A DIALOGUE BETWEEN Alkali and Acid: CONTAINING DIVERS PHILOSOPHICAL and MEDICINAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEREIN A late Pretended New Hypothesis, asserting ALKALI the Cause, and ACID the Cure of all Diseases; is proved Groundless and Dan­gerous. BEING A Specimen of the Immodest Self-applause, Shameful Contempt, and abuse of all Physicians, gross Mistakes and great Ignorance of the Pre­tender John Colbatch.

By T. E. Chirurgo-Medicus.

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LONDON: Printed for R. Cumberland, at the Angel in St. Paul's Church-Yard, and Tho. Speed, at the Three Crowns, near the Royal-Exchange in Cornhill, 1698. And Sold by most of the Book­sellers of London and Westminster.

Price One Shilling.

PHARMACOPOEUS & CHYMICUS, Symmystae; seu Pharmacopoeia Chymica. In qua Medicamenta Alphabetice digesta tam Chy­mica quam Officinalia, Scitu dignissima, uno quasi intuitu legenda simul & pernoscenda, Lectori Subjiciuntur. Authore Joshua Lasher. M. D. & Coll. Div. Johan Bapt. in Univer▪ Oxon, olim Socio. Habeo Chymia quod Sane [...] & Herbis. Londini: Impensis Tho. Speed, a­pud quem prostant Venales ad Insignia Trium Coronarum in vico Vulgo v [...]cato Cornhill. 1698. Pretium 2 s. 6 d.

The PREFACE to the Reader.

ALtho' I have most commonly found the Pretenders to New-Light, and rare Inventions (so common now a-Days) no more but Pretenders; yet having something of Curiosity, shall I call it, or Vanity, to be In­quisitive for Truth in such Pretensions; the noise of a New-Light of Chirurge­ry, and a New Method of Physick Built upon Principles directly contrary to, and overthrowing all whatsoever has been done by the whole World of Physici­ans, could not but excite in me an Attention, and cause me to enquire into the Truth of such a Report. But when I had Read over one or two of those Books which at length gave occasion and Matter to the following Discourse (tho' they contain something, I confess very Ʋncommon) I found nothing which could give me the least Stomach to another Meal of the same, or Ap­petite to any New-Dish, afterwards presented by the same Author. I had found his Sawce sowr enough, and the Dishes Garnish'd with Oranges and Lemons; but the Meat it self so Raw and Insipid, I set it by as a sort of stuff I had for ever enough of. But sometime since, conversing with divers Persons having little, or no Skill in Medicinal Cookery, and finding them highly Commend as choise Viands, those things which I knew would be but of bad Di­gestion, and very apt to breed ill Humours: And considering that it becomes an Honest and Generous Physician, as well to Advise what things may preserve, or be prejudicial to the Health of his Neighbours, as to heal their Diseases; I begun to think, whether I was not oblig'd in Duty to Mankind, as well to Discover the evil Practice of another, as to labour to act rightly my self. And forasmuch as I know, an Ʋnreasonable and Rash Method of Physick, tho' it hurts not Physicians, may more than endanger the Lives and Healths of the People, tho' not in the Theory, yet in the Practice which is made upon them, I was perswaded once more to Read over what I had before been sated with, and what farther has been offer'd by the Author of the pretended New-Method, and to transcribe, and make some Remarks upon some of the chief Things whereby he endeavours to persawde the Truth of what he calls his New-Hypothesis: Which when I had done, I could not but yet more admire what it was in this Author, that Persons of any Literature and Sense, whether Young Physicians, or Gentlemen found so taking; something very Ʋncommon, as I said, there is. But what? [...], CONFIDENCE the sign of Ignorance of Art, as the Noble [...] Cous saies: Yet which methinks is strangely accounted now-a-days so great a Qua­lification, and particularly in a Physician, that it can attone for, Yes, and set off, all the Imperfections, and Deformities of bad Language, want of Reason, Reiterated Tautologies, Contradictions and Calumnies, the Au­thor of a Quack Book, Bill, or Speech, can be guilty of. I was a little un­easie to think that the Judgment of our Age seem'd so declin'd it such, and such Persons: But yet they might have embrac'd their Nonsense, and hugg'd their false Juno long enough for me, Sed quod luditur de corio, imo de vita Humana, but that her Embraces I knew, might prove unwholsome to them. Which I think, will appear in the following Discourse, to all that will but grant that the Art of Healing is grounded upon Reason, and Experimental Philosophy. [Page] The way of Dialogue I chose to Write in, I think, will not only be less tiresome, but more easie and profitable to my Reader; since I have Transcrib'd from my Author Word for Word, all that I take occasion to Speak too, for the most part under the Person of Acid, but what farther Excerptions I Reflect upon, Rehearsed by Alkali, you will find noted in Italick Characters, so that you may save the Trouble or Charge of turning to his Books, in Reading mine. Wherein I assure you, I have not abused him. or alter'd his Sense in a Tittle, that I know of, or added, more than some few Words of Connexion, and the entrance of the Discourse, which the Justest Reader, I suppose, will pardon as a small Transgression against the Man that I never saw, or owe any more Ill-Will too, than him that I never heard of, but wish him really, as great (if it were possible) as he saies he is, and would have us esteem him. 'Tis one of the Main Poynts of my Religion, tho' I am a Physician, That I ought to be a Friend to all Men; but I am somewhat of the Opinion of Plautus, Amicum non castigare ob merita, mala noxia imane et facinus, I think it a Fault, not to reprove those Errors, even in a Friend, that may be of evil Consequence. But here are Errors, that may endanger even the Lives of better Men than him that I reprehend, if so unfortunate as to be entic'd by the love of sharp Sawces, & to fall into the Hands of so Bold a Medicaster. The exposing af whose Faults, I know, may be in some respect to his Private Da­mage, but the Publick-Good, ought to be esteem'd greater than the Private-Interest of any Man. Salus enim populi Suprema lex est. Yet if things be Weighed in the most just Ballance, I think it may be found, That I have said nothing against our Doctor, or which, may not be for his real Benefit, whom I look upon as a Sick-Man, and am so far of his own Opinion, as to think his Disease cannot be Cured without sharp Medicines; which tho' he may as little like in the Swallowing, or Application, as some of his Patients may the Effects of his Acid-Doses, I hope yet it may be for his Health here­after. But there are so many things in my Author, which are the Breakings forth of Vicious Humours, I am doubtful whether I shall be reckon'd culpable for giving him so many, or so few Doses, and applying my Corrosives to so many, or so few of his Sores. I fear you will be weary of seeiug him Dress'd: Yet I hope no Physician, or Chirurgeon, no, nor Gentleman, or Lady, but may see something worth their while; being if not so pleasant, yet of useful Considera­tion. Therefore I shall no longer detain you at the Door of my Lazar-House, but take you in to hear, and see, the Badness of my Patient, and what sort of Medicines I have Prepared for him. And tho' you will hear him Talk some­times Talk like a Mad-Man (his Disease being much in his Head) and a­buse those that have done for him, as he has always done, calling all his Phy­sicians, Scoundrels, except Dr. Tuthil who got a little into his Favour; yet you need not fear if you don't come too near him, any more than I do, tho' I am resolv'd to handle him closely, that if possible the poor Young-Man may have the benefit, and I the Credit of so great a Cure. But however it hap­pens, I confess, I am almost asham'd of Preparing so many Remedies for so mean a Patient: But long Bills are Fashionable, and my medicines given Gratis.

A DIALOGUE BETWEEN ALKALI, and ACID.

Al.

WELL met Mr. Acid, whither are you hurrying so fast, to some Heroe run through the Lungs, or the Heart?

Ac.

I should hardly stay to tell you Mr. Alkali, but that I am engag'd to oppose you where-ever we meet, you Principle of Death and Corruption, I am always provok'd by you, you have done so much mischief in the World: And now to your farther reproach, I have a fresh instance of your badness, by a Messenger from my Lord Lazington, whom you have plagu'd with a fit of the Gout, and that a desperate one if I come not in time to his assistance, none can help him but I, and he thinks it 7 Years e're I come to him.

Al.

You are very sharp Mr. Acid. I sometime since heard in­deed, that you have reptoach'd me in all Companies, even in Coffee-Houses, as well as wrote Books against me, but now I find it true: I am glad I have met with you, to tell you, you have scandalously reported divers things of me, which if you can't prove to my Face, I shall not easily put up the Injury, nor part with you willingly without Proof, or Submission. Let my Lord Lazington roar a little, you will be the welcomer when you come; and I know you can tell how to excuse your delay; some Duke or other had sent for you before, and perhaps my Lord will do as well without you. Let us try whether you can maintain your Charge: You call me the Principle of Death and Corruption, and I hear you say, I am the cause of all Diseases, and that you alone are the Dr. that can do any thing considerable in the Cure of them, and that by destroying and expelling Alkali: And this you make an Hypo­thesis of, and call it a new one, of your discovery.

Ac.

I am so far from denying what I have said against Alkali, [Page 2] that I continue still to assert my Hypothesis. That all the Alkali in the Blood is most certainly an Excrement in a way of being carried off by some of the Emunctories, and when any of the Emunctories chance to be stopp'd, that the Alkali has not room to pass out, then there is a Disease. And the matter of all our Dstempers is the same. And whereas Acids are contrary to Alkalies (there being a conflict be­tween them where-ever they meet) their being given in due proportion, will lessen the matter of the Distemper, and in time, totally extirpate it. Similia similibus gaudent, & contraria contrariis curantur. And I am so absolutely confirm'd in the truth of my Hypothesis, that I am sure it is not in the power of any one to overthrow it. Nay the Hypothesis on which I build, I am sure is true. And I have in all my Writings, Truth for my Guide: But the opposition I have met with, hath been almost insupportable. Truth at its first ap­pearing never wants Opposers. But the New Doctrine I have ad­vanc'd has gain'd so much Ground, that few Authors in their own Life-time, have scarce seen the like. This unwonted and unex­pected Encouragement, has fill'd me with a sense of Gratitude, to me inexpressible. Reason is the true Touch-stone, by which we ought to Examine every thing, and I have never advanc'd any thing, till weigh'd in the Ballance of my best Reason, and yet, lest Reason should deceive me, and I so impose on the World; I have always join'd Experience to it; so both being conjoin'd, I could not well deceive my self, nor lead others into Error. That Prodigy of Nature. Mrs. Anne Baynard, said in my hearing, that, Reason was that Eternal Standard God Almighty, as a Ray of his own Image has impress'd upon Man, to the election, or dislike of what may hurt, or succour him; and where this is rais'd and improv'd, makes him an Angel, where sunk and depress'd, a groveling Brute.

Al.

I find your Confidence, Mr. Acid, as great as I have heard it reported, which is no Argument to me, that you are in the right; Confidence and Ignorance being usually Companions: And I am the more perswaded it may be in the power, of some one or o­ther to overthrow your Hypothesis. If you were sure of the truth of it, I confess, it would be impossible it should be found un­true: But I supopse you only fancy your self sure. That you have Truth for your Guide, I suppose (if you know what you say) you mean, you have some certain Truths, as Rules to guide you to the invention of others: But perhaps, you may as other fallible Men, take some things for Truths that are not true, or not know how to use them as Rules, if they are so. What opposition you have met with I know not, it seems it was what you could hardly bear, I doubt you have thereby confess'd, your strength to be but weak. Why Truth should always have Opposers at first, I see [Page 3] not, unless when it is not clearly demonstrated, as your Hypothe­sis (to let you suppose it true) is not, as you will go near to find, before we have done. And as for the ground, you say your new Doctrine has gain'd in your (but yet short) life-time, beyond the Inventions of other Authors, which so surfeits your Heart with Joy, I think no body else sees it; for I could never yet meet with any one Ingenious Man of your Opinion. And if any few un­wary Tyros, or Person not studious of Nature, have been pleased with your Fancies, I believe, if they will but use their Reason, which you say is the Touchstone of Truth, by which we are to examine all things; they will find Reason to alter their Opinion, and find their Master Acid's best reason was but a false ballance, and did indeed deceive him, and that his experience was but mistaken ex­perience, and so impos'd upon the Master, and Scholars too. But that Reason is an eternal Standard, I do not see; tho' the prodi­gious Mrs. Ann Baynard said so: I rather think her and you, too prodigious Metaphysitians; For I take Reason to be peculiar to Creatures, and that Creatures and whatever belongs to them are not Eternal, unless in the same sense, as an ignorant pretender in Physick in the Beaux Language, would be call'd an eternal Quack. Neither can I see by any of your reasonings Reason so improved in your self, as to give any body any ground to take you for an Angel. Mrs. Ann Baynard might be a great Wit for ought I know, and Wit and Beauty in a Woman, might possibly make a youngster mistake her even for a Goddess, and to be said to be Witty and Pretty would please most Women, and by pleasing the Women, a Doctor may be likely to meet with an Angel sometimes you know Sir.

Ac.

The Doctrine I have advanced is so directly contrary to every thing that has been wrote yet, it is enough to startle any young Man, nay some old ones too; but I have so enquir'd in­to Diseases, as to be altogether certain of the Truth of my Hypo­thesis, but not so as to make People Immortal, which I believe some expect from me: But let People lay aside prejudice and set themselves to make Experiments, I am sure they will lay aside their old Notions, and embrace my new Hypothesis, and I am mo­rally certain that my new Doctrine of Acids at present so much decry'd, will soon obtain the publick vogue, carrying a self-evi­dence along with it, and some People will be so enamour'd with it, as to use Acids with as much reason, as others now use the Cortex; which has been brought so extravagantly in vogue, that some use it in all Distempers, and I believe it will in time, be put into Plasters to Cure Corns. By this may be seen the instability of Humane Nature that is more govern'd by Fancies than by Rea­son, [Page 4] so that what is to day condemn'd is to morrow in great value. But the Doctrine of Acids being a thing of Universal extent, it is impossible any one should do so much mischief with them, as with the Cortex.

Al.

If your Doctrine is directly contrary to every thing yet wrote, it is very likely to be contrary to Truth; for doubtless there has been some Truth wrote before. But I am not at all startled at your Doctrine Mr. Acid, tho' I confess, I am neither very young, nor old. What a Novice, or an Old Dotard may be, I know not; but if any thing be startling, it is your Impudence, which indeed seems Monstrous: That a Mushroom in Physick should so confi­dently oppose all that has been yet wrote by all the Learned Phy­sicians of all Ages, and pretend to have so enquir'd into Disease since Yesterday, as to be certain that the long Study and Practice of all other Men gave them nothing but mistakes; but your little time has produced absolute certainty. But truly, notwithstand­ing your Opinion of your self, I dare say no body expects Immor­tality from you. As for prejudice, you would have us lay aside, I believe I laid it aside, for some time before you began with the study of Pharmacy, and have ever since made Experiments, and I believe, have had more opportunity, as well as time, to carry on a course of experimental Philosophy, than your self; (not to disparage you) yet I cannot lay aside all my Notions thereby got­ten, and embrace your new Hypothesis. Your moral Certainty that it will obtain the Publick Vogue, is no better than to say, an uncertain certainty. Nor is your Doctrine self-evident to any but Mr. Acid's own sharp self; whose Eyes perhaps are Microscopes in comparison to other Mens. But there is no fear, People will be enamoured with your Hypothesis it has so soure a Countenance. But the instability of Humane Nature, (I confess) is such, and some other Men are so much govern'd by Fancies as well as you, that possibly Acids may be used with the like reason, and extravagance as some have used the Cortex; but they will hardly mix them with Plaisters. But tho' Alkalies should be to day wholly con­demn'd, perhaps they may be to morrow in as great value as ever. And if it be not possible to do so much mischief with Acids, as with the Cortex; yet I believe, some Persons may find enough done with them to disswade us from using them as you would have us: But I am certain, a confident Empirick may do a great deal of mis­chief with Acids, Alkalies, Cortex, or any thing.

Ac.

People must long since have known my Hypothesis, or they must not; if they have not they have groped in the dark, and cured Diseases as a blind Man may catch a Hare; if they have known it, their giving Alkalies is an Argument, they have not acted [Page 5] like honest Men. But no one can charge me with any thing selfish, unless it be to leave a Name to Posterity. I want University-Glosses to polish over my Discourse, but Truth like Diamonds will sparkle among Pebbles, yea appears best naked; and I am sorry, I am forced to promulgate this Doctrine in Terms that look so like self-commendation but I have been too long meal mouth'd, whereby Truth has suffer'd, and my over modesty has caus'd me to be oppress'd: But a constant series of success has rais'd me many Friends, and nothing but an extraordinary Pro­vidence could have supported me against so many Enemies: All the Ch [...]rurgeons in the World, and after the Physitians, but from these, I have had the fairer play, and they grow more civil, and among the Chirurgeons I gain Friends daily.

Al.

How should People have known your Hypothesis long since, when it is not long, since you conceived it, and brought it forth; pray you Sir excuse them: And let us come to the tryal of Skill, whether your Hypothesis be well grounded or no, and see whether you can prove, that all People that have not known your Hypothesis have groped in the dark, and cured Diseases ei­ther by a very rare accident, or not at all, that you are the only Man God has given Eyes to, till which is done, I cannot but look upon you as a Person of great Impudence, to accuse all the World of Learned PHYSITIANS as Fools, or what is worse, as Knaves, and uncommon Arrogancy to assert your self the only Wise, yea and honest Man pretending to Physick; and that you have nothing selfish in you, but to leave a Name to Posterity. Truly methinks, you are as selfish as any body: But as for a a Name to Posterity, it's pity you should want it, I'll help you, that you may be sure to have it, and not for nothing. I wish you could have written in Latin, that all the World might have known you. Tho' you say, you want University-Glosses, you are Rhetorical enough in­deed Sir; for you have abundance of Hyperboles, nor want you other choise Foiles to set off your Diamonds, nor are your Truths naked, but so dress'd up (if you have any) that I cannot see the Faces of them. But you commend your self so much, it looks not like force put upon you; nor do you seem so meale-mouth'd, or over modest as you say you are, but speak roundly enough. It's pity Truth should suffer, or you be oppress'd for your Virtue, Poor young Man: but it may be hoped you will grow stronger. But you have had extraordinary Helps, constant Success, and un­common Providence has got you Friends, and supported you against so many Enemies, all the Chirurgeons in the World, and after the Physitians. Has your Fame spread so largely? Certainly this must be by some uncommon Providence, for I cannot find, that [Page 6] half the Chirurgeons, or Physitians in England have heard of you, (but I will endeavour that they may) much less all the World of them, when your Books are wrote but in your own Language. But prethee John let me hear no more of these brags, but lets come to the contest: I'll give you as fair play as you can well wish, and will be added to the number of your Friends, if possible.

Ac.

In all Diseases, Physicians have unanimously agreed, that Acids have abounded; and if to such a Degree, that their Alkalies could not conquer it, then the Patient Dy'd. And as for Alkalous Medicines, I dare be positive, they never yet Cured any one Di­stemper; but frequently have done a great deal of mischief. If any ever receiv'd any advantage by them, I dare be burnt. If they be given in acute Diseases, and Nature be strong, she throws off the load in spight of them; if weak, they add to the load, and she falls under it. In Chronical Diseases, such as the Gout, poor Mortals are let alone to languish under the Distemper. But you may say, If my Hypothesis be true, how have others, mistaken Physicians, Cur'd Diseases? I answer, I own they have Cur'd some Diseases, but they could never tell how: They have given Steel, Antimony, and other Preparations, without enquiring into the nature of them, supposing them Alkalies; when they at the same time are Acids; as also many Vegetable Productions, and so Cur'd Diseases, they being Acids.

Al.

Truly John, your Discourse begins to grow nauseous: You are not yet Forty Years old, and could you have spent Thirty of them in reading the Writings of Physicians, you could not have read the Tenth part of what they have Writ, much less have known, what success they always had in their Practice. And as po­sitive as you are, I believe, I shall give you matter of Fact, as well as Reason, enough to convince any modest Man, that Diseases have been Cur'd by Alkalies, and when you are convinc'd, I would counsel you, to burn your Books, rather than your self, as dareing as you are. And for shame forbear to accuse all Physicians at this rate, either never to have Cur'd Diseases, or now and then to have done it ignorantly, they knew not how, by giving Acids at una­wares. Do you think others have not took as much pains to know the nature of Antimony, Steel, and Vegetable Productions as you? Had none of them any way to know Acids from Alkalies? Van He [...]mont, whom you sometime, call'd your Master, saies, he wrought Forty Years with great labour and charge (and others have done the like) in Analizeing the materia Medica. Fye John, fye! pre­thee give over, I believe, you will sometime find you have done your self no Credit, nor kindness to cry your self up, and cry down all Physicians at this rate.

Ac.
[Page 7]

I have made reflections on Physicians indeed, but they are principally Foreigners; they all to a Man, asserting the Doctrine of Alkalies. What I have said, is not to reproach the Physicians of our own Nation, who are many of them, as Great Men as ever were of the Profession, and this City abounds with such; but my design, is to undeceive Young Physicians, who have been impos'd upon by Foreigners, and to excite them not to rely upon Men, who have broach'd the Chymera's of their own Brain, without ma­king Experiments, whether their Notions were true, or false; my design being, not to Reflect upon that Noble Society the College, the Glory of our Nation, and of the whole World; but I have the greatest Reverence and Respect for them.

Al.

