romans, then ours to the French horsemen: Yea re­markable his Divine Providence to England, that since Arrowes are grown out of use, though the weapons of war be altered, the English mans hand is still in Ure as much as ever before, for no Country affords better materials of Iron, Saltpeter and Lead; or better work-men to make them into Guns, Powder, and Bullets; or better marks-men to make use of them being so made: So that England is now as good with a streight Iron, as ever it was with a crooked stick.

England is the Paradise of Women, Hell of Horses, Purgatory of Servants.]

For the first, Billa vera Women, whether Maids, Wives, or Widowes, finding here the fairest respect, and kindest usage. Our Common-Law is a more courteous carver for them, than the Civil-Law beyond the seas, allowing Widows the thirds of their Husbands Estates with other Priviledges. The [...], or highest seats are granted them at all Feasts, and the wall (in crowding, most danger to the weakest, in walking most dignity to the worthiest) resigned unto them. The Indentures of maid-servants are cancelled by their Marriage, though the term be not expired; which to young­men in the same condition is denyed. In a word, betwixt Law and (Laws-Corrival) Custom, they freely enjoy many favours, and we men, so far from envying them, wish them all happiness therewith.

For the next, [...] Englands being an Hell for Horses] Ignoramus, as not sufficiently sa­tisfied in the evidence alledged. Indeed the Spaniard, who keeps his Gennets rather for shew than use; makes wantons of them. However, if England be faulty herein in their over-violent Riding, Racing, Hunting; it is high time the fault were amended, the rather because, The Prov. 10. 12. good man regardeth the life of his beast.

For the last, [...] Pugatory for servants] we are so far from finding the Bill, we cast it forth as full of falshood. We have but two sorts, Apprentices, and Covenant-servants. The Parents of the former give large summes of money to have their Children bound for seven yeares, to learn some Art or Mystery; which argueth their good usage, as to the generality in our Nation. Otherwise it were madness for men to give so much money to buy their Childrens misery. As for our Covenant-servants, they make their own Covenants, and if they be bad, they may thank themselves. Sure I am, their Masters if breaking them and abusing their servants with too little meat or sleep, too much work or correction, (which is true also of Apprentices) are liable by Law to make them reparation.

Indeed, I have heard how in the Age of our Fathers, servants were in far greater subjection than now adayes, especially since our Civil Wars hath lately dislocated all relations; so that now servants will do whatsoever their Masters injoyn them; so be it, they think fitting themselves. For my own part, I am neither for the Tyranny of the one, nor Rebellion of the other, but the mutuall duty of both.

As for Vernae, Slaves or Vassals, so frequent in Spain and forreign parts, our Land and Lawes (whatever former Tenures have been,) acknowledg not any for the present. To conclude, as Purgatory is a thing feigned in it self; so in this particular it is false in application to England.

A famine in England begins first at the horse-manger.]

Indeed it seldom begins at the horse-rack; for, though hay may be excessive dear caused by a dry summer, yet winter-grain (never impaired with a drought) is then to be had at reasonable rates. Whereas, if Pease or Oates, our horse-grain, (and the latter mans-grain also generally in the North for poor people) be scarce, it will not be long ere Wheat, Rie, &c. mount in our Markets. Indeed, if any grain be very dear, no grain will be very cheap soon after.

[Page 86] The King of England is the King of Devils.] The German Emperour is termed the King of Kings, having so many free Princes under Him: The King of Spain, King of men, because they willingly yield their Sovereign rational obedience: The King of France, King of Asses, patiently bearing unconscionable burdens: But why the King of England King of Devils? I either cannot, or do not, or will not understand. Sure I am, S. Gregory gave us better language when he said, Angli velut Angeli, for our fair complexions; and it is sad we should be Devils by our black conditions.

The English are the Frenchmen's Apes.]

This anciently hath been, and still is charg'd on the English, and that with too much truth, for ought I can find to the contrary.

Et dici potuisse, & non potuisse refelli.
—it is to us a pain
This should be said, and not gain-said again.

We ape the French chiefly in two particulars. First in their language, (which if Jack could speak, he would be a Gentleman) which some get by travell, others gain at home with Dame Eglentine in In his Pro­logue of the Prioresse. Chaucer,

Entewned in her voice full seemly,
And French she spake full feteously
After the scole of Stratford at Bowe,
For French of Paris was to her unknow.

Secondly in their Habits, accounting all our fineness in conformity to the French­fashion, though following it at greater distance than the field-pease in the Country the rath ripe pease in the garden. Disgracefull in my opinion, that seeing the English victorious Armes had twice charged through the bowels of France, we should learn our fashions from them to whom we taught Obedience.

The English Glutton.]

Gluttony is a sin anciently charged on this Nation, which we are more willing to ex­cuse than confess, more willing to confess than amend. Some pretend the coldness of Climate in excuse of our sharp Appetites; and plead the Plenty of the Land (England being in effect all a great Cookes-shop, and no reason any should starve therein,) for our prodigious Feasts. They alledge also that foreigners (even the Spaniards themselves) coming over hither, acquit themselves as good Trencher-men as any; so that it seems want, not temperance makes them so abstemious at home.

All amounts not to any just defence, excess being an ill expression of our thank­fullness to God for his goodness. Nor need we with the Egyptians to serve up at the last course a dead mans head, to mind us of our mortality, seeing a Feast well con­sidered is but a Charnel house of foul, Fish and Flesh; and those few shell-fish that are not kill'd to our hands are kill'd by our teeth. It is vaine therefore to expect that dead food should alwaies preserve life in the feeders thereupon.

Fox, Stow, Speed, all our English Hi­storians in the first year of K. Ed. 3.
Long beards heartless, painted-hoods witless;]
Gay-coats graceless, make England thriftless.]

Though this hath more of Libell than Proverb therein, and is stark false in it self, yet it will truely acquaint us with the habits of the English in that Age.

Long-beards heartless.] Our English did use nutrire comam, both on their Head and beards, concieving it made them more amiable to their friends, and terrible to their foes.

Painted-hoods witless.] Their hoods were stained with a kind of colour, in a middle way betwixt dying and painting, (whence Painters-stainers have their name) a My­stery vehemently suspected to be lost in our Age. Hoods served that Age for Caps.

Gay-coats graceless.] Gallantry began then to be fashionable in England, and per­chance those who here taxed them therewith would have been as gay themselves, had their Land been as rich and able to maintain them.

This sing-song was made on the English by the Scots, after they were flush'd with Victory over us in the Reign of King Edward the Second. Never was the Battle at Cannae so fatal to the Romans, as that at Sterling to the Nobility of England; and the Scots puffed up with their Victory, fixed those opprobrious Epithets of heartless, witless, graceless upon us. For the first, we appeal to themselves, whether Englishmen have [Page 87] not good hearts, and with their long beards, long swords. For the second we appeal to the World, whether the wit of our Nation hath not appeared as considerable as theirs in their Writings and Doings. For the third we appeal to God, the onely Sear­cher of hearts, and trier of true grace. As for the fourth thriftless, I omit it, because it sinks of it self as a superstructure on a foundred and sailing foundation.

All that I will adde is this, that the grave, sage and reduced Scotish-men in this Age, are not bound to take notice of such expressions made by their Ancestors; seeing when Nations are at hostile defiance, they will mutually endeavour each others disgrace.

He that England will win,]
Must with Ireland first begin.]

This Proverb importeth that great designs must be managed gradatim, not only by degrees, but due method; England, it seems, is too great a morsel for a forreign foe to be chopped up at once, and therefore it must orderly be attempted, and Ireland be first assaulted. Some have conceived, but it is but a conceit (all things being in the bosom of Divine Providence,) that, had the Spanish Armado in eighty eight fallen upon Ire­land, (when the well affected therein were few and ill provided,) they would have gi­ven a better account of their service to him, who sent them. To rectify which errour, the King of Spain sent afterward John de Aquila into Ireland, but with what success is sufficiently known. And if any foreign Enemy hath a desire to try the truth of this Proverb at his own peril, both England and Ireland lie for Climate in the same posture they were before.

In England a buss [...]l of March dust is wo [...]th a King [...] randsom.]

Not so in Southern sandy Counties, where a dry March is as destructive, as here it is beneficial. How much a Kings randsom amounteth unto, England knows by dear experience, when paying one hundred thousand pounds to redeem Richard the first, which was shared between the German Emperour and Leopoldus Duke of Austria. In­deed a general good redounds to our Land by a dry March, for if our clay-grounds be over-drowned in that moneth, they recover not their distemper that year.

However, this Proverb presumeth seasonable showers in April following, or other­wise March dust will be turned into May-ashes, to the burning up of grass and grain; so easily can God blast the most probable fruitfulness.

England a good Land and a bad People.]

This is a French Proverb, and we are glad, that they being so much Admirers and Magnifiers of their own, will allow any goodness to another Country.

This maketh the wonder the less, that they have so much endeavoured to get a share in this good Country, by their former frequent invasions thereof; though they could never since the Conquest, peaceably posse [...]s a hundred yards thereof for twenty hours, whilst we for a long time have enjoyed large Territories in France.

But this Proverb hath a design to raise up the Land to throw down the People, grace­ing it to disgrace them. We English-men are, or-should be ready humbly to confess our faults before God, and no less truly, then sadly to say of our selves; Ah sinfull Na­tion! However before men we will not acknowledge a visible badness above other Na­tions: And the plain truth is, both France and England have need to mend, seeing God hath formerly justly made them by sharpe Wars alternately to whip one ano­ther.

The High-Dutch Pilgrims when they beg, do sing; the French-men whine and cry; the Spaniards curse, swear, and blaspheme; the Irish and English steal.]

This is a Spanish Proverb, and I suspect too much truth is suggested therein, the rather because the Spaniards therein spare not themselves, but unpartially report their own black Character. If any ask why the Italians are not here mentioned, seeing surely their Pilgrims have also their peculiar humours; know, that Rome and Loretta the staples of Pilgrimages, being both in Italy, the Italians very seldom (being frugal in their Superstition.) go out of their own Country.

Whereas stealing is charged on our English, it is confess'd, that our poor people are observed light-fingered, and therefore our Lawes are so heavy, making low Fe­lony [Page 88] highly Penal, to restrain that Vice most, to which our Pezantry is most ad­dicted.

I wish my Country more true Piety, then to take such tedious and useless journeys; but if they will go, I wish them more honesty, then to steal; and the people, by whom they pass, more Charity, than to tempt them to stealth, by denying them necessaries in their journey.


JOHN, Eldest Son of King Edward the first and Queen Eleanor, was born at Windsor before his Fathers voyage into Syria. His short life will not bear a long Character, dying in his infancyJ. Speed hist. pag. 563. 1273. (the last year of the Reign of King Henry the 3d.) and was buryed August the 8. in Westminster, under a Marble Tomb, in-laid with his Picture in an Arch over it.

Idem p. 564.ELEANOR Eldest Daughter to King Edward the first and Queen Eleanor, was born at Windsor Anno Dom. 1266. She was afterwards marryed by a Proxy, (a naked sword being in bed interposed betwixt him and her body,) to Alphons King of Arragon with all Ceremonies of State. And indeed they proved but Ceremonies, the substance soon [...], the said King Alphons dying Anno Dom. 1292. before the Consummati­on of the M [...]rriage. But soon after this Lady found that a Living Earl was better then a Dead King. when Marryed to Henry the 3d. Earl of Berry in France, from whom the Dukes of [...] and Kings of Sicil are descended. This Lady deceased in the seven and twentieth of her Fathers Reign, Anno Dom. 1298.

MARGARET, third Daughter of King Edward the first and Queen Eleanor, was born at Windsor Speeds Chron. p. 564. in the 3d. year of her Fathers Reign, 1275. When fifteen year old she was Marryed at Westminster, July 9th. 1290. to John the second Duke of Brabant, by whom she had Issue, John the third Duke of Brabant, from whom the Dukes of Burgundy are descended.

MARY, sixth Daughter of King Edward the first and Queen Eleanor, was born at Windsor April the 12. 1279. being but ten years of Age, she was made a Nun at Ames­bury in Wilt-shire without her own, and (at the first) against herIdem Ibidem. Parents consent, meer­ly to gratify Queen Eleanor her Grand-mother. Let us pity her, who probably did not pity her self, as not knowing a vaile from a kerchief, not understanding the requisites to, nor her own fitness for that profession, having afterwards time too much to be­moan, but none to amend her condition.

As for the other Children of this King, which he had by Eleanor his Queen, proba­bly born in this Castle, viz.

  • HENRY.

Dying in their infancy immediately after their Baptism, it is enough to name them, and to bestow this joynt Epitapb upon them.

[...]leansed at Font we drew untainted Breath,
Not yet made bad by Life, made good by Death.

The two former were buryed with their Brother John, (of whom before) at West­minster in the same Tomb, but where Blanche was interred is altogether un­known.

Edward the Third Son to Edward the Second and Queen Isabel, was born at Windsor October 13. 1312. (and proved afterwards a pious and fortunate Prince.) I behold him as meerly passive in the deposing of his Father, practised on in his Minority by his Mother and Mortimer. His French Victories speak both of his Wisdom and Valour; and though the Conquests by King Henry the fifth were thicker, (atchieved in a shorter time) His were broader, (in France and Scotland by Sea and Land,) though both of length alike, as lost by their immediate Successours.

He was the first English King which Coined* Gold, which with me amounts toCamd. Rem. under the ti­tle of Moneyr. a wonder, that before his time all yellow payments in the Land should be [Page 89] made in foreign Coin. He first stamped the Rose-Nobles, having on the one side,

Jesus autem transiens per medium illorum ibat.

And on the reverse, his own image with sword and shield, sitting in a ship waving on the Sea. Hereupon an English Rhymer,Manuscript in [...]. Cotton. in the Reign of King Henry the sixth,

For four things our Noble she weth to me,
King, Ship, and Swerd, and Power of the See.

He had a numerous and happy issue by Philippa his Queen, after whose death, be­ing almost seventy years old, he cast his affection on Alice Pie [...]ce his Paramour, much to his disgrace; it being true what Epictetus returned to Adrian the Emperour, asking of him what Love was, In puero, pudor; in virgine, rubor; in soemina, furor; in juvene, ardor; in sene, risus. In a boy, bashfulness; in a maid, blushing; in a woman, fury; in a young man, fire; in an old man, folly. However, take this King altogether at home, abroad, at Church, in State, and he had few equals, none superiours. He dyed Anno Dom. 1378.

Speeds hist. pag. 602.WILLIAM, sixth Son of King Edward the third and Queen Philippa, was born at Windsor. Indeed his second Son born at Hatfield was of the same name, who dyed in his infancy, and his Mother had a fond affection for another William, because her Fa­thers, Brothers, and a Conquering Name, till his short Life also, dying in his cradle, weaned her from renewing her desire. As for King Edwards female Children, Isabel, Joan, Blanch, Mary and Margaret, there is much probability of their French, and no assurance of their English Nativity.

HENRY the sixth, Son to Henry the fifth, was born in Windsor-Castle, against the will of his Father, by the wilfulness of his Mother. He was fitter for a Coul then a Crown; of so easie a nature, that he might well have exchanged a pound of Patience for an ounce of Valour: Being so innocent to others, that he was hurtful to himself. He was both over-subjected and over-wived; having marryed Margaret the Daughter of Reinier King of Jerusalem, Sicily and Arragon, a Prince onely Puissant in Titles, otherwise little able to assist his Son in Law. Through home-bred Dissentions he not onely lost the foreign acquisitions of his Father in France, but also his own inheritance in Eng­land to the House of York. His Death, or Murder rather, happened 1471.

This Henry was twice Crowned, twice Deposed, and twice Buryed, (first at Chertsy, then at Windsor,) and once half Sainted. Our Henry the seventh cheapned the price of his Canonization, (one may see for his love, and buy for his money in the Court of Rome) but would not come up to the summe demanded. However this Henry was a Saint (though not with the Pope) with the People, repairing to this Monument from the farthest part of the Land, and fancying that they received much benefit thereby. He was the last Prince whom I find expresly born at Windsor. It seems that afterwards our English Queens grew out of conceit with that place, as unfortunate for Royal Na­tivities.



RICH were born at Abbington The English Martyrology in the 15. and 24. of Aug. in this County, and were successively Prioresses of Catesby in Northampton-shire. They were Sisters to St. Edmund, whose life ensueth, and are placed before him by the Courtesie of England, which alloweth the weaker Sex the upper hand. So great the Reputation of their Holiness, that

The formerDying Anno1257.
The latter1270.

Both were honouredMa [...]h. Paris in hist. Majori. ad an. D. 1217. and deincep [...]. for Saints, and many Miracles reported by crafty, were be­lieved by Credulous people, done at their shrine by their Reliques.

St. EDMUND Son to Edward Rich and Mabel his Wife, was born atAntiq. Brit. pag. 165. Abbington in Bark-shire, and bred in Oxford. Some will have Edmunds-Hall in that University built by his means, but others (more probably) nam'd in his Memory. He became Canon of Salisbury, and from thence, by the joynt-consent of Pope, King and Monkes, (three cords seldom twisted in the sa ne Cable) advanc'd Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, where he sate almost ten years till he willingly deserted it; partly, because offended at the power of the Popes Legate, making him no more then a meer Cypher, signifying [Page 90] onely in conjunction (when concurring with his pleasure;) partly, because vexed at his polling and peeling of the English people, so grievous, he could not endure, so ge­neral, he could not avoid to behold it. For these reasons he left the Land, went (or, shall I say, fled?) into France, where he sighed out the remainder of his Life, most at Pontiniack, but some at Soyssons where he dyed Anno 1240.

Pope Innocent the fourth Canonized him six years after his death, whereat many much wondred, that he should so much honour one, a professed foe to Papal Extor­tions.Veritus, ne min [...]s i [...]sius [...] Roma­nam sedem ob tot acceptas in­jurias vindica­rent. Some conceived he did it se defendendo, and for a ne noceat, that he might not be tormented with his Ghost. But what hurt were it, if all the Enemies of his Holiness were Sainted, on condition they took death in their way thereunto? Sure it is that Lewis King of France, a year after translated his Corps, and, three years after that, be­stowed a most sumptuous Shrine of Gold, Silver, and Chrystal upon it; and the 16. of November is the Festival appointed for his Memorial.M. Parker Antiq. Brit. pag. 173.


It appeareth by theFox, Acts and Mon. pag. 817. confession of Thomas Man (Martyred in the beginning of King Henry the eighth) that there was at Newberry in this County a glorious and sweet So­ciety of faithful Favourers, who had continued the space of fifteen years together, till at last by a certain lewd person, whom they trusted and made of their Council, they were betrayed, and then many of them to the number of six or seven score were abjured, and three or four of them burnt. Now although we knew not how to call these Martyrs who so suffered, their Names no doubt are written in the Book of Life.

We see how the day of the Gospel dawned as soon in this County, as in any place in England, surely Seniority in this kind ought to be respected, which made Paul a pusney in piety toRom. 16. 7. Andronicus and Iunia his kinsmen, to enter this caveat for their Spiri­tual precedency who were in Christ before me.] On which account, let other places give the honour to the Town of Newberry, because it started the first (and I hope not tire for the earliness thereof) in the race of the Reformed Religion. Yea Doctor William Twis, the painful Preacher in that Parish, was wont to use this as a motive to his flock, to quicken their pace, and strengthen their perseverance in piety, because that Town ap­pears the first fruits of the Gospel in England. And Windsor the next in the same Coun­ty had the honour of Martyrs ashes therein, as by the ensuing list will appear.

There was in Windsor a company of right godly persons, who comfortably enjoyed themselves, untill their enemies designed their extirpation, though it cost them much to accomplish it, one of them confessing that for his share he expended an hundred marks, besides the killing of three Geldings. These suspecting that the Judges Itine­rant in their circuit would be too favourable unto them, procured a special Session, got four arraigned and condemned by the Commissioners, whereof the three follow­ing were put to death, on the Statute of the six Articles.

1.Fox, Acts and Mon. pag. 1211. &c. Anthony Persons, a Priest and profitable Preacher, so that the great Clerks of Windsor thought their idleness upbraided by his industry. Being fastned to the stake he laid a good deal of straw on the top of his head, saying, this is Gods hat, I am now arm'd like a souldier of Christ.

2. Robert Testwood, a singing-man in the Quire of Windsor. There hapned a contest betwixt him and another of that Society, singing an Anthem together to the Virgin Mary.

Robert Philips on the one side of the Quire.Robert Testwood on the other side of the Quire.
Oh Redemtrix & Salvatrix!Non Redemtrix, nec Salvatrix.

I know not which sung the deepest Base, or got the better for the present. Sure I am, that since by Gods goodness the Nons have drowned the Ohs in England. Test­wood was also accused for disswading people from Pilgrimages, and for striking off the nose of the image of our Lady.

3. Henry Fillmer Church-Warden of Windsor, who had Articled against their su­perstitious Vicar for heretical Doctrine.

These three were burnt together at Windsor, Anno 1544. and when account was [Page] given to their patient death to King Henry the eighth sitting on horse-back, the King turning his horses head said, Alas poor innocents! A better speech from a private per­son then a Prince, bound by his place not only to pity, but protect oppressed inno­cence. However by this occasion other persecuted people were pardoned and preser­ved, of whomUnder the en­suing Title of Confessors. hereafter.

This storm of persecution thus happily blown over, Bark-shire enjoyed peace and tranquillity for full twelve years together, viz. from the year of our Lord 1544. till 1556. When Dr. Jeffrey the cruel Chancellour of Sarisbury, renewed the troubles at Newberry and caused the death of

  • JULINS PALMER. See his Character (being born in Coventry) in Warwick­shire.

These three July 16. 1556. were burnt in a place nigh Newberry called theFox, Acts and Mon. pag. 1934. Sand­pits, enduring the pain of the fire with such incredible constancy, that it confounded their fo [...]s, and confirmed their friends in the Truth.


JOHN MARBECK was an Organist in the Quire of Windsor and very skilful there­in, a man of Admirable Industry and Ingenuity, who, not perfectly understanding the Latin Tongue, did out of the Latin with the help of the English Bible make an En­glish Concordance, which Bishop Gardiner himself could not but commend as a piece of singular Industry, Professing that there were no fewer then twelve Learned men to make the first Latin Concordance; And King Henry the eighth hearing thereof, said that he was better imployed, then those Priests which accused him. Let therefore our Mo­dern Concordances of Cotton, Newman, Bernard, &c. as Children and Grand-Children do their duty to Marbecks Concordance, as their Parent at first endeavour'd in our Language.

This Marbeck was a very zealous Protestant, and of so sweet and amiable Nature, that all good men did love, and few bad men did hate him. Yet was he con­demned Anno 1544. on the Statute of the 6. Articles to be burnt at Windsor, had not his pardon been procured, divers assigning divers causes thereof;

  • 1. That Bishop Gardiner bare him a speciall affection for his skill in the My­stery of Musick.
  • 2. That such who condemned him, procured his pardon out of Remorse of Conscience, because so slender the evidence against him, it being que­stionable whether his Concordance was made after the Statute of the 6. Ar­ticles or before it, and, if before, he was freed by the Kings General pardon.
  • 3. That it was done out of design to reserve him for a discovery of the rest of his party; if so, their plot failed them. For being as true as Steel, (whereof his fetters were made, which he ware in Prison for a good time) he could not be frighted or flattered to make any detection.

Here a mistake was committed by Mr. Fox in his first Edition, whereon the Pa­pis [...]s much insult, making this Marbeck burnt at Windsor for his Religion, with An­thony Persons, Robert Testwood, and Henry Fillmer. No doubt Mr. Fox rejoyced at his own mistake, thus far forth; both for Marbecks sake who escaped with his Life, and his Enemies who thereby drew the less guilt of bloud on their own Consciences. But hear what he pleads for his mistake.

  • 1. Marbeck was dead in Law, as condemned whereon his errour was probably grounded.
  • 2. He confessing that one of the four condemned was pardoned his Life, mis­naming him [...] instead of Marbeck.
  • 3. Let Papists first purge their Lying Legend from manifest and Intentio­nall untruths, before they censure others for casuall slips and un-meant Mi­stakes.
  • 4. Recognizing his Book in the next Edition, he with blushing amended his [Page 92] errour. And is not this Penance enough according to the principals of his accusers Confession, Contrition, and Satisfaction?

All this will not content some morose Cavillers whom I have heard jeeringly say, that many who were burnt in Fox in the Reign of Queen Mary, drank Sack in the days of Queen Elizabeth. But enough is said to any ingenious person; And it is impossible for any Author of a Voluminous Book consisting of several persons and circumstances (Rea­der in pleading for Master Fox, I plead for my self) to have such Ubiquitary intelli­gence, as to apply the same infallibly to every particular. When this Marbeck dyed is to me unknown, he was alive at the second English Edition of the Book of Martyrs 1583. thirty and nine years after the time of his Condemnation.

ROBERT BENET was a Lawyer living in Windsor, and a zealous Professor of the true Religion. He drank as deep as any of the Cup of Affliction, and no doubt had been condemned with Testwood, Persons, and the rest; Had he not at the same time been sick of theFox, Acts and Mon. pag. 1220. plague-sore in the Prison of the Bishop of London, which proved the means of his preservation; Thus it is better to fall into the hands of God, than into the hands of men. And thus as out of the devourer came food, out of the Destroyer came life, yea the Plague-sore proved a Cordial unto him. For by the time that he was recovered thereof, a Pardon was freely granted to him; as also to Sir Thomas Cardine, Sir Phi­lip Hobby, (both of the Kings Privy-chamber) with their Ladies and many more design­ed to death by crafty Bishop Gardner, had not His Majesties mercy thus miraculously interposed.


I have read of many, who would have been Cardinals, but might not. This County af­forded one, who might have been one, but would not, viz. WILLIAM LAUD, the place being no less freely profered to, then disdainfully refused by, him with words to this effect: That the Church of Rome must be much mended, before he would accept any such Dignity. An expression which in my mind amounted to the Emphaticall Peri­phrasis of NEVER. But we shall meet with him hereafter under a more proper Topick.


WILLIAM of READING aM [...]tth. West. in flor. Hist. Learned Benedictine, imployed by King H. the Second in many Embassies, and by him preferred Arch-Bishop of Bourdeaux, where he dyed in the Reign of King Richard the first.

JOHN DE BRADFIELD, sive de lato Campo. Finding fifteen Villages of the Name, IAMP fixt his Nativity at Bradfield in Berks, as (in my measuring) the nearest to Rochester, where he was Chanter and BishopBishop God­win in his Bi­shops of Ro­chester. 1274. If mistaken, the matter is not much seeing his Sir-name is controverted and otherwise written, John de HOE. However being Char­ractred, Vir conversationis honestae, decenter literatus & in omnibus morigeratus. I was desi­rous to crowd him into our Book where I might with most probability.

RICHARD BEAUCHAMP was Brother saith Bishop Godwin to Walter Beauchamp (mistaken for William, as may appear byIn his Brit. in this Coun­ty. Mr. Camden) Baron of St. Amand, whose chief habitation was at Wydehay in this County, he was bred Doctor in the Laws, and became Bishop first of Hereford, then of Salisbury. He was Chancellour of the Garter, which Office descended to his Successors, Windsor-Castle the seat of that Order being in the Dioces of Salisbury. He built a most beautifull Chappel (on the South-side of St. Maries Chappel) in his own Cathedral, wherein he lyeth buryed. His death hap­ned Anno Dom. 1482.

Since the Reformation.

THOMAS GODWIN was born atFrancis God­win his Son in his Catalogue of Bishops of Bath & Wells. Oakingham in this County, and first bred in the Free School therein. Hence was he sent to Magdalen Colledge in Oxford, maintained there for a time by the bounty of Doctor Layton Dean of York, till at last he was cho­sen Fellow of the Colledge. This he exchanged on some terms for the School-Masters place of Barkley in Gloucester-shire, where he also Studied Physick, which afterwards pro­ved beneficial unto him; when forbidden to teach School in the Reign of Queen Mary. [Page 93] Yea Bonner threatned him with fire and faggot, which caused him often to Obscure him­self and Remove his Habitation. He was an Eloquent Preacher, Tall and Comely in Per­son; qualities which much Indeared him to Q. Elizabeth, who loved good parts well, but better, when in a goodly Person. For 18. years together he never failed to be one of the Select Chaplains, which Preached in the Lent before her Majesty. He was first Dean of Christ-church in Oxford, then Dean of Canterbury, and at last Bishop of Bath and Wells.

Being infirm with Age, and deseased with the Gout, he was necessitated for a Nurse to marry a second wife, a Matron of years proportionable to himself. But this was by his Court-Enemies (which no Bishop wanted in that Age) represented to the Queen to his great Disgrace. Yea they traduced him to have married a Girl of twenty years of age, until the good Earl of Bedford Sir John Ha­rington in his aditional sup­ply to Bp. God­win. Pag. 115. casually present at such discourse; Madam, (said he to her Majesty) I know not how much the Woman is above twenty, but I know a Son of hers is but little under forty.

Being afflicted with a Quartern feaver, he was advised by his Physicians to retire into this County, to Oakingham the place of his Birth, seeing in such Cases Native Ayr may prove Cordial to Patients, as Mothers milk to (and old men are twice) children. Here he dyed (breathing his first and last in the same Place,) November the 19. 1590. And lyeth buried under a Monument in the South-side of the Chan­cell.

THOMAS RAMME was born atSir Jam [...]s Warede Praesu­libus Lageniae Pag. 67. Windsor in this County, and admitted in Kings Colledge in Cambridge Anno Dom. 1588. whence he was made Chaplain first to Robert Earl of Essex, then to Charles Lord Mountjoy, both Lord Lieutenants in Ireland, After many mediate Preferments, he was made Bishop of Fernos and Laghlin in that King­dom, both which he Peaceably injoyed, Anno 1628.

WILLIAM LAWD was born at Reading in this County, of honest Parentage, bred in Saint Johns Colledge in Oxford, whereof he became P [...]esident; Successively Bi­shop of Saint Davids, Bath and Wells, London, and at last Arch-Bishop of Canter­bury. One of low Stature, but high Parts; Piercing eyes, Chearfull countenance, wherein Gravity and Pleasantness, were well compounded: Admirable in his Na­turalls, Unblameable in his Morals, being very strict in his Conversation. Of him I have written in my Ecclesiastical History, though I confess it was some­what too soon for one with safety and truth, to treat of such a Subject. In­deed I could instance in some kind of course Venison, not fit for food when first killed, and therefore cunning Cooks bury it for some hours in the Earth, till the rankness thereof being mortified thereby, it makes most palatable meat. So the me­mory of some Persons newly deceased are neither fit for a Writers or Readers repast, un­till some competent time after their Interment. However I am Confident that unpartial Posterity, on a serious review of all Passages, will allow his Name to be reposed amongst the HEROES of our Nation, seeing such as behold his expence on St. Pauls as but a Cy­pher, will assign his other Benefactions a very valuable Signification, viz. his erecting and endowing an Almes-house in Reading, his increasing of Oxford Library with Books, and St. Johns Colledg with beautifull buildings. He was beheaded Jan. 10. 1644.


Sir JOHN MASON Knight was born at Abbington (where he is remembred among the Benefactors to the beautifull Almes-house therein,) bred in All souls in Oxford. King Hènry the eighth coming thither was so highly pleased with an oration Mr. Mason made unto Him, that he instantly gave order for his education beyond the seas, as confi­dent he would prove an able Minister of State. This was the politick discipline of those days to select the pregnancies of either Universities, and breed them in forraign parts for publique employments. He was Privy-Councellour to King Henry the eighth, and K. Edward the sixth. OneSir Jo. Hay [...] ward in his Edw. the 6. pag. 105. maketh him His Secretary of State, which some sus­pect too high;Stows Annals Edw. 6. pag. 612. another, but Master of the Requests, which I believe as much beneath him. He continued Councellor to Q. Mary, and Q. Elizabeth, to whom he was Trea­surer of the Household, and Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

[Page 94]Mr. Camden gives him this true character, Vir fuit gravis, atque eruditus: which I like much better then that which followeth, so far as I can understand it,

Cam. Eliz. Anno 1566. sub fin m.
These words are absurdly rendred by [...] [...] Darcy (who under­stood not L [...] ­tin, and trans­lated Camden aut of the F [...]nch Trans­ [...]ation) He was diligent and careful to th [...] preservation of Benefits.
Beneficiorum incubator maximus.

Surely he could be no Canonical Incumbent in any Benefice, not being in Orders, which leaveth him under the suspicion, of being a great ingrosser of long leases in Church-livings, which then used to be let for many years, a pityful pension being re­served for the poor Curate. Thought possibly in his younger time, he might have Tonsuram primam, or be a Deacon, (which improved by his great power) might qualify at least countenance him for the holding of his spiritual promotions. He died 1566. and lieth buried in the Quire of St. Pauls (over against William Herbert first Earl of Pembroke,) and I remember this Distick of his Long Epitaph:

Tempore quinque suo regnantes ordine vidit,
Horum a Consiliis quatuor ille fuit.
He saw five Princes, which the scepter bore,
Of them, was Privy-Councellour to Four.

It appears by His Epitaph, that he left no Child of his own Body, but adopted his Ne­phew to be his Son an Heir.

Sir THOMAS SMITH Knight was born at Abbington, bred in the University of Ox­ford, God and himself raised him to the eminency he attained unto, unbefriended with any extraction. He may seem to have had an ingenuous emulation of Sir Tho. Smith se­nior, Secretary of State, whom he imitated in many good qualities, and had no doubt equalled him in preferment, if not prevented by death. He attained only to be Ma­ster of the Requests, and Secretary to K. James, for His Latine Letters, higher places expecting him, when a period was put to his life Novemb. 28. 1609. He lieth buried in the Church of Fullkam in Middlesex, under a monument erected by his Lady, Frances daughter to William Lord Chandos, and since Countess of Exeter.


HENRY UMPTON Knight, was born (as by all Indications in the Heralds Office doth appear) at Wadley in this County. He was Son to Sir Edward Umpton, by Anne (the Relick of John Dudley Earl of Warwick, and) the Eldest Daughter of Edward Sey­mour Duke of Somerset. He was imployed by Queen Elizabeth Embassadour into France, where he so behaved himself right stoutly in her behalf, as may appear by this particular.

In the Moneth of March Anno 1592. being sensible of some injury offered by the Duke of Gwise to the honour of the Queen of England, he sent him this ensuingExemplifyed in Mills his Catalogue of honour in the Edition of Royal paper in the List of the [...]arls of War­wick. challenge.

