[Page] ENGLANDS Happiness Increased, OR A Sure and Easie Remedy against all succeeding Dear Years;

BY A Plantation of the Roots called POTATOES, whereof (with the Addition of Wheat Flower) ex­cellent, good and wholesome Bread may be made, every Year, eight or nine Months together, for half the Charge as formerly.

ALSO By the Planting of these Roots, Ten Thousand Men in ENGLAND and WALES, who know not how to Live, or what to do to get a Maintenance for their Families, may of One Acre of Ground, make Thirty Pounds per Annum.

Invented and Published for the Good of the Poorer Sort, By JOHN FORSTER Gent.

—Natura beatis omnibus esse dedit, si quis cognoverit uti.
For the Lord hath chosen Sion to be an Habitation for himself, Psal. 132. Ver. 14.
I will bless her Victuals with increase, and will satisfie her Poor with Bread, Verse 16.

LONDON, Printed for A. Seile, over against St. Dunstans Church in Fleetstreet, 1664.

TO THE High and Mighty Monarch Charles the II.
By the Grace of God, KING of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c.

CUstom, not Necessity (Most Dread Soveraign) seems to be the Cause of most Dedications, 'tis otherwise in this; the Subject and Matter hereof being of publique Utility, requires one of publique Authority to patronize it: Leaving there­fore the more Subordinate, I have presumed to ad­dress to Your Majesty as Supreme; humbly presen­ting this my weak Endeavour, this New Plantation, this most profitable Invention, to the View and Consideration of Your most SaCRed Majesty; a meaner Patron not be fitting, not being of Authority sufficient, to advance and set forward a Work so generally beneficial; beneficial to Your Majesty, be­neficial to all Your Majesties Subjects, beneficial to Strangers and Foreigners of other Nations; to Your Majesty, by a constant considerable annual Reve­nue; to all Your Majesties Subjects, especially to those of the meaner rank, by a cheap, profitable and easie way, of providing for, and maintaing of their [Page] Families; to Foreigners and Strangers of the more Northern Climates, by yearly supplying and fur­nishing them with Corn, which may hereafter be spared out of these Your Majesties Dominions. See­ing therefore, that the Benefit of this Plantation may be so great, be pleased, most Mighty Monarch, to vouchsafe it Your Royal Approbation and Per­mission; it being a Work of Charity, of so large an extent, that not a few only, but all the Poor in gene­ral, throughout these Your Majesties Dominions, will receive benefit by it, will so well be provided for, that hereafter they will have no cause to complain, of the Hardness of the Years, or of the Dearness of Corn. Besides, this Project may be performed with very little Charge, and also in a short time; for in two Years and an half, the Plantations will be finished, to the benefit of Your Majesty, and great good of the whole Nation; and in three Years, all the Charges (which is only to the Planters) will be re-paid trebble. Thus, leaving it to Your Ma­jesties Wisdom, and Princely Consideration, (cra­ving Your Gracious Pardon for this Presumption) I do hear humbly take my leave, and remain,

Your Majesties Faithful and Loyal Subject, JOHN FORSTER.

TO THE Reader.


AMong all the Plagues and Punishments Almighty God is pleased to inflict upon Mankind for Sin, there are three which seem more grievous and intol­lerable than the rest, viz. the Sword, Pestilence, and Fa­mine; of which three, when King David had offended God, in numbring the People, and was put to his choice, in what kind he would be punished for it, chose the Pestilence, as the least of the three; (which truly it is, all Circumstances being considered) and of the other two, there is none (I think) but had rather dye in the Field, by the Sword of his Enemy, than be pined and starved to death, by the bitterness of Fa­mine. Now, as a good Prince will endeavour, what he can possible, to preserve his Country from War, and the Sword, so far as stands best with the safety of Himself, and his Peo­ple. And, as a good Physician, will (or at least should) take as much care to preserve the Health, and prevent the Sick­ness of his Patients, as to Cure them when they are sick: So, it is the Duty of every good Housholder, in times of Plenty, to provide for his Family, against times of Scarcity and Fa­mine, the greatest Judgement of the three. For the better, and more easie effecting whereof, I have, in this small Trea­tise, published such a Secret, whereby every man, in the [Page] greatest times of Dearth and Scarcity, may have excellent, good and wholesome Bread, and other kinds of Food, for their Families, at as cheap Rates, as now in times of Plenty; which if well made use of, I doubt not, but it will prove more effect­uall against Scarcity, and a Famine, than the best Alexite­rium, or Antidote, against the Infection of the Plague. And since it hath pleased God, to deliver such a Talent to my keeping, I was willing (not to hide it in the Earth, or wrap it up in a Napkin, but) to improve it, as well as I could; which I hope I have done, by publishing of it, that thou, Loving Reader, mayest know it, make use of it, and re­ceive the benefit of it; desiring nothing for my Pains and La­bour herein, but thy kind Acceptation; which if I shall per­ceive, I shall be the more encouraged hereafter, (according to my Power and Ability (further to serve thee, in whatso­ever Civility and Humanity commands.

