• 1. The best Employment.
  • 2. A Gift for God alone.
  • 3. The true Penitent.
  • 4. The best Act of Oblivion.

Together with NOTES upon JONAH.

By Thomas Fuller.

Mat. 13. 52.
An housholder bringeth forth out of his trea­sure things new and old.

LONDON, Printed for John Stafford, and are to be sold at the sign of the George neer Fleet-bridge. 1656.


Mat. 15. 30.
And great multitudes came unto him, ha­ving with them those that were lame, blinde, dumb, maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus feet, and he healed them.

By Thomas Fuller.

LONDON, Printed for Iohn Stafford in George-yard neer Fleet-bridge. 1656.

To my worthy friends of S. Brid­gets (commonly Brides) Pa­rish in London. The Blessings of this and a better life

JAcob, when sending his Son into Aegypt, advised them to car­ryGen. 43. v. 11. to the Governour thereof, (their unknown Brother) a Present, a little balme, and a little honey, spices, and myrrhe, nutts, and almonds. Herein both the quality and quantity of the guift is considerable:

[Page] The Quality: alas! look on them in themselves, and they were but mean. Aegypt (to give it it's due) excelled Pa­lestine in many Commodities which were better to barter with forraigne Nations, as wicked men in all Ages sur­passe the servants of GOD in outward accommodations.

The Quantity, but a little of each. To carry much would have been but the more bur­then to their Cattle which car­ried it, and perchance lesse ac­ceptable to him that recei­ved it.

[Page] However, one thing much commended this present, be­cause (as the Text saith) they were the best fruits of the Land; and no rationall person can expect better than what is best. Some conformity there is be­twixt their Present, & this my Dedication; none is more sen­sible than my self of the mean­nesse thereof: Besides Zoar, is it not a little one? yet is it the best that my barren condi­tion can for the present af­ford, on which account I comfortably presume it will [Page] be as kindly taken as it is cor­dially tendred.

All I will adde is this; The Holy Spirit compareth good CouncellEccles. 12. v. 11. nailes fastned. In prosecution of which Meta­phor, I hope that these nailes which were entred into your hearts at the preaching of them, shal now be rivetted into them by the printing thereof; which is the hearty desire of

Your servant in Jesus Christ, THO: FULLER.
ACT. 10. 38.‘Who went about doing of good.’

1. THe Text is parcell of that heavenly Sermon S. Pe­ter preached at the con­version of the Centuri­on, and it is worth our inquiry into the Character of that Con­vert. Know then three Essentials did constitute a Centurion. 1. He must be a Souldier. 2. The Captain of an hundred men (whence his name Centurion.) 3. He must be a Gentile by extraction. For at this time the Rom. Emperor had took the Militia out of the hands of the Jewes, who politiquely would not trust that peevish & rebellious people with the sword in their hands, insomuch that there was a Castle, [Page 2] Acts 22. 24. which overawed the Temple.

2. Now it is generally complained of Souldiers, that they are cruell, and (Luke 3. 4.) too prone to do violence. It is charged on Officers, that they are proud and insolent in improving their places, and Gentiles are accused of ignorance towards God, and wickednesse in their conversations. All which observations are crossed in the Cen­turion in my Text.I v. 1

3. Instead of taking away, and invading the Propriety of others, He, ver. 2. parted with what was his own in much almes to the poore. Instead of being proud to­wards others, in much humility he mace­rated himself with fasting (v. 30.) Instead of being guilty of Ignorance and Profane­nesse, he feared God with all his house. Let none hereafter envy this Centurion the height of his place, or repine at his power, ruling over a hundred, seeing he was a man of a thousand.

4. Let not any look on the Military profession, as on such a Gentile, out of which no Prophet; as on such a Nazareth, out of which no Good can arise. Let them [Page 3] not conceive the principles of fearing of God, and fighting with Men so opposite, that they cannot meet in the same person. Seeing on enquiry it will appeare, that all the Centurions in the New Testament were either good men, or lesse bad than many of more peaceable professions.

  • 1. The faithfull Centurion (Mat. 8.) preferred for the same by our Savi­our above those in Israel.
  • 2. The Centurion glorifying God, and justifying Christ at his Passion: Luke 23. 47. Certainly this was a righ­teous man.
  • 3. The just Centurion, who rescued S. Paul (Acts 22. 26.) from scour­ging, because a Roman.
  • 4. The serviceable Centurion, who at S. Paul's entreaty conveyed the young man to a Captaine, whereby the Apostle escaped the conspiracy of his enemies.
  • 5. The civill Centurion, who kept S. Paul, Acts 24. 23. forbidding none to minister unto him.
  • 6. Julius the courteous Centurion, who [Page 4] saved S. Paul at his shipwreck, Acts 27. 42. when the Souldiers had a desire to kill him.

But beyond all, and above all, the Centurion in this chapter, whose piety may be a perfect pattern for all Christians to imitate.

5. Obj. If this Centurion was already so good, what needed S. Peter to be sent to him for his further conversion? What was this but actum agere, to do what was done before, seeing no further addition or accession could be made to his goodnesse, which already was so compleat in the kind and degrees thereof.

6. I answer, The Centurion was alrea­dy in the state of Grace, but on the prin­ciples of a Jewish Proselyte: he looked for salvation by a Messiah, as yet to come, and on that account led a pious conversa­tion. Had he died in that state, his soule, no doubt, had been saved with the rest of the godly Jewes before Christ: But bet­ter things were provided for this Centuri­on, God had stored up more kindely mer­cies for him to receive; Peter is sent to [Page 5] inform of Christ come, and to clear his im­plicite into a distinct saith.

7. To this purpose the Apostle acquain­teth him in his Sermon with the person and practises of our Saviour, though cer­tainly the breviate onely, and chief heads, and not all his discourse at large, is opened by S. Luke, and my text is a principall part of our Christ his compleat character, Who went about doing of good.

8. Observe in the words, First, Christs Humility, He went

Secondly, His Industry.—No small way, but About.

Thirdly, His Charity. Doing of good.

First, Humility, He went, and that pedes ambulavit, he constantly footed it. Indeed he was brought from Nazareth, the place of his Conception, to Bethlehem, where he was born, in the womb of his Mother, and when forced to flie before he could go) into Egypt, probably was carried in the armes of his parents, otherwise he alwaies travailed on foot, one time ex­cepted, when not so much out of Maje­sty as Mysterie, not so much to ease him­self, [Page 6] as perform the propheticall predicti­on. He (Mat. 2.) rode alternately on the Asse, and the Asse Colt, o [...]herwise, al­waies, (such his humility) he went.

9. Secondly, His Industry, About. But here it will be demanded, whether this did not something trespasse on our Saviours gravity, and that staidnesse which he used in other actions. Did not this savour something of an erratical and circumfra­neous motion? Sure it was contrary to the counsell he gave his Disciples, Into what town or city ye enter, there abide, Mat. 10. 11. Goe not from house to house, Luke 10. 2. Had not therefore our Saviour, in like manner, better have fixed himselfe in one place, than thus to wander up and down when he went about?

10. I answer, three satisfactory reasons may be rendred of our Saviours frequent removals, though the first so sufficient in its self, it will give a discharge to the other two, as added onely for Ornament, not Necessity: 1. Therefore our Saviour went about per force, because he had no certain habitation of his own, therein constantly [Page 7] to recide, but was faine to make use of the houses of his friends therein to abide. Mat. 8. 20. The foxes have holes, and the birds of the aire have nests, but the son of man hath not where to lay his head.

11. By the way let me bespeak the thankfulnesse of many persons (whom I behold in this Auditory) to whom God hath not onely given Agurs wish, Prov. 30. to be fed with food convenient for them, but also so large estates, that they have plenty of Places, exchange of Hou­ses, variety of Habitations; How ought such to lay out their soules in thankfulness to God! it faring in this point farre better with them, than with our Saviour himself, who for want of a dwelling, was fain to go about.

12. Secondly, Our Saviour went about, so the better to decline and escape the ma­lice of those who sought after his life. Any man can at a near distance hit a dead mark, whilst he must be a good marks­man indeed who can hit a flying Fowle. Christ therefore was alwaies in motion, that he might not give a steddy aim to his [Page 8] enemy's malice. When Herod the Fox designed his death in Galilee, then he took his private progresse into Judea, and when those in Judea projected to murder him, he made his secret return into Galilee, or else retreated (John 11. 54.) to a City called Ephraim, in the wildernesse, and continued there.

13. He was unfit to be a Saviour of mankinde, who would not by all pruden­tiall wayes be a Saver of himself. Though he would not decline death when his hour was come, he would not court it before that time, he would lay his life down, not throw it down, patiently give himself, not wilfully cast himself away for mankinde. Otherwise, if he had refused to embrace all lawful wayes of self-preservation, untill his appointed time was come, he had died a Malefactor, not made by God a sin for us, but being a sinner of himself, no better than Felo de se, guilty of his own destru­ction.

14. Thirdly, Christ went about, so the more conveniently to disperse and di­spence his doctrine and miracles, that [Page 9] the more people might enjoy the benefit thereof. If the Sun should alwaies stand still in one place, that part of the earth would be fryed, and the rest frozen, that would be parched with heat, and the rest pinched with cold; wherefore the provi­dence of Nature hath so ordered and di­sposed it, that the Sun shall take his circuit through the Zodiack, that so his light and heat may be communicated to the more Countreys. Christ in like manner, that Sun of Righteousnesse, Mal. 4. 2. arising with healing in his wings, made his moti­on through the twelve Signes, I mean the twelve Tribes of Israel, that so the more places might participate of his Presence, Preaching, and Miracles.

14. Passe we now from his Humility to his Charity, Went about doing of good, and that in several considerations,

  • in respect of
    • All times.
    • All places.
    • All persons.

In endeavouring whereof may my weak endeavours, and your intentions, as well [Page 10] as we may observe our Saviours motion, and go about after him. Sequiturque Pa­trem non passibus aequis, and though in cir­cular motions it matters not where we be­gin, so be it we continue moving, till we returne where we began; yet for methods sake we will first handle the first point, in respect of all times.

16. Let us take notice of a Diurnall, or daies work of our Saviour, He was no large lier on bed, but a timely riser about his fathers work, John 8. 2. And early in the morning he came again into the Temple. As he rose early, he went late to bed, especially on the Sabbath day, the day of his greatest imployment: for when he had wearied himself all the day long with preaching his Word, at night when his work was ended, his work was new begun. People then pressing upon him afresh (forbidden before by the superstitious Pharisees) to be healed by him. As he rose earely and went late to bed, so all the day long was he busied in doing of good.

17. If any time of the day may seem to [Page 11] be priviledged from Employment, and exempted from Industry, sure it is, the time of Refection, when Men in midst of the Terme of all their worke, may and must make a Vacation to themselves, the better to refresh their hungry and weary bodies therein. But even at those times, was Christ intentive in doing of good. True it is, it was meat and drinke unto him, to doe his Fathers work, [Iohn 4. 32.] So zealous in prosecution thereof, that sometimes he fasted from o­ther food. Mark 3. 20. He could not so much as eate bread, for the crowding of the company about him; but when Li­berty was allowed him to take his repast, he improved his time in doing good, wit­nesse his demeanour at the table of the Pharisee, who invited him to dinner, as Luke 14. where he received not so much temporall food from the entertainer, as he bestowed Spirituall counsell upon him, verse 12. Then said he also to them that bad him, &c. He put forth a parable to them that were bidden, verse 7. and upon the occasion of these words, Blessed [Page 12] is he that shall eate bread in the Kingdome of God, uttered by a fellow guest, he put forth a most heavenly Parable.

18. One demanded how a Man might make himselfe welcome at a Feast? to whom it was answered, ne sis, [...] come not thither without paying thy shot, lest otherwise he be beheld as a clogge, or burden to the company. Another an­swered much to the same effect, Sit not there as a stone upon a stoole, that is, con­tribute, if not money, yet mirth to the company, bring some ingratiating quality with thee, that may make thee acceptable to thy fellow guests. Sure I am our Sa­viour was not indebted to the company where he dined, bringing with him, though no carnall mirth, which ends in sadnesse, yet spiritual joy, contained in that holy counsel which he so freely bestowed.

19. Secondly, In respect of all places, He did good wheresoever he came, at Na­zareth, where he was conceived, Bethleem, where he was born, Jordan, where he was baptised, Galilee, where he conversed, Getbsemani, where he was betrayed, Gal­batha, [Page 13] where he was condemned, Gol­gatha, where he was crucified, and which was the more to their sinne and shame, such places which did partake most of his corporall presence, did reap the lesse benefit by his spirituall prea­ching, witnesse Bethsaida, Corazin, and Capernaum.

20. Thirdly, In respect of all persons, 1. to those that were above him in a ci­vill respect, namely, to Caesar and his Officers, not onely preaching of Obedience, and payment of Tribute to the Emperour, but also putting him­selfe to the expence of a Miracle, (Matthew. 17. 27.) rather than Caesar should have his Toll-mony unpaid. 2. To such as were beneath him, as poorer than himselfe, because not having so good friends to relieve them. Thus though he himselfe held all that he had in Frank-Almonage, and lived on the poore mans box, beholden to the charity of Joanna, Susanna, and other his good Benefactors for his Maintenance, yet of a little, he gave a little, it being [Page 14] his constant custome (especially about the good time of the Passover) to dispence his almes to the poore. Otherwise when he said to Iudas (John 13. 27.) That thou dost, do quickly. The rest of the Disciples could not so quickly have commented on his words: that he desired him, the bag-bea­rer, to give something to the poore; had not the same been conformable to Christs common practise on such occasions, He did good to those about him, his Di­sciples, to those beside him, the ordinary Jews, to those againsts them, the very Soul­diers sent to attach him, witnesse curing of Malchus his eare, strucken off by Peter.

21. But I meet with a double objection against Christ going about to do general good; the one being a sin of omission, the other of commission, charged on his ac­count: I begin with the first, which thus may be urged against him, He who hath ability and opportunity to do right, and omitteth the same, is guilty of doing wrong, or the pretermitting of a benefit in such a case, is the committing of an in­jury. Now our Saviour was solemnly [Page 15] quested and pressed (Luke 12. 13.) to di­vide their Inheritance betwixt the two brethren, & yet he declined the doing of so acceptable an office, and gave the Petitio­ner unto him in that kinde, a flat deniall.

22. I answer, Both persons interested in the Divident of the land, did not sue unto him, but so that it was onely a single moti­on, not the joynt petition of both Brethren interested therein. 2. Christ, a searcher of hearts, might discover in him, who made the motion, a covetous inclination, and perchance a litigious disposition, not to stand to any agreement. Lastly, and chiefly, he had no calling to meddle there­in, being a private person, and captious people lay at the catch on any shadow of a fault to accuse him, for invading the office of a Magistrate.

23. It is confessed, it is an honourable work to accommodate differences accor­ding to our Saviours own principles, Blessed are the peacemakers, especially to compremize discord betwixt so neer rela­tions, as two Brethren. Hereby, haply, our Saviour might have prevented long [Page 19] and tedious suits, saved them the expenses of a costly prosecution in Law, and which was more, might have suppressed many uncharitable Animosities, and quenched heart burnings betwixt them. But one thing was wanting, A Commission to intermeddle therein, A good deed is an ill deed, do by him who hath no calling to do it, The Courts were open, and Judges therein appointed, to heare and determine Causes of this nature. They both, if so disposed, might sue out what was equiva­lent to our writ of partition in our Com­mon Law, to part the Inheritance in equall portions betwixt them, whilst our Saviour justly refused to interpose in the Controversie, made a Mediatour betwixt God and Man in matters of higher con­sequence, but not betwixt Man and Man in things of temporall concern­ments.

