A NEW and EASY METHOD To Understand the Roman History. With an Exact Chronology of the Reign of the Emperors; An Account of the most Eminent Authors, when they flourish'd; And an Abridgment of the Roman Antiquities and Customs. By Way of DIALOGUE, For the Use of the Duke of Burgundy.

Done out of French, with very Large Additi­ons and Amendments, by Mr. Tho. Brown.

Ita latè per orbem terrarum arma circumtulit, ut qui res ejus legunt, non unius populi, sed generis hu­mani fact a discant.

Luc. Flor.

London: Printed for R. Baldwin, near the Oxford-Arms in Warwick Lane: And W. Lindsey, at the Angel in Chancery Lane. MDCXCV.


MIscellanea: Or a Choice Collection of Wise and Ingenious Sayings, &c. of Princes, Philosophers, Statesmen, Courtiers, and others; Out of several Ancient and Modern Authors: For the pleasurable En­tertainment of the Nobility and Gentry of both Sexes. By G. M.

Printed for William Lindsey at the Angel near Lincolns-Inn in Chancery-Lane, 1694.

THE Translator's Preface.

THere are Two Popular Objections common­ly made against Abridgments, which I shall endeavour to answer one after the other: The first is, That they have occasion'd the Loss of the greater Volumes from whence they were extracted. Thus, for instance, the Loss of Trogus Pompeius is imputed to Justin; that of Livy to Florus or his Epitomator; and Xiphilinus, a Monk of Constantinople, who flourish'd about the middle of the Eleventh Century, is charged with depriving the world of Dion Cassius. Nay, the Loss of all the Texts and Decisions of the Learned Lawyers before him, is attributed to Trebonian, who compiled his Pandects out of them. This Notion was started by some Learned Men of the last Age, as Bodin, Casaubon, and my Lord Bacon; and since their time, merely, I suppose, upon their Credit and Authority, it has been almost universally received, without any man­ner of Examination. However, with a due sub­mission be it spoken to Persons of their deserved E­steem and Reputation in the world, I cannot per­suade my self, that this Accusation is well sup­ported; for besides that we have the Misfortune [Page] to regret the want of several useful Books, which as far as we know were never abbreviated, such as Diodorus Siculus, and Dionysius Halicarnas­seus; and on the other hand enjoy several others that were Epitomized, as we find the History of Herodotus is still extant, altho one Theopom­pus, whom Suidas mentions, had made an A­bridgment of it; both which Instances are suffi­cient to overthrow this precarious Hypothesis; yet in my opinion there are so many better Reasons to be assigned for the Loss of th [...]se precious Monu­ments of Antiquity, that I am apt to flatter my self it will be no disagreeable Entertainment to the Reader to give him a short View of them. Before the Art of Printing was discover'd, it may easily be imagined, That as Volumes of any considerable Bulk were infinitely more Expensive than now they are, so they could only be purcha­sed by men of Plentiful Fortunes; that conse­quently they were nothing near so well diffused; and when they happen'd to be lost or impaired by ti [...]e, the Loss was neither so soon, nor so easily rec [...]uited. If to this we add, That in that part of the world which had formerly been the Seat of all Arts and Sciences, Learning began to be ne­glected, if not despised; and that from another part of it vast Inundations of Barbarous People were continually pouring down, who swept away every thing before them; no considering man I be­lieve will find it strange, That amidst the vast Treasures of the Ancient Ages, so few should escape so general a Shipwrack, and arrive safe to our hands. That this was the case of the Roman [Page] Empire in its declining Period, no body that is not utterly unacquainted with their History, will presume to question. As soon as that Vigorous Spi­rit which animated thrir Republic, had wholly abandon'd them, Learning and Learned Men made but a very inconsiderable Figure among them. Hence we see, that from the time of the Anto­nines till Diocletian, they did not produce one single Historian above the rank of our Modern Grubstreet Annalists. I could not prevail with my self to allow the Scriptores Augustae Histo­riae, who lived in this Interval, a better station; for tho 'tis certain that sorry Guides are better than none at all, yet the Stile of the above-men­tioned Writers is so extremely vicious, their Con­duct so injudicious and their Relations of all Trans­actions so jejune and insipid, that any one that will submit to the Penance of turning over their W [...]rks, will s [...]on be convinced to his cost, that what I have told him, is true. While Learning was thus daily decaying in its Vitals, all this while Epitomes were given it to keep it alive: not that they contributed to the loss of the Greater Volumes, which would have been destroy'd without them; but they were the only Books that then pleased, and were in vogue; whether it was that the sickly Genius of those Ages could not endure Volumes of a larger size, which it required a more healthful Constitution to digest; or whether the continual Alarms of their Enemies just allowed them time enough to peruse short Manuals; as we see men seldom sit down to a Regular Dinner, when they are every moment in danger of having their Quarters beaten [...]p. For [Page] now the Goths, under which name I comprehend all the Northern Mob made up of the Scum of several Nations, invaded the Empire in good ear­nest, and pierced into the very Bowels of it, which before they were contented to attack only in its Out-skirts and remotest Provinces. This insolent Rab­ble of Tramontani passing the Alpes, out of a natural aversion to all Literature and Politeness, burnt and plunder'd all the Libraries that stood in their way; and as no care was taken to repair the da­mages which these outragious Levellers every where committed, we ought not to wonder, that when the Building was consumed, so much of the rich Furniture happen'd to share the same Calamity, and be destroy'd along with it. The Saracens in­deed, who some Ages after subdued the better part of Asia and Greece, were a fairer Enemy; As if their design had been to make an entire Con­quest of Sciences and Arts, rather than of Ter­ritories and People, they encouraged the Muses; which perhaps may be one reason why more of the Greek Historians are preserved, than of the Latin, and translated Ptolomy, Euclid, and Aristotle, with most of the valuable Greek Books they could get, into the Arabic Langua [...]e; by the same token that the last of these about the end of the Twelfth Century, was out of Arabic turned into Latin, upon which barbarous Version the Schoolmen afterwards built all their petifogging, litigious, Cobweb-Divinity. But the Goths were not so merciful in their anger; they destroy'd Learn­ing root and branch, and by their good will would not have left us the least remainders or footsteps of it. [Page] To this may be added as no small cause of the l [...]ss of so many Latin Originals, the indiscreet Zeal of s [...]me over-pious Christians, who never thought their Religion secure, or out of danger, so long as any of the Monuments of Paganism were suffered to stare it in the face; for this reason they sacrifi­ced all those Books which gave the least account of the Heathen Theology to the flames; and as 'tis impossible for an Historian to give us a full Hi­st [...]ry of any Country without acquainting us with several of their Religious Rites and Ceremonies, because Livy makes frequent mention of the Roman Sacrifices, Lustrations, Processions, &c. Gregory the Great destroyed as many of his Books as had the misfortune to fall into his hands, and by doing so, imagined he did his Maker good service. I could sooner forgive him, had he taken upon him the Title of Uni­versal Bishop which his Ambitious Brother Pre­late of Constantinople th [...]n usurped; nay, had he done all the sinful unrighteous things which the worst of his Succ [...]ssors ever committed, than pardon him this Immoral Action of destroying the Works of Livy. In short, for I am afraid I have dwelt too long upon this Chapter; 'tis evident, that first a neglect or dis­couragement of Learning, then the everlasting Invasions of Barbarous Nations, really contri­buted to the loss of those Ancient Authors, whom now we want, especially considering that the Transcribers of those Ages could not soon enough repair the Damages which these cruel Ravagers committed in the Empire of Learning, it being [Page] truly observed of the Roman Monarchy, and the Roman Authors, that their Greatness in part occasion'd the destruction of both.

So much for the first Objection, which I con­fess does not affect our Attempt, as being compiled not out of one single Historian, but col­lected out of many. The other, as it appears to be better grounded, so it is more general, and strikes at all Abbreviations whatever. It is therefore pretended, that these sorts of Perfor­mances don't so much diffuse Learning, as they prostitute it; that as they were the Inventions of an unpolish'd Age, when people grew lazy, so they continue those habits still in the minds of men; that the generality of Mankind contenting themselves with a superficial knowledge of things, sit down satisfied with these amusements, which furnish them with matter enough for com­mon Conversation, and by this means are hin­dered from making a thorough progress in Learning. To this terrible Charge it may be an­swer'd, That the ill use these empty Pretenders make of Abridgments, as of every thing else, does not destroy the real advantage of them, and ought by no means to stand in competi­tion with the visible benefit that the far greater number of Readers daily reap from them. As there is no disputing against matter of Fact, 'tis certain there were ne­ver so many Abstracts or Epitomes of all sorts printed as at present; witness the great va­riety of Iournals in all parts of Europe; and yet the Commonwealth of Learning has been so [Page] far from receiving any prejudice or detriment from them, that it may without the least impu­tation of vanity be affirm'd, that all Sciences have been more universally cultivated in our Age, than in any of the preceding ones; and that these Abbreviations have not a little contributed to the farther increase and propaga­tion of them. History is a Province of a vast extent, where an unacquainted Traveller may easily lose his way, or else be bewildred in the great variety of matter; and therefore 'tis but a charitable Office to give him a general Scheme of the Countrey before he actually visits it. 'Tis likewise plain that Abridgments have been suc­cesfully attempted in Mathematics. How intel­ligible are Tacquet, Barrow, and De Witt, in respect of Clavius's tedious Comments upon Eu­clid's Demonstrations? nay they have not only saved abundance of unnecessary labour, but they have made this knowledge pleasant to those who in the last Age were frighted with the dif­ficulty of th [...]se Studies. Before I dismiss this Paragraph, I will only add, That Abridgments have been so far from mutilating any of the branches of Learning, that were it not for the assistances we derive from them, there would be so many Interruptions and Chasma's, particu­larly in the Historical part of it, that it would prove but an uncomfortable study. How many Ecclesiastical Monuments▪ for instance, had been lost, if Photius the Learned Patriarch of Con­stantinople had not preserved them for Poste­rity, by throwing them into a l [...]sser room.

[Page]I will not so far abuse my Reader's patience as to enlarge upon the several Advantages de­duced from History, and particularly the Ro­man, which of all others is the most instru­ctive and entertaining. As it comprizes a prodigious variety of surprizing Events, the Affairs of other Nations are all along so inter­woven with theirs, that what one of their own Writers said of them, is literally true, viz. That whoever reads the Actions they performed, does not so much learn the History of one single People, as that of all Mankind. And cer­tainly 'tis a prodigious thing to consider, that a small pitiful Town, composed at first of Outlaws and Vagabonds, of different Interests, Tempers, and perhaps Principles; of so little Credit and Reputation, that their Neighbours refused to marry their Daughters to them, should surmount so many Difficulties which threatned their Constitution in its very infan­cy; and afterwards upon a new moulding of their Government, which private Male-con­tents at home, and powerful Enemies abroad laboured to destroy, should by the regularity of their Military Discipline, the bravery of their Forces, and the vertue of their Inhabitants, be in a capacity make such astonishing Con­quests. And though the perpetual Struggles be­tween the People and the Senate threw the State into so many terrible Convulsions, that by all appearing Symptoms, their Common­wealth often seem'd to be in an expiring Conditi­on; yet we find they made the haughtiest Powers [Page] in the Vniverse truckle to them, and redu­ced all the then inhabited World to their obe­dience. After this, to reflect, how by the creeping in of Avarice and Luxury, and the several Inferior Vices dependant on these, the Republic was dissolved, and forced to give way to the Emperors, under whose hands it flourish­ed for some time, till by the frequent Revoluti­ons made by an Insolent Army, but especially by the perpetual Irruptions of the Northern Peo­ple, it was by degrees broken to pieces, all these remarkable shiftings of the Scene, and the fresh appearance of so many new persons still upon the Theatre, must needs give a considering man not only a very agreeable, but useful entertainment.

I am now arrived to the last stage of my Pre­face, so that I have no more work left upon my hands, but only to give the Reader a short Ac­count of the following Performance. It was com­piled by a Iudicious Hand in France for the use of the Duke of Burgundy, and recommended to me by a Learned Gentlemen here in Town, who was so taken with the newness of the Me­thod, and the exactness of the Chronology, that he was impatient till he saw it put into an Eng­lish dress. The whole is managed by way of Que­stion and Answer, in an easie, familiar, intel­legible Method, suited to persons of the meanest Capacity, but with that good order and accura­cy, that the greatest Proficients in this sort of Learning may not be ashamed to refresh their Memories by perusing it. I was the more easily persuaded to undertake it, because I could never [Page] as yet meet any Abbreviation of the Roman History, which was not in one respect or other lame and deficient. Either the Stile was uncor­rect, the Narration too tedious, or obscure, or the true order of time miserably neglected.

As for Lucius Florus, tho I confess there are abundance of things very prettily said in him, yet he so frequently interrupts the Series of the History, and is so everlasting an Affecter of pointed Sentences, to which he sacrifices the Truth without any remorse, that he is not to be depended upon. Eutropius and Aurelius Vi­ctor lived in an unpo [...]ite Age, and not only pass over several Important Occurrences, but com­monly give a faulty account of matters of fact.

I cannot answer for this, that it wholly comes up to the dignity of the Subject; and indeed as it is the first undertaking of this nature that ever appear'd in public, it cannot reasonably be expected that it should be carried to its highest perfection at once; however, I may without va­nity affirm, That it has been considerably im­prov'd in the Version, as any one that will be at the pains to compare the Translation with the Original will soon discover.

If it meets the favourable Reception which so useful and serviceable a Performance seems to deserve, the Translator may, perhaps, find leisure time enough hereafter for the advantage of our English Youth to put it into the Vniver­sal Language.

A Clear Method for the more easy understanding the Roman History, &c.

The Origine of the Romans. The Year of the World 2800. Before Iesus Christ 1184.

Quest. I Desire to know the O [...]igine of the Romans?

Answ. They came from Aeneas, the Son of Anchises, who after the taking of Troy, fled into Italy, and settled there.

Q. When did this happen?

A. In the Year 2800 of the Creation of the World.

Q. When Aeneas was in Italy, what did he there?

A. He married Lavinia, Daughter to La­tinus, King of the Latins, after he had in a single Combat kill'd Turnus, King of the Ru­tuli, who pretended to the same Lady.

Q. Did he do nothing else?

[Page 2] A. He built a City there which he call'd Lavinium.

Q. Who govern'd the Latins after the Death of Latinus?

A. Aeneas.

Q. How long did he Reign?

A. No more than three Years.

Q. Who succeeded Aeneas?

A. His Son Ascanius, whom he had by Creusa.

Before we take in hand the Succession of the Kings of Rome, 'tis in some manner necessary to give that of the Latin Kings after the Destru­ction of Troy, and to remember that Aeneas, Anchises's Son, and Son-in-Law to Latinus, from whom the Latins derive their Name, was slain in a Battle Four hundred twenty six years before the Building of Rome, and that Latinus reign'd Thirty five Years of it.

A Chronological Table of the Latin Kings.

Kings.Year of the World.Reign
Picus Son of Saturn275737
Latinus I.283835
Ascanius Son of Aeneas287738
Silvius Son of Ascanius291529
Aeneas Silvius294431
Latinus II.297551
Alba Silvius303539
Capetus I.306426
Capetus II.311813
Agrippa Silvius313941
Alladius, or Aremulius Silvius318019
Aventinus Silvius319937
Procas, or Palatinus Silvius323623
Anulius Silvius325941

The Building of Rome. Year of the World 3301. Before Christ 753.

Q. WHen was the City of Rome built?

A. In the 3961 Year of the Iu­lian Period. 753 before the Christian Aera. 431 after the burning of Troy, and of the World 3301.

Q. Which was the Capital City of the Latins then?

A. Alha, because Iulius that built it, made it the Seat of his Empire.

Q. What King possess'd the Throne at that time.

A. Amulius after he had ejected his Bro­ther Numitor.

Q. From whence was Rome so called?

A. From Romulus, who gave it his own Name.

Q Why?

A. Because his Brother Rhemus and he having agreed, That he who saw the best Augury should Name it; Romulus had the most favourable Augury, as having seen twelve Vultures, and the other only six.

The means Romulus made use of to Peo­ple his New City of Rome.

Q. WHat Method did Romulus take to People his City?

A. He bethought himself of two expedi­ents.

Q. What were th [...]y?

A. In the first place he open'd a Publick Sanctuary in a little Wood, which was not far from the City, where all Fugitive Slaves, Criminals, Bankrupts, and others of the same Quality found Protection.

Q. Did this Expedient take effect?

A. Ay.

Q. What did he do after this?

A. Since the Romans had no Women a­mong them, and their Neighbours would not marry with them, they were obliged to have recourse to a Stratagem.

Q. How was that?

A. They published in all the Neighbour­ing Provinces, that at such a time they de­sign'd to celebrate some Sports. The Sa­bins came to see the Divertisement, and brought their Wives and Daughters hither. Now when they were most intent upon be­holding the Sights, Romulus gave the Sig­nal, and the Romans immediately carried off the Sabine Women, and married them.

[Page 6] Q. Romulus having thus peopled his Ci­ty, what did he afterwards?

A. He divided it into Thirty Curiae or Wards, which he called Sabin.

Q. Did he do nothing besides?

A. He also divided his Subjects into three Orders?

Q. As how?

A. The First was that of the Senators, whom he created to the Number of a hun­dred, and call'd them Patres or Fathers, and their Children Patricians. The Second was that of the Knights. And the Third, that of the People.

The several Sorts of Government in the City of Rome.

Q. HOw was Rome govern'd at first?

A. By Kings.

Q. How do ye call this sort of Govern­ment?

A. Monarchy.

Q. Was Rome always govern'd by Kings?

A. No: It became a Republick after the Expulsion of Tarquin the Proud, who was the Seventh King there.

Q. What do you mean by Republick?

A. That is to say, a State where several Persons command.

Q. What difference do you make between a Monarchy and a Republick?

[Page 7] A. A Monarchy is a State where only one governs in Chief. A Republick, where the Administration is lodged in many Hands.

Q. How long did this Republick conti­nue?

A. It lasted in the first place, from the Consulat of Brutus to the Consulat of Clau­dius, which makes 245 Years; and after­wards from the Consulat of Claudius to the Empire of Caesar, which makes about as ma­ny Years more.

Q. Did Rome always continue a Repub­lick?

A. No; it was afterwards govern'd by Emperors.

Q. What difference is there between a King, and an Emperor?

A. 'Tis another Name, but the Au [...]hority is almost the same.

Q. How many sorts of Government have there been in Rome?

A. Three: That of Kings, which lasted 250 Years. That of the Consuls 450. And that of the Emperors 360.

Q. How long did the Roman Empire continue from the first year of Caesar, to the tenth of Constantine Palaeologus, which makes up its beginning and end?

A. It continued a Thousand five hundred and one Year.

Q. How many Kings had they at Rome?

A. Seven, whose Names you'll see in a Table below.

[Page 8] Q. How many Emperors have there been in the two Empires of the East, and the West?

A. The Forty eight first possess'd it en­tirely. The Twelve succeeding had the Em­pire of the West, and the other Sixty three the Empire of the East.

The Seven Kings of Rome.

The Year of the World 3301.

In the Fourth Year of the Sixth Olympiad.

3961 of the Julian Period.

431 after the Taking of Troy.

753 before the First Year of the Christian Era.

Kings.Year of the World.Reign.
1. Romulus.330138
2. Numa Pompilius.334043
3. Tullus H [...]stilius.338332
4. Ancus Martius.341434
5. Tarquinius Priscus.343939
6. Servius Tullius.347744
7. Tarquinius Superbus.352144

The two first Consuls, Brutus and Colla­tinus, govern'd in the 245th Year of Rome, after the Expulsion of their Kings, on the 24th of February. A day observ'd in their Kalendar.

Romulus the First King of Rome. Year of the World 3301. Before Christ 753.

Q. I Desire to know something of the Birth of Romulus?

A. He was the Son of Rhea Silvia, and supposed to be begotten by Mars.

Q. Who was this Rhea Silvia?

A. Daughter to Numitor, and Neice of Amulius.

Q. What happen'd to this Lady?

A. Her Uncle Amulius shut her up among the Vestal Virgins, that so by this means he might make her uncapable of having Chil­dren, who might one day dispute the Throne he usurp'd with him.

Q. Did this Policy of his succeed?

A. No: For this young Vestal going one day to fetch some Water in a little Wood, which the Albans had consecrated to Mars, to be employ'd in the Sacrifices of the God­dess Vesta, she was ravish'd by an armed Man, who pretended to be the God Mars.

Q. But what did Amulius when he saw her big with Child?

A. He condemned her to Dye; but at the Intercession of Antho, only Daughter to this Inhuman Tyrant, this Sentence was changed into perpetual Imprisonment.

Q. What befel her in this Prison?

A. She was brought to bed of two Chil­dren?

[Page 10] Q. And what happen'd to the poor In­fants?

A. Amulius immediately commanded 'em to be thrown into the Tiber, in a little Woo­den Basket without a cover.

Q. How were they preserved?

A. The Stream carried the two Infants to the Side of the River, and a certain Woman, call'd Lupa, directed thither by their Cries, took them up, and gave them Suck for some time, which occasion'd the Report that they were suckled by a She-wolf.

Q. Who took the care to bring them up?

A. One Faustulus by Name, the King's Shepherd, who knowing their Birth, took them from the Woman, carried them home, and gave them to his Wife Acca Laurentia to nurse them.

Q. When they came to age, what did they then?

A. Faustulus having told them who they were, they kill'd their Uncle Amulius.

Q. For what reason?

A. To Re-establish their Uncle Numitor in his Throne; and lastly, in the second Year of his Reign, they built Rome.

Q. What happen'd to Rhemus?

A. As he was jesting and ridiculing the smallness of the Ditch, which Romulus had caus'd to be made, and leaping over it, he was kill'd by one of the Workmen, who gave him a great Blow on the Head with a Rake.

[Page 11] Q. How came Romulus to be King?

A. After the Death of his Brother Rhomus, he was own'd as King by all his Followers.

Q. What did he do when he was King?

A. He was a great Warrier, and gain'd a considerable Battle against the Ceninians, the Antemnates, and the Crustumenians, with whom he made War.

Q. What remarkable Performances did he do in this War?

A. He kill'd their General with his own Hand, and defeated the rest of the Army.

Q. After this Victory, what did he?

A. He entred Rome in a Chariot drawn by four Horses, cover'd with a Purple Robe, all the Prisoners of War marching in order before him.

Q. Did not he give them their Liberty again?

A. Yes; at the instance of the Roman Women, who for the most part had Relati­ons among them.

Q. He received them afterwards into the number of his Citizens?

A. Right, and gave them the same Pri­vileges with the rest of the Romans.

Q. Had Romulus no other War but this?

A. He maintain'd a long and cruel War against the Sabins, who were mightily en­raged at the taking away of their Wives and Daughters.

Q. During this War, what Remarkable Action happen'd?

[Page 12] A. The Sabins possest themselves of the Capitol by the means of Tarpeia, who had the keeping of one of the Gates, and deliver'd it to them.

Q. Upon what Condition?

A. That they should give her the Golden Bracelets they wore on their Arms.

Q▪ And what ensued upon this?

A. Instead of performing this Article, they prest her to Death with the weight of th [...]ir Bucklers, and cut the Garison in pieces.

Q. Were there not several other Combats between the Romans and the Sabins.

A. There was another, which had been exceeding bloody, if the Roman Wives, that had been carried off by force, had not thrown themselves between the two Armies, and obtain'd a Peace with their Tears.

Q. The Sabins then were toucht with Compassion at this sight.

A. True; both one and t'other side threw down their Arms, and swore they would never War against each other any more.

Q. What Agreement then did they make?

A. That Rome should be the Capital City of their Empire, and that Romulus and Ta­tius, King of the Sabins, should Reign toge­ther.

Q. Where did they live?

A. Tatius continued in the Capitol which he had Conquer'd; and Romulus chose Mount-Palatine.

[Page 13] Q Was not the Body of the Senate aug­mented by Tatius?

A. He made 'em just as many more as they were before the late Articles.

Q. What was that Number?

A. Three hundred.

Q. Was any thing done in Honour of the Women?

A. They instituted the Matronalia, or Feast of the Matrons, which was to be celebrated Yearly.

Q. How do they say Romulus died?

A. We don't positively know. Some pre­tend that as he was haranguing his Soldiers, a Tempest arose, and he disappear'd all on the sudden; and this gave an occasion to the common belief, That he was translated among the gods.

Q. But which is the most probable Opi­nion?

A. That the Senators, whom he treated too imperiously, kill'd him in the midst of the Senate, so that each of them carried un­der his Robe some Piece of his Body, and afterwards made the People believe that he was mounted up to Heaven.

Q. After the Death of Romulus, was not the Form of Government chang'd?

A. Yes: For the Senate being composed of Romans and Sabines, 'twas resolved to chuse by Lots Five Persons of both Nations, who should reign five days alternatively, till such time as they could find out one that was worthy to fill the Throne.

[Page 14] Q. How long did this Interregnum last?

A. A Twelvemonth.

Q. Was nothing done to the Honour of Romulus?

A. A Temple was built to him upon the Quirinal Mount, where he was ador'd under the name of Quirinus.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Thirty eight Years, and was succeeded by Numa Pompilius.

Numa Pompilius the Second King of Rome. Year of the World 3340. Of Rome 40.

Q. FRom whence came Numa Pompilius?

A. From Cures, the Metropolis of the Sabines.

Q. How was he declared King?

A. Some Ambassadors went to offer him the Crown at Cures, where he then resided, and all in consideration of his great Piety.

Q. What things did he do, being arrived at Rome?

A. The first thing he did was to disband the Guards which Romulus had instituted for the security of his Person.

Q. What made him do so?

A. Because he said 'twas better for a Prince to make himself be lov'd than fear'd by his Subjects.

Q. What did he do afterwards?

[Page 15] A. He establish'd a certain Form of Sa­crifices and Ceremonies that were to be ob­serv'd in the Worship of their gods.

Q. Did he do any thing besides?

A. He likewise instituted the Pontiffs, the Augurs, and the Salian Priests. In fine, he testified by his Laws and Actions, That no­thing was more necessary in a State than Religion and Justice.

Q. Did not he build some Temples?

A. He built one to the Honour of Ianus, which was to be shut in the time of Peace, and open'd in War.

Q. Did he build any more?

A. Yes: That which he consecrated to the Goddess Vesta, where he establish'd the Vestal Virgins.

Q. Who were these Vestals?

A. Certain Virgins that were chosen a­bout the Age of Four or Five Years, out of the Noblest Families in Rome, to be Priestesses of the Goddess Vesta.

Q. What was their Employment?

A. To look after the Holy Fire which burn'd incessantly upon an Altar, and was a Symbol or Character of the Divinity they ador'd.

Q. What Punishment was assign'd for those Vestals that let the Holy Fire go out?

A. They were interr'd alive and treated after the very same manner with those which violated their Chastity, to which they were obliged.

[Page 16] Q. Did Numa Pompilius do any thing re­markable besides this?

A. He divided the Year into Twelve Months, whereas Romulus had only institu­ted Ten. In short, he establish'd several other Laws, which he said he received from the Goddess Aegeria.

Q. What manner of death died he?

A. He died of an Indisposition, being Fourscore years old, after a Reign of 43 Years, which he pass'd in a profound Peace.

Q. Had he any Children?

A. He had four Sons, none of which suc­ceeded him in the Crown, but made four Illustrious Families in Rome.

Q. Had he no Daughters?

A. He had one call'd Pompilia, who was married to a Sabine Nobleman, whose name was Martius.

Q. Who was Successor to Numa Pompilius?

A. Tullus H [...]stilius.

Tullus Hostilius, Third King of Rome. Year of the World 3383. Of Rome 83.

Q I Would be inform'd of what Family was Tullus H [...]stilius?

A. He was Grandson to Tullus H [...]stilius, who was kill'd in endeavouring to retake the Capitol; and was elected by the Romans for his Heroick Actions.

[Page 17] Q. What remarkable thing did he in the beginning of his Reign?

A. 'Twas he who first taught the Romans Military Discipline, and the Art of fighting regularly.

Q. Did he do nothing else?

A. He distributed among the ordinary sort of people all the Demcan which the Kings before him kept in their own hands, and re­serv'd no more for himself than what he had when he was but a private Person.

Q. What considerable things happened in his Reign?

A. The famous Combat between the Ho­ratii and Curiatii.

Q. Pray recount to me how that was ma­naged.

A. The Romans and Albans being willing to put a speedy Conclusion to the War, which had lasted a long while, 'twas resolv'd on both sides to chuse out Three men to fight for their Countrey.

Q. And what were the Conditions?

A. If the Three Albans were vanquished, Alba was to submit it self to the Govern­ment of the Romans: On the other hand, if the Roman Champions were beaten, then Rome must do the like to Alba.

Q. Who were pitch'd upon for this Ex­ploit?

A. The Romans chose the Three Horatii, Brothers; and the Albans the Three Curia­tii, who were Three Brothers likewise.

[Page 18] Q. What was the Success of the Combat?

A. The Three Curiatii were at first wound­ed, and Two of the Horatii slain.

Q. The Third Horatius being left to fight the other Three, what became of him?

A. He pretended to fly for't; and as the Curiatii eagerly pursued him, he faced about, and killed 'em one after another.

Q. Did he not soon tarnish the Glory of this Illustrious Action?

A. Yes.

Q. As how?

A. By murdering his own Sister.

Q. What instigated him to do that?

A. Returning Victorious, and meeting his Sister in Tears for one of the Curiatii, who was promis'd her in Marriage, he run her through with his Sword.

Q. Was he punish'd for this Crime?

A. No; his late Victory excus'd him.

Q. The Romans being thus Conquerors, what did Tullus after this?

A. He ordered the City of Alba to be raz'd to the ground, and commanded the Albans to come and live at Rome with their King Metius Suffetius.

Q. What became of that King?

A. He was sometime after ty'd to the Tails of four Horses and torn in pieces.

Q. For what Misdemeanor was so severe a Punishment inflicted on him?

A. For forming a Conspiracy to make himself Master of Rome; and betraying the [Page 19] Romans, in not sending them the Assistance he was obliged to give them.

Q. After what manner died Tullus Hosti­lius?

A. He and his whole Family were burnt by Lightning which set his Palace on fire.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Thirty two Years.

Q. Who succeeded him?

A. Ancus Martius, who resembled Numa Pompilius as well for his Justice as his Piety.

Ancus Martius, Fourth King of Rome. Year of the World 3414. Of Rome 114.

Q. OF whom was Ancus Martius descend­ed?

A. He was the Son of Pompilia, and Grandson to Numa Pompilius.

Q What particular things did Ancus Mar­tius do?

A. Nothing, if we except his inclosing Mount Aventine, and the Ianiculum within the City, and building New Walls about it, and laying the Foundation of the City Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber.

Q. Had he no Wars at all?

A. He had one with the Latins, whom he defeated in several Battels.

Q. How died he?

A. O [...] a Sickness in the Twenty fourth Year of his Reign.

[Page 20] Q. How many Children had he?

A. He had Two, whom he left under the Care of Tarquinius Priscus, who took away the Kingdom from them, and got himself to be declared King of Rome.

Q. It was then this Tarquinius Priscus that succeeded him?

A. Yes.

Tarquinius Priscus, Fifth King of Rome. Year of the World 3439. Of Rome 139.

Q. FRom whence came Tarquinius Pris­cus?

A. He was originally of Corinth, and Son to a Rich Merchant whose name was Dema­ratus.

Q. How came he to be raised to this Dig­nity?

A. Under the Reign of Ancus Martius he quitted the City of the Tarquins to seek his Fortune at Rome, which it seems answer­ed his Ambition.

Q. What happened to him in his Journey thither?

A. As he came near the City an Eagle lighted and took off his Bonnet, and soon after placed it on his Head again. Tanaquil told him, That this lucky Omen promis'd him the Regal Authority.

[Page 21] Q. Why quitted he his former name Lu­cumon to take that of Tarquinius?

A. In remembrance of the City of the Tarquins, where he was born?

Q. How got he himself declared King?

A. After the Death of Ancus Martius he assembled the S [...]nators and People, and being supported by his Friends, and those whom he had gain'd to his Party by Money, he put in for the Crown, and managed his Affairs so dexterously, that he obtain'd it without any difficulty.

Q. What did he do to secure himself in his new Kingdom?

A. He augmented the Senate with a hun­dred Senators, and enlarg'd the Authority of that August Body. He likewise added Three hundred new Members to the Order of the Knights, which was their number before.

Q. What other things were done by him in particular?

A. He order'd a Bundle of Rods bound up together, with an Axe in the midst, to be car­ried before the Magistrates. He regulated the Stuff and Fashion of the Robes that were to be worn by the Kings and Augurs; and commanded the Chairs of the Senators to be made of Ivory.

Q. What did he do besides all this?

A. He regulated the Habits which were to distinguish the Knights from others that ser­ved in the Wars, and enjoined them to wear [Page 22] Golden Rings on their Fingers. Then to di­stinguish the Children of Illustrious Families, he order'd them to wear long Robes bor­der'd with Purple.

Q. Did he undertake any considerable Building?

A. He built the Circus, between Mount Palatine and Mount Aventine, to have there represented the Combats of Gladiators, and of Beasts, or any other Diversions of the like nature, that deriv'd their name from thence.

Q. What was remarkable in his Reign?

A. That he was the first that wore a Crown and a Sceptre, with the other Marks of the Regal Dignity.

Q. What other remarkable Passages have you?

A. Being one day minded to try Actius Navius, President of the Augurs, he asked him, Whether what he thought of in his mind was possible to be done, or no?

Q. What Answer did Actius return him?

A After having consulted the Birds, he positively told him it was. Why, says the King, I was thinking whether I was able to cut this Whetstone with a Razor. That you are, reply'd the Augur; and at the same time the King accordingly cut it.

Q. Did not this give a mighty Reputation to the Augurs?

A Yes; for from that time the Romans never began any Enterprize without consult­ing them.

[Page 23] Q. What did Tarquin do besides, to make himself recommendable?

A. He extinguish'd the Name of the La­tins through all Italy, having possessed him­self of most of their Cities.

Q. What Misfortunes befel him?

A. He was slain by Two Peasants that were bribed to do it by the Children of An­cus Martius.

Q. Why did they get him to be assassi­nated?

A. Because they were angry to see him elevated to the Throne to their prejudice.

Q. How old was he when they slew him?

A. Eighty four years old, and reigned Thirty eight of them.

Q. How many Children did he leave be­hind him?

A. He left Two, whom he placed under the Care of Servius Tullius.

Q. Who succeeded Tarquin?

A. The above-mentioned Servius Tullius.

Servius Tullius, Sixth King of Rome. The Year of the World 3477. Of Rome 177.

Q. FRom what sort of Parents was Servi­us Tullius descended?

A. He was Son to the Prince of Cornicula, a small City which Tarquin had taken in the Province of the Latins.

Q. What Adventures happen'd to them?

[Page 24] A. His Father was kill'd at Corinth; and his Mother, who was then big of him, was carried Prisoner to Rome, where Tanaquil the Wife of Tarquin took an affection to her, and lodg'd her in the Palace, where she was de­livered of Servius Tullius.

Q. What happen'd at his Birth?

A. 'Twas remarkable, that lying in his Cradle a Lambent Flame play'd about his head for above the space of an hour, and did him not the least Injury.

Q What did Tanaquil, who was particu­larly well skill'd in Divination, believe of this Prodigy?

A. She was of Opinion that it promis'd the Kingdom to this Infant, and after that time took great care of his Education, and gave him her Daughter in Marriage.

Q. How came he to be proclaim'd King?

A. Servius being Son-in-Law to Tarquin, and having the Management of all Affairs in his own hands at the time of his death, he behaved himself, by the Queen's Assistance, so well in this place, that he was e­lected and proclaimed King by the People, some time after the Death of that Prince.

Q. What remarkable things does History tell of him?

A. Having vanquish'd the Tuscans and the Vejentes, he exceedingly augmented the City of Rome, added the Quirinal, Viminal, and the Exquiline Hill to it, and encompassed it with Walls and Dit [...]hes.

[Page 25] Q What other Actions are related of him?

A. He was the first that took a Survey of the Roman Citizens, and valued every man's Estate to tax him proportionably to his In­come, that so his Troops might be better accommodated.

Q. How often was this done?

A. Once in Five Years.

Q. How was this space of time call'd?

A. A Lustrum.

Q. How many Children had he?

A. Two, whose Names were Tullia.

Q. What sort of Inclinations had they?

A. The Eldest was of a sweet agreeable Temper: The Youngest, Fiery and Ambi­tious.

Q. Whom did they marry?

A. The two Tarquins, Brothers-in-Law or Nephews to Servius.

Q. How came they to marry them?

A. Tullius apprehending that these Tar­quins the Sons or Grandsons of Tarquinius Priscus would shock him in his Throne, thought the best way to secure them in his Interests, would be to bestow his Eldest Daughter upon the Elder Tarquin, who was naturally Ambitious and Violent; and his Youngest upon the other, whose name was Aruns, who had as much Moderation as his Brother had Heat and Passion.

Q. What was the Consequence of these Marriages?

[Page 26] A. As these things were wholly managed by a Principle of Policy, and Servius had no regard to the different Characters and Dis­positions of the married Couple, he was the occasion that Tarquin, who liked not the too gentle humour of his Wife, entred into a strict Correspondence with his Sister-in-Law, and debauch'd her.

Q. I desire to know the Result of this Correspondence.

A. Tarquin murder'd his own Wife, and the Youngest Sister poison'd her Husband.

Q. Why did she do so?

A. To put her in a capacity to marry her Brother-in-Law, and take away the Crown from her Father.

Q. How came Tarquin to be declared King?

A. Suffering himself to be over-persuaded by Tullia, who told him he must turn the old Gentleman out of his Kingdom without waiting for his Death, he summons the Se­nators to tell them he was minded to reign?

Q. What happen'd upon this?

A. He placed himself on the Seat where the Kings were accustom'd to sit, and began to call his Father-in-Law Servius an Usurper.

Q. And what became of Servius?

A. This making a great noise in the Se­nate, the King came to know the reason of it: Tarquin immediately raising himself from his Seat, he laid hold of him, and throwing him down stairs, order'd the Soldiers to as­sassinate him.

[Page 27] Q. After this Murder, how did Tullia ma­nage her self?

A. Being inform'd that Tarquin was own­ed for King, she imm [...]diately got her Cha­riot ready to go and congratulate him; and as she came to the street where the Body of her Father lay a-cross the way, the Coach­man going to turn back and pass some other way, this Unnatural Fury would not suffer such a delay, but bid him drive on, and pass over the Body of her Father, that was all bloody.

Q. How long did Servius Tullius reign?

A. Forty four years.

Q. Who succeeded him?

A. Tarquin the Proud.

Tarquinius Superbus, Seventh King of Rome. Year of the World 3521. Of Rome 221.

Q. I desire to be inform'd particularly of the Birth of Tarquin.

A. Some Historians tell us he was the Son of Tarquinius Priscus, but others are of opinion he was only his Grandson.

Q. How did he govern his Kingdom?

A. 'Twas after the Death of Servius, whom he caused to be assassinated, that he seized upon the Kingdom, and behaved himself with all imaginable Arrogance and Cruelty.

[Page 28] Q. Why was he sirnam'd Superbus?

A. From the Insolence of his Temper.

Q. What did he do when he was made King?

A. He despis'd the Authority of the Se­nate, and frequently put to death, or ba­nish'd, or imprison'd the Senators and chief men of the City, upon false Reports and Accusations.

Q. What remarkable things did he do?

A. He defeated the Volscians by Force of Arms, but made himself Master of Gabii by Treachery.

Q. How was that managed?

A. He pretended to fall out with his Son Sextus, in the presence of most of his Cap­tains; nay, his Passion was carried on so far, that he was going to strike him.

Q. What does Sextus upon this?

A. Away he flies, and sends to the Gabi­ans to beg the Protection of their City against the barbarous Treatment of an Unnatural Father.

Q. And did the Inhabitants receive him?

A. Yes: And he knew so well how to establish himself in their good Opinion by fighting for them, that they made him their General, and Governor of the Town.

Q. When Sextus found himself in a con­dition to do what he pleased, what did he then?

A. He dispatches one Messenger only to his Father, as they had agreed before.

[Page 29] Q. What Message was the fellow intrust­ed with?

A. With nothing but Compliments.

Q. What does Tarquin?

A. He carries him into his Garden, and in his presence knocks off the Heads of all the highest Poppies.

Q. Without doubt Sextus understood well enough his Father's meaning.

A. Right: He struck off the Heads of the principal men among the Gabians; some he imprison'd, others he accus'd of Treason, to find a pretext to condemn, and so make them uncapable of doing him any Injury.

Q. What Disgrace happen'd afterwards to Tarquin?

A. His Reign daily becoming more and more odious to the Romans, they took his Crown from him, and turn'd him with his whole Family out of the City, for a certain Crime committed by his Son.

Q. What was that?

A. Sextus, who imagin'd that his High Birth would carry him out in every thing, having beheld Lucretia the Wife of Collati­nus, he was struck with her Beauty; but as he could not hope to satisfy his Passion easily, (for besides that she was a Lady of the seve­rest Virtue imaginable, she was married to a Prince of the Royal Family), he was re­solv'd to ravish her.

Q. How was that effected?

A. In the night time he enters her Cham­ber, [Page 30] claps his Dagger to her Breast, and threaten'd to kill her, if she did not comply with his Desires.

Q. These Menaces, did they affright her?

A. No.

Q. What did Sextus then to accomplish his Intentions?

A. Seeing nothing was able to move this Illustrious Lady, he tells her, That after he had killed her, he would kill her Slave like­wise, and leave him in her Bed, and then publish abroad, that he kill'd them both in the Act of Adultery.

Q. Then this Consideration prevail'd with her.

A. Yes: For she rather chose to surren­der her Body to the Passion of Sextus, than suffer her Memory to be dishonoured by so black a Calumny.

Q. What did she after this?

A. After she had shown this weakness, she hides a Dagger under her Gown, and sends to find out her Husband Collatinus, her Brother Lucretius, and her Cousin Brutus, who were encamp'd before Ardea: She complained to them of the Brutal Action of this libidinous Prince, begg'd them to re­venge the Injury done to her; and imme­diately drawing out the Dagger from under her Gown, she struck it into her Belly, being resolved not to survive the Loss of her Ho­nour.

[Page 31] Q. What did Brutus do after she was d [...]ad?

A. He draws the bloody Dagger out of Lucretia's Wound, and swore by her Chaste Blood▪ That he would chase Tarquin and all his guilty Family out of Rome.

Q. How long did Tarquin reign?

A. Twenty four Years.

Q. Where dy'd he?

A. In Tuscany, after having made several Efforts in vain to re-possess himself of Rome.

Of the Alteration in the State of Rome. Year of the World 3545. Of Rome 245.

Q. AFter Tarquin was turn'd out of Rome by Brutus, by whom was the City govern'd?

A. By Consuls.

Q. When began this Government?

A. 245 Years after the Foundation of Rome, and 510 before the Birth of Jesus Christ.

Q. What were these Consuls?

A. Certain Magistrates, in whose hands the Sovereign Authority was lodged for a Year only.

Q. What was their Office?

A. To command the Armies.

Q. Who were the two first Consuls?

A. Brutus and Collatinus.

[Page 32] Q. Was not the Consulate t [...]ken away from Collatinus?

A. Yes.

Q. Wherefore?

A. Because he carried the Name of Tar­quin, which was odious to the People.

Q. Whom did they put in his place?

A. Valerius Publicola.

Q. What is remarkable of B [...]utus?

A. That he for a long time counterfeited the Madman, to avoid Tarquin's Cruelty, who had put to death Marcius Iunius his Fa­ther, and his Brother, with several more of the Senators.

Q. What did he do besides this, worthy of remembrance?

A He lov'd his Country so intirely, that he beheaded two of his Sons for conspiring against the Republick.

Q. By whom was that Conspiracy car­ried on?

A. By the Deputies whom Tarquin had dispatch'd to Rome, to negotiate the Affair of his Restoration.

Q. Where did Brutus dye?

A. He lost his life soon after, fighting with Aruns the Son of Tarquin, in a Battel a­gainst those of Tarquin's Party, and the Ve­jentes who espous'd his Quarrel.

Q. What happen'd to 'em in this Duel?

A. They ran one another through with their Lances.

The Wars which the Romans were oblig'd to maintain.
  • [Page 33]THE Hetruscan War.
  • The War of the Latins.
  • The War of the Volscians.
  • The War of the Vejentes.
  • The War of the Gauls.
  • The Second War of the Latins.
  • The War of the Samnites.
  • The War of the Tarentines.
  • The first Punic War.
  • The second Punic War.
  • The War of Antiochus.
  • The War of Macedonia.
  • The third Punic War.
  • The War of Corinth.
  • The War of Portugal.
  • The War of Numantia.
  • The War of the Slaves.
  • The War of Iugurtha.
  • The War of Mithridates.

