[Page] A Brief Defence, Of the Old and Succesful METHOD Of CURING Continual Fevers; In Opposition to Doctor BROWN And his Vindicatory Schedule.

Quae ducere oportet, quo maxime vergant, eo ducenda, per loca convenientia. Hip. S1. A. 21.

Concocta purgare & movere oportet, non cru­da, neque in principiis, nisi turgeant. Plu­rima vero non turgent. Idem S1. A. 22.

Quo magis adstrictam illi alvum prastitero, tanto magis eum extra periculi aleam collo­co. Sydenham de Febr. Cont. P. 29.

EDINBƲRGH, Printed by George Mosman, and are to be Sold at his Shop in the Parliament Closs. M. DC. XCIV.

To the RIGHT HONOURABLE, Sir Robert Sinclair OF STEVÈNSTOUN, SHIRREFF of the Shire of Haddingtoun: And One of the Members of Their Majesties most Honourable PRIVY COUNCIL.

Right Honourable,

MY Design in pre­senting to you this Small and Mean Essay, is neither to keep it or my self from Censure; nor yet to take occasion to divulge [Page 4] your Praises. As for the former it is ordinarly spoke in a Comple­ment, without all Cause, and pas­seth as such without any Effect: For it neither preserveth the Au­thor from Reproach, nor the Book from an Answer, when any of them are deserved. And if I in­tended to do the latter, I could hardly say that which would be thought too litle, to such as know you; but I must of necessity run the risk of being esteemed a Fla­terer, by them, who are neither acquaint with you, nor your ex­cellent Enduements and great Desert.

My purpose is only to shew both to your self and others, how sensible I am of the manifold Favours, I have received at your [Page 5] Hands, in a Countrey where I was a Stranger, and you are, amongst the Gentlemen, the most eminent.

Yea further, you may challenge some Right to it as a Domestick, it being both Conceived and brought Forth within your Walls, while I had the Honour to attend your incomparable Lady, and some of your excellent Children.

Take it then, Sir, as an Evi­dence of my Gratitude & Thank­fulness, and yet be pleased to Ho­nour him with your Favour and Friendship, whose great Ambition it is, to Subscribe himself,

Right Honourable,
Your most Humble, and much Obliged Servant James Forrest.

The Preface.

IT may be thought no small Pre­sumption in me, a Stripling, to enter the Lists with this Man of Gath; he being a seven Years older Physician as I am a Man. For in the 36 page of Philander's Second Letter, published two Years ago, he boasteth himself to have been a Phy­sician, for near thirty Years; where­as I as yet have never seen Twenty six Summers. However, I shall say no more for my Vindication in this: But, that if I chance to Over-come, my Victory will be the more Glori­ous, and if it be my ill Luck to be Foiled, the Cause for which I Fight, will suffer the less prejudice; he be­ing one of the Youngest, as well as Meanest, of its Patriots, who hath undertaken the Defence. [Page 8] I am more solicitous to satisfy my Reader, why I, whose young Years, small Experience, and weak Ability, might have been a sufficient Disswa­sive from such an Attempt: Do yet nevertheless undertake That, which seems to have been declined by far abler Pens. And my Reasons are the following Two,

First, I thought it not unfit that so weak a Brother, as I am, should enter the Combat, that so the World seeing what can be done against him, by so mean and obscure an Author; might thereby judge, what would have been the Event, if any of the more Learned had engaged in the Quarrel: Yea, I looked on the Book which I was to consider, as altoge­ther unworthy the spare Hours of an experienced Man: And I was afraid lest it might give the Doctor too just cause of Boasting, if any other as a young Physician had given him an Answer.

[Page 9] Secondly, My Resentments for Learning in general, and for Physick in particular, are so great; that I could hardly think to see any of them suffer so much, as they both do, by the Vindicatory Schedule, without en­deavouring my outmost, to procure its Relief from his rapacious Hands, who, providing his own Interest may be advanced, careth not suppose it be upon the Ruines of all others, yea of Learning it self.

I am abundantly sensible, with how much greater Advantage it could have been managed by any other Man whatsomever: But I think when a House is on Fire, it becometh the weakest therein, to do what he can to extinguish the Flames.

It was no vain Conceit of my own Knowledge, my Pretensions to Lear­ning being as few as my Right can be small, that prompt me to undertake this youthly Essay. I had far rather had the satisfaction, to have seen it [Page 10] well done by others, as to have run the least hazard, of either wronging it, or exposing my self. However, albeit I have not the Happiness to be Learned my self, yet I have the Equi­ty, both to value it, and such as pro­fess it.

Nor yet was it any contradicting Humour, or prejudice at It, or its Author, that caused me prosecute the undertaken Design. For I know no honest nor ingenuous Man, who will not embrace a Truth, especially in Physick, Ʋbi luditur de corio humano, albeit presented by a mean Hand. Se­ing the ordinary Proverb tells us, and Reason with daily Experience con­firms it: That a Fool may give a Wise-man Counsel at a time. So that if either Reason or Experience could perswade us of the Advantage the New Method hath to the Old, no­thing should deterr us, at least me, from its thankful Acceptance and constant Practice. I ever having (and [Page 11] I hope with God's Assistance still shall) preferred the Safety of my Patient and the quiet of my Conscience, not only to my Gain and Advantage; but even to my Credit and Reputa­tion.

I am so far from promising either Advantage or Esteem to my self, by this small and abortive Essay: That had it not been my design to leave the Countrey in a short time, it had never seen Light: And were it not to take all occasion of Glorying from my Antagonist, as if I durst not dis­cover his Adversary, I had concealed my Name. I know there is so litle either of Learning or Experience therein, that perhaps I may only here­by discover my Weakness to some, who had conceived a better Opinion of my Studies, as ever they deserved. Nay, it cannot otherways be, it be­ing begun and ended in some Five or Six Days, when I was obliged to at­tend in an Honourable Family, and so [Page 12] was denied that help, I might other­ways have expected from my Books. Neither could I afterwards have the time, or be at the pains, to lick my own Bleeding and untimous Birth, but suffered it to creep into the World in the same dress, in which it had slip­ped from my negligent Pen.

If it be not good, I have given as litle of it as possibly I could, noways imitating Doctor Brown, who hath transcribed a large Book consisting of 14 Sheets, besides Dedication and Prefaces, from Authors, (sometimes expressing, but oftner concealing their Names) whereas all that any way re­lates to Fevers, which is the subject of his Book, may be easily contained in Four.

I hope nothing herein is repugnant to Anatomy or Physiology in particular, nor yet to any of the known Rules of Physick in general: For smaller Mat­ters, wherein Men may have diffe­rent Opinions, without being in [Page 13] any great Errour, I am not much concerned. All who know me, know also how far my Humour is from Boasting, and I know my self how very good Reason I have so to be, my Parts either Natural or Acquired, be­ing but very sober: Yet I'll boldly affirm, that the Arguments here brought for Sudorificks, are such, as the Doctor shall never solve, till Na­ture shall change her Course. and as often Cure Fevers by Stool, when left to her self, as now she does by Sweating.

No doubt my Language will be Censured, and I confess deservedly, as Course and Barbarous: I shall not labour to excuse it, but shall only add some Three Things, which may serve somewhat to Apologize for its Roughness. First, The Subject is such, as altogether refuseth a hand­some Dress: For here I am not only obliged to adhere to, and frequently use again the same Terms of Art, [Page 14] which nevertheless found pretty harsh­ly in our Mother Tongue, but also I am necessitat to keep closs to the Au­thor, whom I endeavour to Refute, so that I may say with the Poet:

Ornari res ipsa negat, contenta doceri.

Secondly, I resolved to Instruct, not to Complement the Doctor, therefore I was not scrupulous in choosing my Words, providing they were proper and did express my meaning.

And Thirdly, As I said before, it was only the hasty product of some five or six idle Days, while I was re­moved from that Assistance I might otherways have had, both as to its Mater and Form.

Some perhaps may think it very unexcusable, to obtrude upon the World a Book, which I acknowledge to be so unpolished. I readily con­fess, that without any great Loss to Learning both the Vindicatory Sche­dule and this Defence might have been a wanting: And had it not been for [Page 15] the one it should never have been troubled with the other. But seing the Offence was given, it was necessa­ry to do somewhat to remove the Scandal. And for as litle as this An­swer may contain, yet I hope, by the Ju­dicious and Learned, it will be found a sufficient Refutation of the New Method: As for the Vulgar, I never esteemed their Applause, however, seing the very writing of a Book is enough to prevail with them (other­ways certainly the Vindicatory Sche­dule had never taken much) who knows but this, being the last, may be thought the best?

Others may probably say, Why do I now, after the elapsing of near Three Years, first give that Book an Answer? To which I Reply, That all along the V. S. displeased me, and so much the more, when I considered the Design upon which it was write, which could be no other, as to pur­chase a Name amongst the ignorant [Page 16] Vulgar, and thereby to be the easilier twisted into the larger Imployment. I was not a litle confirmed in this my Opinion, when some short time after my Arival to the Kingdom, in a Coffee-House the Vindicatory Schedule was shu­fled into my Hands. I knew not the Author then, neither do I yet, but I instantly concluded him some empty Emperick, who, it not being the cu­stom here as in London and elsewhere, to affix their Libels and Advertise­ments to Posts and Corners, did choose the next ordinary, as well as effectual way, of distributing it through Ta­verns and Coffee-houses. I was hear­tily sorry, that one who carried the Honourable Name of a Doctor in Phy­sick, should abase himself so far, as to join Hands with the Scum of Man­kind, naughty Quacks; who to cheat simple people of some Money, do not care to rob them of their Lives. This made me ever desirous that some per­son or other should Chastise the Au­thor's [Page 17] Impudence as well as Ignorance. And accordingly I am informed it was done (I never having seen it my self) in a very fit, and the only deserved way, in a Dialogue betwixt D. Brown and D. Black: For a Book that con­tains neither Learning nor Reason, should only be Answered with Mock­ry and Scorn. Nevertheless the Do­ctor glorying in that which should have been his Shame, insulted the more, as if his Book were altogether unanswerable. Therefore I thought it not amiss to give some Reasons why we imploy this Old and Reasonable Method: Although the Authority and Experience of Physicians in all Ages, might be proof enough against him, who really, for the Defence of his New Method, brings no other Ar­guments, as, That he sayes it.

But farther, that which engaged me at this time, was this, A Fort­night ago being in the Company of a Grave and Judicious Minister, who [Page 18] as he is a near Relation of the Doctor's; so he is a great Admirer of his New Method: Where among other things, happening to speak of the Doctor and his Book, and he observing me not much to value it, did freely offer to lend me (for it seems the Author is careful to disperse them) the V. S. with the Two Letters (I having told him, that I had never seen only heared thereof) thereby designing perhaps to proselite me. And some few Days after, I being obliged, as I said be­fore, to attend a Week in an Honou­rable Family, did for my Divertise­ment, write this Answer, and return the Books to their worthy Owner. But now I think I may be at the Ex­pence to Buy the Book, which I have been at the pains to Confute. for to this moment I do not possess it.

I have altogether shunned personal Reflections, for I love to speak of things freely, but of persons honou­rably. And if any person, either of [Page 19] the one party or other, shall be here­with offended, I shall be extremely grieved: For all that I say, is only for love of the Truth, I noways in­clining to engage in any Man's pri­vat Quarrel. Only that Attestation annexed to the Tail of his Book, I cannot away with: For surely any knowing Man will think these Persons, though otherways sensible and intel­ligent, very unfit Judges in such a Case; yea I say, that both Doctor Brown and I, ought to give Ear, when such Eminent Men as Doctor Burnet and Doctor Bruce speak. I have the Honour to be Acquaint with Sir Tho­mas Burnet, and I remember he was pleased to inform me, that it was not a Fever, but an other Distemper which then afflicted the honourable Person: And as his great Candor and Ingenui­ty will never suffer him to be capable of making a Lye; so his great Learn­ing and Knowledge in Physick, do abundantly free him from the neces­sity [Page 20] of flying to any such base and mean Refuge.

And now to draw to a Close, if the D. shall think this Defence wor­thy of any Reply, I hope he will also grant me the following Requests, o­therways I'le hardly think my self o­bliged to return him any Answer. First, To oppose Reason to Reason, still consulting Anatomy and Physio­logy: And neither insisting on Expe­rience, which is nothing to the pur­pose, while I can oppose a Thousand to One; nor yet using Railery and Ca­vills, which are by me all along de­clined, they being most averse to my Humor, and I often have observed, that in stead of uniting Mens Opi­nions, they rather separat and disjoin their Minds and Affections. Second­ly, I wish it may be in the Latine Tongue in which the Controversy cannot only be better managed, it being very hard to express Terms of Art in the English Language; but [Page 21] also our Debates will be thereby con­cealed from the Vulgar, who seing us blame one another, may be apt to conclude us both in the wrong. And Thirdly, I hope he will do it shortly, left when he is pleased to appear, I may perhaps be removed.

Finally, Let not the frequent use of the Word Nature, offend the Lear­ned Reader. I have read Boyle on that Subject, and means nothing thereby, save the different Figure, Structure, Texture, &c. of the Parts, by which they are enabled to act as Second Causes.

A brief Defence of the Old and Succesful Me­thod of Curing Conti­nual Fevers, &c.

ALthough it be a Work of no small pains, and require the knowledge of no few things, rightly to act the part of a Physician: Yet not a few there be, aiming more at their own profit than their Neigh­bours safety, who, as they find it most Easie, so they think it most Safe, to acquire in some few Years, I had almost said Months, some general Compend and universal Method of Curing, which they ignorantly and dangerously apply to all Distempers. [Page 24] Not unlike to that Medicaster spoken of by the Learned Wedelius in the Pre­face to his Pharmacy, who shufling all the Physical Receipts he had heired from his Father in a Bag, desired the Patient to try his own Fortune: And if the Cure chance at any time to be as successful as his was, when called to a Countess lying sick of a Squinancy, who trying her Luck, did obtain a Clyster, which causing her laugh, did break the Imposthum; immediatly they set up for Masters, and are not satisfied to use the same Remedy in all other Distempers, though never so different, themselves; unless it be also imployed & approven by others.

It's far from my Design to apply this to the person, against whom I am now engaged, at whom I have neither any Prejudice, nor of whom I know any Evil, save the Writing of the Vindicatory Schedule. My In­tention being only to endeavour the Vindication, not only of these excel­lent [Page 25] Physicians who have gone before us; but also of such who at this Day, do either at Home or Abroad practise their Method, and that, Blessed be God, with both Credit to themselves and Advantage to their Patients, from thē calumnious Imputation, of either Ignorance as if they knew not the right, or wicked Maliciousness and horrid Murder, that knowing the Right would yet do the wrong. From one of which, providing it be true, what the Author of the V. S. most falsly alledges, they cannot be absolved.

