THE KNIGHTS [...]oined with ye MONKES of E [...]Y by WILIIĀ ye CONQVEROVR

SIMONI ARCHER. Equiti Aurato Antiquitatis cultori, et in DIGMA­TOGRAPHIA exercitatissimo, nec non lectissima Dnae Annae. T. F.

The Brother to William Erle of Warren with Monke Leofricke

William the Conquerer

St Ethelburge

St Ethelwarde Bishope

Robert O [...]fford the xiiijth Bishope of Elye

Opsal Captaine of the C [...]osbowe-men wth. Henke Godfryde

Belase ge [...]erall of the soldiours against Eley with Non [...]e vtwalde.

Picot Bridge Moister with Monke Huskettle

Arg entine Surgeon generall with Monke Elfritcke

Gerard de longo Campo with Monke William.

Talbote sent ostentynes Embassadour with Monke Duffe

Adam cheife Marshall of the Armie with Monke Seda

Guido de St Leodigara with the holy Monke Adelmere

Hastings a souldior skilfull in Nauigasion with Monke Nigell

Walter Lacy sheild bearer to ye Conquerour with Monke Occam

Pamell Captaine of 300 foolemen with Monke Ednode

Ahmude sonne of Alan with Monke Burthrede

Abraham Pechy with monke Etholbert ye Elder

Bardolphe maister of the workemen with Monke Recke

Sewarde on englishman Vitualer of ye Campe with Monke Reoffine

Fides de furnivall a lumbard with Monke OSulp.

Blounte Captayne generall of ye foote| men wth Monkewillnete.

Brian Clare an old Souldior with Monke Cliton

Hugh Mounteforti Cap­tayne of ye Horsemen with Monke Odon.

Pagan Standerd bearer of the Horsemen wth monke Athel­ [...]ale

Bigotte Captaine of 300 horsemen with Monke Condulphe

Dunstan le Grosma­neus with Munke Egberte

Richard deponteful: Conis with Monke leo fricke the younger.

Eucas de Novo Burgo with Olane the holye Monke of the Monastery

Tuchet Captayne of the Bowmen with Monke Osburne

Nigellus Hamtain­dote with Monke Donalde

Eustalias the Blacke with Monke Edwin

Eustalias the white Maister of the Scout­men with monke Swan

Bigotte third sonne of Bigotte with Monke Edmund

Robert Marshall with Monke Renulphe▪

Beamunde master of the Con [...]uerors horse with Monke Gurthe

Kenulphus a Ger­man Soldiour with monke [...]skettle

John of yorke an Englishman with monke Felix

John Malmaine Stan­derd bearer of the footemen wth monke Otho

Anthoni longe sword with Monke Alfrede

Lucy a Norman Ad­mirall to ye Conqueror with Monke Constan­tine

Alexander demonte Vignite with Monke Dauid

Luca [...]nalsus Cap­tayne of ye Billmen with Monke oswalde

Nas [...] Captayne of 200 footemen with Monke Orme


Eliae Ashmole Arm Mercurio—phylo Angla [...] Accepta refundit.

T. F.

Sam: Purk pinxit▪ W. Holl [...] sculp▪



[printer's or publisher's device]

LONDON, Printed for IOHN WILLIAMS at the signe of the Crown in St. Paul's Church-yard, Anno 1655.


I Have sometimes solitarily pleased my self, with the perusing and compa­ring of two places of Scripture.

Acts 22. 22. The wicked Iews said of St. Paul; Avvay vvith such a Fellovv from the Earth, for it is not fit that he should live.

Hebrews 11. 38. St. Paul said of the Godly Iews; Of vvhom the vvorld vvas not vvorthy.

Here I perceive Heaven and Hell, Mercy and Malice, Gods Spirit and mans Spite, resolved on the Question, that it is not fit that good men should live long on Earth.

[Page] However, though the Building be the same, yet the Bottome is different; the same Conclusion being inferred from opposite, yea contrary Premisses. Wicked men think this world too good, God knows it too bad, for his Ser­vants to live in. Henceforward I shall not wonder, that Good men die so soon, but that they live so long; seeing wicked men desire their Room here on Earth, and God their Company in Heaven. No wonder then, if your Good Father was so soon translated to Happi­nesse, and his GRACE advanced into GLORY.

He was pleased to give me a Text some weeks before his Death, of the words of our Saviour to the Probationer Convert; Thou Mark 12. 34. art not far from the Kingdome of Heaven, that is, as the words there import, from the state of Salvation. But before my Sermon could be, his life was, finished, and he in the reall acception thereof, possessed of Heaven, and Happinesse.

Thus was I disappointed (O that this were the greatest Losse by the Death of so worthy Person!) of a Patron, to whom I intended the Dedication of this first part of my History.

I after was entred on a Resolution to dedicate it to his Memory; presuming to defend the Innocency and Harmlesnesse of such a Dedication, by Precedents of unquestioned Antiquity. But I intended also to sur­round the Pages of the Dedication with black, not im­proper, [Page] as to his relation, so expressive of the pre­sent sad Condition of our distracted Church.

But scasonably remembring how the Altar EDIoshua 22. 11. (onely erected for Commemoration,) was misinter­preted by the other Tribes for Superstition; I concei­ved it best to cut off all occasions of Cavill from captious persons, and dedicate it to You his Son and Heir.

Let not your Grace be offended, that I make you a Patron at the second hand: for though I confesse you are my Refuge, in relation to your deceased Father; you are my Choise, in reference to the surviving Nobi­lity. God sanctifie your tender yeares, with true Grace, that in time you may be a Comfort to your Mother, Credit to your Kindred, and Honour to your Nation.

Your Graces most bounden ORATOVR, THOMAS FULLER.


AN Ingenious Gentleman some Moneths since in Iest-earnest advised me to make hast with my History of the Church of En­gland, for fear (said he) lest the Church of England be ended before the History thereof.

This History is now, though late (all Church-work is slow) brought with much difficulty to an end.

And blessed be God, the Church of England is still, (and long may it be) in being, though disturb'd, distem­pered, distracted, God help and heal her most sad condi­tion.

The three first Books of this Volumn were for the main written in the Reign of the late King, as appeareth by the passages then proper for the Government. The other nine Books were made since Monarchy was turned into a State.

May God alone have the Glory, and the ingenuous Rea­der the Benefit of my endeavours; which is the hearty de­sire of

Thy Servant in Iesus Christ, THOMAS FULLER.



THat we may the more freely and fully pay the tribute of our thanks to Gods goodnesse,The dolefull case of the Pagan Britans. for the Gospel which we now enjoy, let us recount the sad Condition of the Britans our Predecessours, before the Christian Faith was preached unto them. At that time they were without Christ, being Aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel, and strangers from the Covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the World. They were foul Idolaters, who, from misapplying that undeniable Truth of Gods being in every thing, made every thing to be their God, Trees, Rivers, Hills, and Mountains. They worship­ped Devils, whose Pictures remained in the dayes ofEpist. de Ex­cid. Brit. Gildas, within and with­out the decayed. Walls of their Cities, drawn with deformed Faces, (no doubt, done to the Life, according to their Terrible Apparitions,) so that such ugly Shapes did not woe, but fright people into Adoration of them. Where­fore if any find in Tully that the Britans in his time had no Pictures, understand him, they were not Artists in that Mystery, (like the Greeks and Romans) they had not pieces of Proportion, being rather Dawbers then Drawers, Stainers then Painters, though called Picti, from their self-discoloration.

2. Three paramount Idols they worshipped above all the rest,Their Princi­pall Idols. and ascribed divine honour unto them:

  • 1. Apollo, by them styled Belinus the Great.
  • 2. Andnaste,
    Xiphil. Epi. in Nerone.
    or Andate, the Goddesse of Victorie.
  • 3. Diana, Goddesse of the Game.

This last was most especially reverenced, Britain being then all a Forest, where Hunting was not the Recreation but the Calling, and Venison, not the Dainties but the Diet of Common people. There is a place near S. Pauls in London, called in old Records DIANA'S CHAMBER, where, in the daies of K.Camden. Britann. in Middlesex. Edward the first, thousands of the Heads of Oxen were digged up, where­at, the Ignorant wondred, whilest the Learned well understood them to be the proper Sacrifices to Diana, whose great. Temple was built thereabout. This rendereth their Conceit not altogether unlikely, who will have LONDON [Page 2] so called from LLAN-DIAN, which signifieth in British the Temple of DIANA. And surely Conjectures, if mannerly observing their Distance, and not impudently intruding themselves for Certainties, deserve, if not to be re­ceived, to be considered. Besides these specified, they had other Portenta Dia­bolica, Gildas ut prius. pene numero Aegyptiaca vincentia: as indeed they who erroneously conceive one God too little, will find two too many, and yet Millions not enough. As for those learnedDruides unum esse Deum semper inculcarunt. Camden and Bp. Godwin. Pens, which report that the Druides did instruct the Ancient Britans in the Knowledge and Worship of one onely God, may their Mistake herein be as freely forgiven them, as I hope and desire that the Charitable Reader will with his Pardon meet those unvoluntary Errours, which in this Work by me shall be committed.

3. Two sorts of People were most honoured amongst the Britans:

  • 1. Druides, who were their
    • Philosophers
    • Divines.
    • Lawyers.
  • 2. Bards, who were their
    • Prophets.
    • Poets.
    • Historians

The former were so called from [...],The office and employ­ment of the Druides. signifying generally a Tree, and pro­perly an Oak, under which they used to perform their Rites and Ceremonies. An Idolatrie whereof the Iews themselves had been guilty, for which the Prophet threatneth them;Isai. 1. 29. They shall be ashamed of the Oaks which they have de­sired. But the signall Oak which the Druides made choice of, was such a one, on whichPliny Na­tur. Hist. lib. 6. cap. 44. Misletoe did grow; by which privie token, they conceived, God marked it out, as of soveraigne vertue, for his service. Under this Tree, on the sixth day of the Moon, (whereon they began their Year) they invocated their Idols, and offered two white Bulls, filleted in the horns, with many other Ceremonies. These Pagan Priests never wrote anything, so to procure the greater Venera­tion to their Mysteries; men being bound to believe that it was some great Treasure, which was locked up in such great Secresie.

4. The Bards were next the Druides in Regard,The power­full practices of the Bards on the peo­ple. and played excellently to their Songs on their Harps; whereby they had great Operation on the Vulgar, surprising them into Civility unawares, they greedily swallowing whatsoever was sweetned with Musick. These also, to preserve their Ancestours from Corruption, embalmed their Memories in Rhiming Verses, which looked both backward, in their Relations, and forward, in their Predictions: so that their Confidence meeting with the Credulity of others, advanced their wild Conjectures to the Reputation of Prophesies. The Immortality of the Soul they did not flatly denie, but salfely believe, disguised under the opinion of Transanimation, conceiving that dying mens Souls afterward passed into other Bodies, either preferred to better, or condemned to worse, according to their former good or ill behaviour. This made them contemn Death, and alwayes maintain erected Resolutions, counting a valiant Death the best of Bargains, wherein they did not loose, but lay out their Lives to Advantage. Generally they were great Magicians; insomuch thatNatur. Hist. lib. 30. cap. 1. Plinie saith, that the very Persians, in some sort, might seem to have learn't their Magick from the Britans.

5. So pittifull for the present,37 and more fearfull for the future was the condition of the Heathen Britans, The first preaching of the Gospell in Britain. Causes which haste­ned the con­version of Britain be­fore other kingdoms which lay, nearer to Palestine. when it pleased God with a strong hand, and stretched-out Arme, to reach the Gospel unto them, who were afarre off, both in locall and theologicall Distance. This was performed in the later end of the Reigne of Tiberius, some thirty seven years after Christ's Birth: as Po­lydor Virgil collecteth out of the testimony ofTempore (ut scimus) sum­mo Tiberii Caesaris. inp Epist. de Ex. Brit. Gildas.

6. If it seem incredible to any, that this Island, furthest from the Sunne, should see Light with the first, whil'st many Countries on the Continent in­terposed, (nearer in Situation to Iudaea, the Fountain of the Gospell) sate, as yet, and many years after, in Darknesse, and in the Shadow of Death: Let such con­sider, First, That Britain being a by-Corner, out of the Road of the World, [Page 3] seemed the safest Sanctuarie from Persecution, 37 which might invite Preachers to come the sooner into it. Secondly, it facilitated the Entrance of the Gospell hither, that lately the Roman Conquest had in part civilized the South of this Island, by transporting of Colonies thither, and erecting of Cities there; so that, by the Intercourse of Traffick and Commerce with other Countries, Christianity had the more speedy and convenient Wastage over. Whereas on the other side, this set the Conversion of Germany so backward, because the in-land Parts thereof entertained no Trading with others; and (out of Defiance to the Romans) hugged their own Barbarisme, made lovely with Liberty bolting out all Civility from themselves, as jealous that it would usher in Subjection. Lastly and chiefly, God in a more peculiar manner did alwayes favour the Islands, as under his immediate Protection. For as he daily walls them with his Providence, against the scaling of the swelling Surges, and constant Battery of the Tide: so he made a particular promise of his Gospell unto them, by the mouth of hisIsai. 66. 19. Prophet, I will send those that escape of them, to the Isles afarre off, that have not heard my Fame. To shew that neither height, nor depth, (no not of the Ocean it self) is able to separate any from the Love of God. And for the same purpose, Christ employed Fisher­men for the first Preachers of the Gospell, as who, being acquainted with the Water, and mysteries of Sailing, would with the more delight undertake long Sea-voyages into Forreign Countries.

7. But now, who it was that first brought over the Gospell into Britain, is very uncertain.S. Peter fals­ly reported to have preached in Britain. The Conversioner (understand Parsons the Iesuite) mainly Parsons 3 Conversions, 1. part. 1. chap. pag. 19. stickleth for the Apostle Peter to have first preached the Gospel here. Yea, when Protestants object against St. Peter's being at Rome, because St. Paul, in his Epistle to the Romans, omitteth to name or salute him; The Iesuite hand­somely answers, That Peter was then probably from home, employed in Preaching in Britain, and otheres places. His Arguments to prove it are not so strong, but that they easily accept of Answers, as followeth.

1. Arg. St. Peter preach't in Britain, because GildasIn Epist. de Excid. Brit. speaking against his dissolute Country-men, taxeth them for usurping the Seat of Peter with their unclean feet.

Answ. Vnderstand him, that they had abused the Profession of the Ministery: for it follows, they have sitten in the pestilent Chair of Iudas the Traitor. Whence it appears, both are meant mystically and metapho­rically, parallel to the expressions of the Apostle Jude v. 11. They have gone in the way of Cain, &c.

2. Arg.Comment [...]i [...] de Petro & Pauload diem. 29 Iunii. Simeon Metaphrastes saith so, that he staied some dayes in Britain, where having preached the Word, established Churches, ordained Bishops, Priests & Deacons, in the 12. year of Nero he returned to Rome

Answ. Metaphrastes is an Authour of no credit, asIn aliis mul­tis ibi ab ipso positis errare eum certum est. Ecc. An­nal. in An. 44. num. 54. Baronius himself doth confesse.

3. Arg. Epistola 1. ad Decentium. Innocent the first reporteth that the first Churches in Italy, France, Spain, Africk, Sicily, and the Interjacent Islands, were founded by St. Peter.

Answ. Make the Map an Vmpire, and the Epithet Interjacent will not reach Britain, intending only the Islands in the Mid-land Sea.

4. Arg. Gulielmus Eysingrenius saith so.

Answ. Though he hath a long Name, he is but a late Authour, setting forth his BookMason de Minist. Ang. lib. 2. cap. 3. pag. 65. Anno 1566. Besides, he builds on the Authority of Metaphrastes, and so both fall together.

5. Arg. St. Peter himself in a Vision, in the dayes of King Edward the Con­fessour, reported that he had preached the VVord in Britain.

Answ. To this Vision pretended of Peter, we oppose the certain words of St. Paul, 1 Tim. 1. 4. Neither give heed to Fables.

[Page 4] We have stayed the longer in confuting these Arguments, because from Pe­ters preaching here,37 Parsons would inferre an obligation of this Island to the See of Rome, which how strongly he hath proved let the Reader judge. He that will give a Cap, and make a Legge in thanks for a Favour he never received, de­serveth rather to be blamed for want of Wit, then to be praised for store of Manners. None therefore can justly tax us of Ingratitude, if we be loath to con­fesse an engagement to Rome more then is due. The rather because Rome is of so tyrannicall a disposition, that making herself the Mother-Church, she expects of her Daughters not only Dutifulnesse, but Servility; and (not content to have them ask her Blessing, but also do her Drudgerie,) endeavoureth to make Slaves of all her Children.

8. Passing by Peter, proceed we to the rest of the Apostles, whom severall Authours alledge the first Planters of Religion in this Island.

1 St.Isidorus de patribus u­triusque Testa­stament. c. 72. Item Flavius Lucius Dex­ter in Chronico ad annum 41. Iames Son to Zebedee, St. Iames, St. Paul, St. Simon, & St. Aristobu­lus Preachers in Britain. and brother to Iohn. 41 But if we consult with the Scripture, we shall find that the Sword of Herod put an end to all his Travells before the Apostles their generall departure from Hierusalem. In­deed this Iames is notoriously reported, (how truly, let them seek who are concerned,) to have been in Spain; and it is probable, some, mistaking Hibernia for Hiberia, and then confounding Hibernia, a British Island, with our Britain, (as one Errour is very procreative of another) gave the beginning to Iames his Preaching here.

2. St. Paul is by others shipt over into our Island; amongst whom, thus singsLib. 3. de vi­ta S. Martini. Venantius Fortunatus:

Transit & Oceanum, vel qua facit Insula Portum:
Quasque Britannus habet terras, quasque ultima Thule.

But lesse credit is to be given to Britannus, because it goeth in companie with ultima Thule: Which being the noted expression of Poets, for the ut­most bound of the then-known-world, seems to favour more of Poeti­call Hyperbole, then Historicall Truth, as a Phrase at Randome, only to ex­presse farre forreign Countries.

3 Simon the Canaanite, 47 surnamed Zelotes: and well did he brook his Name, the fervencie of whose Zeal carried him into so farre and cold a coun­trie, to propagate the Gospell. Dorotheus makes him to be both martyred and buried in Britain. But this, saithAnual. Ec­cles. in Anno 44. num. 39. Baronius, receiveth no Countenance from any ancient Writers. What then, I pray, was Dorotheus himself, being Bishop of Tyre under Diocletian, and Constantine the Great? If the Cardinall count him young, what grave Seniours will he call ancient?

4Rom. 16. 10. Aristobulus, 56 though no Apostle, yet an Apostles Mate, counted one of the seventy Disciples, is byMenaea Grae­corum, Die de­cimo-quinto Martii. Grecian Writers made Bishop of Britain. Strange! that forreign Authours should see more in our Island, then our home­bred Historians, wholy silent thereof: and it much weakneth their Testi­monie, because they give evidence of things done at such distance from them. But how easie is it for a Writer with one word of his Pen, to send an Apostle many Miles by Land and Leagues by Sea, into a Country, where­in otherwise he never set his Footing!

The Result of all is this: Churches are generally ambitious to entitle them­selves to Apostles, for their Founders; conceiving they should otherwise be esteemed but as of the Second Forme, and Younger House, if they received the Faith from any inferiour Preacher. Wherefore as the Heathen, in searching after the originall of their Nations, never leave Soaring till they touch the Clouds, and fetch their Pedigree from some God: So Christians think it nothing worth, except they relate the first Planting of Religion in their Countrie to some Apostle. Whereas indeed it matters not, if the Doctrine be the same, whe­ther the Apostles preached it by themselves, or by their Successours. We see little Certainty can be extracted, who first brought the Gospell hither; 'tis so long since, the British Church hath forgotten her own Infancy, who were her [Page 5] first God-fathers. We see the Light of the VVord shined here,56 but see not who kindled it. I will not say, as God, to prevent Idolatrie, caused the Body of Deut. 34. 6. Moses to be concealed; so, to cut off from Posterity all occasion of Superstition, he suffered the Memories of our Primitive Planters to be buried in Obscurity.

9. Now amongst the Converts of the Natives of this Island,63 in this Age, to Christianity,Claudia (notwith­standing Par­sons, excepti­ons) might be a British Christian. Claudia (surnamed Ruffina) is reputed a principall, wife to Pudens a Romane Senatour. And because all this is too high a Step for our belief to climb at once; the Ascent will be more easie, thus divided into Stairs, and half-paces.

First, That Claudia was a Britan born, Martial affirms it in his Epigrara:
Lib. 11. Epig. 54.
Claudia caeruleis cum sit Ruffina Britannis
Edita, cur Latiae pectora plebis habet?
Secondly, That this Claudia was wife to Pudens, the same
Lib. 4. Epig. 13.
Poet averreth:
Claudia, Rufe, meo nubit peregrina Pudenti.
Macte esto taedis, ô Hymenaec, tuis.

Thirdly, That there was a Pudens, and Claudia living at Rome, both Chri­stians, we have it from a more infallible Pen of2 Tim. 4. 21 S. Paul himself,—Eu­bulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.

Lastly, That this Claudia mentioned by St. Paul, then living at Rome, was the same Claudia, a Britan born, mentioned by Martial, is the Opinion, and probable Conjecture of many Modern VVriters.

But Father Parsons will not admit hereof, because willingly he would not allow any sprinkling of Christianity in this Island, but what was rained from Rome, when Eleutherius sent to Christian King Lucius; that so our ingage­ment to the Romish Church might be the more visible, and conspicuous. This of Claudia Ruffina is hudled up (saithParsons 3 Convers. part. 1. pa. 18. he) by our late Hereticall VVri­ters; (thoughPitseus de Script. Brit. pag. 72. is zealous for it. Parsons ob­jection to the contrary answered. some as Catholick as himself in his own sense, do enter­tain it:) and hereby we see that Hereticks are but sleight Provers, and very deceit­full in all matters, as well Historicall, as Doctrinall.

10. But be it known to him and others, that our History is founded on the best humane Books we can get; but our Doctrine is grounded on what is best in it self, the Divine Scriptures. The matter in hand is so sleight a Controversie, that it cannot bear a Demonstration on either side: it will suffice, if by answering his Reasons to the contrary, we clear it from all Impossibilitie, and Improbabilitie; that it is not hudled, but built up by Plum­met and Line, with proportion to Time and Place.

1. Arg. There is a generall silence of all Antiquity in this matter.

Answ. Negative Arguments from humane Writers, in such Historicall differences, are of small validity.

2. Arg. Martial, an Heathen, would hardly so much commend Claudia, if she had been a Christian.

Answ. A wanton Poet, in his chast Intervalls, might praise that Goodness in another, which he would not practice in himself.

3. Arg. Claudia, spoken of by St. Paul, [...] in the time of Nero, and could not be known to Martial, who [...]ed sixty years after, in the reign of Trajan.

Answ. Though Martial died a very old man in Trajan's days, yet he flou­rished under Nero, very familiar with his friend and fellow-Poet Silius Martial. lib. 7. Ep. 62. Italicus, in whose Consulship Nero died.

4. Arg. That same Claudia (reported also the first Hostess which enter­tained Peter and Paul) must be presumed ancient in Martial his remembrance, and therefore unfit to be praised for her beauty.

[Page 6] Answ. Even in the Autumne of her Age,63 when she had enriched her Husband with three Children, her vigourous Beauty preserved by Temperance, might entitle her to the commendation of Ma­tron-like Comelinesse.

5. Arg. The Children assigned in the Roman Calendar to Claudia the Christian, will not well agree to this British Claudia.

Answ. Little certainty can be extracted, and therefore nothing enforced to purpose, from the number and names of her Children, such is the difference of severallSee Usher De Brit. Eccl. prim. cap. 3. Writers concerning them.

The issue of all is this. Claudia's story, as a British Christian, stands unre­moved, for any force of these Objections, though one need not be much engaged herein: for whosoever is more then luke-warm, is too hote in a case of so small consequence. Yet we will not willingly leave an hoofe of the British Honour behind, which may be brought on; the rather to save the longing of such, who delight on rath-ripe fruits: and Antiquaries much please themselves, to behold the probabilities of such early Converts of our Island. But now to return again to the prime Planters of Religion in Britain. As for all those formerly reckoned up, there is in Authours but a tinkling men­tion of them; and the sound of their Preaching, low and little, in compari­son of those lowd Peales, which are rung of Ioseph of Arimathea his co­ming hither. Let the Reader with patience take the summe thereof, extracted out of severall Authours.

11. The Jews,The coming of Ioseph of Arimathea in­to Britain. bearing an especiall spight to Philip (whether the Apostle, or Deacon, uncertain) Ioseph of Arimathea, Lazarus, Mary Magdalene, and Martha his sisters, with Marcella their servant, banished them out of Iudea, and put them into a Vessell without Sailes and Oares, with intent to drown them. Yet they, being tossed with tempests on the Mid-land Sea, at last safe­landed at Marseilles in France. A relation as ill accoutred with tacklings, as their Ship; and, which is unrigged in respect of time, and other circumstances; neither hath it the authority of any authentick Writer, for a Pilot to steer it: which notwithstanding, hath had the happinesse to arrive at the hearing of many, and belief of some few. Now, whilestSome hold Philip came not in this Ship, but was in France be­fore. Philip continued preaching the Gospell in France, he sent Ioseph of Arimathea over into Britain, with Ioseph his son, and ten other Associates, to convert the Natives of that Island to Chri­stianity. These coming into Britain, found such entertainment from Arvi­ragus the King, that though he would not be disswaded from his Idolatry by their preaching, yet he allowed them twelve Hides of ground (an Hide is as much as, being well manur'd, will maintain a familie; or, as others say, as much as one plow can handsomely manage) in a desolate Island, full of Fenns and Brambles, called the Ynis-VVitrin, since by translation, Glassenbury. Here they built a small Church, and by direction fromMalmsbury M S. de An­tiqu. Glaston. Ecclesiae. Gabriel the Archangel, dedica­ted it to the Virgin Mary, encompassing it about with a Church-yard; in which Church, afterwards Ioseph was buried: and here these twelve lived many years, devoutly serving God, and converting many to the Christian Re­ligion.

12. Now,The history full of dross when brought to the touch. a little to examine this history, we shall find, first, that no Writer of credit can be produced, before the Conquest, who, mentioneth Ioseph's coming hither; but since that time (to make recompence for former silence) it is refounded from every side. As for Bale his citations out of Melkinus Avalonius, and Gildas Albanus, seeing the Originals are not extant, they be as uncertain, as what Baronius hath transcribed out of an EnglishWritten in our age, as Archbishop Usher ob­serves, De Brit. Eccl. prim. pag. 15. Manu­script in the Vatican. Yet, because the Norman Charters of Glassenbury refer to a succession of many ancient Charters, bestowed on that Church by several Saxon Kings, as the Saxon Charters relate to British Grants in intuition to Ioseph's being there: We dare not wholy deny the substance of the Story, [Page 7] though the leaven of Monkery hath much swoln, and puff'd up the Cir­cumstance thereof. [...]3 For, the mentioning of an inclosed Church-yard, over­throws the foundation of the Church; seeing Churches in that time got no such Suburbs about them, as any Church-yards to attend them. The bury­ing his body in the Church, was contrary to the practice of that Age; yea, dead mens Corpses were brought no nearer then the Porch, some hundreds of years after. The Dedication of the place to the Virgin Mary, sheweth the Story of later date, calculated for the elevation of Saint-worship. In a word, as this relation of Ioseph is presented unto us, it hath a young mans Brow, with an old mans Beard; I mean, novel Superstitions, disguised with pretended Antiquity.

13. In all this story of Ioseph's living at Glassenbury, 64 there is no one passage reported therein beareth better proportion to time and place,The plat­form of the most ancient Church in Christen­dome. then the Church which he is said to erect; whose dimensions, materials, and making, are thus presented unto us. It had in length sixty foot,Ancient plate of brass in the custody of Sir Henry Spelman, De conciliis Brit. pag. 11. and twenty six in breadth;Malmsbury ut prius. made of rods, watled, or interwoven. Where at one view, we may behold the simplicity of Primitive Devotion, and the native fashion of British Buildings in that Age, and some hundred years after. For we find thatHe was King of all Wales many years after, viz. 940. See Cambden in Carmar­thenshire. Hoel Dha, King of VVales, made himself a Palace of Hurdle-work, called Tyguyn, or, the VVhite House; because, for distinctions sake (to difference it from, and advance it above other Houses) the rods whereof it was made were unbark'd, having the rinde stripp'd off. Which was then counted gay and glorious; as white-limedhouses exceed those which are only rough-cast. In this small Ora­tory, Ioseph, with his Companions, watched, prayed, fasted, preached, having high Meditations under a low Roof, and large Hearts betwixt narrow Walls. If credit may be given to these Authours, this Church, without com­petition, was senior to all Christian Churches in the World. Let not then stately modern Churches disdain to stoop with their highest Steeples, reverently doing homage to this poor Structure, as their first platform and precedent. And let their checquered Pavements no more disdain this Ora­tories plaine Floor, then her thatch'd Covering doth envy their leaden Roofs. And although now it is meet that Church-buildings, as well as private houses, partaking of the peace and prosperity of our Age, should be both in their Cost and Cunning encreased, (far be that pride and profaneness from any, to account nothing either too fair for Man, or too foul for God:) yet it will not be amiss to desire, that our Judgements may be so much the clearer in matters of Truth, and our Lives so much the purer in Conversation, by how much our Churches are more light, & our Buildings more beautifull then they were.

14. Some difference there is about the place of buriall of Ioseph of Ari­mathea. 76 Some assigning his Grave in the Church of Glassenbury, Difference about the place of Io­seph's buriall. others in the South corner of the Church-yard, and others elsewhere. This we may be assu­red of, that he, whoMath. 27. 60. resigned his own Tombe to our Saviour, wanted not a Se­pulchre for himself. And here we must not forget, howAnno Dom. 1344. the 19. of Edward 3. more then a thousand years after, one Iohn Bloone of London, pretending an injunction from Heaven, to seek for the Body of Ioseph of Arimathea, obtained a licence from King Edward the third, to dig at Glassenbury for the same, as by hisIn the Tower 19. of Edw. 3. part. 1. parch­ment 3. Patent doth appeare. It seems, his Commission of Enquiry never originally issued out of the Court of Heaven; for God never sends his servants on a sleeveless Errand, but faith, Ask, and ye shall have, seek, and ye shall find. Whereas this man sought, and did never find, for ought we can hear of his inquisition. And we may well believe, that had he found the Corpse of Ioseph, though Fame might have held her peace, yet Super­stition would not have been silent; but long before this time, she had roared it even into the ears of deafmen. And truely he might have digg'd at Glassenbury to the Centre of the earth, & yet not met with what he sought for, if Ioseph were buried ten miles off (as a Iesuite Guilelmus Goodus, ci­ted by Arch­bishop Usher de Brit. Ecc. prim. pag. 28. will have it) at Montacute, or, in Hampden-Hill. Hereafter there is hope, that the Masons, digging in the Quarries thereof, may light by chance on his Corpse, which (if fond Papists might prize it) would prove [Page 8] more beneficial to them,76 then the best bed of Free-stone they ever opened. The best is, be Ioseph's Body where it will, his Soul is certainly happy in Heaven.

15. Some ascribe to the sanctity of this Ioseph, The budding Haw-thorn nigh Glassen­bury attribu­ted a miracle to Ioseph's [...]. the yearly budding of the Haw-thorn near Glassenbury, on Christmas day, no lesse then an annual Miracle. This, were it true, were an argument (as K. Iames did once pleasantly urge it.) to prove our Old stile before the New (which prevents our Computation by ten dayes, and is used in the Church of Rome) yea all Prognosticators might well calculate their Almanacks from this Haw-thorn. Others more warily affirm, that it doth not punctually and critically bud on Christmas day (such Miracles must be tenderly toucht, lest crusht by harsh handling, they vanish into smoke, like the Apples of Sodome) but on the dayes near, or about it. However, it is very strange, that this Haw-thorn should be the Harbenger, and (as it were) ride post to bring the first news of the Spring, holding alone (as it may seem) correspondency with the Trees of the Antipodes, whilest other Haw-thorns near unto it have nothing but winter upon them.

16. It is true,Different o­pinions of men con­cerning it. by powring every night warm water on the root thereof, a Tree may be maturated artificially, to bud out in the midst of Winter; but it is not within suspicion, that any such cost is here expended. Some likewise affirm, that if an Haw-thorn be grafted upon an Holly, it is so adopted into the stock, that it will bud in Winter: but this doth not satisfie the accurateness of the time. Wherefore most men, pursued to render a reason hereof, take refuge at Occulta Qualitas, the most mannerly confession of Ignorance. And God sometimes puts forth such questions, and Riddles in nature, on purpose to pose the Pride of men conceited of their skill in such matters. But some are more uncharitable in this point, who, because they cannot find the reason hereof on Earth, do fetch it from Hell: not sticking to affirm, that the Devil, to dandle the infant faith of fond people, works these prety Feats, and petty Wonders, having farther intents to invite them to Superstition, and mould them to Saint-worship thereby.

17. However,The subject of the que­stion taken away. there is no necessity, that this should be imputed to the Holiness of Arimathean Ioseph. For there is (as it is credibly said) an Oake in New-Forest, nigh Lindhurst, in Hantshire, which is indued with the same quality, putting forth leaves about the same time; where the firmness of the Rinde thereof much encreaseth the wonder: and yet to my knowledge (for ought I could ever learn) none ever referred it to the miraculous influence of any Saint. But I loose pre­tious time, and remember a pleasant Story; How two Physitians, the one a Ga­lenist, the other a Paracelsian, being at supper, fell into an hote dispute about the manner of Digestion; & whilest they began to ingage with earnestness in the con­troversie, a third man casually coming in, caried away the meat from them both. Thus whilest opposite parties discuss the cause of this Haw-thorns budding on Christmas day, some Souldiers have lately cut the Tree down, and Christmas day it self is forbidden to be observ'd; and so, I think, the question is determined.

18. To conclude this Century.The conclu­sion of this Century. By all this it doth not appear that the first Preachers of the Gospel in Britain did so much as touch at Rome, much lesse, that they received any Command, or Commission thence, to convert Britain, which should lay an eternal obligation of Gratitude on this Island to the See of Rome. Insomuch that Parsons him­self (as unwilling to confess, as unable to deny so apparent a truth) flies at last to this slight and slender Shift:3 Conver­sions, 1 part, 1 ch. num. 26. That albeit S. Joseph came not immediatly from Rome, yet he taught in England (in Britain he would say) the Roman faith, whereof S. Paul hath written to the RomansRom. 1. 8. themselves, that your Faith is spoken of through the whole World. Hereby the Iesuite hopes still to keep on foot the ingagement of this Island to Rome, for her first Conversion. But why should he call the Christian Religion the Roman faith, rather then the faith of Hierusalem, or, the faith of Antioch? seeing it issued from the former, and was received, & first named in the later City, before any spark of Christianity was kindled at Rome. But, what is the main, he may sooner prove the modern Italian tongue now spoken in Rome, to be the self-same in propriety & purity, with the Latine language in Tul­lie's time; then that the Religion profess'd in that City at this day, with all the Errours and Superstitions thereof, is the same in foundnesse of Doctrine, and sanctitie of Life, with that Faith, which by St. Paul in the Roman Church was then so highly commended.


To Robert Abdy of London, Esquire.

HE that hath an Hand to take, and no Tongue to return Thanks; de­serveth for the future, to be lame, and dumb. Which punishment that it may not light on me, accept this acknovvledgement of your Favours to your devoted Friend and Servant, T. F.

1. DEsire of our Country's honour would now make us lay claim to Taurinus, 105 Bishop of York, Taurinus no BP. of York. and reported Martyr. To strengthen our Title unto him, we could produce manyGuil. Har­rison descript. Brit. l. 1. c. 7. & Wernerus Laërius in Fasciculo, Anno 94. & Hartman­nus Schede­lius in Chro­nico. Writers affirming it, if Number made Weight in this case. But, being convinced in our judgement, that such as make him a Britan, ground their pretence on a leading Mistake, reading him Episcopum EBORACENSEM, instead of EBROICENSEM, Eureux (as I take it) in France; we will not enrich our Country by the Errours of any, or advantage her Honour by the Misprisions of others. Thus being conscientiously scru­pulous, not to take or touch a thread which is none of our own, we may with more boldness, hereafter keep what is justly ours, and chalenge what is unjustly detained from us.

2. But the main matter,108 which almost engrosseth all the History of this Century,Difference of Authours concerning the time of King Lucius his conver­sion. and, by scattered dates, is spread from the beginning to the end there­of, is the Conversion of Lucius, King of Britain, to Christianity. However, not to dissemble, I do adventure thereon with much averseness, seeming sadly to presage, that I shall neither satisfie others nor my self; such is the Varietie, yea Contrarietie of Writers about the time thereof. If the Trumpet (saith the Apostle) giveth an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the Battell? He will be at a loss to order and dispose this Story aright, who listeneth with greatest attention to the trumpet of Antiquity, sounding at the same time a March & Retreit; appointing Lucius to come into the world, by his Birth, wh [...]n others design him, by Death, to goe out of the same. Behold, Reader, a view of their Differences presented unto thee; and it would puzzle Apollo himself to tune these jarring Instruments into a Consort.

These make K. Lucius converted Anno Domini
  • 1 P. Iovius in Descrip. Brit. 99
  • 2 Io. Cajus in Hist. Cantab. 108
  • 3 Annals of Burton. 137
  • 4 Ninius, in one Copie. 144
  • 5 Annals of Krokysden. 150
  • 6 Iefferie Monmouth. 155
  • 7 Iohn Capgrave, 156
  • 8 Matth. Florilegus. 158
  • 9 Florence Vigorniensis. 162
  • 10 Antiq. of VVinchester. 164
  • 11 Tho. Redburn jun. 165
  • 12 VVil: of Malmesbury. 166
  • 13 Venerable Bede 167
  • 14 Henry of Erphurt. 169
  • 15 Annals of Lichfield. 175
  • 16 Marianus Scotus. 177
  • 17 Ralph de Baldu [...]. 178
  • 18 Iohn Bale. 179
  • [Page 10] 19 Polydor Virgil.
    Anno Dom. 108
  • 20 Chron. Brit. Abbrev. 183
  • 21 Roger de VVendover. 184
  • 22 Matth.
    • Paris.
    • Westminster. 185
  • 23 Hector Boethius. 187
  • 24 Martin Polonus. 188
  • 25 Saxon Annals. 189
  • 26 Iohn Harding. 190

Here is more then a Grand-Iury of Writers, which neither agree in their Ver­dicts with their Fore-man, nor one with another: there being betwixt the first & the last, Paulus Iovius & Iohn Harding, ninetie years distance in their Ac­count. This, with other Arguments, is used, not onely to shake, but shatter the whole reputation of the Story. And we must endeavour to clear this Ob­jection, before we go farther, which is shrewdly pressed by many. For if the two Elders, which accused Susanna, were condemned for Liars, being found in two Tales; the one laying the Scene of her Incontinency under aSusanna verse 54. and 58. Mastick-tree, the other under an Holme-tree: why may not the Relation of Lucius be also condemned for a Fiction, seeing the Reporters thereof more differ in Time, then the forenamed Elders in Place; seeing when and where are two circum­stances, both equally important, and concerning in History, to the Truth of any action?

3. But we answere,The History of K. Lucius not dispro­ved by the dissension of Authors concerning the time thereof. That however Learned men differ in the Date, they agree in the Deed. They did set themselves so to heed the Matter, as of most moment, being the Soul, and Substance of History, that they were little cu­rious (not to say very careless) in accurate noting of the Time: which being well observed, doth not onely add some lustre, but much strength to a relation. And indeed, all Computation in the Primitive time is very uncertain, there being then (and a good while after) an Anarchy, as I may terme it, in Authours their reckoning of years, because men were not subject to any one soveraign Rule, in accounting the year of our Lord; but every one followed his own A­rithmetick, to the great confusion of History, and prejudice of Truth. In which age, though all start from the same place [our Saviour's Birth] yet running in se­verall ways of account, they seldome meet together in their dating of any memorable Accident. Worthie therefore was his work, whoever he was, who first calculated the Computation we use at this day, and so set Christen­dome a Copy, whereby to write the date of actions; which since being generally used, hath reduced Chronology to a greater Certainty.

4. As for their Objection,Lucius might be a British King under the Roman Monarchy. That Lucius could not be a King in the South of Britain, because it was then reduced to be a Province under the Roman Mo­narchy; It affects not any that understand, how it was the RomanVe [...]us & jampridem recepta populi Romani con­suetudo, ut ha­beret instru­menta [...]ervitu­tis & Reges. Tacitus in vi­ta Agricolae. custome, both to permit, and appoint Pettie Kings in several Countries (as Antiochus in Asia, Herod in Iudea, Dtotaurus in Sicilie) who, under them, were invested with Regal Power, & Dignity. And this was conceived to conduce to the state and amplitude of their Empire. Yea, the German Emperour at this day, Succes­sour to the Roman Monarchy, is stiled Rex Regum, as having many Prin­ces, and particularly the King of Bohemia, Homagers under him. As for other inconsistents with truth, which depend, as Retainers, on this Relation of King Lucius, they prove not that this whole Story should be refused, but refined. Which calleth aloud to the Discretion of the Reader, to fan the Chaffe from the Corne; and to his Industry, to rub the Rust from the Gold, which almost of necessity will cleave to matters of such Antiquity. Thus conceiving that for the main we have asserted King Lucius, we come to relate his History, as we finde it.

5. He being much taken with the Miracles which he beheld truly done by pious Christians,Lucius sen­deth to the Bishop of Rome to be instructed in Christianity. fell in admiration of,167 and love with their Religion; and sent Elvanus and Meduinus, men of known Piety, and Learning in the Scriptures, to Eleutherius Bishop of Rome, with a Letter, requesting several things of him, but principally, that he might be instructed in the Christian Faith. The reason why he wrote to Rome, was, because at this time the Church therein was (she can ask no more, we grant no less) the most eminent Church in the World, [Page 11] shining the brighter,Anno Dom. 167 because set on the highest Candle-stick, the Imperial City. We are so far from grudging Rome the Happiness she once had, that we rather bemoan she lost it so soon, degenerating from her primitive Purity. The Letter which Lucius wrote is not extant at this day, and nothing thereof is to be seen, save onely by reflection, as it may be collected by the Answer returned by Eleutherius, which (such an one as it is) it will not be amisse here to insert.

6. ‘Ye require of us the Roman Laws, This transla­tion of the letter of Eleu­therius is transcribed out of Bishop Godwin in his Cata­logue of Bi­shops. and the Emperours to be sent over unto you, which you would practice, and put in ure within your Realm. The Roman Laws, and the Emperours we may ever reprove, but the Law of God we may not. Ye have received of late, through Gods mercy, in the Kingdom of Britain, the Law and Faith of Christ; Ye have with you within the Realm, both parts of the Scriptures: out of them by Gods grace, with the Councell of the Realm, take ye a Law, and by that Law (through Gods sufference) rule your Kingdome of Britain. There is some variety between this, and that of Mr. Fox. For you be God's Vicar in your Kingdom. The Lords is the Earth, and the fulness of the world, and all that dwell in it. And again, according to the Prophet that was a King, Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity, therefore God hath anointed thee with the Oile of gladness above thy fellows. And again, according to the same Prophet, O God, give Iudgement unto the King, and thy Righteousness unto the Kings Sonne. He said not, the judgement and righteousness of the Em­perour; but, thy Iudgement and Righteousness. The Kings Sonnes be the Chri­stian people, and folk of the Realm, which be under your Government, and live, and continue in peace within your Kingdome. As the Gospel saith, Like as the Hen gathereth her Chickens under her wings: so doth the King his people. The people and the folk of the Realm of Britain be yours; whom, if they be divided, ye ought to gather in concord and peace, to call them to the Faith and Law of Christ, to cherish andIn the Latin it is, Manu te­nere. maintain them, to rule and govern them, so as you may reign everlastingly with him, whose Vicar you are: which with the Father, and the Sonne &c.’

7. Now we have done our Threshing, A prepara­tive for the examining the truth of this letter. we must begin our Winnowing, to examine the Epistle. For the trade of counterfeiting the Letters of eminent men began very early in the Church. Some were tampering with it in the A­postles time; which occasioned St. Paul's2 Thess. 2. 2. Caution, That ye be not soon sha­ken in minde, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter, as from us. Since, men (then but Apprentices) are now grown Maisters in this My­sterie; wherefore it will be worth our examining, whether this Epistle be genuine or no. Say not, this doth betray a peevish, if not malicious disposition, and argues a vexatious spirit in him, which will now call the title of this Let­ter in question, which time out of minde hath been in the peaceable possession of an authentick reputation, especially seeing it soundeth in honorem Ecclesiae Britannicae; and, grant it a Tale, yet it is smoothly told to the credit of the British Church. But let such know, that our Church is sensible of no Honour, but what resulteth from truth; and if this Letter be false, the longer it hath been received, the more need there is of a speedy and present Confutation, before it be so firmly rooted in mens belief, past power to remove it. See therefore the Arguments which shake the credit thereof.

1. The date of this Letter differs in several Copies, and yet none of them light right on the time of Eleutherius, according to the Computation of the best-esteemed Authours.

2. It relates to a former Letter of King Lucius, wherein he seemeth to re­quest of Eleutherius, both what he himself had before, and what the good Bishop was unable to grant. For what need Lucius send for the Ro­man Laws, to which Britain was already subjected, and ruled by them? At this very time, wherein this Letter is pretended to be wrote, the Roman Laws were here in force; and therefore to send for them hither, was even actum agere, and to as much purpose, as to fetch water from Tiber to [Page 12] Thames. Besides, Eleutherius of all men was most improper to have such a suit preferred to him: Holy man! he little medled with Secular matters, or was acquainted with the Emperours Laws; onely he knew how to suf­fer Martyrdome, in passive obedience to his cruel Edicts.

3. How high a Throne doth this Letter mount Lucius on, making him a Monarch? Who (though Rex Britannicus) was not Rex Britanniae; (except by a large Synecdoche:) neither sole, nor supreme King here; but partial, and subordinate to the Romans.

4. The Scripture quoted is out of St. Hierom's Translation, which came more then an hundred years after. And the Age of Eleutherius could not understand the language of manu tenere, for to maintain, except it did ante-date some of our modern Lawyers to be their Interpreter.

In a word: we know that theIoshua 9. 12. Gibeonites their mouldy Bread was baked in an Oven very near the Israelites, and this Letter had its original of a laterSee S. Hen. Spelman in Councells, p. 34. &c. where there is another copy of this letter, with some al­terations and additions. King Lucius baptized. date; which not appearing any where in the World, till a thousand years after the death of Eleutherius, probably crept out of some Monks Cell, some four hun­dred years since, the true answer of Eleutherius being not extant for many years before.

8. But to proceed. Eleutherius, at the request of King Lucius, sent unto himAliter Pha­ganus & Du­vianus. Faganus, and Derwianus, or Dunianus, two holy men, and grave Di­vines, to instruct him in the Christian Religion; by whom the said King Lu­cius (called by the Britans Lever-Maur, or the Great Light) was baptized, with many of his Subjects. For if when privateAct. 16. 15. & 32. Persons were converted, Cor­nelius, Lydia, &c. their Housholds also were baptized with them; it is easily cre­dible, that the example of a King embracing the Faith, drew many Followers of Court and Country; Soveraigns seldome wandring alone without their Retinue to attend them. But whereas some report that most, yeaIta ut in bre­vi, nullus infi­delis remane­ret. Matth. Pa­ris. Westm. all of the Na­tives of this Island then turned Christians, it is very improbable; and the wea­ry Traveller may sooner climbe the steepest Mountains in Wales, then the ju­dicious Reader believe all the hyperbolical reports in the British Chronicles hereof.

9. For Ieffery Monmouth tells us,I. Monmouth his fiction of Flamens and Arch-Fla­mens. that at this time there were in England twenty eight Cityes, each of them having aMonmouth de ge [...]lis Bri­tannor. lib. 2. cap. 1. fol. 33. Flamen, or Pagan Priest; and there of them, namely London, York, and Caer-lion in Wales, had Arch-Flamens, to which the rest were subjected: and Lucius placed Bishops in the room of the Flamens, and Arch-Bishops, Metropolitans in the places of Arch-Flamens. All which, saith he, solemnly received their Confirmation from the Pope. But herein our Authour seems not well acquainted with the propriety of the word Flamen, their Use, and Office amongst the Romans; who were not set severally, but many together in the same City. Nor were they subordinate one to another, but all to the Priests Colledge, and therein to the Pontifex Maximus. Besides, the British Ja. Armach. de Brit. Eccl. prim. p. 17. Manuscript, which Monmouth is conceived to have translated, makes no mention of these Flamens. Lastly, these words Arch-Bishop and Me­tropolitan, are so far from being current in the days of King Lucius, that they were not coined till after-Ages. So that in plain English, his Flamens and Arch-Flamens, seeme Flamms and Arch-Flamms, even notorious Fals­hoods.

10. Great also is the mistake ofGiraldus Cambrensis de Sedis Me­nevensis di­gnitate, apud D. Joh. Prise. pag. 75. another British Historian,A gross mis­take. affirming, how in the days of King Lucius, this Island was divided into five Roman Provinces; namely, Britain the First, Britain the Second, Flavia, Maximia, and Valentia: and that each of these were then divided into twelve Bishopricks, sixtie in the whole: a goodly company, and more by halfe then ever this Land did behold. Whereas these Provinces were so named from Valens, Maximus, and Flavius Theodosius, Romane Emperors, many years after the death of Lucius. Thus, as the Damosell convinced St. Peter to be a Galilean, for, said she,Mark 14. 70. Thy speech agreeth thereunto: so this five- [...]old division of Britain, by the very Novelty of [Page 13] the Names, is concluded to be of far later date, then what that Authour pre­tendeth.

11. But it is generally agreed,Pagan Tem­ples in Bri­tain conver­ted to Chri­stian Chur­ches. that about this time, many Pagan Temples in Britain had their Property altered, and the self-same were converted into Chri­stian Churches. Particularly, that dedicated to Diana in London, and another near it, formerly consecrated to Apollo, in the City now called Westminster. This was done, not out of Covetousness, to save Charges in founding new Fabricks, but out of Christian Thrift; conceiving this Imitation, an Invitation, to make Heathens come over more chearfully to the Christian Faith; when beholding their Temples (whereof they had an high and holy opinion) not sa­crilegiously demolished, but solemnly continued to a pious end, and rectified to the Service of the true God. But humane Policy seldome proves prosperous, when tampering with Divine Worship, especially when without, or against direction from Gods Word. This new VVine, put into old Vessels, did in after-Ages taste of the Caske; and in process of time, Christianity, keeping aThus the Pantheon, or Shrine of all Gods in Rome, was turned into the Church of All-Saints. cor­respondency, and some proportion with Paganisme, got a smack of heathen Ceremonies. Surely they had better have built new Nests for the Holy Dove, and not have lodged it where Screech-owles, and unclean Birds had formerly been harboured. If the High-Priest amongst the Iews was forbidden to marry a VVidow, or divorced woman, but that he should take a Virgin of his owne Lev. 21. 14. people to wife: How unseemly was it, that God himself should have the reversion of Profaneness assign'd to his Service, and his Worship wedded to the Relict, yea (what was worse) VVorish Shrines, formerly abused with Idolatry?

12. Some report,178 that at this time three thousand Philosopers of the Uni­versity of Cambridge were converted,The bounty of K. Lucius to Cambridge. and baptized; that K. Lucius came thi­ther, and bestowed manyCajusde An­tiq. Cantab. p. 51. & Hist. Cantab. p. 22. Priviledges, and Immunities on the place; with much other improbable matter. For surely they do a real Wrong, under a pretended Courtesy, to that famous Academy, to force a Peruke of false gray haire upon it, whose reverend Wrincles already command respect of them­selves. Yet Cambridge makes this use of these over-grown Charters of Pope Eleutherius, K. Lucius, K. Arthur, and the like, to send them out in the Front, as the Forlorn-hope, when she is to encounter with Oxford in point of Antiquity; and if the credit of such old Monuments be cut off (as what else can be expected?) yet she still keeps her maine Battel firme and entire, consi­sting of stronger Authorities, which follow after. Nor doth Cambridge care much to cast away such doubtfull Charters, provided her Sister likewise quit all Title to fabulous Antiquity (setting Drosse against Drosse) and waving Tales, trie both the truth of their Age, by the Register of unquestioned Au­thours, if this Difference betwixt them be conceived to deserve the deciding.

13. Besides the Churches afore-mentioned, many others there were, whose building is ascribed to King Lucius: as namely,

1. St. Peter's in Cornhill in London; 179 to which Ciran, Severall Churches founded by King Lucius. a great Courtier, lent his helping hand. It is said, for many years after, to have been the Seat of anTabula pen­silis quae adhuc in illa ecclesia cernitur. Arch-Bishoprick: one Thean first enjoyed that Dignity.

2. Ecclesia primae sedis, or, the chief Cathedral Church in Glocester.

3. A Church at VVinchester, 180 consecrated by Faganus and Duvianus, whereof one Devotus was made Abbot.

4. APi [...]zeus de Britan. Scri­ptor. num. 21. Church, and Colledge of Christian Philosophers at Bangor.

5. The Church dedicated to St. Mary in Glassenbury, 187 repaired and raised out of the Ruines by Faganus and Duvianus, where they lived with twelve Associates.

6. AIohn Le­land assert. Arthuri, fol. 7. Chappel in honour of Christ in Dover Castle.

7. The Church of St. Martin in Canterbury; understand it thus, that Church which in after-Ages was new named, and converted to the honour of that Saint.

Of all these, that at VVinchester was K. Lucius his Darling, which he endowed [Page 14] with large Revenues,Anno Dom. 187 giving it all the land twelve miles on every side of the City, fencing the Church about with a Church-yard, on which he bestowed Priviledges of a Sanctuary, and building a Dormitory, and Refectory for the Monks there; if the little History ofManuscript. in Bibliothecâ Cottonianâ. Winchester be to be believed, whose credit is very suspicious, because of the modern Language used therein. For as Country-Painters, when they are to draw some of the ancient Scripture-Patriarchs, use to make them with Bands, Cuffs, Hats, & Caps, al a mode to the Times wherein they themselves doe live: so it seemeth, the Authour of this History last cited (lacking learning to acquaint him with the Garbe, and Cha­racter of the Age of K. Lucius) doth pourtraict and describe the Bounty, and Church-buildings of that King, according to the Phrase, and Fashion of that model of Monkery in his own Age.

14. Some Dutch Writers report,Two Lucius's confounded into one. that K. Lucius in his Old Age left his King­dome, and went over into France, thence into Germany, as far as the Alpes; where he converted allVelser. Re­rum August. Vindelic. lib. 6. ad annum 179. Rhetia, and the City of Auspurg in Suevia, by his Prea­ching, with the assistance of Emerita his Sister; it being no news, in Gods Harvest, to see Women with their Sickles a reaping. It is confessed that Converting of Souls is a work worthy a King; David's and Solomon's preaching hath silen­ced all Objections to the contrary. It is also acknowledged, that Kings used to renounce the World, and betake themselves to such pious Emploiment; though this Custome, frequent in after-Ages, was not so early a riser, as to be up so near the Primitive Times. It is therefore well observed by a Learned Achilles Gassarus in Augustanae ur­bis descriptione. man, that Lucius the German Preacher was a different person from the British King, who never departed our Island, but died therein. I have read, how a woman in the Lower Palatinate, being bigg with Twinns, had the fruit of her Wombe so strangely alter'd by a violentMunster de Germania, in the Description of the Lower Palatinate. Contusion casually befalling her, that she was delivered of one Monster with two Heads, which Nature had intended for two perfect Children. Thus the History of this Age being pregnant with a double Lucius at the same time, is by the carelesness of unadvised Authours so jumbled, and confounded together, that those which ought to have been par­ted, as distinct Persons, make up one monstrous one, without due proportion to Truth, yea, with the manifest prejudice thereof.


To Mr. Simeon Bonnell, Merchant.

IT is proportionable to present a Century, short in Story, to One low in Stature, though deservedly high in the esteem of your Friend, T. F.

1. OF all Centuryes this begins most sadly;201 at the en­trance whereof we are accosted with the Funeralls of King Lucius, The death, buriall, and Epitaph of King Lucius. (the brightest Sun must set:) buried, as they say, in Glocester. Different dates of his Death are assigned, but herein we have followed theAnnals of Sarum, M. Paris.Westm. with London tables and hist. of Rochest. most judicious. Long after, the Monks of that Con­vent bestowed an Epitaph upon him, having in it no­thing worthy of translating.

John Bever in his Abbre­viat. of the Brit. Chron.
in tenebris priûs Idola qui coluisti,
Es merito celebris ex quo Baptisma subisti.

It seems the puddle-Poet did hope, that the jingling of his Rhyme would drown the sound of his false Quantity. Except any will say, that he affected to make the middle Syllable in Idola short, because in the days of King Lucius Idolatry was curb'd and contracted, whilest Christianity did dilate and extend it self.

2. But Christianity in Britain was not buried in the Grave of Lucius, The Chri­stian faith from the first preaching thereof, ever continued in Britain. but sur­vived after his Death. Witness Gildas, whose words deserve to be made much of, as the clearest evidence of the constant continuing of Religion in this Island. Christ's Precepts (saithQuae praecepta [...]in Britan­nia [...] licet ab incolis tepidè suscepta sunt, apud quosdam tamen integre, & alios minùs, usque ad perse­cutionem Dio­cletiani no­vennem per­mansere. Gil­das in Epist. de excidio Brit. he) though they were received but luke-warmly of the Inhabitants, yet they remained entirely with some, less sincerely with others, even untill the nine years of Persecution under Diocletian. Whose expression con­cerning the entertaining of Christianity here, though spoken indefinitely of the British Inhabitants, yet we are so far from understanding it universally of all this Island, or generally of the most, or eminently of the principal parts thereof, that, if any list to contend, that the main of Britain was stil Pagan, we will not oppose. A thing neither to be doubted of, nor wondered at, if the modern Complaints of many be true, that even in this Age, there are dark Corners in this Kingdome, where Profaneness lives quietly with invincible Ignorance. Yea, that the first Professours in Christianity were but luke-warm in Religion, will (without Oath made for the truth thereof) be easily believed by such, who have felt the temper of the English Laodiceans now a days. However, it appeares there were some honest Hearts, that still kept Christianity on foot in the King­dome. So that since Religion first dwelt here, it never departed hence; like the Candle of the vertuous Wife,Prov. 31. 18. It went not out by night: by the Night neither of Ignorance, nor of Security, nor of Persecution. The Island generally never was an Apostate, nor by Gods blessing, ever shall be.

3. To the Authority of Gildas, Two Fathers to be believ'd before two children. we will twist the Testimony of two Fathers, both flourishing in this Century, Tertullian and Origen; plainly proving Chri­stianity in Britain in this Age; both of them being undoubtedly Orthodox, [Page 16] (without mixture of Montanist, Anno Dom. 201 or Millenary) in historical matters. Hear the former. There are places of the Britanno­rum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo verò subdita. Ter­tull. advers. Iudaeos, cap. 7. Britans, which were unaccessible to the Romans, but yet subdued to Christ. Origen in like maner:Virtus Do­mini Salvato­ris & cum his est, qui ab orbe nostro in Bri­tannia divi­duntur. Orig. in Lucae c. 1. Homil. 6. The power of God our Saviour is even with them which in Britain are divided from our world. These ought to pre­vail in any rational belief, rather then the detracting reports of two modern men, Paradine and Dempster, who affirm that after Lucius death, the British Na­tion returned to their Heathen Rites, and remained Infidels for full five hundred years after. WhichParadine Ang. descrip. cap. 22. Dempster in Apparat. Hist. Scot. cap. 6. words, if casually falling from them, may be passed by with pardon; if ignorantly uttered (from such Pretenders to Learning) will be heard with wonder; if wilfully vented, must be taxed for a shameless and impudent Falshood. Had Dempster (the more positive of the two in this point) read as many Authours as he quoteth, and marked as much as he read, he must have confuted himself: yea, though he had obstinately shut his Eies, so clear a Truth would have shined through his Eye-lids. It wil be no wilde Justice, or furious Re­venge, but Equity, to make themselves satisfaction, if the Britans declare Demp­ster devoid of the faith of an Historian, who endeavoured to deprive their An­cestours of the Christian Faith for many yeares together; his Pen, to be friend the North, doing many bad offices to the South part of this Island.

4. The Magdeburgenses, The judge­ment of the Magdebur­genses in this point. Compilers of the General Ecclesiastical History, not having lesse Learning, but more Ingenuity, speaking of the Churches through Europe in this Age, thus express themselves. ‘Then follow the Isles of the Ocean, where we first meet with Britain; Centuria ter­tia, cap. 2. co­lum. 6. Mansisse & hac aetate ejus Insu­lae Ecclesias, affirmare non dubitamus; We doubt not to affirme, that the Churches of that Island did also remain in this Age.’ But as for the names of the Places, and Persons professing it, we crave to be excused from bringing in the Bill of our particulars.

5. By the Levitical Law,Want of work no fault of the work­man. Exod. 22. 12. If an Oxe, Sheep, or Beast, were delivered to a man to keep, and it were stolen away from him, the keeper should make restitution to the owner thereof; but if it was torn in pieces, and he could bring the fragments thereof for witness, he was not bound to make it good. Had former Historians de­livered the entire memory of the passages of this Century to our custody, and charged us with them, the Reader might justly have blamed our Negligence, if for want of our Industry or Carefulness, they had miscarried: but seeing they were devoured by Age, in evidence whereof we produce these torn Rever­sions hardly rescued from the Teeth of Time, we presume no more can just­ly be exacted of us.

6. Gildas very modestly renders the reason,Reason why so little left of this Age. why so little is extant of the Bri­tish History. Scripta patriae, Scriptorumve monumenta, si quae fuerint, aut igni­bus hostium exusta, aut Civium exulum classe longius deportata, non comparent. The Monuments (saith he) of our Country, or Writers (if there were any) appear not, as either burnt by the fire of enemies, or transported farr off by our banished countrymen.’

7. This is all I have to say of this Century;Conclusion of this Cen­tury. and must now confess my self as unable to goe on, so ashamed to break off; scarce having had, of a full Hun­dred Years, so many Words of solid History. But, as I find little, so I will feign nothing; time being better spent in Silence, then in Lying. Nor do I doubt but clean Stomacks will be better satisfied with one drop of the Milk of Truth, then foul Feeders (who must have their Bellies ful) with a Trough of VVash, mingled with the water of Fabulous Inventions. If any hereafter shall light on more History of these times, let them not condemn my Negligence, whilest I shall admire their Happinesse.


To Theophilus Bidulph of London, Esquire.

OF all Shires in England, Stafford-shire vvas (if not the soonest) the largest sovvn vvith the Seed of the Church, I mean, the bloud of primitive Martyrs; as by this Century doth appear. I could not therefore dedicate the same to a fitter person then your self, vvhose Family hath flourished so long in that County, and vvhose Favours have been so great unto your thankfull Friend T. F

1. DArk and tempestuous was the Morning of this Century,303 which afterward cleared upto be a fair Day.First persecu­tion in Bri­tain under Diocletian. It began with great Affliction to Gods Saints. The Spirit saith to the Church of Smyrna, Revel. 2. 10. Ye shall have Tribulation ten dayes. This is commonly understood of the Ten generall Per­secutions over all the Christian world. But herein Di­vine Mercy magnified it self towards this Island, that the last Oecumenicall▪ was the first Provinciall Persecution in Britain. God, though he made our Church his Darling, would not make it a Wanton; she must taste of the Rod with the rest of her Sisters. The Fiery 1 Pet. 1. 12. Triall spoken of by the Apostle, now found out even those which by water were divided from the rest of the World. This tenth Persecution as it was the last, so it was the greatest of all, because Satan the shorter his Reign, the shar­per his Rage; so that what his Fury lacks in the Length, it labours to ga [...] in the Thickness thereof.

2. In this Persecution,Alban the Bri­tish St. Ste­phen how a Citizen of Rome. the first Britan which to Heaven led the Van of the noble Army of Martyrs, was Alban, a wealthy Inhabitant of Verolam-cestre, and a Citizen of Rome; for so Alexander In his Poem on Verulam. Neccham reports him.

Hic est Martyrii roseo decoratus honore,
Albanus, Cives, inclyta Roma, tuus.
Here Alban, Rome, thy Citizen renow'nd,
With rosy Grace of Martyrdome was crown'd.

None need stop, much lesse stumble at this seeming Contradiction, easily re­conciled by him that hath read St. Paul, in one place proclaiming himself an Philipp. 3. 5. Hebrew of the Hebrews, andActs 22. 25. elsewhere pleading himself to be a Roman, be­cause born in Tarsus a City of Cilicia and Roman Colony; as Verolam-cestre was at this time enfranchised with many Immunities. Thus Alban was a Britan by Parentage, a Roman by Priviledge; naturally a Britan, naturallized a Roman: and, which was his greatest Honour, he was also Citizen of that spi­ritual Hierusalem, which is from above.

3. His Conversion happened on this manner.The manner of Alban's Conversion. Amphibalus, a Christian Preacher of Caer-lion in VVales, was fain to fly from persecution into the Eastern parts of this Island, and was entertained by Alban in his house in Verulam. Soon did the Sparks of this Guests Zeal catch hold on his Host, and [Page 18] inflamed him with love to the Christian Religion.Anno Dom. 303 Herein our Saviour made good his promise,Matth. 10. 41. He that receiveth a Righteous man in the name of a Righteous man, shall receive a Righteous mans reward. And the Shot of Amphibalus his Entertainment was plentifully discharged, in Alban's sodain and sincere Con­version. Not long after a search being made for Amphibalus, Alban secretly and safely conveighed him away, &Beda lib. 1. cap. 7. exchanging Cloaths with him, offered himself for his Guest to the Pagan Officers, who at that instant were a sacrificing to their Devil-Gods; where not onely Alban, being required, refused to sacrifice, but also he reproved others for so doing, and thereupon was condemned to most cruell Torments. But he conquered their Cruelty with his Patience: and though they tortured their Brains to invent Tortures for him, he endu­red all with Chearfulnesse; till rather their Wearinesse then Pity made them desist. And here we must bewaile, that we want the true Story of this mans Martyrdome, which impudent Monks have mixed with so many improbable Tales, that it is a Torture to a discreet Eare to heare them. However, we will set them down as we find them; the rather, because we count it a thrifty way, first to gult the Readers belief with Popish Miracles, that so he may loath to look or listen after them in the sequele of the History.

4. Alban being sentenced to be beheaded, The miracu­lous Martyr­dom of Alban. much people flockt to the place of his Execution, which was on a Hill, calledUnderstand [...] so called after­wards in the time of the Sa­xons. Holm-hurst; to which they were to go over a River, where the narrow Passage admitted of very few a-breast. Alban being to follow after all the Multitude, and perceiving it would be very late, before he could come to act his Part, and counting every Delay half a Denial, (who wil blame one for longing to have a Crown?) by his Prayer obtained that the River, parting asunder, afforded free Passage for many together. The corrupted Copy of Gildas calls this River theThames is wanting in the Manuscript Gildas, in Cambridge Li­brary. Thames. But if the Miracle were as farre from Truth, as Thames from Verulam (being 16 Miles distant) it would be very hard to bring them both together. The sight here of so wrought with him who was appointed to be his Executioner, that he utterly refused the Imployment, desiring rather to Die with him, or for him, then to offer him any Violence. Yet soon was another substituted in his place: for some cruel Doeg will quickly be found to do that Office, which more mercifull men decline.

5. Alban at the last being come to the Top of the Hill,A new spring of Water at Alban's sum­mons ap­pears in the top of a Hill. was very dry, and desirous to drink. Wonder not that he being presently to tast of Ioyes for ever­more, should wish for fading Water. Sure he thirsted most for God's Glory, and did it only to catch hold of the handle of an occasion to work a Miracle, for the good of the Beholders. For presently by his Prayer, he summoned up a Spring, to come forth on the top of the Hill, to the amazement of all that saw it. Yet it moistened not his Executioners Heart with any Pity, who not­withstanding struck off the Head of this worthy Saint, May 23 Ali­ter, Iune 22▪ and instantly his own Eyes fell out of his Head, so that he could not see the Vilany which he had done. Presently after, the former Convert-Executioner, who refused to put Al­ban to death, was put to death himself, baptized no doubt, though not with Water, in his, own Bloud. The Body of Alban was afterwards plainly buried: that Age knowing no other [...] Saints Dust, then to commit it to the Dust, Earth to Earth; not acquainted with Adoration, and Circumgestation of Reliques; as ignorant of the Manner, how, as the Reason, why, to do it. But some hundred yeares after, King Offa disturb'd the sleeping Corps of this Saint, removing them to a more stately, though lesse quiet Bed, enshrining them, as (God willing) shall be related hereafter.

6. Immediately followed the Martyrdom of Amphibalus, Amphibalus. Difference a­bout his name. Alban's Guest, Sep­temb. 16 and Ghostly Father, though the Story of his Death be incumbred with much Obscurity. For first there is a Quaere in his very Name: why called Amphiba­lus? and how came this compounded Greek word to wander into Wales? ex­cept any will say, That this mans British Name was by Authours in after-Ages [Page 19] so translated into Greek. Besides, the Name speaks rather the Vestment then the Wearer, signifying a Cloak wrapt or cast about, (Samuel was mark't by such a Mantle;) and it may be he got his name hence; as Robert Curt-hose, Sonne to William the Conquerour, had his Surname from going in such a Gar­ment. And it is worth our observing, that this good man passeth namelesse in all Authours, till about 400 yeares since; when Ieffery Monmouth was his God­father, andUsher de Brit. Eccl. Pri­mord. p. 159. first calls him Amphibalus, The cruel manner of his Martyr­dome. for reasons concealed from us, and best known to himself.