Q. Besides these, had they no Civil Wars?

A. Yes; they had two; the first between Marius and Sylla; and the second between Caesar and Pompey. 'Tis true, there were seve­ral Seditions, which shall be recounted in their proper place.

Q. For what reason did the Romans un­dertake all these Wars?

[Page 34] A. To defend their Liberty, preserve their Limits, protect their Allies, and enlarge their Empire.

The War of Etruria. The Year of the World 3547. Of Rome 247.

Q. WHich was the first War that the Romans were engaged in, after the Expulsion of their Kings?

A. That of Etruria.

Q. How did it begin?

A. Porsenna, King of that Countrey, be­ing resolved to support Tarquin's Party, came to besiege Rome with a powerful Army.

Q. How was it ended?

A. By the Valour of Horatius Cocles, and Mutius Scaevola's Bravery, which so effectu­ally daunted him, that he sent Deputies to the Romans to offer them Peace.

Q. How many Hostages did they give him?

A. Twenty young Ladies of the greatest Beauty and Quality in the City.

Q. What remarkable Action was it that Horatius Cocles perform'd?

A. He alone sustain'd for some time the Fury of the Enemies, who would have pas­sed the Bridge to enter the City; and at last when it was broken down, he threw himself into the Tiber, and swam cross it, without abandoning his Arms all this while.

[Page 35] Q. And Mutius Scaevola's Action, how was that?

A. He privately stole into the Enemies Camp, with a design to kill the King, but fail'd in his Attempt, for he mistook the King's Secretary for the King himself.

Q. What did they do to Scaevola after this unfortunate Disappointment?

A. He was taken and brought before Porsenna.

Q And after what manner did he behave himself there?

A. He puts his criminal Right hand which committed the mistake, into a Fire which happen'd to be there: And know, says he to the King, that Three hundred of us young Roman Gentlemen have conspir'd your Death.

Q. What effects did so resolute an Action produce?

A. Porsenna, affrighted at the Hardiness and Resolution of the Romans, offered them a Peace, and accepted of the above-mention'd Ladies by way of Hostages.

Q. What happen'd upon that?

A. Clelia, who was one of the Twenty that were given in Hostage to Porsenna, ha­ving sl [...]pt from her Guards, swims over the Tiber on Horseback, and came back to Rome.

Q What did they do to her when she was arriv'd there?

A. The Consul fearing lest the world would accuse him of Infidelity, was for sur­rendring [Page 36] her into Porsenna's hands, who sent her honourably back again to Rome, with some other young Romans, and made a Peace.

The War of the Latins. The Year of the World 3555. Of Rome 255.

Q. WHich was the Second War that the Romans were obliged to sustain?

A. That of the Latins, who took up Arms at the Instigation of Manlius, Son-in-Law to Tarquin.

Q. And after what manner did it end?

A. A bloody Battel that was fought near the Lake of Regilus, soon put an end to it.

Q. Who were the Generals of the two Armies?

A. Manlius was at the Head of the Latins, and Aulus Posthumius commanded the Ro­mans?

Q. Which side gain'd the Victory?

A. 'Twas in suspence for some time, but at last it declar'd it self in favour of the Ro­mans.

Q. How many Men were kill'd upon the spot?

A. There were Forty thousand Men slain in the Action: Thirty four thousand of the Latins, in which number was Manlius: And Six thousand of the Romans. After the Death of Manlius, the Tarquins lost all hopes of be­ing ever restor'd.

The War of the Volscians. The Year of the World 3559. Of Rome 259.

Q. WHich was the Third War the Ro­mans had?

A. That of the Volscians, and the Aequi.

Q. Why did they declare War against those People?

A. Because they continually disturbed, and annoy'd the Romans.

Q. When did this War begin?

A. In the Year of Rome 259, and it lasted for several Years

Q. By whom were the Volscians defeated?

A. By Quinius Cincinnatus, who after he had perform'd many Glorious Exploits for­merly, retir'd to his Country house, where he lived quietly, Tilling his Ground, and now was taken from the Plough to be made Dictator.

Q. What memorable things did he do?

A. By his Valour he sav'd the Army com­manded by the Consul Marcus Minutius, which was surrounded by the Enemy.

Q. After this Expedition, what became of Cincinnatus?

A. He peaceably return'd to his old Em­ployments at his Country-house.

Q. What other remarkable Things hap­pen'd during this War?

[Page 38] A. The Adventures of Coriolanus.

Q. Who was this Coriolanus?

A. He was a Roman Gentleman, whose Name was Martiu [...].

Q. Who gave him then the Sir-name of Coriolanus?

A. The Consul Martius, for having per­form'd wonders at the taking of Corioli.

Q. What befel him?

A. He was condemn'd to Banishment in the Year of Rome 263.

Q. Upon what account?

A. For having spoken contemptibly of the Tribunes.

Q. Whether fled he?

A. To the Volscians, as being the most in­veterate Enemies to the Romans, and con­sequ [...]ntly the fittest to execute his Revenge.

Q. What did he among the Volscians?

A. He engag'd them to renew the War with the Romans in the Year 263.

Q. Did he command their Troops?

A. The Volscians chose him for their Ge­neral with Tullius Accius, who at that time Commanded them.

Q. And what famous Exploits did he perform?

A. He signalized himself in several En­counters, wherein he always defeated the Romans.

Q. Did he always take the same advan­tage over the Romans?

[Page 39] A. No; for being encamp'd near the Gates of the City with a design to besiege it, vanquish'd by the Prayers and Tears of his Mother Veturia, and his Wife Volumnia, whom the Senate deputed to go and inter­cede with him, he abandon'd his Enter­prize, and drew the Army off in the Year 266.

Q. And what was done by way of Re­compence to so fortunate a Mediation?

A. They built a Temple, which was con­secrated to the Fortune of the Women.

Q. What was the end of Coriolanus?

A. Accius becoming Jealous of him, or­der'd him to be assassinated by ten or a do­zen Villains, who accused him of Treason.

Q. Had the Volscians any other Wars but what are already mention'd?

A. Yes; but the Death of Coriolanus occa­sion'd their Ruin, for they were intirely de­feated in a famous Battel by Spurius Cassius.

Q. After all these Conquests, did this Spu­rius Cassius enjoy himself long?

A. No; for three Years after he was thrown headlong from the Tarpeian Rock.

Q. How came this misfortune to befal him?

A. Because he was accused of a design to get himself declared King. 'Twas he, who was Author of the * Lex Agraria, in the Year 268.

The War of the Vejentes. The Year of the World 3571. Of Rome 271.

Q. WHen began the War of the Ve­jentes?

A In the year of Rome 271.

Q. Who declared it against them?

A. The Fabians.

Q. How came that about?

A. The Family of the Fabians begg'd of the People of Rome to leave the Manage­ment of the War to their care, and they would undertake it at their own Expence.

Q. How many were there of this Illustri­ous Name?

A. Three hundred.

Q. And how came they off?

A. After having frequently defeated their Enemies, they unluckily fell at last into an Ambuscade, which the Vejentes had prepar'd for them, and by this means the Fabians were wholly cut off in the Year of Rome 277.

Q. Near what place did this defeat befal them.

A. Near the River Cremera, and the Gate through which this Honourable Family sal­lied out of Rome, was call'd the Scelerata, or wicked.

Q. Had the Vejentes always such Suc­cess?

[Page 41] A. No, for the Year following the Con­sul Servilius put an end to this War by an over [...]hrow he gave them.

Q. Did not he put an end to other Wars besides this?

A. He had frequent Rencounters with the Volscians, who were often beaten, and par­ticularly by Quintus Capitolinus.

Q. What other considerable Actions did Capitolinus perform?

A. In the Year 286, he took Antium, the Capital City of the Volscians.

Q. Did he do nothing else?

A. Ten years after the Taking of this Ci­ty, being call'd from his Country-seat, where he employ'd himself in cultivating his own Grounds, he was created Dictator, and in that Quality overcame the Aequi, and made them first pass * under the Yoak.

Q. By whom was the City of the Vejentes taken?

A. By Camillus, the Dictator, after a Siege of Ten years continuance, in the Year of Rome 358.

Q. By what means did he take it?

A. By undermining it.

Q. What particular Passages happen'd at this Siege?

A. The Soldiers were resolved not to re­turn home till they made themselves Masters [Page 42] of the Place, and bound themselves by a solemn Oath to observe it. And this was the first time that they begun to pass the Winter under Tents.

Q. This same Camillus, did not he Signa­lize his Valour upon other occasions?

A. He brought the Fidenates into Subje­ction, and the City of Falisci, but by a very gen [...]rous Action.

Q. How was that, I pray?

A. A School-Master put the most consi­derable Children for their Birth in the Town, into his Hands, expecting to get a mighty Reward for his pains; but Camillus order'd him to be stript stark naked, and so to be soundly whipt from his Camp to the City, whither he sent him with all his Boys.

The War of the Gauls. The Year of the World 3663. Of Rome 363.

Q WHen began the War of the Gauls?

A. In the Year of Rome 363.

Q. Where did it first break out?

A. Having entred Italy, to the number of above a Hundred thousand Men, out of an Expectation of finding a mighty booty there, they first besieged Clusium.

Q. Did not the Romans take the part of the Clusians their Allies?

[Page 43] A. Yes, they sent Ambassadors to the Gauls, who instead of hearkning to them, rais'd the Siege of Clusium, and marched di­rectly to Rome.

Q. What did the Romans do when they heard of their March?

A. They sent Fabius the Consul to oppose their coming with a powerful Army.

Q. And did a Fight hereupon ensue?

A. A most bloody Battel was fought near the River Allia, where the Roman Army was intirely defeated.

Q. And what did the Gauls after this ter­rible Conquest?

A. They immediately entred the City of Rome, finding the Gates open, and the Place abandon'd.

Q. And how did the Gauls behave them­selves, being now Masters of the Town?

A. They effectually plunder'd it, and coming into the Senate-house, massacred all the Senators, and afterwards burnt the whole City down to the ground.

Q. What did they besides?

A. After all this Ravaging and Desolati­on, Brennus who commanded the Gauls, be­sieged the Capitol, whither the Roman Youth retired with Manlius.

Q. How long did this Siege continue?

A. Six whole months, after which Bren­nus order'd a great number of Ladders to be made, designing to attempt the Scalade of it in the Night.

[Page 44] Q. And did his design take effect?

A. It had certainly succeeded, if Manlius and the rest of the besieged had not been a­waken'd by the noise of some Geese in the Garison, and beaten back the Gauls that were already got upon the Ramperts, and thrown down headlong those that were up­on the Ladders

Q. Did the Gauls abandon the [...]lace upon this?

A. No; they hop [...]d to carry it at last by Famine, but Manlius perceiving their Design, threw abundance of Loaves into their Camp, to let him see they were not straitned for Provisions.

Q. Were they not weary of so long a Siege?

A. Right, and sent to tell the Besieged, they would draw off and leave their City, provided they would give them a thousand pounds of Gold.

Q. Did any remarkable Accident happen during this Capitulation?

A. Camillus, who had been banished some time ago, and recall'd with all speed to come to the Relief of the City, arrived thither at the Head of Forty thousand men, whom he had pick'd up in his March, beats the Gauls out of Rome, and afterwards pursuing them for two or three Leagues, gives them an en­tire defeat.

Q. What does he after this Victory?

[Page 45] A. He returns to Rome in Triumph, and stops the People who would have fain gone to live at Veii, because Rome was all burnt down, with such powerful Arguments, that he perswades them to remove the Rubbish, clear the Ruins, and build a new City.

Q. How long was it Re-building?

A. Not above an Year.

Q. And how was this War ended at last?

A. After, the Gauls were wholly defeated by Manlius and Dolabella.

Q. How happen'd the Death of Manlius, whom they Sir-nam'd Capitolinus?

A. 'Twas after his having defended the Ca­pitol, and intrieguing to make himself King, that he was thrown headlong from the top of that very Capitol, which he had defended with so much Gallantry.

Q. What memorable Passage fell out in the Year 393 of the Building of the City.

A. A Gulf a peared in the midst of the publick Place, which they could fill up by no manner of means.

Q. Were not the Augurs consulted upon this?

A. Yes.

Q. And what an Answer did they return?

A. That it would never close again till the most precious thing in Rome was thrown into it.

Q. And what Method did they take?

A. At the very time, when they were most perplexed to find out this precious [Page 46] thing, Marcus Curtius mounts his Horse, leaps into it all armed as he was, and the Gulf immediately closed up.

The War of the Latins. The Year of the World 3714. Of Rome 414.

Q. WHo declared War against the La­tins?

A. The Romans did in the Year of Rome 414.

Q. Wherefore did the Romans declare War against them?

A. Because they pretended to have a Right to the Privileges of Roman Citizens, a share in the Government, and bearing of all Of­fices.

Q. What remarkable things happen'd in the Course of this War?

A. The first is, That a Young Gentleman of the Latins singling himself out of the Ar­my, to Challenge any Roman to Fight him; young Manlius, Son to Manlius Torquatus the Consul, rides up to him, fights him, and kills him.

Q. And what Reward had Manlius for so brave an Action?

A. But a sorry one; for his Father order'd his Head to be struck off before the whole Army, for having violated the Military Dis­cipline.

Q. What were these Orders?

[Page 47] A. The Consuls had issued out an express Prohibition for any one to quit his Post, till the Signal for the Battel was given.

Q. What was the second Remarkable Thing?

A. 'Tis this; Decius, the Consul, devoted himself for his Country, by running into the midst of the Enemies.

The War against the Samnites. The Year of the World 3711. Of Rome 411.

Q WHen did the war against the Sam­nites begin?

A. In the Year of Rome 411.

Q. Why did the Romans declare War a­gainst them?

A. 'Twas at the Request of the Campani­ans, who had put themselves under the pro­tection of the Romans.

Q. How long did this War continue?

A. It lasted Fifty years.

Q. What Accidents of Note happen'd in this Interval.

A. Two things that deserve to be re­mark'd. The first is, that the Samnites finding themselves not strong enough to Engage the Romans by force of Arms, were oblig'd to have recourse to an Artifice.

Q. Tell me how it was manag'd?

A. They chose Ten of the Craftiest Soldi­ers out of the Army, and apparell'd them like [Page 48] Shepherds, then they gave each of them a small Flock of Sheep, and having instruct­ed them in all they were to do, posted them on the Road where the Roman Army was to pass.

Q. Well, and what did these Shepherds do so merrily burlesqu'd?

A. Being in their respective places, they were met by the Van-Couriers of the Army.

Q. And what Questions did they ask them?

A. Whether they knew where the Army of the Samnites was gone.

Q. What answers did these counterfeit Shepherds return?

A. That they had actually besieged Lu­ceria.

Q. Upon this Advice what did the Ro­mans do?

A. 'Twas resolv'd to march to the Re­lief of this City, because it was a place of great Importance to them.

Q. And what followed upon that Reso­lution?

A. The Army of the Romans being shut up in the Defiles through which they must of necessity pass before they could reach this place, the Samnites fell vigorously upon them, plunder'd them of all their Arms, and made them pass under the Yoke.

Q. Did not the Romans soon after revenge this Affront?

[Page 49] A. Yes; for some time after, Fa­bius and Papyrius defeated the Samnites in­tirely.

Q. Which is the second thing that is to be remark'd?

A. That young Decius in a Battel against the Samnites, and the Gauls who had join'd them, perform'd the same that his Father had done upon a like occasion, that is to say, he devoted himself to Death, and flung himself into the midst of his Enemies.

The War against the Tarentines. The Year of the World 3772. Of Rome 472.

Q. WHy did the Romans make War up­on the Tarentines?

A. Because they pillag'd a Fleet belong­ing to the People of Rome, and ill treated the Ambassadors that were sent to complain of this Injury.

Q. When was the War declared against them?

A. In the Year 472, and with that Suc­cess, that L Aemilius Barbula defeated them, together with the Samnites and Salentines that came to their Assistance.

Q. And what Shifts did this overthrow put them upon?

A. It obliged them to beg Relief of Pyr­rhus in the Year 474, who Transported a vast Army into Italy, wherein he had abun­dance [Page 50] of Elephants, Animals till that time utterly unknown to the Romans.

Q. How many Battels were fought during this War?

A. Two that were considerable ones. The first was fought in Campania near Heraclea: And the second in Lucania.

Q. What was the Success of this first Bat­tel?

A. The Romans under the Conduct of Le­vinus had the worst on't; but they were vanquish'd rather by the disorder the strange sight of those huge Elephants put them into, than by the Forces of Pyrrhus.

Q. Were store of Prisoners taken here?

A. Yes; but upon Fabricius his redemand­ing them, Pyrrhus sent them all back with­out taking Ransom for them.

Q. What did Pyrrhus after he had gain'd this Battel?

A. He visited the Field where this Scene was trans [...]cted, and observing that the Ro­mans still grasp'd those that had given them their Death's wound; that Dead as they were, a certain Fierceness appear'd in their Looks, and that all their Wounds were ho­nourably received before; he cry'd out in a great Amazement, Oh! how easy a mat­ter were it for me to Conquer the whole World if I had the Romans for Soldiers, or the Romans had me for their King!

Q. What did Pyrrhus after this?

[Page 51] A. He dispatch'd Ambassadors to Rome with considerable Presents to endeavour to accommodate the matter between the Taren­tines and them.

Q. The Ambassadors being sent back, what did Pyrrhus ask them at their return?

A. He demanded of them what they thought of Rome? and they immediately an­swer'd him, That their City seem'd to be a Temple, and their Senate an Assembly of Gods.

Q. Did not the Romans bring a Second Army into the Field?

A. Yes: Nay, they were so incredibly di­ligent, that Pyrrhus in mighty admiration said of them, Without question, I am born under the Constellation of Hercules. I have a fine time on't here to cut off the Heads of my Enemies, since new ones perpetually a­rise from their Blood, like those of Hidra, to persecute me.

Q. Well, and what was the Success of this Second Battel that was fought in Luca­nia?

A. Those very Elephants that gain'd Pyr­rhus his first Battel, lost him the second.

Q. How happen'd that?

A. It so fell out, That one Caius Minutius cut off the Trunk of one of the Elephants, which made the Creature cry out so furious­ly, that he afrighted his fellows; so away they ran back upon their own Forces, broke their Ranks, and put the Army into so [Page 52] strange a Confusion, that it was no difficult matter for the Romans to defeat them.

Q. What follow'd after this Battel?

A. Pyrrhus's Physician came to Fabricius, offering to Poyson his own Master; but the Generous Consul sent him back to Pyrrhus, who commanded him to be immediately hanged.

Q. After this overthrow, where did Pyr­rhus turn himself?

A. He goes into Sicily to assist the Syra­cusans against the Carthaginians; but this Ex­pedition not succeeding to his Expectation, he goes back into Italy in the Year 479, where he was beaten, and his Camp forc'd by the Romans.

Q. After this last Defeat, whither did he go?

A. After he had quitted Italy, he return'd into Epirus, having been employ'd Six Years in the Tarentine and Sicilian War.

Q. And what happen'd after the Retreat of Pyrrhus?

A. The Romans having defeated the Ta­rentines and Samnites, the Conquer'd were obliged to submit to the Conquerors, so they entr'd into an Alliance with those of Rome, in the Year 482.

Q. What farther progress did the Romans make?

A. They attack'd the Salentines, and at last the Punic War started up, which prov'd to be the longest and most dangerous War that the Romans had hitherto experienced.

The First Punic War. The Year of the World 3790. Of Rome 490.

Q. WHen began the first Punic War?

A. In the Year of Rome 490, two Years after the return of Pyrrhus into Epirus.

Q. What occasion'd it?

A. The Ambition and Jealousy of Car­thage.

Q. Who were the Authors of this War?

A. The People of Messina on one side, and Hiero King of Syracuse, an Ally of Carthage, on the other.

Q. How came this about?

A. This King, in Conjunction with the Carthaginians, declar'd War against the City of Messina; and the Romans resolving to Succour the Messineses, because they had been always their good Friends, sent over an Army into Sicily, under the Conduct of Ap­pius Claudius.

Q. What was the Success of it?

A. It was a long time uncertain, altho the Carthaginians were Masters at Sea, and the Romans at Land.

Q. But which side obtain'd the Victory in the mean time?

A. Appius Claudius, the Roman General, defeated Hiero, and having oblig'd him to demand a Peace, he obtain'd it upon easy terms.

[Page 54] Q. What happen'd sometime after?

A. Duilius put out to Sea.

Q. Was not he the first of the Romans that gain'd a Naval Victory?

A. Yes.

Q. About what time did this happen?

A. In the Fifth Year of the War.

Q. After what manner?

A. The Gallies of the Carthaginians which were light and nimble, were over-power'd by those of the Romans that were short and heavy; and by this means, their dexterity in managing their Oars was of no service to them, and their whole Fleet was either Ta­ken or Sunk.

Q. What other remarkable Passages hap­pen'd?

A. The Romans gain'd some other Ad­vantages over the Enemy; but their Consul Catilinus was surrounded on every side in the Streights of Camarina, into which he was imprudently got, and was as happily deli­vered.

Q. By what means, and by whom was this effected?

A. By the Valour of Calpurnius Flamma, a Tribune, who with a Detachment of Three hundred chosen men, fell upon the Enemies main Body, which kept that De­file.

Q. What did the Carthaginians do in this Juncture?

[Page 55] A. They turn'd all their Forces immedi­ately upon Calpurnius, and so the Romans had an opportunity to make their Escape out of this narrow place.

Q. But how did Calpu [...]nius's Three hun­dred men come off?

A. They were all cut in pieces.

Q. But did their Leader make a shift to save himself.

A. Yes; but he was wounded in six or seven places.

Q. How did this War conclude?

A. A Second Engagement at Sea put an end to it.

Q. Who gain'd the Victory?

A. Caius Lutatius in the Twenty third year, near the Isle of Aegates, and this Victory put a period to the War.

Q. Who commanded the Carthaginian Fleet?

A. Hanno was their Admiral.

Q. What were the Conditions of the Treaty of Peace?

A. That the Carthaginians should Surren­der Sicily, Sardinia, and all the other Isles that are between Afric and Italy, to the Ro­mans; and that for Twenty years, they should pay them Twelve hundred Talents.

Q. Who signalized himself in this War?

A. Attilius Regulus, who took Tunis, and several other Cities belonging to the Cartha­ginians, and at last went to lay close Siege to Carthage it self.

[Page 56] Q. Without doubt this obliged the Cartha­ginians to sue for a Peace?

A. Right.

Q. And was Regulus willing to grant it?

A. Not unless it were upon very hard Conditions.

Q. When the Carthaginians saw that, what Course did they take?

A. They were necessitated to give the Command of their Army to Xantippus, Cap­tain of the Lacedaemonians.

Q. What remarkable Actions did this Ge­neral perform?

A. He gave the Romans a great overthrow, kill'd Thirty thousand upon the place, and took Fifteen thousand Prisoners, among whom was Attilius Regulus.

Q. In what place was this Battel fought?

A. Near Clupea.

Q. What did they do with Regulus?

A. They sent him to Rome to Treat with the Senate about the Exchange of Prisoners.

Q. And did he perswade the Romans to treat of a Peace?

A. No: far from that, he endeavour'd as much as in him lay to hinder them from making one; telling them the Affairs of Carthage were in a very Bad condition, and that they ought never to leave off till they had utterly ruin'd them.

Q. What became of him then at his return to Carthage?

[Page 57] A. Having told them the Romans would by no means hearken to a Peace, unless they would submit to their Authority, the Car­thaginians put him to Death.

Q. What Torments did they make him endure?

A. They shut him up in a Barrel, stuck full of Nails, with the Points towards him.

Q. And thus the first Punic War was end­ed?

A. Right, after Twenty three years losses on both sides.

Q. Was not the Temple of Ianus shut soon after?

A. Yes; the first time since Numa's Reign.

Q. Was it long before it was open'd a­gain.

A. No; for the Romans were soon after obliged to fight against the Ligurians, the Liburnians, and the Insubrian Gauls, who were often beaten.

Q. By whom?

A. The Ligurians and Liburnians by Ful­vius; and the Insubrian Gauls, who had Britomarus to head them, by Aemilius.

Q Were not the Gauls likewise defeated by others?

A. Flaminius vanquish'd them when Ario­vistus was their General; and they received another overthrow from Marcellus, who slew their King Viridomarus with his own hand.

The Second Punic War. The Year of the World 3814. Of Rome 514.

Q. WHen did this Second War begin?

A. Twenty four years after the first?

Q. What was the occasion of the Second War?

A. The Ambition of Annibal, the Son of Amilcar. Besides, the Carthaginians grew now impatient of their Twenty four years of Ser­vitude, and of having paid a Tribute to the Romans for so long a time.

Q. But how came Annibal to forward it so mightily?

A. Because his Father, who carried him, when he was but Nine years old, into Spain, made him solemnly Swear at the foot of an Altar, never to be reconciled to the Ro­mans.

Q. What happen'd during this War?

A. At the end of Nine years War, Amil­car was slain, and his Son-in-Law, Asdrubal, set up in his room.

Q. What befel Asdrubal after this?

A. He was slain Eight years after in Bat­tel, and Annibal succeeded him.

Q. What did Annibal do when he saw himself General of the Carthaginians?

A. Fearing lest the same misfortune that happen'd to his Father Amilcar and Asdrubal, [Page 59] should attend him, if he did not go upon some Generous Expedition, he made him­self Master of all the Provinces of Spai [...] that reach as far as the Ebre.

Q. And what did he next attempt?

A. He made his Army march into the Territories of the Oscades, whom he reduced under his obedience, and soon after possess'd himself of all the Cities thereabout, but especially those belonging to the Capertans and the Vacceans.

Q. Whither did he shape his course after this?

A. He march'd to attack Saguntus, a City of Spain, and an Ally of the Romans.

Q. What did the Romans do upon this occasion?

A. They sent Ambassadors to Carthage to complain of the Injury that was done to the Saguntines, and of the Infraction of the Trea­ty of Peace by this means.

Q. What sort of an Answer was return'd them?

A. They were forc'd to return home, ve­ry ill satisfied with the Answer of the Car­thaginians.

Q. What did the Saguntines do upon this refusal?

A. Harass'd with the continual Fatigues of a Nine Months Siege, and prest by Fa­mine and want of Provisions, they demand­ed to capitulate; but Annibal persisting to treat them with too much indignity, they [Page 60] chose rather to perish than to trust them­selves in the hands of so cruel a man.

Q. And what did these people do, being thus reduced to despair?

A. After they had buried their Gold and Silver in the ground, they made a great Bon­fire in the midst of the Town, into which the greatest part of the Garison leap'd, and the rest were inhumanely kill'd.

Q. After the taking of this City, what did they do with it?

A. They laid it level with the ground.

Q. When the Romans heard of these Outrages, how were they affected?

A. They dispatch'd Ambassadors to Car­thage, to know of them whether they ap­prov'd of the procedure of Annibal.

Q. And how were they receiv'd?

A. Fabius, one of the Ambassadors, seeing them demur upon the Point, told them they had nothing to do but to chuse either Peace or War; and all of them immediately cry­ing out War, War, the Ambassadors imme­diately departed.

Q. Whither did the Ambassadors go be­fore they return'd to Rome?

A. They visited Spain and Gaul, to desire the people of those Nations not to give Pas­sage to the Carthaginians.

Q. Did they accomplish their designs?

A. No; for those of Spain being affright­ed by the sad example of Saguntus, and the Gauls by the great Success of Annibal's [Page 61] Arms, they refused this Embassy as a ridicu­lous Proposition.

Q. Where resided Annibal?

A. He past the Winter at New Carthage, then return'd to Cales, where after he had perform'd his Vows to Hercules, he renew'd his Ancient Oath.

Q. What was it that instigated him to do it again?

A. An extraordinary Dream, which fill'd him with joy, and put him upon the Reso­lution to march into Italy with his Army.

Q. And how did Annibal employ himself before his arrival into Italy?

A. At first he made himself Master of the Ilergetes, the Bargusians, the Ausetans, and all Aquitain.

Q. Whither went he afterwards?

A. He pass'd the Pyrenaean Mountains, then he march'd through Gaul, notwithstanding the opposition of the people, who were o­bliged to give way. At last he came to the foot of the Alpes.

Q. Did not Annibal's Army find it a dif­ficult matter to climb these Mountains?

A. 'Twas troublesome enough, as well for the height of the Rocks, which seem'd to touch the Skies, as for the Snows which made the ways almost impracticable. Be­sides, that the Inhabitants of the Hills were no small impediment to them in their March.

[Page 62] Q. Did Annibal then accomplish this vast Design?

A. Yes: For having with an undaunted Courage undertaken to climb the Hills, on the ninth day he found himself on the top of them.

Q. When he was there, what did he make his Soldiers remark?

A. He shows 'em all Italy, lying at a great distance, bidding them look upon that vast Country as the certain Recompence of their Toil and Labour.

Q. Was not Annibal more perplex'd to get down the Hills, than he was in climb­ing up?

A. Right: For the Frost rendred the ways every where so slippery, that there was no steddy walking; besides the Moun­tain was so steep in some places, that there was scarce any other way of getting down, but by catching hold of the Twigs and Branches of Trees that grew between the Rocks.

Q. How then did he make a shift to reach the Valleys?

A. He made use of Fire, Iron, and Vi­negar, to open a way through the Rocks; and thus having passed the Alpes in the space of Fifteen days, he came into Italy with a Hundred thousand Foot, and Twenty thou­sand Horse.

Q. Where was it that Annibal first gave Battel to the Romans?

[Page 63] A. Between the Po and the Ticinus.

Q. What was the Success of it?

A. The Roman Army was overcome.

Q. Who had the Command of it?

A. Scipio the Consul.

Q. Was he not wounded?

A. Yes; and had certainly been taken by the Enemy, if the Valour of his Son, who was afterwards sirnam'd Africanus, had not forc'd him out of their hands.

Q. When did Annibal give the second Battel?

A. A short time after the first.

Q. Where was it fought?

A. At the River Trebia.

Q. How was the Event of it?

A. No happier for the Romans than the last: Sempronius and his whole Army was there defeated, and Annibal triumphantly pass'd the Appennines.

Q. What did Annibal do the year follow­ing?

A. He came into Etruria after a March of four days and three nights in the midst of Bogs and Morasses, without reposing him­self, which so fatigu'd him, that he lost an eye.

Q. What happen'd to him after this?

A. 'Twas in this place that Flaminius the Consul, a man of great rashness and preci­pitation, fell into the Snares which Annibal had laid for him, he was slain, and his Army put to the Rout near the Lake of Trasimene.

[Page 64] Q. How many Romans lost their lives in this Battel?

A. Near Fifteen thousand slain, and some Ten thousand put to flight, and dispers'd all over Etruria.

Q. Did not some remarkable Accident happen after this Battel?

A. 'Tis reported that two women la­menting their Children at one of the Gates of the City, whom they suppos'd to be dead, seeing them unexpectedly return, were so fill'd with joy, that the excess of it kill'd them.

Q. After this great Overthrow, what was done at Rome?

A. The people being assembled, consult­ed the Books of the Sybils, where they found, That all these Misfortunes were only owing to the Indignation of the God Mars.

Q. What Resolutions did they form up­on this Discovery?

A. They vow'd to celebrate a Holy Spring; and after that, in the absence of the Consuls, the people created Fabius Ma­ximus Dictator, and M. Minucius Rufus Master of the Horse.

Q. Where was Annibal at that time?

A. He was advanced as far as Spoletum, which obliged the two Consuls Aemilius Paulus, and Terentius Varro, to hasten with their Army.

Q. Where did the two Armies meet?

A. Near Cannae, a small Town scituated [Page 65] in Apulia: Here did Varro put his men in a posture to receive the Enemies.

Q. Was this a bloody Fight?

A. Yes; for there was near Forty five thousand Romans slain, with Fourscore Se­nators, and Paulus the Consul himself was killed.

Q. What remarkable Passages happen'd in this Battel?

A. The Consul Paulus having been wounded, was in the midst of the hurry and confusion found covered with blood and dust, by a Collonel of the Army.

Q. What said this Officer to Paulus, seeing he was still alive?

A. Take my Horse, and fly for your self.

Q. And what answer did Paulus make him?

A. No, no; use him your self, cries he, with a dying voice, and go to Rome, and bid the Senators from me fortify the Town be­fore Annibal comes to attack it.

Q. Did he say any thing else to him?

A. Above all, tell Fabius Maximus, that I have liv'd, and that I now dye re­membring his Orders and Counsels; so leave me here to expire amidst this horrible Slaughter of the Romans.

Q. Did the Slaughter continue a long time?

A. So long, that Annibal commanded his Soldiers to desist; and so great, that he sent to Carthage Three Bushels of Golden Rings, [Page 66] taken from the Fingers of the Roman Knights that were kill'd.

Q What happen'd after the Battel of Cannae?

A. Some young Romans were debating amongst themselves to abandon Italy.

Q. And had their design like to have pass'd in this Assembly?

A. Publius Cornelius Scipio, a Collonel in the Army, who was after sirnamed Africanus, drew out his Sword, and swore he would kill the man who would not take an Oath never to go out of Rome.

Q. Did not the Romans desire a Peace?

A. No; they were so far from demanding a Peace of the Carthaginia [...]s, that receiving advice that the Consul Varro, whose rashness was in part the cause of that cruel Loss, was on his way home, all the City went out to meet him, to thank him because he had not despair'd of the Safety of the Common­wealth.

Q. What do they say of Annibal?

A. That if he had known how to make use of a Victory, as well as he did how to get one, Rome had been utterly ruin'd.

Q. Where was Annibal then?

A. Near Capua, which he reduced under his Obedience, as well as a great part of Italy.

Q. Had he always the better on't?

A. No; for Capua proved as fatal to him, as Cannae had been to the Romans.

Q. How came that about?

[Page 67] A. Because he and his Army abandon'd themselves to the Effeminacies and Pleasures of that place, and staid a long time there, so that he never thought of pursuing his Con­quests, which gave the Romans time to take breath again.

Q. What did the Romans do in this Exi­gence?

A. All the Roman Youth, the Magistrates, nay, even the Slaves, took up Arms.

Q. What did Fabius Maximus do in the mean time?

A. He endeavoured by delays and amuse­ments to weaken Annibal.

Q. What did the Romans attempt with their Army?

A. They laid Siege to Capua.

Q. And was Annibal idle?

A. No; thinking to make them raise the Siege, he marched directly towards Rome?

Q. And what happen'd to him?

A. A sudden Tempest arising just as he was going to fight Fulvius, he was oblig'd to return back without fighting.

Q. Was it long before Capua surrendred?

A. No.

Q. How did the Romans use them?

A. They took away all their Privileges.

Q. What followed after the taking of Capua?

A. Asdrubal going to join his Brother Annibal, who lay then in Apulia with a powerful Army, was defeated by the Con­suls [Page 68] Claudius Nero, and Livius Salinator.

Q. After this Battel, what did Nero do?

A. He caused Asdrubal's Head to be thrown into the Carthaginian Camp; which Annibal seeing, he immediately cried out, I perceive my self now to be unfortunate.

Q. What was Scipio doing in Afric in the mean time?

A. He cut in pieces Hanno's Army, the General of the Carthaginians, and took Pri­soner Siphax King of Numidia, who had quit­ted the Romans, and taken the side of the Carthaginians.

Q. Wherefore did Scipio pass into Afric?

A. 'Twas done with a design to remove Annibal out of Italy.

Q. And did it succeed?

A. Yes.

Q. What did Annibal do before he left Italy?

A. He exercis'd a thousand Cruelties in the Towns that continued still under his Power; nay, he order'd all the Italians that were in his Army to be massacred.

Q. What happen'd upon Annibal's arrival into Afric?

A. A bloody Battel was fought near Zama.

Q. On which side did the Victory fall?

A. Annibal being defeated by Scipio, de­spaired of retrieving his Fortune there, and so fled into Asia.

[Page 69] Q. The Carthaginians being thus van­quish'd, what became of them?

A. They were oblig'd to submit to the Peace allow'd them by the Romans.

Q. What name was it that Scipio obtain'd by this Expedition?

A. That of Africanus.

The War of Macedonia. The Year of the World 3850. Of Rome 550.

Q. WHen did the Macedonian War be­gin?

A. A little after the Peace of Carthage, in the year of Rome 550.

Q. For what Reasons did the Romans un­dertake this War?

A. As well for the ancient quarrel they had to Philip King of Macedonia for joining with Annibal when he was Master of Italy, as for the several Complaints their Allies, and especially the Athenians made of them.

Q. Who first open'd the War?

A. King Philip.

Q. How did he begin it?

A. By the Siege of Abydos.

Q. What became of the Inhabitants of that place?

A. Philip reduced them to such an extre­mity, that after the example of the Sagun­tines they chose to kill themselves.

Q. Was Philip always thus successful?

[Page 70] A. No; for four years after he was de­feated by Flaminius at the * Cynocephalae in Thessaly.

Q. Did Philip lose abundance of men there?

A. He lost Thirteen thousand, reckoning the Dead and the Prisoners.

Q. Was a Peace granted him at last?

A. Yes, on that condition he would lay no more pretensions to any of the Cities of Greece.

Q. The Liberty of Greece then was the Price of this Victory?

A. Right; for all the Cities of Greece, except Sparta, were free.

Q. Was that City always in a servile condition?

A. No; for in the year 561, Philopaemen having kill'd the Tyrant Nabis, made them associate with the Achaeans.

The War of Antiochus. The Year of the World 3862. Of Rome 562.

Q. WHen began the War of Antiochus against the Romans?

A. In the Year of Rome 562.

Q. What made him declare War against them?

[Page 71] A. He was instigated to it by Annibal, who was then a Refugee in his Court.

Q. And how came he off?

A. Having been beaten both by Land and Sea, as well by the Consul Lucius Scipio, Bro­ther to him sirnamed Africanus, as by the Courage and good Conduct of his Brother, he was forced to beg a Peace.

Q. On what Terms was it given him?

A. That he would quit all the Places on this side Mount Taurus.

Q. Did not Lucius Scipio for this Exploit merit the name of Asiaticus?

A. You are in the right.

The second Macedonian War. The Year of the World 3883. Of Rome 583.

Q. WHat did Philip King of Macedonia do all this while?

A. He wholly employ'd himself in making Preparations for a new War.

Q. Had this Philip any Children?

A. He had two, whose names were Perses and Demetrius. This last was given in Hostage to the Romans, who entertain'd him very respectfully.

Q. Were there no Divisions between the Brothers?

A. Yes; and so managed, that their Fa­ther Philip put Demetrius to death, whom the Jealousy of Perses, and the kind Treatment he receiv'd at Rome had render'd suspicious to him.

[Page 72] Q. What was the Consequence of all this?

A. The year following, Perses, who inhe­rited the hatred and designs of his Father against the Romans, declared War against them.

Q. What was the Success of this War?

A. Aemilius the Roman General entirely defeated Perses in the Year 586.

Q How many Macedonians lost their lives upon this occasion?

A. There were Thirty thousand of them slain.

Q. How did this War conclude?

A. With the final destruction of the King­dom of Macedonia.

Q. Did Perses continue there?

A. No; he engag'd himself in the Inte­rests of Gentius King of Illyrium, who met with the same d [...]stiny.

Q. How did that happen?

A. He was overcome by Anicius the Prae­tor; and the same year both Anicius and Aemilius triumph'd at Rome, one over Gen­tius, and the other over Perses, and each King marched before the Chariot of his Conqueror.

Q. In what year did this fall out?

A. In the year 587 of Rome. Thus Mace­donia and Illyrium were reduced into the form of Provinces.

Q. After these mighty Victories, no body I suppose thought it dishonourable to submit to the Romans?

[Page 73] A. No; for after the Defeat of Antiochus, and the Reduction of Macedonia, several Kings and Nations strove, and were ambi­tious to be under their Protection.

Q. Among these Kings, were there not some that show'd themselves more forward than the rest?

A. There were two, Eumenes King of Asia, and Prusias King of Bithynia, sirnamed the Hunter; but Eumenes was suspected of some under-hand dealing.

Q. What was that?

A. To have secretly favour'd the Party of Perses.

Q. What method did he take to clear himself of this Suspicion?

A. He sent his Brother Attalus to Rome, who had b [...]gg'd his Brother's Kingdom for himself, if a Physician appointed to bear him company in this Journey, had not hin­der'd his design.

Q. And what did Prusias on his side, to engage the Romans to support him?

A. He scandalously flatter'd them, having caus'd some Medals to be coin'd in Honour of the Senate, which he treated as a Divinity, and the Senators, whom he call'd his Tute­lar gods.

The Third Punic War. The Year of the World 3905. Of Rome 605.

Q WHen did this Third Punic War be­gin?

A. In the year of Rome 605.

Q. What gave occasion to it?

A. 'Twas because the Carthaginians viola­ted the Articles of Peace, and declar'd War against Massinissa, who was an Ally of the Romans.

Q. And what Resolutions did the Senate make hereupon?

A. 'Twas unanimously decreed to follow the advice of Cato the Censor, which was to destroy the City of Carthage entirely.

Q. And to effect it, what Measures were t [...]ken?

A. Censorinus and Manilius the Consuls marched directly to the City.

Q. What did the Carthaginians to avert the Storm?

A. They sent Deputies to them to know what Satisfaction it was they demanded.

Q. What answer was return'd them?

A. That it was the Will and Pleasure of the Senate, that they should demolish their City even to the Foundations, and remove themselves at least Ten Miles from the Sea.

Q. So harsh a Proposition, how did it [Page 75] relish with the high spirits of the Carthagi­nians?

A. It possess'd them with so vigorous an Indignation, that they made a much greater Resistance than could be expected from so feeble an Enemy.

Q. And what was the Result of all?

A. In the fourth year of this War Car­thage was taken by Publius Cornelius Scipio, who burnt and wholly destroy'd it.

The War of Corinth. The Year of the World 3907. Of Rome 607.

Q FOR what reason did the Romans de­clare War against the People of Co­rinth?

A. Because of their ill treatment of the Roman Ambassadors, as also because they brought over the Achaeans to their own Party.

Q. How did their Affairs succeed?

A. They were defeated by the Praetor Metellus in two Battels, near the Thermopylae, and in Phocis, in the year of Rome 607.

Q. And what was the destiny of Corinth?

A. Mummius the Consul, after he had made himself Master of all Achaia, order'd Corinth the Capital City of that Nation to be burnt down to the ground.

Q. What remarkable matter happen'd in the burning of it?

[Page 76] A. Different Metals being melted toge­ther, accidentally form'd the famous Co­rinthian Brass, on which the Romans set a higher value than Silver, and which in suc­ceeding times was imitated by a mixture of several Metals, on which they bestow'd the same name.

The War of Portugal. The Year of the World 3908. Of Rome

Q. WHO occasion'd the War of Por­tugal?

A. A Prince whose name was Viriatus, who had usurp'd the Sovereignty of that Country.

Q. By whom was that Country retaken?

A. By Quintus Fabius.

Q. What did they do to Viriatus?

A. They made a Peace with him.

Q. And after the Treaty was ratified, what became of him then?

A. The year following Cepio the Consul, without having any regard to the Treaty, fell suddenly upon Viriatus, and treacherously put him to death.

The Destruction of Numantia. The Year of the World 3913. Of Rome 613.

Q. WHEN did the Ruin of Numantia begin?

A. Sixteen years after that of Carthage, the very same Scipio who had destroy'd that famous City, and thence acquir'd the name of Africanus, went to besiege Numantia.

Q. What incited Scipio to be angry with them?

A. The Numantians had refus'd to sur­render to the Romans some Rebels who had taken shelter among them.

Q. And how did they behave them­selves?

A. Tho they were inferior in number to the Enemy, yet for Nine years together they resisted the whole Power of Rome; nay▪ they fatigu'd and harass'd two or three of their Armies.

Q. But at last how went their Affairs?

A. Scipio the Destroyer of Carthage having sat down before the Town, shut up the be­sieged within their own Walls, where they all kill'd themselves out of despair.

Q. And what became then of the City of Numantia?

A. It was raz'd to the ground; and thus all Spain became a Province of the Romans.

[Page 78] Q. What other considerable Actions did the Romans about this time perform?

A. They made themselves Masters of Ma­cedonia the Third time.

Q. What was he who had possess'd that Kingdom for some years before?

A. His name Andriscus, a sorry, obscure, pitiful Fellow, who pretending to be the Son of Perses had enter'd that Kingdom with very considerable Forces, in the year 605.

Q. Did he continue long in the possession of this Kingdom?

A. No; for the year following he was defeated by Cecilius Metellus the Praetor, who kill'd him Twenty five thousand men. This Victory made him take the name of Mace­donicus.

The War of the Slaves; and others about the same time. The Year of the World 3921. Of Rome 621.