Among all these Miseries and Di­seases, unto which Man by his Fall was made liable, a Fever perhaps, is the most frequent. A Fever it is which in all Countries, and in all Seasons, without respect to either Sex or Age, does daily Invade, Afflict, yea and Kill many Persons. Neither can it other ways be, seing our Life seems no depend upon the circular and inte­stine [Page 26] Motion of our Blood: Which Motion can hardly be troubled, with­out the production of one sort of Fever or other. So of necessity a Fever must be of all Distempers, the most frequent as well as most dangerous.

I am not ignorant my self, far less I'm sure any of these in whose De­fence I write, how many and great Debates there be among Authors con­cerning the Definition as well as Di­vision of Fevers: However I shall concern my self in none of them here, where I only resolve to give a short, and for what appears to me, the most probable Account of the Disease, in so far as it may serve for clearing its Method of Curing. For as I am ve­ry far from presumiug (being abun­dantly conscious of my own Weak­ness) to usurp the part of a Teacher. So I [...]ould never much value that vain and ostentive way of some, who force all they can find Rare and Lear­ned in Authors, though never so [Page 27] remote from, and alien unto the sub­ject they treat of, into their own Books, and thereby make them as Ridiculous as the Picture described by Horace, in the first Book of his Art. Poet. which is a thing not unfre­quent in the V. S. where all that con­cerns Fevers and their Cure might re­main; suppose the largest half of the Book, had got the desert of the whole, which is either the Fire or the S—And how happily this Plagiary hath succeeded with the Doctor, we shall perhaps afterwards have occasion to show, in an instance of Anatomy, Phy­siology and Chymistry.

To me then it seems not improba­ble, that the Formalitie, Essence, or if you please a Term of Art, the con­tinent Cause of a Fever, consists in a Commotion or Exagitation of the Intestine as well as Circular Motion of the Blood: Whereby the Oécono­mie of the Body is disturbed, with divers and sometimes right grievous [Page 28] Symptoms. Which Commotion, for the most part, may arise from some Heterogeneous Body conveyed into it.

That the Blood is the Subject of Fevers, I suppose will be called in question by none, seing not only the Changes, and sometimes Advantages, which do accrue to the Patient by its Evacuations, are very observable; but also the Crudity and Coction of the morbisick Matter in the Urine is discernable: In a word, the Jaundice which sometimes solves the Disease. the Alterations of the Pulse, &c. are sufficient to perswade the morosest of Antagonists.

I look upon it as needless, either to trouble the Reader or my self here, with that more curious as useful Que­stion: Which of the Blood's two parts is most frequently affected: It being, in my Opinion, not unrea­sonable to acknowledge in the same, a more liquorous and crass Substance [Page 29] which is moved, besides another more Spiritual or Aetherecal which moves. All the Arguments alledged in favours of the Aetherecal Portion, such as the power of Opiats in Curing Fevers, and these continual as well as inter­mittent, the Effects of the Fancy and Apprehension in the same Case, the unchangableness of the Urin and Pulse in malign Fevers, and the like: By any judicious and skilled Physician will be as soon Answered as they can be Proposed. Yea, it seems to me highly probable, that sometimes the one, sometimes the other, but most frequently both, may be the Theatre of this unlucky Tragedy.

It was not unadvisedly that I pre­ferred the word Exagitation or Com­motion to that of Fermentation: For by this means I not only evite all these Debates and Altercations, which I have observed betwixt Willis, Bonte­koe, and others. But also I am fully convinced, that Fermentation proper­ly [Page 30] taken, is very improperly, either in a Natural or Praeternatural State. adscribed to the Blood. For to let alone many other Reasons, reiterate Experience hath taught me, that no ardent or sulphureous Spirit, can be distilled from the Blood of feverish persons: Which nevertheless the same Authors tell us, should always be obtained from fermented Liquors. However if these Learned Men who delight in the word Fermentation, understand only an extraordinary Commotion, Ebulition, &c. I assent to what they say, and think as they write, never loving to contest about Words (my Humor being most averse to Disputes and Debates) when we can agree in Things.

Some there be, and these none of the Unlearnedst, as particularly that excellent Anatomist and Physician, Barbette, who maintain the Essence of a Fever to consist solely in the cir­cular Motion augmented, But be­sides [Page 31] some Arguments to be had from Barbette himself: Not only the slow­ness of the Pulse in the beginning of all Fevers, and through the whole Course of malign ones: But also the very nature of a Fluid Body, consist­ing in the perpetual intestine Motion of its Minute or small Particles (which clearly appears by the dissolution of Sugar, Salt, &c. in any Menstruum, the gathering together of the dissol­ved Particles of Silver to the injected Copper, besides several other Expe­riments, to be met with in the im­mortal Boyle his History of Fluid: and Firm, (does sufficiently, in my Opi­nion, overturn this ingenious Hypo­thesis. Howbeit, I shall adventure to say, that the intestine Motion of the Blood being troubled) with its Circulation sometimes diminished, but oftner augmented, does consti­tute that Disease which is known to the Vulgar, by the Name of a Fe­ver.

[Page 32] From this Exagitation or Com­motion, it will be no hard matter, to derive all the other Symptoms which in different Subjects do differently invade: Yea, which is no small Ar­gument to confirm the Truth of what I have said, with this Exagitation they ordinarly increase and remit. I do not incline to treat of them all, therefore shall only take notice, as the most frequent and principal of the following Four.

And to begin with Heat, in which the Ancients either sought the Patho­gnomonick Sign, or placed the Es­sence of a Fever (for betwixt these two there is no small difference, which were easie to show, if my intended Brevity did not forbid me) it especi­ally deserves our Consideration. The Opinion of the Schools placing the Formality of Fevers in Heat, albeit it prevailed long with Physicians, yet at length it was exploded by Helmont, Sylvius, and other: And that (1) Be­cause [Page 33] in the beginning of Fevers, which by all is acklowledged as one of their parts, Cold creats greater trou­ble as Heat, Yea (2) some malign Fevers there be, in which the Patients are never heard to complain of Heat, but rather at sometimes do tremble with extream Cold. Nevertheless by admitting a distinction betwixt the Beginning and Status of Fevers, and betwixt Internal and Supprest, and External and Manifest Heat, I had far rather grant to the Ancients that the Formality of a Fever consist­eth in Heat, as say with D. Brown, that Heat is the genuine Effect of slow Motion in the Blood. Whether it be the sublimity of his Discourse, or my shallow Capacity, I shall not rash­ly determine But forced I am to con­fess. that I can hardly understand what he there intends, only by the Title of the 8. §. p. 111. I find he resolves to prove Heat to be the genuine Ef­fect of slow Motion in the Blood: [Page 34] The contrary of which I have ever been taught, and shall here endeavour to evince.

And First, I would have it obser­ved, that the intestine Motion of any Fluid, or Body whatsomever, deserves as well the denomination of Motion, as the progressive does; yea the Do­ctor himself, in the end of the Section, by his Instance of the Breath and Hand, seems also to acknowledge it: And if I thought he doubted there­of, I could send him to Cooks, to behold their boiling Liquors, not now to mention the Experiments afforded us by the Incomparable Boyle in his Mechanical production of Heat. Now consequently Heat cannot be the Ef­fect of slow Motion absolutely spo­ken, since the Intestine, which is most properly so called, is with it and in it exceedingly intended. The Doctor ought at least to have distin­guished betwixt the Two, and not to have attributed indefinitly to both, [Page 35] that which Experience denies pro­perly to any of them, and he him­self, as I noted before, to one.

Secondly, The Cause why by swift progressive Motion the Heat is abat­ed, as I think, is not because that Motion is intended, but rather that the determinate Intestine Motion, Sur­sum deorsum & ad utraque latera, is thereby diminished, or at least not proportionably therewith augmen­ted: So that if the Intestine, can be conform to the Local, as you shall intend the progressive Motion, pro­portionably you shall increase the Heat.

Thirdly, I cannot enough admire, how the Doctor comes to assert, that Heat is the genuine Effect of gross Blood, since, with all others, he him­self will acknowledge Heat to be pro­duced with intestine Motion: For sure I am the more gross and thick any Body is, the more unfit it is for Motion whatsomever, and conse­quently [Page 36] rendered the more innept to procure Heat. This is a thing so clearly demonstrat by Philosophers, that it were but a consuming of time, to insist in its probation, and had it come from some old Peripatetick I could easily have pardoned it, but in the Doctor who pretends so much Skill to the New and Experimental Philosophy, I can hardly forgive it. Nay I have a greater esteem of our Author's Knowledge, than to think him ignorant of this common and perpetual Truth: But the matter is, his false and precarious Hypothesis does necessarly extort it: For grant one Absurdity a hundred will follow.

More excusable had he been to have said. That crassness of Blood was the native product of Heat, al­though that be but also accidental. For whatsomever causeth Heat in the Body v. g. volatile Salts, the Sun, Com­motions of the Body and Mind, do all of them immediatly and necessarly [Page 37] bring along with them Thinness of the Blood, and only accidentally Crass­ness, viz. By accelerating its Motion they do augment Transpiration, by which the thinner Particles are exha­led, and the remainder consequently turns thicker, and so much the thick­er, so much the unfiter to produce Heat. Hereby it is clearly evinced how falsly the Doctor philosophizeth; when he would perswade us that Crassness of the Blood is the Cause of Heat: When on the contrary it is rather the Effect, and that but acci­dentally too: For whoever can stop or impede the Consumption of the thinner Particles in Transpiration, shall also prevent the Thickness of the Blood, notwithstanding its Heat.

Fourthly, So far is it from being true what the Doctor averrs, P. 111. that Heat is caused by the Attrition the Muscles make on themselves and the adjacent Parts; that the Doctor, nor none for him, shall ever by rub­bing [Page 38] or Attrition, procure Heat to a sphacelat Member: Where neverthe­less there be Muscles and Bones both, but wants Blood and Spirits.

Yea Fifthly, I humbly think that not only Motion, but the Motion of De­terminat, Sulphureous, Oyly, &c. Par­ticles, is requisite to excite Heat. Which in my Judgement may hence be proven: That not only Sulphure­ous Bodies are most ready to contract Heat, Flame, &c. and according as there is more or less Sulphur in the Body, so the Heat will be the greater, lesser or none at all; but also the in­testine and confused Motion of the Minute Particles, may sometimes be intended without the increase of Heat, yea with the production of a sensible degree of Cold to the very same Hand, as may be learned from Boyle in his Mech. Orig. of Heat and Cold: I being at the time removed from my Books, can neither Instance the Ex­periment nor Page, but sure I am [Page 39] severals are there to be found, And here by the by, I would seriously ad­vise to the uniting of these Two, (viz. The New Philosophy and Chy­mistry) which to the great prejudice of solid Learning, have too long been unluckily separat: For the former being mainly taken up about Motion, has almost intirely neglected the Mat­ter: While the latter on the other hand, being as much concerned with the Matter, have wholly over-looked the Motion.

What is said I think may suffice to evert our Author's Position: When in his 8. §. he engages to prove Heat in Fevers to be the genuine Effect of slow Motion in the Blood. It being rather produced, while the Motion thereof, especially Intestine, is inten­ded, and the sulphureous Particles do move, as it were, from the Center to the Circumference.

I proceed to the Second and ordina­ry Symptom of Fevers, vix. A fre­quent [Page 40] and hard beating Pulse, which the experienced Slyvius, to whom the Hypothesis of the Ancients was un­satisfying, made enter the Definition of Fevers, as the Genus. Neverthe­less this his Opinion is lyable to the same Censures with the former. For neither the beginning of Fevers have still the Pulse augmented, nor yet can we always call it a Fever where it is accelerate: As in congrumate Blood, Commotions of the Mind, Worms contained in the Heart, &c. is easily demonstrable Moreover, by the by, I cannot but observe, that these fur­ther Discoveries made in Anatomy a­bout the Bile, Succus Paner, &c. do noways destroy this Hypothesis, which are nevertheless given by the Doctor as the only Reasons why he rejects it: For it can very well stand without that prope, and hath been, and still is maintained by these, who never adopted his Triumverat. The Cause of this frequency of the Pulse, I take [Page 41] to be nothing else, as the frequent and violent Contraiction of the Heart, by which the contained Blood is squeezed out, and so distendeth the Arteries.

Thirdly, It is also to be noticed, that Cold is not only a Symptom of all Intermittent Fevers: But frequent­ly also it is observable in the begin­ning of Continual Ones. Which Cold, any person acquaint with the experimental Philosophy, the Doctor pretends to be so much versed in will think to be a more native product of the slowness of the Blood's Mo­tion, as Heat. In a word, the Cold­ness of the Members in persons troubled with Sounding, where the Motion of the Blood, as well Cir­cular as Intestine, together with the Pulse, is sensibly diminished, does a­bundantly prove it.

The Fourth and last of these Symp­toms I purpose to speak of is a change in the Urine, (and it admits of the [Page 44] [...] [Page 45] [...] [Page 42] same Exceptions with the former, as to malign Fevers) which in respect of their Consistence, generally turn thicker, seldom thinner: As to their Colour the Natural or Citrin is often turn'd red and fiery, and sometimes pale and watry, but especially in the beginning these are remarkable, while in the Progress and Status they appear still red and thick. In rendring Causes for these Phaenomena, I no­ways incline to follow them, who run instantly to Acids and Alkalies. Al­beit I readily grant this Hypothesis to be of pretty large extent, and con­veniently applicable to several Cases; yet I cannot in all acquiesce in their Sentence, for Reasons, perhaps to be afterwards rendred.

I shall suppose now with the Ex­cellent Bohn and Experience: That the elemental parts of Urine are Wa­ter, Salt, Sulphur, and Earth. So that the Urine whose watry and lim­pid portion is most saturate with these [Page 43] Saline and Sulphureous Particles, is always observed the thickest and crassest: Hence I conclude the cause of thick and turbid Urine, to consist in the confused Admistion, and une­qual Dissolution of the solid Particles in the aqueous Vehicle. So some­times we observe the Urine to be clear when voided, and afterwards to turn thick, crass and turbide: Which is commonly called, Ʋrina tur­bata. And, in my Opinion, ariseth hence: That these saline and earthy Particles being more closly and natu­rally insinuate, in the Pores of the watry part when first voided, do per­mit the Rays of the Sun to penetrat, and so it appears Diaphanous: But if afterwards either by their own gra­vity and looser Cohesion, or by the constriction and straitning of the Pores of the Serum, by the ambient frigid Air, they chance to be turnèd out, the passage to the Rays is thereby intercepted, and the Urine turns [Page 44] turbide and opack, as I formerly said. Again it is sometimes evacuate turbide, and persisteth in that confu­sed condition, whence it is named, Ʋrina confusa, and this is ordinary in the Increment and Status of Fevers: Perhaps, there being many Hetero­geneous and Terreous Particles, un­equally mixed with the watry por­tion, which nevertheless are so firm­ly adjoined to the Serum, all being yet in a state of Crudity, that neither by their proper weight, nor by the help of the external Ambient, can they be thence separate. And Third­ly, the same Urine is sometimes, e­specially in the end of the Status and beginning of the Declination emit­ted Thick and Turbide, but does shortly after become Clear and Lim­pide: Probably the Concoction be­ing then approaching, these Hetero­geneous Minima, which being kept in motion in the Body, did still run up and down the containing Liquor, [Page 45] whereby if seemed confused, do now being voided and acquiring rest, yea some two or three, or more of them joining together, become heavier inspecie as the Serum, and consequent­ly, of necessity must seek to the bot­tom, where they constitute the Sedi­ment: But if they Hang in the midle, they are called Suspensio, and if they swime above, go under the name of Nubecula:

Upon the other hand, that Urine, which should ordinarly represent and a Ly mid-way boiled, does sometimes turn thinner, and this especially in the beginning of acute Fevers is ob­servable. For the explaining of which, it will not be impertinent, to distinguish betwixt Ʋrinam potus, and Ʋrinam Sanguinis, for the Urine of the Drink, being never digested in the Ventricle, nor assimilate to the Blood in the Veslels, passeth the Reins without all alteration. But the cause of this thin consistence in the Urine, [Page 46] as we speak of the Blood, may be a twofold Crudity: First, That in the Stomach, where the Aliments being frustrate of their due, Digestion, can­not supply the Serum with its ordina­ry Salts. And the second is that in the Reins, whose Tubult being there­by obstructed, admit only the thin and Watery, excluding the gross and terreous particles.