24. Such therefore will find themselves much mistaken, who having little ability, and no authority, adventure on the Mini­steriall function to preach and baptize, con­ceiving they shall be justified and born out [Page 17] in the Court of Heaven by the integrity of their intentions to employ their parts to Gods glory, whereas more is requisite to the legitimation of a publique act, and making it good, when done by a private person, namely, a lawfull commission to doe it, for want whereof our Saviour ab­stained to intermeddle as a Magistrate, though, he went about doing of good.

25. And here, by the way, let me insert another caution: Our Saviours going a­bout from place to place, not fixed in a certain station, nothing favoureth or be­friendeth the practice of such, who refuse to reside on Parochiall charge, but must have a whole Province, or Principality for the circuit of their plancticall preaching. These pretend to such prodigious parts, such Paramount gifts and graces, above the standard of other men, (and we must believe they have such signall endow­ments for they say to themselves, That they conceive if pity such Talents should be buried in one Parish, and such ample abili­ties be stifled within the narrownesse of one Cure: and hence it is, these ambulatory [Page 18] Preachers remove from place to place, re­fusing to be setled in a certain habitation: But it is to be feared these men go about, sowing of Schism, setting of Errors, and spreading Faction, whilst our Saviour went about doing of good.

26. The next is a fault of commission charged on our Saviour, that he went not alwaies about doing of good, by his owne confession, Mat. 10. 34. Think not I am come to send peace on earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, &c. Now such who come to bring asword to any place, surely their room is more wel­come than their company, and it can no way be intitled to be a good work, when one (contrary to the law of nature it self) shall set variance betwixt so near and dear relations.

27. I answer, Our Saviours words, I come to set a man at variance, are not so to be understood, as if it were his princi­pall purpose and originall intent, out of premeditate plot, and set designe to make these unnaturall differences, but [Page 19] that such sad effects, de facto, would come to passe, per accidens, through the corru­ption in mankind: For the preaching of the Gospel would meet with such opposi­tion in carnall mindes, that our Saviour in­fallibly foresaw such domesticall Antipa­thies would inevitably follow the same. Thus, as the Sun intended by nature to lighten clear eyes, and arising daily for that purpose, yet occasioneth the smarting of such who are sore, or blear-sighted: So Christ being a Peace-maker and Mediatour, by his message, employment, and desire, proved against his own will through mens default, the generall incendiaries in fa­milies, and by consequence in Cities, Countries, and Kingdomes, though he went about doing of good.

28. Two eminent instances may be gi­ven of the good our Saviour did, First, all his Miracles were saving Miracles, which may serve for a character to distingu [...]sh them from the Miracles of his Apostles; St. Paul strikes seeing El [...]mas blinde, Christ makes blind Bartimeus see; S. Peter strikes living Ananias and Sapphira dead; [Page 20] Christ makes dead Girus his daughter and Lazarus live. But if Christ was pleased to manifest himself in a destructive way, no rationall creature shall be made the object of his anger, but a Fig-tree is sound out (and that but a barren one) Mat. 21. 19. to be cursed; Hoggs are found out (and those the beastliest of all Beasts) Mat. 32. 8. to be drowned, to shew that if God in the vindication of his own honour, doth devi­ate from his naturall pronity and propen­sity to mercy, and is necessitated, se de­fendendo, to appear in a revenging way: it is our barrennesse in goodnesse, and beastli­nesse in badnesse, which inforceth him to what is contrary to his owne inclina­tion.

29. Secondly, we may observe, that some of our Saviours miracles were double ones, one growing within another. Thus Mat. 9. 19. it was the chief intent of our Saviour to raise the daughter of the Ruler, when [...], obiter, as in the way thi­ther, he did almost as great a miracle in curing her, who was long troubled with an Issue of blood. Thus as cunning Gar­deners [Page 21] are said to have a mysterie, where­by (by inoculating one flower on another) they make them grow double: so our Sa­viour had Twin-miracles, and occasionall springing up in the midst of an intentional miracle.

30. But here a question may be pro­pounded, not coming within the com­passe of those condemned by the Apostle, 2 Tim. 2. 23. For foolish and unlearned that do gender strife; but such the answering whereof may give some light to our heads, and heat to our hearts and affections.

31. Seeing our Saviour was a Benefa­ctor generall to all persons and places where he came, how came it to passe that he was not the minion of mankind, deliciae humani generis, the darling of the world, seeing he deserved no less, by his favours conferred upon it? how came men so generally to hate him, so often to plot, and at last to practise his destruction?

32. I answer, severall reasons may be rendred, some nearer, some more remote, why our Saviour could never be popular, though no man more merited the same; [Page 22] First, because had he been universally be­loved, it would have hindred the grand design of mans salvation, no Judas would have been found to betray him, no false Witnesses to accuse him, no Pilate to condemn him, no Souldiers to execute him, and therefore of necessity Christ was to incur many mens displeasure.

33. Secondly, he was to have not onely a notionall, but also an experimentall, yea, which was more, a meritorious know­ledge of all miseries, to which humanity was subject, of hunger, Mark 11. 12. of thirst, Iohn 4. 9. long and painfull prea­ching with little profit, because of peoples unbelief, wearinesse under paine, and na­kednesse upon the Crosse, as also of the causlesse and undeserved hatred of people from those on whom he had conferred great favours, that so he might the better know to pray for pity, and believe his ser­vants in the same condition.

34. Thirdly, though our Savior went about doing of good, yet some wicked men hated him, meerly because they were wicked men; there is a generation of people, which [Page 23] drive a trade (whereby they will never grow spiritually rich) of receiving good, & returning evil. David, as a Prophet, yea, a Type of Christ, complained of such, Psal. 35. 12. They rewarded me evil for good, to the spoyling of my soule. Some men have such foul stomachs, as to turn all honey into choller, converting courtesies they have received into anger and malice.

35. Fourthly, Christ, though generally doing good, was distasted of many, because the Doctrines he delivered, were either above their understanding, or against their humour and inclination; it was said of Titus Vespasian the Emperour, Neminem à se dimisit tristem, He sent no man sad away from him. A happinesse denied to our Saviour himself, for when (Mat. 19. 22.) he advised the young man to sell all that he had and give it to the poore, and come and follow him; it is said, he went away sorrow­full, for he had great possessions.

36. Lastly, Christ, though generally in­gratiating himself with his good deeds, could never arrive to be universally belo­ved, because he told people of their sins, [Page 24] and foretold them of their sufferings, especially the 23. of S. Matthew's Gospel, where he pronounceth eight woes, and every woe three fold (four and twenty in all in effect) against Scribes, and Pharisees and Hypocrites.

37. It was said of Will: Nassaw, Prince of Orange, (Father to the late Maurice) the first Founder under God, of the Low-country mens liberty, being a popular Prince, courteous in his carriage to the meanest person, that he never put off his hat to a Peasant, or Boar, but with that ge­sture the King of Spain lost a Subject, and a free Member was gained to the united Provinces, how well they will requite his kindnesse to his family, posterity will take notice, and succeeding generations will ob­serve.

38. But our Saviour never pronounced one of the aforesaid woes, but instantly he lost the affections of some, who became his enemies for telling them the truth: Here a Hyppocrite hated him, there a Scribe scorned him; here a Lawyer left him, there a Pharisee forsook him; and at [Page 25] one time, Joh. 6. 66. many of his Disciples went back, and walked no more with him.

39. And here it is worth our observation to take notice of the difference between the preaching of Moses and our Saviour, the former promised all outward happinesse to such as kept Gods lawes, how they should be, Deut. 28. Blessed in the field, and blessed in the city, blessed in their body, and blessed in their ground, and blessed in their cattel, blessed in their basket, and blessed in their store, in a word, on condition they would observe Gods commandements he preached and promised unto them all external peace, plenty, and prosperity,

40. Our Saviour's Sermons were of a different, yea, contrary nature, as appea­reth by that passage, Mat. 5. 44. But I say unto you, love your enemies, blesse them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despightfully use you and persecute you?

where­in is 1. Supposed, That the servants of God notwithstand­ing their walking so­berly, righteously, and godlily, to the utmost of their endeavours, shall have many ene­mies, crusers, and persecutors.

2. Imposed, That Gospell princi­ples oblige such who will be the followers of Christ, to blesse those who are their most professed ene­mies.

These are two hard sayings together, and is able to bear them severally, & asun­der; this mauled Christ his popularity, that notwithstanding all his heavenly Sermons, holy life, and happy miracles, he was hated by carnall men, chiefly on this account, because such as followed his Doctrines, must be sure of persecution here, and waite for a reward hereafter.

41. Let not the Ministers of the Gospel [Page 27] be disheartned, and discouraged, if with all their painfull preaching, and pi­ous living and courteous, carriage to, and good usage of their people, they can never get, nor gaine their generall good will. The Disciple is not greater than his Master, nor the servant than his Lord, let us know to our comfort that Christ himself could never be long in peaceable possession of a generall good esteeme, but for the reasons aforesaid, fell into peoples displeasure, though he went about doing of good.

42. Now to make some use of the Text in generall, and first, is it so that our Saviour went about doing of good? serveth in this the first place to confute such, who will not at all go about, but immure them­selves in a Cloister, pent within the walls thereof, and then pride themselves in this their will-worship, as the highest and holi­est state of perfection, though there they zily wither on the stalk they grew on, with­out contributing any thing by their paines and parts to the Church or Common-wealth: May not both Church and State, as their creditors, justly sue them on an [Page 28] Action of Debt, for imbezilling these their part; or, if you will, ingrossing them to themselves alone, wherein the Commu­nion of Saints doth claime a joynt and publique interest; sure I am, our Saviour, that grand Exemplar of Holinesse, did not confine himself to a Cell, but went about doing of good.

43. Secondly, confuteth such who goe about, but how? not to do good, but to do mischief, every place they come at fa­ring the worse for their company: Thus as a Snaile may be traced by the slime she leaveth behinde her, so these men may be tracked whithersoever they remove, by the sootsteps of their own wickednesse. Here they have a wanton speech, there a drop, an uncharitable passage; there they scatter a profane expression, they may be followed and found out by their bad words in one place, and worse works in another; these leave Satan for their Sove­reigne, or chief of their order, Job 1. 7. Who came from going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it. But what to do? The Apostle telleth us, [Page 29] 1 Pet. 5. 8. Walking about seeking whom he may devoure. Lazinesse is better than such labour, idlenesse than such employment, to go about doing of evil.

44. Thirdly, it confuteth such, who (to give them their due) do some good, and go doing of some good, but they go not about, their motion is circular, but semicir­cular at the best, they are onely beneficial to some of their own gang, of their own party, of their own faction, their goodness is not generall and universall, to all the true and proper objects thereof.

45. What saith S. Paul, Gal. 6. 10. As we have therefore opportunities, let us doe good to all men, especially to them who are of the houshold of faith; those indeed are to have a Hanna's part of our Favour, a Benjamine's portion of our Bounty, yet so, as all in extremity, are the objects of cha­rity, we are to baulk none who come in our way, not to say that some of plentifull estates are bound to seek out such ob­jects for their liberality.

46. It is observed, that the disease called S. Anthony's fire, or the Cingles, (because [Page 30] it clippeth and surroundeth the body in fashion of a girdle) is never mortall, till it wholly compasseth the wast, both sides of the inflammation meeting together; but on the contrary, Charity is never Sove­raign effectually, and cordiall to purpose, untill it finisheth its full circuit, and taketh its compleat compasse, going about to do good.

47. It is an use of comfort to the Saints and servants of God, considering that Christ, who on Earth went about doing of good, now in heaven, antiquum obtinet, keeps his old wont, still retaineth his for­mer mercifull and bountifull disposition, he hath not lesse goodnesse, for having more greatnesse, lesse grace for having more glory, yea, rather now he doth greater and better things for us, because he is gone to the Father, John 14. 12. Whilst on earth his power was limited and confi­ned, his lustre was clouded and eclipsed with his humanity, whereas now he is put into a better capacity to expresse himself, and assist us, able to work what we wish, and doe what we desire.

[Page 31] 48. But now he doth not goe about do­ing of good, because after his long weari­nesse on earth, he is reposed in ease and honour, and fixed at the right hand of his Father in heaven, yet still in some sence he may be said to goe about doing of good, such the extensivenesse of his providence, through the whole circle of Creation, from Angels to worms, though the Master-piece of his mercy is the daily making of inter­cession to God for his servants.

49. Some difference there is amongst learned men about the manner of his ma­king intercession, some conceiving it done onely with his mouth, others onely really by vertue of his merit, probably it may be done both waies, the rather because our Saviour hath a tongue (as also a whole bo­dy, but glorified) in heaven, and it is not likely, that the mouth wch pleaded for us on earth, is altogether silent for us in hea­ven, but in what manner soever this inter­cession be made, it is so done, as makes it both acceptable to God, and effectuall for us, by him who now reigneth in glory, and formerly went about doing of good. Amen.



S. LUKE 10. ver. 27.
Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, &c.

LONDON. Printed for JOHN STAFFORD at Fleet bridge. 1655.

A Gift for God alone.

PROV. 23. ver. 26.‘My son, give me thy heart.’

THese words, [My son▪] are used more than sixteen times in this Book. It is therefore well worth our inquiry, what particular persons Solomon designed by that relative compellation.

First, Negatively: know that Rehoboam, Solomon's son begotten by him, (heir but to two parts of twelve of his Father's King­dome, but not to the hundred part of his wisdome) was not particularly reflected at herein, nor any other of his bodily extra­ction; where, by the way, though we read of Solomon's Wives and Concubines, we can give but a slender account of his Children, [Page 2] finding but one Son, and two Daughters, 1 King. 4. 11, 15. And probably, he was not fruitfull in issue, proportionably to his marriages.

2. Nor Positively: know Solomon was but the instrumentall Pen man, Gods Spirit the principall Inditor of this Book. And as our Saviour said, Mat. 12. 50. Whosoever shall doe the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, sister, and mother; So, whosoever shall attentively hear, and conscionably practise the precept in my Text, the same is the beloved son, and dear daughter therein intended, My son, give me thy heart.

3. We will begin with a brief paraphrase on each word, so to disincumber them from all shew of difficulty, and then by Gods assistance shall raise one staple Do­ctrine, prove and apply it.

4. Give] not sell, we ought not to be saleable in Gods service, having mercenary souls, chiefly aiming at our own interest. Indeed, we may, and must with Moses, Heb. 11. 26 have respect unto the recom­pense of reward; we may look to it, and


was taken from him, and given to his com­panion. Then surely God will not hold them guiltlesse, who having first given him their hearts, afterwards take them away again, and conferre them upon the world and wickednesse. 2 Tim. 4. 10. Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed.

1. Come we now to confute those flammes, which the world, the flesh and the Devill, commonly suggest to men to de­ter them, or at the least to detaine them from giving their hearts to God. Indeed I could give them better termes, as to call them pleas, pretences, excuses; but flammes is even good enough to expresse them.

2. First, they alledge for themselves, that in case they should give their hearts to God, they must presently take a finall far­well of all comforts and contentments in this World. Hereafter (say they) we must expect to live a dismall, dreary, dolefull, discontented, disconsolate life: no spark of pleasure, mirth, and jollity, but a life­lesse heartlesse life, when we have given our hearts unto God.