Q. WHO was the chief of these Slaves that excited the War?

A. Ennus, a Syrian by birth, who coun­terfeiting a Divine Revelation, encourag'd his Brother Slaves to revolt.

Q. How many of these Slaves did he mu­ster in a Body together?

A. About Seventy thousand.

Q. And what memorable Exploits did he perform.

[Page 79] A. He defeated four Roman Praetors; but in the Year 622. he was vanquish'd by the Consul Rupilius.

Q. What remarkable thing happen'd in the year 621?

A. Attalus died, and by Testament left the People of Rome his Heirs.

Q. Did not this alienation make some Malecontents at home?

A. Yes; for it so happen'd that Aristoni­cus, Natural Son to Eumenes, being discon­tented at this procedure, possess'd himself of Asia, and cut in pieces the Army of the Prae­tor Crassus.

Q. This Aristonicus, I suppose, was not al­ways victorious in the Field?

A. No; for in the year 624 he was van­quish'd by the Consul Perpenna.

Q. Was not the abovemention'd year re­markable for something else?

A. Right, for the Death of the second Africanus, who was found dead in his bed; his Wife being suspected to have poison'd him.

Q. Did not the Romans signalize their Valour upon some new occasion?

A. In the year 629 they first attack'd the Inhabitants of Gallia Transalpina, and begun with the Salians and Allobroges.

Q. Who put a Period to that War?

A. Fabius the Consul, by defeating Bi­tuitus King of the Arverni in a pitch'd Battel.

[Page 80] Q. How many men did the King lose in this Action?

A. About Twenty six thousand. The Bat­tel was fought near Isera; and 'twas at this time that Gallia Narbonensis was reduc'd to the condition of a Roman Province.

The War against Jugurtha. The Year of the World 3943. Of Rome 643.

Q. WHAT was the Original of this War?

A. 'Twas because Iugurtha King of Nu­midia, Bastard Son of Micipsa, had ravish'd the Kingdom from the two Legitimate Chil­dren of the King his Father, and unjustly dispossess'd them of it.

Q. What did Micipsa's Children do in this Exigence?

A. They implor'd the Assistance of the Roman People, who immediately declar'd War against Iugurtha.

Q. And who carried the Victory?

A. Iugurtha; but he defeated the Ro­mans rather by his private Liberalities, than by the force of his Arms.

Q. But did he still prevail?

A. No; Metellus the Consul, who was a man not to be bribed against the Interest of his Country, was sent against him, and had the better of him in several Engagements.

[Page 81] Q. What other ill successes attended Iu­gurtha?

A. Marius compleated his Destruction, and at last he was delivered into the hands of his Conqueror, through the Treachery of Bocchus King of Mauritania.

Q. And what became of Iugurtha then?

A. He was carried Prisoner to Rome, and after he had served to adorn the Triumph of Marius, died in his Confinement.

Q. When did that happen?

A. In the year 647, about the time when Cicero was born.

Q. Did Marius perform any more consi­derable Exploits?

A. Some time after this, in his fourth Con­sulate, he exterminated the Teutones and the Ambrons.

Q. Did he do any thing else to immorta­lize his Name?

A. He, together with Catulus, defeated the Cimbrians, who had design'd to force their way into Italy.

Q. How many of the Enemies we [...]e slain?

A. There were Twenty six thousand kill'd, and Sixty thousand taken Prisoners▪

The War against Mithridates. The Year of the World 3960. Of Rome 660.

Q. WHEN began this War?

A. About the Year of Rome 660.

Q. Who was this Mithridates?

A. King of Pontus.

Q. Why did the Romans make War a­gainst him?

A. Because he had turn'd out Ariobarza­nes King of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes King of Bithynia, and possess'd himself of their Dominions.

Q. What Method did these two Princes take to be re-establish'd in their Kingdoms?

A. As they were Allies of the Romans, they demanded assistance of Sylla, who at that time was Praetor.

Q. And did Sylla take their part?

A. He immediately took up arms, and ha­ving ejected the Usurper by Force, he resto­red A [...]iobarzanes and Nicomedes to their own Country again.

Q. But how did Mithridates bear this Ejection?

A. He employ'd all his Efforts so suc­cessfully, that he turn'd them out the second time one after the other; but they were again reestablish'd by the Authority of the Senate.

[Page 83] Q. Was not Mithridates somewhat daunt­ed, to see himself attack'd by Nicomedes and the Romans?

A. Far from that: He levied a mighty Army, and enter'd Cappadocia and Bithynia?

Q. What did he particularly do in the Kingdom of Bithynia?

A. He defeated the Roman Army, and on a day appointed order'd all the Italians that were in Asia to be massacred.

Q. Did he make any farther Advances?

A. He made himself Master of Macedonia, Thrace, and Greece.

Q. Did not the Romans endeavour to stop the progress of his Conquests?

A. Sylla, who was then Proconsul, parted from Rome to hinder his Designs: He imme­diately recover'd Athens out of his hands, and afterwards compell'd him to make a Peace; in pursuance of which he was to abandon Asia, Bithynia, and Cappadocia.

Q. Did Mithridates stir no more?

A. Some years after he renew'd the War in Asia; but Lucullus the Consul beat him both by Land and by Sea.

Q. Whither did he retire after this Over­throw?

A. At first he resided in his Kingdom of Pontus, but finding himself still pursued by Lucullus, he was obliged to take Sanctuary in Armenia, and beg the Protection of Ti­granes.

Q. And did Lucullus still march after him?

[Page 84] A. Having follow'd him into this Coun­try, he there defeated the Two Kings, whose Army consisted of Two hundred thousand Foot, and Sixty thousand Horse.

Q. What were the Effects of this Battel?

A. The Taking of Nisiba, and Tigranocetta the Capital City of Armenia.

Q. Was not Lucullus gloriously recom­penc'd for all these Heroick Actions?

A. No; for his Soldiers refusing to stand by him, he was forced to give way to Pom­pey, who had the Management of this War devolved upon him after Lucullus.

Q. What Remarkable Exploits did this new General perform?

A. He joyn'd the Iberians and Albanians to the Roman Empire, as he pursued Mithridates.

Q. What was the end of that Unfortu­nate Prince?

A. Seeing himself prest hard on every side, he was thinking to make the best of his way into Gaul, and shelter himself there, but the Revolt of his Son Pharnaces, toge­ther with that of his Army fully compleated his Ruin.

Q. After what manner died he?

A. He endeavour'd ineffectually to dis­patch himself by Poyson; and after several vain Attempts to hasten Death that way, was forced to Stab himself. Histori [...]ns fre­quently mention him for his great skill in Languages; and an Antidote of his own In­vention still bears his Name.

[Page 85] Q. When did this War fully terminate?

A. In the Year 691 under Cicero's Con­sulate, after it had lasted Forty years.

The Civil War between Marius and Sylla. The Year of the World 3966. Of Rome 666.

Q. WHat was the Cause of the Civil war between Marius and Sylla?

A. Ambition on both sides.

Q. What stands Marius charg'd with?

A. He procures the Command of the Ar­my design'd against Mithridates for himself, by the means of Sulpitius, the Tribune, who by his own Authority had tak [...]n it away from Sylla.

Q. And what did Sylla for his part?

A. Enraged at this Usage, he enters Rome with an Army, puts to death Sulpi­tius, the Author of this whole Intrigue, and beats out Marius, who thereupon fled into Afric.

Q. What became of Marius?

A. Having got Men enough together to make a small Army, he went to joyn Cinna, who w [...]s ejected out of Rome by Octavius his Colleague.

Q. And what happen'd to him after­wards?

A. Sertorius and Carbo, having likewise joyn'd these two great Men with abundance [Page 86] of their Friends, they resolv'd all four to march directly towards Rome.

Q. When they had entred the City, what did they do?

A. They made a most terrible Slaughter there.

Q. After this cruel Revenge was over, what does Marius next?

A. He gets himself to be declar'd Consul now the Seventh time, and dies the Year following.

Q. When Marius was dead, what Mea­sures did Sylla take?

A. Having concluded a Peace with Mi­thridates, he came back into Italy in the Year 672, and after he had vanquish'd Carbo Nor­banus, and Marius the Younger, enters Rome, and makes himself be created Dictator.

Q. Being elevated to this Dignity, how did he behave himself?

A. He in his turn banishes all those of the contrary Party, sends back the greatest part of the Senators, but especially Sertorius; and proscribes so great a number of them, that 'tis said, they amounted to Two thousand.

Q. After all this Havock and Destruction, what became of Sylla?

A. He resign'd the Dictatorship at the end of Three years.

Q. And was not that very acceptable to the People of Rome?

A. They were so well pleas'd at it, that when he died the Year following, they or­der'd a most magnificent Funeral for him.

[Page 87] Q. Were no considerable Persons of Ma­rius's Party remaining?

A. None but Sertorius, who had retired into Spain; but Metellus assisted by Pompey, made War against him.

Q. And did the Event answer his Expe­ctations?

A. He frequently fought him without a­ny extraordinary Success to boast off; till be­ing at last assassinated by his own People, Pompey in a short time reduced all Spain un­der the Obedience of the Romans.

The Taking of Jerusalem. The Year of the World 3691. Of Rome 691.

Q. AFter Pompey in Conjunction with Crassus, had defeated the Slaves that rebell'd, and had clear'd the Seas of Pyrates, what did he next?

A. He march'd into Iudea to determine some Difference which arose between the Two Brothers, Aristobulus and Hircanus, concerning the Kingdom of Iudea.

Q. What did he there?

A. Having been ill receiv'd by Aristobulus, he took Ierusalem by force, and made them level the Walls of it.

Q. What was remarkable during the Siege?

A. He had so great a Respect for the Temple, that he prohibited his Soldiers to [Page 88] touch the least thing belonging to that Sacred Place.

Q. And what did he do afterwards?

A. He makes Iudea a Tributary Province of the Empire; sets Hircanus on the Throne, and carried the Proud Aristobulus chain'd and bound to set off the Triumph, which he celebrated at Rome.

The War between Caesar and Pompey. The Year of the World 3993. Of Rome 693.

Q. WHat was the principal Cause of this War.

A. 'Twas Ambition occasion'd all those Calamities which the Roman Empire suffer'd during the Course of this War.

Q. How happen'd it?

A. Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus, seeing themselves to be the most powerful Men of the Republick, made a League together, and so concerted Matters, that the Administra­tion of all Affairs wholly rested on them. This Government was commonly call'd the Triumvirat.

Q. What did Caesar to confirm his Treaty?

A. He gave his Daughter in Marriage to Pompey.

Q. How did they share the Empire be­tween them?

A. Caesar took the Government of Gaul. Pompey that of Spain. Crassus that of Syria, [Page 89] which he therefore demanded, because he expected to make great Advantages of that rich Province.

Q. After they had thus divided it, what did they do next?

A. Caesar and Crassus went each of them to their Government. Pompey staid at Rome, and contented himself to send his Lieute­nants into Spain.

Q. Which was Crassus's first Action in Sy­ria?

A. He pillag'd the Temple of Ierusalem, and carried away all its Riches.

Q. Was he not soon after punish'd for this Sacrilege?

A. Yes; for in an Expedition against the Parthians, he was entirely defeated by Surena, General of their Army.

Q. What happen'd to him in this Battel?

A. He lost the greatest part of his men there, his own Son was slain, and having the misfortune himself to fall into the Hands of the Enemy, they cut off his Head, which being carried to Orodes, King of the Parthi­ans, he caus'd his Mouth to be open'd, and pouring some melted Gold into it, said, Now satisfy thy self with Gold, of which thou hast always been so desirous?

Q. What did Orodes mean by so doing?

A. He only laugh'd at his Avarice, which influenced him to undertake that War.

Q. After Crassus was dead, how did Cae­sar and Pompey order Matters?

[Page 90] A. Pompey not enduring to bear an Equal, nor Caesar a Superior, they mutually envied one another.

Q. What Measures did Pompey take?

A. He prevail'd with the Senate to recal Caesar from his Government, as soon as his time was expir'd, and to Disband his Ar­my.

Q. And did Caesar comply with these In­structions?

A. As he rightly apprehended, that his Conquest of Gaul had created him several Enemies, and very well saw whither this tended, he sent them word, That he was resolv'd to put himself in a Condition to de­fend himself against his Enemies, and that he would not dismiss his Army, unless they would oblige Pompey to do the same.

Q. How did they receive his Proposal?

A. They would not hearken to it, which obliged him to assemble all his Forces to­gether, and march immediately towards Rome.

Q. Did not Pompey endeavour to hinder his March?

A. Caesar's sudden Expedition so afrighted him and his whole Party, that they soon abandon'd Rome and Italy, and pass'd into Greece.

Q. What did Caesar do in the mean time?

A. He enter'd Rome, plunder'd the Pub­lick Treasury; and after he had staid a short time there to compose the Tumults of the [Page 91] City, he went into Spain, and beat Afran̄ius and Petrejus, Pompey's Two Lieutenants, out of the Country.

Q. As he return'd, what did he do?

A. He made himself Master of Marseilles, and entring Rome the second time, he took Possession of the Dictatorship, which the Praetor Lepidius had procur'd to be conferr'd upon him in his Absence.

Q. What did he afterwards?

A. He passed over into Greece to find out Pompey, and having besieged him near * Dyrrachium in Albania, he was so rudely receiv'd, and his Army beaten after such a manner, that if Pompey had known to make the best Use of his Victory, Caesar, even in his own Confession, had been intirely de­feated.

Q. Where did Caesar March after this small overthrow?

A. He got his Troops together, and march'd towards Thessaly.

Q. Did any remarkable Action happen there?

A. Yes; for Pompey having pursued him thither, they fought in the Plains of Phar­salia.

Q. On which side fell the Victory?

A. Pompey's Army was totally routed. As for himself, he fled towards Egypt to Ptolo­my, who was then very Young.

[Page 92] Q. What happen'd to Pompey?

A. As soon as 'twas known at Court, that he was ready to Land, Theodotius per­swaded the King to murder him, in order to engage Caesar to leave him in the quiet Possession of his Kingdom.

Q. And did Ptolomy suffer himself to be so perswaded?

A. Yes; for he immediately sent Achillas and Septimius to Receive and Compliment him on his part; and when they had him alone in a Cock-boat, they immediately assassinated him in the very sight of the Ves­sel where his Wife and Children were.

Of Seditions. The Year of Rome 261, 303, 377.

Q. WHat were the Causes of all those Seditions, that so often threatned the Commonwealth?

A. The Ambition, Pride, and Insolence of the Tribunes.

Q. How many of them have you observ'd in History?

A. Five Principal Ones.

Q. When did the first begin?

A. In the Year 261.

Q. What occasion'd it?

A. The Tyranny of the Usurers.

Q. How happen'd that?

[Page 93] A. The People being no longer able to endure their Cruelty, which proceeded so far as to treat them like Slaves, retir'd in Arms to the Sacred Hill: But being appeas'd by the Seasonable Discourse of Menenius Agrippa, who entertained them with the Fa­ble of the Belly, and the other Members, they return'd to Rome.

Q. What Privilege did they then extort before they came back?

A. They obtain'd certain Magistrates to defend the People against the Violence of the Senators.

Q. How were these Magistrates call'd?

A. Tribuni Plebis, or the Tribunes.

Q. When began the Second Sedition?

A. In the Year 303.

Q. What occasion'd it?

A. The Arbitrary and Unlimitted Power of the Decemviri.

Q. How came it about?

A. When these Decemviri, or Ten Men, who were chosen by the People to reduce the Laws they brought from Greece into one Body, had fully compriz [...]d [...]hem in the Duo­decim Tabulae; yet they still kept up and maintain'd that Authority, which was only delegated to them for the Execution of this Design.

Q. What is remark'd of Appius Claudius, one of these Decemviri?

A. That his Insolence proceeded so far, as to carry off Virginia, with a design to Ravish her.

[Page 94] Q. What became then of Virginia?

A. Virginius, the Father of this Young Woman, kill'd her with his own Hand in the Forum, as Claudius would have had her dragg'd off, after he had declared her his Slave.

Q. What Effects did this produce?

A. It stirr'd up all the People against the Decemviri.

Q. What did they do to them?

A. They put them all in Prison.

Q. What occasion'd the Third Sedition?

A. It happen'd upon the Subject of Mar­riages, the People being resolved it should be lawful for them to Marry with the Patri­cians.

Q. Where did this Tumult break out?

A. In the Ianiculum, by the management of Canuseius, Tribune of the People.

Q. When did the Fourth Sedition begin?

A. In the Year of Rome 377.

Q. What was the Cause of it?

A. Ambition of Honours.

Q. Wherefore?

A. Because the People would be admitted to Publick Employments, as well as the No­bility.

Q. How did that happen?

A. Lucius Stolo, and Lucuis Sextius, Tri­bunes of the People, having preferr'd a Law, which ordain'd that one of the Consuls should be always chosen out of the Plebeians; the Senators oppos'd it with all their Autho­rity.

[Page 95] Q. And the Tribunes on their side, what did they?

A. They hindred the making of any Cu­rule Magistrate, so that there was a sort of Anarchy in Rome for the space of Five years.

Q. Which of them carried the Point at last?

A. The People, and Lucius Sextius, was the first that was chosen out of their Body.

Q. What was the Cause of the Fifth Se­dition?

A. The Gracchi occasion'd it by their en­deavouring to re-establish the Agrarian Law.

Q. How did that happen?

A. Tiberius Gracchus being desirous to ob­tain the good will of the People, demanded to have the abovementioned Law put in Exe­cution.

Q. What was the intent of that Law?

A. All the Citizens of Rome were by it forbidden to possess in Land, above Five hundred Acres.

Q. And what was their design in getting it restor'd?

A. To enjoyn all those that possess'd any more to give their Lands up, and distribute them among the People.

Q. Did not all the Nobility vigorously op­pose it?

A. Yes; but't was to no purpose, for this Law was authoriz'd by the Senate.

[Page 96] Q. And what did he do afterwards?

A. He made his Colleague Octavius quit his Office, because he would have stopt the Execution of this Law.

Q. What happen'd to him at last?

A. This good Success having rendred him insupportably Proud, Scipio Nasico caus'd him to be Assassinated as he came out of the Capitol.

Q. Was not his Death revenged?

A. Caius Gracchus, his Brother, in order to effect it, promises the People to get them all that Wealth which Attalus at his Death bequeath'd to the Romans: The Senate was so highly provoked at his Arrogance, that they offer'd the weight of it in Gold, to any one that should bring his Head.

Q. What then became of Caius Grac­chus?

A. He got one of his Slaves to kill him, finding himself pursued by the Consul Opi­mius; and he that found his Body, cut off his Head, took out his Brains, and fill'd it with melted Lead, to make it weigh the more.

Q. Besides these Five Seditions, do you observe no more?

A. Yes.

Q. Inform me concerning them?

A. Posthumius refusing his Soldiers the pil­lage of Volae, which he had promis'd them, a Sedition arose in the Camp, where he was stoned to Death.

[Page 97] Q. What other Seditions can you recount to me?

A. Under Appius Claudius, the Roman Ar­my would not vanquish that of the Enemies, altho it lay in their Power. There happen'd several little Mutinies, that don't deserve to be particularly mention'd.

Q. Give me some instance of the Distrust or Jealousy of the Romans.

A. They were so jealous of having the least Invasion made upon their Liberty, that they often sent the most Illustrious of the Nobility into Banishment, whenever they suspected that they design'd to arrogate too much Power to themselves.

Q. Pray give me an Example of it?

A. There was in the first place, Coriolanus banish'd for having served them too well; and Camillus was sent abroad for the same reason.

Q. Wherefore do they say Camillus was exiled?

A. Because the People were possest with an imagination, that this Great Man had not equitably divided the Booty taken from the Vejentes, between them and the Army; so they believed he had a design to secure him­self of the Hearts of the Soldiers, in order to enslave the People.

Q. Give me one other Demonstration, I beseech you, that the Romans were so jea­lous of their Liberty.

[Page 98] A. They put Spurius Cassius, and Sparius Melius to Death, because they suspected them; the first for endeavouring to revive the Lex Agraria; the second for his Largesses or Donatives to the People.

Q. Who kill'd Spurius Cassius?

A. 'Twas his own Father that executed Justice upon him; and as for the other, Ser­vilius Ahala, General of the Horse, kill'd him in the midst of the Forum, by the order of Quintius Cincinnatus.

Q. And Manlius, how died he?

A. He was thrown headlong from the top of that very Capitol, which he had so gene­rously defended.

Q. For what reason?

A. Because he had deliver'd several poor Debtors from the Clutches of their Credi­tors; 'twas observ'd he carried himself too high, and did not contain himself within the Bounds of a private Citizen.

Q. How many Roman Generals do you observe there were, that kill'd the Generals of the Enemies Army with their own hands?

A. Three; viz, Romulus, who kill'd Ac­ron, King of the Cecinians; Cornelius Cossus, who kill'd Tolumnius, King of the Vejentes; and Marcellus, who slew Viridomarus, King of the Insubrian Gauls.

Q. Recount to me the Action of Curtius?

A. In the Year 395. a Gulf appear'd in the middle of the Forum; and as 'twas impos­sible [Page 99] to fill it up, altho they threw in never so much Wood, and Stones, and Earth, they had recourse to the Augars.

Q. And what Answer did they give them?

A. That it would never close again, till the most precious thing in Rome was thrown into it. Now as they were strangely per­plex'd to find it out; Marcus Curtius moun­ted on Horseback, and all in Armour rode into it, saying, That nothing was more precious than Arms, and Military Virtue.

Q. What was the design of Catiline's Conspiracy?

A. To kill Cicero, who was Consul, to set the City on Fire at the four Corners, to Plunder, and make themselves Masters of it; but this Plot was happily discovered.

Q. Who were concern'd in this Affair?

A. Lentulus, and Cethegus, and several other Senators.

Q. After this Conspiracy was discover'd what became of Catiline?

A. He was cond [...]mn'd to depart out of Rome; so he withdrew towards his Army.

Q. What was done to the other Conspi­rators?

A. They were all put to Death.

Q. What became of Catiline at last?

A. He was defeated, and his Army cut in pieces by Petreius, Lieutenant to Antonius the Consul, and himself kill'd upon the place.

A Chronological Table of the Emperors of Rome. From Julius Caesar to Augustus.

IN the Year 705 of Rome, 4005 of the World, Iulius Caesar made himself Empe­ror, and was Assassinated in the Senate on the Day of the Ides of March, in the Year 710. He was perpetual Dictator but Three Years, Four Months, and Six Days.

Augustus took the Empire in the Year 711 of Rome; and in 724. after the Death of Marc Anthony, he was sole Emperor, and thus held the Empire Fifty seven years, and the Monarchy Forty three years. He died in the Fourteenth year of the Christian Aera.

Anno Dom.Roman Emperors who Reign'd.YearsMonthsDays
68Galba 67
69Otho 35
69Vitellius 85
81Domitian.15 6

These are commonly call'd the XII. Caesars.

[Page 101]

Here follows the Catalogue of the rest.
Anno Dom.Roman Emperors who Reign'd.YearsMonthsDays
138Antoninus Pius226 
161Marcus Aurelius An­toninus19 10
161L. Verus9  
199Pertinax 226
193Iulianus 25
211Caracalla and Geta625
217Macrinus and his Son12 
222Alexander13 9
235Maximin and his Son2  
238Pupienus and Balbinus 10 
238The Gordiani6  
244Philip and his Son5  
249Decius and his Son3  
251Gallus and Volusian his Son24 
268Claudius II.2  
270Quintillus  15
275Tacitus 66
275Florianus 3 
[Page 102]276Probus64 
282Numerian, slain in the Year 284.   
282Carinus slain in 285   
304Galerius and Con­stantius2325
306Constantine the Great30927
337Constantine, Constance, and Constantius, Brothers.25513
361Iulian the Apostate1727
363Iovian 722
364Valentinian the Great 822
383Valentinian II.8821
392Theodosius the Great 822

Julius Caesar the first Roman Emperor. The Year of the World 4005. Of Rome 705.

Q. I Desire to be instructed in the Pedigree of Caesar?

A He was descended of one of the most Ancient Families of Rome by his Mother's side; and of the Kings of that City by his Father's.

Q. What was his Mother's Name?

A. Aurelia.

Q. Under whom did he learn the Art-Military?

A. Under Marius.

Q. Where did he first carry Arms?

A. In Asia.

Q. What sort of a Reputation had he there?

A. A very bad one, occasion'd by his Lewdness.

Q. To whom did he particularly apply himself?

A. To Pompey and Crassus, as being the most capable to advance his fortune, by rea­son of the great Interest they had in the Commonwealth.

Q. What was the first Office he was call'd to?

A. To be Aedile with Bibulus.

Q. What was the next?

[Page 104] A. He was Censor and Pontifex Maximus under the Consulate of Cicero.

Q. When was he made Praetor?

A. The year following.

Q. At his going out of the Praetorship, what did he next?

A. He obtain'd the Government of Spain?

Q. And what did he do there?

A. He perform'd several glorious Ex­ploits which deserv'd a Triumph, but he preferr'd the Consulship to that Glory, and at last obtain'd it in the Year 695. by the Assistance of Pompey and Crassus, to whom he joyn'd himself.

Q Being advanc'd to that high Dignity, what did he?

A. He distributed his Lands among the People of Rome.

Q And what happen'd to him after­wards?

A. By his Artifices and excessive Libera­lities, he so far establish'd himself in the good Graces of the People, that he procur'd the Government of Gaul to be conferr'd up­on him?

Q When did he go to take Possession of it?

A. In the Year 696.

Q. How long was he Governor there?

A. Nine years; during which time, he subdued all the Provinces that lye between the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Rhine, and the Rhone, and made them Tributary to Rome.

[Page 105] Q. Was not he the first Roman that ad­ventur'd to pass the Rhine?

A. Right, and built a Bridge over it, to go and give Battel to the Germans who were on the other side.

Q. What other remarkable Things did he perform?

A. He made a Descent likewise upon Bri­tain, which before him was unknown to the Romans.

Q. How often was Fortune contrary to him, during these Nine years.

A. Thrice: The first happen'd to him in Britain, where his Naval Forces had like to have been lost by a Tempest. The second in Gaul, where one of his Legions was in­tirely Defeated. And the third upon the Frontiers of Germany, where his Lieutenants sell into an Ambuscade, and were cut in pieces.

Q. Having plac'd good Governors in Bri­tain and Gaul, what did he next?

A. He repassed into Italy.

Q. And how was he received there?

A. Being at Luca, the Two Consuls, with above Two hundred Senators, and Four hundred Knights went to Congratulate him upon his great Conquests.

Q. What did he afterwards?

A. He demanded a Triumph, and the Con­sulship.

Q. Was it granted him?

[Page 106] A. No; for Pompey being jealous of Caesar's Glory, so manag'd his Cabals, that they refused him both one and the o­ther.

Q. How did Caesar bear this?

A. The Person whom he sent to Rome to make this demand, sets his Hand to his Sword, and tells them, that what they re­fused him, That, meaning his Sword, would give him?

Q. What follow'd upon this?

A. Caesar marches towards Rome, at the Head of his Army, which had Conquer'd the Gauls, and passes the Rubicon, a small River, which parted that Government from Italy.

Q. What was done at Rome in the mean time?

A. Pompey gets Caesar declar'd an Enemy to the Republick.

Q. And did this stop Caesar's Cariere?

A. He continues his March to Rome, which was abandon'd by Pompey and his Party.

Q. Whither went Pompey?

A. To Brundusium, from whence he e­scapes by Night into Epirus, where he was pursued by Caesar.

Q. Did not Caesar repass the Adriatic alone in a Fisherman's Boat?

A. Yes; and when the Master began to despond of safety, cheer'd him with Quid times, Caesarem vehis.

[Page 107] Q. Was there a Battel between them?

A. At first Pompey had great Advantages over him, and had certainly ruin'd him, if he had known how to have used his good fortune.

Q. How then did he miscarry?

A. Instead of protracting the War, and starving his Enemy, which he might easily have done, he fights Caesar at Pharsalia, where he was totally defeated in the Year 706. After this, he flies towards Egypt to King Ptolomy; but before he reach'd the Shore, his Throat was cut in the Long-boat by Achillas and Septimius.

Q. Was it not in this Voyage that Caesar became passionately in love with Cleopatra?

A. Yes; but her Brother Ptolomy, who thought to have obliged Caesar everlastingly by dispatching of Pompey, finding himself not so well receiv'd as he expected;

Q. Resolved to destroy him, did he not?

A. Right, and besieged him in the Pa­lace, where with a handful of Men, Caesar for a while kept off a Numerous Army; at last, by setting the Neighbouring Buildings on fire, where the finest Library in the World (which is supposed among a thou­sand other Curiosities now lost, to have had Solomon's History of Plants) was unluckily burnt to the ground, he makes his Escape to the Pharos, and from thence with his [Page 108] Sword in one hand, and his Commentaries in the other, Swims to his Fleet; and after he had entirely defeated Ptolomy's Forces, who was drown'd in endeavouring to save himself by flight, he puts the whole King­dom into the hands of Cleopatra.

Q. What Actions did Caesar perform af­terwards?

A. He beats Pharnaces, Son to Mithridates, who had assisted Pompey with his Troops in Thessaly.

Q. What was remarable in this Victory?

A. 'Twas so easy and sudden, that Caesar writ no more than these three Words to in­form his Friends of it, Veni, Vidi, Vici. When this was done, he vanquishes Iuba, King of Mauritania, who encouraged by L. Scipio and Cato, renewed the Civil War in Afric. Here he causes Afranius, and Three hundred Senators to be slain, who still con­tinued to support that Party.

Q. After his return to Rome, what did Caesar apply himself to?

A. To reform the Calender, and accord­ingly added Ten days to the Year, which Numa had made to consist of only Twelve Lunar Months, that is to say, of 355 Days; whereas by Caesar's new Alteration, it was made to consist of 365 Days, and 6 com­pleat Hours; reserving the six Hours to the end of every fourth year to make a compleat Day, which he placed before the 6th of the Calends of March.

[Page 109] Q. How was the Year named which con­sisted of 366 Days?

A. Bissextile; because the Sixth of the Calends was twice reckon'd that Year. This manner of Computation was called the Iu­lian, from Iulius Caesar the Inventor of it.

Q. When was Caesar declar'd Perpetual Dictator by the Senate?

A. After he had vanquish'd Pompey's Sons in Spain.

Q. What Honours did they pay him?

A. A Temple was dedicated to him as to a God, which so far possessed him with Pride, that he slighted them, and began to set up for a Sovereign.

Q. Was not this the Cause of the Con­spiracy that was form'd against him?

A. Yes.

Q. Who were the chief Contrivers of it?

A. Marcus Brutus, and L. Cassius, D. Bru­tus, and Trebonius.

Q. Was not his Death manifestly foretold by some strange Presages?

A. Yes; but he contemn'd and neglected them.

Q. What sort of Presages were they?

A. Some months before his Death, a cer­tain Astrologer, whose name was Spurina, told him, That the Ides of March would prove fatal to him. Calpurnia his Wife, the night before he was kill'd, dreamt that the Cieling of the House fell down, and that her Husband was murder'd between her [Page 110] Arms. Nay, the very day he was assassina­ted, having order'd some Beasts to be sacri­ficed, he found them all defective.

Q. These Prognosties, and his own In­disposition, did they not make him consider with himself for some time, whether he should go out or no?

A. They made that impression on him, that he was once minded to put off what he had to propose to the Senate till another day; but at last, at the repeated instances of Bru­tus, who represented to him that a [...]undance of the Senators were come to the House, and that they had waited for him a long time, he was prevail'd upon to go out about [...]leven in the morning.

Q. Being on his way thither, did not some Passages happen to him, which might very well incline him to return home?

A. Spurina the Augur met him to whom says Caesar with a laughing Countenance, Well, Spurina, behold the Ides of March are come. Right, said he, but they are not yet past. After that an unknown person presented him with a Petition in the streets, wherein he in­form'd him of the Conspiracy; but Caesar mingled them among some other Papers, telling him he would see immediately what it contain'd.

Q. What befel him after this?

A. Being arrived to the Senate-House, he was accosted by one Cimber, under pretence of supplicating him to recal home a Brother [Page 111] of his, who had been banished some days be­fore by a Decree of the Senate: But Caesar refusing then to do it, and referring it to another time, Cimber seized upon the two sleeves of his Robe; and Caesar crying out against this Violence, all the Conspirators, who had given one another the Signal, sur­rounded him, and stabb'd him.

Q. Who gave him the First Blow?

A. One whose name was Casea, who wounded him a little below the Throat.

Q. What happen'd aftewards?

A Caesar, who neither wanted Courage nor Vigor, seized upon his Ponyard, and made some effort to escape, but being at the same time run through in several places, and perceiving among the other Assassines Mar­cus Brutus, for whom he always exprest a mighty tenderness, he says to him in Greek, What, you too, my Son! and then covering his Head with his Robe, he fell down at the feet of Pompey's Statue, having received Twenty three Thrusts.

Q. What became of his Body?

A. The whole Assembly immediately breaking up, his Body was carried to his own House by Three of his Slaves.

Q. Was he buried in any State?

A. Marc Anthony celebrated his Funeral after a most magnificent manner.

Q What did Anthony when he made his Funeral Oration?

[Page 112] A. He caused Caesar's Robe, which was still bloody, to be brought to him.

Q. And what said the people at this mournful sight?

A. It so sensibly affected them, that they ran through all parts of the City with Torches in their hands, to burn the Conspi­rators Houses.

Q. What Remarkable Accident hap­pen'd in this Confusion?

A. One Helvius Cinna, a Tribune of the People, having the Misfortune to meet the Mob in the midst of their Fury, was cut in pieces, because they took him for Cornelius Cinna, one of the Assassines.

Q. What became of the Conspirators?

A. The two Brutus's, Cassius, and the rest of them, seeing this terrible Disorder in Rome, left the Town, and retir'd to their respective Governments.

Q. Was any thing done in Honour to Cae­sar's Memory?

A. The People erected a Pillar to him in the Forum, Twenty Foot high, with this Inscription, Patriae Patri.

Q. Did they do nothing else?

A. They order'd the Gates of the Palace where he was murder'd to be walled up; that the Ides of March should for the future be call'd the Parricidal Ides; and that the Se­nate should never meet on that day.

Q. What was observable of these Mur­derers?

[Page 113] A. That none of them died a Natural Death.

Q. How old was Caesar when he was kill'd?

A. Fifty six years, whereof he had reign'd five.

Q. Was he not much mortified at his Baldness?

A. Yes; because they often rallied him upon this account: For which reason he was always represented with a Crown of Lawrel.

Q What sort of a Temper was he of?

A. So strangely abandon'd to his Plea­sure, that his open Familiarities with Nico­medes King of Bithynia, expos'd him to the Laughter and Invectives of the whole world. He was call'd Queen of Bithynia by Bibulus, who was his unactive, untalk'd-of Brother Consul.

Q. Was not he extremely given to Wo­men?

A. He debauch'd several, and those of the highest Quality, among the rest, Posthumia Wife to Servius Sulpitius; Tertulla Wife to M. Crassus; and Mutia Wife to Pompey: But the Lady with whom he was principally in Love, was Servilia, Mother of that Brutus who assassinated him.

Q. What Princess was it that he most passionately adored?

A. Cleopatra, with whom he frequently spent whole nights a feasting; nay, he had bore her company as far as Aethiopia, but [Page 114] that his Soldiers positively refus'd to follow him.

Q. Did not he carry her to Rome with him?

A. Yes; where he receiv'd her with all imaginable respect, and loaded her with in­numerable Presents.

Q. Had he any Children by her?

A. He had a Son, whose Name was Cae­sario.

Q. What said Curio of him?

A. That he was the Man of all the Women, and the Woman of all the Men.

Q. Was not he a man of Learning?

A. He was the most Eloquent man of his time. He has left behind him some Orations, with a Commentary of his Actions: He could Write and Read at the same time, and Hear what was said to him: He made no­thing to dictate at once to Four Secretaries, nay sometimes to Seven, upon different oc­casions. His History, tho naked and un­adorn'd, is writ in a most Pure and Elegant Stile, and has been valued by all Nations. Henry the Fourth of France, who resembled him in his Unfortunate End, as well as his Heroic Actions, translated that part of it in­to French, which related to the War of the Gauls. Quintilian says of him, That he Spoke, Writ, and Fought, with the same Spirit.

Q. How many Wives had he?

A. Four; Cossutia, Cornelia, Pompeia, and Calpurnia.

[Page 115] Q. From whence was Cossutia descended?

A. She came of an Equestrian Family, and was extremely rich; but he repudiated her, to marry Cornelia. Cornelia was Daughter to Cinna; by her he had Iulia, who was after­wards Pompey's Wife. Pompeia was Daugh­ter to Claudius Pompey, and Niece of Sylla; he married her after the Death of Cornelia, but got himself soon divorced from her, upon a suspicion of her having committed Adultery with Claudius, in the Temple of the Goddess Bona.

Q. What was Caesar used to say of Pom­peia?

A. That it was not enough for a Wo­man to be chaste, but she must likewise take care to avoid all Suspicion.

Q. Who was Calpurnia?

A. She was the Daughter of Piso.

Q. What Learned Writers were Contem­poraries with Iulius Caesar?

A. Lucretius the Epicurean Poet; Salust that admirable concise Historian; Tully that excellent Orator; and, not to mention any more, Cornelius Nepos the Biographer, or Writer of Lives; and Catul [...]us the Epi­gramatist.

Q. Give me the Portraicture of Iulius Caesar?

A. The Turn of his Face was Oval; his Forehead smooth, a Roman Nose, Black Lively Eyes, his Lips large, his Complexion White and Lovely, of High Stature, the [Page 116] Fore-part of his Head bald: His Constitu­tion, which was naturally weak, he im­prov'd by continual Exercise; his Humour was extremely pleasing, and his Conversa­tion agreeable; he had a strong Voice: There was something very Majestick and Noble in the Air of his Face: He was Easy with his Friends, Exact in his Military Disci­pline, Resolute in his Enterprizes, Ind [...]f [...] ­tigable in time of Danger. He often march­ed on foot, with his Head bare before his Soldiers, without fearing either the Rain or the Sun.

Augustus the Second Emperor. The Year of the World 4011. Of Rome 711.

Q. FRom whom was Augustus descended?

A. He was Caesar's Kinsman, as being Son to Accia the Daughter of Iulia, who was Caesar's Sister.

Q. Where resided he, when Caesar made him his Heir?

A. He followed his Studies at Apollonia, a City of Macedonia.

Q. Who was it that took Augustus's part against Anthony?

A. Cicero, because he refus'd to give him Caesar's Will, upon the score of his being too young.

Q. What course did Anthony take?

[Page 117] A. He left Rome with an Army which he had got ready, and went to besiege D. Brutus in * Mutina.

Q. What did the Romans do in this Jun­cture?

A. Hirtius and Pansa the two Consuls, with Octavius Caesar, on whom was conferr'd the Title of Proconsul, marched immediately against him with an Army.

Q Upon this Advice how does Anthony manage his Affairs?

A. He raises the Siege to meet them, and so both Parties came to blows.

Q. Was it a bloody Battel?

A. The two Consuls indeed lost their Lives there: However, Anthony was intirely routed, and Brutus set at liberty.

Q. After this defeat, whither went An­thony?

A. He was forced to fly to save his Life, and pass'd the Alpes with a small Retinue.

Q. Where did he retire for Protection?

A. He made his Applications to Lepidus Governor of Gallia Transalpina.

Q What methods did Octavius take, after he heard of the strict Alliance between An­thony and Lepidus?

A. He was desirous of coming into the same Conf [...]deracy, being disgusted at the Senate for refusing to make him Consul.

Q. How was this New League called?

[Page 118] A. The second Triumvirate.

Q. And what did Octavius after he was thus reconciled to Marc Anthony?

A. He prevails with him to come into Italy with Lepidus to confer together.

Q. Where was this Interview made?

A. In a small Island between Modena and Bolognia, where all three met.

Q. What Resolutions did they here fall upon?

A. Octavius promis'd Anthony to marry his Sister-in-Law.

Q. Was it not likewise concerted to re­venge themselves to the utmost upon the Murderers of Caesar?

A. Yes; and they divided all the Forces, and all the Provinces of the Empire between themselves.

Q. How did they divide the Empire?

A. They resolved that Anthony should have all G [...]ul, except the Provin [...]e of Narb [...], the Government of which fell to Lepidus's share, as did that of Spain; and that Caesar should command Afric, Sicily, and the other Isles.

Q. Who had the Charge of the War a­gainst Brutus and Cassius?

A. Caesar and Marc Anthony.

Q. What bargains did they m [...]ke in rela­tion to their mutual Enemies?

A. Augustus basely abandon'd Cicero to the Indignation of Anthony and he for his part abandon'd his own Unkle to the resent­ments of Octavius; Lepidus had a Brother [Page 119] named Paulus, whom he left to the discretion of the other two.

Q. Why was Cicero proscrib'd by Anthony?

A. Because he had cruelly gall'd him with those bitter Invectives the Philippies; which Orations were so called, in imitation of Demosthenes, who had formerly handled King Philip after the same free manner.

Q. Relate to me the manner of Cicero's Death.

A. He was slain by an ungrateful Mon­ster, whose name was Popilius, whom he had formerly defended. This profligate wretch having pursued him as he was going to make his escape into Greece, cut off his Head and his Hands; which Anthony after­wards nail'd to the * Place where the Ora­tors made their Harangues.

Q. What became of the other two?

A. Paulus made his Escape; and Lucius Caesar sav'd himself by the cunning of his Sister, who having stopt those that were sent to murder him at the gate, gave him an opportunity to slip cut at the back door.

Q. Do you know the number of the pro­scrib'd?

A. They were about Three hundred Se­nators, and Three thousand Roman Knights.

Q. When the Proscriptions were over, what did Caesar and Anthony do?

[Page 120] A. They march'd against Brutus and Cas­sius, and left Lepidus in Rome.

Q. Where was the Battel fought?

A. In Thessaly, near the City of Philippi.

Q. Which way did the Success incline?

A. At first Cassius was beaten back by Anthony, and Caesar by Brutus; but a false Alarm being given on one side, the equality soon vanished. Cassius, who for his part had been forc'd to give way, imagining that Brutus was in the same condition, kill'd himself.

Q. And what became of Brutus?

A. Having made a gallant opposition to Caesar and Anthony for some time, he was at last defeated, and fearing to fall into his Enemies hands, made away with himself.

Q. What did Anthony do with the Ashes of Brutus?

A. He sent them to his Mother in a small Vessel of Silver.

Q. And how did Porcia his Wife receive the News.

A▪ Being inform'd her Husband was dead, she was resolv'd no longer to survive him, so she dispatch'd her self by swallowing burn­ing Coals.

Q. But after this Victory, did not Caesar and Anthony fall out again?

A. They quarrel'd about some Dome­stick Concerns.

Q. Was not the difference afterwards made up between them?

[Page 121] A. Yes, by Anthony's marrying Octavia the Sister of Caesar.

Q After this Accommodation what hap­pen'd to Anthony?

A. He went into Asia to meet his beloved Cleopatra there.

Q. And where was Caesar?

A. He came back to Italy, where he fell out with Lucius Antonius, Brother to the Triumvir, and made War against him.

Q. And how did it succeed on his side?

A. Having forc'd the other out of Rome, and shut him up in Perusium, he soon obliged him to surrender himself.

Q. What does Lepidus in the mean time?

A. He endeavours in spite of Caesar to make himself Master of Sicily, after they had taken it out of the hands of Sextus Pom­peius.

Q. And how did Caesar requite him for his pains?

A. He turn'd him out of the Triumvirate, and banish'd him to a small City, where he spent the remainder of his life in private.

Q. What did Anthony do to please Cleo­patra?

A. He discarded Octavia, and married that Charming Queen of Egypt.

Q. And what follow'd upon this Mar­riage?

A. Being desirous to present her with the Empire of the whole World, he declares War against Caesar, who was already but [Page 122] too much provoked against him for this last Action.

Q. Where was this important Battel fought?

A. At Actium, a Promontory of Epirus; where the last Century the famous Battel of Lepanto was fought between the Venetians and the Turks, wherein the Infidels were beaten.

Q. How many Ships were there on both sides?

A. Caesar had Four hundred, but Anthony had no more than Two hundred.

Q. On which side fell the Victory?

A. In the midst of the Engagement, when as yet the Success on both sides was equal enough, on the sudden Cleopatra possess'd with fear, flies towards Egypt, which An­thony perceiving, leaves the Battel to run after this Fugitive, tho no less a stake than the Empire of the World depended upon it. But Caesar pursued him, and laid Siege to Alexandria.

Q. What became of Anthony?

A. Finding himself irrecoverably lost, he kill'd himself.

Q. And Cleopatra how came she off?

A. Having resolv'd not to adorn the Tri­umphs of Caesar, she follows Anthony's Exam­ple, and stings her self to Death with Ser­pents.