The Citrine or natural Colour of the Urine, as it depends in a natural state (which I think none will deny) from the saline and sulphureous Par­ticle of the Chyle, in the different Digestions extracted, and more inti­matly therewith commixed: So from the greater or lesser quantity of these Minima admixed in a praeternatural state, their Colour is sometimes high­ned, sometimes darkned: However I never intend to exclude other Causes, such as congrumate Blood, the use of Rhubarb &c. And this shall suffice for the Changes of the [Page 47] Urine, upon which I have insisted the longer, because they are wholly neglected in the Vindicatory Schedule, suppose of all others they give us the greatest Light, both as to the Prognosticks and Cures of Fevers. Neither was this Omission of the Doctors altogether without reason, for not only the Signs of Crudity and Coction, which ever have, and still will be observed by Learned Physi­cians in Fevers, and by which the New Method is intirely destroyed, from them, and them only are to be had; but also few or none of the Moderns, from whom the Doctor might expect help, have write any thing tollerably of them.

Having briefly handled some few of these Symptoms, with which a Fever is ordinarly attended, I come next to enquire after the antecedent Causes, which may, and ordinarly do produce this Exagitation or Com­motion, in which I have been labour­ing [Page 48] to prove the continent Cause of Fevers to consist. And these I think, for the most part (never intending to exclude all others) will be found the following Four. viz. Obstruction, too violent Motion, Natural Evacuation sup­pressed, and especially Crua [...]ties trans­ferred into the Mass of Blood.

By Obstructions I would have no­thing else understood, as the Coagu­lation of that limpid and serous Hu­mour, which being secerned in the Subcutaneous or Miliar Glands, is excerned through the Pores of the the whole Habit, and that in no small plenty, under the Name of Insensible Transpiration. Which Ex­crement being condensed and coagu­late by the cold ambient Air, or any other Cause, does interrupt, not only the further Transpiration: But also disturbs the whole Circulation in the capillary Vessels, or rather mus­cular Fibers. By which means the Motion of the subsequent Blood being [Page 49] intercepted, the Fibres of the Muscles, as well as these of the Vessels are ir­ritate, and thereby urged into fre­quent and irregular (not unlike to Convulsions) Contractions, by which both the circular and intestine Mo­tions of the Blood are notably inten­ded, and that which we call a Fever produced. It being enough here, for brevities sake, to suppose from Pa­thologie, that the Motion of Fluids is augmented, either by the Movent, Mobile, or Canals. And this account seems to me, and I hope will also to others, far more reasonable, than with the Learned Author of the V. S. P. 106. & seq. to attribute Sense and Reason to gross and stupid Matter. Concerning Obstructions more may perhaps be found hereafter, when I come to consider our Author's New and Mechanical Hypothesis: For of all other Causes I look upon them as the most seldom,

[Page 50] It is easie to gather, from what is immediatly said, that these Anasto­moses or Inosculations of the Arteries and Veins. which with the Ancients, some of the Learned Moderns do admire as very convenient, if not ab­solutly necessary, for the Explication of the animal Functions, are not by me admitted, I desire to move a Debate to no Man, therefore shall suffer them to abound in their own Sense who embrace them, providing they will only allow me to give some Reasons why I reject them: With­out which I never have (neither I think ever shall) adopted or repudiat any Opinion, because it was defended by this, or impugned by the other Man. And to let alone Secretion and Nutrition, which to me, these Inosculations being granted, seem al­together unexplicable: There be two Experiments to be found in some place of the Learned Bohn his Cire Anat. (I not having the Book by me [Page 51] cannot design the Page, but sure I am of them. having oftner as once seen them tryed) which do clearly evince the Bloods Extravasation. As First, Inject with a Syphon tepid wa­ter into an Arterie, v. g. of the Arm, of any subject whatsomever, a knot being cast upon its fellow Vein: The Water will never run out at the woun­ded Vein (it being lanced betwixt the Ligature and the Arterie) till the whole Arm and Hand be exceeding­ly distended: i. e. The Pores of the Muscles be all replenished. Second­ly, Injection being made of melted Wax into an Arterie, as also of the same, but of another colour, into its neighbour Vein: They will be found to have penetrate to the extremities of both the capillary Vessels (but espe­cially in the Arteries, the Valves hin­dring much in the Veins) but we shall never discern any intermediate Canal, communicating with both.

[Page 52] The grand, yea only Objection, formed against this Opinion, is, That this Extravasation being admitted, a continual Hemorhagie must of neces­sity follow, and that the Blood would rather diffuse it self through the Flesh, as enter the small capillary Veins. This Objection indeed appears to be plausible, and to create some difficul­ty: But yet there is nothing in it what serious and after reflection will not easily remove, which were no hard matter to shew, if my design and leasure did not hinder me now. I shall at this time only desire the Objectors to consider and say, whe­ther or not there be any difficulty in the Extravasation of the Blood, which is not in each of the following Three Observations I offer to their consideration. The First of which is, That ordinary way of separating Wa­ters from Oyls, commonly called, Filtratio per Elychnium, where the Wa­ter or Oyl, any of them in which [Page 53] the Cotton is dipped, will by means of the Wool be carried from one Glass to another, without the loss of so much as a drop: And why pray may not the Blood be carried the very same way by the fleshy Fibers from one. Vessel to another, especially since the Tonick Motion of the Parts, and influx of the Artereal Blood do help much: Whereas the Experiment with the Oyl, hath no other Assistant, than the gravity of the Air. Second­ly, That Experiment first tried by Burnerus de Paner. and afterwards succeeding to others, as also to my self, does, in my weak Judgement, not a litle confirm what I am saying: And it is this, Blow with a Tub into the Weazand of a Goose, whose Inte­stine being tyed nothing can descend, the Flatus will enter the open Extre­mities of the Mesaraick Veins, and tend to the vena porta. From which Ex­periment, without any constraint, the following Conclusion I think [Page 54] may be drawn: That the capillary Veins may be open, and yet no He­morhagie or Effusion of Blood will follow. Thirdly, This is further made probable per purgationem menctruam, where no doubt the capillary Vessels, by which that Excretion does hap­pen, are always patent. There be­ing none, I think, who will affirm, that they, being otherways closed, should at the due and set time get open. If that were objected, I know no other cause that could, with the least appearance of Reason, be assig­ned for their so doing, save the Blood it self, which being yielded, it could hardly be refused, that whatever gave the Cause the first being, would be­yond all question still endeavour its perpetuation, from whence there must of necessiry arise a continual Hemor­hagie, the contrary whereof is never­theless dayly experienced, What needs more, these Anastomoses are repug­gnant to Reason, and they yet never appeared to the Senses,

[Page 55] The Second of the antecedent Cau­ses, I alledged to be too violent Mo­tions of the Body, I may perhaps also add these of the Mind. It were need­less to produce Observations, for pro­ving this my Assertion, there being abundance to be had from the general Collectors, I mean Forrest, Schenkins, Hildanus, and others. I shall rather explain the ways by which they seem to produce their Effects: Which may be the following Two. First, By attenuating the Blood, and accelera­ting its Motion, as well Circular as Intestine: Which is done either by rarefying it self, or by opening the Pores, and admitting calorifick Atoms. Though this last chances very rarely, for it rather happens that the Pores being dilated, cold Particles get en­try, by which these Obstructions for­merly mentioned are procured: And this, I think, may be the other way too violent Motions work in exciting a Fever,

[Page 56] In the Third place, ordinary Eva­cuations suppressed come under our Consideration, whose concurrence, I expect, by none will be denied: Se­ing that not only Blood-letting pre­vents, yea sometimes Cures Continual Fevers; but also Nature it self does frequently endeavour, and sometimes obtain its own Relief, by bleeding at the Nose and elsewhere. But this, as a thing conceded by all, I shall leave, and rather consider the De­scription afforded us by our Author, of insensible Transpiration, (it being of all most frequently suppressed) in which he shews nothing of that know­ledge and exactness, that might rea­sonably be expected from an Author of a New Method.

It's needless to mention how im­pertinently and prolixly he insists not only upon the Invention, Utility, and Greatness of this Secretion: But he must needs discourse also of Chylifi­cation, Respiration, and fixed Salts, [Page 57] (how skilfully shall be afterwards shewn) all which are transcribed from Sanctorius, Majou, Etmuller, &c. and for any thing I can see, upon no o­ther Design, save to enlarge the bulk of his Book: For all that can any ways concern Fevers in that large 9. §. consisting of 14 Pages, may be easily contained in seven Lines. Yea sure­ly it must argue no small Folly in a Man, to bring in such stuff as nei­ther the subject requires, nor he him­self understands.

First, How he makes the Air the principal efficient of Transpiration, I cannot understand, for to any con­sidering Man it is evident, that the Ambient, by its Gravity and Elasti­city, will rather impede as promove it. But that I may shew him all the Favour I can, I suppose it is rather that, which according to him, is mix­ed with the Blood in Inspiration, he here intends: Yet in the mean time it is no small Debate, whether the [Page 58] Air be mixed with the Blood in Re­spiration or not? as he may see in Harvey de Circ. San. Higemore Disq. Anat. Needham de Form. Fort. &c. And really it must be confessed, there want not Reasons on both sides. How­ever grant it were so, none who hath the least knowledge in Physiology, will call it the efficient Cause of Tran­spiration: That being acknowledged by all, to be nothing else, as the cir­cular Motion of the Blood, which nevertheless noways depends upon Respiration, as Maurocordatus would have it. The Doctor may make the Experiment in himself, it being in his power, to stop his Breathing, though not the Bloods Circulation. Ay there is no School Boy in the Kingdom but knows, that by Runing the Circulation is accelerate, the Pulse augmented, and insensible Transpi­ration intended to Sweat.

Secondly, By what Figure our Au­thor comes to call that no natural [Page 59] Excretion in the 128 Page, which in the 119, he says, and that truly, does twise exceed all other Evacua­tions whatsomever, perhaps he him­self hardly does know: Unless it be for the Reason immediatly after Page 128 subjoined, viz. That Sweat is only profitable in so far as it shuns a greater Evil, was ever such Reason­ing heard? For what pray are all o­ther Evacuations natural! or are any whatsomever natural. Nay, really by this New Method of Reasoning they are not.

Thirdly, Who will ever believe, that insensible Transpiration suppres­sed, condenseth and thickneth the Blood, while in the mean time, except what goes to the Spirits, its thinnest and subtilest Portion is thereby re­tained, and so by its abode does ra­ther render it thin and aqueous, than crass and viscid. Yea all Practitio­ners whatsomever advise Sweating as a fit and proper Expedient to render [Page 60] the Blood thick, and consequently its suppression (insensible Transpiration and Sweating differing only secundum majus & minus) must have the con­trary effect in making it thin, Will the Doctor answer. These condensed Particles being absorbed and carried back, do of necessity render the other more viscid. But to this I reply, These by their being suppressed, do not on­ly impede the Excretion of Twenty times as many thinner and watry ones, and thereby abundantly com­pense their own thickness; but also it will appear no great Paradox to say, that these crass and absorbed ones, are by the far greater quantity of the Blood and its continual Mo­tion, reduced to their former and limpid condition. By all which it is clear, that insensible Transpiration suppressed, rather attenuates as thic­kens the Blood, contrary to the mind of the Author of the V. S. P. 126. And hence I conclude, that all or [Page 61] most part, the stoping of insensible Transpiration does in procuring Fe­vers, is only, by creating Obstructi­ons, and so disturbing the Blood in its Motion.

The Last, and by far the most fre­quent, of the Four named antece­dent Causes of Fevers, viz. Crudi­ties conveyed into the Mass of the Blood, do as yet remain. To insist in proving of this, which is univer­sally acknowledged, were a meer con­sumption of Time and Paper. Yea, from hence it is, that the generality of the Moderns have perswaded themselves, that the Formality of a Fever consisted in a Fermentation: Conceiving this Heterogeneous Body under the Notion of a Ferment, which, when it could not be assimi­late to the Mass of Blood, did there­in raise an Effervessence. I gave my Reasons before, why I could not fight under their Banner, who delight in the Terms of Ferment and Fermenta­tion, [Page 62] therefore shall not repeat them here.

I think then, in few words, a Fe­ver may not be ineptly conceived, as a Wrestling or Strugling betwixt Nature and what is Heterogeneous thereto, under which it does either succumb or expel whatever is offen­sive and injurious to it.

There are Two Things here to be noticed ere I further proceed: First, When I speak of Crudities transferred to the Blood, I understand not only Crudities proceeding from the first ways (though I easily grant these to be the most ordinary, which may be infer­red not only from the great efficacy we find in Emeticks in the Cure of Conti­nual as well as Intermittent Fevers; but also from the great Hurt daily ob­served in them both, by Errors com­mitted in the first Digestion) but ad­mits also morbisick Atoms or Effluvia, which may enter either by the Pores or Respiration, from the ambient [Page 63] Air: As likeways Raments from Ul­cerous, Scirrous and Gypseous (par­don these uncouth Terms, for I can give none more plain) Viscera.

Secondly, I must own my dissent from these, otherways Learned Men, who are pleased to call this Ferment, as they speak, always Acide. For as I could never forgive them, who en­deavour to build all upon no surer Fundation, as an Acid and Alcali; so I can hardly either pardon these, who trouble us so much with them in Physick. And that for many Rea­sons, (without which I'le deny no Mans Hypothesis) but especially the following Three. 1. Their Expe­periments and Arguments prove no­ways what they are brought for. 2. In their Explication of both Acid and Alcali, they are still very obscure, and could never satisfy me, yea I believe hardly themselves. And 3. A great many Phaenomena, ex. gr. Gravity, [Page 64] Levity, Colours, &c. Are by them unaccountable.

