THE ESCURIAL, Or, a DESCRIPTION of that VVonder of the vvorld FOR ARCHITECTURE and MAGNIFICENCE of STRƲCTƲRE: Built by K. PHILIP THE IID of Spain, and lately Consumed by Fire.

VVritten in Spanish by Francisco de los Santos, a Frier of the Order of S. Hierome, and an Inhabitant there

Translated into English by a Servant of the Earl of Sandwich in his Extraordinary Em­bassie thither.

London, Printed for T. Collins and J. Ford, at the Middle-Temple-Gate in Fleet-street, 1671.


IT being the usual Fate of the greatest Works, as well as of the most emi­nent Persons, to be then most desired and talked of, when the world is deprived of them; and the generality of the most curious sort of Mankind loving even to tread upon that Ground which hath been most famous for any sort of renowned Anti­quity; I make no question, but though (by this Lamentable Accident of Fire, which of (late hath happened in Spain) the most Magnificent and August Pile of Building on the face of the Earth hath heen ruined and destroyed; yet that most that ever heard of it, by this sad occasion, will talk more of it than ever before; and [Page]many perchance as shall have opportunity of travelling into those Parts, will view with no less astonishment, the Ruines of this Royal House, than they would with curiosity survey the Place where old Rome or the famous ancient Carthage stood. Judging therefore, that most of those who never had opportunity of seeing this so re­nowned Fabrick, may have some sort of liking to hear a Description of it: 'Tis part­ly to satisfie them, and partly to gratifie some Friends that have desired it of me, I have translated and taken out of a good Spanish Author as yet alive, and well known to the right Honourable the Earl of Sandwich, in his late Embassie Extra­ordinary to the Present King Charles the Second (which his Lordshhip executed with so much Honour, Industry and Success) this brief ensuing Description: the which, being not so sufficiently full as to contain divers things, which are not unworthy of [Page]our knowledge, I have thought good to pre­mise some few Particulars in this Epistle; as First, Touching the Name of this Extraordinary Edifice. 2. Who it was that founded it. And 3. What moved the Founder, or gave him occasion to erect Royal Fabrick. As to the first; Though this Stately House it self be called the Escurial, yet the true Name of it is the Royal Monastery of S. Lawrence, near the Escorial: For the Escorial, or Escu­rial, as it is commonly called, is a little Village close by it, which is said to take its Name a scoria ferri, from iron dross; here having been in ancient time great store of Iron-works in this place. The Founder of it was Philip the Second; who for the ensuing Reasons, first built and dedicated it unto S. Lawrence, his own great Saint, Famous for his Martyrdom upon a Grid­iron in Spain; in fashion of which, this House is made; and then gave it to the [Page] Jeronymites, or Friers of the Order of S. Hierome. The reason of the first, was because on this Saints Day, being the tenth of August, he obtain'd at the great Battel of S. Quintins, a memorable Vi­ctory against the French; and there made his Vow to erect this House in ho­nour of him. The chief inducement to bestow it on the Hieronymites or Friers of the Order of S. Hierome, rather than any other, was for his Father Charles the Fifth's sake, who had a peculiar Affecti­on to that Order, and made his Retire­ment (when he had Surrendred the Em­pire to his Brother Ferdinand, and the Crown of Spain to his Son) into a Mo­nastery of theirs, called the Monastery of San Geronimo de Juste; where he like­wise ended his Dayes in the Year 1558. How the Dismal Fire (that as 'tis said, hath totally destroyed this Royal and Mag­nificent Palace, Convent & Colledge (for [Page]such you will find it to be in the following Discourse) first began, is something un­certain, though it is generally believed it proceeded from a Rocket, or such like piece of Fire work, which on a night of some great Solemnity (for then they common­ly use them) did accidentally fall amongst the Wood-work on the top of the Roof of the House, which most of it being Pine, doth quickly take, and is exceeding com­bustible; but the beginnings of such Misfor­tunes are for the most part obscure, though the sad Effects have too much light in them, as by woful Experience we have seen in the Dreadful Fire of our own Me­tropolis. How considerable a loss this fa­mous piece of Architecture is, let any man judge by the Subsequent Descripti­on.

The Escurial; OR, A Description of the Wonder of the world for Architecture and Magnificence of Structure, Built by King Philip the Se­cond of Spain; and lately Consumed by Fire.