7. But it matters not for Words, if the Matter were true, being thus repor­ted. A thousand Inhabitants of Verulam went into Wales, to be further informed in the Faith, by the Preaching of Amphibalus; who were pursued by a Pagan Army of their fellow-Citizens, by whom they were overtaken, overcome, and murthered: save that one man only, (like Iob's Messenger) who escaped of them to report the Losse of the rest. And although every thing unlikely is not untrue, it was a huge Drag-net, and cunningly cast, that killed all the Fish in the River. Now these Pagan Verolamians brought Amphibalus back again; and being within ken of their City, in the Village called Redburn, three Miles from Verulam, they cruelly put him to death. For making an Incision in his Belly, they took out his Guts, and tying them to a Stake, whipt him round about it. All which he endured, as free from Impatience as his Persecuters from Com­passion. This died Amphibalus; and aThomas Redburn, who wrote 1480. Writer born and named from that Place reporteth, that in his dayes the two Knives which stabbed him were kept in the Church of Redburn. The heat and resplendent lustre of this Saints Suffe­ring wrought as the Sun-beams, according to the Capacity of the matter it met with, in the Beholders, melting the Waxen Minds of some into Christia­nity, and obdurating the Hard Hearts of others with more madnesse against Religion.

7. Tradition reports,Vain Fan­cies concer­ning the Stake of Am­phibalus. that the Stake he was tied to afterwards turned to a Tree, extant at this veryI mean Anno 1643. day, and admired of many, as a great Piece of Won­der; though, (as most things of this nature) more in Report then Reality. That it hath Green Leaves in Winter mine Eyes can witnesse false; and as for it stan­ding at a stay time out of mind, neither impaired, nor improved in Bignesse (which some count so strange) be it reported to Wood-men & Foresters, whe­ther it be not ordinarie. I think the Wood of the Tree is as miraculous, as the Wa­ter of the VVell adjoining is medicinall; which fond people fetch so farre, and yet a credulous Drinker may make a Cordiall Drink thereof.

8. At the time of Amphibalus his Martyrdome,The Martyr­dom of ano­ther thou­sand Britans variously re­ported. anotherVsher de Brit. Eccl. primord. pag. 160. Thousand of the Verulam Citizens, being converted to Christ, were by command of the Iud­ges all killed in the same Place. A strange Execution, if true, seeingIn his Book of the Bishops of Worcester. Iohn Rosse of VVarwick layes the Scene of this Tragedy farre off, and at another time, with many other Circumstances inconsistent with this Relation; Telling us how at Litchfield in Staffordshire this great multitude of People were long before slain by the Pagans, as they attended to the Preaching of Amphibalus. This relation is favoured by the name of Litchfield, which in the British tongue sig­nifies a Golgotha, or place bestrewed with Skulls: In allusion whereto that Ci­ties Armes are a Field surcharged with [...]. He needs almost a miracu­lous Faith, to be able to remove Mountains, yea to make the Sunne stand still, and sometimes to go back, who will undertake to accord the Contradictions in Time and Place, between the severall Relatours of this History.

9. The Records of VVinchester make mention of a great Massacre,Severall Pla­ces pretend to, and con­tend for the same Martyr­dome. where by at this time all their Monks were slain in their Church; whilest the Chronicle of VVestminster challengeth the same to be done in their Convent: and the Hi­story of Cambridge ascribeth it to the Christian Students of that University, killed by their British Persecuters. Whether this hapned in any or all of these Places, I will not determine: For he tells a Lye, though he tells a Truth, that perem­ptorily affirms that which he knows is but Uncertain. Mean time we see, [Page 20] that it is hard for men to suffer Martyrdom, and easie for their Posterity to brag of their Ancestours Sufferings; yea, who would not intitle themselves to the Ho­nour, when it is parted from the Pain? When Persecution is a coming, every man posteth it off, as the Philistins did the1 Sam. 5. Ark infected with the Plague, and no place will give it entertainment: But when the Storm is once over, then (as seven Cities contended for Homer's Birth in them) many Places will put in to claim a share in the Credit thereof.

10. Besides Amphibalus, The imper­sect History of these times. suffered Aaron and Iulius, two substantiall Citizens of Caer-lion; and then Socrates, and Stephanus, forgotten by our British Wri­ters, but remembred by forreign Authours; and Augulius, Bishop of London, then called Augusta. Besides these, we may easily believe many more went the same way; for such Commanders in Chief do not fall without Common Souldiers about them. It was Superstition in the Athenians, to build an Altar to theActs 17. 23. UNKNOWN GOD; but it would be Piety in us, here to erect a Monument in memorial of these Vnknown Martyrs, whose Names are lost. The best is, God's Kalender is more compleat then man's best Martyrologies; and their Names are Written in the Book of Life, who on Earth are wholly for­gotten.

11. One may justly wonder,The Cause of the great Si­lence of the primitive times. that the first four hundred yeares of the Primi­tive Church in Britain, being so much observable, should be so little observed; the Pens of Historians writing thereof, seeming starved for matter in an Age so fruitfull of memorable Actions. But this was the main Reason thereof, that li­ving in Persecution, (that Age affording no Christians Idle Spectators, which were not Actors on that Sad Theatre) they were not at leisure to Doe, for Suf­fering. And as commonly those can give the least account of a Battel, who were most ingaged in it, (their Eyes the while being turned into Armes, their Seeing into Fighting:) So the Primitive Confessours were so taken up with what they endured, they had no vacation largely to relate their own or others Suffe­rings. Of such Monuments as were transmitted to Posterity, it is probable most were martyred by the Tyranny of the Pagans: nor was it to be expected, that those who were cruel to kill the Authours, would be kind to preserve their Books.

12. Afterwards it pleased God to put a Period to his Servants Sufferings,Constant. Chlo­rus gives the Christians Peace. and the Fury of their Enemies.304 For when Diocletian and Maximian had layed down the Ensigns of Command, Constantius Eusebius de vita Constanti­ni, lib. 1. c. 12. & Orosius lib. 7. cap. 25. Chlorus was chosen Emperour in these VVestern Provinces of France, Spain, and Britain; whose Carriage towards Christians Eusebius thus describeth: [...], that he preserved such Religious people as were under his Command, without any Hurt or Harm. So that under him the Church in these Parts had a Breathing­time from Persecution. But Iam affraid that that LearnedCamden. Brit. in descri­ption of York. Pen goes a little too farre,305 who makes him Founder of a Bishoprick at York, and stileth him an Em­perour surpassing in all Vertue, and Christian Piety: seeing the later will hardly be proved, that Constantius was a through-paced Christian; except by our Saviours Argument,Mark 5. 40. He that is not against us is on our part. And Constantius did this Good to Christianity, that he did it no Harm: and not only so, a Priva­tive Benefactor to Piety, but positive thus far, that he permitted and preserved those, who would rebuild the decayed Christian Churches. But the greatest Benefaction which he bestowed on Christians was, that he was Father to Con­stantine. Thus as Physitians count all Sudden and Violent Alterations in mens Bodies dangerous, especially when changing from Extremes to Extremes: So God in like manner adjudged it unsafe for his Servants presently to be posted out of Persecution into Prosperity; and therefore he prepared them by De­grees, that they might be better able to manage their future Happinesse, by sending this Constantius, a Prince of a middle disposition betwixt Pagan and Christian, to rule some few yeares over them.

13. At York this Constantius Chlorus did die,He dieth at York as is witnessed by Hieronymus, [...] in Chronico, and Eutropius, Hist. lib. 18. and was buried. And therefore [Page 21] Florilegus, Anno Dom. 305 or the Flower-gatherer, as he calleth himself, (understand Matth. of Westminst.) did crop a Weed instead of a Flower, when he reports that in the year 1283 the Body of this Constantius was found atCompare Mr. Camden's Brit. in Caer­narvonshire with him in the description of York. Caer-Custenith in VVales, and honourably bestowed in the Church of Caer-narvon by the command of King Edward the first. Constantius dying, bequeathed the Empire to Constan­tine, his eldest Sonne by Hellen his former Wife; and the Souldiers at York cast the Purple Robe upon him, whilest he wept, and put Spurs to Horse to avoid the im­portunity of the Army, attempting and requiring so instantly to make him Empe­rour: 307 Febr. 27 But the Happinesse of the State overcame his Modesty. And whereas for­merly Christians for the Peace they possessed, were onely Tenants at will to the present Emperours Goodnesse; this Constantine passed this peaceable Estate to the Christians and their Heires, or rather to the immortal Corporation of Gods Church, making their Happinesse Hereditary, by those good Lawes which he enacted. Now because this Assertion, that Constantine was a Bri­tan by Birth, meets with Opposition, we will take some pains in clearing the Truth thereof.

14. Let none say,Worth the Scrutiny to cleare Con­stantine a Bri­tan by Birth. the Kernel will not be worth the Cracking, and so that Constantine were born, it matters not where he was born. For we may observe Gods Spirit to be very punctual, in registring the Birth-places of Famous men; Psal. 87. 6. The Lord shall count, when he writeth up the People, that this man was born there. And as2 Sam. 1. David cursed Mount Gilboa, where Godly Ionathan got his Death: so by the same proportion, (though inverted) it follows, those Places are blest and happy, where Saints take their first good Handsel of Breath in this World. Besides, Constantine was not onely one of a Thousand, but of Myriads, yea of Mil­lions; who first turned the Tide in the whole world, and not only quenched the Fire, but even over-turned the Furnace of Persecution, and enfranchised Christianity through the Roman Empire: and therefore no wonder if Britain be ambitious in having, and zealous in holding such a Worthy to be born in her.

15. An unanswerable Evidence to prove the point in Controversy,The main Ar­gument, to prove the point. that Constantine the Great was a Britan, is fetch't from thePanegyric. 9. Panegyrist, (otherwise called Eumenius Rhetor) in his Oration made to Constantine himself; but making therein an Apostrophe to Britain; O fortunata, & nunc omnibus beatior terris Bri­tannia, quae Constantinum Caesarem prima vidisti! O happy Britain, and blessed above all other Lands, which didst first behold Constantine Caesar! Twist this Te­stimony with another Thread, spun of the samePanegyr. 5. Hand; Liberavit pater Con­stantius Britannias Servitute, tu etiam nobiles, illic oriendo, fecisti: Your Father Constantius did free the British Provinces from Slavery, and you have ennobled them, by taking thence your Originall. The same is affirmed by the Writer of the Life of St. Hellen, Mother to Constantine, written about the year of our Lord 940 in the English-Saxon Tongue: as also by VVilliam of Malmesbury, Henry Huntingdon, Iohn of Salisbury, and all other English Writers. And least any should object, that these writing the History of their own Country, are too light­fingered to catch any thing (right or wrong) sounding to the Honour thereof; many most learned forreign Historians, Pomponius Laetus, Polydor Virgil, Beatus Rhenanus, Franciscus Balduinus, Onuphrius Panvinius, Caesar Baronius, Antho­ny Possevine, and others, concurre with them, acknowledging Hellen, Constan­tine's Mother, a Britan, and him born in Britain.

16. But whilest the aforesaid Authors in Prose, softly rock the Infancy of (yet little) Constantine the Great in Britain, and whilest others in Verse, (especially In Antio­cheide sua. Ioseph of EXETER, andSee his Tetra­stichon in Bi­shop Usher de Brit. Eccles. primord. pag. 76. Answers to the obje­ctions of the contrary Party. Alexander Necham) sweetly sing Lullabies unto him; some Learned men are so rough and uncivil, as to over-turn his Cradle; yea, wholly deprive Britain of the Honour of his Nativity: Whose Arguments follow, with our Answers unto them.

1. Object. The Panegyrist speaking how Britain first saw Constantine Caesar, Joannes Livineius not. in Panegyr. 5. refers not to his ordinary Life, but Imperial Lustre. Britain be­held him not first a Child, but first saw him Caesar; not fetching [Page 22] thence his natural being,Anno Dom. 307 but honourable Birth, first saluted Caesar in Britain.

Ans. EvenNot. in Ad­miranda, lib. 4. cap. 11. Lipsius (Britain's greatest Enemy in this point) confesseth, that though Constantine was first elected Emperour in Britain, yet he was first pronounced Caesar in France, in the life and health of his Father; Caesar was a Title given to the Heir-apparent to the Empire:) [...] and therefore the words in the Panegyrist, in their native Construction, relate to his natural Birth.

2. Object. Constantine Porphyrogenetes the Grecian Emperour, about 700 yeares since, in his Book of Government which he wrote to his Son, confesseth Constantine the Great to have been a FRANK by his Birth, whence learned Meursius collecteth him a French-man by his extraction.

Ans. It is notoriously known to all Learned men, that the Greeks in that mi­dle-Age, (as the Turks at this very day) called all VVestern Europeaans, FRANKS. Wherefore as he that calleth such a Fruit of the Earth Grain (a general name) denyeth not but it may be VVheat, a proper kind thereof; so the terming Constantine a Frank, doth not exclude him from being a Britan, yea strongly implieth the same, seeing no VVestern Country in Europe ever pretended unto his Birth.

3. Object. Bede, a grave and faithfull Authour, makes no mention of Constan­tine born in Britain, who (asIn his Epistle to Mr. Cam­den. Non Be­da ille antiquus & fidns? an▪ gloriae gentis suae non savet? Lipsius marketh) would not have o­mitted a matter so much to the honour of his own Nation.

Ans. By the leave of Lipsius, Constantine and Bede, though of the same Country, were of severall Nations. Bede being a Saxon, was little zealous to advance the British Honour: The History of which Church he rather toucheth then handleth, using it onely as a Porch, to passe through it to the Saxon History. And Saxons in gene­ral had little Skill to seek, and lesse Will to find out any Worthy thing in British Antiquities, because of the known Antipathy betwixt them.

4. Object. In lib. [...]. de aedisiciis Iusti­niani. Procopius maketh Drepanum, a haven in Bithynia (so called because there the Sea runnes crooked in forme of a Sicle) to be the place where Constantine had his [...], or first Nursing, very near to his Birth; & Nicephorus Gregoras makes him born in the same Country.

Ans. The former speaks not positively, but faith [ [...]] men say so, re­porting a Popular Errour. The latter is a late VVriter, living under Andronicus junior Anno 1340, & therefore not to be believed before others more ancient.

5. Object. But Iulius Firmicus, contemporary with Constantine himself, an Au­thour above Exception, maketh this Constantine to be born at Nai­sus, (in printed Books Tharsus) a City of Dacia.

Ans. An excellentCamden in his letter to Li­psius, printed in Usher de Prim. Eccl. Brit. p. 188. Critick hath proved the Printed Copies of Firmicus to be corrupted, and justifieth it out of approved Manuscripts, that not Constantine the Great the Father, but Constantine the younger his Sonne was intended by Firmicus born in that Place.

Thus we hope we have cleared the Point with ingenuous Readers, in such mea­sure as is consistent with the Brevity of our History. So that of this Constantine (a kind of outward Saviour in the World, to deliver People from Persecution) we may say, with some allusion to the words of theMica. 5. 2. Prophet (but with a hum­ble Reservation of the infinite Distance betwixt the Persons) AND THOU BRITAIN ART NOT THE MEANEST AMONGST THE KING­DOMS OF EUROPE, FOR OUT OF THEE DID COME A GO­VERNOUR, WHICH DID RULE THE ISRAEL OF GOD, [Page 23] GIVING DELIVERANCE AND PEACE TO THE SAINTS.

17. Now see what a Pinch In his Epistle to this Nation. Verstegan (whose teeth are sharpned by the dif­ference of Religion) gives Mr. Fox: Mr. Fox de­fended a­gainst the Cavils of Verstegan. What is it other then an Absurdity, for an English Authour to begin his Epistle (to an huge He meaneth his Books of Acts and Mo­numents. Volume) with Constantine the great and mighty Emperour, the Sonne of Hellen, an ENGLISH Woman, &c. VVhereas (saith he) in truth St. Hellen, the Mother of Constantine, was no En­glish, but a British VVoman. And yet Fox his words are capable of a candid Con­struction, if by English VVoman we understand (by a favourable Prolepsis,) one born in that Part of Britain, which since hath been inhabited by the English. Sure in the same Dialect St. Alban hath often been called the first Martyr of the English, by many Writers of good esteem. Yea the Breviary ofIn officio Sancti Albani. Sarum, allowed and confirmed no doubt by the Infallible Church of Rome, greets St. Alban with this Salute;

Ave, Proto-martyr Anglorum,
Miles Regis Angelorum,
O Albane, flos Martyrum.

Sure Hellen was as properly an English VVoman, as Alban an English Man, being both British in the Rigid Letter of History; and yet may be interpreted English in the Equity thereof. Thus it is vain for any to write Books, if their words be not taken in a courteous Latitude; and if the Reader meets not his Authour with a Pardon of course for venial Mistakes, especially when his Pen slides in so slippery a Passage.

18. And now having asserted Constantine a Britan, Three Cities contend for Constantine born in them. we are ingaged afresh in a new Controversy, betwixt three Cities; with equall Zeal and Probability, challenging Constantine to be theirs by Birth;William Fitzstephens in the descri­ption of Lon­don. London, Oratores Re­gis Angliae in Concil. Con­stant. York, andCamden's Brit. in Essex. Colchester. We dare define nothing; not so much out offear to displease (though he that shall gain one of these Cities his Friend, shall make the other two his Foes by his Verdict:) but chiefly because little Certainty can be pronounced in a matter so long since, and little evident. Let me refresh my self and the Reader, with relating and applying a pleasant Story. Once at the Burial of St. Teliau se­cond Bishop of Landaffe, three Places did strive to have the Interring of his Bo­dy; Pen-allum, where his Ancestours were buried, Lanfolio-vaur, where he died, and Landaffe, his Episcopall See. Now after Prayer to God to appease this Contention, in the place where they had left him, there appeared sudden­ly threeGodwin in the Bishops of Landaffe. Hearses, with three Bodies so like, as no man could discern the right: and so every one taking one, they were all well pleased. If by the like Mi­racle, as there three Corpses of Teliau encoffined, so here three Child-Constan­tines encradled might be represented, the Controversie betwixt these three Cityes were easily arbitrated, and all Parties fully satisfied. But seriously to the matter. That which gave Occasion to the Varieties of their Claims to Constan­tine's Birth, may probably be this, that he was Born in one place, Nursed in an­other, and perchance, being young, Bred in a third. Thus we see our Saviour, though born in Bethlehem, yet was accounted a Nazarite, of the City of Na­zareth, where he was brought up: and this general Errour took so deep im­pression in the People, it could not be removed out of the Minds and Mouths of the Vulgar.

19. Constantine being now peaceably setled in the Imperial Throne,312 there followed a sudden and general Alteration in the World;Peace and prosperity re­stored to the Church by Constantine. Persecutors turning Patrons of Religion. O the Efficacy of a Godly Emperours Example, which did draw many to a conscientious love of Christianity, and did drive more to a civil conformity thereunto! The Gospel, formerly a Forester, now became a Citizen; and leaving the Woods, wherein it wandered, Hils and Holes, where it hid it self before, dwelt quietly in Populous Places. The stumps of ruined Churches lately destroyed by Diocletian, grew up into beautifull Buildings▪ Oratories were furnished with pious Ministers, and they provided of plenti­full Maintenance, through the Liberality of Constantine. And if it be true, [Page 24] what one relates, that about this time,Anno Dom. 312 when the Church began to be inriched with Meanes, there came a voice from Heaven (I dare boldly say, he that first wrote it never heard it, being a modernJohn Nau­clerus presi­dent of Tubing University Anno 1500. Authour) saying, Now is Poison poured down into the Church: yet is there no danger of Death thereby, seeing lately so strong an Antidote hath been given against it. Nor do we meet with any par­ticular Bounty, conferred by Constantine, or Hellen his Mother, on Britain, their native Country, otherwise then as it shared now in the general Happinesse of all Christendom. The Reason might be this; That her Devotion most moved Eastward towards Hierusalem, and he was principally employed farre off at Constantinople, whither he had removed the Seat of the Empire, for the more Conveniency in the middest of his Dominions. An Empire herein unhappy, that as it was too vast for one to manage it intirely, so it was too little for two to govern it jointly, as in after-Ages did appear.

20. And now just ten years after the Death of St. Alban, a Stately Church was erected there and dedicated to his Memory; As also the History of Win­chester reporteth, that then their Church first founded by King Lucius, and since destroyed, was built anew, and Monks (as they say) placed in it. But the most avouchable Evidence of Christianity flourishing in this Island in this Age,The Appea­rance of the British in for­reign Coun­cills. is produced from the

  • Bishops repre­senting Britain in the Coun­cill of
    • 1 ARLES in France,
      called to take Cognizance of the Cause of the Donatists; where appeared for the British
      • 1
        See the seve­rall subscri­ptions at the end of this Councill in Binnius.
        Eborius Bishop of York.
      • 2 Restitutus Bishop of London.
      • 3 Adelfius Bishop of the City called the Colony of London, which some count Colchester, and others Maldon in Essex.
      • 4 Sacerdos a Priest, both by his proper Name and Office.
      • 5 Arminius a Deacon.
        • both of the last place.
    • 2 NICE in Bithynia,
      summoned to suppresse Arrianisme, and esta­blishing an Uniformity of the Observation of Easter; to which agreed those of the Church [...]
      Eusebius lib. 3. de vita Constant. c. 18.
    • 3 SARDIS in Thracia,
      called by Constantius and Constans, Sonnes to Constantine the Great; where the Bishops of
      Athanasius in the begin­ning of his se­cond Apologie against the Ar­rians.
      Britain concur­red with the rest to condemn the Arrians, and acquit Atha­nasius.
    • 4 ARIMINUM on the Adriatick Sea in Italy,
      a Synod convoca­ted by Constantius the Emperour.

In this last Council it is remarkable, that whereas the Emperour ordered, that Provisions (and those very plentifull) of Diet should be bestowed on the Bi­shops there assembled, yet those of Aquitain, France, andSulpitius Severus lib. 2. Historiae Sacrae. Britain preferred rather to live on their Proper Cost, then to be a Burden to the Publick Treasury. Onely three British Bishops, necessitated for want of Maintenance, received the Emperours Allowance: the Refusal of the former (having enough of their own) being an Act full of Praise, as the laters accepting a Salary to relieve their Want, a deed free from Censure. Collect we hence, 1. that there were many British Bishops in this Council, though their Names and Number are not particularly recorded. 2. That the generality of British Bishops had in this Age Plentifull Maintenance, who could subsist of themselves so farre off in a fortain Country: whereas lately in the Council of Trent, many Italian Bishops, though in a manner still at home, could not live without Publick Contribution. But there was good reason why the British were loath to accept the Emperours Al­lowance, (though otherwise it had been neither Manners nor Discretion for Prelats to refuse a Princes Profer,) because asDan. 1. 8. Daniel and the Children of the [Page 25] Captivity preferred their Pulse before the Fare of King Nebuchadnezzar, Anno Dom. 359 for feare they should be defiled with his (though Princely, yet) Pagan Diet; so these Bishops did justly suspect, that Constantius the Emperour being an Arrian, had a Design to bribe their Iudgements by their Palats, and by his Bounty to buy their Suffrages to favour his Opinions. In very deed thisEpisco [...] Arrianus Dogma sirunt suba oppriment Constantio cundus, cap. 30. Britain beginneth to be tainted with Arrianisme. Synod is justly taxed, not that it did bend, but was bowed to Arrianisme, and being over-born by the Emperour, did countenance his Poisonous Positions.

21. Hitherto the Church in Britain continued Sound and Orthodox, in no degree tainted with Arrianisme; 360 which gave the Occasion to St. Hilary in his Dedicating unto them his Book de Sy­nodis. Epistle to his Brethren, and fellow-Bishops of Germany and Britain, &c. though he himself was in Phrygia in Banishment, to solace his Soul with the considera­tion of the Purity and Soundnesse of Religion in their Countryes. But now (alas!) the Gangrene of that Heresy began to spread it self into this Island: So that what theActs 17. 6. Iewes of Thessalonica said unjustly of St. Paul and his Followers, the Britans might too truly affirm of Arrius and his Adherents, Those that have turned the VVorld upside-down are come hither also. Hear how sadly Gildas com­plaineth, Mansit namque haec Christi Capitis membrorum consonantia suavis, do­nec Arriana Perfidia atrox▪ ceu Anguis transmarina nobis evomens Venena, Fra­tres in unum habitantes exitiabiliter faceret sejungi, &c. So that the words of Athanasius, totus mundus Arrianizat, were true also of this peculiar or divided World of Britain. Naturallists dispute how VVolves had their first being in Bri­tain; it being improbable that Merchants would bring any such noxious Ver­min over in their Ships, and impossible that of themselves they should swim over the Sea (which hath prevailed so farre with some, as to conceive this, now an Island, originally annexed to the Continent:) but here the Quaere may be propounded, how these Hereticks (mystical Wolves not Acts 20. 29. sparing the Flock) first en­tered into this Island. And indeed we meet neither with their Names, nor man­ner of Transportation hither; but only with the cursed Fruit of their Labours. And it is observable, that immediately after that this Kingdome was infected with Arrianisme, the Pagan Ammianus Marcellinus in the begin­ning of his twentieth Book maketh this Irruption to happen Anno 360▪ which continued many yeares after. Maximus u­surping the empire, ex­pelleth the Scots out of Britain. Picts and Scots out of the North made a general and desperate Invasion of it. It being just with God, when his Vine-yard be­ginneth to bring forth VVild-Grapes, then to let loose the VVild Boar, to take his full and free repast upon it.

22. In this wofull Condition,379 vain were the Complaints of the Oppressed Britans for Assistance, unto Gratian and Valentinian the Roman Emperours, who otherwayes employed, neglected to send them Succour. This gave occa­sion to Maximus, aZosim. Histor. l. 4. Spaniard by Birth, (though accounted born in this Island by our home bredGildas, H. Hunting. Histor. lib. 1. Galfrid. Monmouth; and before the three later, Ethelwer­dus, Chronic. lib. 1. Authors) to be chos [...]n Emperour of the West of Europe, by a predominant Faction in his Army; who for a time valiantly resisted the Scots and Picts, which cruelly invaded and infested the South of Britain. For these Nations were invincible, whilest like two Armes of the same Body they assisted each other: But when the Picts (the Right Arme, being most strong and active) suffered themselves to be quietly bound up by the Peace concluded, the Scots, as their ownJohn For­don, Scoto-Chronic. lib. 2. cap. 45. Authors confesse, were quickly conquered and disper­sed. But Maximus, whose main Design was not to defend Britain from Ene­mies, but confirm himself in the Empire, sailed over with the Flower of the British Nation into France; where having conquered the Natives in Armorica, he bestowed the whole Country upon his Souldiers, from them named at this day Little Britain.

23. But Ireland will no wayes allow that Name unto it,383 pleading it self to be anciently called the L [...]sser Britain, Britain in France when conquered, and why so called. in AuthertickPtolemie calles it [...] lib. 2. cap. 6. p. 31. Ed. Crae [...]. Authors▪ and therefore this French Britain must be contented to heare that Name, with the Difference of the third Brother; except any will more properly say, that the French Britain is the Daughter of our Britain, which Infant when she asks her Mother Bles­sing, doth not jabber so strangely, but that she is perfectly understood by her Parent. Although one will hardly believe what is generally reported, namely [Page 26] that these French Britans were so ambitious to preserve their native Language,Anno Dom. 383 that marrying French Women, they cut out their Wives [...]ilin's [...] in the [...]ption of [...]. Tongues, for feare they should infect their Childrens Speech, with a Mixture of French Words. Here the Britans lived, and though they had pawned their former Wives and Children at home, they had neither the Honesty nor Affection to return thither to redeem the Pledges left behind them. Strange, that they should so soon forget their Native Soil! But as the Load-stone, when it is rubb'd over with the Juice of Onions, forgetteth it's Property to draw Iron any longer; so though we allow an attractive Vertue in ones own Country, yet it looseth that alluring Quality, when the said place of ones Birth is steeped in a Sad & Sorrowful Con­dition, as the State of Britain stood at this present. And therefore these Travel­lours having found a new Habitation nearer the Sunne, and further from Suf­fering, there quietly set up their Rest.

24. But not long after,Maximus slain in his march to­wards Italy. Maximus marching towards Italy, 388 was overcome and killed at Aquilegia. A Prince not unworthy of his Great Name, had he been lifted up to the Throne by a regular Election, and not tossed up to the same in a tumultuous manner. This makes St.In Oratione Funebri de exitu Theo­dosii. Ambrose, Gildas, and other Authors violently to inveigh against his Memory, notwithstanding his many mostSulpitius Severus Dia­logo secundo cap. 7. ho­nourable Atchievements. This Difference we may observe betwixt Bastards and Usurpers: the former, if proving eminent, are much bemoaned, because merely Passive in the Blemish of their Birth; whilest Usurpers, though be­having themselves never so gallantly, never gain general good will, because actually evil in their Original; as it fared with Maximus, who by good Using, could never make Reparation for his bad Getting of the Empire. Surely Bri­tain had cause to curse him, for draining it of her Men and Munition, so leaving it a Trunk of a Commonwealth, without Head or Hands, Wisedome or Va­lour, effectually to advise or execute any thing in it's own Defence; all whose Strength consisted in Multitudes of People, where Number was not so great a Benefit, as Disorder was a Burden: which encouraged the Picts, (the Truce ex­pired) to harrasse all the Land with Fire and Sword. The larger Prosecution whereof we leave to the Chronicles of the State, onely touching it here by way of Excuse, for the Briefnesse and Barrennesse of our Ecclesiastical History; the Sadnesse of the Commonwealth being a just Plea for the Silence of the Church.

25. We conclude this Century,Frequent Pilgrimages of the Bri­tàns to Jeru­salem, whil'st S. Keby lived'quietly in An­glesey. when we have told the Reader,390 that about this time theHierony­mus To. 1. Ep, 17. & Palla­dius Galata, Hist. Lausiat. cap. 119. Fathers tell us, how Pilgrimages of the Britans began to be fre­quent as farre as Ierusalem, there not onely to Visit Christs Sepulchre, but also to behold Simon Stilita a pious man, and Melanta a devout Woman, both residing in Syria, and at this time eminent for Sanctity. Perchance Discontent­ment mingled with Devotion moved the Britans to so long a Journey, concei­ving themselves, because of their present Troubles at home, more safe any where else then in their own Country. As for those Britans, who in this Age were zealous Asserters of the Purity of Religion against the Poison of Arria­nisme, amongst them we find St. Keby a principal Champion, Son to S [...]lomon Duke of Cornwall, Scholar to St. Hilary Bishop of Poictiers in France, with whom he lived 50 yeares, and by whom being made Bishop, he returned first to St. Davids, afterwards into Ireland, and at last fixed himself in the Isle of Anglesey. So pious a man, that he might seem to have communicated San­ctity to the Place, being a Promontory into the Sea called from him Holy-head, (but in Welsh Caer-guiby [...]) as in the same Island, the memory of his Master is preserved in Hilary point: where both shall be remembred, as long as there be either Waves to assault the Shore, or Rocks to resist them.


To Thomas Bide of London Esquire.

AMongst your many good Qualities, I have particularly observed your judicious Delight in the Mathematicks. Seeing therefore this Cen­tury hath so much of the Survey or therein, being employed in the exact Dividing of the English Shires betvvixt the seven Saxon Kingdomes, the Proportions herein are by me submitted to your Censure and Approbation.

1. NOw the Arrian Heresy,401 by Gods Providence and good mens Diligence,Pelagius a Britan by birth. was in some measure suppressed, when the unwearied Malice of Satan (who never leaveth off, though often changeth his wayes, to seduce Souls) brought in a worse (because more plausible) Heresy of Pelagianisme. For every man is born a Pelagian, natu­rally proud of his Power, and needeth little Art to teach him to think well of himself. This Pelagius was a Britan by Birth, (as we take no delight to confesse it, so wee'l tell no Lye, to deny it;) as some say calleda Jacobus Usserius, de Brit. Ecc. Prim. p. 207. & Dominus Hen. Spel­man in Con­ciliis, pag. 46. Morgan, that is in Welsh, near the Sea, (and well had it been for the Christian world, if he had been nearer the Sea, and served there­in as the Aegyptians served the Hebrew Males:) being to the same sense called in Latine Pelagius. Let no Foreiner insult on the infelicity of our Land in bearing this Monster: But consider, first, if his excellent natural Parts, and eminent ac­quired Learning might be separated from his dangerous Doctrine, no Nation need be ashamed to acknowledge him. Secondly, Britain did but breed Pela­gius, Pelagius himself bred his Heresy, and in forein Parts where he travelled; France, Syria, Aegypt, Rome itself, if not first invented, much improved his pe­stilent Opinions. Lastly, as our Island is to be pittied for breeding the Person, so she is to be praised for opposing the Errours of Pelagius. Thus the best Father cannot forbid the worst Sonne from being his Child, but may debarre him from being his Heire, affording no favour to countenance his Badnesse.

2. It is memorable whatDempster Hist. Scot. l. 15. num. 1012. one relates,Pelagius no Doctor of Cambridge, but a Monk of Banchor. that the same day whereon Pelagius was born in Britain, St. Augustine was also born in Africk: Divine Provi­dence so disposing it, that the Poison and the Antidote should be Twins in a manner, in respect of the same time. To passe from the Birth, to the Breeding of Pelagius; Hist. Cantab. Academ. lib. [...]. pag. 28. Iohn Cajus, who observes eight solemn Destructions of Cam­bridge before the Conquest, imputeth that which was the third, in order, to Pelagius; who being a Student there, and having his Doctrine opposed by the Orthodox Divines, cruelly caused the overthrow and desolation of all the Vni­versity. But we hope it will be accounted no point of Pelagianisme, for us, thus farre to improve our Free-VVill, as to refuse to give Credit hereunto, till bet­ter Authority be produced. And yet this sounds much to the Commendation of Cambridge, that, like a pure Crystall-Glass, it would preferre rather to flie a pieces, and be dissolved, then to endure Poison put into it; according to the [Page 28] Character,Anno Dom. 401 which Iohn In his Poem of Cambridge. Lidgate (a VVit of those Times) gave of this Uni­versity: ‘Cambrege of Heresy ne're bore the blame.’ More true it is that Pelagius was bred in the Monastery of Banchor (in that part of Flintshire, which, at this day, is a Separatist from the rest) where he lived with two thousand Monks, industrious in their Callings, whose Hands were the only Benefactors for their Bellies, Abbey-labourers, not Abbey-lubbers like their Successours in after-Ages, who living in Lazinesse, abused the Bounty of their Patrons to Riot and Excesse.

3. Infinite are the Deductions,The princi­pal Errors of Pelagius. and derived Consequences of Pelagius his Errours.

These are the maine.

1. That a man might be saved without Gods Grace, by his own Merits and Free-will.

2. That Infants were born without Original Sinne, and were as innocent as Adam, before his Fall.

3. That they were Baptized not to be freed from Sin, but thereby to be adopted into the Kingdome of God.

4. That Adam died not by reason of his Sinne, but by the condition of Na­ture; and that he should have died albeit he had not sinned.

Here to recount the learned Works of Fathers written, their pious Sermons preach't, passionate Epistles sent, private Conferences entertained, publick Disputations held, Provincial Synods summoned, General Councils called, wholesome Canons made to confute and condemn these Opinions, under the name of Pelagius, or his Scholar Caelestius, would amount to a Volume fitter for a Porters back to beare, then a Scholars Brains to peruse. I decline the Employment, both as over-painfull, and nothing proper to our Businesse in hand, (fearing to cut my Fingers, if I put my Sickle into other mens Corn;) these things being transacted beyond the Seas, and not belonging to the British History. The rather, because it cannot be proved that Pelag us in person ever dispersed his Poison in this Island, but ranging abroad, (per­chance because this False Prophet counted himself without honour in his own Country) had his Emissaries here, and principallyBeda lib. 1. cap. 17. Agricola, the Sonne of Severian a Bishop.

4. It is incredible,French Bi­shops sent for to sup­presse Pela­gianisme in Britain. how speedily and generally the Infection spread by his prea­ching, 420 advantaged, no doubt, by the Ignorance and Lazinesse of the British Bishops, in those dayes, none of the deepest Divines, or most learned Clerks, as having little care, and lesse comfort to study, living in a distracted State: and those that feel practical Discords, will have little joy to busy themselves with controversial Divinity. However, herein their Discretion is to be com­mended, that finding their own Forces too feeble to encounter so great a Foe, they craved the Assistance of Foreiners out of France, and sent for Germane, Bishop of Auxerre, and Lupus, Bishop of Troyes: not being of their envious and proud Disposition, who had rather suffer a Good Cause to fall, then to borrow Supporters to hold it up, lest thereby they disgrace themselves, con­fessing their own Insufficiency, and preferring the Abilitie of others. The two Bishops chearfully embraced the Employment, and undertook the Journey, no whit discouraged with the length of the Way, danger of the Sea, and bad­nesse of the Winter; seeing all Weathers is fair to a willing mind, and Oppor­tunity to doe good is the greatest Preferment which a humble heart doth de­sire. This Lupus was Brother to Vincentius Euchetius in libello de laude Eremi ad Hilarium. Lirinensis, Usher de Brit. Eccl. Primord. pag. 325. Husband to Pime­niola, the Sister of Hilary, Arch-Bishop of Arles; one of such Learning and San­ctity, that a grave Authour of those times stileth him a Father of Sidonius lib. 6. Epist. 1. Fathers, and Bishop of Bishops; yea another James of that Age. And yet in this Employment he was but a Second to GERMANE the Principal; and both of them, like PAUL and BARNABAS, jointly advanced the Designe.

[Page 29] 5. Coming into Britain, Anno Dom. 429 with their constant Labours they confirmed the Orthodox, German and Lupus come over and preach in Britain. and reclaimed the Erroneous, preaching openly in Fields andPer trivia, per rura, per devia. High­wayes. As the Kings Presence makes a Court, so their's did a Church, of any Place; their Congregation being bounded with no other Walles, then the Preacher's voice, and extending as farre as he could intelligibly be heard. As for their formall Disputation with the Pelagian Doctors, take it from the Pen of Bede, and Mouth of Stapleton translating him.

6. The Authours and head Professours of hereticall Errour,Their dispu­tation with the Pelagian, Doctors. lay lurking all this while, and like the wicked Spirites, much spighted to see the People daily to fall from them. At length after long advisement used, they taketh upon them to try the matter by open Disputation; which being agreed upon, they come forth richly appointed, gorgiously apparaled, accompanied with a number of flattering favours, havingNot presu­ming to alter any of Sta­pleton's words, take it with all the Printers saults, done probably by an out-lan­dish Presse. leifer to commit their Cause to open disputting, then to seem to the people, whom they had subverted, to have nothing to say in the defence thereof. Thether resorted a great Multitude of people, with their Wives and Children. The People was present both to see, and judge the matter: the Parties there were farre unleke of Condition. In the one side was the Faith, on the other was presumption; on the one side Meeknesse, on the other Pride; on the one side Pelagius, on the other Christ. First of all the blessed Prist Germanus and Lupus gave their Adversaries leave to speak, which vainly occupied both the time and eares of the People with naked words. But after the Reverend Bishops poored out their flowing words, confirmed with Scriptures out of the Gospels and Apostles, they joyned with their own words, the words of God, and after they had said their own mind, they read other men's mind's upon the same. Thus the Vanite of Hereticks is convicted, and Falssehed is confuted, sso that at every objection they were forced in effect to confesse their Errour, not being able to Answere them. The People had much to do to keep their hands from them yet shewed their Iudgement by their Clamours.

7. A Conference every way admirable.Many re­markables in this Dis­putation. First, in the Opponents, who came forth gallantly, as ante-dating the Conquest, and bringing the Spoils of their Victory with them. But gay Cloaths are no Armour for a Combate. Secondly, In the Defendents of the Truth, appealing to no unwritten Traditions, but to the Scriptures of the Gospels and Apostles: because the point of Grace controverted, appeared most plainly in the New Testament. Thirdly, In the Auditors, or, as they are called, the Iudges, Men Women, and Children. Wonder not at this Foeminine Auditory, seeing they were as capable of the Antidote as of the Poison: and no doubt the Pelagians had formerly (as other Hereticks) crept into houses to seduce silly 2 Tim. 3. 6. VVomen: and therefore now the Plaister must be as broad as the Sore. As for Children, we know who it was that said,In Latin, not pueri, but li­beri. Mat. 19. 14. Suffer little Children to come unto me, and forbid them not, &c. But here, though called Children in Relation to their Parents, they might be in good Age and capacity of understanding; or if they were little ones indeed, flocking out of fashion in a generall Concourse, to see ese men speek Divine Mysteries, they could not hereafter, when grown old, date their Remembrance from a more remarkable Epoche. See we here that in these times, the Laity were so well acquainted with Gods VVord, that they could competently judge, what was or was not spoken in Proportion thereunto. Lastly and chiefly, In the Successe of this Conference. For though generally such publick Disputations do make more Noise then take Effect, (because the obstinate maintainers of Errour come with their Tongues tipt with Clamorousnesse, as their Proselyte Auditours do with Eares stopt with Prejudice,) yet this meeting, by Gods Blessing, was marvellously powerfull to establish and convert the People. But here a main Difficulty is by Au­thours left wholy untouch't, namely in what Language this Conference was [Page 30] entertained,Anno Dom. 429 and managed, that Germanus and Lupus, two French Bishops, and Foreiners, could both speak with Fluentnesse, and be understood with Facility. Perchance the ancient Gaules in France, whence these Bishops came, spake still (as they did anciently) one and the self-same Tongue with the Bri­tans, distering rather in Dialect then Language: or, which is more pro­bable, both France and Britain, remaining as yet Roman Provinces, spake a course, vulgar Latine, though invaded with a Mixture of many Base words, as Britain especially, now or near this time, was infested with forein Barbarous Nations.

8. This Conference was held at St. Albans, S. Albans the Place of the Conference. even where at this day a small Chappeli is extant, to the honour of St. Germane: thoughScot. Hist. lib. 8. Hector Boethius as­signes London the Place, adding moreover, that such obstinate Pelagians as would not be reclaimed, were, for their Contumacy, burnt by the Kings Officers. But it will be hard to find any Spark of Fire in Britain, or else­where, employed on Hereticks in this Age. We may observe that the afore­aid Hector Boethius, and Polydor Virgil (writing the Chronicles, the one of Scotland, the other of England, at the same time,) as they beare the Poe­ticall Names of two Sons of Priamus, so they take to themselves much liberty of Fancy and Fiction in their severall Histories.

9. Not long after,Germanus marcheth a­gainst the Pagan Picts and Saxons. the Aid of Germanus and Lupus was implored, and employed an hundred miles off in another service, against the Pagan Picts and Saxons. Here we meet with the first mention of Saxons, being some strag­ling Voluntiers of that Nation, coming over to pillage here of their own accord, not many yeares before they were solemnly invited hither under Horsus and Hengistus, their Generalls. Germanus, after the Lent well spent, in the Fasting of their Bodies, and Feasting of their Souls (for the people hadBede 1 Book cap. 20. daily Sermons,) and the solemnity of Easter Festivall duly celebrated, wherein he Christened Multitudes of Pagan Converts, in the River Alen, marched with an Army of them, whil'st their Baptismall water was scarce wip'd from their Bodies, against the aforesaid Enemies, whom he found in the North-East of VVales. Here the Pious Bishop turning Politick Enginier, chose a place of Advantage, being a hollow Dale, surrounded with Hils, near the Village, called at this day by the English Mold, by the British Guid­crue, in Flintshire, where the Field at this day retains the name ofUsher de Brit. Ecc. Primord. p. 333. M [...]es Garmen, or Germans Field; the more remarkable, because it hath escaped (as few of this Note and Nature) the exact Observation of Master Cam­den.

10. Here Germanus placed his men in Ambush,A Victory gotten not by shooting, but shouting with Instructions, that at a Signall given, they should all shout Hallelujah three times with all their might; which was done accordingly. The Pagans were surprized with the Suddennesse and Loudnesse of such a Sound, much multiplied by the advan­tage of the Echo, whereby their Fear brought in a false List of their Ene­mies Number; and rather trusting their Eares then their Eyes, they reckoned their Foes by the increase of the Noise rebounded unto them; and then allowing two Hands for every Mouth, how vast was their Army! But be­sides the Concavity of the Vallies improving the Sound, God sent a Hol­lownesse into the Hearts of the Pagans: so that their Apprehensions ad­ded to their Eares, and Cowardice often resounded the same Shout in their Breasts, till beaten with the Reverberation thereof, without striking a Stroak, they confusedly ran away; and many were drowned for speed, in the River Alen, lately the Christians Font, now the Pagans Grave. Thus a bloudlesse Victory was gotten, without Sword drawn, consisting of no Fight, but a Fright and a Flight; and that Hallelujah, the Song of theRevel. 19. 1. Saints after Con­quest atchieved, was here the Fore-runner, and Procurer of Victory. So good a Grace, it is to be said both before and after a Battel. Gregory the Great (a grave Authour) in hisChap. 36. vers. 29, 30. Comment upon Iob, makes mention of this [Page 31] Victory, Anno Dom. 430 occasioned on those words, Can any understand the noise of his Ta­barnacle?

11. Germanus now twice a Conquerour,S. Albans in Hartford­shire, Colen, Ely, & Osell, pretend to the whole Body of Saint Alban. of Pelagians and Pagans, pre­pares for his Return, after first he had caused the Tombe of St. Alban to be opened, and therein deposited the Reliques of many Saints, which he brought over with him, conceiving it fit (as he said) that their Corpses should sleep in the same Grave, whose Souls rested in the same Heaven. In lieu of what he left behind him, (Exchange is no Robbery,) he carried along with him some of St. Alban's Dust, wherein Spots of the Martyr's Bloud were as fair and fresh, as if shed but yesterday. But what most concerns St. Alban's Monks to stickle in, some report German to have carried the Body of Alban to Rome: whence some hundred yeares after, the Empresse to Otho the se­cond brought it toSurius Tomo 3. vita Sanct. Iunij 22. Colen, where, at this day, they maintain his uncorrupted Body to be enshrined: The Monks of Ely, in Cambridge-shire, pretending to the same; as also do those of Ottonium, or Osell, in Denmark. Thus, as Me­tius Suffetius the Roman was drawn alive by Horses four wayes: like Vio­lence is offered to the Dead Body of Alban, pluck't to four severall places by importunate Competitours; only with this Difference, that the Former was mangled into Quarters, whereas here each place pretends to have him whole and intire, not abating one Hair of his Caputenim cum barba Idem ut prius. Beard. Nor know I how to reconcile them, except any of them dare say, though without shew of Pro­bability, that as the River in Paradise went out of Eden, from whence it was parted and became into four Gen. 2. 10. Heads; Alban in like manner, when dead, had the same Quality, of one to be multiplied into four Bodies.

12. Now after Germanus and Lupus were returned home into their na­tive Country,After the de­parture of Germanus, Pelagianisme recruits in Britain. Pelagianisme began to sprout again in Britain. An Accident not so strange to him that considers, how quickly an Errour much of kin thereunto grew up amongst the Galathians, presently onGal. 1. 6. Paul's departure. I marvel (said he) that you are so soon removed from him, that called you unto the Grace of Christ, unto another Gospell. St. Paul's marvelling may make us marvel the lesse, seeing that Wonder which hath a Precedent is not so great a Wonder. Here we may sadly behold the great Pronenesse of men to go a­stray, whose hearts by nature cold in Goodnesse, will burn no longer then they are blown. To suppresse this Heresie, Germanus is sollicited to make a second Voiage into Britain: which he did accordingly, accompanied with his Partner Severus, because Lupus his former Companion was otherwise employed. Hereupon a primeErticus An­tissiod orensis in vita S. Ger­mani. Poet of his Age, makes this Apostrophe unto St. German:

Tuque O, cui toto discretos orbe Britannos
Bis penetrare datum,
bis intima cernere magni
Monstra maris:—

O thou that twice pierc'd Britain, cut asunder
From the whole World, twice did'st survey the wonder
Of monstrous Seas:—

The sameBede lib. 1. cap. 21. Successe still followed, and this Conquerour, who formerly had broken and scattered the main Body of the Pelagians, now routed the Remnant, which began to ralley and make head again.

13. He also called aMath. West in anno 449. Pelagianism, and King▪ Vottiger's in­cestuous mar­ridge condem­ned in a Synod. Synod, wherein those damnable Doctrines were con­demned: as also theNennius. cap. 37. Incestuous Marriage of VORTIGER King of Bri­tain, (a wicked Prince, in whom all the Dregs of his vicious Auncestors were settled,) who had took his own Daughter to Wife. And yet of this unlawfull Copulation, a pious Son, St. Faustus, was born: to shew that no Crosse-barre of Bastandy, though doubled with Incest, can bolt Grace out of that Heart, wherein God will have it to enter. Germanus having settled Bri­tain in good Order, went back to his own Country, where presently upon [Page 32] his return he died;Anno Dom. 449 as God useth to send his Servants to Bed, when they have done all their Work: and by Gods blessing on his Endeavours, that Heresie was so cut down in Britain, that it never generally grew up again.

14. Mean time the South of this Island was in a wofull condition,In vain the Britans pe­tition to the Roman Em­perour for help against the Picts. caused by the daily Incursions of the Picts. As for the Picts Wall built to restrain them, it being a better Limit then Fortification, served rather to define then defend the Roman Empire: and uselesse is the strongest Wall of Stone, when it hath Stocks only upon it: such was the Scottish Lazinesse of the Britans to man it; a Nation at this time given over to all manner of Sin, inso­much asIn Prologo libri de Excid. Brit. Gildas their Country-man calls them Aetatis Atramentum, the Inke of the Age. And though God did daily correct them with Inroads of Pagans, yet like restife Horses, they went the worse for Beating. And now the Land being exhausted of the Flower of her Chivalry, (transported and disposed in Roman Garrisons, as farre as Iudaea andSee Notitia Provinciarum. Aegypt it self) could not make good her ground against the Picts; and was fain to request first Theodosius the younger, then Valentinian the third Roman Emperour, (whose Ho­magers the British Kings were untill this time) for their Assistance. They dispatch Petition after Petition, Embassie on Embassie, representing their wofull estate. Now the Barbarians beat them to the Sea, the Sea repelled them to the Bar­barians; and thus bandied betwixt Death and Death, they must either be kill'd or drowned. They inforced their Request for Aid, with much Earnest­nesse and Importunity; all in vain, seeing Whisperings and Hollowings are like to a Deaf Eare, and no Answer was returned. Had they been as care­full in bemoaning their Sins to God, as clamorous to declare their Sufferings to the Roman Emperour, their Requests in Heaven had been as graciously received, as their Petitions on Earth were carelesly rejected.

15. What might be the Cause of this Neglect?True Reasons why the Ro­mans negle­cted to send Aid to the Britans. Had the Imperial Crown so many Flowers, that it might afford to scatter some of them? Was Britain grown inconsiderable, formerly worth the Conquering, now not worth the Keeping? or was it because they conceived the Britans Need not so much as was pretended; and Aid is an Almes ill-bestowed on those Beggars, who are lame of Lazinesse, and will not work for their Living? Or was the Service accounted desperate; and no wise Physician will willingly under­take a Disease which he conceives incurable? The plain truth is, the Roman Empire now grown Ruinous, could not repair it's out-Rooms, and was fain to let them fall down to maintain the rest; and like Fencers, receiving a blow on their Leg to save their Head, exposed the Remote Countries of Spain, France, and Britain, to the Spoil of Pagans, to secure the Eastern Countries, near CONSTANTINOPLE the Seat of the Empire.

16. Here Vortiger, The sad suc­cesse of the Pagan Saxons, invited by King Vortiger into Britain. forsaken of God and man, and left to himself, (Malice could not wish him a worse Adviser) resolves on a desperate Project, to call in the Pagan Saxons out of Germany for his Assistance, under Horsus and Hengistus their Captains. Over they come at first but in three great Ships, (a small Earnest will serve to bind a great Bargain:) first possessing the Island of Thanet in Kent; but following afterwards in such Swarms, that quickly they grew formidable to him that invited them over, of Guests turning So­journers, then In mates, and lastly Land-lords, till they had dispossessed the Britans of the best of the Island: the entertaining of mercenary Souldiers, being like the administring of Quick-silver to one in Hiaca Passio; a Receipt not so properly prescribed by the Physician to the Patient, as by Necessity to the Physician. If hired Aid do on a sudden the Work they are sent for, and so have a present Passage to be discharg'd, sovereign use may be made of them: otherwise if long tarrying, they will eat the Entralls, and cor­rode the Bowells of that State which entertains them; as here it came to passe.

17. For soon after the Saxons erected seven Kingdomes in Britain: And [Page 33] because their severall Limits conduce much to the clear understanding of the following History, and we for the present are well at Leisure, we will present the Reader with the Description of their severall Principalities.The respe­ctive bounds of the Saxon Heptarchie. The Partition was made by mutuall Consent, thus farre forth, that every King caught what he could, and kept what he caught; and there being amongst them a Parity of high-spirited Princes, (who more prized an absolute So­vereignty over a little, then a Propriety with Subjection in never so much,) they erected seven severall Kingdomes, in little more then but the third part of this Island: (A thing which will seem no wonder to him, who hath read how the little Land ofIosh. 12. 24. CANAAN found room at the same time for one and thirty Kings.) But let us reckon them up.

1. The first was the Kingdome of KENT; which began Anno 4 5 7. under King Hengist. It contained the County of Kent, as it is at this day bounded, without any notable difference. And though this King­dome was the least of all, (as consisting but of one intire County, without any other addition) yet was it much befriended in the Situa­tion for Traffick with France and Germany. Besides, it being secu­red on three Sides with Thames and the Sea, and fenced on the fourth with Woods, this made their Kings (naturally defended at home) more considerable in their Impressions on their Neigh­bours.

2. Of the SOUTH-SAXONS, comprising Sussex and Surry, (both which, till very lately, were under one Sheriff.) And this King­dome began Anno 491, under King Ella, and was the weakest of all the seven, affording few Kings, and fewer Actions of moment.

3. Of the EAST-SAXONS, comprehending Essex, Middlesex, and so much of Hartfordshire as is under the Bishop of London's Jurisdi­ction, whose Diocese is adequate to this Kingdome. A small Ring, if we survey the little Circuit of Ground; but it had a fair Diamond in it, the City of London (though then but a Stripling in Growth) well thriving in Wealth and Greatness. This Kingdome began in Erchenwin about the year 527.

4. Of the EAST-ANGLES, containing Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge­shire, with the Isle of Ely, and (as it seems, faith a ReverendUsher de Brit. Ecc. Pri­mord. p. 394. Wri­ter) part of Bedfordshire. It began Anno 575, under King Vffa, and lay most exposed to the Cruelty of the Danish Incursions.

5. Of MERCIA: so called, because it lay in the middest of the Island, being the Merches or Limits, on whichLambert's Descript. of Kent. all the residue of the King­domes did bound and border. It began Anno 582. under King Cridda, and contained the whole Counties of Lincoln, Northampton, (with Rutland, then and long since part thereof) Huntingdon, Buckingham, Oxford, Worcester, Warwick, Darby, Nottingham, Leicester, Stafford, and Chester. Besides part of Hereford and Salop (the Remnant where­of was possess'd by the Welsh,) Gloucester, Bedford, andIdem ibid. Lancaster. In view it was the greatest of all the seven: but it abated the Puissance thereof, because on the VVest it affronted the Britans, being deadly Enemies; and bordering on so many Kingdomes, the Mercians had work enough at home to shut their own Doors.

6. Of NORTHUMBERLAND, corrivall with Mercia in Great­nesse, (though farre inferiour in Populousnesse) as to which belonged whatsoever lieth betwixt Humber and Edenborough-Frith. It was sub­divided sometimes into two Kingdomes, of Bernicia and Deira. The later consisted of the Remainder of Lancashire, with the intire Counties of York, Durham, VVestmorland, and Cumberland. Bernicia contained Northumberland, with the South of Scotland to Eden­borough. [Page 34] But this Division lasted not long, before both were united together. It began Anno 547, under King Ida.

7. Of the WEST-SAXONS; who possessed Hantshire, Berkshire, Wilt­shire, Somerset, Dorset, and Devonshire; part of Cornwall, and Gloucester­shire: yea some assigne a Moiety of Surrey unto them. This Kingdome began Anno 519, under King Cerdicus, and excelled for plenty of Ports, (on the South and Severn Sea) store of Burroughs, stoutnesse of active men, (some impute this to the Naturall cause of their be­ing hatch't under the warm Wings of the South-VVest VVind,) which being excellent VVrastlers, gave at last a Fall to all the other Saxon Kingdomes. So that as the seven Streams of Nilus loose themselves in the Mid-land Sea, this Heptarchy was at last devoured in the VVest-Saxons Monarchy.

The reason that there is some difference in VVriters in bounding of these severall Kingdomes, is, because England being then the constant Cock-pit of Warre, the Limits of these Kingdomes were in daily motion, sometimes marching forward, sometimes retreating backward, according to variety of Successe. We may see what great difference there is, betwixt the Bounds of the Sea at High-water, and at Low-water Mark: and so the same King­dome was much disproportioned to it self, when extended with the happy Chance of Warre, and when contracted at a low Ebb of Ill Successe. And here we must not forget that amongst these seven Kings, during the Hep­tarchie, commonly one was most puissant, over-ruling the rest, who stiled himselfCamden's Brit. pag. 139. King of the English Nation.

18. But to return to the British Church, and the year of our Lord 449, wherein St. Patrick, Irish S. Pa­trick said to live and die at Glassen­bury. the Apostle of Ireland, is notoriously reported to have come to Glassenbury; where finding twelve old Monks, (Successours to those who were first founded there by Ioseph of Arimathea) he, though unwilling, was chosen their Abbot, and lived with them 39 yeares, observing the Rule of St. Mark, and his Aegptian Monks: the Order of Benedictines being as yet unborn in the world. Give we here a List of these 12 Monks; withall fore­warning the Reader, that for all their harsh Sound, they are so many Saints, least otherwise he should suspect them by the ill noise of their Names to be worse Creatures.

  • 1. Brumbam
  • 2. Hyregaan
  • 3. Brenwall
  • 4. VVencreth
  • 5. Bantom-meweng
  • 6. Adel-wolred
  • 7. Lowar
  • 8. VVellias
  • 9. Breden
  • 10. Swelves
  • 11. Hinloemius
  • 12. Hin.

But know that some of these Names, as the 3. 6. and 9. are pure, plain First obser­ved by Mr. Camden, and since by the Arch-bishop of Armach. He is made Co-partner in the Church with the Vir­gin Mary. Saxon words, which renders the rest suspected. So that whosoever it was, that first gave these British Monks such Saxon Names, made more Haste then good Speed, preventing the true Language of that Age.

19. So great was the Credit of St. Patrick at Glassenbury, that after his Death and Buriall there, that Church which formerly was dedicated to the Virgin Mary alone, was in after-Ages jointly consecrated to her and St. Pa­trick. A great Presumption: For if it be true, what is reported, that at the first, by direction of the AngelSee 1. Cent. 11. Parag. Gabriel, that Church was solely devoted to the Virgin Mary; surely either the same, or some other Angel of equall Power, ought to have ordered the Admission of St. Patrick to the same, to be match'd and impaled with the Blessed Virgin in the Honour thereof. In re­ference to St. Patrick's being at Glassenbur, severall Saxon Kings granted large Charters, with great Profits and Priviledges to this Place.

20. But now the Spight is, that an unparallel'dJames U­sher, de Brit. Ecc. Primord. pag. 875. 883▪ 894. 895. Yet the Cre­dit of Pa­trick's being at Glassen­bury shrewd­ly shaken. Critick in Antiquity, leaves this Patrick at this time sweating in the Irish Harvest, having newly converted Lempster to the Faith, and now gone into the province of Munster [Page 35] on the same Occasion. Yea, he denies (and proveth the same) that this Patrick ever liv'd, or was buried at Glassenbury. But be it known to whom it may concern, that the British are not so over-fond of St. Patrick, as to ravish him into their Country against his will, and the consent of Time. Yea, St. Patrick miss'd as much Honour, in not being at Glassenbury, as Glassen­bury hath lost Credit, if he were never there; seeing the British justly set as high a Rate on that Place, as the Irish do on his Person. See but the Glo­rious Titles (which with small Alteration might serve for Ierusalem it self) given to Glassenbury: and seeing now the Place is for the most part buried in it's own Dust, let none envy these Epithets for the Epitaph thereof.

Here lies the
Or Borough
City vvhich once vvas the
In the Char­ter of King Ina, and also in King Ed­gar's.
Fountain and Originall of all Religion, built by Christs Disciples,
Malmesbu­ry MS. de Antiq. Eccles. Glaston.
consecrated by Christ himself; and this place is the
So called in the Charter of King Kenwin

We are sorry therefore for St. Patrick's sake, if he was never there. To salve all, some have found out another Patrick, called Seniour, or Sen Patrick, (a nice difference) equall with the Irish Apostle in Time, and not much in­feriour in Holinesse, who certainly liv'd at Glassenbury. The plain truth is, that as in thePlautus his Amphitruo. Comoedian, when there were two Amphitruo's, and two So­sia's, they made much fallacious Intricacy, and pleasant Delusion in the eyes of the Spectatours: So there being in this Age two Patricks (others See Usher. pag. 895. say three) twoAmbro­sius. Caledoniꝰ Merlins, twoAlbanius. Gildases, Badoni­cus. The fabulous History of St. Vrsula confuted. and (that the Homonymy may be as well in Place as in Persons) threeIn Flint­shire. In Carnar­vanshire. In Down in Ireland. Bangors, threeGlasco in Scotland. Dunglasse in Ireland. Glassenburies, (as Haste or Ignorance in Writers mistake them;) these jumbled together have made a marvelous Confusion in Writers, to the great prejudice of History, where they are not exactly observed.

21. But leaving St. Patrick, 450 let us trie whether we can have better Successe with St. Vrsula, Daughter of Dinoth, or Deo-notus Duke of Cornwall, who in this year is said with eleven thousand Virgins to have sailed over into Little Britain in France, there to be married to the Britans their Country-men, who refused to wed French-women for their Wives: but by foul Weather these Virgins were cast on the French Shore, amongst Pagans, by whom they were cruelly murdered, for refusing to forsake their Religion, or betray their Chastity. Others tell the Story quite contrary; how the aforesaid Vrsula with her Virgin-Army, went to Rome, where she conversed with PopeVision. Eli­zabeth. lib. 4. cap. 2. Edit. Paris. an. 1513 & Colon. anno 1628. Cy­riacus, her Country-man, and with him returning back into Britain, was murdered by the command of Attila King of the Hunnes, at Colen, with all the rest of the Virgins, and the aforesaid Pope Cyriacus; whose Name is omitted in the Papall Catalogue, because before his Death he surrendred his place to Anterus his Successour. In which Relation we much commend the even tenour thereof, consisting of so level Lies, that no one swelling Improbability is above the rest; but for matter of Time, Place, and Per­sons, all passages unlikely alike. We dare not defame Britain, as to suspect but that eleven thousand Christian Virgins, all at once, able to travail, might be found therein: though at this time Paganisme prospered in this Land, and Religion was in a low Condition. But what made these Chri­stian Amazons with Vrsula their Penthesilea to go (not to say to gad) to Rome? Surely they were noGen. 18. 9. Daughters of Sarah, which did abide in her tent, but ratherGen. 34. 1. Sisters of Dinah, which would go abroad to see foreign Fashions; and therefore their Hard Usage is the lesse to be pittied. Was it modest for so many Maids to wander by themselves, without a Masculine Guard to protect them? did ever such a Wood of weak Ivy grow alone, without any other Trees to support it? But the City of Colen will not abate us one of the eleven thousand, where their Reliques, and Sepulchrall In­scriptions are at this day to be seen. And we may as safely believe that these [Page 36] Virgin-Martyrs lie there entomb'd,Ann. Dom. 450 as that the Bodies of the three Wise men of the East, commonly called the Three Kings of Colen, which came to visit our Infant-Saviour at Bethlehem, are interred in the same City, which the Monks of Colen brag of, and shew to Travellers. Besides all this, there is a Town in Barkshire calledCamden's Brit. in Bark­shire. Maiden-head, which (as many other Churches in Christendome,) was dedicated in memory of their Virginity: which if it be not an Argument strong enough to convert the Reader to the belief of this Story, we must leave him to his Infidelity; that as Tales of Bug­bears are made to fright crying Children, so this Story of Vrsula was con­trived to befool Credulous men.

22. Nor hath the judicious Reader cause to wonder,Why so little Church Story in this Age. that no better ac­count is given of the British Church in this Age,453 considering the generall Persecution by Pagan Saxons. Religion now a dayes plaid least in sight, hi­ding it self in Holes; and the Face of the Church was so blubber'd with Teares, that she may seem almost to have wept her Eyes out, having lost her Seers, and principall Pastours. Onely two prime Preachers appear: Vodine the learned and pious Bishop of London; who taking the confidence to reprove Vortiger the British King, for putting away his lawfull Wife, and wedding Rowen, the Heathen daughter of Hengist, was by him most barbarouslyHector Boeth. Scot. hist. lib. 8. mur­dered: The second Gildas Albanius (much ancienter then his name-sake surnamed the VVise) born in Scotland, bred in France, whence returning into the South of Britain, he applied himself to the preaching of Divinity, and reading Liberall Sciences to many Auditours and Scholars atIames Ar­mach: de Brit. Ecc. primord. pag. 442. Gildas at a strange sight suddenly si­lenced. Pepidiauc a Promontory in Pembrokeshire:

23. It happened on a day, as Gildas was in his Sermon,462 (Reader, whether smiling or frowning, forgive the Digression) a Nunne big with child came into the Congregation, whereat the Preacher presently wasGirald. Cam­brens. in the life of Saint David. struck dumb, (would not a Maid's Child amaze any man?) and could proceed no fur­ther. Afterward he gave this reason of his Silence, because that Virgin bare in her body an Infant of such signall Sanctity, as farre transcended him. Thus as lesser Load-stones are reported to loose their Vertue in the presence of those that are bigger; so Gildas was silenced at the approach of the VVelsh St. David, (being then but Hanse en Keldar,) though afterward, like Zachary, he recovered his Speech again. Thus fabulousIames Ar­mach. de Brit. Ecc. pri­mord. pag. 443. Authors, make this St. David a Mock-Iohn Baptist, forceing a fond Parallel betwixt them; where to make the Proportion current, Gildas must be allowed Father to St. David. But enough; I like this sent so ill, I will follow it no further.

24. Mean time fierce and frequent Fighting betwixt the British and Sax­ous, The partiali­ty of Saxon Writers. about defending and enlarging their Dominions. And although Gildas (and out of him Bede) confesse often alternation of Successe, yet other Saxon Writers mention not the least Overthrow of their own Side, but constant Conquering: as if their Generals had alwayes buckled on Victory with their Armour. It is almost incredible, that ingenuous men should be so injurious to the Truth, and their own Credits, by Partiality, were it not that the Fa­ctions of Modern Pens invite us to the belief thereof; not describing Battels with a Full Face (presenting both Sides) but with a Half Face, advancing their own, and depressing the Atchievements of the Opposite Party. Most true it is, the British got many Victories, especially under hopefull Prince Vortimer, whose Valour was the best Bank against the Saxon Deluge; untill broken down by untimely Death, the Pagans generally prevailed, much by their Courage, more by their Treachery.

25. For they invited the British to a Parley and Banquet on Salesbury Plain;The British treacherously murdered. where suddenly drawing out their Seaxes, (concealed under their long Coats,) being crooked Swords, the Emblem of their indirect Proceedings, they made their innocent Guests with their bloud, pay the Shots of their Entertainment, Here Aurelius Ambrosius is reported to have erected that Monument of Stone-Henge to their mentory.

[Page 37] 26. It is contrived in form of a Crown,Anno Dom. 463 consisting of three Circles of stones set up Gate-wise;The descri­ption of Stone-henge. some called Corse-stones, ofCamden's Britann. in Wiltshire. 12 Tunne, others called Cronets, of 7 Tuns weight: (those haply for greater, and these for inferiour Officers:) and one Stone at distance seems to stand Sentinel for the rest. It seems equally im­possible that they were bred here, or brought hither, seeing (no navigable water near) such voluminous bulks are unmanageable in Cart or Wagon. As for the Tale of Merlin's conjuring them by Magick out of Ireland, and bringing them aloft in the Skies (what in Charles VVain?) 'tis too ridiculous to be con­futed. This hath put Learned men on necessity to conceive them artificall Stones, consolidated of Sand. Stand they there in Defiance of Wind & Weather, (which hath discomposed the method of them) which if made of any Pretious matter (a Bait to tempt Avarice) no doubt long since had been indited of Super­stition; whereas now they are protected by their own Weight & Worthlesness.

27. Vortiger the British King fled into VVales, 466 to his Castle Genereu, Vortiger burn­ing in lust, burnt to ashes. impreg­nable for Situation, which he mann'd and woman'd, (conveying a multitude of his Whores into it,) and there lived surfeiting in Lust, while his Land lay swel­tering in Bloud. Here Aurelius Ambrosius setting fire on his Castle, burnt him and his to Ashes. This gave occasion to the Report so constantly affirmed by many Authours, (and men are prone to believe Prodigious Deaths, of such as led Licentious Lives) that Vortiger's Palace, like another Sodom, was burnt by Fire from Heaven. Indeed in a secondary sense it was true; as all Exemplary Punishments, more visibly proceed from Divine Vengeance. But otherwise, the first Raisers of this Fable, did apparent Wrong to the Attribute of Gods Truth, in pretending to do extraordinary Right unto his Justice.