Q. At what time was Caesar the Master of the whole World?

A. In the year of Rome 725, and the 12th. year after the Triumvirate.

[Page 123] Q. Did not our Blessed Saviour come into the world under the Reign of Augustus?

A. Some Chronologers place his Birth 15 years before the death of Augustus, the 3985th. year after the Creation of the world, and the 753d. from the Foundation of Rome, in the Consulate of Cornelius Lentulus, and Calpurnius Piso: But others that have exa­min'd the matter more exactly, place it un­der the Consulate of Antistius Verus, and Laelius Balbus, in the year of Rome 747, and the 38th. year of Augustus.

Q. Had Augustus no Sons to bequeath his Empire to?

A. No.

Q. To whom did he leave it then?

A. He adopted Tiberius the Son of his Wife Livia, and at her importunity made him Heir of the Empire, upon condition that he should adopt Germanicus the Son of Drusus.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Fifty seven years he possessed the Em­pire, and held the Monarchy or single Go­vernment by himself Forty three years. He died at Nola in Campania in Italy.

Q. How many Wives had Augustus?

A. Three; Claudia, Scribonia, and Livia Drusilla.

Q. Had he no Children by Scribonia?

A. He had Iulia, a Lady of no extraor­dinary Reputation.

Q. Who was Claudia?

[Page 124] A. Daughter-in-Law to Anthony, whom his Wife Fulvia had by her former Husband Claudius.

Q Whom of the Three did he most pas­sionately love?

A. Livia Drusilla.

Q. After what manner did he marry her?

A. He took her from her Husband Tibe­rius, and married her tho she was big with child.

Q. What do Historians particularly re­mark of Augustus?

A. That he was of so sweet a Temper, that when a certain person came to pres [...]nt a Petition to him, and as he offer'd it shew'd a great deal of Fear, he pleasantly reproach'd him, saying, That he tender'd him a Paper after the same manner as people use to give meat to Elephants.

Q. And don't they observe, that he was a great Admirer of the Fair Sex?

A. As he particularly lov'd them, his Em­press was so complaisant to him, as to fur­nish him with them from all Quarters.

Q. Who were his most intimate Friends?

A. Agrippa and Maecenas.

Q. What was the latter remarkable for?

A. He was descended from the Kings of Etruria, and was a most Munificent Patron to all the celebrated Wits of that Age, par­ticularly to Virgil and Horace.

Q. What is it that Historians remark far­ther concerning him?

[Page 125] A. 'Twas observ'd of him, that when the Affairs of State requir'd Application and Diligence, no one could be more industrious than he. At other times, when he had no business upon his hands, he wholly aban­don'd himself to all sorts of Pleasure and Effeminacy. From these two qualities so re­markable in him, his Encouragement of Learning, and his Inclination to a Voluptu­ous Life, Maecenas afterwards came to signi [...]y both a Patron and an Effeminate Person.

Q. When did the Latin Tongue princi­pally flourish?

A. All are agreed that it arrived to its greatest Purity in the time of Iulius Caesar, and Augustus. In the following Ages, what by adopting too many Greek Words into their Language, and what by the continu [...] Irruptions of the Northern Nations, it sensibly declin'd; and about the Sixth Century after our Saviour, was totally disus'd at Rome.

Q. What men of note liv'd in his time?

A. So many, that 'tis a difficult matter to recount them. To begin with those that writ in Greek, at this time flourish'd Diodorus Si­culus, who spent Thirty years in the Capital City of the World to collect Memoirs for his Historical Library; and that most excel­lent Historian and Critic Dionysius Halicarnas­s [...]u [...]; Then Titus Livius, born at Padua, whose Wit, Seneca says, was equal to the Greatness of the Roman Empire. Virgil the Prince of Epic, H [...]race of Lyric, Ovid of Elegiac Poetry. [Page 126] Cornellus Gallus, Tibullus, and Propertius, with several more of eminent Note, too nume­rous to be here inserted, all lived in his time. In short, never did the Roman Arms and E­loquence, with all the Inferior Sciences, as Musick, Statuary, Painting, &c▪ so univer­sally triumph, as they did in the Augustean Age.

Q. Did Augustus make any progress in the reducing of Britain?

A. He wholly neglected it, either because he believ'd it would scarce answer the Ex­pence, or because he thought it not advise­able to enlarge the Limits of the Roman Em­pire, but content [...]d himself with those which Nature had prescribed to it, viz. the Ocean, the Rhine, and the Euphrates.

Q. Was not the Temple of Ianus shut in his time?

A. All Authors agree, That it was now the third time shut by Augustus in the year 730; after it had been the first time shut by Numa, and the second time a little after the first Punic War.

Q. What was the greatest Loss he su­stain'd?

A. Quintilius Varus had Three Legions cut in pieces by the Germans under their Ge­neral Arminius; which so disturbed him, that he was often heard to say, Quintili Vare, redde mihi Legiones.

Q. Had he any inclinations to be intem­perate?

[Page 127] A. No; for in his greatest Debauches he never exceeded his Six Glasses; and as for eating, he sate any where down to Dinner, let the place be never so homely, if he had an appetite.

Q. Was he not superstitious?

A. Yes; and when it thunder'd, (of which he was strangely afraid) he generally carried the Skin of a Sea-calf to preserve himself.

Q. How did he respect his Son-in-Law A­grippa, and the two Iulia's, the Mother and the Daughter?

A. He used to wish, That he could have lived without Wives, and died without Children, whom he frequently call'd his Three Imposthumes.

Q. What sort of a Man was he?

A. His Hair was white, and somewhat frizzled, his Complexion brown, but clear and smooth, his Eyebrows arched, and al­most join'd, a Roman Nose, his Mouth well made, small Teeth, but somewhat spoil'd, and a short Chin, his Eyes black and great, a little greenish and full of fire. His Body was marked with small spots, his Stature below the common. There appear'd in his Face something agreeably Majestic and Charm­ing, which deservedly gave him the Name of Augustus, and hinder'd a certain Gaul of Quality, who had resolv'd to throw him in­to a Precipice as he pass'd the Alpes, from pursuing his design. He was of a lively Ima­gination, [Page 128] a clear sprightly Wit, and a prodi­gious Memory.

Tiberius the Third Emperor. The Year of Rome 754. Of the Birth of I. C. 14.

Q. WHose Son was Tiberius?

A. The Son of Livia and Ti­berius Nero. He was Fifty five years old when he came to the Empire.

Q. What sort of a Prince was he?

A. His chief Talent lay in dissimulation, and he was universally hated for his Cruel­ty, his Covetousness, his Debaucheries, and his Pride.

Q. But how did he behave himself in the beginning of his Reign?

A. He conceal'd all his Faults from the world with admirable address and dexterity.

Q. What obliged him to stand so much upon his guard?

A. Because he was afraid of Germanicus, Son to his Brother Drusus, whom he had adopted.

Q. And how did he serve him at last?

A. He dispatch'd him out of the way, because he was jealous of his growing Me­rits.

Q. After what manner did he accomplish his design?

A. He sends this Prince, who had already by his Valour and Conduct ended the Wars [Page 129] of Germany, into the East, to beat back the Parthians.

Q. And what way did he take there to destroy him?

A. He conferr'd the Government of Sy­ri [...] upon Piso, who being a mortal Enemy to Germanicus, poison'd him in the year of Rome 772.

Q. Was it not discover'd afterwards that he was p [...]ison'd?

A. Y [...]s; and Agrippina, Wife to Germani­cus, accused Piso of the Fact, who knowing himself to be guilty, prevented his Con­demnation by a voluntary death.

Q. When did Tiberius give the full stretch to his Cruelties?

A. After the death of his Mother Livia, which happen'd much about this time.

Q. With whom did he begin to exercise his barbar [...]us Temper?

A. By poisoning Drusus Caesar his Son; after this he starved to death Nero and D [...]u­sus the Children of Germanicus, and all this by the advice of his great Favourite Sejanus.

Q. How did this Sejanus behave himself aft [...]r he became so Absolute?

A. He committed a thousand Crimes; and his Insolence carried him so far as to say, That he was Emperor of Rome, and that Ti­berius was only Prince of Capreae, a small Isle near Naples, where he used to retire. But his Pride did not last long.

Q. What Accident befel him?

[Page 130] A. After he had suffer'd a thousand In­dignities, he was strangled by the hand of the Common Hangman, his Body dragg'd about the streets, and his whole Family exe­cuted with him.

Q. What remarkable Passage was it that happen'd between Tiberius and the Astrologer Thrasillus?

A. Tiberius had resolved one day to throw him headlong into the Sea, as he was walk­ing along with him; so he asked him if he knew what sort of death, and when he should dye? Thrasillus answered him, That he knew nothing precisely of that matter, but this he was sure of, That he was never in so great danger in his life, as he was at that moment.

Q. Did not this Answer wholly alter Ti­berius's Resolution?

A. Yes, he saved him, and after this re­posed a mighty confidence in him.

Q. Did not the Crucifixion of our Blessed Saviour happen under his Reign?

A. It fell out in the [...]8th. year of his Em­pire.

Q. Did not Tiberius propose it to the Se­nate to place him among the gods whom the Romans worshipp'd?

A. Yes.

Q. And did the Senate give their consent to it?

A. No; because it was forbidden by the Laws of the Twelve Tables to receive any Foreign gods.

[Page 131] Q.When did Tiberius dye?

A. He died in the 77th Year of his Age, after he had reign'd Two and twenty years, Six months.

Q. Was not Caligula supposed to hasten his Death?

A. Yes.

Q. How did he manage it?

A. By over-loading him with Blankets, under a pretence of making him warm.

Q. Where was Tiberius at that time?

A. He was in the Isle of Capreae, where he had no other Witnesses of his Lewdness, than those who had their share in the same Crimes, wallowing in all sorts of brutal Lusts, and in some manner forgetting he was Emperor.

Q. By what Nick-name was he publickly called?

A. Caprinus, alluding to the Isle of Capreae, and his Lasciviousness.

Q. What remarkable Curiosities had he in that Island?

A. He had Chairs and Closets of his own Invention to exercise his Lewdness.

Q. What things were farther observable in his House?

A. He had several Chambers furnish'd with lascivious Pictures and Statues, where were to be seen the Books of Elephantis, fill'd with immodest Postures.

Q. What Learned Men flourish'd in his Time?

[Page 132] A. Velleius Paterculus, who writ an Abridg­ment of the Roman History, and is so uni­versally admired for the peculiar Beauties of his Characters. Valerius Maximus, who has given us an Excellent Collection of Memo­rable Stories digested under proper Heads. Some place Quintus Curtius, the Writer of A­lexander's Life under his Reign, taking him to be the same Person whom Su [...]tonius mentions as a Rhetorician, and Tacitus as Procon­sul of Afric under that Emperor. But o­thers make him Contemporary to Vespasian; and some to have lived under the Reign of Trajan.

Q. What remarkable Things happen'd in his time.

A. The first President of burning of Books began under him. For Cremutius Cordus ha­ving in one of his Books, call'd Brutus the last of the Romans, Tiberius orders the Au­thor to be put to Death, and his Books to be burnt in the Forum. Ovid too died in his Exile in Pontus, in this Emperors time.

Q. How many Wives had Tiberius?

A. Two: Agrippina, the Daughter of Agrippa; and Iulia, the Daughter of Augu­stus.

Q. What sort of a Man was he?

A. The Features of his Face were regu­lar and well, his Complexion white but pimpled, a melancholy Air, a fierce Look, great Eyes, the fore-part of his Head bald, a stinking Breath, large Shoulders and [Page 133] Breast, a grave Gate, his Stature of a prodi­gious Talness.

Caligula the Fourth Emperor. The Year of Rome 777. Of the Birth of I. C 37.

Q. FRom whom was Caligula descended?

A. He was the Son of Germanicus and Agrippina, and Nephew to Tiberius.

Q. Where was he Born?

A. In Germany, in the Camp, and was brought up among the Soldiers, who gave him the Name of Caligula.

Q. For what reason?

A. Because he wore little Boots, after the Soldier's fashion; for Boots in Latin, are call'd Caligae.

Q. How old was he when he came to the Empire?

A. Twenty five years old.

Q. Were not the People extremely pleas'd at his Elevation to this Dignity?

A. Yes; hoping he inherited all his Fa­ther's Virtues, as indeed he appear'd to be a Prince of very good Qualities.

Q. Did not he manage himself very well at the beginning.

A. He express'd so much Tenderness and Moderation, that he rais'd the Expectati­ons of all Italy. All those Persons, who for fear of Tiberius had absconded, now▪ left their Holes and walked abroad. He re­call'd [Page 134] those that were banish'd, and abo­lish'd the greatest part of the Imposts and Taxes.

Q. Did this continue long?

A. No; for soon after he wholly changed his manner of Life, and resign'd himself up to Cru [...]lty, Lewdness, and all sorts of Be­stiality.

Q. What particular Acts of Cruelty are recorded of him?

A. He fill'd Rome with the Blood of the Principal Men of the Empire; nay, he abu­sed his own Sisters.

Q. What was his common saying?

A. He frequently wished the People of Rome had but one Head.

Q. Why so?

A. That he might have the pleasure of cutting it off, and destroying all the Romans at one stroke.

Q. When his Sister Drusilla was dead, what respect did he pay to her Memory?

A. He caus'd a Temple to be erected to her, as if she had been a Goddess.

Q. How did he serve those that lamented her Death, and those that express'd no Sor­row at all for it?

A. He indifferently commanded them both to be put to Death.

Q. For what pretence?

A. The first, because they envied Dru­silla's happiness, whom he had so lately en­roll'd in the number of the gods: And the [Page 135] latter, because they did not bewail the loss of so amiable a Princess.

Q. How far did his Pride and Arrogancy carry him?

A. He commanded himself to be adored as a God, and would needs have Temples built to him in all places. He pretended that the Moon was mightily fallen in love with his Person, and that she frequently came down to Caress him.

Q. How did Vitellius rally him upon that Subject?

A. Why, says he, when you gods are together, we poor men are not able to see what you are a-doing.

Q. To what other monstrous Extravagan­ces did his folly lead him?

A. He made his Horse be declared Consul in full Senate; he banish'd Livy's Statue and Writings from all Libraries; he gave Virgil the same Treatment, and would have suppress'd the Verses of Homer, pretending his Power ought to be no less than Plato's, who had prohibited the Reading of them in his Imaginary Republick. Lastly, as he hated Seneca, and all men of Eminent Vir­tue, it came into his head to abolish not only the Laws, but all the Living Oracles of them, the most celebrated Lawyers.

Q. Had not he a mighty Ambition to ride a Horseback over the Sea?

A. To accomplish this unaccountable Fro­lick, he built a Bridge of Gallies from Na­pales [Page 136] to Baiae, which is reckon'd to be more than four Miles.

Q. And what noble Pranks did he play upon this Bridge?

A. He magnificently feasted all such whom their Curiosity had brought thither, and af­terwards caus'd them to be thrown into the Sea.

Q. Having quitted Rome to go and fight the Britains, what fine Employment did he set his Army upon?

A. He only made them gather Cockle­sh [...]lls, and with these Spoils he came back to Rome.

Q. After what manner did he receive those that came to see him?

A. He only gave them his Foot to kiss.

Q. In his Buildings, what did he chiefly affect?

A. To force Nature, and attempt Impos­sibilities.

Q How spent he those prodigious Sums which Tiberius had gather'd?

A. In levelling Mountains and Vallies.

Q. How was his Death?

A. He was kill'd by Cassius and Sabinus, a Captain of the Guards.

Q. How long did he Reign?

A. Three Years, Ten Months, and Eight Days.

Q. What became of Caesonia, his Wise, and his Daughter?

[Page 137] A His Wife was likewise Assassinated, and they dashed out the Brains of the little Daughter he had by her, against a Wall.

Q. What found they in his Cabinet after his Death?

A. A Book wherein he had writ down the Names of all those whom he design'd to put to Death; and a Coffer, wherein there was so great a quantity of Poyson, that having thrown it into the Sea, they saw the Shore next Morning cover'd with dead Fish.

Q. What Writers of Note flourish'd in his time?

A. Appion the Grammarian, for his insup­portable Vanity, call'd the Cymbalum Mundi, and that most Eloquent Platonist, Philo Iu­daeus, a Iew.

Q. How many Wives had Caligula?

A. Four: Iunia Claudilla, Livia Orestilla, Lollia Pausina, and Caesonia.

Q. What sort of a Man was he?

A. Of tall Stature, bright Hair, the top of his Head bald, his Forehead high, large, and wrinkled; his Looks fixt and stern; his Eyes sunk in his Head; hollow Tem­ples; a pale Complexion; a great Belly, Neck, and Legs; his Body all over cover'd with Hair; he was a great Master of Mu­sick, and had an extraordinary fine Voice; he was very adroit and dexterous at hand­ling his Arms, Dancing, and cleverly turning a Chariot.

Claudius the Fifth Emperor. The Year of Rome 781. Of the Birth of I. C. 41.

Q OF what Family was Claudius the Chief?

A. He was Son to Drusus, the Brother of Germanicus, Unkle of Caligula, and Nephew of Tiberius.

Q. How came he to be Elected Empe­ror?

A. At that very time, when the Senators were deliberating whether they should chuse any more Emperors, or re-stablish the Com­monwealth upon its Ancient Bottom, some Soldiers broke into the Palace, with a design to Plunder it.

Q. And did they Rifle it accordingly?

A. No; for happening to find Tiberius Claudius Nero there, who hid himself for fear of being kill'd, they carried him immedi­ately to the Camp, and proclaim'd him Em­peror.

Q. What was his true Character?

A. That he was a Prince without Vice, but had no manner of Spirit or Conduct.

Q. By whom did he suffer himself to be intirely govern'd?

A. By his Wife, and Freed men.

Q. What do Historians particularly tell us of his Wife M [...]ssalina?

[Page 139] A. She caus'd the greatest part of her Gallants to be put to Death, when they were no longer able to satisfy her brutal Pas­sion.

Q. Among the rest, did she not cause Si­lanus to be assassinated, who was one of the handsomest Gentlemen of Rome?

A. Yes; and the reason was, because he refused to gratify her Lust.

Q. A strange Monster of an Empress this; but what is farther observable of her?

A. That she could not see a well-made beautiful Actor upon the Stage, but she im­mediately became passionately in Love with him.

Q. What end came she to at last?

A. Claudius, who had tamely bore all these Injuries so long, at last wakens out of his Lethargy, and causes her with her Adul­terer C [...]ius Silius, to be kill'd.

Q. What provoked him to it?

A. While he was but a days Journey di­stant from Rome, his Rampant Empress pub­lickly Marries this Roman Knight, and makes him Consul.

Q. How many Children had he by Mes­salina?

A. Britannicus and Octavia.

Q. After Messalina's Death, whom did he Marry?

A. His Niece Agrippina, Daughter to his Brother Germanicus, and the Mother of Nero, whom she had by Domitius.

[Page 140] Q. What sort of a Woman was this Agrip­pina?

A. A Princess of a great Spirit.

Q. What remarkable Thing is recorded of her?

A. She established a Roman Colony in Ger­many upon the Rhine, from her call'd Colonia Agrippina; 'tis now call'd Colen.

Q. When for the gratifying her Ambition, she consulted the Oracle to know what her Son's fortune would be, what answer did she receive?

A. That he would be Emperor indeed, but then would certainly Murder her.

Q. And what said she to this Prediction?

A. It signifies nothing so long as he reigns. Occidat modo imperet.

Q. What did Claudius dye of?

A. He was poyson'd by Agrippina, who gave him some Mushrooms to eat.

Q. Why did she serve him so?

A. Because he would not declare her Son his Successor in the Empire.

Q. Did this Poyson carry him off?

A. No; but it made him extremely Sick.

Q. Who then hasten'd his Death?

A. His Physitian thrust a poyson'd Fea­ther down his Throat, under a pretence of making him vomit up his Mushrooms.

Q. How long did he Reign?

A. Thirteen years, Eight months, and Twenty days.

[Page 141] Q. When Claudius was dead, what did Agrippina do to Britannicus?

A. [...]h [...] shut him up, for fear the Romans should [...]hu [...]e him to succeed.

Q. And what did Nero do in the mean while.

A. He was at the Camp, and got himself proclaim'd Em [...]eror?

Q. Did Nero bu [...]y Claudius magnificently?

A Yes; and prevail'd to have him Cano­niz'd by a D [...]cree of the Senate.

Q. How many Wives had Claudius?

A. Six: Lepida, Camilla, Vrgulanilla, Pe­tina, M [...]ssalina, and Agrippina.

Q. How many Chil [...]ren had he?

A. He had by Vrgulanilla Drusus and Clau­dius; by Petina Anconia, and by M [...]ssalina Octavia and Britannicus.

Q. Describe me the Person of Clau­dius?

A. The Corners of his Eyes were full of little red Veins, his Stature was Tall, his Body well-proportion'd, a good Counte­nance, his Mien Majestick, his Voice was harsh and disagreeable, his Mouth full of Spit [...]le, and his Nose always dropping, he had a very bad Memory, and a phlegmatick heavy Soul.

Nero the Sixth Emperor. The Year of Rome 794. Of the Birth of I. C. 54.

Q I Desire to be inform'd of Nero's Gene­alogy?

A. He was the Son of Domitius Aenobarbus and Agrippina.

Q. How old was he when he came to the Empire?

A. Sixteen years old. Seneca was his Ma­ster, and Burrus his Governor.

Q. What remarkable Things do Histori­ans tell of him?

A. Being one day oblig'd to Sign a Dead Warrant for a Criminal, he seem'd to be touch'd with so much Compassion, that he wish'd he could not write. O quam vellem me nescire literas.

Q. Which was his principal Vice?

A. Cruelty.

Q. With whom did he begin to exercise that barbarous Quality?

A. He first poysons Britannicus.

Q. What farther barbarous Acts did he commit.

A. He put his Mother Agrippina to Death, after he had for a long time before stript her of all Authority, nay, and turn'd her out of Court.

Q. After he had caus'd her to dye, what did he more?

[Page 143] A. He had a mind to behold her all naked as she lay, and brutally said, That he did not think his Mother had been so fine a Wo­man.

Q. Did he make any farther Progresses in his Barbarity?

A. He took away Otho's Wife, named Poppea Sabina; he repudiated Octavia, and afterwards put her to Death; and shortly after, he kick'd the abovemention'd Poppea so that she died of it.

Q. Was no Conspiracy form'd against him?

A. Piso contrived one against him, and had engaged several Gentlemen in it, but Nero happening to discover the Author and his Accomplices, among whom were the Poet Lucan and Seneca, he put them all to Death.

Q. Wherein did his Vanity chiefly lye?

A. He mightily valued himself for play­ing well upon the Harp in the Theatre, and Singing his part with the Comedians: Nay, he made a Voyage as far as Greece, to let the Grecians see he was a good Musitian, and a good Actor.

Q. Who was it he married instead of a Woman?

A. Pythagoras his Libertus, or Freed­man.

Q. Had he not a Natural Inclination to mischief?

[Page 144] A. He was so strangely inclin'd that way, that he frequently said King Pream was the happiest Prince in the world, for having the satisfaction to see his Country all in Flames, before he lost his Kingdom.

Q. Had he not a great fancy to represent the burning of Troy by that of Rome?

A. One night he distributed his Guards through all parts of the City, and com­manded them to set the Houses on fire; which they so diligently executed, that in a short time the whole Town was in a flame.

Q. Where was Nero all this while?

A. Upon Maecenas's Tower, from whence he beheld the Fire, and sung some of Ho­mer's Verses upon the Destruction of Troy.

Q. Whom did he charge with this Action?

A. As he had a mortal hatred to the Christians, he accused them with having set the City on fire, and put several of 'em to death for it.

Q. Was it not he who began to perse­cute them first at Rome?

A. Right; and made them suffer Tor­ments which till that time were unknown.

Q. Was not Armenia taken by one of his Generals?

A. Domitius Corbulo, sufficiently famous for conquering the Frisians, took and burnt Artaxata the Metropolis of the Country, beat out the Parthians, and sent Tiridates to Rome, where he received a Diadem from Nero: Yet after all these considerable Servi­ces, [Page 145] being sent for into Greece by Nero, he was forced to lay hands on himself, to pre­vent a more ignominious death.

Q. Was this Tyrant beloved by his Sub­jects?

A. No; for so many Crimes having drawn upon him the Contempt and Ha­tred of the whole Empire, Vindex a Roman Senator, and Governor of Gaul revolted first against him, and declared Galba the Go­vernor of Spain, Emperor.

Q. In the mean while was Rufus the Go­vernor of High-Germany unactive?

A. He enter'd Gaul with a powerful Ar­my to join Vindex.

Q. And what happen'd upon this?

A. His Army, which knew nothing of his intention, fell upon that of Vindex, and cut it to pieces.

Q. What did Vindex do when he saw this?

A. Imagining that Rufus had betray'd him, and inrag'd at the intire loss of his Troops, he out of despair kill'd himself.

Q. What was the upshot of all?

A. The German Army join'd the small re­mainder of the Gaulish, and then Rufus de­clar'd Galba Emperor.

Q. Was not Nero terribly alarm'd at this Revolt?

A. Instead of preparing himself for a Battel, he resolved to make his Escape into Aegypt, saying, he could get his Livelihood any where by his Acting and Singing.

[Page 146] Q. How did his Guards behave them­selves, seeing him so strangely pusillanimous?

A. They all forsook him.

Q. Whither then did Nero retire to save himself?

A. He stole privately out of Rome, and hid himself in a Cave.

Q. When the Senate perceiv'd that, what Resolutions did they take?

A. They declar'd him at the same time an Enemy to the People of Rome, condemn'd him to dye, and sent out Soldiers every where to go and apprehend him.

Q. Well, what befel him at last?

A. Finding there was no hopes to pre­serve his wretched life any longer, and yet not having Courage enough to hasten Death with his own hands, he desir'd Epaphroditus one of his Free'd-men to kill him, who broke his Ponyard as he endeavour'd to do him that kindness, but at last made a shift to dispatch him.

Q. Was not Nero the last Emperor of the Augustean Family?

A. Yes.

Q. How old was he when he died?

A. One and thirty, having reign'd 13 Years, 7 Months, 28 Days, on the very same day whereon he had formerly com­manded his Wife Octavia to be assassinated.

Q. How many Wives had he?

A. Three; Octavia, Poppea, and Statilia.

Q. What remarkable Accident happen'd in his Reign?

[Page 147] A. * Lugdunum, a famous Colony in France, was in the space of one night burnt down to the ground; and so as an Ancient Writer handsomely express'd himself, Inter magnam urbem & nullam vix horarum aliquot spatium fuit.

Q. What Learned men flourish'd at that time?

A. Seneca, and Lucan, the Unkle and Ne­phew, whom Nero caus'd to be put to death for being concern'd in Piso's Conspiracy: The former an Excellent Philosopher; and the latter, if he had been Master of a solid Judgment, as he was of Flame and Spirit, a most Admirable Poet. Then Persius the obscure Satyrist; and Silius Italicus, who composed a Poem about the Punic War; Epicte [...]us the Moralist, slave to Epaphroditus, one of Nero's Free'd men; and Petronius Arbiter.

Q. Who was this Petronius Arbiter?

A. An Epicurean by profession, and Com­ptroller of Nero's Pleasures, who made pro­fession of a cultivated polite Luxury; for Pu­rity of Stile and Wit scarce to be match'd by any of the Roman Writers. Tho he was one of the Emperor's greatest Confidents, yet falling at last into Disgrace with him, he bled himself to death, and at his last mo­ments caused some delightful Verses to be repeated to him.

Q. What sort of a man was Nero?

A. His Visage was Full, and Red, but [Page 148] not agreeable; his Hair of a Chesnut Co­lour, falling down in Rings; he was short-sighted, his Eyes blue and sunk in his head, his Neck and Belly large, his Skin very bad, and his Stature indifferent.

Galba the Seventh Emperor. The Year of Rome 808. Of the Birth of I. C. 68.

Q. BY whom was Galba declared Empe­ror?

A. By his Army; but his over-great Se­verity was the reason why he did not con­tinue long in the possession of the Empire.

Q. Did he find no manner of opposition?

A. He was scarce arrived at Rome, when he receiv'd advice, that Vitellius the Gover­nor of Germany was proclaim'd Emperor by his Army.

Q. What measures did he take to main­tain his Authority?

A. He adopted Piso a man of great Me­rit, because he was apprehensive he should never have any Children by reason of his great Age.

Q. Was not Otho, this Emperor's intimate Friend, offended at this Adoption?

A. It so much disgusted him, that he rais'd the Praetorian Bands against the Empe­ror, who had a great love for him, because every evening as he went out of the Palace, he distributed some Money among them.

[Page 149] Q. Having gain'd the affection and good will of the Soldiery, what did he next?

A. He immediately went to the Camp, and got himself to be proclaim'd Emperor. After this he placed himself at the head of the Guards, who kill'd Galba, and cut off his head.

Q. What did they do with his Head?

A. They carried it to Otho, who told them they did nothing in murdering of Galba, unless they clear'd their hands of Piso, which was almost as soon executed as advis'd.

Q. How old was he when they kill'd him?

A. Seventy two years old; and he reign'd six months, and seven days.

Q. How many Wives had he?

A. Only one, whose name was Lepida.

Q. What sort of a man was Galba?

A. He was neither big nor little, he had a Roman Nose, Black Eyes, a Bald Head, a Long Visage, and full of Wrinkles.

Otho the Eighth Emperor. The Year of Rome 809. Of the Birth of I. C. 69.

Q. WHat was Otho's Character in the world?

A. He was a debauch'd man, who sur­render'd up his own Wife to Nero, in order to make his Fortune at Court by it.

Q. How did Vitellius the Governor of Germany employ himself?

[Page 150] A. Having been proclaim'd Emperor by his Soldiers, as we have already mention'd, he marched towards Italy with a great Ar­my, and there defeated Otho at the Battel of Bebriacum.

Q. Where was this Battel fought?

A. Near Placentia.

Q. What course did Otho take when he heard of the defeat of his Army?

A. He despair'd of repairing his Loss, and so resolv'd to kill himself. His Friends dis­suaded him from the design, and represented to him what fair exp [...]ctations he had of meeting better success next time, since he was still Master of Italy and Asia, from whence he might easily furnish himself with considerable Forces.

Q. And what Answer did he make 'em?

A. He said, That for his part he thought it more advisable to quit the Empire to Vi­tellius, than to be the occasion of shedding so much blood: So he advised them to repair immediately to the Conqueror, that so they might the sooner obtain pardon of him.

Q. And what did he do at last.

A. He slew himself, after he had burnt all the Letters which had been writ to him, and might bring his Friends into danger.

Q. How old was he then?

A. He was Eight and thirty years old, and had reign'd Three Months, and Five Days.

Q. Describe me his Person?

[Page 151] A. He was of Low Stature, his Head bald, his Legs crooked, and the Features of his Face much resembling Nero's.

Vitellius the Ninth Emperor. The Year of Rome 809. Of the Birth of I. C. 69.

Q. WHat sort of a man was Vitellius, as to his Temper?

A. He was one that made a god of his belly, and thought of nothing else but eat­ing and drinking.

Q. What remarkable Action happen'd under his Reign?

A. Valens and Cecinna defeated Otho's Ar­my in Italy.

Q. Where was Vitellius at that time?

A. He attended the Success of the War at Lyons, where he minded nothing but feast­ing and revelling.

Q. Where did he steer his course after he was inform'd that his Generals had got the Victory.

A. He march'd directly to Rome, where he profusely squander'd away all the Money he found in the Treasury; and his continual. Drunkenness made such a Beast of him, that sometimes he would forget he was Emperor.

Q. When he was arrived there, what did he do?

A. He banished all the Astrologers and Fortune-tellers out of Rome.

[Page 152] Q. Where was Vespasian at that juncture?

A. He was making War against the Iews, in quality of Lieutenant General to Otho.

Q. What happen'd to him there?

A. He was extremely importun'd by his Army to give his consent for them to declare him Emperor.

Q. And did he hearken to this Proposal?

A. It was not without great difficulty he was prevail'd upon to comply with them, but at last he gave his consent.

Q. Who assisted him in this Under­taking?

A. Mucianus the Governor of Syria, and all the Princes of the East.

Q. Whom did he intrust with the ma­nagement of the Iewish War?

A. His Son Titus.

Q. And whither did he himself march?

A. After he had dispatch'd his Lieute­nants to Rome with a great Army, he went for Egypt.

Q. Was not Vitellius strangely surprized, when he heard of the general defection of the people from him?

A. He seem'd not to be much concern'd at the News, but contented himself with only fending his Lieutenants against Vespasian, who defeated them.

Q. Did not this Overthrow oblige Vitel­lius to m [...]rch in person against the Enemy?

A. Right; but he was so little accustom'd to the Fatigues and Hardships of War, [Page 153] that he return'd back to Rome to his Plea­sures.

Q. At his Arrival there, what measures did he take?

A. He made a Treaty of Peace with Sa­binus the Governor of Rome.

Q. What were the Conditions of this Treaty?

A. That he should surrender the Empire into the hands of Vespasian.

Q. Were not his Guards extremely in­cens'd at his making so tame a Resignation?

A. It very much displeas'd them▪ because they lov'd Vitellius upon the account that he gave them liberty to do what they would.

Q. What happen'd in this Contest?

A. The Capitol was burnt down to the ground, as it had been once before in the bloody Disputes between Sylla and Marius.

Q. What became of Vitellius at last?

A. He had the misfortune to be taken by the Captains of Vespasian's Army, and d [...]agg'd naked through the City with a great deal of Ignominy.

Q. What did they do to him after this?

A. They cut his Throat, and afterwards threw him into the Tiber.

Q. How old was he then?

A. He was 57 Years old, and had only reign'd 8 Months and 5 Days.

Q. How many Wives had he?

A. Two; Petronia and Galeria.

Q. How was he made?

[Page 154] A. He was of an extraordinary Stature, his Belly prodigiously big, and a very Red Face.

Vespasian the Tenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 809. Of the Birth of I. C. 69.

Q. WHen was Vespasian crown'd Empe­ror?

A. 'Twas after the Death of Nero, who had sent him into Iudea to chastise the Inso­lence of certain Rebels, where he took seve­ral small Towns.

Q. By whom was he proclaim'd Empe­ror?

A. By his Army; and after he had left his Son Titus in Iudea, and put all the For­ces there into his hands, with the whole management of the War, he came back to Rome.

Q. And how order'd he his Affairs there?

A. He put Vitellius to death, who as we told you before, had made himself Master of the Empire.

Q. After what manner did he deport him­self in his Government?

A. With infinite Justice and Sweetness.

Q. What Transactions fell out in the se­cond year of his being Emperor?

A. The Iewish War, which some turbu­lent Seditious Spirits had kindled under Ne­ro's Reign, was ended.

[Page 155] Q. Who was the Ringleader of the Fa­ction?

A. Eleazer the Son of Ananias. Religion furnish'd them with a pretence to rebel, and the people were easily induc'd to it, because the Romans had made a terrible slaughter of their Countrymen.

Q. Who was it that laid Siege to Ieru­salem?

A. Caestius Gallus, the Lieutenant of Syria, but he was forced to raise it ignominiously, with a considerable loss of his Forces.

Q. At what time did this happen?

A. In the 12th. year of Nero's Empire, and the 65th. of our Saviour.

Q. Whither did the Iews march after this Victory?

A. They returned to Ierusalem, where they chose new Leaders, and among the rest Ios [...]phus the Son of Mattathias, in the year 67 of J [...]sus Christ.

Q. What did Vespasian, who was after­wards sent by Nero, do?

A. He took several Towns, and Iosephus himself, who foretold that he should be e­lected Emperor.

Q. Did Vespasian then besiege Ierusalem, the Capital City of the Iews?

A. Yes; but the Death of Nero, and the Murder of the following Emperors, inter­rupted the Siege.

Q. What was the Conclusion at last?

A. In the year 70 of J. C. at the Feast [Page 156] of the Passover; and on the fifth of April, after a Siege of four months continuance, this famous Temple was burnt, and the Ci­ty abandon'd to plunder.

Q. What follow'd upon the loss of Ieru­salem?

A. The name of the Iewish People was abolish'd, and their Miseries were so excessive­ly great, that 'tis certain God Almighty re­veng'd upon this perfidious Nation the Un­just Death of his Son.

Q. What Calamities did they sustain?

A. There was so terrible a Famine du­ring this Siege, that the besieged were for­ced to feed upon the vilest things imagina­ble, man's flesh not excepted; nay, some Mothers were reduced to such streights as to eat their own Children.

Q. Without question they lost a world of men in this Siege?

A. About Eleven hundred thousand souls perish'd there; which is almost an incredi­ble thing.

Q. What became of the City?

A. It was raz'd to the ground by Titus's order; and according to our Blessed Savi­our's Prediction, there was not one stone left upon another. The Iews that remain'd were carried away Prisoners.

Q. What happen'd in the Third Year of Vespasian's Reign?

A. This Emperor and his Son triumph'd over the Iews, and afterwards he laid the [Page 157] Foundation of the Temple of Peace.

Q. What particular things did he do to advance his Glory after this War was over?

A. He begun a Noble Amphitheatre, which Augustus had a great desire once to build.

Q. After what manner did he end his days?

A. Being at the point of death, he rais'd himself on the sudden, and cried out, Oportet Imperatorem stantem mori, An Emperor ought to dye standing.

Q. How old was he when he died?

A. He was Sixty nine years old, he reign'd Ten years within Ten days, and hasten'd his Death by drinking too much cold water.

Q. Pray give me a Description of him.

A. He was of an indifferent Stature, but thick, his Visage red, his Shoulders large, his Constitution vigorous, his Looks cheerful, his behaviour courteous, a War­like Mien, his Temper civil, but cove­tous.

Q. Was it not he that gave occasion to the Proverb, To shooe a Mule?

A. Yes.

Q. How did it happen?

A. Being once in the Countrey, a man who desir'd to speak with him, gave some Money to the Muleteer who conducted his Litter, to stop it, and make as if he was go­ing to shooe his Mule.

[Page 158] Q. Did not the Emperor smell out the trick?

A. He immediately gave Audience to the man that had a desire to talk with him, but ask'd his Muleteer how much Money he got by shooing his Mule?

Q. Was he not constrain'd to lay several Taxes upon the people?

A. Yes; because his Predecessors had by their Luxury quite exhausted the Publick Treasury.

Q. Was it not he that laid an Excise up­on Urine?

A. Yes by the same token that his Son taking occ [...]sion to remonstrate to him that this Excise was dishonourable, V [...]spasian takes a P [...]ece of Gold out of his Pocket, holds it to his Nose, and asks him whether it smelt ill or no.

Q. What answer did he make?

A. He told him, No. And yet for all that, says the Emperor, this very Piece came from the Excise upon Vrine.

Titus the Eleventh Emperor. The Year of Rome 819. Of the Birth of I. C. 79.

Q. WHO was Titus?

A. The Son of V [...]spasian.

Q. How did he behave himself in the be­ginning of his Reign?

A. He immediately quitted the Natural [Page 159] Propensity he had to Lewdness, and treated every one with that sweetness, that he was called The Love and Delight of all Mankind.

Q What were the first Instances he gave of his Clemency?

A. He pardon'd two Persons of Quality who had conspir'd against him; he likewise pardon'd his Brother Domitian, who had form'd a second Conspiracy against him, and instead of punishing him, declared him his Successor in the Empire.

Q. How died he?

A. His Brother Domitian, notwithstanding he had pardon'd him before, dispatch'd him by Poison, when he was aged Forty one years, and after he had reign'd Two Years, Two Months, and Twenty Days.

Q. What other demonstrations did Titus give of his Mercy?

A. 'Tis said he never refus'd any thing which was asked of him; and would fre­quently say, That a Prince ought not to send back any of his Subjects sad or discontented from his presence.

Q. What is besides reported of him?

A. One Night as he was at Supper, he remembred himself that he had done good to no body that day, My Friends, says he to those that were about him, I have lost a Day, Diem perdidi.

Q. What remarkable Passages happen'd during his Reign?

A. A prodigious quantity of Fire and [Page 160] Ashes broke forth from Vesuvius, which were thrown as far as Afric, Syria, and Egypt.

Q. Did not this Irruption do a great deal of damage?

A. Pliny the Elder being desirous to be­hold this terrible Spectacle, was suffoca­ted by the Flames, and several Cities were ruin'd by it.

Q. What was it that Titus said as he was going to dye.

A. That he only repented himself of one thing, but did not express what it was: 'Tis imagin'd that it was because he had not put his Brother Domitian to death, and clear'd the Empire of so wicked and cruel a Mon­ster.

Q. Had he not a great value for the Se­nate and People of Rome?

A. Yes; for tho he was passionately in Love with Queen Berenice, yet he refused to marry her, because he thought the Senate and People of Rome would disapprove of the Match.

Q. What sort of a man was he?

A. He was of the common Stature, the Features of his Face very good, his Belly somewhat of the largest; of a courteous Be­haviour, a sweet insinuating Mien, a Noble Air, which inspir'd all those that beheld him both with Love and Respect.

Domitian the Twelfth Emperor. The Year of Rome 821. Of the Birth of I. C. 81.

Q. WHose Son was Domitian?

A. He was the Son of Vespasian, and younger Brother to Titus.

Q. Was he like his Father?

A. No; and much less did he resemble his Brother Titus, since he was one of the most profligate Monsters that ever lived, and was not inferior to Nero in Cruelty, Avarice, and Incontinence.

Q. In what did he chiefly excel?

A. He was so great a Master at his Bow, that he would frequently order a man to be set with his hand stretch'd out, and his Fin­gers open, and then he would shoot between his fingers, and never touch him.

Q. What was his constant Occupation?

A. He pass'd whole days in his Closet alone, where he diverted himself with the Royal Sport of Fly-catching.

Q. Did not some-body rally him upon this occasion?

A. A certain Person of Quality having one day asked, Who was with the Emperor in his Closet? answer was made him, That not so much as a Fly was with him.

Q. Did he perform any Warlike Expedi­tions?

[Page 162] A. He triumph'd twice over the Daci and the Catti.

Q. Who was his chief Confident?

A. One Martial, whom he particularly affected; I don't mean the Poet of that name, but another to whom that Poet ad­dresses several of his Epigrams.

Q. To what extravagant Actions did his Folly lead him?

A. He must needs pass for a god, and so commands several Statues of Silver and Gold to be erected to his own Honour.

Q. What other strange Frolicks did he play?

A. Being minded one day to put the Sena­tors into a dismal Fright, he invited a great number of them to come and sup with him.

Q. Well, and when they came there, how were they receiv'd?

A. He orders them to be lock'd up in a Hall hung with Black, and only lighted by a few Lamps, by the light of which they could discern several Coffins, upon each of which were written the names of those that were invited.

Q. Did not this terrible Scene possess them with strange apprehensions?

A. Yes; for after they had continued some time in these cruel imaginations, some naked persons whose Bodies were blacken'd all over, entred the Hall with Swords in one hand, and flaming Torches in the other.

[Page 163] Q. Did they not give themselves all for lost?

A. Yes; but after these black men had danced a pretty while about them, they open'd the doors, saying, The Emperor gave all the Company leave to withdraw.

Q. What was Domitian's usual way to make himself remember the Names of those whom he design'd to put to death?

A. He writ their Names down in a Table-Book, but it cost him very dear; for having among several others set down the Names of his Wife Domitia, Norbanus, Petronius, and Stephanus;

Q. What happen'd upon it?

A. Domitia, who very well knew the Table Book, having accidentally lighted upon it one day, she show'd it to those per­sons whose Names were written down there, as well as her own, in order to oblige them to concert matters with her, and dispatch Domitian.

Q. How was Domitian's end?

A. Stephanus stabb'd him with a Ponyard in his Closet; but the Guards running in immediately to his assistance, they soon kill'd Stephanus among them.

Q. What was Apollonius Tyanaeus a-doing at the moment when this happen'd?

A. He harangu'd the people of Ephesus, but stopt himself in the midst of his Dis­course; and after he had continued silent for some time, he cry'd aloud, Courage, Stepha­nus, [Page 164] Strike the Tyrant; and a moment after, says he, The Tyrant is dead, he is just now slain.

Q. What else do Historians remark of Domitian?

A. He persecuted the Christians through­out the whole Roman Empire. 'Twas he that banished St. Iohn into the Isle of Patmos; tho others lay it upon Nero, which is the more probable of the two.