ALthough in a former Discourse we have parti­cularly shewed the principal parts of this pro­digious Piece of Architecture, and the Orna­mentals belonging to it; having used the terms of Art, for the sake of those that are understand­ing of it; and recounted all things as in reality they are, with all clearness possible, with that disposition, distribution and measure which they bear; yet notwith­standing all this, there are some persons which love not such tedious Discourses; and especially in things of this nature, which although they are pleasant in the seeing, yet they are troublesome in the reading: large Descrip­tions of them, by reason of the obscurity of the terms, which in such grand Fabricks repeated so often, always difficult, and ordinarily strange, that even I my self am weary to write them, although I am never satisfied with seeing this great Wonder, that occasions me to make use of them: There are others, that at once desire [Page 2]to know the greatness and distinct parts of it, and with this rest satisfied, being of opinion, that the goodness and rarity of it lies in the quantity and extent, ra­ther than in the quality or worth; and the largeness of it is more pleasing to them, than its excellency, which they understand not: Or if they do understand it, they desire to know whether there be much of that kind which most pleases their Fancies; at coming to see this Convent, encountring so many beautiful Cloisters, they desire to know the number of them; they mind the beautiful disposition of the Lights; they are very attentive on the Pictures and Statues; they have an infi­nite desire to know the number of them all; and the great noise that that makes, pleaseth them most, and fills them with admiration; neither is this any ill humor where every thing is so good as here it is. For this rea­son I have resolv'd, in this Discourse to satisfie those that are of this temper, reducing to an exact number as near as I can, the parts of this Noble Fabrick; not only those mentioned in my former Description, but like­wise such as were passed over in silence, or were but in general mentioned, being not of principal Concern, al­though every thing is worth taking notice of; and gi­ving likewise a brief account of the Ornaments and Furniture; together with which, making a summary Rehearsal of what hath been said before, for rubbing up the memories of such Artists that shall read it; and for the delight of those that are not so; to whom though they read it never so often, the Terms of Archi­tecture are as difficult as Arabick. I promise to be most faithful in this, as I have been in all the rest; for it would be an infinite wrong to this Noble Edifice, not to relate whatsoever it contains; or to think that it stands in need of any Additions to heighten its great­ness; [Page 3]no less than it would be to my own Profession not to speak the Truth. It stands as a living Testimo­ny, and will for many Ages (here the Frier was no true Prophet) by which any man that shall doubt, may confirm himself in the truth of the things we here re­late; and may in part see it in the very Print of the same. Passing by therefore (that which I have rela­ted in the beginning of my former Description) the Motives which the most Catholick King Philip the Se­cond had to build this wonderful Structure, and dedicate it to the Invincible Martyr of Spain, S. Law­rence, his Protector, and Saint or Devoto; and to give it to the Order of S. Hierom; passing by likewise the Election of the Situation of it, in the Kingdom of To­ledo, seven Leagues distant from Madrid Westward; the Platform of it, a large and vast Square; the sides of which contain 2980 feet; and the Majestick inclosure of the Noble Places and Gardens which compass it a­bout, and the Materials of which it is built, which is a white kind of Stone, with darkish gray spots in it, which beautifie it much; although in many parts of it there is Marble and Jasper in abundance, and other Stones of most perspicuous politeness; as also the form of the Fabrick, which is all the good Orders of Archite­cture, Tuscan, Dorick, Ionick, Corinthian, and Composite. Though indeed the most of it is Dorick and Ionick; and passing also the four principal Fachadas or Sides, and the three stately Gates which it hath on the West side.

I proceed to tell you that within this large Quadran­gle,Cloysters. there are contained 13 Cloysters, of most Beauti­ful Architecture, and of great extent; all which, ex­cept one, on the Backside of the great Chappel, and other two within the principal Cloyster of the Palace, [Page 4]may be counted from the Draught or Print of the House, viz. 5 on the South, & 5 on the North, which, with other 2, without the Quadrangle, make in all 15: the most of them of three Orders of Arches and Walks, others of 2, and others of 1. In which are to be seen so many Win­dows as amount to more than 680.

Courts 9.Besides which, there are 9 Courts, amongst which, the Portico, or that which you first enter into, is the most Royal and Stately one in Europe.

The Turrets which are raised upon the Corners of this Square,Tmrrets. and on the Crossings of the Cloysters, and on the Church, which may obliterate the memory of the ancient Pyramids, so celebrated by Antiquity, are in number 9. Amongst which, is reckoned that fa­mous Cupula or Turret on the Church, 315 foot high from the Ground. The Globes or Balls that are placed on the top of them, upon which the Fanes move, all of Gilt Metal, are of 5 foot diameter; and that on the top of the Church of seven foot, insomuch that a man of good Stature, may stand upright in it with both Arms extended out.

Windows & Doors.The Windows which are seen on the outside, before you enter the house, are 1110; distributed with much U­niformity & Order; many of them with whole Balconies, others with Breast high all of Iron, and well Glazed, which gives a great Lustre and Majesty to the Fabrick. Those which are to be seen within in the great Court or Portico, Cloysters, Courts, Towers, and other places, even ro the top of the House, are 1578. So that the whole number of them doth come unto 2688. with the Shuts of them, of a pleasing green colour, both for the preservation of them, and Beauty of the Edifice. If to these we add the Windows of the Out-Offices, they amount unto few less than 4000. The Doors reckoned after the same manner, are in number 8000. The outward Gates in the four sides of the House are [Page 5]16, entring through any of which, you seem to come into a Labyrinth; especially in the Palace, where by the multiplicity of them, the Multiplicity of them, the cunningest man alive may easily lose himself.