Thine assured Friend, JOHN FORSTER.

ENGLANDS Happiness Increased, OR A SVRE and EASIE Remedy Against all succeeding Dear Years.

SEeing that both by the Law of God, and the Law of Nature, every man is bound to follow some lawful Cal­ling, whereby to maintain himself, and his Family; for he that provi­deth not for his own Family, is worse than an Infidel, (saith the Apostle) and because there are many which have not been brought up in any Calling, and many that by one Misfortune of other are come to Poverty, and know [Page 2] not which way to get a Maintenance for their Fa­milies: I shall (for their sakes) endeavour in this Treatise, to shew them a way, whereby (with the blessing of God) they may get an honest Live­lyhood, and that without much Charge at the first, or trouble afterwards. And it is by the plan­ting of the Roots called Potatoes; by which, not on­ly the Planters themselves will reap much gain and benefit, but also all those that will make use of them, may maintain their Families with much more ease, and far less Charge than at any time hereto­fore. Now there are divers kinds of Potatoes, all which were originally brought from America. The first sort, being those of greatest request, are the Spanish Potatoes, called of the Latines, Battata, Camo­tes, Thevit saith, the Americans call them Hetich. A [...]es, Ignanes, and Inhames. The second sort are the Virginia Potatoes, called Battata, and Battatas Virginianorum, Papas, Papus, and Pappus. The third sort are the Potatoes of Canada, called of the Herbarists, Heliotropium indicum tuberosum, Flos solis piramidalis, After peruvianus tuberosus; and falsly in English, Artechocks of Jerusalem. The fourth sort (which are these I shall write of in this Treatise, and are fittest for our purpose) are the Irish Potatoes, being little different from those of Virginia, save only in the Colour of the Flower, and time of flow­ring; for these bring forth a white Flower about the end of June, and so continue flowring most part of the Summer: the other (as Mr. Gerard saith) flowreth not till August, and beareth a purple Flower. These Roots, although they came at first from the Indies, yet thrive and prosper very well in Ireland, where there is whole Fields of them; from [Page 3] whence they have been brought into Wales, and in­to the North Parts of England, where they likewise prosper and increase exceedingly. They are in qua­lity temperate, very agreeable and amicable to the Nature of Man, and of a good and strong nourish­ment. In substance they are brittle and mealy, and therefore very fit to be put into Bread, and to make divers kinds of wholesome Meats, as shall be shewed hereafter.

What kind of Ground they must be plant­ed in.If you intend to plant of these Roots, you must make choice of such a Piece of Ground as is not too wet in the Winter, for if the water stands upon it, and hath not free passage away, all the Roots, by be­ing too much soaked with the wet, will become rot­ten; therefore the Ground must either lye upon some kind of Discent, or else be so ordered in the Dig­ging, and divided into long Beds, with Furrows between them, that the water may the better be conveyed away; which Beds ought not to be above six Foot wide, that so the Planter, by going a­long the Furrows, may pluck up the rank Weeds, which come up before the Potatoes, and not tread upon the Beds.

The man­ner of planting them.Having found out Ground fit for the purpose, it must be digged at the beginning of Winter, that the Frost may make it hollow; and if it be not suffi­ciently rich of it self, it must be made so, by mixing good rotten Dung with it; and then, at the latter end of March, it must be digged over again, and all the Clods and Turffe being well broken, you may plant the Roots half a Foot deep in the Earth, and about eight or nine Inches asunder; but you must first cut them into quarters, or halves, or [Page 4] into lesser pieces, leaving alwayes upon every piece one Bud at least, which you may perceive in the little cavities here and there upon the Roots; and thus a great deal of Ground may be planted with a few Roots; which about the beginning of May thrust forth their Leaves; the Flowers being of a white Colour, bud forth in the end of June; the Fruit or Berry comes not to maturity in our Climate, but is for the most part alwayes green. The Roots may be digged from the beginning of September till the end of March, seven Months together; and may be used for the making of Bread, and other kinds of Food, eight Months, even till the end of April. And for fear of Snow, or hard Frost, they may be kept upon dry boarded Flowers for two or three Months together; and though they may seem a little withered, yet in the boyling they will be as plump and as full as at the first.

In the Digging, you must observe, that all the very small Roots, and all the little pieces of Roots, must be left in the Ground, that it may be suffici­ently stored the next year. Also they must not be digged after the end of March, for that will hinder their early coming up, and consequently their in­crease will be the less. Thus far of the manner of planting Potatoes, we now come to shew the several Uses thereof, and first;

How to make Bread with Potatoes.