For as much as lately in the Lodging of my Lord Du Mayne and in publick elsewhere, Impudently, Indiscreetly, and over boldly you spoke badly of my Soveraign, whose sacred Person, here in this County I represent. To maintain both by word and weapon her honour, (which never was called in question among people of Honesty and Vertue) I say you have wickedly lyed in speaking so basely of my Soveraign, and you shall do nothing else but lie, whensoever you shall dare to taxe her honour. Moreover that her sacred Person (being one of the most complete and Vertuous Princess that lives in this world) ought not to be evil spo­ken of by the Tongue of such a perfidious Traytor to her Law and Country, as you are. And hereupon I do defy you, and challenge your Person to mine with such manner of Arms as you shall like or choose, be it either on horse back or on foot. Nor would I have you to think any inequality of Person between us, I being issued of as great a Race and Noble house (every way) as your self. So assigning me an indifferent place, I will there maintain my words, and the Lie which I gave you, and which you should not endure if you have any Courage at all in you. If you consent not, meet me hereupon, I will hold you, and cause you to be generally held for the arrantest coward, and most slanderous slave that lives in all France. I expect your Answer.

I find not what answer was returned. This Sir Henry dying in the French Kings Camp before Lofear had hisFnn▪ by Lee Cl [...]rentiaux. markt fol. 45. Corps brought over to London, and carryed in a Coach to Wadley, thence to Farington, where he was buryed in the Church on Tuesday the 8. of July 1596. He had allowed him a Barons Hearse, because dying Ambassadour Leigier.


HUGH of READING quitted his expectances of a fair Estate, and sequestring him­selfS. N. from worldly delights, embraced a Monastical life, till at last he became Abbot of Reading. Such, who suspect his sufficiency, will soon be satisfied when they read the high Commendation which Petrus Bloesensis Arch Deacon of Bath, (one of the greatest Scholars of that Age) bestoweth upon him. He wrote a Book (of no Trival Questions) fetcht out of the Scripture it self, the reason why I. Bale De Scrip. Brit. Cent. 3. num. 20. (generally a back-friend to Monks) hath so good a Character for him, who flourished Anno Dom. 1180.

ROGER of WINDSORI vehement­ly suspect this man, meerly made by the mistake of Pitseus [Anno 1235.] for R [...]ger Wendo­ver. was undoubtedly born in this Town, otherwise he would have been called Roger of St. Albans, being Chanter in that Convent. Now in that Age Monks were reputed men of best Learning and most leasure. The cause why our English Kings alwaies choose one of their order (who passed by the name of Histo­ricus Regius, the Kings Historian) to write the remarkable passages of his time. Our Roger was by King Henry the third selected for that service, and performed it to [...]is own great credit and the contentment of others. He flourished in the year of our Lord 1235.

ROBERT RICH Son to Edward and Mabell his Wife, Brother of St. Edmund Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, was born at Abbington in this County; he followed his Brother at very great distance both in Parts and Learning, (though accompanying him in his Travells beyond the Seas) and wrote a Book of the Life, Death and Mi­racles of his Brother, being much to blame, if he did not do all right to so near a Rela­tion. He dyed about the year of our Lord 1250.

RICHARD of WALLINGFORD was born in that Market Town, pleasantly sea­ted on the River Thames, wherein his Father was a Black-Smith. He went afterwards to Oxford, and was bred in Merton Coll▪ then a Monke, and at last Abbot of St. Albans, where he became a most expert Mathematician, especially for the Mechanical part thereof, and (retaining somewhat of his Fathers Trade) was Dexterous at making pritty engines, and Instruments.

His Master-piece was a most Artificial Clock, made (saith myB [...]le de Scrip. Brit. Ce [...]t. 5. num. 19. Author) Magno la­bore, majore sumptu, Arte verò maxima, with much Pain, more Cost, and most Art. It remain'd in that Monastry in the time of John Bale (whom by his words I collect an Eye-witness thereof) affirming that Europe had not the Like; So that it seemed as good as the famous Clock at Strasburg in Germany, and in this Respect better, because an­cienter; It was a Calendar as well as a Clock, Shewing the fixed Stars and Planets, The Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea, Minutes of the Hours, and what not?

I have heard that when Monopolies began to grow Common in the Court of France, the Kings Jester moved to have this Monopoly for himself, viz. a Cardescue of every one who carried a Watch about him, and cared not how he employed his Time. Sure­ly the Monks of Saint Albans were Concerned to be carefull how they spent their hours, seeing no Convent in England had the like Curiosity; This their Clock gathering up the least Crum of Time, presenting the Minutary fractions thereof; On which ac­count, I conceive Richard the maker thereof, well prepared for the time of his dissolu­tion, when he died of the Leprosie, Anno Dom. 1326.

Since the Reformation.

HENRY BULLOCK was most prob [...]bly born in this County, where his ancientAMP. name appears in a worshipful estate. He was bred Fellow and Doctor of Divinity in Queens Colledge in Cambridge. A good Linguist, and general Scholar, familiar with Erasmus, (an Evidence of his Learning, it being as hard to halt before acriple, as to de­ceive his Judgement,) calling him Bovillum in his Epistles unto him.

By the way our English Writers, when rendring a Sirname in Latine which hath an Appellative signification, content them to retein the Body of the Name, and only dis­guise the termination, as Cross, Peacok, Crossus, Peacocus, &c. But the Germans in such a Case doe use to mould the meaning of the name, either into Latine, as I. Fierce they translate I. Ferus, Bullock, Bovillus, or into Greek, as Swarts they render Me­lanthon, Reeck-lin Capnio.

[Page 96]Tis confessed our Bullock Ba [...]e de Scrip [...]. [...]. 9. Num. 7. compelled by Cardinal Wolsy wrote against Luther, but otherwise his affections were biased to the Protestant Party. The Date of his death is unknown.

WILLIAM TWIS was born at Spene in this County, which was an ancient Roman Camd [...]ns Brit. in Bark-shire. City mentioned by Antonine in his Itinerary by the name of Spinae. This mindeth me of a passage inLib. 2. [...]. [...]. Clemens Alexandrinus, speaking of sanctified afflictions, Nos qui­dem è Spinis uvas colligimus; and here in another sense Gods Church gathered grapes, this Good man, out of this thornie place. Hence he was sent by Winchester-School to New-Colledge in Oxford, and there became a general Scholar. His plaine preaching was good, solid disputing better, pious living best of all. He afterwards became Preacher in the place of his nativity (Spinham lands is part of Newberry,) and though generally our Saviours observation is verified, A prophet is not without honour save in his own coun­try, (chiefly because Minutiae omnes pueritiae ejus ibi sunt cognitae) yet here he met with deserved respect. Here he laid a good foundation, and the more the pity, if since some of his fancifull auditors have built hay and stubble thereupon. And no wonder if this good Doctor toward his death was slighted by Sectaries, it being usuall for New-lights to neglect those who have born the heat of the day. His Latin Works give great evi­dence of his abilities in controversial matters. He was chosen Prolocutor in the late Assembly of Divines, wherein his moderation was very much commended, and dying in Holborn he was buried at Westminster, Anno Dom. 164.

WILLIAM LYFORD was born at Peysmer in this County, and bred in Magdalen Colledge in Oxford, where he proceeded Bachelour of Divinity 1631. He was also Fel­low of that foundation, on the same token that his Conscience Post factum was much troubled, about his resigning his place for money to his Successor, but (as his friends have informed me) he before his death took order for the restitution thereof.

The modesty of his mind was legible in the comeliness of his countenance, and the meekness of his Spirit visible in his courteous Carriage: He was afterwards fixed at [...] in Dorset-shire, where his large Vineyard required such an able and painfull Vine-dresser; Here he layed a good foundation (before the beginning of our Civil Wars) with his learned Preaching and Catechising; and indeed, though Sermons give most Sail to mens souls, Catechising layeth the best Ballast in them, keeping them stedy from being carri [...]d away with every wind of Doctrine. Yet he drank a deep Draught of the bitter Cup, with the rest of his brethren, and had his share of Obloquie from such factious Persons as could not abide the wholsome words of sound Doctrine. But their Candle (without their Repentance) shall be put out in darkness, whilst his memory shall shine in his Learned works he hath left behind him. He died about the year of our Lord, 1652.

Romish Exile W [...]iters.

THOMAS HYDE was born atRegister of New [...]. Anno 1543. Newberry in this County, and bred a Master of Art in New Colledge in Oxford; he was afterwards Canon of Winchester, and chief Master of the school therein: He, with [...]ohn marti [...]l the second Master, about the beginning of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, left both their School and their Land, living long beyond the Seas; This Hyde is charactred byPits. d [...] Scrip. Brit. Anno 1597. one of his own perswasion, To be a man of up­right life, of great gravity and severity: He wrote a book of Consolation to his fellow­exile. And died Anno Dom. 1597.

B [...]nefactors to th [...] Publick.

ALFREDE the fourth Son to K. Athelwolph was born atCamb. Brit. in Bark-shire. Wantage a market-town in this County. An excellent scholar, though he was pastMr. [...] in his notes on [...], pag. 192. twelve years of age before he knew one letter in the Book; and did not he run fast who starting so late came soon to the mark? He was a Curious Poet, excellent Musician, a valiant and successeful Souldier, who fought seven Battles against the Danes in one year, and at last made them his Sub­jects by Conquest, and Gods servants by Christianity. He gave the first Institution, or (as others will have it) the best [...] to the University of Oxford. A Prince who cannot be painted to the Life without his losse, no words reaching his worth.

He Divided
  • 1. Every natural day (as to himself) into three parts, eight hours for his devotion, eight hours for his imployment, eight hours for his sleep and refection.
  • 2. His Revenues into three parts, one for his expences in War, a second for the maintenance of his Court, and a third to be spended on Pious uses.
  • 3. His Land into Thirty two shires, which number since is altered and in­creased.
  • 4. His Subjects into Hundreds, and Tythings, consisting of Ten persons, mutually Pledges for their Good behaviour; such being accounted suspi­tious for their Life and Loyalty that could not give such Security.

He left Learning, where he found Ignorance; Justice, where he found Oppression; Peace, where he found Distraction. And having Reigned about Four and thirty years, He dyed and was buried at Winchester, Anno 901. He loved Religion more then Super­stition, favoured Learned men more then Lasie Monks, which [perchance] was the cause that his memory is not loaden with Miracles, and He not solemnly Sainted with other Saxon Kings who far less deserved it.

Since the Reformation.

PETER CHAPMAN was born atStows Sur. of Lond. p. 98. Cokeham in this County, bred an Iron-monger in London, and at his death bequeathed five pounds a year to two Scholars in Oxford, as much to two in Cambridge; and five Pounds a year to the Poor in the town of his Na­tivity, besides threescore pounds to the Prisons in London, and other Benefactions. The certain date of his death is to me unknown.

JOHN KENDRICK was born at Reading in this County, and bred a Draper in the City of London. His State may be compared to theMat. 13. 32. Mustard-seed, very little at the beginning, but growing so great, that the birds made nests therein, or rather he there­in made ne [...]ts for many birds; which otherwise being either infledged or maimed, must have been exposed to wind and weather.

The Worthiest of Davids WORTHIES were digested into▪ Sam. 23. 19. Ternions, and they again subdivided into two Ranks. If this double Dichotomie were used to methodize our Protestant Benefactors since the Reformation, sure I am that Mr. Kendrick will be (if not the last of the first,) the first of the second Three. His Charity began at his Kindred, proceeded to his Friends and Servants, (to whom he left large Legacies,) con­cluded with the Poor, on whom he bestowed above twenty thousand pounds, Reading and Newbury sharing the deepest therein. And if any envious and distrustfull Miser (measu­ring other mens hearts by the narrowness of his own) suspecteth the truth hereof, and if he dare hazard the smarting of his bleered eyes to behold so bright a Sun of Bounty, let him consult his WillStows Survey of Lon. 193. publickly in Print. He departed this life on the 30. day of September, 1624. and lyes buried in St. Christophers London. To the Curate of which Parish he gave twenty pounds per annum for ever.

RICHARD WIGHTWICK, Bachelor of Divinity, was Rector of East Isley in thisS. N. County: What the yearly value of his living was I know not, and have cause to believe it not very great; however one would conjecture his Benefice a Bishoprick by his bounty to Pembroke Colledge in Oxford, to which he gave one hundred pounds per an­num, to the maintenance of three Fellows and four Scholars. When he departed this life is to me unknown.

Memorable Persons.

THOMAS COLE commonly called the rich clothier of Reading. Tradition and an authorless pamphlet make him a man of vast wealth, maintaining an hundred and fourty meniall servants in his house, besides three hundred poor people whom he set on work; insomuch that his Wains with cloth filled the high-way betwixt Reading and London, to the stopping of King Henry the first in his Progress; Who, notwithstanding (for the incouraging of his Subjects industry) gratified the said Cole, and all of his profession, with the set measure of a Yard, the said King making his own Arme the standard [Page 98] thereof, whereby Drapery was reduced in the meting thereof to a greater certainty.

The truth is this, Monkes began to Lard the lives of their Saints with lies, whence they proceeded in like manner to flourish out the facts of Famous Knights, (King Arthur, Guy of Warwick, &c.) in imitation whereof some meaner wits in the same sort made description of Mechanicks, powdering their lives with improbable passages, to the great prejudice of truth: Seeing the making of Broad-cloath in England could not be so ancient, and it was the arme (not of King Henry) but King Edward the first, which is notoriously known to have been the adequation of a yard.

However, because omnis fabula fundatur in Historia, let this Cole be accounted emi­nent in this kind, though I vehemently suspect very little of truth would remain in the midst of this story, if the grosse falshoods were pared from both sides thereof.

JOHN WINSCOMBE, called commonly Jack of Newberry, was the most conside­rable clothier (without fancy and fiction) England ever beheld. His Looms were his lands, whereof he kept one hundred in his House, each managed by a Man and a Boy. In the expedition to Flodden-field against James King of Scotland he marched with an hundred of his own men, (as well armed, and better clothed then any) to shew that the painfull to use their hands in peace could be valiant, and imploy their Armes in War. He feasted King Henry the eighth and his first Queen Katharine at his own house, extant at Newberry at this day, but divided into many Tenements. Well may his house now make sixteen Clothiers houses, whose wealth would amount to six hundred of their estates. He built the Church of Newberry from the Pulpit westward to the Tower inclusively, and died about the year 1520. some of his name and kindred of great wealth still remaining in this County.

Lord Mayors.
1 John ParveisJohn ParveisErlgestonFishmonger1432
2 Nicholas WyfoldThomas WyfoldHertleyGrocer1450
3 William WebbeJohn WebbeReadingSalter1591
4 Thomas BennetThomas BennetWallingfordMercer1603
The Names of the Gentry of this County, returned by the Commissioners in the twelfth year of King Henry the Sixth, 1433.
Robert Bishop of Sarum.Commissioners to take the Oaths.
William Lovel Chivaler 
Robert Shotsbroke,Knights for the Shires.
William Fyndern. 
  • Johan. Prendegest. Praeceptor
  • Hospitalis St. Johan. Jerus. in
  • Anglia de Grenham
  • Johannis Golefre Armigeri
  • Willielmi Warbelton Ar.
  • Willielmi Danvers Ar.
  • Johannis Shotesbrooke Ar.
  • Thomae Foxle Ar.
  • Phi. Inglefeld Ar.
  • Thomae Rothewell Ar.
  • Willielmi Perkyns Ar.
  • Thomae Drewe Ar.
  • Richardi Ristwold Ar.
  • Richardi Makeney Ar.
  • Johannis Rogers Ar.
  • Willielmi Stanerton Ar.
  • Willielmi Floyer Ar.
  • Thomae Bullok Ar.
  • Richardi Bullok Ar.
  • Johannis Estbury Ar.
  • Johannis Kentwode Ar.
  • Richardi Hulcote Ar.
  • Johannis Gargrave Ar.
  • Johannis Chaumpe Ar.
  • Willielmi Baron Ar.
  • Willielmi Fitzwaryn Ar.
  • Johannis Stowe.
  • Willielmi Hales
  • Johannis Hyde
  • Johan. Stokys de Brympton
  • Willielmi Fachell
  • Roberti Vobe
  • Thomae Pynchepole
  • Johannis Yorke
  • Johannis Ildesle
  • Thomae Ildesle
  • Johannis Colle
  • Richardi Wydeford
  • Richardi Abberbury
  • Thomae Lanyngton
  • Thomae Denton
  • Nicholai Whaddon
  • Petri Delamare
  • Johannis Martyn
  • Thomae Frankeleyn
  • Willielmi Felyce
  • Richardi Hamwell
  • Roberti Wodecok
  • Johannis Warvyle
  • Johannis Rokys
  • Johannis Seward
  • [Page 99]Willielmi Walrond
  • Iohannis Medeford
  • Rogeri Merlawe
  • Willieimi Latton
  • Richardi Shayle
  • Thomae Coterell
  • Iohannis George
  • Iohannis Sewalle
  • Iohannis Sturmy
  • Thomae Hammes
  • Iohannis Wering
  • Roberti Beche
  • Iohannis Coventre
  • Iohannis Lokwode
  • Iohannis Fitzwarwin
  • Henrici Samon
  • Thomae Plesance
  • Edwardi Gybbes
  • Will Coke de Kingeston Lyle
  • Iohannis Firry
  • Nicholai Hunt
  • Hugonis Mayne
  • Willielmi Newman senioris
  • Davidis Gower
  • Iohannis Dienys
  • Richardi Dancastre
  • Willielmi Drew de Hungford
  • Iohannis Parker de Doington
  • Willielmi Standard
  • Richardi Collis
  • Nicholai Long
  • Roberti Chevayn
  • Richardi Walker
  • Walteri Canonn. de Croke­ham. Parker
  • Roberti Rove de Abendon
  • Iohannis Richby de Reding
  • Iohannis Stokes de Abendon
  • Iohannis Whitwey
  • Willielmi Umfray
  • Simonis Kent
  • Iohannis Hatter
  • Willielmi Brusele
  • Richardi Irmonger
  • Richardi Vayre
  • Gilberti Holeway
  • Iohannis London
  • Willielmi Pleystow
  • Iohannis Bancbury
  • Thomae Liford
  • Henrici Ildesle
  • Iohannis Chebeyn
  • Iohannis Mortymer
  • Iohannis Spynache
  • Iohannis Moyn de Faryndon
  • Iohannis Ely
  • Iohannis Goddard
  • Willielmi Ditton
  • Walteri Suttou
  • Nicholai Barbour
  • Willielmi Iacob
  • Iohannis Benet de Newberry
  • Iohannis Magot
  • Willielmi Croke de Newberry
  • Willielmi Clement
  • Iohannis Moyn de Moryton
  • Roberti Freman
  • Iohannis Lewes
  • Thomae Steward
  • Willielmi Sydmanton
  • Richardi Waltham
  • Iohannis Babeham
  • Iohannis Clere
  • Iohannis Botele de Newberry
  • Richardi Meryvale
  • Willielmi Waleys
  • Iohannis Beneton
  • Willielmi Croke de Welford
  • Willielmi Charectour
  • Willielmi Hertrugge
  • Iohannis Kybe
  • Willielmi Wylton
  • Richardi Coterell
  • Laurentii Alisandre
  • Thomae Bevar
  • Vincentii Bertilmewe
  • Iohannis Pynkeney
  • Thomae Attevyne
  • Iohannis Crouchfeld
  • Iohannis Smewyn
  • Iohannis Sifrewast
  • Iohannis Batell
  • Iohannis Bythewode
  • Thomae Bowell
  • Thomae Hony
  • Walteri Waryn
  • Iohannis Yernemouth
  • Henrici Russel [...]
  • Roberti Ivenden
  • Henrici Berkesdale
  • Iohannis Absolon
  • Iohannis Berkesdale
  • Iohannis Clerk de Inkpenny
  • Richardi Bertlot
  • Gilberti Cohenhull
  • Gilberti Vyell
  • Gilberti Attewyke
  • Richardi Attepitte
  • Thomae Padbury
  • Hugonis Rose
  • Iohannis Woderove
  • Thomae Pert
  • Iohannis Merston
  • Richardi Grove
  • Rogeri Burymill
  • Thomae Grece
  • Richardi Pekke
  • Richardi Mullyng
  • Iohan. Parker de Wokingham
  • Iohannis Whitede
  • Iohan. Sherman de Wyndesor
  • Willielmi Wodyngton
  • Rogeri Felter
  • Willielmi Felde
  • Iohannis Billesby
  • Iohannis Gunter
  • Iohannis Glover
  • Richardi Atteforde
  • Iohannis Stacy
  • Iohannis Baron de Wytenham
  • Iohannis Horwode
  • Willielmi More
  • Willielmi At-mille
  • Henrici de la River
  • Iohannis Poting
  • Henrici Brown
  • Iohannis Brown
  • Richardi Rissul
  • Iohannis Yatynden
  • Iohannis Kete
  • Iohannis Pernecote
  • Rogeri Gunter
  • Thomae Swyer
  • Richardi Bocher de Thacham
  • Iohannis Elys de Thacham
  • Thomae Mery
  • Richardi Phelipp
  • Iohannis Thoursey &
  • Iohannis Bassemore.

Gardiners complain that some kind of Flowers and Fruits will not grow prosperous­ly and thrive kindly in the Suburbs of London; This they impute to the smoak of the City offensive thereunto. Sure I am that ancient Gentry in this County sown thick in former, come up thin in our Age.

Antiqua è multis nomina pauca manent.
Of names which were in days of yore,
Few remain here of a great store.

I behold the vicinity of London as the cause thereof, for though Barkshire be conve­niently distanced thence, (the nearest place sixteen, the farthest sixty miles from the same) yet the goodness of the ways thither, and sweetness of the seats there, (not to speak of the River Thames, which uniteth both in commerce,) setteth Barkshire really nearer then it is locally to London: The cause, I believe, that so few families remain of the forenamed Catalogue.

The paucity of them maketh such as are extant the more remarkable, amongst whom William Fachel or Vachel (the 29nth. in number) was right ancient, having an estate in and about Reading, as by the ensuing Deed will appear:

Sciant presentes & futuri, quod ego Joannes Vachel dedi, concessi, & hac praesente charta mea confirmavi Rogero le Dubbare, pro servicio suo, & pro quadam summa pecuniae quammihi dedit primo manibus, totum & integrum illud tenementum cum pertinentiis suis quod habui in veteri vico Rading inter tenementum quod quondam fuit Thomae Goum in parte boreali, & te­nementum quod quondam fuit Jordani le Dubbar in parte australi, habend. & tenend. dicto Rogero, & haeredibus suis vel Assignatis, libere quiete, integre, in bona pace in perpetuum de capitalibus dominis illius foedi per servicium inde debitum & consuetum, Reddendo inde an­nuatim mihi & haeredibus vel Assignatis meis duos solidos & sex denarios, ad festum Sancti Michaelis, pro omni servicio seculari, exactione, & donand. & ego praedictus Joannes & heredes mei vel mei assignati, totum praedictum tenementum cum omnibus suis pertinentiis dicto Rogero, & haeredibus vel assignatis suis Warrantizabimus, & contra omnes gen­tes defendemus in perpetuum per servitium praedictum. In cujus rei testimonium praesenti chartae sigillum meum apposui, hiis Testibus, Radulpho de la Batili, Thom. de Lecester, Nicho. Bastat, Waltero Gerard, Robert. le Taylur, Johan. le Foghel, Bado le Foghellar, Gilberto de Heg­feild, & aliis. Dat. Rading duodecimo die Februarii, anno Regni Regis Edward. fil. Regis Henrici vicesimo nono.

The descendents of this name are still extant in this County at Coley in a worshipfull condition.


Anciently this County had sometimes the same, sometimes a distinct Sheriffe from Oxfordshire, as by the ensuing Catalogue will appear so well as we can distinguish them.

Of Barkshire.Of both.Of Oxfordshire.
AnnoHEN. II.1 Restoldus
1 Willielm. de Pontearch 2 Henr. de Oille
2 Richard. de Charvill 3 Henricus de Oille
3 Gilbertus de Pinchigen 4
4 5 Henricus de Oille
5 Gulielmus Pinchigen 6
6 7 Manassar Arsic
7 Richard. Lucy 8 Idem.
8 Adam. le Cadinns 9 Idem.
9 Adam. de Catmer 10 Thomas Basset
10 Idem.  
1111 Adam. de Catmer 
1212 Idem. 
1313 Idem. 
1414 Idem. 
1515 Idem. 
16 Hugo de Bockland 16 Adam. Banaster
17 Idem. 17 Idem.
18 Idem. 18 Idem.
19 Idem. & Hugo de Bockland 19 Idem.
[Page 100] Anno Anno
20 Hugo de Bockland 20 Alard. Banaster
21 Idem. 21 Idem.
22 Idem. 22 Rob. de Turvill
23 Hugo 23 Idem.
24 Idem. 24 Idem.
25 Hugo de Sto. Germano 25 Idem.
26 Idem. 26 Galf. Hose
27 Idem. 27 Galf. Hosatts
28 Idem. 28 Idem.
29 Idem. 29 Rob. Witefield
30 Idem. 30 Idem.
31 Idem. 31 Alan. de Furnell
32 32 Idem.
33 Rogerus filius Renfr. 33 Idem.
1 Robertus filius Renfr. 1 Rob. de la Mara
22 Robertus de la Mara 
33 Willielmus Briewere 
44 Idem. 
55 Idem. 
66 Idem. 
7 Willielmus filius Rad. 7 Henricus de Oille
8 Philippus filius Rob. 8 Henr. de Oille &
8 Alan. de Marton. 8 Pagand. de Chaderington
9 Philip. filius Rob. 9 Hugo de Nevill
9 Alan. de Manton. 9 Galf. de Savage
10 Stephan. de Turnham 10 Hugo de Nevill
10 Johannes de Ferles. 10 Galfr. de Salvage
1 Stephan. de Turnham 1 Hugo de Nevill
1 Johannes de Ferles. 1 Galfr. Slavagius
  2 Rob. de Cantelu
2 Gilbert. Basset 2 Fulk. de Cantelu
2 Richard. Caverton 2 Nich. de Kent
  3 Will. Briewere &
3 Will. Briewere 3 Rich. de Parco
5 Hubert. de Burgo. 5 Jo. de Wickeneholt junior
6 6 Thom. Banaster
 7 Richard. de Tus 
 8 Tho. Basset 
 9 Rob. de Amnari 
10 Richardus de Tus. 10 Tho. Basset
11 Robert. de Magre 11 Idem.
12 Johan. de Wikenholton 12 Idem. & Rob. de Magre
13 Idem. 13 Idem.
 14 Johan. de Wikenholton 
  15 Tho. Basset
15 Johan. de Wikenholton 15 Rob. e Magre
  16 Tho Basset
16 Idem. 16 Rich. Letus
 17 Johan. de Wikenholton 
 [Page 101] [...][Page 100] [...]
[Page 102] AnnoHEN. III.Anno
1 1
2 Richardus filius Reg. 2 Fulco de Breantee
2 Hen. de Saio. 2 Rad. de Bray
3 Idem. 3 Idem.
4 Idem. 4 Idem.
 5 Idem cum filiis Radulph. de 
6 Hen. de Saio.Bray.6 Idem.
7 Idem. 7 Falkesius de Breantee
  7 Ric. de Brakele
8 Fakesius de Breantee 8 Ric. de Ripariis
9 Hen. de Saio 9 Ric. de Brakele
 10 Henricus de Saio 
11 Hugo de Batonia 11 Galfr. de Craucombe,
  11 Rob. de Haya
12 Hugo de Bada 12 Philippus de Albritaco
13 Rob. de Haya 13 Galfr. de Craucombe
14 Hen. de Saio 14 Galf. de Craucombe
  14 Rob. de Haya
15 Idem. 15 Idem.
16 Idem. 16 Idem.
 17 Johan. de Hulcot. 
 18 Rob. de Maplederham 
19 Englelard de Cicomaco  
19 Nich. de Hedington 19 Johan. Bruus
20 Idem. 20 Idem.
21 Rob. Bren▪ 21 Johan. de Tiwe
22 Simon de Lauchmore 22 Idem.
23 Idem. 23 Idem.
24 Sim. de Lauchmore. 24 Johan. de Plesseto
  24 Will. Hay
25 Idem. 25 Will. Hay
26 Idem. 26 Idem.
27 Idem. 27 Idem.
28 Alanus de Farnham 28 Will. Hay
29 Idem. 29 Idem.
Sheriffs of Barkshire and Oxfordshire.
Anno 30
Aland. de Farhnam
Anno 31
Anno 32
Widom. filius Roberti
Anno 33
Anno 34
Anno 35
Nich. de Henred for 9 years together.
Anno 44
Walter. de la Knivere
Anno 45
Anno 46
Anno 47
Fulco de Kucot
Anno 48
Anno 49
John de Sto. Walerico
Anno 50
Anno 51
Anno 52
Nich. de Wiffrewash
Anno 53
Tho. de Sto. Wigore
Anno 54
Anno 55
Will. de Insula.
Anno 55
Rog. Epis. Cov. & Lich.
Anno 56
Anno 1
Gilb. Ki [...]kby
Anno 2
Anno 3
Anno 4
Hen. de Shoctebroke
Anno 5
Hen. de Shoctebroke
Anno 6
Jacob. de Patebery
Anno 7
Hen. de Shoctebroke
Anno 7
Alanus filius Rol.
Anno 8
Anno 9
Jac. Croke
Anno 9
Joh. de Cridemers
Anno 10
Johan. de Cridemers
Anno 11
Anno 12
Anno 13
Johan. de Tudemers
Anno 13
Radul. de Beauyes
Anno 24
Radul. de Beauyes
Anno 15
Thom. de Duners
Anno 16
Anno 17
Anno 18
Willielmus de Gresmull
Anno 19
Richar. de Wilniescote
Anno 20
Will. de Bremchele for 4 years together.
Anno 24
Hen. de Thistelden for 5 years together.
Anno 29
Nich. de Spershete for 7 years together.
Anno 1
Tho. Danvers
Anno 2
Rich. de Ameray
Anno 3
Anno 4
Tho. Danvers
Anno 5
Anno 6
Idem. & Phil. de la Beach
Anno 7
Phil. de la Beach
Anno 8
Richar. de Windsor
Anno 9
Richar. de Poltiampton
Anno 10
Anno 11
Otvelus Pursell, & Richar. de la Bere
Anno 12
Richar. de la Bere, & Joh. de Brumpton
Anno 13
Johan. de Brumpton
Anno 14
Anno 15
Drogo Barentine for 5 years together.
Anno 1
Johan. de Brumpton
Anno 2
Anno 3
Johan. de Bockland
Anno 4
Philip. de la Beach
Anno 5
Rich. de Colshul.
Anno 6
Anno 7
Johan. de Brumpton
Anno 8
Willielm. de Spershalt
Anno 9
Johan. de Alveton
Anno 10
Willielm. de Speshalt
Anno 11
Johan. de Alveton for 4 years together.
Anno 15
Edward. de Morlins
Anno 16
Robert. Fitz-Ellis
Anno 17
Johan. de Alveton for 5 years together.
Anno 22
Johannes Laundeles for 6 years together.
Anno 28
Johan. de Alveton Richar. de Nowers
Anno 29
Johan. de Willamscot
Anno 30
Johan. Laundeles
Anno 31
Anno 32
Anno 33
Robert. de Moreton
Anno 34
Anno 35
Roger. de Elmerugg
Anno 36
Anno 37
Roger, de Cottesford
Anno 38
Anno 39
Anno 40
Roger. de Elmerugg for 3 years together.
Anno 43
Roger. de Cottesford
Anno 44
Tho. de la Mare
Anno 45
Anno 46
Gilbert. Wace
Anno 47
Roger. de Elmerugg
Anno 48
Johan. James
Anno 49
Gilbert. Wace
Anno 50
Regind. de Maliris
Anno 51
Johan. de Rothwell

Reader, let me freely confess my self to thee, had I met with equall difficulty in the Sheriffs of other Counties as in this, the first shire it had utterly disheartned me from proceeding. The Sheriffs of Barkshire and Oxfordshire are so indented, or (par­don the metaphor,) so intangled with Elflocks, I cannot comb them out.

I will not say that I have done always right in dividing the Sheriffs respectively, but have endeavoured my utmost, and may be the better believed, who in such a sub­ject could meet with nothing to bribe or bias my judgment to partiality.

Be it premised, that though the list of Sheriffs be the most comprehensive Catalogue of the English Gentry, yet is it not exactly adequate thereunto. For I find in this County, the Family of the Pusays so ancient, that they were Lords of Pusay, (a village nigh Faringdon) long before the Conquest, in the time of King Canutus, holding their lands by the tenure of Cornage (as I [...]ake it,) viz. by winding the Horn, which the King aforesaid gave their Camdens Brit. in this Coun­ty. family, and which their posterity, still extant, at this day do produce. Yet none of their name, (though Persons of Regard in their respective generations,) appear ever Sheriffs of this County.

I am glad of so pregnant an instance, and more glad that it so seasonably present­eth it self in the front of our work, to con [...]ute their false Logick who will be ready to conclude Negatively, for this our Catalogue of Sheriffs excluding them the lines of ancient Gentry whose Ancestors never served in this Office. On the other side, no ingenuous Gentleman can be offended with me if he find not his Name registred in this Roll, seeing it cannot be in me any Omission, whilst I [...]ollow my Commission, faith­fully transcribing what I find in the Records.

Richard I.


He was so called, (saith Ca [...]dens Brit. in Sommerset. my Author) because his Father was born upon an Heath, though by the similitude of the Name, one would have suspected him born amongst briers. But see what a poor mans child may come to: He was such a Minion to this King Richard the first, that he created him Baron of Odcomb in Sommersetshire. Yea, when one Fulk Paynell was fallen into the Kings dis­pleasure, [Page 104] he gave this William Briewere the Town of Bridgewater, to procure his re­ingratiating. His large inheritance (his son dying without issue) was divided amongst his Daughters, married into the honourable Families of Breos, Wake, Mohun, La-fert, and Percy.


  • PHILIPPUS filius ROB.]
  • ALAN. de MARTON.]