The Zaquanes or Portals at the entrance of the princi­cipal Gates, & some others at the entrance of the noble Apartments are 14, all of very considerable Archite­cture.

The Fountains in the Center of the Cloysters and Courts, for the refreshment of the whole House, the water of which is carried through the vast extent of it, together with those in the Church, Gardens, Offices, and all places where there is occasion for them, come to about fourscore and six; together with eleven Cisterns; that it is a doubt whether Madrid it self,Stairs. though very plentifully watered, hath so many or not.

The several Stairs to go up and down, and to pass to and again in the Cloysters and other Apartments, are about 80. amongst which, there are some of admi­rable Invention, and very many of a great number of Steps, very pleasant and easie to ascend.

The Galleries, Halls, Chambers, Cells, Offices, & other Apartments, are so many, that it seems impossi­ble to count them; however, I shall do my endeavour to give a sufficient accompt of them, reckoning for the easier proceeding by the difference of Habi­tations in this Fabrick, viz. it contains one Convent, two Colledges, the one of Religious, the other of Seculars, and the Palace Royal. All which are so ca­pacious, and so well furnished within themselves, both of common and particular Rooms, that the several sorts of Inhabitants, though very numerous, find ex­cellent accommodation in them.

The King with his whole House, the Queen, and all the Royal Family in the Palace; and yet it is known that the Train which they ordinarily bring with [Page 6]them gives care enough to the most populous Cities to entertain them.

There are about 150 Religious in the Convent, 50 more in the Colledge, and as many more Seculars in the Seminary, either Graduates or under Graduates, from whence may be inferr'd what Chambers, Lodgings, Cells, &c. are required for so great a number of inha­bitants, but there are moreover and above in the Pa­lace, besides the Rooms of State for the Noble men and Ladies, in the Kings, Queens, and Infanta's apartments, eight Galleries,Galleries in the Pa­lace 8. besides lodging rooms.

In the Convent and Colledges, there are likewise large stately Roomes of this kind, but differenced by their names, occasioned either from business done in them, or things that are there laid up. There are three Capitulos or Chapter houses, three Libraries, five great Halls,In the con­vent and Colledge. six Dormitories, three Halls in the Hos­pital, and four others which serve for divers offices; all very large and equall as it were for length and breadth. The which with divers others for walks and entertain­ments make in all thirty.

The Oratories and Chappels which are (without the principal Church) distributed through these several ha­bitations,Oratories. counting with them that of the old Church and that of the offices of the palace, are seven of excel­lent Symmetry and Elegance.

The Refectories or Eating places in the Convent, Colledge, Seminaries, &c. are in all nine, very large and neat.Refecto­ries 9. Infirme­rias.

The Infirmerias or places to receive the Sick, are in all five, with great variety of Chambers in them, pla­ced with such respect to their Chappels, that the Sick may hear Mass as they lye in their beds.

The Botica, or Apothecaries apartment hath five or six admirable rooms, besides others, which make of it a large house.

The Hospedarias or places for entertainment of Strangers are two,Hosped. the one is within the house with large dining rooms, and decent Chambers for enter­tainment of Strangers, the which are attended by young Youths that are Students; the other is without, with all manner likewise of accommodation.

The Kitchins of the Palace Convent and Colledges are in all nine,Cocin. and as many houses of Office.

The Rooms which are under the house,Cellars. by whose strong Arches the whole is sustained, are above forty, large and lightsome, and of very beautiful Architecture, and that serve for many offices, as the Caterers, Plate-keepers, &c. There are others likewise for distributi­on of the Fountain Pipes, which are divided up and down in these Cellars, where there are likewise eleven Cisterns, the least of which holds 10000 quarts of Water.

The Lofts and little rooms on the house top all co­vered with Slat,Lofts. and joyn'd in form of a Grid Iron.

All these parts are included in this prodigious build­ing,Church. besides the Church and Sacristia, or Repository of Reliques and Sacredotal Vestments, where there are many more of great extent and amplitude. For the Church which is in length 374 feet, and 230 in breadth, includes the great Chappel, the Quire, the under Quire, divers other Chappels, the Antiquires, and fortyeight Altars and other pieces, which of themselves alone are sufficient objects of admiration.

It hath seven extraordinary great and beautiful Isles, in the top of which are seen twenty six Arches, and o­ver them large empty spaces, in like manner, as there is under the Floor of it.

The Sacristia being very large and capacious, con­sists of eight stately rooms, besides divers others very considerable and great,Sacristia. for the us of those that mini­ster about them, which are indeed but all requisite for this wonder of the World.