Mr. Acid, you do not know what all Foreigners have done, neither do they deserve your reproach more than the Physicians of our own Nation, or are they less Men: You cannot well be ig­norant, that some of the College you applaud so, are Foreigners, and as deserving as any of the rest. Nor have Foreigners impos'd on Young Physicians, more than those of our own Nation, nor have they been always Men more full of Chymera's, or less ac­quainted with Experiments; as every one acquainted with the Medical World must acknowledg. Nor was Young Mr. Acid the fittest Man to undeceive Young Physicians; he should have left it to Older Heads, or have stay'd a little longer. Was there none of the Fathers of the Noble Society, whom after you had abused in general, with all Physicians, you now sweeten up so, as the Glory of the whole World: I say, was there none of them that under­stood the Vertue of Acids? Or, none of them so kind as to undeceive the Youngsters, that they left it to you? Or, had none of them such a Capacity to Write as Mr. Acid? I must tell you truly Sir, you are no Credit to them, of what profit soever you may be, notwithstanding your Professing Reverence and Respect for them. But I believe, after all your bouncing of a New Hypothe­sis, we shall find, that Physicians have used Acids, knowing them to be such, long before you were Born; thinking rightly, that nei­ther Acids nor Alkalies alone Cure Diseases; but a Physician using them all with other things, when, and where he sees occasion. And to convince you, and shew you how apt you are to contradict your self, (your Memory as you have sometime confess'd, being a very treaeherous one) To confirm the truth of your Doctrine, you told us, Dr. Jones commended Acids in divers Diseases, a Man of such clear­ness of Reason, that you never heard him mention any thing, but he was fully able to demonstrate it. But if what you say of him, be true, and your Doctrine may be suppos'd not false; I think he is more like to be the Author of it than you, tho' he lets you take the Name; [Page 8] and I would advise you, to get him to demonstrate your Hypothe­sis; for I am sure you have not done it. And Dr. Baynard had also wonderful Success, and his Practice run upon Acids, and those Gentlemen embrac'd Acids out of a Life-saving principle (you say) in opposition to the multitude. Likewise you tell us at another time, that, Dr. Watson used Acids for Ten Years, which was before the birth of your Hypo­thesis, if you were the Parent of it. Nay, you tell us Oyl of Vitriol is commended in Theatro Chymico, pag. 86, & 87. Vol. I. And your Master Helmont by advising a Man to take two Drops of Oyl of Sulphur every Meal, preserv'd him free from Diseases to an Old-age; which advice was given, long before you were born, and doubtless he knew, Oyl of Sulphur was an Acid. Nay, Riverius also comes in for a Snack, by your leave, when you are kind or forgetful, Curing a confirm'd Pthisis with Conserve of Roses and Oyl of Sulphur. Here are Foreigners Sir, tho' you say, All of them to a Man, asserted the Doctrine of Alkalies. But, your treacherous Memory, once gave away all your glory; when you were almost positive, that there was no Phy­sician in Christendom, of any business, but had made use of Oyl of Vi­triol, that dangerous Acid, tho' asserters of Alkalies. But then you sting them in the Conscience for such practice, how they can answer for it you can't tell, that if Acids are the Cause of Diseases, how they dare with a good Conscience give the most temperate Acids, you can't under­stand. But I'll undertake to be Casuist for them, for once; see­ing you can't resolve it. They used Acids, when they saw occa­sion, with better reason than you do, and Alkalies, as they found the nature of the Cases requir'd; being wiser, than to think Acids alone, or onely Alkalies the Cause of all Diseases, And to name one for instance, to convince you of the truth of the matter, Frederick Hoffman Publish'd an ingenious Treatise, 1689. against the fancy of some few, who would make Acid and Viscid the Causes of all Diseases; wherein he commends Acids in many Cases, yet confesses, that Acid and Viscid are the Causes of many Distempers. Certissimum porro est (saies he, pag. 5.) & cuivis practicorum obvium acidum, & viscidum plurimorum morborum fomitem, ac mineram existere, and gives several Instances and Arguments to make it appear, and that a Physician cannot be without Alkalous Medicines, & sane (saies he again, pag. 10.) nisi velimus dissimulare, nullus gratiosus medicus facile carere potest salibus istis Alkalinis Volatilibus, interquae paimas tenet Spiritus Oleosos Sylvii: Spiritus salis armoniaci vinosus cum ol [...]is aromaticis, & carminativis varie essentificatus: Spiritus Vi­ni a sale Vol. C. C. abstractus, Salia fixa, & illorum solutiones, Lapi­des Canerorum, Coralia cum lixivio salis Tartari imbibita & impri­ [...]s sali [...] fixa Sulphuri metallico amicissimo conjugio juncta, &c. And concludes, Aci [...], ac viscidum motui sanguinis nimis hostile; pluri­morum [Page 9] morborum causam evadere posse, & contra Medicamenta Al­kalina acidum destructiva decenter exhibita genenerosissima magnorum morborum existere praesidia. And this was wrote several Years be­fore your Essay (as you call it) concerning Alkali and Acid. Where are you now John?

Ac.

It is true. Some few other Physitians have used Acids, but the assistance I had from them is inconsiderable as to the establish­ing my Principles, and if I have made any good steps, it is ow­ing to my own industry; for tho' I was not bred at University, I have taken as much true pains to inform my self in all parts of Physick, perhaps as any Man ever did: And spent as much Money to qualifie me for the practice of Physick as most Men, who have spent their time in the Universities, and I have had ocular de­monstration for my Money, when as some of our University-Men have had only the fusty Notions of Old Aristotle for theirs. And tho' I have not said all that is to be said in behalf of my Hypo­thesis, yet I have said so much, that I believe I may boldly say, it is the best and clearest Hypothesis now extant, on which the cure of Diseases may be attempted on greater certainty, than on any other Publick.

Al.

At one time you say, all the Physitians in Christendom of any business have used Acids, now but some few; we must conclude either you contradict your self, or else the Men of business, in all Christendom have been but few: But if by Men of business you mean such as your self, then I believe indeed they have been but few, and the assistance you have had from them, towards the establish­ing your Principles, has not been great I grant; for your read­ing has been little. Yet some assistance I am confident, you have had; for your Discourses smell pretty strong of Dr. Andre, of Acid, and Alkali Published in English, 1689. But when you say, you have taken as much true pains to inform your self in all parts of Physick as any ever did, you cannot be excused of Arrogancy; for we well know, you neither have had the Years, Abilities nor Opportunity many have had. Besides you are so extraordinarily accomplish'd in that one Qualification of a Doctor of Physick fashi­onable Language, that it must needs have taken up much of your time to acquire it, and hinder your learning other parts of Sci­ence. But as for your spending as much Money, as most who have been bred at Universities, we know very well you never had it to spend. But why could not University-Men have Ocular de­monstration for their Money as well as you: Or, How come they to be confin'd to the fusty Notions of Aristotle? for want of other Books? I hope you will supply them with fresh Notions for the future. But you have not said all that should have been said in [Page 10] behalf of your Hypothesis, that is if it were to be made probable. Here you are in the right, and I should have perceiv'd it, if you had not told me so. And I grant you believe, or would have us think your Hypothesis is the best, and clearest in Physick now extant to all intents and purposes, and you have said as much as this comes to over and over. 'Twas a thousand pities you were not able rightly to handle it, that it might have proved the most glori­ous of its kind that ever appear'd on the stage of the World. But af­ter all these braggs, and stir for a Name to Posterity (not to talk of getting a little Money to purchase an old Coach for the pre­sent) your Treacherous Memory so far fail'd you, as to let you say, you did not pretend to be sole Author, or first broacher of the Doctrine of Acids, it having long since been the opinion of some of the most hap­py Practitioners in the World, and is now embraced by some of the greatest Men, and most happy Practitioners our Age affords, and that you don't pretend to be so great a Man, nor deserve so well of Mankind as Helmont, Paracelsus, &c. who treading out of the common Path, did not want maligners; therefore why should you who don't pretend to have arriv'd at those great Perfections they had, take it amiss to be abus'd, and evil spoken of? Here you are over modest and meal­mouthed. For these Men were Foreigners, and often used Alka­lies, and were ignorant of your Doctrine, that Acids are the cure of all Diseases, and yet deserved better of Mankind than you. What fit of Modesty is this John? 'Tis to be fear'd your cause will suf­fer for this. But I see in all this you would commend your self by comparing your self to such great Men; but you have not done it ingeniously yet you should let others praise you, and not your own Mouth.

Ac.

I have had several congratulatory Letters from divers Learned Men in praise of my Discovery of the Doctrine of Acids, as for instance from Dr. Jones, begining thus, Dear Sir, As for Acids, Dr. Baynard and your self deserve eternal praise, &c. From N. Tyrling, Dignissime, contra Justitiae, morumque normam peccarem si virum cui Deo proximo vitam debeam silentio preterirem. Nuper, enim cum e luce pene evasissem, tu mihi propitius adste [...]isti, candide efful­sisti, Tu meus Apollo, &c. And from Dr. Watson thus, Tractatus tuos summis cum deliciis & voluptate perlegi, & tuum in promoven­do illo nobilissimo Medicinae studio institutum maxime demiror in huma­ni generis bonum universale: Macte Bone vir Melioribus Avibus, & momos aspernare, &c. And in the beginning of my Relation of the Person bitten by a Viper, you will find the following Panegyrick. To the Unknown Dr. Colbatch, upon his most Ingenious Tracts, especially that of Alkalies and Acids.

[Page 11]
Physick for Ages past has grop'd her way
In Paths of Darkness, without any Ray
Of certain Truth, and still was going astray:
When COLBATCH rose, who with reviving Light
Dispell'd the Clouds, and chas'd away the Night,
By him th'important Secret is reveal'd
Through Fraud, and Ignorance so long conceal'd:
No sordid hopes of Gain, e'er sway'd his mind,
His only Aim's the good of Humane kind;
Who first with Pains, and Labour dug the Oar
Then freely gave us all the Golden store.
Let Juggling Quacks grown envious of thy Name
Combine together to obscure thy Fame;
Such are the Mysteries which thou dost unfold
They'll write thy Name in Characters of Gold,
To thee alone Mankind's indebted more
Than t'all the Doctors that have gone before.
J. C. Junior.
Al.

These Men praise you at a great rate Mr. Acid, one thinks eternal Praises your due, another owes his Life to you his Pagan Deity, another is ravish'd almost in reading your lusceous Writings, and admires your Capacity in promoting Medicine, claps you on the Back, and bids you despise your Carpers; But the fourth out­does them all, and sings you too. I wonder no body did it soon­er, for you are a Subject enough to inspire the dullest Muse: But the Poet might have let us have had his name at length, sure he needed not to have been shie of owning his Opinion of you any more than the other Gentlemen; Besides he might perhaps have prevented our mistaking him: For I cannot be perswaded but that it was John Colbatch Junior, that was the Poet, however I am sure that John Calbatch Junior, caused it to be printed in his Book, and had he not been a Junior it had never been there. To the Unknown Dr. Colbatch is a very odd Epithet on so Famous an Author, it cannot sure be an Ironie, but hold; John Colbatch Jun. may be very well thought to be unknown to himself, otherwise he could never have Published his own Praises at so extravagant a rate. As for his Poetry I say, in short it is Poetry, and it is well it is so; for nothing but Poetica licentia can excuse it, it being all fiction: And perhaps for this reason Tom Saffold chose to Publish his Bills in Verse, knowing the liberty of the Muses to lie. And now I mention the Famous Tom Saffold, it brings into my mind what a Friend of Mr. Acids, who saw what J. C. Junior had written would have added, which was this:

[Page 12]
Whilst Saffold liv'd (could you believe him) he
Outdid all other Quacks in Pharmacy.
'Twere Saffold's Pills so call'd among the rest,
Deservedly had gaind the name of best.
Since J. C. Junior rose his greater fame
Defac'd the Monument of Saffold's Name:
Believe him, or his Friend, he merits more
Than all the Saffolds that have gon before.
His rarest Tincture, and his great Wound-Powder,
Do praise him every day lowder and lowder.
In Villers-street near to the Ass his head,
John Acid Liveth, now Tom Saffold's dead.
Acid like Saffold mighty Tales has told,
And here his famous Drops are to be sold.

But to deal plainly with you Mr. Acid, this is but playing the Quack, and least you should take it unkindly if I should handle him only in rough Prose, who now comes dress'd out so finely in Verse. I'll give the Quack his Character in the same fashion. As follows,

A Quack's a Medicaster, setting forth
By base, unhandsome means his feigned worth,
Whether on Saddle, moving Stage he sit,
Boasting his Remedies, from street to street.
Whether he keep a Fool to act his part,
To draw a concourse there to Preach his Art.
Whether at Coffee-House he does appear
At such an Hour, plying for business there:
Whether his Story he described has
O'th paper Hangings of a pissing-place.
Or tho' his Tales unto a Volume rise,
To speak him Learned in the Peoples Eyes
The Quack's the same in differing disguise.

But I long to see whether John Acid deserves all his great Enco­miums, and whether his new dug Oar will yield him any Metal that will stand the Test, I doubt it will not go through the fiery Tryal.

Ac.

As for the great threats daily thundred out of my be­ing confuted, they are but Scare-crows to me, I am far from be­ing afraid of it, and whoever shall make it appear by solid Ex­periments, [Page 13] that I am in the wrong, shall be my Great Apollo, and the first thing I do, shall be to write a Publick Recanta­tion.

Al.

Upon your word Mr. Acid you'll vomit up your so well digested Hypothesis; if I can help you to an Emetick, that will work upon you: I believe you would never offer so fairly, but that you are confident that nothing will turn your stomach: I'll try. I fancy Antimony may yield a Medicine strong enough for you; you say, 'Tis an Acid, therefore I hope you will be willing to take it, if that won't do, we will try your own Vulnerary Powder, that's vomitive too, and we will prepare them with Acids. I'll give you a process I'll warrant you, and you shall prepare it, in your own Elaboratory, You are a profess'd Chymist you know, and a Disciple of Helmont, and know nothing so delightful as Cbymical Ope­rations. Helmont purg'd himself of the Galenical Hypothesis, by what he wrought out of the Fire, and if you follow my directions it may be you may clear your self of yours, and you know you are Apothecary enough Master Doctor, to dispence your own Medi­cines skilfully, when you have prepar'd them.

Ac.

I confess I was bred nn Apothecary, and under a Man that was not the greatest Master in his Business; but taking notice of my Master's imperfections, I apply'd my self, for Four Years of his time, to those things my Master could not Teach me in some measure; and when I was become a Master in Pharmacy the foun­dation on which Physick is built; I was induc'd to look into the Body of Physick it self; and tho' I dont pretend to absolute Mastership, yet I shall endeavour to improve my Talent. The greatest part of my time I liv'd in Worcester, and tho' I kept an Apothecaries Shop, my dependance was wholly upon my Practice. And since I speake of my being an Apothecary. I shall give the necessary Qualifications of one of that Profession; that you may judg such a one has made a large step towards being a good Phy­sician. 1. An Apothecary must have good acquaintance with the Vegetable Kingdom, not only to know the Faces of Plants; but their Natures and manners of Operation on Humane Bodies. 2. He must well understand the Nature and Operation of Mine­rals and Metals, which is not to be attain'd without much Reading and hard labour in the fire, and 3. of Animal Bodies, amongst which is Man, there being scarce a part of his whole Body, but what is sometime or other to be used as a Medicine; but first re­quires the Apothecaries Skill for its Preparation. The famous Etmuller was not asham'd to own that he serv'd Eight Years to an Apothecary; yet he became one of the most Eminent Physicians in Europe: And for ought I know, the loss of him at that Age he [Page 14] Dy'd, deserves as much to be lamented as the loss of any one pri­vate Man, from him so much might have been expected.

Al.

One might have guess'd you to be an Apothecary, if you had never told us so, you talk so like an Apothecary: But I am sorry you had no better a Master; it had been well you had met with one that could have taught you a little good Manners; for truly John, you shew none in publishing your Master's imper­fections. But pray you, who taught you for that Four Years you went so far beyond your Master's Capacity, as to become a Master your self in Pharmacy? Truly I can hardly believe you are a Ma­ster in Pharmacy yet. For tho' you call your self a Doctor, I am sure you talk as if you knew not what Pharmacy means, when you tell us it is the foundation on which Physick is built. You have look'd into the Body of Physick at a fine rate: But indeed, you don't talk like an absolute Master, to tell us, That Pharmacy, that is the making of Medicines, is the foundation on which Phy­sick, that is Natural Knowledge, is built. Surely John, you never read any Institutions, or if you did, what you read slip'd out of your treacherous Memory; but it may be, you would speak with the Vulgar, while you think with the Learned, and then the sense of it is, That the making of Medicines, is that upon which Medicine [...] is built. But if you would talk with the Doctors, they place Phy­sick or Physiology in the first place, as the foundation, meaning the consideration of Nature it self, in its sound state, or due order. Then Pathology, the account of its Defects. And thirdly, Semeiotice, the consideration of the events or issues of those Defects. Then Hygieine which teaches to preserve from those Defects, as much as my be. And in the Last place, comes Therapuetice, the method of reduc­ing the Defects of Nature, and the fitting the Instruments for that purpose is Pharmacy: So that it is far from the foundation of the Building. What Practice you built on your foundation of Pharma­cy, I know not, or whether your dependance were on that Pract­ice. You are very kind in giving us the necessary Qualifications of an Apothecary, you are willing to inform the World, how fit a Man Mr. Apothecary would be thought to be to make a Doctor of. But by your Mastership you shew in Pharmacy, and your acquaintance with Materia Medica, I believe before we have done, it will appear, you have not made that large stride an expert Apothecary has took towards being a good Physician: But I shall remark here only, what acquaintance you have with Animals; especially such an one as your self, of which you say, There is scarce a part but is sometime or other to be used as a Medicine. I believe your Brains would make an excellent one, but they would hardly yeild one Grain of sharpness in Distillation. And as I suppose, you would not use [Page 15] Man's flesh crude (except in some few Distempers of Women) because you say it ought to be prepar'd: If the Fire must be used, it will produce Alkalies copiously from both fluids and solid parts of Man's Body; and Alkalies acording to your Hypothesis are the principle of Death and corruption; and yet all parts of Man's Bo­dy are sometimes to be prepar'd for a Mediaine. You forget your self so oft John, I am asham'd of you. The famous Etmulier was a Foreigner and an asserter of Alkalies to be good Medicines, and Acids the cause of many Diseases: How comes he in so much Cre­dit with you here Sir? He should be rather infamous methinks for his Fraud or Ignorance; but you forgive him I see for sake, sake; that is, he was an Apothecary, and yeilds you an Argument for us, thus, Etmuller was an Apothecary; and yet became one of the most Famous Physicians in Europe! one whose loss is much to be lamented, he might have been so useful: Ergo, Mr. Acid who was an Apothecary, may nevertheless be one of the most Famous Physicians in Europe; and so, much to be priz'd: This is the Lo­gick of it. But truly I can see no such great hopes of him, he is so apt to forget what ever he says and do's; but a blind man may catch a Hare, they say.

Ac.

I wrote my Essay of Alkalies and Acids, during the Siege of Namur, when I had not the opportunity of consulting Books, nor the benefit of coming at my own Papers, wherein I had set down my Observations; wherefore, I only made use of those occur'd to my Memory, which is a very taeacherous one, so they are not so numerous and exact as I design'd them; but yet I was willing to venture them abroad as they were, for some reasons; they be­ing not in the least design'd to entertain the Learned, but to unde­ceive the Multitude. I have aim'd at certainty, if I can once ar­rive to that (which I will never rest till I have done) I care not. If we could have a publick Laboratory at the Nation's Expence I should hope to see the matter sooner effected. It costs the Nation some Hundred thousand's a Year in Powder and Ball to destroy Mankind: Why not One Thousand in Experiments to save their Lives? There is a Noble Laboratory already Built at the College the fittest place for such a thing, and the Governing Officers are Men of Fidelity, and of such Publick Spirits, that they are fit to be trusted with a greater Summ.

Al.

I think it had been well Mr. Acid you had let alone Wri­ting till you could have consulted Books, as well as your own Pa­pers, that you might have help'd your Memory (which you now confess to be a very treacherous one, and so shew, I have not abus'd you) for truly your Observations are not so exact as they should be. But you had Reasons to venture them abroad, not to entertain the [Page 16] Learned; but to undeceive the Multitude. What's the meaning of this Sir, who are the Learned? The Asseyd Doctors such as your self, Dr. Jones, Dr. Watson, Dr. Baynard? &c. And are all the rest the Multitude? Those perhaps whom you call Young Physicians, tho' for Years they may be Old Men. Or, do you mean by the Learned, all Physicians, and by the Multitude all other Men who understand no thing of Physick. These last you rather seem to mean: But what do you Write to teach them Physick? What will become of the Doctors then? There is Vinegar, Crab-Verjuice, Lemons and O­ranges enuough to be had and you tell them, They can never over Dose it, for the Stomach wont fail to reject whatever is to much, and the da­mage is but a puke or two: We shall have them all turn Doctors, your method is so easie. But by undeceiving them, I rather sup­pose, you mean you would convince them that the Alkali-Do­ctors are dangerous fellows, or at best good for nothing; that they may Employ you Mr. Acid, and your Disciples, if you have any: There's the knack of it; and I confess, there needs not much exactness in putting our Bills to invite those that know nothing of Nature, or good Sense; and this consideration makes me inclina­ble to fancy, you may be as sharp a Fellow in Politicks as Tom. Saffold, who once shew'd himself more Knave then Fool, when being told, his Bills were Non-sense; He wittily reply'd, he Liv'd not by Men of Sense. And I confess Fools are soonest caught. I applaud you for aiming at Certainty; but if you mean Certainty in Physick, and will never rest till you arrive to it; I think, I may ptomise the World a perpetual motion on your Credit. A Publick Laboratory at the Nation's Expence, would be a brave thing (but that would never make you an infallible Doctor, tho' you were the Director of it) and a Thousand a Year; yea, Ten Thousand would be better spent in such a Design to save Mens Lives, than some Hundreds of Thousands to destroy Mankind. But methinks Mr. Acid, you give the Nation a hard Complement, aud especially His Majesty the Supreme Director of our Expences, to say so much Money is spent to destroy Mankind. I don't be­lieve, any such wicked Design; but that you abuse both King and People. But we have a Noble Laboratory to our wish at the College, the fittest place for such a thing. But John, you do not only bespatter every body else, but you disgrace the College too, by begging Money to buy them Coals and Glasses, as if they were either not able to defray the Charges of the design themselves, or so covetous they would not, unless the People give Money to instruct them in their Art, as well as pay their Fees for the effects of it. What the Governing Officers are as to trust, and Publick Spirit, I shall leave to those that best know them. But [Page 17] indeed John I have no hope that those Men who understand Phi­losophy enough already, will ever be eager in the design you talk of, either with their own, or others Money; and submit it to your teachings: I could never find them so solicitous about In­structing young Physicians as your self Sir; but if they were, I should still fear a publick Laboratory, as you would direct it, would rather be a publick Pest, than a publick Benefit; there would be so much Oyl of Vitriol, of Sulphur, and other sharp Corrosives made, and given to the Sick, as would destroy ten to one more than Powder and Ball do's: When not one in ten but sometimes may want a Doctor; but not one in ten thousand go's to the Wars: And these things would be so much more dangerous; because (like White-Powder) they would do execution, without giving a report. For John I must tell you, I still believe, that Acids-may be the Cause of many Diseases; especially in the Hand of a four Hypothetick: And Alkalies may in many cases be very good Medicines: And this will go near to be my Opinion, till you have convinc'd me by good Reasons, grounded on sufficient Ex­periments, that your new Hypothesis is any more, than a new Method of Quacking.

Ac.

Every Man may be capable of judging, whether my Hy­pothesis is true or false, from this easie Method. Every Apothe­cary's Boy knows that all Acids pour'd on Syrup of Violets, or a solution of it, will turn in Red, and as the Acid is stronger, or weaker, so will the Red colour be: So on the other hand, all manifest Alkalies, lixivious or Volatile will turn the Syrup Green, and as the Alkali is stronger, or weaker, so will the Green Colour be. Whence I infer if the Serum of Blood did turn the Syrup Red, it would be plain, that the Serum did abound with Acids; but if on the other hand it turns the Syrup Green it is more, or less impregned with Alkalous Particles. I positively assert, I could never find the Serum turn the Syrup into any colour but Green. All manifest Alkalies thus change the Syrup to a Green. Ergo, If the Serum too do's so change it, it must needs abound with Alkalous Particles. This is an easie way of Arguing, and the plainest Demonstration in the World. And no one that la­bours under the Gout, or any other Distemper Chronical, or A­cute; but will be glad to lose two or three Ounces of Blood, to make this Experiment, on which so much depends. Every Gen­tleman, may thus reason with himself: My Physician tells me, my Blood abounds with Acids, and upon that score, gives me Alka­lies to correct them; but if he should be mistaken, and my Blood abound with Alkalies, his giving me Alkalies will encrease the Di­stemper: Therefore since I have so fair an opportunity, my own [Page 18] Eyes shall be judg, what my Blood abounds with: Whether Dr. Colbatch's Enemies, being almost all the World of Physicians, or he are to be blam'd. If my Blood abound with Acids, he ought to be Kick'd out of the Common-Wealth; if on the other hand, it abounds with Alkalies; he deserves all the Encouragement in the World; for discovering so useful and necessary a Truth, and thereby exposing himself to the malice and rage of so many. This Experiment is liable to no Objection, I know of; and by it I can refer my self to every Gentleman, and from Gentlemen, I shall have Justice. Physicians have endeavour'd to expose me, because owning me to in the be right; would be owning their own mi­stakes: But by this Experiment, I have appeal'd to more just Judges.