[Page 12] 3. Answer, I know not whether this flamme hath more of folly, or falsehood therein. Such needlesse feares and Jealou­sies the Devil starts in mens apprehensions. The Jewes were afraid in case they did permit our Saviour publickly to preach a­mongst them, John. 11. 48. That the Romanes would come and take away from them both the place and nation. Whereas in­deed it had been the onely way to prevent their invasion, seeing the putting of Christ to Death, did not only accelerate, but cause the ruine of their Nation. Thus men suspect that the giving of their hearts to God will marre their mirth, and destroy their de­light for the time to come, whereas on the contrary, it is the onely way, for the con­tinuance, increase, and improvement there­of.

4. True it is, it will retrench that Mock­mirth which ends in mourning, that joy not to be rejoyced in, it will defaulk those exorbitances and extravagances of Carnall pleasure, wherein wicked men lay out their soules. But the tree of true joy shall thrive the better for the cutting off of these suc­kers. [Page 13] Yea, which is more, a soul is utterly unacquainted with virgin, delibated, and clarified joy, untill such time as the heart be given to God, from which moment all true joy beareth the Date thereof.

5. It is worth our observation to mark the difference betwixt the old Translation (made according to the vulgar Latine) and the new, conformed to the Originall in the rendring of the eighth Verse of the fourth Psalm.

Old Translation.

Thou haste put gladnesse in my heart: since the time their corne, and wine, and oyle increased.

New Translation.

Thou haste put glad­nesse in my heart, more than in the time that their corne, and their wine increased.

Here we may see that oyle (to bring in three staple Commodities of the Land of Canaan) is inserted in the Vulgar without any warrant from the Originall; we can­not but dislike such an addition, more than [Page 14] what is warranted in the Originall; other­wise the Doctrine had been true in it self, though putting in honey, balm, all other commodities which that Land did afford. All of these could not equall that gladness of heart, which the Spirit of God puts into a Christians soule, after his heart is freely given to Gods service.

6. The second flamme: if we give our hearts to God, we shall want one to dis­charge our several Relations to our wives, children, friends, neighbours, and acquain­tance. God will so ingrosse and monopo­lize our hearts to himself alone, we shall want the use of them, to all other purpo­ses, and intents, where we stand enga­ged.

7. Answer. This flamme hath as much folly and more malice than the former. Give thy heart to God, and he will return it unto thee during thy life, (and what nee­deth any longer term?) therewith to dis­charge thy Relations better than ever be­fore. A heart given to God will rule thy paces unto thy wives bed, to keep thy af­fections loyall unto her without any wan­dring. [Page 15] In a word, it is so given to God, that it is still kept to thy selfe, to perform all those offices, which are according to Gods command.

8. Third flamme, But my heart is so bad, it is not worthy Gods acceptance, who justly will cast it away, both the gift & gi­ver thereof. All the bad Epithets given to a heart in the Scripture, center and unite themselves in the mind, yea concur in the constitution thereof. An obstinate heart, Deut. 2. 30. A froward heart, Psal. 101. 4. A proud heart, Psa. 101. 5. A perverse heart, Prov. 12. 8. A haughty heart, Prov. 18. 12. A stout heart, Esa. 9. 9. A stony heart, Ezek. 11. 19. A hardned heart, Mar. 8. 17. A heart slow to believe, Luke 24. 25. An uncir­cumcised heart, Act. 7. 51. An impenitent heart, Rom. [...]. 5. And what else soever is found in Scripture sounding to the dis­grace thereof. If therefore I should give so bad a heart to God, he would refuse it, and returne it to me in his just displea­sure.

9. I answer, if this flamme cometh from a Hypocrite and Dissembler, it is utterly [Page 16] unworthy that any answer should be affor­ded thereunto. But if it come from a pe­nitent soule, sadly sensible of its own bad­nesse, (as in charity we are bound to believe the best) it deserveth a better name then a flamme, yea, is a hopefull and happy symptome (though of weake) of true grace in the party propounding it. Happy that man, blessed that woman, who from a feeling of their own unworthinesse, make this sincere complaint.

10. Be it known then to their comfort, that if they had a better heart, then this, whereof they complain, and did begrudge and repine to bestow it on God, yea, did keep and reserve the same for the service of Satan, and their own wicked lusts, then this were in them notorious and unpardo­nable Hypocrisie. But if this (as bad as it is) be the best heart they have, they may, yea must give it to God, and from him shall receive the same in a New edition bettered and amended. Thy obstinate heart shall be made obedient; thy froward heart, forward in Gods service; thy proud heart, humble; perverse heart, plyable; haughty heart, sub­misse; [Page 17] stout heart, complying heart; stony heart, fleshy; hardned heart, soft; heart slow, quick to believe; uncircumcised heart, circumcised; impenitent heart, repenting, &c. The onely way to get thy heart re­formed, is, to give it to God, who will create a new heart in thee, according to Davids desire.

11. Let us instance in three motives to quicken our performance in this duty. The first may be drawne from the dignity of the party desiring it; God, who might com­mand, seemes in some sort in the Text to request. These last ten yeares have made a sad change in many mens conditions. Such who formerly relieved others, have since received reliefe from others. Need hath taught many an ingenuous tongue, a language, wherewith formerly it was un­acquainted. It may move a misers heart to pity to heare them beg, (not thorough default of their own) who had a hand and heart to distribute to others. But ought we not to be affected with the motion made in the Text, wherein the great God of Heaven seemeth in some sort to wave [Page 18] his Might and Majesty, and in Triall of our Towardnesse and tendernesse, becomes in the nature of a Petitioner unto us, my Son give me thy heart, or at least wise, doth onely desire, what he may demand as his due, yea command as his right belonging unto him.

12. Second motive may be drawn from the deserts of the Party, he is worthy (say the Pharisees of the Centurion to Christ) For whom thou shouldst do this thing, for he loveth our Nation, and hath built us a Sy­nagogue, Luke 7. 5. Many and great are the indearments and obligations, which God hath put upon us, he loadeth us daily with benefits, Psal. 68. 19. (though we make but light of that load) as appeareth by our constant ingratitude.

13. The last motive may be taken from the danger of denyal: for be thou well assured, if thou refuse to give God thy heart, it wil not remaine thine long, to thy com­fort. If any speciall friend, so honest, that he would not deceive thee with false frights, and so wise that he could not therewith be deceived by others, should [Page 19] seriously informe thee, that this Night, thou should be plundered of a Jewel of great value, which thou hast in thy house, & should request it of thee, to secure it for thee (in the best acceptation of the word) promising safe keeping, and seasonable restoring thereof; Surely thou shouldst discover little discretion to run the hazard of a Robbery, and refuse so faire and civill a motion for thy own advantage. Know in like manner, the world, flesh, and Devil, one or all of them, will purloine thy heart from thee, and imbezle it to thy destructi­on. In prevention whereof, do thou make a Friend therewith, and speedily bestow it, where it may be preserved for thee. Adam himself, though armed with Originall In­tegrity, how ill he kept his own heart, we his Posterity may sadly bemoan: despaire thou therefore to be the Treasurer of thy own heart, thou canst not lock it so fast, but sin or Satan by force or fraud, will command and cozen thee out of the pos­session of it, if it be not solemnly given to God himself.

14. And now, as once the Eunuch said [Page 20] to Philip, Acts 8. 36. See here is water, what doth hinder me to be baptized? so be­hold here all the requisites to a deed of gift, what is it that debarreth us, but that in­stantly this transaction of our hearts may be compleated? Here we the Granters are present, and I charitably presume have our hearts in a spirituall sense, here within us; here is God the Grantee, who hath pro­mised, where two or three are met toge­ther in his name, to be in the midst of them; here are witnesses enow, seeing he who as party to one deed (wherein himself is concerned) may be a witnesse to the grant of another, and legally attest the truth thereof. Nor is there any need of counsell of publick Notaries to draw up and ingrosse an instrument herein, seeing no­thing is required to the giving of the heart save the giving of the heart; the more sim­ply, the more surely it is pefrormed.

15. O the commendable simplicity of former Ages, and their plain dealings in bar­gains and seals: what their hearts thought then tongues said; what their tongues said their teeth seal'd, whose seals of brickle [Page 21] dough held better to all purposes and in­tents than ours of the most tenacious wax: how many Manours in those dayes were conveyed in few words, From me and mine, to thee and thine; where, as now, a span of ground can scarce be conveyed under a span of parchment, such is the litigiousnesse of our Age.

16. But know, in giving our hearts, we are to deal with him who is the searcher of the hearts, and who hateth all ceremoni­ous complements, preferring down-right sincerity. Indeed, if the head was to be given, some might conceive it fit and ne­cessary that the tongue and brains thereof should be imployed in making a large and eloquent Oration at such transactions; but the heart being now to be given, it may be done with silence and sincerity, with a se­rious promise, from this very moment to consecrate the same totally and finally to Gods service.

17. I have read of Iames the fourth, King of Scotland, that on his death-bed he be­queathed his heart to the Lord Douglas, to carry the same to Ierusalem, and to see it [Page 22] buried by the grave of our Saviour, which the Lord performed accordingly; and in avowance thereof, the Honourable Fami­lies of the Douglasses at this day, give a heart proper in the Base-point of the Shield.

18. Some will praise the officiousness of a Servant in doing his Masters command, but none can excuse the superstition of the Master, save onely by charging it on the erroneous devotion of those dark daies he lived in: but let not us delay it till our death, but in our life-time in the height of our health, wealth, and prosperity, let us not send by others, but give our selves, not our carnal, corporeal heart, but our spiritual heart, (I mean, all the powers and faculties of our souls) not to be interred in the mate­rial grave of our Saviour, but to be buried with him in true mortification, which will be truly to practise the precept given in my Text, My son, give me thy heart. Amen.



Prov. 28. 13.
—He that confesseth and forsaketh his sin, shall finde mercy.

LONDON. Printed for JOHN STAFFORD at Fleet-bridge. 1655.

The true Penitent.

LUKE 22. 61.‘And wept bitterly.’

TWo men doe not more differ one from another, than the-selfe same man at severall times, differs from himselfe. Behold a Christian at the High-wa­ter-mark, when 'tis Spring-tide of Grace with him, and how full is he fraught with pious Meditations? Good Thoughts, godly Words, gracious Works, so that one would think he would instantly stere from Holinesse to Happinesse. (The Top of Grace confines with the Bottom of Glory) and wonders to see so much Triumphant Sanctity in a Militant Chri­stian. But now look on the same Man, [Page 2] at Ebbing Water, when left to himselfe in the Agony of a Temptation, and how much shall we find him disguised from himself? All his former good motions dead and buried, and in their room ariseth another Generation, which never knew Joseph. Dismall Thoughts, desperate Words, damnable Deeds, one would feare he would suddenly fall into the Bot­tomless pit, but one Haires breadth be­twixt him and Hell. Wofull the soul who comes so neere, yet blessed the soule who never comes neerer. We need not go far­ther for a pregnant proof thereof, than to the Example of S. Peter, in this Chapter. How promise-valiant was He, never to forsake his Master? And yet in the time of triall, how basely did he behave himselfe? Thus every one can conquer a Temptati­on, but He who is assaulted with it, and when it is brought home to our heart, There is the Man, yea, there is more than the Man, yea, there must be a God to as­sist the Man, to subdue and overcome it.

2. But as the sicknesse of Lazarus, so the sinne of Saint Peter was not unto death, [Page 3] but for the Glory of God. Rejoyce not over me, O mine enemy; for though I fall, yet shall I rise againe. Soone after the Lord look't, the Cock Crew, and the day dawn'd in the heart of Saint Peter, out he hasts of the High Priests Hall; Privacy complyes best with Repentance. No such company for a Penitent, as onely himself and his God, and now all alone he gives himself over to Lamentation. He smote the stony Rock also, and waters gushed forth; so that rivers Ran in desolate pla­ces. Cephas a stone, Peter, a rock, smitten with the sence of his sinnes, flowes with plentifull rivers of Sorrow. O Happy day of his Repentance! day, which had a fair afternoon, but a very rainy morning, And he went out and wept bitterly.

3. And wept bitterly. The Text contains the Cure for the falling sicknesse of the Soule, and is so short that it needes no di­vision, onely (to avoid confusion) I will handle it, first, in reference to Saint Peter, then in application to our selves; meane time let none be offended at me, that clean thorough my discourse, I call him S. Peter, [Page 4] though then in the midst of his misery whom some will not style so, though now in the heigth of his happinesse. Sure their taking of the Saintship from those in hea­ven, hath added no more holinesse to themselves on earth. But, such Honour have all his Saints, that they are to be mentioned with honour. And see the Pat­tent of Peters Saint-ship penned with his teares in my text, written out so much the more fairely, by how much it was the more blurred. And wept bitterly.

4. In reference to S Peter, three pertinent Questions must be propounded, & answe­red. The first, Why did S Peter take on so heavily, seeing so much may be said for les­sening his fault? and though not wholly to excuse, in great degree to extenuate his offence. For first, it was but a sin of Infir­mity, done besides, yea, against his pur­pose and intention. He did not with a high hand tempt a temptation: but alas! his Heart was too great for his Heart, his Will to promise too great for his power to perform. Secondly, a forcible Motive moved him thereunto, namely, feare to [Page 5] lose his life. It was not S. Peter, but S. Peters Passion which denied his Master, or rather, he did but reserve himself to confess him at a fitter opportunity. Thirdly, As the Spouse in the Canticles saith, I sleep, but my heart waketh; So Saint Peter might say, My mouth renounceth my Master, but my minde doth retein him. The Deniall is but from the teeth outwards, ore, non cor­de. Lastly, the lameness of his Lie may be hidden or helped, by lending it the Cha­ritable Staffe of an equivocation, Verily I know not the Man, that is, I know him not with intent to tell you of him; or I know no such meer man as you mean, for my Master is both God and Man.

5. The Answer to this Objection is ea­sie: For, S. Peter did not looke on such Passages, as might lessen his Fault, but onely observed such Circumstances, as tended to the Heightening, Extending, and Aggravating thereof. As for Equivocatiō, that sluggish Piece of Popery, could not be so early a riser, as to be up in the Church in the twy-light, and first dawning of the Gospel. For first, S. Peter did consider, [Page 6] that he was forewarned, and therefore should have been forearmed. He could not plead that he was surprized on a sudden, Christ having given him before a Caveat thereof. Secondly, He did it against his free Promise, and flat Protestation; as if Childs play, too mean for men, were good enough for God, fast and loose, bind and break, solemnly say one thing, and pre­sently do another. Thirdly, He did it Thrice: Once may be imputed to Inco­gitancy, Twice ascribed to Infirmity, but Thrice is uncapable of any charitable Comment. So that Favour it self must be forced to condemn it for a wilful Offence. Lastly, It was not a bare Deniall, but a Denial imbossed with Oaths, and embroi­dered with Curses, such is the Conca­tenation betwixt one Sin and another. The Naturalists report of the Providence of the Pismire, that when she storeth up Grain for the Winter, she biteth off both the ends of the Corn, thereby to prevent the growing thereof. But if we should be so unhappy as to commit one Sin, O let us with speedy repentance spoile the pro­creative [Page 7] power thereof, before that One Sin hath begot another: for how quickly did S. Peter adde Swearing to Lying, and Cursing to both?