These are the parts so far as I can reckon them of this miraculous Fabrick; the whole Machine contains these Rooms and apartments in it, and to tell in one word the Multitude, and High grandure of them, if one would go through all of them, and the whole space contain'd in the House and Offices belonging to it, it would take up four whole days to doe it, it being a journey of thirty three measured leagues, or ninety nine miles, so vast and large is this curious piece. I come now to the number of the Ornaments of Furni­ture, which exceedingly beautifies and enriches this stately Edifice.

I fay therefore that the statues which are in it which may well compare for beauty and Grandure with the most celebrated Colossus's,Statues. of the Ancients are in all fifty and one, thirteen of Stone, and thirty eight of mettal, richly guilt, and almost all of them much bigger then the life, some of them two or three times bigger, which give an exceeding great Majesty to the Frontispiece, the Portico or first great Court, the Church and principal Cloyster, into which they are distribu­ted, the names of the Masters which wrought them are down in the annexed Catalogue.

Other less pieces, as Crucifixes, Pictures of St. Je­rome of St. John Baptist, and likewise of our Lady, which are placed in divers Cells, and other parts of the House of inestimable Sculpture (without taking notice now of those in the Church) doe amount unto fifty, wrought on divers materials, even to Porphery it self.

Pictures in Oyl co­lours and Fresco.The Pictures in Oyle colours and in Fresco which ennoble and give a kind of awfull Majesty to the se­veral places before mentioned, are very many, I shall give you the summ of those that are of greatest worth and value, they are in General 1622 Pictures of the life and History, all in oyle colours, distributed up and down the whole house; and although they be not all of them of the rarest and greatest value, yet there is not one of them which is not very well worth our ad­miration. I reckon not at all of the more ordinary sort which serve onely to cover the walls. The greater part of them are originalls, and many of them of the most famous and celebrated Masters, as of Masacio, Rafaell, Sancio, Ʋrbino, Leonardo de vinci, Titian, Masters. Bordo­nan Sebastian del piombo, Andreas del Sarto, Paulo Vero­nese, and Carolos Veronese, his Son, Jacobo Robusto or Tintoretto, Basan, Geronimo Muciano, Parmesano, An­tonio Acorego or Corregio. Federico Barrosi, Peregrin, Guido Bolonese, Vandike, Ruben, Joseph de Ribera or Span­nolette, Juan Fernandes Mudo, Luqueto, Bosco, Albert Du­ter, Michael Cusin, Dominico Greco, Lavinia Fontana, Romulo, Bartolomeos Carducho, and many other excellent hands which have made themselves famous in Hi­story.

There are other Originals of Authors less known, or whose names are altogether unknown, most of them ve­ry good, many excellent well, insomuch that they give occasion to enquire of the Masters of them, whose names it is great pity that they are not known.

There are others which are Copies of great pieces of the aforementioned Masters, & also of Michael Angelo of very great value, which those that are understand­ing or them, say, there is no want of Originals where those are placed.

There are others that are Pictures of Popes and Kings, and persons famous in all faculties and learning, in number 256.

There are other pieces of Landskip, Fruitery, &c. al­most innumerable, which give a great deal of beauti­ful and pleasant variety. It may suffice to tell you that there is not a Cell, a Chamber, an ordinary Room, in which there is not found of these delightful sorts of Ornaments, out of Italy, Germany, France, Flanders, and many which were done in Spain incomparably well.

As to the Paint in Fresco, or upon the bare walls, there is very much of it, and of the best in Europe of this sort of Paint. There are 12 great pieces in the house, besides Histories 134. so large and great, that they include in them divers others. The Painting of the Clory of the Quire, and of the Principal Cloy­ster of the Library, contains at least 250, The work­manship of Peregrin de Peregrini, Lucas Cauxioso or Lu­queto, Granelo and Fabricio, Sons of Bergamasco, Francis­co Ʋrbina, Romulo, Caravajali, and Barroso. There are 14 apartments, the Floors of which seem to be as it were painted with the variety of white and coloured Marble, of most splendid and curious work, as is to be seen in the principal Cloyster, both below and a­bove stairs, in the Capitulos or Chapter-houses, in the Priors Cell, in the Library, in the Church, in the Quire, and Antequire, in the Sacristia, in the great Chappel, the first and second Table within the Rejas or Grates, which are of divers the purest Jaspers, and in the Ora­tories of the Kings which all appear like Christall, but with a thousand varieties of colour. There are other Ornaments of Furniture which very much beautifie and ennoble the several Apartments, as the Stations for [Page 11]books, the books themselves, the Escritoios or Accom­modations for writing, Tables, and such like things as well in the Library as in the great rooms of the pa­lace, and the Fryers Cells, all very well worth the taking notice of.

The Stands for the Books in the Grand Library are made of seven several sorts of wood in-laid,Library. of the Indies and of Spain, viz. the Caoba, Acana, Ebony, Ce­dar, Orange, Pine and Wall-Nut-Tree. Those of the o­ther Libraries, although they are not all out so rich, yet are exceeding handsome.