To make Bread of Potatoes.THe first and greatest Use of Potatoes is for the making of Bread, which I doubt not but will be of much benefit to all sorts of people, especially to the Poor in times of scarcity: And indeed, this was the chief Cause both of the Invention and Pub­lication hereof. For having seen how much poor people have suffered, and what great Complaints they have sometimes made, by reason of the dear­ness of Corn, and the slender relief which they found at the hands of those who were able enough to help them; I began to think with my self, what means might be used, to prevent the like for the future: And knowing the Nature, and great in­crease of this Root, I made trial thereof for the making of Bread; and by the blessing of God, it succeeded according to my desire. I then planted of them, and afterwards for two years together I made further trial of them, and found that they might be put to divers other good uses, which in love to my native Country, and for the good of the Poor, I have here set down, beginning with the way and manner of making Bread therewith, which is as followeth.

If you will bake a Bushel, you shall take half a Bushel of these Roots, and putting them into two little Nets, which is a Peck into each Net, boyl them in a Kettle of water till they break between your fingers, but let them not break in the boyling; [Page 6] when they have boyled a quarter of an hour, in which time they will be boyled enough, take out the Nets, with the Roots, and hang them up a while, that the water may drain from them; then put them out into a wier Sieve, made for the pur­pose, being almost as thick as a course hair Sieve, and strengthened with three or four strong Wiers, or small Iron Rods, over-thwart the bottom; and with an Iron Truel let them be all broken, and rub­bed through the bottom of the Sieve, into a Vessel underneath; by which means the Skins of the Roots will remain behind, and the Meal will pass through, being much like unto boyled Rice. Be­fore you put the Roots into the Nets, you must cut the great ones into halves or quarters, otherwise the small ones will be boyled to pieces, before the great ones are boyled enough.

The Roots being thus prepared, you may make Bread of them after this manner. You must take as much Wheat or Barley Flower as your half Bushel of Potato Meal weighs, and mix them well together with your hands; then put to it as much warm water, mix'd with a little Barme, as you think will make it into very stiffe Dough, and as much Salt as is convenient; which being done, knead it well, until it be exactly mingled, which will quickly be, by reason of the dryness and meali­ness of the Roots; afterwards make Loaves of it, and see that it be well baked.

This Bread, if the Corn was good, and if it be rightly made, and well baked, will be as hollow, and as white, as pleasant in taste, and as whole­some and nutrimental, as if it was all of Wheat; [Page 7] for all that have written of Potatoes, do agree, that howsoever they be eaten, they do mightily com­fort, strengthen and nourish the Body.

The Roots them­selves are not windy therefore not the Bread.But if any shall Object; That this Bread is Windy. I Answer; That it cannot be, for the Roots be­ing first boyled, and then mingled with Flower, and afterwards baked, it is impossible they should be windy: For by this double Coction they are so corrected, that they are made the more wholsome, and all their windiness taken away: Neither be­ing thus used, can you at all, or very little discern the taste of the Potatoes, by which it is evident, that the Bread made of them is not windy. And not on­ly may Bread be made of these Roots, but also di­vers other wholesome Meats, as here followeth.

How to make Paste of Potatoes.

Paste of Potatoes;YOu may make of Potatoes excellent good Paste, if you take equal parts of the Root, and of good Wheat Flower, and make Dough thereof, as you did for Bread, with warm water, only in this you must leave out the Barme, and adde a little Butter, yet not in too great a quantity; Of this Paste you may make Pyes, Pasties, Tarts, &c. which you must bake presently after they are made, in an Oven made something more hot than ordinary for such things; and so you will have as good Crust as if it had been all of the best Wheat Flower. Also [Page 8] you may make Paste with Barley Flower, and these Roots, and it will be better, and not so apt to cleave and crack, as that which is made all of Barley.

How to make Puddings of Pota­toes, either baked or boyled.

Puddings.FOr to make Puddings of Potataes, you must take one half of the Roots, boyled and broken, as before for Bread, and one half of Wheaten or Barley Flower, and mix them well together, with some kind of Liquor, adding also two or three Eggs to make it hollow, and what other Cost you please, and having so done, you may either bake them in an Oven, or boyl them in a Bag; and be­ing well baked or boyled, and then buttered, (or they may be made with Suet if you please) they will be as pleasant in taste, and as wholesome, as if they were made only of Wheat.

How to make very good Custards of Potatoes.

Custards of Pota­toes.TAke a Quart of New Milk, (or Cream, if you will be at the Cost) six or seven Potatoes, boyl­ed, and very well broken, a couple of Eggs beat­en. Sugar about a quarter of a pound, a little Nut­meg [Page 9] grated; mingle them well together, and put it into a shallow pewter or earthen Dish, or else into Crust, having first put a little piece of Butter into the bottom, (if it be made only of Milk) and so bake it in an Oven, or over some Coals; then keep it till it be almost cold, and you will have an excellent, dainty and wholesome Dish, being both very pleasant to the Palate, and very restora­tive and strengthening to the Body; and also so cheap, that for four pence charge, as much may be made, as will serve two reasonable men for a Meal.