28. This Aurelius Ambrosius is said to be extracted of the Roman Race,Aurelius causelesly slandred by an Italian. who having done this Execution on Vortiger the Tyrant, was a singular Champion of the British against their Enemies. One composed of Valour and Religion, wholly imploying himself in time of Peace, to raise new Churches, repair old, and endow both: unworthy therefore the Libell of anGotefrid. Viterbiensis Chro. part. 18. Italian Author, who on no other Evidence, then his own bare Assertion, traduceth this Ambrosius, to have been a favourer of Iudaisme, Arrianisme, Manicheisme, and a Persecuter of the Professours of true Religion. Thus the greatest Vertue is Sanctuary too small to secure any from the pursuit of Slanderous Pens: and thus some humo­rous Authors, leaving the Road of true Reports, because common, go a Way by themselves of different Relation, so to entitle themselves to more immediate and peculiar Intelligence; as if others, (being onely of Truth's Councell,) had not received such private Instructions as themselves, being Cabinet-Historians.

29. Leave we this Ambrosius bickering with the Saxons, The Acade­my of Lear­ned men under Dubri­tius. with interchange of Successe, much commended for his Constancy in all Conditions. For some­times his Valour was the Hammer upon, sometimes his Patience was the Anvil beneath his Enemies; but alwayes he bravely bare up his Spirits: and as the Sun looks biggest on the Earth when he is nearest to set; so he carried it out with the boldest appearance, in the lowest Declination of his Fortune. If we behold the Church in his time, the most visible estate thereof presents it self to us in the Academy, which Dubritius kept, near the River Wye in Monmouthshire. His Fa­ther, sayIohan. Tin­muthensis in ejus vita. some, was unknown; others make him to be son toChro. colleg. Warwicensis. Pepiau a Petty King in this Age: it being observable, that in this and the next Century, all men eminent for Learning and Religion, are either made without known Fa­thers, or Sons to Kings (no Mean betwixt these Extremes, as by many instances may appear;) so that such as consider the Narrownesse of the Principality, will admire at the Number of British Princes. This Dubritius taught many Scholars for seven yeares together, in Humane & Divine Learning, (being Himself, in his Life, a Book of Piety of the best Edition for his Pupils to peruse:) amongst whom the chiefest, Theliau, Sampson, Vbelin, Merchiguin, Elguored, &c. for the Reader had better believe then read theVid. Armach de Brit. Ecc. primord. pag. 445. Names of the rest, remarkable onely for Length, and Hardnesse, without any other Information. Afterward Dubri­tius [Page 38] removed to Warwick (haply mistaken forVid. Speed's map of that County. Werwick, Ann. Dom. 469 a Village some two miles from Cardigan) and from thence it seemes returned to Moch-Rhos, that is, the Place of a Hog: because he was admonished, in a Vision in his Sleep, there to build a Chappel or Ora­tory, where he should find a whiteVid. Ar­mach. ut prius. Sow lodging with the Hogs. a clean Conceit, and as full of Wit as Devotion. It seems the Friar, Father of this Fable, had read as farre as the eighth Book of Virgil's Aeueids, where the River Tiber, in a Dream, advised Aeneas to erect an Altar, and sacrifice to Iuno in the place where he should find the Sow lying with the Pigs; and from this Pagan Hint, was advantaged for a Popish Legend.

30. Here we cannot but renew our former Complaint:Forged lies obtruded on posterity in heu of lost truths. and it is some Mitigation to our Misery, (as perchance some Ease to the Reader) if we can but vent our old Grie­vances in new Expressions: how in stead of true History, devoured by Time, prodigious Tales of impudent brazen-fac'd Monks are obtruded upon us. Thus when the Golden Shields of King Solomon were taken away,1 Kings 14. 27. Rehoboam substituted Shields of Brasse in their room; though not so Good, perchance more Gawdy, especially to ignorant eyes viewing them at distance, and wanting either the Skill or Opportunity to bring them to the Touch. Amongst which the Tale of Cungarus the Eremite, otherwise called Doc­ [...]wyn (but first let the one Man be allowed, before his two Names be admitted:) may challenge a principall place; being reported Son of a Constantinopolitan Emperour, and Joh. Cap­grave in vita S. Cungari. Luciria his Empresse. A Name un-owned by any Grecian Historians. The best is, that un­conscionable Liars, though they most hurt themselves, do the least harm others, whose Loud Ones are both the Poison & the Antidote, seeing no Wise man will believe them. Small Griet and Gravell may choak a man, but that Stone can never stop his Throat, which cannot enter into his Mouth.

31. In very deed,The ma [...]lacre of the Monks at Winche­ster. very little at this time was ever reported of Church-matters.495 For a Drought of Christian Writers (in the Heat of Persecution) caused a Dearth of all Hi­story. Now it was that Cerdicus first King of the West-Saxons, having overcome the Britans at Winchester, kill'd all the Monks belonging to the Church ofVVintoni [...] ­sis Ecc. Hist. cap. 9. St. Amphibalus, & turned the same into a Temple of Idolatry. Also Theon Archbishop of London, seeing the Pagan Saxons to prevail, left his See, andBut Matth. Florilegus designeth the yeare 586. about this time may be presumed to have fled into Wales. I say, about this time. For what Liberty is allowed to Prognosticatours of Wea­ther, to use all favourable Correctives and Qualifications [like to be rain, inclined to rain, somewhat rainy, &c.] the same Latitude we must request, in relating actions past in point of Chronologie; his fere temporibus, per haec tempora, circa, circiter, plus minus, &c. And what we take upon Trust in this kind, let the Reader be pleased to charge, not on the Score of our Ignorance, but on the Uncertainty of that Ages Computation. As for St. Pe­trock, Son to the King of Cumberland, we remit him to the next Age, because though Budding in this, full Blown in the next Century.

32. This Age is assigned by Authors for that Famous Ambrose Merlin (differing from Sylvester Merlin the Scot) though it be doubtfull whether ever such a man in rerum na­tura; Merlin left in a twilight; whether that Magician was an Impostor, or his whole Story an Im­posture put upon credu­lous posterity. it being suspicious,

First, Because he is reported born at Caer-merthen, & that City so denominated from him. Whereas it is called Maridunum by Ptolemie many yeares before. Thus it is ominous to begin with a Lie.

Secondly, Because it was said his Mother was a Nun, got with Child by a Devil in the form of an Incubus; perchance such a one as Chaucer describes.

It seems, that as Vestall Virgins, when they had stollen a Great Belly, used to entitle some Deity to the getting of their Child, (so did the Mother of Romulus and Remus,) whereby they both saved themselves from Shame, & gained Reputation: so Nuns in this Age, when with child, unable to perswade people (as the Poets feign of the Spanish Mares) that they were impregnated by the Wind alone, made the World believe that some Spirit had consorted with them. This makes the whole Story of Merlin very doubtfull; and as for all his Miracles & Prophesyes, they sink with the Subject. For sure the same Hand which made the Puppet, gave it all it's Motions, and suited his Person with Properties accordingly. May the Reader be pleased to take notice of three an­cient British Writers.

1. Aquila Septonius, or the Eagle of Shaftsbury, whether He or She.

2. Perdix Praesagus, or Partridge the prophesier.

3. Merlin Ambrose.

All three Birds of a Feather, and perchance hatch'd in the same Nest of ignorant Cre­dulity: nor can I meet with a fourth to make up the Messe, except it be the Arabian Phae­nix. But because it is a Task too great for a Giant, to encounter a received Tradition, let Merlin be left in a Twi-light as we found him. And surely no judicious man will cen­sure the Mention of Merlin (whose Magicall Pranks and Conjurations are so frequent in our Sories) to be a Deviation from the History of the Church, who hath read both of Simon Magus, and Elymas the Sorcerer in the Acts of the Apostles.


To Douse Fuller of Hampshire, Esquire.

I Cannot say certainly of you as Naomi did of Boaz, 2 Ruth 20. He is near of kin unto us, having no Assurance (though great Probabi­lity) of Alliance unto you. Hovvever, Sir, if you shall be plea­sed in Courtesy to account me your Kinsman, I vvill endea­vour that (as it vvill be an Honour to me) it may be to you no Disgrace.

1. QUestionlesse we shall not be accounted Trespassers,501 though onely Ecclesiasticall Businesse be our right Road, to go a little in the By-way of State-mat­ters, because leading the shortest Passage for the present to our Church-story.The most mi­serable estate of the British Common­wealth. Most miserable at this time was the British Common-wealth, crouded up into barren Corners, whil'st their Enemies, the Pagan Saxons, possest the East and South; if not the greatest, the best part of the Island. Much ado had Vter Pen-dragon, the British King, with all the sinews of his Care and Cou­rage, to keep his disjoynted Kingdome together: whose onely desire was to prolong the Life, it being above his hopes to procure the Health of that languishing State. And though sometimes the Britans got the better, yet one may say, their Victories were spent before they were gain'd; being so farre behind-hand before, that their Conquest made no Shew, swal­lowed up in the discharging of old Arrearages. Needs then must Religion now in Britain be in a dolefull condition; For he who expects a flourishing Church in a fading Common-wealth, let him try whether one side of his Face can smile, when the other is pinched.

2. Pen-dragon dying,508 left the British Kingdome to Arthur his Son,King Arthur's actions much discredited by Monkish fictions. so famous in History, that he is counted one of the Nine VVorthies: and it is more then comes to the Proportion of Britain, that amongst but Nine in the whole World, Two should prove Natives of this Island, Constantine and Arthur. This later was the British Hector, who could not defend that Troy, which was designed to destruction: and it soundeth much to his Honour, that perceiving his Countrey condemned by Gods Justice to Ruine, he could procure a Re­prieve, though not prevail for the Pardon thereof. More unhappy was he af­ter his Death, Hyperbolicall Monks so advancing his Victories, above all reach of Belief, that the twelve pitch't Battels of Arthur, wherein he conquered the Pagan Saxons, find no more credit then the twelve Labours of Hercules. Belike the Monks hoped to passe their Lies for current, because countenan­ced with the mixture of some Truths; whereas the contrary came to passe, and the very Truths which they have written of him are discredited, be­cause found in company with so many Lies. Insomuch that learned Leland is [Page 40] put to it, to make a Book for the asserting of Arthur. Many are unsetled about him,Anno Dom. 508 because Gildas his Country-man (living much about his Age) makes no mention of him: though such may be something satisfied, if consi­dering, the principall Intent of that Querulous Authour is not to praise, but to reprove, not greatly to grace, but justly to shame his Country; his Book being a bare Black Bill of the Sins and Sufferings, Monsters and Tyrants of Britain, keeping no Catalogue of the VVorthies of this Island; so that neither Lucius, Constantine, nor Arthur are once named by him. But the best evidence that once Arthur lived in Britain is, because it is certain he died in Britain, as appeared undeniably by his Corps, Coffin and Epitaph, taken up out of his Monument in Glassenbury, in the reign of King Henry the second, whereof Giraldus Cambrensis an eye-wit­nesse. Camden's Brit. in Somer­setshire. Caer-lion a principall Staple of Learning & Religion. many Persons of Quality were eye-witnesses.

3. The entire Body of the British Church at this time was in VVales, where Banchor on the North, and Caer-lion (on Vsk, in Monmouthshire) on the South, were the two Eyes thereof, for Learning and Religion. The later had in it the Court of King Arthur, the See of an Arch-Bishop, a Colledge ofThomas James out of Alexander Elsebiensis. 200 Philosophers, who therein studied Astronomie, and was a Populous place, of great extent. But Cities, as well as their Builders, are mortall: it is reduced at this day to a small Village. But as Aged Parents content and comfort themselves in beholding their Children, wherein their Memories will be continued after their Death; so Caer-lion is not a little delighted to see herself still survive in her DaughterCamden's Brit. in Mon­mouthshire. Newport, a neighbouring Town raised out of the Ruines of her Mother. Whil'st the other stood in Prime, there was scarce an Eminent man, who did not touch here for his Education; whom we will reckon in order, the rather, because all the Church-History of this Age seems confined to some principall Persons. Dubritius afore-mentio­ned was the Father and Founder of them all, late Bishop of Landaffe, now Arch-Bishop of Caer-lion, a great Champion of the Truth against Pelagius; and he had the honour here to crown two Kings, Vter and Arthur. Being very old,516 he resigned his Arch-bishoprick to David, his Scholar; and that he might be more able and active to wrastle with Death, he stript himself out of all worldly employment, and became an Anchoret, in the Island ofFra. God­win in Episc. Menevensibus pag. 600. Bard­sey. Six hundred yeares after, (namely May the 20, 1120) his Bones were translated to Landaffe, and by Vrban, Bishop thereof, buried in the Church, towards the North side thereof.

4. David, S. David an advancer of Monastick life. the next Arch-Bishop, of Royall Extraction, was Uncle to King Arthur. He privately studied the Scriptures 10 years, before he would presume to preach,519 and alwayes carried the Gospels about him. He kept a Synod against the Pelagian Errour (a second Edition whereof was set forth in his time) and confirmed many wavering Souls in the Faith. By leave obtained from King Arthur, he removed the Archiepiscopall Seat from Caer-lion to Menevea, now called St. Davids, in Pembrokeshire. In which exchange his Devotion is rather to be admired, then his Discretion to be commended; leaving a Fruitfull Soile, for a bleach BarrenGiraldus Cambrensis. place; though the worse it was, the better for his purpose, being a great promo­ter of a Monasticall life. And though the place was much exposed to the Rapine ofCamden's Brit. in Pem­brokeshire. Pirats, yet this Holy man laid up his heavenly Treasure, where Thieves do not break through, nor steal.

5. Yet I am sensible that I have spent, to my shame, so much precious time in reading the Legend of his Life,One para­mount mi­racle of S. Da­vid. that I will not wilfully double my guiltinesse in writing the same, and tempt the Reader to offend in like na­ture. ThisFlowers of the English Saints, p. 222. Miracle I cannot omit. David one day was preaching in an open Field to the Multitude, and could not be well seen because of the Concourse; (though they make him fourBalaeus Cent. prima Nu. 55. Cubits high, a man and half in Stature;) when behold the Earth, whereon he stood, officiously heaving it self up, mounted him to a competent Visibility above all his Audience. Where­as [Page 41] as ourMatth. 5. 1. Saviour himself,Anno Dom. 519. when he taught the people, was pleased to chuse a Mountain, making use of the advantage of Nature, without improving his Miraculous Power. He died aged 146 yeares, on the first of March, still celebrated by the Welsh withSeveral rea­sons hereof as­signed by Au­thours. wearing of a Leek; perchance to perpetuate the memory of his Abstinence, whose contented mind made many a savoury Meal on such Roots of the Earth.

6. A wonder it is to see how many Methusalahs (extreme Aged men) these times did produce.Reasons why men in this Age lived so long. St. Patrick See Balaeus in their general lives. died aged 122 Sampson aged 120. David 146. Gildas Badonicus 90, &c. Some Reason whereof may be alleaged, because living. Retired in a Contemplative way, they did not bruise their Bodies, with embroiling them in Worldly Affairs: or it may be ascribed to their Temperate Diet, whil'st many of our Age spill their Radicall Moisture through the Leaks of their own Luxury. Nor is it absurd to say, that God made these great Tapers of a more firm and compacted Wax then ordinary, that so they might last the longer in burning to give Light to his Church, and bestowed on them an especiall strong naturall Constitu­tion.

7. About the same time (Accurateness in computing years is not to be expected;The discreet devotion of Cadocus. for never were more Doublings and Redoublings made by a hunted Hare, then there are Intricacies in the Chronology of this Age, going backward and forward;) flourished Cadocus Abbot of Llancarvan in Glamorganshire, Son of the Prince and Toparch of that Countrey. This godly and learned man so renounced the World, that heIoan. Tin­muthensis in ejus vitae. reteined part of his paternall Principality in his possession, whereby he daily fed three hundred of Clergy-men, Widows, and Poor people, besides Guests and Vistants daily resorting to him. He is equally commended for his Policy, in keeping the Root (the Right of his Estate) in his own hands; and for his Piety, in bestowing the Fruit (the Profits thereof) in the relieving of others. It seems, in that Age wilfull Poverty was not by vow entail'd on Monasticall life. Nor did this Cadocus (as Regulars in after-times) with open hands scatter away his whole Means, so foolishly to grasp his First full of Popular Applause. He is said afterwards to have died at Beneventium in Italy.

8. Iltutus comes next into play,Iltutus abu­sed with Monkish for­geries. a zealous man, and deep Scholar; who not far from Cadocus, at Llan-lwit in Glamorganshire (contractedly for Llan-iltut) preached Gods Word, and set up a Colledge of Scholars, be­ing himself a great observer of a Single Life. It is reported of him, that when his Wife repaired to him for due Benevolence, or some ghostly Counsell, heBalaeus de Script. Britan. centur. prima. put out her Eyes, out of Anger, for interrupting him in his constant course of Chastity. But surely some blind Monk, having one of his Eyes put out with Ignorance, and the other with Superstition, was the first founder of this Fable. Thus godly Saints in that Age were made Martyrs after their Death; persecuted (though in their Commenda­tion) with impudent and improbable Lies. It is reported also of the same Iltutus, that he turnedIdem ut prius. Men into Stones. Had it been Stones into Men, (converting stupid Souls into Christians, by his Preaching) it had been capable of an Allegoricall Construction: whereas, as now told, it is a Lie in the literall, and Non-sense in the mysticall meaning thereof.

9. Sampson succeeds,521 Scholar to Iltutus, Sampson Archbishop of Dole. made by Dubritius Bishop at large,Armach de Brit. Ec. prim. pag. 1130. sine titulo. It seems in that Age, all Bishops were not fixed to the Chair of a peculiar Church, but some might sit down in any Vacant place for their Cathedrall, and there exercise their Episcopall Authority; provided it were without Prejudice to other Bishops. Afterwards this Sampson was made Arch-Bishop of Dole in French Britain; and in those dayes, such was the Correspondency betwixt this Greater, and that Lesser Britain, that they seemed to possesse Learned men in common betwixt them. Scarce am I re­conciled [Page 42] to this Sampson, Anno Dom. 521 forBalaeus de Script. Britan. in Sampson. carrying away with him the Monuments of British Antiquity. Had he put them out to the Bank, by procuring severall Copies to be transcribed, Learning thereby had been a Gainer; and a Saver, had he onely secured the Originals; whereas now her Losse is irrecoverable: Principall and Interest, Authenticks and Transcripts, are all imbezzelled: Nor is the matter much, whether they had miscarryed at home, by Foes Violence, or abroad, by such Friends Negligence.

10. It were a Sin to omit St. Patern, Paternus a Pa­tern for all Bishops. for three and twenty yeares a con­stant Preacher at Llan-Patern in Cardiganshire. 540 His fatherlike Care over his Flock passeth with peculiar Commendation; that he Camden's Brit. in Cardi­ganshire. govern'd his people by feeding them, and fed his people by governing them. Some yeares after the Place continued an Episcopall See, and was extinguished upon Occasion of the Peoples barbarously murdering of their Bishop.

11. St. Petrock comes in for his share,Petrock the Captain of Cornish Saints. (from whom Petrock-stow, 548 con­tracted Padstow, in Cornwall is denominated.) One of great Piety and Pain­fulness in that Age. Afterward he is said to have gone to the East-Indies, (all far Countreys are East-Indies, to ignorant people:) and at his return to be burried at Bodman in Cornwall. That County is the Cornu-copia of Saints, (most of Irish extraction) and the names of their Towns and Villages, the best Nomenclator of the Devoutmen of this Age. If the people of that Pro­vince have as much Holinesse in their Hearts, as the Parishes therein carry Sanctity in their Names, Cornwall may passe for another Holy Land in pub­lick reputation.

12. Next St. Petrock comes St. Teliau; The piety of S. Telian. for it is pity to part two such inti­mate Friends.550 He was called, by allusion to his Name,Harp [...]field his Ecc. Ang. pag. 41. c. 27. Helios, which in Greek signifieth the Sun, because of the Lustre of his Life and Learning. But the Vulgar sort, who count it no fault to miscall their Betters, if they have hard Names, called him Eliud, (one of thatMath. 1. 14 name was one of our Saviours Ancestors:) turning the Greek into an Hebrew word, and understanding both alike. He was Scholar to Dubritius, and succeeded him in the Bishop­rick of Landaffe. A pious man, constant Preacher, andBalaeus centuria prim. num. 58. zealous reprover of the reigning Sins of that time. This is all the certain truth extant of him; which some Monks counting too little, have with their fabulous breath In the book of his life ex­tant in the Church of Landaffe. blown up the Story of his Life to such a Bigness, that the Credit thereof breaks with it's own Improbability. Witnesse his Journey to Ierusalem, full of strange Miracles, where he had a Cymball given him, excelling the sound of an Organ, and ringing every hour of it's own accord. No doubt a Loud one. Loaden with Merits, saith theFlowers of the Saints. pag. 151. Author, (I had thought nothing but Sin could burthen a Saint:) he departed this Life, having his Memory con­tinued in many Churches of South-VVales, dedicated to him; and is remem­bred in the Roman Kalender on the ninth of February.

13. I had almost forgotten Congel, Several other Worthies of the same Age. Abbot of Bangor, who much altered the Discipline of that Monastery;580 Kentigern the famous Bishop of Ellwye in North VVales; St. Asaph his Successour in the same place. In whose mouth this Sentence was frequent,Godwin in his Catal. of Bishops of St. Asaph. Such, who are against the preaching of God's VVord, envy the Salvation of Mankind. As for Gildas, surnamed the VVise, their Contemporary, wereserve hisVide our Li­brar. of British Histor. num. 1. Character for our Library of British Hi­storians. Many other worthy men flourished at the same time; and a Na­tionall Church being a large Room, it is hard to count all the Candles God lighted therein.

14. Most of these men seem born under a Travelling Planet; Pastours in this Age why in constant motion. seldome having their Education in the place of their Nativity: oft-times composed of Irish Infancy, British Breeding, and French Preferment; taking a Coule in one Countrey, a Crosier in another, and a Grave in a third; neither bred where born, nor beneficed where bred, nor buried where beneficed; but wandring in severall Kingdomes. Nor is this to be imputed to any [Page 43] humour of Inconstancy (the running Gout of the Soul) or any affected Un­setlednesse in them;Anno Dom. 580 but proceeding from other weighty Considerations. First, to procure their Safety. For in time of Persecution, the surest place to shift in, is constant shifting of Places: not staying any where so long, as to give mens Malice a steady aime to level at them. Secondly, to gain Experience in those things, which grew not all in the same Soile. Lastly, that the Gospell thereby might be further, and faster propagated. When there be many Guests and little Meat, the same Dish must go clean through the Board; and divine Providence ordered it, that in the Scarcity of Prea­chers, one Eminent man, travelling far, should successively feed many Countries.

15. To most of these Authours many written Volumes are assigned,Books falsly fathered on British wri­ters. the Titles and Beginnings whereof you may find in our Country-men Bale and Pits, who will perswade you that they have seen and perused some of them. This they do partly to enhaunce the merit of their Industry, in finding out so many Rarities; and partly to commend to the world the latitude of their own Reading. I shall as soon believe that they have seen all Solomon's Vo­lumes, which he wrote from the Cedar of Libanus, to the Hyssope that grow­eth on the VVall. But this Humour possesseth many men, that brag of many Books, coming under their Discovery: as if not onely with the Mice, they had crept through the Crannies of all Libraries; but also with the Mothes, had got betwixt the Leaves of all Treatises therein. In plain truth, as it is probable that those British Prelates wrote many Books of conse­quence; so it is certain that long since by Time they have been abolished. As for those spurious Tracts, which Monks in after-Ages set out under these Worthy mens names, they are no more to be accounted the true Off-spring of these learned Saints, then that common Manna, ordinarily sold in Apothecaries Shops, is the self-same with that Angels Food, which fell down from Heaven, and feasted the Israelites.



THE SECOND BOOK From the Conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, until the (commonly called) Conquest of the Normans.

[printer's or publisher's device]

To the right Honourable HENRY LORD MARQUES OF DORCHESTER, EARLE OF KINGSTON, Viscount Newark, Lord Peirrepont, &c.

HOw low Learning ran in our Land a­mongst the Native Nobility some two hundred yeares since, in the Reign of King Henry the sixth, too plainly ap­peareth by the Motto in the Sword of the Mar­tiall Earle of Shrewsbury, (where at the same time one may Smile at the Simplicity, and Sigh at the [Page 48] Barbarisme thereof;) SUM TALBOTI, PRO OC­CIDERE INIMICOS MEOS. The best Latin that Lord (and perchance his Chaplains too, in that Age) could afford.

But in the next Generation we may observe the Rise of Learning in Noble Families. I behold John Tiptoft Earle of Worcester (bred in Bailioll Colledge) as the first English Person of Honour that graced Learning with the Study thereof, in the dayes of King Edward the fourth, both at Home and in For­reign Vniversities. He made so1. Bale de Scrip [...]. Angl. Eloquent an Oration in the Vatican, in the presence of Pope Pius the se­cond, (one of the least Bad, and most Learned of any of his Order) that his Holiness was divided be­twixt Weeping and VVondering thereat.

This Earle may be said to have left John Bour­chier, Baron of Berners and Governour of Callis, the Heir to his Learning; as who wroteIdem & Pitz de Scrip. Anglic. many Treatises, and made Excursions into Variety of Studies, in the dayes of King Henry the seventh.

This Learned Baron had severall Successours under King Henry the eighth, at the same time, to his Parts and Liberall Studies.

1. Henry Lord Stafford, Son to the last Duke of Buckingham of that Name.

2. William Lord Montjoy, a great Patron to Eras­mus, and well skilled in Chymistry and Ma­thematicks.

[Page 49] 3. Henry Howard, Earle of Surrey, (though last in Time, not least in Merit) the first reviver of English Poetry: so that he may seem in some sort to wave his Coronet, to wear the Laurell.

Since whose time to our dayes Learning hath ever had a visible succession in our Nobility. Amongst whom your Honour, as Captain of the Highest Form, is most illustrious.

Indeed, your Lordship is a reall Refutation of that Scandalous Position which some maintain, That such who are generally seen in all Arts, cannot be eminently skilfull in any one. A Position no better then a Libell on Learning, invented and vented either by the Idle, who would not themselves Study; or by the Envious, who desire to discourage the Endeavours of others.

VVhereas there is such a Sympathy betwixt several Sciences (as also betwixt the learned Languages) that (as in a Regular Fortification one Piece strengtheneth ano­ther) a resultive Firmeness ariseth from their Compli­cation, reflecting Life and Lustre one on another. Arts may be said to be Arched together: and all Lear­ned Faculties have such a Mutual Reciprocation. Thus one is the better Canonist, for being a good Civilian, and a better Common-Lawyer, for being both of them. And hereof your Honour is an Experimentall Proof, whose Knowledge is spread so broad, yet lieth so thick in all Li­berall Sciences.

VVhat remaineth, but that I crave leave humbly to mind your Lordship of that allusive Motto to your [Page 50] Name, PIE REPONE TE; that your Honour re­posing yourself piously in this life, may in a good Old Age be gloriously translated into another? The desire of

Your Lordships Most Bounden Oratour, THOMAS FULLER.


1. IT is wonderfull to see how the Fruits of great Events are vertually comprised in the small Seed of their Causes,585 and how a Contemptible Accident may give the Occa­sion of most Considerable Effects;The first oc­casion of the Saxons con­version to Christianity. as may appeare by the Conversion of the Saxons to Christianity. For it happened that certain Saxon Children were to be sold for Slaves, at the Market-place at Rome; when Divine Providence, the great Clock-keeper of Time, ordering not onely Houres, but evenLuke 2. 38. Instants, to his own Honour, so disposed it, that Gregory, afterwards first Bishop of Rome of that Name, was present to behold them. It grieved the Good man to see the Disproportion betwixt the Faces and Fortunes, the Complexions and Conditions of those Children, condemned to a Servile Estate, though carrying Liberall Looks, so legible was Ingenuity in their Faces. It added more to his Sorrow, when he con­ceived that those Youths were twice Vassalls, bought by their Masters, and Rom. 7. 14. sold under Sin; Servants in their Bodies, and Slaves in their Souls to Sa­tan: which occasioned theBede Hist. ecclesiast. l. 2. cap. 1. Good man to enter into further enquiry with the Merchants (which set them to Sale) what they were, and whence they came, according to this ensuing Dialogue.


Whence come these Captives?


From the Isle of Britain.


Are those Islanders Christians?


O no: they are Pagans.


It is sad that the Authour of Darknesse should possesse men with so bright Faces. But what is the name of their particular Nation?


They are called Angli.


And well may, for their Angel-like Faces: it becometh such to be Coheires with the Angels in Heaven. In what Province of Eng­land did they live?


InVVhich at this day is the Bishoprick of Deirham, or Durham. Deira.

[Page 52]

They are to be freed de Dei ira, Anno. Dom. 585 from the Anger of God. How call ye the King of that Country?




Surely Hallelujah ought to be sung in his Kingdome to the Praise of that God who created all things.

Thus Gregorie's gracious Heart set the Sound of every word to the Tune of spiri­tuall Goodnesse. Nor can his words be justly censured for Levity, if we con­sider how in that Age, the Elegancy of Poetry consisted in Rhythme, and the Eloquence of Prose in Allusions. And, which was the main, where his Pleasant Conceits did end, there his Pious Endeavours began; which did not terminate in a Verball Jest, but produce Reall Effects, which en­sued hereupon.

2. For repairing to Pelagius Bishop of Rome, Gregory would con­vert England in his person, but doth it by his proxy. he imparted his Disco­veries unto him,586 desiring that some might be sent to endeavour the Conver­sion of the English Nation, tendering his Personall Service thereunto. But Pelagius was unwilling to expose Gregory to so dangerous a Design, and the People of Rome accounting him a precious Jewell, to be choicely kept for his own wearing, would not cast this Pearle before Swine, by hazarding him to the Insolency of the Pagans. Now Pelagius not long after being called into another VVorld, Gregory succeeded in his place; who rising to new Great­nesse, did not fall from his old Goodnesse, but prosecuting his Project with more Earnestnesse, sent Augustine the Monk, with Mellitus, and Fourty more, to preach the Gospell in Britain. He himself tarrying behind in Body, went with them in his1 Corinth. 5. 3 Spirit, accompanying them with his effectuall Pray­ers: and none will deny, but thatExod. 17. 11. Moses in the Mount contributed as much to the conquering of Amalek, as Ioshua in the Valley.

3. These men had not gone far,Augustine and his fel­lows shrink for fear. when they were surprised with a Qualm of Feare, and sending Augustine back again to Gregory, requested to be excused from going to so Barbarous a Nation, not as yet converted to Civi­lity, whose Language they did not understand. Here some will be ready to deride them for Cowards; who more seriously considering with how many Excuses Moses, Exod. ch. 3. and 4. being sent by God himself, declined the going to Pharaoh, and how lothIor. 1. 6. Ieremy was to preach to his Countrey-men, the stiffe­necked Iews, will presently change their Censuring into Commiserating the Frailty of Flesh, and common Condition of Mankind. But those make short Miles, who looking through a Window, travell a Dayes-journey in an instant; whil'st Wayfaring men must honestly pay for every Step, and dearly earn it with their Industry. It is facile for men in their pleasing Specula­tions to project the Conversion of a Kingdome, and with themselves to dis­course a Heathen Nation into Christianity; whil'st those must encounter many Difficulties, who really go about to perform it. Gregory perceiving them to tire in their Undertakings, spurr'd them on with his Exhortatory Letter; the Copy whereof is here inserted, to acquaint us with the Stile of the Bishops of Rome in that Age.

Bede's Hi­story of the Church of England, 1 Book, 23. Chap. transla­ted by Staple­ton. GRegory, the Servant of the Servants of God, &c. For so­much as better it were never to begin a Good Work, then after it is once begun, to go from it again; you must needs (my dear Sons) now fulfill the Good VVork, which by the help of God you have taken in hand. Let therefore neither the Travell of the Iourney, neither the Talk of evill-tongued Men dismay you. But with all Force and Fervour make up that you have by the motion of God begun; assuring your selves, that after your great Labour, eter­nall Reward shall follow. Be you in all points obedient unto Augu­stine, whom I have sent back unto you, and appointed him to be your [Page 53] Abbot; Anno Dom. 586 knowing that shall much profit your Souls, which you shall do upon Obedience to his Commandment. Our Almighty Lord defend you with his Grace, and grant me to see the Fruit of your Labours in his Kingdome of Heaven. And though I cannot Labour my self with you, yet I may enjoy part of your Reward, for that I have a Will to labour. God keep you healthy, my dearly beloved Children.

Dated the 23. of July, our Lord MAURICIUS TIBERIUS reigning, our most Vertuous Emperour, in the 14. year of his Empire, the 13. year after his Consulship, Indictione 14.

As yet we see the Chaplain had not lorded it over his Patron; as yet the Popes Crown was not built three stories high, but observed a Distance of Submission towards the Emperour, as appeares by his respectfull Expres­sions. Yea, this Bishop measured the time by the yeares of the Emperours Reign, whose Successours have learn't a new Arithmetick, in their mo­dern dates of Charters, onely reckoning by the yeares of their own Con­secration, without relating to any Imperiall Account. Gregory (by the way) was the first, which in Humility used the Stile of Servus Servorum Dei. But as in the Method of Nature, a Low Valley is immediately seconded with an Ambitious Hill: so after this Humble Gregory, (a submissive Soul) within two yeares followed Boniface the third, in whom was the Pitch of Pride, and Height of aspiring Haughtinesse, to be term'd the Vniversall Bishop of the World.

4. Besides the aforesaid Letter,Augustine troubled with mock­ing Michals in his Passage through France. Gregory wrote many others,Gregor. lib. 5. Epist. 58 one to Theo­dorick and Theodebert, Kings of France, and severall Epistles to sundry French Bishops, to accommodate and assist Augustine and his Companions in so pious a Design. And, which must not be forgotten, with them he sent overIdem lib. 5. Epist. 10. Candidus, a Priest, into France, to receive the Profits and long-de­tained Arreres of the PopesIdem lib. 5. Epist. 57. Patrimoniolum, as he terms it, (the Diminutive is well increased at this time) and with the Mony to buy Cloaths for the Poore, and also to buy English-Pagan-captive Youths in France of 17 or 18 yeare old, that they might be brought up in Christianity in Monasteries; so at once bestowing both Liberty, Religion, and Learning upon them. A Transcendent degree of Charity; an Almes worthy Gregorie's hands to give it. And now Augustine with his Partners well encouraged, effe­ctually prosecute their Project, passing quietly through France, save onely at the Village of Saye in Anjou, where some gigling Huswives, (Light Leaves will be wagg'd with Little Wind) causelesly fell a flouting at them. But in after-Ages, the People of the same Place, to repaire this Wrong, erected a Masculine Church (Women being interdicted the Entrance thereof) to the Memory of St. Augustine; and how soundly one Woman smarted for her Presumption herein, take it on the trust ofAlexander Elsebiensis in his Annall of Saints, and Iohn Cap­grave. my Authour.

Plebs parat Ecclesiam mulieribus haud reserandam:
Introitum tent at una, sed illa perit.
They build a Church where Women may not enter:
One try'd, but lost her life for her adventure.

Yet Augustine himself found courteous Usage from the Weaker Sex: wit­nesse the kind Carriage of Brunichilda, the Queen of France, unto him, (for which Gregory in anLib. 7. Ep. 5. Epistle, returned her solemn Thanks,) and Bertha the King of France his Daughter, Wife to Ethelbert King of Kent.

5. Augustine safely wasted over the Sea,596 lands with the rest at Thanet in Kent, taking, as it seems, deep Footing, if it be true what oneFlores Sanctorum Maii 26. in the life of S. Augustine pag. 499. Augustine for all his Power of working Miracles, needs inter­preters to preach to the English. writes, that the Print of his Steps where he first landed left as perfect a Mark in a main Rock, as if it had been in Wax; and the Romanists will cry shame on our [Page 54] Hard Hearts,Anno Dom. 596 if our obdurate Belief, more stubborn then the Stone, will not as pliably receive the Impression of this Miracle. But it is worthy our consideration, that though Augustine all his way might be track'd by the Wonders he left behind him (when Thirsty miraculously fetchingIdem p. 498. a Foun­tain, when Cold a Fire, restoring the Blind and Lame to their Eyes and Limbs) yet for all this he was fain to bring Interpreters out of France with him, by whose help he might understand the English, and be understood by them. Whereas in Holy Writ, when the Apostles (and Papists commonly call Augustine the English Apostle, how properly we shall see hereafter) went to a Forreign Nation, God gave them the Language thereof, least other­wise their Preaching should have the Vigour thereof abated, taken at the second Hand, or rather at the second Mouth, as Augustine's was; who used an Interpreter (not asGen. 42. 23. Ioseph to his brethren, out of State and Policie, but) out of mere Necessity. This, I say, well thought on, will make our Belief to demurre to the Truth of his so frequent Miracles, being so Redundant in working them on Triviall Occasions, and so Defective in a matter of most Moment. But leaving him and his for a time safely landed and lodged, that our Gratitude to God may be the greater, for freeing the Saxons our Ancestours from the Bondage of Idolatry, let us behold with Horrour the huge Fetters of Errour and Ignorance, wherewith the Devil kept them in Durance, before the Gospell was preached unto them.

6. The SAXONS,The Rabble of Saxon Idols. like the rest of the Germans, whil'st pure impure Pagans, worshipped many Idols, Barbarous in Name, some Monstrous, all Antick for Shape, and Abominable in the Rites and Ceremonies of their Adoration. Some averre that as the Germans (affecting an Autarchy, or Sole-sufficiency amongst themselves,) disdained Commerce in Customes, or Civile Government with the Romans; so they communicated not with them in their Religion. Yet others affirm that in after-Ages, the Dutch did enter Common with the Romish Superstition; at least-wise some Modern Authours have reduced the Saxon Idols (symbolizing with the Romans in Power and Properties) to some conformity with the Roman Deities. Now although, according to Gods command to theExod. 23. 13 Iews, their names shall not be heard out of our Mouth, by way of praising them, praying to them, or swearing by them: yet an Historicall mention of them here ensuing, is as free from Of­fence, as usefull for Information. Besides the SUN and MOON, the Saxons sacrificed to

NAME.SHAPE.OFFICE.Correspondent with
Verstegan's restitution of Decaied In­telligence, ch. 3 pag. 74.
Thor or Thur, abbreviated of Thunre, which we now write Thunder. Thurs­day named from him.
A Corpulent Statue reposed on a covered Bed, wearing a Crown of Gold, about which twelve Starres; a King­ly Sceptre in his right Hand.He governed the VVind & Clouds, causing Light­ning, Thunder, Tempest, Faire or Foul VVeather.The Roman IUPITER.
Woden, that is wood, fierce, or fu­rious, giving the Denomination to Wednesday, or Wodensday.Armed cap a pe, with a Military Coronet on his head.He was the God of Battel, by whose aid and furthe­rance they hoped to obtain Victory.
So Verste­gan, pag. 72. but Camden, Brit. pag. 135. makes him to be Mercury.
Friga or Frea, remembred on Friday.An Hermaphrodite, perchance because the reputed Patronesse of Generation, wherein both Sexes are joyned.The giver of Peace and Plenty, the causer of Love, Amity, and Increase.VENUS.
Seater, still re­maining on Satur­day.Of a lean Visage, long Haire, bare Head, hold­ing in one Hand a wheel, in the other a Paile of Flowers.Conceived to have a great In­fluence on the kindly Fruits of the Earth.SATURNE.
Tuyse, whence Tuesday took it's name.Covered with a Skin, Armes and Feet naked, with an ancient Aspect, and a Sceptre in his Hand.The Peculiar Tutelar God of the Duy [...]sh, whence they had their name.OOOOOOOOO
Ermensewl, that is, the Pillar or stay of the Poor.Pictured with a Ban­ner in one Hand with a Red Rose, in the other a pair of Ballance, on his Head a Cock, Breast a Beare, before him an Es­cocheon, &c.The Pretended bestower of VVit and Cunning in Bargains & Con­tracts.MERCURIE.
Heile.His stately Statue stood at Cern in Dorcetshire.The Preventer of Diseases, pre­server & restorer of Health.AESCULAPIUS.

Thus we see the whole Week bescattered with Saxon Idols, whose Pagan-Gods were the God-fathers of the Dayes, and gave them their Names. This some Zealot may behold as the Object of a necessary Reformation, de­siring to have the Dayes of the Week new dipt, and called after other Names. Though indeed this Supposed Scandall will not offend the wise, as beneath their Notice, and cannot offend the Ignorant, as above their Know­ledge. Wherefore none need so hastily to hurry to the Top of the Main Mast, thence to pluck down the Badge ofActs 28. 11. Castor and Pollux: but rather let them be carefull, steadily to steere their Shipto the Heaven, for which it is bound; and let us redeem the Time, for the Dayes are evill: not because in their Name they bear the Cognizance of the Pagan-Gods; but because swarming with the Sins of Prophane men, which all should labour to re­prove in others, and amend in themselves.

7. But it was not a Week or a Moneth,A recruit of their Idols. yea scarce a yeare of Dayes, which could severally containe the numerous Saxon Idols. Besides the fore-named, they hadSelden of Tithes, 10. ch. pag. 269. Neptune, to whom in their abominable Decima­tions, they sacrificed every tenth Captive, whom they had taken in War; so making that Sea-God to swim in Man's Bloud, per hujusmodi, non tam sacrificia purgati, quam sacrilegia polluti, saith an ancient ChristianSidonius Apollinaris, lib. 8, Epist. Authour. Secondly, Eoster or Goster, a Goddesse, which they worshipped in the Spring­time, wherein the Feast of Easter afterwards was celebrated, and so thence named, as Bede observeth. Thirdly, Flynt, so termed because set on a great Flint-stone, which, I dare boldly say, had more Sparks of Divine nature, then that Idol which thereon was erected. Lastly, Tacitus observeth, that [Page 56] the Saxons worshipped the Peculiar God Herthus, the self-same which in English we call the Earth, adoring that whereon they did daily trample.

8. Besides these,All these an­tiquated by Christianity. they had other Lesser Gods, of a Lower Form and Young­er House; as Helmsteed, Prono, Fridegast and Siwe: all which at this day (to use theI saiah 2. 20. Prophets Expression) are cast to the Moles and the Bats; fit Company for them, which have Eyes and see not, Blind to the blind, like all those which put Confidence in them. And as the true and reallExod. 7. 12. Serpent of Aaron, did swallow up and devour the seening Serpents, which Iannes and Iambres, the Aegyptian Inchanters, did make▪ so, long since in England, the Religion of the true God hath out-lived and out-lasted, con­suted and confounded all false and [...]eigned Deities. To conclude this Dis­course. I have heard of a man, who being Drunk, rode over a Narrow Bridge (the first and last that ever passed that Way, as which in likelyhood led him to imminent Death,) and next morning viewing how he had es­caped, he fell into a Swound, with acting over again the Danger of his Adventure in his bare Apprehension. So, should England (now, thanks be to God, grown sober and restored to her self) seriously recollect her sad Condition, when Posting in the Paths of Perdition, being intoxicated with the Cup of Idolatrie, she would fall into a Trance of Amazement, at the consideration of her desperate state, before Christianity recove­red her to her right Senses: the manner whereof we now come to re­late.

9. When Augustine the Monk (as is afore said) landed in Thanet, The chara­cter of King Ethelbert. Ethelbert was then King of Kent. One, who had very much of Good Nature in him; of a Wild Olive well civilized, and a Stock fit to be grafted upon. Yea, he was already, withActs 26. 28. King Agrippa (though not in the same sense) almost a Christian; because his other half,Bede Hist. Eccles. lib. 1. cap. 25. Queen Berhta, daughter to the King of France, was a Christian: to whom he permitted the free use of her Re­ligion, allowing her both Luidhard a Bishop, for her Chaplain, and an old Church in Canterbury (formerly dedicated by the Romans to St. Mar­tin) to exercise her Devotion therein. Besides, at this time, this Ethel­bert was in effect Monarch of England; whilest his Person had Residence chiefly in Kent, his Power had Influence even to Humber, all the rest of the Saxon Kings being Homagers unto him: which afterward much expe­dited the passage of the Gospel in England. Thus each officious Accident shall dutifully tender his Service to the advance of that Design, which God will have effected.

10. Then Augustine acquainted this Ethelbert with his Arrivall,Augustine's addresses, and Ethelbert's answer. inform­ing him by his Messengers, that he brought the best Tidings unto him, which would certainly procure eternall Happinesse in Heaven, and endless Reigning in Bliss with the true God, to such as should entertain them. Soon after Ethel­bert repaired into Thanet; to whom Augustine made his addresse [...], with a deal of [spiritual, carnall] Pompe; Beda, ut prists. having a Silver Cross carried before him for a Banner, the Image of our Saviour painted in a Table, and singing the Letanie in the way as they went. King Ethelbert de­sired all things betwixt them might be transacted in the open Aire, refusing to come under a Roof, for fear of Fascination. And indeed a Stranger (who had never seen the like before) beholding Augustine with such abun­dance of Trinkets about him, being formerly jealous, might hereby have his Suspicion encreased, that he went about some strange Machination. However, Ethelbert returned him a civil Answer; That their Promises were fair and good; but because new and uncertain, he could not pre­sently assent unto them, and leave the ancient Customes of the English, which had been for so long time observed. But because they were Strangers, [Page 57] coming from Far Countries, to communicate to him and his such things as they conceived were good and true; he would not forbid any Converts whom their Preaching could perswade to their Opinion, and also would provide them Necessaries for their comfortable Accommoda­tion.

11. Hence Augustine, 597 with his Followers,Ethelbert and others con­verted to the Christian Faith. advanced to Canterbury, to the aforesaid old Church of St. Martin's Here they lived so piously, prayed so fervently, fasted so frequently, preached so constantly, wrought Miracles so commonly, that many people of Inferiour Rank, and at last King Ethelbert himself was baptized, and embraced the Christian Religion. The same Ethelbert also ordered, that none should beBede Hist. Eccles. lib. 1. cap. 26. forced into Reli­gion, having understood, that Christs Service ought to be voluntary, and not compelled. And if his Courtiers had been as cautious, not to em­brace Religion for Fashion, as the King was carefull they should not receive it for Fear, there had not at that time been made so many Christians, for Conveniency (probably) rather, then for Conscience, who soon after re­turned again to Paganisme▪ However, as it is rendered a reason in the dayes of Hezekiah, why the Iews at so short warning, so unanimously kept the Passeover, God had prepared the People, for the thing was done suddenly: so, on the same account it came to passe, that in so little a time (besides temporary Believers) so many true and sincere Converts embraced the Christian Faith.

12. Then Augustine by his Letters informed Gregory of the Progresse,Gregorie's an­swer to Au­gustine's letters. and Proficiency of his Paines in England. Gregory returned him a dis­creet Answer, rejoycing with him, and advising of him, not to be puffed up by Pride, for the great Miracles wrought by him; but, timendo gau­dere, & gaudendo pertimescere. He minded him how, when the Disciples triumphed at theirLuke 10. 17 casting out of Devils, Christ more spirituallized their Joy, rather to rejoyce that their Names were written in Heaven. And indeed; as some eminent in Piety never attained this Honour (Iohn 10. 41. Iohn [Baptist] did no miracle:) so many, finally disavowed of God, as unknown unto him, shall plead for themselves (and truly no doubt)Matt. 7. 22. in thy Name have we cast out Devils. Yet, this Admonition of Gregory is with me (and ought to be with all unprejudiced persons) an Argument beyond exception, that (though no discrect man will believe Augustine's Miracles in the latitude of Monkish Relations) he is ignorantly and uncharitably peevish and mo­rose, who utterly denies some Miracles to have been really effected by him. About the sametime, St. Gregory sent from Rome Mellitus, Iustus, Paulinus, and Ruffinianus, to be Fellow-labourers with Augustine in the English Harvest.

13. Thus was Kent converted to Christianity.600 For such as account this a Conversion of all England, Conclusion of this Cen­tury. to make their words good, do make use of a long and strong Synecdoche, a Part for the Whole, farre more then Half of the Land lying some yeares after in the Darkness of Paganisme; which others afterward enlightned with the Beams of the Gospel. But, as he is esteemed the Architect, or Master-workman, not who builds up most of the Wall; but, who first designeth the Fabrick, and layeth the Foundation thereof: in the same respect, Augustine carrieth away the Credit of all that came after him, because the primitive Planter of the Gospel amongst the Saxons. And it is observeable that this Conver­sion was done without any Persecution (yea considerable Opposition;) costing some Pain, no Torture, some Sweat, no Bloud; not one Martyr being made in the whole managing thereof. Mean time, the poor Chri­stian Britans, living peaceably at home, there enjoyed God, the Gospell, and their Mountains; little skilfull in, and lesse caring for the Ceremonies al a mode, brought over by Augustine: and indeed their Poverty could [Page 58] not go to the Cost of Augustine's Silver Crosse, Anno Dom. 600 which made them wor­ship the God of their Fathers after their own homely, but hearty Fashion; not willing to disturb Augustine and his Followers in their new Rites, but that he had a mind to disquiet them in their old Service, as in the se­quele of the History will appeare.



SOcrates interrogatus, quo Philtro Natura Sympathias concilia­ret, quidve esset in causa, ut alii hominum primo occursu ament medullitus, alii sibi mutuò sint infensi; hanc rationem reddidit.

Deus, inquit, ab aeterno quicquid futurum esset animarum crea­vit; creatas, per immensum temporis spatium in uno cumulo collocavit; collocatas, corporibus, prout indies generantur, in­fundit. Hinc est, si contingat vel fortuitum consortium inter eos homines, quorum animae in hoc acervo propinquiores, quòd primo visu (quasi veteris vicinitatis memores) se invicem diligant; dum isti, primo intuitu, antipathiae stimulis urgeantur, quorum animae adversantes diametricè opponebantur.

Fateor commentum hoc Socraticum à Theologia abhorrere; & in Philosophia plurimis asystatis laborare. Quod si ei sub­esset tantum veritatis, quantum ingenii, sanct▪ ssimè voverem, in hoc animarum cumulo Tuam & Meam contiguas olim jacuisse; cum Te primum conspectum & animitus amarem, & à Te redamarer.

1. MUch about this time Pope Gregory sent two Arch-Bi­shops Palls into England; 601 the one forRog. Wendo­ver, Matth. Florileg. and Roff. Histor. London, Why the Arch-bishops See was re­moved from London to Canterbury. the other for York. The former of these Cities had been honoured with an Arch-bishop's See some hun­dred yeares since King Lucius. But at the instance of Augustine, and by a new Order of the foresaid Gregory, this Pall sent to London, was removed thence to Canterbury, (whereof Augustine was made Arch-Bishop) and there, for the future, fixed and confirmed for severall Reasons. First, London already had Lustre enough, be­ing the biggest City in Britain; and it was needlesse to adde new Spirituall to her old Temporall Greatnesse; which conjoyned, might cause Pride in any one place, whilest divided▪ they might give Honour to two Cities. Secondly, London, by reason of the Receit thereof, was likely to prove the residing place for the English Monarch; and it was probable that the Archiepiscopall Dignity would there be eclipst and out-shined by the Regall Diadem. Thirdly, had Augustine been Arch-Bishop of London, he might have seemed to succed the British Arch-Bishops, and to have derived some Right from them, con­trary [Page 60] to his Humour,Anno. Dom. 601 who would Lead All, but Follow None; and therefore would not wear an Old Title, but have a span-New Arch-Bishops Chaire carved out for himself. Lastly, Canterbury was the place, wherein Chri­stianity was first received by the Saxons, and therefore deserved to be ho­noured, to perpetuate the Memory thereof. Thus London hereafter must be contented with the plain Seat of a Bishop, the Mother being made a Daughter, and must come behind Canterbury, which did much wrong, and perchance something trouble her. But Churches have more Discretion and Humility, then to break their Hearts about earthly Precedency: and the matter is not much, which See went first, when living; seeing our Age hath laid them both alike levell in their Graves.

2. Augustine thus armed with Archiepiscopall Authority,Augustine summons a Synod of Saxon and British Bi­shops. to shew a Cast of his Office, by the Aid of Ethelbert King of Kent, called a Councill, for the Saxon and British Bishops to come together, in the Confines of the Wic­cians and West-Saxons. An indifferent Place, for mutuall Ease, in mid-way be­twixt both; haply presaging, that as their distant Persons met on equall termes, so their opposite Opinions might agree in some Moderation. The particular Place was called AUGUSTINES AKE (that is his Oak, in our modern Dialect) whichIn his Trans­lation of Bede, 2 Book, 2 Ch. Stapleton (mistaken by the affinity of Wiccii or Veccii, with Vectis, the Latine name for the Isle of Wight) seeketh near Southampton; where, indeed, he may find many Oaks in the New Forest, and yet misse the right one. For this Oak stood in the Confines ofCamden's Britannian in Worcester­shire. VVorcester and Herefordshire (though at this day Time hath confounded it Root and Branch) and therefore this Meeting is in Latine called Synodus Spelman in Concilus, Anno 601. pag. 107. Vigorniensis. Many solemn Entertainments, we know, were anciently made underGen. 18. 4. Trees: and a Palm-tree served Deborah for her VVestminster-Hall, wherein she judged Iudges 4. 5. Israel. But severall reasons are assigned, why Augustine kept this Council under an Oak. First, so publick a place was free from Exceptions; whereunto none were debarred Accesse. Secondly, being congregated under the view of Hea­ven, and not pent within the Walles of a private House, they were minded of clear, fair, and open Proceedings, without secret Ends, or sinister Intents. Thirdly, perchance some Pagan Saxons (allured with Novelty) would re­pair to the Council, whose Icalousy was such, as in no case they would come under a Roof, for fear ofThis reason is given by Sir Henry Spelman, ut prius. Fascination, as hath been formerly observed. Lastly, Augustine knowing that the Pagan Britans performed their Supersti­tions under anSee first Cen­tury 3. Parag. Oak, celebrated his Synod under the same, in some Imitation, and yet a Correction of their Idolatry: As in a religious Parallel, Pagan Tem­ples had formerly by him been converted into Churches of Saints. But when all is done, the matter is not so clear, but that the place called Augustine's Oak, may as well be a Town as a Tree, so called from some eminent Oak in, at, or near it: as the Vine in Hampshire, so named from Vines anciently growing there, is a beautifull House, and principall Seat, where the Barons Sandes have their Habitation. And, what is most apposite for our purpose, Sozo­men calleth the Place where Theophilus kept a Synod against St. Chrysostome, the Oak; which, notwithstanding, is notoriously known to have been a populous Suburb of the City of Chalcedon.

3. At the first Sessions of this Synod there was a very thin Appearance of the Britans: The British Clergy re­fuse submis­sion to the Pope of Rome. of whom Augustine demanded, that they should mutually con­tribute with him their Paines to convert the Heathen in Britain, and that they should submit to the Pope, and embrace an Uniformity with the Romish Rites, especially in the Celebration of Easter. What their Answer was, it is pitty it should be delivered in any other Words, then what the Abbot of Ranchor, be­ing the Mouth for the rest, represented, as followeth; and let it shift, as well as it can, for its own authenticalness.

[Page 61] BId ispis a diogel i, chwi ynbod ni holl vn ac arral, yn vuidd ac ynn ostingedig i Eglwys Duw, ac ir Paab o Ruvam, ac i Boob Kyar grisdic n dwyuel, y garu pawb yn i radd mewn ka­riad parfaich, ac ihelpio pawb o honaunt ar air a guec­thred i vod ynn blant yDaw, ac amgenach wyddod nc hwn nidadwen i vod ir neb yr yddeck chwi y henwi yn Paab ne in Daad o Daad, yw glemio ac ywo ovunn: ar uvyd­dod hivn idden in yn varod yw rodde ac yw dalu iddo ef ac i pob Krisdion yn drag­widdol. He uid yry dym ni dan lywodrath Esoob Kaer­llion ar Wysc, yr hien ysidd yn oligwr dan Duw ar nom ni, y wuenthud i ni gadwr fordd ysbrydol.

BE it knovvn and vvithout doubt unto you,Copied exactly many yeares since by Sr. Henry Spelman out of an ancient British manu­script of Mr. Peter Mostons a Welch Gentle­man; Spel­man's Concilia pag. 108. that vve all are, and every one of us, obedient and subjects to the Church of God, and to the Pope of Rome, and to every godly Christian, to love every one in his degree in perfect Charity, and to help every one of them, by vvord and deed to be the children of God: and other Obe­dience then this I do not knovv due to him vvhom you name to be Pope, nor to be the Father of Fa­thers, to be claimed and to be de­manded. And this Obedience vve are ready to give, and to pay to him, and to every Christian conti­nually. Besides, vve are under the government of the Bishop of Kaerlion upon Uske, vvho is to oversee under God over us, to cause us to keep the vvay spiri­tuall.

See we here the Pedigree of the British Church, which the shorter the ancien­ter, the fewer Steps it had, the higher it reached. They were subject in Spirituall matters to the Bishop of Caer-lion, and above him unto God, with­out any subordination unto the Pope: so that it was more then a Presump­tion, that Religion came into Britain, not by the Semicircle of Rome, but in a Direct Line from the Asiatick Churches. We must not forget, that though many yeares since, the Archiepiscopal See of the Britans was removed from Caer-lion to St. Davids; yet it still retained the Title of Caer-lion, as of the first and most famous place.

4. A late Papist much impugneth the Credit of this Manuscript (as made since the Dayes of King Henry the eighth) and cavilleth at the VVelsh there­of, The Cedit of this Manu­script impu­gneth. as modern, and full of false Spelling. He need not have used so much Violence to wrest it out of our Hands, who can part with it without con­siderable Losse to our selves, or Gain to our Adversaries; for it is but a Breviate or Abstract of those Passages, which in Bede and other Authours appear most true, of the British refusing Subjection to the See of Rome. Whilest therefore the Chapter is Canonicall, it matters not if the Contents be Apocrypha (as the Additions of some wel-meaning Scribe.) And though this VVelsh be far later then the Dayes of Abbot Dinoth, and the English (added in the ori­ginall) later then the VVelsh; yet the Latin, as ancienter then both, containeth nothing contrary to the sense of all Authours, which write this Intercourse betwixt Augustine and the VVelsh Nation.

5. But this Synod in fine proved ineffectuall,The Synod proves inef­factual. the British Bishops refusing to submit, and Augustine to communicate with them without such Sub­mission. Whereupon, at Augustine's motion, a Blind man was publick­ly [Page 62] presented amongst them: on whom the British Bishops practised in vain with their Prayers, to restore him to his Sight; which, at the Request of Au­gustine to God, wasBede's Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. c. 2. presently and perfectly performed. This Miracle con­vinced the Britans, that Augustine was in the right for the criticall Observa­tion of Easter. But yet, they could not absque suorum consensu ac licentia, without the National Consent of their own People, and principall Elders therein, renounce their ancient Customes, to embrace new Practices. In­deed, as for their submitting to Augustine's Jurisdiction, they apprehended it unsafe for the present, and mischievous for the future; having another Civil Government under Kings of their own, and suspecting his Spirituall Power might in processe of time intrench upon their Temporall Liberty.

6. Departing hence,The Dialogue betwixt the British Bishops and the Anchoret the Britans repaired to an Aged Anchoret, chara­ctered by Beda to be sanctus & prudens, holy and wise (and none would wish his Counseller better qualified) and craved his Advise, how hereafter they should behave themselves in the next Synod, wherein they had pro­mised to give Augustine a meeting: which out of our Authour may thus be Dialogue-wise digested.

British Bishops. Anchoret.

Brit. B.

Are we bound to desert our Traditions at the Preaching of Augustine?


If he be a Man of God, follow him.

Brit. B.

But how shall we be able to make Triall thereof?


TheMatth. 11. 29. Lord saith, Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me, for I am meek, and lowly in heart. If therefore this Augustine be Milde, and Humble in heart, it is credible that he himself beareth the Yoke of Christ, and tendereth the same to be born of you: but if he be Cruel, and Proud, it appeareth that he is not of God, neither ought ye to heed what he saith.

Brit. B.

But how shall we make Discovery hereof?


Contrive it so, that he & his may come first into the Place of the Synod. And if he rise up when you draw near unto him, hear him then obe­diently, knowing him for a Servant of Christ: but if he slighteth you, and vouchsaseth not to rise up unto you (seeing you are moe in Number) let him be slighted by you.

Armed with these Instructions, the British Bishops advance to the second Synod. Where Augustine, Pontifically sitting in his Chair, at their En­trance, entertained them onely with Neglect and Contempt; which by the Britans was accordingly requited.

7. Herein that stately Prelate forgot St. Gregorie's Precept to him,Proud [...]io­trephes Au­gustine. Not See his an­swer to Augu­stine's third question. to proceed too rigorously in the Alteration of Ceremonies, but to allow a Latitude according to Time and Place. Oh, for a little in him of St. Paul's Temper, who was1 Cor. 9. 22. made all things to all men, that by all means he might gain some. Had Au­gustine's Joynts been suppled with the Oyl of Humility, one bended Knee might probably have bowed many Hearts unto him; whereas now he lost their Affections. Pride being an unwinning Quality, rendering the Proud party scorned by his Betters, hated by his Equals, feared (perchance) by his In­feriours, but loved by None. Had not he, who is said to have cured the Blind, need to have his own Eies opened herein? Who, though he be commonly called Augustine the lesse, in distinction from his Name-sake, Father St. Augustine of Hippo; yet may be allowed Augustine the great, if a Measure be taken from the Dimensions of his Pride and Haughtinesse.

8. We passe now from this Augustine's Pride,Augustine's Prophesie. to his Prophesie: who en­raged at the British Bishops, for denying Subjection unto him, flatly fell a menacing them; that, seeing they would not submit to his Motion, and [Page 63] joyn with him in Preaching to the Saxons, soon after they should feel the force of their Enemies Sword, and be suddenly confounded by those, whom they would not endeavour to convert. Which accordingly came to passe.

9. For not longafter,603 alias Ethelfride the Pagan King of Northumberland, The massacre of the Monks of Baugor. ha­ving conquered Chester, invaded VVales, and bade the Britans battel. A­mongst them was a Regiment of the Monks of Bangor, 605 all naked, and unar­med, save with Tears and P [...]ayers (whole Vollies whereof they discharged to Heaven for the good Successe of their Country-men) being all by them­selves upon an Advantage of Ground; and one Brockmaile a Britan (as Captain of their Life-guard) had a Company of Souldiers to defend them. Ethelfride being informed that these Monks prayed against him, concluded them to be his effectual Enemies, though otherwise offering him no Hostility; and fiercely falling on them, put twelve hundred of them to the Sword, fifty onely escaping: Brockmaile most basely deserting them, whom he was set to defend.

10. But here some Birds sing a different Note from the rest,Augustine suspected to be their mur­derer. which must be listened unto; namely, such Authours, considerable for their Number, Antiquity, Gravity, and Learning, who accuse this Augustine for the Designer of the Death and Destruction of these innocent British Monks: so that he cunningly foretold, what he himself cruelly intended to fulfill. Thus, well might Iezabel, whoRevel. 2. 20. calleth herself a Prophetesse, certainly foreshew the death of Naboth, for denying his Vine-yard to Ahab, when she had purposely be­fore-hand packed and plotted the same. An heavy Accusation if true, that Augustine (to use myMr. Abra­ham Whee­lock is his notes on Bede, pag. 115. Friend's Expression) Gregorii Vicarius, should be Gregis sicarius; & Ecclesiae futurae Anglicanae Conversor, should be praesentis Britannicae everfor; so that instead of a Prophets Reward, he deserved the Punish­ment of a Murderer. But to clear this point, conceive we a Grand-Jury of four and twenty judicious Readers empannelled, before whom the Memory of Augustine is indicted of Murder, and Witnesses produced on both Sides. Let none censure me, if in these Proceedings my Pen failes in legal Forma­lities, such Exactnesse not being by me intended, but onely some general Conformity with a Law-triall, to fix the History in our Fancies with more Pleasure and Delight.

11. The Bill first was solemnly read, Witnesses produced a­gainst him. running to this effect, That Augu­stine the Monk (commonly called the English Apostle) not having the Feare of God before his Eyes, out of fore-thought Malice, feloniously did plot, project, and contrive the Murther of twelve hundred Monks of Bangor, by soliciting Ethel­bert the Christian King of Kent, to move Ethelfride the Pagan King of Northum­berland, with force of Armes to kill and slay the Monks aforesaid, &c. An Ac­cusation so hainous, that at first it filled the whole Jury with Silence, Hor­rour, and Amazement; till afterwards they recollected themselves to attend unto the following Witnesses.

1. Ieffery Monmouth, whose Welsh Bloud was up, as concern'd in the Cause of his Country-men; Ethelbert King of Kent (said Manuscript. in pub. lib. Can­tab. pag. 167. he) when he saw the Britans disdaining to yield Subjection to Augustine, and that they scorned to be subject to himself, stirred up the Northumberlanders, and other Saxon Princes, that gathering a great Army against the City of Ban­gor, they should go forth to destroy the Abbot Dionoth, and the other Clergy, who had formerly slighted them.

2. Thomas Gray, an oldCited in Iewel's Apo­log. part 1. pag. 11. Chronicler (as it is written in French) brought in this Evidence, That Augustine being refused of the Christian Britans, enflamed Ethelbertus King of Kent to levy his Power, and to war against them, himself being also in company, (as in the old Abstract of Chro­nicles is recorded) and marching with him towards the Slaughter; Where they had no more regard of Mercy, then a Wolf hath upon a Sheep.

[Page 64] 3. Nicolus Trivet,Anno Dom. 603 a Dominican, who wrote some three hundred years since, Sir Henry Spelman's Councills, pag. 111. deposed, That Ethelbert King of Kent, being highly offended in­cited Ethelfride King of Northumberland, and other petty Saxon Kings, because they had contemned Augustine in the Council, &c.

4. Elsebiensis Monachus commenting on those words of Merlin, Delebitur iterum Religio, Religion shall again be destroyed, thus Manus [...]r. in Bennet Coll. Librar. Camb. expoundeth them; This was afterwards fulfilled, either by Gormund, or by Augustine, who caused twelve hundred Monks to be slain at Bangor in Wales, because they obeyed him not in a Councill.

These Testimonies much moved the Jury; who, notwithstanding, reserved their other Eare, as it became Honest men, to hearken to the Depostions in Augustine's behalf.

12. Amongst these, Testimonies in his behalf. that of Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 2. editione VVho­lochiana. Bede was most materiall: Sicque completum est praesagium sancti Pontificis Augustini [quamvis ipso jam multo antè tempore ad coelest▪ a regna sublato] ut etiam temporalis interitus ultionem sentirent perfidi, quòd oblata sibi perpetuae salutis consilia spreverant. Which words (for, it is sea­sonably remembred, all Pleas must now be in English) may thus be translated; And so the prophesy of holy Bishop Augustine was fulfilled [although himself long before that was taken out of this Life to the Kingdome of Heaven] that also the treacherous People might feel the Revenge of Temporal Ruine, because they had despised the Counsells of Eternall Salvation offered unto them.

13. Much Difference arose hereabouts:The Para­graph in Bede's testi­mony que­stioned. the rather, because some urged that Parenthesis (Although himself long before, &c.) to have been studious­ly interpolated in Bede, on purpose for the Purgation of Augustine, by some in after-Ages that favoured him; alledging, that it is not in the ancient Saxon Copies, being put in as a piece of new Cloth into an old Garment, with intent to fill it up, but in event making it worse; because this Passage checketh the Pen of Bede in the full Speed thereof (no lesse against the Rules of History, then of Horsemanship) as he was writing the Life of Augustine, the Story where­of notwithstanding still runs on, and continues untill the end of the next Chapter. Here some of the Jury betook themselves to the point of Chrono­logie, as most proper to decide the matter now depending; but such was the Variety of Authors, that no Certainty could thence be extracted. For, though the Massacre of the Monks of Bangor is generally noted to beMatt. West. Chichestr. MS. Bibl. pub. Canta­b [...]ig. Anno 603. which falls out before the Death of Augustine: yet the Annals of Vlster (whose Authority is not to be contemned)Iames U­sher Brit. Eccles Antiq. pag. 1157. Mr. Fox his moderation much moveth the Iury. observe the same in the year 613. which undoubtedly was after Augustine's Decease.

14. Then a second sort of Witnesses presented themselves, asAntiq. Bri­tan. pag. 48. M. Parker, Apol. part 1 page. 11. Bishop Iewel, and others, somewhat sharp against Augustine in their Expres­sions: which wrought the lesse with the Jury; partly, because of such Authours their known Opposition to the Romish Church; and partly, because of their Modern writing, almost a thousand years after the matter in fact. Onely the Moderate Testimony of Reverend Mr. Fox much moved the whole Court, as one throughly well-affected in Religion, and averse from all Popery and Cruelty, thus expressing himself:Acts and Monum. part 1. p. 154. col. 2. This seemeth rather suspicious then true, that Ethelbert being a Christian King, either could so much prevail with a Pa­gan Idolater, or else would attempt so far to commit such a cruel Deed: But of un­certain things I have nothing certainly to say, lesse to judge. This (I say) pre­vailed so far with the Iury, that consulting with themselves, they found an Ignoramus. With whose commendable Charity I concurre; preferring rather to clear a Twi-light Innocence into Noon-day, then to darken it into Midnight.

15. To return to the Monks of Bangor. Their innocent Bloud went not long unrevenged: for we findNicolas Tri­vet, largely cited by Sir Henry Spelman in his Councills, pag. 112. recorded,The bloud of Bangor Monks re­venged. how three British Princes, namely, Blederick Duke of Cornwall Margaduc Duke of South-VVales, and Cadwan Duke of North-VVales, bade Battel to the Northumberlanders, as they were invading [Page 65] VVales, and not onely dangerously wounded the aforesaid Ethelfride their King, but also discomfited his Army, and slew ten thousand and sixty of his Souldiers, forcing him at last to Articles of Composition; that he should con­fine himself within his own Country, North of Trent, and leave all VVales to be entirely and peaceably enjoyed by the Britans, the true Owners thereof.