In the divisions that are made for the books,Books. there are 18000 Volumes, of all Subjects, nobly bound and guilt alike, insomuch that the Libraries appear both Rich and Beautiful. In the Principal Library are kept as Reliques of great esteem, eight Manuscripts of Saints, and another in which the Gospel was written in Let­ters of Gold, in the time of the Emperour Conradus. As likewise divers other works of great Veneration, many of them Original Mannscripts if not all, for so they be for their great antiquity.

Three or four several sorte of Paper used by several Nations in the very infancy of Writing. Besides those Books we have already recounted, there are in the Fry­ers Cells and other places a very great number which were left by Phillip II. or bought since, in all sixteen thousand, insomuch, that reckoning these, together with those of the Libraries, they come unto thir­ty four thousand in the whole house, amongst which there are to be found the best sort of Writers both An­cient and Modern.

In the Church there are five noble Grates of Brass,Grates i [...] the C [...]. in the doors of it, and thirty seven divisions of Balco­nies, Corredores and Niches distributed through the [Page 12]extent of the walks, and in other parts; all with Bal­lausters, Globes, or Crosses of Brass, and exceeding beautiful on the outside,

There is likewise another sort of Ornaments and Ri­ches to be admired, which would weary one to count, which surprise the sight, and move to devotion and reverence,Altars. astonishing and elevating the affections of those that see them; There are 48 Altars, and as ma­ny fair pieces of Imagery, very uniform, and covered with Gold, placed in their Chappels and Niches, with Pictures of exceeding worth reckoned in the number of those we before mentioned.

The High Altar is as Chieftain to all the rest, 93 feet in height,High Al­tar. and forty nine in breadth, which fills all that Grand Chappel which it stands in with the lustre, of the Jaspers and Metall covered with Gold, with 4 Orders of Pillars, which make in all 18. in which is to be seen the excellency of Architecture, in the Do­rick, Ionick, Corinthian and Composite Orders, with fif­teen Statues of extraordinary greatness, all of Mettal laid over with Gold, the work of Pompeo Leoni, and other 13 little ones in the Custodia, or the place where the consecrated Host is kept, which with some others intombed on the sides, makes the whole number in this great Chappel to amount unto thirty eight, besides eight Noble pieces of Peregrin, and Federico Zucaro. The Stupendious work of the Custodia done by Jacobo Trezo, all of it of the most pretious Stones of Spain, and Met­tals guilt, with eight Pillars work'd and polished with Diamonds, the nobleness of the material, being a bloud coloured Jasper, admitting of no other instrument or tool to touch it. Every one of these Pillars cost ten thousand Ducats, and in all fourscore thousand. But the most pretious Jewel of all, is, the lesser Custodia, [Page 13]within the other. The doors of the Sagrario, or Sanctum Sanctorum, are of the finest Jasper, and brightest Brass, and the place it self a most Heavenly piece. The two Royal Escutcheons which are on the sides of the Chap­pel, over the Kings Tombs, are all of Jasper, very rich and pretious, with very significant devises. The 40 Altars which are dispersed up and down the Body of the Church, besides divers others, have several changes of Frontalls or Ornamental Coverings, for every day if need require, and for the several Festivals and Holy­days there are several suits of Attirements uniform in co­lour and fashion, and for this purpose they are kept, some in the Sacristia, and others in Chests neer unto the Altars.

The high Altar, and the two Altars called the Altars de Reliquias or Reliques, are richest in this sort. Eve­ry one of them having fifty several changes of excee­ding great worth, of the richest Brocados and wrought Silks. The Candlesticks which admirably grace all the Altars, are in number 250, some of Brass gilded, others of Silver, and others of Christal. Besides which every Altar hath one of a great number of branches, which are lighted immediately before the Consecration at Mass, they are in all 40.

The Crosses which are placed upon these Altars, with their Crucifixes of Brass and Silver are in number one hundred, and that which is the Grandure of all these Altars, is, that they are all consecrated, insomuch that all the Tables of them are Altars, and every one of them hath placed within it a Box of Reliques, of the same Saint to whom the Altar is Dedicated.

To denote that the whole Church is consecrated, there are twelve Crosses set up in several places of it, where the Unction was made at Consecration, one of which is of the most beautiful Jasper, upon a White [Page 14]Marble, which is a great Ornament unto it. There ate six mighty Lamps all of Silver, hung up in the large Isles of the Church, of most curious work, which give Light unto them all; and in the principal Isle are pla­ced fourteen great Stands for Wax-Torches, of a Metal Silver'd over, of great Magnificence and Lustre. When all these are lighted together with the Candles upon the Altars, and Luminaries placed in all the more emi­nent parts of the Church, as they use to do at the first Reception of Kings and Queens, and other Solemn Oc­casions and Festivals, it looks like a very Heaven upon Earth.