But besides these Reasons against the Hypothesis in general, I shall en­deavour to obviate the Arguments produced for it here in particular. The chief of which I take to be the following Two: First, According to the different degree and increase of the Fever, the Urine is also observed to intend and heighten its Colour, and that not unlike to those who are im­pregnat with Acids, v. g. Vinegar, Spirit of Salt, &c. To which I an­swer, by granting the whole, though not always, yet frequently to be so; as also that it may perhaps be, that this Ferment may sometimes prove Acide: Yet that this change of Co­lour is always, and only the Effects of Acids, I positively deny, seing by Saline and Sulphureous Agents the same may be wrought, and dayly is in statu sano, in which, nevertheless no Acid has ever yet been obse [...]ved. [Page 65] In a word, they commit that gene­ral Error in Physick, as well as in Philosophy, of forming from particu­lar Experiments general Hypotheses. So observing Acids and Alcalies to Ferment, they have laid it down as an universal Axiom, that wherever Fermentation is found, there must of necessity an Acid and Alcalie exist; while yet succeeding Experiments in­form us, that very high Acids. v. g. Oyl of Vitriol, Butter of Antimony, besides many others, which can be instanced by such as are aquaint with Chymistry, will effervesce together.

Their other Argument, which is of the same force, is taken from the great and good Effect of Salts, (Salia salsa I mean, which are composed of Acids and Alcalies, and constitute a Third very different from both) Te­staceous and Alcalick Powders in Cur­ing of Fevers: Which being contra­ry to Acids, makes them conclude (dum contraria contrarus curantur) the [Page 66] morbifick Cause to be always soure: To this it may be replyed, That they fall into the same Fault, which was reprehended in the former: viz. Of drawing universal Conclusions from particular Premises. For I can safely say, that Acids themselves, v. g. Spir. salis, Elyxir Vitrioli Mynsichti, &c. are frequently, and that not without desirable success imployed in Fevers.

It were very easie yet further to move a great many Arguments against this Hypothesis: Such as an artificial Fever excited by the Inunction of the Oyl of Beetls, Fevers not unfrequent­ly owing their arise to Fear, Anger, &c. but I suppose it needless. Ha­ving already insisted longer on this as I designed, I proceed to the Divi­sion, after I have told, what every person, at least Physician, knows, that the Procatartick Causes, which give occasion to the Antecedent, and set them a working, be the sex res non naturales.

[Page 67] I shall neither trouble my self nor my Reader, with that infinite Divi­sion of Fevers, to be had in Sylvius and others, thinking it enough to consider the following Four, under which all others may be easily com­prehended.

And First, They are divisible into Continual and Intermittent: Which Continual may again be divided in­to these called Continentes, which from the beginning to the end, with­out all exacerbation, observe the same Schem: And into these called Conti­nuas, which never leave the Body without a Fever, but yet have Exa­cerbations, sometimes once a day, and then they are called, Continuae Quo­tidianae, sometimes once in two days, when they go under the Name of Continuae Tertianae, &c. And to me they appear nothing else, as a Conti­nent and Intermittent Fever joined to­gether. Secondly, Fevers are devid­ed into Benign and Malign. Thirdly, [Page 68] Into Acute and Lent. And Fourthly, Into Primary and Secundary or Symp­tomatick.

All that hath already been said is concerning Continual Fevers, and applicable to them: So I proceed to consider these called Intermittent, which have created as great Trouble to Physicians in this Age, in assigning them a true and congrous Cause, as they did to these in the former, in finding a proper and successful Cure. I cannot now stay to cribrate the va­rious Sentiments of different Authors, but shall propose what to me seems most probable, which in few words is this: Every Paroxism of an Inter­mittent Fever, is Analogous to an in­tire Continual one, and hath its arise from Crudities carried through the first Ways and Vasa lactea into the Mass of Blood, in which, they being thereto hardly assimilable, raise and excite these Tumults before describ­ed. And do now constitute a Quo­tidian, [Page 69] now a Tertian, now a Quar­tan, &c. at one time an Erratick, at another time a Periodical Fever. First, Because of the Matter, which is now more copious, now more scant, now crasser, and thicker, now thinner and fluider, in one person at certain, in another person at uncer­tain times, thither transferred. Se­condly, Because of the diversity of the subject, the Blood of one being easi­lier set a working as that of another. In a word, when ever there comes so much Matter to the Blood, as can raise a strugling therein, a Paroxism is produced. But after all, I think no shame to confess, that there occurrs to me somewhat here which seems unaccountable, and therefore I shall never obtrude upon others, what I do not enough understand my self.

Benign Fevers are these called Con­tinual, but not accompanied with these horrid Symptoms, which being present, do give them the Name of [Page 70] Malign. And such are great Anxie­ties, Inquietude, sudden Prostration of the Strength, Spots, cold Sweats, Tumors about the Glands, called Pa­rotides, &c. In enquiring after the Cause of these Malign Fevers, I can find nothing save obscurity in the dif­ferent Opinions of Authors: While some, with Willis, fancy to themselves a great Coagulation of the Blood: Again others who follow Sylvius, strive as much for a lixivious and uri­nous Acrimony of the same. De la Font pleads hard for an Arsenical and Corrosive Poyson inspired with the Air. For me, in such ambiguity, I willingly profess my Ignorance: But still enclines to look upon their Cause as always Epidemick, coming either from the Air, Meat or Drink: And whenever it effects, seazeth especially upon the Head; we ordinarly obser­ving Symptoms of the Brain to insult, whilst Pulse and Urine suffer small or no change. And hence I suppose [Page 71] is the Proverb, Good Pulse, good U­rine, and the Patient Dies.

Acute Fevers are such, as termi­nate against the 9, 14, 20, or 21. day: But continuing no longer as the 7, they are called Peracute: Yea, sometimes they Kill in the Third and Fourth Day, and so get the Name, (and that deservedly) of Peracutissimae: While these, who extend themselves to the 40 day, are termed Acutae ex Decidentiâ. And all that exceed this Term whether Fevers or other Di­stempers, have obtained the general Denomination of Lent or Chronick Diseases. It is certainly beyond all question, that this Diversity ariseth from the weakness or strongness of the morbifick Matter, which in Lent Diseases, at the beginning, brings litle or no alteration to the Humane Body, but through process of time, partly by defatigating the Body, partly by rendring more of the Blood like unto it self, proves exitial to the Patient: [Page 72] Which is too frequently seen in a He­ctick, it being of all Lent Fevers the most formidable.

Lastly, Fevers were divided into Primary and Secundary or Sympto­matick. The first are such as have their Cause within themselves, and own their Being to no other Disease, as do the others called Secundary or Symptomatick. Which be sometimes excited by pain, as in the Gout, Gra­vel, &c. sometimes they accompany Wounds, Inflammations, Ulcers, and many other Maladies: By all which the Motion of the Blood, as well Cir­cular as Intestine may be augmented, and that which we call a Fever pro­duced.

In the Page 185 of the V. S. the Doctor's Exactness, and great Skill in Physick is very conspicous: For there he asserts Fevers and Tumors (I suppose he means Inflammations, Tumors being of a large extent) to be perpetual Companions: So that [Page 73] according to his Pathology, the one cannot exist without the other. Whereas all the World knows, yea dayly finds it, that Fevers can exist without his Tumors, yea not one of ten Thousand, without all Hyperbole, hath them. True it is indeed, that Inflammations are ordinarly (yet not always) followed by Fevers, and they are among the number of these I cal­led Secondary or Symptomatick.

Many Things appertaining to Fe­vers and their Theory: as Symptoms, Prognosticks, &c. do as yet remain. But I being far from presuming to give a particular Account or Descrip­tion of that Disease, knowing it to be a Load too heavy for my young and tender Shoulders, finds my self nowayes obliged to mention them here: My purpose being only to give a general, and for what appears to me, the easiest and best Description of the Malady, into whose Method of Cur­ing I resolve to inquire. Neither will [Page 74] I labour (it being more my desire to do well my self, than to discover that others have done ill) in refuting the Opinions of others, as the Doctor doth, though with Arguments I con­fess. sometimes against, but as often for them.

Yet I must pass some Reflections upon the Doctor's New and Mechani­cal Hypothesis, left my passing it by should offend its Author. And to speak ingenuously, his description of the Disease is as obscure, as his Me­thod of Curing is dangerous. Have then the Scheme of the New and Me­chanical Hypothesis in the Author's own words, P. 104. ‘Seing then’ (for the five Pages which go before, contain only the Fundation, though very unproportionable to the Noble Building afterwards erected in little more as one) ‘the returns of Repara­ration to the parts and functions ought to be made, both in time and quantity in proportion to the [Page 75] waste, by the efflux of the arterial Blood from the Heart as the Vehicle, and thorow the Arteries, as the Conduites of these Recruites: When this is done Vegetly, Integrally, with­out any stop or delay, then redounds Felicity Ease, and Integrity, of the Functions and Life: But when that Efflux is retarded or stopt, either by reason of the Blood it self, or some stopage in the Extremities and small Channels of the Vessels; or by reason of immoderate and unu­sual waste, beyond the proportion of the ordinary supply, (as falls out in immoderate Exercise and Moti­on) And, so I say, when by rea­son of any of these Causes, the Heart cannot convey and lay in the desired Supplement in due propor­tion and timously, by Stroaks re­peated at the usual Intervals, then it does, by precipitating the Stroaks, and straitning the Intervals of the Pulsations, endeavour, what in it [Page 76] lyes, to overcome the slowness of the Motion of the Blood, and to come so near as it can to the due and proportionable distribution of Nutriment, in respect of the waste: But if, notwithstanding of these sedulous Endeavours of the Heart by redoubling of the Pulsations, that slowness of the Blood, shall by a gradual encrease of the thickness, and of Obstructions in the Capillary Vessels, prove yet so obstinate as still to be augmented, then this leads straight to the Porch and Gate of Death; Death being nothing else but a total and permanent Cessation, and defect of this distribution.’

Behold the Description of a Disease, and it never once named! Is this Do­ctor because it is so clear, that who runs may read it? surely then my Capacity is very shallow: For had not the Title of that 7. Sect. promised a New and Mechanical Hypothesis, I should from this Description never [Page 77] have inferred it, and had not the very next Paragraph proposed an Objecti­on, I should further have looked back for it. Yea I believe it would puzle your self, were it not for these Marks, to find it. For my part, I see nothing here described save Death, and that perhaps not undeservedly, for by means of the New Method Death and Fevers are become Synoni­ma, and so the one with you, may safely go for the other. But Thanks be to God, it is otherways with us, who walk in the Good, Old and Ex­perienced Path, where it becomes but sometimes a passage unto it.

But why, pray, a New Hypothe­fis? it being as old as since Bontekoe write de Febribus. It is indeed very hard to know that Author's proper Opinion, he being more taken up in refuting others, as in explaining him­self: And what he hath said is so harsh and obscure, that he can scarcely be understood, yet, if I be not deceiv­ed, [Page 78] he endeavours to evince a thick­ness of Blood in Continual Fevers.

Leaving this I go to things more serious, where it seems to me not im­probable, that one of the fundamen­tal Errors into which the Doctor him­self hath slipped, is that which I have noticed before, viz. The drawing of universal Conclusions from parti­cular Propositions: For by what I can learn from this Description, it being indeed very hard, at least for me to draw any thing therefrom, he would gladly perswade us that Obstructions and only they, are the Antecedent (and for what I can see the Conjunct to) Cause of Fevers. The contrary of which, not only innumerable Au­thors with infinite Examples have e­vinced: But I my self have shewn a­bove, that there can be, and frequent­ly are other Three, besides many moe by me over looked. This is in­deed a Rock upon which many excel­lent Men have split, therefore to be [Page 79] pardoned in our Author, and to dis­swade him therefrom, to the Obser­vation I gave before, I shall now join other Two.

And First, There was nothing more ordinary, as upon the seeing Acids coagulate, to assert, that wherever Coagulation hapned, there must of necessity exist an Acid: While yet after Experience did teach us, that Alcalies can crudle Milk, and Spirit of Wine coagulate Humane Blood. In the like manner, Practitioners ha­ving found the good success of Acids at some occasions (for they do it not always, as Poterius observes) in quick­ning the Digestion, precariously they conclude an Acid Humor the princi­pal Agent in Chylification: Yea, as Moebius observes, it was received with so general Applause and Consent, that it became almost Heresie to call it in question: Albeit later Anato­mists have not only demonstrate, that Alcalies and Urinous Bodies may have [Page 80] the same, yea greater Effect, but have intirely banished the famed Acid its fictitious Office. To shut up all, it is this, that hath given occasion to a great many Errors in Physick as well as Philosophy, viz. That Phoeno­mena peculiar to this or the other sub­ject, have been generally applied to all kinds, and so from particular Ex­periments and Observations, we have formed universal Hypotheses.

Secondly, I cannot conceive how Obstructions can be either so effica­cious or so frequent as the Doctor in­sinuates. I shall not make use of the ordinary Objection, which never­theless of no small force: That there can be no Obstruction without a sub­sequent Tumor. However I wish the Doctor had told us, in which of the Vessels, I mean Arteries or Veins, these Obstructions fall out. For first it is to me unconceivable how they can be in the Arteries; seing nothing enters them, that hath not first run [Page 81] through the small milky Vessels, from thence to the Ductus Thoracicus, which empties it self in the subclavial Vein, and that again by the Vena Ca­va, into the right Ventricle of the Heart, out of which it is conveyed to the Lungs by the Pulmonal Artery, and from thence to the Hearts left Ventricle by the Vein of the same Name, from which, as from a Foun­tain, it is dispensed to the whole Body, by the great Artery and its Branches.

All which being considered, may not I reasonably argue: That surely, whatsomever hath passed these small Lymphaticks, commonly called the milky Vessels, and the capillary Branches of the Pulmonal Vein; will never stick in any part of the great Artery, especially when its strong and frequent Vibrations, do afford great assistance to this its Motion. Yea without stopping the Course of the Blood in the whole Branch, it is [Page 82] altogether impossible, that any Ob­struction can happen in the minutest Artery.

The same Difficulties, if not grea­ter, will meet us in the Veins, which are the other kind of Vessels: For if we consider their Figure, we find it a Cone inverted; now no Man of Sense will alledge, that what hath entered the small end of a Cone, as the Blood does in the Veins, will stop in the great: Ergo, the Doctor's Ob­structions must be denied.

Several other Observations might safely be made on this Paradoxical, as he himself, P. 109, justly calls it, Hy­pothesis: But I shall detain the Rea­der no longer. Only I cannot omit, that in the beginning of the 8 Sect. he perswades himself, that the rapid Circula [...]ion of the Blood, is wholly overturned, and yet P. 105▪ where he is giving that which he would have us digest for a New Scheme of Fevers, he boldly, and as I think, [Page 83] contradictorly, affirms the Heart to redouble its Pulsations. Which how it can happen, ingenuously I, nor I suppose none else, can conceive: Yea it is clearly repugnant to Reason and the Circulation. Nevertheless I see by the 27 P, of Philanders second Let­ter, that the Doctor will needs defend it.