Al.

You being to talk like a Philosopher, and a Logician too; now Mr. Acid, I hope, that I shall have some Work, and that we shall leave Playing: And I am very glad, I am capable of judging of your Hypothesis, by your own concession, since you say, every Man is so: And I hope, some Men will be capable of judging of what I shall say to it; tho' perhaps, every Apothecary's Boy may not: For in some places they do not teach them for the first thing, the change of colours in Syrup of Violets, by Acids and Alka­lies. But I shall appeal to Physicians, and Gentlemen too, if Men of Sense. Gentlemen you know, are many of them, troubled with the Gout; and I remember you have told us, Tbat all that are afflicted with the Gout, are Men of Sense; for you never met with one Block-head that was troubled with it. This is good Logick, could we suppose, you had met with all the Men troubled with the Gout. But I shall love Alkalies the better for this trick: For if all that are troubled with the Gout, are Men of Sense, and all that are troubled with the Gout abound with Alkalies (as you have af­firm'd) it looks something like an Argument that Men abounding with Alkalies, are Men of Sense; and then on the contrary, Men abounding with Acids, are likely to be Block-heads; and I should always be afraid of an Acid Doctor, not only least he should be an Ass himself, but least he should make me a Fool too, by destroying the Alkali in my Blood; which gives me more happiness in a sensible Understanding, than infelicity in the sence of a Gouty Paroxysme. But tho' I appeal to Gentlemen, as well as Physicians; I shall not like, you so far disgrace my Profession, as to suppose, Gentlemen better Judges in Physical matters, than Physycians themselves: Should I do so, I should shew my self no wiser, than the Barrester who woulld be judg'd by his Clients, whether he pleaded Law, or no. I will not accuse Physicians, as either less Wise, or less Just, than Gentlemen; however Mr. Acid, or other Gentlemen may take it: But assert their Education for the generality, in all [Page 19] respects equal to, if not exceeding Gentlemen; and if their ac­complshments in Physical Knowledge be not greater, it is a great shame, and Gentlemen are unwise in using them. But let us come to the reason of your Hypothesis. All Alkalies turn Syrup of Vio­lets Green, Tarbox the Blood abounds with Alkalous particles. This is an easie way of argueing; but truly your Argument is far from a Demonstration; you are out in your Logick here, and have not prov'd the Point. For unless you could have made a regular Category, and have said, Whatever turns Syrup of Vio­lets Green, is an Alkali. But Serum of Blood turns Syrup of Violets Green; therefore it is an Alkali, or abounds with Alkali: and then have prov'd your Major: It will not follow, that the Serum abounds with Alkali: For tho' all Alkalies will turn Syrup of Violets Green; yet it wants to be prov'd that whatsoever turns it Green, is an Alkali, or that nothing but Alkali will do so: Which I am sure, you will never be able to do, but by denying some of your assertions; as may appear before we have done. But I grant, that the Blood abounds with Alkalous particles; if by abounding, you mean only that it yields, or con­tains a great deal of Alkali, and not that it has always too much. And what then Mr. Acid? You don't deserve all the Encourage­ment in the World for this necessary Discovery; because truely, it is none of your Discovery; being well known, long before you were born, to your Master Helmont, and a great many more Fa­mous Men; yea, I dare say, all that at present deserve the Name of Physicians, knew it before you ever saw Blood Distill'd, or knew it would yield a Salt, or that Serum would turn Syrup of Violets Green. But you have discover'd one thing indeed, in as­serting this your Discovery, that is your self, unacquainted with the World of Physicians, or arrogant and foolish in publishing that, as your Invention, which was generally known, long before you knew any thing of Physick. And truly John, you deserve to be laugh'd at and hiss'd, if not kick'd out of the Company of Phy­sicians, for this Discovery. But to the Argument, 'Tis true, the Blood abounds with Alkali, whoever discover'd the truth of it. What then, do's it follow, that the Blood's abounding with Alkalies, is the Cause of all Diseases? Not at all. For, if it abound with Alkalies, I say, it should do so, as it naturally does in Persons most healthy; and it no way follows, that the abun­dance of that which ought to abound; is the Cause of Diseases: But the want of the due quantity of that which ought to abound; or the abounding of that which should not, or do's not naturally abound, is much more likely to be the Cause of a Disease. It is well known to those Physicians who have (as they ought) been [Page 20] exercis'd in Experimental Phylosophy, that Man's Body by a Py­rotechinal Examination yields a great quantity of Volatile, Alka­lous Salt; but the quantity of it is much exceeded by the other Pro­ducts; yea, even by one of them, viz. Water, the abundance of which, a Hypothetick Brain, might as well have fancy'd the cause, not only of a Dropsy; but of all other Diseases; there being more of it to be carry'd off by Perspiration, than of any other Mat­ter. It is beyond all doubt, that the Particles constituting the Humane Frame, are of different Figures and Sizes, and have their determinate Proportions, as to quantity; from whence a­rise the different appearances of the Parts in their Natural Shapes and Constitutions; as also the different qualities of the Ar­tificial Products from one, and another of them. But for a Man to say, That the abounding of any one of these (tho' by abound­ing, he mean one of them is too much in quantity) is the Cause of all Diseases; looks so unlike a Philosopher, or even a Ratio­nal Man, that I admire any one fond of a Reputation, should be guilty of such a folly, as either to assert it, or believe it! It is evident to all Men, that in any sort, study the Nature of Bodies, that a due Proportion of the component Parts is requisite to the proper Constitution of a Compound Body. And if a Body con­sisted but of two sorts of Particles: For instance, Acid and Alka­lous (supposing them themselves to be simple Bodies) in all Rea­son, as there ought to be a certain Proportion; the abounding of one, as well as of the other, would make an undue Constitution, or Disease. But the Body of Man, consists not wholly of Acid and Alkalous Particles; so that one of these two must needs a­bound, to make a Disproportion; but of divers others, either Natural Constituents, or Artificial Products: And that it should be said, that but one of these can possibly abound, is without a­ny colour of Reason; when not only our Food, which encreases and maintains the bulk of our Bodies, is so different, abounding now with one, then with another sort of Particles Homogeneous to those our Bodies consist of; but also the various Excrements to be Egested, may be now one, then another retain'd, or too hastily carry'd off, and so cause a disproportion; and what the proportion ought to be between these divers Particles, I doubt, will be found a matter too hard for a better Philosopher than Mr. Acid, certainly to determine. Moreover, the Body of Man is to be consider'd as consisting of solid and fluid Parts, contain­ing and contained; besides which, there is in Man [...] Impetum faciens, and as we consider Diseases, with relation to this threefold Division; the fancy of Alkalies abounding to be the cause of all Diseases, will still appear more groundless, too narrow and [Page 21] insufficient. In the solid Parts, there is to be consider'd, their undue Conformation; too little, or too great, too narrow, or too wide in proportion to one another; and so their unequal strength, their being too hard or too soft, solid or poreous; with many unperceiv'd Solutions of Continuity, &c. from which, divers Diseases, on divers occasions, may proceed; and all which, un­due Conformations, unequal strengths or breaches, cannot be suppos'd so different and contrary, to proceed from the single a­bounding of Alkalies in the Blood. For instance, a large dis­proportionate Liver, small Lungs, narrow Veins, Cartilaginous Aorta, single Kidney, inward imperceptible Breaches, are impos­sible to be accounted for, from the abounding of Alkali. 2. The Liquors or Contents of the Body may be too thick, or too thin; moved too fast, or retarded too much, Extravasated, or Coagu­lated in some Vessel or other; of which contrary Effects, the a­bounding of Alkalies onely, cannot be always either the occa­sional or formal Cause. 3. As to the [...] of Hippocrates, or Archeus of Helmont; because some more thinking Heads, than Mr. Acid's sour one, have thought it too abstruse or subtil a Notion: I shall first tell you plainly, what I mean by it, leaving others to determine, whether Hippocrates and Helmont meant the same. By the [...] I mean the Soul, or Mind of Man in its extra­vagant Appetities: And that nothing else ought to be understood, by that of Man which is consider'd as an Agent; but his Mind is apparent from This, (which all considerate Metaphysicians must acknowledge as a Truth) That there is no Being we have any Idea of, but Mind and Body; the one being Active, the other Passive: And tho' all created Minds may suffer, as well as do; yet all Body is universally un-active, and can do nothing. Tho' this Notion may seem a Paradox to some, I shall say no more of it here, than what relates to my present purpose; because I may have occasion to speak farther of it, if I live to finish a Discourse I have for some time spent some thoughts upon, Of the [...]oot of Diseases, and their Cure in Humane Nature. But to return to the business in Hand, It is apparent, that the exorbitant Desire or violent action of the Will of Man; is that which often produces such an alteration in his Body, as when perceiv'd becomes a Disease. For instance, the Blood is too much retarded, or accelarated in its course, as well as the more subtile Liquors variously disordered; from whence proceed divers ill Effects, which cannot be thought to proceed from the Production of too much Alkali, or retarding its supposed necessary Evacuation in a Moment. The unsatisfy'd de­sire in its most sudden Disappointments, cannot be thought to be [Page 22] so great a Chymist, as to produce in an instant a greater quantiyt of Alkali Salt than the Body can bear, or so soon separate the Acid that should attemper it; but is rather to be thought, to produce its Effects in a more subtil way. The force of Ima­gination and Desire upon the Body, is very well known, tho' the way of working those various Effects is little understood: But I shall consider it no farther here, than in relation to Alkali, which is with no colour of Reason to be thought either the Cause of those Mental Disorder, or the instrument of the Effects produc'd thereby. But to come a little closer to the Term of abounding either of Alkali or Acid, in the liquid or solid Parts: When may either be said to abound, so as to be likely to be the Cause of a Disease? I answer, When there is too much of the one or the other. And how shall we know that? May Gentlemen say (for we will appeal to Gentlemen; yea, and Ladies too, if they will Read us: Poor Men and Physicians we shall get but little by; tho' they should think us Skilful Doctors.) I must tell you, Sirs and Madams, there ought to be some Consideration of the due Proportion, before we talk of abounding; and it is certain, That there is abundantly more Alkali in, or produc'd from the Blood and other Parts of Man's Body than Acid, and ought to be so in a sound Man, as we have seen Demonstrated by abundance of Ex­periments. The proportion of Alkali to Acid, we need not scruple to suppose, no less than as twenty to one, when we have found the Alkali to the Salsum as seventeen to one: But we will not pretend to ascertain the Proportions; it being a very difficult matter to find them. But we will suppose, twenty to one, or but ten to one if you please, to shew you that your Doctor John has talk'd like an Ass-ey'd Doctor to you. For if there ought to be but one part of Acid to ten of Alkali, and there be just that proportion; neither can be said to abound, or thought to cause a Disease: But if there be two, or more parts of Acid to ten of Alkali, the Acid must be said to abound, or be too much, not the Alkali. And as for the little Trick John has shew'd you with Sy­rup of Violets, at the expence of two or three Ounces of your Blood (which in some Cases ought not to be spar'd.) I think, I should undervalue your Parts, if I should suppose, you can't see thro' the Juggle and make an Objection, where your Doctor says he can see none. For tho' Acid greatly abound, or be a deal too much; yet the Serum will not turn Syrup of Violets Red, unless there were more Acid then Alkali. And such a quantity of Acid (if it were possible, in a Living Humane Body) would be a Di­stemper too great, for either an Acid or an Alkali-Doctor ever to [Page 23] reduce. And that you may satisfie your own Eyes, and judge whether Doctor Acid, or all the Physicians in the World, ought to be Kick'd out of the Common-wealth; without the trouble, and sometimes hazard of losing two, or three Ounces of your Blood. Take Syrup of Violets, and drop into it a quantity of an Alkalous Spirit: and you will find it presently turn Green, and then take an Acid, and drop but a little in, and you shall not find it turn Red; but drop in till you have over-power'd the Alkali, it will turn Red; then drop in again of the Alkali, and as soon as you have over-power'd the Acid, it will turn Green again. By this Expe­riment you may be rationally perswaded, there may be too much Acid in the Blood, and so enough to cause a Disease; tho' the Blood does not contain more Acid than Alkali; and so turn the Syrup Red. And that there may not be too much Alkali, tho' there is enough to turn the Syrup Greeen.

Ac.

The Physicians of our own Age, more particularly of our Nation, and among them (most especially of our College) have made greater Discoveries in the Anatomy of the solid Parts, than ever were made before; but as for the fluids, wherein the Cause and Seat of Diseases lurk, they have in a great measure been neglected: But the College abounds with Men of such large Capacities, that if once they set about the Work, I doubt not, but they will per­fect it. Being Skill'd in the Anatomy of the solid Parts. A Noble Qualification! Enables a Man to talk finely; but do's not in the least enable him to Cure Diseases. For it's an exact skill in the Anatomy of the Juices, that makes a Man a good Physician. And I have made it the business of my Life, to understand rightly the the Juices of Humane Bodies in their Natural and Morbid States; and by that means have been capable of doing more than other People; and I tell you, that the Blood has never any Acid in it; but when People are in a perfect state of Health: Nay, I tell you, the Blood can't over-abound with Acids, neither in a Morbid nor Healthy State: For tho' manifest Acids, are things the Sto­mach much more covets and delights in, than any thing besides: When she is loaded with more than the Body has occasion for, she won't fail of rejecting them by Vomit; which may be experi­enc'd by an over large Draught of Vinegar; but altho it can't over-doe; yet it is very defective in conveying a sufficient quan­tity into it, thro' its own fault, or the Physicians. But the Blood of Diseased Persons has more Alkali, than that of the Healthy; as in Fits of the Gout, it abounds with Alkalous Particles, more than in Health as six to four, or five and a half, or as five to four; which you will find in my Book of Blood, where my Experiments are as clear Demonstrations of my Hypothesis, as what is given by the great­est [Page 24] Mathematicians. So in the Small-Pox and in Scorbutick Persons it does appear by many Tryals, that the Blood of such Persons does more abound with Alkalous Particles, than that of sound People, and a Sick Person's Serum will turn Syrup of Violets Green sooner than a well Person's. And if Physicians would Critically Analize the Blood in all Distempers, I believe, thereby the Cause of all Diseases would be certainly known.

Al.