16. However here, to our great Grief, we are fain to take our Farewell,Farewell ta­ken for some years of the British Church. for some hundreds of years, of the British Church, wanting Instructions concerning the Remarkable Particulars thereof. Yet Dr. Harpsfield deserves a Check, both for his falseEccles. Hist. Seculo 7. c. 39. pag. 114. Ground-work, and presumptuous. Inference built thereupon. For, first, he slighteth the British Nation, as such an one, as since this their Dissenting from Augustine, and the Romish Church in Ceremonies, never archieved any Actions of Renown, or mounted to any Eminency in the world. Then, he imputeth their being so long depressed, and at last subdued by the English, as a just Punishment of God, on their not Complying with Rome: so pragmaticall a Prier he is into Divine Secrets. But he who thus casteth forth a National Abuse, can never see where such a Stone lighteth; for (besides the Nation for the time being) their Posterity ingaged therein have just cause either to find, or make Reparation to themselves. I could, and would my self assert the British from this Scandalous Pen, were it not against the Rules of Manners and Discretion, to take this Office out of the hands of some of their own Nation, for whom it is more proper, as they are more able to perform it.

17. Onely give me leave to insert a Line or two (some Pleasant Discourse will not do amiss,Commenda­tion of the British lan­guage, after so much Sad matter) in Commendation of the British Tongue, and Vindication thereof, against such as causelesly traduce it. First, their Language is Native. It was one of those which departed from Babel: and herein it relates to God, as the more immediate Authour thereof; where­as most Tongues in Europe ow their Beginning to humane Depraving of some Original Language. Thus the Italian, Spanish, and French, Daughters, or Neeces to the Latine, are generated from the Corruption thereof. Secondly, Unmixed. For, though it hath some few Forrain Words, and useth them sometimes; yet she rather accepteth them out of State, then borroweth them out of Need, as having besides these, other Words of her own to express the same things. Yea, the Romans were so far from making the Britans to do, that they could not make them to speak as they would have them: their very Language never had a perfect Conquest in this Island. Thirdly, Unaltered. Other Tongues are daily disguised with forrain Words, so that in a Century of years, they grow Strangers to themselves: as now an English-man needs an Interpreter to understand Chaucer's English. But the British continues so constant to it self, that the Prophesies of old Teliessin (who lived above a thousand years since) are at this day intelligible in that Tongue. Lastly, Durable; which had it's Beginning at the Confusion of Tongues, and is likely not to have it's Ending till the Dissolution of the World.

18. Some indeed inveigh against it,Causelesly traduced by ignorance. as being hard to be pronounced, ha­ving a conflux of many Consonants, and some of them double-sounded; yea, whereas the Mouth is the place wherein the Office of Speech is generally kept, the British words must be uttered through the Throat. But this rather argues the Antiquity thereof, herein running parallel with the Hebrew (the common Tongue of the Old World, before it was inclosed into severall Languages) and hath much Affinity therewith, in joynting of words with Affixes, and many other Correspondencies. Some also cavil, that it grates and tortures the eares of Hearers with the Harshnesse thereof: whereas indeed it is unpleasant onely to such as are Ignorant of it. And thus every Tongue seems stammering, which is not understood; yea, Greek it self is Barbarisme to Bar­barians. Besides, what is nick-named Harshness therein, maketh it indeed more full, stately, and masculine. But such is the Epicurisme of Modern [Page 66] Times, to addulce all words to the Eare, that (as in the French) they melt out, in pronouncing, many essentiall Letters, taking out all the Bones, to make them bend the better in speaking: and such Hypocrites in their Words speak them not truly in their native Strength, as the plain-dealing British do, which pronounce every letter therein more manly, if lesse melodious. Lastly, some condemn it unjustly as a Worthlesse Tongue, because leading to no matter of moment; and, who will care to carry about that Key, which can unlock no Treasure? But this is false; that Tongue affording Monuments of Antiquity, some being left, though many be lost; and moe had been extant, but for want of Diligence in Seeking, and Carefulnesse in Preserving them.

19. But,Augustine bapitzeth 10000. in one day. craving pardon of the Reader for this Digression, we reassume our Augustine, who all this while was very industrious, and no lesse successefull in converting the Saxons to the Christian Faith. Insomuch that a certain Cited by Mr. Camden, Presace of Brit. pag. 136. Authour reporteth, how in the River Swale near Richmond in Yorkshire, Au­gustine on one day baptized above ten thousand; adding withall, that the People not onely passed without Danger through so deep a River, but also they who weresick, and deformed when they went in, were wholeFlores Sanctorum: tom. 1. wrote by Hie­rome Porter pag. 515. and hand­some when they came forth again. The judicious Reader may in this Mi­racle discover, how the Authour thereof (no doubt some ignorant Monk) hath therein jumbled and confounded three distinct Seripture-Histories, to make a mock-Parallel betwixt the Rivers Iordan and Swale;

  • Borrowing
    • 1. The Peoples safe pas­sing through it,
    • 2. Their being baptized in it,
    • 3. The curing of their Infirmities by it,
  • from
    • Ioshuas
      Ios. 4. 1.
      conducting the Israelites through
    • Iohn's
      Matth. 3. 6.
      baptizing the Iews in
    • Elisha's
      2 Kin. 5. 14.
      healing Naa­man's leprosie in
  • Iordan.

But here it must be remembred, that Bede maketh no mention at all hereof, and ascribeth this numerous Baptizing to Paulinus Arch-Bishop of York many years after. It would argue too much Morosity in us, to demurre in our saith to the whole Fact, till Authours are all agreed about the Doer thereof. For mine own part, I conceive Paulinus the more probable Person, as question­ing whether Augustine most conversant amongst the South and VVest-Sa­xons) ever moved so far Northward.

20. And,The simpli­city of an­cient Bap­tisme. if so many were baptized in one day, it appeares plainly, that in that Age, the Administration of that Sacrament was not loaded with those Superstitious Ceremonies, as essentiall thereunto, of Crossing, Spittle, Oyl, Cream, Salt, and such like Trinkets; which Protestants generally as little know what they are, as Papists why they use them. I say, in that Age nothing was used with Baptisme but Baptisme; the VVord and the VVater made the Sacrament. Yea, the Arch-Bishop is said to haveCamden ut prius. commanded by the voice of Cryers, that the People should enter the River confidently, two by two, and, in the name of the Trinity, baptize one another by turns. This, indeed, was the most compendious way; otherwise Ioshua's day, wherein the Sun stood still, had been too short for one mans personal performance of such an Employ­ment.

21. Another considerable Accession was made to Christianity in the South­West part of this Isle,The Idol Healedestroi­ed by Augu­stine at Cern. and particularly in Dorsetshire; where Augustine at Cern, destroyed the Idol of Heale, or Aisculapius, which the Saxons formerly Camden's Brit. in Dor­setshire. adored. But in his journey hither (Reader, they are not mine, but my Flores San­ctorum in the life of Augu­stine, P. 515, 516. Authours words) with his Holy Company, they were cruelly oppressed with the three familiar Discommodities of Travellers, Hunger, Thirst, and VVearinesse; when Augustine striking his Staffe into the Ground, fetch'd forth a crystal Foun­tain, which quenched the extremity of their Thirst: whence the Place was after­ward [Page 67] called Cernel, from Cerno in Latine, to see, and El in Hebrew, God. A Com­position of a Name hardly to be precedented, that a Word should commence per saltum, from Latine into Hebrew, without taking Greek by the way there­of. Why not rather Cernwell, Behold the fountain; or Cernheal, See the De­struction of the Idol? But in truth, in all Books ancient andSo both in Camden, and Harpsfield. modern, the Place is plainly written Cern, without any paragogical apposition there­unto.

22. Indeed,A ridiculous miracle. most of the Miracles assign'd unto this Augustine, intended with their Strangenesse to raise and heighten, with their Levity and Absur­dity do depresse and offend true Devotion. Witnesse, how when the Villa­gers in Dorsetshire beat Augustine, and his Fellows, and in Mockery fa­stened Fish-tailes at their Backs, in punishment hereof, All that Flores San­ctorium ut prinus Genera­tion had that given them by Nature, which so contemptibly they fastened on the Backs of these Holy men. Fy for shame! he needs an hard Plate on his Face that reports it, and a soft Place in his Head that believes it.

23. However,The great improve­ment of the Gospel. for the main, we undoubtedly believe that the Preach­ing of Augustine and his Fellows took good Effect, finding the visible Progresse, and the Improvement thereof, in the Conversion of so many from Paganisme to Christianity. For, Sebert King of Essex (nephew to Ethel­bert King of Kent, by Ricula his Sister) embraced the Faith, with all his Kingdome, by the Ministery of Mellitus, whom Augustine ordained Bishop of London; much about the same time making one Iustus a Roman (who was vir sui nominis, a man answering his Name) Bishop of Rochester. Many other remarkable matters happened in the Life of Augustine, especially those Que­stions and Answers, which passed betwixt him and Gregory the Great; by us purposely omitted, partly, because they are too voluminous to insert; and partly, because they are at large in manyBede, Book of Mareyrs, and others. Augustine's death and Epitaph. Authours, to whom we remit the Reader.

24. And now was the time come of Augustine's Dissolution,610 alias whose Body was buried in the Northern Porch of the New Church in Canterbury, 611 alias de­dicated to Peter, and Paul, 612 having (asEccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 5. Bede informs us) this Inscription writ­ten upon his Monument; Here resteth Lord Augustine the first Arch-Bi­shop of Canterbury; who being in times past sent hither from Blessed Gregory Bi­shop of the Roman City, and supported by God with the working of Miracles, brought King Ethelbert and his Countrey, from the worshipping of Idols to the Faith of Christ: and the dayes of his Office being finished in Peace, he died the seventh of the Calends of Iune, the same King reigning.

25. But in this Epitaph one thing is wanting, The date of the year, how wanting therein. and that mainly materiall; namely the Year when he died. Strangely is that Watch contrived, and is generally useless, which shews the Minute of the Hour, not the Hour of the Day. As this Epitaph points at the Day, of smaller consequence; lea­ving out the Year, of greater concernment. This hath put mens Fanisies on various Conjectures. Some make it a mere Omission of Bede: which not­withstanding is very strange, because otherwise he is most Criticall, and Pun­ctuall in the Notation of Time. Others conceive it a fault of Commission, in some of after-Ages, who purposely expunged the Year (beshrew their Fingers that thrust out the Eyes, the Date of this Epitaph) lest the same should make too clear Discoveries of Augustine's surviving after the Massacre of the Monks of Bangor; which would increase the Suspicion of his having a Fin­ger therein. Others place the Neglect in the Monument maker, and not in Bede; seeing he was but the bare Relater of the Epitaph, and therefore loath to add, or alter any thing thereof. Perchance the Tombe-maker registred the Day, as a Nicity most likely to be forgotten; omitting the Year, as a thing generally, universally, and notoriously known, all men keeping a Record thereof, which in processe of time became wholly forgotten. Thus, those things are not long effectually kept by any, which are equally to be kept by [Page 68] All,Anno Dom. 610 and not charged on any One mans particular Account. Sure I am, the setting up of this Land-mark, the nothing of the Year of his Death, had given excellent Direction to such as travel in the Saxon Chronologie, who now wander at Randome for the want of it.

26. And now we take our Farewell of Augustine, Farewell to S. Augustine. of whom we give this Character. He found here a plain Religion (Simplicity is the Badge of Anti­quity) practised by the Britans, living some of them in the Contempt, and many moe in the Ignorance of Worldy Vanities, in a barren Country: And surely, Piety is most healthful in those places, where it can least surfeit of Earthly Pleasures. He brought in a Religion spun with a Courser Threed, though garded with a Finer Trimming, made luscious to the Senses with pleasing Ceremonies; so that many, who could not judge of the Goodnesse, were cour­ted with the Gaudinesse thereof. Indeed the Papists brag, that he was the A­postle of the English; but not one in the Stile of St. Paul, Gal. 1. 1. neither from men, nor by man, but by Iesus Christ; being onely a derivative Apostle, sent by the second hand: in which sense also he was not our sole Apostle; though he first put in his Sickle, others reaped down more of the English Harvest, propagating the Gospel farther, as shall appear hereafter. But because the Beginnings of things are of greatest consequence, we commend his Paines, condemn his Pride, allow his Life, approve his Learning, admire his Miracles, admit the Foundation of his Doctrine Iesus Christ; but refuse the Hay and Stubble he built thereupon. We are indebted to God his Goodnesse in moving Gregory, Gregorie's Carefulnesse in sending Augustine, Augustine's Forwardnesse in preaching here: but above all, let us blesse God's exceeding great Favour, that that Doctrine which Augustine planted here but impure, and his Successours made worse with watering, is since, by the happy Reformation, cleared and refined to the Purity of the Scriptures.

27. After the death of Augustine, Laurentius succeedeth Augustine. Laurentius a Roman succeeded him, whom Augustine in his Life-time not onely designed for, but ordained Bede Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. c. 4. in that Place, out of his abundant Caution, that the Infant-Church might not be Orphan an Hour, lest Satan should assault the Breach of such a Vacancy, to the Disadvantage of Religion. Such a super-Ordination in such cases was Ca­nonicall, it beingIdem Ibidem a Tradition, that St. Peter in like manner consecrated Cle­ment his Successour in the Church of Rome. And sure it is, the Prophet Elijah (no doubt to his great Comfort whilest living)1 Kings 19. 16. anointed Elishe to minister in his Room, in his Propheticall Function. In one respect Laurentius exceeded Augustine, that he reduced the Recusant Britans and Scots, (probably de­meaning himself more humbly then his Predecessour) to some tolerable Con­formity to the Romish Ceremonies, especially in the Celebration of Easter. Now, seeing frequent Mention hath formerly been made, of the Difference between the Romish and British Churches, in Observation of that Festivall; we will endeavour, as truly as briefly, to state the Controversie betwixt them, with Arguments each side produceth in their own behalf.

28. But,The contro­versie about Easter be­twixt Rome and the Bri­tans, stated. because the Point in hand is so nice (rather then necessary) that a little Variation therein may be materiall, I will carefully follow the truest Copy I can get, in stating the Question, taking it from a LearnedIames U­sher, in the Religion of the ancient Irish, cap. 9. pag. 63. Pen exactly skilled therein.

The Romans kept

Easter upon that Sunday which fell betwixt the 15. & 21. day of theHence is it, that Beza tartly termeth the controversie Lunatica quaestio. Moon (both terms inclu­ded) next after the 21. day of March, which they accounted to be the seat of the Vernall Equino­ctiall. And in reckoning the Age of the Moon, they followed the Alexandrian Cycle of 19 yeares, as it was explained unto them by Dionysius Exiguus.

The Britans kept

Easter upon the Sunday that fell betwixt the 14. and 20. day of the Moon, following in their Account thereof, not the 19 yeares Computa­tion of Anatolius, but Sul­pitius Severus his Circle of 84 yeares.

[Page 69] It is enough to prove the Practice of Rome was the right, that it was the Pra­ctice of Rome; yea, did it not deserve the Stab of Excommunication, for any dissenting from her practice, tantamountingly to give her the Lie? However, it seems the Reputation of Rome's Infallibility was yet in the Nonage thereof, that the British durst so boldly differ from them, without danger of Damnation.

29. Yea,The Britans their plea. they pretended ancient Tradition on their side, from the Pri­mitive Times, derived from St. Iohn himself; as by the ensuing Verses (which we thought fit to translate) may appear:

Nos seriem
Fridgodus in the life of Wilfrid.
patriam, non frivola scriptatenemus,
i. e. Sancti, [...]el Beati.
eusebii Polycarpo dante Iohannis.
Ille etenim bis septene sub tempore Phaebae
Sanctum praefixit nobis fore Pascha colendum,
Atque nefas dixit, si quis contraria sentit.
No writings fond we follow, but do hold
Our Country Course, which Polycarp of old,
Scholar to Blessed Iohn, to us hath given.
For he, when th' Moon had finish'd Dayes twice seven,
Bad us to keep the holy Paschal Time,
And count Dissenting for an hainous Crime.

Time was, when once the Activity of Peter and Iohn with holy Zeal was ex­cellently emploied, contending in a Race, which should first come to the Grave of ourIohn 20. 4. Saviour: but see here the Romans and the Britans, the pretended Followers of these two Apostles, not running, but wrestling in a violent Conten­tion, who should most truly observe the Resurrection of Christ out of his Grave.

30. Strange!The contro­versie recon­ciled by Lau­rentius. that so Good, and Wise men, should thus fall out about the Mint and Cummin of Religion, a Ceremony not at all decided in Scripture. It is to be feared, that the When marred the How of Easter; and the Controversie about the Time, spoiled a more materiall Circumstance, of the Manner of keeping this Feast; these opposite Parties searce being mutually in Charity at the receiving of the Sacrament, at that solemn Festivall, kept among the Iews with unleavened Bread, celebrated among Christians with too much Leaven (sowre and swelling) of Anger and Passion.613 The best is, for the present Lau­rentius composed the Quarrel, and brought bothBede's Hist. lib. 2. cap. 4. Britans and Scots (that is, the Inhabitants of Ireland) to complie with the Romans therein. But as every small Wrinch, or stepping a wrie, is enough to put an ill-set Bone out of joynt: so each petty Animosity was great enough to discompose this Agreement. But enough of this Controversie for the present, we shall meet it too soon again; which like a restlesse Ghost, will haunt our English History, for more then an hundred and fifty yeares together.

31. Onely I will adde that,The antiqui­ty of this dif­ference. although about Augustine's time, this Contro­versie was then most heightned and inflamed; yet an old Grudge it was long before, betwixt the Romans and Britans. For, if old Taliessyn (stiled Chief of Bards by the Britans) lived (asDe Britan. Scriptoribus aetale 6a. pag. 95. Pitseus, a Catholick Writer, will have it) in the year five hundred and fourty; and if the following verses be Taliessyn's, as it is Chron. of Wales p. 254. undoubtedly believed; then this Difference was on foot fifty yeares before Au­gustine came into England.

Gwae'r offeiriad byd
Nys engreifftia gwyd
Ac ny phregetha:
Gwae ny cheidwey gail
Ac efyn vigail
Ac nys areilia:
Gwae ny cheidwey dheuaid
Rhac bleidhie Rhufemaid
Aiffon gnwppa.
Wo be to that Priest yborn
That will not cleanly weed his Corn,
And preach his charge among:
Wo be to that Shepheard (I say)
That will not watch his Fold alway,
As to his Office doth belong.
Wo be to him that doth not keep
From Romish Wolves his Sheep
With staffe and weapon strong.

[Page 70] These words,Anno Dom. 613 From Romish Wolves, relate to the Vigilancy of the British Pastours, to keep their People from Rome's Infection in these points. Thus, whilest the Britans accounted the Romans Wolves, and the Romans held the Britans to be Goats, what became of Christ's little flock of Sheep the whiles? The best is, the good God, we hope, will be mercifull in his Sentence on Men, though passionate Men be merciless in their Censures one on another.

32. To return to Laurentius. The death of Ethelbert, and decay of Christianity. The great Joy for the Agreement made by him,Febr. 24. was quickly abated with Grief, at the Death of King Ethelbert: who ha­ving reigned fifty six, and been a Christian one and twenty yeares, was buried nigh to his good Wife, Queen Bertha (who died a little before him) in the Porch of St. Martin's Church in Canterbury; which Fabrick, with some other Churches, by him were beautifully built, and bountifully endowed. In Ethel­bert's Grave was buried much of the Kentish Christianity: for Eadbald his Son both refused His Father's Religion, and wallowing in Sensuality, was guilty of that Sin not so much as named amongst the Gentiles, in keeping his Father's se­cond Wife. Such as formerly had took up Christianity, as the Court-Fashion, now left it; & whom Ethelbert's Smiles had made Converts, Eadbald's Frowns quickly made Apostates. Yea, at the same time (so infectious are the bare Examples of Great men) the three Sons of the King of the East-Saxons fell back to Pagnisme. These refused to be baptized, and yet, in Derision, demanded of the Bishop Mellitus, to receive the Eucharist; which he flatly denied them; Baptisme being an Introductory Sacrament, and it being unlawfull to break into the Church, without going through this Porch. Yet they gave Mellitus fair Warning, and free leave to depart; who coming into Kent, held there a Councill with Laurentius and Iustus, what was best to be done. At last they concluded, that it was in vain, prodigally to lose their Paines here, which they might expend with more profit in their own Country: and seeing Martyr­dome, as it is not cowardly to be declined, so it is not ambitiously to be affected; they resolved to go the way which Divine Providence directed them, and to return into France: which Mellitus and Iustus did accordingly.

33. Was this well done of them,Mellitus and Iustus their departure defended. to leave their Charge? Did not God place them Centinells in his Church, and could they come off from their Duty, before they were relieved by Order? But surely their ill Usage was an interpreta­tive Discharge unto them. In warrant whereof, we have not onely Christs Matt. 10. 14. Precept, to leave the unworthy House with a witnesse (namely with the Dust of our Feet shaken off as a Testimony against it;) but also his Practice, going from theMatth. 8. 34. and cap. 9. 1. Gadarenes, when they desired he should depart their Coasts. Indeed, the VVord of Life is a quick Commodity, and ought not, as a Drug, to be obtruded on those Chapmen who are unwilling to buy it; yea, in whose Nostrills the very Savour of Life unto Life doth stink, because profered unto them.

34. Laurentius entertained the like Resolution of Departure;Laurentius, intending to depart, rebu­ked. when, lying on his Bed, St. Peter isBede lib. 2. cap. 6. said to have taken him to task in a Vision. Yea, St. Pe­ter was not onely seen, but felt, sharply and soundly Whipping him, for his unworthy Intention to forsake his Flock; who rather should have followed St. Peter's Example (as he imitated Christ's) whom no Losses or Crosses could so deterre, as to desert his Charge. Some will say, Peter herein appeared a partial Parent, so severely disciplining this his Son, whilest two other of his Children, being more guilty, Mellitus and Iustus (who had actually done what Lauren­tius onely designed) escaped without any Correction. But we must know, though these seemed more faulty, by what appeares in open View, yet the Pas­sages behind the Curtain (Considerables concealed from us) might much alter the case. And indeed, Pastours leaving their people is so ticklish a Point, and sub­ject to such secret Circumstances, that God and their own Consciences are onely the competent Judges of the Lawfulnesse or Unlawfulnesse thereof.

35. Thus,Eadbald be­comes a Christian. all black and blew, Laurentius repaireth to Eadbald King of Kent, and presenteth himself unto him in that sad Condition. The King, much ama­zed [Page 71] thereat, demands, who durst offer such Violence to so Good a man? Whereby it plainly appears, that though Eadbald himself refused Christianity, yet he afforded Civility and Protection to Laurentius, and to all in Kent of his Religion. He largely relates what had happened unto him; and in fine so prevailed on Eadbald, that he not onely put away his VVife-Mother-VVhore, but also embraced Christianity, and at his desire, Iustus and Mellitus returned a­gain into England.

36. Rochester readily received Iustus their Bishop,Iustus recei­ved at Roche­ster, and Mellitus reje­cted at Lon­don. being a little Place, of few Persons, and they therefore the easier all to be brought to be of one Mind. But large London (though then, for Greatnesse, but the Suburbs to the present City) I say, London then, was even London then, as wanton in the Infancy, as now wayward in the Old-age thereof; where generally the People, long radicated in Wickednesse, refused to entertain their good Pastour returning unto them. But here my goodMr. Whee­lock on the place in Bede. Friend, in his Notes on this Passage, makes an ingenious Reservation, that (though the major part must be confessed peevish in all populous places) London in all Ages afforded emi­nent Favourers of Learned and Religious men. And would I could (being the meanest of Ministers) as truly entitle my self to the foresaid Qualifications, as I heartily concurre with him in my gratefull Confession, that I have effectually found plenty of good Patrons in that Honourable Corporation. Mellitus thus rejected, was glad to lead a private life in London, till that after the 619 Feb. 3. Death of Laurentius, he succeeded him in the Church of Canterbury.

37. A grave,Mellitus his character. and good man, but much afflicted with the Gout, and highly meriting of his See of Canterbury; especially if true, what Bede Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 7. reports, that, when a grievous Fire happened in that City, Mellitus accosted the very Fury thereof with faithfull Prayer, and his own bare Hands (strange! that no modern Monk hath since in his Relation put a Crucifix, or Holy-Wa­ter-sprinkle into them) and so presently quenched the Raging of the Flames. Say not, why could he not as easily have cured his own Gout, as quenched this Fire? seeing Miracles are done, not for mens ordinary Ease, but God's so­lemn Honour. Yea, the Apostles themselves were not at pleasure Masters of their miraculous Power, for their personal use; seeing St. Paul could neither cure the1 Tim. 5. 23. often Infirmities of his dear Son Timothy; nor remove the acute, de­sperate Disease, wherewith he himself in2 Cor. 1. 8. Asia was afflicted. Five years sate Mel­litus in Canterbury: after whose624 April 24. Death, Iustus Bishop of Rochester succeeded him, and had his Pall solemnly sent him by Pope Boniface.

38. By the way,What a Pall is the Pall is a Pontificall Vestment, considerable for the Matter, Making, and Mysteries thereof. For the Matter, it is made of Lambs Wooll, and Superstition. I say, of Lambs VVooll, Flores San­ctorum Maii 26. pag. 506. as it comes from the Sheeps Back, without any other artificiall Colour, spun (say some) by a peculiar Order of Nunnes, first cast into the Tombe of St. Peter, taken from his Body (sayLatine Camden in Kent pag. 238 others) surely most sacred if from both; and [superstitiously] adorned with little black Crosses. For the Form thereof; the Flores San­ctorum ut prius. Breadth exceeded not three Fingers (one of our Bachelours Lamb-skin Hoods in Cambridge would make three of them) having two Labells hanging down before and behind, which the Arch-Bishops onely, when going to the Altar, put about their Necks, above their other Pontificall Ornaments. Three Mysteries were couched therein. First, Humi­lity, which beautifies the Clergy above all their costly Copes. Secondly, Inno­cency, to imitate Lamb-like Simplicitie. And thirdly, Industry, to follow Camden ut prius, & Luke 15. him who fetched his wandring Sheep home on his Shoulders. But to speak plainly, the Mystery of Mysteries in this Pall was, that the Arch-Bishops re­ceiving it, shewed therein their Dependence on Rome; and a Mote in this man­ner ceremoniously taken, was a sufficient Acknowledgement of their Subje­ction. And, as it owned Rome's Power; so in after-Ages it encreased their Profit. For, though now such Palls were freely given to Arch-Bishops, whose Places in Britain for the present were rather cumbersome then commodious, [Page 72] having little more then their Paines for their Labour; Anno. Dom. 624 yet in after-Ages the Arch-Bishop of Canterburie's Pall wasGodwin's Cat. Episc. pag. 225. sold for five thousandA Florene is worth 4s. 6d. Florenes: so that the Pope might well have the Golden Fleece, if he could fell all his Lambs-Wooll at that rate. Onely let me adde, that the Authour ofA Manu­script in Trin. Hall Library in Cambridge Canterbury-Book stiles this Pall, Tanquam grande Christi Mr. Whee­lock on Bede, pag. 99. Sacramentum. It is well tanquam came in to help it, or else we should have had eight Sacraments. But, leaving these Husks to such Palats as are pleased to feed on them, we come to the Kernell of Religion, how the same was propagated in other Parts of England. And first, of the Preparative for the Purge of Paganisme out of the Kingdome of Northumberland.

39. Edwine, Edwine his preparatory promise to Christianity. the King thereof, was Monarch of all England, with the Isles of Man and Anglesey, more puissant then any of His Predecessours. And this, saithEccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 9. Bede, was In auspicium suscipiendae Fidei, in good Handsell of the Faith he was hereafter to receive. God first made him Great, and after Gracious; that so by his Power, he might be the more effectuall Instrument of his Glory. Now he had married Edelburge, daughter of Ethelbert King of Kent: to whom he not onely permitted free Exercise of Religion, to her self and her Ser­vants, 625 but also promised himself to embrace it, if, on Examination, it appeared the most Holy, and fittest for Divine Service. In the Court of this Queen was one Paulinus, a pious Bishop, who, with much Pains and little Profit, long la­boured in vain to convert the Pagans. God hereby both humbling him, and shewing, that the Hour of his Mercy shall not be ante-dated one Minute, by any humane Endeavours. However, Paulinus, seeing he could not be happy to gain, would be carefull to save; and daily plyed the Word and Sacraments, thereby to corroborate his owne People in Piety.

40. Now it happened that one Eumere, His condi­tion perfor­med, and yet he demurres. a Swash-buckler (a Contemner of his own life,626 and thereby Master of another man's) sent from Guichelm, King of the VVest-Saxons, with an envenomed Dagger sought to kill King Edwine: when Lilla, one of his Guard, foreseeing the Blow, and interposing himself, shielded his Sovereign with his own Body, yea, deaded the Stroak with his own Death. Loyalty's Martyr; in a Case which is likely to find moe to commend, then imitate it, on the like occasion. Edwine, notwithstanding slightly hurt, was very sensible of the Deliverance, and promised, that if he might con­quer the treacherous VVest-Saxon King, with his Adherents, he would be­come a Christian. And though there be no indenting, and conditional capi­tulating with God (who is to be taken on any terms) yet this in a Pagan was a good step to Heaven, and Paulinus was glad he had got him thus far; especially, when in Earnest of the Sincerity of his Resolution, he consigned over his infant-DaughterIdem ibidem. Eansled, to be baptized, whom Paulinus christened, with twelve moe of the Queen's Family. Well, the VVest-Saxon King was quickly overcome, and all his Complices either killed, or conquered, and yet King Edwine demurred to embrace Christianity. But he communicated with the sagest of his Counsell, with whom he had daily Debates, being loth rashly to rush on a matter of such Moment. And truly, that Religion which is rather suddenly parched up, then seasonably ripened, doth commonly ungive after­wards. Yea, he would sit long alone, making company to himself, and silently arguing the Case in his own Heart, being partly convinced in his Iudgement of the Goodnesse of the Christian Religion; and yet he durst not entertain Truth, a lawfull King, for fear to displease Custome, a cruell Tyrant.

41. Amongst the many Debates he had with his Counsell about altering his Religion,The speech of Coify the Priest. two Passages must not be forgotten; whereof one was the Speech of Coify, the prime Pagan-Priest. Surely (saidBede Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 13. he) these Gods, whom we worship, are not of any Power, or Efficacy in themselves; for none hath served them more conscientiously then my self, yet other men, lesse meriting of them, have received moe and greater Favours from their hand, and prosper better in all things they undertake. Now, if these were Gods of any Activity, they would [Page 73] have been more beneficiall to me, Anno. Dom. 626 who have been so observant of them. Here the Reader will smile at Coify his Solecisme, wherein the Premisses are guilty of Pride, as the Inference thereon of Errour and Mistake. If he turn Chri­stian on these termes, he will be taught a new Lesson: how not onely all out­ward things happen alike, to good and bad, to Eccles. 9. 2. him that sacrificeth, as to him that sacrificeth not; but also, that1 Pet. 4. 17. Iudgement beginneth at the house of God, and the best men meet with the worst Successe in Temporal matters. However, God was pleased to sanctifie this mans Errour, as introductory to his Con­version: and let none wonder, if the first Glimmering of Grace in Pagans, be scarce a degree above Blindnesse.

42. Better, The Cour­tier's Com­parison. in my opinion, was the plain Comparison, which another namelesse Courtier made at the same time. Mans life (saidIdem ibid. he) O King, is like unto a little Sparrow, which, whilest your Majesty is feasting by the Fire in your Parlour with your royall Retinue, flies in at one VVindow, and out at ano­ther. Indeed we see it that short time it remaineth in the House, and then is it well sheltred from VVind and VVeather; but presently it passeth from Cold to Cold, and whence it came, and whither it goes, we are altogether ignorant. Thus, we can give some account of our Soul, during it's abode in the Body, whilest housed and harboured therein; but where it was before, and how it fareth after, is to us altogether unknown. If therefore Paulinus his Preaching will certainly in­form us herein, he deserveth, in my opinion, to be entertained.

43. Long looked for comes at last.627 King Edwine almost three yeares a Candidate at large of Christianity,Edwine con­verted, and baptized. cordially embraceth the same, and with many of his Nobles, and Multitudes of his Subjects, is solemnly bapti­zed by Paulinus, in the little ChurchBede Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 14. of St Peters in York, hastily set up by the King for that purpose, and afterward by him changed into a firmer and fairer Fabrick. Thus, as those Children which are backward of their Tongues, when attaining to Speech, pronounce their words the more plainly and distinctly: so Edwine, long, yea tedious before his turning to Chri­stianity, more effectually at last embraced the same. And when it was put to the Question, what Person most proper to destroy the Heathen Altars? Coify the chief Priest tendered his Service, as fittest for the purpose, solemn­ly to demolish what he had before so superstitiously adored. Down go all the Pagan Altars, and Images at God-mundingham (now Godmanham, a small Camden's Britannia. Village in the East-Riding of Yorkshire) and those Idols with their Hands were so far from defending themselves, that their mock-Mouths could not afford one word, to bemoan their finall Destruction.

44. VVhen thou art converted, The East-Angles con­verted to Christianity. strengthen thy Brethren, was the personall Precept given toLuk. 22. 32. Peter, but ought generally to be the Practice of all good men; as here it was of King Edwine, restlesse, untill he had also perswaded Earpwald, King of the East-Angles, to embrace the Christian Faith. In­deed Redwald, Earpwald's Father, had formerly at Canterbury (to ingratiate himself with King Ethelbert) professed Christianity; but, returning home, he revolted to Paganisme at the instance of HisBede Hist. Ecc. l. 2. c. 15. Wife. So great is the Power of the Weaker Sex, even in matters of Religion. For, as Bertha and Edel­burge, the Queens of Ethelbert and Edwine, occasioned, and expedited the Conversion of their Husbands Kingdomes: so here a Female-instrument ob­structed that holy Design. Yea, Redwald afterwards in the same Church set up a2 Kings 17. 41. Samaritane-mongrel-Religion, having Altare Bede ut prius. & Arulam, a Communion-Table and an idolatrous Altar in the same Temple. You cannot be partakers (saith the1 Cor. 10. 21. Apostle) of the Lords Table, and of the table of Devils; that is, You cannot lawfully, conscionably, comfortably; but, de facto it may be done, was done by Bedwald in this his miscellaneous Religion.

45. But three yeares after,630 the Conversion of the East-Angles was more ef­fectually advanced by King Sigebert, The Religion and learning of King Sigebert. Brother, and after the death of Earp­wald his Successour in the Kingdome. This Sigebert had lived an Exile in [Page 74] France, Anno. Dom. 630 and got the benefit of Learning by his Banishment. For, wanting ac­commodations to appear in Princely Equipage, he applyed himself the more close to his Studies: seeing, that Means which would maintain a Prince but like a Scholar, would maintain a Scholar like a Prince. Yea, which was best of all, on his Learning he grafted true Religion; Bede giving him this Chara­cter, that he became Vir Christianissimus & doctissimus: (can more be said in so few words?) and returning home, assisted by the Preaching of Felix, a Monk of Burgundy, Iuxta nominis sui sacramentum, saith Bede (happy was his Name, and Happinesse was with him) converted his Subjects to Christia­nity. This Felix was made the first Bishop of Dunwich in Suffolk; a place for­merly furnished withWeaver's Funerall Monuments in Suffolk. two and fifty Churches, and hath scarce two now re­maining, the rest being swallowed up by the Sea. I can hardly hold my self from calling the Sea sacrilegious; save that, on second thoughts, considering that Element to be but a Naturall Agent, yea, such whose Motions are or­dered by Divine Providence, Hither shalt thou come, and no farther, I will ra­ther reserve this Epithete, sacrilegious, to be bestowed on those men, who willingly and wilfully demolish the places appointed for God's Service.

46. This Sigebert is generally reputed the Founder of the University of Cambridge. Difference about the antiquity of the Uni­versity of Cambridge. And because the point in hand is somewhat litigious,631 But some make it four yeares after. we will take the more Paines in clearing thereof, two things being warily premised. First, that Sigebert's founding the University of Cambridge ought not by any to be extended to lessen and abate, much lesse to drown and destroy her more ancient Title to Learning, which she deriveth (according to goodSee Cajus on the antiqui­ty of Cam­bridge. Au­thours) from many hundred yeares before. Valeant, quantum valere possint, let such her over grown Evidences stand as valid as they may, by us neither confirmed, not confuted for the present. And indeed, all such Old things in either University, though specious to the Eye, must be closely kept, and ten­derly touched, lest otherwise, being roughly handled, they should moulder into Dust. Secondly, let none suspect, my Extraction from Cambridge will betray me to partiality to my Mother, who desire in this Difference to be like Melchisedec, [...], without Descent, onely to be directed by the Truth. And here I make this fair and free Confession, which, I hope, will be accepted for ingenuous: That, as in Thamar's travell ofGen. 38. 28. Twins, Zarah first put out his Hand, and then drew it in again, whilest Pharez first came forth into the World: so I plainly perceive Cambridge with an extended Arme, time out of mind, first challenging the Birth-right; and Priority of place for Lear­ning; but afterwards drawing it in again, she lay for many yeares desolate, and of lesse account; whilest Oxford, if later, larger, came forth in more entire Proportion, and ever since constantly continued in the full Dimen­sions of an University.

47. These things being thus cautiously stated,The leading testimony of Bede explai­ned. we proceed, beginning with Bede, on whose Testimony all the following History is founded.

Beda lib. 3. Eccles. Hist. cap. 18.

Sigebertus, ubi Regno poti­tus est, mox ea quae in Galliis bene disposita vidit, imitari cu­piens, instituit Scholam, in qua pueri literis erudirentur, juvante se Episcopo Felice (quem de Cantia acceperat) eisque paedagogos ac magistros, juxta morem Cantuariorum, praebente.

Sigebert, when he had obtained the Kingdome, presently desiring to imitate those things which he had seen well­ordered in France, instituted a School, wherein Youths might be trained up in Learning, Felix the Bishop (whom he had received out of Kent) assisting him, and providing for them Teachers, and Masters, according to the Custome of those in Canterbury.

[Page 75] See here,Anno. Dom. 631 King Sigebert, to make his School complete, united therein such Conveniences for Education, as he had observed commendable

1. Abroad, in France: where Learning at, and before his time, was brought to great Perfection; St. Hierome In Epistola ad Rusticum. affirming, that even in his Age, he had seen Studia in Galliis florentissima, most flourishing Universities in France.

2. At home, in Canterbury: where even at this time Learning was pro­fessed, though more increased some fourty yeares after; when as the same Bede Hist. Eccles. reports, that in the dayes of Theodorus the Arch-Bi­shop, there were those that taught Geometry, Arithmetick and Musick (the fashionable studies of that Age) together with Divinity, The perfect Character of an University, where Divinity the Queen is waited on by her Maids-of-Honour.

But I question, whether the Formality of Commencing was used in that Age: inclining rather to the negative, that such Distinction of Graduates was then unknown, except in St. Paul's sense,1 Tim. 3. 13 Such as used the office of a Deacon well, purchased to themselves a good Degree.

48. So much for Bede's Text.Authours commenting on Bede's text. Come we now to ancient Authours com­menting upon him. Ancient I call those, who wrote many yeares before the Differences were started about the Seniority of the Universityes, and there­fore are presumed unpartiall, as unconcerned in a Controversie which did not appear. First, Polydore Lib. 4. & lib. 5. pag. 107. Virgil, who from Bede's words plainly collects, that Sigebert then founded the University of Cambridge. Nor see I any cause for that Passage in theWritten Anno 1566. pag. 20. Assertion of Oxford's Antiquity, charging Polydore, Quod affectibus indulgens, adamatae studet Academiae; who being a Forrainer, and an Italian, had nothing to byass his Affection to one University more then the other. LearnedIn his Com­ment. in Cy­gneam Cantio­nem. Leland succeeds, who being employed by King Henry the eighth to make a Collection of British Antiquities (much scattered at the Dissolution of Abbies) thus expresseth himself.

Olim Granta fuit Titulis Vrbs inclyta multis,
Vicini à Fluvii nomine, Nomen habens.
Saxones hanc Belli deturbavere procellis;
Sed nova, pro veteri, non procul inde sita est:
Quam Felix Monachus, Sigeberti jussa sequutus,
Artibus illustrem reddidit, atque Scholis.
Haec ego, perquirens Gentis Monumenta Britannae,
Asserui in Laudem, Granta diserta, tuam.
Grant, long ago a City of great Fame,
From neighbouring River doth receive her Name.
When storms of Saxon-warres her overthrew,
Near to the old, sprang up another new.
Monk Felix, whil'st he Sigebert obeys,
Light'ned this place with Schools, and Learning's rayes.
Searching the Monuments of British Nation,
This I assert in Grant's due Commendation.

Here we omit the severall Testimonies ofIn Sigeber­to, & rursus Cent. 13. in Felice. First obje­ction against Sigebert's founding of Cambridge. Bale, George Lilie, and Thomas Cooper, in their severall Histories Anno 636. with many moe, concluding Si­gebert then the Founder of the University of Cambridge.

49. But our Cousin-germans of Oxford will scarce give Credit hereunto, multiplying Objections against it. Obj. There were (say they) many places (besides Cambridge) in the Kingdome of the East-Angles (conteining Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire) which, with equall Probability, may pretend to this School of Sigebert's Foundation, seeing Bede doth not nominatim affirm Cambridge for the particular Place, where this University was erected.

[Page 76] 50. Ans. Answer. Though Bede be Dumb in this particular, notnaming Cam­bridge; yet he makes such Signes, that most intelligent Antiquaries by us alledged, understand him to intend the same: especially seeing Cambridge is acknowledged by all Authours, time out of mind, to have been a place for the Education of Students in Literature.

51. Obj. Second Ob­jection. If any such University was founded by Sigebert, it was at Grantchester, differing, as in Appellation, so in Situation from Cambridge (as being a good mile South West thereof.) Cambridge therefore cannot entitle it self, but by apparent Usurpation, to the ancient Priviledges of Grantchester.

52. Ans. Answer. Most usuall it is for ancient places to alter their Names (Babylon to Bagdet, Byzantium to Constantinople, our old Verulam to St. Albans) still retaining the numerical Nature they had before. Oxford (they tell us) was once calledBryan Twine Antiq. Acad. Ox. pag. 114. Bellositum, and yet not altered from it's same self by another Name. Nor is it any news for great Cities, in processe of time (as weary of long standing) to ease themselves a little, by hitching into another place. Thus, some part of modern Rome is removed more then a mile from the ancient Area thereof. Thus, Ierusalem at this day is come down from Mount Sion, and more South-West climbed up Mount Calvary. Yet, either of these Places would account themselves highly injured, if not reputed, for the main, the same with the former. Sufficeth it, that some part of Cambridge stands at this day, whereMr. Cam­den an Ox­ford-man in his description of Cam­bridgeshire, alloweth Grantchester and Cam­bridge for the same place. Third Obje­ction. Grantchester did (which ancientlyCajus de Antiq. Can­tab. (ex libro Barnwel­lensi) pag. 11. Answer. extended North-West, as far as the Village called Howse) and that's enough to keep possession of the Priviledges of Grantchester, as properly belonging thereunto. Especially, see­ing Oxford at this day layes claim to the Antiquityes of Crekelade and Lechlade (Towns distant sixteen miles off, the one in VVilts, the other in Glocestershire) two ancient Schools of Greek and Latine (as some will have it) removed af­terwards to Oxford, from whence some of her Assertours do date her Be­ginning.

53. Obj. Sigebert founded but Scholam, which makes little to the Honour of Cambridge: For thereby her Professours are degraded to Pedants; and by a retrograde Motion Cambridge is sent back to Eaton, I mean, is made no better then a great Grammar-School.

54. Ans. If the best of Latine Oratours may be believed, Schola properly signi­fies the Place where all Arts are publickly professed.Tully De natura Deo­rum. Ex Platonis schola Pon­ticus Heraclides, Ponticus Heraclides came out of the school of Plato: Which is notoriously known to have been an Academie; yea, all his Scholars known by the name of Academicks to this day. Those of Salerno in Italy, dedicating a book of Physick to our Henry (the second, I take it) begin thus, ‘Anglorum Regi scribit Schola tota Salerni.’
School-boys deserve to be whipped indeed, if presuming to prescribe Re­ceipts to a King: But that Schola there is sufficiently known to have been a famous University. And under the favour of the University, the word Vni­versitas is but a base, and barbarous Latine (whiles Schola is pure Greek ori­ginally) to design, either the Place where generall Learning is publickly professed, or the Persons studying therein. And, though I dare not totally concurre with thatMr. Cam­den in his Britannia, pag. 381. in Oxfordshire. Fourth Obje­ction. Learned Critick, that Vniversit as was first used in the fore­said sense, about the reign of King Henry the third; yet, I believe, it will not be found in any Classicall Authour, in that modern acception.

55. Obj. In good Authours, Sigebert is said to have founded not only Scholam, a School, but Scholas, Schools, in the plurall. If Schola therefore be an Univer­sity, either he made moe Universities then one in Cambridge (which is absurd to affirm;) or else he erected moe Universities in other places of his King­dome, which Cantabrigians will not willingly confesse.

56. Ans. Answer. The variation of the Number is of no Concernment. For, if respect be had to the severall Arts there professed, Sigebert founded Schools in the [Page 77] plurall: but if regard be taken of the Cyclopaedy of the Learning resulting from those severall Sciences, he erected but one Grand School. Every Fresh-man knows that the single Quadrant, wherein the publick Lectures are read, and Acts kept, is called plurally the Schools, in each University.

57. Obj. Fifth Obje­ction. But Bede terms them Pueros, Boyes, properly under the Rod, and Ferula, whom Sigebert placed in his School: and the word Paedagogi, Vshers, placed over them, imports the same; that they were no University-Students, but a company of little Lads, that lived there under Correction.

58. Ans. Answer. Criticks will satisfie you, that the word Pueri signifies even those of more Maturity, especially if living sub regimine, under the Discipline of Supe­riours. Secondly, Bede, being a great Divine, and conversant in Scripture-phrase, borroweth an expression thence; Christ calling his Disciples [...], Iohn 21. 5. Children. He useth also Paedagogos in the same notion with1 Cor. 4. 15. St. Paul's [...], which our last Translatours reade Instructours in Christ, even to the Corinthians, who still needed such Paedagogues or Teachers, though already1 Cor. i. 5. enriched in all utterance and knowledge. Thirdly, the Saxon ancient Copy of Bede, which (doubtlesse) doth emphatically render the Latine, translates pueri [...]eon [...]e menn. Fourthly, Asserius Menevensis, speaking of Alfred's founding of Oxford, faith, that he endowed the same, Suae propriae Gentis nobilibus Pueris, & etiam ignobilibus; and it is but equal, that the Pueri at Cambridge should be allowed as much man in them, as those at Oxford. Lastly, the young Frie of Scholars, when first admitted, is such, to whomAll the Scho­lars of Pem­broke Hall in Cam­bridge, not being Fellows, are termed pueri in their Statutes. Pueri, in the proper sense thereof, may well be applyed. And here it may seasonably be remembred, how anBryan Twine Antiq. Oxon. p. 322. Oxford Antiquary af­firmeth, that Edward the fifth Prince of VVales, and Richard his brother, Duke of York, Oxoniae studuerunt, studied at Oxford, in the life-time of their Father. Stout Students no doubt, whereof the Elder could not then be ten, the Younger not nine yeares old. But I forget what Lawyers hold, that the Kings eldest Son is at full Age (for some Purposes) at the day of his Birth (in which respect he may sue out his Liveries for the Dukedome of Cornwall:) and this (perchance) may somewhat mend the matter.

59. But enough of this matter,Conclusion with prayer. which some will censure as an Impertinency to our Church-History, and scarcely coming within the Church-yard thereof. My Prayers shall be, that each University may turn all Envy into generous, yea gracious, yea glorious Emulation; contending by laudable means, which shall surpasse other in their Serviceablenesse to God, the Church, and Com­mon-wealth: that so Commencing in Piety, and Proceeding in Learning, they may agree against their two generall Adversaries, Ignorance, and Profanenesse. May it never be said of them, what Naomi Ruth 1. 12. said of her self, that she was too old to bear Sons: may they never be superannuated into Barrennesse, but like the good Trees in Gods Garden, They shall still bring forth Fruit in their old age, they shall be fat and flourishing.

60. Seasonably Sigebert erected an University at Cambridge, 632 thereby in part to repair the late great Losse of Christianity in England when (the year after) Edwine, Edwine, King of Northum­berland, slain. King of Northumberland, was slain inBeda Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. cap. 10. Battel by Cadwald King of VVales, and Penda King of the Mercians. After whose Death, his whole Kingdome relapsed to Paganisme; and Paulinus, Arch-Bishop of York, taking with him Queen Ethelburge, returned into Kent, and there became Bishop of the (then vacant) Church of Rochester. Mortified man, he minded not whether he went up, or down hill, whilest he went on strait in his Calling to glorifie God, and edifie others; sensible of no Disgrace, when degrading himself from a great Arch-Bishop, to become a poor Bishop. Such be­tray much Pride and Peevishnesse, who, outed of eminent Places, will ra­ther be Nothing in the Church, then any thing lesse then what they have been before.

[Page 78] 61. After the death of King Edwine, The unhappy year. his Kingdome of Northumberland was divided into two parts,Anno Dom. 632 both petty Kingdomes;

1. Bernicia, reachingCamden's Brit. pag. 797. from the River Tees to Edenburgh Frith, where­of Eanfrith was King.

2. Deira (whence (say some) Deirham, or Durham) lay betwixt Tees and Humber, whereof Osrick was King.

These both proved Apostates from the Christian Faith: and God in his ju­stice let in Cadwald, King of the Britans, upon them, who slew them, harassed their Countrey,633 and made a lamentable Desolation, within the compasse of one year, without respect to Age or Sex; untill Oswald (bred and brought up in Scotland) next of the Bloud-Royall, came to be King of Northumberland, whom God sent to redeem that miserable Country from the hands of their Enemies, and many eminent Victories he obtained.

62. The fatall year,A lost year well found. wherein so many Outrages were committed on the Apostate Northumberlanders, by Cadwald King of the Britans, is detested by all Saxon Chronologers. And therefore all the Annalists, and writers of Histories in that Age, by joynt-consent, universally resolved to damn and drown the Memoriall of that Annus infaustus (as they call it) Vnlucky year, but made so by Vngodly men. Yea, they unanimouslyBede Eccles. Hist. lib. 2. c. 1. agreed to allow those two Apostate Kings, no yeares reign in their Chronicles, adding the time (subtracted from them) to Oswald, their Christian Successour, accounting him to have reignedIdem lib. 3. cap. 9. nine yeares; which indeed were but eight of his own, and one of these Historians their Adoption. Yet is it no news even in Scri­pture it self, to bury the reign of Tyrants, under the Monument of a good Prince succeeding them. Thus when Ehud isIudg. 3. 30. said to have judged the land four­score year; those eighteen Vers. 14. yeares are included, wherein Eglon the Moabite op­pressed Israel.

63. Amongst the many Victories atchieved by this Oswald, A victory given from heaven. one most re­markable was gained by him near Hexam in Northumberland, 635 against the Pa­gans, against whom he erected the Standard of the Crosse, in a place which time out of mind was called Heafen-feld (Haledon at this day,) by a Prolepsis, not answering the name thereof untill this time. Hence a Poet writing the life of Oswald;

Tunc primum scivit causam cur nomen haberet
Heafen-feld, hoc est, coelestis campus; & illi
Nomen ab antiquo dedit appellatio Gentis
Praeteritae, tanquam belli praesaga futuri.

Then he began the reason first to know
Of Heafen-feld, why it was called so;
Nam'd by the Natives long since by foresight,
That in that field would hap an heavenly fight.

Thus it is generally reported, that the place nigh Lipsick, where the King of Sweden got one of his signal Victories, was, time out of mind, termed by the Dutch Swedish In­telligencer. Gots Acre, or, Gods ground. And thus, as Onesimus and Eutychus were so called from their Infancy, but never truely answered their Names, till after thePhilem. v. 11 Conversion of the one, and Reviving of theActs 20. 12. other: so Places (whether casually, or prophetically) have Names anciently imposed upon them, which are sometimes verified many Ages after.

64. About this time Honorius the Pope sent his Letter to the Scotch Na­tion, Pope Hono­rius his inef­fectual letter. advising them to an Uniformity with the Church of Rome in the Cele­bration of Easter. His main Reason is thought to have more of State, then Strength; humane Haughtinesse, then holy Divinity in it. Namely he coun­selleth them, Ne paucitatem suam in extremis terrae finibus constitutam, sapien­tiorem omnibus Christi Ecclesiis aestimarent. This is that Honorius, of whom Leo [Page 79] the second,Anno Dom. 635 his Successour, complaineth in hisTom. 2. De­cret. Epist. ed. Romae 1591. pag. 654. Epistle to the Bishops of Spain, Flammam haertici dogmatis non (ut decuit Apostolicam authoritatem) incipientem extinxit, sed negligendo confovit; By his negligence he did coun­tenance the heretical Opinions (meaning of the Monothelites, then beginning afresh to spring up again) which he ought to have suppressed. Thus he, who could stickle about the Ceremony of keeping, Easter, could quietly connive at, yea (interpretatively) consent to the depraving of the Doctrinall part of Religion. But his Letter to the Scotch took little effect, who kept their Easter not one Minute the sooner, or later, for all his writing unto them.

65. In a better Work,Birinus con­verts the VVest-Saxons to the faith. and with better Successe, was Birinus employed, an Italian by Birth, sent over by Pope Honorius for the Conversion of the re­mainder of England; and to that purpose (that his Preaching belike might be the more powerfull) made a Bishop before hisBede lib. 3. cap. 7. coming over, by Asterius Bishop of Genoa. Here I am at a losse. Bishop of what? Where was his Dio­cese or Bishoprick? Were not Bishop and Bishoprick so correlated in that Age, that they must be together? the trick of making Titular Bishops not as yet being used in Rome. It is impossible, that Bishops here should import no more then a plain Priest; and, that he onely took Orders before he came over into England. Well, commend me to the Memory of this man, who first was made Bishop, and then made himself a Bishoprick, by earning it out of the Pagan English, whom he intended to convert to Christianity. Yea, he passed his solemn Promise in the presence of the Pope, that he would preach the Gospel in the heart of the Idem ibid. uttermost coasts of England (meaning the Northern parts thereof) whither no Teacher had at any time gone before him. Minded herein like2 Cor. 10. 16. St. Paul, not to boast in another mans line, of things made ready to his hand.

66. This his Promise Birinus, 636 though he literally brake,A broken promise well kept. Virtually kept; for he chanced to land amongst the West-Saxons (then called Gevises) in the South-VVest part of England, where as yet the Inhabitants were pure-impure Pagans. Having here found a fit subject for his Pains, why should he go far­ther to seek the same? Is not Providence the best Herauld to marshal us? and ought we not to sit down where it disposeth us? Besides, according to Military Rules, it was best to clear the Coasts as he went, and not to leave a Pagan-Foe behind his back. Moved herewith, Birinus here sets up his Staffe [Episcopal,] fixeth himself; falls a preaching, converts many, and a­mongst the rest, Kyngils the VVest-Saxon King, whom he baptized. Oswald, King of Northumberland, chanced to beBede Eccles. Hist. l. 3. cap. 7. present at that time, and was first God-Father, then Father in Law to King Kyngils, to whom he gave his Daughter to Wife.

67. Dorchester (not the Town which denominates Dorsetshire, Dorchester made a Bi­shops See. but) an old City in Oxfordshire (not in Barkshire, as Stapleton In his trans­lation of Bede Pol. 82. mistakes it) was made the Seat of Birinus his Bishoprick. Bede faith, Donaverunt autem ambo Reges eidem Episcopo civitatem, quae vocatur Dorinca, &c. Both the Kings (Oswald, and Kynglls) gave to the said Bishop the City Dorinca, or Dorchester. Both of them] Hence observe, first, that Oswald (whose Concurrence in this Grant was required) though particular King of Northumberland, was also Monarch of all England. To justifie our former Observation, that amongst the seven Saxon Kings, alwayes one was paramount above the rest. Secondly, that this Dorchester (though it lay North of Thames in Oxfordshire, which properly be­longed to the Kingdomes of Mercia) pertained now to the VVest-Saxons, beyond the ordinary Limits assigned to that Kingdome.

68. In this year Honorius Arch-Bishop of Canterbury divided England (un­derstand, 637 so much thereof as was Christian) into Parishes.England di­vided into Parishes. But that most ex­quisite Mr. Selden in his Hist. of Tithes, cap. 9. pag. 256. Antiquary seems very unwilling to admit so early and ancient Parishes, in the modern proper Acception of the word. Who knoweth not, that Parochia at large, signifieth the Diocese of the Bishop? and two new [Page 80] Dioceses,Anno Dom. 637 (Dunwich and Dorchester) were erected under Honorius in the Pro­vince of Canterbury. But whether Parishes, as usually understood for, places bounded in regard of the Profits from the people therein, payable onely to a Pastour incumbent there; I say, whether such Parishes were extant in this Age, may well be questioned, as inconsistent with the Community of Ecclesiastick Profits, which then seemed joyntly enjoyed by the Bishop and his Clergy.

69. No sooner was Oswald (whom we formerly mentioned) settled in his Kingdome of Northumberland, A morose Preacher little the edifieth. but his first Princely Care was, to provide Pa­stours to instruct his People in Christianity. In order where unto he sends into Scotland (where he had his own Education) for some Eminent Preachers. Unu­suall the Sun should come out of the North, to enlighten the South, as here it came to passe. One Preacher was sent him thence, whose Name we find not, but thus much of his Nature; that being over-rigid and severe, his Ser­mons made no Impression on his English Auditory. Hard with hard (saith the Proverb) makes no VVall: and no Wonder, if the spirituall Building went on no better, wherein the Austerity and Harshnesse of the Pastour, met with the Ignorance and Sturdinesse of the People. Home he returns, complaining of his ill Successe; and one Aidan, of a Milder temper, and more Discretion (a Grace which none ever spake against, but such as wanted it) was sent back in his room.

70. Aidan coming into England, Aidan his due commenda­tion. settled himself at Lindisfern, or Holy-Island, in Northumberland; a place which is an Island and no Island twice in twenty four hours, as divided by the Tide from, so conjoyned at Low-water to the Continent. His exemplary Life was a Pattern for all pious Pastours. First, he left to the Clergy, Saluberrimum abstinentiae, vel continentiae exemplum; though we read not he vowed Virginity himself, or imposed in on others. He lived as he taught; and, whatsoever the Bounty of Princes or great Persons bestowed on him, he gave to the Poor. He seldome travelled but on Foot; and, when invited to large Feasts at Court, used to arise after a short Refection, and betake himself to his Meditations. He redeemed many Slaves from Captivity, making them first Free-men, then Christians.

71.Bede his al­lay. All these his excellent Practices Bede Eccles. Hist. lib. 3. cap. 3. dasheth with this Allay, that▪ He had a Zeal of God, although not fully according to Knowledge; merely because he dissented from the Romish Church in the Celebration of Easter. But whe­ther those words ofRom. 10. 2. St. Paul, spoken of his Country-men the Iews, in refe­rence to their Stumbling at Christ, the Saviour of Mankind, be fitly appliable to Aidan, onely differing in an outward Ceremony, let others decide. True it is, this Aidan was a prime Champion of the Quartadecimans, as who had been brought up under, or with St. Colme, in Ireland. The writer of the Life of this St. Colme (let this be inserted by the way) reports, how the said Saint had a RevelationArch-Bishop Usher in the Religion of the Irish p. 99. of the Holy Ghost, which prophesied unto him of this Dis­cord, which after many dayes should arise in the Church, about the diversity of the Feast of Easter. Yet he telleth us not, that the Holy Ghost reproved this Colme (whose Example animated others against the Roman Rite) for his Errour; as if God cared not, which of both Sides carried the Controversie.

72. But all which Bede speaketh in Diminution of Aidan, Lay-mens di­ligence in reading Scripture. may freely be forgiven him, were it but for his faithfull recording of the following Passage in Aidan's Life: and take it with Stapleton's own Translation thereof.

Omnes qui cum eo incede­bant, sive Attonsi, sive Lai­ci, meditari deberent; id est, aut legendis Scripturis, aut Psalmis discendis ope­ram dare.

All they which went with him, were they professed into Religion, or were they Lay­brethren, gave themselves continually to Contemplation; that is to say, bestowed all their time in reading Scripture, or learning the Psalter.

Bede, speaking hereof, addeth moreover, tantum vita illius à nostri temporis [Page 81] segnitia distabat, so much differed his life from the Lazinesse of our Age: taxing those of his Time for Neglect of the Scriptures. And the Ignorance be­moaned in his Age, continued and encreased after his Death.

73. When Aidan came first into England, The royall interpreter. he was not perfect in the Language of our Country. For although the Speech of the modern Southern-Scot be onely a Dorick Dialect of, no distinct Language from English; yet Aidan, who naturally spoke Irish, was not intelligible of his English Con­gregation. Wherefore King Oswald, a better Scotch-man (as bred amongst them) then Aidan was English-man, interpreted to the People, what the other preached unto them. Thus these two put together made a perfect Preacher. And although some will say, Sermons thus at the Second-hand must lose much of their Life and Lustre; yet the same Spirit working in both, the Ordinance proved effectuall to the Salvation of many Souls.

74. This year the first Lent was kept in England; 640 conceive it in those Parts thereof which obeyed the Roman Celebration of Easter. The first Lent in En­gland. Otherwise it is suspi­cious, that the Quartadecimans were no good Quadragesimarians, and no such conscientious Observers of Lent on the Romish Account. Surely, if people were taught in Lent to fast (as from Flesh, so) from a proud and false opi­nion of Meriting thereby, Policy would be well pleased and Piety not offended at the Observing thereof; whilest Continent-Countries might keep it with­out any Losse to their Souls, and Islands with great Gain to their Estates.

75. Oswald, 642 King of Northumberland, The ill suc­cesse of good Kings. at Maserfield (since Oswa­stree) in Shropshire, against Penda the Pagan Prince of Mercia, was overthrown, slain, and his Body most barbarously abused, and chopped in Pieces. Yea, it is observable that such Saxon Kings, which were first converted to Chri­stianity, and such who were the most active Restorers of Religion after a generall Apostasie, commonly came to Violent Deaths, by the hands of Heathens. As,

Edwine, first Christian King of Northumberland, slain by Pagan Penda, Anno 632.

Erpenwald, first Christian King of East-Angels, slain by his own People, Anno 639.

Peada, first Christian King of Mercia, slain by his own Wife, Anno 659.

Edelwald, or Ethelwald, first Christian King of Sussex, slain likewise.

Oswald, the most Religious Restorer of Christianity in Northumberland, slain Anno 642.

Anna, the most Pious King of the East-Angels, slain by Penda, Anno 654.

Edmond, the most Devout King of the East-Angels, martyred by the Danes, Anno 870.

Inquiring into the Causes hereof, we find, First, that the Lustre of their Lives shining before men, made them the fairer Mark for their malicious Enemies. Secondly, Satan, accounting them Traitours against his Kingdome of Darknesse, left no stone unturned, thereby to bring them to Temporall De­struction, the greatest Hurt which his Power could inflict. Thirdly, God, to try the Patience of his Infant-Church, acquainted them with Afflictions from their very Cradle. Such therefore are mistaken, who make Prosperity a note either of Piety in particular Persons, or Verity in a whole Church; seeing, take it one time with another, and it misseth the Mark oftner then it hits is As for our Oswald, Legions of Miracles are attributed unto him after Death; all which we willingly omit, insisting onely on One as most remarkable.

76. The Story goes thus.Oswald's hand said never to putrifie. On an Easter-day Oswald was sitting in his Pa­lace at Dinner with Bishop Aidan: when in comes one of his Servants, and informeth him, that abundance of Poor people from all parts fate in the Streets expecting some Almes for their Relief. Presently King Oswald com­mands, [Page 82] not onely that the Meat set before him should be given them,Anno Dom. 642 also that the large Silver-Charger holding the same should be broke in pieces, and (in want perchance of present Coin) parted betwixt them. Whereupon, Aidan laying hold on Oswald's right Hand (and that alone, we know, ought to be theMatth. 6. 3. Almoner) May this hand (said he)So Staple­ton transla­teth what is, Bede is, in­veterascat. never be consumed: which is said accordingly to come to passe. So that when all the other Members of King Oswald's Body (torn asunder by his barbarous Enemies) were pu­trified, his right Hand alwayes remained unconsumed.

Camden's Brit. in Lin­colnshire.
Verme perit; nulla Putredine tabet.
Dextra viri; nullo constringi Frigore, nullo
Dissolvi Fervore potest: sed semper eodem
Immutata statu persistit, mortua vivit.
No Worm, no Rottennesse taints his right Hand;
Corruption-free in vain the Cold doth strive
To freeze, or Heat to melt it, which doth stand
Still at one stay; and though dead, is alive.

But it is not enough for us, that we have the Poets Pen for it; if we also had Oswald's Hand to shew for the same, much might be wrought on our belief herein.

77. For my own part,Mystically true. I conceive that Aidan his words to Oswald; that his Handshould never wax old, or be consumed, were spiritually spoken, in a My­sticall Meaning, parallel to those Scripture-expressions; The Righteous shall be in Psal. 112. 6. everlasting Remembrance, even, when the name of the VVicked shall Prov. 10. 7. rot. The bountifull hand never consumes: neither actually, it never wastes nor em­pairs an Estate, God so ordering it, that the more he giveth the more he hath; nor passively, it is not consumed, the Acts thereof remaining in a perpetuall Memoriall here, and hereafter. But, grant this Miracle of Oswald's Hand literally true in the Latitude thereof; I desire any ingenuous Papist to consider the Time wherein it was acted. It was Easter-day, yea, such an Easter-day as was celebrated by the Quartadecimans, Aidan being present thereat, contrary to the time which the Canons of Rome appointed. Now, did not a Divine Finger in Oswald his miraculous Hand, point out this Day then to be truly observed? Let the Papists produce such another Miracle, to grace and credit their Easter Roman-stile, and then they say something to the Pur­pose.

78. It plainly appears,Over offici­ousnesse oc­casioned pur­gatory. that the Survivers had not onely, a charitable Opi­nion, but a comfortable Presumption, yea, an infallible Perswasion, that the Soul of King Oswald was possessed of Heavenly Happinesse, instantly after his Death. What better Demonstration of his present being in perfect Blisse, then those many Miracles, which the Papists confidently report to be done by him after his Death, in curing Sick people of their severall Maladies? For such Souls which they fancy in Purgatory, are so farre from healing others, that they cannot help themselves. Yea,Eccles. Hist. lib. 3. cap. 12. Bede calleth this Oswald, jam cum Domino regnantem, now reigning with the Lord. Yet the sameLib. 3. cap. 2 Authour attest­eth, that even in his time it was the anniversary Custome of the Monks of He­xam, to repair to Heofen-feld (a place hard by, where Oswald, as aforesaid, ob­tained his miraculous Victory) and there to observe Vigils for the Salvation of his Soul, plurima (que) Psalmorum laude celebrata, victimam pro eo, mane sacrae obla­tionis offerre. A Mongrel Action, betwixt Good-will and VVill-worship: though the eyes of their Souls in those Prayers looked not forward to the future, pe­titioning for Oswald's Happinesse; but backward to what was past, gratulatory to the Blisse he had received. Purgatory therefore cannot properly be founded on such Suffrages for the dead. However, such over-Officiousnesse (though at first it was like the Herb in the Pot, which doth neither good nor ill) in af­ter-Ages [Page 83] became like that wild 2 King. 4. 40▪ Gourd, Anno Dom. poysoning mens Souls with Supersti­tion,644 when they fell to down-right Praying for the departed.

79. This year Paulinus, The death of Paulinus. late Arch-Bishop of York, since Bishop of Rochester, ended his Life; and one Ithamar succeeded him, born in Kent, and the first English-man Bishop, all being Forrainers before him. As he was the first of his Nation, I believe him the second of his Name, meeting with no moe save onelyExod. 6. 23. Ithamar, the youngest Son of Aaron, High-Priest of Israel.

80. After King Oswald his Death,645 four Christian contemporary Kings flou­rished in England. Most Chri­stian King Oswy. First Oswy, King of Northumberland, more commendable for the Managing, then the Gaining of his Kingdome; except any will say, that no good Keeping can make amends for the ill Getting of a Crown, see­ing he defeated Ethelwald (Oswald's Son, and) the true Heire thereof, Bede Lib. 3. c. 21. termeth him Regem Christianissimum, The most Christian King; a Stile where­with the present Majesty of France will not be offended, as which many years after was settled on his Ancestours. Long had this Oswy endeavoured in vain by Presents to purchase Peace from Penda, the Pagan King of Mercia, who miserably harassed his Country; and refused any Gifts, (though never so rich and great) which were tendered unto him. At last, saith myIdem. Authour, Oswy resolved, VVe will offer our Presents to such a King, who is higher in Command, and humbler in his Courtesie, as who will not disdain to accept them. Whereupon he devoted his Daughter to God, in her perpetuall Virginity, and soon after obtained a memorable Conquest over his Enemies, and cleared the Country from his Cruelty.