How to make Potato Cheescakes.

Chees­cakes.YOu may make Cheescakes of Potatoes after this manner. Take of the Roots, very well broken, and rubbed through a wier Sieve, what quantity you please; grated Bread a quarter as much, Cream and Eggs beaten together, enough to make it of a fit consistence, or so thick as it usually is made for this purpose; Currants, Sugar and Spice, of each as much as is needful: Stir all these things well to­gether; then raise your Coffins in form round and shallow, which fill with your former mixture, af­terwards bake them in an Oven, and you will have Cheescakes (so called, àformà & similitudine) in goodness excceeding those that are made of the Curd of Milk: These Cheescakes may be made e­ven in the midst of Winter, when the other sort, [Page 10] by reason of the scarcity of Milk, and the coldness of the weather, are very seldom to be seen.

To make Cakes of Potatoes.

Cakes.THose kinds of Cakes, commonly made by Ba­kers, of the best Wheat Flower, with Fruit, Spice, &c. may also be made with a mixture of these Roots with the Flower, so well, as not to be discerned in the least: But there is another kind of Cakes, cheaper, and more fit for poor people, made after this manner. Take of the Meal of the Roots, as much as you please; of Wheat Flower, or for want thereof, fine Barley Flower, enough to make it into Dough, without water; put a little Salt to it, and knead it well; then make thin Cakes of it, and bake them in an Oven, or upon the Hearth. These Cakes are quickly and easily made, and being eaten with Butter whilst they be hot, are very good for Children, and by reason of their cheapness, for all poor people.

After the same manner may Bread be made, cheaper than the other way before mentioned; for by how much the more of the Root is put into it, by so much will it be the cheaper: And usually to make Bread without water, or any other moisture, than what is in the Roots, except a little Barme, there is required three parts of the Meal of the Roots, to two parts of Flower. I have seen Bread made after [Page 11] this way, very good, white and hollow, though there was no Barme at all put into it; but I shall leave this to every one, to use that way, which by his own experience he finds to be best.

I could here set down divers other things, which might be made with these Roots; as divers kinds of fryed Meats, divers kinds of sweet Meats, &c. but I will not at this time, because I think these are suf­ficient to lead those that be ingenious (as many are, for their Bellies especially) to the discovery of other things of the like nature; Nor would I have these to be followed and imitated, Ad unguem, but let every one, according to his knowledge and experience, according to his Purse and Palate, adde, alter or diminish what he please.

Besides the former wayes of using them, they may also be used of themselves for Meat; for some boyl them, or roast them in the Embers, and ha­ving peeled them, stew them in Wine, with But­ter and Sugar, or butter them only, and so eat them: Some bake them in Pyes, with Marrow, Sugar, Spice, and other things: Some boyl them, and eat them with fat Beef, or other kind of fat Meat; and others dress them other wayes, every man according to his own taste and liking; all which wayes they are a very wholesome and strengthening Food; and by these several wayes of dressing them, they are like so many varieties, and change of Dishes.

And thus I have shewed you the several uses of Potatoes; I shall now proceed to shew, what great Benefit they may be: First, to the Planters, by planting of them. Secondly, to the whole King­dom, by the use of them.

[Page 12] The Be­nefit of Potatoes to the Planters.The Benefit which these Roots will be to the Planters, will be very great, as shall be proved by the Demonstration following. Suppose a man should plant one Acre of good Ground, which if it be Earable Land, may perhaps be worth eight, nine or ten Shillings a year; or if it be Pasture or Grass Ground, it may be worth twenty Shillings, or more; we will count, how much more profit may be made of it, by planting it with these Roots, than can be made of it, if it lye for Grass, or be sowed with Corn, and so we shall perceive what the Planters Gain will be. And first, Every Acre of Ground contains eight-score square Poles or Perches; Now suppose that one Pole should bear but one Bushel of Roots, in the Acre there would be eight-score Bushels of Roots, and every Bushel (I mean an heaped Bushel, for so such things are alwayes measured) will make as much Bread as a Bushel of Corn: Here is eight-score Bu­shels of Roots, against twenty, thirty or forty Bu­shels of Corn, which is as much as an Acre can yield: Now if these Roots may be sold for twelve Pence a Bushel, which they are very well worth, the eight-score Bushels come to eight Pounds.