6. Thus the Eares and Eyes of S. Peter were onely open to heare and see such matters as most made against him: learn we from him, to measure the dimension of a sin, and not to listen to what Flesh and Blood may prompt us, for the lessening of our Offences. Mattereth it not then, though we cannot measure the Compass of the Earth, take the Height of the Hea­vens, if we can, by the Jacobs Staff of Gods Word, take the true Altitude of our hey­nous transgressions: If there be any Cir­cumstances which tend to the extenuating of our Faults, though we should chance to lose them, Gods goodnesse will finde them; and if we should forget them, he would remember them. Let us look se­riously on such things as render our faults the foulest; following the Example of S. Peter in my Text, Looking upwards, he seeth God threatning, downwards, the Devill insulting within him, his Consci­ence [Page 8] raging without him, Good men mourning, Bad men mocking, that the first of the Apostles, S. Peter, in the Pub­lick'st of Places, the High-Priests Hall, before the Prophanest of Persons, the High-Priests Servants, at the Weakest of Motives, the Summons of a Maid, did the worst of Actions, Deny his Master, Once, and not touch'd thereat, Twice, and not troubled thereat, Thrice, but there he stopt, but there he stay'd, but there he stinted: And he went out and wept bit­terly.

7. The second Question here to be de­manded, is this, Wherein consisted the vali­dity and efficacy of the weeping of S. Peter, that thereby he obtained his Pardon?

8. To this we answer, First Negatively. The vertue of his Weeping did not con­sist in his Weeping, for by the bare Deed done, did redound neither Good to him, nor Glory to God. If God be thirsty, he will not tell us, nor drink of the buckets of our teares. For all the Rivers of the Field are his, and so are the Fountaines on a thousand Hills. I could both sigh [Page 9] and smile, at the simplicity of some Pagan People in America, who having told a Lie, used to let their tongues blood in ex­piation thereof. A good Cure for the Squinancy, but no Satisfaction for Lying. And if not Red teares, then much lesse White teares, are in themselves, any wayes expiatory of the least sin. Now, Positive­ly, Herein was the vertue of St. Peters Weeping, which procured his Pardon, that his Weeping was washed in the blood of his Saviour: In vaine had Peter wept, had not Christ first bled for Peter. Could the eyes of a Penitent vie moisture with the Month of April? All were to no pur­pose, without relating by Faith to Christ; such Prodigall weeping would sooner drown the Sinner, than wash a Sin. It was not the Water, but it was that Sope, Malac. 3. 2. which did rinse the soul of S. Peter.

9. By the way we must observe, that all people are not bound to weepe for their sinnes, because some can­not, by reason of naturall impediment. There is genus siccoculum, people, whose eyes by nature are like the Pit, into which [Page 10] Joseph was put, wherein there was no wa­ter. Others there be, whose grief is too great to be managed by weeping. And as the teares are even ready to salley out of their eyes, they are countermanded back again with amazement and stupefa­ction: therefore those Mothers, who want Milk, are not bound to suckle their own Children, but either to bring them up by hand, or to provide a Nurse for them; so God expects not that those should weep, whose eyes are drie Nurses, but that some other wayes they expresse their sorrow for their sins. And common­ly such people, though they are water­bound, yet will not be wind-bound too, but what they spare in teares, they spend in sighs. Such persons are not to be re­proached, but pitied, as lacking an outlet for the exportation of their sorrow; & it is to be feared, that Grief will wrong the Vessell the more, for lacking a vent; a fa­vour, which Nature afforded to St. Peter in my Text: For He could go out and weep bitterly.

10. The third and last Question to be [Page 11] propounded, is this: Suppose S. Peter had died suddenly, immediately after his de­nying of his Master, and just before his Repentance; What then had become of the soule of S. Peter?

11. I answer: First, As is the Mother, so is the Daughter: an Impossible Supposi­tion hath begot and brought forth an Im­possible Conclusion. Suppose that the Sun had been quite put out in the last E­clips, whence then should the torch of the Moon, and the taper of the Starres be lighted? Suppose that Abraham had really sacrificed Isaac, when he did but offer him, who then had been the Father of Iacob? To come closer to the questi­on. It was impossible for Peter to die be­fore his Repentance; not but that he was mortall in himself (any Arrow in Deaths Quiver might have wounded him to the heart, a Feaver burn him, a Dropsie drown him, any deadly Disease surprize him) but because his life, as well naturall, as spi­ritual, was hid with Christ in God, Col. 3. 3. whose wisdom, as it had permitted his Fall, so his goodness had decreed his Recove­ry.

[Page 12] The Bones in the blessed body of our Saviour, were frangibilia, but not frangenda; they were breakable in their own nature, but could never actually be broken, as being secured from all possibi­lity of fracture, by that Prophecy premi­sed, A bone of him shall not be broken. In like manner, seeing God had determined the salvation of St. Peter; Heaven and Earth might sooner passe away, than he fall finally, in spight of Sicknesse, and Death, and Sin, and Satan, and Hell it self, he must rise, he must survive, he must recover. But, not forced with the strength of the Supposition, but out of good will, to gratifie ingenious Adversaries, be it granted, that S. Peter had died suddenly, after his sinne, and before his explicite, actual repentance for this particular fault; yet I say, his soule had gone to Heaven. For, consider first, Though the Boughs of his sinnes spred wide, and Branches sprouted high, yet the Root thereof was but humane Infirmity, consistent with sa­ving Grace. And though he denied his Master Thrice, yet it was but Once in ef­effect, [Page 13] All in one continued Hot blood, his soule being never cooled, or re-infor­ced with new thoughts. Secondly, He had in him true repentance, quoad princi­pium gratiae, an habitual Repentance, which through Gods Mercy, and Christs Merits, was sufficient for his salvation. If any dissent from me herein, because I make Habitual Repentance, like Janus, to look as well forward as backward, effectuall for the remission of future, as well as past-sinnes; let such consider with themselves, First, they cannot, but must die. Second­ly, they cannot, but must sin, and it is possible they may suddenly; guilty of sins of infirmity, actually unrepented of. In such a case their judgement will not al­low Purgatory: Their will cannot indure Hell, Heaven is the place which they hope and desire to go to, wherefore what fa­vour they expect for themselves, let them charitably allow to S. Peter. But what go we about to do? the Text takes away the subject of the Question, whereof we di­spute, Peter did revive, and recover, witness his sighing, his sobbing, his weeping, his wai­ling in my Text.

[Page 14] 12. The use of this might serve to con­fute the censoriousnes of many in this Age, who seeing their Brother guilty of a grie­vous sinne, presently condemn him for A Reprobate and Castaway. Thus the Poore mans Soule, cast by his owne sinnes to Hells Brinke, is throwne down by other mens Censures to Hells Bottom. It is re­ported, of Iohn Duns Scotus, the great School man, that being in a strong fit of an Apoplexy, the standers by conceived him to be dead indeed. Whereupon, out of the cruell kindnesse, and over-officious forwardnesse of his Friends and Kindred, he was buried as yet being alive, and af­terwards knockt out his brains against the sides of the Coffin. Thus the precipitate hastiness of some censorious people, be­holding their brother in a desperate sinne, or deep temptation, bring no Cordials, but call for a Coffin, vote him spiritually dead, and instead of rubbing him, fall a winding him. They conclude, there is no hope, there is no help, he's past sense, he's past saving, he's gone, he's given over to a reprobate minde, no way with him but [Page 15] one, and that is eternall damnation. Thus they bury mens soules alive, and (as much as lies in their power) tumble them into the bottomlesse pit; though the best is, such uncharitable carriage more hurteth the Doers than the Sufferers. Whereas men should know, that every wound in the soule, which is Mortale, is not mortiferum; And that it cometh to pass in the Christian Combate, what often happeneth in Bodi­ly Battels. Fames Trumpet kills more than the Sword, and many, reported by People to be slain over-night, are found alive in the morning, though (perchance) sorely wounded, or taken Captives. Sorely wounded! but so as they may be cu­red. Taken captives! but so as they may be freed by Gods pardon on their repentance, like S. Peter in my Text, who went out, &c.

13. So much of the Text, in reference to S. Peter: Come we now to the appli­cation unto our selves. The Pope preten­deth to be the onely Successor of S. Peter, but in this respect we all are his Successors; we all have followed him, we all have sate in his Chair, we all have denied our Ma­ster, [Page 16] though not Formally, totidem verbis, yet Equivalently, and it is to be feared, some of us Transcendently. There be di­vers degrees, and different manners of de­nying of Christ; some deny him Totally, as Apostates; some Partially, as Pro­phane people; some in his Essence, as A­theists; some in his Deity, as Arians; some in his Humanity, as Nestorians; some in his Merits, as some Proud Papists; some in his spirituall Dominion over them, as all Licentious People. If I be a master, where is my fear? saith the Lord of Hosts: Mal. 1. 6. so that they who call God Ma­ster with their mouths, and do not honour him in their hearts by their lives, doe in effect Deny him, and Un-master him, as much as lieth in their power.

14. Saint Paul complaineth, (Titus 1. last ver.) of some who profess that they know God, but in works they deny him. And S. Peter comes closer (second Epist. Cap. 2. ver. 1.) even denying the Lord that bought them. And the same reproof is ecchoed by S. Jude, ver. 4. turning the grace of God into lasciviousnesse, and [Page 17] denying the onely Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. The best of us all, in some measure, have been guilty hereof, and have abused our Christian Freedome, the more freely to abuse Christ who gave it us. Wherefore, as we have been like S. Peter in Sinning, let us be like S. Peter in Sorrowing, let us go out, not with out­ward Moving, but inward Mending; not shifting our Place, but changing our Pra­ctise, go out of our Sinnes, goe out of our Selves, go out to our Saviour, go out and weep bitterly.

15. Yea, but may some man say, I never could, nor shall weep bitterly for my sins. I am affected for outward afflictions, like Rahel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted. If I have a Ship sunk in the Sea, I can almost again drown it in my weeping. But alas! when I am to sorrow for my Sinnes, no Teares, as Vo­luntaries, profer themselves to my service. And I have much adoe to Press any to bewaile my Wickedness, yea, I have grieved more for one Temporall Cross, than for all the Sinnes I ever Committed: [Page 18] which makes me to feare, that for want of bitter weeping here, I shall go to the place of weeping and wailing hereafter.

16. If any penitent Soule doth stagger with this Objection, let him stay himselfe with these following Meditations. First know, that Sorrow for Sufferings must of necessity be more Violent and Passionate, than our Sorrow for our Sins. First, be­cause it is not only a Pure, Virgin, & Deli­bated Sorrow, but hath much of the mix­ture of Impatience, Discontentment, and Rebellion against Divine Providence. And these make the Sorrow more Vo­call, Clamorous, and Obstreperous. Secondly, because we Sorrow for our Sufferings, with the whole man; and for our Sins, but with half the man, onely our Regenerate Part, our Sanctified Moity. For our Flesh, all the while, laughs at Sin, and delights in it. Thirdly, because Sorrow for our Sufferings makes an immediat im­pression upon our bodies, whereas sorrow for our Sins works directly on the Soul, and on the Body, but by the by, and at the second hand, Now, although all Sorrow doth [Page 19] flow from the Soul, as the Fountain; yet because it runneth through the Body, as the Channel, and from thence is furnished with outward Expressions (as Teares, Sighs, Cries, rending the Haire, wringing the Hands, and the like) hence cometh it to passe, that Sorrow for Sufferings is best stored with plenty and variety of outward lamentations.

17. For a second Comfort take this. Though Sorrow for Sufferings be more Passionate, Sorrow for Sinnes is more Permanent. David saith, Psal. 51. 3. And my sinne is ever before me. As the Sin, so the Sorrow of a Saint is ever before him, morning, evening, early, late, day, night; he may go away with it, but cannot run away without it. Again, Sorrow for Sin doth grieve more, though it doth com­plain lesse, which will appeare by compa­ring of Two sick Persons, one having the Tooth-ach, the other the Consumption: He that hath the Tooth-ach, cries out most, even to the disturbing of the stan­ders by; and no wonder, if where the mouth be Plantiff, it complaineth aloud of [Page 20] its own grievances: and yet all know the Tooth-ach not to be mortall; it hath raised many from their Beds, sent few to the Grave, hindred the sleep of many, hastned the death of few: Whereas he who hath the Consumption, doth not roare, nor rage, nor cry out, and the little breath left in his bad lungs, he layeth out, rather than in living, than in sighing. And yet sure his grief is the greater, as knowing that he carrieth, though the easiest, yet the surest death about him. And such is a Saints Sorrow for his Sins, low and si­lent; the lesse grieving he keeps, the more grieving he keepes; the lesse he expresseth the more he retaineth. It is a continuall dropping, and you know it is the sober rain which maketh the earth drunk.

18. Third and last Comfort. Know, that our Sorrow for our Sins, though little in it selfe, is great in Gods acceptance and Appreciation. Well doth any wise earthly Prince know how to value the liberality of his loyall Subjects, who shall assist him in his great want with a small summe of money, especially if he knoweth that [Page 21] they are deeply impoverished & struggle with their necessity, which makes his gracious goodnesse to interpret a small gift a great one, comming from a large Heart, confined to a narrow Estate. But farre better doth the King of Heaven know how barren we are in Grace, how beggarly in Goodnesse, so that sorrow for our Sinnes comes from us with great difficulty and disadvantage, we are faine to strive and struggle against our corruptions, before one teare be ex­tracted.

Spigellius in his Booke of Anatomy, telleth us, That many English Mothers and Nurses have a foolish custome to swaddle the breasts of their new-borne Babes over-hard, and so straiten their stomacks, that their lungs cannot dilate themselves in breathing: and this (by the way) doth he say is the cause why more die of the Consumption in England, than in any other Country. Sure I am, that by the wilfull folly of our first Parents, Adam and Eve, before we had our Birth, when first we had our Being, we were so [Page 22] soule-bound with sin, and hard tied with the bands of Originall Corruption, that it hindreth the spirituall breathing of all our affections. Yet God is pleased to take our Widows Mite of Sorrow in good worth, knowing it proceds from pover­ty; yea, which is more, Heaven can smile to see a sinner grieve, that he cannot grieve for his sins; and God is pleased to see him squeeze the bottles of his eyes, though he can wring no moisture out of them. Twist these severall Cords toge­ther into one Cable of comfort, which tied to the Anchor of hope, will keep the pensive soule from sinking in despaire, though he cannot weep so bitterly for his sinnes, as he doth for outward afflicti­ons.

19. However, seeing it is the bounden duty of all, to endeavour to sorrow for their sinnes; this serves to confute the jol­lity of this Age. Wherein, instead of weeping bitterly, we have laughing hear­tily, and quaffing constantly, and faring daintily, and talking wantonly, and lying horribly, and swearing hideously, and [Page 23] living lazily, and dying desperately. In those dayes the Lord began to cut Israel, short, 2 Kings 10. 23. And God now be­gins to cut England short, short in men short in meat, short in money, short in wealth, so that it is to be feared, that Great Britain will be Little Britain, and remain great onely in her Sins and Suffe­rings. And is this a time for men to leng­then themselves, when God doth shorten them! Is this a time for people to affect fond fashions, when it is to be feared we shall be all brought into the same fashion of Ruine and Desolation? A strange People! who can dance at so dolefull mu­sique, as the Passing-bell of a Church and Common-wealth? Take heed, Atheisme knocks at the doore of the hearts of all men, and where Luxury is the Porter it will be let in. Let not the multiplicity of so many Religions as are now on foot, make you carelesse to have any, but carefull to have the best.

20. O Beloved, take the Fruit, though you should throw away the Basket though you should slight the Preacher, embrace [Page 24] his Counsel. Think not that Christ will call each of you immediately from Hea­ven as he did, Saul, Saul, why perscutest thou me? or that with S. Austin, you shall here a voice saying to you, tolle & lege, take up thy book and read: or that with St. Peter, before wee repent, the cock must literally crow, and Christ Corporally look upon us. Every reproofe of the Preacher, is the crowing of the Cock, eve­ry check in your Conscience, is the crow­ing of the Cock, every spectacle of Mor­tality presented before you, every afflicti­on inflicted upon you, every motion to Repentance arising within you, is the crowing of the Cock. These you must listen to, and obey. And yet we read of the Sybarites, a luxurious people in Grae­cia, who, that they might better enjoy their case, and quiet, commanded that no Cocks should be kept in their City, that so they might sleep the more soundly, not having their heads troubled with the pro­clamations of those Heraulds of the Mor­ning. So I am afraid there be some that could wish, that there were no more Prea­chers [Page 25] in England, then at one time there were smiths in Israell, no Cocks to crow, no wayes to waken them out of the sleep of their carnall security.