Mr. Acid, you are very lavish of your praises where you place your favour; I wonder the College who have so great a share of them, are not sufeited. They have made more Disco­veries in the Anatomy of the solid Parts, you say, than ever was made before. What Discoveries have they made I pray you? Wherein have they out-done others, either of the foregoing Age, or Foreigners of this? What improvements have they made in the Anatomy of the solid Parts? You know perhaps, but you won't tell us: and 'tis no matter, whether it be any thing or nothing. For being skil'd in the Anatomy of the solid Parts is a Noble Quali­fication you say: But how do's it Ennoble a Man? Why, onely enables him to talk finely; but do's not in the least enable him to Cure Diseases. It is an exact Skill in the Anatomy of the Juices, that makes a Man a good Physician; which Anatomy has been neglected even by our College. What is the inference of this? Why, our College have a Noble Qualification of Talking finely; but not in the least an ability to Cure Diseases. Pray you Sir, what are the People the better for the Colleges Ability to Talk finely; if they have none to Cure Diseases. No, but they are Men of large Capacities! Capable of perfecting the Anatomy of the Juices too, if they would but once set about the Work. But when that will be, who knows? They understand Philosophy enough already (tho' their Friend John says no) and while they are in that Opinion, they will hardly learn more. While they think the Anatomy of the solid Parts is enough for them; they will never set about the Anatomy of the Fluids by Mr. Acid's Di­rection: And so for ought we know, they are like to remain Physicians in Verbo only; Fine Talkers. But Mr. Acid is the only Physician in Re, indeed, amongst them. 'Twas great Pru­dence in them to take you into the College Sir, that they might have one real Physician to actuate the rest; that they might not be a Body without a Soul: You know Acid is the Soul of the World. And an Ass-Ey'd Doctor may as well be the Soul of the College. I can hardly think, they would so readily have given you a Licence; but that they expected you would do something for them, they could not do for themselves; run down the Badger, catch the Salmon, or some other piece of Difficulty. [Page 25] You, who have made it the Business of your Life, to understand rightly the Juices of Humane Bodies in their Natural and Morbid States; by that means have been capable of doing more than o­ther People (if you say true) more than all the rest of the Col­lege. But you are a Particle of the College, and what you do; is the doing of the College. 'Tis well they have you, that they may not only be said to do something; but more than other People; tho' not in the whole, yet in one part of them, viz. Mr. Acid. But truly John, your crying down the Skill in the Ana­tomy of the solid Parts, is but a dull way of excusing your Ig­norance therein, and you do but as Block-heads commonly do, cry down as useless, all Knowledg they themselves have not; that Fools may think them Wise enough. But I must tell you John, and the Gentlemen too, That the Skill in the Anatomy of the Solids, is so far necessary, that the Anatomy of the Juices signifies little to a Physician without it. The Animal Oeconomy can never be well understood in its due Order and Defects, by one that knows nothing of the Structure of the Parts. For instance, tho' I knew the Gall to be of such, and such, a Nature and Quality, and by a Pyrotechnical Analysis, to yield such, and such different Bodies, or Sets of Particles: What am I the wiser, as a Physici­an, unless I know where this, thus qualify'd Liquor, is separated and discharg'd? How otherwise, can I determine of the Use, or Defects of this Liquor? So likewise as to the other Liquors of the Body: How can I know their Motions, Secretions and Uses, unless I know which way they pass, and where separated? Was the Famous Harvey, or Servetus before him, nothing the better for being aware of the ways of the circular Motion of the Blood, but only that they could Talk finely. Fye John, you don't talk like a Light in Physick, much less in Chirurgery. I must tell you, if you had been skill'd in the Anatomy of the solid Parts; you would not only have talk'd more finely; but more truly than you do, as we shall see in a Material instance before we have done. And as you have foolishly confess'd your Ignorance in the Anato­my of the solid Parts (a shame to any Physician, especially to one that Writes himself of the Noble College) so I believe, I shall find you ignorant of the Anatomy of the Fluids too; and that it will appear, you have not done more than other People in any thing, but Impudent Boasting! You tell me, that the Blood has never any Acid in it, but when People are in a perfect state of Health; and that it can't super-abound, neither in a Morbid, nor Healthy state: For tho' the Stomach covets Acids more than a­ny thing else, she will not fail to reject what's more than enough, by Vomit; but tho' she can't over-doe, yet she's very defective [Page 26] through her own, or the Physician's fault. You are a cunning Man! Of a she Stomach. You once told us, That all Persons have some degree of Sickness. Now that the Blood has never any Acid in it, but in a perfect state of Health. But I answer, If all Persons have some degree of Sickness; then none are in perfect Health; and if none are in perfect Health, according to you, none have any Acid in their Blood. Yet again you tell us, That Leanness is for want of enough Acid in the Blood, and Fat is nothing but a concrete of Acid and oily Parts; and over-much Fatness, if it may be call'd a Disease, is caus'd by Acids. What a misery it is for a Man to have a Treacherous Memory; so to contradict himself. If Fat be a concrete of Acid and Oily Parts, wherever there is Fat there is Acid; but there's Fat in Persons under many Diseases: I have o­pen'd a Body, before now, that Dy'd of another Disease than Fatness, that cut two or three Inches in Fat upon the Abdomen: And Fatness in some, is Disease enough; and if your Doctrine were true, nothing could be more proper than Alkalies to Cure it. But farther Sir, If there be never any Acid in the Blood; but in a State of perfect Health: How can Acids Cure the Diseases of the Blood: Mortifie and Expel the luxriant Alcalous Particles, reduce the serum to fluidity, make the too thick Blood thin, and the too thin Blood thick, The Miracles of Acids! That he that can shew how this can be, what Acids taken in the Latitude can do, must be as Wise as Solo­mon, the Wisest Man that ever was, or shall be. Yet you tell us, That Acids produce these different things, by being differently specifica­ted with other things, but Acid is the soul of them. And so Solo­mon is not the Wisest Man, for you are as Wise as he. But tho' I believe there has been, or may be, one Man at least Wiser than Solomon, and you too Sir, I much question whether he would be cunning enough to tell, how all these fine things come to pass, which you say are done in the Blood of Diseased Persons by Acids, if as you say, there never comes any Acid there, but in a state of perfect Health; or how he could make it appear, that the stomack so unerringly rejects to a grain, whatever of its belov­ed Acid is too much to be convey'd into the Blood, and yet is foolishly defective in letting in enough. But to leave these con­tradictions to their Author, and to perswade you (at least the Gentlemen, who are such impartial Judges) that there is even too much Acid in the Blood in many Diseases, I might first give you a Hundred Authorities from Famous and Learned Authors, but that Authority is nothing to you, who have cry'd down all the Physitians in the World. Yet methinks the judgment of some of them might be of some weight with you, especially those you [Page 27] have commended, and perhaps the Gentlemen may believe them as soon as you. Your Brother Etmuller asserts Acids in the Blood as the cause of many Diseases: It would be endless to re­cite the Passages; so I shall give you but two or three. Of the Gout, says he, page 361. Partis secundae. Quoad causam efficientem Acidum volatile Spirituosum sui tamen generis, seu specifici saporis spi­ritui influo maritatum synoviam imprimis, & partes vicinas membra­naceas inquinans, & affligens primarius Tortor est. And pag. 394. De malo Hypochondriaco, & scorbuto, says he, Causa proxima horum malorum complicatorum est Stomachi cruditas Acida, sive Acidum ventriculi vitiosum, ex defectu vitioso digestionis primae in stomacho e­natum, a quo omnia reliqua symptomata originem ducunt. And as for Feavers, says he, page 251. Partis primae. Consistere dicimus Fe­brim formaliter in fermentatione sanguinis praeternaturali. And page 252. Aestus omnis occasionalis fit ab Acido crafin sanguinis im­mutante, & inde fermentativum ejus motum, hinc Spirituum alte­rationem & majorem incalescentiam, & fervorem inducente. And goes on to prove by many Arguments, that Acid is chiefly in the fault in Feavers. And page 369. he saiys, the same in relation to the Small-Pox. The forementioned Hoffman (the rather to be noted, because he Writes on purpose to contradict the fancy of those that would make Acid, and viscid the cause of all Diseases) gives us Instances, and Arguments to prove Acids the cause of some Diseases. Cap. 2. De acido & viscido, says he, Caeterum quan­tas torturas acidum vitiosum in corpore nostro excitet, testantur Hy­pocondriaci, hystericae, scorbutici qui a levissimo acido mire saepe laeduntur exacerbatis omnibus symptomatibus: testantur quoque, id ipsorum vo­mituae, saepe tam corrosivi, ac tanta aciditate praediti ut vasa aenea, imò ipse linteamina, instar aquae fortis, corrosa inde videas. And gives us a relation of two Brothers, who by accustoming them­selves to drink Vinegar, were brought, the one into an incurable hectick Feaver with a Cough, and leanness of his whole Body, and horrid pain of his Feet; and the other, into very great dis­orders. And adds he, Tandem observatu dignum quosdam qui quo­ties utuntur aceto, altero mane pruritum in fontanellis sentire mani­festo indicio acidum intactum, & integrum penetralia corporis subire posse. And your Master Helmont, because you have confess'd him a greater Man than you, may be heard saying, page 319. Tormi­na ab acido intestinorum, in lotio stranguria, in ulceribus corrosio, in pelle Soabies, in artubus podagra, &c. Quod si experire velis ad manum, emictae noviter absque dolore urinae, aliquot saltem guttas vi­ni aciduli immisce, & per syringam injice. Experieris te invito quod vera doceam. In latice quoque pluritidem notham, suscitat. Ast si Archeus in cruoris gremium leviculam sibi sinistro applicatam acidita­tem [Page 28] deposuit; statim extravenatur, ejicitur a venis spreta, & apostema parit ubicunque id locorum contigerit: sin vero profundius in venis eveniat pestilens aliquod Pathema insurgit. Quod probo quippe eruor aut ca­ro nunquam aceserunt absque actuali putrefactionis consecutione (quod alibi per carnes belluarum, sub canicula ocissime putrefientes, ideo jus­culum acidum dantes probavi ex instituto) cruor enim acescens mox contra naturam venarum totiusque carnis indolem (quandiu vivit) coagulatur. But if your Master Helmont be despis'd with you, be pleas'd to hear what Father Hippocrates says, an Old Gen­tleman so venerable among Physitians, that I never met with any one yet that had the confidence to despise him; tho' many that never read him. Says he in his Discourse De veteri Medicina; [...]. And again, [...]. And a little af­ter, [...]. Which, least you should complain of Heathen-Greek, and say, Non potest legi; I will give you in English, thus: For thereis in Man Bitter and Salt, and Sweet and Acid, and Astringent and Humid, and others innumerable; having all Kinds of Faculties abundance and Strength. These indeed, being mix'd and contemper'd with one another, are neither apparent, nor hurt a Man: But when either of these is separated, and is of it self; then it is apparent and hurts a Man. And again, says he, of our Food, Whatso­ever things are disagreeing and hurt a Man being taken in; each of these is something Bitter and Intemperate, or Salt or Acid, or something else intemperate and strong; and for this Cause we are [Page 29] troubl'd by them, as also by those things which are separated out of the Body. And a little after, says he, If the sweet Juice is chang'd to another Form, not by mixture; but being of it self what it was before, Bitter, or Salt, or Astringent, or Acid; but the Acid Juice is disagreeing, the rest being for the most part profitable, but the Sweet Juice of all is most agreeing. But if the Judgment of these Famous Men, be not enough; let me reason with you a little farther my self. How can Diseases if caus'd by Alkali (as you say) be Cur'd by Acids, but by Acids coming into the Blood. Must not there be some time for their Operation there, before they can mortifie and expel the Abundant Alkali, so as that Acid must be in the Blood, while the Person is yet Diseas'd? Or, do's Alkali leap out at one Door as afrighted, seeing Acid with his sour Face coming in at another? Are your Cures all so sudden? No John, I suppose not. But altho' there were no Acid-Doctor to convey sour Liquors into the Blood; yet I say, there may be Acid, and that too much, in the Blood of a Diseas'd Per­son, as the cause of his Disease. It's undoubted among Physici­ans, that the Health of the Body, very much consists in the due Temper and Consistence of the Blood, and other Liquors of the Body, that they be neither too thick nor too thin. If they be too thick, they cannot puss freely through the small Vessels, and circulate through the Aanastomoses of the Arteries and Veins, but stick and cause Obstructions; whence arise Swellings and Pains, by distention of the Parts, and the Liquors stagnating; get a fermentavive Motion, and so corrupt and corrode the solid Parts, and produce Ulcers: But if the Obstruction be sooner open'd, and the Coagulated Parts be carry'd along again into the Mass of Blood; it is thereby retarded in its motion, before the Particles can be separated; from whence may proceed divers Dis­orders. Now it's certain, that Acids coagulate and thicken the Blood, and other Juices of the Body, as any one may see by mix­ing a little Acid Liquor, as Oyl of Vitrol, sp. of Niter, Oyl of Sul­phur, &c. with a little Blood, or Serum: The Acids turning the Serum into thick white Corruption, and the Red part into a tough black Matter. So Acid Liquors injected into the Veins of Animals kill them by coagulating their Blood: When on the other Hand, Alkalous Liquors make the Blood more thin and florid, on which account it cannot be thought, by any Body that has his Senses, that when the Blood is too thick, or coagulated, 'its caus'd by Alkalies, and not by Acids. You said Mr. Acid, that Whoever shou'd take upon them to Answer any thing you have said, unless they back their Arguments with Experiments, you should take no notice of them. But tru­ly Sir, you have not back'd your Assertion. That Acids make the [Page 30] Blood thin when too thick with Experiments. I would counsel the Gentlemen to do it for you, and they will see how friendly your Acids are to the Blood. Besides, that there's too much Acid in the Blood, in some Diseases, may fairly be argu'd, a Juvantibus & laedentibus. It being commonly seen, that Persons afflicted with some Diseases, are very much hurt and the Symptoms exasperated by the use of Acids, as Hypocondriacks, Hysterical and Scorbutick Persons; those afflicted with divers kinds of Ulcers and that have Issues: On the contrary Reliev'd, Eas'd and Heal'd by Alkalies; as is well known to Physicians and Chirurgeons. Farther, to sa­tisfie you, because by all the ways you could yet contrive, you have not been able to procure one Grain of pure Acid from the Blood either of Healthy, or Sick People. I'll teach you. From the Blood of ei­ther Diseas'd or Healthy Persons, as also from their Urine which is separated, from thence you may get a Sal salsum, like Sea-Salt, which you say, is an Acid; but I say, yields an Acid by Distilla­tion, and from Flesh and Blood, as well as from Urine, may be got the Phosphorus, which is an Oyl coagulated into an open Sul­phur, by an Acid; which Acid may be as easily separated, as the Acid is from common Sulphur, which is eaise enough, tho' you say, 'tis no easie matter to do it. And from Urine, an excrement of the Blood, besides Phosphorus, I have made a perfect burning Sulphur, without any addition of any Body that could yield it, or help to compose it; which Sulphur would make good Matches, and might be Distill'd into Oyl of Sulphur, per Campanam as easi­ly as any other Sulphur; and every thing is dissolv'd, you say, into that of which it was made. But I say, not by every sort of Disso­lution. But that in a common Distillation of Blood, by such a Distiller as your self, there's no Acid produc'd, is easie to answer, by an Experiment or two. For instance, I will take an Alkali, and mix with it a considerable quantity of an Acid, and you shall Distill them, and shall not get one Grain of Acid; but an Alka­lous Liquor. Again, I will take an Alkali, and mix an Acid with it, and you shall Distill them, and shall not get one Grain of Acid; but they shall both unite, and both come over in a Liquor, nei­ther an Alkali, nor Acid but a salsum. Again, I will take an Alkali, and mix an Acid with it, and you shall Distill them, and shall get neither Acid, Alkali nor Salsum; but a burning Oyl. Which things, if you are a Chymist, as you profess, you can't be Ignorant of. From which Experiments, it may easily be believ'd, that tho' there may be a small quantity of Acid, actually in the Blood, yea, a large quantity in comparison of what there should be; yet the Alkali far exceeding it; the Acid may be so far alter'd by the Fire, or lock'd up with the Alkali, as to come over as an Alkali, or [Page 31] remain a Salsum? And though a mere Salsum cannot truly be said to be either an Acid, or an Alkali, or have an affect as either, Whatever separations or alterations the Fire, may make from it, or upon it; yet it is certain that the Natural or Artificial Conjunction of an Acid with an Alkali, does make a Salsum, and nothing is more common, than to have the Blood apparantly Salt, even to the taste, in many Cases, in some more, some less; which Salsum (tho' the Acid that is coagulated with the Alkali were not separate in the Body first, and so capable of hurting) is very likely as a Salsum, to be the Cause of divers Di­seases, when it too much abounds; which we may easily believe, from this Consideration, That it's well known, that the Eating too much common Salt, is the Cause of many Disorders. As for instance Seamen (as you confess) who live upon Salt-meat, and Salt-fish, are more troubled with the Scurvey than others, not as you say, because they eat more Flesh and Fish (which abound with Alka­lous parts) than others: For others that cat as much Flesh and Fish, and that fresh too, are not so much troubled with it, but because their Flesh and Fish is more Salt, and is also kept longer, whereby the Spiritous and Volatile parts are exhal'd, and so yield a grosser Chyle. Nor as you say, That the moist Air hinders per­spiration; For it is well known, That Men at Sea generally eat more, and void fewer Excrements of the Belly, than at Land, and consequently perspire more. Nor is the Sea-Salt carry'd off all by Ʋrine, it being to be found in a greater or lesser quantity in the Blood, and other Liquors of the Body. Nor can Sea Salt, and any Alkali make a Sal Armoniack, as you tell us, either in the Body, or by a Pyrothechnical Conjunction; unless the Sea-Salt be first an Acid, as I have found by experience, and any body may see that will try to make a Sal Armoniack. And tho' the Air at, Sea should hinder sweat, as you say, yet it furthers Perspiration; whereby the Alkalies if they could do any hurt, may be carry'd off, if that be suppos'd the course they ought to go. And that we perspire more when we don't sweat, than when we do (tho' it may seem strange to some) might be urg'd by divers Reasons, if it were necessary, and may be try'd by Staticks. How an Acid Spirit should be Distill'd from Sea-Salt while in the Blood, or o­ther Liquors of the Body, I confess I see not, but I know by cer­tain Experience, that there's often separated, or produc'd in the Stomach, a Praternatural Acid, a kind of Vinegar, from things taken in, that are fermentable into Vinegar; as Sugar, Honey, Bread, strong Liquors; which tho' in their first ingested Form, could not be truly call'd Acids, yet become very strong ones, and if they were Acids grow stronger. Besides, every one knows, [Page 32] that we Eat and Drink things already sour, both which we know, are not always rejected by Vomit (as Mr. Acid saies) But notwith­standing, there's a more strict Guard for keeping the Acids out [...] the Blood, viz, the Gall pouring out its forces upon them in the small Guts; yet it's very probable that some Acid Particles more than should so do, may pass this Watch, and get in with the Chyle into the Veins; of which Enemy, we are after aware, by the disturbance made in the Vital Oeconomy, which Physicians of a­ny considerable Judgment and Practice will easily be perswaded of. But I shall here give you two or three Instances of Acids found even separate in farther Recesses than the Stomach and Guts. One instance was in a Cancerous-Breast, Cut off by one Mr. Smith a Chirurgeon of the Hospital (divers other Person testifying the truth of the matter, being present) who when he had done the Operation, and came to examine the Breast, ope [...] ­ing a Cistus, found therein a Liquor, which being pour'd on the Ground fermented as it were Aqua fortis; which when he adven­tured to taste was an Acid, and withall so penetrating and vene­mous, that he could not wash away the taste; but it Infected his whole Body; so as to be the occasion of his Death within some few Months, as he himself affirm'd, on his Decth-bed, to an Eminent Physician, who gave me the Account, and was also at the Am­putation. Again, Etmuller tells you, in Medicina Hippocrates Cap. 2. That he was acquainted with a Youth vehemently afflicted with the Itch, whose Itchey-Ulcers being open'd by scratching, pour'd forth a serous Liquor of a manifestly Acid odour, as it were of a subtil and penetrating Vinegar. And that he saw a Scorb [...] ­tick Young Man, who in a Morning yet fasting, spit such a sharp bloody Spittle upon a firm double Paper, that it was thence in a short time corroded. Another instance you have in Act: Med: Haffn. Vol. 4. Pag. 174. Where it's observ'd that the Sweat of an Hydropick Person was Acid coagulating Milk. Besides, the Cure of Ulcers, Itch, Erysipelas's, &c. which I have often done by Absorbents and manifest Alkalies, arguing Acids to abound in these Cases. I don't question, but if we try other proper ways, Acids would be found in divers Ulcers, tho' Mr. Smith's fate, is enough to discourage one from Tasting. But you say, the Blood of Di­seased Persons contains or yields more Alkali, than that of Sound Persons. I answer, It's a more difficult thing than you, or any other young Chymist would imagine, exactly to find the quantity of Al­kali-Salt in a parcel of Blood. To separate the Volatile-Salt whol­ly from the Phlegm, and from the Oyl, and both of them from the Caput mort. will be found too hard a Task for an older Work-man than your self. The difficulty of giveing an exact account of the [Page 33] contents of a parcel of Blood, will appear from divers Considerati­ons. Blood is a Body that will swell up as it drys, so that the top of the matter will have less Heat than the bottom, and retain some of the Volatile Parts; so that if you don't take it out and Distil part of it again in another Retort, you will not get all, and notwithstanding all the care possible, some of the Volatile parts will be lost in working; so that the most wary Artist, do what he can, will not be able to say, Here's all the Alkali, or Oyl, con­tain'd in so much Blood. But there will be still greater Difficul­ties in giving the true Contents in divers parcels of Blood; for if you should take a Pound, or any other quantity of Blood, and di­vide it into equal parts, and Distil one half in one Retort, the o­ther in another, the products would not be the same. For the different degrees of Fire that might happen, different time of Distilling, and taking off, and separating the Phlegm, Oyl, and Salt, the different closeness of Luteing, yea, the very shapes and sizes of the Retorts and Receivers, would almost in inevitably cause different Products. Farther, the Bloods of divers Persons, tho' all in Health, or of one healthy Person, took at divers times, would as much differ in the Products, as that of the Diseas'd and Healthy, as well as vary upon other Tryals. As I have seen the Sweat of a Person in perfect Health, turn Syrup of Violets Green readily, when the very ichor and corruption in the pustles of the Small-Pox, would hardly alter its colour into a discernable Green­ness. So the Blood of the same Diseas'd Person, taken at one time or state of the Disease, would as much differ from that taken at another time, as either of them would from a Sound Person's; having sometimes more, sometimes less Serum. So that I must tell you, you have not been a Chymist long enough, to deserve Credit, since it appears you have not yet Learn'd to speak modest­ly and wyrily; but confidently give us, from small and odd quan­tities of Blood (the more difficut, to be exact in) so many Drachms, Scruples, and Grains as the certain Contents of Phlegm, Salt, Oyl, and Caput mort. from which exact account the sagacious Mr. Boyle excus'd himself: And no expert Chymist will readily pretend to give. But you Sir, pretend to give us the true Proportion of Alkalies in a Gouty Man's Blood, and a well Man's; when you have Distill'd perhaps but two or three well Men's Blood, and one or two Gouty Men's Blood. Do you not think the Bloods of Gouty Men differ, as well as the Bloods of well Men? Let us have the products of a Pound of Blood, from one hundred well Men's Bloods, or so many sick Men's Bloods; and if they are ex­actly the same, then you may do something toward perswading us to harken to you: Or if you can tell us the exact proportion [Page 34] and difference of the Products of an Acid Doctor's Blood from those of an Alkali Doctor's: Till which, I shall never expect to find your Experiments in your promis'd Book of Blood, as clear Demonstrations of your Hypothesis, as what is given by the greatest Mathematicians; unless you mean, as clear Demonstrations, as they give of your Hypothesis, and not of their own Propositions▪ And if all the vast Capacities of the College, and you to direct them, should ever so Critically (Analize, as you call it) the Blood of Persons in all Diseases (which by the way, I tell you could not well be done, when Phlebotomy in some Diseases is pernicious,) I say, they would be far from knowing certainly the Cause of all Diseases; if all Diseafes could be thought to [...] in the Blood: For many Reasons, apparent to every considerate and experienc'd Naturalist: Tho' a Tyro may believe, by his [...] he can do all things; even shew a Man in the Distillation of a lit­tle of his Wifes Blood, without ever seeing her, that she has [...] the Pox; and the very Face of the Spark that Clap'd her, with as great confidence, as some young Logicians, believe, by a Sy [...] ­logisme, they can prove the Moon made of Green-Chese: [...] as I have heard one seriously assert, That by Logick, one migh [...] prove a Man to be a Horse, or a Horse to be an Ass. But let us suppose, that John has guess'd right (tho' not Demonstrated that a quantity of the Blood of one, or another Diseas'd Person is some Distempers being Distill'd yields more Alkali, than as muc [...] of the Blood of some one, or other Healthy Person (for he has made but few tryals:) It will not prove, that in those Distem­pers, too much Alkali was the cause of the Disease, and not too much Acid. For instance, in the Small-Pox, Scurvey, Go [...] where he particularly asserts, he has found the Blood abounding with Alkili more than in Sound Persons: I say, that in those, an [...] some other Distempers we may reasonably suppose, that the Acid Particles meeting some of the Alkalous, are Precipitated, and fix [...] in the exttemities; so that the rest of the Mass of Blood flowin [...] in the Veins and Arteries is depurated, and more free from Acidi­ty, and so in Distillation, may possibly yield a greater proporti­on of Alkali. But I find you Mr. Acid, make a few slight and in acurate Experiments, making them all serve your Hypothesis running away with your [...] with as little consideration and as great mistakes, as any body I have met with. You boast your self better Skill'd in the Anatomy of the Juices, tha [...] others, and that, you are able to do more than other People Truely Sir, I find no Argument of your greater Skill, or doing more than others; we have but your greater Skill, or doing more than others; we have but your own word for it. But pray you, let me hear what knowledge you have got of the Nature [Page 35] and Properties of some other of the Liquors of the Body? What may you to the Saliva, the first we meet with.

Ac.

The Spittle is highly impregnated with a penetrating Sa­line Spirit, which appears from its killing Mercury, which nothing will do, but things manifestly Saline: This matter separated by the Oral Glands, is impregnated with a Volatile Acid, as manifest­ [...] appears: And was design'd to impregnate our Food, and to dissolve it in the Stomach, and turn it into a substance fit for [...]utrition: For there's no innate ferment in the Stomach: And that this Menstruum the Saliva, is an Acid, appears by numerous Experiments; yea, all noble Menstruums, I know of, are Acids, in the three Kingdoms.

Al.

You still go on to shew your dareing Confidence and In­discretion, in asserting positively, things you have but the least ap­pearance of Reason for. You say, the Spittle is highly impregna­ted with a Saline Spirit, with a noble volatile Acid: That it mani­festly appears to be an Acid and that from numerous Experiments; when you have made none: And give us no other Argument, but that of its killing Mercury, which you say, nothing will do, but things manifestly Saline. Here is a Liquor, I find you have never Anatomiz'd; here Mercury alone, resolves your Question, who as the Old Woman saies, is kill'd by Fasting-spittle: But I must tell you, the Old Woman had but one Eye, and so thought that Mercury was dead and bury'd, when the Wagg lay granning, on the Blind-side of her: And you are as Blind a Chymist as she, if you talk of killing of Mercury thus, to Physicians and Philoso­phers. But you talk as a Mountebank, to the Vulgar. Well, Spittle in a Vulgar sense, kills Mercury: But what does it really do to it? Why it divides it, being rubb'd together, into small Particles, that a dull Eye cannot perceive them. And this is done by no­thing, but things manifestly Saline, say you. I see the Clerk has for­got that ever he was a Sexton. Mr. Doctor, if your Memory had not been Treacherous, you might have remembred, That when you was an Apothecary's Boy at Worcester, your Master was not so im­perfect in his Art, but that he taught you, that Turpentine, would thus kill Quick-silver, and Turpentine, it is well known, is not ma­nifestly Saline: I believe, you would be hardly put to it, to get me a Salt from it, or any thing of a Saline nature. Greese like­wise is a Body, whereby the Particles of Mercury may be divided; or almost any Body of a soft clammy Consistence; not from any thing Saline in such Bodies, but from their consisting of ramous flexible Parts, whereby they are apt to enwrap and entangle the globules of Mercury; yea, even dead and insipid Calxes, or other Powders, may be rubb'd with Mercury, so as to do, what you call [Page 36] killing, tho' with more labour. As [...] things manifestly Sali [...] (except those Acid Spirits, that dissolve Mercury) they are sti [...] farther from doing the business, than Unctuous Bodies. As if you take common Salt, you shall find it more difficult to kill Mercu [...] therewith, than with Turpentine or Grease; and with some Sal [...] Liquors it will not be done at all. But if you had made as man [...] Experiments on the Saliva, as you would have us believe, you would have found, that according to your own method of trying thing [...] it is not manifestly Acid: (Not to mention the judgment by th [...] Taste) you know, that manifest Acids turn Syrup of Violets Red [...] Spittle in all the Tryals that I have made, (which have not been [...] few) never turn'd the Syrup Red, but Green, more or less▪ which tho' I will not say, is alone an infallible Argument, [...] ­prove it an Alkali; yet I say, it is enough to prove it not a [...] Acid. I acknowledg indeed, as it's most Reasonable to do, th [...] the Saliva, must be thought to differ, as the Blood from whence it's separated, differs in divers Persons, and may be Acid in some Diseases, as I noted before: And the most of the Tryals I have made on this Liquor, were on the Saliue of Sound Persons. I will not venture to determine, that Mr. Acid's Saliva must be as Alkali: When he uses so much Vinegar, Lemons and Oranges, Oy [...] of Vitriol, &c. or that his old Patients, may not spit Acid: [...] what I have try'd, has been from those that often Eat and Drin [...] Acid things, and are sometimes troubled with too much Acidity i [...] their Stomachs, and yet I could find no signs of Acid in their Saliva Tho' I mix'd it with Milk, and let it stand to see whether it wou [...] thereby turn sour the sooner: I found that another parcel tha [...] had none in it, was turn'd sooner than that. But this is Observable tho' Spittle is often more thick and clammy than the Serum o [...] Blood; yet it will not so soon be coagulated by the Fire, and no [...] at all by Acid Spirits, as Blood and its Serum will: And as Blood Serum, and other Animal substances evaporated on the Fire, will giv [...] but an unpleasant Smell; on the contrary, I have always found Spittle when evaporated (if not so far as to be burnt) yield a grateful Sa­vour. But let us see what this Liquor appears by Pyrotechnical ex­amination, taking your own Rules for the present (tho' I may dissent from them another time) That those things which by Distil­lation yield a greater quantity of Acid than of Alkalous Substance, are to be reputed Acids, & evice versa, and that every thing is dissolv'd in­to that of which it was made. Take the Saliva of a Sound Person (as I did, a good quantity; because it yields but little beside Phlegm [...] Distill it gently in a Retort, and you will find the greatest part of it come over in an ins [...]pid Water, or Phelgm; when you see the matter in the Bottom dry, increase the Fire, and there will come [Page 37] [...]er an Alkalous Spirit in White fumes, and after that a black [...]nking Oyl: The Spirit is very like that Distill'd from Blood, turns [...]rup of Violets Green presently, and ferments with Acids, and [...] the first Distillation I have observed a volatile Salt, stick in the Neck of the Retort. From the Caput mort. is Extracted with Water, a small quantity of Sal salsum, very like common Salt; [...] is so far from turning Syrup of Violets Red, that it inclines into a Greenness, and is dissolv'd by and ferments with Oyl of Vi­triol, like common Salt. Where shall we find your Noble Acid Menstruum now Sir? And where are the numerous Experiments, whereby it appears to be Acid? You first concluded the Saliva to be a Noble Menstruum, I suppose, and all the Noble Menstruums, in the Three Kingdoms, you know of, being Acids: Therefore this must be an Acid. I dare say: you know no Noble Menstrum in either of the Three Kingdoms; and I question, whether you ever saw an Ounce of Acid Menstruum from the Animal Kingdom, tho' there is such a thing to be had in great quantity. It has been the Opinion of many Physicians, That there is an Acid Menstrum, or Ferment in the Stomach: You say, there is no innate Ferment there: But the Saliva was design'd to impregnate our Food, and dissolve it in the Stomach. I must tell you, thereis no need of an Acid Menstruum, or Ferment in the Stomach, either there genera­ted, or brought from some other Part. As for my own Stomach, I have a Capacity of knowing what is in it at all times, which few Men have; and I always obse [...]ve, when my Stomach is in best order, there is no Acid there; not so much as to curdle Milk, or turn Syrup of Violets Red: But whenever there is an Acid, is is produced from something or other ingested, and is preternatural, and disagreeing: And I very seldom find my Stomach out of or­der, but from things ingested, that are, or turn sour, or else from things too fat and oily. I will not here contend with those who make the Saliva the Menstruum, or Ferment of the Stomach, if it has any thing properly so call'd; But I see no more reason to think, that the separation, division, or alteration of out Food, is performed by virtue of that small quantity of Alkali, Salt▪ Oyl, or Salsum, produc'd from the Saliva, by the Fire; than that the in­ [...]briating quality of Wine proceeds from a volatile Alkalous Spirit, that by Art, is therehence obtain'd. But I conclude, that unless Mankind have divers sorts of Ferments, or Menstruums in their Stomachs, there's never any manifest Acid requir'd there, or pro­duc'd, but what is preternatural.