It is without precedent, that ever two persons held the Shrevalty of one County, jointly, or in Co-partnership, London or Middlesex alone excepted, (whereof hereafter.) How­ever, if two Sheriffs appear in One year, (as at this time, and frequently hereafter) such Duplication cometh to pass by one of these Accidents;

  • 1. Amotion of the first put out of his place for misdemeanor, (whereof very rare precedents) and another placed in his Room.
  • 2. Promotion. When the first is advanced to be a Baron in the year of his Shre­valty, and an other substituted in his Office.
  • 3. Mort. The former dying in his Shrevalty, not priviledged from such Arrests to pay his Debt to Nature.

In these cases Two (and sometimes Three) are found in the same year, who successive­ly discharged the office. But if no such mutation happened, and yet two Sheriffs be found in one year, then the second must be understood Sub-vice-comes, (whom we commonly also call Mr. Sheriffe in courtesie,) his Deputy, acting the affaires of the County under his Authority. However, if he who is named in this our Catalogue in the second place, appear the far more Eminent Person, there the Intelligent Reader will justly suspect a Transposition, and that by some mistake the Deputy is made to pre­cede him, whom he only represented.

Be it here observed, that the place of Under-Sheriffs in this age was very honoura­ble, not hackned out for profit. And although some uncharitable people (unjustly I hope) have now adays fixed an ill character on those who twice together discharged the place, yet anciently the office befitted the best persons; little difference betwixt the High-Sheriffe and Under-Sheriffe, save that he was under him, being otherwise a man of great credit and Estate.

Henry III.


This Fulco, or Falkerius, or Falkesius de Breantee, or Breantel, or Brent, (so many seve­ral ways is he written,) was for the first six years of this King High-Sheriffe of Ox­ford, Cambridge, Huntington, Bedford, Buckingham, and Northampton shires, (Counties continued together) as by perusing the Catalogues will appear. What this Vir tot locorum, Man of so many places was, will be cleared in In the Title Souldiers. Middlesex, the place of his Nativity.


That Bishops in this age were Sheriffs of Counties in their own Dioceses, it was usuall and obvious. But Bark-shire lying in the Diocess of Sarum, Oxfordshire of Lincolne, that the far distant Bishop of Coventry and Lich. should be their Sheriffe, may seem ex­traordinary and irregular.

This first put us on the inquiry who this Roger should be, and on search we found him surnamed De Molend, aliàs Longespe, who was Godw [...]n in the Bishops of Coventry and Lich. Nephew unto King Henry the third, though how the kindred came in I can not discover. No wonder then if his royal re­lation promoted him to this place, contrary to the common course; the King in his own great age, and absence of his Son Prince Edward in Palestine, desiring to place his Con­fidents in offices of so high trust.

Edward II.

6 PHIL. de la BEACH]

Their Seat was at Aldworth in this County, where their Statues on their Tombs are Ex­tant at this day, but of Stature surely exceeding [...]igies Justo Majores impo­sitae, Camd. Brit. [...]n B [...]rkshire. their due Dimension. It seems the Grecian Officers have not been here, who had it in their Charge to order Tombs, and [Page 105] proportion Monuments to the Persons represented. I confess Corps do stretch and extend after their Death, but these Figures extend beyond their Corps, and the People there living extend their Fame beyond their Figures, Fancying them Giants, and fit­ting them with Porportionable Performances. They were indeed most Valiant men, and their Male Issue was extinct in the next Kings Reign, whose Heir Generall (as appeareth by the H [...]ralds Visitation,) was married to the ancient Family of WHITLOCK.

Sheriffs of Bark-shire and Oxfordshire.
1 Edmund Stoner Azure, 2 [...]ars Dancet [...]ee Or, a Chief G.
2 Tho. Barentyn Sable, 2 Eaglets displayed Arg. Armed Or.
3 Gilbertus Wa [...]  
4 Iohannes Ieanes  
5 Richar. Brines  
6 Tho. Barentynut prius 
7 Iohan. Hulcotts Fusilee Or & Gules a Border Azure.
8 Rober. BullockeArborfieldGu. a Cheveron twixt 3 Bulls Heads Arg. armed Or.
9 Iohan. Holgate  
10 Tho. Barentynut prius 
11 Gilb. Wace, mil.  
12 Thomas Pool  
13 Williel. Attwood  
14 Hugo. Wolfes  
15 Robert. Bullockut prius 
16 Williel. Wilcote  
17 Tho. Farington Sable, 3 Unicorns in pale, Cur­rent, Arg. armed Or.
18 Tho. Barentynut prius 
19 Edrum. Spersholt  
20 Williel. Attwood  
21 Iohan. Golafre  
22 Idem.  
HEN. IV.  
1 Will. Wilcote  
2 Tho. Chaucer Iohan. WilcoteEwelme Ox.Partee per pale Ar. & G. a bend counter-changed.
3 Robert. Iames  
4 Idem.  
5 Tho. Chaucerut prius 
6 Will. Langford  
7 Rob. Corbet, mil. Or. a Raven proper.
8 Iohan. Wilcote  
9 Th. Harecourt, m.Stanton Ox.Gules, two Barrs Or.
10 Petrus BesilesLee Berk.Argent, 3 Torteauxes.
11 Rob. Corbet mil.ut prius 
12 Will. Li [...]le mil. Or, a Fess betwixt 2 Cheverons Sable.
HEN. V.  
1 Thomas Wykham Arg. 2 Cheverons Sable, [...]etwixt 3 Roses Gules.
2 Iohan. Golofre  
3 Iohan. Wilcoteut prius 
4 Rober. Ieames  
5 Tho. Wikhammil.ut prius 
6 Rober. Andrews  
7 Iohan. Wilcote  
8 Will. Lysleut prius 
9 Idem.ut prius 
HEN. VI.  
1 Willielmus Lisleut prius 
2 Tho. Stonoreut prius 
3 Ioh. Gowfre, at.  
4 Ri. Walkested, mi.  
5 Tho. Wykhamut prius 
6 Tho. Stonarut prius 
7 Rober. Iames  
8 Phil. EnglefieldInglefieldBarry of six Gules & Arg. on a Cheife Or, a Lion Passant Azure.
9 Tho. Wikham. mi.ut prius 
10 Will. Finderne  
11 Will. Darell Azure a Lion Ramp. Arg. Crown­ed Or.
12 Steph. Haytfield  
13 Rich. Restwold Argent three Bends Sable.
14 Tho. FetiplaceChildre.Gules, 2 Cheverons Arg.
15 Ri. QuatermaynsOXFOR.G. a Fess betwixt 4 hands Or.
16 Iohan. Norys Quarterly, Arg. & Gules, a Fret Or, with a Fess Azure.
17 Edward. Rede*  
18 Walter Skull † * G. a Saltyre twixt 4 Garbs Or.
19 Iohan. Stokes Ar. a Bend...betw. 6 Lions-heads erased of the Field.
20 Petrus Fetiplaceut prius 
21 Iohan. Norysut prius 
22 Iohan. Charles  
23 Iohan. LidyardBenhamArg. on a Chiefe Or, a Flower de luce Gules.
24 Io. Roger, Iuri.  
25 Edw. Langford  
26 Idem.  
27 Iohan. Penicok  
28 Will. Wikhamut prius 
29 Edward. Redeut prius 
30 Io. Chalers, mil.  
31 Io. Roger, ar.ut prius 
32 Tho. Stonoreut prius 
33 Ric. Quatermaynsut prius 
34 Rob. Harecourteut prius 
35 Wal. Mantell  
36 Iohan. Noris, ar.ut prius 
37 Will. Brocas, ar.  
38 Tho. de laMore, ar. Arg. 6 Martlets 3.2 & 1 Sable
1 Rich. Harecourteut prius 
2 Ri. Restwood, ar.ut pruis 
3 Idem.u prius 
4 Tho. Roger, ar.ut prius 
5 Io. Barantyn, ar.ut prius 
6 Tho. Stonore, ar.ut prius 
7 Ri. Harecourt, ar.ut prius 
8 Ioh. Howard, mil.NORKF.Gu. a Bend inter 6 Croslets fitchie Argent.
9 Will: Norys, mil.ut prius 
10 Tho. Prout, ar.  
11 Ed. Langford, ar.  
12 Will. Staverton  
13 Will. Bekynham,  
14 Iohan. Langston  
15 Hump. Forster, ar.Aldermastō.S. a Cheveron between 3 Arrows Argent.
16 Tho. de laMoremi.ut prius 
17 Tho. Restwoldut prius 
18 Iames Vyall  
19 Johan. Norys, ar.ut prius 
20 Hum. Talbot, mil. G. a Lion Ramp. within a Border engrailed Or.
21 Tho. de la Moreut prius 
22 Will. Norys, mil.ut prius 
1 Tho. Kingeston  
2 Iohan. Bar [...]ntyn  
3 Edward. Fraukeut prius 
[Page 106]HEN. VII.  
1 Edw. Mountford  
2 Will. Norys, mil.ut prius 
3 Tho. Say  
4 Will. Besillesut prius 
5 Th. Delamore. mi.ut prius 
6 Ioha. Horne, mil.  
7 Will. Harecourtut prius 
8 Ro. Harecourt, ar.ut prius 
9 Geo▪ Gainsord, ar.  
10 Id [...]m.  
11 Ioh. Ashfield, ar.  
12 Hugo Shirley, ar. Paly of 6, 0, & Az. a Cant. Er.
13 Anr. Fetiplace, ar.ut prius 
14 Ge. Gainsford, ar.  
15 Iohan. Basket Az. a Cheveron Erm. betwixt 3 Leopards heads Or.
16 Will. Besilles, ar.ut prius 
17 Rich. Flower, mil.  
18 Io. Williams, mil.Tame Ox.Az. an Organ-pipe in Bend Sini­ster Saltirewise surmounted of another Dexter betwixt 4 Crosses Patee Arg.
19 Will. Harecourtut prius 
20 Edw. Grevill, ar.  
21 E. Chamberlain †  
22 Io. Horne, ar. Gules a Cheveron Arg. twixt 3 Escallops Or:
23 Idem.  
24 Io. Langford, mil.  
1 Will Ess [...]x, ar.LambornAz. a Cheveron Ermin betwixt 3 Eagles displayed Arg.
2 Will. Harecourtut prius 
3 Will. Barantin, ar.ut prius 
4 Tho. Haydock, ar.  
5 Wal. Raducy, mil.  
6 Si. Harecourt, mil.ut prius 
7 Io. Dauncy, mil. Azure a Dragon Or. & Lion comb [...]tant Arg.
8 Geor. Foster, mil.ut prius 
9 Ed. Chamberl. mi.ut prius 
10 Will. Essex, mil.ut prius 
11 Tho. Englefeld, ar.ut prius 
12 Hen. Brugges, ar. Argent on a Cross S. a Leopards­head Or.
13 Io. Oswalston, ar.  
14 Sim. Harecourtut prius 
15 Io. Fetiplace, ar.ut prius 
16 Will. Essex, mil.ut prius 
17 Will. Barantin, m.ut prius 
18 Tho. Denton, ar. Gul [...]s a Cheveron, twixt 3. Cres­sents Arg.
19 Tho. Ellyot, ar.  
20 Si. Harecourt, mil.ut prius 
21 Will. Stafford, ar.BradfieldOr. a Chev. G. & a Canton Erm.
22 Hen. Brugges, ar.ut prius* Az. on a Fess Engrailed Or, be­tween 3 Spear-Heads Arg. a Grey-hound cursant Sable.
23 Tho. Umpton, *ar.Wadley 
24 Hum. Forster, mil.  
25 Will. Farmar, ar. Arg. a Fess Sable twixt 3 Leo-pards Heads Erased Gul.
26 Walt. Stoner, mil.ut prius 
27 Tho. Carter, ar.  
28 An. Hungerford Sable, 2 Bars, Arg. in Chief 3 Plates.
29 Si. Harecourt, mil.u [...] prius 
30 Ioh. Williams, mi.ut prius 
31 Rich. Brigges, ar.ut prius 
32 Will. Essex, mil.ut prius 
33 Wal. Stoner, mil.ut prius 
34 Will. Barantin, m.ut prius 
35 Will. Farmor, ar.ut prius 
36 Ioh. Williams, ar.ut prius 
37 Hum. Foster, mi.ut prius 
38 Le. Chamberlainut prius 
EDW. IV.  
1 Fra. Englefeld, m.ut prius 
2 Anth. Cope, *mil.Hanwel*Ar [...] a Chev. Az. betw. 3 Roses Gu­slipp'd & leav'd Vert, 3 Flowers de Luce, Or.
3 Will. Rainsf. mil.  
4 Richar. Fines, ar.Broughton,Az. 3 Lions Rampant Or,
5 Will. Hide, ar.S. Denchw.Gu. 2 Cheverons Ar.
6 Le Chamberl. mi.ut prius 
REX PHIL. & Ma. Regina.  
1 Io. Williams, mi. & Io. Brome, mil.ut prius 
1, 2 Ric. Brigges, mil.ut prius 
2, 3 Will. Rainsford  
3, 4 Tho. Brigges, ar.ut prius 
4, 5 Ioh. Denton, ar.ut prius 
5, 6 Rich. Fines, ar.ut prius 
1 Edw. Ashfeld, ar.  
2 Edw. Fabian, ar.  
3 Ioh. Doyle, ar. Or 2 Bendlets Az.
4 Hen. Norys, ar.ut prius 
5 Ric. Wenman, ar. Quarterly Gules & Az. a Cross Patence Or.
6 Ioh. Croker, ar.Tame P. Ox.Argent on a Cheveron Engrailed Gules between 3 Crows, as many Mullets Or, pierced.
7 Tho. Stafford, ar.ut prius 
8 Christ. Brome  
Henry IV.


He was sole son to Geffery Chaucer, that famous Poet, from whom he inherited fair lands, at Dunnington-Castle in this County, and at Ewelme in Oxfordshire. He married Maud daughter and coheir of Sir John Burwash, by whom he had one only daughter named Alice, married unto William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk. He lyeth buried un­der a fair tomb in Ewelme Church, with this inscription. Hic jacet Thomas Chaucer, Armiger, quondam Dominus istius villae & Patronus istius Ecclesiae, qui obiit 18. die Men­sis Novembris Anno Dom. 1434. & Matilda uxor ejus, quae obiit 28. mensis Aprilis Anno Domini 1436.

Henry V.


I behold him as kinsman, and next heir to William Wykham, that famous Bishop of Winchester, to whom the Bishop left, notwithstanding above Bishop God­win in Bishops of Winchester. six thousand pounds bequeathed by him in legacies, (for the discharge whereof he left ready mony) one hundred pound lands a year. As for his Arms, viz. Argent, two Cheverons Sable between three Roses Gules; a most ingenious Sir Isaac Wake in his Musae Regnan­t [...]s. Oxfordian conceiveth those Cheverons (aliàs [Page 107] Couples in Architecture) given him in relation to the two Colledges he built, the one in Oxford, the other in Winchester. It will be no sin to suspect this, no original of, but a post-nate-allusion to his Armes, who was (whatever is told to the contrary) though his parents were impoverished, of a Harpfield Ec­cle. Hist. pag. 550. Knightly extraction. But if it was his assigned, and not hereditary Coat, it will be long enough ere the Heraulds Office grant another to any upon the like occasion.

Henry VI.


No doubt the same with him who 2do Hen. 5nti. was written John Golofre. He is the first person who is styled Esquire, though surely all who were before him were (if not Knights) Esquires at the least: And afterwards this addition grew more and more fashionable in the Reign of King Henry the sixth. For after that [...]ack Straw (one of the grand founders of the Levellers) was defeated, the English Gentry, to appear above the common sort of people, did in all publick instruments insert theit Native or acquired Qualifications.

Edward IV.

8 JOHN HOWARD, Miles.]

He was son to Sir Robert Howard, and soon after was created a Baron by this King, and Duke of Northfolk by King Richard the third, as Kinsman and one of the Heirs of Anne Dutchess of York and Northfolk, whose Mother was one of the Daughters of Thomas Mowbray Duke of Northfolk. Soon after he lost his life in his quarrell who gave him his honour in Bosworth field.

From him descended the Noble and Numerous family of the Howards, of whom I told EArundleNotinghamSuffolkBarksh. BMoubrayEstrick. four Earls and two Barons sitting in the last Parliament of King Charles. I have nothing else for the present to observe of this Name, save that a Verstegan of decaied intel­ligence, pag. [...]. great Antiquary will have it originally to be Holdward (L. and D. being omitted for the easier pronuncia­tion) which signifieth the Keeper of any Castle, Hold, or Trust committed unto them, wherein they have well answered unto their Name. Did not Thomas Howard Earl of Surry well hold his ward by Land, when in the reign of King Henry the eighth he con­quered the Scots in Flodden-field, and took James the fourth their King Prisoner? And did not Charles Howard (afterwards Earl of Nottingham) hold his ward by Sea in 88. when the Armado was defeated? But hereof (God willing) hereafter;


This must be he (consent of times avowing it) who was afterwards Knighted, and lyeth buried in Saint Martin [...] in the Fields London, with the following Weav [...]rs Fun. Mon. pag. 447 inscription.

Of your charity, pray for the soul of Sir Humphery Foster Knight, whose body lyeth buried here in earth under this Marble-stone; which deceased the 18. day of the Month of September, 1500. on whose Soul sesu have mercy,


Hen [...]y VII.


Right ancient is this family in France, having read in a French Jean LeFeron eale Chapter d. [...] Mar [...]schaviz, de France, sol. 5. Herauld who wrote in the reign of King Edward the sixth, that it flourished therein eight hundred years, as by a Genealogy drawn by him should appear.

Of this Family (for both give the same Coat at this day (viz.) G [...]les two Barrs Or,) a younger branch coming over at the Conquest, fixed it self in the Norman Infancy at Staunton Harecourt in Oxfordshire. And I find that in the reign of King [...]ohn, Ri­chard de Harecourt of Staunton aforesaid, marrying Orabella daughter of Saer de Quincy Earl of Winchester, had the rich manor of Bosworth in Leicester-shire bestowed on him for his wifes portion.

I cannot exactly distinguish the several Harecourts contemporaries in this County, and Sheriffs thereof, so as to assign them their severall habitations, but am confident that this Robert Harecourt (Sheriffe in the reign of King Henry the seventh,) was the same [Page 108] person whom King Edward the fourth made Knight of the Garter. From him lineally descended the valiant Knight Sir Simon Harecourt, lately slain in the wars against the Rebells in Ireland, whose Son, a hopefull Gentleman, enjoys the Manor of Staunton at this day.


He was an Esquire of Remark and martiall activity in his younger days, who in some years after removed to Devenish in Dorsetshire, to whom King Henry the eighth, going over into France, committed the care of that County, as by his following Letter will appear:

Henry VIII.
By the King.

Trusty and Well-beloved, We greet you well. And whereas we at this time have written as well to the Sheriff of that Our Shire, as also to the Justices of Our Peace within Our said Shire, Commanding and straightly Charging, that as well the said Sheriffs as the said Ju­stices, endeavour them for the keeping of Our Peace and the entertainment of Our Subjects, in good quiet and restfullness, durying the time of Our journey into the parties of beyond the Sea; to the which We entend to dispose us about the latter end of this present month of May: And forasmuch also as We have for your great ease spared you of your aettendance upon Us in Our said journey, and left you at home to doe Us service in keeping of Our Peace, and good Rule amongst Our said Subjects. We Will therefor [...] and Command you that dure­ing the time of Our said absence out of this Our Realme, ye have a speciall over-sight, regard and respect, as well to the Sheriff, as to the said Justice, how and in what diligence they do, and execute Our Commandement, comprised in Our said Letters. And that ye also from time to time as ye shall see meet quickly and sharply call upon them in Our name, for the execution of Our said Commandement; and if you shall find any of them Remiss or Negligent in that behalf, We will that ye lay it sharply to their charge, Advertising that in case they amend not their defaults, ye will thereof Advertise Our Councell rem [...]ining with Our dearest Daughter the Princess, and so We charge you to do indeed: And if Our said Sheriffe or Justice, or any other Sheriffe or Justice of any Shire next to you, upon any side ad­joyning, shall need or require your Assistance, for the Execution of Our said Commande­ments, We Will and Desire you that what the best power ye can make of Our Subjects i [...] Harneys, ye be to them Aiding and Assisting from time to time as the Case shall require. Not failing hereof as you intend to please Us, and as We specially tru [...]t you.

Henry VIII.


He was a worthy man in his generation, of great command in this County, (whereof he was four times Sheriffe,) and the first of his family who fixed at Lambourn therein, on this welcome occasion. He had married Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of Thomas Rogers of Benham, whose Grandfather John Rogers had married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of John Shote [...]broke of Bercote in this County (whose ancestors had been Sheriffs of Barkeshire in the fourth, fifth and sixth of King Edward the third,) by whom he received a large inheritance.

Nor was the birth of this Sir William (for aferwards he was Knighted) beneath his estate, being Son unto Thomas Essex Esquire, Remembrancer and Vice-Treasurer unto King Edward the fourth; who dyed November 1. 1500. lyeth buried with a plain Epi­taph in the Church of Kensington, Middlesex. He derived himself from Henry de Essex, Baron of Rawley in Essex, and Standard-Bearer of England, (as I have seen in an exact Pedigree attested by Master Camden,) and his posterity have lately assumed his Coat, viz. Argent an Orle Gules. There was lately a Baronet of this family, with the reve­nues of a Baron, but * riches endure not for ever, if providence be not as well used inProv. 27. 24. preserving as attaining them.

[Page 109]24 HUMPHRY FORSTER, Knight.]

He bare a good affection to Protestants, even in the most dangerous times, and [...]. Acts & Mon. p. 1219. spake to the Quest in the behalf of Master Marbeck that good [...]; yea he confessed to King Henry the third, that never any thing went so much against his Idem p. 1221 Conscience which under his Graces authority he had done, as his attending the execution of three poor men Martyred at Windsor.

Edward VI.


He afterwards was Privy-Councellor unto Queen Mary, and so zealous a Romanist, that after her death he left the land, with a most large inheritance, and lived for the most part in Spain. He was a most, industrious agent to solicite the cause of the Queen of Scots, both to his Holiness, and the Catholick King. As also he was a great Pro­motor of, and Benefactor to the English Colledge at Valladolit in Spain, where he lyeth in­terred in a family of his alliance is still worshipfully extant in this County.

Queen Mary.


Before the year of his Sherivalty was expired, Queen Mary made him Lord Williams of Tame in Oxfordshire. In which town he built a small Hospitall, and a very fair Cam. Brit. in [...]. School; He, with Sir Henry Bennyfield, were joynt-Keepers of the Lady Elizabeth, whilst un­der restraint, being as civil as the other was cruel unto Her. Bishop Ridley when mar­tyred requested this Lord to stand his friend to the Queen, that those Leases might be confirmed which he had made to poor Tenants; which he See the pic­ture of Bishop Ridley his burning in Mr. Fox. promised and performed accordingly.▪ His great estate was divided betwixt his two daughters and coheirs, one married to Sir Henry Norrice, the other to Sir Richard Wenman.

Queen Elizabeth.


Son-in-law to the Lord Williams aforesaid. He was by Queen Elizabeth created Baron Norrice of Ricot in Oxfordshire; it is hard to say whether this tree of honour was more remarkable for the root from whence he sprung, or for the branches that sprang from him: He was Son to Sir Henry Norrice, who suffered in the cause of Queen Anne Bul­len, Grandchild to Sir Edward Norrice, who married Fridswide sister and coheir to the last Lord Lovell. He was Father (though himself of a meek and mild disposition) to the Martiall brood of the Norrices, of whom I [...] de­scription of Oxfordshire, Title Souldi­ers. hereafter.

Elizabeth his great Grandchild, sole Daughter and heir unto Francis Norrice Earl of Barkshire, and Baroness Norrice, was married unto Edward Wray Esquire, whose only Daughter Elizabeth Wray, Baroness Norrice lately deceased, was married unto [...] Bertue Earl of Lindsey, whose Son, a Minor, is Lord Norrice at this day.

Sheriffs of Barkeshire alone.
9 Edw. Unton, mil.Wadley [...] on a Fess Eng. Or, twixt 3 Spear-Heads Arg. a Hound cur­sant, S. collered Gu.
10 Io. Fetiplace, ar.ChilreyG. 2 Chev. Argent.
11 Will. Forster, ar.AldermerstonSable, a Chev▪ betw. 3 Arrows Arg. a Chev.
12 Will. Dunch, ar.LitlewitnāOr, [...] 2 Toures in [...] & a flour de Lice in Base. Arg.
13 Ioha. WinchcombBudebury 
14 Hen. Nevill, mil.Billingber 
15 Tho. Essex, ar.Lamborn [...]. a [...]. Erm. betw. 3 Eagles Arg.
16 Ric. Lovelace, ar.HurleyGules. on a chiefe indented, Sable, three Marvets Or.
17 Anth. Bridges, ar.Hemsted­Marshal 
18 Thom. Parry, ar. See our Notes.
19 Io. [...], [...].ut prius 
20 Tho Stafford, ar.BradfeldOr, a Chev. Gul. & Canton Er.
21 Tho. Stephans, ar.  
22 Hum [...]. ar.ut prius 
23 Tho. Bullock, ar. [...]Gules a Chev. twixt three Bulls­heads Ar. armed Or.
24 Tho▪ Read, ar.AbingtonG. a Saltyre twixt 4 [...], Or.
25 [...]. Molens, ar.Clapgate 
26 Be. Fetiplace, ar.ut prius 
27 Edw. Fetiplace, ar.ut prius 
28 Chri. Lillcot, ar.RushcombOr. 2 [...] vairry Arg. & Sable.
29 Edm. Dunch, ar.ut prius 
30 Thom. Parry. ar.ut prius 
31 Tho. [...], ar.Shaw.Azure a Fess [...] inter ▪ [...] Or.
32 Iohan. [...], ar.  
33 Rich. Ward, ar.  
[Page 110]34 Fr. Winchcombe▪ut prius 
35 Hum. Forster, ar.ut prius 
36 Ricar. Hide, ar.S. Denchw.Gules, 2 Chev [...]rons Arg.
37 Hen. Nevill, ar.ut prius 
38 Edm. Wiseman, ar.StephentonSable, a Chev. twixt 3 Bars of Spears Arg.
39 Chri. Lidcotte, mi.ut prius 
40 Hen. Pool, mil.  
41 Tho. Reede, mil.ut prius 
42 Sa. Backhouse, ar.Swallofield 
43 Ioha. Norris, mil.  
44 Ed. Fetipl [...], mil.ut prius 
Ed. Dunch, ar. & [...] Ja.ut prius 
1 Edm. Dunch, ar. Sable, a Chev. betw. 3 Towers Argent.
2 Ant. Blagrave, ar. Or. on a Bend Sable, 3 Greaves Errased at the Ankle, Ar.
3 Tho. Read, ar.ut prius 
4 Will. Stonhou. ar.RadleyArg. on a Fess Sable, between 3 Falcons volant Az. a Leopards­heads and 2 Mullets, Or.
5 Fr. Winchcombeut prius 
6 Will. Foster, mil.ut prius 
7 Anth. Barker, mil.Suning. 
8 Ric. Lovelace, ml.ut prius 
9 Tho. Vachell, mil.Colly.Bender of six peeces, Er. & Az
10 Tho. Hinton, ar.  
11 Car. Wiseman, ar.ut prius 
12 Io. Ayshcombe, ar.  
13 Will. Young, mil.  
14 Will. Standin, ar.A [...]borfield 
15 Val. Knightley, m. Quarterly Er. & Or. 3 Pales. Gu.
16 Ioh. Catcher, ar.  
17 Hum. Foster, ar.ut prius 
18 Gabri. Pyle, mil.Compton 
19 Io. Winchcombeut prius 
20 Io. Marrycot, ar.  
21 Will. Hide, ar.ut prius 
22 Io. Blagrave, mil.ut prius 
1 Ioh. Darrell, Bar.W. Woodh.Az. a Lion Ramp. Or, Crowned Arg [...]t.
2 Edr. Clark, mil.Ardigton 
3 Gor. Willmot, ar.Charlton 
4 Edw. Yates, Barr.Buckland 
5 Sam. Dunch, ar.ut priusPer Fess embattel'd Arg. & Sable 3 Yates caunterchanged.
6 Io. Fetiplace, ar.ut prius 
7 Hen. Samborn, ml.Moulsford 
8 Hen. Powle, ar.  
9 Edm. Dunch, ar.ut prius 
10 Hum. Dolman, ar.ut prius 
11 Will. Barker, ar.ut prius 
12 Ric. Harrison, mi.HurstOr, on a Cheife Sable, 3 Eagles displaied of the first.
13 Ge. Stonhouse, B.ut prius 
14 Hump. Hide, ar.ut prius 
15 Geo. Puresy, ar.WadleyS. 3 Pair of Gantlets dipping, Ar.
16 Peregrine HobbyBishamAr. 3 Fusiles upon Slippers G [...].
17 Tanfield Vachelut prius 
22 Io. Southleg, ar.  
Queen Elizabeth.


This ancient and worshipfull name was extinct in the days of our fathers for want of Issue Male, and a great part of their lands devolved by an Heir-general to G. Purfen of wadley Esquire, whose care is commendable in preserving the Monuments of the Umptons in Farington Church, and restoring such as were defaced in the war to a good degree of their former fairness.


Some may colourably mistake it for Basilius or Basil, a Christian-name frequent in some families, whereas indeed it is Besil a Surname. These liv'd in great regard at Lee, thence called Besiles-Lee in this County, untill Elizabeth danghter and heir of William Besiles, last of that name, was married unto Richard Fetiplace, whose great­great-grand-child was named Besile, to continue the remembrance of their Ance­stors.

Reader, I am confident an instance can hardly be produced of a Surname made Chri­stian in England, save since the Reformation; before which time the Priests were scrupulous to admit any at Font, except they were baptized with the name of a Scrip­ture or Legendary-Saint. Since it hath been common; and although the Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted many of them prove unfortunate, yet the good suc­cess in others confutes the generall truth of the observation.

King James.


He was a Gentl [...]man of Mettal, and in the reign of Queen Elizabeth making use of letters of Mart, had the successe to light on a large remnant of the King of Spains Cloth of silver, I mean his West-Indian Fleet; wherewith he and his posterity are the warmer to this day: King Charles created him Lord Lovelace of Hurley.

King Charles.

1 Sir JOHN DARELL, Baronet.]

He being the first, who in the Catalogue of Sheriffs occurreth of that order, a word of the institution thereof. We meddle not with ancient Baronets, finding that word former­ly promiscuously blended with Bannerets, (Sir Ralph Fane in aRot. Pat. quar­to Edwardi sexti. Patent passed unto him, is expressly term'd a Baronet,) but insist on their new erection in the ninth of King James.

Their Qualifications.Their Service.Their Dignity.
  • 1. They were to be per­sons, Morum, probitate spectati.
  • 2. Descended at least of a Grand-father, by the Fathers side, that bare Arms.
  • 3. Having a clear estate of one thousand pounds per annum, two thirds there­of at least in possession, the rest in reversion ex­pectant on one life only, holding in Dower or in Joynture.
  • 1. Each of them was to advance towards the planting of the Province of Ulster in Ireland, with Colonies and Castles to defend them, money e­nough to maintain thirty Foot for three years, after the rate of eight pence a day for everyone of them.
  • 2. The first years wages was to be paid down on the passing of their Pa­tent, the remainder, as they contracted with the Kings Commissioners, authorized to treat and conclude thereof.
  • 1. They were to take place, with their wives and chil­dren respectively, imme­diately after the sons of Barons; and before all Knights-bachelours of the Bath, and Bannerets; save such solemn ones ashere­after should be created in the field by the King there present, under the Standard Royall display­ed.
  • 2. The addition of Sir was to be prefixed before theirs, of Madam, their wives names.
  • 3. The Honour was to be hereditary, and knight­hood not to be denied to their eldest sons of full age, if desiring it.
  • 4. For an augmentation in their Arms they might bear a bloody hand in a Canton or Escutcheon, at their pleasure.

The King did undertake that they should never exceed two hundred, which number compleated if any chanced to die without issue-male, none were to be substituted in their place, that so their number might daily diminish, and honour increase. He did also promise for himself and his Heirs, that no new Order under another name should be superinduced.

The Battles.

Newberry the first 1643. Septemb. 20.

The Earl of Essex having raised the Siege of Glocester, and returning towards Lon­don, was rather followed then overtaken by the Kings army. Both sides might be traced by a tract of bloody foot-steps, especially at Auborn in Wilts, where they had a smart encounter. At Newberry the Earl made a stand: Here happen'd a fierce fight on the East-side of the Town, wherein the Londoners did shew that they could as well use a Sword in the field, as a Met-ward in a Shop. The Parliament was conceived to lose the most, the King the most considerable persons; amongst whom the Earl of Carnarvon and Sunderland, the Viscount Falkland, Colonel Morgan, &c. Both armies may be said to beat and be beaten, neither winning the Day, and both the Twi-light. Hence it was that both sides were so sadly filled with their Supper over night, neither next morning had any stomack to break-fast, but keeping their stations, were rather contented to face, then willing to fight one another.

Newberry the second 1644. Octob. 27.

One would wonder, where the Earl of Essex, so lately stript out of all his Infantry in Cornwall, so soon reinvested Himselfe with more Foot, save that London is the Shop­general of all Commodities, recruited with fresh (but not fresh-water) Souldiers, he gave the King battle. This fight was as long and fierce as the former, but the conquest more clear on the Parliaments side. The Cornish (though behaving themselves vali­antly) were conceived not to doe so well, because expected to have done better.

The Royalists were at night fain to hang lighted matches on the Hedges, (so to si­milate their aboad thereabouts) whilst they drew of, securing their Canon in Dun­nington-castle, (the Governour whereof Sir J. Bois did the King Knights service,) and so in a pace slower then a flight, and faster then a retreat, returned in as good order as their condition was capable of. Many here lost their lives, as if Newberry were so named by a sad Prolepsis, fore-signifying that that Town should afford a new-burying place to many slain in two bloody Battles.

The Farewell.

Being to take my leave of this Shire, I seriously considered what want there was therein, that so I might wish the supply thereof. But I can discover no naturall de­fect, and I therefore wish the inhabitants, a thankfull heart to that God, who hath given them a Country so perfect in profit and pleasure. Withal it is observed that the lands in Barkshire are very skittish, and often cast their Owners, which yet I impute not so much to the unruliness of the Beasts, as to the unskilfullness of the Riders. I de­sire heartily, that heareafter the Barkshire Gentry may be better settled in their, Saddles so that the sweet places in this County, may not be subject to so many muta­tions.