21. But I hope better things of you, and such as accompany salvation. Neitherneed I to use any other motive to incite you to spirituall sorrow, then the very words of our Saviour, Mat. 5. 4. Blessed are those that mourn, for they shall be comforted. Peter was comforted afterwards, yea, he had an expresse of Comfort dispatch'd and addres­sed to him in particular▪ Mark. 16. 7. But goe your way, and tell his Disciples and Pe­ter, that he goeth before you into Gallilee.

22. Yea, all Gods Saints shall taste of spirituall comfort. As Joshua when he entred to Jericho was carefull to spare her house, at whose window the Red Lace did hang out, so God will be carefull to preserve such, at whose windows, at whose eyes, Rednesse made by their mourning, as a signe of their sorrow doth appeare, and at the last day, as it is Isaiah. 25. 8. The Lord God will wipe away teares from all their faces. The Papists have a tale, [Page 26] that as our Saviour sweated with carrying his Crosse, a worthy woman, one Vero­nica met him, and gave him a handker­chief therewith to wipe his face. Which ragge (they say) still remaines at Rome, fit therein to wrap up the rest of their Apocra­phal Traditions. Grant it a tale that this Saint gave a handkerchief to him, it is a truth, that he will give one to every good Saint, to take away their teares, and he will wipe the face of that Magdalen, who wiped his feet.

23. It is reported of Aristotle that great Philosopher, that being unable to unriddle that mystery of nature, the motion of the Sea, impatient of his ignorance, he wil­fully drowned himselfe in that water which Posed him, with these words, Quid ego non capio te, tu capias me, because I cannot conceive thee, thou shalt containe me: no little foolish deed of a great carnall wise man. But seeing that the happinesse Heaven mounteth so High, that it cannot enter into the heart of man to conceive it, let us labour so to live here, that in due time going hence, we may enter into those [Page 27] Joyes, which cannot enter into us, and be received by that Blisse, which cannot be conceived by our braine, Where amongst many other worthy Saints we shall meet with S. Peter, though not in the Pensive posture wherein we find him my Text, then Singing sweetly, who in my Text went out and wept bitterly. Amen.



ECCLES: 12. 1,
Remember now thy Creator in the dayes of thy youth.

LONDON. Printed for JOHN STAFFORD at Fleet-bridge. 1655.

The best Act of Oblivion.

PSAL. 25. 7.‘Remember not Lord the sins of my youth.’

IN these foure Psalmes which im­mediately follow one another, we may find the soul of David, presented in all the several po­stures of Piety, lying, standing, sitting, knee­ling. In the 22. Psal. he is lying all along, falling flat on's face, low groveling on the ground, even almost entring into a de­gree of dispaire. Speaking of himselfe in the History, of Christ in the Mystery, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

2. In the three and twentieth Psalme, he standing, and through Gods favour; in despite of his foes, trampling and trium­phing over all opposition, The Lord is my [Page 2] sheepherd, therefore shall I lack nothing.

3. In the 24 Psalme he is sitting, like a Doctor in his Chaire, or a Professor in his place, reading a Lecture of Divinity, and describing the Character of that man, how he must be accomplished, who shall ascend into the holy hill, and hereafter be partaker of happinesse.

4. In this 25 Psalme he is kneeling, with hands, and voice lifted up to God, and on these two hinges the whole Psalm turneth, the one is a hearty beseeching of Gods mer­cy, the other a humble bemoaning of his own misery. Lent is a season for sorrow, this Week is the suburbs of Lent, this day the leader of this weeke, Shrove-Sunday, antiently used for penitents confessing of their sinnes. Wherefore what doctrine more needfull in it selfe, more usefull to us, more suitable to the Season, then to shrive our selves to God on Shrove-Sun­day, joyning with David in his paeniten­tiall devotions, Remember not O Lord the sinnes of my youth.

5. Which words containe Davids Pe­tition to the King of heaven, that he would be pleased to passe an ACT OF OBLI­VION, [Page 3] of the sinnes of his youth. Pre­mise we this, that God cannot properly be said either to remember or forget, be­cause all things alwayes present them­selves as present unto him. But in Scripture phrase, God is said then to remember mens sins, when he doth punish them, then to forget mens sins when he doth pardon them. Thus as Moses vailed his face, that he might be the better beheld, so God to allay the purity of his imcomprehensible­nesse with meaner mettall, namely with expressions after the manner of men, to make it work to our capacities, let us praise God for his goodnesse herein, that whereas we could not ascend to him, he doth descend to us, and let us pray him, that as here he doth cloud the object, to make it fitter for our eyes, so hereafter he would cleare our eyes to make them fitter for the object, when in heaven we shall see him as he is.

6. Before we come to the principall point, we must first cleare the Text from the Incumbrance of a double objection. The first is this, it may seeme (may some say) very improbable, that David should [Page 4] have any sins of his youth, if we consider the Principalls whereupon his youth was past. The first was Poverty, We read that his Father Jesse passed for an old man, we read not that he passed for a rich man, and probably his seaven proper sonnes, were the principall part of his wealth. Secondly, painefulnesse: David, though the youngest was not made a darling, but a drudge, sent by his father to follow the Ewes big with young, where he may seeme to have learned innocence and simplicity from the sheep he kept. Thirdly, Piety, Psal. 71. 5. For thou art my hope, O Lord God, thou art my trust from my youth. And again in the 17 verse of the same Psalme, O God thou hast taught me from my youth: David began to be good betimes, a young Saint, and yet crossed that pestilent Proverb, was no old devill. And what is more still, he was constant in the fornace of affliction, Psal. 88. 15. Even from my youth up thy terrors have I suffered with a troubled mind. The question then will be this, how could that water be corrupted, which was daily clarified? how could that steele gather rust, [Page 5] which was duly filed? How could Davids soule in his youth be sooty with sinne, which was constantly scoured with suffering.

7. But the answer is easie, for though David, for the maine were a man after Gods own heart, (the best transcript of the best copy) yet he, especially in his youth, had his faults and infirmities, yea his sinnes and transgressions. Though the Scripture maketh no mention of any emi­nent sin in his youth, the businesse with Beersheba being justly to be referred to Davids reduced, and elder age. I will not conclude that David was of a wanton Constitution, because of a reddy Com­plexion. It is as injurious an inference, to conclude all bad which are beautifull, as it is a false and flattering consequence, to say all are honest who are deformed. Ra­ther we may collect Davids youth guilty of wantonnesse, from his having so many Wives and Concubines. But what goe I about to doe? Expect not that I should tell you the particular sins, when he could not tell his own, Psal. 19. Who can tell how oft he offendeth? Or how can Davids [Page 6] sinnes be knowne to me, which he confesseth were unknowne to himselfe, which made him to say, O Lord cleanse me from my secret sinnes. But to silence our curiosity, that our conscience may speake. If Davids youth which was poor, painfull, and pious, was guilty of sinnes, what shall we say of such whose education hath been Wealthy, Wanton, and Wick­ed? and I report the rest to be acted with shame, sorrow, and silence, in every mans conscience.

8. The second objection hath more difficulty in it, which is this, this may seeme but a superfluous prayer of David. For whereas in Charity it may and must be presumed, that David long since had beg'd pardon for his youthfull sinnes, that upon his begging, God had granted it, that upon his granting God never revoked it. What need now had David to preferre this petition for pardon of antiquated sinne, time out of mind committed by him, time out of minde remitted by God?

9. To this Objection I shape a foure-fold [Page 7] answer, First, though David no doubt, long since had been truly sorrow­full for his youthfull sinnes, yet he was sensible in himselfe, that if God would be extream, to marke what was done a­misse, though he had repented of those his sinnes, yet he had sinned in that his Repentance. Secondly, though God had forgiven Davids sinnes so farre forth, as to pardon him eternall Damnation, yet he had not remitted unto him temporall af­fliction, which perchance pressing upon him at this present, he prayeth in this Psalme, for the removing or mitigating of them. So then the sence of his words sound thus, Remember not Lord the sinnes of my youth, that is, Lord lighten and lessen the afflictions which lye upon me, in this mine old age, justly inflicted on me, for my youthfull sinnes. Thirdly, Gods pardon for sinnes past, is ever gran­ted with this condition, that the Party so pardoned, is bound to his good behaviour for the time to come, which if he breaks, he deserves in the strictnesse of Justice to forfeit the benefit of his Pardon. Now [Page 8] David was guilty afterward in that grand transgression of Beersheba and Uriah, which might in the extremity of Justice have made all his youthfull sinnes to be punish­ed afresh upon him. Lastly, Grant Da­vid certainly assured of the Pardon of his youthfull sinnes, yet Gods Servants may pray for those blessings they have in pos­session, not for the obtaining of that they have, that is needlesse; but for the keep­ing of what they have obtained, that is ne­cessary. Yea, God is well pleased with such prayers of his Saints, and interprets them to be praises unto him, and then these words, Remember not the sinnes of my youth, amount to this effect, Blessed be thy gracious goodnesse, who hast forgiven me the sins of my youth. However, here we may see that in matters of Devotion, too much caution cannot doe amisse, in the point of Pardon for sinnes, we cannot seek too oft, shut too safe, binde too sure. And therefore David who prayes else­where, Lord remember David in his Trou­bles, he could well be contented God would remember Davids Person to pro­tect [Page 9] it, Davids Piety to reward it, Davids Misery to remove it, wrong done to Da­vid to revenge it; but as for Davids sinnes, and especially the sinnes of his youth, here he lyes at another Guard, Remember not Lord the sinnes of my youth.

10. Come we now to the principal point, which is this, youth is an age wherein men are prone to be excessively sinfull. By youth I understand that distance of age, which is interposed betwixt infancy, and the time wherein nature decayes; all the time, that a man in his strength is in his owne disposing. Now the reasons, why youth rather then infancy or old age should be prone to wickednesse are these: First, because that in youth they first breake loose from the command of their masters, Gal. 4. 1. Now I say, that the heire, as long as he is a child, differeth no­thing from a servant, though he be Lord of all, but is under Tutors, and gover­nours, untill the time appointed of the Fa­ther, which time, though long a com­ming, when it comes at last, is very wel­come to young men. Esay said in his heart, [Page 10] the dayes for the mourning, for my father Isaac will come shortly, then will I slay my brother Jacob. Thus young men plot, project, and promise to themselves, The dayes will come, when my Father, or Ma­ster, or Tutor, will die, either naturally, or legally, will decease, either in his per­son, or power over me, and then I'le roare, and revell, and gad, and Game, and Dice, and Drink, and what not? In a word, young men thinke, that they justly may have an action against their parents, for false imprisonment, because they have un­justly curbed, and confined their wills; and though they dare not lay their action a­gainst their Parents, yet to make the best amends they may to themselves, whom they conceive heretofore wrong'd with too much restraint, they will hereafter right with too much liberty.

11. Secondly, because youth is an age, wherein mens passions are most head-strong, violent, and impetuous, so that it may be called the Midsommer Moone, or if you will rather the Dog dayes of mans life.

[Page 11] 12. Thirdly, because as in youth, mens mindes are most strong to desire, so their bodies are most able and active to per­forme any wickednesse.

13. Lastly, because young men put the day of death farre from them. For there is nothing that more frights men from profanesse and into piety, then the serious apprehension of death appearing, with the Arrerages thereof, eternall damna­tion, in case the party dieth not in the faith and favour of God. Now whereas old men see death in plano, as under their eyes, death is represented to young men in Landskipt, as at a great distance from them. And when old men discourse to young men of death, young men are rea­dy to answer them, as the High Priest did Judas in a different case, what is that to us? looke you unto it. The dayes of a man saith David are threescore yeares and ten. Now what some men possibly may live to, young men thinke they certainly must live to, they will not abate a day, nor a minute, nor a moment of threescore and ten, they have calculated their owne Na­tivities, [Page 12] and so long they are sure they shall live.

14. As for the sinnes whereof youth is most properly guilty, they are these: First Pride, and indeed, though they, and none else, have any just cause to be proud, yet they have the best seeming cause to flesh and blood. For young men have health, and strength, and swiftnesse, and valour, and wit, and wisdome too, as they thinke themselves, though indeed the more fooles because they thinke so them­selves.

15. Secondly Prodigality, for they be­gin where their Fathers did end, and are (the eldest sonne especially) in matter of Worldly wealth, as good men at their starting, as their fathers were at the ending of their Race. And commonly it com­meth to passe, that where the father like Logick had his fist contracted, the sonne like Rhetorick hath his hand expanded.

16. The third sinne of youth is Rash­nesse. For as old men, because they are acquainted with the Changes and chances of the world, when they goe about any [Page 13] great Action, start all doubts, dangers, and difficulties, probable, and possible, whereby sometimes it comes to passe, that by their tedious tarrying on causelesse caution, they lose the advantage of great Actions, which are made to goe off with a spring of speedy execution; so on the other side, young men who know litle, and feare less, being loath to confesse the poverty of their experience by borrowing councell from others, rashly runne on, often to their hurt, alwayes to their hazard, as if successe was bound out of duty, to attend their most desperate designes. Yea, Da­vid himselfe cannot be excused from this sinne of Rashnesse, witnesse his words to Abigail, the 1 of Sam. 25. 34. As the Lord God of Israel liveth, except thou hadst hast­ned and come to meet me, surely there had not been left unto Nabal, by to morrow light, any that pisseth against the wall. A preci­pitate project, what if the master was wil­full, must all the servants be wofull? what if Nabal had been too niggardly of his meate, must David be too prodigall of his sword? Yea, and he bindes it too with an [Page 14] oath, so that either he tooke Gods name too vainely in jest, or the innocent blood too sadly in earnest. Rashnesse is the third sin of youth.

17. Disobedience to Parents, followeth in the fourth place, a great sin to which young men are much subject, especially if their parents be feeble, and froward, and foolish too, perchance as doting by age, then they are ready to despise them.

18. The fift and last sinne we insist on is wantonnesse, the proper and paramount sinne of youth, and therefore S. Paul wri­ting to Timothy, 2 Tim. 2. 22. Flee youth­full lusts. One might thinke this precept, to Timothy might well have been spared, considering that Timothy had a weake bo­dy, subject to often infirmities, and such sick folke are likely to thinke rather of a Winding sheete, then Wantonnesse. Se­condly, Timothy was temperate in his di­er, daily drinking nothing but water, and such cold liquor was likely to quench all heate of lust, and yet because Timothy though a good man, though a weake, though a temperate man, yet but a man, [Page 15] and a young man, S. Paul thought the precept not improper for the person, Flee youthfull lusts. Lust is the fift sinne of youth.

19. All these five are the sinnes of youth. Would I could say but as truly these five are all the sinnes of youth. But alas, youth is capable of, and subject to all sinnes whatsoever. And yet, though youth be too bad in it self, let us not make it worse then it is; With the fashion of the World, when an offender is guilty of more then he can answer, to charge him with more then he is guilty. Youth may commit all sinnes, yet all sinnes are not the sinnes of youth. A young man may be covetous, yet Covetousnesse is no young mans sinne. Old men would be an­gry, if they might not keep that vice to themselves. Though perchance they will call it by a more mannerly name of thriftinesse. The result of all is this. These five sinnes are the waiters in ordinary, at­tending on youth. So that all young Per­sons are guilty of them in some measure, except God give them a better Proportion [Page 16] of restraining grace. As for sinnes extra­ordinary, waiters on youth, they are in­numerable, being as many as any other age hath, either inclination to desire, or ability to commit.