Q. What Learned Writers flourished in his time?

A. That Sonorous Enthusiastic Poet Sta­tius; Martial the Witty Epigrammatist; Iu­venal the declaiming Satyrist; that celebra­ted Institutor of Youth Quintilian; Muso­nius the Philosopher; Apollonius Tyanaeus, a notorious Impostor and Pretender to Mira­cles; that most excellent Historian Iosephus, who has writ the Antiquities of his own Countreymen: And for the Art Military, there was Iulius Agricola, who sailed round Great Britain, by him conquer'd, and was the first Roman that discover'd it to be an Island. He found and subdued the Orkney Islands: But notwithstanding these great services, Do­mitian dispatch'd him by Poison.

Q. How old was this Emperor when he was slain?

A. He was Forty four years old, having reign'd Fifteen Years and six days.

Q. Pray give me a Description of him?

A. He was lusty and well-proportion'd, he had a handsome Nose, large Eyes, he [Page 165] was weak-sighted, and had a Face as Red as Scarlet.

Nerva the Thirteenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 836. Of the Birth of I. C. 96.

Q. WHO was this Nerva?

A He was a Person of Quality who deriv'd his Original from Narni, a City scituated in the Province of Vmbria.

Q. What Character had he in the World

A. He had the Reputation of a most Ex­cellent Prince.

Q. What considerable things did he do in the beginning of his Reign?

A. He cancell'd all the Edicts that had been made in Domitian's time.

Q. How old was he when they elected him to the Empire?

A. He was Sixty five years old.

Q. What other Proofs did he give the people of his Clemency and Generosity?

A. He restor'd all persons to their Posses­sions which they had been plunder'd of by Domitian, and gave leave to all those whom he had banish'd, to return to their Native Countrey. Among the rest, say some, St. Iohn the Evangelist, who suffer'd Exile in the Isle of Patmos, came back to Ephesus, of which City he was Bishop.

Q. What remarkable Oath was that which Nerva swore?

[Page 166] A. He solemnly swore before the Sena­tors, That he would put not one of them to Death, tho they gave him never so just an occasion.

Q. And did he keep his Oath?

A. He so religiously observ'd it, that two of them having conspir'd to take away his Life, he would not suffer them to dye?

Q. What did he do to them then?

A. He sent for them to let them see he was not ignorant of their Design against him; he carried them with him to the The­atre, placed them on each side of him, and then gave both of them a Ponyard, telling them before all the world, That they might try u [...]on him whether they were good or no.

Q. What is commonly said of him?

A. That he wanted Authority to suppress the Insolence of his Soldiers; and his ex­treme Old Age render'd him contemptible.

Q. What method did he take to make him [...]elf more Absolute than he was?

A. He preferr'd Trajan, who at that time commanded the Army in Germany, before all his Relations, and adopted him to the Em­pire.

Q. Did Nerva live a long while after this Adoption?

A. No; he died Three Months after, be­ing compleatly Sixty six years old.

Q. Of what Distemper did he dye?

A. Of a Feaver, which he got by strain­ing his Voice too much, in talking to one [Page 167] Regulus, who had put him into a Passion.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. One Year, Four Months, and Eleven Days.

Trajan the Fourteenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 838. Of the Birth of I. C 98.

Q. WHat Countryman was Trajan?

A. He came from Sevil in Spain.

Q Where was he when Nerva adopted him to the Empire?

A. At Colen in Germany, and was the first Foreigner that got possession of the Roman Empire.

Q. Who was his Master?

A. Plutarch.

Q. What sort of a man was he?

A. He was one of the greatest Generals that ever sate upon a Throne: He was Sweet-temper'd, Merciful, and Prudent: Nay, he was so charitable to his Soldiers who were wounded in his Wars with the Dacians, that he tore off his own Shirt from his Back to bind up their Wounds, when they had no Linnen of their own.

Q. What considerable Actions did he per­form?

A. He defeated the Dacians, and their King Decebalus, over whom Domitian Triumph'd at Rome, tho he scanda­lously bought a Peace of him; he [Page 168] subdued Armenia, Iberia, and Colchis; he overthrew the Sarmatians, Astrenians, and Arabians, with the Inhabitants of the Bos­phorus.

Q. What other Conquests did he make?

A. He attack'd the Parthians, and took from them Armenia, Persia, Seleucia, Babylon, and reduced a very considerable part of Asia, under the Roman Power.

Q. Was not he sirnam'd Germanicus?

A. Yes, for the glorious Exploits he per­form'd in Germany.

Q. Did not several persons come to con­gratulate him upon his many Victories?

A. Ambassadors visited him from all parts of the world; nay, some came from as far as the Indies to compliment him upon those occasions.

Q. What remarkable Presents were made him?

A. He was presented with a Horse from Armenia, which fell down upon his knees as often as he went to mount him.

Q. By what other Actions did he increase his Reputation with the People?

A. He utterly exterminated those insuf­ferable Vermine in a well-order'd Common­wealth, the Delators and Informers, who had made so fine a Harvest on't under the Reigns of Domitian, Nero, Caligula, and Tiberius.

Q. What remarkable Accidents happen'd in his time?

[Page 169] A. There was so prodigious an Earth­quake at Antioch, while he and the whole Court lay there, that the City was almost totally destroyed.

Q. And how did Trajan make a shift to save himself?

A. He escaped through the Windows of the Room where he lay.

Q. Where died he?

A. At Selinus, a City of Cilicia, whither he ordered himself to be carried.

Q What respect was paid him after his Death?

A. His Ashes were brought to Rome, and placed in a Golden Urn on the top of a Pil­lar of a prodigious Heighth and curious Workmanship, which he had caus'd to be erected in the publick Place, and which is to this day call'd Trajan's Pillar.

Q. How long did he Reign?

A. Ten years Six months and Fifteen days; he lived Sixty three years.

Q. What remarkable things do you find in his Reign?

A. Two: The first of them was the un­parallell'd Confidence he repos'd in one of his Friends, whose Name was Sura.

Q. How did he make it appear?

A. Some Persons, who envied him for the great share he possess'd in the Empe­ror's Friendship, strove by all imaginable means to blast his Reputation, and render him suspected to his Master. They accus'd [Page 170] him with forming a Design against his Life; but Trajan to let them see how far he relied upon the Honesty of his Friend, having re­ceived an Invitation to Sup with him, went thither freely.

Q. Well, and what did he do there?

A. After he had sent back his Guards, he orders Sura's Physitian and Barber, to be call'd to him; the former he commands to take off the Hair about his Eye-brows, and the latter to shave his Beard. After this, he goes to a Bath, and then sits down very un­concerned with the rest of the Company.

Q. What said he to his Friends next Morning?

A. He recounted to them every thing in order as it passed, and told them, That if Sura had any Intentions to kill him, he gave him the fairest opportunity the day be­fore to do it, that a man could wish; and since he had neglected it, it was an infallible indication that he had no such design in his head.

Q. What is the second remarkable thing?

A. Trajan in giving his Sword to the Col­lonel of the Guards, according to the usual Custom, utter'd these glorious Words, Take this Sword, and if I govern like a Iust Prince, employ it in my Service; but if I abuse my Au­thority, draw it against me.

Q. What added he afterwards?

A. That he who gave Laws to the rest of the World, lay under greater Obligati­ons [Page 171] to observe them, than any of his Sub­jects.

Q. What Title did the Romans bestow upon him?

A They gave him the Sir [...]name of Opti­mus.

Q. Was not his Memory exceeding dear to Posterity?

A. It was held in so great esteem, that in succeeding Times, when an Emperor was promoted to this high Dignity, amidst the other Acclamations that were made in the Senate-house, they used to wish that he would prove as happy as Augustus, and as good as Trajan.

Q. What answer did he make his Friends, who were Reproaching him one day with his too great Condescention and Good na­ture?

A. That he lived with his Subjects, just as he would have wished them to live with him, if they had been the Masters.

Q. What Faults or Vices do you observe in him?

A. Two very great ones. The first, that he was given to excessive Drinking. The second, that he loved young Boys.

Q. What was his Wife's Name?

A. Plotina, who in some Ancient Medals is represented with a very tall Head-dress, much resembling the Modern Commodes.

Q. What Learned Men flourish'd in his time?

[Page 172] A. Plutarch of Chaeronea, that admirable Philosopher and Biographer. Pliny the Younger, who in his Panegyrick upon Tra­jan, which he deliver'd in the Senate-house when he was Consul, gives us the true Ex­emplar of an Excellent Orator, as well as he does of a good Prince. Su [...]tonius, who has writ the Lives of the Twelve first Caesars, with the same freedom as they lived them. Lucius Florus, who hath left us a pretty Compendium of the Roman History, tho justly censur'd for too much affecting point­ed Sentences. And lastly, Cornelius Tacitus, a Sublime and Grave, tho sometimes Obscure Historian, famous for his Reflections, and the good Sense of his Observations, which will always preserve their Reputation in the World, especially with those Persons that intend to study Politicks.

Q. Was not he severe against the Chri­stians?

A. He rais'd a Cruel Storm against the Professors of that Religion; and among the rest, Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, suffer'd, be­ing torn in pieces by Wild Beasts. At last, having receiv'd a favourable Account of the Simplicity of their Worship, their Inno­cence, and Morals from Pliny Junior, in an Epistle, which is still extant, the Persecution abated.

Adrian the Fifteenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 857. Of the Birth of I. C. 117.

Q. WHo was this Adrian?

A. Cousin of Trajan, and his Country-man, for he was a Native of an Italian City in Spain.

Q. How came he to be made Emperor?

A. By the cunning Management of Plotina, the Wife of Trajan.

Q. But how did she carry on this Affair?

A. As soon as the Emperor was dead, she sent a forged Declaration immediately to the Senate under his hand, whereby he adopts Adrian, and declares him his Suc­cessor. In the mean time she dexterously conceals his Death, till Adrian's Adoption was confirm'd by the Authority of the Se­nate.

Q. Did Adrian make any Conquests?

A. So far from that, that he devoted himself wholly to Peace, and abandon'd Assyria, Armenia, and Mesopotamia, to the Par­thians.

Q. What do Historians remark of him?

A. That he loved to be always Travelling abroad.

Q. What Reasons did he alledge for so doing?

A. He used to say, That a Prince ought to imitate the Sun, who carries his Light [Page 174] through all the Corners of the World, and illuminates all the Regions of the Earth.

Q. How many Years did he spend in Sur­veying the Empire?

A. Thirteen.

Q. And what observable things are re­ported of him, during this long Progress?

A. He separated the Britains from the Picts, by a Wall Forty Leagues long, which took up the whole breadth of the Island, and reached from the German-Ocean to the Irish-Sea; it was likewise fortified by a Ditch of the same length.

Q. Wherefore built he this prodigious Wall.

A. To secure the Britains from the Insults of the Picts, who were so call'd from paint­ing their naked Bodies, to make them look the more terrible to their Enemies.

Q. What did he besides?

A. He gave a King to the Germans, who were upon the point of Revolting, because he did not look upon himself to be in a Ca­pacity to retain them in their Duty by force.

Q. How did he treat the Armenians?

A. He remitted the Tribute they were obliged to pay to the Roman Emperors, and gave them leave to Elect a King of their own.

Q. What respect was it he show'd to the Memory of Pompey?

[Page 175] A. Having seen his Tomb in Egypt, which was below the Dignity of so great a man, he caused a very Magnificent Sepulchre to be erected to him.

Q. Did not the Jurisconsults or Lawyers, principally flourish under his Reign?

A. They did, and Iulian composed the Perpetual Edict by the Emperor's Command, to serve as a Rule to all the Praetors that ad­ministred Justice in Rome. It was call'd Edi­ctum Perpetuum, because it was to continue in force for ever.

Q. After what manner died he?

A. Being weary of living longer, and ha­ving frequently endeavour'd to dispatch him­self, he died at last of bleeding immoderate­ly at the nose, after he had adopted Aelius Antoninus.

Q. How many Years did he possess the Empire?

A. Twenty years, and Eleven months, being Seventy three years old.

Q. Whom did he Marry?

A. Sabina, Trajan's Neice.

Q. How did he govern his Soldiers?

A. By living just as they did, and eating their Amunition Bread, Bacon, and Cheese, after the Example of Scipio, Aemilianus, and Metellus.

Q. Did not he much apply himself to the Study of Magick?

A. Yes.

Q. Was he a man of Learning?

[Page 176] A. There was ne're a man in his Empire, who knew so many several things in so ma­ny several Professions. Besides, he had a pro­digious Memory, and could repeat by heart the Names of all Places, Passes of Rivers, and his Soldiers.

Q. Did he take a pleasure to converse with Learned Men?

A. Yes, and would always pretend to the Glory of having got the better of them in all Disputes. One Favorinus, by Name, ha­ving own'd himself out-done by the Empe­ror, altho he could easily have repell'd the force of his Arguments, if he had been so minded, and his Friends blaming him for it, Why, says he, would you not have me give place to the Man that has Thirty Legions at his Command?

Q. What particularly recommended him to the People?

A. His Moderation and Clemency; for after his arrival to the Empire, he would by no means revenge the Injuries that had been done him before. And having once met a Person that had offended him, says he, You have escaped, since I am made Em­peror.

Q. What Learned Men flourish'd in his time?

A. Ptolomy of Alexandria, the famous A­stronomer. Phlegon, Adrian's Libertus, who deserves so well of History for his exact Calculation of the Olympiads. Arrian who [Page 177] writ the Expedition of Alexander the Great. And Aulus Gellius, the Learned Author of the Noctes Atticae. At the same time those Mon­strous Hereticks, Basilides, Carpocras, Mar­cion, and the Gnosticks, began to shew their Heads, and disturb the Tranquillity of the Church.

Antoninus Pius the Sixteenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 878. Of the Birth of I. C. 138.

Q FRom whence came Antoninus?

A. He was a Gaul by Birth, and born at Nismes, a City of Languedoc. For his Clemency, and other Virtues, he had the Sirname of Pius bestow'd upon him.

Q. What was his most usual Saying?

A. That he would rather chuse to pre­serve the Life of one Roman-Citizen, than to kill a thousand Enemies.

Q. Give me his Character.

A. He was the most just, and most mo­derate of all the P [...]man Emperors; and had left an unblemish'd Name behind him, if out of too warm a Zeal for his own gods, he had not suffer'd the Christians to be per­secuted, in which Tempest Telesphorus and Hyginus, Bishops of Rome, suffer'd Martyr­dom.

Q. What Reputation had he Abroad?

A. Tho he never stirr'd out of Italy, and but seldom out of Rome, yet he effected [Page 178] more by the Authority of his Virtues, than any of his Predecessors had done by their Arms. Pharasmanes, King of Iberia, having seen and convers'd with him, immediately made those Concessions which he had for­merly refused. Vologeses, the Parthian, no sooner read his Letter, but he quitted his pretences to Armenia; nay, the Indians and Hirc [...]nians chose him to be an Arbitrator of their Differences.

Q. What Answer was it he gave his Wife Faustina, when she blam'd him upon the score of his being too liberal?

A. He laugh'd at her Avarice, And don't you know, says he to her, that now we are in Possession of the Empire, we have nothing of our own, but that it belongs all to the Peo­ple.

Q. How did he serve Idle Persons.

A. He so far detested them, that he turn'd out of their places such as were unserviceable to the Publick, saying, Nothing was so scan­dalous, and indeed so cruel▪ as to suffer the Commonwealth to maintain those lazy Mouths that did nothing at all for it.

Q. Did he love to visit the Provinces of the Empire?

A. No: For, let a Prince, says he, take never so much care, yet his Retinue will be a Charge and Burthen to the People.

Q. Whom did he adopt for his Chil­dren?

[Page 179] A. Lucius Verus, and Marcus Aurelius; he gave his Daughter in Marriage to the lat­ter, and declar'd him his Successor.

Q. Pray give me an instance of his Mode­ration and Goodness?

A. Apollonius refused to go to Court to teach Marcus Aurelius, pretending that a Ma­ster ought not to dance Attendance after his Schol [...]r. Why, replies Antoninus, 'tis a wonder­ful thing that so great a Philosopher as you are, should find it a greater way from your Lodgings to the Court, than from Chal [...]is to Rome.

Q. How died he?

A. He died of an Indisposition at his Coun­try-house in the Seventy sixth year of his Age, after he had reign'd Twenty two years, and Six months.

Q. What Eminent Men flourish'd in his time?

A. G [...]len of Pergamus, the Celebrated Physitian. Maximus Tyrius, a Platonick Phi­losopher. Aelian, who has left a small Tract of Natural History. Iustin, the Abbreviator of Trogus Pompeius. And Diogenes Laertius, who writ the Lives of the Philosophers.

Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, making together the Seventeenth Em­peror. The Year of Rome 901. Of the Birth of I. C. 161.

Q. WHo was this Marcus Aurelius?

A. Son-in-Law to Antoninus. He was call'd the Philosopher, because he appli­ed himself very much to the Study of Philo­sophy, and by Sect was a Stoick.

Q. Who shared the Empire with him?

A. Lucius Verus, his Brother, who had married his Daughter Lucilla.

Q. Was not this the first time that two Emperors held the Empire together?

A. Yes.

Q. What was the reason of making this Innovation?

A. Because Adrian would not adopt An­toninus, but upon this Condition, that when he arrived to the Empire, he should adopt Marcus Aurelius, and that Marcus Aurelius should adopt Lucius Verus.

Q. What sort of a Character had Verus in the World?

A. He was too Effeminate, and too great a lover of his Pleasures.

Q. What do Historians observe concern­ing him?

[Page 181] A. Marcus Aurelius having sent him to fight against the Parthians, he threw the whole burden of the War upon his Lieute­nants, who obtain'd great Advantages over the Enemy.

Q. What did these two Emperors do af­terwards?

A. Having triumph'd over the Parthians, they declared War against the Marcomanni.

Q. What happen'd to Verus in this Expe­dition?

A. He died of an Apoplexy.

Q. And what did Marcus Aurelius do upon his Death?

A. He marched alone against these Peo­ple, whom by this time the Goths, the Van­dals, the Sarmatians, the Suevi, and other Barbarous Nations had join'd.

Q. What Success had Marcus Aurelius in this War?

A. After a Dispute of Three years conti­nuance, he entirely defeated and subdued them.

Q. What remarkable Accidents fell out in the Course of this War?

A. The Marcomanni being thus over­thrown, the Emperor marching against the Quadi, was got into a Pound, and surround­ed on every side by the Enemies. Nor was this all, for his Army was ready to perish for want of Water; but a Legion, wholly consisting of Christians, by their earnest Pray­ers, obtain'd so plentiful a Shower of Rain, [Page 182] that the whole Army was infinitely refresh'd by it.

Q. Was there nothing more observable in it than this?

A. This Rain was accompanied with pro­digious Thunder and Lightning, which only fell upon the Barbarians, and cast them in­to so great a Confusion, that the Romans immediately charging them, cut them all in pieces.

Q. How was this Legion named?

A. Fulminatrix Legio, or the Thundring Legion.

Q. What Concessions did the Empe­ror make to them in favour of this Mira­cle?

A. He stopt the Persecution against the Christians, whom till this time, at the In­stigation of the Philosophers, by whom he was solely managed, he had most cruelly treated. In this Persecution, Pius, Ani [...]etus, and Soter, Bishops of Rome; Iustin Martyr, the Learned Apologist, and Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, receiv'd the Crown of Martyr­dom.

Q. What Men of Note lived in his time?

A. H [...]rmogenes the Rhetorician, Herodes Atticus, and Athenaeus whose Learned Wri­tings are so highly valued by the Criticks. Philostratus, a Sophister, who writ that im­pudent Legend of Apollonius's Life. Apu­leius, an African, who sufficiently discovers [Page 183] his Country by the harshness of his Stile. And Lucian, who from a Christian turning Atheist, employ'd his Satyrical Talent so li­berally upon the Christian and Heathen Priesthood and Deities.

Q. What was his Wife's Name?

A. Faustina, who was one of the most barefaced lascivious Women that ever lived.

Q. Did he not get himself Divorced from her?

A. He could never be induced to use her so; saying, That he could not cast her off with Justice, unless he return'd her back her Dowry, which was the Empire.

Q. Where died he?

A. In Pannonia (now Hungary) in the Sixty first year of his Age.

Q. How long did he Reign?

A. Nineteen years, and Ten days.

Q. To whom did he recommend his Son?

A. To the gods and the Roman people, if he were worthy of it.

Commodus the Eighteenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 920. Of the Birth of I. C. 180.

Q WHO was Commodus?

A. The Son of M. Aurelius, and the Lustful Faustina. But some say that he was begotten by a Gladiator.

[Page 184] Q. What sort of a Prince did he make?

A. He was the Handsomest, but the Lewdest and most Vicious man of his Age. As for the Administration of State-Affairs, he wholly intrusted them with Perennis, a Person of great Ambition and Cruelty, whom he had constituted his Praefectus Prae­torij, or Captain of his Guards.

Q. What do Historians particularly re­late concerning him?

A. That he was so admirable an Ar­cher, that one day having order'd a Hun­dred Lyons to be let loose one after another, he kill'd them all. At another time he did the same by a Hundred Ostriches, and cut off their Heads with his Arrows, which were headed in the fashion of an Half-moon.

Q. How did he behave himself towards his Sister Lucilla?

A. He caused her to be put to death for having conspired to advance her own Hus­band to the Imperial Dignity, who was only a bare Senator of Rome. She was first mar­ried to the Emperor Verus.

Q. Wherein did he show his Ambition?

A. In commanding himself to be call'd Hercules the Son of Iupiter: Nor was his Cruelty less predominant than his Ambition; for he sacrificed all those to his barbarous Resentments, of whom he had the least suspicion.

Q. After what manner died he at last?

[Page 185] A. He was poison'd by his Concubine Mar­cia, because she came to understand that he had resolved to dispatch her out of the way.

Q. How happen'd she to receive that In­formation?

A. By the means of a Child who found the Emperor's Table-Book, wherein she found her own Death design'd.

Q. What prompted him to serve her so?

A. Commodus (who spent his time at Court among Strumpets and Catamites, and abroad with Fencing-Masters and Bullies) had it seems resolv'd to lye in the Gladiators Amphitheatre, in order to go out with them the next morning, and harangue the people in that blessed Company: Now she had taken the freedom to remonstrate to him how mightily this would sink his Reputation, and how contemptible it would render him to the whole world.

Q. How long did this true transcript of Nero and Caligula hold the Empire?

A. Twelve Years, Nine Months, and Fourteen Days, and died in the One and thirtieth Year of his Age.

Pertinax the Nineteenth Emperor. The Year of Rome 933. Of the Birth of I. C. 193.

Q. HOW was Pertinax descended?

A. He came of very mean Pa­rents; he was a Ligurian (a Genoese) by [Page 186] Nation, first a Grammarian, and afterwards turn'd Soldier.

Q. Did not he refuse the Empire?

A. Yes, but they compell'd him to ac­cept of it. He endeavour'd to avoid it by recommending Glabrio a Senator to their Choice, who, as he said, was a man of far greater Merit than himself.

Q. Pray acquaint me with his Character?

A. He was an exceeding Valiant, Dis­creet, Modest, and Sweet-temper'd Prince: He would not suffer his Wife to be call'd Augusta or Empress, nor his Son to be salu­ted by the Title of Caesar.

Q What happen'd to him?

A. He was assassinated by his Soldiers Three Months after he had been proclaim'd Emperor.

Q. For what reason?

A. Because he show'd himself too severe towards them, and design'd to keep them under Military Discipline; so they cut off his Head, and carried it to the Camp, where they fortified themselves. Seeing no body stir, they order'd one of the Soldiers to make Proclamation, That the Empire was to be sold, and that he who bid the most should be put into the Possession of it by the Army.

Q. The Empire being thus offer'd to sale, what Chapmen came in to buy so great a Purchase?

A. Only Two Senators, Sulpician the Go­vernor of Rome, and Iulian; but the latter [Page 187] carried it, because he offer'd the greater Sum.

Julian the Twentieth Emperor. The Year of Rome 933. Of the Birth of I. C. 193.

Q. WHO was Iulian?

A. Grandson to the famous Lawyer of that name, who composed the perpetual Edict in Adrian's time. Being pro­claim'd Emperor, and conducted to the Se­nate-House by his Guards, he made a very fine Speech to the Senators to this effect; You want an Emperor, and I am the fittest person you can chuse.

Q. Did not the People mutiny against him?

A. Yes, and refused to acknowledge him, saying he had stole the Empire.

Q. What befel him at last?

A. Severus, who was at that time Go­vernor of Pannonia, being desired by the Ro­mans to take the Management of the Empire upon himself, revolted against him.

Q. What Measures did Iulian take to avoid this Storm that threatned him so?

A. He offer'd to take him as Partner with him in the Empire.

Q. And did Severus accept the Condition?

A. He return'd him no Answer, but still advanced towards Rome; which News so dispirited Iulian, that he sent him word he [Page 188] was ready to resign the Empire, provided he would give him his Life and Liberty. At last he was murder'd by his own Soldiers, in the Fifty sixth Year of his Age; after he had reign'd Two Months and Five Days.

Severus the Twenty first Emperor. The Year of Rome 933. Of the Birth of I. C. 193.

Q. FRom whence came Severus?

A. He was originally an African, and seized on the Empire under a pretence of revenging the Death of Pertinax, which he did by degrading the Praetorian Soldiers that had kill'd him.

Q. Had he no Competitors in the Em­pire?

A. At first Albinus set up in Britain, and Niger in Syria; but he having with great Ce­lerity made himself Master of Rome, beat Albinus by Stratagem, and Niger by open Force.

Q. How did he effect it?

A. Not thinking it advisable to have two Enemies upon his hands at once, he takes off Albinus by proclaiming him Caesar, then pur­sues Niger, and after several sharp Encoun­ters takes and puts him to death. Having thus rid himself of Niger, he immediately marches towards Albinus, whom he defeats and kills at Lyons.

[Page 189] Q. Whom did he take Partners with him in the Empire?

A. Caracalla and Geta, his Two Sons.

Q. How did he behave himself towards the Christians?

A. A Christian Soldier refusing to wear a Crown at a Donative, unhappily prov'd the occasion of a sad Persecution, in which Ire­naeus Bishop of Lyons, laid down his Life for the Truth. His great Favourite Plautianus incited him to this Cruelty, laying hold of this occasion to seize the Fortunes and Estates of several Persons of Quality that were Chri­stians.

Q. What became of him at last?

A. After he had vanquish'd a world of people, he pass'd over into Britain, whither being arrived, and not able to follow his Captains by reason of the Gou [...] which in­disposed him, he received advice that his Son Bassianus was declared Caesar by the Army.

Q. And did not this News extremely mortify him?

A. He got himself immediately to be car­ried in a Litter, and commanded the New Emperor to be brought before him, with the Tribunes and Centurions, who were so strangely affrighted at the Majesty which ap­pear'd in his Looks, that they implor'd his Pardon upon their Knees.

Q. How did he receive them?

A. I would have you know, said he to them, [Page 190] that it is the Head which governs, and not the Feet. After this he fell dangerously sick; but Caracalla fearing that he would not dye, tried to corrupt his Father's Physicians to poison him.

Q. And did they comply with his desires?

A. No; for which he remembred them when he came to be Emperor, for he caus'd them all to dye.

Q. Where did Severus end his days?

A. At York, being Sixty six years old, after he had reign'd 17 Years, 8 Months, and 3 Days. Here perceiving his last hour ap­proach, he cried out, I have been all that a Man can be, but it serves me in no stead now. Then he order'd his Urn to be brought to him, wherein his Ashes were to be inclos'd; and taking it between his hands, Little Vrn, says he, thou shalt contain that which the whole World was not able to contain.

Q. What was his True Character?

A. He was Cruel, and had no regard to his Word.

Q. To ballance this, had he no other good Qualities?

A. He took delight to administer Justice; he was well skill'd in the Laws, and preser­ved a particular Esteem for Papinian, the most eminent Lawyer of that time.

Q. What did the Senate say of him?

A. What had been formerly said of Au­gustus, they now said of him, That it had been very advantagious for the Republic, if [Page 191] he had never been born, or had never died; because, as on the one side he was service­able to the Commonwealth, so on the other he was somewhat too cruel.

Q. What may be farther said of him?

A. The same that was said of M. Aureli­us, viz. That he had been happy if he had had no Children. He was exceedingly re­gretted after his Death.

Q. What Learned men flourish'd under his Reign?

A. Clemens Alexandrinus a man of Uni­versal Learning, who writ the Stromata; Tertullian an Ecclesiastic Author likewise, in Humor, Wit, and Stile, an African; Minu­tius Foelix, who writ an Elegant Defence of the Christian Religion, worthy of Augustus's Age: With several more of a lower rank.

Caracalla and Geta, making together the Twenty second Emperor. The Year of Rome 951. Of the Birth of I. C. 211.

Q. TO whom fell the Empire after the Death of Severus, who died in Bri­tain?

A. To his Two Sons, whom he carried along with him in that Expedition.

Q. For what reason did he carry them with him?

A. To remove them from Rome, where they lived in all manner of Excess.

[Page 192] Q. What was Geta's Character?

A. He was of a sweet easy Disposition, as his Brother Caracalla was naturally brutish and outragious.

Q. What barbarous Action did that Mon­ster commit in the Second Year of his Reign?

A. He kill'd his Brother Geta with his own hand, in the presence of his Mother Iulia.

Q. What other Instances can you give me of his Cruelty?

A. He not only put above Two thousand persons to Death for adhering to his Brother's Party, but he banished several more, and cut off Papinian's Head.

Q. For what reason?

A. Because he refused to flatter his Crime; for having desired him to write an Apology to excuse his Brother's Death, this eminent Lawyer told him, That it was much easier to Commit a Parricide, than to justify it.

Q. What is it that Historians report of his Mother Iulia?

A. That she had the Impudence to marry him, after Geta's Death.

Q. What Person did Caracalla imagine himself to be?

A. He fancied he was Alexander the Great, because his Head lean'd a little upon one Shoulder, as that Prince's did.

Q. What is particularly observable con­cerning his Reign?

[Page 193] A. That the Empire was never so harass'd with Imposts and Taxes, as it was under this Monster of Prodigality.

Q. What was the reason why he op­press'd his Subjects so severely?

A. He would frequently maintain, That Money ought not to be lodged in private hands, but that all should go to his Exche­quer to be distributed among the Soldiers.

Q. What became of him at last?

A. While he was making War against the Parthians, he writ to Materninus, Gover­nor of Rome, to consult the Astrologers, to know what fortune Macrinus the Praefectus Praetorij would come to.

Q. To whom was the Governor's Answer carried?

A. It was deliver'd to Caracalla himself, while he was busied in managing a very fine Horse in the presence of Macrinus.

Q. And did he read it?

A. No; he gave it to Macrinus to read, who spoke not one word of it to the Em­peror, but wholly employ'd himself to find out a person that would kill him.

Q. Did he find one ready to execute his design?

A. He met one Martial after a little search, whose Brother Caracalla had put to death, who receiv'd this Commission with great ea­gerness, and run him through the body while he was easing Nature.

Q. How long did he reign?

[Page 194] A. Six Years, Two Months, and Five Days.

Q. Was he beloved by the People?

A. No; he was hated by all the world, except the Soldiers only, who regretted his Loss by reason of the excessive Largesses he frequently bestow'd upon them.

Macrinus and his Son, making together the Twenty third Emperor. The Year of Rome 957. Of the Birth of I. C. 217.

Q. FRom whence came Macrinus?

A. He was a Moor by Birth, and of a very mean condition at first.

Q. What station was he in when they proclaim'd him Emperor.

A. He was the Praefectus Praetorij.

Q. Whom did he associate with himself in the Empire?

A. His Son Diadumenus.

Q. What remarkable things do we read of Macrinus.

A. He made a Peace with the Parthians; and in his return to Rome divided his Army into two Bodies, that they might march home two several ways, but this division oc­casion'd his ruin.

Q. Pray tell me how?

A. Maesa, Sister to the Empress Iulia, re­commended to the Soldiers (who you must know had no great affection for Macrinus) [Page 195] a young Gentleman about Nineteen Years old, the Son of her daughter Semiamira, who as they commonly pretended was Caracalla's Bastard, and they call'd him Heliogabalus.

Q. How did the Soldiers relish this Pro­position?

A. They immediately proclaim'd him Em­peror, because they loved him for his Fa­ther's sake; and he for his part marches di­rectly towards Macrinus, and defeats him.

Q. What became of Macrinus?

A. He was kill'd as he endeavour'd to save himself in the City of Antioch; and shortly after his Son Diadumenus was slain by the order of the Emperor Heliogabalus.

Q. How long did he and his Son reign?

A. One Year and Two Months.

Heliogabalus the Twenty fourth Em­peror. The Year of Rome 959. Of the Birth of I. C. 219.

Q. WHose Son was Heliogabalus?

A. The Son of Caracalla.

Q. What signifies this word Heliogaba­lus?

A. A Priest of the Sun.

Q. What remarkable thing is related of him?

A. He intended to destroy the Religion of the Romans, and commanded that only the Sun should be adored.

[Page 196] Q. What sort of a Prince was he?

A. A Prodigy of a man, wholly aban­don'd to all Lewdness and Debauchery.

Q. To whom was he married in the quality of a Wife?

A. To Hierocles, his Slave.

Q. What orders did he give this Slave?

A. To beat him well-favour'dly when he found him guilty of any Excess.

Q. And did the Slave take him at his word?

A. Yes; and sometimes belabour'd his Imperial Sides so heartily, that he made him black and blew all over, which the other bore very dutifully, comforting himself, That a Wife was oblig'd in Conscience to suffer every thing from her Husband.

Q. What did he do after this?

A. He establishes a Senate of Women, and makes his Mother the President of them.

Q. What did this wise Assembly debate about?

A. The Habits and Ornaments of Wo­men, together with their Amours and In­trigues.

Q. Whom did he adopt for his Successor.

A. Bassianus, his Cousin-German, whom he call'd Alexander.

Q. What kind of a Man was Alexander?

A. He had so many valuable Qualities to recommend him, that he soon gain'd the Affection of all the Romans.

[Page 197] Q. Did not Heliogabalus become jealous of him?

A. Yes, and design'd to put him to death.

Q. What happen'd upon this?

A. His Guards being acquainted with his wicked intention, assassinated Heliogabalus, and threw his Body into the Tiber.

Q. How old was he then?

A. He was Twenty two years old, and had reign'd Three Years, Nine Months, and Four Days.

Q. What Eminent men flourish'd at this time?

A. Origen of Alexandria, who so learned­ly defended the Christian Religion against the Attacks of Celsus.

Alexander the Twenty fifth Emperor. The Year of Rome 962. Of the Birth of I. C. 222.

Q. WHat Account do Historians give of this Alexander?

A. He was one of the greatest Princes that ever liv'd, and his Conduct was equally conspicuous in Peace and War.

Q. What did he look after in the begin­ning of his Reign?

A. His first care was to administer Justice to all the world; next he turned the Flat­terers and Buffoons out of the Court.

Q. What other Regulations did he make?

A. He prohibited the Sale of any Offices, [Page 198] as being satisfied that none made a scruple to sell what they had bought.

Q. What did he allow them in lieu of this?

A. He settled honourable Salaries upon all those whom he constituted Governors of Provinces, lest they should squeeze and op­press the people.

Q What is reported of his Piety?

A. That he secretly honour'd Jesus Christ in his Closet.

Q. What other remarkable Passages oc­cur in his History?

A. In Heliogabalus's time there was a set of Cheats, commonly call'd Sellers of Smoke, because they took Money of people to sol­licite their business, and help them to Pre­ferment, but never did any thing for them.

Q Were there any of this Gang under the Emperor Alexander?

A. One of this hopeful Fraternity had it seems taken a Hundred Crowns of a Sol­dier, and promis'd to obtain of the Empe­ror a certain Office which he was desirous of.

Q. And when Alexander knew of it how did he serve him?

A. He fastens him to a Post, where he was choak'd by the smoke of a heap of wood which was set on fire about him. Over the Post this Inscription was to be seen, Fumo periit qui fumum vendidit. He that sold Smoke is stifled by Smoke.

[Page 199] Q. Did any considerable Revolution hap­pen in Alexander's Reign?

A. Artaxerxes King of the Persians, after he had defeated the Parthians in several Bat­tels, and kill'd their King Artabanus, who was the last of the Family of the Arsacidae, which had flourished Four hundred years, re-establishes the Empire of the Persians. This exceedingly alarm'd Alexander Severus, by reason of the frequent Inroads the Per­sians made into the Roman Territories.

Q. What great Exploits did Alexander perform after this?

A. Having reviv'd the old Military Disci­pline, he defeated the Persians in the East, and overcame the Africans in Mauritania. At last, wholly turning his thoughts upon the German War, he with his Mother Mam­mea was slain by his Soldiers at Mentz, in the 39th. year of his Age, having reign'd Thir­teen Years, and Nineteen days. 'Twas his Mother's Penuriousness that ruin'd him with the Army.

Q. What Eminent men flourish'd in his Reign?

A. Dion Cassius, twice honour'd with the Consular Dignity, who writ the Roman Hi­story very acurately in Greek: The greatest part of this Excellent Work is now lost; which is chiefly attributed to his Abbreviator Xiphilinus, a Constantinopolitan Monk. Thus the loss of Trogus Pompeius is imputed to Iu­stin, as that of Livy to Lucius Florus.

Maximin and his Son, making together the Twenty sixth Emperor. The Year of Rome 975. Of the Birth of I. C. 235.

Q. WHose Son was this Maximin?

A. A Shepherd's, in a small Village of Thrace.

Q. What Stature was he of?

A. An extraordinary one, being Eight Foot high; and besides he was so strong, that he could draw a Chariot as heavy laden as two Horses could draw.

Q. How got he himself advanced to the Empire?

A. By a Faction of the Soldiers. He was the first Emperor that without any Decree of the Senate obtain'd the Purple by the sole Authority of the Army.

Q. What method did he take to preserve himself in this Dignity?

A. After he had successfully ended the Wars of Germany, he exercised great Cruel­ties in Rome; Some he fastned to Crosses, where they miserably perish'd; others he baited in the Skins of Beasts, and expos'd them to Tigers and Lions; others were kill'd with Bastinadoes; in short, there was no sort of Barbarity to be named, which he did not use.

Q. Did not these Brutalities draw the aversion of all the world upon him?

[Page 201] A. The Senate declar'd him an Enemy to the Republic.

Q. Who first made Head against him?

A. Gordianus the Governor of Afric, a man Eighty years old, was, together with his Son, against his will elevated to the Em­pire; but Fortune crossing his Attempts, and his Son being slain by the Moors, the old Gentleman out of despair hang'd himself.

Q. When the Senate heard of the death of these two great men, whom did they elect for their Emperor?

A. Balbinus and Pupienus, two of their own Body.

Q. Was not Maximin highly incens'd at the Proceedings of the Senate?

A. He immediately quitted the Sarmatian War, and marching into Italy at the Head of his Army he besieged Aquileia, which was the first City he met in his way, and was at that time the finest and most flourishing Town in all Italy.

Q. Who signaliz'd themselves in this Siege?

A. The Women; for the Soldiers want­ing Cordage to string their Bows, and serve the Machines that were employ'd in throw­ing of stones, they cut off their own Hair, and made Cords of it.

Q. What became of Maximin?

A. His Soldiers slew him and his Son in his Tent, because he had occasion'd the death of so many of them.

[Page 202] Q. How long did he and his Son reign?

A. Two Years and some Months.

Balbinus and Pupienus, making together the Twenty seventh Emperor. The Year of Rome 978. Of the Birth of I. C. 238.

Q. BY whom were Balbinus and Pupienus own'd to be Emperors?

A. By the Senate?

Q. Upon what condition?

A. That they should adopt young Gordi­anus for their Successor in the Empire, the Grandson of him that hang'd himself in Afric.

Q. How long did they reign together?

A. Nine or ten months.

Q. What happen'd at last?

A. Balbinus and Pupienus became jealous of young Gordianus, seeing him so mightily beloved by every one, and therefore had agreed for their own security to dispatch him; but the Soldiers prevented their De­sign, and kill'd them.

Gordianus the Younger, the Twenty eighth Emperor. The Year of Rome 978. Of the Birth of I. C. 238.

Q. WHose Son was this Gordianus?

A. Grandson, as we observ'd before, to Gordianus the Governor of Afric.

Q. How old was he when he arrived to the Empire?

A. He was 17 Years old.

Q In whom did he repose the greatest confidence?

A. In his Father-in Law Misitheus, who was the Praefectus Praetorij, and was so well satisfied of his Conduct and Valour, that tho he himself was present in the Army, yet he would have it wholly commanded by him.

Q What actions did he perform?

A. By the advice of Misitheus he opens the Temple of Ianus, and marches direct­ly against the Persians who then threatned Italy.

Q. What Conquests did he make?

A. He retook Carrae, Nisibis, and some other Cities.

Q. What other remarkable things hap­pen'd under his Reign?

A. In the Sixteenth Year of it Philip an Arabian, by the assistance of his Physicians, poison'd Misitheus.

[Page 204] Q. What did this Philip do afterwards?

A. He got himself declared Emperor in the presence of Gordianus, who fearing fur­ther mischief from this perfidious Villain, desired him at least to give him the place of Praefectus Praetorij.

Q. And did he give it him?

A. No, he refus'd him; but fearing the Soldiers would restore this young Prince to his Throne again, he caus'd him to be mur­der'd.

Q. Was the Army concern'd for his Death?

A. It so far affected them, that they erect­ed a Tomb to him with this following In­scription: To the Divine Gordianus, Conque­ror of the Persians, the Goths, the Sarmatians, and the Germans, but not of the Philips.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Three Years and six days.

Q. Did nothing remarkable happen a­bout this time?

A. The Goths, whose name before was unknown to the Romans, now daily began to pour forth vast swarms of men upon the Outskirts of the Empire, which at last ter­minated in the Ruin of it. These barbarous people carried every thing like a vast Inun­dation before them, and erected Kingdoms not only in all the Southern Provinces of Eu­rope, but extended their Conquests as far as Afric. They first introduced the Feudal Law into this part of the World, and settled fixt [Page 205] Revenues in Land, and Temporal Juris­dictions upon the Church, which before con­sisted of nothing but Voluntary Oblations.

Philip and his Son, making together the Twenty ninth Emperor.

Q FRom whenee came this Philip?

A. He was an Arabian by birth.

Q. What Measures did he take to secure himself of the Empire?

A. As he thought it advisable to conceal his Crime from the Senate, he sent them word that Gordianus died a Natural Death; so that it was no difficult matter for him to obtain of them to confirm the Choice which the Army had made of him.

Q. Did he take any Partner in the Em­pire?

A. Yes, his Son.

Q. How long did they reign?

A. Five Years and some Months; after which they were both assassinated almost at the same time; the Father in a Sedition which happen'd at Verona, and the Son at Rome.

Q. What men of Note flourish'd now?

A. Plotinus a celebrated Platonist, and a Disciple of Origen, who taught with great Applause at Rome; and St. Cyprian a most Eloquent Father, and Ornament of the A­frican Church.

Decius the Thirtieth Emperor. The Year of Rome 989. Of the Birth of I. C. 249.

Q. IN what station was Decius before he got Possession of the Empire?

A. He was nothing more than a Senator.

Q. How did he arrive to the Supreme Dignity?

A. Being sent by Philip to appease a Se­dition which had arose in Pannonia, he was there chosen Emperor by the very Authors of that Commotion, who discover'd all sorts of good qualities in him; and indeed he had only one fault, which was his excessive Cruelty to the Christians.

Q. What did he enjoin them to do?

A. They were constrain'd by all manner of Tortures and Punishments to offer Sacri­fice to Idols.

Q. Was he engaged in any War?

A. He fought against the Goths, but was miserably overthrown by them, his Son sl [...]in in his sight, and himself lost in a Marish, whither he fled by the Advice of Gallus to save himself.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Near Three Years.

Q. What remarkable thing [...] out in his time?

A. 'Tis said he was the [...] of the Seventh Persecution, to [...] storm [Page 207] several Christians fled into Woods and Caves; and particularly Paulus of Egypt, the Patriarch of the Hermits, being taken with the Charms of a Solitary Life, here laid down the first Scheme of Monkery. Among others, Pope Fabian lost his Life; and Origen was taken into Custody and impri­son'd, but to avoid Death he was prevail'd upon to offer Incense to Idols.

Q. What other Passages happen'd?

A. At the same time Novatus and Nova­tianus made a Schism in the Church, and the abovemention'd St. Cyprian Bishop of Car­thage flourish'd; who in the Year of our Lord 256, under the Pontificat of St. Ste­phen, having assembled a Council at Carthage, declar'd the Baptism of Hereticks to be null and void, and that such Persons ought to be rebaptiz'd: However, he effac'd this Error by his Martyrdom, which happen'd in the time of Valerianus.

Gallus and Volusianus his Son, making together the Thirty first Emperor. The Year of Rome 991. Of the Birth of I. C. 251.

Q. WHO was this Gallus?

A. He was Lieutenant of De­cius's Army.

Q. How came he to be proclaim'd Em­peror?

[Page 208] A. By the Soldiers after the death of De­cius.