Ac.

It's well known, few People are troubled with Acidity in their Stomachs, but those that use very little Exercise, or live a sedentary Life; by which means, the Chyle when made, [Page 38] for want of motion (the fibers of the Stomach also having lo [...] their tone, and become lax) is not soon enough carryed one of the Stomach, and lying there too long, the greatest part [...] turn'd into a substance like unto the Ferment, which at firs [...] dissolv'd it; it being the nature of Ferments to endeavour the [...] change of those things they are mix'd with into their own [...] And that some may say, How shall this Acid be kept from being convey'd into the Blood, and so being the Cause of Diseases. [...] answer, Those that have an extraordinary Acidity in their Sto­machs, 1st. Make Water often, and in large quantities. 2dly. A [...] very Lean. 3ly. Are Costive, all which Symptoms are for want o [...] the Acid of the Stomach's being convey'd into the Blood. The [...] make more Water, because the solid Food is by too much [...] attenuated, and converted into a thin substance, which by the [...] pressure of the Liver on the Stomach, instead of passing thro' th [...] Pylorus, is squeez'd thro' certain Vessels which pass from the botto [...] of the Stomach to the Kidneys, and so carry'd off by Urine. An [...] that there are such Vessels, see Doleus Enhcyclopaed. Med. pag. 359. I suppose says he, liquid Substances may be convey'd from the Stomach thro' the Omentum to the Kidneys, hence those Animal [...] that have no Gall, make no Water, as Birds and Fishes: For con­firmation of which Opinion, I have Dissected Animals gorging the [...] with Water before, and found the Vessels of the Caul very turgid. In Hydropical People I have Dissected, I have found the Caul e­ther torn, putrify'd, or obstructed with Oedematous Tumours whence it follows, Liquids contain'd in the Stomach, must fall in­to the Abdomen. Also a Person Cut for an Omental Rupture, par [...] of the Caul being Cut away, had a difficulty of making Water and if he Drink much has a pain and weight at his Stomach, and [...] always Loose: Hence in my Conjecture, some Vessels that carry the Uirne right on to the Emulgents were Cut, by which means, all the Drink he drank, was carry'd into the Duodenum. It is therefor [...] certain, that Liquid Substances lying at the bottom of the Stomach pass thro' in that part which is join'd to the Caul, and if those Vessels, or the Caul it self are broken, putrify'd, or obstructed it necessarily follows, that the Liquid Substances contain'd in the Stomach, must be let fall into the Cavity of the Abdomen, and for Dropsie is caus'd. Thus Doleus. From this Doctrine may be great consolation to People labouring under the Stone. A reason I be­lieve, Persons have not made such diligent search for such Medi­cines, has been a supposition, that scarce any Medicine could re­tain its Vertue thro' so many alterations: But were they satisfy'd of this shorter Cut, they would not think the dissolving the Stone▪ so hard a Task: Farther to prove the Existence of these Passages, [Page 39] [...]d that the Medicines may pass unalter'd to the Kidneys and Blad­ [...]r: Take these two Cases, 1st. A Person that had not made Wa­ [...] in two Days, and had an intolerable pain in his Back, I gave him some Medicines, and in an Hour and half's time he was well, having piss'd two Chamber-pots full, and in the first two [...]oonfulls of small Stones. Now had these Medicines been convey'd through the Lacteal Veins and so on through the [...]ood, it had been impossible the Effect should have been so soon, or the Medicines not altered, or totally destroyed. Ano­ther Person afflicted with the Stone in the Bladder Nine Months, and despaired of a Cure, all common means being used in vain, was at last prevail'd with to send for me, and to try what I could do for her: Upon Monday Morning she began to take my Medi­cines, and on Wednesday Night, I Examin'd her Water, and found some small pieces of Stones in it, and Tasteing the Water, I could discern the Taste of the Medicines, as vigorous as they were be­fore they were taken: On Thursday Morning she sent to acquaint me, she was perfectly well; and visiting her, I found she had voided a stone an Inch and half and a quarter long, three Inches and a half round. I could add several instances of this nature; but these two I think sufficient, and plain Demonstrations that there are such Vessels. Nay, I don't question, but suddenly to make it appear by ocular Demonstration. Secondly, Those Peo­ple who abound with Acidity in their Stomachs are Lean, because the solid Food, being over attenuated, is made capable of passing thro' these Vessels, and the grosser is convey'd to the Guts; and having but few Nutritious Particles, Leanness must needs follow: And as I said, that Leanness is for want of Acid in the Blood, ap­pears that Fat is nothing but a concrete of Acid, and Oily Parts: When the Blood is destitute of Acids, and abounds with Alkalies, as it doth with all People who have too much Acid in their Sto­machs, the Blood destitute of Acids to coagulate the Oyl, there can be no Fat produced: And that already generated, having its Acid mortify'd by Alkalies, looses its consistence, and is turned into a thin Oyl, and when the Oyl is gone, the Alkalies prey on the Muscles, Nerves, and Fibers, and cause general Disorders. Thirdly, Those troubled with Acidity in the Stomach, are Costive, because the more thin Parts are carry'd off by the Urinary Vessels. But it may be objected, How comes it to pass that Steel which is an Acid Cures Atrophies, and does not exasperate them, by increa­sing the Acidity in the Stomach. I answer, Steel cannot be con­vey'd into the Blood before it be turn'd into Vitriol, and therefore it is necessary to give it unprepar'd to People of Acid Stomachs: By in the Acid is so embody'd that it can't pass thro' the Urinary [Page 40] Vessels, and is hindred from attenuating the Chyle, and so being mix'd with the Chyle, they are together conveyed into the small Guts, and so on to the Blood, where by its Styptick Acidity it confirms the texture of the Blood, and mortifies the Alkalous Par­ticles.

Al.

That few People are troubled with Acidity in their Sto­machs, but those that live a Sedentary Life, or use little Exercise▪ is not true; unless by a sedentary Life, you mean sitting much at Taverns and Ale-Houses, where the Drinking fermentable Li­quors, produce too much Acidity in the Stomachs of many Per­sons: but of those that seldom use such sitting, but live the most stirring Lives, I have known more three to one, troubled with sour Stomachs, than of those that use little Exercise. The Saliva which you account the ferment of the Stomach, I have shew'd is not an Acid in its natural State; and tho' from the small quantity of Salsum got from it, an Acid may be Distill'd; yet in the Stomach, it acts not as an Acid, and so it cannot change the Food into Acidity, by being too long retain'd in the Stomach, for want of Exercise: But when there's any Acid in the Stomach, 'tis as I have said, from things ingested, consisting of divers Particles apt to ferment, assisted by the Heat and Moisture in the Stomach. As to your assertion, that those People that have too much Acidity in their Stomachs, make Water often, and much, are very Lean are Costive, supposing it true (for it wants proof) and that they a [...]d so, because by this Acidity, (which you say, ought to be con­vey'd into the Blood) the Food is attenuated, and converted into a thin Substance; and so by the pressure of the Liver squeez'd thro' certain Veffels, which pass from the bottom of the Stomach to the Kidneys, and so is carry'd off by Urine. I say, you shou'd first be sure that there are such Vessels; which you can never be, but by being skill'd in the Anatomy of the Solid Parts, and so hav­ing a Qualification to talk finely: For to talk truely of things seen with ones own Eyes, is the finest talk that can be in Anato­my. You should not have built so great a Superstructure, on a Foundation you have no Knowledge of: But had better have stay'd a little, till you had given an Occular Demonstration of these Vessels; since you believe, you shall so suddenly be able to do it▪ and when you had found them, you might have Talk'd more fine­ly. For your two Observations, and Doleus's to help you, are not sufficient and plain Demonstrations, as you say. Let us consider both your Author's and your own Arguments. Doleus does but suppose there may be such a Passage thro' the Omentum to the Kid­neys; but to strengthen his supposition, he tells us, those Ani­mals that have no Caul, make no Water: He shou'd have said▪ [Page 41] those Animals, but have no Caul, have no Kidneys: And if that had been true, it might have look'd like an Argument that they do not Piss: But if there are Animals that have no Caul, and yet have Kidneys, as Birds have: what use are they for, if not to separate some serous matter from the Blood? and tho' they do not Piss in the manner, as some Animals do, being more dry and perspiring much; yet there is, as is well known, a passage from their Reins, into the common passage of the thicker Excrements. In his Dissection of Animals first gorged with Water, and finding the Vessels of the Caul turgid; he shou'd have certify'd himself, that those Vessels were turgid with the Water that was reciev'd into the Stomach, and have seen that he could press it out of the Stomach into them, and out of them into the Kidneys, and where they were inserted. And as for the Dissection of Hydropical Per­sons, tho' he found the Caul so affected▪ it might be but the con­comitant, or Effect of the Dropsie, and not the Cause; unless he could assure himself, it was so in all Hydropicks. The Caul's be­ing obstructed, rather argues against him, that the Liquid Matter could not pass that way. As to the Person whose Caul was part Cut away, it can't be Rationally thought that a difficulty of mak­ing Water, shou'd be caus'd by the Urinary Liquors not being transmitted to the Kidneys, but rather, from its being obstructed in the Bladder, from some other Cause than the Cutting of his Omentum: Nor is he certain, that the pain and weight in the Man's Stomach, and loosness when he Drank much, was not from some other Reason. As for your Consolation, for Persons trou­ble with the Stone; you see of what use, Skill in the Anatomy of the Solid Parts would be now, if you had it. But I know no Physicians that have Study'd the Nature and Causes of the Stone, and the possible and likely ways of its Dissolution in the Reins, or Bladder; but have at the same time, concluded nothing likely to Dissolve it, but what's as well unchangeable by any of the Fer­ments of the Body, as inoffensive to the passages of Urine; neither of which Requisites are to be found in your Noble Acid Menstrunms, being coagulable by Alkalies, where ever they meet, and so offen­sive and intolerable to the Urinary Vessels, that were there in­deed such a short cut as you fancy, for them to pass unchanged to the Reins and Bladder, you might Cure the Patient quickly; but it would go near to be by Death more painful than that by the Stone it self: And wo be to all your Patients Reins and Bladders; the giving of Catharides would be nothing to your Acids, which will not only cause intolerable Stranguaries, but even corrode the Bladder, as any one may find, if he has a mind to try. But you Mr. Acid, who think you have found a nearer way to the [...] [Page 40] [...] [Page 41] [Page 42] Wood than others, and so do not think the Dissolution of [...] Stone so hard a Task, I am apt to presume, will be long enough before you can do the College and Mankind, so great a piece of service as to spoil Dr. Groenvelt the Famous Lithotomist's Trade. As for your two Cases, you think Demonstrations of the aforesaid Passages, the Man Cur'd of the stoppage of Urine in an Ho [...]r and halfs time, and the Woman troubled with the Stone (as you say) who took your Medicines on Monday Morning, which you Tasted on Wednesday Night in her Urine, and was well by Thursday Morning: I don't question, tho' you give no more than these two, but that you could give us a Hundred more such Stories: But if we suopose, these matters of Fact true, I say, the speediest of your Cures is not so sudden, as to make it necessary to conclude, that the Medicines could not go a longer March, and thro' more de­files than if they be suppos'd to pass by the way of the Lacteal-Veins. Almost every one's Experience, will certifie them of more sudden Effects of things taken into the Body, in the remotest Parts from the Stomach. When we are faint and weak by Fasting, and take Meat and Drink, we soon feel a sensible Refreshment and Strength throughout the whole Body, and those that take too much Vinous Liquors, in a very short time, will feel the Effects there of in their very Finger-ends. Besides its well known, that divers things taken into the Stomach, will in half an Hours time produce their Effects in the very Skin, causing copious Sweats. And what's more, I my self, have Experienc'd that the mere Tasting a thing, has in a few Minutes time wrought by Sweat, Vomiting and Purg­ing: Nay, some things apply'd outwardly, will very soon both Purge and Vomit; the Particles of which can't be communicated to the Stomach, but by a longer way than from the Stomach to the Kidneys by the Lacteals. And as for the Tasting of things in the Urine; I say, you never Tasted any of your Acids there: But whatever you might Taste in the Urine, it's no Argument of your short passage: The Taste of things is oft found remaining, where they must be suppos'd to have pass'd the Lacteals. Every Coun­try-Woman knows it by Experience, that Crow Gerlick will not on­ly be very strongly Tasted in her Cow's-Milk, but will hardly ever be lost in the Cheese made thereof. As for the total destruction of things, you talk of; there's no such thing in Nature. And as to your fancy, that those troubled with sour Stomachs, make Water often, and much; I in my self Experience the contrary, being commonly troubled with too much Acidity, if I Drink any con­siderable quantity of Fermented Liquors, and yet I have seldom met with any but will Piss once, or twice, before I have any such motion; neither do I find my self make more Water, when trou­bled [Page 43] with a sour Stomach, than at other times. Nor are Acids so apt to attenuate the Nutritious Parts of our Food: Every one that knows how to make a Posset can tell you, that the more Nu­tritive part of Milk, is curdled, and hardened by Acieds: And our Chyle it self is of the Nature of Milk. As for leanness, that it is caused by want of Acid in the Blood to co­agulate the Oyl, it is but your fancy. If you had examin'd Fat by the Fire, or any way whereby you may judg of it, you would not have found it more Acid than Flesh or Blood, but have found it past your Art to separate it into an Acid and an Oyl; nor did you ever take Acid and Oyl mixed with a great deal of wa­ter, and coagulate them into Fat by such a heat, as that of our Body. You may indeed coagulate Oyl into Brimstone by an Acid, but you must use such a heat, as cannot be supposed in the body of an Animal, and your Acid must be stronger, and your Oyl more undivided than they can be suppos'd to be while diluted, and mixed with the aqueous, and Alkalous Liquors of the Body. If you had understood Sope-making, you might have seen Oyl and Greese coagulated, and hardned by strong boyling with fix­ed Alkalies instead of being made thin, and you should have try'd whether Volatile Alkalies would turn Fat into a thin Oyl, before you had so positively asserted it: For it is well known on the con­trary, that Vinegar is given with success to those that are too fat: An example of which, see Cattieri, Obj. 13. p. 44. in a Military Man that was very fat, who by continual use of Vinegar, decreased eighty seven Pounds. As for the costiveness of those troubled with sour Stomachs, I also experienced the contrary, being seldom or never costive especiolly when troubled with too much Acidity in my Stomach. But we come to your own raised Objection: How can Steel, an Acid, cure Atrophies, and not rather exasperate them by encreasing Acidity in the Stomach? Here Mr. Acid you had given us some of your deep thoughts in a rare discovery, that Steel has that excellent property to carry the preternatural Acid of the Stomach into the Blood, there to do fine feats: But we must take it upon your word, for you have not proved by any Experiment, that Steel thus ushers the Acid in through the Lacteal Veins, which would without its assistance, have been let down at the invisible trap-doors in the bottom of the Stomach. You suppose the Acid too gross, when turn'd into Vitriol to pass those fine outlets, which I confess are so fine, that I could never see them; but Vitriol I know when dissolved (and it cannot be supposed long in a coagulated form in the Stomach) will pass very fine filters, and insinuate itself through the pores of Vessels, that will hold divers other Liquors: [Page 44] And here is another Mystery still, that one Acid is dissolved by, and coagulated with another. But the truth of the matter spoils all your discovery, which is that Steel by all tryals is found to be an Alkali, fermenting with, and absorbing Acids, and cer­tainly hindring them where ever they go together with it from having the effects of Acids. And a far better reason of the good effects of Steel, where it is found a beneficial Remedy, is that as an Alkali, it absorbs the Acids in the Stomach and Bowels, and so hinders them from doing mischief, either there, or in any far­ther recesses, passing any way into the Blood, or urinary Vessels, sheathing their offensive poynts, carries them off with itself a­mong the Excrements of the Belly. But farther, to shew how repugnant your fancies are to reason, and themselves, you shall suppose your Urinary Vessels from the Stomach to the Kidneys, and that Acids have the power of attenuating things, and passing that way: Then according to your Doctrine we can't suppose them to take any other course, this being the readiest way, and how freely soever you give your Acid Medicines, they will be still preternatural Acids in the Stomach, (and wo be to the Gou­ty, they use but little Exercise) and you can never hope to do any thing in the Blood with them, they passing all off by Urine, with the attenuated nutritive Juice, and leave occasion for Atro­phies; and all Diseases you suppose coming from the abounding of Alkalies, and want of Acids in the Blood, unless Nature knows your Acids from others, or that they are embodied, as you say, by Steel, or some other Alkali, and then in truth actum est de Acido; since there is no fire in the Blood, (if those Vitriols or other embodied Acids ever come there) capable to distil Oyl of Vitriol or separate the Acid from those other Alkalies it is embodied with. But if some part of your Acid should scape falling through the holes at the bottom of the Stomach, and run along for com­pany uncoagulated into the Guts, there will still be a difficulty for it to pass into the Lacteals from the Bile; if it be not defect­ctive, or the Acid too much in quantity: This guard sallying forth into the small Guts, being the most Alkalous Liquor of the whole Body, and most necessary for its health, opposing the entrance of Acids into the Animal Palace, entangling them, and thrust­ing them out with the Excrements at the back-door.

Ac.

The Bile is an Excrement, and seems to be as genuine an Excrement of Fire as any thing whatsoever, both from its burnt Taste, Colour, &c. and I am sure if it be detain'd in the Body will play the Devil.

Alk.
[Page 45]

If by Excrement you mean only a matter separated from the Blood, we acknowledg it may be call'd an Excrement, and so may the Saliva, the Mucus that lines the passages of the Nose, and Larynx, yea the Su [...]s Nervosus, & Semen; but if by Excrement, you mean something separated, and rejected as useless to the Body, merely to be cast out, as the Dung, and Urine are; I deny the Gaul to be an Excrement, any more than the Saliva, Mucus, Succus Nervosus, & Semen, all which have their special and proper ends towards the conservation, or propagati­on of the Body. That the Gaul cannot be rationally supposed to be an Excrement in the proper sense, is apparent from the manner and way of its separation. The Liver the largest Bowel in the Body, having no other assignable use, but the secretion of this Liquor, which is ejected most commonly into the Duodenum, rarely into the Jejunum, and there mixed with the Chyle, as all that are skill'd in the Anatomy of the solid Parts know. But it cannot well be thought, that a meer Excrement should be thus discharged into the bosome of the nutritious Juice, being the most Alka­lous matter in the whole Body, and so according to Mr. Acid, the most Pernicious: But on the contrary, this Liquor discharg'd into the Chyle, so soon after its egress from the Stomach, is necessa­ry there for the hinderance of too much Acidity, from passing thro' the Lacteals into the Blood; which appears from the Consi­deration of the Nature of this Liquor, which by Distillation yields a volatile Alkalous, in the Caput Mort. a Lixivious-Salt running in the Air, which I have not found in any of the Liquid, or Solid Parts of the Body besides, except the Dung, which has a fixed Salt somewhat like it, but not so strong: Whence I conclude, it has some Acids mix'd with it carry'd down by the Gall: With these Salts, the Gall yields also a Faetid Oyl, as other Animal Sub­stances do, but the Particles of this Liquor, as mix'd together in their Natural State, make such a Compound as is presently thick­ned, or coagulated by Acids, more, or less, as the Acid is strong­er, or weaker, into a clammy glutinous Matter, whereby the a­bounding Acid Patticles, that are sometimes contain'd in the Sto­mach are inviscated and hamper'd, and so in great measure hin­dred from passing into the Lacteal-Veins. But I could never see the Gall make any such effervescency with Acids, as some Authors talk of; tho' I have Try'd all sorts of Acids, and many kinds of Galls: And as it is it self coagulated by manifest Acids, so it hin­ders the temperate Lacteal juice from being so soon coagulated; as is seen in this, that Milk into which, a few Drops of Gall are put, will stand in its due consistence un-coagulated, when Milk alone will be turn'd and sour'd: So that the proper use of the [Page 46] Gall, seems to me, to be for the attemperating the Nutritious-Juice, and so in the Duodenum, Jejunum & Ileum, is a great friend, tho' detain'd in the Body, will play the Devil, you say. By being detain'd, I suppose, you mean not duly separated from the Blood, and discharg'd into the Chyle. To which, I answer, Its remain­ing in the Blood is not so bad, but its absence from the Offl [...]ine of the Chyle, is as great an evil to the Animal Oeconomy; in which a proportionable and harmonious mixture, is that in which Health consisteth: In which, the Wisdom of the Author of Na­ture is seen, that all the Parts, and Particles in the Hydraluico-pneu­matical Engine the Body, are so order'd, that they help, and are again helped by one another; as here there's provision made for separating the Particles that make up the Bilious-Juice e'er they a­bound in the Blood, and when they are Ejected, they become as useful to prevent another sort of Particles passing into the Blood, which wou'd be as hurtful there, as their detentation in it wou'd be prejudicial. And there are not seen more evil Effects from the Gall's retention in the Veins, than from its absence in the Guts. Fernelius relates in Pathol. Lib. 6. cap. 5. That many Dy'd in whom no other Cause of Death appear'd, but that the Bladder of Gall was empty. And Moebius in Fundam. Physiol, pag. 168. That in three Infants that Dy'd of an Atrophy, there was no Gaul found. But that the Bile shou'd be as genuine an Excrement of Fire, as a­ny thing, is one of Mr. Acid's hot Fancies. Nothing but Organi­cal Vital Bodies, are properly said to have Excrements: But shou'd we allow him to talk of Fire's Dung, neither the yellow colour, nor bitterness of the Bile, wou'd be any Argument of its being the Excrement from Fire's Victuals, any more, than the same colour, and taste, would argue Vegetables in their Natural State, to be made after the same manner. And as for Empyreuma, whoever Tastes it, will find it has none. But before you had gi­ven us your Fiery Fancies, you shou'd have been sure there is a Fire in Man, and whereabouts the Kitchin is plac'd: I believe it's not in the Liver, but only in some few Hot Brains.