20. We come now to make a two-fold Application of what hath been said, the one to young men, the other to old men. But you will say, where shall middle age People be placed? Shall they be wholly neglected in the dispensation of this dayes doctrine? I answer, middle age People, shall have free leave and liberty to rank and reduce themselves, either amongst the young, or old persons, according to their owne Christian discretions. But I know where I shall find them all, for naturally we all would be young, and therefore to them, amongst the young people, I thus addresse my discourse.

21. You young people, ye have heard how youth is an age wherein men are prone to be exceedingly sinfull, wherefore as you tender the Glory of God, the health of your bodies, the saving of your souls, let me intreate you to be carefull to avoid [Page 17] the sins of youth. It will be your own ano­ther day. Remember what Iob saith, though no doubt an excellent man, Job 13. 26. Thou writest bitter things against me, and makest me to possesse the iniquities of my youth. Thou makest me to possesse the iniqui­ties of my youth. If you lead dissolute lives whilst you are young, other possessions I cannot promise you, for your Lands may be lost, your goods gone, but this posses­sion ye shall be sure of, (a strange Pos­session often purchased by Prodigality) you shall possesse the sinnes of your youth, and (if you live so long) in your old age soundly smart, for the luxury and intemperance of your youth. Remember also what Solomon saith, Ecclesiastes 11. 9. Rejoyce, O young man in thy youth, and let thy heart cheere thee in the dayes of thy youth, and walke in the wayes of thine heart, and in the sight of thine eyes: but know thou, that for all these things, God will bring thee unto judgement. Which words consist: The first a Concession, The second a Commination; the first a Concession, for it is no positive Command, or rather [Page 18] it is but an interpretative Connivance, not so much given as gotten, and indulgent to the frailty of humane flesh, Rejoyce, O young man in thy youth, &c. The second is a Commination, contrary to good Musick, it is harshest in the close, I should like the Indentures well but for the condition: But know thou that for all these things God will bring thee unto judgement. Will bring thee, which words import two things. First, the unwillingnesse of youth to come to judgement, Secondly, the un­avoidablenesse, that youth must come to judgement; And how soon you shall come to judgement, is known to God alone. Flatter not your selves with a fond conceit of immortality. For though the Psalmist saith, a horse is but a vain thing to save a man, yet a very mote is no vaine thing to destroy a man. And whosoever shall be pleased to count the number, and mark the age of this Sacrifice in the old Testa­ment, shall find more Kids and Lambs offered, then Goats and old Sheep.

22. But young men will say, preach you what you please, we will doe what we [Page 19] list. Your perswasions shall not befoole us out of the pleasures of youth. Yea, this is but an envious discourse. Have ye not read of a Tyrant who having had one of his eyes accidentally put out, cruelly cau­sed an eye of every one of his subjects to be bored out, that they might not mock at his deformity? And so seeing youth is taken away from you, you would put it out in others, perswading them if you could prevaile, to deprive themselves of those pleasures, to which youth doth in­title them.

23. If any such there be that heare me to day, who fasten such envious Com­ments on my innocent doctrine, I say if any such there be, as I feare there be some, and hope there be few, and wish there were none, to such I say in the holy Irony of the Prophet Michaiah to King Ahab, Goe up and prosper. Larde your soules with delight, may your own mind be the onely Measure of your Pleasure, carve what you please, and eate what you carve, and much good may that doe you which you eate; if it be not bad in it selfe, [Page 20] it shall never be made worse by my wishes. But as God saith to Daniel, Dan. 12. the last, in respect of his Prophesie, But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seale the book, and goe thy way till the end be, for thou shalt rest, and stand up in the lot at the end of dayes: So say I to my Sermon this day, though onely in relation to such as count it an envious discourse; Sermon sleep for seven and seven yeeres, yea let the doctrine delivered this day, die for so long time, and when that time is expired, when it is probable enough that the Preacher shall be dead, the Sermon shall new live, and then have a resurrection in the beliefe of those young men, who now lesse believe it. The instructions now laught at, will then be long'd for. For indeed, this do­ctrine will grow the best when it is sowen in those furrowes, which age hath made in the face. Till then, my Sermon will be contented to bear the burden of Envy, and then they that accuse it, must beare the burden of Folly, when they shall freely acquit it, and flatly condemne them­selves.

[Page 21] 24. I come now in the second place (and I hope with better successe) to you aged persons, nor let it be interpreted any disloyalty against the crowne of your old age, that I addresse my selfe to you in the last place; for (if I mistake not) the last, is the first, the close and conclusion the highest place in the Sermon. Let me in all humility advise you, not to repine at Gods Providence, because your Youth is past. Coorse Complements were exchanged betwixt Pharaoh and Moses at their last meeting, Exod. 10. 28. Pharaoh began, Get thee gone, look to thy selfe, see my face no more. Moses, though meek, not mo­pish, returned as short an answer, Thou hast well spoken, I will see thy face no more. The bargaine is easily driven, where both par­ties desire it. I, Pharaoh cares not for Mo­ses, Moses cares as little for Pharaohs com­pany. In like manner labour to be as wil­ling to lose youth, as that hath been to leave you. Never seek by unlawfull waies to wooe it to stay one minute longer. Let the departing thereof cost thee not a sigh the more, or a smile the fewer. Is youth [Page 22] gone with the sweet thereof? then it is gone with the sin thereof: Is it gone with the delight thereof? then is it gone with the danger thereof: As hereafter your car­nall delight will be the lesse, so your spiri­tuall joy will be the more, if the fault be not in your selves.

25. Secondly, desire not, that as the Sun went back ten degrees on the diall of Ahaz, so that thou mightest be ten dayes, ten Weeks, ten Moneths, ten yeares youn­ger then thou art. Such wishes I am sure are vaine, I suspect are wicked. What Souldier having escaped a desperate fight, desireth himselfe againe in the midst of it? What sea-man having escaped the Sands and Shelves, wisheth himself there again? and seeing ye have passed salum juventutis, as Tully termes it, the trouble­some Sea of youth; why should you wish your selves in it again? Neither thinke to say within your selves, O if we were young againe, the time which formerly we mispent in riot, we would hereafter improve in piety. The truth hereof will plainly be perceived, by your well hus­banding [Page 23] the life which is left you to Gods glory. For he that will not be faithfull in a little, will not be faithfull in much. He will not be a good husband on the Rem­nant, would be a bad one, if he had the whole Cloath. It is therefore to be sus­pected, that in your desiring to be young againe, you only make the pretence of Piety, the Pander to your owne Pro­fanenesse.

26. Beware therefore that in your old age ye be not guilty of the sins of youth. Gardiners can tell you, that when Rose-trees are clipt in the moneth of May, so that then they cannot bring Roses, they doe commonly bring them in the Autumn spring, in the month of September. And it is possible, if you have been restrained, ei­ther by sicknesse of body, or naturall mo­desty, or want of opportunity, or restrain­ing grace, from the excrescencies of youth, when you are young, I say it is possible, that you may be visited with such guests in your old age, and make them welcome at your own perill.

27. And this let me commend unto [Page 24] you, when you survey the sinnes of your youth, take heed of mistaking your Obli­vion, for Innocence, and thinking your selves free from committing those sinnes which ye cannot remember. For were we at this instant arraigned for some sinnes we have done, we would plead, Not guilty. Not that we would be so impudent as to deny them if we did remember them, but we have as clearly forgot them, as if we had never committed them. Lord, thou layest such a sinne to my charge, there is some error, some mistake, some other may be guilty of it, but it is not I. But O what is said, Rev. 20. 12. in the description of the Generall judgement, And the books were opened. The bookes wherein every ones faults are registred and recorded, the persons who, and with whom, the place where, the time when, and in this point, midnight is as cleare a witnesse as noon day, concurring with the Testimony of our guilty consciences.

28. Another place of Scripture also de­serves your observation, Psal. 50. 21. these things hast thou done, and I kept silence, [Page 25] thou thoughtest, that I was altogether such a one as thy self, but I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes. I will set them in order. Alas! when we sin, we jumble and confound, and heap, and hud­dle all together without any order or me­thod. But God in his Book will reduce it into a method.

Imprimis, such a sin when thou first didst awake. Item, such a one before thou didst rise. Item, such a one before thou wast ready. Item, such a one before thou eatedst thy breakfast. Or else thus: Ile set them in order according to their several matter; The first leaf in the Book is Originall sin, and then Actuall sins against God; actuall sins against our selves, actuall sins against our neighbours; then truly shall we be in the case of Judah, Gen. 44. 16. when the cup was found in his brother Benjamin's sack, and may say with him, What shall we say unto my Lord? what shall we speak? or how shall we clear our selves? God hath found out the iniquity of thy servants.

29. One word more and I have done, and I hope none will censure my Sermon [Page 26] to be too long for this passage that re­mains, though our sinnes be set in order, and though the books be opened, be the books never so big, be the volumes never so vast, it matters not how big the books be of the debts we have owed if all be crost. If therefore we have true interest in the mercies of God, and merits of Christ, we may confidently come, and may comfor­tably pray, and shall be certainly heard with David in my Text, Remember not O Lord the sins of my youth. Amen.

A Corolary.

THe Soule of Man as conjoyned with his Body, is in Scripture compared to aJob 18. 6. Prov. 20. 27. Candle: Non although omnes animae sunt aequales, all souls are equall in essence, yet both in operation (wherein they must ask the body leave to exercise it self by its proper organs) as also in duration whilst conjoyned here with the body, there is great difference betwixt them. And we may in humble prosecution of the Scriptures Metaphor observe seven Candles in relation to their continuance in this life:

1. The first and least size is of those who have life in them, but never see light with­out them.

2. The second size is of such who are born into this world, but die before the concurrence of their Will with their Judg­ment, and therefore before their possibility of committing Actuall sinne, with the Babes of Bethlehem murthered by Herod.

[Page 28] 3. The third is of those who arrive at an ability of Actuall sinne, yet expire before they have attained unto the Perfection of Youth, with the Children that mocked the Prophet Elisha.

4. The fourth size succeeds of those who are in the height and heat of their Youth, the proper subject of our foregoing Sermon.

5. The fift is of those who cannot be so foolish and fond in flattering themselves, but that they must confesse Youth is past with them, though as yet they are not sen­sible of any decay in Nature: These are my Pew-fellowes in age, God grant we may beware the Atheisticall inference of those in the 2 Pet. 3. 4. denying the Day of Judg­ment, because all things continue as they were from the beginning of the Creation. We are subject to commit the same dangerous mistake in our Microcosme as they did in their great World, and to conclude Death will never surprise because we finde not in our selves any evident and eminent diminu­tion of our strength, being as able and active as ever we have been in our remembrance.

6. The sixt size is of those whose Almond-tree [Page 29] doth flourish, though the budding thereof be no signe of Spring, but Autumn in them; God grant they may understand the summons of Death, though at distance, listen to, and make good use of them.

7. The seventh and last size is of such who cannot appear in this place, nor come within the hearing of a Sermon, no Church but a Chimney-corner, or a Bed is the place of their aboad, whose Candle is in the socket, and Lamps ready to goe out for want of oyle to feed them.

To all these severall sizes, I mean to so ma­ny of them as are capable of understanding GOD in Solomon speaks, Eccles. 12. 1. Re­member now thy Creatour. I say now, now is an Atome, it will puzzle the skill of an Angell to divide: now is a Monosyllable in all Learned (and many other) Languages, best otherwise the name should be longer in pronouncing than the thing in continuing. God grant that what size soever the Can­dle of our life be, we may instantly remem­ber our Creatour. Amen.



By Thomas Fuller.

LONDON, Printed for Iohn Stafford in George-yard neer Fleet-bridge. 1656.


Chap. 1. ver. 1. ‘The word of the Lord came also unto Jonah the son of Amit­tai, saying.’

SOme thing must be premised of the Name, Parentage, Time and Place of this Prophet: His name (JONAH) signifying a Dove in Hebrew, but he an­swered his Name rather in flying so fast a­way, than in want of gall, wherewith he abounded.

[Page 2] Parentage: son of Amittai. Men are differenced in the Bible, 1. by their Fa­thers: as Benaiah son of Jehoida. 2. Mo­thers: as Joab son of Zerviah. 3. Hus­bands: as Mary the wife of Cleophas. 4. Brothers: as Judas the brother of James. 5. Sons: as Simon of Cyrene the father of Alexander and Rufus. But that this Prophet was son to the widow of Sa­repta, I believe no more, than that Dinah, Jacob's daughter was wife to Job. Or that Ruth was daughter to Eglon King of Moab: both which are as fondly fabled by Jewes, as justly rejected by Christians.

As for the Time and Place of this Pro­phet when and where he lived, though here omitted, is supplied, 2 Kings 14. 25. He was of Gath Hepher, a City of the Tribe of Zebulon, and lived in the time of Ioash King of Israel.

The word of the Lord came.] All Pro­phets and Preachers ought to have their Patent and Commission from God. How can they Preach except they be sent? Rom. 10. 15. That is, how can they Preach law­fully and profitably, though de facto they [Page 3] preach to their own great harm and others little good. But as long as there is currant coyne, there will be counterfeit. Ieroboam's Priests under the Law, and Sheva's Sons in the Gospel, and at this day some who leap from the Loom to the Pulpit. I must confesse, an Asses head was good food in a famine; course meat is dainty when no better can be had. But now (thanks be to God) great is the company of Preachers, able and learned, and for ought I see, the Universities afford more Vine-dressers, than the Countrey can yeeld them Vine­yards. No necessity therefore, that such blinde Guides should be admitted.

Verse 2. ‘Arise and goe to Niniveh that great City, and cry against it: for their wickednesse is come up before me.’

The words contain Ionah's Commission. The place whither he was sent. What he should doe there.

[Page 4] The Commission, Arise. As if he had said, Thou hast long preached in Israel to little purpose: Great the pains, Small the profit of thy Ministery. I will therefore transplant thy preaching, to see if it will bring more fruit in another soyle. It is a signe of a ruine of a Church, when their Pastors are called from their Flocks to go to Forraigners. As Ionah, who was here made Non-resident against his will. When the eye-strings are broken, the heart­strings hold out not long after. The Pro­phets are called Seers, their departure pre­sageth, that their Parishes soon after will dye and decay. For sure the Children of Israel prospered not long after, that Ionah a starre of the first bignesse was falne from that firmament to arise into the horizon of Nineveh.

Goe to Nineveh that great City.] It is more than probable that this City being the Metropolis of Assyria, was not a little proud of the greatnesse of it, as able there­by to out-face the judgments of God, and to blunt the edge of his revenging sword with the populousnesse of her Inhabitants, [Page 5] before it could cut clean through them. But let no City, though never so great, thus presume upon her multitudes; the greater, the fairer mark she is for the ar­rowes of Gods judgements (though in­deed nothing seems great in his eyes save that man that seems little in his own:) and God can quickly substract in a day by sword, plague and famine, what health, peace and plenty hath multiplied in seven yeares. This Island since the ends of two Kingdomes, were made the middle of one Monarchy, hath got the addition of Great Britain, yet if compared to the Continent, we may say of it, as Lot of Zoar, Is it not a little one? Isa. 40. 15. Behold the Nations are as the drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of a ballance, he taketh up the Iles as a very little thing. Let us the Inhabitants thereof not be proud of the greatnesse of it, which probably puffed up Niniveh the great City.