But further, if every Pole of Ground yields three or four Bushels of Roots, as it will, if the Ground be good, and yet you may leave enow to store the Ground the next year, then is the Gain much the more, for out of the Acre may be digged six hundred and forty Bushels,An Acre of Ground will yield 640. Bu­shels of Roots. which (being sold for twelve Pence a Bushel) comes to thirty two Pounds; thus you may see what Profit may be made of one Acre planted with these Roots. Be­sides, [Page 13] the Ground being once planted, there is no more charge nor trouble about them, unless it be to destroy them, which is very hardly done: Neither is there any need of Dunging, (provided the Ground be good at the first) for the Stalks being spread upon the Ground, when the Roots are dig­ged, and there suffered to lye and rot, serve instead of Dung: whereas for Corn, the Ground must e­very year be dunged, ploughed and sowed. But if any will bestow Dung upon his Ground, then he may reserve the Stalks for Fuel, which, if well dryed, and laid up, will be worth the Dung he layes upon his Plantation; but they must be left a­broad till after Christmass, and often turned, be­fore they will be through dry; but being dry, they will be excellent Fuel for brewing, heating of Ovens, or the like uses.

The Price of them.As for the Price of the Roots, I think none will grudge to give twelve Pence the Bushel for them, if they consider what may be saved by them; for if, when Corn is at five Shillings a Bushel, a man may have as much Bread as two Bushels of Corn will make for six Shillings, he will have little cause to think it dear, because it saves four Shillings; in eve­ry two Bushels, besides a great deal of pains, six Shillings being sooner earned than ten; and also, men that have Ground, will be the more encoura­ged to plant, when they see that there is good gain to be made of them.

But some may say; ‘What Profit will be made of them in a plentiful year, for when Corn is cheap, no body will make Bread of them?’

To which I Answer; That in a time of the great­est [Page 14] plenty, Bread may be made with one half of these Roots, and the other half of Wheat or Barley, cheaper than with all Wheat or Barley; besides, the Bread which is made with Barley, and these Roots, is whiter, and far better than Barley Bread, even almost as good as that of Wheat; wherefore I can­not think, but that they will be used, as well in a plentiful year, as in a dear year.

Thus much of the Benefit these Roots will yield to the Planters thereof; we will now treat of the other Utilities and Benefits the use of them will bring to the whole Kingdom, setting them down every one in particular.

The First Vtility.

The First Utility of Potatoes.THe first Utility will be to His Majesty, who, of the Planters of these Roots, may have a Re­venue of forty or fifty thousand Pounds per Annum. willingly and freely, without any manner of com­pulsion, for that thereby, the Planters gain and be­nefit of their Plantations, will be made the more certain. Now this Revenue may be raised without any Charge at all to His Majesty, and without any manner of damage or discontent to any Subject whatsoever, after this manner following.

First, If it shall please His Majesty to command, that there be brought out of Ireland, so many of the said Roots, as that (with those which already are [Page 15] to be had in England and Wales) every man which shall be Licensed by His Majesty to plant of them, may have one Bushel at least to begin his Plantation with: And if (after the Roots are brought over) such a course be taken, as that they may be convey­ed to all the chief Towns throughout England, then the Planters may fetch them (four or five joyning together) without much charge; allowing not­withstanding to those that bring them sufficient gain.

Now if every Planter have one Bushel, he may with that plant about four Poles of Ground, cut­ting every Peck into four hundred pieces, and plan­ting them as hath been shewed before; and by year­ly digging them up, and planting more Ground, without diminishing of them, (still leaving that which was first planted sufficiently stored) with the increase of the second year, he may have an Acre and half, or two Acres of Ground planted: So that at the end of two years and an half, he may begin to digg up the Roots to sell; and at the end of three years, he shall have received one years profit, and then all his charge and trouble will be at an end, besides the yearly digging of them up, which is but little, considering the profit he makes by them.

Secondly, If His Majesty will be pleased to command, that there be in every Town and Parish one or two, according to the bigness of the several Towns and Parishes, that shall plant, and keep planted with the said Roots, each man an Acre and half, or two Acres of Ground, that they may be sufficiently stored with them: Or (which is a [Page 16] more certain way) that there be for every hundred Families one Planter, with all prohibiting all per­sons whatsoever from planting of them, either to sell, or for their own private use, but only those which have License and Authority from His Maje­sty to plant and sell them, which perhaps may be about the number of ten thousand, there being in England and Wales almost ten thousand Parishes; and although some Parishes have not an hundred Families, yet others have two, three or four hun­dred Families, therefore it is probable there may be ten thousand Planters in England and Wales; and questionless, so many Roots may be had in Ireland. and Wales, and in the North of England, as that e­very Planter may have a Bushel or more.