81. Secondly,Sigebert the too good. Sigebert, King of Essex, and the Restorer of Religion in his Kingdome (which formerly had apostatized after the Departure of Mellitus) valiant, and pious, though taxed for his contumacious Company-keeping (contrary to his Confessours command) with an Excommunicated Count, in whose House he was afterward murdered by two Villains: Who, being de­manded the Cause of their Cruelty, why they killed so harmlesse and inno­cent a Prince, had nothing to say for themselves, but they did it, because his Beda lib. 3. cap. 22. Goodnesse had done the Kingdome hurt; such his pronenesse to pardon Offenders, on their (though but seeming) Submission, that his Meeknesse made many Malefactours. But I hope, and believe, that the Heirs of Sigebert (though the Story be silent herein) finding his Fault, amended it in themselves, and exercised just Severity in the Execution of these two damnable Trai­tours.

82. Anna may be accounted the third Successour to Sigebert, 654 and happy in a numerous and holy Off-spring.Anna happy in an holy issue. Yea, all his Children (save Firminus the eldest, slain with his Father in a Fight against Pagan Penda) were either Mitred, or Vailed, when Living; Sainted, and Shrined, when Dead: as Erkenwald, Bi­shop of London; Ethelred, or Audrey, and Sexburga, successively Foundresses and Abbesses of Elie; VVithgith, a Nun therein; and Ethilburg, Abbesse of Beorking, nigh London.

83. Peada, 656 Prince of Mercia, The conver­sion of the Mercians to Christianity. under Prince Peada. may make up the Quaternion, who married Alfrede, Daughter of Oswy King of Northumberland; and thereupon renoun­cing Paganisme, embraced Christianity, and propagated it in his Dominions. Indeed Penda, his Father, that Persecuter of Piety, was still alive (and sur­vived two yeares after) persisting an Heathen till Death, but mollified to per­mit a Toleration of Christianity in his Subjects. Yea, Penda in his Old-age used an expression (which might have beseemed the Mouth of a better man) namely. That he hated not Christians, but onely such who Beda lib. 3. cap. 21. professed Christ's Faith, without his VVorks; accounting them contemptible, who pretended to Believe in God, without Obeying him.

84. A brace of Brethren,St. Cedde, and St. Chad. both Bishops, both eminent for Learning and Religion, now appeared in the Church, so like in Name, they are oft mistaken in Authours one for another. Now, though it be pleasant for Brethren to [Page 84] live together in Vnity; Anno Dom. 656 yet it is not fit, by Errour they should be jumbled to­gether in Confusion. Observe their Difference therefore.

St. Cedde (in Latine Ceddus) I believe the elder, born at Flores San­ctorum pag. 35. London (where afterward he was Bishop) bred in Holy Is­land, an active promoter in making the East-Saxons Con­verts (or rather Reverts) to the Faith. He is remembred in the Romish Kalendar, Ia­nuary the seventh.

St. Chad (in Latine Cedda) born inIdem p. 224. Nor­thumberland, bred likewise in Holy Island, and Scholar to Aidanus. He was Bishop of Lich­field; a milde, and modest man, of whom more hereafter. His death is celebrated in the Kalender March the second, and the Dust of his Tombe is by Papists reported to cure all Diseases [alike] in Man and Beast. I believe it might make the dumb to see, and the lame to speak.

The later of these was, as the Longest Liver, so the most eminent in his Life; who made many Christians, and amongst the rest VVulfade and Rufine, Sons to Wulphere King of Mercia, succeeding Peada therein, who was sudden­ly slain, and his untimely Death was a great Loss to Religion.

85. Look we now on the See of Canterbury, Fridona first English Arch-bishop. where (to our comfort) we have gotten one of our own Country-men into the place, Fridona a Saxon. Yet, for the more State of the businesse, he assumed the name of Deus-dedit. We know, Arch-Bishops of his See are termed Alterius orbis Papae, and such changing of Names was fashionable with the Popes. He was consecrated by Ithamar alone, Bishop of Rochester, the first English Bishop consecrating the first English Arch-Bishop. Let no Sophister cavill with his thread-bare Maxime, Nihil dat quod non habet, and therefore a single Bishop could not conferre Archiepiscopal Power; but leave it to the Canon-Lawyers, to decide what may be done in case of Extremity. Mean time, how causelesse is the Caption of the PapistsSanders de Schism. pag. 297 at the Consecration of Matthew Parker, because no Arch-Bishop (though four Bishops) was present thereat. Seeing, though an Arch-Bishop be requisite ad Dignitatem, Bishops will suffice ad Honestatem; and a single Bishop (asBede Hist. lib. 3. p. 217. Ithamar here) may be effectuall ad essentiam of an Archiepi­scopal Consecration. No wonder therefore if Evagrius was acknowledged a legitimate Bishop by theBinnius Tom. 1. p. 579. in Notis in Epist. 17. In­nocentis primi. Wolphere's murther of his two Sons. Pope himself, though contrary to the Rigour of the Canon, consecrated byTheodoret. lib. 5. cap. 23. Paulinus alone. Deus-dedit answered his Name (A good Arch-Bishop is Gods Gift) and for nine yeares and more, ruled the Church to his great Commendation.

86. A barbarous Murther was committed by Wolphere, 662 King of Mercia, who understanding that his two Sons, Wulfade and Rufine, had embraced Chri­stianity, cruelly slew them with his own Hands. But afterwards, repenting of so soul a Fact, he himself turned Christian; and in Testimony thereof, finished the fair Fabrick of the Monastery at Peterborough, begun by Peada his Brother. The whole Story thereof was, till lately, set forth in Painting, and Poetry (such as it was) in the Glass-windows, round about the Cloisters of Peter­borough.

Wulfade pray'd Chad, that ghostly Leach,
The Faith of Christ him for to teach.

87. And now,The making of Glasse brought first into England. having fallen on the mention of Glasse, be it seasonably re­membred, that just at this time one Benault, a forrain Bishop (but of what place I find not) brought the Mystery of making Glasse into England, to the great Beautifying of our Churches and Houses; the Eyes being the Grace of the Body, as Windows are of Buildings. I conceive, his Invention was White Glasse alone, more ancient then Painted Glasse in this Island, as Plain-song is much seniour to all Descanting, and running of Division.

88. The Paroxisme continued and encreased,Scotish Bi­shops dissent from others in keeping Easter. betwixt the Scotish Bishops (headed, after Aidan's Death, by Finan, Bishop of Holy-Island) and such who celebrated Easter after the Roman Rite. The later so bitterly detested the [Page 85] former,Anno Dom. 662 that they would not receive Consecration of them, or Imposition of Hands; as if their very Fingers ends were infected with Schisme, for dissen­ting from Rome. Yea, they would neither give the Sacrament of the Euacharist to them, nor receive it from them: and yet they never quarrelled at, or que­stioned the validity of Baptisme conferred by them; seeing Bishop Finan chri­stened the King of the East-Saxons, and all his Subjects. Some what more mo­derate were the Scots, or Quartadecimans, in their Cariage to the other, seeing St. Chad (Scotized in his Judgement) refused not Consecration from Wyni, Bi­shop of Winchester, though one of the contrary Opinion.

89. Nor was this Controversie consined to Cloisters and Colledges,This contro­versy spreads into private families. but derived it self from the Kings Court, down into private Families. Thus Oswy, King of Northumberland, was of the Scotish Perswasion, whilest his Queen and eldest Son were of the Romish Opinion, in Celebration of Easter. One Board would not hold them, whom one Bed did contain. It fell out so sometimes, that the Husband's Palm-Sunday was the Wife's Easter-day; and in other Fami­lies, the Wife fasted, and kept Lent still, whilest her Husband feasted, and ob­served Easter. Say not, that Wife deserved to fast alwayes, who in so indiffe­rent a Ceremony would not conform to her Husband's Judgement. For Con­sciences, in such kinds, are to be led, not drawn. Great was the Disturbance in every great Family; onely the Poor gained by the Difference, causing a Dupli­cate of Festivalls, two Easters being kept every year in the same House.

90. To compose this Controversie (if possible) a Councill was called at Streanch-Hall (now Whitby in Yorkshire) by the procurement of St. Hilda, 663 Ab­bess therein.A Councell is called to compose this controversie. Here appeared, amongst many others,

  • For the Romish Easter,
    • VVilfride, an Abbot, a zealous Cham­pion.
    • Romanus, a Priest, ve­ry hot in the Quar­rel: And others.
  • Moderatours.
    • Hilda, the Abbess of Streanch-Hall.
    • S. Cedd, Bishop of Lon­don, propending to the Scotish, but not throughly perswaded.
  • For the Scotish Easter.
    • St. Coleman, Bi­shop of Holy-Island, who succeeded Fi­nan in that place.

But Baronius and Binnius will in no case allow this for a Councill (though elsewhere extending that name to meaner Meetings) onely they call it a Col­lation; because (forsooth) it wanted some Council-Formalities, all Bishops not being, solemnly summoned, but onely some Voluntiers appearing therein. Besides, as there was something too little, so something too much for a Ca­nonicall Councill; Hilda, a Woman, being Moderatresse therein; which seemed irregular.

91. In this Councill,Wilfride his prevailing argument. or Collation (call it which you please) after much ar­guing pro and con, VVilfride at last knockt all down with this Argument; That the Romish Celebration of Easter was founded on the Practice of St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Porter of Heaven. King Oswy hearing this was af­frighted, who had rather anger all the other eleven Apostles, then offend St. Pe­ter, one so high in Power and Place; for fear (as he said) left coming to Heaven­gate, St. Peter should deny him a Cast of his Office, and refuse to let him into Happinesse. St. Coleman, being on the other side, was angry, that so slight an Argument had made so deep an Impression on the King's Credulity. And, to manifest his Distaste, after the Councill was broken up, carried all those of his own Opinion home with him into Scotland. One Tuda succeeded him in his Bishoprick of Holy-Island, the first of that See that conformed himself in this Controversie to the Romish Church, and died in the same year, of the Plague.

92. As for VVilfride, His intended, but disap­pointed pre­ferment. he was well rewarded for his Paines in this Councill, being presently promoted to be Bishop of York, which, since Paulinus his Death, was no longer an Arch-Bishop's, but a plain Bishop's See. But, though [Page 86] appointed for the place by King Oswy, Anno Dom. 663 he refused Consecration from any En­glish Bishops, being all irregular, as consecrated by the schismaticall Scots; onely VVyni, late Bishop of VVinchester, now of London, was ordained cano­nically, but lately he had contracted just Shame for his Simony, in buying his Bishoprick. Over goes VVilfride therefore to Rome for Consecration, and stayes there so long, that in his Absence the King put St. Chad into the Bishoprick of York. The writer of VVilfride's Life complains lowdly hereof;

—Audacter sponsam vivo rapuere marito.
Boldly in the Husban's life,
Away from him they took his Wife.

But, by the Poets leave, York was but espoused, not married to VVilfride, whilest he was in England: and after his going over beyond-Sea, he stayed so long, that his Church presumed him dead, and herself a Maid-Widow, which lawfully might receive another Husband. At last VVilfride returning home had York restored unto him, and St. Chad was removed to the new-founded Bishop­rick of Lichfield.

93. The Abbess Hilda, Abbess Hilda. whom we mentioned before, was like another Huldah, which lived in the2 Chro. 34. 22. Colledge, superiour to most of her Sex in Learning, inferiour to none in Religion. Monks ascribe it to her Sanctity, that she turned many Serpents in that Country into Stones. Plenty of which Stones are found at this day about VVhitby, the place of her Aboad, having the Shape of Serpents, but most headlesse; as the Tale is truthlesse, relating it to her Miraculous Operation. Who knows not, but that at Alderly in Glocestershire, there are found Stones resembling Cockles, or Periwincles, in a place far from the Sea? which are esteemed by the Learned the Gamesome Work of Nature, sometimes pleased to disport it self, and pose us by propoun­ding such Riddles unto us.

94. Some impute it also to Hilda her Holinesse,A miracle imputed to her holiness. that Wilde-geese, when flying over the Grounds near her Convent, fell down to the ground, as doing Homage to the Sanctity thereof. As the Credit of the Reporters hath conver­ted wise men to believe the Thing: so they justly remain incredulous, that it proceedeth from any Miracle, but secret Antipathy. But as Philosophers, when posed in Nature, and prosecuted to render Reasons of her Mysteries, took San­ctuary at Occulta Qualitas: Monks in the same kind make their Refuge to the Shrine of some Saint, attributing all they cannot answer, to His, or Her mira­culous Operation. Yea sometimes such is Monkish Impudence, falsely to assign that to a Saint (though all Chronologies protest against the Possibility thereof) which is the plain and pregnant effect of Nature. Witnesse when theyAs Camden saith in Wor­cestershire. write, that Richard de la VVich, Bishop of Chicester, with his fervent Prayers obtained, that the VViches, or salt Springs, should boil out of the earth in Durtwich in VVorcestershire; which are mentioned, and described by ancient Authours dead before the Cradle of the said Richard de la VVich was made.

95. Look we now on the See of Canterbury, Theodorus Arch-bishop of Canterbury. and there after the Death of the last Arch-Bishop (and four yeares Vacancy) we find that Church hath changed her Latine into Greek, 668 I mean, dead Deus-dedit, into Theodorus his Suc­cessour, put in by the Pope. This Theodorus was a Grecian by Name, and Na­tion, fellow-Citizen with S [...]. Paul, born inActs 22. 3. Tarsus in Cilicia; and herein like him, that he 1 Cor. 14. 18 spake with Tongues more then they all, had more skill in learned Languages then all his Brethren, Bishops of England, in that Age. Yea, as Chil­dren when young, are permitted to Play; but when of some yeares, are sent to learn their Book: so hitherto the Infant-Church of England may be said to have lost time for matter of Learning, and now Theodorus set it first to School, brought Books to it, and it to Books; erecting a well-furnished Library, and teaching his Clergie how to make use thereof.

96. I could wish this Theodorus had had one Quality more of St. Paul;67 ⅔ that in matters Indifferent, he would have been1 Cor. 9. 22. His fierce­ness to keep Easter after the Romish rite. made all things to all men, that by [Page 87] all means he might save some. Anno Dom. 67 ⅔ Whereas he most rigourously pressed Confor­mity to Rome, in the Observation of Easter: and to that purpose a Councill was called at Herad-ford, now Hartford, and not Hereford, as judicious and in­dustrious Bishop Godwine (partiall to the place where of he himself was Bishop) doth mistake it. Here Easter was settled after the Romish Rite; and we are not sorry for the same, willing rather it should be any way ordered, then that the Reader (with whom I sympathize, more then grutch my own Pains) should be troubled any longer with such a small-great Controversie, low in it's own Merit, but heightned with the Spleen and Passion of such as prosecuted it. In this Synod nine other Articles were concluded of, as they follow here in order, out of Bede, Lib. 4. cap. 5. as Stapleton himself hath translated them.

1. That no Bishop should have ought to do in another Diocese, but be contented with the Charge of the people committed unto him.

2. That no Bishop should molest, or any wise trouble such Monasteries as were consecreated, and given to God, nor violently take from them ought that was theirs.

3. That Monks should not go from place to place, that is to say, from one Monastery to another, unlesse by the leave of their own Abbot; but should continue in the Obedience which they promised at the time of their Conversion, and entring into Religion.

4. That none of the Clergie forsaking his own Bishop, should run up and down where he list, nor when he came any whither, should be received without Letters of Commendation from his Diocesan. And, if that he be once received, & will not return, being warned and called, both the Receiver and he that is Received shall incurre the Sen­tence of Excommunication.

5. That such Bishops and Clerks as are Strangers, be content with such Hospitality as is given them; and that it be lawfull for none of them to execute any Office of a Priest, without the permission of the Bishop in whose Diocese they are known to be.

6. That whereas by the ancient Decrees, a Synod and Convocation ought to be assembled twice a year; yet because diverse Inconve­niences do happen among us, it hath seemed good to us all, that it should be assembled once a year, the first day of August, at the place called Clofeshooh.

7. That no Bishop should ambitiously preferre himself before another, but should all acknowledge the time, and order of their Consecra­tion.

8. That the Number of Bishops should be encreased, the number of Christian folk waxing daily greater; but hereof at this time we said no further.

9. That no man commit Advoutry nor Fornication; that no man for­sake his own Wife, but for onely Fornication, as the Holy Gospel teacheth. And, if any man put away his Wife being lawfully married unto him, if he will be a right Christian man, let him be joyned to none other: but let him so continue still sole, or else be reconciled a­gain to his own Wife.

I wonder, no mention herein of settling the Tonsure of Priests (a Controversie running parallel with that of Easter) according to the Roman Rite. To con­clude, let not the Reader expect the like exemplification of all Articles in following Synods, so largely as here we have presented them. For this Synod Stapleton In his trans­lation of Bede fol. 118. calls the first of the English Nation (understand him, whose Canons are completely extant) and therefore more Patrimony is due to the Heir and Eldest Son, then to the younger Brethren, who shall be content to be con­fined to their Pensions, I mean, to have their Articles not exemplified, but epi­tomized hereafter.

[Page 88] 97. Theodorus, He envieth Wilfride Bi­shop of York. Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, beheld VVilfride, Bishop of York (one of great Parts, and greater Passions) with envious eyes; and therefore, to abate his Power, he endeavoured that the Diocese of York might be di­vided. VVilfride offended hereat goes over to Rome to impede the Project, and by the way is tossed with a grievous Tempest. It is an ill wind whicch bloweth no man Profit. He is cast on the Shoar of Freezland in Belgia, where the In­habitants, as yet Pagans, were by his Preaching converted to Christianity. This may be observed in this Wilfride, his [...] were better then his [...], his casuall and occasionall were better then his intentionall Performances (which shews plainly, that Providence acted more vigourously in him, then his own Prudence:) I mean, when at Ease in Wealth, at home, he busied himself in Toyes and Trifles of Ceremonious Controversies; but when (as now, and afterwards) a Stranger, and little better then an Exile, he effectually promoted the Honour and Glory of God.

98. And as it is observed of Nightingales,The South-Saxons (as formerly the Freezlanders) converted by Wilfride. that they sing the sweetest,679 when farthest from their Nests: so this VVilfride was most diligent in God's Ser­vice, when at the greatest distance from his own Home. For though return­ing into England, he returned not unto York, but stayed in the Pagan King­dome of the South-Saxons, who also, by God's Blessing on his Endeavours, were perswaded to embrace the Christian Faith.

99. These South-Saxons, The first, the last. of all the seven Kingdomes, were the last which submitted themselves to the perfect Freedome of God's Service, and yet their Country was in Situation next to Kent, where the Gospel was first planted. Herein it was verified, Many that are first, shall be last; and the last, first. Yea, the Spirit, which bloweth where it listeth, observeth no visible Rules of Motion; but sometimes taking no notice of those in the middle, reacheth to them which are farthest off. Indeed Edilwalch their King, was a little before Christened by the perswasion of VVolphere, King of Mercia (who was his Godfather, and at his baptizing gave him for a Gift the Isle of VVight, & provinciam Bede lib. 4. cap. 13. Meanuarorum in gente Occidentalium Saxonum) but his Country still remained in Paganisme. And although Dicul, a Scot, with some six of his Brethren, had a small Monastery at Bosenham in Sussex; yet they, rather enjoying themselves, then medling with others, were more carefull of their own Safety, then their Neighbours Conversion. And in­deed, the Pagans neither heeded their Life, nor minded their Doctrine.

100. However,Pagan obsti­nacy punish­ed with famine. these South-Saxons paid for their Stubbornnesse, in stand­ing out so long against the Gospel; for they alwayes were a miserable people, and at this present afflicted with a great Famine, caused by three years Drought; so that fourty men in arow, holding hand in hand, used to throw themselves into the Sea, to avoid the misery of a Lingering Death. In this wofull Con­dition did VVilfride, Bishop of York, find them, when he first preached the Gospel unto them; and on that very day wherein he baptized them (as if God from Heaven had powred water into the Font) he obtained store of Rain, which procured great Plenty. Observe (though I am not so ill-na­tured as to wrangle with all Miracles) an Apish Imitation of Elijah (who car­ried the Key of Heaven at his Girdle, to lock, or unlock it by his Prayer:) onely Elijah gave Rain after three yeares and six moneths, VVilfride after bare three yeares; it being good manners to come a little short of his Bet­ters.

101.South-Saxons first taught to fish. Also (saith myBede ibidem Authour) he taught the people (who till then knew not how to catch any Fishes, but Eeles) how to take all kind of Fish in the Sea, and Rivers. Strange! that thus long they should live in Ignorance of so usefull a Trade, being (though Infidels) no Idiots: especially seeing mens Capacities come very soon to be of age to understand their own Profit; and the Examples of their Neighbours might have been Tutours unto them. [Page 89] But Wilfride afterward wanted no Hearers,Anno Dom. 680 People flocking unto him; as when Christ made his Auditours his Guests, they followed after him, be­cause they ate of the Loaves, and were filled. The Priests Eappa, Padda, Bruchelin, and Oidda, assisted in baptizing the common people; and King Edilwalch gave VVilfride a piece of Land, containing eighty nine Families, at Selsey, where he erected a Bishops See, since translated to Chichester.

102. Amongst other good deeds,A double good deed. VVilfride freed two hundred and fifty men and maid-Servants, both out of Soul-Slavery, and Bodily Bondage. For, having baptized them, he procured their Liberty of their Masters, which they (no doubt) chearfully embraced, according to St. Paul's1 Cor. 7. 21. coun­sel, Art thou called a Servant? care not for it: but if thou maist be made free, use it rather. And thus by God's Blessing, in the space of eighty and two yeares (from five hundred ninety seven, to six hundred seventy nine) was the whole Saxon Heptarchie converted to Christianity, and did never again re­lapse to Paganisme.

103.Godfathers used to men of nature Age. Mention beingParag. 99. lately made of VVolphere, the Mercian King, his being Godfather unto Edilwalch, King of the South-Saxons, some will much admire, that one arrived at yeares of Maturity, able to render an Account of his Faith, should have a Godfather, which (with Swadling-clouts) they conceive belong to Infants alone. Yet this was very fashionable in that Age: not onely for the greater state, in Kings, Princes, and Publick Persons; but, in majorem cautelam, even amongst Private people. For such Susceptors were thought to put an Obligation on the Credits (and by reflection on the Con­sciences) of new Christians (whereof too many in those dayes were bap­tized out of civile Designes) to walk worthy of their Profession, were it but to save their Friends Reputation, who had undertaken for their Sincerity therein.

104. Cadwallader, Cadwallader founds a VVelsh Hos­pital at Rome. the last King of VVales, wearied out with Warre, Fa­mine, and Pestilence, left his own Land, and (with some small Treasure) fled to Alan, King of Little Britain. But Princes are welcome in forrain parts, when Pleasure (not Need) brings them thither; or, whilest they are so considerable in themselves, as to command their own Entertainment. Whereas this distressed King his Company was beheld not onely as Uselesse, and Expensive, but Dangerous, as likely to draw with it the Displeasure of the Saxon Kings (his Enemies) on his Entertainer. But it seems, Cadwal­lader had better Friends in Heaven,685 then any he found on Earth, if it be true what confidently is reported, that anLewes Owen his running Re­gister, pag. 17. Angel appeared unto him, ad­vising him to go to Rome, there to take on him the Habite of a Monk, and spend the remainder of his Life. Here he purchased Lands, all by the fore­said Angelicall Direction, built an House (after his Death converted into an Hospitall) and by his Will so ordered it, that certain Priests of his own Country should for ever have the Rule and Government thereof. These were to entertain all VVelsh-Pilgrims with Meat, Drink, and Lodging, for the space of a moneth, and to give them a certain Summe of Money for a viaticum at their Departure, towards their Charges in returning to their own Country.

105. Many a year did this Hospitall flourish in good Plenty,Since, injuri­ously taken from the VVelsh. till the middle of Queen Elisabeth her Reign; when fair the Revenues belonging, and few the VVelsh-Pilgrims repairing thereto. This made Father Parsons, with the rest of our English Iesuites, cast an envious eye thereon, who would never be quiet, until they had obtained of Pope Gregory the 13. to eject the old British, and unite this Hospitall to the English Colledge at Rome. This, no doubt, stirred up the VVelsh bloud of Dr. Morris, Dr. Lewes, Dr. Smith, Mr. Griffith, who in vain stickled to the utmost of their Power, to continue this Foundation to their Country-men. In my poor Opinion, seeing an An­gel is said to direct in the Founding and endowing of this Hospitall, it was [Page 90] but fit that either the same Angel appearing again,Anno Dom. or some other of an higher (or at least equall Dignity and Degree, in the Celestiall Hierarchie) should have altered the Use, and confirmed the Alienation thereof. But of this moreVide Annum Domini 1569. The Ecclesiasticall Laws of King Ina. hereafter.

106. Ina, 692 King of the VVest-Saxons, about this time set forth his Saxon Laws, translated into English by Mr. Lambert. Eleven of his Laws concer­ned Church-matters; Kings in that Age understanding their own Power, the Pope having not as yet intrenched on their just Prerogative. These Constitutions were concluded on by the King, through the Perswasion of Kenred his Father. Hedda and Erkenwald his Bishops, and all his Alder­men and wise Senatours of the People. Let none wonder that Ina, in his Preface to these Laws, termeth Erkenwald His Bishop, whose See of Lon­don was properly under the King of the East-Saxons. For he might call him his in Affection, (whose Diocese was in another King's Possession;) Ina highly honouring Erkenwald for his Piety, and therefore inviting him (for­ward of himself to all Goodnesse) to be present at the passing of these Laws. Besides,Iac. Usser. Arch. Armach. de Brit. Eccles. primord. p. 394 some assign Surrey as part of the Kingdome of the VVest-Saxons: Probably at this present Ina's Puissance sallied over the Thames, and London might be reduced into his Honorary-Protection. But see here a Breviate of his Church-Laws.

1. That Ministers Sr. Henry Spelman his Councils pag. 182. &c. observe their appointed form of living.

2. That every Infant be baptized within thirty dayes after his Birth, on the Penalty of his Parents forfeiting thirty shillings; and if the Child chance to die before he be baptized, all his Estate.

3. If the Servant doth any Work on the Lords day at the Masters Com­mand, the Servant shall beThe Latine, Liber esto, may not onely import a free­dome from fault, but also, that such a sla [...]e-servant should be ma­numis'd from servitude. See the following 113. paragraph. acquitted, and the Mr. pay thirty shillings. But if he did that work without his Masters Command, let him be bea­ten, or redeem it with Money, &c. A Priest offending in this kind was to be double punished.

4. The First-fruits of Seeds were to be paid to the Church on the Feast of St. Martin, on the Penalty of fourty shillings, besides the payment of the said First-fruits twelve times over.

5. If any deserving Stripes shall flie to a Church, his Stripes shall be forgiven him. If guilty of a Capitall Crime, he shall enjoy his Life, but make Re­compence according to what is right and due.

6. Fighters in the King's Court, to lose their Goods, and to be at the King's Mercy for their Life. Such as fight in the Church, to pay 120 shil­lings. If in the house of an Alderman, 60 shil. &c.

7. Such as falsifie their Witnesse or Pawn in the presence of the Bishop, to pay 120. shillings.

8. Severall Penalties of Money imposed on those that should kill a Stranger.

9. Such as are breakers of the Peace in the Town of the King or Arch-Bi­shop, punishable with one hundred and twenty shillings; in the Town of an Alderman, eight shillings; in the Town of one of the King's Ser­vants, sixty shillings, &c.

10. First-fruits of all Seeds were to be paid by House-keepers as due to that place wherein they themselves were resident on the day of Christ's Nativity.

11. What Summes of Money are to be paid by such who have killed their God-fathers or God-sons.

In this last Law, expresse Provision is made, Episcopi filius si occidatur, in case the Son of a Bishop be kill'd: a Passage impertinently alledged by some, for the Proof of Bishops married in that Age; seeing neither Sons natural, nor conjugal, but onely spirituall, at the Font, are thereby intended. Now let the learned in the Law render the Reason, why Murder in that Age was not punishable with Death, but might be bought off with Money.

[Page 91] 107. A great Council (for so it is tituled) was held at Becanceld by VVithred, Anno Dom. 694 King of Kent, Women pre­sent at the great Coun­cil of Becan­celd. and Bertuald, Arch-Bishop of Britain (so called therein) under­stand him of Canterbury; wherein many things were concluded in favour of the Church. Five Kentish Abbesses, namely, Mildred, Etheldred; Aete, Wil­nolde, and Hereswide, were not onely present, but subscribed their Names and Crosses to the Constitutions concluded therein. And we may observe, that their Subscriptions are not onely placed before and above all Presbyters, but also aboveSr. Henry Spelman's Councills pag. 190. Romish braggs of St. Andre's Chastity. Botred a Bishop, (but of what Diocese not specified) present in this great Council. It seems it was the Courtesy of England to allow the upper hand to the weaker Sex, as in their Siting, so in their Subscriptions.

108. We will conclude this Century with the miraculous Holiness of Ethelreda, or St. Audre: professing at first to be afraid to adventure on so high a Subject, disheartened in reading a Popish Authour to rant so in her Commendation. ‘LetThe Flowers of the Saints written by Hierome Porter. the fabulous Greeks talk no more of theirchast Penelope, who in the twenty yeares absence of her Husband Vlysses lived continently, in despite of the tempting Importunity of many noble Woers: and let the proud Romans cease to bragg of their fair Lucretia, that chose rather to become the bloudy instrument of her own Death, then to live after the violent Ravishment of her Honour: and let all the world turn their Minds to admire, and their Tongues and Pens to sound the Praises of the Christian Vertues and Chastity of our blessed Ethelreda, &c. But leaving the Bubbles of his Rhetorick to break of themselves, on serious considerations we are so far from admiring, 'tis more then we can do to ex­cuse this St. Audre, as her Story is reported.

109. This Audre was Daughter to Anna King of the East-Angles, Twice a Wife, still a Maid. and from her Infancy a great affecter of Virginity. However, she was over-per­swaded to marry one Tombert, Prince of the Fen-land, with whom she lived three yeares in the Bands of unexperienced Wedlock, both, by mutuall Consent, abstaining from Carnal Copulation. After his Death, so importunate were her Friends with her that she married with Egfride King of Northumberland.

110. Strange,Pretended chastity, real injustice. that being once free, she would again entangle her self; and stranger, that being married, she utterly refused to afford her Husband what the 1. Cor. 7. 3. Apostle calls due Benevolence, though he by importunate▪ Intreaties re­quested the same. Being Benevolence, it was Uncharitable to deny it; being Due, it was Unjust to detain it; being both, she was uncharitable and unjust in the same action. Was not this a Mockage of Marriage (if in that Age counted a Sacrament) solemnly to give her self unto her Husband, whom formerly she had passed away by a previous Vow of Virginity? At last she wrested leave from her Husband to live a Nun in the Monastery of Ely, which she built and endowed. After her entrance therein she ever wore Wool­len, and neverBede Eccles. Hist. l. 4. c. 19. Linen about her: which whether it made her more Holy, or lesse Cleanly, let others decide. OurHierome Porter in his Flowers of the Saints, and Harpsfield sec. 7. cap. 24. Her miracu­lous Monu­ment of Marble. Authour tells us, that in Memory of her, out English Women are wont to wear about their Necks a certain Chain made of fine small Silk, which they call Ethelred's Chain. I must professe my self not so well acquainted with the Sex, as either to confute or confirm the truth thereof. At last she died of a Swelling in her Throat, and was buried in Ely.

111. Sixteen yeares her Corps slept in a private Grave near her own Con­vent; when it came into the head of Bishop VVilfride and her Friends, to be­stow on her a more costly Buriall. But alass, the soft and fenny Ground of Ely Isle (where scarce a stone bigg enough to bury a Worm under it) afforded not a Tombe-stone for that purpose. Being thus at a Losse, their wantBeda Eccles. Hist. lib. 4. cap. 19. is said to be miraculously supplyed;696 for under the ruined Walls of Grantchester, or Cambridge, a Coffin was found, with a Cover correspondent, both of white Marble, which did fit her Body so exactly, as if (which one may believe was true) it was made for it. Herein was Audre's Corps stately inshrined, and for many yeares superstitiously adored.

[Page 92] 112. But Io. Cajus, Confuted by a credible witnesse. Fellow of Gonvile-Hall, Anno Dom. 696 within ten Miles of Ely, at the Dissolution of Abbyes, being reputed no great Enemy to the Romish Religion, doth on his own Knowledge report,

In his Histor. Cantab. lib. 1. pag. 8.

Quamquam illius aevi caecitas admirationem in eo paret, quod re­gnante Hen. nuper 8. dirutum i­dem sepulchrum ex lapide communi fuit, non, ut Beda narrat, ex albo marmore.

Although the blindnesse of that Age bred Admiration therein: yet when the Tombe was pluckt down in the Reign of King Henry the eighth, it was found made of common Stone, & not of white Marble, as Bede reporteth.

Thus was her Tombe degraded & debased one degree, which makes the Truth of all the rest to be suspected. And if all Popish Miracles were brought to the Test, they would be found to shrink from Marble to Common Stone, nay from Stone to Dirt and untempered Morter. The Council at Bergham­steed. 697

113. It is needlesse here to insert the Canons concluded on at Bergham­steed, by VVithred King of Kent, and Bertuald Arch-bishop of Canterbury. First, because Topicall, confined to that small Kingdome. Secondly, hard to be un­derstood, as depending on some Saxon Law-terms, whereon Conjectures are the best Comment. Thirdly, such as are understood are obsolete; viz. If a Master gave his Servant Flesh to eat on a Fasting-day, his Servant was on the Refusall, and Complaint thereof, to be madeSr. Henry Spelman's Councils p. 1904. &c. free. Some punishments therein were very absurdly proportioned; viz. Six shillings or a Whipping was to be paid by that Servant who ate flesh on Fasting-dayes: and just the same Penalty was inflicted on him if convicted of offering Oblations to the Devil: as if equall their Offences. And be it remembred, that this Council was kept cum viris quibusdam Militaribus, some Souldiers being present thereat; and yet the fifth Canon therein was made to punish Adultery in men of their Profession.Wilfride re­stored to York, and out­ed again.

114. As for Bishop VVilfride, whom lately we mentioned so active about the removall of St. Audre's Corps, he was about this time restored to his Bishoprick of York. Whereupon he fairly quitted the Bishoprick of Sel­sey, which Edilwalch, and after Cedwall, Kings of Sussex, bestowed upon him, and returned to York. It is much this Rowling Stone should gather so much Mosse, and get Wealth enough to sound two Monasteries; who sometimes had three Bishopricks together, York, Lindisfern, and Hagulsted; sometimes none at all, living many yeares together in Exile. And indeed he continued not long in York, but being expelled thence again, was for a time made Bishop of Lei­cester. Nor was the King of Northumberland content with his bare Expulsion, but also he would have him confesse the same Legall, and resign it according to the late Decrees which the Arch-bishop of Canterbury had made against him. But more hereof, God willing, in the next Century.


Thomae Adamidi, Senatori Londinensi, Mecoenati meo.

IN hac tanta rerum Vicissitudine, quis, qui te novit, Constantiam tuam non suspicit? Vndique turbatur; Tu interim tibimet ipsi tota Tranquillitas, cum Deo, & Bonis, & Studiis tuis vacas.

Perlegas, quaeso, hanc Centuriam, vel eo nomine, quod Fu­nera Tui & Mei Bedae exhibeat. Tuum dico, quia haud ita pridem sub auspiciis Patronatus tui, typis Saxonicis pulcherri­mus prodiit: Meum, quo Authore (vel potius Authoribus) in hoc Opere toties usus sum. Pluribus Viro occupatissimo mo­lestus esse nolo. Vale.

PAinfull VVilfride was no sooner out of one Trouble,701 but he was engaged in another.Wilfride per­secuted a­fresh by Al­fride King of Northumber­land. HereuponHist. Eccles. Angl. pag. 95. Harps­field calls him the Athanasius of that Age; one­ly saith he, that Father was persecuted by Here­ticks, and this VVilfride by Catholicks. He might have added, that Athanasius was troubled for Essentiall and Doctrinall Truths, whilest VVilfride was vexed about Ceremonious and Circumstan­tiall matters. And now Alfride, who succeeded Egfride, King of Northumberland, powerfully opposed him, being the paramount Prince, and in effect Monarch of the Sa­xon Heptarchie. For, as we have noted before, amongst these seven Kings, as amongst the Planets, there was ever one Sun that out-shined all the rest. This Alfride, joyning with Bertuald Arch-bishop of Canterbury, called a Malme [...]b. de Gestis Pont. lib. 3. See Sr. Henry Spelman in Conciliis Anno 701. Council, and summoned Wilfride, who appeared there accordingly. But be­ing demanded, whether he would obey the Decrees of Theodore late Arch­bishop of Canterbury, he warily returned; That he was willing to obey them so farre as they were consonant to the Holy Canons. This Answer was not satisfactory to his Adversaries, as having in it too little of a Grant, to please them, and yet not enough of a Deniall, to give them a just Offence. Then they sought by fair means to perswade him, because much Trouble had arose in the Church about him, voluntarily to resign under hand and seal his Posses­sions, and Arch-Bishoprick; affirming, it would be a glorious act, to preferre the Publick Good before his Private Profit. But Wilfride persisted loyall to his own Innocence, affirming, such a Cession might be interpreted a Conses­sion of his Guiltinesse; and appealed from that Councill to his Holinesse: and [Page 94] this tough old man, being 70. yeares of age, took a Journey to Rome, there to tugg it out with his Adversaries.

2. They accused him of Contumacy,Wilfride ap­p [...]aleth to Rome, and is acquitted. that he had contemptuously denied Canonicall Obedience to the Arch-bishop of Canterbury. 705 He cleared him­self, and complained that he had been unjustly deprived, and that two Mona­steries of his own Founding (Rippon and Hexham) were violently detained from him. No fewer then seventy severallSeptuaginta concil [...]abula coacta, Malmsbury ut prius. Councils, (understand them so many severall Meetings of the Conclave) were assembled in four moneths, and employed onely, or chiefly about deciding of this Difference: belike there were Intricacies therein more then are specified in Authours (Knots to employ so many cunning Fingers to unty them) or else the Court of Rome was well at Leasure. The Sentence of Pope Iohn the seventh passed on his side, and his Opposers were sent home with Blame and Shame, whilest Wil­fride returned with Honour, managing his Successe with much Moderation; equally commendable, that his Innocence kept him from Drooping in Affli­ction, and his Humility from Insulting in Prosperity.

3. Bertuald, He is at last restored, and dyeth in peace. Arch-bishop of Canterbury, humbly entertained the Popes Letters in behalf of Wilfride, and welcomed his Person at his Return. But Alfride, King of Northumberland, refused to re-seat him in his Bishoprick, stoutly maintaining,Contra ratio­nem, homini jam bis à toto Anglor [...]m consilio dam­nato, propter quaelibet Apo­stolica Scripta communicare. Malmesbury de Gestis Pon­tificum, lib. 3. that 'twas against reason to communicate with a man twice condemned by the Council of England, notwithstanding all Apostolick Commands in favour of him. But soon after he fell dangerously sick, a consequent of, and therefore caused by his former Stubbornnesse; as those that construe all Events to the advantage of the Roman See, interpret this a Punishment on his Obsti­nacy. Suppled with Sicknesse, he confessed his Fault; and so Wilfride was re­stored to his Place: whose Life was like an April-day (and a Day thereof is a Moneth for Variety) often interchangeably fair and foul; and after many Al­terations, he set fair in full Lustre at last. Being fourty five yeares a Bishop, in the seventie-sixth year of his age, he died, and was buried in his Monastery at Rippon. And as he had been a great Traveller, when living; so his Bones took one Journey after his death, being translated byGodwin in his catalogue of the Arch­bishops of York, pag. 11. viri illi quos sanctissimos celebrat anti­quitas, Theo­dorus, Bertu­aldus, Iohan­nes Bosa, & Hilda Abba­tis [...]a, digladia­bili odio impe­tierunt Wil­fridum deo ac­ceptissimum. Sherborn ta­ken out of Winchester Bishoprick. Odo Arch-bishop of Canterbury, from Rippon to Canterbury; in Reparation (perchance) for those many Wrongs, which the Predecessours of Odo had done to this Wilfride. Let not therefore the Papists vaunt immoderately of the Unity of their Church, neither let them uncharitablie insult on our unhappy Differences; see­ing by the confession of their own Authours, there was Digladiabile Odium, Hatred (as one may say) even to Daggers-drawing, betwixt Wilfride, and cer­tain Principall Persons, conceived signall for Sanctity in that Age, and sithence put into the Calender of their Saints. And it is as sure, as sad a Truth, that as long as Corruption resides in the bosomes of the Best, there will be Dissen­sions, inflamed by malicious Instruments, betwixt Pious people, which other­wise agree in main matters of Religion.

4. The Bishoprick of Sherborn was taken out of the Bishoprick of Winche­ster, by King Ina, and Adelme his Kinsman made first Bishop thereof. I find no Compensation given to the See of Winchester, for this great Canton cut out of it: as in after-Ages, when Ely was taken out of Lincoln Diocese, the Manour of Spaldwick in Huntingtonshire was given by King Henry the first to Lincolne, in Reparation of it's Loss, for so much of the Jurisdiction taken from it. But at this time, when Sherborn was parted from Winchester, the Damage to Winchester accruing thereby, was not considerable; Episco­pall Jurisdiction in that Age not being beneficiall, but rather burthensome. So that Winchester might turn her Complaints into Thankfulnesse, be­ing thus eased of her cumbersome Greatnesse. This Adelme, Bishop of Sherborn, was theCamden's Britannia in Wiltshire. first of our English Nation, who wrote in Latine; and the first that taught English-men to make Latine Verse, according to his Promise. [Page 95]

Primus ego in Patriam mecum, modò vita supersit,
Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas.

If life me last, that I do see that Native Soile of mine,
From Aon top I'll first with me bring down the Muses nine.

He wrote many Works: oneBede. of Virginity, another of the Celebration of Easter: And about this time, the Libraries of Monasteries began to be re­plenished with Books, many being written in that Age.

5. By the way,Multitude of books crea­ted by a mistake. one Mistake (I could not have discerned it my self, had not a learnedSpelman in Conciliis pag. 210. Writer discovered it unto me) makes Books of this Age more numerous, and the Kings therein more Learned then indeed they were. Name­ly, because every Latine Charter, granted by any King to a Monastery, is termed by the Saxon Writers, Liber, or Libellus, a Book. Wherefore, when they tell us of such and such Books, made by the Saxon Kings; understand we most of them of their Charters of Donation. In which sense King Edgar, who, some two hundred yeares after this time, founded as many Monasteries as Weeks in the year (and consequently made as many Charters) was a volu­minous Writer, of no lesse then fifty two Books. And yet this large acception of Books will not make up the Number, which Bale and Pitz pretend they have seen in this Age. A Vanity in them to affect a Title-learning; (though a Stationers Apprentice, after some weeks Experience, might excell them there­in) and the greater, because many imaginary Authours, which they make as if they had seen, either were never extant, or long since extinguished.

6. But the multitude of Books encreaseth not our Marvel so much,The nume­rosity of noble Saints in this Age. as the Numerosity of Saints (such as they were) in this Age; whereof four parts of five (according to the Herauldry of such who wrote their Lives) were of Royall, or Noble Extraction. It addeth to the wonder, because St. Paul 1 Cor. 1. 26. saith, Not many Noble are called: except any confine that Observation of the Apostle to times of Persecution, whereas Christianity now in England flourished in all Peace and Prosperity. But, to render their noble Parentage at this time the more probable, know, that under the Saxon Heptarchy, Roy­alty was encreased seven-fold in England, which must beget a proportionable multiplication of Nobility attending them. Yet, when all is done, as the Iewish Rabbins, on their bare Tradition, without ground from Scripture, make Ruth the Daughter to Eglon, King of Moab, merely to make the Descent of their King David from her the more illustrious: so it is suspicious, that to advance the Temporall Reputation of these Saints, such Monks as wrote their Lives causelesly [...]arified, and refined many of their Blouds into Noble Extraction. However, if truely pious indeed, such Saints have the best Nobility in the Scripture-sense,Acts 17. 11. These were more noble, because they received the word with all readinesse of mind.

7. Of these noble Saints,708 St. Guthlake, a Benedictine Monk,St Guthlake the first Saxon Heremite. was the first Saxon that professed an Heremitical life in England; to which purpose he chose a Fenny place in Lincolnshire, called Crowland, that is, the raw or crude­land; so raw indeed, that before him no man could digest to live therein. Yea, the Devils are said to claim this place as their peculiar, and to call itFlores San­ctorum written by Hierome Porter in the life of St. Guthlake, pag. 348. their own land. Is any place, but the Prison of Hell, properly theirs? Yet wonder not at their Presumption, pretending this Spot of ground to be theirs, whose Impudence durst affirm, that God had given themMatth. 4. 8. all the World, and the Glory thereof. Could those infernal Fiends, tortured with immateriall Fire, take any Pleasure, or make any Ease to themselves, by padling here in Puddles, and dabling in the moist dirty Marishes? However Guthlake took the Boldnesse to enter common with them, and erect his Cell in Crowland. But if his prodi­gious Life may be believed, Ducks and Mallards do not now flock thither faster in September, then Heards of Devils came about him; all whom he is [Page 96] said victoriously to have vanquished.Anno Dom. 708 But, whom Satan's Power could not foil, his Policy had almost destroyed; by perswading Guthlake to fast fourty dayes and nights together, after the Example of Moses Idem. P. 347. and Elias: till, find­ing this Project destructive to Nature, he was forced in his own Defence, to take some necessary, but very sparing Refection. He died in his own Cell, and Pega his sister, an Anchoritesse, led a solitary life, not far from him.

8. Doves also,Aswinish conceit of a Monk. a poor plain man, was eminent in this Age: a Shepheard, say some; a Neatheard, others; Swineheard, say the third sort, and that most pro­bable. For whilest he lived in Worcestershire, not far from the River Avon, the Virgin Mary is said to have appeared unto him, even where (fare well all good Tokens) he found a lost Sow Godwin in Catalogo Epi­scoporum, pag. 301. with seven Piggs sucking upon her; and to have given order, that in that very place a Monastery should be erected to her Honour. The beastly Monk, who made this Vision, had e'ne learned as far as Virgil's Aeneids, whence he fetched the Platform of this pretty Conceit, a place so marked being foretold fortunate to Aeneas, to found Alba [since Rome] therein.

Aeneidosl. 3.
Litories ingens inventa sub ilicibus Sus
Triginta capitum faetus enixa jacebit
Alba solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati:
Hic locus Vrbis erit, requies ubi certa laborum.
Where under Oakes on Shore there shall be found
A mighty Sow, all white, cast on the ground,
With thirty sucking Piggs; that place is 'sign'd
To build your Town, and ease your wearied Mind.

Here the Monk, mutatis mutandis, (but principally shrinking the Number of the Pigs from thirty to seven, as more mystical) he applies the Apparition to his Purpose. A pretty Parallel, that Pagan-Rome, and Popish Superstition (if Hue-and-cry should be made after them) might be discovered by the same Marks. This gave the first motion to the Foundation of Eovesham Abbey (so called from Eoves aforesaid) first built in that Sow-place.

9. But the Building thereof was hastened by a second,The first Synod for Image-wor­ship in En­gland. more neat and clean­ly, Apparition of the Virgin Mary in the same place; who is pretended to have shewed her self, with two Maiden-attendants, to Egwin, Bishop of Worcester, prompting him to expedite a Structure therein.See Sir Henry Spel­man's Coun­cils pag. 210. Egwin posts presently to Rome, and makes faith of this Vision to Constantine the Pope; who convinced in his judgement of the truth thereof, dispatcheth his Commands to Bright­wall, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, 709 to assemble a Synod at Alncester in VVorce­stershire, to promote the building of an Abbey in that place: which was done accordingly, and the same was bountifully endowed by Offa, and other Mercian Kings, with very large Revenues. And not long after, another Synod (saith my Magdebur­genses Cent. sed ex recentio­ribus authori­bus, Nauclero viz. & Balaeo. Binnius and Baronius sul­len, and why. Authour) was called at London, to introduce into England the Doctrine of Image-worship, not heard of before, and now first beginning to appear in the publick practice thereof.

10. Here we expected that Binnius and Baronius, two of the Romish Cham­pions, should have been both joyfull at and thankfull for this London Synod, in favour of Image-worship, a point so beneficiall to the Popish Coffers. But behold them, contrary to our expectation, sad and sullen; insomuch as they cast away the Credit of this Synod, as of no account, and disdain to accept the same. For, say they, long before, by Augustine the Monk, Worship of Images was introduced into England. But let them shew us when, and where the same was done. We deny not but that Augustine brought in with him, in a Banner, theSee our se­cond Book, Cent. 6. pa­ragr. 10. Image of Christ on the Crosse, very lively depictured; but this makes nothing to the Worshipping thereof. Vast the distance in their own nature, betwixt the Historical Use, and Adoration of Pictures; though, through [Page 97] humane Corruption,Anno Dom. 709 the former, in after-Ages, hath proved introductory to the later. Nor was it probable, that Augustine would deliver Doctrine point-blank against Gregory, that sent him, who most zealouslyIn his epistle ad Serenum Massiliensem. inveigheth against all Worshipping of Images. Wherefore, let Binnius and Baronius make much of this London-Synod for Image-worship, or else they must be glad to accept of later Councils in England to prove the same, seeing before this time none can be produced tending thereunto.

11. Now also flourished another noble-born Saint,The miracle-working of St. Iohn of Be­verley. namely Iohn of Bever­ley, Arch-bishop of York, a Learned man, and who gave theBede ac­knowledgeth that he recei­ved the order of Priesthood from him. Education to one more learned then himself, I mean, Venerable Bede. Now, though Iohn Baptist didIohn 10. 41. none, yet Iohn of Beverley is said to have done many Miracles. But, did not the Monk over-do, who reports in his Relation, that this Iohn of Beverley, by making the Sign of the Crosse on a Dumb Youth, with a scalled head, not onely restored him to Speech, and an Head of Haire, but Eloquent Discourse, and braveFlowers of the lives of English Saints pag. 416. Curled Locks? Some yeares before his Death, he quit­ted his Arch-bishoprick,718 and retired himself to his Monastery at Beverley, where he died: and which afterwards King Athelstan made (I will not call it a SANCTUARY, because unhallowed with the largenesse of the Liberties allowed thereunto, but) a place of Refuge for Murderers and Malefactours: so that the FREED-STOOL in Beverley, became the Seat of the Scorn­full; and, such hainous Offenders as could recover the same, did therein secure­ly desie all Legall Prosecution against them.

12. About this time it grew fashionable with Kings and Queens in En­gland, Kings and Queens turn Monks and Nuns. to renounce the World, and turn Monks and Nuns, commonly in Convents of their own Foundation. Surely, it is not onely lawfull, but com­mendable for men to leave the World, before it leaveth them, by being Gal. 6. 14. crucified thereunto, and using it as if they used it not: But let others dispute, whether this properly be Renouncing the World, for Christians to bury their Parts and Persons in a Cloister, which, put forth to the Bank, would turn to good Account for Church and Common-wealth. David (I dare say) as holy a man as any of these, lived a King, and died a King: the swaying of his Scep­tre did not hinder the tuning of his Harp; his Dignity being no Impediment to his Devotion. And whilest these Kings turning Monks, pretended to go out of the World, a world of spirituall Pride and Superstitution went into them, if (as it is too too supicious) they had an high opinion to Merit Heaven there­by.

13. Amongst the Saxon Princes who thus renounced the World,King Ina his fine, and rent to the Church. in this and the next Century, these nine following were the principall.

  • 1. Kinigilsus, King of VVest-Saxons.
  • 2. Ina, King of VVest-Saxons.
  • 3. Ceololfus, King of Northumberland.
  • 4. Edbertus, King of Northumberland.
  • 5. Ethelredus, King of Mercia.
  • 6. Kenredus, King of Mercia.
  • 7. Offa, King of East-Saxons.
  • 8. Sebbi, King of East-Saxons.
  • 9. Sigebertus, King of East-Angles.

Of all whom King Ina was paramount, for his reputed Piety; who account­ing himself to hold all that he had of God, his Land-Lord in chief, paid not onely a great Fine, but settled a constant Rent on the Church; then accounted the Receiver-general of the God of Heaven. Great Fine; for besides his Bene­faction to other, he bestowed on the Church of Glassenbury two thousand six hundred fourty poundsSir Henry Spelman in his Councils, pag. 229. weight, in the Utensills thereof, of massie Gold and Silver. So that whiles some admire at his Bounty, why he gave so much; others wonder more at his Wealth, how he got so much; being in that Age wherein such Dearth of Coin, and he (though perchance, the honorary Mo­narch of England) but the effectuall King of the VVest-Saxons. The constant Rent he settled,726 where theAntiq. Brit. sol. 58. Peter-pences to the Pope of Rome, to be paid out of [Page 98] every fire-house in England (a small Summe in the single Drops,Anno Dom. 726 but swelling great in the general Chanel) which (saith Polydore Virgil) this King Ina be­gan in England. I say, Polydore Virgil (and let every Artificer be believed in his own Art) seeing (as he confesseth) this place was his first Preferment in En­gland, which brought him over to be the Popes Publicane, or Collectour of that Contribution. Afterwards this King went to Rome, & there built a School for the English, and a Church adjoyning unto it, to bury their Dead.

14. But,Winnisride an English­man conver­teth the Ger­mans. if my Judgement mistake not,730 Winnifride, an English-man, was better employed, being busied, about this time, to convert to Christ the Pro­vinces of Franconia and Hassia in Germany. True it is, the English were indebted to the Dutch, from them formerly deriving their Originall, by Naturall Genera­tion: and now none will censure them for Incest, if the Son begate his Parents; and this VVinnifride, descended from the Dutch, was an active Instrument of their Regeneration.

15. Now,Bede, though sent for, went not to Rome. although many in this Age posted from England to Rome, pos­sessed with an high opinion of the Holinesse thereof; yet sure I am, one of the best Judgement (namely Venerable Bede) was often sent for by Pope Ser­gius himself, to come to Rome, yet, for ought we can find, never went thither: which, no doubt, he would not have declined, if sensible of any transcendent Sanctity in that Place, to advantage the Dwellers therein the nearer to Heaven. This Bede was born in the Kingdome of Northumberland, atCamden's Brit. pag. 743. Girwy [now Yarrow] in the Bishoprick of Durham, brought up by St. Cuthbert, and was the profoundest Scholar in his Age, for Latine, Greek, Philosophy, History, Divinity, Mathematicks, Musick, and what not? Homilies of his making were read in his Life-time, in the Christian Churches; a Dignity afforded to him alone. We are much beholding to his Ecclesiasticall History, written by him, and dedicated to Ceolwoolfus King of Northumberland. A worthy Work indeed, though, in some respect, we could heartily wish that his Faith had been lesse, and his Charity more. Faith lesse, in believing and reporting so many prodi­gious Miracles of the Saxons: except any will say, that this in him was not so much Vitium Hominis, as Seculi. Charity more, I mean to the Britans, being no Friend to them, and over-partial to his own Country-men; slightly, and slenderly touching British matters, onely thereof to make a Pedestall, the more fairly to reare and advance his Saxon History thereupon.

16. Some report that Bede never went out of his Cell,Bede probably went out of his Cell. but lived and died therein. If so, the Scholars of Cambridge will be very sory, because thereby deprived of their Honour, by Bede's living once in their University; whose House they still shew, betwixt St. Iohn's Colledge and Round-Church, or St. Sepulchres. Surely Bede was not fixed to his Cell, as the Cockle to his Shel, seeing no Observance of his Benedictine Order imposed such a Penance upon him. Indeed his own words, in the end of his Book, give some Countenance to their Conjecture of his voluntary Confinement, speaking of himself, Cun­ctum tempus vitae in ejusdem Monasterii habitatione peragens. But his Expres­sion imports onely his generall Residence therein, that he was no Gadder abroad, or Discontinuer from his Convent, for a long time; though he might for some short space make his Abode elsewhere. Thus, when of the Prophe­tesse it is said,Luke 2. 37. that she departed not from the Temple: we understand it not so, as if she never went out thereof; but that for the main, she spent the most of her time therein.

17. He is generally surnamed Venerable, Bede why sur­named Vene­rabilis. but why, Authours differ therein. Some say, a Dunce-Monk, being to make his Epitaph, was non-pluss'd to make that Dactyle, which is onely of the Quorum in the Hexameter, and therefore at Night left the Verse thus gaping, ‘Hic sunt in fossa Bedae—ossa.’ till he had consulted with his Pillow, to fill up the Hiatus. But returning in the morning, an Angel (we have often heard of their Singing, see now of their [Page 99] Poetry),Anno Dom. 730 had filled up the Chasma with Venerabilis. Others, disclaiming this Conceit, assign this Reason: Because Bede's Homilies were (as aforesaid) read in allFlores San­ctorum in the life of Bede, pag. 528. Churches in his Life-time; plain Bede was conceived too little, and St. Bede too much; because, according to Popish; (but not St. Paul's) Prin­ciples, Saint is too much Flattery to be given to any whilest alive; Solon allowing none happy, and this mine Authour none, in this degree, holy, be­fore their Death. Wherefore Venerable was found out as an Expedient to ac­commodate the Difference, luckily hitting the Mark, as a Title neither too high, nor too low; just even to so good a man, and great a Scholar, whilest alive. This is observable in all those who have written the Life of Bede; that, whereas such Saxon-Saints, as had not the tenth of his Sanctity, nor hundredth part of his Learning, are said to have wrought Miracles ad Lectoris nauseam; not one single Miracle is reported to have been done by Bede. Whereof (under favour) I conceive this the Reason: Monks, who wrote the Lives of many of their Saints, knew little more of many of them then their bare Names, and Times wherein they lived; which made them Historiae vacua miraculis sup­plere, to plump up the Hollownesse of their History with improbable Mi­racles, swelling the Bowells of their Books with empty Wind, in default of sufficient solid Food to fill them. Whereas Bede's Life affording plenty and variety of reall and effectuall Matter, the Writer thereof (why should a Rich man be a Thief, or Lyar?) had no Temptation (I am sure no Need) to farse his book with fond Miracles, who might rather leave, then lack of materiall Passages therein.

18. One of the last things he did,734 was the translating of the Gospel of St. Iohn into English. Bede's last blaze, and the going out of the candle of his life. When Death seised on him, one of his devout Scholars, whom he used for his Secretary, or Amanuensis, complained, My beloved Master, there remains yet one Sentence unwritten. Write it then quickly, replied Bede: and summoning all his spirits together (like the last Blaze of a Candle going out) he indited it, and expired. Thus Gods Children are immortall, whiles their Father hath any thing for them to do on Earth; and Death, that Beast, cannot overcome and kill them, till first they have Revel. 11. 7. finished their Testimony: which done, like Silk-worms, they willingly die, when their Web is ended, and are comfortably entombed in their own Endeavours. Nor have I ought else to observe of Bede, save onely this; A forreign Embassadour, some two hundred yeares since, coming to Durham, addressed himself first to the high and sum­ptuous Shrine of St. Cuthbert, If thou beest a Saint, pray for me: then coming to the plain, low, and little Tombe of Bede, Because (said he) thou art a Saint, good Bede, pray for me.

19. Now began the Saxons to be infected with an universall Vitiousnesse.735 The cause whereof was;The general viciousnesse of the Saxons, how occasio­ned. Ethelbald, King of Mercia, contemned Marriage: and though Abstinence from it in some cases may be commendable, the Contempt thereof alwayes is dangerous, yea damnable; as it proved in him. For, his un­lawfull Lust made no difference of Places, or Persons. Castles, or Cloisters; com­mon-Kerchief, or Nuns-vaile; all came alike to him. But, oh the legislative power which is in a great Prince his Example. His Subjects presumed, they might not onely impune, but legitime, follow his Precedent; which made the Land swarm with Wickednesse.

20. This caused the Letter of Boniface, Arch-bishop of Ments an English-man born,The effect of Boniface his letter to the King of Mer­cia. and lately very eminent for converting the Germans to Christianity) to King Ethelbald; wherein he observed the prudent method of St. Paul to the1 Cor. 11. 2. and 22. Corinthians. As the Apostle first commended them, I praise you, Brethren, that you remember me in all things, &c. so he began with a large Encomium of King Ethelbald his Charity, and bountifull Almes-giving. Hence seasonably he descended to his Faults; shall I praise you in this? I praise you not; and soundly and roundly told him of his notorious Incontinency; proving, both by Scri­pture, and Reason, the Hainousnesse of that Sin, and heavy Iudgements of [Page 100] God upon it. In fine,Anno Dom. 735 this wrought so farre on the King's good Nature, that he not onely reformed himself, but, with Cuthbert Arch-bishop of Canterbury, called a solemn Synod at Cloves-Ho, or Clives-at-Ho, for the Reformation of others.

21. But where this Cloves-Ho should be,Cliff in Kent probably the ancient Cloves Ho. Authours make much Inquiry. It is generally conceived the same with Cliff, near Gravesend, in Kent. Though a learnedCamden's Brit. in Kent. Authour will hardly consent thereunto; and his Intimations to the contrary are of no great Validity. For, whereas he alledgeth that this Cliff is in Kent, whilest Ethelbald, who called this Synod, was King of Mercia; He minded not mean time (what, no doubt, he knew well) that this Ethelbald is stiled in theExtant in St. Henry Spelman's Councils, pag. 233. Letter of Boniface Arch-bishop of Ments unto him, Inclyta An­glorum Imperii sceptra gubernans, Ruling the famous Sceptre of the English Em­pire. And whereas he objecteth, the Site of that place inconvenient for such an Assembly; It seems fit enough (though confessed dirty in Winter, and un­healthy at all times) for the Vicinity thereof to London and Canterbury, the residing places of the King and Arch-bishop, the two Persons in this Synod most concerned. Nor doth the modern Meanness of the place make any thing against it; it might be a Gallant in that Age, which is a Beggar now-a-dayes. And though, we confesse, there be many Cliffs in the In-land Shires (properly belonging to Mercia;) yet the addition of Ho, or Haw, speaketh the maritime positure thereof. So that Clives-Ho, Plimmouth Haw. See Speed his Survey of London, the meaning of Haw. The chief Canons of this Synod. or Haw, seems to be a Cliff near the Sea, well agreeing to the Situation of Cliff in Kent aforesaid.

22. But the Acts of this Synod are more certain, then the Place thereof, being (generally accounted) one and thirty Canons (although some small Va­riation in their Number, and Order) all extant at large inDe Gestis Pont. lib. 1. in Cuthberto. Malmesbury; and of which we take notice of these four, as of most Concernment;

1. That the Priests Discant, & doceant. Malmesbury. learn, and teach to know the Creed, Lords Prayer, and words of Consecration in the Masse [or Eucharist] in the English tongue. It seems, Learning then ran low, that the Priests themselves had need to learn them: yet Ignorance was not then so high, but that the people were permitted to be taught them.

2. That the Lords Day be honourably observed. We understand it not so, as if the Sanctity of that Day depended onely upon Ecclesiasticall Con­stitutions; or, that the Command thereof in Scripture is so infirm, in point of right to oblige mens Consciences, that it needs the title of mans Power, ad corroborandum: Onely, Humane Authority was here cast in as over-weight, for the better Observation of the day. Carnalmen being more affected, and affrighted with Corporal Penalties of mans inflicting (as nearer unto them,) then with Eternal Punishments, which Divine Iustice, at distance, denounceth against them.

3. That the sin of Drunkennesse be avoided, especially in the Clergy. Indeed it was high-time to suppresse that Sin, which was grown so rife, that (as Boniface, Arch-bishop of Ments, doth observe in his Letter toExtant in St. Henry Spelman's Councils p. 241. Cuth­bert, Arch-bishop of Canterbury) the English Bishops were so farre from punishing it, that they were guilty of the same. Moreover he ad­deth, Ebrietas speciale malum nostrae Gentis: hoc nec Franci, nec Galli, nec Longobardi, nec Romani, nec Graeci faciunt; Drunkennesse is a speciall Evill of our Nation (namely of the Saxons, of which Country this Boni­face was a Native) for neither Franks, nor Gauls, nor Lombards, nor Romans, nor Greeks (understand him, anciently, for we know the mo­dern Proverb, of a merry Greek) are guilty thereof.

4. That Prayers be publickly made for Kings and Princes. An excellent Canon indeed, because Canonicall Scripture, and long before made by1 Tim. 2. 1. St. Paul himself; I exhort therefore, that Supplications be made for all men, for Kings, &c.

[Page 101] This Synod being finished,Anno Dom. 747 with the Royall Assent, & all the Bishops their Sub­scriptions thereunto; Cuthbert, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, with wonderfull Ce­lerity, returned the Canons concluded therein, by Rinebert his Deacon, to Boni­face Arch-bishop of Ments, who was affected with great Joy at the sight thereof.

23. At this time flourished Egbert, Arch-bishop of York, Egbert Arch-bishop of York famous in severall respects. famous in his Generation for, First his Royall Extraction, being Brother to Eadbert, King of Northumberland; both of them lovingly lying buried together, in the Porch of the Church of York. For in that Age, the greatest Princes and Prelates their Corpses came no nearer then the Church-Porch, and (as I may say) onely knoc­ked at the Church-Doors; though, in after-Ages the Bodies of Meaner per­sons were admitted into the Church, and buried therein. Secondly, for his procuring the Archiepiscopal Pall to his See. For after the Departure, or ra­ther the Banishment of Paulinus from York, his Successours were content with the plain Title of Bishop, untill this Egbert (to do something extraordinary, proportionable to his Princely Extraction) procured the Restitution of his Pall, which ipso facto re-advanced his Church into an Arch-bishoprick. Thirdly, for furnishing the same with a plentifull Library, highly commended by Alcuinus, in his Epistle to Charles the Great, wishing France had the like; which though exceeding England in Paper, till of late years, ever came short of it in Books. Fourthly,750 for his Canons, for the regulating of his Province. Whereof one sort is called, Egbert his At large in St. Henry Spelman's Councils, pag. 258. The beastly Canons of Egbert. Excerptions out of Fathers, and is generally good: the other intituled, Canons for the remedie of Sin, and are fraught with abundance of abominable Beastlinesse, and Superstition.

24. I will give the Reader onely a Taste (or rather a Distasie) of these Ca­nons, by which he may guesse the rest. If a Lay-man hath carnal knowledge of a Nun, let him doe Penance for two yeares &c. she three. If a Child be begotten be­twixt them, then four yeares: if they kill it, then seven yeares See Sr. Hen. Spelman's Councils, pag. 282. Penance. Penance also is provided for Bestiality, and Sodomie, in the same Canons. Thus, where God in Scripture denounceth Death,Gen. 9. 6. Whoso sheddeth mans Bloud, by man shall his bloud be shed; they now changed it into Penance, and in after-Ages commuted that Penance into Money; so by degrees making the word of God of none effect, by their paltry Canons. See we here also, how forced Virgi­nity was the Mother of much Uncleannesse; it being appliable to them, what the Apostle speaketh of others:Ephes. 5. 12. It is a shame even to speak of those things, which are done of them in secret. And one may justly admire how these Ca­nonists, being pretended Virgins, could arrive at the knowledge of the Criti­cismes of all Obscenity; so that chast Love may lye seven and seven yeares in the undefiled Marriage bed, and be utterly ignorant what the Language of Lust meaneth in such filthy Canons. Yea, when such Love, by the help of an Inter­preter, shall understand the same, it would blush for Shame; were it not that that Red would be turned into Palenesse, as amazed at so horrid Uncleanness.

25. Some five yeares after,755 Kenulphus, The Charter of Kenulphus to the Abbot of Abbington. King of West-Saxons, conferred large Priviledges on the Monastery of Abbington. We will recite so much of his Cited by Stanford, l. 3. fol. 111. and this Char­ter was pleaded primo Hen. 7. fol. 23. & 25. Charter, as concerns us, because usefull to shew the Power which Kings in that Age had in Ecclesiasticall Matters.

Kenulphus, Rex, &c: per liter as suas patentes, consilio & consensu Episcopo­rum, & Senatorum gentis suae, largi­tus fuit Monasterio de Abbindon in Comitatu Barke, ac cuidam Richino tunc Abbati Monasterii &c. quan­dam ruris sui portionem, id est, quin­decim Mansias in loco, qui à ruricolis tunc nuncupabatur Culnam, cum o­mnibus utilitatibus ad eandem per­tinentibus, tam in magnis, quam in [Page 102] modicis rebus, in aeternam haeredita­tem. Et, quod praedictus Richinus, &c. ab omni Episcopali jure in sempiter­num esset quietus, ut inhabitatores ejus nullius Episcopi, aut suorum Officia­lium jugo inde deprimantur; sed in cunctis rerum eventibus, & discus­sionibus causarum, Abbatis Monaste­rii praedicti decreto subjiciantur. Ita quod, &c.

[Page 101] Kenulphus, King, &c. by his Letters Patents, with the advice and consent of the Bishops, and Counsellours of His Country, hath given to the Monastery of Abbindon in the County of Barks, and to one Richine then Abbot of the Monastery, &c. a certain portion of his land, that is to say, fifteen Mansions, in a place which then of the Inhabitants was called Culnam, with all Profits to the same belonging, as well in great, as [Page 102] mean matters,Anno Dom. 755 as an inheritance fore­ver. And, that the aforesaid Richine, &c. should be for ever acquit from all Epi­scopal jurisdiction, that the Inhabitants thereof be thenceforth oppressed with the yoke of no Bishop, or his Officials; but in all events of matters, and discus­sions of causes, they be subject to the decree of the Abbot of the aforesaid Monastery. So that, &c.

From this Charter, St. Edward His Reports part 5. fol. 9. Cook the Kings Attorney inferreth, that King Kenulphus had Ecclesiasticall Jurisdiction in himself, in that he had power to discharge and exempt this Abbot from the Iurisdiction of the Bishop. Which Ecclesiasticall Iurisdiction was alwayes invested in the Imperiall Crown of En­gland: and therefore the Statute made under Henry the eighth, concerning the Kings Spirituall Authority, was not introductory of a new Law, but declaratory onely of an old.