The Organs throughout the whole Church are in number 8;Organs. which both beautifie it with their out­ward Lustre, the Lofts being all gilt; and enliven it with their Divine Melody. There is one all of Silver, extraordinary rich, which is plaid upon every Corpus Christi Day.

The Bells of the Towers are in all 59. forty of which are in very tunable Chimes,Bells. and have their Keys like Organs, which makes a pleasant Musick to play up­on them.

The Reliques which arc kept in the several Relicarios, Reliques. or Places appointed for them, which are very Majestick and August, are so many, that even from our Saviour, and the Blessed Virgin, there are Reliques of all the Saints celebrated in the Church, except S. Joseph, and S. John the Evangelist; yea, there are even to the ve­ry Prophets before the coming of Christ into the world, the Boxes and Vessels in which with great veneration they are kept in number 515, some of Gold, some of Silver, some of Chrystal, and other Precious Stones.

For Singing of Divine Praises in the Quire, the pro­per work of the Sons of S. Hierom, in imitation of the [Page 15]most Noble Angelical Spirits, there are 216 Books, in their proper Stands, placed in the Anti-Quire, of ad­mirable proportion and beauty: It is the best sort of Library for this Service, that hath been seen either in Spain, or any other place; the Stations for the Books are of the same Wood as the Seats of the Quire; and those of the several richest sorts like them we before mentioned in the principal Library. The number of the Seats is 128. in a double Row: The Divine Ser­vice which is here celebrated, is more ravishing than whatever is to be seen in the House. The Facistor or great Desk on which some Books are placed, is of all the rarest sorts of Wood, and of Brass gilded, sup­ported by four Pedestals of the same Metal, very ad­mirable, stately and beautiful, and in this kind, the ve­ry best in the World.

The Ornaments and Riches which are in the Sacri­stia or Vestry,Ornam. in the Sacret­ta. in order to Divine Service, are ve­ry numerons, kept in forty Divisions of Chests and Drawers of the same Wood, as is afore-mentioned in the Quire, the bottoms of which are all of them Ce­dar for the incorruptibility of it.

The Brocado-Vestments, and others of Silk, and Cloath of Gold and Silver,Brocado-Vestments are 213. of all varieties of Colours.

The Casulla's, Casullas. or Vestments for the Priests to say Mass in, belonging to all the Altars, are above twelve hundred; the Dalmaticks to be for the same use, are one hundred: And when we mention here all the Al­tars, we mean, not only those of the Church, but also all the rest generally through the House, which are in number 70.

The Mangas worn in representation of our Saviours Bonds, and used in Processions,Mangas. are seven and twenty. [Page 16]The sine Linnen employed in Divine Services for Sur­plices, Roquets, Altar-Cloaths, Towels, &c. though exceeding much, yet is never more than what is spent on necessity for Sacred Uses; and still in plain truth, there is not so rich and plentiful a Furniture to be found in any other place besides this in the world.

The Utensils and pieces of Gold, employed on the same occasions,Ʋtensils for the Ce­lebration of Divine Service. are not many, but of the richest, and most costly sort in Spain, as a Chalice, a Custodia, a Brest-plate for the Prior, which he wears when he cele­brates the Mass; and two others of great worth. Of Silver there is a great Service, yet nothing but what there is occasion for: Besides the Crosses and Candle­sticks before mentioned, there are fourscore Chalices, 2 Custodia's, 8 Incensrio's, or Utensils to burn Incense in; several Fountains, perfuming Pans, and the like; in all 24. The chief or the Grandeur of which, consists in the Rarity of the Workmanship or Fashion. Besides, there are four great Cereales or Torch-bearers which are used on the chief Holidays, and other four, which are used at the Celebration of the Hours, or Comme­ration of the Kings and Queens; there are 24 which the Students in the Seminary carry in Procession on Corpus Day, and Thursday and Friday in the Holy week; all which are worth admiration: And together with the Riches which are seen in the Relicario's, or Repo­sitories of Relicks of the same nature and quality, ren­ders it a Treasure worthy this great place, which being exactly and judiciously viewed, appears so plentifully and Royally provided, that considering likewise the vast number and perfection of the parts or this eminent Structure, together with the Ornaments and Riches it contains; the Sum that the whole cost, being six Milli­ons of Ducats, seems but little. Here I had thought [Page 17]to have laid down the greatness of many other Parti­culars, which occur in this Fabrick, especially in the Materials of it, which would be a work too tedious, and over-curious, as to count the quantity of Lime, Mortar, the Millions of Loads of Wood, the infinite number of Slates, Marble, &c. I shall only in gene­ral say, that if these things were but particularly seen heaped up in their kinds and sorts, you would think there were enough to build a fair City. In the Iron­work only, viz. in Locks and Nails, without counting Balconies, I have found out there was spent one hun­dred twenty nine thousand fourscore and three Arrobas, every Arroba containing five and twenty pound. Of the very Keys there are 50 Arrobas, or more. Of other Me­tals, as of Lead, Tin, Steel, Copper, there is a most vast quantity; for of Lead only, there is found above Ninety nine thousand and thirty Arrobas, partly on the Church, and partly on the principal Cloysters, which are covered with Sheets of this Metal; as also in divers other parts amongst the Slat-works. The Wire for the Net-work of the Windows weighs above a thousand Arrobas, and if here we should reckon the Glass-work of all the Windows, it would be a vast Count; for the immensity of this is one of the grand Beauties of this House.