And cry against it.] Ministers must not mutter, but publickly and strongly cry a­gainst sinners: First, because sinners are afarre off: Isa. 59. 2. But your iniquities [Page 6] have separated betwixt you and your God. Mat. 15. 8. Their heart is farre from me. Ephes. 2. 13. You who sometimes were afarre off. Secondly, because they are deafe. Thirdly, asleep. Fourthly, dead. If any object, why then it is lost labour to cry against sinners, Preaching to the Dead is as unprofitable as Praying for them. I Answer, Not so. For it is said, Iohn 5. 25. The hour is coming and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live. Too blame then are those that are cruelly kinde unto their people in sowing pillows under their elbowes. Honey-dewes, though they be sweet in tast, doe blast and black the corn: And smoothing of people in their sinnes, though pleasant to the palate of flesh, damneth and destroyeth the soule. And yet this command to cry no whit favours their practice, who change the strength of matter into stentoriousnesse of voice. Such peeces make a great report with powder, but are charged with no shot, and are use­lesse to the beating down of sin. And it may be said of their crying, that they doe but whisper whilst they hollow.

[Page 7] For their wickednesse is come up before me.] What the particular sin of Nineveh was, is not exprest. Some think, had that City been arraigned for the sins of Sodome, it would have been found guilty: And no doubt Sorcerie the sin of the East, was no stranger in her own Countrey, and there­fore the Ninevites thereto much addicted. But that Oppression was certainly their pre­dominant sin, may be gathered out of the third of Nahum, ver. 1. O bloody City, it is full of lyes and robbery, the prey departeth not. Not content to be a Queen of those Countreys she had subdued, she was a Ty­rant. So then we see, all sins but Oppression especially, though naturally they tend downwards to their centre, and with their weight presse sinners to Hell; Yet they doe mount upwards by their cry and clamour, Gen. 4. 10. & 18. 20. It were then an advi­sed way for us to make some counter-sounds to drown the noise of our sins, that God may not hear them. First, by sending up sighs from a penitent heart. Secondly, prayers and almes, Acts 10. 41. Cornelius thy prayer is heard, and thine almes are [Page 8] had in remembrance in the sight of God. Thirdly, by pleading Christ his merits; That the loud language of his blood may out-noise and silence the cry of our sins. Heb. 12. 24. Yet let Oppressours take no­tice, that theirs being the sin of Nineveh, as it is of an higher nature, so is it of an higher cry than other sins. And let the remorslesse Extortioner take this into his consideration: Hand-mills, though they grinde not so much, yet they grinde as much to powder as either Winde-mills or Water-mills, which are farre greater: though these Oppressors doe not mischief to so many as Nineveh did, yet to so ma­ny as comes within their clutches; they shew as mercilesse cruelty, and this is a sin will come up before God.

Verse 3. ‘But Jonah rose up to flee into Tarshish, from the presence of the Lord, and went down to Japho: For he found a ship going to Tarshish; so he payd the fare thereof; and went down into it, that he might goe with them into Tarshish, from the presence of the Lord.’

But Jonah rose up.] Whose superscripti­on doth this Book bear? Ionah's. Why did he not like Alexander, when he was painted lay his finger on his wart? Why did he not conceal in silence his own faults and infirmities? Why did he paint his own deformity with his own pensill? Because the Pen-men of the Holy Word, are un­partiall [Page 10] Relators of their own faults, and of them who are dearest and nearest unto them. Who speaks more against David than David? So ignorant was I and foolish, even as a beast before thee. Who accuseth S. Paul more than S. Paul? 1 Tim. 1. 13. I was a Blasphemer, and a Persecuter, and an Oppressour. We learn from S. Stephen, Acts 7. 22. That Moses was learned in all the wisdome of the Aegyptians, but in Mo­ses in his own writings, we finde no men­tion or commendation of this his learning. He spared not himself in registring his pas­sion in smiting of the rock, neither spa­red he to record the cruelty of Levi his Grandfather, the shrewishnesse of Zippora his Wife, the Idolatry-promoting of Aa­ron his Brother, the murmuring of Miriam his Sister, the prophanenesse of Nadab and Abihu his Nephews. This amongst other reasons may be one to prove, that no Scri­pture is of private interpretation, but that holy men of God wrote it, as they were in­spired by Gods holy Spirit. Whereas the Books of Heathen Writers are nothing else but the Inventories of their own vertues. [Page 11] What are Caesar's Commentaries, but commentaries on the text of his own va­lour? But for a man thus farre to be un­mann'd, as to banish self-love from him­self, and with Ionah, to put his own flight and fault into the Calendar of Eternity. Who sees not the finger of God in Ionah's hand writing this prophecy?

Sundry carnall reasons may be alledged for Ionah's flight: First, fear of extreme and cruell usage from the wicked Nine­vites. Secondly, despair that his preaching barren in Israel should be fruitfull in Ashur. Thirdly, the strangenesse of the message, distastfull to a Jewish palate, to be sent to the Gentiles. Fourthly, a zeal to his Coun­trey, he might perceive that the conversion of the Gentiles would be the eversion of the Jewes; and therefore he was loth to be accessary to the destruction of his own Nation. Fiftly, that reason alledged by himself in the fourth Chap. and ver. 2. He feared to be disproved, because God was so mercifull. But let his reasons, though ne­ver so many and weighty, be put into one scale, and Gods absolute command weigh­ed [Page 12] against them in the other, TEKEL, They are weighed in the ballance and found too light. Prosper: Obedientia non discutit Dei mandata, sed facit. The Popish tenent of blinde Obedience, is true doctrine in this case; What God commands let's put in speedy execution, without denying or de­laying, or disputing the difficulties that at­tend it.

To flee.] God bids Ionah goe, and he flyes, he supererogates, but in a wrong worke. In him the Proverb findes truth, The more haste, the worse speed. We see then, those that want legs to go in good­nesse, can finde wings to flye in wicked­nesse. The Elders of the Jewes (probably aged Grandsires) how late were they up that night our Saviour was betrayed? How early did they rise that morning he was condemned? How duly did they attend the whole day he was crucified? who o­therwise (no doubt) would have been in their beds as drowzie as Dormice. It is not therefore the greatnesse of the strides, nor the swiftness of the pace, but the right­nesse of the way which maketh our going [Page 13] pleasing unto God. 1 Cor. 9. 24. So run that ye may obtain. And if, with David, we cannot run the way of Gods commande­ments, let us goe them; if not goe, let us creep. And this may comfort us, that though▪ we goe not so swift in our calling as we could desire, yet we goe in our cal­ling: Our pace, though not fast, is firm; and still by degrees we draw nearer and nearer to that Niniveh, to which God hath sent us.

To Tarshish.] What and where this Tar­shish was, Authors only agree, in disagree­ing. Let this suffice: Be this Tarshish in Asia, be it in Africa; Be it City, be it Countrey; Be it Sea, be it Continent: this sure I am, it was not that Nineveh to which Ionah was sent.

From the presence of the Lord.] It were great ignorance in us to charge Ionah with such ignorance, as if he thought it abso­lutely possible to flye from Gods presence: And if he had been so erroneous, he made the most unadvised choice, to flye to the Sea, where there appears the most evident demonstration of God's powerfull pre­sence. [Page 14] Psal. 107. 23. They that go down into the Sea in ships, &c. The sight of the Sea might have been a Remembrancer to an Atheist, and put him in minde of a God. Esau went to kill his brother Iacob, but when he met him his minde was altered, he fell a kissing him, and so departed. Thus the waves of the Sea march against the shore, as if they would eat it up: But when they have kissed the utmost brink of the sand, they melt themselves away to no­thing. And this spectacle must needs make a man acknowledge a Deity. So then, these words to flye away from the presence of the Lord, are not simply to be under­stood; there being no flying from God, but thus: From God, an angry Judge for our sins; to God, a merciful Father in our Saviour. By this phrase then is meant, He deserted the Office of a Prophet, he for­sook and relinquished the Ministeriall Fun­ction, whereabout God had imployed him. Thus to be In Gods presence is used in Holy Writ, Deut. 10. 8. The Lord sepe­rated the Tribe of Levi to stand before the Lord. 1 Kings 17. 1. As the Lord liveth, [Page 15] saith Elias, before whom I stand. What kinde of men then ought we Ministers to be? How decently ought we to demean and behave our selves, who are Chaplains in Ordinary to the King of Heaven. Every Moneth is our waiting Month: We are bound to constant and continuall atten­dance. It was the title of the Angel Ga­briel, Luke 1. 19. I am Gabriel that stands in the presence of God, i. e. Ever ready to be sent of him in any imployment. Now as Angels are Gods Ministers in Heaven, so Ministers are Gods Angels on Earth, and stand in his presence from which Jo­nah did flye.

And he went down to Japho, for he found a ship going to Ta [...]shish.] Japho was the Port of Ierusalem, distant from thence some thirty miles, in the Tribe of Dan, afterwards called Ioppa. Here Ionah findes a ship for his purpose; how all things seem to favour and flatter his flight. He lights on a ship, the ship sets saile, and at the first the tyde serves, the winde seconds them. Let us suspect our selves, and search our actions whether they be not wrong, when [Page 16] we run without rub, and sayle without re­mora: For the first entrance into sinne is easie and pleasant; whereas in good acti­ons when we begin them, it is a thousand to one, but that the Devil or our corrupti­ons, start some enemies or obstacles to hinder us.

So he payed the fare thereof.] Jonah herein seems to be a man of a good con­science. Hearken ye detainers of the wages of the hirelings: Know that Oppression, the master whom you serve, will deale other­wise with you, than you deale with your servants: For the wages of sin is death, and that shall duly be paid you. And you Servants who have received your hire afore hand, deale not worse with your Masters, for dealing the better with you, but con­scionably doe your worke, that the Out-Landish Proverb may not be verified in you, He that payes his Servants wages a­fore hand, cuts off his right arme: that is, Occasions him to be lazie and slothfull.

That he might goe with them to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.] Pharaoh's dreams were doubled, because it was a [Page 17] thing determined by God, Gen. 40. 42. So these words were doubled in the Text, to show that it was no suddain motion or project whereon Ionah stumbled unawares, but it was a purpose consulted, concluded, debated, determined. He would, that he would flye from the presence of the Lord. Now, it is the opinion of some, that Ionah altered his calling and turned Merchant, but this is more than can be proved out of the words. Traffique in it self is lawfull, making those wooden bridges over the Sea, which joyn the Islands to the Con­tinent, adopting those Commodities to Countreys, whereof they are barren them­selves by nature. But it is not fitting that the Tribe of Levi should change Lots with the Tribe of Ashur; Or that those who have Curam Animarum, should take upon them Curam Animalium: Apply them­selves to Husbandry, Grasing, or any Me­chanicall Trade.

Verse 4. ‘But the Lord sent out a great winde into the Sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the Sea, so that the ship was like to be broken.’

But the Lord.] Though the man did thus leave his Master, yet the Master will not thus leave his man: but sends a Purse­vant after him. Learn from hence, God is carefull for his Servants, though they be carelesse for themselves. Gen. 19 16. Thus also was God mercifull to Thomas, (who, for his temper, may be called, the Ionah of the Apostles) making a new apparition for the confirming of his faith, Iohn 20. 26. Let us pray to God, that he would love us to the end; that though we forsake him, he would not forsake us. That though we forget the duty of Children to him, he would be pleased to remember the love of a Father to us. And here we may admire [Page 19] Gods goodnesse to take such pains about the recalling of a froward sinner. Lord! what was Ionah that thou shouldst regard him? or the sonne of Amittai, that thou shouldst visit him?

Sent out a great winde into the Sea.] God is the commander of the windes, and hath them at his beck as the Centurion had his Servants. He saith to the East winde, Goe, and he goeth, Exod. 10. 13. And the West winde, Come, and he cometh, Exod. 10. 19. And to the South winde, Doe this, and he doth it, Psal. 78. 16. If it be objected, that the Devil is styled, Ephes. 2. 2. The Prince of the power of the ayre: and therefore (to give the Devil his due) sithence winde is nothing else but ayre moved by vapours: It may seem to be a subject of the Devils Dominions. I Answer, The Devil is no absolute Prince of the ayre, no Monarch, but onely he hath a deputed Command therein under the God of Heaven. And Satan dares not for the fear of a praemunire exceed his commission, and endeavour a­ny thing in the ayre, without Gods ex­presse command or permission: Much lesse [Page 20] can Witches and Conjurers (Lieutenants under the Devil) perform any thing there­in. And as for the Heathens fancie, which make AEolus God of the Winde, it is ligh­ter than the winde it self.

So that the ship was like to be broken.] Here a difficult Objection may be started. How could it stand with Gods justice to put so many innocent Mariners in hazard and jeopardy of their lives for the sinne of Ionah alone? But these Sheep, what have they done? Will God destroy the righte­ous with the wicked? Shall not the Judge of all the earth doe righteously? I answer, first at large. In God's proceedings what we cannot conceive to be good, we must not condemn to be bad: But suspect our selves, suspend our censures, admire his workes, which are never against right, though often above reason. To come nea­rer: God need not pick a quarrell with man, he hath just matter enough at any time to have a controversie with him, and to commence actions against him. These Mariners, though not guilty with Ionah in this particular act; yet had deserved this [Page 21] punishment of God, for their former ma­nifold transgressions, from which no man is free.

Yet God hastened this punishment upon them for Jonah's presence with them. Wash not in the same bath with Cerinthus, decline the society of notorious sinners, Rev. 18. 4. Gold, though the noblest met­tall, loseth of his lustre by being continu­ally worn in the same purse with silver: And the best men by associating them­selves with the wicked, are often corrupted with their sinnes, yea and partake of their plagues. Yet when men are implunged in misery, through the faults of others, and suffer for company for the sins of others, (as men in suretyship, undone by the pro­digality of their friends for whom they were bound, Let them reflect their eyes on their own faults, and know that though they be innocent in this particular, yet they have deserved this punishment of God for some other sin. And God may justly take advantage at his own pleasure to inflict the punishment. However, let them know themselves for sinners in an high degree, [Page 22] who involve others within the very and latitude of their owne punishments; As drunken Husbands, who by their prodiga­lity drown'd their whole Family in a sea of want, making their Wives, Children, Servants, Cattle pinch and pine through their riot, and excesse. For our parts let us labour to attain to true piety, that so we may rather be a Ioseph, whose goodness may make a whole family to prosper; Ra­ther one of those ten Righteous, for whose righteousnesse a whole Sodome might be saved; then an Achan, for whose sins an Army may be routed; or a Ionah, for whose fault, a whole ship full of men was like to be broken.

Verse 5. ‘Then the Mariners were afraid, and cryed every man unto his God, and cast the wares that were in the ship into the Sea to lighten it of them: But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship, and he lay down, and was fast a­sleep.’

Then the Mariners were afraid.] These words afford an harder than Sampson's riddle: Out of the Bold came Fear. Out of the Prophane, Piety. Out of the Cove­tous, came Casting away of goods. Mari­ners they are the hardiest of all people, so alwayes in danger, that they are never in danger, as if their hearts were made of those rocks, amongst which they use to [Page 24] sayle, yet see they feared. They are accoun­ted a prophane kinde of people, a-kin'd unto the unjust Judge, Luke 18. 2. They are esteemed the Nazareth of the world, out of which cometh no good; Yet see, they pray. They are generally covetous, venturing their lives for lucre: yet see, they cast away their goods. Whence we may learn, that afflictions are able to affright most prophane men into piety: whether really inflicted, as unto Pharaoh; or cer­tainly denounced, as unto Ahab. Where­fore, let us labour that we be as good, when afflictions are removed, as when they are inflicted; as pious in wealth, as in want; as well affected in health, as in sicknesse, that in prosperity we prove not Apostates from those pious resolutions, which we made in adversity. When David had ap­pointed Solomon King, 1 Kings 1. 36. Be­naiah the son of Jehoiada answered, AMEN. And the Lord God of my Lord the King, say, AMEN. So when in afflictions we have made any vowes of future piety, if we have deliverance, let us pray to God to ratifie and confirm our resolutions; and to give [Page 25] us strength to fulfill and perform them: Lest otherwise we take but a lease of piety, during the term that the tempest doth last, & relapse to our former wickedness when the calm begins.