26. But Father Parsons (for he it is who stands under the Vizard of the Catholick Divine, The Cavills of Parsons against St. Edw. Cook. confuted. in a Book wrote of set purpose against Master Attorney, in this point) will by no means allow King Kenulphus any Ecclesiasticall Power; but by many Fetches seeks to evade so pregnant a Proof.

Arg. 1. First he Catholick Divine, alias Parsons, in his answer to the Kings At­torney, p. 95, 96, &c. pleadeth, that in this Charter, Kenulphus did not exempt the Abbot from all Iurisdiction Spirituall of the Bishop, but from some Tem­porall Interest, or Pretense, which, perhaps, the Bishop of the Diocese clai­med over the Lordship of Culnam.

Answ. Perhaps (commend not his Modesty, but thank his Guiltinesse, for his timorous Assertion) saith he: but, how doth this appeare? for he bringeth no proof: and, if he affirmeth it on free cost, we can con­fute it as cheap, by denying it.

Arg. 2. Secondly, saith he, the King exempted the Abbot, ab omni Episcopali jure, that is, from all Right of the Bishop, and not Iurisdiction.

Answ. Sharp Wit, to cut so small a Mote in two parts, for no purpose; seeing, jus and Iurisdiction are often known to import the same sense.

Arg. 3. Thirdly, he objecteth, the words no way seem fitly to agree to be spoken of the Bishops Ecclesiasticall Iurisdiction, which run thus, That the Abbot should be quiet from the Bishops Right, and that the Inhabitants from thenceforward should not be oppressed by the Yoke of the Bishops of­ficers.

Answ. Why? what Incongruity, but that these words may be spoken, as they are, of Ecclesiasticall Iurisdiction? Is the word Yoke too course a Phrase to be applied to the Bishops Spirituall Power, as they some­times did manage it? I appeale to those who felt it: for no Yoke is heavy to him that puts it on, but to those who bear it. Mark by the way, the word he rendereth Officers, is in the Charter (not Officiarii, Lay-Latine, but) Officiales, which is Church-language, and the very dialect of the Court-Christian, and should be translated Officials, to whom Bishops committed their Spirituall Power. But Parsons knew well how to lay his Thumb on what he would not have seen.

Arg. 4. Fourthly, Howsoever it were, it is manifestly false, saith he, that this Ec­clesiasticall Iurisdiction of King Kenulphus was derived from his Crown; it might be, he had it from the Pope, which is most likely.

Answ. Which is most unlikely; for no Clause in the Charter relates to any delegate power; and yet such a Passage might easily have been inser­ted, yea, could not justly have been omitted, if he had claimed his Iuris­diction by Deputation from the Pope.

[Page 103] Arg. 5. Lastly, (which, he saith, seemeth to convince the whole matter, and decide the very Case) oneHarpsfield Hist. Aug. seculo primo c. 9. ex Maria­no Scoto. Rethurus, Abbot of Abbington, went afterwards to Rome, to obtain confirmation of the Priviledges of his Monastery from the See Apostolick.

Answ. What of this? This post-fact of Rethurus argues no Invalidity in Kenulphus his former Grant, but rather shews the over-Officiousnesse of a pragmaticall Abbot, who, to ingratiate himself with the Pope, craved of him what he had before. Yea, such cunning▪ Compliance of the Clergy with his Holinesse, by degrees fixed in him a supposed Ec­clesiasticall Power paramount, which really he never had, nor rightly ever ought to have.

See here the King's Power in Church-matters, in conferring Ecclesiasticall Priviledges; and this single Threed we will twist with another Instance, so strong, that the Iesuites Art shall be unable to break it in sunder.

27. By the Constitution of Augustine, 758 first Arch-bishop of Canterbury, Bodies first brought to be buried in Churches. confirmed by the authority of Gregory the Great, Bishop of Rome, it was de­creed, that no Corpse, either of Prince or Prelate, should be buried within the Walls of a City, but onely in the Suburbs thereof; and that alone in the Porch of the Church, and not in the Body. Now Cuthbert, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, having built Christ-Church therein, was desirous to adorn it with the Corpses of great Persons, therein afterwards to be interred. In pursuance of this his Design, he durst not adventure on this Innovation by his own Power, nor did he make his applications to the Pope of Rome (as most proper to repeal that Act, which the See Apostolick had decreed) but onely addres­seth himself to Eadbert, King of Kent, and from him, partim precario, partim etiam pretio, partly praying, partly paying for it, saith myTho. Spot in his Hist. of Canterbury. Also Archiv. Caniuariens. cited by Antiq. Brit. in Cuthbert. Authour, obtained his Request. Behold here an ancient Church-Canon recalled at the Suit of an Arch-bishop, by the Authority of a King. This Cuthbert afterwards handselled Christ-Church with his own Corpse; whose Predecessours were all buried in St. Augustines, without the Walls of Canterbury. Thus began Corpses to be buried in the Churches, which by degrees brought in much Superstition; especial­ly after degrees of inherent Sanctity were erroneously fixed in the severall parts thereof: the Porch saying to the Church-yard, the Church to the Porch, the Chancel to the Church, the East-end to all, Stand farther off, for I am holier then you. And, as if the Steps to the High Altar, were the Stairs to Heaven, their Souls were conceived in a nearer degree to Happinesse, whose Bodies were mounted there to be interred.

28. About this time the Bill of fare of Monks was bettered generally in England, The occasion of Monks their first drinking of wine in England. and more liberty indulged in their Diet. It was first occasioned some twenty yeares since, when Ceolwolphus, formerly King of Northumberland, but then a Monk in the Convent of Lindisfern, or Holy Island, Roger. Hoved. in parte priori. gave leave to that Convent to drink Ale and Wine, anciently confined by Aidan, their first Foun­der, to Milk and Water. Let others dispute, whether Ceolwolphus thus dispen­sed with them by his new Abbatical, or old Regal Power; which he so resigned, that in some cases he might resume it, especially to be King in his own Convent. And indeed, the cold, raw, and bleak Situation of that place, with many bitter Blasts from the Sea, and no Shelter on the Land, speaks it self to each Inhabi­tant there,1 Tim. 5. 23 Drink no longer VVater, but use a little VVine for thy Stomacks sake, and thine often Infirmities. However, this locall Priviledge, first justly indulged to the Monks of Lindisfern, 760 was about this time extended to all the Monasteries of England; whose primitive over-Austerity in Abstinence was turned now into a Self-sufficiency, that soon improved into Plenty, that quickly depraved into Riot, and that at last occasioned their Ruine.

29. This Year the English have cause to write with Sable letters in their Almanack, 789 on this sad Occasion,Danes their first arrivall in England. that therein the Danes first invaded England [Page 104] with a considerable Army.Anno Dom. 789 Severall Reasons are assigned for their coming hither, to revenge themselves for some pretended Injuries; though the true Reason was, because England was richer and roomthyer then their own Countrey.

30. It is admirable to consider what Sholes of people were formerly vented out of Cimbrica Chersonesus, Denmark for­merly fruit­full, is now become bar­ren of men. take it in the largestOtherwise strictly, it containeth one­ly part of Denmark, Continent to Germany. extent for Denmark, Norway and Swedeland, who by the terrible Names of Gothes, Ostro-Gothes, Vi [...]i-Gothes, Huns, Vandals, Danes, Nortmans, overranne the fairest and fruitfullest parts of Christendome; whereas now, though for these last three hundred yeares (the Swedish Warres in Germany excepted) that Countrey hath sent forth no visible Numbers of People, and yet is very thinly inhabited, so that one may travell some hundreds of Miles therein through mere Desarts, every man whom he meeteth having a Phoenix in his right hand. Yea, so few the Natives, that some of their Garrisons are manned with Forreigners, and their Kings sain to enter­tain mercenary Dutch and Scotch to manage their Warres.

31. Strange,Two reasons thereof. that this Countrey, formerly all on the giving, should now be onely on the taking hand. SomeBarklay in Icon anima­ [...]um. impute their modern comparative Barren­nesse to their excessive Drinking (a Vice belike which lately hath infected that Nation) drinking themselves past Goats into Stocks, out of Wantonnesse into Stupidity, which by a contracted Habit debilitateth their former Fruitfulnesse. Others, moreG. Tayl. in his Chronicle of Normandy truely, ascribe their former Fruitfulnesse to their promiscuous Copulations with Women during their Paganisme, which are not so numerous since Christianity hath confined them to the Marriage of one VVife.

32. If I might speak according to my own Profession of a Divine (soaring over Second Causes in Nature) I should ascribe their ancient Populousnesse to Divine Operation. The reason of reasons. As the Widow her Oyle multiplyed till her Debts were satisfied, and that effected for which the Miracle was intended, which done, the Increase thereof instantly ceased: So these Northern Parts flowed with Crouds of People, till their Inundations had payed the Scores of sinfull Chri­stians, and then (the Birch growing no more, when the wanton Children were sufficiently whipped) the Procreativenesse of those Nations presently stinted and abated.

33. The Landing of these Danes in England was ushered with many sad Prognosticks: Bad presages of the Danes approach. Sim. Dunel. Ranulphus Cestrensis, & alii. Starres were seen strangely falling from Heaven, and sundry ter­rible Flames appeared in the Skies. From the firing of such extraordinary Bea­cons, all concluded some new Enemie was approaching the Nation. Serpents were seen in Sussex, and Bloud reigned in some parts of the Land. Lindes­fern or Holy Island was the first that felt the Fury of these Pagans, but soon after no place was safe and secure from their Cruelty; whereof more hereafter.

34. At this time the Arch-bishoprick of Canterbury was in part removed to Lichfield, The Arch­episcopal Pall removed to Lichfield. five essentiall things concurring to that great Alteration.790

1. The Puissance and Ambition of Offa, King of Mercia, commanding in Chief over England. He would have the brightest Mitre to attend the biggest Crown.

2. The complying nature of Pope Adrian: except any will call it his Thank­fulnesse, to gratifie King Offa, for the large Gifts received from him.

3. The easy and unactive Disposition of Iambert (or Lambert) Arch-bishop of Canterbury: unlesse any will term it his Policy, that finding himself un­able to resist (a Pope and a Prince over-match for a Prelate) he would not strive to keep what must be taken away from him.

4. The commodious Situation of Lichfield, almost in the Navell of the Land: and where should the highest Candlestick stand (the Metropolitan Cathedrall) but in the middest of the Table? whereas Kent it self was but a Corner (whence it taketh it's Name) and Canterbury seated in the Corner of that Corner, a remote Nook thereof.

[Page 105] 5. The Antiquity of Lichfield in Christianity, Anno Dom. 790 where the British Church suf­fered a MassacreVide supra, Cent. 4. par. 8. from the Pagans three hundred yeares before St. Au­gustine's coming to Canterbury; witnesse the name of the place, being another Helkath-hazzurim, 2 Sam. a. 16. or Field of strong men, where so many VVor­thies died for the Testimony of the Truth.

On these and other considerations, Aldulph was made the first (and last) Arch-bishop of Lichfield (though others make Humbert and Higbert his Successours in that Dignity) and six Suffraganes (viz. VVorcester, Hereford, Leicester, Sidna­cester, Helmbam, and Dunwich,) subjected to his Jurisdiction. Yet was not the Archiepiscopall See removed (as some seem to conceive) but communicated to Lichfield: Canterbury still retaining it's former Dignity, and part of it's Province; the Bishops of London, Rochester, VVinchester, and Sarisbury continuing still sub­ject unto him.

35. King Offa having settled an Arch-bishoprick at Lichfield, his next Design was to enshrine the Corps of St.St. Alban's body enshri­ned. Alban: fiveVita Offae secundi, annex­ed to the new Edition of M. Paris, p. 28. hundred and seven years had passed since his Death and plain Buriall. For as Iohn Baptist, the last Martyr before Christ, and St. Steven, the first Martyr after him, were fairly interred by their Friends and Followers, without any more adoe: so the Corps of St. Alban were quietly committed to the Earth, and there some Centuries of yeares peace­ably reposed. But now Offa, they say, was admonished in a Vision, to bestow more publick Sepulture upon him. A Starre, we know, directed to the place of Christ's Birth, whereas a bright Ibid. p. 26. Beam (say the Monks) discovered the place of St. Alban's Buriall. A Beam suspected by some shot by him, who can turn him­self into an Angell of Light, because gaining so much by their Superstition. Then was Alban's Body in pompous manner taken up, enshrined, and adored by the Beholders. No wonder then if the Danes now invaded the Dominious of the En­glish, seeing the English invaded the Prerogative of God, diverting the Worship due to him alone, to the rotten Relicks of Dead men: And henceforth the old Romans City of Verulam, lost it's Name under the new Saxon Town of St. Albans.

36. King Offa went to Rome, 794 and there confirmed and enlarged to Pope Adrian the Gift of Peter-pence, Peter-pence re-confirmed to Rome. what Ina King of the VVest-Saxons had former­ly bestowed. For this Favour the Pope granted him, that no Englishman for Penance imposed should be banished out of his own Countrey.

37 But bold Beggars are the Bane of the best Bounty,Gift no debt. when grown so im­pudent, that what at first was given them for Almes, in processe of time they chal­lenge for Rent. Some call this a Tribute (Badge of Subjection) of England to the See of Rome; among whom is Polydore Virgil, once Collectour of those Peter-pence in England. But blame him not for magnifying his own Office; who, had be owned this Money (as indeed it was) given in frank-Almonage, had then ap­peared no better then a gentle Beggar, whereas now he hopes to advance his Employment to a nobler Notion.

38. Offa having done all his work at Rome, 795 namely procured the Canoniza­tion of St. Alban, The Royall foundation of St. Albans Abbey. the Absolution of his own Sins and many Murders, and visited and endowed the English Colledge there; returned home, fell to found the Mona­stery of St. Albans, bestowing great Lands and Liberties upon it; as freeing it from the Payment of Peter-pence, Episcopall Iurisdiction, and the like. This is alleadged and urged by our Regians, to prove the Kings Paramount Power in Ecclesiasticis; seeing none can give, save what they are formally or eminently possessed of. And whereas Papists plead that Offa had fore-requested the gran­ting of these Priviledges from the Pope; no mention at all thereof appears in the Charter Amongst St. Tho. Cot­ton his Manu­scripts, and is exemplified in Weaver his Fun. Mon. p. 99. of his Foundation (here too large to insert) but that all was done by his own absolute Authority. Next year Offa ended his Life; buried at Bedford, on that Token that the River Ouse swelling on a suddain swept his Corps clean away.

Canterbury re­covereth it's former di­gnity.

39. Offa being dead,799 down fell the best Pillar of Lichfield Church, to support [Page 106] the Archiepiscopality thereof.Anno Dom. 799 And now Canterbury had got Athelard a new Arch-bishop, Anno Regis who had as mcuh Activity to spare, as his Predecessour Iambert is said by some to want. Wherefore he prevailed with Kenulph King of Mercia, and both of them with Leo the new Pope, to restore back the Archiepisco­pall See to Canterbury; as in the next Century was perfectly effected.

40. We will conclude this Century with two eminent men (to leave at last a good Rellish in the memory of the Reader) now flourishing therein.Learned Alcuinus con­futeth Image­worship. The one Alcuinus, or Albinus: it being questionable whether he were more famous for Venerable Bede, who was his Master, or Charles the Great, who was his Scholar; whilest it is out of doubt that he is most honoured for his own Learning and Re­ligion. And because English-men may be presumed partiall in the praise of an English-man; hear what a Character a learnedTrithemius Abbas lib. de Script. Eccle­siasticis fol. 61. Forreigner gives of him: Vir in divinis scriptis eruditissimus, & in saecularium literarum peritia nulli suotem­pore secundus, Carmine excellens & Prosa. But he got himself the greatest credit by opposing the Canons of the second Nicene Council, R. Hoved. Annal. part. 1. p. 405. wherein the superstitious Adoration of Images was enjoyned. These Canons, some seven years since, were sent by Charles the Great to King Offa, to be received of the English; who not­withstanding generally distasted and rejected them, the aforesaid Alcuinus wri­ting a learned Epistle against the same. He was fetcht by Charles his Scholar, cal­ling him his Delicious Master; where he first founded the Vniversity of Paris, and died Abbot of St. Martins in Tours.

41. The other was Egbert, Egbert the first fixed Monarch of England. who in this very year made himself sole Monarch of England. 800 True it is,Egber­ti, primi Mo­narche Anglie. 1 in the Saxon Heptarchy there was generally one who out-powered all the rest. But such Monarchy was desultory and moveable, some­times the West-Saxon, sometimes the Mercian, sometimes the Northumberland King ruled over the rest. But henceforward Egbert fixed the supreme Sove­raignty in himself and his Posterity: for though afterwards there continued some other Petty Kings, as Kenulph King of Mer [...]ia, &c. yet they shined but dimly (as the Moon when the Sun is risen) and in the next Age were utterly extinguished. So that hereafter we shall double our Files, and for the better regu­lating of time, next the Columne of the year of our Lord, adde another of the Reign of our English Kings.

THE NINTH CENTURY.Anno Regis Egberti Anno Dom.

To Mr. William and Mr. Robert Christmas, Merchants of London.

YOu are both Brethren by Birth, and by your joynt Bounty on my Endeavours. It is therefore pitty to part you. May no other Difference be in your Hearts, then vvhat Herauldry allovves in your Armes, onely to distinguish the Age of the Elder from the Younger; that so the Memory of your happy Father may survive in you his hopefull Children.

1. THen Kenulph, 1 King of Mercia, 801 sent a Letter to Leo the third,The Arch-bishoprick restored to Canterbury at the instance of King Kenulph. Pope, by Aethelard the Arch-bishop, to this effect: That whereas the Metropolitan Seat by Au­thority Apostolick was primitively fixed at Canter­bury, where the blessed Body of Augustine was bu­ried; and whereas lately King Offa, out of Opposi­tion to Arch-bishop Lambert, had removed the same Seat to Lichfield, and procured from Pope Adrian the same Translation to be confirmed: Kenulph Malmesb. de Gestis Reg. lib. 1. c. 4. re­quested his Holinesse so farre to concurre with the generall Desire of the English Nation, as to revoke the Act of his Predecessour, and restore the Arch-bishop­rick to it's proper place. And knowing that Sutes in the Court of Rome speed no whit the lesse, when accompanied with Gifts, he sent his Holinesse 120. Mancusae quasimanucusae, a coyn about the valuation whereof is much variety. The first most formall subscription in a Synod. Mancuses for a Present. The Gift was kindly accepted, the Arch-bishop courteously entertained, the Request bountifully granted; and thus the Arch-bishops See dislocated, or out of joynt, for a time, was by the hands of his Holi­nesse set right again.

2. Aethelard returning home,3 called a Synod at Clives-Ho, 803 (in Kent, not farre from Rochester) where by Power from the Pope, he riveted the Arch-bishoprick into the City of Canterbury, the Synod denouncing heavy Penalties to any that hereafter should endeavour to divide them: so that it is believed, that the Arch-bishops See may as easily be wholly dissolved, as hence removed. The Subscriptions in this Council were the most formall and solemn of any so ancient. The Reader will not be offended with their hardThe originall is extant in the Records of Canterbury, copied out by St. Henry Spelman in his Councils, pag. 325. Names here following, seeing his Eye may run them over in perusing them, though his Tongue never touch them in pronouncing them.

[Page 108]

CanterburyAethelard, Arch.
  • Aethilheah
  • Feologeld
  • Wulfheard
  • VVernoth
  • Beornmod
Vulfraed, Arch.
  • Lulls
  • Monn
  • VVigfreth
  • Eadhere
  • Cuthberth
  • Falmund, Pr.
  • Beomia, Pr.
  • Forthrod, Pr.
  • Wigmund, Pr.
  • Eadred, Pr.
  • Daeghelm, Pr.
  • Plegberth
  • Eadulf
  • Hereberth
  • Higberth
  • Thineferth
  • Pega
  • Freotho­mund, Pr.
  • Srygol
  • Dygoga
  • Monn.
  • Muda
  • Eadberth
  • Beorthmund
  • Cuthberth
  • Mark
  • Cumba
  • Lulla
  • Northeard
  • Vngthe
  • Folcberth
  • Frithoberth
  • Eadberth
  • Vulflab
  • Vulfheard
  • Lulla
  • Ceolhelm
  • Cynulfe
  • Tydberth
  • Heahstan
  • Plegberth
  • VVigheard
  • Tidhun
  • Frithorad
  • Ethelhelme
  • Lullingo
  • Tuda
  • Beagnoth
  • Heathoberth
  • VVigheard
  • Duud
  • Eadberth
  • Beorcol
  • Hethfride
    Doubtfull whether priests or deacons.
  • Cynebald
Arch-Bishop 1Presbyters 3982 in all.
Bishops 12Archdeacon 1
Abbots 26Deacons 3

[Page 109] 3. Now, to make a short, but necessary Digression,Some obser­vables on the method and manner of their meet­ing. in this Synod we may observe, That Bishops appeared personally, and the rest of the Clergy were re­presented, Monks in their Abbots, and the Seculars in the Priests and Deacons of their Diocese respectively. Such Abbots as in this Catalogue have the addi­tion of Pr. were also Priests, and so present in a double Capacity; though per­chance they made onely use of their Abbotship. No Deans appear here, as a Dignity of farre later Institution. The Bishops, in the order of their Sub­scriptions, seem to observe Seniority of their Consecrations, and not Dignity of their Bishopricks; seeing London lags one of the last, to which our Church. Harpsfield Hist. Ang. pag. 743. Heraulds did afterwards assign the highest place, next the Arch-bishops: onely Lichfield may seem to have had the Preccedency, by the Courtesie of the Synod, that the lost Dignity thereof might be buried in Honour, being so lately the Seat of an Arch-bishop. Lastly, this was but a Provinciall Council for Canter­bury alone, York with his two Suffragans (Lindisfern and Hexham) not mentio­ned in the meeting. Thus, as the Anatomie of a little Child, representing all Parts thereof, is accounted a greater Rarity, then the Sceleton of a man of full Statute: so I conceive it more acceptable to the studious in Antiquity, to behold the Form of these Synods, with the distinct Members thereof, in the Infancy of the Saxon Church, then to see a compleat Council in after-Ages, when grown to full Perfection.

4. Passe we by some Petty Synods celebrated in the Reign and Countrey of King Kenulph of Mercia. 16 Eminent was the Council at Celichyth under VVolfred (who succeeded Aethelard) Arch-bishop of Canterbury. 816 Wherein,The Acts of the Council at Colichyth. amongst other things slight or superstitious, was decreed,

1. That the Catholick Faith should be kept, and ancient Canons observed.

2. ThatSee Sr. Hen. Spelman in his Councills, pag. 328. new Churches should be consecrated with Holy-water by their Bi­shops, and the Saint somewhere painted therein to whom the same is dedicated.

3. That all in Christian Charity mutually love one another.

4. That Abbots and Abbesses be blamelesse persons, chosen by the Bishop with the consent of the Convent.

5. That no Scotch-man baptize, or administer the Eucharist in England; it being uncertain, whether, or by whom they are ordained. [We may discover herein some remaining Dreggs of the long-lasting Diffe­rence about the Celebration of Easter, which made the suspicious English still to harbour a causelesse prejudice against the Scotch Priesthood.]

6. That the judiciall Sentences of Bishops in former Synods remain rati­fied; as also all their Acts solemnly signed with the Crosse

7. That no Abbey-lands be leased out longer then, in dies, & spatium unius hominis, that is (as I take it) for the single life of one man; except in some case of Extremity; to help against Famine, Invasion of Foes, or for obtaining of Freedome.

8. That things dedicated to God remain so for ever.

9. That the Acts of all Synods be fairly written out, with the Date thereof, and name of the Arch-bishop President, and Bishops present thereat.

10. That Bishops at their death give the full Tithe of their Goods to the Poor, and set free every English-man which in their life-time was a Slave unto them.

11. That Bishops invade not the Diocese prists the Parish, neither the Office of another; save onely when desired to baptize, or visit the Sick. The Re­fusers whereof in any place are to be suspended their Ministery, till re­conciled to the Bishop.

12. That they pour not water upon the Heads of Infants, but immerge them in the Font, in imitation of Christ, who (say they) was thrice See Sr. Hen. Spelman, pag. 331. so washed in Iordan.

[Page 108] [...] [Page 109] [...] [Page 110] But where is this in Scripture? Anno Dom. 816 The manifestation indeed of the Trinity plainly appears in theMatth. 3. 16, 17. Text; Anno Regis Egberti 16 Father in the Voice, Son personally present, Holy Spirit in the Dove; but as for thrice washing him, altum silentium. However, see how our modern Sectaries meet Popery in shunning it, requiring the person to be plunged; though Criticks have cleared it, that Baptize doth import as well Dipping, as Drenching in water.

5. And now we take our farewell of King Kenulph, Egbert pro­claimed Mo­narch of En­gland. who, for all his great Bustling in Church-matters for the first twenty yeares in this Century, was (as genus subalternum amongst the Logitians) a King over his Subjects, yet but a Subject to King Egbert, 820 who now at Winchester was solemnly crowned Mo­narch of the Southern and greater Moiety of this Island, 20 enjoyning all the people therein to term it Engelond, (since England) that so the petty Names of seven for­mer distinct Kingdomes might be honourably buried in that general Appellation.

6 Some will wonder,Seven King­domes swal­lowed up in Engelond. seeing this Narion was compounded of Saxons, Iuites, and Angles, why it should not rather be denominated of the first, as in Number greatest, and highest in Reputation. Such consider not that a Grand Continent in Germany was already named Saxony; and it was not handsome for this Land to wear a Name at second hand belonging to another. Besides, England is a name of Credit, importing in Dutch the same with the Land of Verstegan of decayed intel­ligence. Angels. And now the Name stamped with the Kings Command soon became currant, and extin­guished all the rest. For Kent, Essex, Sussex, Northumberland (though remain­ing in common Discourse) shrunk from former Kingdomes into modern Coun­ties: VVestsex, Mercia, and East-Angles were in effect finally forgotten. It will not be amisse to wish that seeing so great a Tract of Ground meets in one Name, the People thereof may agree in Christian Vnity and Affections.

7. King Egbert was now in the Exaltation of his Greatnesse.Danes dis­turb King Egbert. But never will humane Happinesse hold out full Measure to mans Desire. Freed from home­bred Hostility, he was ready to repose himself in the Bed of Ease and Honour; when the Danes not onely jogged his Elbows, but pinched his Sides, to the dis­turbance of his future Quiet.831 They beat the English in a Navall Fight at Car­mouth in Dorsetshire, 31 which proved fatall to our Nation. For an Island is never an Island indeed, untill mastered at Sea, cut off from Commerce with the Con­tinent. Henceforward these Pagans settled themselves in some part of the Land, though claiming it by no other Title, then their own Pride and Covetous­nesse, and keeping it in no other Tenure, then that of Violence and Cruelty.

8. Athelwolphus his Son succeeded King Egbert in the Throne: Athelwolphus his universal grant of Tithes to the Church. a Prince not lesse commended for his Valour, 837 then Devotion, Ethel­wolphi 1 and generally fortunate in his Undertakings; though much molested all his life-time by the Danes. But no­thing makes him so remarkable to Posterity, as the granting of this Charter, or rather the solemn passing of this Act ensuing.

Ex Ingulph. & Malmesb. Gest. Reg. lib. 2. cap. 2. Regnante Domino nostro Iesu Christo, in perpetuum. Dum in nostris tempori­bus bellorum incendia, & direptiones opum nostrarum, nec non & vast antium crudelissimas depraedationes hostium barbarorum, Paganarumque gentium multiplices tribulationes ad affligendum usque ad internecionem, cernimus tempora incumbere periculosa:

Quamobrem ego Ethelwolphus Rex Occidentalium Saxonum, cum consilio Episcoporum ac Principum meorum, consilium salubre, atque uniforme re­medium affirmavi: Vt aliquam portionem terrarum haereditariam antea pos­sidentibus omnibus gradibus, sive famulis & famulabus Dei, Deo servientibus, sive laicis, semper decimam mansionem ubi minimum sit, tamen partem deci­mam in libertatem perpetuam perdonari dijudicavi, ut sit tuta at munita ab omnibus secularibus servitutibus, nec non regalibus tributis majoribus & mi­noribus sive taxationibus, quod nos dicimus Witereden: Sitque libera omnium rerum pro remissione animarum nostrarum ad serviendum Deo soli sine Ex­peditione, & pontis instructione, & arcis munitione, ut eo diligentius pro nobis ad Deum preces sine cessatione fundant, quo eorum servitutem in aliqua parte levigarius.

[Page 111] Placuit etiam Episcopis Alhstano Schireburnensis Ecclesiae, & Swithuno Win­toniensis Ecclesiae,Anno Dom. 837 cum suis Abbatibus, & servis Dei, consilium inire, ut omnes fratres, & sorores nostrae, ad unamquamque Ecclesiam omni hebdomada die Mercurii, hoc est, Weddensday, cantent quinquaginta psalmos, & unus­quisque Presbyter duas Missas, unam pro rege Ethelwolpho, & aliam pro du­cibus ejus huic dono consentibus, pro mercede & refrigerio delictorum suo­rum: & pro Rege vivente dicant, Oremus. Deus qui justificas; pro ducibus etiam viventibus, Praetende Domine: postquam autem defuncti fuerint, pro Rege defuncto singulariter, & pro principibus defunctis communiter. Et hoc sit tam firmiter constitutum omnibus Christianitatis diebus, sicut libertas illa constituta est, quamdiu fides crescit in gente Anglorum.

This Athelwolphus was designed by his Father to be Bishop of Winchester, 11 bred in a Monastery,848 alias 855 after taken out, and absolved of his Vows by the Pope: and having had Church-education in his Youth,18 retained to his Old-age the indeleble Character of his affections thereunto. In expression whereof, in a solemn Council kept at Winchester, he subjected the whole Kingdome of En­gland to the Payment of Tithes, as by the foregoing Instrument doth appear. He was the first born. Monarch of England. Indeed, before his time there were Mo­narchs of the Saxon Heptarchie; but not successive and fixed in a Family, but fluctuating from one Kingdome to another. Egbert, father to this Athelwolph, was the first that atchieved this Monarchie, and left it to this his Son, not Mo­narcha factus, but natus, and so in unquestionable Power to make the foresaid Act obligatory over all the Land.

9. Indeed,Former Acts for Tithes in­firme. before his time many Acts for Tithes are produced, which when pressed will prove of no great Validity. Such are the Imperiall Edicts in Civil Law, never possessed of full power in England; as also the Canons of some Councils & Popes, never admitted into plenary Obedience by consent of Prince and People. Adde to these, first, such Laws as were made by King Ina, and Offa, Monarchs indeed of England in their turns, as I may say, but not deriving the same to the Issue of their Bodies: So that their Acts as personall may by some froward Spirits be cavilled at, as determining with their own Lives. Joyn to these (if produceable) any Provinciall Constitutions of an English Arch-bishop (perchance Egbertus of York:) those might obey them, who would obey, being otherwise not subject to any civil Penalty. But now this Act of Athelwolphus appears entire in all the Proportions of a Law, made in his great Council, equivalent to after-Parliaments; not only cum consilio Episcoporum, with the Ad­vice of his Bishops, (which easily may be presumed willingly to concurre in such a matter of Church-advancement) but also Principum meorum, of my Princes (saith he:) the Consent of Inferiour persons not being required in that Age.

10. However,Objections against this Act answered noting can be so strong but it may meet with Cavills, though not to destroy, to disturb the Validity thereof; as this Act hath: and we will seve­rally examine the Defects charged upon it.

1. Obj. Some object that Althelwolphus was but King of the West-Saxons, as ap­pears by his Stile, Rex occidentalium Saxonum, and not universall Mo­narch of England, whose Act onely is obligatory to his own Subjects. Let those of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset, Hants, VVilts, and Berks pay Tithes by vertue of this Command; other Parts of the Land are freed from the same, because nihil dat quod non habet, none can derive that to others which they enjoy not themselves; being King but of a Part, he could not lay this Law upon all the Land.

Ans. He is tearmed eminently, not exclusively, King of the VVest-Saxons: being fondest of that Title, as his Fathers first Inheritance, before he acquired the Monarchy of the whole Land. There were indeed at this time two other Royalets, as onely Kings by his leave, (viz) Beorred King of Mercia, and Edmond King of East-Angles, who, as it plainly appears byExemplified in Sr. Henry Spelman's Councils, pag. 348. In­gulphus, were present at his Council, and consented to the Acts thereof.

[Page 112] 2. Obj. The Consideration was superstitious,Anno Dom. 855 to say so many Masses for the Souls of this King and his Captains when deceased.Anno Rigis Ethel­wolphi 18

Ans. A double Consideration is mentioned in this Grant. The first, gene­rall; so pious in it's self, no Exception can be taken thereat, viz. to divert the imminents Iudgements of God from the Land, hourly fea­ring the Invasion of fierce forraign Pagans: so the better to secure the Nine parts thereof to himself and his Subjects, by setting apart, re­signing, and surrendring a Tenth to God (the supreme Land-lord of all) in such as attended his daily Service. The second Consideration is more restrictive and particular, and resents indeed of the Ignorance of that Age; but yet is proportionable to the best Devotion those dayes produced: and easily may an accidentall Abuse be purged, by the pious Use intended, and designed generally to Gods Glory.

3. Obj. The King onely granted Tithes of his own Crown-land, non in Dominio, sed in Domintco suo, not in all his Dominions, but onely in his Demesnes.

Ans. There needed no such solemn Consent of the Council of the Land, for the passing away of his Private Bounty. And that the Grant ex­tended to the Kingdome in Generall, appears byHen, Hun­ting. Hist. l. 5. pag. 348. other Authours on the same. Adelwolphus decimonono anno regni sui, qui totam terram suam ad opus Ecclesiarum decimavit propter Amorem Dei, &c. More plainly another Authour: In eodem anno decimavit Athulf. rex de omni possessione sua in partem Domini, & in universo regimine sui Principatus sic constituit.

11. Here we insist not on the many Arguments out of Old and New Testa­ment, Store no sore to prove Tithes to be Iure Divino; which in due time may be produced, when all Tempests of Tumultuous Spirits are allayed, and when (what the Town-Clerk of Ephesus promised to the Citizens thereof) the Question may be determinedActs 19. 39. [...], in a lawfull and ordinary Assembly, without fear of Force, and suspicion of Violence. For two Strings to a Bow do not amisse; being no Hinderance to the Archer for the better hitting of the Mark, who may wind up one, and use that for the present which he sees most for his own Conveience. Mean time most true it is, that men are not so conscientious to obey the Laws of God, as fearfull to resist the Edicts of Men: and therefore (though farre be it from the Clergy to quit their Title to Tithes by Divine Right) they conceive it the surest way sometimes to make use of Humane Injunctions, as having the most potent Influence on mens Affections; especially in this Age, when the love of many (both to God and Goodnesse) begin­neth to wax cold.

12. A Reverend Doctour in Cambridge,A pleasant passage. and afterwards Bishop of Sa­risbury, was troubled at his small living at Hogginton, with a peremptory Anabaptist, who plainly told him, It goes against my Conscience to pay you Tithes, except you can shew me a place of Scripture whereby they are due unto you. The Doctour returned; Why should it not go as much against my Conscience, that you should enjoy your Nine parts, for which you can shew no place of Scripture? To whom the other rejoyned; But I have for my Land, Deeds and Evidences from my Fathers, who purchased, and were peaceably possessed thereof by the Laws of the Land. The same is my Title, saith the Doctour; Tithes being confirmed unto me by many Statutes of the Land time out of mind. Thus he drave that Nail, not which was of the strongest Metall or sharpest Point, but which would go best for the present. It was Argumentum ad hominem, fittest for the person he was to meddle with; who afterwards peaceably payed his Tithes unto him. Had the Doctour inga­ged in Scripture-Argument, though never so pregnant & pertinent, it had been endelesse to dispute with him, who made Clamour the end of his Dispute, whose Obstinacy and Ignorance made him uncapable of solid Reason; and therefore the [...] the Argument, the better for his Apprehension.

[Page 113] 13. Most solid and ingenious was the Answer of a most eminent Serjeant at Law of this Age,A solid An­swer of a learned Serjeant, to the impertinent Clamours of such against the payment of Tithes, because (as they say) due onely by Humane Right. My Cloak is my Cloak by the Law of Man: But he is a Thief by the Law of God that taketh it away from me.

14. True it is that this Law did not presently find an universall Obedience in all the Land.This law not presently and perfect­ly obeyed. And the Wonder is not great, if at the first making thereof it met with many Recusants; since corroborated by eight hundred yeares Prescri­ption, and many Confirmations, it findes Obstacles and Oppositions at this day: for in succeeding Ages severall Kings confirmed the same, though Papall Exem­ptions of severall Orders, and modus Decimandi according to custome, have al­most since tithed the Tithes in some places.

15. King Athelwolphus the next year took his (call it Progresse or) Pilgri­mage to Rome. 19 Where the report of his Piety prevented his Arrivall, & provided both Welcome and Wonder for his Entertainment.856 Here he confirmed unto the Pope his Predecessours Grant of Peter-pence, King Ethel­wolph's jour­ney to Rome, and bounty to the Pope. and as aWilliam Malmesbury, ut prius. Surplusage, bestowed upon him the yearly Revenue of three hundred Marks, thus to be expended.

1. To maintain Candles for St. Peter, one hundredMarks.
2. To maintain Candles for St. Paul, one hundred
3. For a free Largesse to the Pope, one hundred

16. If any be curious to know how these 300 Marks were in after-Ages divided and collected,How this Summe was divided, and collected out of severall Dioceses. let them peruse the following Account: if the Particulars be truely cast up, and (attested to me out of Sir Tho. Cotton's Librarie, and, as they say, out of the Vatican it self) be authenticall.

Covent. & Lichfield4150
Bathe & Wells1250

These Summes were demanded by Pope Gregory the thirteenth in the 46. of Edward the third, (on that Token, that their payment was much opposed by Iohn of Gaunt.) I dare not discede from my Copy a tittle, coming, as they say, from the Register at Rome: nor will I demand a Reason, why Durham and Carlisle are here omitted; much lesse examine the Equity of their Proportions, as applied to their respective Dioceses; but implicitly believe all done very just­ly. The reason why the VVelsh Bishopricks were exempted is, because at the grant hereof by King Athelwolph, Wales was not then under his Dominion. This 300 Marks was but a distinct payment by it self, and not the whole Body of Peter-pence (amounting to a greater Summe,) whereof, God willing, hereafter.

17. After the Death of King Athelwolphus, Ethel­redi 1 and his two Sons Ethelbald and Ethelbert succeeding him,867 this Land was in a sad Condition,The Saxons wilfully ac­cessory to their own ruine by the Danes. though nothing so bad as under the Reign of Ethelred his third Son, and Successour: for then indeed most miserable was the state of the English, harassed by the Danes, who, like the running-Gout, shifted from Joynt to Joynt, from place to place; often repelled from the severall Shires, never expelled out of England. The Sa­xon Folly hurt them more, then the Danish Fury; refusing effectually to unite, to make a joynt-Resistance against a generall Enemy. For some sixty yeares since, the VVest-Saxons had subdued the other six Kings of this Nation; yet so, that they still continued kings, but Homagers to the VVest-Saxon Monarchy. The shortning of their Sceptres stuck in their Stomacks, especially of the Mer­cian and Northumbrian Kings, the most puissant of all the rest. Whereupon, beholding Ethelred, the VVest-Saxon King (the Staffe and Stay of the whole Na­tion) embroiled with the Invasion of the Danes, they not only lazily looked on, but secretly smiled at this Sight, as the only way to Conquer the Conquerour. [Page 114] Yea,Anno Dom. 867 such their Envy, that rather then one (once their equal) should be above them in Felicity,Anno Regis Ethel­redi 1 they all would be equall with him in Misery. They would more contendly be Slaves to a Forrain Foe, to whom they all stood unre­lated, then Homagers to him, who had (as they thought) usurped Dominion over them. Never considering, that the Danes were Pagans; (Self-interest is deaf to the Checks of Conscience;) and Revenge (which is wilde at the best) was so mad in them, that they would procure it with the Hazzard, if not Losse, of their God, his Church, and true Religion. Thus the Height of the Saxon Pride and Envy, caused the Breadth of the Danish Power and Cruelty. Indeed the foresaid Saxon Kings, perceiving their Errour, endeavoured at last to help the VVest-Saxon (or rather to help themselves in him) against the Danes. But alas, it was too late. For, the Danish Garisons lay so indented in the Heart of the Land, that the Saxon Troups were blasted, before they could grow in­to Regiments; and their Strength (dispersed in the gathering) was routed, be­fore regulated into an Army.

18. This year the Danes made an Invasion into Lincolnshire, Fight betwixt Christians and Danes. where they met with stout Resistance:870 and let us take a List of the chief Officers on both sides.4

  • Christian Saxons.
    • Ingulphi Hist. p. 865.
      Count Algar, Generall, with the Youth of Holland.
    • Harding de Rehale with Stanford men, all very young and valiant.
    • Tolie a Monk, with a Band of two hundred Crowlanders.
    • Morcar Lord of Burn, with those of his numerous Fami­ly.
    • Osgot,
      Sheriff of Lincolnshire, with five hundred under him.
    • VVibert; living at VViberton, nigh Boston in Holland.Places named from their Owners.
      Leofrick; living at Leverton, anciently Lefrinkton.
  • Danish Pagans.
    • King Gordroum.
    • King Baseg.
    • King Osketill.
    • King Halfeden.
    • King Hammond.
    • Count Frena.
    • Count Vnguar.
    • Count Hubba.
    • Count Sidroke the Elder.
    • Count Sidroke the Younger.

The Christians had the better the first day, wherein the Danes lost three of their Kings, buried in a place thence called Trekingham: so had they the second, till at night, breaking their Ranks to pursue the Danes in their dissembled Flight, they were utterly overthrown.

19. Theodore Abbot of Crowland, Crowland Monks mas­sacred. hearing of the Danes Approach, shipped away most of his Monks, with the choicest Relicks and Treasures of his Con­vent, and cast his most precious Vessels into a VVell in the Cloister. The rest re­maining were at their Morning-prayers, when the Danes entring, slew

  • Theodore the Abbot on the High Altar,
  • Asher the Prior in the Vestiary,
  • Leth win the Sub-Prior in the Re­fectory,
  • Pauline in the Quire,
  • Herbert in the Quire,
  • VVolride the Torch­Bearer in the same place,
  • Grimketule and Agamund, each of them an hun­dred yeares old, in the Cloisters.

These, faith myIugulphus, pag. 866. Author, were first examinati, tortured to betrary their Trea­sure, and then exanimati, put to death for their Refusall. The same VVriter seems to wonder, that being killed in one place, their Bodies were afterwards found in another. Surely the Corse removed not themselves, but no doubt the Danes dragged them from place to place when dead. There was one Child­Monk therein, but ten yeares old, (Turgar by name) of most lovely Looks and Person. Count Sidroke the younger pittying his tender yeares (all Devills are not cruell alike) cast a Danish In Latine Collobium. Peterbarough Monks kil­led. Monaste­ry burned. Coat upon him, and so saved him, who onely survived, to make the sad Relation of the Massacre.

20. Hence the Danes marched to Medeshamsted (since called Peterborough) [Page 115] where finding the Abbey-gates locked against them,Anno Regis Ethel­tedi 4 they resolved to force their Entrance;Anno Dom. 870 in effecting whereof, Tulba, Brother to Count Hubba, was dange­rously wounded, almost to Death, with a Stone cast at him. Hubba enraged hereat, like another Doeg, killed Abbot Hedda, and all the Monks, being four­score and four, with his own hand. Count Sidroke gave an Item to young Monk Turgar (who hitherto attended him) in no wise to meet Count Hubba, for fear that his Danish Livery should not be found of proof against his Fury. Then was the Abbey set on Fire, which burned fifteen dayes together, wherein an ex­cellent Library was consumed. Having pillaged the Abbey, and broke open the Tombes and Coffins of many Saints there interred, these Pagans marched for­wards into Cambridgeshire, and passing the River Nine, two of their VVagons fell into the Water, wherein the Cattell which drew them were drowned, much of their rich Plunder lost, and more impaired.

21. Some dayes after,A heap of Martyrs. the Monks of Medeshamsted were buried altogether in a great Grave, and their Abbot in the middest of them, a Crosse being erected over the same; where one may have four yards square of Martyrs Dust, which no place else in England doth afford. Godric, Successour to Theodore, Abbot of Crowland, used annually to repair hither, and to say Masses two dayes toge­ther for the Souls of such as were entombed. One would think that by Popish Principles these were rather to be prayed to, then prayed for; many maintaining that Martyrs go the nearest way to Heaven, sine ambage Purgatorii: so that surely Godric did it not to better their Condition, but to expresse his own Affe­ction, out of the Redundancy of his Devotion; which others will call the Super­fluity of his Superstition.

22. The Danes spared no Age,The cruel Martyrdome of King Edmond. Sex, Condition of people such was the Cruelty of this Pagan unpartial Sword. With a violent Inundation they brake into the Kingdome of the East-Angles; wasted Cambridge, and the Countrey thereabouts; burnt (the then City of) Thetford; forced Edmond, King of that Countrey, into his Castle of Framling ham; who perceiving himself unable to re­sist their Power, came forth, and at the Village of Hoxon in Suffolk tendered his Person unto them, hoping thereby to save the Effusion of his Subjects Blouds. Where, after many Indignities offered unto him, they bound him to a Tree; and because he would not renounce his Christianity, shot him with Arrow after Arrow; their Cruelty taking Deliberation, that he might the better digest one Pain, before another succeeded, so distinctly to protract his Torture (though Confusion be better then Method in matters of Cruelty) till not Mercie, but want of a Mark made them desist; according to theCamden's Britan in the description of Suffolk. Poets Expression,

Iam loca Vulneribus desunt, nec dum furiosis
Tela, sed hyberna grandine plura volant.

Room wants for Wounds, but Arrows do not fail
From Foes, which thicker fly then winter Hail.

After-Ages, desiring to make amends to his Memory, so over-acted their part in shrining, sainting, and adoring his Relicks, at Bury St. Edmonds; that, if those in Heaven be sensible of the Transctions on Earth, this good Kings Body did not feel more Pain from the Fury of the Pagan-Danes, then his Soul is filled with holy Indignation, at the Superstition of the Christian-Saxons.

23. However, the VVest-Saxon King Ethelbert behaved himself bravely, fighting,King Ethel­bert his pray­er-victory. with various Successe, nineWilliam Malmesbury De Gestis Re­gum Anglo­rum, lib. 2. pag. 42. Battels against the Danes: though ninety nine had not been sufficient against so numerous an Enemy. But we leave these things to the Historians of the State, to relate. We read of an Gen. 31. 52. Heap of Stones, made between Iacob and Laban, with a mutuall Contract, that neither should passe the same for Harm. Thus would I have Ecclesiasticall and civil Histo­rians indent about the Bounds, and Limits of their Subjects that neither inju­riously incroach on the Right of the other. And, if I chance to make an [Page 116] Excursion into the matters of the Common-wealth, it is not out of Curio­sity, or Busybodinesse, to be medling in other mens Lines: but onely in an ami­cable way, to give a kind Visit, and to clear the mutuall Dependence of the Church on the Common-wealth. Yet let me say, that this War against the Danes was of Church-concernment; for it was as much pro aris, as pro focis, as much for Religion, as civil Interest. But one War must not be forgotten. Im­portunate Messengers brought the Tidings, that the English were dangerously ingaged with the Danes, at Essendune (haply Essenden now, in surrey) and likely to be worsted. King Ethelhert was at his Devotions, which he would not omit, nor abbreviate for all their Clamour. No suit would he hear on Earth, till first he had finished his Requests to Heaven. Then, having performed the part of pious Moses in theExod. 17. 11 Mount, he began to act valiant Ioshua in the Valley. The Danes are vanquished, leaving Posterity to learn, that time spent in Prayer, is laid out to the best Advantage.

24. But alas,King Ethel­bert heart­broken with grief. this Danish Invasion was a mortal VVound, 871 Dedecus Saxonica for­titudinis; 5 the Cure whereof was rather to be desired, then hoped for. Ease for the present, was all Art could perform. King Ethelbert saw, that of these Pa­gans the more he slew, the more they grew, which went to his valiant Heart. Grief is an heavy Burthen; and generally, the strongest Shoulders are able to bear the least proportion thereof. The good king therefore withered away in the Flower of his Age, willingly preferred to encounter rather Death, then the Danes; for he knew how to make a joyfull End with the one, but endless was his Contest with the other: according to the Observation of the English Malemes­buriensis ut prims. King Alfred's exemplary Character. Historian, that the Saxon-Kings in this Age, magis optabant honestum Exitum, quam acerbum Imperium.

25. In this sad condition God sent England a Deliverer, namely, King Al­fred, or Alured, born in England, bred in Rome, where, by a Prolepsis, he was a­nointed King by Pope Leo (though then but a private Prince, and his three elder Brothers alive) in auspicium futuriregnt, in hope that hereafter he should come to the Crown. Nor did this Vnction make Alfred ante-date his kingdome, who quietly waited till his foresaid Brothers successvely reigned, and died be­fore him, and then took his Turn in the Kingdome of the VVest-Saxons. The worst was, his Condition was like a Bride-groom, who, though lawfully wedded, yet might not bed his Bride, till first he had conquered his Rival; and must redeem England, before he could reign over it. The Danes had Lon­don, many of the in-land, moe-of the maritime Towns, and Alfred onely three effectuall Shires, Somerset, Dorset and VVilts; yet by Gods Blessing on his Va­lour, he got to be Monarch of all England. Yea, consider him as a King in his Court, as a Generall in his Camp, as a Christian in his Closer, as a Patron in the Church, as a Founder in his Colledge, as a Father in his Family; his Actions will every way appear no lesse excellent in themselves,872 AIfred [...] sen A [...] ­luredi 1 then exemplary to others.

26. His most daring Design was,Alfred, as a fidler, disco­vereth the Danish de­signes. when lying hid about Athelney in Somer­set-shire, 876 and disguised under the habit of a Fidler (being an excellent Musi­cian) he adventured into the Danish Camp. Had not his spirit been undaun­ted, 5 the sight of his armed Foes had been enough to have put his Instru­ment out of Tune. Here going unsuspected through their Army, he discove­red their Condition, and some of their Intentions. Some would say, that the Danes deserved to be beaten indeed, if they would communicate their Coun­sels to a Fidler. But let such know, Alfred made this generall Discovery of them, that they were remisse in their Discipline, lay idle and carelesse: and Se­curity disarmes the best-appointed Army. Themistocles said of himself, that he could not fiddle, but he knew how to make a little city great. But our Alfred could fiddle, and make a little City great too; yea, enlarge a petty and contracted Kingdome,The Danish ships left water-bound into a vast and absolute Monarchy.

27. But, as the Poets feign of Anteus, the Son of the Earth, who fighting [Page 117] with Hercules, Anno Regis Alfredi seu A­luredi 5 and often worsted by him, recovered his Strength again every time he touched the Earth,Anno Dom. 876 revived with an addition of new Spirits: so the Danes, which may seem the sons of Neptune, though often beaten by the En­glish in land-Battels, no sooner recovered their Ships at Sea, but presently re­cruiting themselves, they returned from Denmark, more numerous and formi­dable then before. But at last (to follow the Poeticall Fancy) as Hercules, to pre­vent Antaeus his farther reviving, hoised him aloft, and held him strangled in his Armes, till he was stark dead, and utterly expired: so, to secure the Danes from returning to the Sea, who out of the Thames had with their Fleet sailed up the River Ley, betwixt Hartfordshire and Essex, Alfred with Pioneers divided the grand Stream of Ley into severall Rivulets; so that their Ships lay Water-bound, leaving their Mariners to shift for themselves over land, most of which fell into the hands of their English Enemies: so that this proved a mor­tal Defeat to the Danish Insolence.

28. Alfred having thus reduced England to some tolerable terms of Quiet,The general ignorance in England. made most of the Danes his Subjects by Conquest, & the rest his Friends by Composition, encountred a fiercer Foe, namely, Ignorance and Barbarisme, which had generally invaded the whole Nation. Inso much that the writeth, that South of Thames he found not any that could read English. Indeed in these dayes all men turned Students; but what did they study? onely to live secretly, and safely from the Fury of the Danes. And now, that the next Age might be wiser then this, Alfred intended the founding of an University at Oxford.

29. Indeed,Ancient Schools at Crekelade and Lechlade. there were anciently standing on the Banks of Isis (which in due time commenceth Thamisis) two Towns; one Crekelade, or Greeklade, in Wiltshire; the other Lechlade, or Latinlade, in Gloucestershire. In the former of these many yeares since (things time out of mind must not be condemned as time out of truth) the Greek Tongue, as in the later the Latine Tongue, are said to be publickly professed by Philosophers. But where was Hebrew-lade, the Hebrew Tongue being more necessarie then both the former, for the under­standing of the Old Testament? Alas, in this Age it was banished, not onely out of England, but out of Christendome. As in the ordinary method of Na­ture, the more aged usually die first: so no wonder if Hebrew (generally presumed the oldest Language in the world) expired first in this Age of Ignorance, utter­ly abolished out of the Western Countries. Yea, it is well the other two lear­ned Tongues were preserved in these places; Grekelade and Lechlade being then Cities of eminent Note, shrunk now to mean Towns, and content with plain English, where Latine and Greek were formerly professed.

30. But now the Muses swam down the Stream of the River Isis, 11 to be twenty miles nearer to the rising Sun,882 and were by King Alfred removed from Crekelade and Lechlade, The Universi­ty first found­ed by Alfred at Oxford. to Oxford, where he founded an University. Yet some say, Alfred did find, and not found Letters therein, seeing there was a sprink­ling of Students therein before: though Learning was very low, and little therein, till this considerable Accession, when Alfred founded therein three Colledges, one for Grammarians, a second for Philosophers, a third for Di­vines. Take a List of their primitive Professours.

  • In Divinity
    • St. Grimbal
    • St. Neoth
  • In Grammar
    • Asserius, a Monk
  • In Logick
    • Iohn of St. Davids
  • In Mathematicks
    • Ioannes
    • Monachus.

It is credibly reported, that what is now called Vniversity-Colledge, was then one of King Alfred's Foundations, as the Verses written in their Hall, under his Armes, do attest.

Nobilis Alfredi sunt haec Insignia, cujus
Primum constructa est haec pietate domus.

And from this time Learning flourished here in great Plenty and Abundance, [Page 118] though oft-times abated;Anno Dom. 882 the Universities feeling the Impressions of the Com­mon-wealth.Anno Regis Alfredi seu A­luredi 11

31. At the same time wherein King Alfred built Vniversity Colledge in Ox­ford, Kings-Hall founded by King Alfred. he also founded Another House called Kings-great-Hall (intimating a lesser hard by) now included within the compasseRex Plato­nicus pag. 211. of Brazen-nose Colledge. And hence it is that at this very day it payeth some chief Rent to Vniversity Col­ledge, as the ancient Owner thereof. Here he placed Iohannes Scotus (highly endeared in this Kings Affections) Reader therein. On the clearing of whose Extraction and Opinions a long Story doth depend.

32. This Scotus is called Iohannes Scotus Erigena, The Birth­place of Io. Scotus. (with addition sometimes of Sophista:) so that all may amount to a kind of Definition of him as to his In­dividuall Person. Conceive we Scotus for his Genus, which because homonymous inIac. War. de Scrip. Hib. pag. 43. that Age (as signifying both Scotland and Ireland) Erigena is added for his Difference, that is, born (as some will have it) calledMercat. Atlas pag. 47. Erin in their own Countrey Language. But Dempster, a Scotch Eccles. Hist. Scot. lib. 1. num. 64. & lib. 9. un. 104. Writer, who will leave nothing that can be gotten above ground (yea, will dive and digge into the wa­ter and land of others) to the credit of his Countrey, claimeth Scotus as born in Scotland, spelling him Airigena, from Aire, a small place therein. But be­sides unanswerable Arguments to the contrary, gena is a termination seldome added to so restrictive a word, but (as Francigena, Angligena) denoteth general­ly the Nation, not petty place of a mans Extraction. As for Dempster, his Credit runneth low with me, ever since he made Pope Innocentius the first a Scotch-man, because calling himself Albanus, (and Scotland, forsooth, is Albania) it be­ing notoriously known that the said Innocent was born at Long Alba nigh Rome. Yea Bellarmine himself said, reading the three books of Dempster, wherein he hooketh in so many for his Countrymen, that he thought that if he should add a fourth, he would make JESUS CHRIST himself to be a Scotch-man.

33. All this while VVales stands modestly silent,Wales it's right to Sco­tus his birth. with intention to put in her Claim the last to Scotus his Nativity, whom many Writers make born at Bale de Scrip. Brit. cent. secund. pag. 124. Saint Davids. Whilest some will have the Epither of Erigene affixed unto him quasi [...], early-born, because of the timely rising of his Parts (as a Morning-starre) in those dark dayes: which I can better applaud for an inge­nious Allusion, then approve for a true and serious Assertion. But be Scotus born where he please, most sure it is, by King Alfred he was made a Professour of Learning in Oxford.

34. I confesseCajus de Ant. Cant. lib. 1. p. 157. Cajus maketh this Iohn Scotus Scholar to Bede (as many Trithemius & ejus se­quaces. good Authours also do) and brought up at Cambridge: to which the Sons of our Aunt are loth to consent,Scotus (saith Cajus) studied at Cam­bridge. that one who was taught in Cambridge, should teach in Oxford; and theirSr. Isa. Wake in Reg. Pla­tonico, pag. 212 eloquent Oratour falls very soul, save that it is some case to be railed on in good Latine) on him for the same. Now because we Cambridge-men are loth to take a Limbe of Iohn Scotus (or any other Learned man) more then what will come of it self, with the Consent of Chronologie; and because I findBaleus Cent. secund. utprius. Miserably murdered by his Scholars. Bale dislikes the same, chiefly on the account of his impro­bable Vivacity of an hundred and seventy years; I can be content to resign my particular Title unto him, provided it be without Prejudice to others of our Vniversity, who hereafter may challenge him with better Arguments.

35. I much wonder that this Scotus should be so degraded in his Old-age from Oxford to Malmesbury; from a Professour in an Vniversity, to a School­master in a Countrey-town; where pouring Learning into his Ladds (rather in proportion to the Plenty of the Fountain, then to the Receipt of the Vessels) he was severe to such Scholars as were dull in their Apprehensions. This so irritated their Anger against him, that by an universall Conspiracy they dispatched him in the School with their Pen-knives. I find not what Punishment was infli­cted upon them: VVhipping being too little, if sturdy Youths; and Hanging too much, if but little Boyes. Onely I observe one Cassianus, a Schoolmaster in [Page 119] Primitive times, sent the same way on the same Occasion; his Death being ele­gantly described byPrudentius in his book peristephanon. Unmartyred by Baronius. Prudentius.

36. All the Amends which is made to the Memory of Scotus is, that he was made a Martyr after his Death, and his Anniversary is remembred in the Ka­lendar on the fourth of the Ides of November, in the Roman Martyrologie, set forth at Antwerp 1586. by the command of Gregory the thirteenth. But since Ba­ronius hath unmartyred him; and that on good reason, faithIn 2. edit. Catal. SS. Hib. Henry Fitz-Simon, attesting that an Apologie is provided, confirmed with approbation of many Popes, Cardinalls, and many learned Doctours, justifying Baronius therein, which we, as yet, have not beheld. Indeed Scotus detested some Superstitions of the times, especially about the Presence in the Lords Supper; and I haveIoh. Pari­siensis Hist. in anno 877. read that his Book de Eucharistia was condemned in the Vercellian Synod, for some Pas­sages therein, by Pope Leo. This makes it suspicious, that some Hands of more age and Heads of more Malice, then School-boyes, might guide the Pen­knives which murdered Scotus, because of his known Opposition against some Practises and Opinions of that ignorant Age.

37. It is much that this Scotus, Scotus con­founded with other of his namesakes. though carrying in his Name a Comment on himself, that all should not suffice so distinctly to expound him to some Appre­hensions, but that still they confound him with others of his Name; sometimes with Iohannes Scotus Iohn Bale ut prius. Mailrossius, sometimes with Iohn Dunce Scotus; though indeed there be Difference enough of Time, Place, and other distinguishing Characters, betwixt them. Our present Scotus being most probably an Irish­man, a great Linguist in the learned Tongues, a vast Traveller into the Eastern parts, a Monk by profession, killed and buried at Malmesbury. The other Scotus born in Northumberland, skilled onely (and that but meanly) in Latine, never travelling farther then France, and the hither part of Germany, a Franci­scan by his Order, dying of an Apoplexy, and buried at Colen, of whom (God willing) largely hereafter.

38. To return to King Alfred. The Scholars maintenance out of the Kings Ex­chequer. As for the Maintenance of the Scholars, it issued forth annually from Alfred's Exchequer, who made a fourefoldAsserius Menevensis in Alfredo. division of his Wealth; understand it of the Surplusage thereof, more then what his Court and Camp expended: One part to the Poor, of all kinds, that came and craved of him; a second to the Monasteries of his own Erection; a third to the School, understand Oxford, which he himself had founded; the fourth, and last, to the neighbouring Monasteries round about. However, we may easi­ly believe that after his Death, the Students of Oxford were often at a losse of Livelihood. For, seeing the Coffers of the greatest Kings (especially in the time of War) are subject to a Drought of Coin, there must needs be a Dearth in those Colledges, which are watered thence for their Maintenance. Scholars may in time of Peace, but Souldiers must be paid in time of War. Wherefore, the most certain Subsistence for Scholars (so far forth as inconstant things, as all Sublunary, can be made constant) is, what ariseth from solid Lands, where­with they are endowed. For, though even such Revenues are subject to Ca­sualties, yet some Water will ever be running, though the Tide thereof may ebb, or flow, according to the fall, or rise of Commodities.

39. But it is hard so to compose two Swarms of Bees in one Hive,14 but that they will fall out,885 and fight.Dissention betwixt the Students at Oxford. The Colledge of Logick, it seems, from the Foun­dation thereof, studied Divisions, as well as Distinctions; there happening a dangerous Difference betwixt the Aborigines and the Advenae, the old Stock of Students, and the new Store brought in by St. Grimball: the former, standing on their Seniority, expected more Respect unto themselves, deriving their Privi­ledges from their learned Auncestors, time out of mind; which the Grimbal­lists would not consent unto. Both sides appealed to Alfred, as their Patron. He coming to Oxford, carried himself with much moderation, as accounting that Agreement most durable, into which the parties were perswaded, not com­manded. Grimball, expecting King Alfred's zealous ingaging on his side, accor­ding [Page 120] to the conceived merits of his Cause,Anno Dom. 885 was not a little offended,Anno Regis Alfredi seu A­luredi 14 that the King did not appear more resolute in his behalf. Insomuch that he for­sook Oxford, wherein he had formerly built the Church of St. Peter from the very Foundation, with stone most curiously wrought and polished, and translated both himself, and his intended Tombe thence to VVinche­ster.

40. AnBrian Twine in Apolog. Antiq. Oxton. Antiquary tells us, that the ancient Armes were assigned to Oxford about this time,The Armes of oxford. namely, in a Field Azure, a Bible with seven Seales appendant thereunto, opened (at the beginning of St. Iohns Gospel, In the beginning was the word, &c.) betwixt three Crowns Or: which three Crowns (saith he) signifie the three Senses of the Scripture: in the which, I confesse, I do not understand him. For, either we must admit but one Sense of the Scripture, as principally in­tended therein (which is the generall Opinion of the Protestants:) or, if with the Papists, we will allow moe Senses then one, we must concludeAquinas Summes, quae. 1. Art. 10. four, namely, the literall, allegoricall, morall, and anagogicall. What if the three Crowns import the three Professions which Alfred here sounded, and all necessary to the understanding of the Book betwixt them? Grammar, to un­derstand the Letter; Philosophy, the Reason; and Divinity, the Mystery of the Scripture.

41. One of the first Scholars of Note,One, once a swine­heard, made Bishop of Winchester. whom I find bred in Oxford, was one Du [...]wolphus, once a Swineheard in Athelney, when Alfred lurked therein, be­ing the Kings Host, who entertained him, or rather his Master, whom the King served. Alfred perceiving in him pregnancy of Parts (though stifled with the Narrownesse, and cripled with the Lownesse of his Vocation) sent him toGodwin in his Bishops of Winchester, pag. 263. Oxford; where he became, after some yeares study, Doctour in Divinity, and was by the King, in Gratitude, preferred to be Bishop ofMalmesb. lib. 2. de [...]ess. Ponti­ficum. VVinchester. But the Monks of VVinchester are so proud and sullen, they disdain to accept this man for their Bishop, affirming, that their See stoodSee Mr. I­saak sons Chronology in Ca [...]al. of Bishops. void at this time; more willing to confesse a Vacancy, then admit a Swineheard into their Episcopall Chaire. Whereas surely Alfred, so great a Scholar, and good a man, would not have advanced him per saltum, from a Swineheard to a Bishop, had he not been qualified by intermediate Degrees of Education. For mine own part, I see no reason why VVinchester should be ashamed of him; and for ought I know,887 Dunwolph might be as good a Bishop as Dunstan, 16 of whom the Monks of VVinchester so boast, both without cause, and mea­sure.

42. Councils (except Councils of VVarre) were very rare in this Age.The preface to the Ca­nons made by King Al­fred. TheSr. Henry Spelman's Counc. p. 354. first I find a solemn one, celebrated by King Alfred; the place not expressed, but the Canons therein fairly transmitted to Posterity. The Preface of these Canons is very remarkable, consisting of three parts.

1. The ten Commandments translated into Saxon, as being the Basis and Foundation of all Humane Laws.

2. Severall pieces of Chapters in Exodus, being the Breviate of the Judiciall Law of the Iews; which though in the Latitude thereof calculated only for the Iewish Common-wealth, yet the Morall Equity therein obligeth all Christians.

3. The fifteenth Chapter of the Acts, containing the Council of Ieru­salem, as being a Divine Precedent, or Warrant for Christians to con­vene together, and conclude Orders for regulating mens Conversa­tions.

It is remarkable, that in the aforesaid ten Commandments, as [...]xemplified in this Council of Alfred, the second Commandment is wholly [...]xpunged; Image-worship beginning then to grow common in the world, and the Clergy, who gained thereby (hating the second Commandement, on the same [Page 121] account as Ahab did1 King. 22. 8 Mic [...]iah, Anno Regis Alfredi seu A­luredi 16 because it ever prophesied evill unto them [...] dashed it out of the Decalogue.Anno Dom. 887 The worst is, when this was wanting, the De­calogue was but an Ennealogue; and therefore to preserve the number of ten, the Papists generally cleave the last Commandment into two: but in Alfred's Preface, this is made the tenth and last Commandment, Thou shalt not wor­ship Gods of Gold and Silver. Which, as it comes in out of it's proper place, (and why should not Gods Order be observed, as well as his Number, in the Commandments?) so is it defectively rendered, nothing so full against gra­ven-Images, as God propounded it. The Canons made in this Council fall under a three-fold Consideration. Some relate onely to the Common-wealth, and by us may properly be forborn. Others concern onely Monks and Friers, (a sixth Finger, and no necessary Member of the Church:) and, as Actio moritur cum persona; so with the Extirpation of those Convents, those Canons may seem to expire.

43. Plegmund an Eremite in the Isle of Chester (now called Plegmundsham) Tutour to King Alfred, 18 was by him preferred to be Arch-bishop of Canter­bury, 889 then a miserable place,A generall Contribu­tion to Rome and Ierusa­lem. as hardly recovered from the late Sacking of the Danes. By the Kings command, he called the Clergy of England together, and made a Collection of Almes, to be sent to Rome and Ierusalem: and Athelm, Arch-bishop of York, was imployed in the Journey, going personally to the aforesaid Places, to see the Contribution there faithfully delivered, and equally distributed.

44. About the end of this Century died worthy King Alfred, 900 remarkable to Posterity on many Accounts,Death of King Alfred. whereof this not the least, That he turned Davids Psalms into English; so that a Royall Text met with a Royall Translatour. He left his Crown to Edward his Sonne (commonly called the Elder) farre inferiour to his Father in Skill in, but not so much in his Love to good Li­terature. Indeed he had an excellent Tutour, Asserius Menevensis, Arch-bishop of St. Davids, (the faithfull Writer of his Fathers Actions) sup­posed by some Bishop of Sherburn, which is denied byIames U­sher de Brit. Eccles. primor. in I [...]dice Chro­nolog. p. 1177. Weak Guar­dians God wote. others, (though one of the same name was some yeares before) as inconsistent with Chrono­logie.

45. As for principall Clergy-men extant at this time, we take speciall notice of two: the one, Berthulf, Bishop of VVinchester, made one of the Guardians of the Realm against the Incursion of the Danes; the other, Halard, Bishop of Dorchester, advanced also into the same Employment. But alass, what weak Guardians were these to defend the Land, which could not secure their own Sees! And in what Capacity (save in Prayers and Teares) were they Able to make any Resistance? for now the Danes not onely affailed the Skirts and Out-sides of the Land, but also made Inrodes many miles into the Conti­nent thereof. Insomuch that VVinchester lay void six, and Sherburn seven yeares; such the Pagan Fury, that none durst offer to undertake those Places.

46. True it is,The wofull estate of the English. the English oftentimes in Battell got the Advantage of them; when the Pagan Danes being conquered had but one way to shift for them­selves, namely, to counterfeit themselves Christians, and embrace Baptisme: but no sooner had they got Power again into their hands, but that they turning Apostates were ten times more cruell then ever before. Thus succes­sively was the Land affected with Sicknesse, Recovery, and Relapses; the peoples Condition being so much the more disconsolate, because promi­sing a Continuance of Happinesse to themselves upon their Victories, they were on their Overthrows remanded to the same, if not a worse Condi­tion.