Ac.

The Life of Man I take to be a Fire, or Flame, and all we Eat or Drink, together with the Air we draw in, to be as fewel for this Flame, and what is not proper fewel for it, is cast off as Ex­crements: That part of the Chyle that is fit to make Blood is made Blood, the rest confusedly mix'd with it, call'd S [...]erum, is for nou­rishing the Parts, the Blood being not at all used for Nutrition, but is the Red Substance wherein is contain'd the Biolychnium, being its Paul [...]. Now I appeal to all conversant in Chymistry, whether the Excrements of the Fire, viz. Ashes and Soot, be not Alkalies. That our Lives are nothing but a Flame, or Fire of the same Nature with [Page 47] that commonly used, or very analogous to it, I think is plain. Its the Nature of common Fire, to consume whatever is a proper Pabulum or fewel for it, and to leave its Excrements behind it, which are Ashes and Soot. The Body of Man would soon be con­sum'd, unless supply'd with proper Food, and how could this be, and what would become of what we Eat and Drink, I can't under­stand; unless there were a Fire, or Flame within us to consume it. Common Fire can't subsist without Air: Is it not the same thing with the Life of Man? Let him be enclos'd in a place where Air can't come at him, he immediately Expires, as is well known to Miners. Heat and Warmth are the constant Conco­mitants of Fire, and that there's Heat and Warmth in the Body of Man, none, Master of his Senses, will deny. How is it pos­sible for the Heat of our Bodies to be sustain'd, unless there were a Fire in us to do it; mere Motion, will never cause any Heat in Fluid Bodies, altho' excited never so much. There is a Maxim, That there is no Smoak, but there's some Fire. Every Body must be sensible what vast quantities of Steams are continually dis­charg'd from all parts of our Bodies: How this can be, unless from some Fire within us, I can't understand. And I have the Conc [...]rrence of some of the greatest Men the World has afforded, that the Life of Man is a Flame. The Phosphorus, which is as much Fire as any thing we know, is a true Animal Fire, to be Ex­tracted from all Animal Substances; and if it did not actually exist in them, how can it be Extracted from them I know not: It is an Acid Sulpherous Substance, and the Pabulum of Animal Fires, is a Sulpherous Acid: Common Sulphur, Tallow, Pitch, do abound with Sulphur, & are inflammable; yet from none of these is by any known Artifice the least Phosphorus, or any thing like it attainable. Upon the stroaking of Cats in the dark, flashes of fire will follow. This gentle stroaking can never cause so violent a motion, as you make Fire to be, unless it were actually in the Animal. I confess Fire is a substance constantly in motion, and a brisk motion, yet all brisk motion is not Fire: But I know several fluids the more briskly moved the colder; as a River is always colder where the Current is most swift. And which is none of the least Argu­ments to prove our Life is a Flame; let a Man be seizsed with a Feaver, or any Distemper attended with a total loss of Appetite, the Fat will first be consumed, and a Corpulent Man soon brought to a Skeleton, when the evacuations of Urine and Stool are less than in Health: Which could not be, unless there were a Flame to cause that Consumption. There is a difference in some respects between Animal and Culinary Fire, in many they agree. Neither will burn without due access of Air; both cause warmth: Neither can subsist without a supply of Sulphurous Acid Particles, [Page 48] but Animal Fire (so I call Phosphorus) immerg'd in Water, and taken out will retain its properties without being applied to other enkindled Bodies: This common Fire will not do. Now where ever there is a Fire or Flame, especially when supplied with gross matter; there must be a throwing off of Excrements: The Alkali found in Animals is the Excrement of their Fire, and all the Excrements of Animals are Alkalous. As for the Blood, the Volatile Alkali to be obtain'd from it is only the Excrementious part of it, or rather of the vital Flame, or of its Pabulum, in a way of being carried off by some of the Emunctories, which if it chance to be obstructed in its passage affects the Body with some Distemper or other.

Al.

The substance of your whole Doctrine seems to lie scat­terd in what you have here asserted. That the Life is a real Fire of the same, or very like Nature with common Fire, to the conservation of which, there is required a Fewel which whatever we eat or drink, and the Air we breath in supplieth; in which Sulphurous Acid Particles are the proper Food, which are con­tain'd in the red part of the Blood, but what is not proper Fuel for this Flame is rejected as Excrement, and this Excrement is the Alkali; which if not carried off, is the cause of Diseases. I shall oppose in the first place, to your great Men you say concur with you, (I say rather from whom you borrowed the fancy) what your Elder Brother Etmuller saies (who I'm sure had a double yea treble Portion of Learning to what you have) De ah­struso respirationis negotio, Cap. X. Veterum enim quem in corde finx­erunt Igniculus ac flammula sanioribus Medicis, ac Philosoph's dudum expirasse visa sunt, si modo unquam arserint. Ideoque ut ad illa quid regeramus operae pretium non est. Haud equidem ignoro praeclaros quos­dam Cartesianos Willisium, Sylvium, ejusque cultores levi admissa mu­tatione igniculum huncce e cineribes resuscitasse, docendo illum potissimum in dextro cordis ventriculo vigere, &c. Plausabilius prae ceteris rem proposuit clar: Sylvius Disput. med. 6ta & 7ma in quibus Scriptis Incendium illud in corde vitale uti vocat, ex bilis lixiviae, cum san­guine adscendentis cordique advectae, nec non lymphae & Chyli subacido­rum mutua, in dextro cordis ventriculo effervescentia, ne speciose magis quam vere vereor deducit, &c. sed paucis respondeo Hypothesin illam prae ertim de bilis accensu, vigorem rationum, & experimentorum Diem­merbrocii personati illius Leoniceni, atque Malphigii haud quaquam ferre, Ideoque nec pro adstruendo Igniculo concludere. Moreover, I say, those great Men, and you, should have had some certain notion of Fire, and first have told us what it is. For to tell us that the Life of Man is a Fire, and not tell us what Fire is, is all one, as to tell us, That the Life of Man is a something, you [Page 49] know not what. But that this something, may not continue like the Philosopher's undetermin'd Matter, and so all that is said re­main uncertain; let us consider, what it is that is properly call'd Fire. I say therefore, 1st. That Fire is something in Bo­dily Nature, 2dly. That Bodily Nature, is nothing but Matter consisting of Particles of all Figures and Sizes. 3dly. These Particles▪ as they have different Figures and Sizes, are capable of different degrees and manners of Motion. 4thly. That all the different Ideas, or Perceptions we have of Bodies, are caused by means of the different Figures, and Motions of the Particles. 5th. That there is no sort of Particles, of what Figure, or Size soever, that mere­ly on that account of Figure and Size, can Properly be call'd Fire; so that the old Notion of Fire's being an Element of any thing, is false. 6th. But to the Being of Fire, there's requir'd a certain degree and manner of Motion, of such Particles, that as to Figure and Size, are capable thereof. 7th. That these Parti­cles, must have such a degree and manner of Motion, as to pro­duce on our Bodies, the two Sensations of Light, if not at too great a distance, and Heat, if no hindering Medium interpose. 8th. To the production of which Sensations, a certain quantity of Matter, fit for such Motion, and actually so mov'd, is requisite to come together. 9, That those Particles are more readily excited to, and longer continued in this degree and manner of Motion, in some Bodies, commonly call'd Fewel, than in others. 10th. That they more or less separate the Parts, or spoil the Form of such Bodies. 11th. To assert positively this, or that to be the particu­lar Size and Figure, or determinate degree and manner of Motion, of Fire making Particles, would be too great a presumption; because they are too small to be Objects of Sight; yet we may sup­pose them rigid and inflexible Particles, mov'd most briskly to and fro, because they break and separate many Compounds, and when apply'd too near our Bodies, occasion the most displeasing Sensation of Burning; but at a convenient distance, please us by justling against us more smooth and flexible Bodies. These Propo­sitions if well consider'd, I think, may give us some determinate Notion of Fire: There's never any Fire, but where there is a brisk Motion; and you grant me, that all brisk Motion is not Fire, but such a Motion as I have describ'd; and no other that I know of, will determine the matter so, as that we may not say, every Motion is Fire, or no motion is Fire. Now Fire, as I have said, being a congeries of a quantity of subtil, rigid and inflexible Parts so mov'd, as to cause the sensations of Heat and Light, and if too near the Body that of Burning, there can be no such thing found in the Body of Man. But let us consider your own Arguments, you use to per­swade [Page 50] us of the Existence of a Fire, or Flame in the Blood. The Nature of common Fire, say you, is to consume its proper Pabu­lum, or Fewel, and to leave Ashes and Soot as its Excrements, which you appeal to Chymists are Alkalies. The Body of Man would be consumed, unless supply'd with proper Food (fewel you mean for the Fire) and how this could be, and what should be­come of all we Eat and Daink, unless there were a Fire in us to consume it, you don't know, and the Alkali found in Animals, is the Excrement of their Fire. I answer, that change wrought up­on combustible Bodies by Fire, and what alteration is made on our Food in the Body, is vastly different, and neither is a con­summption in the vulgar sense, not one Particle of Matter being to be rationally thought to be destroy'd. But real Fire by a vio­lent Motion separates the Parts of many compound Bodies, both the combustible and incombustible ones. Those Bodies we call combustible, abound more or less, with Oily Parts, which are as it were the Vehicle of the Igneous: But there are few of those Bodies but are compounded of other kinds of Parts, besides Oleous, which in the hurry are separated from one another, and not only so, but sometimes alter'd, either broken into smaler Parts, or by strikeing together, are connected one with an other otherwise than they were in the natural compound; whence new resulting Bo­dies, or artificial compounds arise, such as Soot, and six'd Alka­lies, being separable again. Now which of these separated Bodies, should rather be call'd an Excrement (if the fancy of calling any of them so must be allow'd) is merely Arbitrary: In most of them Water is the greatest quantity, of that which is cast out as most unfit for the continuance of this hurry, and so might rather be call'd the Excrement. The Acid and Volatile Alkalious Bodies are carry'd off next, and the Oyl it self, tho' commonly alter'd, is most of it separated before the Fire goes quite out; the fix'd Al­kali, and those portions of Oyl, and Acid, that stick in it to make it such, abiding in the Earth last with the Igneous particles. Now whatever, is done here, is done by a violent separation, and stick­ing together of the Parts of Matter. But what alterations of things are made in the Body, are made by the gentle Motions of Natural ferments, and separations by peculiar Strainers of the curiously compos'd Organical Frame, wherein there's no such degree and manner of Motion, as can properly be call'd Fire. As for the Consumption of the Body, you say, would soon be, if there were not a supply by Food; I answer, The forbearance of Food, would not consume the Body, but the Organical Frame of it, yea, and Blood, both containing a great quantity of Oyl, will re [...]main [Page 51] unconsum'd in spight of Hunger. And the Fat, which you say, is first consum'd in Feavers and Diseases where there's a total loss of Appetite is carry'd off, not because it is combustible, and so Burnt away; but because its apt to be attenuated, and does not so firmly adhere as other Parts. The Evacuations by Stool and Urine, must needs be little, when the Appetite is lost, and little Eat: But at all times, its well known, the Evacuations by the Pores, are the greatest. And as for what we Eat and Drink, tho' you can't tell what should become of it, if there were not a Fire to consume it: Yet any one that is led more by Consideration and Experiment, than Fancy, may as easily give an account of the waste of it, as of wearing out a Coat, or a pair of Shooes, with­out supposing some Fire or other that Burns them to pieces. The Food is first somewhat separated by Chewing, then in the Sto­mach by a gentle Heat, and Motion, and probably by some sort of Fermentation; the things we Eat, most of them being ca­pable thereof, if kept in a moderate Heat, and sufficient Moysture, even out of the Body: Then in the small Guts there is a separa­tion made, and great part is carry'd down, and rejected as Ex­crements, which Coals, (if you please,) you may catch as hot as ever they were without Burning your Fingers. That part that is not thus rejected is Percolated into the Lacteal Veins, which convey it into the Ductus Chyliferus, and so into the Blood, for the nou­rishing the Parts, both Liquid and Solid; the Serous part being but the Vehicle for the more solid, and the Globules of the Blood. Whilst a Man grows, the different Particles of this Nutritive-Juice, as they are fit some for one thing, some for another, adhere, and are ad­ded to the Parts of the Body, and so encrease its Bulk; those Parts that are more thin, and fluid, add to and increase the Li­quors of the Body, out of which, great part is separated by Urine. When a Man has done growing, there is no need of addition, but only of a supply of as much as dayly wastes, which considering the Poreousness of the Body in all Parts, and the continual natural, and voluntary Motions thereof, for the feveral Works of Life, can't easily be suppos'd to be little, tho' we can find no Focus for a Fire to consume us. It's very well known that Labouring Men, and that in Cold-Weather, have better Stomachs, and Eat more, than those that live Idlely, tho' kept hotter than the Laborious; which may well be thought to proceed from their using more Motion, whereby the Particles of Food are carry'd about more swiftly and at length work'd out, and this all done merely by rubbing, where there is no Fire, which you say, rejects as Excrements Soot and Ashes, the one of which may be farther separated into Volatile Salt, and Oyl, the other into Earth and fix'd Alkali, either of [Page 52] which you may call an Excrement of the other, as you love or hate, this or that: But you are fallen out with Alkali, & stercus humanum, offends your squeemish stomach, ergo, Alkali Merda est, Alkali is the Excrement. Which I think, as good a Reason as any you have given. But yet whatever analogy may be in the con­sumption of combustibles by common-Fire, and of our Food by any thing in the Body, there is this vast difference; In this there is no Soot nor Ashes made of what we Eat and Drink, much less of the Air, The other Fewel as you call it, which we breath in. Here neither the Flame, not the Coal will Burn you, enkindle the most combustible Matter, or give you any Light. And tho' a Volatile Alkali and an Oyl, something like what may be got from Soot, may be separated from the Liquid, or Solid Parts of the Body, they must first be wrought upon by a common and greater Fire, than any is in the Blood: And tho' from the Gall, and Dung may also be separated a small quantity of fix'd Salt, they must first be expos'd to a real and violent Fire, and so must the other Parts, before there can be produc'd any thing that may be call'd Ashes from them. Common Fire, you say, can't sub­sist without Air, and the like you affirm of the Life of Man; so they must be both Fires. I answer, Tho' both require Air; yet not for the same Reason. The Air is an Elastick or Springey Body, capable of being expanded, or contracted, and in its Ex­pansion by Heat, or the Motion of the Igneous Particles (which be­gins when ever a quantity of them, sufficient to produce the Ef­fect can be connected) I say in its expansion, or the receeding of its Parts from the place where the Fire is begun, it carries off the Par­ticles of the combustible Matter, that are separated, and be­come no longer combustible, and so there's more room for the Igneous Particles to move on; as is evidently seen in Chy­mical Furnaces, where the strength of the Fire, depends on the quick carrying off the Smoak, which is done by a stream of Air passing thro' the Bodies in combustion, and carrying off those Particles that would hinder the Motion of the Igneous Bodies: The Air where the Fire is being rarify'd, that below being more com­press'd, expands it self into the place where is most room, and other Air succeeds it, (the Air being more dilated the higher it is) the more compress'd Air still passing that way; so still the stronger the Fire, the stronger the Draught of Air, and the faster the sepa­rated Parts that would hinder the motion of the Igneous Bodies are removed. But the Life of Man requires Air, not to blow a Fire, carry off Soot, or displace Ashes, much less as a Fewel for a Fire; but besides many other Ends and Uses, chiefly to continue and cary on the Circulation of the Blood: Which I take to be done [Page 53] after this manner, The Air by its Elastick Property, rushing into the Lungs, upon the dilation of the Thorax, expands them, and thereby sets the Sanguiferous Vessels free and right for the passage of the Blood out of the right Ventricle of the Heart into the Vena Arte­riosa, at the rise of which, there are Valves to hinder its passage back again; this Vessel and the Arteria venosa by their Anastomoses being fill'd with Blood, the Thorax is again contracted, the Air pressed out, and the Lungs fall together; whereby the Blood-Ves­sels are pressed: But the foresaid Valves hindring its going back, it is drove into the Left Ventricle of the Heart, whence it cannot return into the Lungs, by reason other Valves hindering it; the Thorax being again dilated, and the Lungs by the Air rushing in expanded, and the Vessels, whose Blood was pressed out into the Left Ventricle of the Heart, again free; the Blood flows into them again from the Right Ventricle, by which filling and emptying of the Vessels of the Lungs, the Blood is as it were pump'd and carried along in its Circulation: And is there as it were ground, its adhering Globules separated, and divided from one another, its Heterogeneous Particles more exactly mix'd, and so is attenu­ated, and made more capable of passing the smallest Vessels thro' the whole Body. So that the principal reason, why a Man can't live long without Air, is because the Blood can't otherwise cir­culate through the Lungs which way it must go; which evident­ly appears from the consideration of a Child unborn, who lives divers Months without respiration, the Blood being carried on by the force of the Circulation of the Mothers Blood through the Foramen Ovale, from the Right to the Left Ventricle of the Heart; which is stop'd when the Child is born, and becomes a distinct, and separate Animal, needing a force of its own to carry on the Circulation. The reason why Persons are often kill'd in Mines, is not because there is no Air, it being impossible almost to keep it out, but that they sometimes breath in with the Air Arsenical, Sulphurous, or other noxious Fumes, of which one would think a Profess'd Chymist could not be ignorant: But you may soon try; the Fumes of Antimony, Arsnick, or the beloved Sulphurous Acid, steaming from enkindled Brimstone drawn into your Lungs, will in a little time be found no good Fewel for your supposed Bioly­chnium. As to your Argument from Heat and Warmth the con­comitants of Fire, and in the Body of Man. I Answer, Heat is most certainly the concomitant of Fire, and also brisk Motion, but as you confess all brisk Motion is not Fire; so I say, all Heat and Warmth is not Fire, and the briskest Motion in the Body of Man, either in Health or Sickness, is not brisk enough to make a real Fire in the weakest degree. And tho' you can't see how Heat [Page 54] and Warmth could be sustain'd without a Fire; you may as well say, you can't see how a Man can walk unless he be running. Warmth, Heat, and Fire it self, is nothing but meer Motion in several degrees and manners, and wherever there is motion there is some degree of Warmth, tho' we may not perceive it, for there is no such thing as absolute cold unless where all things are in absolute rest, which place would be hard to find. Whatever Heat, or Warmth is caused in Fluids, is caused by mere Motion, even where they are set over a Fire, but the nature of watry Bodies, such as the Liquors in Man, will not admit a real Fire or Flame to be mixed with, and continue in them; and tho' by Motion they may be brought to a Heat inconsistent with the Life of the Body; yet this very Motion is not Fire. But doubtless the Heat in Man's Body is caused by some kind of Motion, and probably a fermentative one; the Blood and other Liquors con­taining divers salts and Oily particles may well be thought so to move together, as to cause the greatest Heat in the Body of Man. I confess a meer Oyl, and some very strong Acid Spirits, will by their mixture be enkindled into a real Flame, but there never is nor can be such a mixture flow in the Veins of a living Man; so there is never Heat enough to enkindle the most inflammable Bodies. You may take Phosphorus without any fear of its being set on fire in your Belly, which tho' as little Heat would enkindle, yet not immerg'd in a watry Liquor, or without the sufficient access of Air; for which very reason there can be no Fire in the Blood. And Phosphorus it self, tho' so apt to be enkindled, I have known lie for a Month, and might have done as long as one would, in a Glass seal'd up without any Water, or the Air ex­cluded, and not at all take Fire. The continuance of our Heat is very easily conceived to be by a continual supply of Saline, and Oleous Particles apt to jostle against one another in a watry Liquor, and move sufficiently to keep us warm. We know that divers Liquors mix'd together, will cause a Heat, even where there is nothing inflammable in either of them. It has been found by experience, that the heat of hot Springs proceeds from a cer­tain Bed where are Salts of divers natures, which the Water coming to dissolves, and so their Motion produces the Heat, some­thing like that, produced by pouring Water upon Lime, which I think no Man in his Wits can ascribe to a Fire or Flame in the Water. That you say some Fluids the brisker moved are the colder, is your mistake; that a River is not coldest in the current appears from this, that the Current is not so soon froze; and tho' the wind by its [...]tion causes the sense of cold, yet it is not merely by its Motion, but because the Particles moving straight on in a [Page 55] line hinder the hurrying Motion, which is the formal cause of heat, of the Sun Beams, which luminous Particles while dispers'd and seperate have not force enough to cause the effect of Fire, or burning; yet when collected, and bundled up in the Focus of a Burning-glass, are in a posture to cause that sensation, when an Inch distant from the Focus they have not such an united force. As to your maxim, There is no Smoak but there is some Fire, I answer, the steams of our Bodies are not Smoak, nor if you could catch them, would they have a Grain of Soot, but are very little besides Water, as I could shew any body by a method whereby one may collect, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight Ounces, or more of Sweat from a Man at any time: And Water we all know is rarified, and carried up by a very small heat, as is seen in the coldest Weather, and the Water rarified by the Sun, will appear somewhat like smoak. As for the Phosphorus, it is not an Animal Fire, or any Fire at all till enkindled; when set on fire nothing burns fiercer, or burns out sooner, otherwise it is but a very inflammable Sulphur, or Fuel apt to take fire, being not so much as sensibly warm till enkindled. And to the difference you fancy between this Animal Fire, as you call it, and the common: I Answer, Phosphorus will not have the properties of Fire after immersion, or before, unless its Particles are excited by sufficient Motion; and so will other Combustible Bodies be enkindled by sufficient Motion after Immersion, yea some incombustable Bodies as a Flint, and a Steel by a brisk Friction will give fire, or a piece of Iron by vigorous hammering light a Match, never the less for being immerg'd. But Mr. Acid, were his Biolychnium under Water but one Week would never burn again, without a miracle, or the application of some enkindled matter. Farther, Phosphorus may easily be supposed to be extracted from Animal Substances without being thought to be actually in them, and tho' I grant that it was ma­terially in them, I deny that it was formally: For the Particles that compose this Artificial Compound were dispers'd, and mix'd with others, and so composed no such Body, but are brought to­gether by Art, and stuck to one another, and then are in that state call'd Phosphorus, and may be separated again as easily, and then are not Phosphorus. As Glass of Antimony, or Lead was not really Glass in those Bodies before the Operation of the Fire, but made by it, and they may be reduced again to Antimony, and Lead, as they were before, and then are no Glass. Yea some products of Art were not so much as materially, as to their whole, in the matter wrought upon by the Fire, as Zink Lead, and some other Bodies some way operated on without any ad­dition, will not only give Bodies of quite another form, but will [Page 56] be increased in weight considerablely. Phosphorus is an Acido-Sulphurous Substance you say, I say rather an Acido-oleous; for Sulphur is a Body compounded of an Acid, and an Oyl, and to say Acido-Sulphurous is allone, as to say, Acido Acido-Oleous. And if the Pabulum of Animal Fires were a Sulphurous Acid, and Phosphorus a Sulphurous Acid, it will follow only, that Phosphorus may be a Pabulum for Animal Fires (were there any) and not the Animal Fire it self. Common Sulphur, Tallow, Pitch, abound with Sulphur, you say; That is Sulphur abounds with Sulphur, and is inflammable: A Wit! Mr. Acid abounds with Mr. Acid, and is sour; this is deep! Tallow and Pitch abound with Brimstone too you fancy, but I'm sure you never got any Brimstone from them, nor can there be any got without the Addition of an Acid, if then. But whether there can be any Phosphorus made of these? I rea­dily yield, there cannot by any Artifice known to Mr. Acid, but there are very many things done by Artifice unknown to him. But you said Sir, a little before, that Phosporus might be got from all Animal Substances; yet now it cannot be got from Tallow, &c. by any Artifice; but you forgot again, that Tallow is an Animal Substance; it slip'd your memory, being a greasy body. Upon stroaking of Cats in the dark, flashes of Fire will follow, you say. Your Puss perhaps may serve you to strike Fire with, but it will only prove a Ignis fatui, which no Wise Man would call a Fire, or think actually in the Animal as its Vital Principle, any more than the shining of a dead and stinking Whiting, or of a piece of rotten Wood can be thought their life, or a real Fire. For tho' in these there is a light; yet there is wanting the other qualification a burning Heat, as your Assertions Sir, commonly want two things, without which conjunct they cannot be more than uncertain Fancies, viz. Experiment and Reason, whereby you should have examined the Nature and Pro­perties of Bodies, that you might not have grounded your Judg­ment upon false Principles.