And cryed every man unto his God.] Ge­nerall punishments must have generall prayer and humiliation, otherwise the plai­ster will be too narrow for the sore. To his God. The ship was fraught with a Misce­lanie of all Nations: It was a Babel, and contained a confusion of as many Religi­ons, as that of Languages: None were at a losse for a Deity to pray to. (So an un­naturall sin was Atheisme) Yet wofull then was the estate of the World, when one could not see GOD for Gods. But let us now be thankfull, that as the true Ser­pent of Moses, eat up and devoured the seeming Serpents which Iannes and Iam­bres the Aegyptian Inchanters did make: So now, in the civillized world the know­ledge of the true God hath devoured and done away all fancies and fables of faigned Gods. Neverthelesse, as the Heathens in this ship, so every Christian may still pray [Page 26] to his proper GOD. My Lord and my God, saith Thomas. I thank my god, 1 Cor. 1. 4. The same is God to all in generall, and to each in particular.

And cast the wares that were in the ship into the Sea.] Skin for skin, and all that a man hath, will he give for his life, Act. 27. Now if life be so dear, how dear is the life of our life, the eternall happinesse of our soules? What shall a man gaine, if &c? Therefore when it cometh in competition, whether we shall lose our soules, or our goods; let us drown our outward pelfe, lest it drown us; let us cast it away, lest we be cast away by it. Woe be to him that loadeth himself of thick clay, Hab. 2. 6. Ra­ther as Ioseph saved himself from his Mi­stris, though he left his garment behinde him: So it matters not though we lose (the clothes of our souls) our earthly pos­sessions; so be it our souls themselves still remain safe and entire. And if in such a case we must forgoe our goods, much more must we forsake our sins which are good for nothing, but to sink us down to destruction, Heb. 12. 1. Lets lay aside every [Page 27] waight, and the sin that doth so easily be­set us. And not onely pray to God to as­sists us, but with the Mariners in the Text, back and second our prayers by using all lawfull means for our own safety.

But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship.] I here reade a contradiction in Jonah's actions: He went down into the sides of the ship; this favours of flight and of fear: And there he slept; this of confi­dence and security. Yet wonder I not that I cannot make sense of Jonah's actions, who surely at this time could scarce make sense of his owne. Sin distracts men, and makes them at the same time imbrace con­tradicting purposes: So that their resolu­tions fight as the twins in Rebecka's womb, and are as contrary to themselves as to God's lawes. See Jonah at one instant, Formidat & audet.

And lay down, and was fast asleep.] An Emperour hearing of the death of one of his subjects, who was deeply indebted, sent to buy his bed, supposing there was some opium, or soporiferous vertue therein, that he could sleep so soundly thereon and be [Page 28] so much ingaged. Surely this Emperour would have proved a [...] Chapman to have purchased Jonah's ship; who, not­withstanding he had so many things with­in, without, about, above, beneath to dis­turb him, yet, as if the rossing of the waves, had been the rocking of this cradle; and the roaring of the windes, Lullabyes in his ear, was fast asleep. Learn, first, it is a great sin with Jonah to be drowsie, when the rest are at their devotion, and yet many such Separatists, and Non-conformists we have, who by their sluggishnesse divide them­selves from the whole Congregation. In­deed, Eutiches had some plea for his sleep­ing, because S. Paul's Sermon was conti­nued untill mid-night. But we may say to our people, as our Saviour to his Disciples, What? can ye not watch with me one hour? Secondly, it is a great sinne with us (with Jonah) to be secure, whilst we (with o­thers) are in a common danger, and cala­mity. Consider the present estate of the Christian Church; Is it not tossed with the tempest of warre, as bad as Jonah's ship? It lost an Anchor, when the Palati­uate [Page 29] was lost. It sprung a Leake, when Rochel was taken. One of the main Masts thereof was split, when the King of Swe­den was kill'd. Though we in this Island be safe in the sides of the ship, yet let us not be sleepy as Ionah; but with our prayers commend to God the distresses of our Beyond▪ sea▪ brethren; and thank God that we (like Gedeon's Fleece) are dry, when the ground round about is wet with weeping; steep'd in teares, bedew'd with mourning. Thirdly, persevering in sinne besots men, and makes them insensible of the greatest dangers. It makes men like Nabal, their heart dyes within them, and they become like a stone; so frozen in their sinnes, that no fear of Hell-fire can thaw them. Thus David, when he kill'd Uriah, seem'd to kill his own conscience. How was he berest of sense of sinne and punishment for nine moneths together; yea, the time of Bath­sheba's deliverance was come, but the time of David's repentance was not come. Who ever saw the Sun so long in an eclipse? Let us therefore stop sinne in the beginning: For prophanenesse as well as piety is ad­vanced [Page 30] by degrees, and in the progresse thereof, hath certain stages before it comes to the journeys end. Crush it therefore in the first motion before it comes to be a setled thought; in the thought, before it break forth into action; in the action, ere it become a disposition; in the disposition, ere it be an habit; in the infant-habit, be­fore it become inveterate, and another na­ture. And here also we may see how de­sperate security in wicked men hath by usurpation intituled it selfe to be true va­lour. Men count wicked men full of sorti­tude, which run on Gods drawn sword without any feare; when alas! it is no­thing but a sottish security arising from a seared conscience. Will any say, that it is true valour in a Bedlem that he feels no pain, whose limbs are benumm'd and past sense.

Verse 6. ‘So the Ship-master came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, ô sleeper? A­rise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.’

So the Ship-master.] The Ship-master that was, (but now no Master of it, the Tyranny of the tempest Commanding both it and him) begins to bestirre him. Great men must not thinke to be privi­ledged from danger by the eminencie of their place. Mordecai to Hester: Think not thou shalt escape in the Kings house more than all the Iewes. Yea, some­times Great men are in the greatest dan­gers, they are most aimed at, Fight neither against small nor against great, save onely against the King of Israel, 1 Kings 22. 31. Now sithence there was a Governour in a ship, it teacheth us that no company can [Page 32] long subsist without order and superiority one above another: From the Courtiers to the Prisoners, Gen. 39. 22. Ioseph had all the Prisoners in the Prison committed to to his hand. Ten is but a small number, yet Moses made Governours over ten, Exod. 18. 21. Yea, as there is Michael the Archangel in heaven, so is there Beel Zebub the Prince of Devils in Hell: So much order there is in the very place of confu­sion. Away then with the Anabaptist, who would set all men at odds by making all men even. For a Common-wealth to want Chiefe, it is the chiefe of all wants, every man will doe what he list, few what they should: too much liberty would make men slaves to their own self-will. Let us there­fore be subject to the higher powers, know­ing that there are no powers but of God.

Came unto him, and said.] Every one in authority ought to look unto those which are under their command; other­wise they shall answer to God for such faults as those commit which are under their charge, through their over-sight and neglect. Christ is said to have baptized▪ [Page 33] Iohn 3. 23. And yet it is said, Iohn 4. 2. That he himself baptized not, but his Di­sciples. We see that the deed of the Ser­vants being done by the countenance and command of the Master, is attributed and ascribed to his Master as his own proper work. If the Master hears of his Servants drunkennesse, and punisheth it not, it is the Masters drunkennesse. If the Master hears of his Servants prophaneness, and reproves him not for it, it is his prophanenesse. Blame-worthy then are those Magistrates who would have the profit, not the pain; the credit, not the care of their place and charge: so that they deale with those that are under them, as David did with Ado­niah, they will not so much as trouble themselves to say to Offenders, Why doest thou so?

What meanest thou, ô sleeper!] See here the Gentile teacheth the Jew, the Pagan preacheth to the Prophet, and he is con­tent to hear him. How faulty is their pride, who count it an imbasing of their know­ledge to listen to the advice of others, who in any respect are their inferiours, Ioh. 9. [Page 34] ver. 34. Yet David hearkned to the ad­vice of Abigail, Abraham to the counsell of Sarah, Apollos to the instruction of A­quila and Priscilla, yea Solomon (the wisest of earthly Kings) had a Council of Aged men which stood before him. Neither need any man think much to learn of the meanest of men, who may be taught by Pismires and Lillyes. Yet when inferiours on just occasion adventure to counsel those that are above them, that their counsell may better relish, Let it be seasoned with these three ingredients, first, Secrecie. This alone was good in Peter's reproving of our Saviour, Mat. 16. 22. [...], He took him aside. Secondly, Seasonablenesse. Abigail, 1 Sam. 25. 36. told drunken Na­bal neither more nor lesse, till the next morning: she thought her physick would work the better, if she gave it him fasting. Thirdly, Humility. Naaman's Servants: Father, if the Prophet had bid thee some great thing, wouldst not thou have done it? 2. Kings 5. 13. They brought not onely good Logick, reasoning from the greater [...] but also good Ethicks, Father. [Page 35] These cautions observed, meaner persons by Gods assistance, with hope of successe, may take upon them to advise their bet­ters.

Arise, and call upon thy God.] He doth not onely reprove him for what he had done amisse, but also directeth him in what he should doe well. They are miserable Guides, that tell the wandring Traveller, that he hath lost the way, but tell him not how to finde it.

Arise.] Men must put away all lazinesse, when they prepare themselves to prayer. Indeed, when in sicknesse we are Gods pri­soners, then we can only rouse up our souls and not arise in our bodies; then, with He­zekiah, we may lye on our bed and pray, pleading to God, as Mephibosheth to David, that his servant is lame: But other­wise, Cursed is he that doth the work of the Lord negligently. The first fruits of the Asse was not to be dedicated to God in the Leviticall Law, but the neck thereof was to be broken. Let us break the asses neck, let us banish all sloth and laziness when we goe about to perform any service of God, [Page 36] Call upon thy God.] Because perchance the Ship-master had a great opinion of the sufficiency of Ionah's God, or because he might have a conceipt that Ionah's prayers might be more prevalent than his owne. Aeschinus said unto his Uncle Mitio, in the Comedie:

Tu potius deos comprecare, nam tibi eos certo scio,
Quo vir melior es, quam ego sum, obtem­peraturos magis.

Or else he onely aimed at a generall col­lection of prayers, hoping that that cable­rope would be strongest that was twisted of most severall cords.

If so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.] It is worth our search to know, when these words, If so be God will, are to be inserted into our prayers, and when they must be omitted. When we pray for pardon of our sins, then we must omit them: For God hath said, At what time &c. I will put all his wickednesse out of my remembrance. Now let us not dispute of what is determined suspect what is sure. God saith, he will. Let us not say, If so be [Page 37] God will. If our repentance be unfaigned, our pardon may be undoubted: In such a case, Let us come to the Throne of Grace with boldnesse in the assurance of faith, with reasoning, trust perfectly in grace. But when we pray for the removall of punish­ment, then these words are no Parenthesis, but an essentiall part of our prayers, then we must submit our selves not our wills, but thy will be done; then with children we must not cry to carve our own meat, but eat that which God our Father cuts for us, though it be untoothsome for our palats to tast, it is never unwholsome for our stomachs to digest.

Verse 7. ‘And they said every one to his fellow, Come and let us cast lots, that we know for whose cause this evill is upon us. So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah.’

And they said every one to his fellow.] The apprehension of the present danger, was the cement that did glue and unite their different judgments and affections, to resolve on that, which they conceived was for their generall good. It is likely that the beasts in the Arke when they were in a common danger of drowning did agree together, and for that time dispence with their mutuall Antipathies. Grant then that we have severall tempers, humours, opi­nious; yet the apprehension that we have one grand unpartiall enemy, the Devil, who like a roaring Lyon seeks to devour [Page 39] us: This should make us centre our votes in such resolutions, which are behoofull for all our goods.

Come let us cast lots.] The use of Lots was very antient amongst both Jewes and Gentiles. They were of three natures, 1. The Lot Divinatorie, used by Haman, Hest. 3. 7. And as for this kinde of Lot, it is utterly unlawfull, We have no such cu­stome, nor yet the Churches of God. Second­ly Divisorie, Obad. 11. Mat. 27. 35. Third­ly Consultory, Lev. 16. 21. Iosh. 7. 18. 1 Sam. 14. 42. These are lawfull, if used lawfully, with these cautions: First, in matters of difficulty; As quicksilver in the Iliaca passio, when nothing else can un­twine the gutts; in perplext and intricate causes. Secondly, in matters of conse­quence, otherwise there may difficiles nugae; Riddles not worth the reading. Hard shells without a kernell not worth the cracking. Difficulties which deserve not the resol­ving. Thirdly, they are to be ushered with prayer, as in the choice of Matthias, Act. 1. Fourthly, that nothing therein be attribu­ted to Chance, Prov. 16. 33. The lot is cast [Page 40] into the lap, but the whole disposition thereof is from the Lord. Whole. Fortune, that God of mans making; is a meer Idol of Dagon: and falls down at the approach of the Arke of GOD's providence: Loo­sing both head and hands, power both to plot and perform. It is not Fortune blinde through ignorance that cannot see, But Divine Justice blinde through impartiality that will not see, which ordereth the mat­ter. Lastly, no cousenage or deceit is to be used in them. Lots are Gods scales, where­in he weigheth matters of seeming equal­lity, and showes which preponderates: they therefore that falsifie this ballance of the Sanctuary, must needs be abomination in the sight of God.

Now because Lots may say to Cards, what Naomi sayd to Boaz, They are neer unto us, and of our affinity; something also of the use of them. It were no great harm if there were no other Cards used, than those of Clothiers about wooll, and of Mariners in the ship. But as for Cards to play with, Let us not wholly condemn them, lest lacing our consciences too [Page 41] straight, we make them to grow awry on the wrong side.

Such Recreations are lawfull if we use them as Ionathan tasted the honey, putting forth the end of his rod he touched a little of it, and his eyes were cleared. But let us take heed of a surfeit, into which those doe fall who either play out of covetousnesse, or for more than their estates can bear, or constantly and continually; all their meat is sauce, all the dayes in their Almanack play-dayes, though few Holy-dayes. The Creation lasted but a Week, but these mens Recreations all the dayes of their lives; such using of lawfull exercises is al­together unlawfull.

That we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us.] The best man in the ship carried sinne enough about him to drown himself, ship, and passengers. But this milk we suck from the brests of our mother Eve, to shift and post off the fault from our selves, how guilty soever we are, 1 Sam. 15. 9. But Saul and the people spared Agag and the best sheep: Now ver. 15. it is said, They have brought them from the [Page 42] Amalekites, for the people spared the best of the sheep. He that was the greatest in the sinne, would not be at all in the shame. Should God scourge this Land with Fa­mine, or any other generall punishment, The Courtiers would impute the cause thereof to the Covetousnesse of the Citi­zens: The Citizens to the Prodigality of the Courtiers: The Rich to the unthank­fulnesse, discontented murmuring of the Poor: The Poor to the hard-heartednesse of the Rich: The Laity to the Clergies want of preaching: The Clergie to the Laities want of practising: Every one would post the fault from himselfe, and be inquisitive with these Mariners, For whose fault this evill was upon them.


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