47. It is strange to observe the Alternations of Successe between the En­glish and Danes, The com­mendable temper of King Alfred and King Edward. how exactly they took their Turns; God using them to hold up one another, whilest he justly beat both. Mean time commendable the [Page 122] Temper of late King Alfred, Anno Dom. 900 and present King Edward; Anno Regis it being true of each of them,

Si modo Victus erat, ad crastina bella parabat;
Si modo Victor erat, ad crastina bella timebat.
If that it happ't that Conquered was he,
Next day to fight he quickly did prepare;
But if he chanc't the Conquerour to be,
Next day to fight he wisely did beware.

But these things we leave to the Historians of the State to prosecute, and con­fine our selves onely to matters of Ecclesiasticall cognizance.


Iacobo Langham,Anno Dom. Armigero, amplissimi Senatoris Londinensis Primogenito.

DEcimam hanc Centuriam tibi dedicandam curavi, quòd Nume­rus Denarius semper aliquid augustum sonet. Sic in Papicolarum Globulis, quibus preculas suas numerant, decimus (ut Decurio) aliis magnitudine praestat.

At dices; Centuria haec inter Ecclesiasticos audit infelix, cùm suâ tantùm Obscuritate sit illustris. Quid Tibi igitur, Feli­cissimo Viro, cui laetum Ingenium, lauta Haereditas, cum infelici Seculo?

Verbo expediam. Volui Nomen Tuum Historiae meae hic prae­tendi, ut instar Phosphori, Lectores in hac tenebrosa Aetate oberrantes, splendoris sui Radiis dirigat.

Percurras, quaeso, insequentes paginas; nihil Scientiae, aliquid Voluptatis tibi allaturas, Quo cum nemo sit in ipsis Elegantia­rum apicibus Latinior, probe scio, Te perquam suaviter risurum, cum Diploma Edvardinum, nimia Barbarie scatens, perlegeris.

1. AT this time there was a great Dearth of Bishops in the Land, Edvar­di Se­nioris 3 which lasted for seven yeares (as long as the Famine in Aegypt) during which time,904 there was no Bishop in all the West parts of England. England in­terdicted by the Pope for want of Bishops. Pope Formo­sus was foully offended hereat, and thereupon, cum magna Archiv. Cant. in Re­gist. Priorat. Eccles. Cant. fol. 3. b. Iracundia & Devotione, with much Passion and Piety, by his Curse and Excommunication, interdi­cted King, Kingdome, and all the Subjects therein. We cannot but gaze at the Novelty of this act, (as we conceive, a leading Case in this kind) whilest the skilfull in the Canon Law can give an account of the Equity of the Popes Proceedings, why all should suffer for some, the guiltlesse with the guilty, and have the VVord and Sacraments taken from them, for the want of Bishops in other places! Otherwise, the Punish­ment seemeth unjust in the rigid justice thereof, and (if not heavier) larger then the Offence, and beareth no Proportion with common Equity, Christian Cha­rity, and Gods Proceedings, who saith, the soul that sinneth, shall dye.

2. Not withstanding,The Chara­cter of those this excommunicating of K. Edward bythe Pope is highly [Page 124] urged byIn his answer to the Lord Cooks Re­port, pag. 136. cap. 6. Parsons, Kings on whom the Pope most improved himself. to prove the Popes Power in England over Princes,Anno Dom. 904 accor­ding to his constant Solo [...]cisme clean through the tenure of his Book,Anno Regis Edvar­di Sen. 3 to reason à Facto ad Ius, arguing from the Popes barely doing it, that he may justly do it. We deny not but that in this Age, active and ambitious Popes mightily im­proved their Power upon five sorts of Princes. First, on such as were lazy, and voluptuous; who, on condition they might enjoy their Sports and Delights for the present, cared not for their Posterity. Secondly, on such as were openly vicious, and so obnoxious to Censure; who would part with any thing, out of the apprehension of their Guiltinesse. Thirdly, on such as were tender, and easie-natured; who gave, not so much out of Bounty to give, as out of Bashful­nesse to deny the Popes Importunity. Fourthly, on those of a timorous spirit; who were affrighted with their own Fancies of the Popes Terriblenesse, and be­ing captivated unto him by their own Fear, they ransomed themselves at what Price he pleased. Lastly, on pious Princes; whose blind Zeal, and misled De­votion, thought nothing too precious for him: in which from we rank this Edward the Elder, then King of England. And it is worth our observing, that in point of Power and Profit, what the Popes once get, they ever hold, being as good at keeping, as catching; so that what one got by Encroching, his Succes­sour prescribed that Encrochment for a Title, which whether it will hold good in matter of Right, it is not for an Historian to dispute.

3. But to return to our Story.The Pope pleased, and England ab­solved again. We are glad to see Malmesbury so merry, who calleth this Passage of the Popes interdicting England, Iocundum memor atu, pleasant to be reported, because it ended so well. For Pleigmund Arch-bishop of Canterbury posted to Rome, bringing with him honorifica munera, (such Ushers will make one way through the thickest Croud to the Popes Presence) in­forming his Holinesse that Edward, King of England, in a late-summoned Synod, had founded some new, and supplied all old vacant Bishopricks. Pacified here­with the Pope turned his Curse into a Blessing, and ratified their Elections. The worst is, a learnedSir Henry Spelman in Conciliis, pag. 389. Pen tells me, that in this Story there is an inextricable Er­rour in point of Chronology, which will not suffer Pope Formosus and this King Edward the Elder to meet together. And Baronius makes the Mistake worse, by endeavouring to mend it. I have so much Warinesse, as not to enter into that Labyrinth, out of which I cannot return; but leave the Doubt to the Popes Datarie to clear, proper to him, as versed in such matters. The sameIdem ibidem Pen informs me, that the sole way to reconcile the Difference is, to read Pope Leo the fifth instead of Pope Formosus: which for Quietnesse I am content to do, the rather, because such a Roaring Curse best beseems the mouth of a Lion.

4. Hear now the names of the seven Bishops which Pleigmund consecrated in one day:Vacant Bi­shopricks supplied, and new erected. a great dayes-work, and a good one, if all were fit for the Function. Fridstan Bishop of Winchester, (a Learned and Holy man) Werstan of Shireburn, Kenulfe of Dorchester, Beornege of Selsey, Athelme of VVells, Eadulfe of Crediton in Devon, and Athelstan in Cornwall of St. Petrocks. These three last VVestern Bishopricks, were in this Council newly erected. But St. Petrocks had never long any settled Seat, being much in motion, translated from Bodman in Cornwall (upon the wasting of it by the Danes) to St. Germans in the same County, and af­terward united to Crediton in Devonshire. This Bishoprick was founded princi­pally for the reduction of the rebellious Cornish to the Romish Rites; who as they used the Language, so they imitated the Lives and Doctrine of the ancient Bri­tans, neither hitherto,King Edward in a new Sy­nod confirms his fathers constitutions nor long after submitting themselves to the See Apostolick.

5. A Synod was called at Intingford; where Edward the Elder, and Guthurn King of the Danes, in that part of England which formerly belonged to the East-Angles, onely confirmed the sameLambert in his Saxon Laws, and Sir Henry Spelman in his Councils, pag. 390. ecclesiasticall Constitutions, which Alured, Edwards Father, with the said Guthurn, had made before. Here the cu­rious Palats of our Age will complain of Crambe, that two Kings, with their Clergy, should meet together onely actum agere, to do what was done to their hands. But whilest some count all Councils idle, which do not add or alter; [Page 125] others will commend their Discretion,Anno Regis Edvar­di Sen. 5 who can discern what is well ordered already,Anno Dom. 906 approve their Policie, in enjoyning such things unto others, and prin­cipally praise their Piety, for practising them in themselves. And whosoever looks abroad into the world, with a judicious Eye, will soon see, that there is not so much need of New Laws, (the Multitude whereof rather cumbers mens Memories, then quickens their Practise) as an absolute necessity to enforce Old Laws, with a new and vigorous Execution of them.

6. And now King Edward, 14 remembring the pious Example of his Father Alfred in founding of Oxford, 915 began to repair and restore the University of Cambridge. Cambridge University repaired by King Edward. For the Danes (who made all the Sea-coasts of England their Haunt, and kept the Kingdome of the East-Angles for their Home) had banished all Learning from that place; Apollo's Harp being silenced by Mars his Drum: till this Kings Bounty brought Learning back again thither, as by his following Charter may appear.

InCharta extat in MS. codice qui Canta­brigiae est in Aula Cla­rensi, ejus­dem meminit Tho. Rud­burn, nec non Ioh. Rossus. nomine D. Iesu Christi. Ego Edwardus, Dei gratia, Rex Anglorum, divino compulsus amore, praecepto Joannis, Apostolicae Sedis Episcopi, ac Pleigmundi Cantuar. Archiepisc. consilio, omnium Sacerdotum & Prin­cipum meae Dominationis, universa & singula Privilegia, Doctoribus & Scholaribus Cantabrigiae, nec non servientibus eorundem, (uti ab olim vi­guit indesinenter Mater Philosophiae, & reperitur in praesenti Fons Cleri­moniae,) à me data, seu ab Antecessoribus meis quomodo libet concessa, sta­bili jure grata & rata decerno durare, quamdiu vertigo Poli circa Terras at (que) Aequora Aethera Syderum justo moderamine volvet. Datum in Grantecestria, anno ab Incarnatione D. 915. venerabili Fratri Frith­stano, Civitatis Scholarium Cantabrig. Cancellario, & Doctori per suum, &c.

The Credit of this Charter is questioned by some, because of the barbarous Stile thereof: as if an University were disgraced with honourable Priviledges granted unto it in base Latine. But know, that Age was so poor in Learning, it could not go to the Cost of good Language. Who can look to find a fair Face in the hotest parts of Aethiopia? Those Times were ignorant: and as it is ob­served of the Country-people born at the Village ofCamden's Brit. in Lei­cestershire, pag. 517. Carlton in Leicestershire, that they have all (proceeding from some secret cause in their Soil or Water) a strange uncouth VVharling in their Speech; so it was proper to the persons writing in this Age, to have a harsh, unpleasant, grating Stile, (and so much the sowrer to Criticall Eares, the more it is sweetned with an affected Rhythm,) though a Blemish, yet a Badge of their genuine Deeds, which were passed in those times.

7. Hear also what Iohn Rouse, an excellent Antiquary, The Testi­mony of Iohn Rouse concerning K. Edward's repairing of Cambridge. furnished by King Edward the fourth with Privacy and Pension, to collect the Monuments of this Land, alleageth to this purpose. Who being bred in Oxford, and having written a Book in confutation of those which deduce the Foundation of this Vniversity from Cantaber, may be presumed will allow Cambridge no more then what in right is due unto her. He speaking ofBaleus Cent. 8. numero 53. King Edward the Elder, out of an ancient Table and Chronicle of Hyde Abbey by VVinchester, which himself by the favour of the Abbot perused, reporteth of the Restauration of decayed Cambridge at this time, in manner as followeth.

Ioh. Rossus in lib. de Regibus.

Propterea ad Clerimoniam augmen­tandam, sicut Pater suus Oxoniam, sic ipse ab antiquo cum caeteris Stu­diis generalibus suspensam, desola­tam, & destructam Cantabrigiam, iterum ad primam Gloriam erexit: [Page 126] nec non ibi Aulas Studientium, & Doctorum Magistrorumque Cathe­dras & Sedilia, ut dilectissimus Cle­ri nutritor, amator, & defensor, suis sumtibus erigi & fabricari praecepit. Ab Oxonia namque Vniversitate, quā Pater suus nobilis Rex erexerat, Magistros Artiū quas liberales vo­camus, pariter in sacra Theologia Doctores, advocavit, ibi (que) ad leg en­dū formaliter, & docendū invitavit.

Therefore for the augmentation of Clerk like Learning, as his Father had done to Oxford, so he again raised up Cam­bridge to her first Glory, which for a long time, with other generall Schools, had been suspended, desolate, and destroyed: [Page 126] as also,Anno Dom. 915 like a most loving Nourisher of the Clergie,Anno Regis Edvar­di Sen. 14 he commanded that Halls for Students, Chairs and Seats of Do­ctors and Masters, should there be ere­cted, & built on his own proper Charges: for he called from Oxford Universitie, which his noble Father the King had ere­cted, Masters of those Arts which we call liberall, together with Doctors in holy Divinity, and invited them there formal­ly to read and teach.

8. Have we here Cambridge presented in a three-fold Condition.Cambridge re­presented in a three-fold estate. First, what she had been long before King Edward's time; fairly flourishing with Learning. Secondly, in what case he found her; desolate, and decayed. Then then Cup of Cambridge was at the bottom, her Breasts dry, and her Sun in an Ec­lipse. She was, saith Rosse, suspended, not by the power of any Popes Keyes (as the word may import,) but by the force of Pagan Swords, who here interrupted the exercise of Acts and publick Lectures; as in Spain, Germany, and other For­rein Parts, places appointed for Learning had shared in the like Calamity. Third­ly, in what condition Edward left her; under whom, as under the Father of the Act, Cambridge it self did then Commence and take a new Degree. Happy this Edward, who like a wealthy Landlord had two Nurseries of choice Fruit; so that if the one, by any sad accident, chanced to faile, he could supply it from the other, without being beholding to his Neighbours. This was the Love be­twixt the two Sisters; what either had, neither could want, and Oxford, which lent now, borrowed another time, as in due place shall appear. If the same Au­thour In his Cata­logue of the Earles of Warwick. elsewhere calleth this king Edward Founder of Cambridge, it is by an easie and obvious Errour, because a totall Repairer doth amount to a partiall Foun­der. Nor doth Cambridge regret thereat; seeing Gratefull Expressions, which had rather transgresse in the Excesse, then the Defect, may in Courtesy call their Mender, their Maker.

9. Athelstan his Son succeeded King Edward, The prin­cipall Laws enacted in the Council at Greatlea. being much devoted to St. Iohn of Beverley; 924 on whose Church he bestowed a Freed-Stool, Athel­stani 1 with large Pri­viledges belonging thereunto. Many Councils were kept in this Kings Reign, at Excester, Feversham, Thunderfield, and London (all of them of uncertain Date.) But one held at Greatlea is of greatest account for the Lawes therein enacted;928 the principall here insuing.5

1. That the kings Officers should truely pay Tithes, out of his Demesnes, as well of his quick Cattel, as dead Commodities.

2. That Cyricsceat (that is, First-fruits of Seeds) be duely payed to God in his Church.

3. That the Kings Officers maintain one Poore-body in the Kings Villages; and in case none be found therein, fetch him from other places.

[Christ saith, The poor you have alwayes with you. The Church in generall is well stockt with them, though some particular Parish may want such as are in Want. If any would know the Bill of Fare allowed these poore people; It was monthly a Measure of Meale, una Perna, a Gammon of Bacon, A Ramm worth a Groat, four Cheeses, & 30. Pence on Easter-Wednesday to buy them Cloaths.]

4. That Monyers wilfully corrupting the Coyn, and found guilty, have their Hands cut off, and nailed to the Mint-house.

[Every Burrough was allowed one Mint therein: but besides these,

  • Hastings one
  • Cirencester one
  • Shaftsbury two
  • Wareham two
  • Exeter
    So in the Sa­xon Manu­script, though in libro Iorm [...] ­lensi by mi­stake Oxonia is put for Exo­nia.
  • Hampton two
  • Lewes two
  • Rochester three
  • Winchester six
  • Canterbury seven
  • (viz) For the King four
  • For the Arch-bishop two
  • For the Abbot one
  • London eight

[Page 127] Most of these places were anciently in the West-Saxon Kingdome:Anno Regis Athel­stani 5 to whom the English Monarchs were most favourable,Anno Dom. 928. in doubling their Priviledge of Coynage, but single in other places of greater Capacity.]

5. That such who were tryed by Ordall, should ceremoniously be prepared there­unto with the solemn manner of managing that Tryall.

6. That no Buying or Selling be on the Lords-Day.

[This took not full effect for many yeares after; for Henry Camden's Brit. in Sus­sex. the first gran­ted to Battel Abbey a Market to be kept on that Day, lately (at the motion of Anthony Marquess Montacute) by Act of Parliam▪ removed to another Day.]

7. That one convicted of Perjurie, shall be trusted no more on his Oath, nor be buried in Holy earth, except restored by the Bishop on his Penance.

8. That Witches, confessing themselves to have killed any, be put to death.

[Such as were suspected, and denied the Fact, might be tried by Ordall: which was done either by Fire, whereof hereafter; or by Water. Of the later, Mergator una ulna & dimidia in sune: which I thus understand; Let the Party be tied to a Rope, and drencht an Ell and half above his own Height. And this is the first footstep we find of Swimming of Witches; for which no Law, save Cu­stome, at this day; and that whether just in it self, and satisfactory (as a means proportionable for the discovery of the Truth) is not my work to determine.

Whosoever desires to have more exact Information of this Council, may re­pair to Sir Henry In his Coun­cils, pag. 396. & sequenti­bus. Dignities and degrees amongst the Saxons. Spelman, where he may receive plentifull Satisfaction.

10. Onely I must not omit one Passage in this Council, acquainting us with the Herauldry of that Age, and the Distances and Degrees of Persons, collected from their VVeers or VVeer-Glids, that is Taxes, and Valuations; it being truly to be said in that Age,

Quantum quisque sua Nummorum servat in Arca,
Tantum habet et Fidei—

Every ones Testimony in Law-cases in Courts was credited according to his Wealth.

1. Ceorles (whence our Northern word Carles, and common word Churles) being Countrey Clowns, whose VVeer-gild was 200. shil­lings, or 10. pounds; the same with Villanes, who held land in Villanage of others. These, if by Blessing on their Industry they rose so high as to have five Hides of Land of their own, with a place in the Kings Court, and some other Priviledges, now hardly to be understood, were advan­ced to be Thanes.

2. The VVeer-gild, or Value of a Thane, was six times as much as a Churle, or a Villane, namely twelve times a hundred shillings, therefore termed a twelve-hind-man: whose Oath in Law was equivalent to six Oaths of Churles, or Villanes; as a Shilling passing in Payment countervaileth six two-pences. Note, that if a Masseer, or Merchant, pass the great Sea thrice (understand the Mediterranian, not the Narrow Seas betwixt us and France) and not in the Notion of a Servant, but on his own account; he then was dignified with the reputation of a Thane. These Thanes were of two sorts: Meset Thanes, Priests qualified to say Masse; and VVor­rould-Thanes, that is, secular, or temporall Thanes.

3. Of the first, if a Scholar made such proficiency in his Studies, that he took holy Orders, he was reverently respected, and (though not valued as a VVorrould-Thane in Rates and Taxes) Amends were to be made for any Wrongs done unto him, equall to a Thane; and in case he should be kill'd, the Penalty thereof was the higher, the more Orders the person had taken. Observe by the way (so far as we can understand the Saxon Laws) that Man-slaughter was not then punished with Death, but might be redeemed by the proportionable Payment of a Summe of Mony, ac­cording to the Quality of the Person slain; part thereof payable to the King, part to his Kindred, part to the Countrey thereabouts.

But the further prosecution hereof, (where the Footsteps are almost out-worn [Page 128] with Time) we leave to more expert Antiquaries; who will tell you, that Alder­man in that Age was equall to our modern Earle, who with Bishops were of the same Valuation: also that Comes in that Age, sounded as much as Duke in ours, Arch-bishops going along with them in all considerable Equipage.

11. Now began St. Dunstan to appear in Court,Dunstan his first co­ming into fa­vour at the Court. born at Glassenbury, 933 of Noble Parentage (as almost what Saint in this Age was not honourably extracted?10) Nephew both to Elphegus Bishop of VVinchester, and Athelm Arch-bishop of Canterbury, yea Kinsman remote to King Athelstane himself: and being thus highly related, he could not misse of Preferment. His Eminencies were Painting and Graving (two Qualities disposing him to be very usefull for Saint-worship­ping, either for Pictures or Images) an excellent Musician (Preaching in those dayes could not be heard for Singing in Churches) & an admirable Worker in Brass and Iron. These Accomplishments commended him at Court to be ac­ceptable to Company; and for some time he continued with the King in great Reputation.

12. But it is given to that Bowle which lyes next to the Mark,Banished thence on suspicion of Magick. to have most take aime to remove it.935 Eminency occasions Envy,12 which made Dunstan's Enemies endeavour to depresse him. He is accused to the King for a Magician, and upon that account banished the Court. It was brought as Evidence against him, that he made his Harp not onely to have Motion, but make musick of it self; which no VVhite Art could perform.

St. Dunstan's Harp fast by the Wall
Vpon a Pin did hang-a:
The Harp it self, with Ly and all,
Vntoucht by hand did twang-a.

For our part, let Dunstan's Harp hang there still, on a double Suspicion twisted together; first, whether this Story thereof were true or false: secondly, if true, whether done by Magick or Miracle. Sure I am, as good a Harper, and a better Saint then Dunstan was, hath no such Miracle reported of him, even David him­self: who with his Harp praised God, pleased men,1 Sam. 16. 23 frighted Devils; yet took pains with his own rightPsal. 137. 5. Hand to play, not lazily commanding Musick by Mi­racle to be made on his Instrument.

13. Banish'd from Court,He retires unto his cell-prison at Glassenbury Dunstan returns to Glassenbury, 937 and there falls a puffing and blowing in his Forge.14 Here he made himself a Cell (or rather a Little-ease) being but four foot long, two and a half broad (enough to cripple his Joynts with the Cramp, who could not lye along therein) whilest the height thereof was according to the stature of a man. Wisely and vertuously he would not confine himself upwards, that the Scantness of the earthly Dimensions in his Cell (Breadth and Length) might be enlarged in the Height thereof, and li­berty left for the ascending of his Meditations. But it matters not how little the Prison be, if a man, with Dunstan, be his own Gaoler, to go in and out at plea­sure. Leave we him at the Furnace in Smithery-work (excelling Alexander the Copper-smith therein) whilest we find such Monks as wrote his Life, at an­other Forge, whence they coined many impudent Miracles, pretended done by Dunstan, and this among the rest.

14. Dunstan was in his Vocation making some iron Trinkets,Takes a devil by the nose. when a Pro­teus-Devil appeared unto him,938 changing into Shapes,15 but fixing himself at last into the form of a Fair Woman. Strange, that Satan (so subtil in making his Temptations most taking) should preferre this form; belike shrewdly guessing at Dunstan's Temper, that a Fair Woman might work upon him, and Vulcan might love a Venus. Dunstan [...]reeiving it, pluckt his Tongs glowing hot out of the Fire, and with them kept him (or her shall I say?) there along time by the Nose roaring and bellowing;This false miracle can­vased. till at last he brake loose, by what accident it is not told unto us.

15. I have better imployment then to spend precious time in confuting such [Page 129] Follies;Anno Regis Athel­stani 15 but give me leave to admire at these new Armes against Satan.Anno Dom. 938 Eph. 6. 16. Take the shield of Faith (faith the Apostle) wherewith ye may quench all the fiery Darts of the VVicked. Dunstan found a new way by himself, with fiery Tongs to do the deed. But let us a little examine this Miracle. The Devil himself we know is a Spirit, and so impatible of materiall Fire. Now if it were a reall Body he as­sumed, the Snake could slip off his Skin at pleasure, and not be tied to it, much lesse tormented with it. Besides, did Dunstan willingly or unwillingly let the Devil go? If willingly; Mercy to so malicious an Enemy (incapable of being amended) was Cruelty to himself: if unwillingly; was it Dunstan's Fire or his Faith that fail'd him, that he could hold out against him no longer? But away with all Suspicions and Queries: none need to doubt of the truth thereof, finding it in a Sign painted in Fleet-street near Temple-barre.

16. During Dunstan's abode in his Cell,Aelsgine Dunstan's bountifull friend. he had to his great Comfort and Contentment the company of a good Lady, Aelfgine by name, living fast by. No Preacher but Dunstan would please her, being so ravisht with his Society, that she would needs build a little Cell for her self hard by him. In processe of time this Lady died, and by her last Will left Christ to be the Heir, and Dunstan the Executor of her Estate. Enabled with the accession thereof, joyned to his paternall Possessions, which were very great, and now fallen into his hands, Dunstan erected the Abbey of Glassenbury, and became himself first Abbot there­of; a Title till his time unknown in England: he built also and endowed many other Monasteries, filling them with Benedictine Monks, who began now to swarm in England, more then Magots in a hot May, so incredible was their Increase.

17. After the death of King Athelstane, 16 Dunstan was recalled to Court in the reign of King Edmund, 939 Athelstan's Brother,Recalled to Court, and re-banished thence. and flourished for a time in great Favour. But who would build on the brittle Bottome of Princes Love? Soon after he falls into the Kings Disfavour;Ed­mundi 1 the old Crime,940 of being a Magi­cian (and a Wanton with Women to boot) being laid to his charge. Surely Dunstan by looking on his own Furnace, might learn thence, there was no Smoak but some Fire: either he was dishonest, or undiscreet, which gave the Ground-work to their generall Suspicion. Hereupon he is re-banisht the Court, and re­turned to his desired Cell at Glassenbury; but within three dayes was solemnly brought back again to Court, if the ensuing Story may be believed.

18. King Edmund was in an eager pursuit of a Buck,King Edmund his miracu­lous delive­rance. on the top of a steep Rock, whence no Descent but Destruction. Down falls the Deer, and Dogs after him, and are dashed to pieces. The King follows in full speed on an un­ruly Horse, whom he could not rein, & is on the Brink of the Brink of the Preci­pice: yet his Prayers prove swifter then his Horse, he but ran, whilst they did fly to Heaven. He is sensible of his Sin in banishing Dunstan, confesseth it with Sorrow, vowes Amendment, promiseth to restore & preferre him. Instantly the Horse stops in his full Career, and his Rider is wonderfully preserved.

19. Thus farre a strong Faith may believe of the Story:Fy for shame lying Monk. but it must be a wild one which gives credit to the remainder.Ross. Histor. Matt. West. Iob. Capgr. Osbernus. Cervus & Canes reviviscunt, saith the impudent Monk, The Deer & Dogs revive again. I remember not in Scripture that God ever revived a brute Beast; partly, because such mean subjects are beneath the Majesty, of a Miracle; and partly, because (as the Apostle faith) brute Beasts2 Pet. [...]. 12. are made to be taken & destroyed. Well then might the Monk have knockt off when he had done well, in saving the Man and Horse, and might have left the Dogs & Deer to have remained dead on the place; the Deer especially, were it but to make Venison Pasties, to feast the Courtiers at the solemnizing of their Lord and Masters so miraculous Deliverance.

20. Dunstan returning to Court was in higher Favour then ever before.6 Edredi 1 Nor was his Interest any whit abated by the untimely Death of King Edmund (slain by one Leoff a Thief) seeing his Brother Edred, 946 succeeding to the Crown,King Edred a high Patron of Dunstan. con­tinued and increased his Kindness to him. Under him Dunstan was the Doe-all at [Page 130] Court,Anno Dom. 946 being the Kings Treasurer,Anno Regis Edredi 1 Chancellour, Counsellour, all things. Bishopricks were bountifully profered him, pick and chuse where he please; but none were honoured with his Acceptance. Whether because he accounted himself too high for the place, and would not stoop to the Employ­ment; or because he esteemed the place too high for him, unable conscien­tiously to discharge it in the midst of so many Avocations. Mean time Mona­steries were every where erected (King Edred devoutly resigning all his Trea­sure to Dunstan's Disposall) Secular Priests being thrust out of their Convents, and Monks substituted in their rooms.

21. But after Edred's Death,But King Ed­wine his pro­fest Enemy. the Case was altered with Dunstan falling into Disgrace with King Edwin his Successour.954 This King on his Coronation-day was said to be incestuously imbracing both Mother & Daughter,9 Edwini 1 when Dunstan boldly coming into his Bed-chamber, after bitter Reproofs, stoutly fetcht him thence, and brought him forth into the company of his Noblemen. An heroick act, if true, done with a Iohn Baptist spirit: and no wonder if Herod and Herodias, I mean this incestuous King and his Concubines, were highly offended with Dunstan for the same.

22. But good men,Who, though wronged by the Monks, was a worthy Prince. and grave Authours give no belief herein, conceiving King Edwin (how bad soever charactered by the Monks his malicious Enemies) to have been a worthy Prince. In witnesse whereof they produce the words of Hist. lib. 5. pag. 357. Henry Huntington, a learned man, but no Monk, thus describing him;

Edwin non illaudabiliter regni in­sulam tenuit.

Et rursus:

Ed win rex, anno regni sui qui­to, cum in principio regnum ejus de­centissime flor eret, prospera & laeta­bunda exordia mors immatura per­rupit.

Edwin was not undeserving of praise in managing the Sceptre of this Land.

And again:

King Edwin in the fifth year of his Reign, when his Kingdome began at first most decently to flourish, had his prosperous and pleasant Beginnings broken off with untimely Death.

This Testimony considered, makes many men think better of King Edwin, and worse of Dunstan, as guilty of some uncivil Intrusion into the Kings Chamber, for which he justly incurred his royall Displeasure.

23. Hereupon Dunstan is banished by King Edwin, He banisheth Dunstan, and dieth heart-broken with grief. not as before from En­gland to England, from the Court to his Cell at Glassenbury; but is utterly ex­pelled the Kingdome, and flieth into Flanders. Where his Friends say that his Fame prepared his Welcome, & the Governour of Gaunt most solemnly enter­tained him.956 Mean time,3 all the Monks in England of Dunstan's Plantation were rooted up, and Secular Priests set in their places. But soon after happened many Commotions in England, especially in Mercia and Northumberland. The Monks which write the Story of these Rebellions, conceive it unfit to impart to Posterity the Cause thereof; which makes wise men to suspect, that Dunstan (who could blow Coals elsewhere as well as in his Furnace) though at distance, vertually (or rather viciously present,) had a Finger, yea, a Hand there­in. Heart-broken with these Rebellions,958 King Edwin died in the Flower of his Age.5 Edgati 1

24. Edgar succeeds him,Dunstan re­called by King Edgar, and takes a double Bi­shoprick. and recalls Dunstan home,959 receiving him with all possible Affection.2 Yea now Dunstan's Stomack was come down, and he could digest a Bishoprick, which his Abstemiousness formerly refused. And one Bishoprick drew down another, VVorcester and London, not successively, but both a-breast went down his Conscience. Yea, never Age afforded more Plura­list Bishops. In this Kings reign Letine heldVid. Antiq. Britan. p. 83. Lincoln and Leicester; oswald (a great Monk-monger, of whom hereafter) held York and VVorcester; & Aldulph, his Successour in both Churches, did the like, pardoned, yea praised for the same: though Woolstan (because no favourer of Monks) is reproved for the like Plurality. Thus two men though doing the same thing, do not the same thing. Bigamy of Bishopricks goes by Favour; and it is condemnable in one, what [Page 131] is commendable in another.Anno Regis Edgari 2 Odo Severus, Anno Dom. 959 Arch-bishop of Canterbury, being ceremoniously to consecrate Dunstan Bishop of VVorcester, used all the Formali­ties fashionable at the Consecration of anAntiq. Bri­tan. ibidem. Arch-bishop: And being reproved for the same, he answered for himself, That he foresaw that Dunstan, instantly after his death, would be Arch-bishop of Canterbury. And therefore (a com­pendious way to spare Paines) he onely by a provident Prolepsis ante-dated his Consecration. Surely, whosoever had seen the decrepit age of Odo, the affe­ction of King Edgar to Dunstan, the affection of Dunstan to Dignity, needed no extraordinary prophetical Spirit to presage that (on the supposition of Dunstan's surviving him) he should succeed him in the Arch-bishoprick of Canterbury.

25. Yea King Edgar was so wholly Dunstanized, Oswald's Law to eject se­cular Priests. that he gave over his Soul, Body, and Estate to be ordered by him and two more (then the Triumvirate who ruled England) namely Ethelwald Bishop of Winchester, and Oswald Bi­shop of Worcester. This Oswald was the man who procured by the Kings Au­thority the Ejection of all Secular Priests out of Worcester, and the placing of Monks in their Room: which Act was called Oswald's Law in that Age. They might, if it pleased them, have stiled it Edgar's Law; the Legislative Power being then more in the King, then in the Bishop. This Oswald's Law afterwards enlarged it self over all England, Secular Priests being thrown out, and Monks every where fixed in their rooms; till King Henry the eighth his Law outed Os­wald's Law, and ejected those Drones out of their Habitations.

26. King Edgar violated the Chastity of a Nun at Wilton. Dunstan's dis­ciplining of king Edgar, Dunstan getting notice thereof, refused at the Kings Request to give him his Hand, because he had defiled a Daughter of God, as he termed her. Edgar hereby made sensible of his Sin, with Sorrow confessed it; and Dunstan (now Arch-bishop of Can­terbury) enjoyned him seven years Penance for the same. Monks endeavour to inforcea mock-Parallel betwixt David and Edgar, Nathan and Dunstan, herein. Sure I am, on David's profession of his Repentance, Nathan presently pronoun­ced Pardon;2 Sam. 12. 13 the Lord also hath put away thy Sin, thou shalt not die; consigning him to be punished by God the Principall (using an Undutifull Son, Treache­rous Servants, and Rebellious Subjects to be the Instruments thereof;) but im­posing no voluntary Penance, that David should by Will-worship undertake on himself. All that I will adde, is this; If Dunstan did septennary Penance, to expiate every mortall Sin (to use their own Termes) he committed, he must have been a Methusalah, extremely aged, before the day of his Death.

27. More commendable was Dunstan's Carriage towards an English Count,12 who lived incestuously with his own Kinswoman.969 Dunstan admonished him once,And carriage towards an incestuous Count. twice, thrice; nothing prevailed: whereupon he proceeded to Excom­municate him. The Count slighted his Excommunication, conceiving his Head too high for Church-Censures to reach it. King Edgar (falsly informed) desires Dunstan to absolve him, and is denied. Yea the Pope sends to him to the same Purpose, and Dunstan persists in hisOsbern. in vita Dunstani Refusall. At last the Count, conquered with Dunstan's Constancy, and the sense of his own Sin, came into a Nationall Council at Canterbury, where Dunstan sate President (active there­in to substitute Monks in the places of Secular Priests) on his bare Feet, with a Bundle of Rods, tendering himself to Dunstan's Chastisement. This wrought on Dunstan's mild Nature, scarce refraining from Teares; who presently absol­ved him.

28. Three things herein are remarkable.Observations thereon. First, that Bribes in the Court of Rome may purchase a Malefactor to be innocent. Secondly, that the Pope him­self is not so infallible, but that his Key may misse the Lock, and he be mistaken in matter of Absolution. Thirdly, that men ought not so with blind Obedience to obey his pretended Holinesse, but that if (with Dunstan here) they see just Cause to the contrary, it is no Mortall Sin to disobey his Commands.

29. The Apprentiship of Edgar's Penance long since expired,Edgar's Ca­nons why by us here re­lated. he flouri­shed in all Monarchicall Lustre: sole Founder of many, Co-founder of more, [Page 132] Benefactor to most Abbeys in England. Anno Dom. 969 And as he gave new Cases to most Mo­nasteries (repairing their outward Buildings) so he gave new Linings to all,Anno Regis Edgari 12 sub­stituting Monks in stead of the Secular Priests, whom he expelled. Many Ec­clesiasticall Canons were by him ordained, which at large are presented in St. Henry Spelman, and which I have neither List nor Leisure to recount in this my History. Our Women have a Proverb, It is a sad Burden to carry a dead mans Child: and surely an Historian hath no heart to take much Pains (which herein are Pains indeed) to exemplify dead Canons, (dead and buried long since, as most relating to Monkery) this Age, wherein we live, being little fond of Anti­quity, to know those things which were antiquated so many yeares since.

30. Now though the Devotion of King Edgar may be condemned to be by­assed to Superstition,Edgar a most triumphant King. yet because the Sincerity of his Heart sought to advance Gods Honour, according to the Light in those dark dayes, he appears one of the most puissant Princes that ever England enjoyed, both in Church and Com­mon-wealth. I have read in a most fair and authentick guildedExtant in the precious Libra­ry of Sr. Tho. Cotton. Manuscript, wherein he stileth himself Gods Vicar in England, for the ordering Ecclesiasti­call matters: a Title which at this day the Pope will hardly vouchsafe to any Christian Princes. His Reign was blest with Peace and Prosperity, both by Land and Sea; insomuch that in a royall Frolick, eight petty Kings rowed him over the river Dee near to Chester; namely five Princes of VVales (whereof Hoel-Dha was the principall) Kened King of Scotland, Malcolm King of Cumberland, and Mac-huse a great Sea-Robber, who may passe for the Prince of Pirats.

31. This Hoel-Dha, A Nationall Council in Wales. contemporary with King Edgar, 970 was he that held a Na­tionall Councill for all VVales (at a place called Ty-guin, 13 or the VVhite-house (be­cause built of white Hurdles, to make it more beautifull) regulated after this manner. Out of every Hundred in Wales he chose six Lay-men, with whom he joyned all the eminent Ecclesiasticall Persons (accounted an hundred & fourty) in his Dominions. Out of those he chose eleven Lay-men and one Clergy-man, (but such a one as who alone by himself might passe vertually for eleven) Blan­goridus by name, to enact what Laws they pleased, which after the impression of Royall Assent upon them, should be observed by that Nation. One might suspect this Council, thus over-powered with Laicks therein, which pinch on the Priests side; whereas we find the Canons therein wholly made in favour of the Clergy: enacting this among the rest, That the presence of a Priest and a Iudge constitute a legall Court, as the two Persons onely in the Quorum thereof.

32. But methinks the Lawes therein enacted (which a learnedSr. Henry Spelman in his Councils, pag. 411. Antiquary presents us at large) fall far short of the Gravity of a Councill:The merry Lawes made therein, except any will excuse it from the Age thereof; what we count light and triviall, might be esteemed serious and solid in those dayes. Besides, the Laws discover in them a conceited affectation of the Number of Three. In three Cases a Wise may le­gally leave her Husband: first, if he hath a Leprosy; secondly, if he hath a stinking Breath; thirdly, & if he be unable to give her due Benevolence. In three cases it was lawfull for a man to kisse his Neighbours Wife: first, at a Banquet; secondly, at the Welch Play called Guare-raffau; and thirdly, when he comes from a far Journey, by way of Salutation. If a Man and his Wife were to part asunder, they were to divide their Goods betwixt them so, that she was to have the Sheep; he the Hogs: she the Milk and milk-Vessels, with all the Dishes save one; he all the Beer and Barrels, with the Axe, Saw, &c.

33. But how silly soever these Canons seem to our modern Criticks,Confirmed by the Pope. they were then conceived of such Weight and Worth,971 that King Hoel-Dha with his Arch-bishop of St. Davids, 14 the Bishops of Bangor, Landaffe & St. Asaph, are said to have taken a Iourney to Rome, and procured the Popes Confirmation to them. Nor find I ought else of this Synod, save that the Close thereof presents us with a list of seven Episcopall Seats then in Wales: I. St. Davids, 2. Ismael, 3. Degenian, 4. Vssyll, 5. Teylaw, 6. Teuledauc, 7. Kenew Quaere whether Bangor, Lan­dast, and St. Asaph be not compri­sed under these.. I am not Welch man enough to point at these places, and to shew you where they be at this day, [Page 133] which we leave to some skilfull Antiquary of their own Nation.Anno Regis Edgari 14 Onely we find that whereas the Churches were burdened with some Payments out of them,Anno Dom. 971 two of the Bishops Seats (Vssyl and Kenew) were freed from the same. And this satisfactory Reason is rendred of their Exemption, quia terris carent, because they had no Lands belonging unto them.

34. King Edgar was peaceably gathered to his Fathers,17 Regis Edvar­di Mar­tyris 1 leaving his Crown to Edward his Son,974 and his Son (because under age) to the Tuition of Dunstan. A Council at Winchester with a mira­culous voice in it. In this Kings Reign three Councils were successively called, to determine the Differences between Monks and Secular Priests. The first was at Winchester; where the Priests being outed of their Convents, earnestly pressed for Restitu­tion, and sought by Arguments to clear their Innocence, and prove their Title to their ancient Possessions. The Council seemed somewhat inclinable to fa­vour unto them; when presently a Voice, as coming from a Crucifix behind Dunstan, is reported to be heard, saying,

Absit hoc ut fiat, absit hoc ut fiat; Iudicastis bene, mu­taretis non bene.

God forbid it should be done, God for­bid it should be done; Ye have judged it well, and should change it ill.

Whether these words were spoken in Latine or English, Authours leave us un­resolved. Monks equall this (for the truth thereof) to the1 Kings 19. 12. still small Voice to Elijah, whilest others suspect some Forgery; the rather, because it is reported to come as from a Crucifix: they feare some secret Falsehood in the Fountain, be­cause visible Superstition was the Cistern thereof. However, this Voice proved for the present the Casting Voice to the Secular Priests, who thereby were over­born in their Cause, and so was the Council dissolved.

35. Yet still the Secular Priests did struggle,4 refusing to be finally concluded with this transient aiery Oracle.977 Isa. 8. 20. To the Law, and to the Testimony: Secular Priests strive still. if they speak not according to this word, &c. They had no warrant to relie on such a vocal De­cision, from which they appealed to the Scripture it self. A second Council is called at Kirtlington (now Katlage in Cambridge-shire, the Baronry of the right Honourable the Lord North) but nothing to purpose effected therein. Dun­stan (say the Monks) still answered his Name, that is, Dun, a rocky Mountain, and Stain, a Stone (but, whether a precious Stone, or a Rock of Offence, let others decide) persisting unmoveable in his Resolution; nor was any thing performed in this Council, but that by the Authority thereof, people were sent on Pilgri­mage to St. Mary at Abbington.

36. The same year a third Council was called,Aportentous Council at Caln. at Caln in VViltshire. Hither repaired Priests, and Monks, with their full Forces, to trie the last Conclusion in the Controversie betwixt them. The former, next the Equity of the Cause, relied most on the Ability of their Champion, one Beornelm, a Scottish Bishop; who with no lesse Eloquence then Strength, with Scripture and Reason de­fended their Cause. When behold, on a sudden, the Beams brake in the Room where they were assembled, and most of the Secular Priests were slain, and bu­ried under the Ruines thereof. All were affrighted, many maimed; onely the place whereon Dunstan sate, either (as some say) remained firm, or fell in such sort, that the Timber (the Sword to kill others) proved the Shield to preserve him from Danger.

37. Some behold this Story as a notable Untruth:Several cen­sures on this sad accident. others suspect the Devil therein, not for a Lyer, but a Murtherer, and this Massacre procured by Com­pact with him: a third sort conceived that Dunstan, who had so much of a Smith, had here something of a Carpenter in him, and some Devise used by him about pinning and propping of the Room. It renders it the more suspicious, because he disswaded King Edward from being present there, pretending his want of Age; though he was present in the last Council, and surely he was ne­ver the younger for living some Moneths since the same Assembly. If truely performed, Dunstan appears happier herein then Samson himself, who could [Page 134] not so sever his Foes,Anno Dom. 977 but both must die together.Anno Regis Edvar­di Mar­tyris 4 Sure I am, no ingenuous Pa­pist now-a-dayes, will make any uncharitable Inference from such an accident: especially since the Fall of Black Friers 1623. enough to make all good men turn the Censuring of others into an humble Silence, and pious Adoring of Divine Providence.

38. But the Monks made great Advantage of this Accident,Seculars ou­ted, and Monks ad­vanced. conceiving that Heaven had confirmed their Cause (as lately by VVord at VVinchester, so) now by VVork in this Council at Caln. Hereupon Secular Priests are every where outed, and Monks substituted in their Room. Indeed these later in civil re­spect, were beheld as more beneficiall to their Convents; because Secular Priests did marry, and at their deaths did condere Testamenta, make their VVills, and bequeathed their Goods to their Wives and Children; whilest Monks, having no Issue (which they durst own) made their Monastery Heir of all they had. It was also objected against the Priests, that, by their Loosnesse, and La­zinesse, left at large in their Lives, they had caused the generall declination of Piety at this time: whilest it was presumed of the Monks, that, by the strict Rules of Observance, to which they were tied, they would repair the Ruines of Religion in all places.

39. It appears not,Priests hard­ly dealt with. what Provision was made for these Priests when eje­cted; and they seem to have had hard Measure, to be dispossessed of their civil Right. Except any will say, it was no Injury to them, to loose their places so soon, but a great Favour, that they enjoyed them so long, living hitherto on the free Bounty of their Founders, and now at the full Dispose of the Church and State. Little can be said in excuse of the Priests, and lesse in commendation of the Monks; who though they swept clean at the first, as new Besomes, yet af­terwards left more Dust behind them of their own bringing in, then their Pre­decessours had done. Thus the Hive of the Church was no whit bettered, by putting out Drones, and placing Wasps in their room. Yea, whereas former­ly Corruptions came into the Church at the Wicket, now the broad-Gates were opened for their Entrance; Monkery making the way for Ignorance and Super­stition, to overspread the whole World.

40. Another Humour of the former Age (to make one Digression for all) still continued,The prodi­gious prodi­gality in buil­ding, and endowing of Abbeys. and encreased, venting it self in the fair Foundations, and stately Structures of so many Monasteries. So that one beholding their Great­nesse (being Corrivals with some Towns in receipt, and extent) would admire that they could be so neat; and considering their Neatnesse, must wonder they could be so great; and lastly, accounting their Number, will make all three the object of his Amazement. Especially, seeing many of these were founded in the Saxon Heptarchy, when seven Kings put together did spell but one in effect. So that it may seem a Miracle, what invisible Indies those petty Princes were Masters of, building such Structures which impoverish Posterity to repair them. For although some of these Monasteries were the fruit of many Ages, long in ripening, at several times, by sundry persons, all whose Parcels and Additions met at last in some tolerable Uniformity; yet most of them were be­gun and finished, absolute, and entire, by one Founder alone. And although we allow, that in those dayes Artificers were procured, and Materials purchased at easie Rates; yet there being then scarceness of Coin (as a little Money would then buy much Ware; so much Ware must first in exchange be given to provide that little Money) all things being audited proportionably, the Wonder still re­mains as great as before. But here we see with what eagernesse those Designes are undertaken and pursued, which proceed from blind Zeal: every Finger be­ing more then an Hand to build, when they thought Merit was annexed to their Performances. Oh, with what might and main did they mount their Walls, both day and night; erroniously conceiving, that their Souls were advan­taged to Heaven, when taking the Rise from the top of a Steeple of their own erection.

[Page 135] 41. But it will not be amisse,Caution to our Age. to mind our forgetfull Age, that, seeing De­votion (now better informed) long sithence hath desisted to expresse it self in such pompous Buildings, she must find some other means, and manner, to evi­dence and declare her Sincerity. Except any will say, that there is lesse Heat re­quired, where more Light is granted; and that our Practice of Piety should be diminished, because our Knowledge thereof is increased. God, no doubt, doth justly expect that Religion should testifie her Thankfulnesse to him, by some eminent way, and Works: and where the Fountain of Piety is full, it will find it self a Vent to flow in, though not through the former Chanels of Superstition.

42. King Edward went to give his Mother-in-law at Corfe-Castle a respect­full Visit,6 when by her contrivance he was barbarously murthered,979 so to pave the way for her Son Ethelred his Succession to the Crown.King Edward murthered, alias, marty­red. But King Edward, by losing his Life, got the title of a Martyr, so constantly called in our Chro­nicles. Take the term in a large acception, otherwise restrictively it signifies such an one, as suffers for the Testimony of the Truth. But, seeing this Edward, was cruelly murthered, and is said after death to work Miracles; let him, by the Courtesie of the Church, passe for a Martyr, not knowing any Act or Order to the contrary, to deny such a Title unto him.

43. Ethelred, Ethel­redi, cog­nom, the Un­ready. 1 Edward's half-Brother,King Ethelred prognostica­ted unsuc­cessfull. succeeded him in the Throne. One with whom Dunstan had a Quarrel from his Cradle, because, when an Infant, he left more Water in the Font then he found there, at his Baptizing. Happy Dunstan himself, if guilty of no greater Fault, which could be no Sin (nor pro­perly a Slovennesse) in an Infant, if he did as an Infant! Yet from such his ad­dition, Dunstan prognosticated an Inundation of Danes would ensue in this Island: which accordingly came to passe. But Ethelred is more to be con­demned, for the Bloud he shed when a man; it being vehemently suspected, that he was accessary with his Mother to the murthering of his Brother Ed­ward.

44. But Dunstan survived not to see his Prediction take effect,8 for he was happily prevented by Death,987 and buried on the South-side of the High Al­tar in the Church of Canterbury: Dunstan's corpse wrongfully claimed by the Convent of Glassen­bury. where his Tombe was famous for some time, till Thomas Becket eclipsed the same; seeing Saints, like new Besomes, sweep clean at the first, and afterwards are clean swept out, by newer Saints which succeed them. Yea, Dunstan's Grave grew so obscure at Canterbury, that the Monks of Glassenbury taking heart thereat (and advantaged by Iohn Capgrave's report, that Anno 1012. Dunstan's Corpse were translated thither) pretended his Buriall, and built him a Shrine in their Convent. Men and Mony met at Glassenbury on this Mistake; and their Convent got more by this eight foot length of Ground (the supposed Tombe of Dunstan) then eight hundred Acres of the best Land they possessed elsewhere. Whereupon VVilliam Ware­ham, Arch-bishop of Canterbury, to trie the truth, and to prevent farther Fraud herein, caused a solemn search to be made in the Cathedral of Canterbury, af­ter Dunstan's Corpse, in the place Tradition reported him to be interred.

45. Four of the Friars,A night Hue-and-Cry made after his corpse. fittest for the work (to wit, of stronger Bodies then Braines) undertook to make this Scrutinie Anno 1508. the 22. of April. Great Caution was used, that all should be done semotis Laicis, no Lay-men being present; whether because their Eies were too profane to behold so holy an Ob­ject, or too prying to discover the Default, if the Search succeeded not. In the Night they so plyed their Work, that ere Morning they discovered Dunstan's Coffin, and rested the day following from more Digging; as well they might, having taken so much Pains, and gained so much Profit by their endeavours.

46. Next Night they on afresh;Discovered, with the manner of the inter­ment there­of. and, with main Force, plucked up the ponderous Coffin upon the Pavement. A Coffin built (as one may say) three Stories high: the outermost of Wood (but almost made Iron with the multi­tude of Nailes therein;) within that another of plain Lead; within that a third [Page 136] of wrought Lead, wherein the bones of Dunstan Archiva Eccles. Cant. exemplified by my good friend Mr. Will. Summer in his Descript. of Cant. in Ap­pendice Script. 12. lay in his Pontificall Vests,Anno Dom. 987. with this Inscription in a Plate, Hic requiescit Sanctus Dunstanus Archiepisco­pus. Anno Regis Ethel­redi 8 Some lumps of Flesh were found, which were said to smell very sweet (the Reliques perchance of some Spices which embalmed him) and all done in the presence of many worthy Witnesses: amongst whom, Cuthbert Tunstal was one, then the Arch-bishops Chancellour, afterward Bishop of Durham. Hereupon the Arch-bishop sent his Mandate to the Abbot and Convent of Glassenbury, henceforward to desist from any jactitation of Dunstan's Corpse, and abusing people with such Pretences. A Fault most frequent in that Con­vent, challenging almost the Monopolie of all English Saints, witnesse that impudent Lie of the rhythming Monk, writing thus of Glassenbury;

Hic Tumulus sanctus, hic Scala Poli celebratur;
Vix luit Inferni Poenas hic qui tumulatur.

But, who is rather to be believed? St. Peter, that saith, 1 Pet. 4. 18 The righteous shall scarcely be saved; or this Monk, affirming that, Whoso is buried at Glassenbury, shall scarcely be damned?

47. After the death of Dunstan, Priests and Monks alter­nately cast out. their Patrone,988 the Monks (not much be­friended by King Ethelred) were cast out of the Convent of Canterbury, 9 or rather cast out themselves by their Misdemeanours.Psal. 49. 20 Man in honour hath no un­derstanding, &c. They wax'd so wanton with possessing the places of Secular Priests, that a MonkWil. Thorn cited by Ant. Brit. pag. 90. himself of Canterbury confesseth, Monachi propter eo­rum Insolentiam sedibus pulsi, & Clerici introducti. Monks for their Insolencie were driven out of their Seats, and Secular Clerks brought into their room. Thus was it often, In Dock, out Nettle, as they could strengthen their Parties. For Siricius, the next Arch-bishop of Canterbury, endeavoured the re-expulsion of the Priests; which by Alfricus his Successour was effected.

48. But soon after,The Danes re-invade England. the Danes revenged the Quarrel of the Secular Priests;989 and by a firm Ejection outed the Monks,10 before they were well warm in their Nests. Their Fury fell more on Convents, then Castles: whether, because the former were in that Age more numerous (Castles afterwards were encreased by William the Conquerour;) or because their Prey and Plunder was presumed the richest, and easist to be gotten; or because the Danes, then generally Pagans, principally spited places of Religion. A Relapse is far more dangerous then a simple Disease, as here it proved in the Danes. England for these last sixty years had been cured of, and cleared from their Cruelty, which now returned more terrible then ever before.

49. These Danes were also advantaged by the Unactivenesse of King Ethel­red, The unreadi­nesse of King Ethelred ad­vantageth the Danes. therefore surnamed the Vnready in our Chronicles.990 The Clock of his Consultations and Executions was alwayes set some Hours too late,11 vainly stri­ving with much Industry to redresse, what a little Providence might seasonably have prevented. Now, when this Vnready King met with the Danes his over­ready Enemies, no wonder, if lamentable was the Event thereof. The best thing I find recorded of this King Ethelred, is, that in his dayes began the tryal of Causes by a Jury of twelve men to be chosen out of the Vicenage, of like quality, as near as may be suited, to the persons concerned therein. Hereby men have most fair play for their Lives: and let it be the desres of all honest hearts, that whilest we pluck off the Badges of all Norman Slavery, we part not with the Livery of our old Saxon Liberty.

50. In this sad condition King Ethelred hearkened to the perswasions of Siricius, A dear peace bought of the Danes. Arch-bishop of Canterbury, 991 and with ten thousand Pounds purchased a present Peace with the Danes. 12 Indeed it was conformable to the calling of a Church-man to procure Peace, having not onelyPsal. 34. 14. Scripture precepts therein, Seck peace and pursue it; but also Precedents for the same, when gracious 2 Kings 18. 14. Hezekiah with a Present pacified Sennacherib to desist from invading him. However, this Arch-bishop generally suffered in his Reputation, condemned [Page 137] of all,Anno Regis Ethel­redi 12 for counselling of what was,Anno Dom. 991 First, dishonourable; that an entire Nation, being at home in their own Land, should purchase a Peace from Forrainers, fewer in Number, and fetching their Recruits, and warlike Provisions from a Far Country: let them be paid in due Coin; not Silver, but Steel. Secondly, unprofitable: If once the Danes got but the Trick, to make the English bleed Money to buy Peace, they would never leave them, till they had sucked out their Heart-bloud, and exhausted the whole Treasure of the Land.

51. Indeed one may safely affirm,Multitudes of Monaste­ries caused the Danish invasion. that the multitude of Monasteries invited the Invasion, and facilitated the Conquest of the Danes over England; and that in a double respect: First, because not onely the Fruit of the Kings Exchequer (I mean ready Money) was spent by this King his Predecessours on sounding of Monasteries; but also the Root thereof, his Demeasne lands, pluckt up, & parted with, to endow the same: whereby the Sinews of War were wanting, to make effectuall Opposition against Forrein Enemies. Secondly, because En­gland had at this time more Flesh, or Fat, then Bones (wherein the Strength of a Body consists) moe Monks, then Military men. For instance, Holy-Island near Northumberland is sufficiently known, for the Position thereof, an advantageous Landing-place, especially in relation to Denmark. This place was presently forsaken of the fearfull Monks,15 frighted with the Danes their Approach;994 and Aldhunus, the Bishop thereof, removed his Cathe­dral and Convent to Durham, an Inland place of more Safety. Now, had there been a Castle in the place of this Monastery, to secure the same with Fighters instead of Feeders, men of Armes instead of men of Bellies therein, pro­bably they might have stopped the Danish Invasion at the first Inlet thereof. England then as much wanting martiall men, asViz. in the wars between York and Lancaster. The cruelty of the re­turning Danes. since it hath surfeited with too many of them.

52. The Danes, 16 having received and spent their Money,995 invaded England afresh, according to all wise mens expectation. It is as easie for armed Might to pick a Quarrel, as it is hard for naked Innocence to make Resistance. The De­luge of their Cruelty over-ran the Realm; whose Sword made no more diffe­rence betwixt the Ages, Sexes, and Conditions of people, then the Fire (which they cast on Houses) made distinction in the Timber thereof, whether it was Elme, Oake, or Ash; the Fiercenesse of the one killing, the Fury of the other consuming all it met with. Indeed in some small Skirmishes the English got the better, but all to no purpose. There is a place in Hartfordshire called Danes-end, where the Inhabitants by Tradition report (uncertain of the exact Date thereof) that a fatal blow in a Battel was given to the Danes thereabouts. But alas! this Danes-end was but Danes-beginning; they quickly recovered themselves as many, and mighty in the Field, and it seemed an endlesse end, to endeavour their utter Extirpation. Thus this Century sets with little Mirth, and the next is likely to arise with more Mourning.


BALDWINO HAMEY,Anno Regis Ethel­redi. Medicinae Doctori literatissimo, Mecoenati suo dignissimo.

COnqueruntur nostrates novissimo hoc Decennio, novam rerum faciem indui; nec mutata solum, sed & inversa esse omnia. Hujus indicia pluri­ma proferunt, tristia sane ac dolenda; Dominos ni­mirum Servis postpositos, dum alii è Servis Do­mini repente prodierint.

At, ad Metamorphosin hanc probandam, argumentum suppetit mihi ipsi laetum & me­moratu jucundum. Solent enim aegroti, si quan­do Medicum adeant, manus afferre plenas, referre vacuas. At ipse è contra Te saepe accessi & aeger & inops; decessi integer & bene nummatus. Quoties enim opus hoc nostrum radicitus exaruisset, si non imbre munificentiae tuae fuis­set irrigatum?

THis Century began (as Children generally are born) with cry­ing; Murther of the Danes in a Church. partly for a Massacre made by the English on the Danes, but chiefly for the Cruelty committed by the Danes on the English. 1002 Concerning the former;25 certain Danes fled into a Church at Oxford, hoping the Sanctity thereof (according to the devout Principles of that Age) would secure them: and probably such Pitty might have in­clined them to Christianity. Whereas by command from K. Ethelred, they [Page 139] wereHen. Hunt. Matth. West. Conterbury sacked: Alphage kil­led by the Danes. all burned in the place;Anno Regis Ethel­redi 34 whose Bloud remained not long unrevenged.Anno Dom. 1011 The Danish Fury fell (if not first) fiercest on the City of Canterbury, with Fire and Sword, destroying eight thousand people therein: and which Authours who quadruple that number, surely take in not onely the Vicenage, but all Kent to make up their account. Ealphegus the Archbishop of Canterbury, common­ly called Alphage, was then slain, and since Sainted; a Church nigh Creeple-gate in London being consecrated to his Memory.

2.Thorn in hi [...] description of Canterb. A Monk of Canterbury reports,Believe what you list. that the Abbey of St. Augustine was saved on this occasion; A Danish Souldier stealing the Pall from the Tombe of St. Au­gustine, it stuck so close under his Arme-pits, that it could not be parted from his Skin, untill he had publickly made confession of his Fault: Vltio Raptorem ra­puit, faith the Authour. And hereupon the Danes of Invaders, turned Defenders of that Monastery. ButSee Will. Somner in his Antiqu. of Canterb. pag. 56. others conceive, if it found extraordinary favour, their Money (not this Miracle) procured it. Sure I am, when Achan stole the Babylonish Garment, he was left at large to discovery byIoshrea 7. 18 More cruelty Lot, and no Miracle detected him. Next year a namelesse Bishop of London was sacrificed to their Fury, 35 used worse then the Task-Masters of Israel, 1012 (on whose Back the number of Bricks wanting, wereExod. 5. 14. onely scored in Blows) being killed out-right, for want of present pay of theHen. Hunt. Rog. Hoved. The valour of Cambridge­ [...]hire-men. Tribute promised unto them.

3. Cambridge and Oxford both of them deeply tasted of this bitter Cup at the same time. True it is, some two years since, when the rest of the East-Angles cowardly fled away, homines Comitatus CantabrigiaeChronicon 10. Bromton pag. 887. viriliter obstiterunt, unde Anglis regnantibus laus Cantabrigiensis Provinciae splendide florebat. Hence it is that I have read (though unable at the instant to produce my Authour) that Cambridgeshire-men claim an ancient (now antiquated) Priviledge, Edmu. cog­nom. Iron­side 1 to lead the Van in all Battels. But Valour at last little befriended them, the Danes burning Cambridge to Ashes, and harassing the Country round about.

4. Here let State-Historians inform the Reader of intestine Warres betwixt Edmund Ironside (so called for his hardy enduring all Troubles) King of Eng­land, 1016 Defendour, Two English Kings at once. and Canutus the Dane, Invader of this Land; till at last, (after a personall Duel fought) the Land was equally divided betwixt them. A division wherewith both seemed, neither were well pleased; seeing the least whole head cannot be fitted with the biggest half Crown; all or none was their de­sire. Edm. Iron side teacherously slain. Canutus at last with his Silver Hand, was too hard for the other his Iron Side; who by his promised Bribes prevailed with one Edrick to kill this his Corrivall; which being performed he was fairely advanced with aOthers say he was be­headed. Canutus his cruelty. Halter. It would spoil the Trade of all Traytours, Canu­ti 1 if such Coyn onely were currant in paying their Rewards.

5. Canutus or Knot the Dane (from whom a Bird in Lincolnshire is so called,1017 wherewith his Palate Draitons Poly-olbion, pag. 112. was much pleased) bathed himself in English Bloud, whom at this distance of time, we may safely term a Tyrant, so many Murthers and Massacres were by him committed. For his Reli­gion, as yet he was a Mungrel betwixt a Pagan and a Christian; though at last, the later prevailed, especially after his Pilgrimage to Rome. In his passage thither,14 he went through France; 1031 where understanding that the people paid deep Taxes, Converted into charity. he disburst so much of his own money in their behalf, that he brought theirRodulph. de Diceto, column. 468. Taxes to be abated to oneIohannes Bromton, in leg. Canuti column. 912. He goeth to Rome. half: An Act of Pitty in a Prince without Precedent done to Forrainers. It is vain for the English to wish the like Curtesy from the King of France; partly because England lies not in their way to Rome, partly because they are fuller of Complements then Curtesie.

6. Coming to Rome, 16 Canutus turned Convert, 1033 changing his Condition with the Climate, shewing there many expressions of Devotion. Much he gave to the Pope, and something he gained from him; namely, an Immunity for Archbishops, Returneth improved in devotion. from their excessive Charges about their Pall, and some other Fa­vours he obtained for his Subjects. After his return into his own Country, he laid out all the remainder of his dayes in Acts of Charitie, in founding, or [Page 140] enriching of religious Houses, Anno Dom. and two especially,Anno Canu [...]i. Saint Bennets in the Holm in Norfolk, and Hyde Abbey near VVinchester.

7. To this latter he gave a Crosse so costly for the Metall,The para­mount Crosse of England for richness. and cu­rious for the Making,1035 that one yeares Camdens Briton. in Hantshire. revenues of his Crown was ex­pended on the same.18 But the Crosse of this Crosse was, that about the Reign of King Henry the sixth, it wasIdem ibidem King Canutus his Humi­lity. burnt down with the whole Monastery, in a Fire which was very suspicious to have been kindled by in­tentionall Malice. This Canutus towards the latter end of his Reign, ne­ver wore a Crown, resigning up the same to the Image of our Saviour: he was also famous for a particular act of Humility done by him on this oc­casion.

8. A Parasite (and sooner will an hot May want Flies, Commands the Sea. then a Kings Court such Flatterers) sought to puffe up King Canutus, with an opinion of his Puissance; as if, because England and Norway, there­fore Aeolus and Neptune must obey him. In confuting of whose false­hood, Canutus commanded his Chair of State to be set on the Sea­shore, nigh South-Hampton, and settled himself thereon. Then he Hen. Hun­tington in vita Canuti. But in vain. imperiously commanded the Waves (as a Fence which walled that Land, belonging unto him) to observe their due Distance, not pre­suming to approach him. The surly Waves were so far from obey­ing, they heard him not; who listned onely to the Proclamation of a higher Monarch, Iob 38. 11 Hither shalt thou come, and no further; and made bold to give the Kings Feet so course a Kisse, as wetted him up to the Knees.

9. On this accident King Canutus made an excellent Sermon: His Sermon thereon. First, adoring the infinite Power of God, sole Commander of the Winds and Waves: Secondly, confessing the frailty of all Flesh, unable to stop the least Drop of the Sea: Thirdly, confuting the Profanenesse of Flatterers, fixing an infinite Power in a finite Creature. As for the Laws made by King Canutus, His Laws why omitted. we have purposely omitted them: not so much because many, large, and ordinarily extant; but chiefly because, most, of Civil Concern­ment.Haroldi Hare­foot. 1

10. Two of his Sons succeeded him,Harold Hare­foot, succeed­ed him. more known by their handsome Sur-names, 1036 then any other Desert. First his base Son, (taking advantage of his Brothers absence) called from his Swiftnesse, Hardy Canuti 1 Harold Harefoot be­like; another2 Sam. 2. 18 Then Hardy Canutus. Asahel in Nimblenesse, but Hares-heart had better befitted his Nature, 1040 so cowardly his disposition. Then his legitimate Sonne, called Hardy Canute, more truely bloudy Canute, eminent for his Cruelty. With him expired the Danish Royall Line in England, leaving no Issue behind him, and opening an Opportunity for the banished Sonne of King Ethelred to recover the Crown, whose ensuing Reign is richly worth our description. Mean time it is worth our observing, in how few yeares the Danish Greatnesse shrank to nothing; and from formidable, be­came inconsiderable, yea contemptible. Indeed Canutus was one of extraor­dinary Worth, and the Wheel once moved will for a time turn of it self. Had Harold his Son (by what way it skilled not) been one of a tole­rable disposition, he might have traded in Reputation, on the Stock of his Fathers Memory. But being so very mean, (considerable onely in Cruelty) his Fathers Worth did him the Disadvantage, to render his Vnworthynesse the more conspicuous. Besides, when Hardy Canute his Brother succeeded him, and though better born, shewed himself no better bred in his inhu­mane Carriage; it caused not onely a Neuseation in the people of England of Danish Kings, but also an appetite, yet a longing after their true and due So­veraign.

[Page 141] 11. Edward the Confessour, Anno Regis Edvar­di con­fessoris 1 youngest Son of King Etherlred, Anno Dom. 1042 (his elder Bre­thren being slain,Edward the Confessour becomes King of En­gland. and their Children fled away) came to be King of England. I understand not the Ceremony which I read was used to this Edward, whilest as yet (saith a Monkish Father Hie­rome Porter in the flowers of the lives of the Saints, pag. 2. Authour, properly enough in his own Language) he was contained in the weak Cloisters of his Mothers VVomb; at which time the Peers of the Land sware Allegiance unto him or her (the Sex as yet being un­known) before he was born. Indeed I find that Varanes his Child was crowned King whilest yet in his Mothers Body,Agathias lib. 4. applicata ad Vterum Corona. But what So­lemnity soever was done to this Hans-en-Kelder, it did not afterwards embolden him to the Anticipation of the Crown, attending till it descended upon him.

12. A worthy King,The original of our Com­mon Laws. no less pious to God, then just to Man: For, whereas for­merly there were manifold Laws in the Land, made, some by the Britans, others by the Danes, others by the English, swelling to an unmeasurable Number, to the great Mischief of his Subjects; he caused some few of the best to be selected, and the rest, as captious and unnecessary, to be rejected. Hence, say some, they were called the Common Laws, as calculated for the common Good, and no pri­vate persons Advantage.

13. It is admirable,No hostile Danes appear in England. how the Danes in this Kings Reign were vanished away. They who formerly could scarce be numbered in England, they were so many, could now scarce be numbered they were so few, and those living quietly with their English Neighbours. As for forrein invading Danes in this Kings Reign, as I cannot see them, so I will not seek them, glad of their Room and Riddance. Indeed once I meet with an Assay of them in a Navy bound to infest England: but their King being casually drowned as he entred his own Fleet, put an end to their Hopes, and our Feares for that Designe.

14. Emma, 4 King Edward's Mother,1046 being suspected too familiar with Alwin Bishop of VVinchester, The manner of Ordall by fire. under the colour of Devotion, put herself to be tryed by Ordall; whereof this the manner. Nine Plow-shares glowing hot were laid on the Ground, one foot distant from another; the party suspected was to be brought blind-folded, and bare-footed to passe over them: if he chanced to step in the Intervalls, or on the hot Iron unhurt, he was pronounced Inno­cent, otherwise condemned for an Offender. An unjust Law, wherein the Tryers had no Precept, the Tryed no Promise. Must Innocence be ruin'd as often as Malice would wrong it, if Miracle would not rescue it? This was not a way to try man, but tempt God: As just a Trying by Fire, as that of our mo­dern Witches by Water. This Tryall Queen Emma admirably underwent, not sensible of the Plow-shares till past them, saying to such as led her, Oh, when shall I come to the place of my Purgation?