Thirdly, If His Majesty shall be pleased to command, the use of these Roots, by all people, in all parts of England and Wales, viz. by putting one half, or a third part thereof into their Bread, for six Months together, every year, from the first day of October, to the last day of March, then will the Planters Gain be made certain: For, suppose that every Planter do serve an hundred Fa­milies with Roots, and they tyed to buy of their own Planter, (as it is necessary they should) those hundred Families cannot spend less than an hundred Bushels in a Month, which comes to five Pounds; and in six Months six hundred Bushels, which comes to thirty Pounds; out of which, e­very Planter may afford to pay to His Majesty five Pounds per Annum. for his License and Authority to plant and sell the said Roots; which, of ten thousand Planters, amounts to fifty thousand [Page 17] Pounds per Annum. which may be paid to His Majesty every year at the latter end of March, at what time the Planters will have made the bene­fit of their Plantations: The other twenty five Pounds they have for the Rent of their Ground, and for their Labour, which is only for one half year; the other half they may spend about their other Employments.

But this is not yet all that they will make of their Plantations; for it may be supposed, that, although the use of these Roots is en­joyned, but only for six Months, yet they will be used, both before that time, and also after that time is expired; so that their gain and be­nefit will be increased perhaps ten Pound a year more, besides what they save by them in their own Houses: And then, if every Planter should serve but fifty Families, each Family spending but one Bushel a Month, (although some will spend more) they would notwithstanding make twenty Pound a year clear; (counting those which they spend themselves, to save them as much in House-keeping, as all the Charge the Digging of them comes to) and therefore, may also afford to give five Pound a year for their Li­cense.

And if some of the nicer sort of People shall not fancy the Bread, wherein there is so many of the Roots, they may put only a fourth part of them into their own Bread, and one half, or a third part into their Servants Bread; and if they shall use them some of the other wayes [Page 18] afore-mentioned, they may easily spend every Month one Bushel and more, though they have but a small Family.

An Ob­jection.Before I proceed any further, it will be neces­sary that I answer some things, which may be objected against the preceding Discourse. For some perhaps may Object, and say; ‘Why should we in England, who have plenty of Wheat, and other kinds of Grain, be com­pelled to imitate the barbarous Indians, and make our Bread of Roors.’

The Answer.To which I Answer; That, although we have some years plenty of all sorts of Grain, yet other years it is so scarce, and at such Rates, that many poor People, by reason of the Dearness thereof, have been starved; & others, that have had some­what better Estates, & also many Farmers them­selves, have been almost undone by it; which here­after, by the blessing of God, and the help of these Roots, may easily be prevented. Besides, we shall do a very charitable work, in saving a great deal of Corn yearly, and furnishing other Nati­ons, which have more need of it. And as for the imitating of the Indians, I Answer.

First, That there is no Nation so barbarous, no People so brutish, but there is something a­mongst them worthy of imitation.

Secondly, I ask, Why these Roots should not be made use of, by which many thousands of poor men, in the greatest times of scarcity, may with ease maintain their Families, as well as that Narcotick Indian Hearb Tobacco; which cor­rupts [Page 19] the Breath, dulls the Sences, makes many a good Wit sottish and stupid, many a rich man beggerly and poor? I do not deny the Medicinal use of it; for it is endued with many excellent Faculties; but this I think, that of all the wayes of using it, the common way of taking it in a Pipe is the worst, although some Physicians commend it to their Patients, and use it them­selves, (as they pretend) for the Exciccation of Rhumes; I rather judge it to be, that both themselves, and their Patients, may in the Ta­vern or Ale-house, (like good Fellows) sit and drink with the more liberty and freedom, against the dangerous Consequents whereof, this is ac­counted a special Antidote.

But to return to our purpose; I say, that in the use of these Roots, we imitate not the Indi­ans; for the Indians themselves, the greatest part of whose Diet they have been for many Ages, never knew these several uses of them; nor have they been used after this manner in any Nation, where of late years they have been planted.

Another Objecti­on.And Lastly, Seeing they may be so profitable to all sorts of people, there is none (I think) but without compulsion will be willing to make use of them.

Some again will Object, and say; ‘If the planting of these Roots, and the use of them, is so beneficial, as you pretend; why should not every man plant of them? Why should the planting of them be prohibited, and only a [Page 20] certain number allowed of, and those made to pay a yearly rare for the doing of it?’

The Answer. To this I Reply. First, That if some such course be not taken, it will be many years, before they will be so planted, as that any, especially the Poor, and those that have no Ground of their own, will ever be the better for them: but by this means, in two years and an half, there will be such store of them in all parts of the Kingdom, as that every one may know where to have them for their Money.

Seondly, My intention in the Writing and Publishing of this Treatise, was partly, that those who have little or no Estates, nor was ever brought up in any Calling, should, by the planting of these Roots, have a way to get a Maintenance for their Families; which cannot be, if every one should plant them.

Lastly, There is no Reason, why that which is so beneficial to the whole Kingdom, should not be made beneficial to the Kings Majesty also, seeing it must be by His Authority chiefly, that it comes to be of benefit to any. Thus having sufficiently Answered these Objections, I shall proceed to

The Second Vtility.