BEDFORD-SHIRE hath Northampton-shire on the North, Huntington and Cambridge-shires on the East, Hartford-shire on the South, Buckingham shire on the West thereof. It lieth from North to South in an ovall form, and may be allowed two and twenty miles in length, though the generall breadth thereof extendeth not to full fifteen.

The soil consisteth of a deep clay, yet so that this County may be said to wear a belt or girdle of sand about, or rather athwart the body thereof, (from Woburne to Potton) affording fair and pleasant, as the other part doth fruitfull and profitable places for habitation, which partakes plentifully in the partage of all English conveniencies.

Here let this Caveate be entred to preserve its due [but invaded] right, to much grain growing in this County. For Corne-Chandlers (the most avouchable Authors in this Point) will inform you, that when Hartford-shire Wheat and Barley carries the Credit in London, thereby much is meant (though miscalled) which is immediately bought in and brought out of Hartford-shire, but Originally growing in Bedford shire, about Dunstable and else where. But let not the dry Nurse, which onely carried the Child in her Armes and dandled it in her Lap, lay claime to that Babe which the true Mother did breed and bear in her body.

Naturall Commodities.


White, large, plump and full of flower. The Country man will tell you, that of all our grains this is most nice, and must be most observed in the severall seasons thereof. It doth not onely allay hunger, but also in a manner quencheth thirst, when ordered into Malt. It is (though not so t oothsome) as wholesome as Wheat it self, and was all the Staff of Bread, which Christs body leaned on in this life: Eating to attest his Humanity; Ba [...]ly-loaves to evidence his Humility. John 6. 9 [...]


This is Barley with the property thereof much altered, having passed both water and fire, ste [...]ped and dried on a kilne. That the use hereof was known to the Greeks, plainly appears by the proper word wherewith they expresse it [...]; and no Maltster of Bedford can better describe the manner thereof then is done byLib. 10. c. 29. Aetius; Est hor­deum madefactum, quod germen emisit, deinde cum ligulis enatis tostum est. Besides, we read of [...], and Lib. 1. & 10. Athenaeus maketh mention of such, who were

—— [...], Drinkers of Barley-wine.

A liquor probably more wholesome for Northern bodies then that which groweth in grapes.

What great estates Maltsters got formerly in this County, may be collected from the wealth of the Ale-brewers therein, there being so near a relation betwixt the two Callings. For I read in the reign of King Henry the fifth, of William Murfley an Ale­brewer of Dunstable, (accounted, I confe [...]s, a Lollard, and follower of the Lord Cob­ham;) who whenHarp [...]ield Hist. of Wik. pag. 708. and Ho­linshed pag. 544. taken, had two horses trapped with gilt armour led after him, and had a pair of gilt-spurs in his bosome, expecting (say they) Knight-hood from the Lord Cobham. And although I believe not the report in full habitude, it is enough to intimate unto us, that in that age it was a wealthy imployment.


Great store of this is digged up not far from Woburne in this County, whence it is commonly called Woburne-earth. Such the use thereof in Drapery, that good cloth canSee more hereof in Surrey, Ti le, Nat. Commod. hardly be made without it, forreign parts affording neither so much, nor so good of this kind. No wonder then if our Statutes strictly forbid the transportation there­of, to preserve the perfection of clothing amongst our selves. But were this Fullers­earth like Terra Lemnia, or Sigillata, and all the parcells thereof lock'd up under a seal, [Page 114] yet the Dutch (so long as they are so cunning, and we so careless,) will stock themselves hence with plentifull proportions thereof.


The most and best of these are caught and well dressed about Dunstable in this Shire A harmless bird whilst living, not trespassing on grain; and wholesome when dead, then filling the stomack with meat, as formerly the Ear with Musick. In winter they fly in flocks, probably the reason why Alauda signifieth in Latins both a Lark and a Legion of Souldiers; except any will say a Legion is so called, because Helmetted on their heads and crested like a Lark, therefore also called in Latine Galerita. If men would imitate the early rising of this bird, it would conduce much unto their health­fu [...]ness.

The Manufactures.

Fat folke (whose Collops stick to their sides) are generally Lasie, whilst leaner people are of more activity. Thus fruitfull Countries (as this is for the generality thereof) take to themselves a Writ of Ease; the principall cause why Bedford shire affords not any trades peculiar to it self.

The Buildings.

This County affordeth no Cathedral, and the Parochial Churches intitle not them­selves to any eminency. Onely I hear such high commendations of a Chappel and Monument erected at Maldon by Thomas Earl of Elgin to the memory of his deceased Lady Diana Cecil, that I am impatient till I have beheld it, to satisfie my self, whe­ther it answereth that Character of curiosity which credible persons have given thereof. Taddington, Amphtill and Wobourn carry away the credit amongst the houses of the Nobility in this County.


At Hareles-wood commonly called Harold in this County, the River of Ouse Hypodagma pag. 163. Anno 1399. parted asunder, the water from the Fountain standing still, and those towards the Sea giving way, so that it was passable over on foot for three miles together, not with­out the astonishment of the beholders. It was an Ominous Prefage of the sad Civil Wars betwixt the two houses of York and Lancaster.

There is a Rivolet in this County (though confining on Buckingham-shire) near a Village called Aspeley, and takes the strange operation thereof from his Pen, who (though a Poet) is a credible Author,

The Brook which on her bank doth boast that earth alone,
* Draitons Po­ly-olbion the 22. Song.
Which noted of this Ile, converteth wood to stone.
That little Aspeleys earth we anciently instile,
'Mongst sundry other things, A wonder of the Ile.

But, by his leave, there is an other of the same nature in Northampton-shire, which be­cause lesse known, I will there enlarge my self on that Subject.


As plain as Dunstable Road.]

It is applyed to things plain and simple without either welt or guard to adorne them, as also to matters easie and obvious to be found without any difficulty or direction. Such this Road being broad and beaten, as the confluence of many leading to London from the North and North-west parts of this Land.

As crooked as Crawley brook.]

This is a nameless brook arising about Wobourn, running by Crawley, and falling immediately into the Ouse. But this proverb may better be verifyed of Ouse it self in this Shire, more Maeandrous then Maeander, which runneth above eighty miles in eighteen by land. Blame it not, if sensible of its sad condition, and presaging its fall into the foggy fens in the next County, it be loth to leave this pleasant place; as who would not prolong their own happiness?

[Page 115] The Baylife of Bedford is coming]

This Proverb hath its Originall in this, but Use in the next County of Cambridge, The River Ouse running by is called the Baylife of Bedford, who swelling with rain, snow-water, and tributary brooks in the winter, and coming down on a suddain arrest­eth the Ile of Ely with an inundation. But I am informed that the Drayners of the fenns, have of late with incredible care, cost, art and industry, wrested the Mace out of this Bayliffs hand, and have secured the Country against his power for the fu­ture.


MARGARET BEAUFORT Countess Richmond and Derby, No person of judge­ment or ingenuity will find fault with her Posture under this Title, who was Great-great-grand-child to King Edward the third, and Mother to King Henry the seventh, besides her [almost incredible] Alliance to soSee their number in her funeral Ser­mon preached by Bishop Fish [...]r. many forreign Princes.

Thus Reader, I am confident I have pleased thee as well as my self, in disposing her in this place. And yet I am well assured, that were she alive she would (half-offended hereat,) be more contented to be ranked under another and lower Topick of Bene­factors to the Publick; yea, (if left to her own liberty) would chuse that Reposing Place for her memory. This is not onely most consonant to her humility and charity, (desi­ring rather to be Good then Great,) but also conformable to her remarkable expression, (according to the devotion of those darker days,) that if the Christian Princes would agree to march with an Army for the recovery of Palestine, she would be their Landress.

This is she who besides a Professor of Divinity place in both Universities, founded the two fair Colledges of Christs and Saint Johns in Cambridge. By the way be it ob­served, that Cambridge hath been much beholden to the strength of bounty in the weaker Sex. Of the four Halls therein, two, viz. Clare and Pembroke, were (as I may say) fe­minine foundations; and of the 12. Colledges, one third, Queens, Christs, Saint Johns and Sidney, owe their Original to worthy women. Whereas no female ever founded Colledge in Oxford, (though bountifull Benefactors to many,) seeing Queens Colledge therein, though commended to the Queens of England for its successive Patronesses, had R. Eglesfield for the effectual founder thereof.

And Cambridge is so far from being ashamed of, she is joyfull at, and thankfull for such charity, having read of our Saviour himself, that Mary Magdalen, and Joanna, Luk. 8. 3. and Susanna, and many other women ministred unto him of their substance. But this worthy Lady Margaret being too high for a mean man to commend, is long since gone to the great God to reward, dying in the beginning of the reign of her Grand-child King Henry the eight.


AINULPHUS of Royal British bloud was an holy Hermit, who waving the vanities of this wicked world, betook himself in this County to a solitary life, renowned for the Sanctity (or rather Sanctimony) thereof. The age he lived in is not exactly known, but sure it is, that Ainulphs-bury (a Town in the confines of This and Huntington-shire,) was erected in his memory, part whereof (corruptly called Ainsbury) is extant at this day, and the rest is disguised under the new name of Saint Neots.


THOMAS CHASE, an ancient and faithfull labourer in God's vineyard, led his life most in Buckingham-shire, but found his death in this County, long kept in durance and hanged at last in the Bishops prison at Wobourn. His Executioners to palliate their murder, and asperse his Memory, gave it out that he had destroyed himself. A loud lye, seeing he was so loaden withFox Acts & Monu. pag. 775. Chaines, that he could not lift up his own body. But the clearing hereof must be remitted to that day, wherein all things done in secreet shall be made manifest. His martyrdome happened in the reigne of King Henry the seventh, Anno Domini 1506.


SILVESTER de EVERTON, for so is he written in the Records of Whence Bi­shop Godwin transcribed his Catalogue of Bishops. Carlile, (though Eversden and Everseen in other books) which are most to be credited, as passing under the pens of the best (and to his particular the most knowing) Clearks, no doubt, took his name from Everton a Village in this (but the confines of Cambridge) Shire. He was a man memorable for his preferment, and very able to discharge the Lay-part thereof, receiving the Great Seal, Anno the 29. of King Henry the third 1246. and is commended for one most John Phili­pot, in his Cha­nelors of Eng­land pag. 20. cunning in customes of Chancery. The same year he was chosen Bishop of Carlile, though demurring on the acceptance thereof (conscious to himself perchance as unqualified) his consecration was deferred untill the next year.

He with the rest of the English Bishops addressed themselves to King Henry the third, and boldly enough Requested-Required of him, that all forreigners and [...] persons might be put out of their Bishopricks. Now, as to the point of insufficiency, the King singling out this Silvester thus bespake him. [...] Pa­ris Anno 1253.

Et tu Silvester Carliolensis, qui diu lam­bens Cancellariam, Clericorum meorum Cle­riculus extitisti, qualiter post-positis multis Theologis, & personis reverendis, te in Epis­copum sublimavi, omnibus satis notum est.And thou Silvester of Carlile, who so long licking the Chancery, was the little Clark of my Clergy-men, it is sufficiently known to all, how I advanced thee to be a Bishop, before many reverend persons, and able Divines.

His expression licking the Chancery hath left Posterity to interpret it, whether taxing him for Ambition, liquorishly longing for that Place: Or for Adulation, by the soft smoothing of flatery making his way thereunto: Or for Avarice, licking it so, that he gained great (if good) profit thereby. As for his expression, little Cleark, it is plain it referred not to his stature, but dwarfness in learning. However all this would not perswade him into a resignation of his Bishoprick, though it was not long before he lost both it and his life, by a fall from a skittish-horse, Anno Domini 1254.

I find no Bishop born in this County since the Reformation, and therefore we may go on in our propounded method.

Capital Judges, and Writers on the Law.

Sir JOHN COKEYN Knight, Chief Baron of the Exchequer in the reign of King Henry the fourth, founded a worshipfull Family at, and imparted his Sirname to Cokeyn­Hatley in this County. But being convinced, that he was born at Ashbourn in Derby­shire, I have reserved his character for that County.

EDMOND WINGATE Esq. was a Native of this County, whose family flourish­eth at Hartington therein: He was bred in Greys- [...] in the Study of our Common­law, whereof he wrote besides others a Book Intitled, The Reason of the Common-law, and is lately deceased.


JOHN of DUNSTABLE, so called from a Market-town in this County wherein he was born. If hitherto the Reader hath not, it is high time for him now, to take no­tice of a person of such perfection. Indeed at first my Pen feared famishing, finding so little; since surfetting, meeting so much of this man. For this John of Dunstable was John of all Arts, as appeareth by his double Epitaph, one inscribed on his Monu­ment, the other written on his memory. But be it premised of both, that we will not avouch the truth of the Latine, or quantity in these verses; but present them here as we find them, with all their faults, and his vertues on whom they were made.

On his tombe in Saint Stephen's Wall­brook, London.
Clauditur hoc tumulo qui [...] pectore clausit,
Dunstable I, Juris Astrorum conscius ille,
......... novit..... [...] pondere [...];
Hic vir erat tua Laus, tua Lux, [...] Musica Princeps
Qui (que) tuas fulces per [...] sparserat Artes,
Suscipiant proprium [...] [...] sibi Cives
The second made by
Extant in [...] Fun. Mon. pag. 577.
John Wheatham­sted, Abbot of Saint Albans.
Musicus hic Michalus alter, novus & Ptolo­maeus.
Junior ac Atlas supportans robore [...].
Pausat sub cinere; melior vir de muliere
Nunquam natus erat, vitii quia labe carebat.
Et virtutis opes possedit unicus omnes.
Perpetuis annis celebretur fama Johannis
Dunstable; in pace requiescat & hic sine fine.

[Page 117]What is true of the bills of some unconscionable Trades-men, if ever paid, over paid; may be said of this hyperbolical Epitaphs, if ever believed, over believed. Yea, one may safely cut off a Third in any part of it, and the remainder will amount to make him a most admirable person. Let none say that these might be two distinct persons, seeing (besides the concurrence of time and place,) it would bank-rupt the Exchequer of Nature to afford two such persons, one [...] at once being as much as any will be­lieve. This Dunstable died an. 1455.

Sinee the Reformation.

GEORGE JOY was born in this Bale. de Scrip. Brit. Cent. 9. County, though the exact place be not expressed. He was a great friend to Master Fox. Acts & Monu. pag. 1027. Tindall, and therefore perfectly hated by Woolsey, Fisher, and Sir Thomas Moor, the perticulars of his sufferings if known would justly advance him into the reputation of a Confessor.▪ He translated some parts of the Bible into English, and wrote many books reckned up by Bale; notwithstanding many ma­chinations against his life, he found his Coffin where he fecht'd his Cradle, in sua patria sepultus, being peaceably buried in his native Country 1553. the last year of King Edward the sixth.

FRANCIS DILLINGHAM was born at Dean in this County, and bred Fellow in Christ-Colledge in Cambridge. He was an excellent Linguist, and subtile Disputant. My Father was present in the Bachillors-Scholes, when a Greek Act was kept, between him and William Alabaster of Trinity-Colledge, to their mutuall commendation. A dis­putation so famous that it served for an Aera or Epoche, for the Scholars in that age, thence to date their seniority.

He was afterwards chosen Anno 1607. to be one of the Translators of the Bible, and being richly beneficed at Wilden in this County, died a single man, leaving a fair estate to his brother Master Thomas Dillingham, who was chosen one of the late As­sembly, (though for age, indisposition, and other reasons not appearing therein,) and for many years was the humble, painfull, and faithfull Pastor of Deane, the place of his Nativity.

WILLIAM SCLATER was born at So was I in­formed by his Son, Doctor [...] late Minister of Peters [...] [...]: Layton-buzard in this County, son to An­thony Sclater the Minister thereof for fifty years together, who died well nigh an hun­dred years of age. This William his son was bred in [...], then in Kings Colledge in Cambridge, where he commenced Bachillor, and (after many years discountinance) Doctor of Divinity. Hence he was invited to be [...] at Walsal in Stafford-shire, where he began his sermons (afterwards printed) on the three first Chapters of the Romans. Afterwards John Coles Esquire of Sommerset-shire over-intreated him into the Western parts, where he presented him Vicar of Pitmister. Here he met with mani­fold and expensive vexations, even to the Jeopardy of his life, but by the goodness of God his own innocency and courage, with the favour of his Diocesan, he came off with no lesse honour to himself, then confusion to his adversaries.

He was at first not well affected to the Ceremonies of the Church, but afterwards on his profound studying of the point, he was reconciled to them, as for order, and decen­cy, and by his example others were perswaded to conforme.

Constancy of studying contracted the stone upon him, which he used to call flagellum studiosorum. Nor was his health improved by being removed to a wealthier Living, when John Lord Pawlet of Hinton (at the instance of Elizabeth his Lady, in whose in­heritance it was, a worthy favourer of piety and pious men,) preferred him to the rich Parsonage of Limpsam in Somerset-shire, where indeed there was scarce any element good save the earth therein. Whereupon for his own preservation he was re-perswaded to return to Pitmister, there continuing till the day of his death, which happened in the year of our Lord 1627. in the fifty one year of his age, leaving many learned works behind him, as his Comment on the Romans, and on the Thessalonians, Sermons at Pauls cross, and the treatise of Tithes, styled the Ministers portion, with other posthume works, some since set forth by, more remaining in the hand of his son William Scalter Doctor of Divinity, and Minister at London, lately deceased.

Benefactors to the Publick.

Sir WILLIAM son to William HARPER was born in the Town of Bedford, but bred a Merchant-taylor in the City of London. Where God so blessed his endeavours, that Anno 1561. he was chosen Lord Mayor thereof. In gratitude to God and the place of his Nativity, he erected and Sto. Survey of London pag. 62. endowed a free-schole in Bedford, in which Town he lyeth buryed.

HENRY GREY son to Henry Grey was born at Wrest in this County. Something must be premised of his extraction. Richard Grey third Earl of Kent of that family, was so profuse a person, that he wilfully wasted his Estate, giving away what he could not spend to the King and others; so little he reflected on Sir Henry Grey his Brother (but by a second Venter) of Wrest in this County. Hereupon the said Sir Henry, though heir to his Brother Richard after his death; yet perceiving himself overtitled or rather under-stated, for so high an honour, (the undoubted right whereof rested in him) declined the assuming thereof. Thus the Earldome of Kent lay (though not dead) asleep in the family of the Greys almost 50. years, viz. form the 15 of King Henry the eight till the 13. of Queen Elizabeth, when she advanced Reginald Grey, grand­child to Sir Hen. Grey aforesaid, (who had thriftily recruted himself with competence of Revenues) to be Earl of Kent, Anno 1571.

This Reginald dying Issuelesse within the year, Henry his Brother (the subject of our present description) succeeded to his honour. A person truly noble, expending the income of his own Estate and of his Ladies fair Joynter, (Mary the Relict of Edward Earl of Darby) in hospitality.

He was a most Cordiall Protestant, on the same token that being present at the execution of the Queen of Scots, when she requested the Nobility there, to stand by and see her death, he (Camb. Eliz. [...] Anno 1587. fearing something of Superstition) hardly assented thereunto. Yet was he as far from the faction as Superstition, deserving the caracter given unto him.

Idem in his Brit. in Kent.
Omnibus verae nobilitatis Ornamentis vir longè Honoratissimus.

He left no Isue, except some will behold him in some sort Parent of Sidney Colledge in Cambridge, as one of the executors to the Foundress thereof, who did both Prove and Improve her will, besides his Personall benefaction thereunto. And being the survi­ving executor, he did perpetuate the fellowships (formerly temporary) according to the implicite trust deposited in him, to the advantage of that foundation. He died Anno Domini 1613.

FRANCIS CLEARK Knight, was born at Eaton-soton in this shire near to Saint Neots, in the Lordship there commonly called the Parsonage. He was a noble Benefa­ctour to Sidney-colledge, augmenting all the Scholarships of the Foundation, and erect­ing a fair and firme range of building. Such his skill in Arithmetick and Architecture, that staying at home, he did provide to a brick what was necessary for the finishing thereof. He founded four new Fellowships, and had he been pleased to consult with the Colledge, the settlement with the same expence might have proved more ad­vantageous. For, though in gifts to private persons, it be improper that the Re­ceiver should be the Director thereof, a Corporation may give the best advise to im­prove the favours conferr'd upon it. But it is a general practice, that men desire rather to be broad then thick Benefactours.

However seeing every one may do with his own as he pleaseth, blessed be the me­mory of this worthy Knight, whose gift in effect was selt by the Colledge before the giver thereof was seen, being himself a meer stranger unto it. Some say, that be­cause this was the youngest foundation in the University (generally the last child hath the least left it,) his charity pitched upon it. But I have been informed, that Sir F [...]ancis coming privately to Cambridge, to see unseen, took notice of Doctor Ward his daily presence in the Hall, with the Scholars conformity in caps, and diligent performance of exercises, which indeared this place unto him. Thus the observing of old Statutes, is the best load-stone to attract new Benefactours. His death happyned, Anno Domini, 163

Memorable Persons.

A WOMAN, whose name I cannot recover, lived, died, and is buried at Dunstable in this County. It appeareth by her Hackwil's Apolog [...] pag. 253. Epitaph in the Church, that she had nineteen children at five births, viz. three several times three children at a birth, and five at a birth, two other times. How many of them survived to mans estate is unknown. Here I must dissent from an Huartes in the trial of wits. Author maintaining that more Twins were born in the first Age of the World, then now adays. Whereas we meet with none but single births in the Patriarchs before the Flood, and more [...] six hundred years after the Deluge, Esau and Jacob were the first Twins mentioned in Scripture.

Lord Mayors.
1 Thomas ChaltonThomas ChaltonDunstableMercer1449
2 William StokerThomas [...]tokerEatonDraper1484
3 William Butler [...]ichard ButlerBidenhamGrocer1515
4 William HarperWilliam HarperBedfordMerchant-Taylor1561
The Names of the [...] of this County Returned by the Commissioners in the twelfth year of King Henry the sixth.
William Bishop of Lincoln,
John de Fanhope Chivaler.Commissioners.
John Wenlock Armig. Knights for the shire.
John Gascoigne Armig. Knights for the shire.
  • Abbatis de Woborn, & sui Celerarii
  • Abbatis de Wardon
  • Prioris de Dunstable
  • Prioris de Chekesond
  • Prioris de Nunham
  • Prioris de Chaldwell
  • Prioris de Buschemede
  • Simonis Filbrigge, Chivaler.
  • Henrici Bronnflete, Chivaler.
  • Thomae [...] Chi­valer.
  • Thomae Maningham
  • Thomae Hoo
  • Johannis Broughton
  • Iohan. Enderby
  • Roberti Mordant
  • Iohan. Hertusherne
  • Hen. Godfrey
  • Iohan. Boteler de Northzele
  • Hum. Acworth
  • Iohan. Ragon
  • Thomae Ragon
  • Iohan. [...]
  • Iohan. Radwell
  • Iohan. Fyse
  • Iohan. Coldington
  • Chri. Preston
  • Steph. Cruker
  • Tho. Roxston
  • Will. Lancelin
  • Hen. de Lye
  • Iohan. Conquest de Houghton
  • Tho. Lonnde
  • Walte. L [...]nnde
  • Iohan. Lonnde
  • Rich. Merston
  • Iohan. [...]eeke junioris
  • Tho. Peeke
  • Will. Peeke
  • Iohan. Glove junio­ris
  • Iohan. Turvey de Turvey
  • Iohan. Ferrour de Bedford
  • Iohan. Gerveys de Maldon
  • Hen. Etewell
  • Rober. Bollock
  • Will. Wale
  • Nich. Ravenhull
  • Nich. Low
  • Valentini Bailli de Luton
  • Willielmi White de eadem
  • Iohan. Boughton
  • Hugonis Hasselden
  • Thomae Bailli de Houghton
  • Will. Trought
  • Hen. Manntell
  • Rober. Valence
  • Iohan. Attehay
  • Will. Ypping
  • Iohan. Petifer
  • Tho. Purvey
  • Will. Purvey
  • Will. Shotfold
  • Will. Wingate
  • Will. Kene
  • Tho. Stokker
  • Ade Alford
  • Iohan. Morton
  • Tho. Morton
  • Tho. Stratton
  • Tho. Chamberlain
  • Radulp. Cleark
  • Math. Stepeing
  • Nich. Harding
  • Will. Marham
  • Rich. Sampson
  • Rober. Warner
  • Iohan. Coke de Craw­ley.
  • Will. Sileham
  • Will. Purvey
  • Will. Rede
  • Tho. Blondell
  • Will. Milward
  • Rober. Ratele
  • Iohan. Kiggill de Todinton
  • Iohan. Pestell de Nunham
  • Thomae Chopper de Turvey
  • Iohan. Marram
  • Thomae Jakes
  • Iohan. Pikot
  • Will. Molso
  • Iohan. Sewell
  • Hen. Sewell
  • Radul. Falwell
  • Hug. Billingdon
  • Iohan. Baldoe
  • Will. Palmer
  • Rober. Davy, junioris
  • Iohan. Stanlow
  • Rich. Lincoln
  • [Page 120]Waleri Taillard
  • Thomae Spencer de Geton
  • Iohan. Spencer
  • Iohannis King de Harowdon
  • Iohan. Wait
  • Will. Bochell
  • Thomae William
  • Roberti Ratull
  • Rober. Warner de le Hethe
  • Io [...]an. Potter
  • Iohan. Grecell
  • Will. Bocher de Hen­low
  • Will. H [...]le de Chiting­don
  • Iohan. Halle
  • Will. Ludsopp
  • Iohan. Conquest de Houghton
  • Stephani Cruker
  • Tho. Rokeston
  • Will. Lancelein
  • Hen. de Lye
  • [...]o. Ragon
  • Iohan. Mepurshale
  • Iohan. Fitz
  • Iohan. Pekke, junioris
  • Hugonis Billingdou
  • Tho. Pekke
  • Will. Pekke
  • Iohan. Glove, junio­ris

Hungry Time hath made a Glutton [...]eal on this Catalogue of Gentry, and hath left but a very little morsell for manners remaining; so few of these are found extant in this [...]hire, and fewer continuing in a Gentile Equipage. Amongst whom I must not forget the Family of the Blundels, whereof Sir Edward Blundell behaved himself right valiantly, in the unfortunate expedition to the Isle of Ree.

Sheriffs of Bedford and Buckingham-shire.
Anno 1
Rich. Basset & Albertus de Veer. Rob. Carun
Anno 2
Henri [...] de Essex consti­tuit Simonem Fitz. Petre Vicecomitem for 4 years.
Anno 6
Gal. filius Radulph
Anno 7
Rich. fil [...]us O [...]rti for 3 years.
Anno 10
Hug. de la Leg [...] & Rich. filius Osberti for 6 years.
Anno 16
David. Archidea. & Will. filius Rich.
Anno 17
Will. filius Rich. & David. Arch. for 3 years.
Anno 20
Will. filius Rich. for 6 years.
Anno 26
Will. Rufus for 7 years.
Anno 33
Will. Rufus, & Oger. filius Ogeri, pro dimad. Anni.
Anno 1
Will. Rufus for 6 years.
Anno 7
Simon. de Belchampe for 3 years.
Anno 10
Will. de Albeny & Rob. Braybrook
Anno 1
Will. de Albeny
Anno 2
Galf. filius Petri, & Rob. de Braybrook for 4 years.
Anno 6
Rob. de Braybrook & Rob. filius Hemer.
Anno 7
Rob. & Rober.
Anno 8
Rob. filius Hemeri
Anno 9
Anno 10
Rob. de Braybrook for 3 years.
Anno 13
Rob. de Braybrook, & Hen. filius ejus
Anno 14
Hen. Braybrook, & Rob. Pater ejus
Anno 15
Anno 16
Hen. Braybrook
Anno 17
Anno 1
Anno 2
Fulco de Breantel
Anno 3
Anno 4
Ful. de Breantel & Rad. de Bray for 4 years.
Anno 8
Ful. de Breantel
Anno 9
Walt. de Pateshull de Ac­cestane for 4 years.
Anno 13
Steph. de Wegrave & Will. de Martiwaste
Anno 14
Steph. de Segne
Anno 15
Steph. de Segne & Rich. de Atteneston for 3 years.
Anno 18
Steph. de Segne & Joh. Ulecot
Anno 19
Radus. filius Reginald
Anno 20
Will. de Bello Campo. & Ric. de Porchhalt
Anno 21
Will. de Bello Campo
Anno 22
Reginald. de Albo Mona­sterio
Anno 23
Rob. de Hega
Anno 24
Pau [...]us Penire
Anno 25
Anno 26
Joh. [...]rumband
Anno 27
Will. Holdwell for 7 years.
Anno 34
Alex. de Hammeden for 3 years.
Anno 37
Nul. Tile Com. in Ro­tulo
Anno 38
Simon de Glendon
Anno 39
Anno 40
Rob. le Savage. Rich. le Savage filius Johan.
Anno 41
Rob. de Tottenhall
Anno 42
Anno 43
Alex. de Hamden. for 4 years.
Anno 47
Alex. de Hamden. & Si­mon de Pateshill for 5 years.
Anno 52
Edw. filius Regis Primo­genitus
Anno 53
Anno 54
Edw. filius primo genitus & Barthol. de Towen Sub­vic. ejus for 3 years.
Anno 1
Thomas de Bray
Anno 2
Anno 3
Hugo de Stapleford for 4 years.
Anno 7
Johan. de Chedney for 4 years.
Anno 11
Radul. de Goldington for 3 years.
Anno 14
Will. de Boyvill for 3 years.
Anno 17
Will. de Tarrevill
Anno 18
Joh. de Popham
Anno 19
Anno 20
Will. de Turrevill for 5 years.
Anno 25
Sim. de Bradenham
Anno 26
Walter. deMolesworth for 10 years.
Anno 1
Gil. de Holme, & Wal. de Molesworth
Anno 2
Will. Merre for 4 years.
Anno 6
Walt. de Molesworth, & Joh. de Pabenham for 3 years.
Anno 9
Joh. de la Hay
Anno 10
Anno 11
Joh. de la Hay, & Rog. de Tirringham.
Anno 12
Phil. de Aylesbury. & Rich. de Cave
Anno 13
Rich. de Cave, & In­gilran de Berenger
Anno 14
Anno 15
Ingelramus Berenger
Anno 16
Anno 17
Rog. de Tiringham
Anno 18
Rog. de Tiringham & Joh. de la Hay
Anno 19
Johan. de la Hay & Phil. de Aylesbury.
Anno 1
Johan. de la Mareschall & Phil. de Aylesbury
Anno 2
Anno 3
Joh. de Mareschall
Anno 4
Phil. de Aylesbury for 3 years.
Anno 7
Nul. Titl. Com. in Ro­tulo
Anno 8
Rad. de Wedon
Anno 9
Anno 10
Rich. Ward
Anno 11
Rad. de Wedon
Anno 12
Nich. de Passelow, & Will. Aloton
Anno 13
Anno 14
Nich. Passelow
Anno 15
Ger. de Braybrook
Anno 16
Henric. Chalfhunt, & Gerrard. de Braybrook
Anno 17
Joh. Aygnell, & Hen. Chalfhunt
Anno 18
Hen. Chalfhunt, & Joh. Wignell
Anno 19
Tho. de Swinford
Anno 20
Anno 21
Will. Croyser
Anno 22
Anno 23
Tho. Fernibrand
Anno 24
Anno 25
Joh. Chastilion, & Tho. Fernibrand
Anno 26
Joh. Chastilion
Anno 27
Ger. de Braybrook
Anno 28
Anno 29
Pet. de Salford, & Ger­Braybrook
Anno 30
Pet. de Salford
Anno 31
Joh. de Hampden, & Hug. Chastilion
Anno 32
Joh. de Hampden
Anno 33
Anno 34
Pet. de Salford
Anno 35
Joh. de Hampden
Anno 36
Pet. de Salford for 4 years.
Anno 40
Joh. de Aylesbury for 6 years.
Anno 46
Johan. Chyne
Anno 47
Johan. Ragoun
Anno 48
Johan. Aylesbury
Anno 49
Johan. de Arden
Anno 50
Johan. de Broughton
Anno 51
Johan. de Ollueyge
Henry II.


The Catalogue of the Sheriffs of Cambridge and Huntington-shires, as also of Essex and Hartford-shire, beginneth with the same names so that [...]ix Counties (but all lying together) were under their inspection. None need to question, but that this Albe­ricus de Veer was the very same with him, who by Maud the Empress was made the first Earl of Oxford, of whom hereafter this year in Cambridge-shire. Mean time we take notice of an Usterosis, beholding R. Basset (though first named) as his Under-Sheriff.


He is too well known in our English Chronicles, being Baron of Raleigh in Essex, and Here­ditary Standard-bearer of England. It happened in the reign of this King, there was a fierce battle fought in Flint-shire at Coleshull, betwixt the English and Welch, wherein this Henry de Essex, Com [...]e Camdens Brit. in Essex, w [...]th h [...]m i [...] Flint­sh [...]re. Animum & Signum simul abjecit, betwixt Traitor and Coward cast away both his Courage and Banner together, occasioning a great over-throw of English.

But he that had the baseness to doe, had the boldness to deny the doing of so foul a fact; untill he was challenged in combate by Robert de Momford, a Knight, Eye-wit­ness thereof, and by him overcome in a Duell. Whereupon his large inheritance was confiscated to the King, and he himself, partly thrust, partly going into a Convent, hid his head in a Coul [...], under which, betwixt shame and sanctity, he blushed out the re­mainder of his life.

[Page 122]16 DAVID ARCHIDIACONUS, &c.]

It may justly seem strange, that an Arch-deacon should be Sh [...]riff of a Shire, and one would have sought for a person of his Profession rather in a Pulpit, then in a Shire­Hall.

Some will answer, that in that Age Men in Orders ingrossed not onely Places of Ju­dicature, but also such as had Military and Martial Relations, whereof this Sheriff did in some sort partake. But under correction, I conceive, that though Bishops (who had also Temporall Baronies) were sometimes Sheriffs, yet no inferiour Clergy-men, being in Orders, were ever advanced to that Office, neither in Anoient, nor in Modern Times. Sure I am, that in the reign of King Charles, one being pricked Sheriff of Rutland, es­caped, pleading that he was a Deacon.