Ac.

The Principles of mix'd Bodie; I take to be Acid and Sulphur, as the Vital Active ones; Alkali the Principle of Death, and Corruption: There being since the Fall a Principle of Death in opposition to that of Life implanted in our Natures, and not only in our Natures, but in the Natures of every thing else for our sakes. [God said to Adam, Cursed be the ground for thy sake, &c. I confess, many of our Age will Laugh and Ridicule me for having recourse to Sacred Writ, especially the Writings of Moses, which they look upon as a kind of Romance: But let them Laugh on. If there were not a Principle of Death within us, how is it possible for a Man one Hour to be in a good state of Health, and [Page 57] the very next Expiring▪ Then there is Water and Earth, the two passive Principles: And from these I can more easily account for the Phaenomena in natural Bodies, than from the five old ones, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, Water, and Earth, or any other Principles broach'd in the World.

Al.

By Principles, I suppose, you mean the same as some others do by Elements, viz. Simple Bodies, of which, all Compounds are suppos'd to consist, and into which, they may at last be re­solv'd. To which, I answer, That neither these Five Things you call Principles, and would have us believe New, and rather of your Invention, than of Doctor Andre's, nor the Five old ones (as you call them, between which and yours there is but little difference) are indeed, the Elements, or Principles of Compound Bodies, and so sufficient to solve their Phaenomena's: Which may appear by a little Consideration. But in the first place, I shall observe, that your division of Principles into Active and Passive, is not good, or allowable any farther, than as a compliance with an improper and vulgar way of speaking: For in strict Speech, no­thing can be said to do, or be Active, but what has a Will, and those Bodies by which we receive the strongest impressions on our Senses, and have thence been call'd Active, have indeed no more Will than the other, that's none at all: To be figured, and mov'd (which is all that belongs to Body) in what manner soever, is not to Will. As for Earth, I shall next observe, That, that which you call Earth, is not that which is properly call'd the Earth: Your Earth or Caput Mort. being as different almost, as the Bodies in which it's found, and consequently not simple, but it self a Com­pound. That which is properly call'd the Earth, is the Quick-Sand, of which and Water, this Globe chiefly consists; it being the Basis of other Bodies, and seems to be a Body consisting of Homogeneal Particles. And as to the Water that is mov'd thro' the interstices of these Sands, and is found in the Pores of many Bodies, and the Air that also rusheth into all Porous Bodies, where it can have passage, and compasseth them about; they are as it were the Vehicles of grosser Bodies, themselves probably con­sisting of their peculiar similar Particles, and are not to be thought Elements of other Bodies. For instance, Wood though it is Po­rous, and some of its Pores hold Air, some Water; yet they are not to be call'd Elements of the Wood, any more than Water running in a Leaden-Pipe, or Air within the Walls of a House, are to be called Elements of Lead, or of the House. The Air, and Water, I say, are the Vehicles of the Particles of Compound, and changeable Bodies, carrying them to and fro, in the Production of all the changes we see them undergo. But to come to your suppos'd Principles, they will appear not to be the [Page 58] Principles or Elements of Compound Bodies, from these Conside­rations. First, Whatever are suppos'd as Elements, or Principles of mix'd Bodies ought some way or other to be prov'd really, and actually to Exist in the Compounds as Parts of them. 2. They ought to be unchangeable, and consequently simple Bodies themselves. As to the first, I say, these Bodies you call Principles, are not, nor ever were (that we know of) prov'd so much as likely to Exist in, and make up some mix'd Bodies, or us Principles to be in any. For instance, Gold is a Body in which you cannot demonstrate, that there is one Grain of Acid, or Oyl, or of Alkali-Salt, no nor of Water, or of Caput Mort. so far it is from being to be thought a Compound of your Five Principles. But I remember, you have asserted, That Gold is nothing but a pure Acid and Sulphur, which you said, has been made appear, by some of the most strict enquirers into Nature's Secrets. But who those were you won't tell us: But upon this supposition, your Five Princi­ples are excused here. And the more Acid with Sulphur, any thing has. the more perfect it is, you say. By Sulphur, I suppose, you mean an inflammable Substance, and according to this Fancy, Brim­stone which is all Acid and Sulphur, would be as perfect as Gold, and perfecter too, for I'm sure, you never saw any thing inflammable, or Acid in Gold. But the reason of this your Opinion, I suppose, is this, you have a very great kindness for Acid and Sulphur, and as much for Gold; therefore Gold is Acid and Sulphur. Again, you shall take Chrystal, Talk, Diamonds, Pearls, Mercury, Silver, or di­vers other Bodies, I might name, and your strict enquirers into Nature, Dr. Andre, and all to help you, shall not be able to sepa­rate any two of your Principles from them. Again, many of those Bodies from which some, or most, of those your Principles are got, may not without sufficient ground, be thought not actually to contain them such as they are produc'd, but that they are New Products, not as to Matter, but as to Form; resulting from the com­binations of more simple Particles united together by the violence of the Fire. As for Acids, we well know, there are apparent ones, Naturally in some Bodies, Animal and Vegetable, and from others, produc'd by Art; but even from those Bodies, I can easily get an Alkali instead of an Acid, when I please, without any addition, merely by the different ways of Working. For instance, I will take a quantity of a Green Herb, and divide it into two parts, from one half I will get an Acid Liquor, from the other half a Volatile Alkalous Salt, merely by Distillation. So likewise, I will get a large quantity of fix'd Alkali, and none or very little Volatile Alkali, or a larger quantity of volatile Alkali, and little or no fix'd, which I please, from the same Herb, without any addition, merely by the different ways of Operating. From [Page 59] these and many other Considerations of Things well known to Chymists, it's highly probable, these Bodies are rather Products made by Combinations and Alterations, than the simple Elements of Bodies. And your asserting, That if Alkali were the product of Fire, the Caput Mort. burnt again, would produce more Alkali, is ve­ry weak: For the Caput Mort. has not the matter left whereof to make it. 2. Principles ought to be unchangeable, or else they cannot be supposed to be simple Bodies, but Acid, Alkali, Oyl are changeable. As for an Acid, I can change it into an Oyl, or into an Alkali. Oyl I can change into an Acid, and into Oyl again, or into an Alkali. Alkali, I can change into an Acid, and then that Acid, into an Alkali again. Which things are so well known to all that deserve the name of Chymists, I need not re­cite the Processes; and as for those that don't understand Chymi­stry, it is besides my purpose, here to teach them. But as for you Mr. Acid, tho' you may think your self uncapable of being Transmuted into an Alkali-Doctor, because The making Acids Alka­lies, and Alkalies Acids, is contrary to your Experience, or the producing Alkalies or Acids out of those Bodies, in which they did not Exist: I can shew you such an Experiment at any time, and then you are oblig'd upon your Word, to own your self my humble Servant. As to the Accounting for the Phaenomena of Natural Bodies from Acid, Sulphur, Alkali, &c. they will soon appear too narrow, and insuf­ficient (especially if we could take them for simple Bodies) to any Considerate Person that does not serve an Hypothesis. I challenge a­ny Man for instance to give me a reason of the following Phaenomona, from the mixture of any of your Principles. First in Vegitable, or Animal Poysons, how a very small quantity of matter, some­times not the hundredth part of a Grain should have such dis­mal, various, and suddain effects from any mixture of Acid, Al­kali, Oyl, &c. When these in themselves may be took separate, yea or conjunct, however we can joyn them again in considerable quantities without any harm. What Hypothetick could ever make a mixture of Acid, Alkali, Oyl, &c. to have the effects of Opi­um, or of a Cathartick Drugg, that I have known work so vio­lently as to bring a Man exceeding weak, by only holding it in his Mouth a Minute or two, and so spitting it out. The same may be said of Specificks, of which Mr. Acid himself in a little fit of consideration, has own'd, There are many that are niether Alkalies nor Acids, yet seldom fail of curing Distempers. Should he deny the Doctrine of Specifiks, says he, he should deny matter of fact, which he promises never to do, till he is totally deprived of his Reason: And gives us some Instances of the Operations of Specificks, which cannot be supposed to proceed from their being Acids or Alka­lies. Another Instance wherein these Principles will be found [Page 60] short, is the Phaenomena of Magnetism; to name one thing, Take a Load-stone and rub one end of a poised Needle on the North Pole of the Stone, you will find that Point will be attracted to the same Pole when ever it is brought near it: But offer the o­ther end of the Needle to that same Pole, it will be driven from the Stone as much as the other rub'd end is attracted; but force the end that is driven off, to the North Pole of the Stone, and keep it there some time, it will be attracted as much as it was driven away before, and the end that was first attracted will be driven away. Now here can be no conceivable alteration of the proportions of Acid and Alkali, or any other of your supposed Principles in so short a time, by the bare contract of the Needle and Load-stone, and this done at pleasure, without the least al­teration of the texture of the Needle or Load-stone. Again the gravity of Gold can no way be accounted for, by supposing it com­pounded, howsoever of your Principles; this Mettal being heavi­er than either of them, more than as twenty to three, so far is it from consisting of meet Acid and Sulphur, as Mr. Ass-Ey'd asseydly asserts; The heaviest Acid commonly known being lighter than this Metal about eighteen times, and Sulphur not much heavier. Now it is impossible that two light Bodies should compose a hea­vy one. I might recite many other Phaenomena in Bodies no way to be accounted for by these supposed Principles; as in Colours in the Rain-bow, in the prisme and even permanent ones, as in the foremention'd Metal, which cannot receive its colour from things which on the account of their lightness, can be no Ingredients of it. I might also demand the reason of sounds, their Harmonies or Discords; but I should tempt our Hypothetick Oracles in vain. But I think I have more reason to conclude, that the Phaenomena of Bodily Nature, or the different Ideas we receive from Bodies depend upon, or result from a far greater difference, and variety of Figures, Sizes, Textures, and Motions of the Particles of Mat­ter, created at the beginning, of all Sorts and Sizes to us innume­rable. From the Adhesions and Combinations of sometimes more, sometimes fewer of these Simple Particles, all the varieties of mix'd Bodies result. Where there are Particles together, whose Figures are more or less apt for Motion, there is a Body more or less flu­id. Where the Particles hang together, and are more or less un­apt for motion, there is a Body more or less solid. Where are fewer of the Simple Particles, there is a Body less compounded. Where there are more sorts of differing Particles, there the Body is more compounded. Where there is a congeries of Particles of one Figure, there is a Simple Body; as probably the Particles of Air and Water may be, tho they do not touch one another [Page 61] exactly, or rest together, and so are porous and fluid, and capa­ble of receiving other Bodies into their Pores. And perhaps some other Bodies, whose Particles firmly adhere, and so are call'd So­lid, may also consist of similar Particles. This innumerable varie­ty is large enough to make all the most odd properties of Bodies. The Divisions and Combinations of these Simple Particles by Art (tho' perhaps seldom or never divided into sets Similar or Simple) is that whereby all the Artificial new resulting Bodies are made. But a single Particle, let it be of what Figure or size it will, can­not be supposed capable to be divided; because it consists of pure Matter continuous, and not of Parts meerly contiguous; and so there is no Vacuum, or room for any other Body to come in to divide it, as there is between the contiguous parts of Matter. And tho' the least Particle in Nature might be supposed Mathe­matically or Imaginarily divisible; yet really and Physically the greatest Particle cannot be so thought; tho' some inconsiderate­ly assert a Physical infinite Divisibility. I should her leave your Principles to their Master; with these few Considerations, but that poor Alkali is so abused by you, there needs a word or two here to be spoken for him. And I must tell you, it is from meer spite and ill-will, and no reason, that you say, he is the Princi­ple of Death and Corruption, and created since the Fall in op­position to Life. I must oppose Moses to you, who tells us (and he had it written by the Finger of God) That, in six days God made Heaven and Earth, the Sea, and all that in them is, Exod. 20. 11. Wherein Alkali must needs be concluded (if it be a Creature of God) And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good, Gen. 1. 31. Adam was flesh and bones, Gen. 2. 23. made within the Six Days, and had no part of his Body made since; because all things were made within that term, and so must have his Alkali in him before the Fall, as well as it was in other things, tho' not as you say in every thing else, either then, or now, which you would not have asserted had you not had a Treacherous Memory: For you before denied it to be in that in­corruptible yellow substance you love as well as Lemons and Oranges, which you say consists only of Acid and Sulphur, tho' it is as insipid, as most of your Discourse. And though we read, God said unto Adam, Cursed be the Ground for thy sake, yet [...], where there is no Verb may be supply'd as well with is, or will be, as let be or shall be. The word [...] Translated for thy ake, comes from [...] transivit thence [...] and [...] Propter, denoting a passage from the Cause to the effect; and the Curse may rather be attributed to Adam, as the Cause, than to God. Adam was to pass out of Paridise to [Page 62] Till the Ground, from whence he was taken, and he and his Po­sterity should bring a Curse upon it, or rather on themselves in the abuse of it by their evil deeds, according to which the Sep­tuagint, transtate the word we read for thy sake, [...] in thy works: And as [...] properly signifies red Earth, Man was made of, it will not be extravagant to suppose thence, that nothing was cursed but Mankind, and that by their own evil doings, and and not by God the Fountain of Goodness. Nor are Thorns, and Thistles to be supposed created after the fall, or not good in themselves, but the Earth would bring them forth without Mens Cultivation when more useful things must be planted with labour, and toyl, and Man turn'd out of Paradice, must no longer enjoy the Fruits of God's immediate planting. But if the Curse must needs betook for something God did, or would do to the Earth it may probably, as some suppose, be meant of the Deluge, from Gen. 8. 21. I will not again curse the ground for Mans sake. The word we have for Curse is [...] ad maledicendum from [...] vilipendit, intimating, as if God did not esteem the works of his Hands, but let them go to wrack. But here the Curse is taken off. God would for the future uphold all things in their order. But however let the Earth be Cursed for thy sake, be to be un­derstood, I think it will not easily be read. Let it bring forth Alkali for thy sake. Moses tells you, God pronounced all that he had made, very good; you say a part of the Creation is bad. But hear what Solomon saith, Wisdom 1. 12, 13. [...] seek not Death in the er­ror of your Life, nor destroy your selves through the works of your own hands. For God has not made Death neither hath he pleasure in the Destruction of the Living, for he hath created all things in their being, and the Generations of the World Salutary, and there is not in them a Medicament of Destruction. From the Fountain of Goodness nothing evil can be suppos'd to come. But may be some may Laugh and Ridicule me for having recourse to Sacred Writ, especially the Writings of Moses, which all those look upon as a kind of Romance, who Suppose Dr. Burnet's Hypothe­sis true, which Mr. Acid sees no reason to doubt of. But for my part I confess, I believe Moses a better Philosopher, and a Truer Theorist, than either the pretended, or real Author of that con­trary [Page 63] Hypothesis. If Moses understood the Mysteries of Nature as well as any Man, and was guided by an Infallible Spirit, as Mr. Acid once said, how is it that he can see no reason to doubt of that which contradicts him. But Mr. Acid can't see how a Man can be in a good state of Health one hour, and the next expiring, without supposing a Principle of Death within us. I Answer, his Memory is treacherous; one while he says, All Persons have some de­gree of Sickness: Now he talks of Persons being in a good state of Health: At another time, When he considers the structure of our Bo­dies, of what multitudes of minute Parts they are composed, instead of being surprized at our being sick so often, he is almost amazed to think that we are ever well. So say I, Man's Body is a delicate piece of Mechanism, consisting of a multitude of small and ten­der Vessels, bound up in a thin porous Skin, consisting mostly of soft and tender Matter: Man's Mind is a foolish and violent Agent, oft forcing this curious Engine to that it is not strong e­nough for; and it is no wonder to see a Man now well, and a­non expiring by the excess of Eating and Drinking, of the Passions of the Mind, or other Forces upon Nature, which doubtless would have destroy'd even Adam in Innocency, could they have been, where was no culpable defect in Wisdom and Goodness; without supposing a Principle of Death. As Christ himself in whom there was no Sin, was found capable of Bodily Miseries, and a Violent Death. Swords and Pistols, and other the inventi­ons of Man's Cruelty, are not the only things, whereby a Man's Life may be destroy'd in a short time, but the most innocent and wholsome Food abused, and taken in excess, even Bread, in which some reckon so much Acid, will soon do the business. As I once knew a Woman by eating Bread very freely, got such a Distemper, that broke out in large Boils in many parts of her Body hardly escaping with Life. And I think I may affirm, that where one Person dies by the abuse of the Creature Alkali, there are ten that lose their Lives by your beloved Principles Acid and Sulphur, or Oyl, in the one instance of excessive, and unseasona­ble drinking of Vinous Liquors. And I believe no Man of any considerable Reason and Experience, but by Observation may find, that tho' Acid and Alkali are both good Creatures, ordain'd for their proper Uses and Benefits to Man; yet Acid things in their abuse are more frequently, and strongly penricious to the Vital Oeconomy.

Ac.

Acids hinder Putrefaction, and reduce things from Putre­faction, already Putrify'd, and so must be great Medicines: For there's no Disease but proceeds from some sort of Putrefaction of the Fluid Parts of our Bodies. Acids every Body knows, preserve [Page 64] Animal Substances from Corruption and Stench, and if Dead, Bodies were full of Acids, it is difficult to conceive how they could so soon Putrefie; nay, it were impossible they shou'd. For Acids can't undergo Putrefaction. And the more perfect, and du­rable any Vegitable is, the greater quantity of Acidum and Sulphur, it affords, and the less of excrementious Alkali: Alkalies presently cause Rottenness and Putrefaction in Animal Substances, as may be seen in making of Glovers Leather: Mr. Yardly a Glover of Worcester, the most Ingenious Man, perhaps, that ever was of his Trade, he being (which is very strange for a Man of so Mecha­nick a mean Trade) a curious Phylosopher; tells me, that in mak­ing Leather, they first throw their Skins into a Pit fill'd with a strong Alkalious lixivium, which makes them in a manner Rotten: After they make a strong Acid Solution, into which they throw their almost rotten Skins, which again reduces them to their Texture; nay, makes them firmer than they were at first. From whence it may be naturally inferr'd, that Alkalies break the Texture, and destroy the parts of Animal Substances, and moderate Acids preserve them, and restore them to their Tone and Texture, when they are before spoiled by Alkalies. Nay, Alkali is the onely destroyer of all Bodies, and what brings them to a state of Putrefaction and Corruption. Again, Acids suppress Fermentation. Alkalies excite Fermentation, in fer­mentable Liquors, as is too well known by the Brewers of this Town. Alkalies are the cause of all Praeternatural Heats in the Body. Acetum is good in Inflamations, Erisypelas, &c. And Acids are the only things that quench Thirst. Oyl of Vitriol is one of the best Medicines known, in continual Feavers. Acids are the most Effectual things in the World to ease Pains, and if Pain be caused by Acids, it is by giving them in too small a quantity. Sal Alkali is Caustick, and burns the Skin. In­wardly given without being diluted with an Aqueous, Vehicle causes Vomiting, and depraves the Appetite and destroys it, Alkalies conveyed into the Blood, by breaking its Globules, and destroying its Texture, cause Scorbutes, Rumatismes, Sciati­ca's, Consumpsions, Gouts, Palsies, or some other Chronical Dis­eases. An Ingenious Person, not long since, who had formerly embraced the Doctrine of Acids, was willing to try what Effects the Transfusion of Acid and Alkalous Liquors into the Veins of a Dog would produce: And the Oyl of Sulphur injected into the Veins of one Dog made him brisk and lively, and hungry, instead of disordering him, Oyl of Tartar on the contrary, in­jected into another Dog's Veins, made him dull, and in a few Days he dyed,

Al.
[Page 65]