What D. Black, or any who carries that Name, may have said against it, I am wholly ignorant, these Books having never come to my Hands. But what I shall do, shall be only this, to give a brief Account of the Hearts Motion and its Cause, and so leave the Doctor and others to judge, how reconcilable these Two are: For the Heart to double its Pulsations, and yet not to accelerate the Bloods Circulation.

The Blood that enters the right and left Ventricles of the Heart from the Vena Cava, but especially Pulmo­ners, does stimulate its Fibers: By which stipulation the Animal Spirits [Page 84] are brought from the Brain by the Eight, or wandring pair of Nerves, and being deposed in its lax Fibers, do contract the samen, and straiten its Ventricles with so great a force, that whatever is contained therein, is expelled, and thrust into the Arteries in this its Systole, by which they are distended and acquire a Diastole: Af­ter which the same Fibers are laxed, and these of the Auricles contracted, whereby the Blood, these Auricles had immediatly received from the Veins, is dismissed to the Heart, which now, by the Relaxation of its Fibers, is in the Diastole: Which Blood does a new stimulate as formerly, and so procures to the Heart a new Systole, under which the Blood is again thrust forth into the Arteries, and occasion­eth in them a Diastole or Beating. So that the Arteries will never be disten­ded, except the Blood be admitted, for they can be the cause of their own Systole, but never of their Diastole.

[Page 85] Now how can a Man averr, that the Heart can double its Pulsations, and yet not render the Circulation more rapid: Seing except it emit what Blood it had received in its last Diastole, it can never obtain a new Systole. The Systole being nothing, save the contraction of the Fibers, and expulsion of that Blood, it had received in the former Diastole. In a word, it is as impossible for the Heart to be contracted in the Systole, without expelling the contained Blood, which must of necessity go into the Arteries and cause their Di­latation; as it would be for the Do­ctor to press together the two sides of a Bladder filled with Water, without expelling the contained Liquor.

By which brief and true Account of the Hearts Motion, it may excel­lently appear, how fitly it is compa­red by our Learned Doctor, in the 27 P. of Philand: second Letter, to the a­scension of Water in Pumps. The [Page 86] true Cause of which Phoenomenon, adscribed to the Ancients to a Fug [...] vacus, being only this: That by the retraction of the Embolus or Sucket, the place which it deserts is left void, or at least the Air therein contained, is noways proportionable to the ex­ternal, and so not able to resist its pressure. In the mean time the Air having no access to the Cavity of the Pump, does necessarly gravitat upon the Water in which it stands, where­by it is forced to ascend in the Pump, in which, by the retraction of the Sucker, it meets with no opposition, till such a height, as is able (and be­yond which it will by no means go) to keep an Equilibrium with an equal Column of the external Air, which hath the same superfice, wherein the Pump stands for its Basis, and the Atmosphaere for its height. In a word, there needs no more to make Water ascend in Pumps, save to free it from the Impediment if found by [Page 87] the Suckers leaning upon it. How bravely this grees with the Hearts [...]ation, Doctor Brown himself may be Judge: However it quadrates as well as the most of his Simile's.

And now while I'm yet upon his Theory, it may be a fit time to give a Specimen of his exactness in Ana­tomy, Physiologie, and Chymistry. To begin then with Anatomy, his great Skill herein is excellently shewn P. 178, where he pretends to give a Reason, why hurtful to lye with the Head low: Which is, that then, the grosser Blood does ascend, whereas it being higher, the more spiritous only gets up, while the more crass seceeds at the (N. B.) Axillary branches Excellent indeed! From whom I won­der did D. Brown learn, but that what­ever enters the Branches of Arteries, is carried foreward to their end, yea how can it otherways be, seing con­tinually, by the help of their second Coat, which is tendinous, they are [Page 88] constringed, and so at every place and in every moment, give a new Impetus to the contained Blood. But yet better Anatomy, for ay till D. Brown did write, we have been in a general Error, when we used to say, That the subclavial Arteries, after they had demitted from themselves, three superiour Intercostals, the Mam­mariae Vertibrales, Cervicales & Musculae, did go out of the Thorax or Trunck, and tend to the Artus or Arms, where they got the new Name of Axillares But now D. Brown hath discovered our Ignorance, by shewing, that they have their arise from the Carotides (otherways it were Folly and Non­sense to say, that the grosser Blood seceeds by them, for except they a­rise from the Carotides, how shall it enter them?) Had the Doctor said instead of the Axiliars, that it seceeds to the Larynx and Pharynx, they in­deed receiving a share of that Blood, which tends to the Head; he might [Page 89] have concealed his Ignorance, though not given any great proof of his Knowledge.

For so far is it from being true, what the Doctor says: That the great Artery is not at all, according to the Ancients, divided into the Trunck ascending and descending; but ra­ther according to the Learned and Ex­cellent Anatomist D. Highmore, it is immediatly upon its egrefs from the left Ventricle of the Heart, divided into the two subclavial Branches. Nevertheless it is not all true, what he alledgeth, when he affirmeth that from the right Subclavial both the Carotides do arise: For frequent Ex­perience hath taught me, and no doubt will also do any, who will be at the pains to try it, that from the right Subclavial does only arise the right Carotis, and the left (which, to my knowledge, was never noticed by any) comes neither from the right Subclavial, nor yet from the left; [Page 90] but is a third Branch arising from the Heart it self, and hath no com­munication with any of the Subcla­vials, but far less with the Axillary Branches. I know the Doctor hath this from Des Cartes, but really it is too well known, that this great Wit and subtile Man, was none of the best Anatomists, and perhaps it was his greatest Fault, to assert things he thought consonant to Reason, ne­ver much careing or considering how they might be favoured by Experi­ence, nevertheless the Doctor when citing him, should have known to discover his Error.

Good Physiology is still the Com­panion of accurate Anatomy, as is also to be seen in the Doctors New and Ingenious Hypothessis of Chylifi­cation, which P. 131. is most dex­trously explained, by a Grinding and attenuating the Aliments, their parts one against another by the con­traction of the Ventricle whereby it [Page 91] seems the Doctor would grate them to Chyle. But I would willingly know, if ever he, or any Man else observed a solid Body turned into a Fluid, except it were Ice, Butter and and such like, which have been Fluid before, by meet attrition: When ever the Doctor affoords me one in­stance (for that of a Plume looks like­er expression as Attrition) then, and never till then, I'le grant his whole Hypothesis. Moreover for what end is all that Apparatus of Glands in the Stomach, and why do Physici­ans advise the swallowing of the Spitle with large drinking at Meat, as great helps to the digestion, if it happen by meer Attrition: For certainly the harder any thing is, it is so much the sitter for Grinding; or else the Authors Idea thereof, must be quite different from the Vulgar▪ And really what is brought from the Inge­nious Papins Digester does rather re­fute as confirm, what it is brought for: [Page 92] The Gelly being produced, not by the Bones mutual Attrition, but by the Waters dissolving and extracting. Yea if I remembor right (it being now a good time since I read that Book, and not being at Home I can­not consult it) the Ingenious Author himself calls it Extraction, which all the World knows is quite different from Attrition.

Of the same kind is that account of Sanguification, which in the 18 [...] Page of his V. S. he is pleased to communicate with us. We are in­deed extreamly obliged to him, at least for his good Intentions, for labouring in a few Lines to accomodate that Difference, which hath caused almost bloody Contests for so many Ages. I cannot enough admire the Policy of the Doctor, who prudently (knowing most Debates to be about Words) conceals these invidious Terms of Or­ganical and Similar Functions, they having given occasion to no small [Page 93] strife: Whilst some with the Anci­ents, plead hard for the former, o­thers, after Glisson, cry as loud for the latter. However, albeit our Author hath not been so ingenuous as to con­fess it, the Aetiology he gives, makes it purely Organical, only what some adscribed to the Heart, others to the Liver, the Doctor attributes allenner­ly to the Lungs. But pray, what does the Duty in the Foetus, where during Nine Months, the Lungs lye intirely idle: For I doubt nothing, but the Doctor knows the Foramenovale (which does not go from the Vena Cava to the Vena Pulmonalis, as is ge­nerally affirmed, but rather termi­nates in the left Auricle it self) and Canalem Arteriosum. Now I hope the Doctor will never say, that Sangui­fication is the work of the Lungs, when the Blood is made for Nine Months in the Foetus, and they never once concurr. After the Doctor hath considered and soundly answered this [Page 94] Objection, if I can raise no other a­gainst it, I shall adopt his New Hy­pothesis. But till such time, I expect he'll not be offended, if I shall assert Sanguification to be a Function part­ly Organical, and partly Similar. i. e. in the Liver, Reins, Pancreas, &c. Such Particles as could not turn into Blood, are deposed, and so its Or­ganical: Also by the continual Mo­tion thereof, the sulphureous and no­bler Particles of the Chyle, are assi­milate to the Blood, for which it is called Similar.

Yet I am so ingenuous as to grant to the Doctor, that Sanguification hath more help from the Lungs (the Blood descending always more florid and brisk by the Vena Pulmonalis, as it did ascend by the Artery) as from any other part whatsomever: Never­theless they concurr only as an Instru­ment with many others, albeit they may perhaps be the principal.

[Page 95] As for that Argument so much in­sisted on, by the Learned Glisson, it creates me no great difficulty: For albeit I cannot but grant, ocular In­spection having demonstrat it to me, that the Blood appears in the Embryo, before any Organ, and so consequent­ly cannot be made by that, which is posterior to it self. Yet I still think, there is great difference betwixt San­guification in the Foctus and in an Adult Person: For in the former, it is not simple Chyle that is converted into Blood, but that which already circulating in the Mothers Body, hath demitted its Bile in her Liver, its Urine in her Reins, &c. by which it is disposed to turn into Blood. So that if it had not experienced already the organical part from the Mother, the similar action in the Foetus should hardly have produced the effect. For, which I hope none will deny, as the same Subject may be different­ly affected by diverse Agents, so the [Page 96] same Agent will produce divers ef­fects upon various Subjects.

As expert seems the Doctor to be in Chymistry, as either Anatomy or Physiology. In all his Book there occurs nothing, that savours of that Noble Art, save one passage from Helmont and Tackenius, which with­out any prejudice to either Author or Book might have been omitted, it be­ing beyond all debate now, that alcali­zate or fixed salts, are not formerly preexistent in any Body, being only produced by the acting of the Fire, so cannot as the Doctor would have it, be dissolved and extracted by the Aire, before they exist. He ought rather to have said, That the Saline (there being a great difference a­mongst Salts) and Sulphureous A­toms, which by joining together, do constitute fixed (they not being Na­tural but Factitious) or alcalizat Salts, while the Herbs are a drying, exhale and fly away.

[Page 97] After having dwelt so long upon the Theory of Fevers, it's time to proceed to their Method of Cu­ring. Which indeed is the prin­cipal Thing, it being no great Matter how wild a Mans Opinions be in Speculations, providing he do not apply them to practice. No Man must expect here a Description of all the various Indications, which may, and ordinarly do require Attention in a dogmatick and methodical Cure. My design being only (as I often said) to propose the Good, Old, Rational and Successful Method, and to vin­dicate it from D. Brown's Objections: who hath not himself, albeit the Au­thor of a New One, noticed the half, of what deserves consideration in a Rational Cure.

Which nevertheless I'le readily grant in some Epidemick Constitu­tions or Seasons, and in certain Sub­jects, especially where the Critical Motions of Nature happen per secis­sum, [Page 98] which is not once in a hundred times, to prove unsuccessful. This only I would say, that it is the most frequent, and therefore deserves the Name of the best Method: And where nothing happens about the Patient that is singular; it ought always to be practised.

Before I go further it will not be impertinent to lay down some gene­ral Axioms, which being founded upon sound Reason, and frequent Ex­perience, have extorted Assent from, and Credit with Physicians of all Ages: Nevertheless they are not understood, or rather not much regarded by our Learned Author.

I. Cures are threefold 1. Cura Curatoria, which respect the Conti­nent Cause, as in Fevers and all acute Diseases. 2. Praeservatoria, which e­specially regards the Antecedent Cause; ex. gr. in a person troubled with Gout, Gravel, &c. after the removal of the Paroxism, we Purge, [Page 99] Bleed, &c. to prevent the Accession of another. And 3. Cura Paltativa, v. g. in a Patient troubled with incon­tinency of Urine, which cannot be Cured, the Sphincter of the Bladder being lacerate, we apply such an Ap­paratus, as Van Heer in his Observa­tions provides for such a Strait.

II. Indications ordinarly (some­times they be moe, but they are on­ly particular) are Three. 1. Indica­tio Curatoria, which levels at the Di­sease and its Continent Cause. 2. Con­servatoria, preserving the Strength, that being by all means to be cherish­ed. And 3. Mitigatoria, for it is principally occupied against the ur­gent Symptoms: Such as Thirst, Pains, Watching, &c. which being some­times more troublesome as the Di­stemper it self, do require Attention, even with the neglect of the primary Disease.

Some indeed there be, who have denied this any room among Indi­cations, [Page 100] alledging that the one being removed, the other will necessarly cease, Symptoms following only the Disease, as a shadow does the Body. But to this moment, I never heard of any, who refused an Indication to the Continent Cause and Disease it self, as Dr. Brown in the 71 Page of the V. S. hath precariously done. Where leav­ing the Essence of the Disease, he prose­cutes the Antecedent cause. Can any Person that knows or hath a respect for Physick and Physicians, read or hear this, without offence? And this really is the Fountain, from which many of his Errors do flow.

But consider Doctor, and I intreat you, as you love your Neighbours Safety and your own Quiet do: Con­tinual Fevers are not Intermittent, in which the Antecedent Cause conti­nues in the first ways, and from thence is gradually and successively carried in to the Blood; so that whoever can take away the Fomes, may expect [Page 101] in all reason, to prevent the accession of a new Paroxism, though never hinder the present. Whereas in Con­tinual Fevers, the whole Antecedent Cause is Semel & Simul carried into the Blood, and excites the Fever: Which we must especially regard, and not the Antecedent Cause, which now is not, it being turned into the Continent. Further when the Doctor is called to a Patient, is it to Cure the present Fever, or to prevent a fu­ture? If it be to prevent a future, then he does well, to look to the Antecedent Cause, which still respects the future; and so he institutes that Cure, in the first Axiom, called Prae­servatoria: But if it be to Cure the present, then Sense and Reason re­quire that he should level at its Con­tinent Cause and Essence. Whereas according to the New Method, the present Distemper is committed to Nature, while the Doctor only labours to prevent a future Evil, which real­ly, [Page 102] as I am informed, he does some­times very successfully, by putting them beyond all fear of Misery, as well as Happiness, except what's Eter­nal.

III. The Third of our Axioms is: That Contraries are Cured by Contraries, and the like preserved by the like. By some a Controversie is here again moved, as if Diseases were sometimes Cured by the like. v. g. an He­morhagie by Bleeding, a Flux by Purging, &c. But it ought to be con­sidered, the question is not about the Disease and its Remedy, which may indeed sometimes prove alike: but betwixt the Indicans and the Indica­nus, or that which indicates, and that which is in dicated, they still being oppositite: Loosness ever indicating binding, it matters not much, by what mean it be done.