Yet we meet with many, whose surnames sound of Church-relation, both in the Catalogue of Ancient and Modern Sheriffs.

1. Abbot ofLondon
2. Arch-deacon ofCornwall
3. Bishop ofSussex
4. Chaplain ofNorfolke
Clerk ofNorthamptonshire
Dean ofEssex
Frier ofOxfordshire
Moigne ofDorsetshire
M on ofDevonshire
Parson ofBuckinghamshire
Pope ofOxfordshire
Prior ofLondon

It addeth to the difficulty, that whereas persons of their profession were formerly enjoyned single lives, we find in this list some of their sons in the next generation Sheriffs also.

But take one answer to all, as these were Lay▪men, so probably their Ancestors were Ecclesiasticks, and did officiate according to their respective Orders and Dignities. These afterwards having their patrimony devolved unto them, by the death of their elder bre­thren, were dispenced with by the Pope to marry, yet so that they were always afterwards called by their former profession, which was fixed as a surname on their posterity. Thus we read how in France, Hugh de Lusignian, being an Arch-bishop (and the last of his fami­ly) when by the death of his Brethren, the Signieuries of Partnay, Soubize, &c. fell unto him, he obtained licence to marry, on condition that his posterity should bear the name of Archevesque, and a Miter over their Arms for ever.

As for the Surname of Pope in England, it is such a transcendent, I cannot reach it with mine own, and must leave it to more judicious conjectures.

King John.

13. ROB. de BRAYBROOK, & HEN. filius. ejus.]

14. HEN. BRAYBROOK, & ROB. pater ejus.]

Here is a loving reciprocation. First, a son Under-sheriff to his father, ▪ that was his du­ty; Secondly the father Under-sheriff to his son, that was his courtesie. Indeed I can name one Under sheriff to his own father, being a Gentleman of right worthy extra­ction and estate, which son afterwards (in my memory) became Lord Chief Justice, and Treasurer of England.

Henry III.

52 EDVARD. filius REGIS primo-genitus.]

It soundeth not a little to the honour of these two shires, that Prince Edward, after­wards the most renowned King of England, (first of his Christian name since the Con­quest) was their Sheriff for five years together. Yea, the Imperial-Crown found him in that office, when it fell unto him, though then absent in Palestine. We may presume, that Bartholomew de Fowen his Under-sheriff, was very sufficient to manage all matters under him.

Sheriffs of Bedford and Buckingham-shire.
1 Ioh. de AylesburyAylesburyAzure a Cross Argent.
2 Tho. Peynere  
3 Egidius DaubenySOMER.Gules four Lozenges in Fess Argent.
4 Tho. SackwellSUSSEXQuarterly Or and Gules a Bend Vayre.
5 Ioh. de Aylesburyut prius 
6 Idem.ut prius 
7 Ioh. WidevillNortham.Arg. a Fess, & Canton Gu.
8 Rob. Dikeswell  
9 Tho. Covell Az. a Lion Ramp. Arg. a File of 3 Lambeaux Gu.
10 Ioh. de Aylesburyut prius 
11 Rad. Fitz. Rich.  
12 Tho. Peynere  
13 Tho. Sackvillut prius 
14 Edm. HampdenHampden Buc.Arg. a Saltire G. betw. 4 Eaglets displayed Az.
15 Will. TeringhamTeringhá B.Az. a Cross ingrailed Arg.
16 Tho. Peynere  
17 Phil. Walwane  
18 Ioh. LongvileWolvertōGules a Fess Indented betwixt 6 Cross Croslets Arg.
19 Edm. Hampdenut prius 
20 Regin. Ragon  
21 Ioh. Worship  
22 Idem.  
HEN. IV.  
1 Tho. Eston  
2 Edw. Hampdenut prius 
2 Ro. BeauchampEaton Bed.G. a Fess, betw. 6 martlets Or.
3 Reg. Ragon  
4 Iohan. BoysKENTOr a Griffin Sergreant S. within 2 Borders G.
5 Idem.  
6 Edw. Hampdenut prius 
7 Tho. Peynere  
8 Rich. Hay Sable, three Pickaxes Arg.
9 Bald. PigottStratton Bed. 
10 Tho. StricklandYORK sh.G. a Chev. Or between 3 Crosses formee Arg. on a Canton ermin, a Bucks-head erased, sable.
11 Rich. Wyott  
12 Bald. Pigottut prius 
HEN. V.  
A [...]no  
1 Tho. Stricklandut pri [...]s 
2 Edw. Hampdenut prius 
3 Tho. Wauton  
4 Rich. Wyott  
5 Ioh. Gifford  
6 Will. Massy  
7 Walt. Fitz. Rich.  
8 Iohan. Radwell  
9 Ioh. Radwellet  
10 Will. Massy  
11 Idem.  
HEN. VI.  
1 Iohan. Wauton  
2 Ioh. Chen▪y mil.Cheneys B.Checky Or & Az. a Fess G. Fretty Erm.
3 Rich. Wyott  
4 Ioh. Cheneyut prius 
5 Will. Massy, ar.  
6 Hum. Stafford, ar. Or, a Chev. G. a Quarter Erm.
7 Tho. Wauton, mi.  
8 Tho. Hoo Quarterly Sable, and Arg.
9 Ioh. Cheneyut prius 
10 Egid. Daubeny, m.ut prius 
11 Tho. Wauton, mil.  
12 Ioh. Glove  
13 Ioh. Hampden, ar.ut prius 
14 Ioh. Broughton  
15 Rob. Manfeld  
16 Hum. Stafford, mi.ut prius 
17 Ioh. Hampdenut prius 
18 Walt. Stricklandut prius 
19 Ioh. Brekenoll  
20 Edw. Campdenut prius 
21 Edw. Rede  
22 Tho. Singleton  
23 Ioh. Wenlock Arg. a Chev. betw. 3 Black-more­heads conped Proper.
24 Tho. Rokes  
25 Tho. Gifford  
26 Gor. Longvileut prius 
27 Idem.ut prius 
28 Will. Gedney  
29 Ioh. Hampdenut prius 
30 Ro. Whittingham  
31 Rob. Olney  
32 Edw. Rede, ar.  
32 Ioh. PoulterHARTF.Arg. a Bend voided Sable.
33 Tho. Singleton  
34 Tho. Charlton, m.  
35 Ioh. Hampdenut prius 
36 Ioh. Maningham  
37 Ioh. Heyton, ar.  
38 Ioh. Broughton Arg. a Chev. betwixt 3 Mullets Gules.
1 Edw. Rede, ar.  
2 Tho. Reynes  
3 Idem.  
4 Pet. House, ar.  
5 Ioh. Broughtonut prius 
6 Ioh. Bottiler, mil.BiddenhamG. a Fess compone Arg. & Sable betw. six Crosses Croslets Or.
7 Tho. Hampdenut prius 
8 Ioh. Foster, ar.BERKS.S. a Chev. engrailed betw. 3 Arr. A.
9 Will. Lucy, ar. G. Crasaly Or, 3 Pikes hauriant Arg.
10 Rob. Dooth, ar.CHESH.Arg. 3 Boars-heads erased Sable, Tusked Or.
11 Regin. GreyWrest. Bed.Barry of 6 Ar. & Az. in chief 3 Toreauxes.
12 Ioh. Lanoston, ar.  
13 Ioh. Botiler, mil.ut prius 
14 Rich. Bulstrode See our Notes in BUCKS.
15 Hugo. BrudenellBUCK.Ar. a Cheveron Gu. between 3 Chapp [...]ws Az.
16 Edw. Molinen  
17 Io. Rotheram, ar.Luton Bed.Vert 3 Roe-Bucks tripping Or, a Baston G.
18 Tho Rokes  
19 Tho. Fowler  
20 Rich. Enderby, ar. Arg. 3 Bars Dancette S. a Pale in Chief Ermine.
21 Ioh. Verney Az. on a Cross Arg. five mullets G
22 Tho. Hampdenut prius 
1 Dru. Brudnellut paius 
2 Tho. Fowler  
3 Ioh. Boone, mil.  
6 Gor. Ingleton  
2 Tho. Rokes  
3 Tho. Fowler  
[Page 124]4 Ioh. R [...]theramut prius 
5 Rich. Go [...]frey  
6 Ioh. Laneston se.  
7 Rich. R [...]stwoodLaVache B▪ 
8 Edw. [...]kaine, ar.HatleyArg. three Cocks G.
9 Rich. Godfrey, ar.  
10 Will. R [...]de  
11 Tho. DarellLillingstō B.Az. a Lion Ramp. Or, Crowned Argen [...]
12 Tho. Langston  
13 Ioh. Gefford, ar.  
14 David. Phillip, ar.  
15 Rich [...]estwood  
16 Hug. Conway, mi. S. on a B [...]ne twixt 2 Cotises Ar. a Rose G. twixt [...] Annulets of the
17 Ioh. St. Iohn, mi.Bletso. Bed.Arg. on a Chief Gules 2 mullets pierced Or.
18 Rich Blount, ar. B [...]rry Formy [...] of [...] Or & sable.
19 Edw. Bulstrod, ar.ut prius 
20 Tho. Darell ar.ut prius 
21 Ioh. Cheyney, ar.ut prius 
22 Will. GascoigneCardintō B.Arg. on a Pale S. a Lucies-head erected Or.
23 Ioh. Longvile, mi.ut prius 
24 Geor. Harvey, ar.  [...]. on a [...] Arg. three Tre-foiles [...].
1 Ioh. Mordant, ar.Tur [...]ey Be.A [...]. a Cheveron-inter 3. Estoiles S.
2 Ioh. Dive, ar.Brum [...] B.Parte per Pale Arg. & G. a Fess Azure.
3 Rad. Verney, ar.ut prius 
4 Tho. Dineham, ar.  
5 Will. Gascoigneut prius 
6 Edw. Bray, ar. Arg. a Chev. between 3. Eagles-legs [...]rased [...].
7 Ioh. St. Iohn, mil.ut prius 
8 Gor. Harvey, mil.ut prius 
9 Will. Gascoigneut prius 
10 Mi [...]h. Fisher, ar.  
11 Will. Rede, mil.  
12 Ioh Cheney, ar.ut prius 
13 Rob. Lee, mil.QuarendonAr. a Fess b [...]tw. 3 Cr [...]ssants S.
14 Rob. [...], ar.Winge Bu.Az. 10 Bellets 4, 3, [...], & 1, Or, in a chief of th [...] second, a Lion Issuant [...].
15 Tho. Langston, ar.  
16 Rad. Verneyut prius 
17 Tho. Rotherhamut prius 
18 [...]dw. Grevill, mil. Sable a Bordure & Cross Engrai­ [...]ed Or, therein five pellets.
19 [...]an. Pigote, ar.ut prius 
[...]0 I [...]h H [...]pden, m.ut prius 
21 Ioh. St. Iohn, mil,ut prius 
[...]2 Mich. Fisher  
23 Rob. Dormer, ar.ut prius 
24 Edw. Dun, mil.  
25 Rob. Lee, mil.ut prius 
26 Ioh. St. Iohn, mil.ut prius 
27 Rog. [...], ar.SHROP.Or, a Riven Proper.
28 Tho. Longvile, ar.ut prius 
29 Will. Windsor, m.BradenhamGules, a Saltier Arg. between 12 cross croslets Or.
30 Rob. Dormer, mil.ut prius 
31 Tho. Rotheram,ut prius 
32 Rad. Verney, mil.ut prius 
33 Joh. Gostwick, m.WillingtōArg. a Bend Gules cotized sable twixt 6 Cornish choughes proper on a Chief Or 3 mullets ve [...]t.
34 Idem.ut prius 
35 Tho. Giffard, ar.  
36 Mich. Fisher, mil.  
37 Lod. Dy [...]e, ar.ut prius 
38 Rob. Drury, mil. Arg. on a Chief [...]vert the Lette [...] Tau betwixt 2 mullets pierced Or.
EDW. VI.  
1 Fran▪ Russell▪ mil.CheneisA Lion Ramp. Gules on a chiefe sables 3 [...]calops of the first.
2 Fran. Pigott, ar.ut prius 
3 Ioh. St. Iohn, mil.ut prius 
4 Tho. Rotheram,ut prius 
5 Oliv. St. Iohn, ar.ut prius 
6 Tho. Pigott, ar.ut prius 
1 Will. Dormer, mi.ut prius 
REX PHIL. & Ma. Regina.  
1 Arth. Longvile, ar.ut prius 
2 Rob. Drury, mil.ut prius 
3 Rob. Peckham, mi.  
4 Tho. Pigott, ar.ut prius 
5 Hum. [...], m. Arg. a Bend engrailed Sable.
1 Will. Hawtry, ar.Checkers B.Argent 4 Lioncells passant Sable betwixt 2 Gemews in [...]end.
2 Tho. Teringhamut prius 
3 Rob. Drury, mil.ut prius 
4 Ioh. Goodwin, ar.  
5 Paul Damil, ar.  
6 Tho. Fleetwood,Vache Bu.Parte per pale Nebule Az & Or. 6 marteletts counterchanged.
7 Hen Cheyne, [...]ui.Tuddington 
8 Ioh. Cheny, ar. AMP.
9 Ioh. Burlacy, ar.  
10 Will. Dormer, mi.ut priusSable a Fess engrailed [...] 3 flower. de luce Arg.
11 Edw. Ashfeld, mi.  
12 Lod. Mordant, mi.ut prius 
13 Tho. Pigo [...], ar.ut prius 
14 Lodo. Dive, ar.ut prius 
15 Gor Peckham, mi.  
16 Rad. Astry, ar.Harlingtō B.Barry-wave of 6. Arg. & Az. on a Chief G. 3 Bezants.
Henry VI.


If any ask me the place of his residence in these Counties, I must returne, non sum informatus. But this is he, who is caractered by Brit. [...]. Master Camden, Vir egregius, whom King Henry the sixth made Knight of the Garter, and Lord Hoo and Ha [...]tings. He left four Daughters thus married.

  • 1 Anne to Sir Jeffry Bollen.
  • 2 Eleanor to Sir Richard Carew.
  • 3 Jane to Robert Cople, Esq.
  • 4 Elizabeth to Sir John Devenish.

From the first of these was Queen Elizabeth descended. Some of the Issue Male of the same family were very lately extant in Hertford-shire.


His surname seemeth to have something in it of Salopi [...]n reference, to a Market-town therein so called; However, his principal residence was (but where, to me unknown) in this County, whereof he was returned Knight to the Pa [...]liament, in the twelfth of this Kings reign. The very same, whom afterwards this King created Baron Wenlock, [Page 125] and Knight of the Garter, and who afterwards lost his life in His cause, valiantly fight­ing in the battle of Teuxbury. It is charity to enter this memorial of him, the rather because he died without issue, (and his fair estate forfeited to King Edward the fourth, was quickly scattered amongst many Courtiers) but from his Cousin and Heire-gene­ral, the Lauleys in Shropshire are lineally descended.

Henry VII.


There were three Sir John Saint Johns successively in the same family, since their fix­ing in this County:

  • 1. The father, (this year Sheriffe) being son to Sir Oliver Saint John, by Mar­garet daughter and sole heir to Sir John Beauchamp. This Margaret was afterwards married to John Duke of Somerset, to whom she bare Margaret, Mother to King Henry the seventh.
  • 2. The son [Sheriffe in the seventh year of King Henry the eighth.]
  • 3. The grand-child, Sheriffe in the third of Edward the sixth, and father to Oliver the first Lord Saint John.

This we insert to avoid confusion, it being the general complaint of Heraulds, that such Homonymie causeth many mistakes in pedigrees.


Much wondering with my self how this Northem Name stragled into the South, I con­sulted one of his Family, and a good Antiquary, by whom I was informed that this William was a Younger Brother of Gauthorpe house in York-shire, and was settled at Car­dinton nigh Bedford in this County, by Marrying the Inheritrix thereof. He was after­wards twice Sheriffe under King Henry the eighth, Knighted, and Controler of the House of Cardinall Woolsey. A rough Gentleman, preferring rather to profit then please his Master. And although the Pride of that Prelate, was sar above his Covetousnesse, yet his Wisedome well knowing Thrift to be the Fuell of Magnificence, would usually disgest advice from this his Servant, when it plainly tended to his own Emolument. The Name (and which is worse) the Essate is now quite extinct in this County.

Henry VIII.


He was extracted of a very Ancient parent in this County, and married one of the Daughters and Heirs of Henry Vere of Addington in Northampton-shire, whereby he re­ceived a great Inheritance, being by Aged persons, in those parts, remembred by the name of John of the Woods. (Reader I was born under the shadow), and felt the warmth of them,) so great a Master he was of Oaks and Timber in that County, be­sides large possessions he had in Essex, and elswhere. King Henry the eight owning him deservedly for a very wise man, created him Baron Mordant of Turvey.


He was descended from Walter Fitz Cam: Brit. in Bark-shire. Otho, Castle-keeper of Windsor, in the time of King William the Conqueror, and was by King Henry the eighth created Baron Windsor of Bradenham in Buckingham-shire Ancestor to the present Lord Windsor, descended from him by an Heir-general so that Hickman is his Surname.

E [...]ward VI.


He was Son to John Lord Russel, afterward Earl of Bedford. Succeeding his Fa­ther in his honour, so great was his Hospitality that Queen Elizabeth was wont to say pleasantly of him, That he made all the beggars. He founded a small School at Wo­bourne, and dying in great age and honour, was buried at Cheneys 1585.


He was by Queen Elizabeth made Lord Saint John of Bletso in this County, and left two sons who succeeded to his honour. First John whose onely daughter Anne was married to William Lord Effingham, and was mother to Elizabeth now Countess Dow­ager of Peterborough. His second son was Oliver, blessed with a numerous issue, and Ancestor to the present Earl of Bullinbrook.

Queen Mary.


He was son to Sir Robert Dormer (Sheriffe the 14. of K. Henry the 8.) by Jane Newdigate his wife, which Lady was so zealous a Pap [...]st, that after the death of Q. Mary, she left the land, and lived beyond the Seas. This Sir William by Mary Sidney, his wife, had a daughter, married to the Count of Feria, when he came over hither with King Philip.

This Count, under pretence to visit his sick Lady, remaining here, did very earnest­ly move aCam. Eliz. [...] 1558. match betwixt King Philip, his Master, and Queen Elizabeth, which in fine took no effect. He the [...] also mediated for Jane Dormer, his Grand-mother, and some other fugitives, that they might live beyond the Seas, and receive their revenues out of England; which favour the Queen though not fit to indulge, whereat the Count was so incensed, [...]hat he moved Pope Pius the fourth to excommunicate Her,Uxore frustra [...] i [...]tente idem, Anno 1560. though his wife did with all might and maine oppose it.

Sheriffs of this County alone.
17 [...]. Rotheram, Es.FarlyVert, 3 Roe bucks tripping Or, a Baston Gul.
18 Ioh [...] [...]ewelburyG. a Salter engrailed Arg.
19 Ge. Kenesham. Es.Temsford 
20 Ioh. Spencer, EsqCople 
21 Nich. Luke, Esq.WoodendAr. a Bugle-horn S.
22 Hen. Butler, Esq.BiddenhāG. a Fess Cho [...]kee Ar. & S. betw. 6 Cross [...] Ar.
23 Ioh. Tompson, Es.Crawley 
24 Ric. Conquest, Es.HoughtonQ. Ar. & S. a Labelw▪th 3 points.
25 Lodo. Dive, Esq.BrumhamParte per Pale Ar. et G. a Fess Az.
26 Ioh. Rowe, Esq & Ric. Charnock, Es.HoleotAr. on a Bend S. 3 Crosses Croslet of the field
27 Oliv. St. John, Es. Ar. on a Chief G. 2 Mullets Or.
28 Ric. Charnock, Es.ut prius 
29 Will. Butler, Esq.ut prius 
30 Rad. Astry, Esq.WestningBarr [...]wavee of six Ar. & Az. on a Chief G. 3 Bezants.
31 Oliv. St. John, Es.ut prius 
32 Ge Rotheram, Es.ut prius 
33 Exp. Hoddeson, Es.ut prius 
34 Will. DuncombeBatlesdenParty per Chev. count [...]r Flore G. & Arg. 3 Talbots-heads Erazed countercharged.
35 Nich. Luke, Esq.ut prius 
36 Ioh. Dive, Esqut prius 
37 Wil. Gostwick, Es.WillingtōArg. a Bend G. cotized S. twixt 6 C [...]rnish chaughes proper on a chief Or 3 Mullets vert.
38 Ric. Conquest, Es.ut prius 
39 Tho. Cheney, Esq.Sundon 
40 Edr. Rateliffe, Kt.ElstowArg. a Bend engrailed S.
41 W [...]ll. Butler, Esqut prius 
42 Ioh. Crost, Kt.  
43 Ric Charnocks, Es.ut prins 
44 Geo. Francklyn,Malvern 
45 Ioh. Dive, Kt.ut prius 
1 Ioh. Dive, Kt.ut prius 
2 Ioh. Leigh, Esq.  
3 Edr. Sands, Kt.Eaton 
4 Fran. Anderson, E.EworthArg. a Cheveron twixt 3 Cross­Croslets S.
5 Tho. Snagge, Kt.Marson 
6 Edw Mord [...]nt, Es.OckleyA [...]a. a Chev. [...] 3 Estoyles S.
7 Tho. Ancell, Esq.BarfordG. on a Saltier Or, betw. 4 Bezants a Malcel of the first.
8 Fran Ventres, Kt.CamptonAzu. a lutie beewaot 2 Bends­wavy Arg.
9 Rob. Sandy, Esq.  
10 Wil. Beecher, Esq.Hooberry 
11 Ric. Sanders, Esq.MarsonParte per Ch. Ar. & S. 3 Elephants heads Erazed ceunterchanged.
12 Edw. Duncombeut prius 
13 Will. Plomer, Esq.HolmsVert a Ch. between 3 Lions-heads Erazed O [...] Billited G.
14 Rog. Burgoyne,*Sutton 
15 Oliv. Luke, Kr.ut prius* G a Chev. Or, between 3 Talbots on Chief embattled Arg. as many martlets S.
16 Edw. Conquest, K [...]ut prius 
17 Ge. Keynsham, Es.  
18 Fran. Stanton, Es.Birchmor. 
19 Will. Bryers, Esq.Woodbery 
20 Will. Hawkins, Es.Tilbrook 
21 Fran. Clerke, Kt.  
22 Math. Denton, Es.Barton 
1 Ioh. Wingate, esq.HarlingtōS. a Bend Erm. Cotized Or betw. 6 martlets Arg.
2 Edw. Gostwick, kt.ut prius 
3 Ioh. Moore, esq.  
4 Anth. Chester, ba. P [...]r pale, Ar. & S. a Chev. betw. 3 [...]ams-heads ervsed armed Or, within a horderingrailed round­ly, all counterchanged.
5 Mich. Grigg, esq.  
6 Will. Cater, esq.*Kempston 
7 Edm. Anderson,ut prius 
8 Ia. Beverley, esq.†Clapwell* Erm. an a Pile G. a Lion Pass. Gard. Or.
9 Oufl. Winch, esq.Everton 
10 Hum. Monoux, es.WoottonE [...]mine, a Rose Gules.
11 Rich. Gery, esq.Bushmede 
12 Hen. Chester, esq.ut prius 
13 Will. Boteler, esq.ut prius 
14 Will. Plomer, esq.ut prius 
15 Rich. Child, esq.PuddingtōG. a Chev. engrailed Erm. twixt 3 Doves Arg.
16 Ioh. Burgogne, es.ut prius 
17 Tho. Alflon, Kt. b.WodhillAzure, ten Stars Or.
20 Nich. Denton, esq.  
22 Math. Taylor, esq.Eaton 

The Farewell.

Being to take my farewell of this County, I am minded of the mistake (what Wri­ter is free from them?) in Mr. Stow, telling us ofStow in survey of London pag. 18 writing of the river Thames. tide-boats, till-boats and barges, which come from Bedford-shire down the Thames to London, which surely must row over many miles of drie-land in their passage thereunto. But, if there be a possibility of such a conveyance by art and industry to be effected, may his words prove true by way of pre­diction, seeing certainly such a conveniency must needs be advantagious to this County.


BUCKINGHAM-SHIRE it is a long narrow County, (the miles therein proportioned accordingly) stretching forty four miles from North to South, whilst the breadth is content with fourteen at the most. A fruitfull Country, especially in the vale of Alesbury, where one [lately]intire Pasture, called Beryfield (now part of the Inheritance of Sir Robert Lee, Baronet) in the Mannor of Quarendon, is let yearly for eight hundred pounds, the tenant not complaining of his Bargaine.

This County takes its name from Buckingham the chief town therein, as that from Beeches, (called in the Saxon tongue Buccen) growing plentifully thereabouts, as in o­ther places in this County, and therefore placed first amongst its

Naturall Commodities.


This was esteemed sacred amongst the Romans. Plin, lib. D.|cimo s [...]xto pag. [...]87. cap. 38. vers. 44. Manius Curi [...]s juravit se ex praeda nihil attigisse, praeter guttum faginum quo sacrificaret; Protested, that he touched nothing of the Prey besides a Beech-cup, wherewith he should sacrifice. It is also Medicinall, though we would wish none sore Lips or Eyes, to try the truth ofPlin. lib. Ni­g [...]s. quar. pag. 442. cap. 5. vers. 37. Plinys report, whe­ther Beech-leaves cure the one, or the ashes of Beech-mast heal the other. Our ordinary u [...]e thereof (besides making of many Utensils) is for building of Houses. One asked, when Beach would make the best Timber, meaning what season of the year was best to cut it down for that purpose: It was answered, that Beech would make the best Timber when no Oake was to be had; a time I assure you which daily approcheth in our Land.

Hence it was, that such care was taken in the reign of KingSta [...]. 35. of Hen. the eight cap. 17. Henry the eighth, (when woods were in a far better condition then now adays,) for the preserving of the Standells of Beech. As also it was provided in theStat. Primo Eliza. cap. 15. first of Queen Elizabeth, that no Timber-trees of Oak, Beech and Ash, (where Beech deservedly is made second,) being one foot square at the Stub, and growing within fourteen miles of the Sea, or any Navigable River, should be converted to coal or fewell, as the debasing of that, which if Nature did not first intend, Necessity must employ for better service.


The best and biggest bodied in England are the Vale of Ailsbury in this County, where it is nothing to give ten pound or more for a Breed-ram. So that, should a For­rainer hear of the price thereof, he would guess that Ram rather to be some Roman Engine of battery, than the creature commonly so called.

I know not, whether his observation, with the reason thereof, be worth the insert­ing, who first took notice, that our cattle for food, are English, when feeding in the field, but French when fed on in a family.

English1. Sheep.2. Ox.3. Calfe.4. Hog.5. Pigg.
French1. Mutton.2. Beef,3. Veal.4. Bacon.5. Pork.

Whereof he assigned this reason, that after the Norman-conquest the French so tyran­nized over the English-tenants, that they forced them to keep and feed their cattle, but the Monsieurs eat all their good meat, after it was slaughtered.

Forrainers much admire at our English sheep, because they doe not (as those beyond the seas) follow their shephards like to a pack of dogs, but wander wide abroad; and the Popish priests tell their simple flocks, that this disobedience of our sheep happen­eth unto us,Sam. [...] [...] pag. 84. because (Risum teneatis amici?) we have left the great Shephard the Pope, whereas they did so long before our separation from Rome, because freed from the fear of wolves (infesting them in forraine parts) they feed safely in the fields, needing nei­ther guide to direct, nor guard to defend them.

Tame Pheasants.

They first took their name from Phasis a River in Asia, and long their flight thence into England: A Fowl fair in the Feathers, a Cock especially, (Males by nature (though Female by art) the finest of both Sexes) and dainty in the flesh. Aboundance of these are kept about Wicombe, the care being more then the cost, seeing their generall repast is on Pismires. Whether these tame be as good as wild-pheasants, I leave to Pallate-men to decide.

The Manufactures.

It is true of this County, that it liveth more by its Lands then by its Hands. Such the fruitfulness, venting the native Commodities thereof at great rates, (thank the vicinity of London, the best Chapman) that no handy-crafts of note, (save what com­mon to other countries) are used therein. Except any will instance in Bonelace, much thereof being made about Owldney in this County, though more I believe in Devon­shire, where we shall meet more properly therewith.


Mich. Dra [...] ­ton in his P ly olbion. Buckingham-shire Bread and Beef.]

The former is as fine, the latter as fat in this as in any other County. If therefore the inhabitants thereof come with hearty grace and hungry appetites, no doubt both strength and health will follow on their repast.

Here if you beat a Bush it's odds youl'd start a Idem ibidem. Thief.]

No doubt there was just occasion for this Proverb at the Originall thereof, which then contained Satyricall truth, proportioned to the place before it was Reformed, where­of thus our Cam. Brit. in Buckinghamsh. great Antiquary.

It was altogether unpassable in times past by reason of Trees, untill that Leofstane Abbot of St. Albans did cut them down, because they yeilded a place of refuge for thieves.

But this Proverb is now Antiquated, as to the truth thereof, Buckingham-shire af­fording as many maiden Assizes as any County of equall populousness. Yea, hear how she pleadeth for her self, that such High-way-men were never her Natives, but fled thither for their Shelter out of Neighbouring Counties.


St. EDBURG daughter unto Redwald King of the East-Angles embraced a Mo­nasticall life at Alesbury in this Coun [...]y, where her Body was deposited, and removed afterwards to Edburgton, (now Edburton) in Suffolk her Native Country; It seems her person would make one County proud, which made two happy. Alesbury observing her Memory on the day of———whilst Edburton was renowned for her Miracles. By the way, it seems wonderfull that in Scripture we onely meet with one Posthume­Miracle, viz. the Grave-f [...]llow of Elisha, raised with the touch of his Bones; whilst most of Popish miracles are [reported] born after the Saints death, meerly to mold mens minds to the Adoration of their Reliques.

St. RUMALD was the same with St. Rumbald, (commonly called by Country people St. Grumbald,) and St. Rumwald as others spell him; but distinct from ano­ther St. Rumwald of Irish ext [...]action, a Bishop and Martyr, whose Passion is Celebrated at M [...]chlyn in Braband. This Criticisme, Reader, I request thee to take on my credit for thy own ease, and not to buy the truth of so difficult a tris [...]e with the trouble I paid for it.

Entring now on the Legend of his life, I writ neither what I believe, nor what I expect should be believed, but what I find written by others. Some make him Son of a British The English Martyrology on the 28. of August. King, which is sufficiently confuted by his own Saxon name. More pro­bable their tale who relate him Son to a King of Northumberland, by a Christian daughter of Penda King of Mercia. Being born at Cam▪ Brit. in Buckinghamsh. Kings Sutton in this County, as soon as he came out of his Mothers womb, he cryed three times, I am a Christian. [Page 129] Then making a plain Consession of his faith, He desired to be baptized, chose his God­fathers and his own name Rumwald.

He also by his fingers [...] Legend [...] Anglica in the life of Saint Rumwald. directed the standers by to fetch him a great hollow-stone for a font, which sundry of his fathers servants essayed in vain as much above their strength: Till the two Priests (his [...] designed Godfathers) did goe and fetch it easily at his appointment. Being Baptized, He for three days discoursed of all the Common places of Popery, and having confirmed their truth, he bequeathed his body to remain at Sutton one year, at Brackly two, and at Buckingham ever after. This done he expired.

Reader, I partly guess by my own temper how thine is affected with the reading hereof, whose soul is much divided betwixt severall actions at once.

  • 1. To frown at the impudency of the first inventors of such improbable untruths.
  • 2. To smile at the simplicity of the believers of such improbable untruths.
  • 3. To sigh at that well-intended devotion abused with such improbable untruths.
  • 4. To thank God that we live in times of better and brighter knowledge.

Now although St. Rumwald was born in this County, he was most honoured at Box­ley in Kent, and thereon a story depends.

There was in the Church of Boxley a short Statue of St. Rumwald (as of a boy-saint) smal, hollow, and light, so that a child of seven years of age might easily lift it. The moving hereof was made the Criterion of womens chastity. Such who paid the Priest well might easily remove it, whilst others might tugg at it to no purpose. For this was the contrivance of the cheat, that it was fastned with a Pin [...] i [...] his Perambu­lation of Kent pag. 187. of wood by an invisible stander behind. Now when such offered to take it who had been bountifull to the▪ Priest before, they bare it away with ease, which was impossible for their hands to remove who had been Close-fisted in their Confessions. Thus saith my Id [...]m ibidem: Author it moved more laughter then Devotion, and many chast virgins and wives went away with blushing faces, leaving (without cause) the suspicion of their wantonness in the eyes of the Beholders; whilst others came off with more credit, (because with more coyn,) though with less cha­stity. The certain time of his life is unknown, but may be guessed about the year 680.


JOHN SCRIVENER was Martyred at Amersham Anno Dom. 1521. on whom an ex­traordinary piece of cruelty was used, his own Fox Acts and Mon pag. 838▪ children being forced to set the first fire upon him, for which the law Deut. 13. 6. was most erroneously pretended, as will appear by the perusing thereof,

If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy▪ son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosome, or thy friend which is as thy own soul entice thee secretly, saying, let us go and serve other gods.——Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him.——But thou shalt surely kill him, thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death.

See we here how in the case of Idolatry one is to spare none related unto them, either as Equalls or Inferiors. But this Law injoines not children to accuse or execute their own parents, as Scrivener his children were compelled to do. A barbarous cruelty, especially seeing the Civil law among the heathen Romans did provide, that filius non torquetur in caput parentis, A son shall not be examined on the rack to accuse his father, in such cases wherein his life is concerned. Others besides Scrivener were martyred, and more Confessors [...] in this small County, See Fox his Acts and Mon. in that ye [...]r. Anno 1521. then in all England elsewhere for twenty years together.

P [...]elates.

RICHARD de WENDOVER, (a place well known in this Shire,) was Rector of Bromley in Kent, where the Bishop of Rochester hath a Palace▪ and that See being va­cant, he was lawfully chosen the Bishop thereof. But Edmond Arch-bishop of Canter­bury (afterwards Sainted) refused to give him consecration, because he was rude Godwin in the Bishops of Ro [...]. and unlearned. Hereupon Wendover appealed to the Pope, whom he found his better friend, because Edmond (a bitter inveigher against Papal extorsions) was a Foe unto him, and so was consecrated. Now none will gr [...]dge him his Place amongst our Worthies, seeing what he lack'd in learning he had in holiness, and such his signal Idem ibidem. sanctity, that after his [Page 128] death he was by speciall Mandate of King Henry the third buried in the Church of West­minster (as another Jehojadah) for his publick2 Chr. 2416. goodness, Anno 1250.