The Se­cond Uti­lity.THe second Utility and Benefit of these Roots, will be by the Transportation of Corn; for by the use of them in Bread, abundance of Grain, of all sorts, may every plentiful year be spared, to be transported beyond Sea into other Coun­tries; which will be a great benefit, both to His Majesty, and His Subjects. For,

First, His Majesties Revenue of Custom will be increased, by the often coming in of Ships for Corn, with Foreign Goods and Merchan­dize: Also a League and Amity will be continu­ed with those People, to whom it is transported; so that from them, His Majesty (if need re­quire) may have aid and help against Foreign Invasions, or Domestique Disturbances; which, if at any time hereafter they shall happen, so as not to be suppressed with mean Force, a Foreign Army may quickly be procured, and here in England be easily maintained, without raising the Prizes of any kind of Grain whatsoever.

Secondly, The Merchants which deal and trade with these Commodities, in any great quantity, (as they may, when these Roots be once brought into use) must needs be enriched by it.

Thirdly, Husbandmen and Farmers (who perhaps may think the former way, viz. of [Page 22] making Bread of these Roots, to be some hinder­ance to them, as indeed it will) may by this means sell their Corn for as good Prizes, as if the aforesaid Roots had not been in use.

The Third Vtility.

The Third Utility.ANother Utility of these Roots is this: That, whereas there hath been of late years, di­vers whole Lordships and Towns enclosed, and their Earable Land converted into Pasture Ground; which practice being still continued, and more and more Land every year enclosed, will certainly in time very much increase the Price of Corn; yet, by the use of these Roots, poor People (who will suffer most by such pra­ctices) may notwithstanding that, have Bread at reasonable Rates.

The Fourth Vtility.

The Fourth Utility.FOurthly, Poor People may maintain their Families more easily, and live more plenti­fully than heretofore; but especially in dear and [Page 23] scarce years, such as was 1661. these Roots will be a great benefit to them; for if Wheat be at ten Shillings, and Barley at six Shillings a Bu­shel, (as it was that year) yet may they make Wheaten Bread after the rate of five Shillings a Bushel, and Barley Bread after the rate of three Shillings, saving thereby one half; so may they have Money, even in very dear years, to buy them other Necessaries, which otherwise they would want.

And now let any indifferent Reader judge, if this Project will not be beneficial to Tradesmen also, who have never less Trading than when Corn is dear, (as I have heard many of them confess) for then poor People (who are none of their worst Customers) have enough to do to get Money to buy Bread for their Families, with­out which they cannot live, and therefore must let alone other things less necessary: But when these Roots shall once come into use, People will live more happily and plentifully, Trading will flourish, and much Glory will redound to Almighty God, for discovering so profitable a Secret.

The Fifth Vtility.

The Fifth Utility.THe fifth Utility and Commodity the use of these Roots will yield, is, That all those poor People, that are maintained by the Parish where they live, and are a constant Town Charge, may be maintained with farre less Charge than formerly, which will be a great ease to those Parishes that are full of poor People: And so I come to

The Sixth and Last Vtility.

The Sixth Utility.WHich is to all sorts of People in general, for that there is none, of what quality or degree soever, but (if they please) may year­ly save Money in House-keeping, by the use of these Roots, and that without any discredit or disparagement at all, it being no discredit for any man to be frugal. But if any shall be so proud, as to think it below their degree, to make use of so mean a help, let them forbear the use of them, unless by publique Authority it be commanded. Many I know there are, who, because they are Gentlemen, will think, that it [Page 25] belongs not to them to be saving and provident, but rather to be free and generous, (as the Name imports) and to spend what they have merily; but let such consider, that a prodigal Father makes a beggerly Son, and that the Estates which they so freely spend, was left by their Ancestors, not to them only, but also to their Children after them; which for them to waste in Extravagancy and Riot, and so to rob and deprive their own Children of their right, is not only as great a Sin, but also a Fact much more unnatural, than to rob a man upon the high way, for which they ought to suffer Death by the Laws of the Realm. I have known some, who have been so guilty of this wasteful and ex­travagant kind of Living, that it hath been the utter ruine and destruction of themselves, and their Posterity. But to come to a Conclusion; Let every Man, that desires to live in Credit in the World, and that his Children should do so after him, remember the Golden Sayings of the Philosopher, Adibe curam, tene mensuram, & eris dives, and not lavish away his Estate like a Prodigal, and when he dyes leave his Children Beggers; but let him use all the wayes of Fruga­lity that he can, among which, this Experiment, which I have here published, for the good of my Country, will be none of the least.