IV. Whatever is natural ought to be preserved, and that which is pre­ternatural must be removed.

[Page 103] V. Of two Evils the least is to be chosen.

VI. Critical Evacuations are wise­ly to be discerned from Symptomati­cal. The not distinguishing of which, is a mater of great Moment, and of bad consequence, while it brings the Physician into the greatest of dif­ficulties and errors, as well as the Pa­tient into the greatest of Hazards. Out of which nevertheless both the Physician and Patient may be easily extricate, by rightly ponderating the following four 1. The times of the Disease are prudently to be no­ticed, the Coction and Crudity of the Humours, discernable especially in the Urin, must exactly be observed: the Evacuation which happens in the beginning of a Distemper, with the signs of Crudity being still Sympto­matick. 2. The place where the Evacuation happens signifies much, for if it chance in a place, whither Nature in that Malady useth to tend, [Page 104] other things concurring, it is still convenient. So a loose Belly is al­wayes more suspected in a Feaver as, sweat, this being natures ordinary path in that Distemper, whereas a Flux is still looked on as dangerous: And if there were no more as this: Natures own Course, it is sufficient to evert the whole new Method. 3. The quali­ty of the Humour voided, if such as it ought, is to be noticed: And 4, Neither should the quantity be ne­glected, for larger Evacuations make us still affraid.

VII. Whatever is to be evacuat, drive it to the way it most tends, ac­cording to the 21. of the first Section of Hippocrat's Aphorisms.

VIII. Concocted, not crude Hu­mours are to be expelled by the 22. Aphorism of the same first Section.

IX. The Times of Diseases are pre­cisely to be noticed, it being safe to do at one time that, which is perfect Death at another. Which times are [Page 105] four the Beginning, the Increment, the Status and Declination.

X. The vast difference betwixt Purges, is also worth the considering. Some being so Gentle that they only evacuat the Ventricle and first ways, never reaching the Mass of the Blood, and are ordinarly design­ed by Laxantia. Others tend farther in the Body, precipitat the Serum, and properly are called Purges or Ca­tharticks. Which division of Purges, acknowledged and admitted by all, Will, I hope, stand us in no small stead.

At length I come to the Method of Curing, wherein, to keep close to the matter, according to the second Axiome, a skilful Physician propos­eth to himself these three Indicati­ons. 1. To remove and expell the Disease and its continent cause, as preternatural. 2, To preserve as much as he can, the Strength, it be­ing natural: And 3. To mitigat the [Page 106] urgent Symptoms if any such appear. I am abundantly sensible, that there occure many other things in a Feve­rish person, which require attention: But, as I said before, these are the or­dinary and general Indications, and under them most others may come, therefore can only be treated of in a general Method▪

For the Removal of the Disease and its cause, it will be convenient to remember, what was formerly said concerning the Nature of Fevers in general: When I asserted their Formality to consist in a preternatu­ral Exagitation of the Blood, being most frequently thereto excited, by Heterogeneous Atomes transfer­red into it. Therefore to ende vour the Removal of the Disease, is to lay this commotion, and to expell the cause, is to banish the Body, what­ever it is that sets the Blood thus a working.

[Page 107] And this we labour to accomplish by several means and Medicaments, as well Alterants as Evacuants, but concerning the last, I am now espe­cially engaged. As to the second In­dicant, of preserving the strength, and the third of mitigating the Symptoms, the Doctor and I do agree, at least his Book contains nothing of them. Therefore I, whose only purpose it is, to defend as much of the Old Method, as D. Brown does molest, and to refute his, wherein it goes opposite thereto, am no ways engaged to treat of all, that in an ac­curate and exact Method, ought to be practised.

Especially I said by Evacuants we re­move the Disease and expels it's cause. Among which the first that offers its self to our consideration, is that Noble and excellent Remedy, if duely and skilfully applied, of Bleeding. Which as the Doctor observes P. 143. is granted by all as very beneficial. [Page 108] And if this be true, as certainly it is, the Doctor hath given us no new Me­thod as to this part, and so might have spared his Labour in Writting a Book, to convince the World of that, of which never Nan doubted. When and how often the Doctor useth this Remedy, which was absolutly ne­cessary in an accurate Method (there being four very different times as the 9th. Axiome observeth) he does not inform us, and therefore I can say nothing against him.

However I must not omit, to repre­hend that Vulgar as well as pernicious Error, of Bleeding all persons and in all Fevers. For so long as a Plethory is the only Indicant of Bleeding (of Revulsion, Derivation and Explorati­on, which do frequently call for and allow of the same, I am not now speaking) it can never safely, and with advantage to the Patient be Ad­ministrat, but where that Plethory is. So that if a Fever fall out in a Young [Page 109] and robust person, where any natural Evacuation is suppressed in one using a good and laudable Dyet, in a word, where the way of Living, or any other circumstance may perswade us of abundance of Blood, no doubt the Physician does wisely, who adviseth it's Eventilation, if he cannot set a working the natural Evacuation it self: Providing it be in the beginning and Increment of the Malady, other­ways when Nature is endeavouring her own Liberation, he may be apt to disturb her Motions.

But that rash and inconsiderat Course of Bleeding, without any dif­ference, subjects of all Ages, Con­stitutions and Sexes; is a practice which neither Reason perswades to, nor Experience allows of. We all acknow­ledge, and not without Cause, that our Life and Strength consists in our Blood. It's also confessed, that Na­ture and Strength do Cure Diseases: The Physician only assisting where [Page 110] Nature is weak, and directing when she's wrong. Why then do we eva­cuate that Blood, which we expect should Cure the Disease and relieve the Patient? Ay but say some, with the Doctor: The ill Blood comes away and leaves the good behind. I an­swer, this is a Reason so ridiculous in its self, and so repuguant to the Laws of the Circulation, that hardly any save Gardners, Old-wives, &c. to whom that Noble Invention is a My­stery, will ever pretend it: For what­ever comes to the Vein, good or evil, is also evacuate. Yea the Evil is so intermixed with the Good, that till it self have made a separation, no Art can disjoin them, For Example, suppose a sick Man having in his Bo­dy Twelve Pounds of Blood, Eight of which are Good, and Four Evil: Now being all circulate through the Heart, at least twise every quarter of an Hour, is there any Man so absurd as to affirm, that only the Evil, and [Page 111] only at that time, will come to the Vein which is wounded, while the Good, being strangely sagacious, and desir­ous to stay in the sick persons Body to restore him his Health, will go to the other and remoter places? Is there, I say, any Man so absurd as to maintain this prodigious Fancy? Nay I think it is far more credible, that of the whole Twelve, one Pound being evacuate, two parts will be Good, and one Evil, just as it was in the Body. And all the Advantage, which the Patient by Bleeding does reap, is only this: That before he had Twelve Pounds of Blood, Eight whereof were Good and Four Evil, but now he hath only Eleven in all, whereof Seven Pound with Four Ounces are Good, and Three Pound with Eight Ounces are Evil.

However, the Doctor for his tim­ous assistance to this decaying Opi­nion, deserves to be listed with, if not to get the precedence among the [Page 112] forenamed Medicasters. For, says he, P. 151, As in a River we observe the heterogeneous Body still to tend towards the Brink, so in the Veins, the feculent and ill Blood runs to their sides, and runs first out, while the finer returns to the Heart. A notable Invention indeed, to preserve this feculent and exploded Figment! What way, pray, can the fine Blood return? not by the Arteries, that be­ing absolutely impossible, for grant their Motion should invert, which yet no Man of common Sense will ima­gine, the three Semilunar Valves do still hinder. Neither by the Vein, for your Band put betwixt the Ori­fice and the Heart stops the passage: So that of necessity, whatever enters the Vein, good as well as bad, runs out at the Wound: For do we not see, that the Ligature being removed, and passage being granted, neither good nor bad appears, a sure Evi­dence, that it being present, both of them evacuates. When Doctor Brown [Page 113] finds the third way, he hath gained the point. If the Doctor had only given this, as an Answer to some of the impertinent Questions of a Patient, I could have forgiven him and applauded his Wit; but se­riously to propose it in a printed Book, is absolutly inexcusable.

The Chirurgical Fountain, does further supply us with Vesicator Plat­sters, from which, in Fevers what­somever, we obtain no small Advan­tage: But especially in Malign, and where the Head is affected, yea in all Cephalick Distempers, their use, by reiterated Experience is approven. But there being no debate about them and their use, I proceed to Pharmacie, which assists us with moe Weapons, to strugle against this de­structive Enemy.

The First whereof shall be Vomiters, which, providing they be timously and warily administrate, do oftentimes­nip the Evil in the very Bud, and [Page 114] by stricking at the Root, do with one blow dislodge this unkind Guest.

From what hath been said, I sup­pose, that for the most part, the An­tecedent Cause of a Fever, comes from the Ventricle. If then in the beginning of the Malady, before the Antecedent Cause, be all transferred to the Mass of the Blood, and there become the Continent, we use this Remedy; we do thereby purge the Stomach, withdraw the Matter, and either extinguish, or at least so nota­bly asswage the Fury of the Fever, that after it is hardly ever able to make great disturbance. Neverthe­less they are not to be given indiscri­minatly, but with great wariness, as all other Remedies whatsomever: Al­beit the D. in his whole Book, hard­ly ever mentions one Caution.

And First, We are to consider where the Matter does lodge: For if the Antecedent Cause should be any Evacuation supprest, great Motion [Page 115] and the like: There could be nothing more ridiculous than to advise Vo­miting. but if it be in the Stomach, which is easily known, by the Hy­pocondria Swelling, frequent Rifting, Nauseating, &c. they can hardly be neglected, but with the Patients emi­nent danger. Providing his Consti­tution, Age, shape of Body, and other Distempers, v. g. Hemorhagy adjoined, do not disswade it. All which being carefully observed, they are most innocent, as well as power­ful Remedies, in the beginning of Fe­vers. It is likeways to be noticed, that if the Circumstances require Bleeding, it ought to preceed Vo­miting. lest by the shaking of the Body, some small Vessel burst.

Next I come to Diaphoreticks, which I may truly call the universal Cure of Fevers. Nature pointing with its Finger to their use, while in the universal Declination of Conti­nual, and in the parricular Declina­tion [Page 116] of Intermittent Fevers, Sweat breaks forth in a very great plenty.

This nevertheless is the Method which our Author rejects, wherefore I shall take the more pains to confirm it: Which I'le endeavour to do by the following Three. First, By de­claring how they work. Secondly, By giving some Reasons why we use them. And Thirdly, By answering the seeming Objections instanced by D. Brown against them.

About the First, I need not be very prolix, for if we consider what Conditions are requisite to insensible Transpiration and Sweating in a state natural: Betwixt which there is no greater difference, as that in the for­mer, the Matter is excerned in a les­ser quantity, and so absorbed by the Cloaths or ambient Air, under the name of Vapour; whereas in the lat­ter, or Sweat, it chances in a greater abundance, and so cannot be sweept up, but rather constitutes Drops cal­led [Page 117] Sweat. I say, whoever will be at the pains to consider the Condi­tions requisite for this insensible Transpiration and Sweating, while they are natural: Which are Fluxi­bility in the Liquor, a due Ampli­tude in the Pores, and a Briskness in the circular Motion; will easily un­derstand how Diaphoreticks work, when given according to Art. What­ever can either attenuat the Blood in its Consistence, quicken it in its Mo­tion, or dilate and amplify the Miliar Glands and Pores, will certainly pro­cure Sweat.

And such are either Heterogeneous Bodies mixed with the Blood, which by stimulating the Ventricles of the Heart, the interiour Coats of the Vessels, and muscular Fibers of the Parts, cause frequent Contraction, and consequently swiftness of Motion: or inciding and volatile Medicaments, which partly attenuating and inciding the Mass of Blood, partly amplifying [Page 118] and inlarging the Pores and Passages, produce the same effect with the for­mer

When I speak here of intending the circular Motion, I mean only that of the Arteries, for both Reason and Experience teach us that the acce­leration of the returning Motion by the Veins, would rather prove a hin­derance as a help to this, as well as to all other Secretions. First, It is clear from Reason, for if the Blood were as readily taken up by the Capil­lary Veins, as its is brought in by the Arteries, it must necessarly re­turn again to the Heart from whence it came: Whereas admittance being denied by the Veins, it seeks another way or passage, which is that of Se­cretion. Neither does Experience deny its assent to this perpetual Truth: For if you will tye the social Vein of any Artery, by which Blood is car­ried to the secerning Organ, v. g. the Vena emulgens, you shall quickly ob­serve [Page 119] the Secretion to be far more copious, than when the regressive Motion was allowed. So that I may reasonably affirm, The slowness of the refluent Motion of the Blood by the Veins, to be none of the least among the efficient Causes of Secretion. And this much for the First.

Secondly, I come to give some Rea­sons, why in the Cure of Continual Fevers, Physicians of all Ages, have adopted and practised this Method of Sweating: As also why we at this day, especially while D. Brown offers a Surer and Better, do imitate them in that, which, to speak in his Lan­guage, is pernicious and destructive to Mankind. Indeed if without Rea­sons, and these weighty ones too, we should do that, which according to the V. S, can be nothing but horrid Murder, and devilish Malice. In stead of being Cherished, Honoured and Entertained, as in all Ages, and among all civilized People, Physicians [Page 120] have been; we ought to be taken and Hanged, for Villains and publick Murderers. But if I can prove our Method to be right, which I'le en­deavour now, and his to be wrong, which is to be done hereafter, when discoursing of Purging: Then let him judge, upon whom the Punish­ment ought to be inflicted.

It were easy to accumulate Argu­ments in Favours of Diaphoreticks, but I shall satisfy my self, and I hope my Reader to, with the following three,

Let us then First, According to the seventh Axiome, consider the mo­tion of Nature, I mean the course it takes when left to its self, as in many mean and Indigent People it ordi­narly is: And this is continually to seek its own Relief by Sweating, so that not one Fever of a hundred and that of all sorts, is Cured another way. Is there any Country Clown so fool­ish, but in a Fever, he'll cry for a Sweat, and if either by Art or Na­ture [Page 121] he can procure it, he will pro­mise himself speedy Relief and cer­tain safety. Now this being granted the Dr. himself not darring deny it, should not the Physicitians, who have taken to themselves that modest, Denomination of Natur's Servants, and whose duty it is to assist her when doing right, and to Correct her when doing wrong (as by all she is looked upon to do when endeavouring to ease her self by Seige in a Fever, except per­haps once in a hundred times, when it comes critically) should not they I say, imitate her, in Curing Fevers by Diaphoreticks, the ordinary, yea I I may say, the only way by which she removes that Distemper, yea certain­ly they should, and that according to good Old Hippocrats excellent Apho­risme: Whethersoever Nature en­clineth to go, thither lead her and it conduceth.