The number of people concern'd in this great work, is very difficult to be told; for besides the multitude of Masters, Overseers, Hirers of Workmen, other Offi­cers and Day-Labourers, which were employed upon the very Place and Work, some in Cranes, some in Wheels, some on Scaffolds on high, to distribute and place the Materials, as Stone, Wood, Mortar, &c. there being of all sorts used at the same time: There was, I say, besides these, an infinite num­ber [Page 18]of all kinds of Artificers dispersed round about in the Fields; where you might see Smiths, Carpenters, Stone-cutters, and all sorts imaginable, with their Huts and Tents for their Lodgings, and defence from Wea­ther, not unlike a very numerous Army. Others that work's without doors, Limning, Painting, Gilding, Embroidering, augmented, likewise the number, no less than those which were employed in Door-work, Window-work, Chest-work, Seat-work, and fitting of places for Books to stand in, and that wrought in all sort of In-laid Work; besides those that wrought in Metals, as melting the Organs, casting the Bells, Balco­nies, and running the Sheets of Lead, and the like; that by this may be guessed how great a number were required to this Work. The Carters likewise, and those that had the Conduct of the Carriages, that brought Stone ready wrought, and Statues of that prodigious bigness, that could not be stirred with less than twenty yoke of Oxen; yea, sometimes forty. In all the Of­fices and Employments there were Proveditors and O­verseers to hasten and encourage the Workmen in their respective Tasks, that every thing went on without Noise or Trouble. Others assisted at the management of the Wheels and Engines turned by water, for Plai­stering, Sawing and Polishing; others in Rope, Cable-making, and such like work; and yet besides all these, there were employed in many other places persons of diverse Nations.

In the Jasper-Quarries, not far from a place called Burgo de Osma, the Spaniards and Italians hewed out, and wrought that sort of Stone for this Building.

In Madrid the Custodia was made and part of the Re­tablo, whither there were flocked together a great ma­ny Masters and famous Artificers.

In Guadalaarra, in Cuenca, and other parts, were made a great quantity of Rejas or Grates, and Balco­nies; besides those that were wrought upon the place.

In Zaragosa were cast the principal Grates of Brass for the Church of the Antepechos or Balcony-work that be­longs to the same.

In the Mountains de Filabres was got the white Mar­ble; as also in those de Las Navas, and in Estremoz; and near unto Granada, on the Banks of the River Xenil, in the Sierras, or Mountains of Arazena, and divers o­ther parts, the gray, green, red, black, bloud-colour­ed, and of a thousand other sorts of Colours.

The Pinares, or Pine-woods of Cuenca, Balsaia, of Segovia, Quexegal de Avila, and de Las Navas, were peo­pled with Work-men, who with Hatchets and Axes, were continually felling the tallest Pine trees, and working of them, so that the Woods did always eccho with their Blows, and the noise of their Saws.

In Florence and Milan were cast the great Statues of Brass.

In Toledo were made the Lamps, Candlesticks, Stands for Torches, Crosses and Censers. In Flanders were made other sorts of Candlesticks of Brass, some very vast ones, others of a middling sort, and others less, and great store of fine Linnen curiously wrought for the Ornament of the Cells.

In the very Nunneries, throughout all parts, were found very many persons who were daily employed in making all sorts of curious Needle-work, and a thou­sand sorts of several Ornaments for the enriching of this Royal Fabrick. So that a great part of this work was scattered up and down throughout all Spain, Italy, and Flanders; insomuch that it is impossible to reduce to certain number the Labourers concerned in it.

This wonder of Architecture was thirty and eight years in Building, viz. twenty four to the laying of the last stone, and fourteen in the furnishing and enriching of it with all its Adornments, even to the death of King Philip the Second, which happened in the Year 1598.