JOHN BUCKINGHAM (for so his Name is truly written) aliàs Bokingham and Bukingham, took his Name and Nativity no doubt from Buckingham in this County, a­la-mode of that Age. He was bred at the University of Oxford, and although since by some causelesly slandered for want of Learning, was a great Disputant, and well studied Scholar, as hisJ. Bile & J. Pits de script. B [...]t. works do declare. He was afterwards preferred Bishop of Lincoln, where several contests happened betwixt him and Pope Boniface the ninth, who in revenge ex plenitudine Potestatis removed him from Lincoln to Litchfield, that is, from the Hall in­to the Kitchin, a Bishoprick of less credit and profit. Buckingham grew sullen hereat, and would rather shut himself out, then play at a less game, and so quitting Episcopacy 1397. lived and died a private Monck at Canterbury, where he lies buried the lower­most in the body of Christ-Church, under a very fair Grave-stone, as my [...]ill. Sommers in his Anti­quities of Cant. pag. 181. industrious friend hath well retrived his memory, though the brasse on his Monument be worn or rather torn away. He indented with the Prior and Covent at Canterbury, to build him a Chantry-Chappel near his Sepulcher, which I find not performed.

JOHN YOUNG was born atNew▪ col. Regi. Anno 1482. Newton-longvile in this County, and bred in New­colledge in Oxford, on the same token that there are no fewer then ten Youngs in their Register, reckoned Fellows of that Foundation; and one said, that Seeing the Colledge was always New, well may many Fellows be Young therein. This John Young became Warden thereof, and afterwards was made Bishop of the fair City of Callipoli in Greece. An excellent place to fat a (neither Camel nor Lion but) Camelion in, and seeing the great Turk was his Tenant, little the rent he paid to this his Landlord. However this titular Bishoprick gave him Precedency, a Vote in General Councils, and Power of Ordina­tion. But some English Earth doth not well with such Grecian Aire, and for his better support he was made Master of the Rowles Jan. 12. in the first of KingJ. Philpot in his Catalogue of the Masters of the Rowles. Henry the eighth, and either died or resigned his Office some eight years after. As I remember he lieth buried with a brass Inscription in New-colledge Chappel.

JOHN HOLYMAN was born atNew-colledge Register Anno Dom. 1512. Codington in this County, bred in New-colledge in Oxford, and afterwards became a Benedictine in Reading, untill that Monastery was dissol­ved. Queen Mary in the first of her reign preferred him Bishop of Bristoll, whilst his predecessor Paul Bush (deprived for being married) was yet alive. He lived peaceably, not embrewing his hands in Protestants bloud, and died seasonably for himself, a little before the death of Queen Mary, 1558.

Since the Reformation.

JOHN HARLEY was born in the Parish of Newport-Paganel in this County, as a learnedMr. Martin beneficed neer Northampton. Antiquary (a native of the same place) hath informed me, where some of his kindred were lately (if not still) in being. He was bred first Fellow, then School­Master in Magdalen-colledge in Oxford, in the dangerous days of King Henry the eighth, he was an hearty but concealed Protestant.

In the first week of the reign of King Edward the sixth, whilst most mens minds stood at a gaze (it being dead-water with them, which way the tide would turn,) Master Harley in the Parish-Church of Saint Peters in Oxford and a solemn Lent-Sermon, pub­liquely preached Antipapal doctrine, and powerfully press'd justification by faith alone, whereupon the over-officiousLaurence Humphred in the latine life of Bishop Je­we [...]l. Vice-Chancellor hurried him up to London for an He­retick, there to answer for his contempt.

But the case was soon altered, Harley was acquitted, commended, preferred to be Tutor to the sons of John Earl of Warwick, afterwards Duke of Northumberland. He was thence made Bishop of Hereford.

It is said ofGen. 15. 15. Abraham, he was buried in a good old age. It cannot be said of our Harley, he died in an old age (finding him not above fifty,) though expiring in a good age in two respects; in relation to the piety of his life past, and in reference to the fu­ture troubles, which immediately followed. Surely had he survived a little longer, he had lost his life, as he did his Bishoprick for beingBp. Godwin in his [...]. of the Bishops of Hereford. married, in the first of Q. Mary.

[Page 131]Doctor LAURENCE HUMPHRED, Harley his Scholar in Magdalen-colledge hath consecrated this Distick to the memory of his Master, though the Muses in my mind looked very solemnly, without the least smile at the making thereof,

Flo [...] domui Harlaeus, socius ludique Magister,
Celsus-deinde throno, celsior inde polo.

He died Anno Domini 1554. shifting from place to place, the cause why there is no certain intelligence where he was interred.

ROBERT ALDRICH, although he lived but in the twilight of Religion, he is justly to be placed not on the Dark but Light side of Reformation. For though his actions were but weak, his affections were sincere therein. Mr. Hatchers in his Manu­script Cat. of the Fellows of Kings-colledge. Born he was at Burnham in this County, bred in Kings-colledge in Cambridge, ▪Proctor of that University anno 1525. About which time many letters passed betwixt him and his familiar friend Erasmus, who stileth him Blandae eloquentiae juvenem. He was afterward School-ma­ster, then Fellow and Provoster of Eaton, and at last made Bishop of Carlile, anno 1537. by King Henry the eighth. He was never a through paced Papist, (much lesse a perse­cutor of Protestants,) though a complyer with some superstitions. He died at Horn­castle in Lincoln shire, (a house belonging to his See) in the reign of QueenGodwin in his Catal. of [...]. Mary, 1555.

WILLIAM ALLEY was born atMr. Hatcher ut prius. Wi [...]kham in this County, bred first at Eaton, then in Kings-colledge, where he was admitted Anno Domini 1528. Hence he went away being Batchelour of Arts, and afterwards became Lecturer in Saint Pauls, I say Lecturer, which name though since it hath sounded ill in some jealous ears as infected with faction, was an ancient office founded in some Cathedralls to read Divinity there, and this Master Alleys learned lectures (according to that age) are Extant in Print. He was Consecrated Bishop of Exeter, July 14. 1560. and dying 1576. lyeth buried un­der a fair Marble in his own Cathedrall.

RICHARD COX was born atIdem ibidem. Whaddon in this County, and bred for some years in Kings-colledge in Cambridge; Even when Cardinal Woolsy was erecting Christs­church in Oxford. This great Prelate, desiring that this his Colledge should be as fair within as without, and have learning answerable to the building thereof, employed his Emisaries, to remove thither the most hopefull Plants of Cambridge, and this Richard Cox amongst the rest. He became afterwards School-master of Eaton, which was happy with many florishing wits under his endeavours, and Haddon amongst the rest whom he loved with filiall affection, nor will it be amisse to insert the Poeticall Passe betwixt them.

Walter Haddon to Doctor COX his School-master.
Vix caput attollens è lecto scribere carmen
Qui velit, is voluit, scribere plura, Vale.
Doctor COX to Walter Haddon his Scholar.
Te magis optarem salvum sine [...]armine Fili
Quam sine te salvo, carmina multa, Vale.

Hence he was sent for to be Instructor to Prince Edward, which with good conscience, to his great credit he discharged. Here, Reader, forgive me in hazarding thy cen­sure, in making and translating a Distick upon them,

Praeceptor doctus, docilis magis an puer ille?
Ille puer docilis, Praeceptor tu qu [...]que doctus.
Master more able, child of more docility?
Docil the child, Master of great ability.

At last he was prefered Bishop of Ely 1559. commendably continuing therein, what­ever causless malice hath reported to the contrary, twenty one years, and dying Anno Domini, 1580.

THOMAS BICKLEY was born atGodwin in Catal. of [...]. of Chichester. Stow in this County, bred first Chorister, then Scholar, then Fellow in Magdalen-colledge in Oxford. In the first of Edward the sixth his detestation of Superstition may rather be commended, then his discretion in ex­pressing it, when (before the publique abolishing of Popery) at Evening-prayer he brake the consecrated Host with his hands, andDr. Humfred in his Latine life of Bishop Jewel pag. 73. stamped it under his feet, in the Col­ledge-chappel. Afterwards he fled over into France, living an exile at Paris & Orleans all the reign of Queen Mary. Returning into Eugland, he became Chaplain to Arch-bishop Parker, who preferred him Warden of Merton-colledge, wherein he continued twenty years. When pass'd the age of a man (eighty years old) he began the life of a Bishop, [Page 132] and was rather contented, then willing to accept the Bishoprick of Chichester * freely [...] [...] [...] [...] [...], non nim [...] [...] [...] pit. Godwin ut p [...]s. offered unto him. Yet lived he eleven years therein, and died ninety years of age, April 30 1596. and had a most sumptuous funerall, all the Gentry of the Vicinage doing their homage to the Crown of his old age, which was foun'd in the way of truth. He led a single life, left an hundred pound to Merton-colledge, and other moneys to pious uses.

JOHN KING was born at Warnhall nigh Tame in this County, Robert King the last Abbot of Osney and first Bishop of Oxford being his great Uncle, he was first Deane of Christ-church, then Bishop of London, being ful fraught with all Episcopal qualities, so that he who endeavoureth to give a perfect account thereof, will rather discover his own defects, then describe this Prelates perfections. He died Anno Dom. 1618. being bu­ried in the Quire of Saint Pauls with the plain Epitaph of Resurgam, and I cannot con­ceal this elegant Elegie made upon him.

Sad Relique of a blessed soul, whose trust
We sealed up in this Religious dust.
O do not thy low Exequies suspect,
As the cheap Arguments of our Neglect.
'Twas a commanded duty that thy Grave
As little pride as thou thy self should have.
Therefore thy covering is an humble stone,
And, but a word,
for thy inscription;
When those that in the same earth neighbour thee,
Have [...]ach his Chronicle & Pedigree.
They have their waving Pennons and their flaggs,
Of Matches and Alliance formal Braggs.
Whenthou (although from ancestors thou came,
Old as the Heptarchy, great as thy name,)
Sleepst there inshrin'd in thy admired parts,
And hast no Heraldry but thy deserts.
Yet let not them their prouder Marbles boast,
For they rest with less Honor, though more cost.
Go search the world, & with your Mattokwound
The groaning bosom of the patient ground.
Digg from the hidden veins of her dark womb
All that is rare and precious for a tomb:
Yet when much treasure, & more time is spent,
You must grant his the Nobler Monument,
Whose faith standsore him for a Hearse, & hath
The Resurrection for his Epitaph.

See more of the character of this most worthy Prelate, in our Ecclesiasticall Hi­story anno 1620. wherein he died.

RICHARD MONTAGUE was born at So am I in­formed by his Son-in-law Doctor David S [...]okes. Dorney (where his Father was Vicar of the Parish) within 3. miles of Eaton, and so (though not within the reach) within the sight of that Staple Place for Grammar learning, wherein he was bred; Thence was he chosen successively Fellow of Kings Colledge in Cambridge, Fellow of Eaton, Parson of Stanford Rivers in Essex, Canon of Windsor, Parson of Petworth, elected Bishop of Chichester, and at last of Norwich. He spent very much in repairing his Parsonage-house at Petworth, as also on his Episcopal house at Allingbourn near Chichester.

He was most exact in the Latin and Greek; and in the Vindication of Tithes wrestled with the grand Antiquary of England, and gave him a fair flat fall in the point of a Greek Criticisme, taxing him justly for mistaking a God (amongst the Aegyptians) more then there was, by making a Man amongst the Grammarians fewer then they should be.

He hath many learned works extant against the Papists, some in English, some in Latin; and one called, his Appello Caesarem, which (without his in­tent and against his will) gave occasion of much trouble in the Land. He began an Ecclesiasticall History, and set forth his Apparatus, and alas! it was but an Apparatus; though, through no Default of his, but defect of his Health; sicknesse, troublesome times, and then death surprizing him: Had it been finished, we had had Church Annalls to put into the Ballance with those of Baronius; and which would have swayed with them for Learning, and weighed them down for Truth. He dyed Anno Dom: 1641.

HENRY KING D. D. son to John King (lately mentioned) Bishop of London and his wife (of the ancient family of the Conquests) was born in this County, in the [...]me town, house, and chamber with his father; a locall Coincidence which in all considerable particulars cannot be parallel'd.

[Page 133]We know the Scripture-Proverb used in Exprobration, Ezek. 16. 44 As is the mother so is the daughter, both wicked, both wofull. But here it may be said by way of thankfullness to God, and honour to the persons, As was the father so is the son, both pious, both prosperous, till the calamity of the times involved the later.

Episcopacy Anno 1641. was beheld by many in a deep consumption, which many hoped would prove mortal. To cure this it was conceived the most probable cordiall, to prefer persons into that Order, not only unblameable for their life, and eminent for their learning, but also generally beloved by all disingaged people; and amongst these King Charles advanced this our Doctor, Bishop of Chichester.

But all would not do, their Innocency was so far from stopping the mouth of malice, that malice almost had swallowed them down her throat. Since God hath rewarded his Patience, giving him to live to see the Restitution of his Order.

David saith, that the goodPsal. 1. Tree [Man] shall bring forth his fruit in due season; so our Doctor varied his fruits according to the diversity of his age. Being brought up in Christ­church in Oxford, he delighted in the studies of Musi [...]k and Poetry, more elder he applyed himself to Oratory and Philosophy, and in his reduced age fixed on Divinity, which his Printed Sermons on the Lords-prayer, and others which he preached, remaining fresh in the minds of his Auditors will report him to all posterity. He is still living Anno Domini 1660.

Writers on the Law.

Sir GEORGE CROOK Knight, son of Sir John Crook and Elizabeth Unton his wife, was born at In his life prefixed to his Reports. Chilton in this County, in the second year of the reign of Queen Eliza­beth, bred first in Oxford, then a double Reader in the Inner Temple, Serjeant at Law, and the Kings Serjeant, Justice first of the Common-bench 22. Jacobi, and then of the Upper-bench 4. Caroli.

His ability in his profession is sufficiently attested by his own Printed Reports. Eight eminent Judges of the Law out of their knowledge of his great wisdome, learning and integrity, approving and allowing them to be published for the Common benefit.

He was against the Illegality of Ship-money, both publickly in Westminster-hall, and privately in his judgment demanded by the King, though concluded to subscribe (ac­cording to the Course of the Court) by plurality of voices, The Country-mans wit (levelled to his brain) will not for many years be forgotten. That Ship-money may be gotten by H [...]ok, but not by Crook, though since they have paid taxes (loins to the little fin­ger, and Scorpions to the Rod of Ship-money,) but whether by Hook or Crook, let others inquire.

His piety in his equall and even walkings in the way of God through the several turn­ings and occasions of his Life, is evidenced by his Charity to man, founding a Chappel at Beachley in Buckingham-shire, two miles at least distanced from the Mother-Church, and an Hospitall in the same Parish with a liberall Revenue.

Considering his declining and decaying age, and desiring to examine his Life, and pre­pare an Account to the Supreme Judge, he petitioned King Charles for a Writ of Ease, which though in some sort denied, (what wise Mr. would willingly part with a good Servant?) was in effect granted unto him. He dyed at Waterstock in Oxford shire, in the eighty second year of his age, Anno Dom. 1641.

EDWARD BULTSTRODE Esq. born in this County, bred in the studies of our mu­nicipall Laws in the Inner Temple, and his Highness his Justice in North-wales, hath written a book of divers Resolutions and Judgments, with the reasons and causes there­of, given in the Court of Kings-bench in the reigns of King James and King Charles; and is lately deceased.


Sir WILLIAM WINDSOR Knight. I am confident herein is no mislocation be­holding him an Ancestor to the right honourable Thomas Windsor Hickman Lord [Page 134] Windsor, and fixed at Bradenham. He was deputed by King Edward the third in the fourty seventh year of his reign Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, which Country was then in a sad Condition. For the King was so intent on the Conquest of France (as a Land nearer, fairer, and due to him by descent,) that he neglected the effectuall reducti­on of Ireland.

This encouraged the Irish Grandees (their O's and Mac's) to Rant and Tyrant it in their respective seignieuries, whilst such English who were planted there, had nothing Native (save their Surnames) left; degenerating by degrees to be Irish in their Ha­bits, Manners and Language. Yea, as the wild Irish are observed to love their Nurses or Fosters, above their natural Mothers, so these barbarizing English were more en­deared to the interest of Ireland which fed, then of England which bare and bred them.

To prevent more mischief this worthy Knight was sent over, of whose valour and fidelity the King had great experience. He contracted with the King to defray the whole charge of that Kingdome, (as appeareth by the instrument in the 47. Edw. 3. claus. pers. 2▪ M. 24. & 26. Tower) for eleven thousand two hundred thirteen pounds, six shillings and eight pence per annum.

Now Sir William undertook not the Conquest, but Custody of the Land in a defen sive war. He promised not with a daring Mountebank to Cure, but with a discreet Phy­sician to ease this Irish Gout.

Indeed I meet with a passage in The same also in effect i [...] found in [...] in Rich. [...]he second. Froissard relating how Sir William should report of himself, that he was so far from subduing the Irish, he could never have access to un­derstand and know their Countries, albeit he had spent more time in the service of Ireland, then any Englishman then living. Which to me seems no wonder, the Irish vermin shrowding themselves under the Scabs of their Bogs, and Hair of their Woods. How­ever he may truly be said to have left that land much improved, because no whit more impaired during those dangerous distractions, and safely resigned his office (as I take it) in the first of K. Richard the second.

ARTHUR GRAY Baron of Wilton is justly reckoned amongst the Natives of this Shire, whose father had his Habitation (not at Wilton a decayed Castle in Hereford-shire whence he took his Title, but) at Waddon a fair house of his Family not far from Buck­ingham.

He succeeded to a small Estate much diminished on this sad occasion. His father William Lord Gray being taken Prisoner in France, after long ineffectuall soliciting to be (because captivated in the publick service) redeemed on the publick charge, at last was forced to ransom himself with the sale of the best part of his Patrimony.

Our Arthur endeavoured to advance his estate by his valour being entered in Feats of war, under his Martial father at the siege of Lieth, 1560. where he was Camdens Eliz. anno notato. shot in the shoulder, which inspirited him with a constant antipathy against the Scotch. He was afterwards sent over Lord Deputy into Ireland anno 1580. where before he had re­ceived the Sword or any Emblemes of Command ut Camdens Eliz. anno 1580: acrioribus initiis terrorem incu­teret, to fright his foes with his fierce beginning, he unfortunately fought the rebels at Glan­dilough to the great loss of English blood. This made many commend his Courage above his Conduct, till he recovered his credit, and finally suppressed the rebellion of Desmund.

Returning into England, the Queen chiefly relied on his counsel for ordering our Land-forces against the Spaniards in 88. and fortifying places of advantage. The men­tion of that year (critical in Church differences about discipline at home, as well as with foreign foes abroad) mindeth me that this Lord was but a Back-friend to Bishops, & in all divisions of Votes in Parliament or Council-table sided with the Anti-prelatical party.

When Secretary Davison, that State-Pageant, (raised up on purpose to be put down,) was censured in the Star-chamber about the business of the Queen of Scots, this Lord Gray onely defended him, as doing nothing therein but what became an able and honest Minister of State. An Camdens Eliz. anno 1587. ear-witness saith, Haec fuse oratoriè & animosè Greium disseren­tem audivimus. So that besides bluntness (the common and becoming eloquence of Soul­diers) he had a real Rhetorick, and could very emphatically express himself. Indeed this warlike Lord would not wear two heads under one Helmet, and may be said always to have born his Beaver open, not dissembling in the least degree, but owning his own judg­ment at all times what he was. He deceased anno Dom. 1593.


ROGER de WENDOVER was born at that Market-town in this County, bred a Benedictine in St. Albans, where he became the Kings Historian.

Know, Reader, that our English Kings had always a Monck, generally of St. Albans (as near London, the Staple of news and books) to write the remarkables of their reigns. One addeth (I am sorry he is a Ponticus Vi­ru [...]ius cited by J. B [...]le de script. Brit. Cent▪ 4. num. 94. forrainer, and therefore of less credit at such distance,) that their ▪Chronicles were lock'd up in the Kings Library, so that neither in that Kings, nor his Sons life they were ever opened. If so, they had a great encourage­ment to be impartiall, not fearing a blow on their teeth, though coming near to the heels of truth, which in some sort were tied up from doing them any hurt.

This Roger began his Chronicle at the Conquest, and continued it to the year 1235. being the 19. year of King Henry the third. Indeed Mathew Paris doth quarter too heavily on the pains of Wendover, who onely continuing his Chronicle for some years, and inserting some small See Dr. Watts his Prefatory notes to Math: Paris. alterations, is intituled to the whole work. As a few drops of blood, because of the deep hiew thereof, discoloureth a whole bason of water into red­nesse; so the few and short Interpolations of Paris, as the more noted Author, give a denomination to the whole History, though a fabrick built three stories high where­of our Roger laid the foundation, finished the ground-room and second loft, to which by Mr. Paris was added the garret, as since the roof by W. Rishanger. This Wendover died about the year of our Lord 1236.

JOHN AMERSHAM was born in that small Corporation in this County, bred a Monck in St. Albans, where he contracted not onely Intimacy, but in some sort Identity of Affection, with John Wheathamsted Abbot thereof; insomuch that what was said of two other friends was true of them, (Ethicks making good the Grammar thereof) Duo Amici Vixit in eodem Conventu.

Now there was a great Faction in that Convent against their Abbot, which to me seemeth no wonder; for the generality of Moncks being lewd, lazy and unlearned, they bare an Antipathy to their Abbot, who was pious, painfull, and a profound Schollar. Nor did they onely rail on his Person whilst living, but also revile his Memory when dead. Our Amersham, surviving his dear friend, wrote a book (besides other of his works) intituled the Bale de script. Brit. & Pits. Aetat. 14. num▪ 843. Shield of Wheathamsted, therein defending him from the undeserved Darts of his Enemies Obloquy. He flourished Anno Dom. 1450.

MATHEW STOKES was born in the Hatchets M. S. 8. of the Fel­lows of Kings­Colledge. Town, and bred in the School of Eaton, untill he was admitted in Kings-colledge in Cambridge, Anno Domini 1531. He afterwards became Fellow of that house, and at last Esquire Bedle, and Register of the University.

A Register indeed both by his place and painfull performance therein; for he (as the Poets fain of Janus with two faces) saw two worlds, that before and after the Re­formation. In which juncture of time so great the confusion and embezeling of Records, that had not Master Stokes been the more carefull, I believe, that though Cambridge would not be so Oblivious as Massala Corvinus who forgot his own name, yet would she have forgotten the names of all her Ancient Officers.

To secure whose succession to Posterity, Mr. Stokes with great industry and fide­lity collected a Catalogue of the Chancellours, Vice-Chancellours and Proctors. He was a Zealous Papist (even unto persecution of others) which I note not to disgrace his Me­mory, but defend my self, for placing him before the Reformation, though he lived many years in the reign of Q. Elizabeth.

Since the Reformation.

WALTER HADDON was born of a Knightly Family in this B [...]le de script. Brit. Ceat. nono. Num. 87. County, bred at Eaton, afterwards Fellow in Kings-colledge, where he proceeded Doctor of Law, and was the Kings Professor in that Faculty, chosen Vice-chancellour of Cambridge 1550. soon after he was made President of Magdalen-colledge in Oxford, which place he waved in the reign of Queen Mary, and sheltered himself in obscurity. Queen Elizabeth made him one of the Masters of her Requests, and employed him in several Embassies beyond the Seas. Her Majesty being demanded whether She preferred him or Buchanan for learning, wittily and warily returned,

Buchananum omnibus antepono, Haddonum nemini postpono.

Indeed he was a most Eloquent man, and a pure Ciceronian in his stile, as appeareth by his writings, and especially in his book against Osorius. The rest may be learned out of his Epitaph.

S. Memoriae.

GUALTERO HADDONO Equestri loco nato juris consulto, Oratori, Poet [...] celeberrimo, Graecae Latinaeque Eloquentiae sui temporis facile principi, sapientia & sanctitate vi­tae, in id evecto, ut Reginae Elizabethae à supplicum libellis magister esset, destinare­turque majoribus nisi facto immaturius cessisset: Interim in omni gradus viro longe eminentissimo, conjugi sui optimo meritissimoque Anna Suttona, uxor ejus secunda flens maerens desiderii sui signum posuit. Obiit Anno Salut. hum. 1572. Aeta­tis 56.

This his fair Monument is extant in the wall at the upper end of the Chancell of Christs-church in London. Where so many ancient Inscriptions have been barbarously defaced.

LAURENCE HUMPHRED was born in this Humfredus Patrīa Buchin­gam s. Baleus de Script. Brit. Cent. 9. num. 93. County, bred in Magdalen-colledge in Oxford, a great and generall Scholar, able Linguist, deep Divine, pious to God, hum­ble in himself, charitable to others. In the reign of Queen Mary he fled into Germany, and there was Fellow-Commoner with Mr. Jewell, (whose life he wrote at large in La­tine) in all his sufferings. Here he translated Origen de Recta Fide, and Philo de [...] tate out of Greek.

Returning into England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, he was made [...] of Magdalen-colledge in Oxford, and Dean of Winchester. Higher preferment he [...] ver attained, because never desired it, though a learned Camdens Elizabeth in Anno 1589. Author seems to put it on another account, fortasse eo quod de adiaphoris non juxta cum Ecclesia Anglicana senserit. I deny not but he might scruple some ceremonies, but sure I am he was much molest­ed in his Colledge with a party of fierce (not to so furious) Nonconformists, from whom he much dissented in judgment. He died Anno Dom. 1589.

Here I must confess a mistake in my Ecclesiastical History (misguided therein with many others by general tradition) when I reported the gold lately found and shared amongst the President and Fellows of Magdalen-colledge in Oxford, to have been the gift of this Doctor Humphred, which since appeareth a legacy left by William Wain­fleet their Founder. Would I had been mistaken in the Matter as well as in the Person, that so unworthy an act had never been performed. But what said Cen. 43. 13. Jacob to his sons? Carry back the money again, peradventure it was an oversight. Seasonable restitution will make reparation.

ROGER GOAD was born at Mr. Hatcher in his M. S. Catalog. of the Fellows of Kings-col. Houton in this County, and was admitted Scholar in Kings-colledge in Cambridge 1555. Leaving the Colledge he became a School-master at Guilford in Surrey. But pity it is that a great candle should be burning in the Kitchin, whilst light is lacking in the Hall, and his publique parts pent in so private a profession. He was made not to guide boys, but govern men. Hence by an unexpected election he was surprised into the Provostship of Kings-colledge, wherein he remained fourty years. He was thrice Vice-chancellonr of Cambridge; a grave, sage and learned man. He had many contests with the young Frie in this Colledge, chiefly because he loved their good better then they themselves. Very little there is of his in print, save what he did in Conjunction with other Doctors of the University. By his Testament he gave the Rectory of Milton to the Colledge, and dying on Saint Marks day 1610. lieth bu­ried in a Vestery on the North-side of the Chappel.

JOHN GREGORY was born November 10. 1607. at Amersham in this County, of honest though mean parents, yet rich enough to derive unto him the hereditary in­firmity of the gout, which afflicted him the last twenty years of his life. He was bred in Christ-church in Oxford, where he so applied his book, that he studied [...] his life [...] to his boo [...]. sixteen hours of the four and twenty for many years together. He attained to be an exquisite Lin­guist and general Scholar, his modesty setting the greater lustre on his learning. His notes on Dr. Redleys book of Civil-law gave the first testimony of his pregnancy to [Page 133] the world, and never did text and comment better meet together.

He was first Chaplain of Christ-church, and thence preferred by Bishop Duppa, Pre­pendary of Chichester and Sarum, and indeed no Church-preferment compatible with his age was above his deserts. He died at Kidlington in Oxford-shire 1646. and was buried at Christ-church in Oxford. I find a smart Epitaph made by a friend on his me­mory, and it was in my mind as well valiantly (consider the times) as truly indited.

Ne premas Cineres hosce, Viator,
Nescis quot sub hoc jaeent Lapillo;
Graeculus, Hebraeus, Syrus,
Et qui te quovis vincet Idiomate.
At nè molestus sis
Ausculta, & causam auribus tuis imbibe:
Templo exclusus
Et avita Religione
Jam senescente, (ne dicam sublatâ)
Mutavit Chorum, altiorem ut capesceret.
Vade nunc, si libet, & imitare.
R. W.

His Opera Posthuma are faithfully set forth, by his good friend John Gurgain, and deser­vedly dedicated to Edward Bish Esquire, one so able that he could, charitable that he would, and valiant that he durst relieve Master Gregory in his greatest distress.

SAMUEL COLLINS, son to Baldwin Collins (born in Coventry, a pious and painfull preacher, prodigiously bountifull to the poor, whom Queen Elizabeth constantly cal­led Father Collins) was born and bred Hence he stileth himself in his books Aetonensis. at Eaton, so that he breathed learned aire from [...] of his nativity. Hence coming to Kings-colledge in Cambridge, he was suc­ces [...]ively chosen Fellow, Provost, and Regius Professor. One of an admirable wit and [...], the most fluent Latinist of our age: so that as Caligula is said to have sent [...] souldiers vainly to fight against the tide, with the same success have any encountred the torrent of his tongue in Disputation. He constantly read his Lectures twice a week, for above fourty years, giving notice of the time to his Auditours in a ticket on the School-dores, wherein never any two alike; without some considerable diffe­rence in the critical language thereof. When some displeased Courtier did him the injurious courtesie to preferre him downwards (in point of profit) to the Bishoprick of Bristol, he improved all his friends to decline his election. In these troublesome times (affording more Preachers then Professors) he lost his Church but kept his Chair, wherein he died about the year 1651.

WILLIAM OUGHTRED was (though branched from a right ancient Family in the North) born in the Town, bred in the School of Eaton, became Fellow of Kings­colledge; and at last was beneficed by Thomas Earl of Arundel at Albury in Surrey. All his contemporaries unanimously acknowledged him the Prince of Mathematicians in our Age and Nation. This aged Simeon had (though no Revelation) a strong perswasion that before his death he should behold Christs anointed restored to his Throne, which he did accordingly to his incredible joy, and then had his Dimittis out of this mortal life, June 30. 1660.

Romish Exile Writers.

THOMAS DORMAN was born at Ammersham in this County, being nephew unto Thomas Dorman of the same town, A Confessour in the reign of King Henry the eighth. True it is, this his Uncle through weakness did abjure (let us pity his, who desire God should pardon our failings,) but was ever a cordial Protestant. He Fox his Acts and Mon. pag. 838. bred this Thomas Dorman juni [...]r at Berkhamsted-school (founded by Dr. Incent) in Hartford­shire, under Mr. Reeve a Protestant School-master.

But this Dorman turn'd tail afterwards, and became a great Romanist, running over beyond the seas, where he wrote a book intituled Against Alexander Nowel, the English Calvinist. J. Pits doth repent that he affordeth him no room in the body of his book, referring him to his Pagin [...] 914. Appendix. He flourished Anno 1560.

Memorable Persons.

JOHN MATHEW Mercer, son to Thomas Mathew was born at Sherington in this County, Lord Mayor of London, Anno Dom. 1490. He is eminent on this account that he was the first Stow Surv [...]y of London pag. 573. Bachelar that ever was chosen into that office. Yea it was above a hundred and twenty years before he was seconded by a single person succeeding him [Page 138] in that place, viz. Sir John This Mayor was the second Batchlor saith How, continu­ing Slow in his Survay of London pag. 195. Leman Lord Mayor 1616. It seemeth that a Lady Mayo­resse is something more then ornamentall to a Lord Mayor, their wives great portions or good providence, much advantaging their estates, to be capable of so high a dignity.

Dame HESTER TEMPLE, daughter to Miles Sands Esquire was born at Latmos in this County, and was married to Sir Thomas Temple of Stow Baronet. She had fourSed quaere. sons and nine daughters, which lived to be married, and so exceedingly multiplied, that this Lady saw seven hundred extracted from her body. Reader, I speak within compass, and have left my self a reserve, having bought the truth hereof by a wager I lost. Besides there was a new generation of marrigable females just at her death, so that this aged vine may be said to wither, even when it had many young boughs ready to knit.

Had I been one of her relations, and as well enabled as most of them be, I would have erected a monument for her thus design'd. A fair tree should have been erected, the said Lady and her Husband lying at the bottom or root thereof; the Heir of the family should have ascended both the middle and top-bough thereof. On the right-hand hereof her younger sons, on the left her daughters should as so many boughs be spread forth. Her grand-children should have their names inscribed on the branches of those boughs, the great-grand-children on the twiggs of those branches, the great-great-grand-children on the leaves of those twiggs. Such as surviv'd her death should be done in a lively green, the rest (as blasted) in a pale and yellow fading-colour.

Lib. 7. cap. 13. Plinie, who reports it as a wonder worthy the Chronicle, that Chrispinus Hilarus, Praelata pompa, with open ostentation, sacrificed in the Capitol, seventy four of his chil­dren and childrens children attending on him, would more admire if admitted to this spectacle.

In comment upon the 8. c. os Lib. 15. De Civit. Dei. Vives telleth us of a Village in Spain of about an hundred houses, whereof all the inhabitants were issued from one certain old man who then lived, when as that Village was so peopled, so as the name of propinquity how the youngest of the children should call him, could not be given. Lingua enim nostra supra abavum non ascendit, Our language (saith he, meaning the Spanish) affords not a name above the great-grand­fathers father. But had the off-spring of this Lady been contracted into one place, they were enough to have peopled a City of a competent proportion, though her issue was not so long in succession, as broad in extent.

I confess very many of her Descendants dyed before her death, in which respect she was far surpassed by a Roman Matron, on whom theAusonius Epitap. Heroum num. 34. Poet thus Epitapheth it, in her own person.

Viginti atque novem, genitrici Callicratea,
Nullius sexus mors mihi visa fuit.
Sed centū et quin (que) explevi bene messibus annos,
Intremulam baculo non subeunte manun.
Twenty nine births Callicrate I told,
And of both Sexes saw none sent to grave.
I was an hundred and five winters old,
Yet stay from staff my hand did never crave.

Thus in all ages God bestoweth personal felicities on some, far above the proportion of others. The Lady Temple dyed Anno Dom. 1656.