Thus have I finished what I intended in this Treatise, and have to my knowledge omitted nothing, either concerning the Planting, or Use of these Roots: I have now nothing else to [Page 26] say of them, but what I have partly said already, which is, that they are good and wholesome, strengthening and nutrimental, not windy in the least, much of the nature and temperature of Wheat, viz. having no great inequality of heat, cold, moisture or dryness; yet, if they exceed in any quality, it is in dryness, and in that they are the more wholesome; for Hypocrates saith, Siccumest sano proximum; and Experience teach­eth, that a drying Diet is better for the Body, than that which is too moist: For when a Compo­situm must perish, it perisheth by the Element of Water, which overcomming, natural Heat is quenched and extinguished in Animals; hence followeth the destruction and mortification of a part, or of the whole Body: But these Roots, by their moderate dryness, preserve the true temperature of the Body; which (according to Hypocrates) is, Naturalis ejus siccitas, and there­fore, may safely be used, as a wholesome and healthful Food.

Neither are they wholesome only, but very profitable also, and that for two Respects.

First, For that by the use of them, Bread may be made a great deal cheaper, than with all Wheat or Barley.

Secondly, For that they are not hurt (as Corn is) by the unseasonableness of the Wea­ther, for whether the year be dry or wet, (if the water have free passage away, and stand not up­on them) they are not hurt by it, nor is their in­crease much the less.

[Page 27] And now, lest any should erre in the making of this Bread, and so impute the fault to me, which is caused through their own unskilfullness, I will here again set down the way and manner of making it, as plain as possible I can, and so con­clude this Treatise.

Take therefere of the Roots, as many as you please, or as your present occasion requires; and if they be for white Bread, or for Paste, you may (if you please) pare them with a Knife; if for courser Bread, you need not: Then cut the great ones into halves or quarters, that they may be boyled as soon as the small ones; afterward put them into a Net, made in­different large and thick, (never putting above a Peck into a Net) and boyl them in a Kettle of Water, till they will break between your Fin­gers, but let them not break in the boyling, lest they be too much soaked with water; when they are boyled enough, (which will be in a quarter of an hour, or less) take them out, and with an Iron Truel, rub them through a thick Wier Sieve; which being done, you may make Bread of them two wayes.

First, Take an equal weight of the Roots thus prepared, and of Wheat or Barley Flower, and mingle them well together; then put to it as much warm Water, mix'd with a little Barme, as will make it into very stiffe Dough, and with a little Salt, knead it well together.

Secondly, Take ten Pounds of Wheat or Barley Flower, fifteen Pounds of the Roots, [Page 28] prepared as aforesaid; or so much as will make the Flower into very stiffe Dough, without either Water or Barme; yet, if you perceive that it be not hollow enough, you may adde a little Barme. Of these two kinds of Dough may be made thin Loaves, which must be baked in an Oven well heated, for it requires something more baking than other Bread.

And thus may Bread be made, as well in dear as in plentiful years, at easie and cheap Rates, not without great benefit both to Rich and Poor; there being none of so dainty a Palate, or so finely fed, but may eat this Bread with pleasure and profit: And although some there may be, who will find fault with it; yet the time may come, when those that most dislike it, may be glad to make use of it. However, I doubt not, but that this my Experiment, will by poor People, and those of small Estates, be well approved of, and also in convenient time be made use of, to the Glory of God, and the good of themselves, and their Families.

AN APPENDIX, TOUCHING The Propagation of these Roots by the Seeds.

AFter I had written this Treatise, and fitted it for the Press, I found, that these Roots might be increased by the Seeds or Berries, which till then I knew not; for that the year before I took the Seeds out of the Berries, and sowed them, and they never sprang up, and therefore I thought that the Seed came not to sufficient matu­rity in our Climate: But to make further trial, this last year I set divers of the Berries whole, which, contrary to my expectation, came up a­bout the beginning of June; and are now half a Foot high July the 8.

If any will plant the Berries, for the more speedy increasing of their store of Roots, they must set them in good, rich and hollow Ground, well digged and raked, and divided into long nar­row [Page 30] Beds, about two Foot wide, with Alleys be­tween them, that they may be the better weeded; for the Berries being set in March, will not come up before June, and therefore the Ground will be full of Weeds, which will choak the young Pota­toes, if they be not diligently weeded.

As for the time of gathering the Berries, it must be about October, when they are turned a little white; and when they are gathered, they must be laid thin upon a boarded Floor till March, and then set into the Ground as aforesaid, and so will they spring up in June, & that year yield Roots, to plant again the next, which may either be digged up, and planted thinner, or else left in the Ground, which the year following will be mightily filled with them. This I thought good to adde, by way of Appendix, for the better, and more speedy increasing of these Roots.

Thou, O God, hast of thy goodness prepared for the Poor, Psal. 68. Ver. 10.
He satisfieth the empty soul, and filleth the hungry soul with goodness, Psal. 107. 9.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.