Besides this, it becomes us Second­ly, to consider the Seat of the Mor­bifick [Page 122] matter in Fevers, which none will deny to be in the Arteries & veins▪ Likeways the conformation of these Vessels deserves our attention: Their Roots being in the Heart, while their Branches tend to all parts of the Body (that I may shun all occasions of Objections, I know that properly speaking, the Origine of the Veins is in the parts, and they terminate with one Root in the Heart) Now let us consider by what way, that which is contained in these Vessels may be best and easiliest expelled: Surely any Man of sense and Reason, will freely confess, by their Extremities or ends (of Anastomoses or Inosculations I have said what I thought necessary before) which ac­knowledged, we can not but also grant, that whatsomever part of the Body, manyest of these Extremitie [...] run to, or where most of the Arte­ries end in, there will be the readies [...] and most natural way, providing i [...] [Page 123] be as patent as others, to discharge whatsomever is contained therein: But most of these Extremities do terminate by far in the habit, and that this way is as patent, as any other insensible Transpiration, which by the Doctors own concession, ex­ceeds all other Evacuations of the Body, no less as three times, does clearly evince: Therefore from these premises, I may lawfully conclude, the habit to be the readiest and best way, to expell whatsomever is con­tained Heterogeneous in the Blood,

It was not unadvisedly that I said, where most Arteries end, there will be the readiest way to expell, the Morbifick matter. For whosoever is not altogether ignorant of Anato­my, will easily allow, that whatever once enters the Veins, can never be eliminate, till such time as it again run through the Arteries. At their small end it cannot be, seing what once enters there, can by no means [Page 124] return, First, because of their valves Secondly, Because of the tonick mo­tion of the parts. And Thirdly, be­cause of the continual Influx of the Arterial Blood. And as it cannot happen at their small ends arising from the parts, so far less can it be at the great end, which terminats in the Heart: Nothing entring its Ventricles in the Diastole, but what is again thrust out into the Pulmonal and great Artery, in the Systole: from all which it is clear, that neither Secretion nor Excretion can be of the Ve­nal Blood

Yet here, I'll present the Doctor, with a stronger argument for Purging in Fevers, as his whole Book hath done to his Readers. And it is this, being I assert, what no Physician, if he be not destitute of Anatomy and Physiology (the want of which bring inexpressible Damage to Phy­sick) will deny, that, wherever Ar­teries end, and depositate what is in [Page 125] them contained, there must needs happen the Expulsion of the Morbi­sick matter: But the Arteries, some of them at least end in the intestines, Ergo, there in these intestinal Glands must happen the secretion of the Mor­bifick matter. All which I grant and acknowledge, yea farther con­firms, by avowing the faces Ani to be not only Excrements of the first, but also of the third and second Digesti­on, which may be proven by several Observations, one of which at this time shall suffice. viz. in the Foetus the Meconium is still observed to have its beginning, and greatest quantity in the crass intestines. Nevertheless all this concludes nothing against what either hath already, or shall hereafter be said: Because First the Arteries are but very few (in respect of that infinit number which direct their course to the habite) from the Coeli­ack and two Mesenterick Branches, which tend to the Intestines. Second­ly, [Page 126] Neither do we altogether, for as little as it is, neglect it, but partly by applying Clysters, partly by giv­ing these Medicaments, in the 10 and last Axiom, called Laxantia, drive a­way what may be lurking in the first ways. But we never give Purges, properly so called, which by entring the Mass of the Blood, do play there­in their unlucky Tragedy, except we intend (which God forbid so wicked a Thought should ever enter a Physi­cians Heart) to send the Patient to the House of all Living. Yea farther, it is with respect to this, that after the Recovery we ordinarly advise Purging.

My Third and last Argument shall be, the general Practice and constant Observation of Physicians in all Ages, in all Countries, and of all Perswa­sions; yea of the Excellent Sydenham himself, as shall afterwards be shewn. Who as one Man, acknowledge not only the great Advantage of Diapho­reticks, [Page 127] but exclaim against the con­stant use of Catarticks, in the Curing of Fevers. What, would the Doctor have all these so ignorant, as that they should not know how to Cure the most ordinary of Distempers? or so malicious and wicked, as when they knew it, yet neither to practise it themselves, nor communicat it to others? or were they so stupid, as not to have known what they used, neither from whence the Cure did proceed? Were there never Physici­ans so conscientious in the World, before D. Brown came to it, as to con­fess the damage of Diaphoreticks? or were they so blind that they could not see it? Was Hippocrat, was Galen, Fernelous, Sennert, Harvey, and all the rest of these brave Souls, who have enriched the noble and useful Art, with their curious Observations, ex­cellent Inventions, and judicious Rea­sonings, were all these, I say, besides many others, who practised this Me­thod [Page 128] themselves, and recommended it to their Successors, Fools or Igno­rants? Nay, nay, it is far better to say that D. Brown is both. But of Experience more hereafter: There­fore I go on to the Examination of the Arguments urged by the Doctor against this Old and long Practised Method: Which we find in the 71 Page of the V. S. where the Com­mon and Diaphoretick Method is considered and rejected forsooth; and they be neither moe nor stronger as the following Two.

First. We have no Specisick in Conti­nuat Fevers, therefore must not level at the Continent Cause, which is truly the Disease. According to which way of Reasoning I will go on and conclude: We have no Specifick in any Disease, save Intermutent Fevers; therefore ex­cept them. none must be Cured. The consequent of the one is as native as that of the other, and truly in both it is none at all. Physick and Phy­sician [Page 129] are obliged to the Doctor, for bringing the Imployment to this weak pass. Is not this a strong Ar­gument, to destroy a Theory of some Thousand Years standing? Yet it is as strong as the other to be found in the same 71 Page, where he farther inveighs against this our approved Method, in these words: This indeed were no unfit Design, &c.

I look upon it as needless to re­sume, what is formerly said anent: Fevers and their Causes, which I hope do sufficiently prove the Doctor's Hy­pothesis to be none of the best. I shall rather here observe, that the force of this sham Argument drives at these Two. First, That Sudorificks tran­slate the morbisick Matter or ante­tecedent Cause, from the Ventricle, Mesentery and Intestines, into the Muss of Blood, and by that means turns the Antecedent Cause into the Continent. And Secondly, That by the same we drive it to the Head, [Page 130] whereby we produce these terrible Symptoms, under which, Nature not being able to overcome, must of necessity succumb.

To which I answer these Three: 1. All, save D. Brown, do know and confess, that in Continual Fevers, the morbisick Matter is in the begin­ning translated to the Blood, and so does procure the Disease, which o­therways we should never have, but only an Apparatus to it. Yea in this seems to me, to consist the difference betwixt Continual and Intermittent Fevers: That in the former the mor­bisick Matter is translated all at once and so produces one great and Conti­nual Fever; whereas in the latter or Intermittent Fevers, it is conveyed at several times and so constitutes seve­ral Paroxisms, which may be said to be as many Continual, but shorter Fevers. By which we may clearly discern, how falsely the Doctor alled­ges, that by Diaphoreticks we carry [Page 131] the Matter from the first Ways to the Blood, that being a thing already done, else there could be no Fever. And really all along it appears, that it is not a Fever, but an Apparatus there­to, the Doctor would Cure. So that instead of intituling his Book, A new Method of Curing Fevers, he should rather have named it, A new Method for preventing them.

Secondly, How any thing can be more urged on the Head by the use of Sudorificks, I suppose if the Do­ctor were asked, he could not well tell, it being a meer precarious Asser­tion, grounded upon no Foundation, and he might with as good Reason, have said the same, of the Hands, Feet, or any other part of the Body. For, as they were only the Artertae Carotides and Vertebrales, which fur­nished the Brain with Blood before; So, for ought I know, by the use of Sudorificks no other are added: Neither is there any other way, by [Page 132] which any thing whatsomever can be carried to the Head, save by the forenamed Arteries. I hope the Do­ctor is not come to that Pitch of lg­norance to averr, that Diaphoreticks by some occult quality are offensive to the Brain. True it is indeed, that Sudorificks, by intending the Mo­tion, as well Circular as Intestine, put all the Humours, and perhaps the Spi­rits too, in a little confusion: But this carries nothing to the Head, ra­ther as to other places, which went not before.

But Thirdly, Where learned the Doctor, that Sudorifick Medicines, had their operation in the Ventricle, Mesentery and Intestines: Can any Man read this without Laughing. Surely this is another Errour, in which Physians till this time have been in, for they still taught, that Diaphore­ticks did work in the Blood, and not in the first Ways. So then to grant, what the Doctor desires, which [Page 132] nevertheless so long as Physicians are Masters of Reason will never be: That the Continent Cause (for the Antecedent is no more, it being converted into the Continent) lodges about the fore­named places; it will profit him no­thing, since Diaphoreticks will never awake it, they working only in the Blood, not in the first Ways.

In the 165 Page, the Doctor incul­cates a new the damage of meer Diaphoreticks (for I shall do him the Justice to conceal none of his Argu­ments) and the Reason is this: Be­cause thereby the Vascous matter is im­pelled to the Pores in great abundance, and so begetteth new Obstructions. And, which is wonderful, to prevent this Inconveniency, he adviseth the use of Paregoricks, which, as all the World knows, do incrassate extremely, and so instead of weakning the Malady he strengthneth its Hands.

However I would have the Doctor to know, this Fear of his to be vain [Page 134] and groundless, we never forcing the Matter till once incided, and till we observe the Signs of Coction in the Urine, as shall afterwards (God wil­ling) be said. Neither is the Philo­sophick Comparison which he brings to illustrate this his Argument, be­yond all exception: For the greatest Fool in the Kingdom does know, that the Church Doors can be no way di­lated or widned; whereas we know certainly, that occasion requiring, the Pores of the Body may be double enlarged and distended.

It is in the 167 Page, where the Doctor runs to that pitch of Bold­ness, as to exclaim against a Method direct to a Crisis, Boldness I must call it, and the Reader will perhaps judge worse of it, when he considers with me, that there be only Four Ways by which Diseases are terminate [...] whereof a Crisis is ever desired as the best. Which happens, when after [...]wrestling betwixt the Disease and [Page 135] Nature, the last at length obtains the Victory, and with one blow ejects this its hostile Enemy. Which is done sometimes by Bleeding at the Nose, sometimes by Purging, sometimes by Vomiting, but an hundred times for one, by Sweating. The second So­lution of Diseases, is that by Physi­cians called Lysis: When there comes no critical Motion (which is still de­sired by all, it being beyond all que­stion the best) but rather the Mala­dy decays slowly and gradually, and this is most frequent in thir our Cold Countries. Thirdly the morbifick Matter, is sometimes discussed or tran­slated from one place to another per Metastasin, which if it happen to be from a nobler to a meanner, it is good (although it were better to have it al­together expelled the Body by a Crisis) but if it chance contrary, is most dan­gerous. The Fourth and last way of Diseases terminating, is by Death, when the morbisick Matter subduing [Page 136] Nature, renders the organical Body uncapable of obeying the Inclinations of the reasonable Soul, so that it must needs forsake its Mansion, and leave it a dead Cadaver. If there be any other way of Diseases terminating, they do not to me now occurr, yea after sometimes thinking, I cannot conceive them. Now let my Reader, yea D. Brown himself judge, how good reason he hath to cry out a­gainst that Method which aims at a Crisis.

Before I leave Diaphoreticks, it will be necessary to inform the Rea­der, that neither in the Beginning nor Increment of the Fever, we im­ploy them; yea never, till we have once incided and attenuate the Mat­ter with proper and convenient Me­dicaments, do we use them. And then, when we behold the Signs of Coction in the Urine, we hasten away the Malady, sometimes with weaker, sometimes with stronger [Page 137] Medicines, just as the Circumstances allow and advise.

It is also worth noticing, that there is no material Difference, be­twixt Inciders and Diaphoreticks: For every Incider, providing its Dose be augmented, will prove Diapho­retick: And whatsomever provokes▪ Sweat, given more sparingly does, only incide. Wherefore, whatever hath been said▪ in defence of Sudo­risicks, may also be applyed to In­ciders: Especially since they are re­pudiate by the Doctor, for one and the same Cause, which to speak the Truth, is none at all.

Purging comes next to be dis­coursed of, for neither can the Cure of Fevers, always want their Assist­ance, which nevertheless are not to be advised, as D. Brown does, at all times, and of all kinds. Wherefore▪ I shall here shew First, When and how they are and have been im­ployed▪ by Physicians, in all Ages. [Page 138] Secondly, Bring some Arguments against the perpetual use of such of them, as properly go under the Name of Purges. And Thirdly, en­deavour to obviate any Arguments afforded by the Doctor in their behalf.

Before I go farther, I am necessi­tate to observe and complain: that the Author should have Printed a new Method, and yet never so much as once inform us, when, and to what Patients it is, and safely may be ap­plyed: Nor yet does he mention the Medicaments he then imployeth, none of which, besides many other things ought to have been neglected by him, who presumed to Write an intire Method, but far less by the Author of a New One. For whoever hath the least knowledge in Physick, cannot but be sufficiently acquaint with the difficulty of purging, where a few hours, some few grains, or some conttrary Indicants, may readily bring Death to the Patient. And really [Page 139] for my part, suppose I were suffici­ently convinced both of the Reason­ableness and Success of D. Brown's New Method (which nevertheless without other Arguments as I have yet seen, I never will be) yet I durst not upon that trivial and superficial account he gives of it, adventure to use it.

But to return to the things propos­ed, in prescribing of Purges to persons in Fevers, we are to consider 1. The Division of Purges, as it in the 10 and last Axiome, in Laxantia & propriè purgantia. 2. The different times of the Disease, also above in the 9 Axiome specified, are carefully to be observed. And 3. The Malig­nity sometimes adjoined, is by no means to be neglected; for at certain times to give a Purge when it is pre­sent, it is not without great and im­minent danger. So that by Phy­sitians of all ages not only the Be­gninnig [Page 140] but also in the Increment and status of the Disease, where there is no Malignity present (in which condition the very giv­ing of a Clyster was still suspected) these Purges called Laxantia, which go no farther, as the first ways have over been advised▪ Which Laxantia are sometimes given at the Mouth, and so respect the Ventricle with the rest of the Intestines: but oftner they are applyed in the form of a Clyster, which reaches no farther as the val­ves of the Intestine Colon, neverthe­less by there stimulating, augment the peristaltick motion of the whole, and help the Excretion of the Faeces, contained therein.

Yet sometimes in the beginning and before the antecedent cause be turned into the continent, by its go­ing from the Ventricle and first ways to the Mass of the Blood, it may not be improper to advise a Purge: However were I the Physician, I had [Page 141] rather (if all circumstances allowed thereof) and for the most part, make use of Emeticks, which do ordinarly cause also three or four Stools. But the use of Purges properly so called, is fre­quently delayed till the solution of the whole Distemper, if critical Motions advise not the contrary, when (con­cluding some of the Morbifick mat­ter to be desposed in the Itestines, and adhering to, or in their Glands) strength being somewhat recovered, we use first the help of that Medicine which we could not safely imploy before: For which our Reasons are the following five.