Lord Mayors.
1 John BrokleWilliam BrokleNewport PaganelDraper1433
2 Thomas ScotRobert ScotDorneyDraper1458
3 Henry ColletRobert ColletWendoverMercer1486
4 John MathewThomas MathewShreingtonMercer1490
5 John MundyWilliam MundyWycombeGoldsmith1522
6 John CoatesThomas CoatesBeartonSalter1542
The Names of the [...] of this County R [...]turned by the Commissioners in the twelfth year of King Henry the sixth, 1433.
William Bishop of Lincoln,Commissioners to take the Oathes.
Reginald de Gray de Ruthyan Chivaler. 
Thomas Sakevile Miles, Knights for the Shire. 
William Wapload. Knights for the Shire. 
  • Reginaldi Lucy, Chiv.
  • Walteri Lucy, Chiv.
  • Iohan. Cheyne, Chiv.
  • Tho. Chetewode, Chiv.
  • Iohan. Cheyne, Arm.
  • Iohan. Hampden de Hampden, Ar.
  • Andreae Sper [...]ing
  • Thomae Rokes, Ar.
  • Iohan. Lange [...]on, Ar.
  • Iohan. Iwardby, Ar.
  • David Breknook, Ar.
  • Thomae Stokes, Ar.
  • Iohan. Hampden de Kimbell.
  • Walteri Fitz Richard, Armigeri.
  • Iohan. Stretlee, Ar.
  • Tho. Shyngelton, Ar.
  • Thomae Cheyne, Ar.
  • Iohan. Stokes, Ar.
  • Thomae Gifford, Ar.
  • Iohan. Gifford d [...] Whaddon Senioris, Ar.
  • Thomae Boteler, Ar.
  • Rob. Puttenham, Ar.
  • Roberti Olney de Weston, Ar.
  • Iohan. Tyringham, Ar.
  • Iohan. Brekenock, Ar.
  • Thomae Rufford, Ar.
  • Iohan. Dayrell, Ar.
  • Nicolai Clopton
  • Edmundi Brutenell
  • Iohan. Sewell
  • Iohan. Watkins
  • Willillmi Brook de Chesham.
  • Bernardi Sanderdon
  • Thomae More
  • Will. Fouler.
  • Iohannis Arches
  • Iohan. Skydmore
  • Iohan. Kimbell
  • Will. Joyntour
  • Rogeri More
  • Iohan. Horewode
  • Iohan. Baldewin
  • Thomae Atte Welle
  • Will. Chapman de Aylesbury
  • Tho. Turnour
  • Iohan. Knight de Hampslape
  • Will. Watford
  • Thomae Oliver
  • Will. Colingrgg de Toursey
  • Thomae Malins
  • Will. Parker de Eton
  • Will. Burton persone
  • Ecclesiae de Crowle
  • Iohan. Clerke de Olney
  • Rich. Hawtreve
  • Iohan. Giffard de Hardmede
  • Iohan. Tapelo de Hampslape
  • Thomae Knight de eadem
  • Iohan. Giffard de Whaddon junioris
  • Iohan. Sapcote de Olney
  • Rich. Arnecok
  • Will. Edy
  • Nich. Brackwell
  • Will. Sambroke
  • Iohan. Edy junioris
  • Thomae Edy
  • Iohan. Puchas
  • Will. Berewell
  • Ade Ashinden
  • David. Whitchirche
  • Iohan. Sweft
  • Will. Britwell de Cherdesle
  • Iohan. Verney
  • Eustachii Grenvile
  • Iohan. Fitz Iohn
  • Will. Gerebray
  • Tho. Maudeleyn
  • Iohan. Vesy
  • Tho. Wodewarde
  • Rich. Enershawe
  • Iohan. Harewold de Weston
  • Hen. Loveden
  • Iohan. Thorp
  • Iohan. Parker de Fenny Stratford
  • Nicholai Baker de Crowle
  • Nich. Hobbesson
  • Tho. Malette
  • Iohan. Kerye
  • Tho. Tappe
  • Rich. Hoo de Snen­ston
  • Iohan. Manchestre
  • Iohan. Phelip
  • Hen. Hunkes
  • Rich. Miches
  • Will. Meridale
  • Tho. Edward
  • Iohan. Vaux
  • Will. Dun
  • Hen. Toursey
  • Hen. Dicon
  • Will. Winslowe
  • Iohan. Bilindon
  • Hen. Porter
  • Tho. Turgens
  • Rober. Dalafeld
  • Math. Colett
  • Iohan. Hampden de Wycombe
  • Iohan. Wellesburn
  • Tho. Merston
  • Will. Attegate
  • Tho. Mery
  • Rich. Milly
  • Will. Wodeward
  • Tho. Pusey
  • Roberti Broun de Beknesfeld
  • Iohan. Iourdeley
  • Tho. Houghton
  • Rich. Yaulode
  • Iohan. Gold de Ailes­bury
  • Will. Clarke de eadem
  • Will. Clarke de Cul­verdon
  • Thomae Kene de Hor­sendon
  • Will. Symeon
  • Will. Fether
  • Iohan. Caradons
  • Will. Combe de Ayles­bury
  • Will. Gill
  • Rich. Lamburn
  • Will. Hid [...]
  • Tho. Bristow
  • Nich. Baron
  • Will. Cook de Fert­well
  • Iohan. Glover de Kimbell
  • Iohan. Balke de Ayles­bury
  • Iohan. Lucy &
  • Rich. Lucy

This County had the same with Bedford-shire, untill they were parted in the seventeenth year of Queen Elizabeth. Since which time these have been the Sheriffs of this County alone.

17 Ioh. Croke, ar.ChiltonG. a fess between 6 martlets Arg.
18 Griff. Hampden, armiger.HampdenArgent a Saltire Gules betwixt 4 Eaglets Az.
19 Mich▪ Blount, ar. Barry [...] of. 6 Or. & Sable.
20 Rob. Drury, ar. [...]Arg on a Chief vert the [...] Tau betw [...]xt 2 [...] pierced Or.
21 Rich. Crafford, ar.  
22 Paul. Darell, ar.LillingstoneAz. a Lion Rampant Or, [...] Argent.
23 Th. Tasborough, a. Az. on a Cross Arg. 5 mullets G.
24 Edm. Verney, ar. Arg. 4 Lions passant S. betwixt 2 Gemewes in Bend.
25 Will. Hawtrey, ar.Checkers 
  Az. 10 billets 4, 3, 2, & 1. Or, in a Chief of the second a Lion issuant Sable.
26 Rob. Dormer, ar.Wing 
27 Edw. Bulstrod, ar.See our Notes.Arg. on 2 Bars S. 6 martlets Or.
28 Ioh. Temple, ar.Stow* Ar. on a Bend S. 2 Cubit arms Is­suant out of 2 pettet Clouds Ra­yonated all proper Rending of a of a [...] Or.
29 Ioh. Goodwin, ar.See 21 of K. James. 
30 Ioh. Burlace, *ar.  
31 Fran. Cheney, ar.Chesham the VacheChecky Or & [...] Fess G Fretty Erm.
32 Ge. Fleetwood, a. Partee per pale Nebulee Az. & [...], 6 martilets counterchanged.
33 Ale. Hampden, a.ut prius 
34 Hen. Longvile, ar.WolvertōGules a Fess indented twixt 6 Crosses [...] Arg.
35 Tho. Pigot, ar.DodershalS. 3 [...] Arg.
36 Mic. Harecourt, a. Or. 2 Barrs Gules.
37 Edw. Tirrell, ar.ThorntonArg. 2 Chev. Az. within a Bor­der Engrailed G.
38 An. Tirringham, a.TirringhamAz. a [...] Engrailed Arg.
39 Ioh. Dormerut prius 
40 Will. Garrend, ar. See our Notes in Northampton­shire.
41 Will. Clarke, mil.  
42 Tho. [...], ar. G. a Chev. between 3 Cressets Ar.
43 Will. Burlace, ar.ut prius 
44 Anth. Chester, ar.ChichelyPer Pale Arg. & Sable, a Chev. between 3 Rams-heads Erased armed Or, within a Border in­grailed, roundelly, all Counter­changed.
45 Fran. Cheney, mi.ut prius 
1 Fran. Cheney, mi.ut prius 
2 W. Willoughby. m AMP.
3 Ri. Ingoldesby, m.Lethenbor.Erm. a Saltire Engrailed S.
4 Hen. Longvile. m.ut prius 
5 Will. Andrews, m G. a Saltire Or, Charged with another, [...].
6 Fran Fortescu, m. Az. a Bend Engrailed Ar. cotised Or.
7 Anth. Greenway, a.  
8 Rob. Lovet, mil.LiscombArg. 3 wolves passant in Pale S.
9 Iero. Horsey, mil. Az. 3 Horses-heads Couped Or, Bridled Ar.
10 Edw. Tirrell, mil.ut prius 
11 Sim. May ne, ar. Arg. on a Bend ingr. S. 3 dexter handsof the first.
12 Bri. Iohnson, ar.BeaconfieldQuarterly Azure & G. a Cross Patoncee, & a Chief Or.
13 Edm. Wheeler, mi.Riding-Co.Or. a Chev. between 3 Leopards­heads [...].
14 Th. Temple, m. & B.ut prius 
15 Ioh. Laurence, mi.IverArg. a Cross knotted G. on a Chief Az. 3 Leopards-heads Or.
16 Fra. Duncombe, a. Party per Chev. counter-Flore, G. & Arg. 3 Talbots-heads Erazed countercharged.
17 Be. Winchombe, a.See our Notes. 
18 Hen. Lee, m. & ba.QuarrendōArg. a Fess betwixt 3 Cressants Sable.
19 Ioh. Denham, mil. Gules 3 [...] Erm.
20 Will. Fleetwoodut prius*Per pale Or & G. a Lion Ramp. [...] three flower de luces counterchanged.
21 Fra. Goodwin, *m.  
22 Will. Pen, †ar.PenArg. on a Fess S. 3 Plates.
1 Edw. Coke, mil.StokePartee per pale G. & Az. 3 Eagles Argent.
2 Gil. Gerrard, bar. Quarterly, the 1 & 4 Arg. a Sal. G. the 2 & 3 Az. a Lion Ramp. Erm. Crowned Or.
3 Tho. Darel, a.ut prius 
3 F. Catesby. a.Northamp.Ar. 2 Lions passant, S. crowned Or.
4 The. Lee, ar.ut prius 
5 Will. [...], m.ut prius 
6 Tho. Hide, baro. Or, a Chev. betwixt 3 [...] Az. in Chief an Eagle of the first.
7 [...]. Dupper, ar.  
8 Rob. Dormer, ar.ut prius 
9 Fran. [...], mi.ut prius 
10 Pet. Temple, mil.ut prius 
11 Heneage Proby, a. Erm. on a Fess▪ G▪ a Lion Passant the tail extended, Or.
12 Anth. Chester, ba.ut prius 
15 Tho. Archdale, ar,  
17 Rich▪ Grevile, mi. Sable a border & Cross engrailed Or, thereon 5 Pellets.
20 Hen. Beak, ar.  
22 Will. Collier, ar.  
Queen Elizabeth.


Being afterwards Knighted, he was the son of Sir John Crook a Six-clerk in Chancery, and therefore restrained marriage untill enabled by a statute of the 14. of Henry the eighth. His [...] in the Civil warres between York and Lancaster concealed their* Pref. to Crok's Reports. proper name Le Blount under the assumed one of Croke.

As for this Sir John Croke, first Sheriff of Buckingham after the division of Bedford­shire, he was most fortunate in an issue happy in the knowledge of our municipall Law: Of whom Sir John Croke his eldest son Speaker of the Parliament in the 43. of Queen Elizabeth. He received this Eulogium from Her Majesty, That he had proceeded therein with such wisdome and discretion, that none before him had deserved better. As for Sir George his second son, we have spoken of him In the Wri­ [...] of Law in this County. before.

[Page 141]26 ROBERT DORMER Ar.]

He was on the 10. of June 1615. made Baronet by King James, and on the 30. day of the same Month was by him Created Baron Dormer of Wing in this County.

His grand-child Robert Dormer was by K. Charles in the 4. of his reign Created Viscount Ascot and Earl of Carnarvan. He lost his life, fighting for him who gave him his Honour, at the first battle of Newbury. Being sore wounded, he was desired by a Lord, to know of him what suit he would have to his Majesty in his behalf, the said Lord promising to discharge his trust in presenting his request, and assuring him that his Ma­jesty would be willing to [...] him to the utmost of his power: To whom the Earl replied, I will not dye with a suit in my mouth to any King, save to the King of Heaven By Anne daughter to Philip Earl of Pembrook and Montgomery, He had Charles now [...] of Carnarvan.


I have not met with so ancient a Coat (for such it appeareth beyond all exception) so voluminous in the Blazon thereof, viz. Sable, a Bucks head Argent, attired Or, shot the Nose with an Arrow of the third, headed and feathered of the second, a Cross Patee fitchee betwixt the Attire, Or.


He had to his fourth son Sir Michael Longvile, who married Susan sole daughter to Hen. Earl of Kent. Now, when the issue in a direct line of that Earldome failed in our me­mory, Mr. Selden was no less active then able to prove that the Barony of [...] was dividable from the Earldome, and descended to the son of the said Sir Michael, and thereupon he sate as Baron Ruthyn in our late long Parliament.

Since his death his sole daughter and heir hath been married unto Sir Henry Yelverton of Easton in the County of Northampton Baronet, a worthy Gent. of fair estate, so that that Honour is likely to continue in an equipage of breadth proportionable to the height thereof.

King James.


His armes (too large for the little space allotted them) I here fully represent in gratitude to the Memory of his Ancestor, so well deserving of See Memora­ble persons in Bark-shire. Newbury, viz. Azure, on a Chev. engrailed between three Birds Or, as many Cinque foiles of the first, on a Chief of the se­cond a Flower the Luce between two spears heads of the first.

King Charles.


This was our English [...], so famous for his Comments on our Common-law. This year a Parliament was called, and the Court-party was jealous of Sir Edwards activity against them, as who had not digested his discontentments. Hereupon to prevent his election as a member, and confine him to this County, he was prick'd Sheriff thereof.

He scrupuled to take the oath, pretending many things against it, and particularly that the Sheriff is bound thereby to prosecute Lollards, wherein the best Christians may be included.

It was answered, that he had often seen the Oath given to others without any re­greet, and knew full well that Lollard in the modern sense imported the Sir Henry [...] in [...] [...] verbo Lollard. opposers of the present Religion, as established by Law in the Land.

No excuses would serve [...] turn, but he must undertake this office. However his friends beheld it, as an injurious degradation of him, who had been Lord Chief-justice, to attend onthe Judges at the Assises.


It is an Epidemical disease, to which many ancient Names are subject, to be variously disguised in writing. How many names is it Chesney, Chedney, Cheyne, Chyne, Cheney, &c. And all de Casineto. A name so Noble and so diffused in the Catalogue of Sheriffs, it is harder to miss then find it any County.

[Page 142]Here, Reader, let me amend and insert what I omitted in the last County. There was a fair Family of the Cheneys flourishing in Kent, (but landed also in other Coun­ties,) giving for their Armes, Azure, six Lions Rampant Argent, a Canton Ermin. Of this house was Henry Chency High sheriffe of this County and Bedford shire in the 7. of Q. Elizabeth, and not long after by her created Baron of Tuddington in Bedford-shire. In his youth he was very wild and venturous, witness his playing at Dice with Henry the second King of France, from whom he won a Diamond of great worth at a Cast: And being demanded by the King, what shift he would have made to repair himself in case he had lost the cast; I have (said young Chency in an hyperbolical brave) SHEEPS TAILS enough in Kent, with their Wool to buy a better Diamond then this. His redu­ced Age afforded the befitting fruits of Gravity and Wisdome, and this Lord deceased without Issue.

As for Sir Francis Cheney Sheriff for this present year, we Viz. in the 31. year of Q. Elizabeth. formerly observed the distinct Armes of his Family. This worthy Knight was father to Charles Cheney Esq. who by his exquisite Travelling hath Naturalized foreign perfections into himself, and is exemplarily happy in a vertuous Lady, Jane Daughter to the truly Noble William Marquis of New-castle, and by her of hopefull Posterity.

The Farewell.

On serious consideration, I was at a loss to wish to this County, what it wanted, God and the Kings of England have so favoured it with naturall perfections, and civil priviledges. In avowance of the latter it sheweth more Burrow-towns (sending Burges­ses no fewer then twelve to the Parliament) then any Shire, (though thrice as big) lying in the Kingdome of Mercia. Now seeing at the instant writing hereof, the ge­nerall News of the Nation is, of a Parliament to be called after his Majesties Corona­tion, my prayers shall be that the Freehoulders of this County shall (amongst many therein so qualified) chuse good Servants to God, Subjects to the King, Patriots to the County, effectually to advance a happiness to the Church and Common-wealth.


CAMBRIDGE-SHRE hath Lincoln shire on the North, Northfolk and Suffold on the East, Essex and Hartford-shire on the South, Huntington, and Bedford-shires on the West, being in length thirty five, in breadth not fully twenty miles. The Tables therein as well furnished as any, the South­part affording bread and beer, and the North (the Isle of Ely) meat there­unto. So good the grain growing here, that it out-selleth others some pence in the Bushel.

The North-part of this County is lately much improved by drayning, though the poorest sort of people will not be sensible thereof. Tell them of the great benefit to the publick, because where a Pike or Duck fed formerly, now a Bullock or Sheep is fatted, they will be ready to return, that if they be taken in taking that Bullock or Sheep, the rich Owner [...]indicteth them for Felons; whereas that Pike or Duck were their own goods only for their pains of catching of them. So impossible it is that the best project though perfectly performed should please all interests and affections.

It happened in the year 1657. upon the dissolution of the great Snow their banks were assaulted above their strength of resistance, to the great loss of much Cattle, Corn, and some Christians. But soon after the seasonable industry of the Under­takers, did recover all by degrees, and confute their jealousies who suspected the re­lapsing of these lands into their former condition.

This Northern part is called the Isle of Eelie, which Doctor Smith in the lise of his Father-in-law Doctor [...]illet. one will have so named from the Greek word [...] Fenny or Marish-ground, But our Saxon Ancestors were not so good Grecians, and it is plain that plenty of Eels gave it its denomination. Here I hope I shall not trespass on gravity, in mentioning a passage observed by the In his Co­mitiat Oration De duobus Te­stibus pag. 15. Reve­rend Professour of Oxford Doctor Prideaux, referring the Reader to him for the Au­thours attesting the same. When the Priests in this part of the County would still retain their wives, in despight of whatever the Pope and Monks could doe to the con­trary, their wives and children were miraculously turned all into Eels (surely the greater into Congers, the less into Griggs) whence it had the name of EELY, I understand him a LIE of EELS. No doubt the first founder of so damnable an untruth, hath long since received his reward. However for this cause we take first notice amongst this Counties

Naturall Commodities,

Of Eels.

Which though they be found in all Shires in England, yet are most properly treated of here, as most, first, and best, the Courts of the Kings of England being thence therewith anciently supplyed. I will not ingage in the controversy whe­ther they be bred by generation as other fish, or aequivocally out of Putrefaction, or both ways which is most probable; Seeing some have adventured to know the distin­guishing marks betwixt the one and other. I know the Silver Eels are generally pre­ferred, and I could wish they loved men but as well as men love them, that I my self might be comprised within the compass of that desire. They are observed to be never out of season, (whilst other fishes have their set times,) and the biggest Eels are ever esteemed the best. I know not whether the Italian proverb be here worth the remembring, Give Eels without wine to your Enemies.


Though these are found in all Counties, yet because lately there was in this Shire an Hare-park nigh New-market, preserved for the Kings game, let them here be parti­cularly mentioned. Some prefer their sport in hunting before their flesh for eating, as accounting it melancholick meat, and hard to be digested, though others think all the hardness is how to come by it. All the might of this silly creature is in the flight thereof, and remember the answer which a school-boy returned in a latine distick, being demanded the reason why Hares where so fearfull,

Cur metuunt lepores? Terrestris, nempe, marinus,
Aethereus quod sit, tartareusque canis.

Whether or no they change their sex every year, (as some have reported) let Huntsmen decide. These late years of our civil wars have been very destructive unto them, and no wonder, if no law hath been given to hares, when so little hath been ob­served toward men.


Though plenty hereof in this County, yet because I conceive it first planted in Essex we thither refer our description thereof.


A sad Tree, whereof such who have lost their love make their mourning garlands, and we know what Exiles hung up their Psalm 137. 2. Harps upon such dolefull Supporters. The twiggs hereof are Physick to drive out the folly of children. This Tree delighteth in moist places, and is triumphant in the Isle of Ely, where the roots strengthen their Banks, and lop affords fuell for their fire. It groweth incredibly fast, it being a by-word in this County, that the profit by Willows will buy the Owner a Horse, before that by other Trees will pay for his Saddle. Let me adde, that if green Ash may burn before a Queen, withered Willows may be allowed to burn before a Lady.



Expect not I should by way of Preface enumerate the several inventions, whereby the ancients did communicate, and continue their Notions to Posterity. First by writing in Leaves of Trees still remembred, when we call such a Scantling of Paper a Folio or Leafe. Hence from Leaves men proceeded to the Bark of Trees, as more solid, still cou [...]enanced in the Notation of the word Liber. Next they wrote in Labels or Sheets of Lead, wherein the Letters were deeply engraven, being a kind of Printing before Printing, and to this I refer the words of Job (an Author allowed Contemporary with, if not Senior to Moses himself.) [...]ob 19. 23. Oh that my words were now written, oh that they were printed in a book.

To omit many other devices in after ages to signify their conceptions, Paper was first made of a broad Flag (not unlike our great Dock) growing in and nigh Canopus in Egypt, which it seems was a s [...]aple commodity of that Country, and substantiall enough to bear the solemn Curse of the Prophet, The Paper-reeds by the brooks shall wither; be driven away, and be no more. Isaiah 19. 7.

Our Modern Paper is made of Grinded Raggs, and yet this New Artificiall doth still thankfully retain the Name of the Old Naturall Paper. It may pass for the Emblem of Men of m [...]an Extraction, who by Art and Industry, with Gods blessing thereon come to high preferment. Psal [...] 113. 7. He raiseth the poor out of the dust, and lifteth the needy out of the dunghill, that he may set him with his Princes, even with the Princes of his People. One may fin [...], if searching into the pedigree of Paper, it cometh into the world at the doungate, raked thence in Rags, which refined by Art, (especially after precious secrets are written therein) is found fit to be choicely kept in the Cabinets of the Greatest [...]. Pity it is that the fi [...]st Author of so usefull an invention cannot with any P. Virg. de [...] inventi­onibus lib. 2. cap. 8. assu­rance by assigned.

There are almost as many severall kinds of Paper as conditions of Persons betwixt the Emperor and Beggar, Imperial, Royal, Cardinal, and so downwards to that course Pa­per called Emporetica, usefull onely for Chapmen to wrap their wares therein. Paper Participat [...]s in some sort of the Caracters of the Countrymen which make it, the Vene­tian being neat, subtile and courtlike, the French light, slight and slender, the Dutch thick, corpulent and gross, not to say sometimes also charta Bibula, sucking up the Ink with the sponginess thereof.

[Page 149] Paper is entred as a Manufacture of this County, because there are Mills, nigh Stur­bridge-fair, where Paper was made in the memory of our Fathers. And it seemeth to me a proper Conjunction, that seeing Cambridge yeildeth so many good writers, Cam­bridg-shire should afford Paper unto them. Pitty, the making thereof is disused; consi­dering the vast sums yearly expended in our Land for Paper out of Italy, France, and Germany, which might be lessened were it made in our Nation. To such who object that we can never equall the perfection of Venice-paper, I return, neither can we match the purity of Venice-glasses, and yet many green ones are blown in Sussex, profitable to the makers and convenient for the users thereof, as no doubt such courser (home-spun Paper) wouldbe found very beneficiall for the Common-wealth.


These are made of the Osiers plentifully growing in the moist parts of this County, an acre whereof turns to more profit then one of wheat. A necessary utensill in an house, whereby many things are kept, which otherwise would be lost. Yea, in some sort it saved the life of St. Paul, when let down by the wall of Damascus in 2 Cor. 11. 33. a basket. Whence some (not improbably) conjecture him hominem tricubitalem, a man of low stature. Martial confesseth Baskets to have been a Brittish invention, though Rome after­wards laid claime thereunto.

Barbara de pictis veni Baseauda Britannis,
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam.
1 foreign Basket first in Brittain known,
Am now by Rome accounted for her own.

Their making is daily improved with much descant of art, splitting their wickers as small as threads, and dying them into several colours, which daily grow a greater commodity.

The Buildings.

Cambridge is the chief credit of this County, as the University is of Cambridge. It is confess'd, that Oxford far exceeds it forsweetness of situation; and yet it may be maintained, that though there be better aire in Oxford, yet there is more in the Colledges of Cambridge. For, Oxford is an University in a Town, Cambridge, a Town in an Uni­versity; where the Colledges are not surrounded with the offensive embraces of Streets, but generally situated on the out-side, affording the better conveniency of private Walks and Gardens about them. But havingIn my Histo­ry of that Uni­versity. formerly written of the fabricks of Cambridge, I forbear any further inlargement.

Eely Minster.

This presenteth it self afar off to the eye of the traveller, and on all sides at great distance, not onely maketh a promise, but giveth earnest of the beauty thereof. The Lanthorn therein built by Bishop Hotham, wherein the labour of twenty years, and five thousand ninety four pounds eighteen shillings ten pence half penny farthing was ex­pended, is a Master-piece of Architecture. When the bells ring, the wood-work thereof shaketh and gapeth, (no defect but perfection of structure) and exactly chock­eth into the joynts again; so that it may pass for the lively embleme of the sincere Christian, who, though he hath motum trepidationis, ofPhil. 2. 12. fear and trembling, stands firm­ly fixt on the basis of a true faith. Rare also is the art in the Chappel of Saint Maries, the patern or parent of that in Kings-colledge in Cambridge, though here (as often else­where) it hath happened, the child hath out-grown the father. Nor must the Chappel of Bishop West be forgotten, seeing the Master-masons of King James, on serious in­spection, found finer stone-work herein, then in King Henry the seventh his Chappel at Westminster.

It grieved me lately to see so many new ligh's in this Church, (supernumerary win­dows more then [...]re in the first fabrick) and the whole structure in a falling condition, except some good mens cha [...]y seasonably support it. Yet, was I glad to hear a great Antiquary employed to transcribe and preserve the monuments in that Church, as all [Page 150] others in the late-drowned-land. And it is hard to say, which was the better office, whether of those who newly have dried them from the inundation of water, or of those who shall drain them from the deluge of oblivion, by perpetuating their antiquities to posterity.


Let me here insert an artificial wonder of what is commonly called Devils-ditch; Country-folk conceiting that it was made by the Devil, when the Devil he made it, being the work of some King or Kings of the East Angles. See the laziness of po­sterity, so far from imitating the industry of their ancestors, that they belibell the pure effects of their pains as hellish atchivements. But if the aforesaid Kings meerly made this ditch to get themselves a name, Divine Justice hath met with them, their names being quite forgotten. More probably it was made to divide and defend their Domi­nions from the Kingdome of Mercia, or possibly to keep the people in employment, for diversion of mutinous thoughts, laziness being the mother of disloyalty, industry of obedience.


Cantabrigia petit Aequales Aequalia. Cambridge requires all to be equal.]

Some interpret this of their Commons, wherein all of the same Mess go share and share alike. Others understand it of the expenses out of the Hall, all being [...] in their Collations, all paying alike. Which Parity is the best Preservative of Company, according to the Apothegme of Solon, whichIn vitâ So­lo [...]is. Plutarch so commends for the wisedome thereof, [...], Equality breeds no Battles. Otherwise it is a Murthering- [...]hot where one pays all the Reckoning, as recoiling on him that dischargeth it: Yea such inequality is a certain symptome of an expiring society.

Some expound the words, that Graduates of the same degree, (either within or without the University) are to be Fellows well met one with another. Dido had a piece of State in her Court peculiar to her self, (which may be called an Equipage indeed) where she had a hundred servants in ordinary attendance [...] pares [...] mi­nistri. Virg. Ae [...]. lib. 1. juxta finem. all of the same age. Thus the same Degree in effect levells all Scholars, so that seniority of years ought not to make any distance betwixt them, to hinder their familiarity. I have nothing else to adde of this Proverb, saving that it is used also in Oxford.

Cambridge-shire Camels.]

I cannot reconcile this common saying to any considerable sense, I know a Camel passeth in the Latine proverb, either for gibbous and distorted, or for one that un­dertaketh a thing awkely or ungeenly. [...] in Helvidium. Camelus saltat, or else for one of extraordi­nary bulk or bigness, all unappliable in any peculiar manner to the people of this County, as straight and dexterous as any other, nor of any exorbitant propor­tions.

All that I can recover of probability is this, the Fen-men dwelling in the Northern part of this County, when stalking on their Stilts are little giants indeed, asCamden in Cambridge­shire. Master Camden hath well observed. However that Mathematician who measured the height of Her [...]ules by the bigness of his foot, would here be much mistaken in his dimensi­ons, if proportionably collecting the bulk of their bodies from the length of their legs.

A Boisten horse and a Cambridge Master of Art, are a couple of Creatures that will give way to no body.]

This Proverb we find in the Letter of William Zoon written to George Bruin in his Theatre of Cities, and it is objected against us by an [...]. Twin. Ant. Acad. Ox. pag. 333. Oxford Antiquary, as if our Masters wanted manners to give place to their betters, though all things considered it soundeth more to their honour then disgrace.

For mark what immediately went before in the sameGulielmus Zoon. Author, In plateis ambulan­tes, decedi sibi de via, non à civibus solùm, sed etiam à peregrino quovis nisi dignitate ex­cellat, postulant: Walking in the Streets, they require, not onely of the Towns-men, but [Page 151] also of every stranger except they excell in dignity, that they goe out of the way unto them. Herein two things are observable in the Scholars,

1. Their Manners or Civility.2. Their Manhood or Courage.
If the party, whatever he be, appear digni­fied above them, they willingly allow him Superiority, what is this, but to give what is due to another?If he seem beneath them, then they doe uti jure suo, and take what is their own to themselves.

What rea [...]on is it he should give place to a Towns-man? ut quid cedat Plenum vacuo, scientia ignorantiae? This mindeth me of a passage in Plutarch concerning Themistocles, when a Boy going home from School, he met one of the Athenian Tyrants in the City, and the people cryed out unto him to goe out of the way, What (said The­mistocles) is not all the street broad enough for him, but I must be put out of my path and pace to make room for him? This was interpreted by such as heard him, as a presage of his future magnanimity. And surely it shews not want of breeding, but store of spirit, when a man will not be put out of his way, for every swelling emptiness that meets him therein.

An Henry-Sophister]

So are they called, who after four years standing in the University, stay themselves from commencing Bachelors of Art, to render them (in some Colledges) more ca­pable of preferment. Several reasons are assigned of their name.

That tradition is senseless, (and inconsistent with his Princely magnificence) of such who fansie, that K. Henry the eighth coming to Cambridge, staid all the Sophisters a year, who expected a year of grace should have been given unto them. More pro­bable it is, because that King is commonly conceived of great strength and sta [...]ure, that these Sophistae Henriciani were elder and bigger then others. The truth is this, in the reign of King Henry the eighth, after the destruction of Monasteries, [...]earning was at a loss, and the University (thanks be unto God more scar'd then hurt) stood at a gaze what would become of her. Hereupon many Students staid themselves, two, three, some four years, as who would see, how their degrees, (before they took them) should be rewarded and maintained.


WILLIAM FLOWER was born atSo Mr. Fox spells it, in his Acts and Mon. pag. 1573. called S [...]il Well at this day. Snow-hill in this County, bred first a Monk in Ely, till relinquishing his habit he became a Secular Priest and a Prote­stant, and after many removals fixed at last at Lambeth.

Wonder not, Reader, to see a long black line prefixed before his name, which he well deserved to distinguish him from such men, who had an unquestionable title of Martyrdom. Whereas this Flower dangerously wounded a Popish Priest with a Wood­knife, (a mischievous weapon) in Saint Margarets Westminster, just at the Ministration of the Masse, so that the bloud of the Priest Spirted into the Challice.

A fact so foul, that the greatest charity would blush to whisper a syllable in the ex­cuse thereof. As for such who in his defence, plead the precedent of Elia his killing of Baals Priests, they lay a foundation for all impiety in a Christian Common-wealth. If in the Old World Giants were the Product of those Marriages, when the sons of God took to Wives theGen. 6. 2. daughters of Men, (a Copulation not unlawfull, because they were too near a kin, but because they were too far off;) what Monsters will be generated from such mixtures, when Extraordinary actions by immediate Commissions from God shall be matched unto Ordinary Persons of meer men, and Heaven unjustly alledged and urged for the defence of Hell it self?

However it plainly appears that Flower afterwards solemnly repented of this Abo­minable act, and was put to death for the Testimony of the truth. Grudge not Reader to peruse this following Parallel, as concerning the hands of the Martyrs in the reign of Queen Mary.

[Page 152]

The right-hand of Thomas Tomkins was burnt off in effect (so as to render it useless) by Bishop Bonner, some days before he was Martyr'd.Arch-bishop Canmer at the Stake first thrust his right hand into the flame to be burnt in Penance for his subscription to a Recan­tation.The right hand of William Flower, before he went to the Stake, was cut off by order of the Judges for his Barbarous fact.

Yet though his right hand suffered as a Malefactour, there want not those who main­tained thatThere were but 3. more Maryred in this County, whereof John Hullier Fellow of Kings-col. was most re­markable. Martyr belongs to the rest of his Body.


STEPHEN de FULBORN was born at Fulborn (no other of that name in England) in this County. Going over into Ireland to seek his Providence (commonly nick­named his fortune) therein, he became anno 1274▪ Sir James Ware in the Arch-bishops of Tuam. Bishop of Waterford, and Lord Treasurer of Ireland. Hence he was preferred Arch-bishop of Tuam, and once, and again was Chief Justice of that (allow me a Prolepsis)Ireland pro­perly was no Kingdome till the time of K. Henry the eighth. Kingdome. He is reported to have given to the Church of Glassenbury in England, Sir James ut prius. Indulg [...]nces of an hundred days which I cannot understand, except he promised pardon of so many days, to all in his Province who went a Pilgrimage to that place; and this also seems an over-papal Act of a plain Arch-bishop. He died 1288. and was buried in Trinity Church in Dublin.