15. By what Power this was performed,Queen Emma her miracu­lous purga­tion. I will not dispute, finding amongst theStrab. Geog. lib. 5. & Plin. lib. 7. cap. 2. Heathens a City Feronia, twenty miles from Rome, under mount Soracte; where the Inhabitants, possessed with a spirit of a Deity therein worshipped, usually walked upon burning Coales, without any Harm. Onely I wonder, that Bishop Alwin (equally suspected, and equally innocent with Emma) should not profer himself to the like Triall. But, perchance, the prudent Pre­late remembred, that such barbarous Customes, though kept up amongst the Common People, were forbidden by the ancient Canons, as also by the Letter of Pope Stephen the fifth, which about the year eight hundred eighty and seven he wrote to Humbert, Bishop of Mentz: And now Emma, who went willingly on this sad Errand, did the Businesse for them both, and cleared their Credits. The Church of Winchester got well hereby, viz. nine Mannours, which Queen Emma bestowed thereon, in Commemoration of her Deliverance.

16. King Edward the Confessour was married to the devout Lady Edith; A Wife no Wife. his Wife in Minde, but not in Body; in Consent, not Act; being onely (as my Au­thour saith) an Abishag to the King. Strange! that two Persons, if loving each other in the prime of their yeares, should light on so happy a Temper, as mutually to warm, not to heat one another; which the Wife-men in our Age [Page 142] will account difficult,Anno Dom. 1046 and the Wanton impossible.Anno Regis Edvar­di Con­fessoris 4 Such will say, if this was true, that King Edward pass'd as great a Triall, as Queen Emma his Mother; and that his Ordall was as hard, as hers was painfull.

17. Was it not pity,Yet, was there not a cause? but the World should have more of the Breed of them, who were so godly a Couple? Let Basenesse be barren, and Cruelty childlesse; Pious persons deserve a double Portion in that Charter of Fruitfulnesse,Gen. 1. 28. Mul­tiply and encrease. Yea, the English Crown now wanting an Heir, and, for De­fault thereof, likely to fall to Forreiners, might (I will not say have tempted, but) have moved King Edward to the Knowledge of his Wife. But whilest Papists crie up this his incredible Continency: others easily unwonder the same, by im­puting it partly to his Impotence, afflicted with an Infirmitie; partly to the Dis­taste of his Wife, whom he married onely for Coveniencie, and to the Distrust of her Chastity, on suspition whereof, he confined her to the Monasterie of Whore-well (as I take it) in Hamshire.

18. But grant Queen Edith a chast Woman,The good daughter of a bad father. as she is generally believed; Daughter she was to a wicked Father, Earle Godwin by name, whence the Proverb,

Sicut spina rosam, genuit God winus Editham.
From prickly stock as springs a Rose;
So Edith from Earle Godwin grows.

little ill being written of the Daughter, and no good of the Father. Indeed King Edward was Father-in-law-ridden, who feared Earle Godwin rather then trusted him, as who with a long train of his Power could sweep many Depen­dents after him. This Godwin (like those Sands near Kent which bear his name) never spared what he could spoile, but swallowed all which came within his compass to devoure. Two Instances whereof, because both belonging to Church-matters, we will relate.

19. He cast a cavetous Eye on the fair Nunnery of Berkley in Glocestershire, Godwin's de­vice to get Berkley Nunnerie. and thus contrived it for himself. He left there an handsome young man, real­ly, or seemingly, sick, for their Charity to recover; who quickly grows well, and wanton. He is toying, tempting, taking; such Fire and Flax quickly make a Flame. The Sisters loose their Chastity, and, without taking Wife in the way, are ready to make Mothers. The young man (if sick) returns to Earle God­win in Health, leaving the healthfull Nuns sick behind him. The same hereof fills the Country, flies to Court, is complained of by Earle Godwin to the King; Officers are sent to enquire, they return it to be true, the Nuns are turned out, their House and Lands forfeited, both bestowed on Earle Godwin; surprized VVeaknesse being put out, and designing VVickednesse placed in the room there­of. Surely King Edward knew nothing of Godwin's Deceit herein; otherwise it was unjust, that the Whores should be punished, and the principall Pander re­warded.

20. At another time he had a mind to the rich Mannour of Boseham in Sus­sex, Another trick to gain the mannour of Boseham. and complemented it out of Robert Arch-bishop of Canterbury, in this manner. Coming to the Arch-bishop, he saith, Da mihi Basium, that is, Give me a Buss, or a Kisse, an usuall Favour from such a Prelate. The Arch-bishop re­turns, Dotibi Basium, kissing him therewith. An holy Kiss (perchance) as given, but a crafty one as taken: for Godwin presently posts to Boseham, and takes pos­session thereof. And though here was neither real Intention in him who passed it away, nor valuable Consideration to him; but a mere Circumvention; yet such was Godwin's Power, and the Arch-bishops Poornesse of spirit, that he quietly enjoyed it. Nor have I ought else to observe either of Berkley or Bose­ham, but that both these rich and ancient Mannours, Earle Godwin his brace of Cheats, and distant an hundred miles each from other, are now both met in the Right Honourable George Berkeley (as Heir apparent thereof) the paramount Mecoenas of my Studies: whose Ancestors as they were long since justly possessed of them; so I doubt not but their Posterity will long comfortably enjoy them.

[Page 143] 21. The Monks that wrote this King Edward's life,A miracle reported done by King Ed­ward. had too heavy a hand in over-spicing it with Miracles, which hath made the Relation too hot for the Mouth of any moderate Belief. A poor Cripple chanced to come to him, one who might have stockt a whole Hospitall with his own Maladies. It was que­stionable, whether the Difficulty of his Crawling caused more Pain, or the Deformity thereof more Shame unto him. The sight of him made all tender Beholders Cripples by Sympathie, commiserating his sad Condition. But it seems, this weak Wretch had a strong Fancy, and bold Face, who durst desire the King himself to carry him on his Back into the Church, on assurance (as he said) that thereby he should be recovered. The good King grants his Desire, and this Royal Porter beares him into the Church, where so strange an Altera­tion is said to happen; Qui venit quadrupes, decessit bipes, He that came on all four, departed straight, and upright.

22. The Church into which the King carried the Cripple,19 was St. Peter's in VVestminister, 1061 built by him on this Occasion.Westminster Church re­built by him. King Edward had made a Vow to visit the Reliques of St. Peter in Rome; and, because his Subjects could not safely spare him out of his own Country, the Pope dispensed with him for the Per­formance thereof. Now, although he went not to St. Peter, St Peter came to him, and in severall Apparitions advised him to build him a Church in the place now called Westminster, then Thornie, because desolate, and overgrown with Thorns and Briars. Nor is it any news, that populous Cities at this present, were anciently Woods and Bushie plots. What else was Ierusalem it self in the dayes of Abraham, but a Thornie, when in the middest thereof on Mount Mo­riah, a Ram was caught by the Gen. 22. 13. Horns in a Thicket? This Church many yeares before had been dedicated to, and (as the Monks say) consecrated by St Peter, till destroyed by the Danes, King Edward raised it from the Ruines, endowing it with large Priviledges, and rich Possessions.

23. Next to St. Peter, A Ring said to be sent from St. Iohn to King Ed­ward. our Edward's Darling, he is said to be most in Favour with St. Iohn the Apostle, who is reported to have appeared unto him in the shape of a Begging Pilgrim; the King, not having at the present Money to sup­ply his Wants, pluckt off his Ring from his Finger, and bestowed it upon him. This very Ring, some yeares after, St. Iohn sent him back again by two Pil­grims out of Palestine; but withall telling him, that he should die within six moneths after: a Message more welcome then the Ring to such a mortified man. If any doubt of the truth thereof, it is but riding to Havering in Essex, so called (asCamden's Britan. in Essex. they say) from this Ring, where (no doubt) the Inhabitants will give any sufficient Satisfaction therein.

24. Amongst the many Visions in this Kings Reign,A Vision worth obser­ving. one I will not omit, because seeming to have some what more then mere Monk therein. One be­ing inquisitive, what should become of England after King Edward's Death, received this Answer; The Kingdome of England belongeth to God himself, who will provide it a King at his pleasure. Indeed England is Gods on severall Titles. First, as a Country; the Earth is his, and the Fulnesse-thereof: Secondly, as an Island, which are Gods Demesnes, which he keeps in his own hand of his daily Providence: Thirdly, as a Kingdome on which he hath bestowed miraculous Deliverances. Seeing then England is his own, we know who said,Mat. 20. 15 Is it not lawfull to doe what I will with mine own? May he dispose of his own to his own Glory, and the good of his own Servants.

25. Amongst the many resplendent Vertues in King Edward, King Ed­ward's con­tempt of wealth. Contempt of Wealth was not the least, whereof some bring in this for an Instance. The King lay on a Pallet surrounded with Curtains; by him stood a Chest of Silver, which Hugolin, his Treasurer (called away on some sudden Occasion) had left open. In comes a thievish Courtier, takes away as much Money as he could carry, and disposeth thereof. Then cometh he the second time for a new Bur­den, little suspecting that the unseen King saw him all the while; and having laden himself, departed. Some adde, he returned the third time. Be content [Page 144] (quoth the King) with what you have, lest, Anno Dom. 1061 if Hugolin come in and catch you, Anno Regis Edvar­di Con­fessoris 19 he take it all from you. Soon after the Treasurer returning, and fretting for loss of the Money, Let him have it quietly (said the King) he needeth it more then we do. Words which spake him a better man then King, as accessary to his own Rob­bing; who, if pleased to have made this pilfering Fellow to have tasted of the Whip for his pains, had marred a pretty Jast, but made a better Earnest there­in.

26. Posterity conceived so great an opinion of King Edward's Piety,King Ed­ward's Ward­robe put in­to the Rega­lia. that his Cloath; were deposited amongst the Regalia, and solemnly worn by our En­glish Kings on their Coronation; never counting themselves so fine, as when invested with his Robes; the Sanctity of Edward the first Wearer excusing, yea adorning the modern Antiquenesse of his Apparell. Amongst these is the Rod or Sceptre, with a Dove on the Top thereof, (the Emblem of Peace) because in his Reign England enjoyed Halcyon dayes, free from Danish Invasions: as also his Crown, Chair, Staffe, Tunick, close Pall, See Mills his Catalogue of honour, p. 59. Tuisni hosen, Sandalls, Spurres, Gloves, &c. Expect not from me a Comment on these severall Cloaths, or rea­son for the wearing of them. In generall, it was to mind our Kings, when ha­bited with his Cloaths, to be cloathed with the habit of his vertuous Endow­ments; as when putting on the Gloves of this Confessour, their Hands ought to be like his, in moderate taking of Taxes from their Subjects. Indeed, Imposi­tions once raised are seldome remitted, pretended Necessities being alwayes found out for their Continuance. But our Edward released to his Subjects the grievous burden of Dane-gelt, payed to his Predecessours, conceiving it fit, now the Danes were departed, that the Gelt or Tax should go after them. But now Edward's Staffe is broken, Chair overturned, Cloaths rent, and Crown mel­ted; our present Age esteeming them the Reliques of Superstition.

27. And yet all things being cast up,No Confessour in the slrict­ness of the word. I confesse I understand not how the name Confessour is proper to King Edward, in the strict acceptance thereof. For a Confessour is one actually persecuted for the testimony of the Truth, and prepared to lose his Life for the same. He is a Martyr in Bullion, wanting onely the Stamp of a Violent Death to be impressed upon him. Now a great part of our Edward's Life, was led by him in Peace and Plenty; nothing bound­ing his Abundance but his own Moderation, & for twenty years together ha­ving no visible Foe to offend him. And although in his youth he lived in Normandy, in a middle Condition, betwixt an Exile and a Traveller, flying thither for fear of the Danes; yet such his Sufferings were of Civil Concern­ment, not directly relating to Conscience, though at distance reducible there­unto. But seeing in the Titles of great Persons, it is better to give too much then too little; a Confessour we found him, and a Confessour we leave him.

28. Our Eyes have been so intent in beholding the Vertues of this King,Stigand the vicious Arch-bishop of Canterbury we have been little at Leasure to take notice of the Arch-bishops of Canter­bury, during his Reign. Know then that about ten yeares since, Robert Arch-bishop of Canterbury, who succeeded Eadsin therein, fearing some hard mea­sure from Earle Godwin (notwithstanding he had been contentedly kissed out of his Mannour of Boseham) conveyed himself away beyond the Seas, to his Monastery in Normandy, whence he came first into England. After whose De­pature, Stig and Bishop of Winchester intruded himself into that See, eminent onely for Vice, and fordid Covetousnesse.

29. As for the Ecclesiastic all Laws made by this King in his Reign,King Ed­ward's Eccle­siasticall Constitu­tions. it will be enough to affix their Principall Titles.

1. That every Clerk and Scholar should quietly enjoy their Goods and Pos­sessions.

2. What solemn Festivalls people may come and goe of, without any Law-Sutes to disturb them.

3. That in all Courts where the Bishops Proctour doth appear, his Case is first to be heard and determined.

[Page 145] 4. That Guilty folk flying to the Church should there have Protection, not to be reprehended by any, but by the Bishop and his Ministers.

5. That Tithes be paid to the Church, of Sheep, Pigs, Bees, and the like.

6. How the Ordall was to be ordered for the Triall of Guilty persons by Fire and Water.

7. That Peter-pence, or Romescot, be faithfully payed to the Pope.

But I loose time, and referre the Reader to read these Constitutions at large, being three and twenty in number, in the worthyIn his Coun­cils, pag. 619. Work of that no lesse Lear­ned then Religious Knight Sir Henry Spelman.

30. And now the full time was come,24 wherein good King Edward ex­changed this life for a better.1066 Jan. 4. Who,How the Kings of En­gland come to cure the Kings Evil. as he was famous for many personall Mira­cles, so he is reported to have entailed (by Heavens Consort) an hereditary Ver­tue on his Successours the Kings of England, (onely with this Condition,Primrosius de Vulgat. Error. cap. ultimo. that they continue constant in Christianity) to cure the Kings Evil. This Disease, known to the Greeks by the name of [...], termed by La [...]ines Struma, and Sorophulae, hath it's Cause from Phlegm, it's chief and common outward Re­sidence, in or near the Neck & Throat, where it expresseth it self in Knobs and Kernells, pregnant often times with corrupted Bloud, & other putrified matter, which on the breaking of those Bunches, floweth forth, equally offensive to Sight, Smell and Touch. And yet this noisome Disease is happily healed by the Hands of the Kings of England stroaking the Soar: & if any doubt of the Truth thereof, they may be remitted to their own Eyes for farther Confirmation. But there is a sort of men, who to avoid the Censure of over-easie Credulity, and purchase the Repute of prudent Austerity, justly incurre the Censure of af­fected Frowardnesse. It being neither Manners nor Discretion in them, in mat­ters notoriously known to give daily Experience the Lye, by the Backward­nesse of their Belief.

31 But whence this Cure proceeds,Severall o­pinions of the Causes thereof. is much controverted amongst the Learned. Some recount it in the Number of those [...], whose Reason cannot be demonstrated. For as in vicious Common-wealths Bastards are frequent, who being reputed Filii Populi, have no particular Father: so mans Ignorance increaseth the number of Occult Qualities, (which I might call Chances in Nature,) where the Effect is beheld, but cannot be certainly re­ferred to any immediate and proper Cause thereof. Others impute it to the powerFerrerius, lib. 2. method, cap. 11. de Homeric. Cu­rat. of Fancie, and an exalted Imagination. For when the poor Patient (who perchance seldome heard of, and never saw a King before) shall behold his Royall Hand dabling in a Puddle of Putrefaction, & with a charitable Con­fidence rubbing, smoothing, chafing those loathsome Kernells, (which I may call Clouds of Corruption, dissolved oft-times into a feculent Shower;) I say, when the Sick-man shall see an Hand so humble of an Arme so high, such Con­descention in a King, to stroak that Soar, at which meaner Persons would stop their Nostrills, shut their Eyes, or turn their Faces; this raiseth, erecteth, enthro­neth the Patients▪ Fancie, summoning his spirits to assist Nature with their ut­most Might, to encounter the Disease with greater Advantage. And who will look into the Legend of the Miracles of Imagination, shall find many strange, and almost incredible, things thereby really effected.

32. Other Learned men,Others count it Supersti­tion. and particularlyLib. de In­cantamentis. Gaspar Peucenus, though acquit­ting this Cure from Diabolicall Conjuration, yet tax it as guilty of Superstition. With him all such do side, as quarrell at the Ceremonies and Circumstances used at the Healing of this Maladie. Either displeased at the Collect read, (con­sisting of the first nine verses of the Gospell of St. Iohn) as wholly improper, and nothing relating to the Occasion; or unresolved of the Efficacy of the Gold pendent about the Patients Neck, (whether partly compleating, or a bare Complement of the Cure;) or secretly unsatisfied, what manner and mea­sure of Belief is required (according to the Modell whereof Health is observed to come sooner or later;) or openly offended with theGu. Tucker in Charismate, cap. 7. pag. 96. Sign of the Crosse, which [Page 146] was used to be made by the Royall Hands on the Place infected.Anno Dom. All which Ex­ceptions fall to the ground,Anno Regis Edvar­di Con­fessoris 24 when it shall be avowed, that notwithstanding the Omission of such Ceremonies (as requisite rather to the Solemnity, then Sub­stance of the Cure) the bare Hands of our Kings (without the Gloves,Jan. 4. as I may term it, of the aforesaid Circumstances) have effected the healing of this Disease.

33. Hereupon some make it a clear Miracle,Many make the Cure miraculous. and immediately own Gods Finger in the Kings Hand. That when the Art of the Physitian is posed, the In­dustry of the Chirurgion tired out, the Experience of both at a Losse, when all humane Means cry craven; then that Wound made by the Hand of God, is cured by the hand of his Vice-gerent. Hath Heaven indued Vegetables (the worst and weak est of living Creatures) with cordiall Qualities? yea, hath it bestowed pretious Properties on dull and inanimate Waters, Stones and Mi­neralls, insomuch that such are condemned for Silly or Sullen, for Stupid or Stubborn, as doubt thereof? And shall we be so narrow-hearted, as not to con­ceive it possible, that Christian men, the nobiest of corporeall Creatures; Kings, the most eminent of all Christian men; Kings of Britain, the First-Fruits of all Christian Kings, should receive that peculiar Priviledge, and sanative Power, whereof daily Instances are presented unto us? See here the vast Difference be­twixt Papists and Protestants. How do the former court those Miracles, which fly from them; and often, in default of Reall ones, are glad and greedy to hug and embrace empty Shadows of things falsly reported to be done, or fondly reputed to be Miracles? Whereas many Protestants, on the contrary, (as in the matter in hand) are scrupulous in accepting Miracles truely tendered unto them. But although our Religion, firmly founded on, and safely senced with the Scriptures, need no Miracles to confirm or countenance the truth thereof: yet when they are by the hand of Heaven cast into our Scales (not to make our Doctrine Weight, but) as superpondium, or an Over-plus freely be­stowed; sure they may safely without Sin be received; not to say, can scarce be refused, without (at least) some suspicion of Neglect & Ingratitude to the Good­nesse of God.

34. Nor will it be amisse here to relate a Passage which happened about the middest of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, The inge­nuouscon­fession of a Catholick. after Pope Pius did let fly his Excom­munication against her. There was a stiffe Roman Catholick (as they delight to term themselves) otherwise a man well accomplished, and of an ingenuous Disposition, who being cast into Prison, (I conceive for his Religion,) was there visited in an high degree, with the Kings Evil. And having with great Pain and Expence, but no Successe, long used the advice of Physitians, at last he humbly addressed himself unto the Queens Majestie; by whom, with Gods help, he was compleately cured. And being demanded, What news; Gu Tucker in Charismate cap. 6. pag. 92. I perceive, said he, now at last by plain experience, that the Excommunication denounced by the Pope against her Majestie is in very deed of none effect, seeing God hath blessed her with so great and miraculous a Vertue.

35. This mention of Queen Elizabeth (there is a magnetick Vertue in Sto­ries, Queen Eli­zabeth why displeased with the people in Gloce stershire for one to attract another) minds me of a Passage in the beginning ofher Reign. Making her Progresse into Glocestershire, people affected with this Dis­case did in uncivil Crowds presse in upon her. Insomuch that her Majestie, betwixt Anger, Grief, and Compassion, let fall words to this effect: Alasse, poor people, I cannot, I cannot cure you; it is God alone that can doe it. Which words some interpreted, (contrary to her Intent and Practice, continuing such Cures till the day of her Death) an utter renouncing and disclaiming of any Instrumentall Efficacy in her self. Whereas she onely removed her Sub­jects Eyes from gazing on her, to look up to Heaven. For mens Minds natu­rally are so dull and heavy, that instead of traveling with their Thanks to God, the Cause of all Cures, they lazily take up their Lodging more then half-way on this side, mistaking the Dealer for the Giver of their Recovery. It follows not therefore, that the Queen refused to heal their Bodies, because carefull in [Page 147] the first place to cure their Souls of this dangerous Mistake. A Princesse, who as she was a most exact Demander of her Due, (observed seldome or never to forgive her greatest Favourites what they owed her) so did she most punctual­ly pay her Ingagements to others, as to all men, so most especially to God, loth that he should lose any Honour due unto him, by her unjust Detaining thereof.

36. The Kings of France share also with those of England in this miracu­lous Cure. And Laurentius reports,The Kings of France cure the Kings Evil. that when Francis the first, King of France, was kept Prisoner in Spain, he, notwithstanding his Exile and Restraint, daily cured infinite Multitudes of people of that Disease; according to this Epi­gram:

Hispanos inter sanat Rex Choeradas, estque
Captivus Superis gratus, ut ante fuit.

The Captive King the Evil cures in Spain;
Dear, as before, he doth to God remain.

So it seemeth his Medicinall Quality is affixed not to his Prosperity, but Person; so that during his Durance he was fully free to exercise the same.

37. Thus farre we patiently hear,La [...]rentius falsely denies the Kings of England power in cu­ring the Kings Evil. and sufficiently credit this Authour; but can no longer afford him either Belief or Attention; when he presumeth to tell us, that the Kings of England neverDe mirabill strumarum curatione c. 2. cured the Kings Evill, a Vertue appropria­ted onely to his Majestie of France. Onely he confesseth, that long ago some of our English Kings of the Anjouan Race (descended from Ieffery Plantagenet) did heal the Falling Sicknesse, with certain Consecrated Annulets, a Custome long since difused. Thus he seeks to deprive our Princes of their Patrimoniall Vertue, and to make them Reparations (instead of their sanative Power, where­of they are peaceably possest to them and their Heires, holding it of God in chief) with assigning them an old Lea [...]e, where the Title at the best was liti­gious, and the Term long ago expired. But the Reader may be pleased to take notice, that this Laurentius was Physician in ordinary to King Henry the fourth of France, and so had his Judgement herein bowed awry with so weighty a Relation; Flattery being so catching a Disease, wherewith the best Doctors of Physick may sometimes be infected. To cry quits with him, Doctor Tucker, Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, in a Treatise he wrote of this Subject, denyeth the Kings of France ever originally cured this Evil, but per aliquam In his cha­rismate cap. 6. pag. 84. Propagi­nem, by a Sprig of Right derived from the primitive Power of our English Kings, under whose Jurisdiction most of the French Provinces were once sub­jected.

38. Between these two Authours,The indif­ferent Opi­nion. violent in Opposition, haply we may find the Truth, whose constant Dwelling-place is pleasantly seated in a moderate Vale, betwixt two swelling Extremes. For it plainly appeareth by uncontrou­lable Arguments and Evidences, that both the Crowns, of England and France, have for many years been invested with this miraculous Gift; yet so, that our English Kings are the elder Brothers in the Possession thereof. For if St. Lewes, King of France (who was contemporary with our King Henry the third) was theSo witnes­seth Andrew Chasne ae French Au­thour, and others. first of that Royall Race, which healed this Evil, his Cradle was more then 160, yeares after the Cossin of our Edward the Confessour, from whom, as is aforesaid, our Kings derive this soveraign Power by constant Succession. But methinks my Book in this Discourse, begins to bunch or swell out, and some will censure this Digression for a Struma, or tedious Exuberancy, beyond the just Proportion of our History; wherefore no more hereof: onely I will conclude with two Prayers; extending the first to all Good people, That Divine Providence would be pleased to preserve them from this painfull and loath­some Disease. The second I shall confine to my self alone (not knowing how it will suit with the Consciences and Judgements of others,) yet so as not ex­cluding any who are disposed to joyn with me in my Petition; namely, That [Page 148] if it be the Will of God to visit me (whose Body hath the Seeds of all Sicknesse,Anno Dom. 1066 Jan. 4. and Soul of all Sins) with the aforesaid Malady,Anno Regis Edvar­di Con­fessoris 24 I may have the Favour to be touched of his Majesty, the Happiness to be healed by him, and the Thank­fulness to be gratefull to God the Authour, and Gods Image the Instrument of my Recovery. I'le onely adde this short Story and then proceed. A little be­fore these Wars began, a Minister (not over-loyally affected,) was accused, and was like to have been troubled for this Passage in his Sermon, that Oppres­sion was the Kings Evil. But being called to answer it before the Commissioners, he expounded his own words, that he meant Oppression was the Kings Evil, not that the King caused it, but onely cured it, and alone in this Land could re­medy and redresse the same.

39. King Edward dying Childlesse,Harold usur­peth the Crown. caused by his affected Chastity,1066 left the Land at a Losse for an Heir in a direct Line,Haroldi 1 & opened a Door to the Ambition of Collaterall Pretenders. Indeed the undoubted Right lay in Edgar Atheling, Son to Edward the Out-law, Grand-child to Edmond Iron-side King of England: But he being tender in Age, and (as it seems) soft in Temper, and of a forrein Garb, because of his Education in Hungary, (his most potent Alliance in Ger­many, out of Distance to send him seasonable Assistance,) was passed by by the English Nobility. These chose Harold to be King, whose Title to the Crown is not worth our deriving of it, much less his relying on it. But having endeared Martiallists by his Valour, engaged Courtiers by his Bounty, and obliged all sorts of People by his Affability, he was advanced to the Crown by those, who more considered his Ability to defend, then his Right to deserve it.

40. William Duke of Normandy was Competitour with Harold, William Duke of Normandy twisteth many weak Titles toge­ther. who sup­plying in Number what he wanted in Strength of his Titles, claimed the Crown by Alliance, Adoption, and Donation from Edward the Confessour; though he was as unable to give and bequeath, as VVilliam, being a Bastard, in the Strictnesse of Saxon Laws, was uncapable to receive it. But his Sword was stronger then his Titles, and the Sins of the English more forceable then either, to deliver that Nation (now grown, as Authours observe, intolerably vicious) into his Subjection. So that in a pitch'd Field, he overcame and killed King Harold, with the prime of the English Nobility, (a just Punishment on their Perjury, for their deserting their Lawfull Prince;) and such as survived, were forced either to hold the Stirrup, or Lackey by the Side of many a mean-born Norman, mounted to Places of Profit and Honour. This was the fifth time wherein the South of this Island was conquered; first by Romans, secondly by Picts and Scots, thirdly by Saxons, fourthly by the Danes, and fifthly by the Normans. This mindeth me of the Prophet Elisha's speech to2 Kings 13. 19. Ioash King of Israel; Thou shouldest have smitten Syria 5. or 6. times, then hadst thou smit­ten Syria, till thou hadst consumed it. (It seemeth five may, but six must dispatch a People.) God hath already smitten this Island five times with a Rod of Forrein Invasion; let us beware the sixth time (that finall, fatall Number) for fear it prove the last, and utter Confusion and Destruction of our Nation.

41. Thus King VVilliam came in by Conquest,William re­bateth his conquering Sword with Composi­tion. though in the later part of his Reign, growing more mild and moderate, he twisted his Right of Vi­ctory with Composition: as such who have ravished a Woman against her will, endeavour afterwards to make her Reparation by Wooing and Wedding her, whom formerly they had wronged; so with Love to cover their Lust, by the most excusable way of Marriage. So King VVilliam, though he had for­ced this Land, yet afterwards, not so much out of Remorse as Policy, (to suppresse frequent Tumults, and procure Security to himself and Successours) is said to have closed with the Commons in a fair way of Agreement, resto­ring many ancient Priviledges unto them. Thus, though Conquest was more honourable for his Credit, Composition was comfortable for his Con­science, and accounted most safe for his Posterity. Witnesse that judiciall Sen­tence, which King William in open Court pronounced against himself, ad­judging [Page 149] the Lord ofCamden's Britannia in Norfolk. Sharnborn in Norfolk, Anno Regis Haroldi 1 being an English-man,Anno Dom. 1066 true owner of that Mannour; contrary to that Grant, wherein he had formerly bestowed it on one Warren a Norman. Herein the Conquerour confessed himself conque­red, submitting his Arbitrary Power and Pleasure to be regulated by Justice, and the ancient Rights of English-men.

42. But what Impression the Norman Victories made on the State,Abreviate of the Doctrine of England in these Ages before the Norman Conquest. let Poli­ticians observe; what Change it produced in the Laws, we leave to the Lear­ned of that Faculty to prosecute: whilest that which renders the Conquest to Consideration in our Church-Story is, the manifest Change of Religion, from what formerly was publickly professed in England. To make this Muta­tion in it's due time more conspicuous, we will here conclude this Book with a brief Character of the principall Doctrines generally taught and believed by the English, in these four last Centuries, before tainted with any Norman Infe­ction. For though we must confesse and bemoan, that Corruptions crept into the Church by Degrees, and Divine Worship began to be clogg'd with superstitious Ceremonies; yet that the Doctrine remained still sound and intire, in most materiall Points, will appeare by an Induction of the dominative Con­troversies, wherein we differ from the Church of Rome.

1. Scripture generally read.

For such as were with the Holy Bishop Aidan, sive Attonsi, sive Bedae Eccles. Hist. lib. 3. cap. 5. Laici, either Clergy or Laity, were tied to exercise themselves in reading the Holy Word, and learning of Psalms.

The Originall preferred.

For Ricemarch aCaradoc. in Chron. of Cambridge. Britan, a right Learned and Godly Clerk, Son to Sulgen Bishop of Saint Davids, flourishing in this Age, made this Epi­gram on those who translated the Psalter out of the Greek, so taking it at the Second hand, and not drawing it immediatly out of the first Vessel.

MS. in the Library of the Learned Bi­shop, William Bedel, and cited by the Arch-bishop of Armagh in the Reli­gion of the an­cient Irish, pag. 9.
Nablam custodit liter a signis,
Pro captu quam quisque suo sermone Latino
Edidit, innumeros lingua variante libellos,
Ebreum que jubar suffuscat nube Latina.
Nam tepefacta ferum dant tertia Labra Saporem.
Sed sacer Hieronymus, Ebreo fonte repletus,
Lucidius nudat verum, breviusque ministrat.
This Harp the holy Hebrew Text doth tender,
Which, to their Power, whil'st every one doth render
In Latine Tongue with many Variations,
He clouds the Hebrew Rayes with his Translations.
Thus Liquors when twice shifted out, and powr'd
In a third Vessel, are both cool'd and sowr'd.
But Holy Ierome Truth to light doth bring
Briefer and fuller, fetcht from th' Hebrew Spring.

No Prayers for the Dead, in the modern notion of Papists.

For, though we find Prayers for the Dead, yet they were not in the nature of Propitiation for their Sins, or to procure Relaxation from their Sufferings: but were onely an honourable Commemoration of their Memo­ries, and a Sacrifice of Thanksgiving for their Salvation. Thus St. Cuth­bert, after he had seen the Soul of one Hadwaldus Bede in vita Cuthberti cap. 34. carried by Angels into Heaven, did celebrate Obsequies of Prayers in his behalf.

Purgatory, though nevvly hatched, not yet fledged.

For, although there are frequent Visions and Revelations in this Age pretended, thereon to build Purgatory (which had no Foundation in Scripture) yet the Architects of that fancy-full Fabrick had not so hand­somely contrived it, as it stands at this day in the Romish Belief. ForLib. 3. c. 19. Bede, out of the Vision of Furseus, relateth certain great Fires above the Aire, appointed to examine every one according to the merits of his VVork, dif­fering from the Papists Purgatory; which Bellarmine, by the common Consent of the School-men, determineth to be within the Bowels of the Earth. Thus nothing can be invented, and perfected at once.

Communion under both kinds.

For,De vita Cuthberti prosa, cap. 15. Bede relateth, that one Hildmer, an Officer of Egfride King of Northumberland, intreated our Cuthbert to send a Priest that might mini­ster the Sacrament of the Lords Body and Bloud unto his Wife, that then lay a dying. And Cuthbert himself, immediately before his own Departure out of this Life, received the Communion of the Lords Body and Bloud. And, lest any should fondly hope to decline so pregnant an Instance, by the novel conceit of Concomitancy (a Distinction that could not speak, be­cause it was not born in that Age) it is punctually noted, that he distinct­ly received the Cup.

Idem in vita Cuthberti carmine, cap. 36.
degustat vitae, Christique supinum
Sanguine munit iter—
His Voyage steep the easier to climbe up,
Christs Bloud he drank out of Lifes healthfull Cup.

So that the Eucharist was then administred entire, and not maimed (as it is by Papists at this day) serving it, as2 Sam. 10. 4 Hanun the Ammonite did the Cloaths and Beards of David's Ambassadours, cutting it off at the Middle. And, though the word Mass was frequent in that Age (gene­rally expressing all Divine Service;) yet was it not known to be offered as a propitiatory-Sacrifice for the quick and dead.

43. But if any desire farther Information herein,The Authors engagement to the Archb. of Armagh, and conclu­sion of this second book let him repair to the worthy Work, which Iames, the right learned and pious Arch-bishop of Armagh, hath written of the Religion professed by the ancient Irish and British. From whom I have borrowed many a Note (though not alwayes thanking him in the Margin, by citing his Name) and therefore now must make one generall Acknowledgement of my Engagement. In Cities we see, that such as sell by Re­taile (though of lesse Credit) are of great Use, especially to poor people, in parcelling out Peny-worths of Commodities to them, whose Purses cannot extend to buy by Whole-sale from the Merchant. Conceive I in like manner, my Pains will not be altogether unprofitable, who in this History have fetch'd my Wares from the Store-house of that Reverend Prelate (the Cape-Merchant of all Learning) and here in little Remnants, deliver them out to petty-coun­try-Chapmen, who hitherto have not had the Hap, or Happinesse to under­stand the original Treasuries, whence they are taken. And clean through this Work in point of Chronologie, I have with implicite Faith followed hisIn his book, de Brit. Eccl. primord. Com­putation, setting my Watch by his Dial, knowing his Dial to be set by the Sun, and Account most exactly calculated, according to the critical truth of Time. Long may he live for the Glory of God, and Good of his Church. For where­as many learned men, though they be deep Abysses of Knowledge, yet (like the Caspian Sea, receiving all, and having no Out-let) are loth to impart ought to others; this bright Sun is as bountifull to deal abroad his Beams, as such dark Dales as my self, are glad, and delighted to receive them.


To the right worshipfull Sr. Simon Archer, of Tanvvorth in Warvvickshire.

SOme report, that the Toad, before her death, sucks up (if not pre­vented vvith suddain surprisall) the precious Stone (as yet but a Jelly) in her Head, grudging Mankind the Good thereof. Such generally the Envy of Antiquaries, preferring that their Rarities should die vvith them, and be buried in their Graves, rather then others receive any Benefit thereby.

You cross the current of common Corruption; it being questionable vvhether you be more skilfull in knovving, carefull in keeping, or courteous in communicating your curious Collections in that kind.

Iustly therefore have I dedicated these severall Copies of Bat­tel-Abbey Roll unto you: first, because I have received one of the most authentick of them from your ovvn Hand: secondly, because your ancient Name chargeth through and through most of these Catalogues. Yea, as the Archers came over vvith the Con­querour, so the Conquerour may be said to come over vvith the Archers, (therefore placed in a List by themselves,) because their Valour atchieved the greatest part of his Victory.

PErusing the worthy Pains of grave and godly Mr. Fox, The Design propounded and asserred. in his Book of Martyrs; I find him in the Reign of VVilliam the first, exemplifying a double Catalogue of such emi­nent Persons as came over at the Conquest. Now, seeing so Reverend a Writer accounted the inserting thereof no Deviation from his Church-History, we presume accor­dingly, by way of Recreation of the Reader, to present him with a larger List of those Names, with some brief Notes thereupon.

[Page 152] Here will I premise nothing about the ancient Original of Names,Imposing of names de­notes domi­nion. which argued the undoubted Dominion of him who first gave them, over those on whom they were imposed. Thus Eve Gen. 4. 1. named Cain; to shew the command, even of the Mother, over the eldest (and therefore over all her) Children. Adam Gen. 2. 23. named Eve, She shall be called VVoman; to signifie the Husbands So­vereignty over his Wife. God namedGen. 1. 26. Adam, Let us make Adam, or Man; to denote his Power and Authority over Man. And God named himself,Exod. 3. 14. I am hath sent me unto you; importing his absolute and independent being in, and from himself. But, waving what may be said of the beginning of Names, we shall digest what we conceive necessary for our present Purpose, into the fol­lowing Propositions.

The first is;Fixt Sur­names not long before the Con­quest. Surnames were fixed in Families in England, at, or about the Con­quest. I say, fixed. Formerly, though men had Surnames, yet their Sons did not, as I may say, follow suit with their Fathers, the Name descended not hereditarily on the Family. At, or about. Fourty years under or over will break no squares. It began somewhat sooner, in the Confessours time, fetch'd out of France, but not universally settled till some hundred years after. When men therefore tell us, how their Surnames have been fastened on their Families, some Cen­turies of years before the Conquest, we hear them say so. His Chronology was no better then his Herauldry, who boasted that his Auncestours had given the three Gun-holes (which indeed were the three Annulets) for their Armes these thousand yeares, when Guns themselves have not been extant three hundred yeares in Europe. The same soloecisme in effect is committed by such, who pretend to the Antiquity of Surnames, before the same were settled in rerum natura.

The second;Surnames late in (be­cause not needfull to) Kings. Kings had fixed Surnames later then Common people. Our four first Norman Kings had no Surnames, Henry the second being the first of the Plantagenists. Wonder not that a gentile Fashion should come later into the Court, then into the Country, and last to the Crown it self. For Names be­ing made to distinguish men, they were more necessary for common people, whose Obscurities would be lost in a Multitude, were they not found out by the signe of their Surnames, having no other Eminency whereby they might be differenced. But Princes (being comparatively few in respect of private persons) are sufficiently discovered by their own Lustre, and Sove­reignty may be said to be a Surname to it self; and therefore Kings, not of Necessity, but mere Pleasure have accepted additions to their Christian-names.

The third;Many of the Normans most noble by birth. Many who cameover out of Normandy, were Noble in their native Country. Especially such who are stiled from their Places, as le Sire de Soteville, le Sire de Margneville, le Sire de Tancarville, &c. whereby we under­stand them Lords and Owners of such Mannours, Towns, and Castles from whence they took their Denomination. However this particle de such a place (when without le Sire going before it) doth not always give Livery and Seisin, and presently put the person so named into Possession of the Place; sometimes barely importing that he was born there, and not Owner thereof.

The fourth;Yet some not so much as Gentle­men. All that came over with the Conquerour were not Gentlemen untill they came over with the Conquerour. For, instantly upon their Victory, their Flesh was refined, Bloud clarified, Spirits elevated to a [...] higher Puri­ty and Perfection. Many a Peasant in Normandy commenced Monsieur by coming over into England, where they quickly got Goods to their Gentry, Lands to their Goods, and those of the most honourable Tenure in Capite it self. What Richard the third said, no lesse spitefully then falsely, of the VVood­viles (Brethren to the Wife of his Brother King Edward the fourth, by whom they were advanced) that Many were made noble who formerly were not worth a Noble, was most true of some of the Norman Souldiery, suddenly [Page 153] starting up honourable from mean Originalls. These cruelly insulted over the Saxon ancient Gentry, whom they found in England. Thus on the new casting of a Die, when Ace is on the Top, Sise musts needs be at the Bot­tome.

The fifth;Many of the neighbour­ing Nations under the notion of Normans. Besides native Normans, many of the neighbouring Countries ingaged in England's Invasion. As Flemings, which Baldwin Earle of Flan­ders, and Father in law unto the Conquerour, sent to aide him: VValloons, with many from Picardy, Britain, Anjou, and the very Heart of France. Thus when a Fair of Honour and Profit is proclaimed, Chapmen will flock from all parts unto it. Some will wonder, that any would be such wilfull Losers, as to exchange France for England, a Garden for a Field. Was not this degrading of their Souls in point of Pleasure, going backward from VVine to Ale, from VVheat to Oates, then the generall Bread-corn of England? Besides, coming Northward they left the Sun on their Backs; the Sun, who is a comfortable Vsher to go before, but bad Train-bearer to come behind one. But let such know, that England in it self is an excellent Country (too good for the unthankfull people which live therein) and such Forreiners, who seemingly slight, secretly love, and like the Plenty and Profit thereof. But, grant England far short of France in Goodnesse, yet such Adventurers hoped to atchieve to themselves a better Condition in a worse Country. Many a younger Brother came over hither, in hope here to find an elder Brother­ship, and accordingly procured an Inheritance to him, and his Posterity. As for the great French Nobility, Store was no sore unto them: such Pluralists retained still their old Patrimonies in France, with the additions of their new Possessions in England.

The sixth;W-names Walloons. Names coming over with the Conquest, beginning with VV. were not out of France, but the Vicinage thereof. As the Britans disclaim X. the Latines Y. (save when the badge of a Greek word Latinized:) so the French disown VV. When we find it therefore the initiall letter of a Name (whereof many occur in the ensuing Catalogue) it argueth the same Walloon, or Al­main. Yea, I am credibly informed, that some of the English here, wearied with Harold's Usurpation, fled over into Normandy to fetch in the Con­querour; so that, when King William entred, they returned into England. And this particularly hath been avouched of the noble Family of the Wakes, who were here before the Conquest, yet found among the Norman Inva­ders.

The seventh; The twilight credit of Battel-Abbey Roll. Battel-Abbey Roll is the best extant Catalogue of Norman Gentry, if a true Copy thereof could be procured.

  • 1. Battel-Abbey Roll. Because hung up in that Abbey, as fixt to the Free­hold thereof, where the Names of such as came over with the Con­quest were recorded.
  • 2. Best extant. Otherwise Industry, with Honesty, Leisure, and Liberty to peruse Dooms-day-book, might collect one more perfect, out of im­partiall Records, which neither fear, nor flatter. Such a Cata­logue were to be believed on it's Word, before Battell Roll on it's Oath.
  • 3. Yet that Abbey Roll deserved Credit, if a true Copy might be procu­red. One asked, which was the best St. Augustine? To whom this An­swer was given (generally true of all ancient Authours) even that Au­gustine which is least corrected. For Corrections commonly are cor­ruptive, as following the Fancy and Humour of the Correctour.

Battel-Abbey Roll hath been practiced upon with all the Figures of Diction, Prothesis, Aphaeresis, &c. some names therein being augmented, subtracted, extended, contracted, lengthened, curtailed. The same Scruple therefore which troubleth Sophisters, Whether Jason's weather-beaten Ship, so often clouted and patched with new Boards, were the same numerically with the first; may [Page 154] be propounded of Battel-Abbey Roll, whether that extant with us, after so many Alterations, be individually the same with the Original? See what a deadly Gash our greatCamden in his Re­maines p. 152. Antiquary gives to the Credit thereof; VVhosoever considereth it well, shall find it to be forged, and those Names to be inserted, which the Time in every Age favoured, and were never mentioned in that Authenticall Record.

Obj. If such be the depraving of Battel-Abbey Roll, Obj. Then it is of no credit. then no Credit at all is due unto it. Let it be pilloried for a mere Cheat, and be suffered no longer to go about, to deceive the honest Reader thereof: seeing we cannot hear the true Tone of Names therein, Monks have so set them to the Tune of their present Benefactours, and Minions of the Age they lived in.

Ans. Though there be much Adulteration therein,Ans. How credit there­unto is to be cautioned. yet I conceive, the main Bulk and Body thereof uncorrupted. As they therefore overvalue this Roll, who make it the Grammer of French-Gentry, the Heraulds Institutes, and of Canonicall Credit amongst them: so such too much decry the same, who deny all trust thereunto. Yea, we may confidently relie on this Roll, where we find a Concurrence of ancient English Historians therewith: and this will appear in the generality of Names which that Roll presenteth unto us.

We find in our English Chroniclers two printed Copies (a Manuscript there­of worth mentioning, I have not met with) of Battel-Abbey Roll. Wherein such various Lections, they agree neither in Number, Order, nor Spelling of the Names; which, though generally digested in an Alphabeticall way, are neither of them exactly ordered according to the same. But behold both.

[Page 155]

Holinshead, pag. 3.Stow, pag. 105.
Coville pag. 4.Cursen
Denise & DruellDruel
DelaberDe la bere
DelapoleDe la pole
DelalindeDe la lind
DelahillDe la Hill
DelawareDe la ware
DelavacheDe la watch
DavongeDe la Vere
DuilbyDe liele
DelavereDe la ward
DelahoidDe la plance
DeleeDe Hewse

[Page 157]

Holinshead, pag. 4.Stow, pag. 105.
Fitz WaterFitzwatter
Fitz MarmadukeFitz-Marmaduke
Fitz RogerFitz-Robert
Fitz PhilipFitz-VVilliam
Fitz OtesFitz-Broun
Fitz VVilliamFoke
Fitz RoandFrevile
Fitz PainFaconbridge
Fitz AugerFrissel
Fitz AleynFilioll
Fitz KauffFitz-Thomas
Fitz BrownFitz-Morice
Front de BoefFaunvile
Fitz SimonFiner
Fitz FoukFitz-Vrey
Fitz ThomasFitz-Herbert
Fitz MoriceFitz-Iohn
Fitz Hugh31
Fitz Henry 

Holinshead, pag. 4.Stow, pag. 106.
Fitz VVaren 
Fitz Rainold 
Fitz Eustach 
Fitz Laurence 
Finere and 
Fitz Robert 
Fitz Geffrey 
Fitz Herbert 
Fitz Peres 
Fitz Rewes 
Fitz Fitz 
Fitz Iohn 
LemareLe Scrope
LogevileLislay, or Liele
LuseLe Vawse
LongevaleLe Dispenser
Poterell [...] 

[Page 160]

Holinshead, pag. 5.Stow, pag. 107.
ShevileSeint Quintine
SeucheusSeint Omer
SenclereSeint Amond
Sent QuintinSeint Leger
Sent OmereSovervile
Sent AmondSanford
Sent LegereSomery
SomervileSeint George
SiwardSeint Les
SanfordSeint Glo
SanctesSeint Albine
SavaySeint Barbe
SulesSeint More
SorellSeint Scudemore
Sent Iohn 
Sent George 
Sent Les 
Sent Albin 
Sent Martin 
Sent Barbe 
Sent Vile 
Sent Cheverol 
Sent More 
Sent Scudemore 
Tr [...]sbote 
The total summe of all in Ralph Holinshed, 629The total summe of all in Iohn Stow, 407

Besides this Roll of Battel Abbey, there is another extant, not (as this) Alphabe­tically modelled, (the work of some Monk well at Leisure) but loose, without any literal Order. An argument, in my opinion, of the more native Purity there­of, (lesse soiled with partiall Fingers) as not so much tampered with by Art and Industry. It is reputed by many to be the Muster-roll of such principal Souldiers, as embargued with Duke William at St. Valeries: and it is said that after the Fight ended; this List was called over, and all persons solemnly summoned, to an­swer to their Names therein; though many made no vous-avez, as either sick of their Wounds, or slain out-right amongst the six thousand and odd, which lost their Lives on the place. Were we assured hereof, we would preferre this before the former Roll, believing a French Muster-master, rather then any English Monk, (though the Abbot of Battel himself) as not so subject to the suspicion of Flattery herein. This Catalogue is taken out of Guilliam Tayleur a Norman Chronicler of good Credit: but the worst is, we want Tayleur's French Originall, and I fear it hath passed through some Botchers hands, before it came to us. For there be three Editions thereof in our English Historians, which (like the feet of a Badger) fall out of unequal Length, (if the Reader be pleased to measure them) so different the Number of names therein. However, because this Catalogue may conduce to the supplying of Defects, clearing of Doubts, and amending of Faults in that former, we here present the several Copies thereof.

[Page 162]

Fox, Acts & Mon. pag. 182.
  • Odo Bishop of Bayeux
  • Robert Count de Mor­taigne, Duke Wil­liam's half brethren
  • Baudwin de Buillon
  • Roger Count de Beau­mont, surnam'd with the bread
  • Guillaume Malet le sire de Monfort sur Rille
  • Guil. de Viexpont
  • Neel de S. Sauveur le Viconte
  • le sire de Fougiers
  • Henry Seigneur de Ferieres
  • le sire Daubemare
  • Guil. sire de Romare
  • le sire de Lithehare
  • le sire de Touque
  • le sire de la Mare
  • le sire de Neauhou
  • le sire de Pirou
  • Rob. sire de Beaufou
  • le sire Danou
  • le sire de Soteville
  • le sire de Margneville
  • le sire de Tancarville
  • Eustace Dambleville
  • le sire de Magneville
  • le sire de Grantmesnil
  • Guil. Crespin
  • le sire de S. Martin
  • Guil. de Moulins
  • le sire de Puis
  • Geoffray sire de May­enne
  • Auffroy de Bohon
  • Auffroy, & Maugier de Cartrait
  • Guil. de Garennes
  • Hue de Gournay, sire de Bray
  • le Conte Hue de Gour­nay
  • Euguemont de l' Aigle
  • le Viconte de Touars
  • Rich. Dawverenchin
  • le sire de Biars
  • le sire de Solligny
  • le Bouteiller Daubigny
  • [Page 163] le sire de Maire
  • le sire de Vitry
  • le sire de Lacy
  • le sire du val Dary
  • le sire de Tracy
  • Hue sire de Montfort
  • le sire de Piquegny
  • Hamon de Kayeu
  • le sire Despinay
  • le sire de Port
  • le sire de Torcy
  • le sire de Iort
  • le sire de Riviers
  • Guil. Moyonne
  • Raoul Tesson de Tingue­leiz
  • Roger Mar mion
  • Raoul de Guel
  • Avenel des Byars
  • Paennel du Monstier Hubert
  • Rob. Bertran le Tort pag. 183.
  • le sire de Seulle
  • le sire de Dorival
  • le sire de Breval
  • le sire de S. Iehan
  • le sire de Bris
  • le sire du Homme
  • le sire de Sauchoy
  • le sire de Cailly
  • le sire de Semilly
  • le sire de Tilly
  • le sire de Romelli
  • Mar de Basqueville
  • le sire de Preaulx
  • le sire de Gonis
  • le sire de Sainceaulx
  • le sire de Moulloy
  • le sire de Monceaulx
  • The Archers du val de Reul, and of Bre­theul, and of many other places.
  • le sire de S. Saen, i. de S. Sydonio
  • le sire de la Kiviere
  • le sire de Salnarville
  • le sire de Rony
  • Eude de Beaugieu
  • le sire de Oblie
  • le sire de Sacie
Holinshed, Chron. pag. 2.
  • Odo Bishop of Bayeulx
  • Robert Erle of Mor­taing
  • Roger Earle of Beau­mont, surnamed a la Barbe
  • Guillaume Mallet, seig. de Montfort
  • Henry seign. de Fer­rers
  • Guil. d' Aubellemare, seig. de Fougieres
  • Guil. de Roumare, seig. de Lithare
  • le seig. de Touque
  • le seig. de la Mare
  • Neel le Viconte
  • Guil. de Vepont
  • le seig. de Magneville
  • le seig. de Grosmenil
  • le seig. de S. Martin
  • le seig. de Puis
  • Guil. Crespin
  • Guil. de Moyenne
  • Guil. Desmoullins
  • Guil. Desgarennes
  • Hue de Gourney, aliàs Genevay
  • le seig. de Bray
  • le seig. de Govy
  • le seig. de Laigle
  • le seig. de Tovarts
  • le seig. de Aurenchin
  • le seig. de Vitrey
  • le seig. de Trassy, aliàs Tracy
  • le seig. de Picquigny
  • le seig. d' Espinay
  • Osmond seig. du Pont
  • le seig. de Estoutevile
  • le seig. de Torchy
  • le seig. de Barnabost
  • le seig. de Breval
  • le seig. de Seeulme
  • le seig. de Houme
  • le seig. de Souchoy
  • le seig. de Cally
  • le seig. de la Rivere
  • Euldes de Beavieu
  • le seig. de Roumilly
  • le seig. de Glotz
  • le seig. du Sap
  • [Page 163] le seig. de Vanville
  • le seig. Branchou
  • le seig. Balleul
  • le seig. de Beausault
  • le seig. de Telleres
  • le seig. de Senlys
  • le seig. de Bacqueville
  • le seig. de Preaulx
  • le seig. de Iovy
  • le seig. de Longue­ville
  • le seig. de Aquigny
  • le seig. de Passy
  • le seig. de Tournay
  • le seig. de Colombieres
  • le seig. de Bollebec
  • le seig. de Garensieres
  • le seig. de Longveile
  • le seig. de Houdetot
  • le seig. de Malletot
  • le seig. de la Haie Ma­lerbe
  • le seig. de Porch Pinche
  • le seig. de Ivetot
  • The Earle of Tanquer­vile
  • The Earle d' Eu
  • The Earle d' Arques pag. 3.
  • The Earle of Anjou
  • The Earle of Nevers
  • le seig. de Rouvile
  • le Prince de Ale­maigne
  • le seig. de Pavilly
  • le seig. de S. Cler
  • le seig. d' Espinay
  • le seig. de Bremetot
  • Alain Fergant Earle of Britaigne
  • le seig. de la Ferte
  • Rob. fils Hervays, Duc de Orleans
  • le seig. de la Lande
  • le seig. de Mortimer
  • le seig. de Clare
  • le seig. de Magny
  • le seig. de Fontnay
  • Roger de Montgomery
  • Amaury de Touars
  • le seig. de Hacquevile
  • le seig. de Neanshou
Stow, Chron. pag. 103.
  • Odo Bishop of Bayon
  • Robert Earle of Mor­taigne
  • Bandonni de Buillon
  • Roger E. of Beamont with the beard
  • Guilliam Mallet
  • Guil. Fitz Osberne
  • le sire de Montfort sus Rille
  • Guil. de Vielz pont
  • Neel de Saint Saveur le Vicont
  • le sire de Feugiers
  • Henry sire de Ferrers
  • le sire Dambemare
  • Guil. sire de Romare
  • le sire de Lichare
  • le sire de Tonque
  • le sire de la Mare
  • le sire de Nahabon
  • le sire de Piron
  • le sire de Beauson
  • le sire de Damnon
  • le sire de Soteville
  • le sire de Margneville
  • le sire de Tankerville
  • Eustace Dambleville
  • le sire de Magneville
  • le sire de Grimsville
  • Guil. Crespin
  • le sire de S. Martin pag. 104.
  • Guil. de Moulineus
  • le sire de Pins
  • Gieffray sire de May­enne
  • Affroy de Behaunt
  • Affroy & Mavigr. de Cartaict
  • Guil. de Garennes
  • Hue de Gournay, sire de le Bray
  • le Conte Hue de Dour­nay
  • Enguemount le Laigle
  • le Vicont de Tovars
  • Rich. Donnemchin
  • le sire de Biars
  • le sire de Salligny
  • le Boutellier Daube­gny
  • [Page 163] le sire de Marre
  • le sire de Victry
  • le sire de Lacy
  • le sire du vall Darie
  • le sire de Tracy
  • Hue sire de Montfort
  • le sire de Piqgny
  • Hamon de Brayen
  • le sire de Spinay
  • le sire de Port
  • le sire de Torchy
  • le sire de Iort
  • le sire de Rivers
  • Guil. Moyon
  • Raoul Tesson de Chignelois
  • Rogier Marmion
  • Raoul de Gael
  • Ave Neel de Biars
  • Parnel du Monstier
  • Bertram le Tort
  • Hubert Robert
  • le sire de Seukee
  • le sire de Dormal
  • le sire de Brenall
  • le sire de S. Iehan
  • le sire de Bois
  • le sire de Homme
  • le sire de Saussay
  • le sire de Cailly
  • le sire de Semilly
  • le sire de Tilly
  • le sire de Romely
  • Martell de Basquevill
  • le sire de Praux
  • le sire de Gonys
  • le sire de Sainteaulx
  • De Mullox
  • These Archers of the vale of Rueill, and of Bretviel, and of many other places.
  • le sire de S. Saen
  • le sire de la Rimer
  • le sire de Salnarnille
  • le sire de Tony
  • Eude de Beaugien
  • le sire de Ollie.

Fox, Acts & Mon. pag. 183.
  • le sire de Nassie
  • le Visquaius de Chaymes
  • le sire du Sap
  • le sire de Glos
  • le sire de Mine
  • le sire de Glanville
  • le sire de Brcencon
  • le Vidam de Partay
  • Raoul de Morimont
  • Pierre de Bailleul sire de Fiscamp
  • le sire de Beausault
  • le sire de Tillieres
  • le sire de Pacy
  • le Seneschal de Torcy
  • le sire de Gacy
  • le sire Doully
  • le sire de Sacy
  • le sire de Vacy
  • le sire de Tourneeur
  • le sire de Praeres
  • Guil. de Coulombieres
  • Hue sire de Bollcbec
  • Rich. sire Dorbec
  • le sire de Bonneboz
  • le sire de Tresgoz
  • le sire de Montfiquet
  • Hue le Bigot de Maletot
  • le sire de la Haye
  • le sire de Brecy
  • le sire de Mombray
  • le sire de Saye
  • le sire de la Ferte
  • Boutevillain
  • Trousseb [...]t
  • Guillaume Patric de la Laund
  • Hue de Mortomer
  • le sire Danvillers
  • le sire Donnebaut
  • le sire de S. Cler
  • Rob. le filz Herneys Duc d'Orleans
  • le sire de Harecourt
  • le sire de Crevecoeur
  • le sire de Deyncourt
  • le sire de Brimetot
  • le sire de Combray
  • le sire Daunay
  • le sire de Fontenay
  • le Conte Deureux
  • [Page 165] le sire de Rebelchil
  • Alain Fergant, Conte de Bretaigne
  • le sire de S. Vallery
  • le Conte Deu
  • Gaultier Giffard Conte de Longueville
  • le sire Destouteville
  • le Conte Thomas Daub­malle
  • Guil. Conte de Hoymes. & Darques
  • le sire de Bereville
  • le sire de Breante
  • le sire de Freanville
  • le sire de Pavilly
  • le sire de Clere
  • Toustan du Bec
  • le sire de Maugny
  • Roger de Montgome­ry
  • Amaury de Touars
Holinshed, Chron. pag. 2.
  • le seig. de Perou
  • Robert de Beaufou
  • le seig. Meauvon
  • le seig. de Sotevile
  • Eustace de Hamblevile
  • Geoffray Bournom
  • le seig. de Blainvile
  • le seig. de Maunevile
  • Geoffray de Moienne
  • Auffray, and Mauger de Carteny
  • le seig. de Freanvile
  • le seig. de Moubray
  • le seig. de Iafitay
  • Guil. Patais, seig. de la Lande
  • Eulde de Mortimer
  • Hue Earle of Gournay
  • Egremont de Laigle
  • Richard d' Aurinchin
  • le seig. de Bearts
  • le seig. de Soulligny
  • Bouteclier d' Aubigny
  • le seig. de Marcey
  • le seig. de Lachy
  • le seig. de Valdere
  • Eulde de Montfort
  • Henoyn de Cahieu
  • le seig. de Vimers
  • Guil. de Movion
  • Roul Tesson de Tig­nolles
  • Anguer and Earle of Her­court
  • Roger Marmion
  • Raoul de Gaiel
  • Avenel de Viers
  • Pauvel du Montier Hu­bert
  • Rob. Bertraule Tort
  • le seig. de Seulle
  • le seig. Dorival
  • le seig. de la Hay
  • le seig. de S. Iohn
  • le seig. de Saussy
  • le seig. de Brye
  • Richard Dollebec
  • le seig. du Monfiquet
  • le seig. de Bresey
  • le seig. de Semilly
  • le seig. de Tilly
  • le seig. de preaux
  • [Page 165] le seig. de Meuley
  • le seig. de Monceaux
  • The Archers of Bretvile
  • The Archers of Vau­drevile
  • le seig. de S. Sain
  • le seig. de Breansou
  • le seig. de Sassy
  • le seig. de Nassy
  • le Vidam de Chartres
  • le seig. de Ieanvile
  • le Vidam du Passais
  • Pierre du Bailleul seig. de Fescampe
  • le seneschal de Torchy
  • le seig. de Grissey
  • le seig. de Bassey
  • le seig. de Tourneur
  • Guil. de Colombieres
  • le seig. de Bonnebault
  • le seig. de Ennebault
  • le seig. de Danvillers
  • le seig. de Bervile
  • le seig. de Creveceur
  • le seig. de Breate
  • le seig de Coutray
  • The Earle of Eureux
  • le seig. de S. Valery
  • Thomas Earle d' Aumale
  • The Earle de Hiesmes
Stow, Chron. pag. 104.
  • le sire de Sacy
  • le sire de Vassie
  • le Bisquams de Chaymes
  • le sire de Sap
  • le sire Duglosse
  • le sire de Nime
  • le sire de Blamville
  • le sire de Brencon
  • le Vidam de Partenay
  • Roult de Mormont
  • Pierre de Bailleul
  • sire de Fescamp
  • le sire de Beaufault
  • le sire de Tillieres
  • le sire de Pacy
  • le Seneschall de Torchy
  • le sire de Gacy
  • le sire de Doully
  • le sire de Sancy
  • le sire de Bacy
  • le sire de Tourneur
  • le sire de Praores
  • Guilliam de Colom­bieres
  • Hue sire de Bollebec
  • Richard sire Dorbec
  • le sire de Donnebos
  • le sire de Troisgros
  • le sire Mont Fiquet
  • Hue le Vigot, aliàs Bigot de Maletot
  • le sire de la Haye
  • le sire de Bracy
  • le sire de Moubray
  • le sire de Say
  • le sire de Lasert
  • Bontevillam Tronse­bours
  • Guilliam Patris de la Laud
  • Hue de Mortimer
  • le sire Donviller
  • le sire Donnebant
  • le sire de S. Cler
  • Robert le Fitz Herneys Duke Dorlians
  • le sire de Harecourt
  • le sire Crevecure
  • le sire de Dancourt
  • le sire de Brunetot
  • le sire de Cambray
  • [Page 165] le sire Dauncy
  • le sire Fonteney
  • le Counte Deureux
  • le sire de Roberchil
  • Alan sergent Counte de Britaigne
  • le sire de sainct Walle­ry
  • le Counte Deden
  • Gualtar Guisart,
  • Counte de Longne­ville
  • le sire de Scouteville
  • le Counte Thomas Danbinale
  • Guil. de Hoimes, & Darques
  • le sire de Barrevile
  • le sire de Breante
  • le sire de Freanvile
  • le sire de Panilly
  • le sire de Clere
  • Tostamdubee
  • le sire de Mangny
  • Roger du Montgomery Comes
  • Almary de Tovaers

There is still another Catalogue, late in the possession of Thomas Scriven Esquire. I confesse, Quantus Author, tanta fides, and the Gentleman, long since dead, being generally unknown, some will question the Authority thereof. But know he was a good Promus-condus of ancient Records. Condus, in keep­ing them faithfully himself; and Promus, in imparting them freely to others. This his Catalogue is exemplified by Iohn Stow in his Chronicle. Of whom though a Cambridge Comedian was pleased pleasantly to say, that Mendacio now and then jogg'd on the Elbow; yet indeed he deservethCamden in Middle­sex. Camden's commendation of a famous Chronicler, lacking Learning rather then Truth, seldome omitting what is, sometimes recording what is not observeable. But see theStow Chron. pag. 107. Catalogue.

  • Achard
  • Averenges
  • Aielard
  • Alard
  • Aubeney
  • Avenel
  • Asprevil
  • Audeny
  • Ak [...]in
  • Arcy
  • Amile
  • Aunmidvile
  • Abbevile
  • Andvile
  • Albemarke
  • Aubrey
  • Archer
  • Bastarde
  • Baignard
  • Barvile
  • Brassard
  • Berad
  • Boygnard
  • Barkarvile
  • Bares
  • Basset
  • Bars
  • Belet
  • Beil
  • Breit
  • Boneit
  • Bluet
  • Brachet
  • Buket
  • Biset
  • Blundet
  • Burdet
  • Blete.
  • Barry
  • B [...]rri
  • Bracy
  • Brenenile
  • Bounttuile
  • Butenile
  • Beamchampe
  • Burnel
  • Bussel
  • Bele [...]ce
  • Bonere
  • Bodler
  • Botiler
  • Bogod
  • Burle
  • Baul
  • Brenbe
  • Brus
  • Butelem
  • Bricourt
  • Brian
  • Boch
  • Bozim
  • Bion
  • Bailoil
  • Brocheris
  • Bardulfe
  • Bancan
  • Bussey
  • Beamvis
  • Bleis
  • Baventre
  • Camule
  • Carenile
  • Cardevile
  • Condrey
  • Cursey
  • Caution
  • Caily
  • Corbet
  • Clare
  • Curtais
  • Curthose
  • Chamlin
  • Costentin
  • Comthense
  • Cozmit
  • Chalenges
  • Chastlem
  • Courtueis
  • Chawers
  • [Page 166] Curty
  • Conun
  • Crioile
  • Charles
  • Chen
  • Chaucer
  • Chandos
  • Cunly
  • Curly
  • Crely
  • Colcuile
  • Cabot
  • Charnel
  • Chamel
  • Charel
  • Cheinie
  • Darcy
  • Dunstervile
  • Douchampe
  • Despenser
  • Duredent
  • Drivall
  • Duket
  • Dreward
  • Delamare
  • Drunall
  • Dela
  • Deincourt
  • Eurous
  • Estotkirke
  • Faberburt
  • Fossard
  • Fresel
  • Frevile
  • Fressenile
  • Folenile
  • Firmunde
  • Fizgessray
  • Firpers
  • Fitzwaters
  • Feskampe
  • Fizhu
  • Fizurs
  • Ferrer
  • Fornitall
  • Fineit
  • Fitzbrian
  • Frison
  • Ferers
  • Fohamble
  • Frignes
  • Fitzgariz
  • Formentin
  • Gangy
  • Greminle
  • Gieunile
  • Gornumile
  • Gemule
  • Gerard
  • Giffard
  • Gondrel
  • Gorger
  • Goner
  • Gigod
  • Gaibit
  • Giptot
  • Garin
  • Gunter
  • Gras
  • Grauntson
  • Gournay
  • Greis
  • Gamage
  • Gautere
  • Gorge
  • Hainule
  • Hantvile
  • Humchampe
  • Herebrace
  • Henile
  • Herenile
  • Havel
  • Hachet
  • Haket
  • Harvy
  • Hanesy
  • Hersy
  • Hai
  • Hasard
  • Hausard
  • Hasser
  • Hubert
  • Hamelin
  • Harecurte
  • Hus
  • Hense
  • Iardin
  • Kemes
  • Keines
  • Kusac
  • Kosin
  • Kamais
  • Laci
  • Liar
  • Lunecy
  • Luret
  • Lucy
  • Lidet
  • Linguenile
  • Levener
  • Licot
  • Lonecot
  • Lovell
  • Lescei
  • Lambert
  • Lenn
  • Limare
  • Lisle
  • La.
  • Maignard
  • Maureward
  • Mountford
  • Mountague
  • Mountbray
  • Maundevile
  • Mortmer
  • Mansel
  • Maschy
  • Mungomer
  • Morvile
  • Meisy
  • Munty
  • Mounteni
  • Mulet
  • Mumfitchet
  • Martell
  • Morell
  • Musard
  • Maleit
  • Milere
  • Molevorer
  • Manturners
  • Moreiis
  • Muelent
  • Meigne
  • Menul
  • Manne
  • Maceis
  • Mabuom
  • Mortem
  • Mansey
  • Maresthall
  • Morley
  • Martinas
  • Murdacke
  • Metun
  • Mameisin
  • Morin
  • Mire
  • Morim
  • Neemarch
  • Nepunt
  • Orniall
  • Osevile
  • Orware
  • Passemer
  • Passenaunt
  • Picot
  • Poorvanger
  • Pers
  • Purcel
  • Pichard
  • Pypard
  • Pamel
  • Panel
  • Piterel
  • Penerel
  • Pleisy
  • Paveli
  • Pilet
  • Parly
  • Palet
  • Piket
  • Percy
  • Punchet
  • Pachet
  • Punis
  • Pandulfe
  • Pulem
  • Penir
  • Penne
  • Phanecourt
  • Pales
  • Prouz
  • Pirim
  • Peisim
  • Parteben
  • Punifrait.
  • Quinsi
  • Quatramart
  • Russel
  • Rydel
  • Roter
  • Rochell
  • Rooz
  • Richmount
  • Semtenile
  • Somery
  • Say
  • Suneli
  • Sorel
  • Seteplace
  • Spivenile
  • Saundernile
  • Sonule
  • Soler
  • Sourrile
  • Stutenile
  • Soleny
  • Spigurnel
  • Seintbrenel
  • Soylard
  • Swywar
  • Saucer
  • Sausaver
  • Seniler
  • Saintcler
  • Senittomer
  • Seintleger
  • Saundenal
  • Savage
  • Seintion
  • Saint-mareis
  • Saucei
  • Sal
  • Seignes
  • Seintlis
  • Seintmoris
  • Seintgorge
  • Seintiore
  • Seint-quintin
  • Seintmore
  • Sauntzire
  • Saintchy
  • Setuans
  • Seinte-royiz
  • Seinteleme
  • Toret