Q. What means did he use to secure him­self in the Empire?

A. He procur'd his Election to be rati­fied by the Senate.

Q. When he was at Rome, what did he do?

A. He associated his Son Volusianus with him in the Empire.

Q What did he do besides this?

A. He likewise adopted the Son of De­cius.

Q. Why did he take this young Decius a Partner with him?

A. To quiet the minds of the Romans, but shortly after he caused him to be poi­soned.

Q. What became of Gallus at last?

A. He and his Son were murder'd by their own Army for their Cowardice.

Q. How long did they reign?

A. Two Years and Four Months.

Aemilianus the Thirty second Emperor. The Year of Rome 994. Of the Birth of I. C. 254.

Q. FRom whence came Aemilianus?

A. He was a Moor by Birth.

Q. What Office did he bear when he was made Emperor?

A. He was Governor of Pannonia.

[Page 209] Q. By whom was he proclaimed Em­peror?

A. By the Soldiers, because he had beaten back the Scythians who had made an Inroad into that Country.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. No longer than Three Months.

Q. What happen'd to him then?

A. He was kill'd by the very same Sol­diers who Three Months before had pro­claim'd him Emperor.

Q. What made them serve him so?

A. Because they despised him by reason of his mean Parentage.

Q. Whom did they elect in his place?

A. Valerianus, Governor of Germany and Gaul, an experienc'd Captain, and a man of Quality.

Valerianus the Thirty third Emperor. The Year of Rome 994. Of the Birth of I. C. 254.

Q. WHat sort of a man was Valerianus?

A. He possess'd all the good qualities that make an Excellent Prince.

Q. Was he a Successful General?

A. No; for he lost every Battel he fought.

Q. Whom did he associate with him in the Empire?

A. His Son.

Q. How did he treat the Christians?

[Page 210] A. At the Instigation of a certain Magi­cian, and of Macrinus the Praefect, he rais'd a terrible Persecution against them, in which St. Lawrence was burnt upon a Gridiron.

Q. What memorable things happen'd in his time?

A. The Barbarians committed great Ra­vages upon all the Provinces of the Empire.

Q. Did not Valerianus use his best endea­vours to stop their Proceedings?

A. He did; and after he had attack'd the Scythians, (who had taken Chalcedon, burnt Nice, and the famous Temple of Dia­na at Ephesus) he turn'd his Forces against Sapores King of the Persians, but was taken Prisoner in that War.

Q. How did they use him when they had him in their power?

A. He was treated by that cruel King with all the Indignity imaginable, for he made a Footstool of him to mount his Horse, and at last order'd him to be flea'd and salted.

Q. When his Son Gallienus heard of his Father's Captivity, did not he employ his utmost Power to deliver him from it.

A. No; and when a Messenger came to acquaint him with his Death, he replied ra­ther with the Stupidity of a Barbarian, than the Sedateness of a Philosopher, That he knew very well his Father was born mortal, and subject to all the accidents of Fortune.

[Page 211] Q. What extravagant actions did he ever commit?

A. He was vain enough to make a sort of a Triumph, wherein was to be seen a man clad in Royal Vestments, resembling Sapores, loaded with Chains, and follow'd by seve­ral others that represented the Persian Cap­tives, as if he had really vanquished the King of Persia.

Q. Did none of the Spectators laugh at this ridiculous Show?

A. Some Senators made very merry upon this occasion, and drawing near the sight, they asked aloud, Where was their Emperor Valerianus?

Q. When Gallienus heard of it, how did he resent it?

A. He commanded all those that took this liberty, to be burnt.

Q. How long did Valerianus reign?

A. Six or seven years.

Gallienus the Thirty fourth Emperor. The Year of Rome 999. Of the Birth of I. C. 259.

Q. WHose Son was Gallienus?

A. The Son of Valerianus.

Q. What remarkable Accidents happen'd in the world when he succeeded his Father?

A. All the Provinces belonging to the Romans design'd to throw off their Yoke, and the respective Governors of them caus'd [Page 212] themselves to be proclaim'd Emperors; so that besides Gallienus, the Roman Empire might reckon Thirty Caesars or Tyrants.

Q. Who was it that stopt the progress of the Enemies of the Empire?

A. Odenatus King of Palmyra, a Generous Heroic Prince, not only retook Nisibis and Carrae, and wrested Mesopotamia out of the hands of the Persians, but he put their Mo­narch to flight, kill'd him abundance of his Soldiers, and sent several of his Satrapae, or Peers, in Chains to Gallienus.

Q. What did Gallienus do with these Pri­soners?

A. This scandalous Prince was not a­sham'd to Triumph over them, tho he had no share in the Action.

Q. What Recompence did Gallienus make to Odenatus?

A. Some years after, in consideration of the Victories he had gain'd, and the great Services he had done, he made him his Part­ner in the Empire; but one of his own Re­lations becoming jealous of him, murder'd him and his Son Herod.

Q. After Odenatus was dead, who took the Government in hand?

A. His Wife Zenobia, a Woman of an un­daunted Spirit, and of a Chastity equal to her Courage, who perform'd those Miracles a­gainst the Persians, the Arabians, the Scythians, and the Armenians, that she will be always reckon'd among the greatest Heroines of her Sex.

[Page 213] Q. What memorable Action happen'd about this time?

A. The Franks, a Warlike and Powerful People, now began to make a Figure in the world, and breaking out of Germany into Gaul, in process of time made themselves Masters of all that large Countrey, from the Ocean and the Rhine, to the Alpes and Py­renees.

Q. What did the Principal Officers of the Roman Army do?

A. Finding that Gallienus was not capable to defend the Empire, they resolv'd to elect Claudius, a Man of Quality and Merit.

Q. What became of Gallienus at last?

A. He was assassinated near Milan, with his Brother Valerius, as he went to give Bat­tel to the Tyrant Aureolus.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Almost Eight Years.

Claudius II. the Thirty fifth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1008. Of the Birth of I. C. 268.

Q WHat sort of a man was this Clau­dius the second?

A. One of the greatest as well as the most accomplish'd Princes of his time?

Q. How did he employ himself as soon as he was advanc'd to the Throne?

A. The first thing he did was to defeat Aureolus, who in Gallienus's time had got [Page 214] himself to be proclaim'd Emperor at Mi­lan.

Q. What measures did Aureolus take?

A. He offer'd to own him as the Rightful Emperor, provided he would leave him what he possess'd in Italy.

Q. What Answer did Claudius return?

A. That he had done well to have made such a Proposition to Gallienus, but as for himself he was resolv'd to make him know his duty, and surrender upon discre­tion.

Q. What remarkable Action did Claudius afterwards perform?

A. Having defeated Aureolus, he marched against an Army of Goths, consisting of Three hundred thousand men, that ravag'd and de­stroy'd Asia Minor.

Q. Which side obtain'd the Victory?

A. Claudius gave the Goths a great Over­throw, and sunk Two thousand of their Ships.

Q. What Sirname was bestow'd upon him for this gallant Exploit?

A. That of Gothicus.

Q. What died he of?

A. Of the Plague, after he had reign'd about Two Years.

Quintillus the Thirty sixth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1010. Of the Birth of I. C. 270.

Q. WHose Son was Quintillus?

A. The Son of Claudius.

Q. How was he proclaim'd Emperor?

A. By the Soldiers, after the Death of his Father.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. No more than Fifteen Days.

Q. What Misfortune befel him then?

A. He was kill'd in a Mutiny by the ve­ry same Soldiers that had made him Em­peror.

Q. What Learned men flourish'd at this time?

A. Longinus, a great Favourite of Zeno­bia, and a most excellent Orator and Critic, who in his Treatise de Sublimi makes ho­nourable mention of Moses; and Porphyry, a Iew by Nation, first a Christian and after­wards an Apostate, but a most Acute Philo­sopher.

Aurelianus the Thirty seventh Emperor.

Q. FRom whence came Aurelianus?

A. He was of a very mean Birth, and came from Pannonia.

Q. What sort of a man was he?

A. He was extremely Generous, but with­al [Page 216] Cruel and Bloody, which occasion'd the famous Saying, That he was a good Physician, but took away too much blood.

Q. What did he do as soon as he was elected Emperor?

A. He wore a Diadem, which none of his Predecessors had ever done before him.

Q. Did he make any Warlike Expeditions?

A. He vanquish'd the Germans and Marco­manni in Vindelicia, which comprehended the same Tract of Ground as Bavaria does now. Then marching towards the East, he takes Zenobia Prisoner, recovers Egypt, and all Asia, and in short, enlarges the Empire to its An­cient Bounds.

Q. When the Wars were over, how did he employ himself?

A. He triumph'd at Rome, and his Illu­strious Captive Zenobia made no small part of the Spectacle; but he was enrag'd at some Seditions which had arose there in his ab­sence, the Authors of which he severely pu­nish'd; nay, even some Senators, for faults which a milder Prince would have pass'd by.

Q. How did the Romans relish this Seve­rity?

A. They began to fear him, and say that he deserv'd to be assassinated.

Q. Where, and after what manner died he?

A. In Thrace, where he lay with a power­ful Army to attack the Persians; and as he was upon the March between Byzantium and [Page 217] Heraclea, he was slain by Mucaporus at the In­stigation of Mnestheus, his Freed-man and Secretary.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Five Years compleatly.

Q. Was his Death unreveng'd?

A. No; for the Villany of Mnestheus being immediately discover'd, he was condemn'd to be thrown to Wild Beasts, and the whole Army celebrated the Funeral of Aurelianus after a most Magnificent manner.

Tacitus the Thirty eighth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1015. Of the Birth of I. C. 275.

Q. AFter the Emperor Aurelianus was thus slain in Thrace, whom did they chuse to succeed him?

A. The Soldiers writ to the Senate to de­sire them to elect an Emperor.

Q. And what Answer did the Senate re­turn?

A. They excused themselves, saying, they would leave it to the Army.

Q. What happen'd upon this?

A. An Inter-regnum of Eight Months; the Senate and Army complementing one ano­ther about the Honour of creating an Em­peror.

Q. Who was proclaim'd Emperor at long run?

[Page 218] A. Tacitus, who was elected by the Se­nate.

Q. How old was he at that time?

A. He was Seventy Years old, and reign'd Six Months.

Q. Where died he?

A. At Tarsus a City of Cilicia, of a Fever, occasion'd by the Fatigues he was oblig'd to endure in his War against the Scythians.

Q. Pray acquaint me with his Character?

A. He was grave, and of a sweet dispo­sition, temperate, and capable to govern very well; he was sober at his Meals, he loved Hunting and Building, which he un­derstood perfectly well: And what deserves particular mention, he valued himself upon being a Namesake and a Relation of that Eminent Historian Tacitus.

Florianus the Thirty ninth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1015. Of the Birth of I. C. 275.

Q. WHO succeeded Tacitus?

A. His Brother Florianus.

Q. Did his Reign last long?

A. No; for two or three Months after his Election, seeing Probus was elected Em­peror by the greatest part of the Army, he open'd a Vein, and after that manner died, in the Year of J. C. 276.

Probus the Fortieth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1016. Of the Birth of I. C. 276.

Q WHose Son was Probus?

A. He was according to some the Son of a Labourer in Dalmatia; or as others would have it, the Son of one Maxi­milian a Collonel in the Army.

Q. What Station was he in when the Soldiers declar'd him Emperor?

A. He was Governor of Syria.

Q. As soon as the Senate had confirm'd his Election, what Expedition did he go upon?

A. He made War against the Germans, who after the death of Aurelianus had made themselves Masters of one part of Gaul: These Germans were the true Franks, whom he entirely defeated, and expell'd the Country. Then he entred Germany, the great­est part of which he subdued, and reduced to the form of a Roman Province.

Q. Whither went he afterwards?

A. Into Asia, where he beat the Persians several times, and constrain'd them to de­mand a Peace; he likewise overthrew Satur­ninus the Governor of Syria, who had revolt­ed against him.

Q. What other memorable Actions did he perform?

A. He had the same Success against Pro­culus [Page 220] and Bonosus, who had usurp'd the Im­perial Authority in Gaul, of which place they were Governors, and having there defeated and taken them Prisoners, he order'd them to be hang'd.

Q. Who was this Bonosus?

A. A good Captain, but an excessive Drinker; which made the Emperor Aure­lianus say of him by way of Raillery, That he was born not to Live, but to Drink.

Q. How did they call him when he was hang'd?

A. See, said they, 'tis not a Man, but a Bottle, that hangs there.

Q. Did Probus live many years after these Conquests?

A. No; for as he march'd through Illy­rium, he was slain at Sirmium by his Sol­diers.

Q. What was it that occasioned this hea­vy Misfortune upon him?

A. 'Twas because he treated them with too much severity, and employ'd them in building or repairing the Publick Works.

Q. How long did he reign?

A. Six Years, and Four Months.

Q. What Men of Note liv'd about this time?

A. Manes, the Father of the Manicheans, pretending himself to be the Paraclet, pro­pagated his Impious Doctrines in Persia, from whence they infected the Neighbouring Countries. At last he was flead alive there by the King's Command.

Carus the Forty first Emperor. The Year of Rome 1022. Of the Birth of I. C. 282.

Q. WHO succeeded next in the Empire?

A. Carus, who as soon as he found himself possess'd of this Dignity, took his two Sons, Carinus and Numerianus, Part­ners with him in the Empire, and procured them to be declared Caes [...]rs.

Q. To what place did he send Carinus?

A. To Gaul, to fight against the Franks, a German People, who had made a new Ir­ruption into that Countrey.

Q. And where was Carus employ'd?

A. He marched himself against the Per­sians with Numerianus in his Company, and took Mesopotamia from them. Nay, he was de­sirous to extend his Conquests beyond Cte­siphon, but died in that Expedition.

Q. After what manner did he end his days?

A. He was found dead in his Tent after a terrible Tempest?

Q. To what did the Romans ascribe his Death?

A. To the Divine Vengeance, for endea­vouring to carry his Victories beyond Ctesi­phon; because there was an Ancient Oracle which forbad the Romans to extend their Em­pire beyond that Capital City of the Per­sians.

Numerianus the Forty second Emperor. The Year of Rome 1022. Of the Birth of I. C. 282.

Q. WAS not Numerianus mightily con­cern'd for his Father's Death?

A. He was so afflicted at it, that the Tears he shed incessantly upon this occasion, so far injur'd his Eyesight, that he was forced to be carried in a close Litter, because he could not endure the light.

Q. What became of him at last?

A. His Father-in-Law Aper, who was Captain of the Guards, and had an Ambi­tion to be Emperor, got him to be assassina­ted in this Litter.

Q. Did not Aper take care to conceal his death from the Army?

A. That the Soldiers might not have the least suspicion of the matter, he accompanied the Litter, as if the Emperor had been still alive in it.

Q. What Answer did he give those per­sons that asked to see him?

A. That the Emperor had given Orders not to let the Litter be open'd, because the Day-light extremely incommoded his eyes.

Q. Who commanded the Army all this while in the Emperor's Name?

A. Aper, who by this means pretended to possess himself soon of the Empire; but the noisom smell of the dead body discover'd his [Page 223] Villany, and gave occasion to Diocletian, one of the Principal Officers of the Army, to kill him upon the spot.

Q. And did this Action please the Army?

A. They liked it so well, that they imme­diately with one common consent proclaim'd him Emperor, without considering that they had another Lawful Emperor still li­ving.

Q. Who was he?

A. Car [...]nus, the Brother of Numerianus.

Carinus the Forty third Emperor. The Year of Rome 1022. Of the Birth of I. C. 282.

Q. WHere was Carinus when he heard that his Father was dead, and his Bro­ther Numerianus assassinated?

A. He was then in Gaul, where he minded nothing else but satisfying his Brutal Appe­tite.

Q. Was he not surprized when he receiv'd advice that Diocletian was proclaim'd Empe­ror, and was marching towards him to di­spute the Legality of his Title?

A. Yes, and immediately made a Truce with his Vices to go and fight him.

Q. Where was the Battel fought?

A. In Moesia, a Province of Asia Minor.

Q. Which side got the better on't?

A. Carinus had obtain'd the Victory, but as he pursued the Enemy in their flight, he [Page 224] was assassinated by a Collonel of his own Army.

Q. For what Provocation?

A. Because he had formerly abused this Collonel's Wife.

Q. When did this happen?

A. In the Year of J. C. 285. after he had reign'd Three Years.

Diocletian and Maximian, making toge­ther the Forty fourth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1024. Of the Birth of I. C. 284.

Q. WHere was Diocletian born?

A. In Dalmatia, of very obscure Parentage, but he prov'd a man of great Generosity.

Q. What was foretold concerning him?

A. That he should be made Emperor as soon as he had slain a Boar; upon which ac­count he kill'd several in hunting, but to no purpose▪ At last when he had slain Aper the Captain of the Guards, he saw that was the Boar he was to kill; for which reason he cried out aloud, I have kill'd the Boar; and the Army proclaim'd him Emperor.

Q. After the Imperial Purple was thus conferr'd upon him, how did he manage Affairs?

A. Finding the Empire was invaded on every side, and that himself alone was not able to oppose the Violence of the Barbari­ans, [Page 225] he took his old Friend Maximian, an ill-bred clownish sort of a Brute, but a good Soldier, his Partner in the Empire.

Q. What did these two do in conjunction?

A. They chose each of them Constantius Chlorus, and Galerius, to command their Armies.

Q. What method did they take to engage them more strongly in their Interests?

A. They created them Caesars, and after­wards obliging them to be divorced from their Wives, Diocletian gave his Daughter Valeria to Galerius, and Maximian his Daugh­ter Theodora to Constantius.

Q. These two Emperors and two Caesars, were they successful in their Wars?

A. They were so fortunate in all their Attempts against the Enemies of the Em­pire, that they obtain'd as many Victories as they fought Battels; and after they had spent ten years thus in their Wars, crown'd with Glory and Success, they entred all four Triumphantly into Rome, where Diocletian caused himself to be call'd Iovianus, and Maximian took the Title of Herculianus.

Q. After these two Great Men had made themselves absolute Masters of the Empire, what is it that Historians tell us they did?

A. To the great amazement of all the world, both of them voluntarily quitted the Empire, Diocletian at Nicomedia, and Maximi­an at Milan.

[Page 226] Q. Where did Diocletian pass his Retire­ment?

A. At Salonae, a small City of Dalmatia, the place of his Nativity, where he spent the remainder of his life in cultivating his Gar­dens.

Q. And where did Maximian live pri­vately?

A. In Lucania.

Q. How long did they reign?

A. Diocletian reign'd almost Twenty Years, and Maximian Eighteen.

Q. Was not Diocletian a cruel Persecutor of the Christians?

A. Out of an implacable Malice to the Professors of that Religion, he design'd to extirpate them utterly out of the world; and what by the Cruelty of his Edicts, the Bigotry of his Ministers, and the barbarous Variety of his Torments, made a greater havock of them than any of his Predecessors. In Egypt only, a Hundred and fourteen thou­sand are said to be put to death, and Seven hundred thousand sent into Banishment. The Thebaean Legion, together with their Commander Mauritius, were cut off by Maximian; but this relation by some Mo­dern Critics is look'd upon to be Fabulous.

Q Was not Maximian soon weary of this retired life?

A. Yes; and being desirous to leave it, in order to reassume the Imperial Dignity, he earnestly importunes Diocletian to remedy [Page 227] those Evils which Constantius and Galerius had occasion'd by their ill conduct.

Q. What answer did Diocletian return him?

A. Showing him the Coleworts growing in his Garden, he told him he took a great­er pleasure to plant them, than to govern the Empire.

Q. What courses did Maximian take, find­ing himself despised and neglected by all the world?

A. He withdrew to his Daughter, who was the Wife of Constantius, and endeavour­ing to engage her to poison her own Hus­band, she discover'd his Perfidiousness to Constantius, who caus'd him to be slain.

Galerius and Constantius making toge­ther the Forty fifth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1044. Of the Birth of I. C. 304.

Q. WHen were Galerius and Constantius proclaimed Emperors?

A. They did not take possession of the Empire till Diocletian and Maximian had ab­dicated.

Q. What were they before they were ad­vanced to that Honour?

A. They were only Caesars.

Q. How did they divide the Empire be­tween them?

A. Constantius contented himself with Bri­tain [Page 228] and Gaul, and Galerius had the rest of the Roman Empire for his share.

Q. What did Galerius do when he found himself unable to support so weighty a Charge?

A. He associated Severus and Maximin with himself, whom he created Caesars.

Q. What Governments did he bestow up­on them?

A. He gave the Government of Italy to Severus, that of the East to Maximin, and as for his own share, he contented himself with Illyrium.

Q. What was Constantius's Character?

A. He was of an agreeable, sweet, and merciful Disposition; but as for Galerius he was of a quite contrary temper, he declared himself a mortal Enemy of the Christians, and massacred a whole Town of them in Phrygia; nay, he would have fain engaged Constantius to persecute them.

Q. What Judgments did these Cruelties draw down upon his head?

A. God permitted him to be seized by an infamous and nasty Disease, during which he saw himself devour'd alive by Worms, and so died.

Q. How did Constantius behave himself?

A. Making as if he really design'd to per­secute the Christians, he commanded all the Officers of his Houshold, who were Christi­ans, to change their Religion, otherwise they should lose their Places.

[Page 229] Q. And were any of them so faint-hearted and wavering as to prefer the renouncing of their Religion before the loss of their Em­ployments?

A. Several of them were so; but the Emperor sent them away with disgrace, saying, That those who were not true to their God, would never be faithful to their Prince.

Q. How did he treat those that continued firm in their Religion?

A. He kept them still in his Service, and highly commended their Fidelity.

Q. How long did Constantius possess the Empire?

A. Two years, after which he died at York between the Arms of his Son, Constan­tine the Great.

Q. Whom did Constantius leave his Succes­sor behind him?

A. His Son Constantine the Great, who sig­nalized himself exceedingly by his Courage, and a thousand noble Actions.

Q. Wherein did he particularly distinguish himself from his Predecessors?

A. In that he was the first Emperor that embraced the Christian Faith.

Constantine the Great the Forty sixth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1046. Of the Birth of I. C. 306.

Q. WHO was the Mother of Constantine the Great?

A. H [...]lena, whom some Historians make a British Woman, but with what probability, let the Learned judge.

Q. Why was the Sirname of Great con­ferr'd upon him?

A. For his great Exploits and Perfor­mances in War. He was the first Christian Emperor.

Q. What happen'd to him in the course of his life?

A. The news of his being Emperor having arrived at Rome, Maxentius the Son of that Herculius who had renounced the Empire, was elected and proclaimed Emperor.

Q. How did Maxentius behave himself in the beginning of his Reign?

A. At first he seem'd to favour the Chri­stians, in order to bring them over to his Party by this means; but he did not treat them long after this manner, for he persecu­ted them with a thousand cruelties, and render'd himself odious by abundance of other Crimes.

Q. What was the consequence of these Barbarities?

[Page 231] A. He was defeated by Constantine the Great; and God, who was pleas'd by a Mi­racle to draw this mighty Prince to the true Faith, shew'd him a Cross in the Air, to convince this Victorious Emperor that it was the Crucified Jesus who made him triumph over the Tyrant Maxentius.

Q. What did Constantine do after this?

A. He gave his Sister in marriage to Lici­nius, who requited him very ill for this Ho­nour; for without any provocation he de­clared war against him, nor was so ad­vantageous an Alliance able to make him live in good Terms with Constantine.

Q. How came he off at last?

A. He was defeated, but his Wife by her continual intercession obtain'd of Constatnine that he should not be put to death for his Crimes.

Q. And did Constantine yield to his Sister's Intreaties?

A. Yes, and was contented only with their banishing him to Thessalonica.

Q. Did Licinius continue long without at­tempting to make some disturbance?

A. No, for the next year he rais'd new Commotions, and in this second Sedition was kill'd in the place of his Exile?

Q. What had Constantine to do after he had put an end to these Civil Wars?

A. He had enough to manage his own Family, where he had some Affairs that gave him abundance of uneasy moments, and sen­sibly touched him.

[Page 232] Q. What happen'd to him there?

A. Fausta, the Wife of this great Prince, became passionately in love, even to madness, with Crispus, who was Caesar, and Son to Constantine by his first Wife, and attempted by her Caresses to induce him to answer her Brutal Passion.

Q. How did she succeed in her Amours?

A. She tried all efforts, but vainly, to de­bauch this young Prince, who possess'd as great a share of Virtue as he did of Beauty.

Q. What courses did this Woman take, finding her self so despised?

A. Her love being changed into hatred, carried her to those extremities against this innocent Prince, that she accus'd him before the Emperor with a design to force her?

Q. What credit did this Accusation find?

A. She had authority enough with the Emperor to be believed, and Crispus, though wholly guiltless of the matter, was condemn­ed to die, whi [...]h was accordingly executed.

Q. And did this Wickedness continue long unpunished?

A. No, for the young Prince's Innocence was discover'd some time after, and then Constantine, by way of Retaliation, justly put the Empress to death.

Q. What glorious things did Constantine do in his Reign?

A. He enriched and adorned, Ann. Dom. 336. the City of Constantinople (which took its new Name from him, but before was [Page 233] called Byzantium) so magnificently with the Spoils of his En [...]mies, that it went by the name of New Rome, as the Country of Thrace, where it stands, still goes by the name of Romelia.

Q. What warlike Exploits did this Prince perform?

A. He defeated his Enemies, and particu­larly overthrew the Sarmatians in several parts of the Roman Empire.

Q. Did he live any long time after his Conquests?

A. No; he died on Whitsunday, in the Year of our Lord 337. in the Suburbs of Nicomedia, where he had received Baptism.

Q. From whose hands did he receive Bap­tism?

A. He was baptized by Pope Sylvester.

Q Was not the Nicene Council celebra­ted in his Reign?

A. Arius, a Presbyter of Alexandria, ha­ving denied the Divinity of our Blessed Sa­viour, Constantine to oppose the farther spread­ing of this Heresy, in the Year 325. sum­mons a Council of Bishops, which consisted in all of Three hundred and eighteen, to meet at Nice, a City of Bithynia, where they made Arius recant his impious Doctrine, and com­piled the Nicene Cr [...]ed.

Q. What other remarkable things hap­pen'd in his time?

A. His Mother Helena, a woman of much piety, but mixt with a great deal of [Page 234] Superstition, which now began openly to in­fect the Church, is reported to have found t [...]e very Cross on which J.C. suffered. In memory of which Invention the Roman Church keeps a solemn Festival on the Third of May.

Q. What Learned Men flourished now?

A. Lactantius, the worthy Disciple of Ar­nobius, and Praeceptor to Crispus, Constantine's Son, employed his Eloquence, of which he was a great Master, in confuting the Errors of Paganism, and defending the Truth of the Christian Religion.

Q. How many Wives had he?

A. Two. The latter was Fausta, the Daughter of Maximian.

Q. How many Children had he by Fausta?

A. Three Sons, Constantine, Constans, and Constantius, and two Daughters, whose names were Flavia Iulia Constantina, and Helena.

Q. What did he leave to these Three Princes?

A. He was so overseen in his Politicks as to commit that unpardonable Solecism of leaving them all three Joint-heirs of his Em­pire, which they divided among them.

Q. What had the Eldest for his Divi­dend?

A. He had for his share Gaul, and all be­yond the Alpes.

Q. What had Constans?

A. He possess'd Rome, Italy, Afric, Sicily, [Page 235] and the other Isles, Sclavonia, Thrace, Mace­donia, and Greece.

Q. What fell to Constantius's share?

A. He was Master of Asia, of the East, and of Aegypt.

Q. Give me a description of Constantine the Great?

A. He had a noble Air, a great Soul; he was sincere, valiant and modest, well skill'd in the Latin and Greek Languages, an excel­lent Horseman, bold, but provident in all his Enterprizes; full-faced, he had a thick Neck, his Nose somewhat flat, his Eyes sparkling, his Hair thin, he shaved all his Beard, which none of his Predecessors from Adrian used to do.

Q. How many Brothers do they say Con­stantine the Great had?

A. Two: viz. Constans the Father of Iu­lian, and Dalmatius who left two Sons be­hind him, one of whom named likewise Dal­matius was created Caesar in the Year of our Lord 335.

Q. What was the name of Dalmatius's Second Son?

A. Annibalianus.

The Division of the Empire between the three Sons of Constantine the Great, making together the Forty seventh Emperor. The Year of Rome 1077. Of the Birth of I. C. 337.

Q. WHat were the Names of these three Sons?

A. The First was called Constantine, the Second Constantius, and the Third Constans.

Q. After they had divided the Empire between themselves, how did they manage Affairs?

A. They fell at Variance, which occasio­ned bloody Civil Wars; each of them being desirous to Enlarge his Territories, but they were all destroy'd at last, one after ano­ther.

Q. Where was Constantine the Younger Born?

A. At Arles, and was Created Caesar in the Year 317, but he held the Consulship al­most Four Months.

Q. Upon whom did he make War?

A. Upon his Brother Constans, and think­ing to take away those Provinces from him, which he possess'd by the Dividend which his Father made of the Empire; he Marched with his Forces into Italy, where he was Slain, and thrown into the River Aelna, near [Page 237] Aquileia, where Constans was at that time.

Q. How Old was he when this Accident befel him?

A. Twenty Five Years Old, and had Reign'd Three of them.

Q. What did Constans Inherit by his Death?

A. He had Gaul, Spain, and Great Britain.

Q. When was Constans Third Son to Con­stantine the Gr [...]at, according to Historians, Created Caesar?

A. Upon Christmas Day in the Year 333.

Q. What were the First Exploits that Constans perform'd?

A. He Vanquish'd the Franks, and compel­led them to make an Alliance with him; his great Merits and the Sweetness of his Tem­per being Invincible Charms, that drew the Affections of all Mankind after him.

Q. What do you particularly observe of him in History?

A. He always took the Part of the Or­thodox, against the Arrians who Disturb'd the Tranquility of the Church.

Q. Did any Unfortunate Accident befal this Prince?

A. Magnentius who had Usurp'd the Em­pire, put him to Death in Aelna, a City in Rousillon, in the Year 350; he was then about Thir [...]y Years Old, and had Reign'd Thirteen of them.

Q. When was Constantius the Second Son of Constantine the Great, Created Caesar.

[Page 238] A. In the year 324; but he dishonoured this high Dignity, by murdering several of his Relations, as also by espousing and pro­fessing the Arian Heresy; for suffering him­self to be seduced by the Flatteries of his Wife, and the Insinuations of some Heretics, he persecuted the Church, and banish'd the Orthodox Bishops.

Q. Upon whom did Constantius make War?

A. Upon Sapores King of Persia, a great Persecutor of the Christians; but Constan­tius had the worst in all the Battels and all the Sieges he was engag'd in.

Q. Who was it that got himself declared Emperor by the Army in Hungary?

A. Vetranio, at the same time when Mag­nentius usurp'd the Sovereign Authority.

Q. What care did Constantius take to op­pose his Designs?

A. He marched Westwards to fight Vetra­nio, and obliged Magnentius to retire to Ly­ons, where he laid violent hands upon him­self.

Q. After Constantius had made himself sole Master of the Empire, how did he behave himself?

A. He became so insolent, that he once more began to persecute the Catholic Pre­lates, so that the Church was in a very mi­serable condition under this detestable Prince.

Q. How stood the Affairs of the Church in his time?

[Page 239] A. Arianism almost universally prevail'd; and only the Bishop of Rome, and S. Atha­nasius, who compil'd the Creed bearing his n [...]me, were left to stem the Tide.

Q. When was Iulian, afterwards sir­nam'd the Apostate, made Caesar?

A. In the Year 355, and having beaten the Barbarians out of Gaul, he was Saluted Emperor about the Year 360, and Marched with his Army towards the East.

Q. What Measures did Constantius take, when he heard he was in Illyrium, and was Marching directly against him?

A. He changed his Design of an Expediti­on he had projected against the Persians, and came back from Antioch to Tarsus, where he first felt his Fever, and from thence to Mop­suestia in Cilicia, so call'd from the Fountains of Mopsus, where he died.

Q. How old was he then?

A. Forty Years, and had reign'd in all 25 Years 3 Months and 15 Days.

Julian the Apostate, the Forty eighth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1101. Of the Birth of I. C. 361.

Q. WHO succeeded Constantius in the Empire?

A. Iulian the Apostate.

Q. Where was he born?

A. In Byzantium, in the Year 331.

[Page 240] Q. Whose Son was he?

A. The Son of Constans, Brother to Con­stantine the Great, and of Basilina.

Q. Whom did he marry?

A. Helena.

Q. Why was he sirnam'd the Apostate?

A. Because he turn'd Pagan after he had been educated in the Christian Religion, and had read the Holy Scriptures in the Church before the Congregation.

Q. When was he sole Emperor?

A. In the Year 363, he was proclaim'd Augustus by his Soldi [...]rs, but he had been created Caesar before his Election to the Em­pire.

Q. Where was he proclaim'd Emperor?

A. At Paris.

Q. What did he do in the beginning of his Reign?

A. He put all the Friends of Constantius to death, or sent them into banishment; he only encourag'd the Augurs, the Victimarii, and the Philosophers; he order'd the Ido­latrous Temples of the Heathens to be open'd, and having renounced the Faith▪ he assumed the Title of Pontifex Maximus. Nor was this all; for the more to vex the Christians, he made scandalous condescentions to the Iews, and began to erect a Temple for them at Ierusalem, which he was obliged soon to leave off; for Globes of Fire breaking out from under the Foundations, disturbed the Work­men; as Ammianus Marcellinus, a Pagan Wri­ter, witnesses.

[Page 241] Q. What befel him upon this?

A. He became the Laughter and Contempt of the People of Antioch.

Q. What course did he take to revenge the Affronts they put upon him?

A. He writ a Satyric Letter upon this oc­casion, call'd the Misopogan, or Beard-hater.

Q. Upon whom did Iulian make war?

A. Upon the Persians; but having after the second Battel insolently refused to com­ply with the just Articles of Peace which they offer'd him, and burnt the Ships that follow­ed him, and carried Provisions for the Army, he was surrounded on all sides by the Ene­my.

Q. What became of him at last?

A. He had the mortification to find him­self cut off from all hopes of Assistance, and was wounded by an Arrow in the Fight, but 'twas never known from what side it came.

Q. Did he say any thing as he was dy­ing?

A. He desperately took out a handful of Blood which gushed from the Wound, and throwing it up into the Air, cry'd out, Vi­eisti Galilaee, O Galilean thou hast at last over­come me.

Q. What did he mean by these words?

A. That our Blessed Saviour, whom he had so often provoked by his Sacriledges, and other indignities, and whom now he [Page 242] found to his cost to be the great Judge of the Universe, would take a full vengeance for the Crimes and Blasphemies he had uttered against his Sacred Person.

Q. What sort of a man was Iulian the Apostate?

A. He had sparkling Eyes, a stern wan­dring Countenance, a straight Nose, his Mouth somewhat of the biggest, a slit in his under Lip, a thick Beard which he wore picked, his Shoulders large and moving, his Head hanging down, which he always turn­ed on one and t'other side, he walked very fast although he was but little, and made a great noise when he laughed. How great a Warrier he was, the Alemans, Franks and Saxons, whom he overcame, do testify, and his remaining Works are undeniable proofs of his Wit and Ingenuity.

Jovian the Forty Ninth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1103. Of the Birth of I. C. 363.

Q. WHO was proclaimed Emperor af­ter the death of Iulian the Apo­state?

A. Iovian, the Son of Count Varro­nianus.

Q. Whom did he marry?

A. Charitas, the Daughter of Lucillianus, by whom he had a Son named Varro, whom he made Consul.

[Page 243] Q. What do Historians tell us of this Prince?

A. That he was a handsome well-shaped man, illustrious for his Birth, but more for his Piety.

Q. What did he principally apply himself to in the beginning of his Reign?

A. To draw the Souldiers from Supersti­tion. He commanded Jesus Christ to be adored by all those Soldiers who had aban­don'd his worship.

Q. Was he engaged in any Wars?

A. No, for in the condition he found the Army after the defeat and death of Iulian, he was obliged to make a Truce of Thirty years with Sapores, to whom he yielded the greatest part of Mesopotamia.

Q. Did he live a long time after this?

A. No; he died of a sickness in the Thir­ty third year of his Age, after he had reign­ed 7 months, 22 days.

Q. What particular things were done in his Reign?

A. He generally cancell'd all the Edicts of the Apostate which were favourable to the Pagans; he restored to the Faithful, and to the Churches all their Goods, their Honours, their Revenues, and their Priviledges.

Valentinian the Great, the Fiftieth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1104. Of the Birth of I. C. 364.

Q. WHO was named Emperor after the death of Iovian?

A. The Army chose Valentinian Empe­ror at Nice, because in Iulian's time he had preferr'd his Religion to his Preferment.

Q. What did he do as soon as he saw him­self possess'd of the Imperial Throne?

A. He made his Brother Valens his Partner in the Empire, and gave him the Govern­ment of the East.

Q. What part did he reserve for himself?

A. The West?

Q. What sort of a man was Valentinian?

A. He was a very virtuous Prince, and a strict observer of Justice; very ingenious, and a religious keeper of his word.

Q. With whom did he make war?

A. With the Saxons and Sarmatians, whom he defeated, and oblig'd them to de­mand a Peace by their Ambassadors whom they sent to him.

Q. And what said Valentinian to them?

A. He fell into such a fit of anger, to which he was always very subject, that he was seized with an Apoplexy.

Q. Did he dye of it?

A. Yes, in Hungary, being fifty five years old.

[Page 245] Q How many years did he reign?

A. Twelve years.

Q. Was he baptized before his death?

A. No; nevertheless he did not forbear to give sensible proofs of the Religion he profess'd, and commanded the Pagan Tem­ples to be shut.

Valens the Fifty first Emperor. The Year of Rome 1104. Of the Birth of I. C. 364.

Q. WHat Enemy had Valens to fight with in the beginning of his Empire?

A. Procopius who was related to Iulian, and was his greatest Enemy.

Q. Did Valens make War against him?

A. The dispute between them was bloody, but at the upshot Valens defeated Procopius, took him prisoner, and put him to death.

Q. What other Wars was he involved in?

A. He had a continual war with the Goths till their King Athanaricus having begg'd a Peace of him, he granted it, and afterwards kindly entertain'd him, at such time as being persecuted by the Hunns, he came to desire this Emperor's Protection, who setled him in Thrace.

Q. How did the Goths behave themselves at that time?

A. Not being able to bear the insuffera­ble Avarice of Lupicinus their Governour, [Page 246] they took up Arms against the Romans, [...] invaded Thrace.

Q. What memorable things happen'd in the course of this War?

A. Valens fell into the hands of his Ene­mies, who burnt him in a Cottage.

Q. How old was he when this Accident befel him?

A. He was fifty years old, and had reign'd fourteen years and four months.

Q. What Qualities were observable in him?

A. He had both good and bad ones. He was choleric, cruel, and envious. The Arian Heresy, with which he was infected, corrupt­ed all his other good Inclinations.

Q. What Learned men flourished in his time?

A. Gregory and Basil, who had contracted a friendship in their Youth at Athens, where they follow'd their Studies. The former born at Nazianzum in Cappadocia, from whence Sirnamed Nazianzenus. The other born in Pontus, and afterwards made Bishop of Caesaréa.

Q. What Acts of Cruelty did he ever commit?

A. He put all people to death who had the curiosity to know the name of his Suc­cessor; and being inform'd that the first Let­ters of his Name were to begin with Theod, he put to death old Theodosius the Father of Theodosius the Great, who was afterwards Va­lentinian's Successor.

[Page 247] Q. What considerable Actions had that Illustrious old man perform'd?

A. He had done the State great Service by his Counsels, beaten the Picts and Scots out of Britain, and defeated Firmius the Ty­rant, who ravag'd Afric with an Army of Moors.

Q. How many Children had Valentinian the Brother of Valens?

A. Two. The first named Gratianus, who was declared Augustus by his Father in the City of Amiens.

Q. What was the Second Son's name?

A. He was called Valentinian the Younger, to distinguish him from his Father.

Q. What do Historians tell us of Valenti­nian the Younger?

A. That after the death of his Father he was declar'd Augustus at the Age of Ten years by the Soldiers, as well as by his Bro­ther Gratian.

Gratian the Fifty second Emperor. The Year of Rome 1115. Of the Birth of I. C. 375.

Q WHat Qualities was Gratian master of?

A. He had a Body well made, and a Soul of a vast extent, and great elevation.

Q. Don't Historians observe some defects in him?

A. He had some, but such as would not [Page 248] have appear'd so conspicuous in an indiffe­rent Fortune; he had an incurable aversion to State-affairs, which ought to have taken up his most serious moments.

Q. Did not this sink his Reputation mightily with his Subjects?

A. Yes, and what they could not suffer but with the utmost indignation, was to see him freequently prefer a Barbarian Soldier to a Roman, although the Roman was the elder of the two, and had more merits to plead.

Q. How did he manage matters after the death of Valens?

A. He took as Partner in the Empire with him Theodosius, the Grandson of that Theodosius who was slain by the order of Va­lens.

Q. What forced him upon this Con­duct?

A. Because he found himself not strong enough to support so furious a War as he was then engaged in; and besides the Goths ravaged Thrace, and the other Provinces of the Empire at pleasure.

Theodosius the Great, the Fifty Third Emperor. The Year of Rome 1132. Of the Birth of I. C. 392.

Q. HOW old was Theodosius when he was taken Partner into the Em­pire?

[Page 249] A. He was thirty three Years old, and his first appearance on the Imperial Seat gave suf­ficient proofs of his Courage and Prudence.

Q. Where was he born?

A. In Spain, at Lauca a Town of Gallicia. He imitated all the Vertues, but none of the Vices of his Countryman Trajan. He sum­mon'd the Second Oecumenical Council, that of Nice being the first, at Constantino­ple, Ann. Dom. 381. wherein, besides the confirmation of the Nicene Council by an Hundred and fifty Bishops, Macedonius the Heretic was condemn'd, and the Orthodox Belief concerning the Holy Ghost, esta­blished.

Q. What memorable Exploits did he perform?

A. He vanquish'd all the Enemies of the Roman name, and gave peace to his Sub­jects.

Q. Was not this Prince a sure Asylum to all Kings that were persecuted, and in di­stress?

A. Yes, he supported them against all those who conspir'd their destruction, and the subversion of their Governments.

Q. What instances can you give me of this his great Generosity?

A. Athanaricus King of the Goths, being turn'd out of his Kingdom by his own Re­bellious Subjects, fled to Constantinople, where he was very honourably receiv'd by Theo­dosius.

[Page 250] Q. Did that Prince enjoy the Emperor's Favours any considerable time?

A. No; for tho he had escaped Death in so many Battels, yet he ended his days when he expected to pass the remainder of his life in great tranquillity.

Q. Was not Theodosius concern'd at the loss of him?

A. He would receive no manner of Con­solation; nay, he was so profuse in the Ce­lebration of his Funeral, that it was no less Magnificent than what was used to be kept for any of the deceased Emperors.

Q. Were not the Goths mightily astonish­ed at this?

A. It made so deep an Impression upon them, that seeing themselves without a Ma­ster, they were unanimously of an opinion, That they could not find a better than Theo­dosius.

Q. Did the Goths then submit themselves to this great Prince?

A. Yes; and he distributed Lands among them for their maintenance with great libe­rality.

Q. What remarkable matters happen'd after this?

A. The Tyrant Maximus made himself Master of Britain and Gaul, and chose Triers for his Capital City.

Q. What Acts of Cruelty did that Usur­pea commit?

[Page 251] A. He put the unfortunate Gratian to death at Lyons, who was Twenty five Years old.

Q. Did not Theodosius revenge h [...] death?

A. Yes; and plac'd young Valentinian (who had been forc'd out of Italy) upon his Throne again.

Q. As to the business of Religion, how did he behave himself?

A. He reconcil'd himself to the Church, and to the great St. [...]mbrose; and notwith­standing all the efforts of the Arians to de­bauch him in his Principles, and engage him in their Party, yet he still continued to ad­here to the Ancient Truth.

Q. What Character do Historians bestow upon him?

A. That he was inferior to none of his Predecessors either in Virtue or Merit; that he never made War but out of meer neces­sity, and was successful in all his Military Undertakings: In fine, that his Goodness charm'd all the world; and his engaging Be­haviour gain'd him the hearts of all that approach'd him.

Q. What was his chief Infirmity?

A. He was naturally Choleric, but he sel­dom suffer'd his Passion to get the better of him, and then after some short intervals it was no difficult matter to appease him. He had once design'd utterly to destroy the City of Antioch, for taking down the Statue of Augusta Placilla, but was at last persuaded [Page 252] by their Bishop Flavianus to pardon them. At another time he massacred seven thousand men in a Theatre at Thessalonica, for killing their President.