NICHOLAS of ELY, was so called (say some) from being Arch-Deacon thereof, which dignity so died his Denomination in grain, that it kept colour till his death, not fading, for his future higher preferments, though others conjecture his birth also at Ely. When the bold Barons obtrued a ChancellourJohn Philipot in his Catal. of Chancellors pag. 23. (A Kings Tongue and Hands by whom he publickly speaks and acts) Anno 1260. they forced this Nicholas on King Henry the third for that Office, till the King some months after displaced him, yet (knowing him a man of much merit) voluntarily chose him L. Treasurer Idem in his Catalogue of Treasurers pag. 16. when outed of his Chancellors place, so that (it seems) he would trust him with his Coffers, but not with his Conscience; yea he afterwards preferred him Bishop of Worcester, then of Winchester. Here he sate 12. years, and that Cathedrall may (by a Synedoche of a novel part for the whole) challenge his interment, having his Heart Bishop God­win in the Bi­shops of Win­chester. inclosed in a Wall, though his body be buryed at Waverly in [...]urry 1280.

WILLIAM of BOTLESHAM was born at Bottlesham (contractly Botsam) in this County. This is a small village, which never amounted to a Market-town, some five miles East of Cambridge, pleasantly seated in pure aire, having rich arable on the one, and the fair health of New-market on the other side thereof. It hath been the nur­sery of refined wits, affording a Triumvirate of learned men, taking their lives there, and names thence: and to prevent mistakes (to which learned pens in this point have been too prone) we present them in the ensuing parallels.

Godwin in the Catal. of Landaffe and Rochester.
of Bottlesham,
John of Bottlesham,Nicholas of Bottlesham,
Made by the Pope, first Bishop of Bethlehem in Sy­ria, afterwards Anno 1385. Bishop of Landaffe, and thence removed to Roche­ster. A famous Preacher, Confessor to King Richard the second, and learned Writer, but by Walsingham and Bale, called John by mis­take. He dyed in Febru. Anno 1399. Nor must we forget that he was once Fellow of Pembroke-hall.Was bred in Peter-house in Cambridge, whereunto he was a Benefactor, as also to the whole University, Chap­lain to T. Arundel, Arch­bishop of Canterbury; by whose recommendation he was preferred to succeed his Towns-man in the See of Rochester; which he never saw (saith my
Idem in the Biposhs of R [...] ­chester.
Authour) as dying in the beginning of the year 1401.
Was a Carmelite bred in Cambridge, afterwards re­moved to Paris, where in Sorbone he commenced Doctor of Divinity. Re­turning to Cambridge he became Prior of the Car­melites (since Queens-col­ledge) where he wrote many books, and lies bu­ried in his own
Bale pag. 576. and Pits. pag. 625.
Covent Anno Domini 1435.

[Page 153]Let all England shew me the like of three eminent men, (all contemporaries at large) which one petty village did produce. Let Bottlesham hereafter be no more fam'd for its single Becon, but for these three lights it afforded.

THOMAS of NEW MARKET was born therein, and though that Town lyeth some part in Suffolk, my Bale de Script. Ang. Cent. 7. Num. 60. Author assures his Nativity in this County. He was bred in Cambridge, an excellent Humanist and Divine, (having left some learned Books to Po­sterity) and at last was advanced to be Idem i bidem. Bishop of Carlile.

Surely then he must be the same with Thomas Merks, consecrated Anno 1397. Bale maketh him to flourish under K. Henry the fourth. con­sent of time most truly befriending the conjecture. Merks also and Market being the same in effect. Neither doth the omission of New in the least degree discompose their Identity, it being usuall to leave out the Prenomen of a Town for brevity sake, by those of the Vicenage, (amongst whom there is no danger of mistake,) commonly calling West-chester, Chester, South-hampton, Hampton. If the same, he is famous in our English Histories, because his devotion (in a Transposed Posture to publick practise) See his speech in Parliament Speed pag. worshiped the Sun-setting, King Richard the second, for which his memory will meet with more to commend then imitate it. Yet was his Loyalty shent, but not sham'd: and King Henry the fourth being sick of him, not daring to let him to live, nor put him to death, (because [...] Prelate) found an Expedient for him of a living death, confining him to a Titular Godwin in the Bishop of Carlile. Grecian Bishoprick. He dyed about 1405.

THOMAS THIRLBY Doctor of Laws, was (as I am assured by an excellent Mr. Martin beneficed neer Northampton. An­tiquary) born in the Town, and bred in the University of Cambridge, most probably in Trinity hall. He was very able in his own faculty, and more then once employed in Embasseys by King Henry the eighth, who preferred him Bishop of Westminster. Here, had Thirlby lived long, and continued the course he began, he had prevented Queen Mary from dissolving that Bishoprick, as which would have dissolved it self for lack of land, sold and wasted by him. And though probably he did this to raise and enrich his own family, yet such the success of his sacriledge, his name and alliance is extinct.

From Westminster he was removed to Norwich, thence to Ely. He cannot be fol­lowed (as some other of his order) by the light of the Fagots kindled by him to burn poor Martyrs, seeing he was given rather to Prodigality then cruelty, it being signally observed that he wept at Arch-bishop Cranmers degradation. After the death of Queen Mary, he was as violent in his opinions, but not so virulent in his ex­pressions; always devoted to Queen Mary, but never invective against Queen Eliza­beth. He lived in free custody, dyed, and is buried at Lambeth 1570.

Since the Reformation.

GODFREY GOLDSBOROUGH D. D. was born in the Town of Cambridge, where some of his Sur-name and Relation remained since my memory. He was bred in Trinity-colledge, (Pupil to Arch-bishop Whitgiff) and became afterwards Fellow thereof, at last he was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester Anno Dom. 1598. He was one of the second set of Protestant Bishops, which were after those so famous for their sufferings in the Marian days, and before those who fall under the cognizance of our generation; the true reason that so little can be recovered of their character. He gave a hundred mark to Trinity▪colledge, and died Anno Dom. 1604.

ROBERT TOWNSON D. D. was born in Saint Botolphs parish in Cambridge, and bred a Fellow in Queens-colledge, being admitted very young therein, but 12. years of age. He was blessed with an happy memory, insomuch that when D. D. he could say by heart the second Book of the Aeneads which he learnt at School, without missing a Verse. He was an excellent Preacher, and becoming a Pulpit with his gravity. He at­tended King James his Chaplaine into Scotland, and after his return was preferred Dean of Westminster, then Bishop of Salisbury.

Hear what the Author of a Pamphlet, who inscribeth himself A. W. saith in a Book which is rather a Satyre then a History, a Libell then a Character, of the Court of King James, for after he had slanderously inveighed against the bribery of those days in Church and State, hear how he seeks to make amends for all.

King James's Court, pag. 129, 130.
Some worthy men were preferred gratis to blow up their [Buckingham and his party] Fames, (as Tolson a worthy man paid nothing in fine or Pension, and so after him Davenant in the same Bishoprick.) Yet these were but as Musick before every hound.

Now although both these persons here praised were my God-fathers and Uncles, (the one marrying the sister of, the other being Brother to my Mother) and although such good words seem a Rarity from so railing a mouth, yet shall not these considera­tions tempt me to accept his praises on such invidious terms as the Author doth proffer them.

O! Were these worthy Bishops now alive, how highly would they disdain to be praised by such a pen, by which King James their Lord and Master is causelesly traduced! How would they condemn such uncharitable commendations, which are (if not founded on) accompanied with the disgrace of others of their order? Wherefore, I their Nephew in behalf of their Memories, protest against this passage, so far forth as it casteth Lustre on them, by Eclipsing the credit of other Prelates their contemporaries. And grant corruption too common in that kind, yet were there besides them at that time, many worthy Bishops raised to their dignity by their Deserts, without any Simonicall com­plyances.

Doctor Townson had a hospitall heart, a generous disposition, free from covetous­ness, and was always confident in Gods Providence, that, if he should dye, his children (and those were many) would be provided for, wherein he was not mistaken. He lived in his Bishoprick but a year, and being appointed at very short warning to preach before the Parliament, by unseasonable [...]tting up to study, contracted a Fever, whereof he died, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, Anno Dom. 1622.

THOMAS (son to William) WESTFIELD D. D. was born Anno Dom. 1573. in the Parish of Saint Maries in Ely, and there bred at the Free-school under Master Spight, till he was sent to Jesus-colledge in Cambridge, being first Scholar, then Fellow thereof. He was Curate, or Assistant rather, to Bishop Felton, whilst Minister of Saint Mary le Bow in Cheapside, afterward Rector of Hornsey, nigh, and Great Saint Bar­tholomews in London, where in his preaching he went thorow the four Evangelists. He was afterwards made Arch-Deacon of Saint Albans, and at last Bishop of Bristol, a place proffered to, and refused by him twenty five years before. For then the Bishoprick was offered to him to maintain him; which this contented meek man, having a self­subsistence, did then decline, though accepting of it afterwards, when proffered to him to maintain the Bishoprick, and support the Episcopall dignity by his signall devotion. What good The particu­lars of this were procured for me by my worthy friend Mathew Gilly Esquire, from Elizabeth the Bishops sole surviving daughter. opinion the Parliament (though not over-fond of Bishops) conceived of him, appears by their Order ensuing,

The thirteenth of May 1643. From the Committee of Lords and Commons for Sequestration of Delinquents Estates.

Upon information in the behalf of the Bishop of Bristoll, that his Tenants refuse to pay him his Rents, it is Ordered by this Committee, that all profits of his Bishoprick be restored to him, and a safe conduct be granted him to pass with his family to Bristoll, being himself of great age, and a person of great learning and merit. Jo. Wylde.

About the midst of his life he had a terrible sickness, so that he thought (to use his own expression in his Diary) that God would put out the candle of his life, though he was pleased onely to snuff it. By his will (the true Copy whereof I have) he desired to be buried in his Cathedral Church neer the tombe of Paul Bush, the first Bishop thereof. And as for my worldly goods, (Reader, they are his own words in his Will) which (as the times now are) I know not well where they be, nor what they are, I give and bequeath them all to my dear wife Elizabeth, &c. He protested himself on his death-bed a true Prote­stant [Page 155] of the Church of England, and dying Junii 28. 1644. lyeth buried according to his own desire above mentioned, with this inscription;

Hic jacet Thomas Westfield, S. T. D. Episcoporum intimus, peccatorum primus. Obiit 25. Junii, anno MDCXLIV. Senio & moerore confectus. Tu Lector (quisquis es) vale & resipisce.
Epitaphium ipse sibi dictavit vivus. Monumentum uxor moestissima Elizabetha Westfield Marito desideratissimo posuit superstes.

Thus leaving such as survived him to see more sorrow, and feel more misery, he was seasonably taken away from the evil to come. And according to the Anagram made on him by his Daughter,

Thomas Westfield, I dwel the most safe.

Enjoying all happiness and possessing the reward of his pains, who converted many, and confirmed more by his constancy in his Calling.


JOHN TIPTOFT son and heir of John Lord Tiptoft, and Mills Cat. of Hon. pag. 1010. Joyce his wife (daughter and Co-heir of Edward Charlton Lord Powis by his wife Eleanor, sister and Co-heir of Edmund Holland Earl of Kent) was born at Bale de script. Brit. Cent. 8. num. 46. Everton in this (but in the confines of Bedford) shire. He was bred in Baliol-colledge in Oxford, where he attained to great learning, and by King Henry the sixth was afterwards created first Vice-count, then Earl of Worcester, and Lord H [...]gh Constable of England, and by K. Edward the fourth Knight of the Garter.

The skies began now to lowre, and threaten Civil Wars, and the House of York fell sick of a Relapse. Mean time this Earl could not be discourteous to Henry the sixth who had so much advanced him, nor disloyall to Edward the fourth in whom the right of the Crown lay. Consulting his own safety, he resolved on this Expedient, for a time to quit his own and visit the Holy-land. In his passage thither, or thence, he came to Rome, where he made a Latin speech before the Pope, Pi [...] the second, and conver­ted the Italians into a better opinion then they had formerly of the English-mens learning, insomuch that his holiness wept at the elegancy of the Oration.

He returned from Christs sepulcher to his own grave in England, coming home in a most unhappy juncture of time, if sooner or later, he had found King Edward on that Throne, to which now Henry the sixth was restored, and whose restitution was onely remarkable for the death of this worthy Lord. Thus those who when the house of the State is on fire, politickly hope to save their own chamber, are sometimes burned therein.

Treason was charged upon him for secret siding with King Edward, who before and afterward de facto, and always de jure, was the lawfull King of England; on this account he lost his life. Then did the axe at one blow cut off more learning in Eng­land [Page 156] then was left in the heads of all the surviving nobility. His death happened on Saint Lukes-day 1470.

Edward Lord Tiptoft his son was restored by Edward the fourth, Earl of Worcester. But dying without Issue his large Inheritance fell to his three Milles ut supra. Aunts, sisters to the learned Lord aforesaid, viz. First Philip, married to Thomas Lord Ross of Ham-lake. Second, Jo [...]ne, wife of Sir Edmund Ingoldsthorp of Borough-green in this County. Third Joyce, married unto Sir Edward Sutton son and heir of John Lord Dudley, from whom came Edward Sutton Lord Dudley, and Knight of the Garter.

JOHN CHEEKE Knight, Tutor to King Edward the sixth, and Secretary of State, was born over against the Market-cross in Cambridge. What Crosses afterwards befel him in his course of life, and chiefly before his Pious death, are largely related in our Church­History.


The courage of the men in this County before the Conquest, plainly appeareth by this authentick passage in a memorable author, who reporteth, that when the rest of the East Angles cowardly fled away in the field from the Danish army, Chronicon. [...]o. Bromton pag. 887. Homines co­mitatus Cantabrigiae viriliter obstiterunt: The men of the County of Cambridge did manfully resist. Our author addeth, Unde Anglis regnantibus laus Cantabrigiensis Provinciae splendidè florebat; Whence it was that whilst the English did rule, the praise of the people of Cambridge shire did most eminently flourish.

Nor lost they their reputation for their manhood, at the coming in of the Normans, who partly by the valour of their persons, partly by the advantage of their fens, made so stout resistance, that the Conqueror who did fly into England, was glad to creep into Ely. Yea, I have been credibly informed that Cambridge-shire men commonly passed for a current proverb, though now like old coine, almost grown out of request.

Indeed the Common People have most Robustious Bodies, insomuch that Quarter­sacks were here first used, men commonly carrying on their backs (for some short space) eight bushels of Barly, whereas four are found a sufficient load for those in other Counties. Let none say that Active valour is ill inferred from Passive strength, for I do not doubt but (if just occasion were given) they would find as good Hands and Arms as they do Backs and Shoulders.


MATTHEW PARIS is acknowledged an English-man by all, (save such who mistakeAMP. Parisius for Parisiensis) and may probably be presumed born in this (as bred in the next) County, where the name and family of Paris is right ancient, even long before they were settled therein at Hildersham, which accrued unto them by their marriage with the daughter and Heir of the Camdens Bri [...]. in Cambridge­shire. Buslers. Sure I am, were he now alive, the Parises would account themselves credited with his, and he would not be ashamed of their affinity.

He was bred a Monke of Saint Albans, skilled not only in Poetry, Oratory and Divinity, but also in such manual as lye in the suburbs of liberal Sciences, Painting, graving, &c. But his Genius chiefly disposed him for the writing of Histories, wherein he wrote a large Chronicle from the Conquest, unto the year of our Lord 1250. where he concludes with this distich;

Siste tui metas studii, Matthaee, quietas
Nec ventura petas, quae postera proferat aetas.
Matthew here cease thy pen in peace, and study on no more;
Nor do thou rome at things to come, what next age hath in store.

However he afterwards resuming that work, continued it untill the year 1259. This I observe, not to condemn him, but excuse my self from inconstancy, it being it seems a catching disease with Authors, to obey the importunity of Others, contrary to their own resolution.

[Page 157]His history is unpartially and judiciously written, (save where he [...]geth too much to Monkish Miracles and Visions,) and no writer so plainly discovereth the pride, avarice, and rapine of the Court of Rome, so that he seldome kisseth the [...]opes to [...] without biting it. Nor have the Papists any way to wave his true jeeres, but by suggesting, haec non ab ipso scripta, sed ab aliis falsò illi Pits. de it. Aug. d [...]script. pag. 3 [...]8. ascripta; insinuating a suspicion of forgery, in his last edition: understand them in what [...]ome 80. years [...]ince was set forth by Mathew Parker, whereas it was done with all integrity, according to the best and most ancient Manu­scripts, wherein all those Anti-papal passages plainly appear, as since in a latter and exacter Edition, by the care and industry of Doctor William Wats. This Mathew left off living and writing at the same time, viz. anno 1259. I will only adde, that though he had sharp nailes, he had clean hands, stri [...]t in his own, as well as striking at the loose conversations of others, and for his eminent austerity was imployed by Pope Innocent the fourth, not only to visit the Monkes in the Diocess of Norwich, but also was sent by him into Norway, to reform the discipline in Holui, a fair Convent therein, but much corrupted.

HELIAS RUBEUS was born at B [...]le d [...]pt. Brit. Cent. 4. Num. 48. Triplow in this County, bred D. D. in Cambridge. Leland acquainteth us that he was a great Courtier, and gracious with the King, not in­forming us what King it was, nor what time he lived in; onely we learn from him, that this Rubeus (conceive his English Name Rouse, or Red) seeing many who were Nobi­litatis Portenta (so that as in a Tympany their very greatness was their Disease) boasted (if not causelesly) immoderately of their high Extraction, wrote a Book contra Nobili­tatem inanem. He is conjectured to have flourished about the year 1266.

JOHN EVERSDEN was born at one of the Eversdens in this County, bred a Monk in Bury-Abbey, and the Cellerer thereof An Officer higher in sense then sound, being by his place to provide diet [...]or the whole Convent, assigning particular persons their por­tions thereof; But our Eversdens mind mounted above such mean matters, busied him­self in Poetry, Law, History, whereof he wrote a fair volume from the Bale descript. Brit. Cent. 5. Num. 40. beginning of the world, according to the humour of the Historians of that age; starting all thence, though they run to several marks. Being a Monk he was not over fond of Fryers. And observeth that when the Franciscans first entred Bury Anno 1336. there happened a hideous He­ricano, levelling trees and towers, and whatsoever it met with. The best was, though they came in with a Tempest, they went out with a Calme, at the time of the dissolu­tion. This John flourished under King Edward the third, and dyed about the year 1338.

RICHARD WETHERSET, commonly called of Cambridge, (saith Bale) because heS. N. was Chancellour thereof. But there must be more in it to give him that denomination, seeing many had that office besides himself. He was a great Scholar, and deep Divine, it being reported to his no small praise, That he conformed his Divinity to Bale Descript. Brit. Cent. 5. Num. 88. Scripture, and not to the rules of Philosophy. He flourished under King Edward the third anno 1350.

WILLIAM CAXTON born in that Town (a noted stage betwixt Roiston and Huntington) Cent. octa. Num. 43. Bale beginneth very coldly in his commendation, by whom he is cha­ractered, Vir non omnino stupidus, aut ignavia torpens; but we understand the language of his Liptote, the rather [...]ecause he proceedeth to praise his Diligence and Learning. He had most of his Education beyond the Seas, living 30. years in the Court of Margaret Dutchesse of Burgundy, Sister to King Edward the fourth, whence I conclude him an Anti-Lancastrian in his affection. He continued Polychronicon, (beginning where Tre­visa ended,) unto the end of King Edward the fourth, with good judgment and Fide­lity. And yet when he writeth Polychron. lib. ult. cap. 10. that King Richard the second left in his Treasury Money and Jewells, to the value of seven hundred thousand pounds, I cannot credit him, it is so contrary to the received Character of that Kings Riotous Prodigality. Caxton carefully collected and printed all Chaucers works, and on many accounts deserved well of Posterity, when he died about the year 1486.

Since the Reformation.

RICHARD HULOET was born at Bal [...] d [...]ript. B [...]. C [...]w. 9. Num. 67. Wishich in this County, and brought up in good learning. He wrote a book called the English and Latine A B C, and dedicated the same to Thomas Goowrich Bishop of Ely, and Chancellor of England. Some will con­demn him of Indiscretion, in presenting so low a subject to so high a person, as if he would teach the Greatest States-man in the land to spell aright. Others will excuse him, his book being, though, of low of generall use for the Common people, who then began to betake themselves to reading, (long neglected in the land) so that many who had one foot in their grave, had their hand on their primer. But I believe that his book (whereof I could never recover a sight) though entitled an A B C, related not to Lite­rall reading, but rather to some Elementall grounds of Religion. He flourished Anno Domini 1552.

JOHN RICHARDSON was born of honest parentage at Linton in this County, bred first Fellow of Emanuell, then Master of Saint Peters, and at last of Trinity-colledge in Cambridge, and was Regius Professor in that University. Such who represent him a dull and heavy man in his parts, may be confuted with this instance.

An extraordinary Act in Divinity was kept at Cambridge before King James, where­in Doctor John Davenant was Answerer, and Doctor Richardson amongst others the op­posers. The Question was maintained in the negative, concerning the excommunicating of Kings. Doctor Richardson vigorously pressed the practice of Saint Ambrose excom­municating of the Emperour Theodosius, insomuch that the King in some passion re­turned, profecto fuit hoc ab Ambrosio insolentissimè factum. To whom Doctor Richardson, rejoyned, responsum vere Regium, & Alexandro dignum, hoc non est argumenta dissolvere, sed desecare. And so sitting down he desisted from any further dispute.

He was employed one of the Translators of the Bible, and was a most excellent lin­guist, whose death happened Anno Dom. 1621.

ANDREW WILLET D. D. was born at Ely in this County, bred Fellow of Christs­colledge in Cambridge. He afterwards succeeded his father in the Parsonage of Barley in Hertford shire, and became Prebendary of Ely. He confuted their cavill who make children the cause of covetousness in Clergy-men, being bountifull above his ability, notwithstanding his numerous issue. No less admirable his industry appearing in his Synopsi [...], Comments, and Commenta [...]ies, insomuch that one considering his Polygraphy, said merrily, that he must write whilst he slept, it being unpossible that he should do so much when waking. Sure I am, he wrote not sleepily nor oscitantèr, but what was solid in it self, and profitable for others.

A casuall fall from his horse in the high-way near Hodsden breaking his leg, accele­rated his death. It seems that Gods promise to his children to keep them in all their ways, that they dash not their foot against the stone, 'Tis (as other Temporall promises) to be taken with a Tacit clause of revocation, viz. if Gods wisdome doth not discover the contrary more for his glory and his childrens good. This Doctor died Anno Domini 1621.

Sir THOMAS RIDLEY Kt. Dr. of the Laws, was born at Ely in this County, bred first a scholar in Eaton, then Fellow of Kings-colledge in Cambridge. He was a general scholar in all kind of learning, especially in that which we call melior literatura. He afterwards was Chancellor of Winchester, and the Vicar generall to the Arch-bishop of Canterbury: his me­mory will never dye whilst his book called the view of the Ecclesiastical Laws is living; a book of so much merit, that the Common Lawyers (notwithstanding the difference be­twixt the professions) will ingeniously allow a due commendation to his learned per­formance in that subject. He died Anno Domini 1629. on the two and twentieth day of January.

ARTHUR HILDERSHAM was born at Strechworth in this County, descended by his mothers side from the Bloud-Royal, being great-great-grand-child to George Duke of Clarence, brother to Edward the fourth. Yet was he not like the proud Nobles of Tecoa, who counted themselves too good to put their hands to Gods work. But being bred in Christs-colledge in Cambridge, he entred into the Ministry. How this worthy [Page 159] Divine was first run a ground with poverty, and afterwards set a float, by Gods Provi­dence, how he often alternately lost and recovered his voice, being silenced and restored by the Bishops, how after many intermediate afflictions, this just and upright man had peace at the last, is largely reported in my Ecclesiastical History, to which (except I adde to the truth) I can adde nothing on my knowledge remarkable. He died Anno Domini 1631.

R. PARKER, for so is his Christian name defectively written in my Book, was born in Ely, (therefore Place-nameing himself Eliensis) was son (as I am confident) to Master Parker Arch-deacon of Ely, to whom that Bishoprick in the long vacancy (after the death of Bishop Cox) was profered, and by him refused, tantum opum usuram iniquis conditionibus sibi oblatam respuens. Our Parker was bred in, and became Fellow of Caius­colledge, an excellent Herauld, Historian, and Antiquary, Author of a short, plain, true, and brief Manuscript, called Sceletos Cantabrigiensis, and yet the bare Bones thereof, are Fleshed with much matter, and hath furnished me with the Nativities of severall Bishops who were Masters of Colledges.

I am not of the mind of the Italian, (from whose Envy God deliver us) Polidore Virgil, who having first served his own turn with them, burnt all the rare English Ma­nuscripts of History he could procure, so to raise the valuation of his own works. But from my heart I wish, some ingenious person would Print Mr. Parkers Book, for the use of Posterity. He was a melancholy man, neglecting all Preferment, to enjoy him­self, and died in the place of his Nativity, as I conjecture, about 1624.

MICHAEL DALTON Esquire, He was bred in the study of our Municipall-law in Lincolns Inn, and attained great skill in his own profession. His gravity graced the Bench of Justices in this County, where his judgment deservedly passed for an Oracle in the Law, having enriched the world with two excellent Treatises, the one of the Office of the Sheriffs, the other of the Justices of Peace. Out of the Dedicatory Epistle of the later, I learnt this (which I knew not before) that K. James was so highly af­fected with our English Government by Justices of Peace, that he was the first, who setled the same, in his Native Country of Scotland. Mr. Dalton dyed before the be­ginning of our Civil Distempers.

THOMAS GOAD D. D. was son to Dr. Roger Goad (for more then fourty years Pro­vost of Kings-colledge) but whether born in the Provosts Lodgings in Cambridge, or at Milton in this County, I am not fully informed. He was bred a Fellow under his Fa­ther, afterwards Chaplain to Arch-bishop Abbot, Rector of Hadly in Suffolk, Prebendary of Canterbury, &c. A great and Generall Scholar, exact Critick, Historian, Poet, (delight­ing in making of verses, till the day of his death) School-man, Divine. He was substituted by K. James, in the place of Doctor Hall, (indisposed in health) and sent over to the Synod of Dort. He had a commanding presence, an uncontrolable spirit, im­patient to be opposed, and loving to steere the discourse (being a good Pilot to that pur­pose) of all the Company he came in. I collect him to have died about the year 1635.

ANDREW MARVAIL was born at So his son-in­law informed me. Mildred in this County, and bred a master of Arts in Trinity-colledge in Cambridge.

He afterwards became Minister in Hull, where for his life time he was well beloved. Most facetious in his discourse, yet grave in his carriage, a most excellent preacher, who like a good husband never broached what he had new brewed, but preached what he had pre [...]studied some competent time before. Insomuch that he was wont to say, that he would crosse the common proverb, which called Saturday the working day, and Munday the holy day of preachers. It happened that Anno Dom. 1640. Jan. 23. crossing Humber in a Barrow-boat, the same was sand-warpt, and he With Mrs. Skinner (daughter to Sir Ed. Coke) a very religi­ous Gentle­woman. drowned therein, by the carelesness (not to say drunkenness) of the boat-men, to the great grief of all good men. His excellent comment upon Saint Peter, is daily desired and expected, if the envy and covetousness of private persons for their own use, deprive not the publick of the benefit thereof.

Benefactors to the publick.

HUGO de BALSHAM (for so is he truly written) was born in this County as may easily be spelled out of the four following probabilities put together.

  • First, it was fashionable for Clergy-men in that age to assume their Surnames from the place of their Nativity.
  • Secondly, Balsham is an eminent village in this County, whereof an ancient
    Henry of Huntington.
    Author taketh notice, naming thence the neighbouring ground Amaenis­sima Montana de Balsham.
  • Thirdly, There is no other Village of that name throughout the Dominions of England.
  • Fourthly, It is certaine this Hugh was bred in this County, where he attained to be Sub-prior, and afterwards Bishop of Ely.

This Hugh was he who founded Peter-house in the University of Cambridge, the first built (though not first endowed) Colledge in England. This Foundation he finished Anno 1284. bestowing some lands upon it, since much augmented by Bountifull Bene­factors. He sat 28 years in his See, and dyed June the 6. 1286.

Sir WILLIAM HORN Salter, son to Thomas Ho [...]n was born at Snail-well in this County, he was Knighted by King Hen. the seventh, and Anno 1487. was L. Mayor of London. He gave bountifully to the Preachers at Saint Pauls crosse, and bestowed five hundred Stows survay of London pag. 575. Marks to the mending of the high ways, betwixt Cambridge the County Town where he had his first Life, and London the City where he got his best liveli­hood.

Know in that Age Horn his five hundred Marks, had in them the intrinsick value of our five hundred pounds, which in those days would go very far in the wages of Laborers.

Sir WILLIAM (son of JOHN) PURCASE was born at Gamlinggay in this County, bred a Mercer in London, and Lord Mayor thereof, Anno 1497. He caused Morefields under the walls to be made plain ground, then to the great pleasure, since to the greater profit of the City.

Sir THOMAS (son of JOHN) KNEISWORTH was born at Kneisworth in this Coun­ty, bred a Fishmonger in London, whereof he was Lord Mayor, Anno 1505. He ap­pointed the Water-conduit at Bishop-gate to be built, to the great convenience of the City, formerly much wanting that usefull Element. Be it here observed for the in­couragement of the industry of Cambridg-shire Apprentices, that by the premises it doth appear that this small County in the compass of eighteen years afforded three L. Mayors and Benefactors, which no other Shire of equal or greater quantity ever pro­duced.

Since the Reformation.

JOHN CRANE was born in Wishbeech in this County, bred an Apothecary in Cambridg, so diligent an youth, that some judicious persons prognosticated that he would be a rich man. Dr. Butler took so great a fancy unto him, that he lived and died in his Family, yea and left the main body of his rich Estate unto him.

This Mr. Crane had a large heart, to entertain his friends, and Annually very nobly treated all the Oxford men at the Commencement. He gave at his death no less then three thousand pounds to charitable uses, bestowing the house he lived in (and that a very fair one) aster his Wives death, on the Publick Professor of Physick, and in settlement of his other Benefactions, discreetly reflected on Wishbeech where he was born, (to which he gave 100l. to build a Town-hall) Cambridge, where he lived, Lin, where he was well acquainted, Ipswich, where Doctor Butler (the first founder of his estate) was born, and Kingston where his lands lay. He in some sort gives Preventing Physick to the Scholars now he is dead, by giving 100l. to be lent gratis to an honest man, the better to enable him to buy good Fish and Fowl for the University, having observed much sickness occasioned by unwholsome food in that kind. He bequeathed to Dr. Wren Bi­shop of Ely, and Doctor Brounrigg Bishop of Exeter, one hundred pounds a piece by his [Page 161] Will, and as much by a Codecil annexed thereunto. Besides his concealed Charities, his hand was always open to all the distressed Royalists. He died in May, 1650.

Memorable Persons.

WILLIAM COLLET was born at Over in this County, bred a Clerk in London, till at last he attained to be Keeper of the Records in the Tower, none equalling him in his dexterity in that office. He went the same path with his predecessor in that place, Master Augustine Vincent, but out-went him as survivor. And because Method is the mother of Memory, he orderly digested all Records, that they were to be found in an instant. He abominated their course, who by a water would refresh a Record, to make it usefull for the present, and useless ever after. He detested under the pretence o [...] mending it, to practice with a pen on any old writing, preserving it in the pure natu [...]e thereof. Indeed Master Selden and others in their Works, have presented Posterity with a plentifull feast of English rarities, but let me say that Collet may be called their Ca­terer, who furnished them with provision on reasonable rates. He died to the great grief of all Antiquaries Anno Dom. 1644.

EDWARD NORGATE son to Robert Norgate D. D. Master of Bennet-colledge, was born in Cambridge, bred by his Father-in-law (who married his Mother) Nicholas Felton Bishop of Ely, who finding him inclined to Limning and Heraldry, permitted him to follow his fancy therein. For, parents who cross the current of their childrens ge­nius, (if running in no vicious chanells) tempt them to take worse courses to them­selves.

He was very judicious in Pictures, to which purpose he was imployed into Italy to purchase them for the Earl of Arundel. This story is o [...] his own relation. Returniug by Marseilles he missed the money he expected, and being there unknowing of, and unknown to any, he was observed by a French Gentleman (so deservedly styled) to walk in the Exchange (as I may [...]ll it) of that City, many Hours every Morning and Evening, with swift feet and sad face, forwards and backwards. To him the civil Monsieur addressed himself, desiring to know the cause of his discontent, and if it came within the compass of his power, he promised to help him with his best advise. Norgate communicated his condition, to whom the other returned, Take I pray my Counsel, I have taken notice of your walking more then 20▪ miles a day, in one furlong upwards and downwards, and what is spent in needless going and returning, if laid out in Progressive Motion, would bring you into your own Country. I will suit you (if so pleased,) with a light habit, and furnish you with competent money for a Footman. Norgate very chearfully consented, and footed it (being accommodated accordingly) through the body of France, (being more then five hundred English miles,) and so leasurely with ease, safety, and health, returned into England.

He became the best Illuminer or Limner of our age, employed generally to make the Initial letters in the Patents of Peers, and Commissions of Embassadours, having left few heirs to the kind, none to the degree of his art therein. He was an excellent Herald by the title of—and which was the crown of all, a right honest man. Exemplary his patience in his sickness (whereof I was an eye-witness) though a compli­cation of diseases, Stone, Ulcer in the bladder, &c. ceased on him. He died at the He­ralds Office, Anno Dom. 1649.

Lord Mayors.
1 Robert CloptonThomas CloptonCloptonDraper1441
2 William HornThomas HornSnaylewellSalter1487
3 William PurchaseJohn PurchaseGamelingheyMercer1497
4 Thomas KneisworthJohn KneisworthKneisworthFish-monger1505
5 Thomas MirfineGeorge MirfineElySkinner1518
6 William BowyerWilliam BowyerHarstone1543
7 Richard MalloryAnthony MalloryPapworthamusMercer1564
The Names of the Gentry of this County Returned by the C