In this place it were proper to add something touching the Pantheon, or Burying place of the Kings of Spain, situated under the High Altar of the great Church; but in regard that hath escaped the Fu­ry of the Flames, and may still invite Forreigners and Travellers as yet to visit it, there is less need at present to give an exact Description of it. The Name of Pan­theon was given unto it in imitation of that which at Rome is called Il Templo di Santa Maria La Rotunda; anciently dedicated to all the Heathen Gods, and with more reason now (as being founded on the Holy Scrip­ture) that name may be allowed to so stately a Dormi­tory of Christian Princes. In this Magnificent Burying-place are reposited 26 Marble Coffins, bound about with Gilt Brass, and supported on Lions orderly dispo­sed in the several sides of it; 8 of these contain the Roy­al Corps of the Kings and Queens hereafter mentioned, viz. In the first, is the Body of Charles, the 5th. Emperor, and first King of that Name in Spain. In the Second, is the Body of King Philip the Second, his Son. In the third, of Philip the Third, Fifth Son, but Successor of of Philip the Second. In the Fourth, of Philip the 4th. Eldest Son, and Successor Philip the Third. These lie all on the Gospel side of the Altar. Opposite unto them on the Epistle-side, lie their several Queens by whom they had Issue: For example, against Charles the Fifth, is placed the Empress and Queen of Spain, Donna Isabella his only Wife, Daughter to King Emanu­el [Page 21]of Portugal; and the Queen Donna Maria, who was Daughter to the Catholick Monarchs Ferdipando and Isabella. Over against Philip the Second, lies the Queen Donna Anna his fourth Wife, Daughter to Maximilian the Emperour, second of that Name, and of the Empe­ress Donna Maria, Sister to the said King. Against Philip the Third is placed Donna Margarita, his only Wife, and Daughter of Charles Arch-Duke of Austria, and of Mary Daughter of the Duke of Bavaria, and Niece of the Emperour Ferdinand, Brother of Charles the Fifth. Against Philip the Fourth, Donna Isabel of Bourbon, his first Wife, Daughter of Henry the Fourth, and of Madonna Maria Di Medici, King and Queen of France. These eight Bodies only are as yet deposited in the Pantheon: For the rest of the Blood-Royal of the House of Austria, and the Queens that have had no Is­sue, there is another Place over against the Sacristia of the Pantheon (a very Noble Vault) and within the Por­tal or Entrance of the Pantheon it self, where this Epi­taph presents it self to the goers in.

D. O. M.

Locus Sacer Mortalitatis Exuviis
Catholicorum Regum,
A Restauratore Vitae, cujus Arae Max.
Austriaca adhuc pietate subjacent
Optatum Diem expectantium
Quam posthumam Sedem sibi, & suis

Carolus Caesarum Maximus in Votis habuit;

Philippus Secundus Regum prudentissimus clegit;

Philippus Tertius vere pius inchoavit;

Philippus IV.

Clementia, Constantia, Religione Magnus Auxil. Ornavit, absolvit

Anno Dom. 1654.

The chief Architects of this Incomparable Work, were, Don Juan Baptista Creccucio Brother to the Car­dinal Creccucio; and Pedro Lizargarate, a Biscayner.

The Catalogue that follows contains the Names of the Principal Masters for Architecture, and Painting, &c. That were concerned about the whole work of this so famed, but now unfor­tunate Escurial.

  • Fran. Antonio de villa Castine, Chief Architect.
  • Michael Cusin, a Flemming.
  • Lavinia Fontana, Daughter of Prospero Fontana, of Bo­lonia.
  • Frederico Zucaro.
  • Dominico Griego.
  • Leonardo de Vinci.
  • Luqueto, or Lucas Cangioso, an Italian.
  • Bergamasco.
  • Peregrin de Peregrini of Milan excellent in Fresco.
  • Luis de Caravayal.
  • Miguel Barroso.
  • Juan Baptista Monegro.
  • Don Joseph de Ribera, or Spannolette.
  • Frederico Barroso.
  • Antonio Corregio or Acorezo.
  • Raphael de Ʋrbino. Famous in Grotesco and Brutesco.
  • Juan de Andeus. Famous in Grotesco and Brutesco.
  • Jacobo de Parma.
  • Paulo Veronese.
  • Titian.
  • Tintoretto.
  • [Page 23]Antonio Vandike.
  • Pedro Paulo Ruben.
  • Lucas Jordan.
  • Guarchino.
  • Andrea del Sarto.
  • Michael Angelo Bonarota.
  • Anibal Caracio.
  • Fran. Sebastian del piombo.
  • Guido Bolonese.
  • Jorjon de Castel Franco.
  • Bordonnon the Master of Titian.
  • Andreas Chavon.
  • Juan Fernandes Mudo.
  • Masasio the Master of Michael Angelo.
  • Geronimo Bosco.
  • Carlos Veronese.
  • Dario Ojonico.
  • Guido Bolonese.
  • Basan.
  • Diego Velasques.
  • Cavallero Maximo.
  • Antonio Campi of Cremona.
  • Mario.
  • Granelo and Fabricio sons of Bergamasco, excellent in Brutesco.
  • Joachimo Flamenco.
  • Sebastian de Herrera.
  • Francisco Ʋrbino.
  • Parmesano.
  • Palma.
  • Bartolomeo Carducho.

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