Q. Which was the last Victory that Theo­dosius obtain'd?

A. 'Twas that which he gain'd over Eu­genius, whose Troops had join'd those of Ar­bogastes, who had caus'd Valentinian to be strangled in his own Palace at Vienna in Dau­phine.

Q. Theodosius then vanquish'd these two Tyrants?

A. Yes; and 'twas rather by a particular Protection of Heaven, than any human strength.

Q. What became of them?

A. Eugenius was taken Prisoner, and Ar­bogastes kill'd himself.

Q. Did Theodosius the Great live long after these Victories?

A. No; for shortly after this Generous Prince died at Milan, A. D. 395. being Fifty Years old, according to the common Opi­nion.

Q. To whom did he bequeath his Em­pire?

A. He divided it between his two Sons Arcadius and Honorius.

Q. What had Arcadius for his share?

A. He had the Empire of the East, and Honorius that of the West.

[Page 253] Q. What Eminent Men flourish'd under his Reign?

A. St. Ierome, so profoundly skill'd in the Hebrew Tongue, to whom the Learned World is highly oblig'd for his great Perfor­mances upon the Scriptures. St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, who employ'd his Eloquence a­gainst the Arians. St. Austin, Bishop of Hippo in Afric, the most universally Learned Father of the Latin Church. Ausonius, a famous Poet and Orator, and Master to the Empe­ror Gratian, who rewarded him with the Consulate. Paulinus, Bishop of Nola in Cam­pania, who is first reported to have put Bells to a Sacred use; from whence they are cal­led Nolae and Campanae.

Arcadius the Fifty fourth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1135. Of the Birth of I. C. 395.

Q. WHom did Arcadius marry?

A. Eudoxia, whom he suffer'd to govern absolutely as she thought fit; the consequences of which had like to have prov'd as fatal to Religion as it did to the Empire; for she banish'd St. Chrysostom, who had been translated from the See of Antioch Constantinople, only for inveighing against her Vices.

Q. Whom did he intrust at his death to be his Son's Guardian?

A. Isdigerdes, King of Persia, who acquit­ted [Page 254] himself very honourably in this Trust; for he plac'd him under the Tuition of the Learned and Wise Antiochus; nay, he open­ly declared, That whoever attempted any thing against the Interest and Welfare of this young Prince, must expect to find him his Enemy.

Q. How old was he when he died?

A. He died in the One and thirtieth year of his Age, and in the Eleventh of his, or rather his Wife's Reign, who died in Child-bed.

Honorius the Fifty fifth Emperor. The Year of Rome 1135. Of the Birth of I. C. 395.

Q. GIve me the true Character of Hono­rius?

A. He was of a sweet agreeable Disposi­tion, an enemy to Application and Business; he even had an aversion to Publick Affairs; however, he was very zealous for the Chri­stian Religion, in favour of which he made several Edicts.

Q What remarkable things fell out in his Reign?

A. After the Goths had spread themselves all over Italy, and were Masters of the City of Rome, several Tyrants usurp'd the Sove­reign Authority.

Q. Whom did these Tyrants nominate for their Emperor?

[Page 255] A. Attalus the Son of Alaricus. Honorius offer'd to make him his Partner in the Em­pire, which he refused with a great deal of scorn and arrogance, and yet accepted the Imperial Dignity after it was offer'd to him by the Senate.

Q. Did he long possess the Empire?

A. No, he was soon stript of it; and being abandon'd by the Gauls, to whom he fled for Protection, he was taken Prisoner by Constantius, A. D. 415. and deliver'd to the Justice of the Emperor Honorius.

Q. And how did he use him?

A. He gave him his Life, and contented himself only with cutting off one of his hands.

Q. Why did he serve him so?

A. That this Rebel for the remainder of his life might carry the Punishment of his Crime about him, and have everlastingly before his eyes the marks of his Rebellion.

Q. What memorable Accidents happened after this?

A. One Constantine that commanded the Guards, and had nothing to recommend him but only his Name, was declared Em­peror; but being taken Prisoner, was strangled at Ravenna. Then Iovian and Se­bastian possest themselves of Gaul, but being seized at Narbo, were both put to death.

Q. Who was it that afterwards usurped the Empire of the Gauls?

A. Heraclius, who passed into Italy with a [Page 256] Navy of Seven hundred Sail, but being beat­en there, he made his Escape to Carthage, where he was strangled.

Q. What other matters happened after the Death of these Tyrants?

A. The Goths entred France under the Conduct of their King Ataulphus.

Q. How old was the Emperor Honorius, when he died of his Dropsey?

A. Thirty five Years, A. D. 425.

Q. What sort of a Reign was his?

A. Nothing but a continued Scene of Troubles, Commotions, Tumults, and Wars, occasion'd by the Vandals, the Hunns, and o­ther barbarous Nations, that daily pour'd new Swarms of People into the Roman Pro­vinces: Towards the end of his Reign, A. D. 413, the Burgundians erected a new Kingdom towards the Rhone: The Franks A. D. 420, erected another in Gaul, from them call'd France, under their first King Pha­ramond: And the year following Vallia King of the Goths, after the death of Ataulphus, constituted a Kingdom in Spain. The Vandals possessed that part of it which was formerly call'd Boetica, and now from them Andalusia; as the Goths in conjunction with the Alani, fix themselves in Provincia Tarraconensis, which was afterwards called Gothalania, and cor­ruptly Catalonia. The beginning of the Scotish Kingdom too is generally placed about the year of our Lord 422; the Scots from Ire­land settling themselves in the Northern parts [Page 257] of Great Britain under their King Fergus.

Q. What Learned men lived about these times?

A. Pelagius a Britain, a warm Asserter of the Omnipotency of Free-Will, and as vio­lent a Depressor of God's Grace; whom St. Austin encounter'd so vigorously. Pru­dentius, Sedulius, and Paulinus, famous for Poetry, but infinitely exceeded by Claudian, who rais'd his Reputation as much by the Elegance and Sweetness of his Versification, as he lessen'd it by the Meanness of his Sub­ject.

Of the Fall and Decay of the Roman Empire.

Q. WHat were the principal Causes of the Decay of the Roman Empire?

A. Pride, and Luxury, and Divisions at home; the frequent Mutinies of the Army, who deposed their Emperors at pleasure; and the perpetual Invasions of the Northern Nations.

Q. Who caused the greatest Desolations in the Empire?

A. The Goths, the Hunns, the Lombards, and Vandals, who in their turn ravaged the several Provinces of it, erecting new King­doms, and establishing their Laws and Cu­stoms where ever they came.

[Page 258] Q. By whom was Rome taken?

A. It was taken and retaken by Alarie King of the Goths, A. D. 410. and about 1163 years after the building of it. For the space of three days, this Imperial City, which for Nine hundred years had defied the Attacks of all its Enemies, even of Han­nibal himself, was ravag'd and plunder'd at the discretion of the barbarous Conquerors. Not long after it was taken by Totila, and after him by Theodoricus, who made so mag­nificent an Entry into it, that St. Austin, wholly astonish'd at so prodigious a show, wished that he had seen three things upon earth.

Q. What were they?

A. Iesus Christ in the flesh, St. Paul in the Pulpit, and Ancient Rome in its splendor.

Q. Did not the Roman Empire for some time make a happy Progress?

A. It advanc'd rather than decreas'd from Iulius Caesar down to Nero; but afterwards Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, so weaken'd it by their Civil Wars, that it was scarce in a con­dition to preserve it self from the Insults of its Enemies.

Q. Who restored this Empire to its An­cient Splendor?

A. In Trajan's time, as it possess'd the greatest Extent of Ground, so it visibly re­cover'd its former Reputation. From that Pe­riod it by degrees declin'd till the time of Con­stantine the Great, who by putting an end to [Page 259] all intestine Broils, retriev'd in some manner its ancient Credit; but through a fatal ill management did it a greater Injury at last, than all his Predecessors before him.

Q. How did that happen?

A. First he transplanted the Seat of the Empire from Rome, where it had so long in­habited, to Constantinople; by which means he abandon'd Italy and the Provinces which lay nearest it, to the Invasion of the Barbarians, and what was equally dangerous, to the Ambitious Attempts of the Bishops of Rome, who had always a mighty hankering after Temporals. Next, he considerably enfee­bled it by dividing it between his Three Sons.

Q. How long did the Eastern Empire con­tinue?

A. From the Sons of Constantine the Great, for the space of Twelve hundred years, or thereabout, to Constantine Palaeologus the last Emperor of Constantinople, who was prest to death in the Crowd, when Mahomet the se­cond Emperor of the Turks took the City of Constantinople, in the Year of the Creation of the World 5505, and of the Birth of J. C. 1453.

Q. How long was the Empire of the East in the possession of the French?

A. Fifty six years; viz. from the year 1204, to 1260.

Q. How came it to fall into the hands of the French?

[Page 260] A. By the Valour of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, who made himself Emperor of Constantinople, and it was retaken by another Baldwin, the fourth of that name.

Q. In whose hands did the Western Em­pire continue?

A. The Emperors of Constantinople endea­vour'd all they could to keep it under their obedience; and for that end sent their Depu­ties there, who had continual Brigues and Quarrels with the Popes, so that at last they had no manner of Authority or Credit in Italy about the time that Charlemagne was King of France.

Q. How did that happen?

A. Pope Leo the IIId. finding himself now in a capacity to exercise that power of dispo­sing of Empires, which his Predecessors had so long thirsted after; and besides having great obligations to the French Nation, who had protected the Holy See from the Insults of the Lombards, promoted Charles the Great to the Empire of the West.

Q. By whom was he proclaim'd Empe­ror?

A. By the consent of all the Estates; viz. the Clergy, the Nobility, and the Peo­ple. The Pope himself placing the Imperial Crown upon his head.

Q. When did this happen?

A. On Christmas-Day, in St. Peter's Church at Rome, in the Year of our Lord 801.

[Page 261] Q. And did this famous Conqueror acquit himself worthily in his place.

A. He lived Fourteen Years after his Ele­vation to this Dignity, and reign'd with that universal Esteem of the world, that they were used to say of him, He was a Conqueror like Caesar, Peaceable like Augustus, and a Re­storer of the Church like Constantine. He sum­mon'd a Council at Frankfort, where the use of Images in Churches, confirm'd by the second Council of Nice, was condemn'd; and he died at Aix la Chapelle in Germany, in the 72d. Year of his Age.

Q. From whom did Conradus I. usurp the Imperial Crown?

A. From Charles the Simple King of France, who was Grandson to Charles the Great, and the only person left alive of the Race of that great Emperor.

Q. For what reason do they say Leo III. excited the People to proclaim Charles the Great, and bestow the Empire upon him, and his Descendents and Successors, the Kings of France?

A. For their Piety and Zeal to Holy Church. Nay, Leo the Third solemnly prote­sted he would excommunicate all those that should presume to disturb them in the pos­session of the Imperial Dignity.

Q. Did it always continue in that Line?

A. No; for about fourscore and five years after this, Pope Gregory V. a German by Na­tion, and Cousin-German to the Emperor [Page 262] Otho III. of the House of Saxony, to perpe­tuate the Empire in those of his own Coun­trey, made the Decree which is commonly called the Golden Bull, because the Seal is made of that rich Metal.

Q. What did the Pope ordain in this Bull?

A. That only the Germans should have a right to elect the Emperor; for which end he established Six Electors, Three Ecclesia­stick, and Three Lay Princes. Others pre­tend they were established long before, and that this Pope did only confirm them.

Q. Who are the Ecclesiastick Electors?

A. The Archbishops of Ments, Colen and Triers, who are all Chancellors of the Em­pire, the first for Germany, the second for Ita­ly, and the third for France.

Q. Who are the Secular Electors?

A. 1. The Prince Palatine of the Rhine, Comptroller of the Houshold. 2. The Duke of Saxony Master of the Horse. 3. The Duke of Brandenburg Great Chamberlain.

Q Was not one more added to the Secu­lar Electors?

A. The King of Bohemia was taken into the number at first, to be Arbitrator in the Case, whenever the Votes fell equal on both sides.

Q. And has not a new Elector been ad­ded to them since?

A. Yes, for the Prince Palatine having forfeited his Electorate which was given to [Page 263] the Duke of Bavaria, they constituted ano­ther for him at the Peace of Munster. Since the late Revolution in England, the Emperor has been induced to create a new Electorate in favour of the Duke of Hanover, in consi­deration of the great Services he has done the Empire, particularly in this present Con­federacy against France; but as 'tis opposed by several Princes of the Empire, who have enter'd their respective Protestations against it, we cannot positively tell what will become of this Affair.

Q. Who was the first of the House of Au­stria that obtain'd the Empire?

A. Rodolphus Earl of Habspurgh, whom after a tedious Interregnum, which had like to have proved fatal to the Empire, the Electors unanimously chose. He overcame Ottocarus King of Bohemia, and in consequence of that Victory bestowed Austria upon his Son Al­bert, and laid the foundation of that power­ful House, which has brought forth so many Emperors and Princes to Europe, and which ever since the days of Charles the Fifth, who first projected the Election of a King of the Romans, has enjoy'd the Empire.

Of the Increase, Purity, and Decay of the Roman Eloquence and Learning.

Q. IN what Condition was the Roman Language at first?

[Page 264] A. For the first Five hundred years, that is, till they had made themselves Masters of Italy, it continued very unpolite and barren; and produced no Authors of Eminence and Note. Their Speech is a corruption of the Aeolic Greek, which was spoken in the Southern Provinces of that Countrey, called Graecia Magna, and now comprehends the Kingdom of Naples. Their Ecclesiastical Terms, as well as the Rites and Ce­remonies, and whole body of their Theo­logy, were borrowed from the Hetrus­cans.

Q. Who were the first Roman Au­thors?

A. Not to mention those whose Works are lost (for that would be an unnecessa­ry labour) Plautus and Terence, have an established Reputation; Plautus seems to have proposed Aristophanes, the Author of the old Comedy, for his Pattern; as Terence copies Menander, and entertains us with the New.

Q. What Alterations did it receive after­wards?

A. From Terence's time, who flourished af­ter the second Punic War, and is the standard of the Latin Dialogue and Conversation, by reason of their frequent Commerce with the Greeks, and other Politer Nations, their Language daily improved in all other parts. Lucretius, Salust, and Catullus, who flourished a little before the Civil Wars between Caesar [Page 265] and Pompey, as they writ with a purity equal or above any that preceded them, so they are excell'd by few that follow'd after; and Tully complains that much of the force, and spirit, and majesty of their Language was lost even in his time. However, 'tis agreed on by most hands, that in Augustus's time it arrived to its highest pitch of perfection and purity, at which time Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Tibullus, Propertius, Corn. Gallus, Manilius (though others place him in the Reign of Theodosius the Younger); and not to mention any more, Corn. Celsus the Physician, and Livy the Historian, flourished.

Q. When did it begin to decline?

A. As by a Fate peculiar to all sublunary things, nothing continues long in the same state, but must either advance or go back­ward; the Roman Language began to decline soon after Augustus. Now and then, 'tis true, stept up an extraordinary Genius, that in spite of the Age he lived in, preserv'd the ancient Purity; as for instance, Minutius Faelix under the Emperor Severus; but we have few Instances of this nature. For the first hundred years, and something more, it escaped tole­rably well, but soon after Trajan's time, we find it was strangely corrupted.

Q What Reasons are commonly assign'd for the decay of their Eloquence and Language?

A. The former is generally ascribed to the loss of their Liberty, and the subversion of the Old Government, which allow'd a [Page 266] greater latitude and freedom of speaking than they enjoy'd under their Emperors. Several Reasons may be given for the latter; as first, their affectation to incorporate so many Greek Words and Phrases into their Tongue; a Vanity complain'd of by Iuve­nal. In the Age before they seldom used them but in case of necessity, and even then, as is evident from Tully's Example, they writ them in Greek, and not in Latin Characters.

Q. What other Causes are assign'd for it?

A. The continual Irruptions of the Nor­thern Nations, who like a mighty Torrent, swept every thing before them. Such pro­digious swarms of people still breaking in upon them, could not but occasion a vast al­teration in their Language. To this may be added the introducing of a new Religion, viz. the Christian, in the Empire; the Pro­fessors of which brought in with 'em a new set of Phrases and Words, that were none of the politest, and wholly unknown before, as seeming always to have a greater regard to the truth of what they delivered, than to the purity of their Diction.

Q. How did it fare after this?

A. From the Tenth to the middle of the 15th Century little or no Learning was stir­ring in these Western parts of the World: The Monks, who were the only people that possest any share of it, amusing themselves in the study of School-divinity, as 'tis com­monly [Page 267] call'd. Those that were the Histori­ans in those Ages leaving nothing but mise­rable jejune Relations of things behind them, larded with frequent Miracles of their Saints, which seem to have been written in defiance of Eloquence as well as of good sense.

Q. How came it to revive again?

A. 'Twas occasion'd by two remarkable Accidents that happen'd within a short space of one another. The first was the invention of Printing at Mentz in Germany, in the Year 1440. by the help of which, to the incredi­ble benefit of the Learned World, we can print more Volumes in a day, and that more correctly, than the Ancients could have written in an year. The second was the taking of Constantinople by the Turks about twelve years after, which forced several of the Learned Greeks to quit their Native Countrey, and come into Italy, where they were forced to teach Greek for their own su­stenance. Of this number were Theodorus Gaza, Constantinus Lascharis, Chalcondilas, Chrysoloras, Trapezuntius, who began to re­vive the study of that Language, which for the space of Five hundred years had been perfectly buried.

Q. What Persons of Note encouraged Learning at that time?

A. Pope Nicholas the Fifth, that great Friend to the Muses, and Restorer of Let­ters, employ'd the most Learned Men of that Age to compare and revise the Old MSS. [Page 268] and print them; and we are particularly ob­liged to him for putting out Polybius. After him Aeneas Sylvius, alias Pope Pius the Se­cond, who was himself a man of great Learning, promoted it by his Example and Encouragement. About this time the Art of Painting, which had been totally lost for so many Ages, began to flourish in Italy; and in the compass of an hundred years arrived to its highest perfection.

Q. What were their principal Studies at this time?

A. To retrieve the purity of the Latin and Greek Tongues, and learn their Antiquities; for which end they convers'd with their Po­litest Authors, compar'd various Readings, turn'd over Glossaries and Old Scholia upon Ancient Historians, Orators and Poets; con­sulted old Inscriptions, examin'd old Statues and Basso Relievos, in which as Italy abounded above all other Countries of Europe, so it fur­nished them with a better opportunity to be skill'd in the Ancient Habits, Utensils, Sa­crifices, &c. than the rest of their Neigh­bours. The most eminent men for this sort of Learning, were Laurentius Valla, Pomponius Laetus, Alexander ab Alexandro, Rodolphus Agricola.

Q How long was this Learning confin'd to Italy?

A. Not long; for although the Italians had the honour to revive it, and made a very considerable progress in it, yet about [Page 269] the latter end of the 15th Century, when Copies of Books were pretty well multiplied by Printing, Learning crost the Alpes, and soon after Erasmus, Budaeus, Beatus Rhena­nus, &c. dispersed that sort of Knowledge through England, France, Germany, and the Low Countries.

Q. What Learned men had we then in England?

A. In King Henry the VIIIth's time, which was the soonest that we came ac­quainted with the Belles lettres in England, we had an admirable Set of Philologers in this Nation who were excellent Critics, and had a great command of the Latin Tongue. Sir Thomas More, Cardinal Pool, Linacer, Col­let, Cheek, Ascham, and several more, often to be met with in Erasmus's Epistles. In­deed about the beginning of the 16th Cen­tury a remarkable turn of Affairs happen'd in this part of the World, which did not a little contribute to advance all sorts of Learning.

Q. What was that?

A. In the Year 1519. Luther made a publick defection from the Papal Authority, which, till then, was generally receiv'd with­out any manner of examination. This change of the Scene obliged both Parties, viz. those of the Reformation, and the Champions for the Church of Rome, to prosecute their Studies in the Learned Languages vigorously. The for­mer to justify their Separation, and to prove [Page 270] that Antiquity was of their side; and the latter, to keep their ground still, and pre­serve the remainder of their Credit and In­terest with the People. When this Theolo­gical War was over, men applied themselves to all the other parts of Learning; and in this last Age Mathematical and Physical Sci­ences seem to have been the predominant Studies of the Learned men of Europe: not but that a Critical Skill in Antiquity was at the same time pursued by several Extraor­dinary men, as Bishop Vsher, Mr. Selden, Sir Iohn Marsham, Mr. Gataker, and after them by Dr. Spencer, Isaac Vossius, Nic. Heinsius, Frederic Gronovius, Ezekiel Spanheym, and Grae­vius, Men even in this part of Learning equal, if not superior to any that cultivated it before them. In short, all manner of Learning seems at present to be better diffused in all parts of Europe than ever it was; but whether the Genius's of this and the last Age are compa­rable to those Immortal Heroes of Antiquity, truly so called, is a Controversy that cannot be conveniently discuss'd in so narrow com­pass as this Paper will allow.

An Abridgment of the Principal Customs of the Romans.

Concerning their Months.

Q. INto how many parts did the Romans divide their Months?

A. Into three, the Calends, the Nones, and the Ides.

Q. From whence comes the word Ca­lends?

A. From the word Calo, to call, because on that day the Pontiff summon'd the Peo­ple to tell them how many days it was to the Nones. The Calends were peculiar to the Roman People; whence the Proverb, ad Ca­lendas Graecas, i. e. Never.

Q. From whence were the Nones so call'd?

A. Because they were the Ninth day before the Ides.

Q. And from whence are the Ides deriv'd.

A. From the old Tuscan word iduare, which signifies to divide, because they divide the Month into two almost equal parts.

Q. When began the Calends?

A. On the first day of the Month.

Q. When began the Nones?

A. On the seventh day of the following [Page 272] Months, viz. March, May, Iuly, and October, all which have one and twenty days.

Q. When did the Ides begin?

A. On the fifteenth of the above-men­tion'd Months.

Q And in the other Months when came the Nones and the Ides?

A. The Nones on the fifth, and the Ides on the thirteenth.

Q. Thus the first day was reckon'd the Calends, as Calendae Ianuariae is the first of Ianuary?

A. Right; and the second day, if the Month had its Nones on the seventh day, was call'd the sixth before the Nones; and if on the fifth, the fourth day before the Nones: But the next day immediately following the Nones, is in every Month alike call'd the eighth before the Ides.

Q. How many Nones have the Months of May, Iuly, October, and March?

A. They have all six; the rest have only four; but all the Months in general have eight Ides.

Q. And after the Ides are over, how do you reckon then?

A. By the Calends, which are told back­ward, and named from the following Month.

Q. Pray give me an Instance?

A. As the 18th. of the Calends of May is the 14th. of April.

Q. Cannot you give me some art [...]ficial Verses to fix these Rules in my memory?

[Page 273] A. Yes, they are as follows;

Sex Maius Nonas, October, Iulius, & Mars,
Quatuor at reliqui; tenet Idus quilibet Octo.
Inde dies reliquos omnes dic esse Calendas.

Of the Roman Year, and distinction of Days.

Q. INto how many Months did Romulus divide his Year?

A. Into Ten, and it consisted of 304 days: But after him Numa added two Months, viz. Ianuary and February, and made his Year to contain Three hundred fifty four days; but this Computation falling out too short for the space of a regular Year by Ten Days and six hours yearly, it occasion'd every eighth year an interposition of three whole Months, which they call'd Leap year.

Q. What alterations did Iulius Caesar make in the Roman Calendar?

A. He added the old Ten days to Numa Pompilius's Year; and lest the odd six hours should breed any confusion, he order'd that every fourth year one whole day should be in­serted next after the 23d. of February.

Q. When did the old Romans begin their Year?

A. At March; for whi [...]h reason those two Months which in honour of Iulius and Au­gustus Caesar have been since called Iulius and [Page 274] Augustus, were by them called Quintilis and Sextilis, as being their fifth and sixth Months.

Q. What were their Dies Atri and Postri­duani?

A. Unfortunate and unlucky days. They were called Atri, because they were marked in their Kalendars with black, as on the con­trary their Dies Albi, or lucky days, were mark'd with white Characters. This Cu­stom they borrow'd from the Scythians.

Q. Why had they the name of Postri­duani?

A. Because the Romans were of opinion, that dies postridie Calendas, Nonas, & Idus, i. e. the next day after the Calends, Nones, or Ides, of every Month was unfortunate.

Q. What other distinction of days did they observe?

A. They had their dies festi, or feriae, Holidays, because they did on such days ferire victimas, that is, offer up sacrifice; then their working-days, called profesti, quafi procul a festis; and their half-holidays, which ab intercidendo they call'd dies intereisi, days as it were cut asunder; one part of them being allow'd to all man­ner of Business, and the other wholly to Religious Offices.

Q. Are these all?

A. No, we find another distinction of Days in the Roman Kalendar; for some were Fasti, whole Court-days, others ex parte Fa­sti, half Court-days; and lastly, Nefasti, non­leet days, tho indeed the word Nefastus does often signify unlucky.

[Page 275] Q. From whence are these Names de­rived?

A. A Fando from speaking, because upon those days which were Fasti, the Praetor might lawfully keep Court and administer Justice, which was not done without speak­ing these three words, Do, Dico, Addico.

Q. What is the meaning of those three words?

A. A Judge is said, dare, when he grants out an Action or Writ against a man; dicere, when he passes Judgment on him; and ad­dicere, when in the Court he sees and allows the delivery of the thing or person on which Judgment is passed.

Q. When did the Romans begin their day?

A. Their day begun at our Six in the morning; so that their Hora Prima was our Seven, Hora Secunda our Eight, Hora Tertia our Nine a Clock, and so on.

Q. What were the Nundinae?

A. Every Month had Three great Mar­kets, which because they were kept every Ninth day, were called Nundinae.

Of the Republic.

Q. HOW many sorts of Slaves were there among the Romans?

A. Three.

Q. What were the first?

A. The first were the Children of Slaves, to whom they gave the name of Verna.

[Page 276] Q. What were the second?

A. Slaves by a Civil right, viz. such as were sold.

Q. And the third, what were they?

A. Slaves by the Law of Nations, those that were taken in Battel, or publickly bought at an Auction.

Q. How many sorts of Free-men were there among the Romans?

A. Three sorts likewise: In the first place those that were born free, and of Parents which had been always free, and these they call'd Ingenui: Secondly, the Children of those that had been made free, who were call'd Libertini: Thirdly, those who of Slaves were set at liberty by their Masters, and these last were call'd Liberti.

Q How many ways were there of obtain­ing the Freedom of the City of Rome?

A. Three. 1. By Birth, both, or at le [...]st one of the Parents being free, and these were called Cives Originarii. 2. By Gift, when the Freedom was bestowed on any Stranger or Nation, and these were called Civitate Donati. 3. By Manumission.

Q. After what manner was that perform'd?

A. The Servant was brought before the Consul or Praetor by his Master, who laying his hand upon his head, cry'd, Hunc liberum esse volo, and with that turn'd him rou [...]d, gave him a Cuff▪ on the Ear, and was said, emittere servum [...]è manis. Then the Praetor laid a certain Rod call'd Vindicta upon his head, [Page 277] and answer'd, Dico eum esse liberum more Qui­ritum: At that time he received a Cap as a token of Liberty; whence ad pileum voca [...]e aliqu [...]m, is to set one free.

Q. Into how many Orders did Romulus divide the City of Rome?

A. Into two; viz. the Patricians or No­bles, and the Plebeians or People. After­wa [...]ds a third Order, namely, that of the Knights or Equites, was added.

Q. What Privileges did the Patricians at that time enjoy?

A. They had a Right to aspire to all the Dignities and Offices of the State; but in succeeding times the Plebeians were not exclu­ded from them, ex [...]ept some few, which were never executed but by Patricians.

Of their Army.

Q OF how many several parts was the Roman Army compos'd?

A. Of three parts: The first were the Roman Legions, wherein none but the Ro­man Citizens served. The second consisted of the Allies, that is to say, the People of Italy. And the third was made up of Auxiliary Troops sent by Foreigners.

Q. How were the Allies paid?

A. They s [...]rved gratis, and had nothing but a certain quantity of Corn given them: As for the Auxiliary Troops, they were daily paid, but they did not take the Military Oath, as the Allies did.

[Page 278] Q. What did a Legion comprehend?

A. A certain number of Horse and Foot.

Q. Into how many Companies were the Infantry and Cavalry divided?

A. Into Ten; in every Company of Foot there were three Bands of Soldiers, and in every Band two Centuries.

Q. Into how many Centuries were the Troops of Horse divided?

A. Each into three Centuries, and so there was consequently sixty Centuries, and thirty Decuries in every Legion.

Q. Who commanded the Infantry?

A. Six Tribunes, with sixty Centurions, one to each Century.

Q. By whom were the Decuries com­manded?

A. By thirty Decurions, and by one Offi­cer to whom they gave the name of Praefect, and this Praefect was at the head of a whole entire Wing.

Q. How many men had they in each Company of Foot?

A. Sometimes four hundred and twenty, and sometimes they amounted to six hundred men.

Q. How many men were there in each Turma, or Troop of Horse?

A. No more than thirty, ten in each De­cury, but in the Wing three or four hundred.

Q From whence did the Roman Legions take their name?

A. From their Rank; thus, for instance, [Page 279] those that were of the first, call'd themselves Soldiers of the first, and those that were of the second, call'd themselves Soldiers of the second Legion.

Q. What Authority had the first more than the second Legion?

A. It was superior to all the rest as well for Quality as Number, because it was com­manded by the most experienc'd Officers.

Q. Had they not another very considera­ble Body besides this?

A. Right; and that was the Praetorian Regiment, which always follow'd the Com­mander in chief, who as he rais'd this Com­pany, so he often pickt out the best men he could find in the other Troops, or at least his best Friends, to compose it. Augustus had Nine of these Troops of Guards; but they became afterwards so unruly, that instead of guarding the Emperors, they frequently displaced and killed them.

Q. How many Legions had the Romans in the time of the Consuls?

A. At first there were only four, that were equally divided between the two Consuls; afterwards the Allies were oblig'd to furnish them with four more.

Q. Did not the number of them rise con­siderably higher in following Ages?

A. Yes, for in the second Punic War the Romans had in Italy, Sicily, and Spain, Twen­ty five Legions; but in the Civil War be­tween Caesar and Pompey, they amounted to [Page 280] forty; and at the Siege of Mutina, the Ar­my of Anthony, and that of the Consuls, was compos'd of Fifty Legions

Q How were the Allies ranked?

A. They were disposed after such a man­ner, that they cover'd the two sides of the Roman Legions, which made these Troops be call'd Alae, or Wings; their Commanders not calling themselves Tribunes, but Prae­fects.

Q. What difference did they make be­tween a Wing, and a Cornu?

A. They indifferently used the latter, when they spoke of the Roman Legions and their Allies; whereas they seldom made use of the former when they spoke of Legions, but almost always when they spoke of the Troops of Horse furnished by the Allies.

Q. What was a Wing at that time when the Republic flourish'd?

A. Nothing but the Horse of the Allies; but under the Emperors they g [...]ve this name to the Auxiliary Troops.

Of the Soldiers.

Q HOW many sorts of Soldiers had the Romans in their Infantry?

A. There were four sorts of them.

Q. What was the first?

A. Those that were light arm'd, and consequently fittest for all sorts of nimble Service. These were generally young Fel­lows.

[Page 281] Q. Who were they that compos'd the second?

A. The Hastati or Pike-men, who were somewhat more advanc'd in age.

Q. What was the third?

A. Those that for their Age and Valour were called Principes; they carried a Buckler, and used Hangers and were all in the strength and vigor of their Age.

Q. What was the fourth?

A. They were the Triarij, old experienc'd Soldiers, that fought in the third rank. They used Bucklers, Hangers, and the Pilum.

Q. How many Bands were there in every Cohors?

A. Three, as I have already told you. The first consisting of Pikemen, the second of the Principes, the third of the Triarij, who were always Six hundred; but the others were sometimes more and sometimes less.

Q What particular Commander be­longed to these light-arm'd Soldiers?

A. They had none, but were equally di­vided among the three other bodies.

Q. Had they not several names?

A. At first they were call'd Ferentarij, Lo­rarij, and Accensi, because they filled up what was wanting in the Legions. Afterwards the name of Velites was given them; and lastly, that of Ant [...]signani, of Veloces, of Archers and Slingers, all which names are derived either from their Arms or their rank; and as they were not over-charged with Arms, [Page 282] they generally began the fight by casting of Darts, Stones or Arrows.

Q. Who were the Evocati?

A. They were certain old Soldiers, who after they had serv'd their time, were desir'd by the Generals of the Army to make another Campaign. These had great Privileges con­ferr'd upon them.

Of the Commanders.

Q. HOW many sorts of Commanders were there?

A. Three sorts. First, the Centurions and Tribunes commanded the Foot. Se­condly, the Decurions and the Praefects the Horse. Thirdly, the Lieutenants and the General commanded both one and the other.

Q. What were the Priviledges of the first Cohors?

A. That he who was Centurion of the Pikes call'd himself the first Pike; he of the Principes the first Prince, and he of the Tria­rians the Primipilus. It belonged to this last to keep the Roman Eagle, to fix it in the ground, or carry it; which we understand by the ninth and tenth Primipilus.

Q. How many Cohorts were there in each Legion?

A. There were ten in each Legion, and in every Cohors six Centurions.

[Page 283] Q. From whence did these Centurions derive their names?

A. From the Cohors where they served. Those for instance that were of the tenth, or the eighth, call'd themselves the tenth or eighth.

Q. But he that commanded the Triarians in the tenth Legion, how was he call'd?

A. He was call'd Decimus Pilus; he that commanded the Principes, Decimus Princeps; and so of the rest.

Q. What reward was given to a Soldier after some glorious Exploit?

A. From the second Centurion of Pikes in the tenth Cohors they made him the first, that is to say, the tenth Pike, afterwards tenth Princeps, &c. and this in the same Cohors.

Q. How did they recompence him after­wards according to his merit?

A. He was made first Officer of the Ninth Cohors, then of the Eighth, and so on till he came to the First, or perhaps to a Tri­bune's place, if Fortune favoured him.

Q. What did the Tribunes command?

A. They commanded the Legion, the Centurions, the Cohorts and Companies of Foot.

Q. What did the Praefects command?

A. They commanded a Wing of Horse, and the Decuries the other Companies and Decuries.

Q. How many men were there in a Wing?

[Page 284] A. There were thirty in these Companies, and ten in every Decury.

Q. Who chose the Legati, or Lieutenants to the Generals?

A The Senate nominated them, or else the Generals chose them themselves to the number of three, or four, or more.

Q. What power had they?

A. They had power to judge private Causes, and commanded the Army in the General's absence.

Q. Did not Augustus establish two sorts of them?

A. Yes, he made Consular ones, who were to look after the whole Army; and the Praetorians, who took care of every Legion.

Q. To whom did they give the name of Imperator besides the Caesars?

A. To those that by a Commission from the State had the managing of an Army, being the same that a Praetor was in Ancient Times.

Q. Who had it besides?

A. Those that after they had gained some remarkable Victory, wherein at least a thou­sand of the Enemy were slain, received this Title first from their Soldiers, and afterwards from the Senate, and then public Supplica­tions were granted them to thank the Gods, and sometimes a Triumph.

Q. What were their Colours?

A. An Eagle, a Wolf, a Minotaur, a Horse, and a Boar.

[Page 285] Q. What was this Eagle made of?

A. It was a golden Eagle fixt upon a Pike, and was only the Ensign of the Roman Legi­ons, so that they counted their Legions by Eagles. It was first of all born by Marius.

Q. What did the Romans use for an En­sign in Romulus's time?

A. They took an handful of Hay, and percht it on the top of a Pole; but this was afterwards chang'd into a Pike, on the top of which they placed a small piece of Wood.

Q. Af [...]er what manner was it cut?

A. In the form of a Cross, and from it several small Circles and little Bucklers hung down Cross wise, and above it was ele­vated a Hand.

Q. What was painted upon these Cir­cles?

A. The Representations of their Gods and Emperors. Their Javelins likewise served for Ensigns. To these the Emperors added an Elephant, a Sphinx, and a Dragon.

Q. To whom did these Standards be­long?

A. To the Horse; these Colours were foursquare, and fasten'd to a Pike curi­ously adorned with embroider'd Flames, in Gold, and in Purple; and sometimes the Names of the Emperors were artificially wrought in them.

After what manner they disposed their Army for a Battel.

Q INto how many Battalions did the Ro­mans divide their Army?

A. Into two or three Battalions; into two when they made two Wings, one upon the Right, the other upon the Left.

Q. And when into three?

A. When between the two Wings th [...]y placed a third Battalion, and this happen'd when they had no more than two Legions, or sometimes more.

Q. Where were the Romans placed?

A. They stood in the middle, and the Al­lies in the two Wings. I have here given you a description of an Army drawn out af­ter their manner, which I borrowed out of Titus Livius.

Q. How many Legions were drawn out in this Army descrbed by Livy?

A. Four, two consisting of Romans, and two of their Allies.

Q. Where were the two Romans placed?

A. They were placed in the midst, the Elder of the two on the right, and the other on the left, and the two Allies in the two Wings.

Q. When their Horse were drawn out into Squadrons, where did they stand?

A. They were placed in such a manner on the sides, that that of the Romans cover'd [Page 287] the Right Wing, and that of the Allies the Left.

Q. How many Ranks had they in every Legion?

A. Three. The first was of Pikemen, the second of the Principes, the third of the Tria­rians. In the front were to be seen all the ten Companies of Pikes belonging to every Legi­on, and consequently the Van was composed of forty Companies.

Q. Where did the Evocati stand?

A. They were either with the General, or in the middle of the Ranks to encourage the rest.

Q. And where were the Centurions?

A. They were thus distributed: Two commanded the middle Battalion; and the other two commanded one the Right Wing, and the other the Left Wing.

Q. Where was the General's place?

A. It was between the Triarii, and the Principes. He was surrounded by the Praeto­rian Bands, and from thence commanded the whole Army.

Q. How were the Companies disposed?

A. They were so disposed in a Quadran­gular form, that the Legion was likewise foursquare. They fought just as they were ranked.

Of the Honours that were bestowed on the Conquerors.

Q. WHen a General had gain'd a consi­derable Victory, and the Soldiers had saluted him by the name of Imperator, what did he next do?

A He immediately dispatched Letters crown'd with Lawrel to the Senate to de­mand of them, that they would give him the name of Imperator, as likewise that they would decernere Supplicationes, that is▪ appoint publick Supplications or Prayers.

Q. What did the Senate when they had agreed to this Proposal?

A. They all went in a Body to the Temples to thank the gods, and offer'd Sa­crifices to them.

Q. What did they afterwards do?

A. They gave Publick Entertainments; and the Publick Rejoycings continued more, or less, according to the Circumstances of the Victory, and the quality of the Conque­ror.

Q. Why was a lesser Triumph called Ova­tio?

A. As well from the joyful Acclamations of the Soldiers, who often redoubled this letter O, as because that in this lesser Tri­umph Sheep were offer'd, as they offer'd Oxen in the greater.

Q. Who might pretend to this Triumph?

[Page 289] A. He that was neither Dictator nor Con­sul, and he that had not vanquish'd a lawful Enemy.

Q. What honours did they pay him?

A. He was crown'd with Mirtle, and so made his Entry into the City, preceded by several men playing upon Flutes. Learned men are not agreed whether he rid on Horse­back or no.

Q. How was the solemnity of a Triumph order'd?

A. First marched the Flutes and Trum­pets, next the Oxen that were design'd for Sacrifice adorned with Garlands and Rib­bons; after them were to be seen the Spoils taken from the Enemy, the several Titles and Representations of Nations and Cities.

Q. Who follow'd after this?

A. The conquer'd Leaders, Princes and Kings bound and fetter'd.

Q. And where did the Imperator, or Lord General appear?

A. He was mounted upon a Chariot in a Triumphal Robe, crown'd with Lawrel, and held a branch in his hand.

Q How was this Chariot drawn?

A. Sometimes by Stags, sometimes by Lions or Elephants, but for the general part it was drawn by four white Horses.

Q. Who follow'd the Chariot?

A. The Children, the Relations, and Friends of the Conqueror. The victorious [Page 290] Army marched afterwards, the Cavalry and Infantry each in their proper rank.

Q. After what manner did they march?

A. They were all crown'd with Lawrel, and sung certain Verses suitable to the Occa­sion, and carried about them the marks of their Valour, some Bracelets, others Spears, or Chains about their Necks, the greatest part Crowns.

Q. Whither did the Conqueror go in this Procession?

A. He went to the Capitol where he of­fer'd Sacrifice, after which the Senate made a magnificent Feast at the publick Expence.

Q. What sort of a place was the Capitol?

A. It was a Temple dedicated to Iupiter upon the Tarpeian Hill. Domitian laid out Three Millions to guild it.

Q. What was peculiar to this Temple?

A. There were three Altars in it; one dedicated to Iuno, another to Minerva, that in the middle, which was the most magnifi­cent, to Iupiter.

Of the Southsayers or Augurs.

Q. WHat was the proper business of the Augurs?

A. Their Office was to explain Dreams, Extraordinary Events and Oracles, which they did by the singing or flight of Birds, or by observing how they fed.

Q. Whence is their name derived?

[Page 291] A. They were call'd Augures ab avium gar­ritu, from the chirping and singing of Birds, and Auspices quasi Avispices ab aves aspiciendo, from beholding the flight of Birds. These two kinds of Soothsaying have occasion'd these and the like Sayings, bonis avibus or auspiciis with good luck, malis avibus with ill luck. And because they began nothing in auspicato, i. e. without the Counsel of the Augurs, hence auspicari rem has signified to begin a matter.

Q From how many sorts of things did they draw their Auguries?

A. From five. First from Thunder and Lightning in the Heavens.

Q. What was the second?

A. By the singing of some Birds, as of a Raven, a Crow, an Owl, and these they call'd Oscines; or by the flight of others, as Eagles, Vulturs, Buzzards, which were called Praepetes.

Q. And how was the third?

A. By Chickens: Early in the morning they gave them something to eat, now if they did not immediately pick it up with great greediness, so that some of the Crums fell out of their mouths, if they walked from one side to the other, if they crow'd, or if they flew away, it was looked upon to be an ill Augury; If the contrary happen'd, they drew a happy presage from it. From these Pullets the Augur was call'd Pulla­rius.

[Page 292] Q. What was the fourth?

A. It was taken from four-footed Beasts, as Wolves, Foxes, Goats, Asses, Weasils, Rats, &c. which either should cross the way, or appear in some unusual place.

Q. How was the fifth?

A. From any extraordinary Accident either within doors, or in the Fields. As for instance, suppose a man had seeen a Weasil, or if Rats had eaten Honey, if one had heard a strange voice, &c. all this they call'd Dirae.

Q. What did the Soothsayers do with the Victims?

A. First, they considered the different manner they follow'd those that led them to the Altar, if they did it easily or with diffi­culty, the lesser or greater quantity of Blood that came from them.

Q. What other Observations did they make?

A. They observ'd the good or bad disposition of the heart and liver. Lastly, from the bright­ness or gloominess of the flame, they drew either a good or a bad Augury. Those that observ'd the Fire and Smoke were by a pecu­liar name call'd Capnomantes from the Greek, which is as much as to say, Smoke Prophets.

Of the Roman Apparel.

Q HOW were the Romans cloathed?

A. They wore over their Tu­nic a woollen Robe. The Graecians had their Mantle called Pallium, which was as peculiar to them as the Toga to the Romans.

Q. What sort of a Robe was it?

A. The figure of it was generally in a demi-circle, and sometimes foursquare.

Q. Were there any plaits or folds in this Gown?

A. There were two, so placed that one was above the other; the uppermost came slopeing cross from the right to the left, af­ter the manner of a Belt, and the lower came from the wast of the Gown to the bottom.

Q. Who wore their Gowns edged?

A. The Magistrates and Priests, but espe­cially Children, who till they were seventeen years old wore it with another mark of their Nobility in the form of a golden Heart, which was fasten'd to the Collar.

Q. And when they were seventeen years old, what Robe did they wear then?

A. They took the Toga virilis which was wholly plain. Nay, young Gentlewomen wore the same Habit till they were married, the Edges of which were covered with Purple.

Q. What did they wear under this Gown?

[Page 294] A. One or two Tunics or Coats, that which was next the Skin was call'd the Subucula, and the other kept the name of Tunica.

Q. What sort of a fashion'd Coat was it that the People wore?

A. It was without Studds. The Knights wore one with small Studds, and the Sena­tors theirs with large ones.

Q. How were these Studds made?

A. They were nothing but knots of Pur­ple in the form of broad Nail-heads, sow'd or embroider'd upon the Stuff.

Q. Who wore the Robe which they call'd the Palmata?

A. Those that triumph'd. This Robe derived its name from Palms which were painted upon it. All the different Habits which we have no English Names to express them by, were different Military Vestments which they wore over their Tunic.