First, In obedience to the eight Axiome, Concocted not Crude Hu­mours are to be Evacuat: where a­gain, Nature her Course is worth the noticing, which being left to its self, never expels Humours till once digested, unless with great Hazard to the Patient. and then it becomes the skilful Physician, to stop and hinder [Page 142] her wrong & Symptomatick proceed­ings▪ It is not meerly Hypocrates his Authority that makes us decline them in this Condition, but because we see it confirmed with strong Reason and sad Experience: For while the Hu­mours are Crude and indigested, the Heterogenities are so wrought in with the good and laudable matter, that the one cannot be extruded, with­out the Expulsion of the other: where­fore we rather expect, yea helps their Digestion, that so we may have the Evil separat from the Good.

Neither is this all the evil, that re­dounds to the Sick, by advising Purging in a state of Crudity, But Secondly, When given, they either operate none, or by their working extremly, do intend the Fever. This is not said Gratis, for daily experi­ence confirms it, and that not only in persons troubled with Intermittent Fe­vers, where Purges being given shortly after the ceasing of the Disease, [Page 143] do infallibly make the Paroxism re­turn: But even in sound persons, in whom Catarticks never do their Du­ty, without raising a great commo­tion and Exagitation in the Blood. Yea by injecting Gummi, or rather Succus Go [...] a must ordinary and com­mon Purge, into the Veins of a Liv­ing Animal, we can procure an ar­tificial Fever.

Thirdly, By these strong and fre­quent Purges, the Serum which is the vehicle of the Blood, and by which the Morbifick matter should be dilut­ed, that so it may be the better and easilier excluded, is altogether spent and consumed.

Fourthly, by these same reiterat Purges, Nature is extremly weakned and the strength mightily dejected, which nevertheless as a thing Natu­ral, the fourth Axiome tells us ought to be preserved.

And Fifthly, Hereby again are the Motions of Nature disturbed, she [Page 144] seldom or never tending this way, except when perversely and Sympto­matically, in which case, Art, as it is in the Sixth Axiome, adviseth ra­ther to stop as encourage her.

May other Arguments, such as the Hazard of Superpurgation, the inconveniencie of Purging when affixed to Bed &c. Could easily be urged against this preposterous Me­thod: But they being of less moment, I leave them, till I see the Doctors Answers to the five insisted on. Which being rightly considered and pondered, I think it will be no hard matter to guess, with what advantage to the Patient, Purges properly so called, in Fevers are used If the Doctor meant only such as I have called Laxantia, then he hath given us no New Method: Their use under the Cautions, I gave, be­ing as old as since Hippocrats days.

Lastly, I come to the Arguments, by which he endeavours to confirm [Page 145] this his Method: Which I find P. 76. to be the Diaphoreticks are not suc­cessful, ergo we must Purge: But the consequent of this, Doctor, especially its Antecedent being truer, is as good: Purges are offensive, ergo sudorificks are necessar. None of them follow, there being no Reason, why, suppo­sing them both unsuccessful, a third may not be chosen. But, proceeds the Doctor, without the help of spe­cificks we cannot level at the conti­nent cause: Therefore we must en­deavour the extirpating the Antece­dent, that thereby we may starve that enemy we are not able to attack. All which is most false, Ridiculous and Dishonourable to Physick and Physicians, as is formerly proved, therefore needs not be here again re­peated.

His other Motives (to be found in the first Sect.) advising to the em­bracing of this his precarious Hypo­thesis, are as destitute of good and [Page 146] real Conclusions, as any of the two Arguments just now considered.

Doctor Sydenhame was no doubt, a Man of great Ingenuity, Candor and Experience and if I thought an Enco­mium from so mean and despised an Author as I am, could contribute any way to his Praise, I would as willingly confer it, as the Doctor himself. For I think that both this and future ages, are, and will be ex­tremely obliged to his Candor and great Sagacity, which he hath all along manifested in his excellent Writtings, but especially for his Historia Morbi & Regimen Aegri. And I would to God that D. Brown had been more of his temper, who, without all Reflecti­ons on other Physicians, wrote what he had observed in the Latin Tongue. Not that I envy the knowledge of any, for as Moses wished all the people of the Lord to be Prophets, so I am much indifferent, suppose all Patients (which in a short time I think may [Page 147] be) were Physicians. Yet sure I am, the publishing of Physick Books in our Mother Tongue, does much hurt but no good: For thereby Gardners, Old wifes &c. acquire as much know­ledge as to Kill, but seldom as much as to Heal. In a word, as our Pro­verb speaks, it is the putting a Weap­on in a Mad-mans hand. However I being no more concerned as others, wishes them success in their laudable attempts.

But how D. Brown comes to make D. Sydenhame his Defender, or rather how he comes to writ a Book, to vindicat D. Sydenham in that, which he seems never to have practis­ed, is that which I cannot conceive. The Schedula Monitoria is not in my hands, neither am I in a place where I can procure it: Yet his Method of Curing Continual Fevers, Printed at Amsterdam An. 1666. is; Wherein all along he practiseth the good Old and approven Method: For in the [Page 148] page 27. he adviseth the use of a Clyster only every other day, P. 29. he expresly affirms, that the more bound he can make the Patients Belly, the more he puts him beyond Hazard: His words are so express they deserve to be here inserted, and they are, quanto magis obstructam illi al­vum praestitero, tanto magis eum extra periculi aleam colloco: P. 36. at length upon the 15 and sometimes 17. day, for the first time he prescribes a Purge, and that none of the Strongest.

Now was not D. Sydenhame as Candid, as ingenuous and skilled, when he wrote this as when he wrote the Sched. Monitoria: If he was, then what reason can there be for prefer­ing this New Method to the old, se­ing both are commended. If he was not, then no man can blame me, for denying assent and Credit to him, who did once so egregiously Cheat me. Nay I doubt nothing, but he was ingenuous in both: the matter [Page 149] being only this, in this Schedula Mo­nitoria (to my best remembrance it being some years since I read it) he gives only a description of an Epide­mick constitution, which beyond all question, sometime may extremely alter the Scene, and may require a Method contrary to what is ordinary, and which he in his Treatise de Curand. Febr: Con. had both practised himself and commended to others. And by this time I think it is clear, how little reason D. Brown hath to boast of Sydenhams Authority: No it is a meer Fiction of D. Browns to apply to all occasions, what D. Sydenham meaned only of particular Constitu­tions.

How can D. Brown think to im­pose upon us at this rate, he must thinke us all very negligent, and so we do not read, or else very ignorant, and so cannot understand what we do Read: Truly it seems we must be both according to his Calculation.

[Page 150] But grant D. Sydenham were of this mind, as it is clear he is not, what then does follow: For we all know and believe, that no honest nor inge­genuous Man, will wittingly and wil­ingly cheat or deceive, yet we count it no Heresy to think and say both, that out of ignorance and uncircum­spectness he may.

What concerns the unparalelled danger he was saved from: I fear least in using that as a cogent Argu­ment, the Doctor prove himself as ill a Divine, as all along in his Book he he appears to be a Physician. There being no doubt, but that Gods good Providence is still Exercised about all things, good as well as bad (permit­ing and suffering them to his own wise and good ends) and small as well as great. Yet that special acts of preservation, will either prove the person himself, or the end for which he is preserved, to be good in its self (for I know and believe that God [Page 151] does nothing, but what some way or other, tends to his own Glory, as also to His Peoples Good eventually, as the permitting of an Impostor, &c.) and intentionally; is a thing which I very much doubt: For we know they are the Wicked who prosper in their way, while the Righteous are chastened every Morning: And suppose he, and all the Episcopal Clergy in the King­dom should Swear, that the French King's Deliverance from his Fistula, was for some good end and great benefit to Mankind; yet I shall ever look on him as the Scourge of the True Reformed Religion, which God at length will, I hope, cast into the Fire. And by this way of Reasoning the Doctor will answer Epicmus his Objection against Providence: Cur males benè & bonis malè, by granting the whole.

It is no small Evidence of the Do­ctor's desperate Cause, when he flies to such Arguments for the mainte­nance [Page 152] thereof, as the Commendations bestowed by Learned Men upon the person, whom he would perswade us, though falsely, to be the Author thereof: But especially considering that these Encomiums were given be­fore the Hypothesis was known. For Etmuller died at Lypsick, Anno 1683. Sponius write his Epistle An: 1681. Dalaeus his Encyclopaedia. An: 1685. Whereas the Schedula Moni­toria, never saw Light till the Year 1687. If then there be any strength in that Argument, as I think there is none, it militates intirely against the New Method: Their Commen­dations being given upon account of the old, professed and practised in his Book de Meth: Curand: Febr: the Schedula Monitoria not being at that time published.

Doctor Morton is indeed a Great Man, and deservedly esteemed by our Author, for his excellent Trea­tise written formerly de Pihisi: as also [Page 153] for his late Book de Febribus, where­in, as I am informed (I not having indeed perused it as yet, which I am almost ashamed to profess) he does noways follow our Doctor's New Me­thod, which is no great proof of his overvaluing it: Nevertheless upon other Scores he might, and that deservedly too, applaude D. Syden­hame.

Concerning these Excellent Men, Goodall, Harris, &c. I have nothing to say, but perhaps it might be, that in some Epidemick and Anomalous Fever, they did find that Method suc­cessful, and so did imploy it: But surely therefore it must not be apply­ed to all.

And now I think, I have suffi­ciently Answered our Doctor's Argu­ments, as also confirmed the contrary Hypothesis. Yet there remains one, which both in his Books, but espe­cially among his Admirers and Pa­tients, he principally insists on: viz. [Page 154] His great and successful Experience. This is a thing the greatest Empe­ricks boast most of; yea they will hardly grant a Patient ever to have died in their Hands. I have no­thing to say against Experience it self, it being, with Reason, the Foundation of Physick. Neither will I here in an English Book, discover the Fraud of some Mens Experi­ence, but I will offer to the Rea­der's and the Doctor's Considera­tion, the Five following Things. 1. I wish the Doctor were as inge­nuous to tell us how many Died, as he is careful to publish how ma­ny Recovered, by this his New Me­thod. 2. To one, I can oppose a hundred, not only of such as were Cured by Old and Antiquated Phy­sicians; but of such as live and pra­ctise in this very Age. 3. As, bles­sed be God, all our Patients do not Die, so neither, I suppose, do all the Doctor's Recover: And surely [Page 155] if any of these two were, it would be a far more effectual mean to gain the Doctor Imployment, as his writ­ing of the Vindicatory Schedule. No, Thanks be to the Physician of Souls, we have no reason to complain. 4, How many persons Recover, not only when no Mean is used, but even when that which is certainly Evil is applyed: So that a litle suc­cess in a few Patients, deserves not the Name of sound Experience in Physick. Especially when 5. we are sometimes right uncertain, whe­ther the Apothecary hath rightly dis­pensed, or the Patient rightly used, that which the Physician prescribed: None of which Doubts are without all ground, as too frequent Expe­rience tells us, and I could easily evince: But I have no Inclination to discover my Father's Nakedness.

As for what he brings in the 14 Sect. for corroborating his Theory of Fevers from the Helpers and Hurt­ers, [Page 156] &c. as things of small Moment, and savouring nothing, save Igno­rance in Anatomy and Physiology, I pass them. As also the Solutions he gives of Difficulties moved a­gainst it, are of the same Mettal, as hath clearly been shewn, in his Account of Sanguification, Chylifi­cation, &c.

Only, it deserves the Reader's At­tentation, that Page 77. where he proposeth that true and most pro­bable Method, as he is pleased to call it: I find mention, and only mention, of Paregoricks, without any Advertisement, how and when they ought to be used, albeit of all Me­dicaments whatsomever, they should be advised with the greatest Cauti­ons. I shall neither insist on them nor their use: They be these unto which both he and we are forced to flie, when other Refuges fail. And they be of two sorts: First, Such as either by obtunding the Acri­mony [Page 157] of the Humours, or laxing the Tone of the Fibers, do really mitigate the Pain, by removing somewhat the Cause, and they are commonly called Auodyns. And the others are these, who do not remove the Cause, but lay it a sleep, and renders it quiet by stu­pefying the Senses, and they go un­der the Name of Narcoticks. Con­cerning the first, or Anodyns, there is here no question, they being fre­quently applied outwardly: But for Narcoticks, I cannot conceive, upon what account he adviseth them in Fevers, (except when Symptoms grievously urge) unless it be to stop critical Evacuations, there being hardly any thing, which does it more happily. And if this be a good Design, whatever the Doctor may pretend, let the World judge.

Now to shut up all, I shall lay down a brief Scheme of that Me­thod, which we dayly, and, Blessed [Page 158] be God, with good Success practise, and I have been here labouring to defend. I say a brief one, for I noways pretend to play the Dicta­tor, but only to shew in few words, what it is I have been wrestling for. Yea there are so many Circumstan­ces and Accidents, which both may and frequently do occurr and fall out about feverish Persons, that they make it absolutly impossible, to com­mit all to Paper, what a skilled and judicious. Physician will find expe­dient.

When then called to a Patient, in the First, Second or Third Day, af­ter he hath found a Coldness and Grewing through his whole▪Body, which is ordinarly accompanied with, or at least is shortly after followed, with a Pain, in the Head and Lassi­tude of the whole, together with a frequent Pulse, red and thick Urine, great Thirst, dejection of Appetite, Watching, Heat, &c. By which we [Page 159] easily conjecture a Fever to infest. I say when called to such a Patient, immediatly, if his Age, Sex, Eva­cuations suppressed, kind of Life, &c. do allow, we advise Bleeding, more or less as the several Circumstances permit, however, if need so require, we think it still safer to evacuate at different times as all at once: But the Prohibents exceeding the Per­mittents, it ought to be totally ne­glected. After that, if the Patient hath been, or is yet troubled, with Nauseating, Rifting, &c. a Vomiter, providing nothing disswading the same be present, is next advised. And then through the whole Course of the Cure, our principal aim is le­velled at the Continent or Conjunct, Cause of the Disease, which, by giving Inciders and Aperients, ever till we observe the Signs of Coction in the Urine, we labour to Incide and Digest; Which Signs appearing, with stronger Sudorificks we assist Nature [Page 160] endeavouring its own Liberation, and so we bring the Malady to a Crisis, or rather Lysis. In the mean time we neither neglect the conside­ration of the Strength according to the second Axiom: Nor yet do we forget the Antecedent Cause, as is in the first; but partly by Clysters, partly by Laxants given at the Mouth, we absorbe and cleanse the first Ways, and so prevent the further accumulating of Crudities, which by running into the Mass of the Blood, might increase the Fever. And while these are a doing, with proper and fit Medicaments, we provide (yet even sometimes, as it is in the fifth Axiom, with the neglect of the pri­mary Disease) against the urgent Symptoms, such as Thirst, Watch­ing, &c. After this Method, God assisting, we Cure Tutò, Citò, & Ju­cunde.


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