Q. Those Sumptuous Cloaks call'd the Paludamentum and Chlamys, how were they made?

A. They were made of Scarlet, Purple and Gold, and serv'd to defend them from the cold.

Q. How many sorts of Shoes had they?

A. Two, one which only cover'd the Sole of the Foot, the other which cover'd it wholly.

The Roman Games.

Q. HOW many sorts of Games were there among the Romans?

A. Several sorts.

Q. Where were they kept?

A. Some in the Circus, or on the Theatre, and took their names from thence; others were sacred, and celebrated in Honour of the Gods.

Q. How were these sacred Sports call'd?

A. They were generally named from the Deity in whose Honour they were kept. Others were made upon the account of some Vow. Funeral Sports were only kept at the death of some person, and others for mere exercise.

Q. How many sorts of Sports were re­presented in the Circus?

A. Seven sorts. First, they either fought at Whorle-bats, or at Fisticuffs, or Cudgels, or Swords, or Javelins, or Pikes, &c. Or else they were Gladia­tors, or men fighting with beasts, or lastly, they wrestled with one another, to see who could give the first fall.

The second was Running.

The third was Leaping, and that either on a level place, or else from a low place to a high one, or from a high one to a low one.

The fourth was shooting.

The fifth was Fighting on Horseback.

[Page 296]The sixth was driving Chariots drawn by three or four Horses.

The seventh was a Naumachia, or Sea-fight, representing in fresh water the manner of a Naval Engagement.

Q. After what manner were the Amphi­theatres built?

A. They were built in a Circular or Oval Form, the middle part was call'd the Cavea, or Arena.

Q. Why was it call'd so?

A. Because it was covered with Sand.

The Games called the Megalenses, were celebrated in honour of Cibele the Mother of the gods.

Those kept in honour of Ceres, as also those kept in honour of Mars, Flora, and Apollo, took their name from these Divinities.

The Capitoline Games were celebrated in memory of the preservation of the Capitol.

The Roman Games, which were likewise for distinction call'd the Great Games▪ were kept in honour of the three Deities Iupiter, Minerva, and Iuno.

The Plebeian Games were instituted after the return of the people to Rome.

The Compitalitij were kept in the cross­ways and open Streets.

The Secular Games were so named, not be­cause they were celebrated but once in an Age, but because they were very seldom ex­hibited.

[Page 297]Young Gentlemen were only concern'd in these last, and he that presided in them was call'd the Princeps Iuventutis, or Prince of the Youth.

Of their Funeral Rites.

Q. WHat Customs did the Romans ob­serve, when they perceiv'd a body dying?

A. The next of the Kin receiv'd his last ga [...]p of breath into his mouth, to show how unwilling he was to part with him, and as soon as he was dead clos'd his eyes.

Q▪ What was the first thing they did when a person was dead?

A. He was washed, anointed, and em­balmed. If he was a Man of Quality, they put him on a Garment peculiar to his de­gree, then placed his Corps in a Bed near the Gate, and on the eighth day carried him to the Pyra or Funeral Pile. During these seven days his Friends met together, and made great Outcries about his Body, hoping to awake him if he were not perfectly dead. This was call'd Conclamatio; whence we pro­verbially cry Conclamatum est, when we give a thing for lost.

Q. Who carried his Body?

A. The greatest men of Note in the Re­public carried him in a Bed all covered with Purple.

[Page 298] Q. But if he was a man of an indifferent Fortune?

A. He was then carried in a Bier by one of his nearest Relations, to the Puticuli, places of Publick Interrment, supposed to be the same with the Catacombs; or else by those whose business and Employment it was, who were à vespertino tempore, call'd Vespae, or Vespiliones, because they buried them in the dusk of the evening.

Q. What appear'd at the head of this Funeral Pomp.

A. The Marks of his Nobility, the Tro­phies of Arms, the Spoils and Standards he had taken in War, lastly, the Bustoes and Statues of his Ancestors either done in Wax, or painted, were carried before him.

Q. What follow'd after this?

A. His Relations, Friends, and Children, with their hair dishevel'd, and in mourning; from following the body à sequendo, these Fu­neral Rites have been call'd Exequiae.

Q. Did not the Women likewise fol­low?

A. Yes, but bare-headed, and apparel'd in white, besides a great number of Praeficae, or Female Weepers, who with their studied Lamentations gave an Example to the rest.

Q. If the deceased was a person that had done great Services to the Commonwealth, whither did they carry his body?

A. It was carried to the Forum, or Pub­lick Place, where a Funeral Oration was de­liver'd in praise of him.

[Page 299] Q▪ When that Harangue was over, whi­ther did they go?

A. They carried him to the place where his body was to be burnt: Here they erected a large Pile or Tabernacle, composed of the Wood of Resinous Trees, garnish'd all about with Branches of Cypress.

Q. What did they do afterwards?

A. After they had cast his Arms and Ap­parel upon this Pile of Wood, the Body was to be burnt. His Friends were formerly used to cut off one of his fingers, which they buried with a second Solemnity.

Q. After all these Ceremonies, what did they do with his Body?

A. They placed it at last upon the Pyra, and the nearest Relation to the deceased Par­ty either in Blood or Friendship, turning his face averse, set it on fire with a Torch.

Q. What did they do about this Pile?

A. Sometimes they s [...]d human blood ei­ther of Captives or Gladiators, and some­times these weeping women slashed their cheeks.

Q. When the Body was burnt, where did they put the Ashes?

A. They washed them in Milk and Wine, then put them into an Urn, after which the Priest thrice sprinkl'd the company with clean water, and the eldest of these Praeficae cry'd aloud, Licet, which is as much as to say, Now you may go.

[Page 300] Q. What answer did the standers-by make?

A. They sigh'd, and said, Farewell, fare­well, we will follow you in our turns, when it shall please Nature.

Q. Whither were his Bones and Ashes carried?

A. They were carried to a Sepulchre, be­fore which an Altar was built, and upon it they burnt Incense.

Q. After all these last offices were per­form'd, what did his Heirs do?

A. They gave a Feast to his Relations, and sometimes to the People, but always prepared a Funeral Supper for the old and aged men, which was called Silicernium, and figuratively signifies an old fellow.

Q. Did the Romans use to bury within the City?

A. By a Law of the Twelve Tables it was provided, That none besides the Empe­ror and Vestal Nuns should be buried within the City; tho some few for particular rea­sons have obtain'd it. They generally bu­ried them near the Highway, to put Passen­gers in mind of their Mortality; hence we meet the word Viator so frequently in old In­scriptions.

Q. What was the ancient way of bury­ing among the Romans?

A. Interment; but afterwards to prevent the ill treatment of their Enemies, they burnt their Bodies, as the Graecians did. [Page 301] However, 'tis credible the poorer sort were still Interr'd, as being the cheapest way; and that only persons of Condition used Burning.

Of their Eating.

Q. HOW many stated times do you find the Romans had for eating?

A. They breakfasted in the Morning; towards Noon they dined, but always very soberly, because they dined alone; a little after followed their Beaver, and towards Nine a Clock at Night they went to Supper, which was generally very magnificent, be­cause they invited their Friends to it.

Q. What did they do in the beginning of their Entertainments?

A. They gave each of the Guests a Bil­let, wherein was set down the Number, the Quantity, and Order of the Courses.

Q. Upon what did they sit at Supper-time?

A. They lay upon Beds. They placed no more than three Beds about the Table, and three in a Bed, because they had seldom more Guests than Nine, and they were cover'd with Purple.

Q. What did they use to do before they lay upon these Beds.

A. They washed their Body, changed their Garments, and pull'd off their Shooes for fear of spoiling the Beds.

[Page 302] Q. Into how many Parts did they usually divide their Supper?

A. Into Three, which they call'd their first, second, and third Course. In the first were always serv'd Eggs, and in the last Course (whether second or third) always Apples, whence we say proverbially, Ab ovo usque ad mala.

Q. What was the Sportula?

A. A Dole of Meat distributed by Persons of Eminent Quality, to the People, which from the Panier or Basket in which it was brought, was call'd Sportula. Sometimes they distributed Money instead of Meat; so that Sportula denoted any kind of Dole ei­ther of Meat or Money; and as often as it was given in lieu of a Supper, it was oppo­sed to Coena recta.

Q. What was a Coena recta, or Coena dubia?

A. Both signify a handsom Entertainment, where there is Plenty and Variety of Dishes. Recta here signifies as much as Vera, and is oppos'd to Sportula, a light and short Sup­per: 'Tis called Dubia, because in so great a variety the Guest does not know where to begin. Coena Ambulatoria is a Supper where one Dish walks through the Table.

Of their Priests.

Q. WHat was the Chief-Priest's or Pon­tifex Maximus's Office?

A. He looked after all the other Priests, [Page 303] and to him it belonged to judge of all mat­ters that had a relation to the Worship of the Gods.

Q. Who was the first Emperor that as­sum'd the Title of Pontifex Maximus?

A. Augustus Caesar; and the succeeding Emperors follow'd his Example, as we find in their Coins and Medals. Nay, the Chri­stian Emperors retain'd the Name, till Gratian issued out a Prohibition for any one to give him that Title.

Q. Why were Flamines so named?

A. From the Hat or Mitre they wore, which in ancient times was called Flama.

Q. By whom was the Temple of Vesta instituted?

A. Either by Aeneas, or Ascanius; at least the Vestal Virgins were by Numa Pompi­lius.

Q. What Rules did they observe?

A. They were obliged to take none into the number of Vestals, as were born either of a Slave or a Freed-man, or were ill-shap'd, or were above Ten, or less than Six Years old. It was an Honourable Order, and they were extremely respected by all people.

Q. What was their Office?

A. To keep the Sacred Fire; which is by some Misfortune or Neglect it were extin­guish'd, they were to kindle it with nothing but the Fire of Heaven: For which pur­pose they used to contract the Sun-beams in a Burning-Glass.

[Page 304] Q. How many Years did they continue in the service of this Goddess?

A. Thirty years; during the first ten they learnt all the Ceremonies, which they put in practice the ten years next following; and the last ten they employ'd in instructing the Novices.

Q. After this time was expir'd, what Privilege had they?

A. They were at liberty to quit their Sa­cerdotal Habit, and marry.

Q. When the Sacred Fire was suffer'd to go out through Negligence, what Punish­ment did the Criminal endure?

A. She was publickly whipt, and if any of them lost their Virginity, they were bu­ried alive.

Q. Where?

A. Without the Town, in a very dark Vault, where they had a Bed, and a Lamp lighted.

Q. Did they leave them any Food in the Vault?

A. Lest the Criminal should immediately dye of Hunger, they left a little Bread, Milk, and Oyl.

Q. When the Vestal was shut in, and the door made up, what did they use to do?

A. That day a profound silence was kept in Rome.

Of the Roman State.

Q. INto how many parts was the Roman People divided?

A. Into Three: First, the Senators, which was the most Powerful Body, so that nothing was done without their Advice.

Q. Which was the second?

A. That of the Knights, which next to the Senators made the greatest Figure in the Government. In this number the Sons of Senators were reckon'd, till such time as they were of Age to be Senators.

Q. Which was the third part?

A. 'Twas the People, by which we are to understand all those that were neither Knights nor Senators.

Q. What were the Roman Comitia?

A. Assemblies, where they used to give their Votes; and because they gave them when they were divided sometimes into Cu­riae or Wards, and sometimes into Tribes or Centuries, thence arose the different Names of these Assemblies.

Q. Had not all these Assemblies their re­spective Privileges?

A. Yes; and they were conven'd for some special occasion, as to create Magi­strates, to enact some Law, or give their O­pinion. The different places where these Laws were made, gave them different Names.

[Page 306] Q. Who were there in the Assembly of Magistrates?

A. Besides Citizens, there were those that stood for Offices, and were called Can­didates, because they wore a white garment.

Q. Who were there besides these in this Assembly?

A. Distributors, in Latin Diribitores, who gave the people Wooden Tables as they passed over certain Bridges, and collected their Votes.

Q. Were no other persons admitted there?

A. There were Guards that took care lest there should be any Cheat in gathering their Votes, and Cryers who proclaim'd aloud who had most Votes.

Q. How did they manage Judicial Cau­ses?

A. There was the Plaintiff, the Council, and the Defendant, who had his Friends about him, and appear'd in a very ordinary Garb, with a long Beard, his Hair and every thing about him negligent and out of order.

Q. How did they give their Suffrages?

A. At first they used to give them vivâ voce, but afterwards in all Assemblies for Laws or Judgments, they gave the people Wooden Tables; in one were these two Let­ters, U. R. that is to say, Vti Rogas, Be it as you desire it.

Q. What was writ in the other?

A. The letter A, signifying Antiquo; i. e. I forbid it.

[Page 307] Q. If the number happen'd to be equal, how did they then?

A. The Sentence was void, unless in the case of Criminals, for the Century which did not condemn, was suppos'd to absolve.

Q. How many Assemblies did they keep to elect Magistrates?

A. Two. The first to elect; Whom wou'd you have, said he who presided, for your Con­suls or Prae [...]ors? and after the Election was made, Are you contented that M. Cicero, and M. Anthony, whom the people have pitched up­on to be Consuls, should stand.

Q. What does the word Forum signify?

A. 'Twas either the place where they bought and sold, or signified the same with Curia, the place where the Assemblies were held.

Q. What is the meaning of the word Ro­stra?

A. It signifies the Tribunal, from whence they harangu'd the People.

Q. Why was it so called?

A. Because it was formerly adorn'd with the Beaks of the Ships which the Romans took from the People of Antium.

Of their Gladiators.

Q. AT whose expence were these Prizes perform'd.

A. Sometimes at the expence of private Persons, who to make themselves popular, exhibited these Shows; and because they [Page 308] were freely bestow'd upon the People, to whom by a publick Bill they gave notice what day they should be fought, therefore they are frequently denoted by the Latin word Munus.

Q. What was the original of these Spe­ctacles?

A. It was derived from a common pra­ctise among the Heathens at the burial of their Friends, who were of opinion that the shedding of man's blood wou'd be propitia­tory to the Soul deceased, and for this pur­pose bought Captives and Slaves to be sacri­ficed upon these Occasions. These particu­lar kind of Fencers were called Bustuarii, but afterwards these Spectacles were play'd not only at Tombs, but in the Circus, and Am­phitheatre. Nay, the Humour prevailed so far at last, that they were given as Legacies by Will and Testament to the People.

Q. When they met on the day appointed, what Weapons did they fight with?

A. They were of two sorts. Lusoria tela, with which they only show'd Feats of Acti­vity; and Decretoria, with which they really encounter'd one another for life or death. Their skirmishing with the former was pro­perly termed praeludium.

Q. When a Gladiator receiv'd a dange­rous wound, what became of him?

A. He was not immediately discharged, for this depended upon the pleasure of the Emperor, or the People, or the Person that [Page 309] gave the Show. If they thought fit to make him continue the Fight, though in never so great extremity, they signified it convertendo pollicem, by turning up the Thumb, as they did the contrary premendo pollicem, by turning down the Thumb. This discharge was called Missio.

Q. What reward did the Conquerors re­ceive?

A. Sometimes Money, sometimes a Gar­land of Palm-tree, whence figuratively Pal­ma has been used to signify the Victory it self; sometimes the People gave them a Wand call'd Rudis, and somes a Cap or Pi­leus, both which last were Badges or Tokens of Liberty, and of their being wholly dis­charged from this slavish sort of life.

Of the Sibylline Oracles among the Romans.

Q. HOW many Sibylls were there?

A. They are generally reckon'd to be Ten. The first was called Persica, the second Lybica, the third Delphica, the fourth Cumaea, the fifth Erythraea, the sixth Samia, the seventh Cumana, the eighth Hellespontica, the ninth Phrygia, and the tenth Tiburtina. They were all of them Women very famous for the Spirit of Prophecy.

Q. Where were their Books kept?

A. Within the Capitol under ground in a Chest of Stone, where they continued safe [Page 310] till the burning of the Capitol in Sylla's time. But to retrieve this loss, the Senate dispatch­ed Envoys into Greece and Asia to collect all the Prophesies which went under their name. They were supposed to be of that certainty, that when they affirm'd any thing to be un­doubtedly true, they used to say it was Sibyllae folium, as true as Sibyll's Oracle.

Q. Did not Tarquinius Priscus institute a certain number of Priests to expound and keep their Oracles?

A. Y [...]s, who were at first from their number call'd Duumviri, afterwards they were increased to ten, and call'd Decemviri; and lastly, Sylla, as 'tis suppos'd, added five more, and then they were call'd the Quin­decimviri. These Oracles were constantly consulted in all times of public Calamity and Exigence, and to the above-mention'd Priests it belonged to see that Sacrifices, Sup­plications, Processions, Expiations, and in short, all Ceremonial Rites prescribed by these Books were duly perform'd.

Q. Which of the Sibylls was it that writ her Oracles upon Leaves of Trees?

A. The Sibylla Cumaea, and as these Leaves w [...]re frequently scatter'd by the winds, it was a difficult matter to place them in due order again. Hence arose the Proverb, La­bori [...]sius est quam Sibyllae folia colligere.

Q. Is Sibylla a proper name?

A. No; 'tis an appellation common to all Women that have the gift of Prophecy, from [Page 311] [...], which in the Aeolic Dial [...]ct is the same with [...] God, and [...], i. e. Counsel; be­cause they reveal'd the will and pleasure of the Gods to the people.

Of their Sacrifices.

Q. WHat was the manner of Sacrifi­cing?

A. First, the Priest laid his hand on the Altar, and rehearsed certain Prayers to Ia­nus, and V [...]sta.

Q. Why so?

A. Because the Romans were persuaded, that without their intercession they could not have access to the other gods. His Prayers being ended, he laid upon the Beasts head a little Corn, together with a Cake made of Meal and Salt, call'd in Latin Mola. From this Ceremony the Act of Sacrificing has been termed Immolatio.

Q. What did he do after this?

A. He drank some Wine out of a wooden or earthen Chalice, which was afterwards carried about to all the people that they might also libare or gently taste of it. This Rite was call'd Libatio.

Q. Proceed.

A. When this was over, the rest of the Wine with Frankincense mixt in it, was pour'd upon the Beast's Head between the Horns, o [...]e crying out with a loud voice, macta est hostia, i. e. magis aucta, and then [Page 312] they immediately began to kill the Sacri­fice.

Q. After what manner was this done?

A. First, the Priest pluckt off some of the Hairs between the Horns, and threw them into the fire; then turning his Face to­wards the East, he drew a long crooked Knife upon the Beast's Back, and command­ed his under Officers or Popae to kill the Beast.

Q. Were the Standers-by Idle all this while?

A. No, for some saved the Blood in Vessels, others Flead the Beast, and o­thers washed it. Then the Priest observ'd the Entrails, and if he discovered no ill Omens in them, the above-mention'd Popae rowl'd them in Barley-meal, and sent them in Baskets to the Priests, who taking them up in a broad Platter, laid them upon the Altar and burnt them. This was properly call'd litare.

Q. And how did they conclude?

A. After the portion laid out for the Gods was burnt, the people repair'd to a common Feast, where as they were eat­ing, they sung Hymns, and danced about the Altar.

Of their Marriages and Divorces.

Q HOW was the manner of Contra­cting?

A. For the greater security they writ down the form of the Contract upon Ta­bles of Record, and had them seal'd by some Witnesses there present, who from this Action were termed Signatores. But first they consulted the Augurs, as they were used to do in all Actions of any impor­tance.

Q. Why did the Woman wear the Ring, which the Man in token of his Affection gave her, on the fourth Finger of her left Hand?

A. Because they supposed that an Artery from the Heart proceeded to that Finger alone.

Q. Whence is the word Nuptiae derived?

A. From Nubo, which signifies to cover, for the custom was that the Woman should be brought to her Husband with a Flammeum, or yellow Veil thrown over her Face.

Q. Why was the Bride by a seeming vio­lence taken away from her Mother, or next Relation?

A. Because of the good Success which Romulus and his Followers had in the violent taking away of the Sabine Women.

Q. What other Ceremonies did they use?

[Page 314] A. Towards night the Woman was led to her Husband's House (whence the common Phrase Vxorem ducere to marry a Wife) with five Torches, to intimate the need which married Persons had of five Deities, viz. Iupiter, Iuno, Venus, Suadela, and Diana, who is oftentimes call'd Lucina.

Q. What were these Torches made of?

A. Of a pitchy Liquour that issued from a Tree call'd Teda. Hence the Poets figu­ratively called both the Torches, and the Wedding it self Tedas.

Q. When the Woman was brought to the door, what did she then?

A. She anointed the Posts of the Door with Oil, from which Ceremony a Wife was call'd Vxor quasi Unxor. Then the Bride­man lifted her over the Threshold, and so carried her in by a seeming force.

Q. Why so?

A. Because she cou'd not in modesty seem to go without violence into that place where she was to resign her Virginity.

Q. As she was carried in, what was it the Company cried aloud?

A. They cried Talassio, Talassio, as the Greeks did Hymen Hymenaee; for which this reason is alledged; That at the Rape of the Sabine Women some of the meaner sort car­rying away one of the fairest Women, cer­tain Citizens would have taken her from them, which to prevent they pretended that they carried her to one Talassius, a man of [Page 315] great esteem, and so brought their Prey off, the others accompanying her, and often cry­ing, Talassio, Talassio.

Q. What follow'd after this?

A. Being thus brought home, she received the Keys of her Husband's House, to denote that the custody of every thing in it was committed to her care.

Q. How was the Marriage-Bed stiled?

A. Genialis lectus, and sometimes lectus adversus, quòd eum in atrio collocari januae ex ad­verso mos fuit, that is, because they placed it in the Court, directly opposite to the Gate.

Q. What Ceremonies did they use the next day after the Marriage?

A. They gave a solemn Entertainment where the Relations and Friends of the mar­ried Couple met to make merry. This Feast they called Repotia.

Q. How many sorts of Divorces had they?

A. Two: One between Parties only con­tracted, the second between married People. The first was properly call'd Repudium, in which the party sueing for a Divorce, used this form Conditione tuâ non utar; the other was call'd Divortium, and the party that de­sired it used these words, Res tuas tibi habeto, or res tuas tibi agite.

Q. What is the reason of this Phrase, mit­tere, or remittere nuncium?

A. Because in these Divorces they usually sent their Wives a paper containing the [Page 316] Causes of their Separation per nuncium by a Messenger.

Q. What Formalities were used in a Di­vorce?

A. The Ceremonies were quite contrary to those observ'd in Marriage. For after the Censors were made acquainted with the just Causes of the Divorce, the Marriage-Tables were broken, the Dowry restor'd, the Keys of the House taken from the Woman, and she turned out of doors.

Of other Roman Customs and Anti­quities.

Q. WHat Ceremonies did the Romans use in the building and razing of Cities?

A. In the building of Cities the Founders generally made their Augural Observations; which being ended, they marked out the place where the Wall was to be built, by ploughing up the Ground. Where they de­sign'd the City Gate to be, they gently car­ried the Plough over it, whence a Gate was call'd Porta à Portando. The like Ceremony of Ploughing was used in the demolishing of Cities.

Q. What is the difference between Ara, and Altare?

A. The Ara was made foursquare, and cover'd with Turf, not very high from the ground, or as some say, close to it, and up­on [Page 317] this they sacrificed to the Terrestrial Gods. The Altare was lifted somewhat higher from the ground, and upon this they sacrificed to the Celestial Gods only.

Q. What was the Scrobiculus?

A. A Furrow or Pit containing an Altar in it, into which they pour'd down the Blood of the Beast slain, together with Milk, Honey, and Wine, when they sacrificed to an Infernal Deity.

Q. What was the Focus?

A. In strict propriety of speech it is ta­ken for an Altar on which they sacrificed to their Domestic Gods, such as were their Pe­nates, or Lares, whence arose the Proverb, Pro aris & focis certare, to fight for the de­fence of one's Religion and Countrey, which was part of the Militare Sacramentum, or Oath administred to the Roman Soldiers.

Q. Who were the Dii majorum Gentium?

A. Gods of the first Rank and Quality, whom Ennius has thus compriz'd in a Di­stick. ‘Iuno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Iovis, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.’ They were likewise call'd Dii consentes quasi consentientes, because Iupiter would do no­thing without the consent of all.

Q. How was the second sort of Gods named?

A. They were call'd Semidei, or Demi­gods; [Page 318] also Indigetes, i. e. God's adopted, or Canonized, men deified, and Divi. This last Title they bestowed upon their Empe­rors, because for their Merits they thought them worthy to be Gods.

Q. What were the Dii Patrii, or Tute­lares?

A. Such as had undertaken the protection of any City or Place; and therefore the Ro­mans, when they besieged any Town, used by certain Charms to call out their Tutelar Gods, because they thought it impossible to take the City as long as they continued in it, or at least suppos'd it a Crime to make the Gods Prisoners.

Q. What were the Genii?

A. They were looked upon to be of a middle essence between Gods and Men, and every man so soon as he was born, was supposed to be invisibly accompanied by a good and evil Genius or Angel.

Q. What were men used to write upon before the invention of Paper?

A. They sometimes writ upon the in­ward Rinds of Trees, called in Latin Libri (whence we still call our Books Libri) some­times in great Leaves of the Aegyptian Rush Papirus, from whence comes our English word Paper, and the Latin Papirus. Shortly after a Contest happening between Ptolomy King of Aegypt, and Eumenes King of Pergamus, the lat­ter found out the use of Parchment, and call'd it from the place Pergamena. At this [Page 319] time the Romans used to write in Tables of Wood, covered over with Wax, so that Ta­bellae is employ'd to signify Missive Letters, and Tabellarius a Letter-Carrier. These Ta­bles or Books were made of the Caudex, the Trunk or Stock of a Tree, whence we still call our Books Codices, à Caudicibus.

Q. What did they write with?

A. With a Stylus, an Instrument of Steel or Iron, having a sharp point at one end, and being broad, but keen and well-edg'd at the other. With the sharp point they writ what they pleased; with the broad end they scrap'd out what they had written; whence the Phrase, Stylum invertere, which signifies, To say and unsay a thing.

Q. What was the name of the Mark which they made at the end of their Books?

A. They call'd it a Coronis; which the Interpreters of Aristophanes describe to be linea brevis ab inferiore parte flexa. All are a­greed it was some known and common dash, usually subjoin'd to the end of Books. This gives light to the Greek Proverb, [...], i. e. from the beginning to the end.

Q. After what manner were their Books written in former Ages?

A. They writ a whole Book in one conti­nued Page, which was not cut into many leaves, and bound up, as the fashion now is, but that one entire Page was used to be roll'd upon a Staff fasten'd at the end of it. Hence [Page 320] à volvendo, we call our Books Volumina, Vo­lumes.

Q. What was the Vmbilicus?

A. The Staff on which the Book was roll'd, they call'd metaphorically Vmbilicus, because as a Navel is the middle of a man's body, so when the Book was roll'd up, this Staff was the middle of it. However, be­cause it was always fasten'd at one end of the Page, hence Vmbilicus, but especially when applied to a Book, signifies The End, as in Horace, ad Vmbilicum ducere.

Q. How were the two knobs or ends of the Staff, which appear'd on each side of the Volume, call'd?

A. Cornua, and they used to adorn them with Silver and Gold. The Title, which was the beginning of every Book, was named Frons.

Q. What Customs and Ceremonies were used by the Romans in handling their Suits of Law?

A. First, there was, in jus vocatio, that is, the citing of one into the Court. Secondly, Postulatio, a Request put up to the Praetor, That it might be lawful for the Plaintiff to enter his Action against the Defendant; whence postulare aliquem de hoc vel illo crimine, is to accuse one of this or that Crime. Third­ly, nominis delatio, the taking of the Defen­dant's Name into the Court-Book, and this was call'd, intendere actionem vel litem, and diem alicui dicere; that is, to enter an Action against one.

[Page 321] Q. When Request was made by the Plain­tiff to the Praetor, That he might enter his Action against the Defendant, did he not vadari reum, i. e. demand Sureties or Bail of him to appear on the day appointed?

A. Yes; and promisit vadimonium, that is, he entred likewise into Bond for his own ap­pearance on the same day, which was com­monly the third day following, called pro­perly dies perendinus, and sometimes dies ter­tius simply.

Q. Who were the Viri Consulares?

A. Not every one that was capable of a Consul's Office, but those that had actually born it.

Q. How did the Romans date their Deeds and Charters?

A. At first they did it by naming the Year wherein their City was founded; as for in­stance, ab urbe conditâ the twentieth, thir­tieth, or fortieth year; but afterwards by subscribing the Name of their present Con­suls. Nay, to know the Age of their Wines they sign'd their Vessels after the same manner.

Q. What was their manner of selling sub coronâ?

A. An Enemy was said to be sold sub co­ronâ, when in the Market-Place a Crown was put upon his head in token of such a Sale; or else because at that time he was surrounded with a Circle of Soldiers called Corona.

[Page 322] Q. What was their way of dismissing an Enemy sub jugum?

A. They erected two Spears, with a third lying a-cross, in manner of a Gallows; then they caused them, being disarm'd and their Belts taken away, to pass under, in token of Bondage.

Q. Why did Lapis in old time signify a Mile?

A. Because at every Mile's end a great stone in manner of a mark-stone, was e­rected.

Q. Why did the Romans call the space of Five Years a Lustrum?

A. Because they did once in Five Years Revolution lustrare exercitum Romanum, purge the Roman Army by Sacrifice. Hence we say, duo lustra, ten years, tria lustra, fifteen years, &c.

Q. Does not Nomen sometimes signify the same as Debitum, a Debt?

A. Yes, and the reason is, because the Creditors did use to write down their Debtors Names: Hence they were said, Nomina sua liberare, when they paid the Debt; as on the contrary, they were said Nomina faeere, when they contracted a Debt.

An Explication of some Letters and Names that occur in this History.

  • A. Aulus.
  • C. Caius.
  • D. Decimus.
  • L. Lucius.
  • M. Marcus.
  • N. Numerius.
  • P. Publius.
  • Q. Quintus.
  • T. Titus.
  • Ap. Appius.
  • Cn. Cne [...]us.
  • S. Spurius.
  • Ti. Tiberius.
  • Mam. Mamereus.
  • Ser. Servius.
  • Sex. Sextus.
  • F. Filius.
  • N. Nepos.
  • Q. Quatuor.
  • S. P. Q. R. Senatus, Populusque Roma­nus.
  • S. C. Senatus Con­sulto.
  • Cos. Consul.
  • Coss. Consules.
  • HS. S [...]stertium.

The Geographical Names explained.

The People of Savoy and Piedmont.
People of France living by Pillage.
People dwelling between the Caspian Sea and the Georgians.
The People of Transylva­nia.
The Georgians.
The Milanese.
Hodie Croatia.
The Genoese.
People near Austria, whose Countrey is Marck; ac­cording to others the Bohemians.
The Moravians.
A large Countrey, part in Europe, part in Asia, comprehending all Po­lonia, Russia, Muscovy, and most of Tartary.
The Inhabitants of Schwa­ven.
The Germans.
People of the Kingdom of Leon in Spain.

A Table of the Principal Matters con­tain'd in this Book.

THE Original of the Romans
Page 1
A Chronological Table of the Latin Kings
The Building of Rome
The means that Romulus us'd to people the City of Rome
The several sorts of Government in the City of Rome
The Seven Kings of Rome
Romulus the 1st King of Rome
Numa Pompilius the 2d King of Rome
Tullus Hostilius the 3d King of Rome
Ancus Martius the 4th King of Rome
Tarquinius Priscus the 5th King of Rome
Servius Tullius the 6th King of Rome
Tarquinius Superbus the 7th King of Rome
Of the Alterations made in Rome
The Wars in which the Romans were engag'd
The War of Hetruria
The War of the Latins
The War of the Volscians
The War of the Vejentes
The War of the Gauls
The War of the Latins
The War against the Samnites
The War against the Tarentines
The first Punic War
The second Punic War
[Page]The War of Macedonia
The War of Antiochus
The second Macedonian War
The third Punic War
The War of Corinth
The War of Portugal
The destruction of Numantia
The War of the Slaves
The War against Jugurtha
The War against Mithridates
The Civil War between Marius and Sylla
The taking of Jerusalem
The War between Caesar and Pompey
Of the several Seditions
A Chronological Table of the Roman Emperors
Julius Caesar the first Roman Emperor
Augustus the 2d Emperor
Tiberius the 3d Emperor
Caligula the 4th Emperor
Claudius the 5th Emperor
Nero the 6th Emperor
Galba the 7th Emperor
Otho the 8th Emperor
Vitellius the 9th Emperor
Vespasian the 10th Emperor
Titus the 11th Emperor
Domitian the 12th Emperor
Nerva the 13th Emperor
Trajan the 14th Emperor
Adrian the 15th Emperor
Antoninus Pius the 16th Emperor
[Page] M. Aurelius and L. Verus, making together the 17th Emperor
Commodus the 18th Emperor
Pertinax the 19th Emperor
Julian the 20th Emperor
Severus the 21st Emperor
Caracalla and Geta, making together the 22d Emperor
Macrinus and his Son, making together the 23d Emperor
Heliogabalus the 24th Emperor
Alexander the 25th Emperor
Maximin and his Son, making together the 26th Emperor
Balbinus and Pupienus, making together the 27th Emperor.
Gordianus the Younger the 28th Emperor
Philip and his Son, making together the 29th Emperor
Decius the 30th Emperor
Gallus and Volusianus his Son, making together the 31st Emperor
Aemilianus the 32d Emperor
Valerianus the 33d Emperor
Gallienus the 34th Emperor
Claudius II. the 35th Emperor
Quintillus the 36th Emperor
Aurelianus the 37th Emperor
Tacitus the 38th Emperor
Florianus the 39th Emperor
Probus the 40th Emperor
Carus the 41st Emperor
Numerianus the 42d Emperor
[Page] Carinus the 43d Emperor
Diocletian and Maximian, making together the 44th Emperor
Galerius and Constantius, making together the 45th Emperor
Constantine the Great the 46th Emperor
The Division of the Empire between the three Sons of Constantine the Great, making toge­ther the 47th Emperor
Julian the Apostate the 48th Emperor
Jovian the 49th Emperor
Valentinian the Great the 50th Emperor
Valens the 51st Emperor
Gratian the 52d Emperor
Theodosius the Great the 53d Emperor
Arcadius the 54th Emperor
Honorius the 55th Emperor
Of the Fall and Decay of the Roman Empire
Of the increase, purity and decay of the Roman Eloquence and Learning
An Abridgment of the Principal Customs of the Romans
Of their Months
Of their Year, and the distinction of their days
Of the Republic
Of the Army
Of the Soldiers
Of the Leaders
After what manner they ranked their Army for Battel
Of the Honours paid to the Conquerors
[Page]Of the Augurs
Of the manner of the Roman Apparel
Of their Games
Of their Funerals
Of their Eating
Of their Priests
Of the Roman States
Of their Gladiators
Of the Sibylline Oracles among the Romans
Of their Sacrifices
Of their Marriages
Of several other Roman Antiquities and Cu­stoms

Books Sold by Richard Baldwin.

  • THE Works of F. Rabelais, M. D. In Five Books; or the Lives, Heroick Deeds and Sayings of the Good Gargantua and Pantagruel, and his Voyage to the Oracle of the Bottle. As also his Historical Letters. To which is added, the Author's Life, and Explanatory Remarks. By Mr. Motteux. Never be­fore Printed in English.
  • Bibliotheca Politica: Or an Enquiry into the An­tient Constitution of the English Government; with Respect both to the just Extent of Regal Power, and to the Rights and Liberties of the Subject. Wherein all the chief Arguments, as well against as for the Late Revolution, are Impartially repre­sented and considered. In XIII. Dialogues. Colle­cted out of the best Authors both Antient and Mo­dern. To which is added, An Alphabetical Index to the whole Work.
  • The Four Epistles of A. G. Busbequius, concern­ing his Embassy into Turky. Being Remarks upon the Religion, Customs, Riches, Strength and Go­vernment of that People. As also a Description of their Chief Cities, and Places of Trade and Com­merce. To which is added, His Advice how to manage War against the Turks. Done into English.
  • The Bounds set to France by the Pyrenean Trea­ty; and the Interest of the Confederates not to ac­cept of the Offers of Peace made at this Time by the French King. To which are added some short Reflections, shewing how far England is concern'd in the Restitution of that Treaty. Together with a List of the Towns and Countries that the French have taken since that time.
  • [Page]Letters of State, Written by Mr. Iohn Milton, To most of the Sovereign Princes and Republicks of Europe. From the Year 1649. till the Year 1659. To which is added, An Account of his Life. To­gether with several of his Poems; And a Catalogue of his Works, never before Printed.
  • Mathematical Magick: Or the Wonders that may be performed by Mechanical Geometry. In Two Books. Concerning Mechanical Powers, Mo­tions. Being one of the most easie, pleasant, useful, (and yet most neglected) part of Mathematicks, not before treated of in this Language.
  • Mercury; or the Secret and Swift Messenger Shew­ing how a man may with privacy and speed com­municate his Thoughts to a Friend at any distance. The Second Edition. By the Right Reverend Father in God, Iohn Wilkins, late Lord Bishop of Chester. Printed for Rich. Baldwin, where are to be had, The World in the Moon.
  • England's Interest; Or, a Discipline for Seamen: Wherein is proposed, a Sure Method for Raising Qualified Seamen for the well Manning Their Majesties Fleet on all Occasions. Also a Method whereby Seamen will be obliged mutually to Re­lieve each other on board the Men of War yearly, or thereabout; except where any Seaman by his own voluntary Consent shall be willing to stay longer. Likewise is shewed the Advantages which by these Methods will accrue to the Nation in ge­neral, and in particular to the Merchants and Sea­men: For hereby the Wages now given in Mer­chant-Ships will be brought lower, and every Sea­man will have the liberty of chusing his own Com­mander, after the first year, and continuing with him, if he so likes. By Captain George St. Lo.
  • An Answer to a Paper written by Count d'Avaux, the French King's Ambassador in Sueden, concerning the Proposals of Peace made by France to the Con­federates.
  • [Page]An Essay concerning Obedience to the Supream Powers, and the Duty of Subjects in all Revolutions. With some Considerations touching the present Juncture of Affairs.
  • An Essay concerning the Laws of Nations, and the Rights of Sovereigns. With an Account of what was said at the Council-board by the Civilians upon the Question, Whether Their Majesties Sub­jects taken at Sea acting by the Late King's Com­mission might not be looked on as Pirates? With Reflections upon the Arguments of Sir T. P. and Dr. Ol. Both by Matth. Tyndal, Doctor of Laws. The Second Edition.
  • The Antiquity and Justice of an Oath of Abju­ration. In answer to a Treatise, Entituled, The Case of an Oath of Abjuration considered.
  • A Sermon preached before the Right Honoura­ble the Lord-Mayor, and the Court of Aldermen of the City of London, at St. Mary-le-Bow, on the 29th of May, 1694. By Iohn Trenchard, M A Rector of Wrexhall in the County of Somerset, and Chaplain to the Right Honourable the Earl of Manchester.
  • A Poem on the Late Promotions of several Emi­nent Persons in Church and State. By N. Nate, Ser­vant to Their Majesties.
  • The Doctrine of the Holy Trinity placed in its due light, by an Answer to a late Book, Entituled, Animadversions upon Dr. Sherlock's Book, &c. Also the Doctrine of the Incarnation of our Lord asserted and explained.
  • The Memoirs of Monsieur Deagant: Containing the most secret Transactions and Affairs of France, from the Death of Henry VI. till the beginning of the Ministry of Cardinal de Richelieu, &c.
  • Memoirs concerning the Campagne of Three Kings, William, Lewis, and Iames, in the Year 1692. With Reflections on the great Endeavours of Lewis the 14th to effect his Designs, of Iames the 2d to Remount the Throne, and the proper Methods for the Allies to take to hinder both.
  • [Page] Liturgia Tigurina: Or, the Book of Common-Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, and other Ecclesiastical Rites and Ceremonies, usually practised, and solemnly performed in all the Churches and Chappels of the City and Canton of Zurick in Switzerland, &c.
  • State-Tracts. In two parts. The first part being a Collection of several Treatises relating to the Go­vernment, privately printed in the Reign of King Charles II. The second part consisting of a farther Collection of several choice Treatises relating to the Government, from the Year 1660, to 1689. Now published in a Body, to shew the Necessity, and clear the Legality of the late Revolution, and our present Happy Settlement under the Auspicious Reign of Their Majesties King William and Queen Mary.
  • The Tragedies of the Last Age, consider'd and examin'd by the Practice of the Ancients, and by the common sense of all Ages; in a Letter to Fleet­wood Shepherd, Esq Part I. The Second Edition.
  • A short View of Tragedy; its Original, Excel­lency, and Corruption; with some Reflections on Shakespear and other Practitioners for the Stage. Both by Mr. Rimer, Servant to Their Majesties.
  • A New, Plain, Short, and Compleat French and English Grammar; whereby the Learner may attain in few months to speak and write French correctly, as they do now in the Court of France; and where­in all that is dark, superfluous, and deficient in other Grammars, is plain, short, and methodically suppli­ed. Also very useful to Strangers that are desirous to learn the English Tongue; for whose sake is ad­ded a short, but very exact English Grammar. The Third Edition, with Additions. By Peter Berault.
  • Truth brought to light; or the History of the first 14 Years of King Iames I. In Four Parts, &c.
  • Travels into divers parts of Europe and Asia, un­dertaken by the French King's order, to discover a [Page] new way by land into China; containing many cu­rious Remarks in Natural Philosophy, Geography, Hydrography, and History. Together with a De­scription of Great Tartary, and of the different Peo­ple who inhabit there. Done out of French. To which is added a Supplement extracted from Hakluyt and Purchas, giving an Account of several Jour­neys over Land from Russia, Persia, and the Mogul's Country, to China, together with the Roads and di­stances of the Places.
  • Europe's Chains broke; or a sure and speedy Pro­ject to rescue her from the present Usurpations of the Tyrant of France.
  • The Cabinet opened, or the secret History of the Amours of Madam de Maintenon with the French King. Translated from the French Copy.
  • Saul at Endor; or the Ghost of the Marquess de Louvois consulted by the French King, concerning the present Affairs. Done out of French.
  • An Answer to the late King Iames's Declaration, dated at St. Germains, April the 7th. S. N. 1693. Li­censed by Mr. Secretary Trenchard.
  • Reflections upon two Pamphlets lately published; one called, A Letter from Monsieur de Cross, con­cerning the Memoirs of Christendom; And the other, An Answer to that Letter; pretended to have been written by the Author of the said Memoirs. By a Lover of Truth.
  • A true and exact Account of the Retaking a Ship called, The Friends Adventure of Topsham, from the French, after she had been taken six days, and they were upon the Coasts of France with it four days; where one Englishman and a Boy set upon seven Frenchmen, killed two of them, took the other five Prisoners, and brought the Ship and them safe to England, &c.
  • A Project of a Descent upon France. By a Person of Quality.
  • [Page]A Compendious History of the Taxes of France, and of the Opressive Methods of Raising of them.
  • An Impartial Enquiry into the Advantages and Losses that England hath received since the be­ginning of this Present War with France.
  • The Gentleman's Journal: Or the Monthly Miscellany. In a Letter to a Gentleman in the Country. Consisting of News, History, Philosophy, Poetry, Musick, Translations, &c. Sold by R. Baldwin, Where are to be had compleat Sets for the two last years, or single ones for every Month.
  • A Collection of Speeches of the Right Honoura­ble Henry late Earl of Warrington, viz I. His Speech upon his being sworn Mayor of Chester, in November 1691. II. His Speech to the Grand Jury at Chester, April 13. 1692. III. His Charge to the Grand Jury at the Quarter-Sessions held for the County of Che­ster, on the 11th. of October, 1692. IV. His Charge to the Grand Jury at the Quarter-Sessions held for the County of Chester, on the 25th. of April, 1693.
  • Victoriae Anglicana: Being an Historical Collecti­on of all the memorable and stupendious Victories obtained by the English against the French, both by Sea and Land, since the Norman Conquest, &c.
  • A Brief Disquisition of the Law of Nature, ac­cording to the Principles and Method laid down in the Reverend Dr. Cumberland's (now Lord Bishop of Peterborough's) Latin Treatise on that Subject. As also his Confutation of Mr. Hobbs's Principles, put into another method. With the Right Reverend Author's Approbation.
  • The Life of Lewis of Bourbon, late Prince of Conde. Digested into Annals. With many curious Remarks on the Transactions of Europe for these last Sixty Years. Done out of French.
  • Nevil Pain's Letter, and some other Letters that concern the Subject of his Letter. With short Notes on them, for the clearer Information of the Mem­bers of Parliament, in order to Nevil Pain's Trial.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.