How Acids hinder Putrefaction in Animal Substances, any one may see by easie Experiments; Oyl of Vitriol, or Spirit of Nitre. pour'd upon the red part of Blood, presently turns it into a black Corruption, and the Serum into a white purulent Matter: So Leather, Bladder, Flesh, Tendons, Skin, have their Texture destroy'd by these Acids, and are Rotted and turn'd into a puru­lent Matter; yea, the very Bones are dissolv'd by Acid Liquors: So far are Acids from hindering the dissolution of the Texture of Animal Substances; much less will they do the Miracle of redu­cing things already Putrefy'd, from Putrefaction, and so, being such great Medicines. And as inconsiderate, have you shewn your self Mr. Acid, in asserting all Diseases to proceed from some sort of Putrefaction of the Fluids of our Bodies: For if there be ever any such thing as Putrefaction in the Juices of the Body, it can't be reckon'd the Cause from whence a Disease proceeds; but the Effect or Product of the Disease: But there are many Dis­eases, where there has not been one Rational Argument, or cer­tain Experiment given to perswade a Putrefaction of Humours, pro­perly so call'd, so much as an Effect. The difficulty of conceiv­ing Dead Bodies impossible to be Putrefy'd, if full of Acids; is on­ly to Mr. Acid: Others know very well, that even those Animals that abound so much with Acid, that in Distillation, they will yield one half of their weight of a strong Acid Liquor, will not­withstanding Putrefie, and that as soon, or sooner, than some o­thers abounding with Alkali. And that a Man's Body may be kept without Putrifaction, or Stench a Thousand Years, without the help of Acids: Yea, Alkalies themselves, we know, are great Preservatives of Flesh and Blood, if used in due quantity, from Corruption and Stench: As the Honourable Mr. Boyle tells you, in his Book Of Humane Blood, pag. 142. Where twelve Drachms of Blood, were put up with two Drachms of Spirit of Blood, and was thereby preserv'd a Year, of a florid colour, almost totally Fluid, had no ill Scent, or any sign of Putrefaction, and it would no doubt, have preserv'd it much longer. In which Book, he also gives an account, of divers considerable good Effects of the use of the Spirit of Humane Blood, as a Medicine, inwardly and outwardly, in instances too long here to be recited; and tells you, pag. 206. That Volatile Alkalies in general, had been pros­perously used in Physick in England, since the Year 1656. about which time, he had the good Fortune, to contribute so to intro­duce them, as to bring them by degrees into request, and sees small cause to doubt, but that they would be more generally e­steem'd, and employ'd. The Judgment of which every way Learned Person, can hardly be oppos'd to a young Medicaster, [Page 66] without diminishing him. The truth of whose Narratives, in mat­ters of Fact, known to him, are beyond question, to any that knew him, as I not only well did, but was either an Assistant, or Beholder in the making those Experiments, that are the substance of that Useful Book of Humane Blood. To this may be added, the method of Preserving Dead Bodies of Dr. Gabriel Clauder, recited in the Memorials for the Ingenious, Oct. 30. 1882. Which is with a Lixivium of Oak Ashes, and Sal armoniack, in which, both a fix'd and volatile Alkali, are conjoin'd, and found to go beyond most former Methods of Embalming. And tho' Acid Salts and Spi­rits won't undergo a proper Putrefaction; yet Vegetables, that yield most of Acid, and Oyl in Distillation, will Rot as soon, or sooner than some others: Yea, Crabbs, Oranges, and Lemons, every Boy knows, will Rot sooner than some Apples that are not sour, and many of those Vegetables that yield most Acid, by burn­ing will yield the greatest quantity of fix'd Alkali; which Pro­duct, is as far from being capable of Putrefaction as any Acid, or of Rotting the Coal in which it lies; tho' it has lost the suppos'd pre­serving Acid. But the chief ground of your Belief, that Alka­lies will presently Rot and Putrefie Animal Substances; I find, is a story you heard (but could not well remember) from your curious Philosopher and Country-Man, Mr. Yardly the Glover of Worcester, who may be a good Glover, for ought I know; but I'm sure, you have not learn'd Dressing of Leather of him (whether it be his fault or yours) any better than you did Pharmacy of your Ma­ster the Apothecary. As for Philosophy, whether the Glover or you be the Master, I know not, but probably he might teach you the Four Years, you out-did the Apothecary; but I believe you are both Philosophers of the same Pitch. But as to Leather-Dres­sing, the strong Lixivium you talk of (to help your Memory) I tell you is Lime, which is not used to Rot the Skins, in order to make them the stronger (the Glover knows better) but to get off the Wool, or Hair. And tho' by letting the Skins lie in the Lime-Pit too long, they may possibly be spoiled beyond the recovery of all the Acids in the World; yet we all know, that Lime-Water is but a mild Alkali, and a Medicine of great use in Chirurgery, and is so far from having any caustick, or violent Effect, on Living Bo­dies; that it may be safely, and to good purpose used even in Oph­thalmicks, being a mild Remedy not so much as making the Eye, that most sensible Part, to smart; and not only so, but may be used to good purpose inwardly in some Distempers, without any fear of rotting one's Belly, or making Leather of it; tho' you give an Acid afterwards. But what you take for the Acid Solution, I am not certain, whether the infusion of Bran they use, or the [Page 67] Allum-Water. The first we know becomes very sour, and if the Skins lie in it too long, will indeed rot and spoil them beyond re­covery; but the Allum is not an Acid, as you may find by its turn­ing the Syrup of Violets Green, which it will soon do; nor has it any of the Effects of an Acid: For tho' an Acid Spirit may be Di­still'd from it, there's no such heat in Dressing of Leather, as can separate the Acid from the Chalkey Substance, with which it is al­ready saturated, and made uncapable of having any operation as an Acid upon the Skins. But Allum is used in making of Leather, on the account of its Astringency to make the Skins more compact, and the Acid before used, is wash'd out, and not left in the Lea­ther as a Preservative against Corruption, which every Body may easily try, and see soon brought upon Leather, by even a mild Acid; so far is your Inference from being Rational, or grounded upon Experiment, That Alkalies break and destroy Animal Sub­stances: But Acids do the Miracles of reducing them when rotted and spoil'd, a priviatione ad habitum, or from Rottenness to Integrity. And let me ask you here Mr. Acid, if you are Mentis compos, if all Al­kalies break the Texture, and destroy the Parts of Animal Substances; How does the Bladder, the Veins, the Vesica Fellis, &c. hold out forty, fifty, sixty, seventy Years, against this Corrupter in Sickness, and in Health, and come to be found strong, and entire after Death? And how do the Bones that have no Acid, but abound with Alkali, remain so firm, and entire; when the Coffins made of Oak, or the more resinous Fir with all their Acids and Oyl, are rotten and consum'd? But what follows, That Alkali is the onely De­stroyer of all Bodies, and that which brings them to a State of Putrefaction, and Corruption, is so Extravagant, one might suspect you delirious; but I would ask you, if out of your Paroxysme, did you ever see Gold, Silver, Stones, Sand, to which Alkali is strictly bound in Glass, Mercury, and a Thousand other Bodies I might name, destroy'd and brought to a State of Putrefaction by Alkalies? Could you prove your Words, you would perswade us, that Alkali is the universal Dissolvent, and that Fire destroyeth nothing. Well but another mischief of Alkali is it excites Fermen­tation in fermentable Liquors: I tell you 'tis well it will do so, and that the Brewers know it; for we should have but bad Drink without Fermentation: But I know, you are no Master-Brewer, any more than a Master in Leather-Dressing; if you were, you would know, you could have no Vinegar without Fermentation, and that no Liquors can Ferment, but those wherein are Materially both Alka­li and Acid, and that all Fermentable Liquors, at length turn Acid. Alkalies again, say you, are the cause of all Praeternatural Heats; I answer, not till they meet with Acids, which may as well be [Page 68] said, to be the cause of the Heat excited between them, as the Alkalies. Vinegar may be good in Inflammations, &c. and so may Alkalies, say I, which I have used with good success in the Erisi­pelas. Neither are Acids the only things will quench Thirst: For Water is the only thing Nature requires, to allay a Natural Thirst, which is nothing but the sense of the Latex being deficient; and Thirst in Diseases, is sooner allay'd by Nitre, or some other neutral Salts, than by all your Acids. Oyl of Vitriol may be the best Medicine in continual Feavers, you know, in the World, I will grant; but I know a better, and it is an Alkali, and such an one, as you ne'er saw. As for easing Pain by Acids, let any one try on a Cancer, or other painful Sore, or on a Wound: You may try your Tincture, as you call it, but try it on your own Flesh, and you will soon be convinc'd of the contrary, and the more you use the worse; unless you mortifie the Part, then indeed, the pain is so far over, as the Mortification goes. But as to inward Medicines, e­very Body knows, a little Opium, will do more in easing Pain, than a large quantity of Acid; if it were true, That Acid would ease Pain, and Opium does not ease Pain by any Acidity in it, as is easily demonstrable. But I have found by long Experience, on my self, and others, That Alkalies, in some Cases, are more powerful to ease Pain, than almost any thing else; as in the Tooth-Ach, which I have been often troubled with. Strong fix'd Alkalies, every Body knows, apply'd alone to the Skin, are Caustick, and so are Acids, as Oyl of Vi­triol, Butyr of Antimony, and the Lunar Caustick. But no Alkalies are to be taken inwardly without being Diluted with an Aqueous Ve­hicle; being too keen for the Parts they are to pass: So are Acids, which without being given in a Vehicle that mitigates them, will even corrode the Mouth, Pharynx and Stomach; and both Alka­li, and Acid, imoderately and unduely given, will deprave the Stomach. For I have known those troubled with sour Stomachs, yet want an Appetite, as well as a good Digestion. That you say, Alkalies being convey'd into the Blood, and breaking its Globules, cause Scorbutes, Rheumatismes, &c. is but mere fancy (if it be so much) without ground: For you ne'er saw, or heard of any of those Diseases, caus'd by giving Alkalies. As for the injection of Oyl of Sulphur into the Veins of a Dog, making him brisk and hun­gry, and Oyl of Tartar, into the other Dog's Veins, making him heavy, and at last killing him: You warily conceal who the in­genious Person was; but we have the same Story in Etmuller's Dis­course de Chirurgia Infusoria, Cap. 10. And he was a more Inge­mious Person, than to embrace the Doctrine of Acids, or Alkalies either, or any such little Hypothetick fancy of a Tyro, and Dy'd too long agoe, to be one of your Disciples; as you would willingly [Page 69] have us believe, the Ingenious Person to be. But he does not tell you, that he made the Experiment himself, but relating the pernicious Effects of the Infusion of Spirit of Vitriol from Fracassa­tus; he subjoins that of Oyl of Sulphur not killing, but seeming to make the Dog hungry. And this Relation, says he, may seem strange, to him that considers the great affinity of Oyl of Sulphur and Spirit of Vitriol, that they should produce such different Ef­fects: But being animated, and assisted by a certain Friend, I made the Experiment, and injected ʒj. of Oyl of Sulphur per Camp. in ℥j. of Water, and having made a convenient Ligature, let the Dog loose; from whence he soon began to have a short Breath, and to be troubled with Convulsions, especially of his Mouth, with a great deal of Froth, which continu'd till he was as it were strangl'd, and so Dy'd in half an Hour's time, a great deal of thin red Wa­ter flowing out of his Mouth, when he was Dead, with a great deal of Froth swimming upon it. He gives a particular Account of what various Disorders were found in Dissecting him, too long here to Relate; but he concludes thus, It seems that the Blood by the injection of the Acid of Sulphur, being made thick, unfit for Cir­culation, stagnated in the Lungs, and there by the Motion of the Air was turn'd into Froth, and Red Serum, and being driven on into the smaller Arteries, and thence into the Vena Cava, nothing could Circulate through the Lungs; from whence the Viscera, and greater Branches of the Arteries were found empty. So far diffe­rent is the Account of this Experiment he made himself, from what he had, as a Relation, which we may therefore question. But as for Oyl of Tartar, whereby another Dog was Kill'd, not mentioning the quantity injected; he tells us, the Blood was made very Red, and more Fluid, than usual: From whence saies he, it appears, that too much coagu [...]ation of the Blood, like as too much Dissolution of it, does Kill. He also gives an Account of the Injection of Aqua Fortis, and Sp. of Nitre; both which sudden­ly Kill, Coagulating the Blood: And from all which, every Man that can reason, may certainly conclude, that the thinning of the Blood by Alkalies can't be the Cause of of all Diseases. And you Mr. Alkali, as sharp as you would seem, I believe, will find it yet more difficult still, to make your fancy of Alkali's being the Cause of all Diseases, appear but a little likely; if you come in particular to consider, some of the Maladies, common to Hu­mane Nature: For which I will prick up my Ears.

Ac.

The first thing I begin with, is the Small-Pox, that fatal Distemper to Three Kingdoms, and even to all Europe in that by the means of it, God was pleased to deprive us of a Princess whose worth was such, as a sufficient value can never be set upon it, or Loss [Page 70] sufficiently Lamented. 'Tis the common Practice of Nurses, and the generality of Practitioners, as soon as they perceive the Sym­ptoms of this Distemper, to give Gascoin's, Countess of Kent's Lapis de Goa, or some other Testaceous Powders, known Alkalies: The one Party to drive the malignity from the Heart, in which it's impossible for any malignity to lodg, more than in any other Part, by reason the Blood moves at least tentimes faster through the Heart, than any other Part, the Lungs excepted: For the Cavities being large no Stagnation is to be feared; but if any where, it is in the ex­treme Parts, where the Blood moves slowly. The second sort, give them to correct the Acidity, they suppose to be in the Blood. Now I could never hear of any one, that by Analizeing the Blood in the Small-Pox, could find the least footsteps of Acidity (as I be­fore hinted) but on the contrary, it appears after many tryals, That the Blood of such Persons, does more abound with Alkalous Particles than that of sound People: So in this Case, the giving of Alkalies must be superfluous, if not highly pernicious. The Causes of the Small Pox, with most other Feavers, and acute Diseases, I suppose to be from a quantity of such Particles, being some way or other admitted into the Blood, which being Hetero­geneous, or of a quite different Texture from that of the Blood, and so not capable of being mixed with it, causes a hurry and disorder. Now a Feaver always preceeds the eruption of the Pustles, and when the Heterogeneous Particles are thrown out to the surface, then the Feaver ceases. Now to assist Nature in throwing out these Heterogeneous Particles, which they pretend, are hindred by Acids in the Blood, they give Testaceous Powders, and other Diaphoreticks, which seldom fail of their intention, of throwing out large quantities of Pustles, more than Nature is able to bring to maturity, and if shedoes chance to Cope with them, is the only occasion of spoiling so many Angelick Faces, we every Day observe. But that is not all, but by Alkalies the Globules of the Blood are broken; when as the Excrementitious Serum only, ought to be separated, according to the Rules of Nature, and not the least Drop of Blood, when in its Natural State, and its Globules unbroken. But by the means of Alkalies the Globules being broken, are made capable of being receiv'd into the cutaneous Glands, which is the occasion of the purple Spots in the Small-Pox, and Feavers, which ne'er fail of being the certain Prognosticators of Death. But this is not all, those broken Globules getting into the Maeanders of the Brain, hinder the motion of the Animal Spirits through the Nerves, and cause Deliriums, and all those fatal Dis­orders of the Brain too frequently seen: Likewise the Blood be­ing capable of being contained in its proper Channel, is the oc­casion of violent Bleedings, bloody-Urine, &c. None of the best [Page 71] Symptoms. Besides, by their Diaphoretick quality they waste the Serum that there is not sufficient left to supply and bring to matu­rity the Pustles, those Medicines alone had thrown out: So about the 9th. 11th. or 13th. Day, the Pustles fall, and the Acrid Matter being absorb'd into the Veins, Causes Secondary Feavers, of dange­rous Consequence: The Small Pox requires the giving as few Me­dicines, as any Disease whatsoever, unless in extraordinary Cases: Yet the Eye of a careful Physician, is as convenient as in any. In­deed, I have heard some complain, such a Doctor had so many Fees, and yet never Wrot a Bill: But let me tell them, in many Cases, especially in this, the Physician deserves his Fees better for not Writting at all, than for so doing. In this Distemper, Acids are the things skilfully and timely given, which I have seen not only by my own, but other Great Men's Practice, to be the onely safe, effectual, and never erring Medicines. And why should we fly to Acids Chymically prepar'd, when Nature has provided Oranges and Lemons, Citrons and Limes, which answer our intentions? For in Five Hundred, at least Patients I have had, of all Qualities to do with in this Distemper, where I have been call'd in the beginning, I don't know, that I have had one that has Dy'd, or been Disfi­gur'd: Nay, some that have been brought into ill Cirumstances by Alkalies, I have retriev'd from the Jaws of Death by proper Acids. To allay the hurry of the Blood, and to confirm its Tex­ture, I give Juice of Oranges, Lemons, Limes in Barley-water, or Small-Beer, acidulated with Oyl of Vitriol, Vinegar, or Verjuice Posset-Drink: If the Brain be disturb'd, and the Patient Delirious, I find it absolutely necessary, to let Blood in good quantities, and use more powerful Acids, which sets all to rights. So the method I take in the Cure of this Disease, being according to Nature's Dictates, is short and easie: It being in the Cure of this Disease, as in the accounting for the Phaenomena of Nature; they that go upon fewest Principles, generally Discover most of her Secrets, and can give the best Account of them.

Al.

The Small Pox has been Fatal to English Princes, more than once; tho' not so much in it self, as through the ill Practice of Ignorant, or worse Physicians: But that God shou'd be pleas'd with any Evil, be the Cause, or Sender of Diseases, or the Taker away of any such Good, whereby Obedience to his Laws, might be promoted; I think, cannot be believ'd, but by inconside­rate Sinners, looking on God, as if he were like themselves. If I did believe, that the Sickness of him that is Sick, and the Death of him that Dies, were the positive Will of God, I think, I shou'd be wicked, as well as foolish, in endeavouring to Heal. But it's common with Physicians, when through their Ignorance, Care­lesness, [Page 72] or other fault the Patient Dies, injuriously to say, God took them away, and dareingly to lay their own faults upon their Maker. As for Nurses giving Testaceous Powders to drive Ma­lignity from the Heart, I have nothing to say, towards their in­formation: 'Tis Physicians business to look to them, that they onely obey their Directions, and do their proper Office: Nurses know not what Malignity is, and you need not prove to them, that there can't be Malignity in the Heart, any more than any where else, or so likely, as in the Extremities. But the Reason you give, tho' it might serve Nurses (who may believe any thing) if you offer it to Physicians, viz. That the Blood moves ten times faster through the Heart, than any other Part (but the Lungs) shews your great Ignorance and inconsiderateness. If you but count the Pulses of your Heart and Wrist, you will soon find your Mi­stake: And if the Blood shou'd move faster through the Heart (as you fancy) than through other Parts, it Circulation could not continue, the Fountain being empty'd faster, than again supply'd. As for the use of those Powders, you call Testaceous, by Physi­cians, whom you honourably place, Second to Nurses, and I sup­pose, Third to your self, I think, none of them so foolish, as to give them to correct Acidity in the Blood, any otherwise, than by Absorbing it in the Stomach. [And Mr. Acid himself once told us, That none pretend Crab's-Eyes, Pearl, Corral, &c. to be useful any farther, than to absorb Acids in the Stomach, where we know, and you grant, it is sometimes too much,] and so hindring a sup­ply of Acid in the Veins: Where tho' you could never find any, I have told you the Reason before, and how it's Demonstrated, that there is an Acid in the Blood. I have also answer'd already, your Assertion that the Blood of Persons in the Small Pox, abounds more with Alkali, than the Blood of Sound Persons: To which, I farther add, this Observation, That I have seen the Sweat and Serum of a sound Person, turn Syrup of Violets Green readily; when the very Ichor and Corruption in the Pustles of the Small Pox, would hardly discolour it: On which account it appears, there was not so much Alkali, or so little Acid, as in the Sound Persons. And contrary to your Accusation of Alkalies, as pernici­ous: I say, I have never found the giving of Alkalies in this Di­stemper, in the least hurtful, but very beneficial, if duly given; and I have used Alkalies here, more than any other Medicines, and never had one Patient Dye, or Deform'd, in two Seven Years Practice. But if the Cause of this Disease, and of most Feavers, as you affirm, be from Particles admitted into the Blood, which are of so Heterogeneous, or different a Texture from that of the Blood, as that they are not capable of mixing with it; then it will [Page 73] certainly follow, that these Morbifick Particles in those Diseases, are not Alkalies; Alkealies being Homogeneal to, mixable with, and requisite in making up the Natural and sound Texture of the Blood: There being no Blood from whence they may not be got­ten in great quantity, and the Globules, or Red part of the Blood yields a greater proportion of Alkali, than the Serum. And thus you have unwarily thrown down, what you had Built before. But here is another Cramper, viz. How any Particles that are un­capable of being mix'd with the Blood, shou'd (as you say) be admitted into it, and flow with it: None but your sharp sight can see this. As for the hurry of the Blood, or Feaver, Caus'd as you say. by those unmixable Particles, being mix'd with it. I say, first it's certain. That Blood naturally contains, or yields abundant­ly more Alkali than Acid: Now the Alkali alone cannot be put into a hurry, or fermentative Motion, and so grow too Hot, nei­ther will the smsllest quantity of Acid, cause it so to do; but more Acid added may produce a greater Heat; as any Body may see, by mixing Acids and Alkalies. Now these Acids (which probably ne­ver are a tenth to the Alkali) being subdued, and having lost their Force by being coagulated with the Alkali, stick in the Extremi­ties, here and there, and cause little Inflammations, and at length Suppurate, which when they are once thus fix'd, the Feaver ceases. Now to assist Nature in Precipitateing, and subduing these Acids, rather than some unknown, unmixable Particles; the most Rational, and Experienced Physicians have given Testaceous Powders, and other Absorbents to hinder a supply of them from the Stomach, the chief Officine of Praeternatural Acids, and also vola­tise penetrating, and Diaphoretick Alkalies to help to subdue them already too abundant in the Blood. Which things, as you (shall I say ingenuously or unwillingly) confess seldom fail of their inten­tion of throwing out plentifully the Morbifick Matter which Nature is more able to bear, and bring to maturity in Pustles in the Skin than to Cope with in the Blood, there detain'd through the weakness of Nature wanting help, or by Acids given hindering the Eruption. And tho' in gross Bodies (which you your self re­ckon have always more Acid, having more Fat) the large quantity thrown out to the Skin, oft spoils those Angelick Faces, you seem so tender of, to get the Ladies Favor; yet the not coming forth of this Morbifick Matter, often makes a greator spoil of the whole Bodies of those Angels, laying their Beauty in the Dust. But as few Pa­tients chuse rather to Die with a smooth Face, than Live with a rough one; so it's the Physician's part, rather to take care of Life, than Beauty: And it had been well it had been so in the Case of that Princess, whose inward Form, transcended that of her Face; [Page 74] whose fair Soul, wou'd have been Conspicuous thro' a rougher Skin, and no less useful; had not her Life been thrown out, in­stead of the Morbifick matter. As for the breaking of the Globules of the Blood you talk so much of; it is mere fancy, grounded upon no Experiment. The attenuation of the Blood made by Alkalies, as also by the working of the Lungs, is not to be thought a breaking of the Globules; but rather a separation of them from adhering together, whereby they are more equally mix'd with the Serum: Thence also the Blood becomes more florid, the surfaces of those little round Bodies, when more disjoin'd, being capable of reflect­ing more Light. Nor is the Extravasation of the Blood, at any time, to be attributed to the breaking of the Globules, and making them small enough to pass out of the Vessels, which at the same time sufficiently contain the Serum, whose Particles are perhaps a Thousand times smaller than the Globules, tho' you shou'd sup­pose, every one broken into Twenty pieces: But rather from some breach of the small Vessels, from some Corrosion, or other vio­lence, either from without, or from the rapid Motion of the Blood. Neither is the stoppage of the Animal Spirits, from what cause soever, to be thought to produce Deliriums, and such like Dis­eases: But on the contrary, their over swift Motion from too great Heat. The stoppage of the Nerves, if there be any such thing is more like to cause Palsies, Lethargies, Apoplexies, &c. The Serum is not wasted too much by Alkalies, or other Diaphoreticks, if given with Discretion; and so administer'd, they prevent the falling of the Pustles, and return of the Morbifick Matter. As to the few Medi­cines, you say, the Small Pox requires, I readily agree that it requires fewer than are commonly given, and so do all other Dis­eases: For the giving of many Medicines, as is the Custom of Prescribers, is a Practice wherein the Physician will for ever re­main uncertain, whether he do good, or none, or harm, and by what: The Judgment, and Care of a Physician in this Disease, I agree, is also necessary, and the Patient had better hire some Practitioners, especially sowr Doctors, to do nothing, than to di­sturb and hinder Nature in throwing on the Morbifick matter, by large and improper Prescriptions. As for Acids being the onely safe, effectual, and never failing Medicines, as you say, you have seen by your own, and other Great Men's Practice: I must tell you, tho' you reckon your self among Great Men, That many Phy­sicians Greater in all commendable Greatness, than you, or any other of your great Crabb-Tree-Heads, have had better success in a con­trary Opinion and Practice. I my self can assure you, that Alkalies are Medicines, in this distemper a Judicious Physician can hardly want. For as the Ebullition, and Expulsion are not to be too much [Page 75] promoted, or hastily carryed on; so when they are too slow, they ought to be excited, and hastened, which may well be done by volatile Alkalous Medicines. A Judicious Physician will not give Alkalies, or Acids he knows not why, only because they are Alkalies, or Acids, or follow always one Intention, the retard­ing the motion of Nature, or allaying the hurry, as you do Great Sir, with your Oranges and Lemons, Crabbs and Limes, which tho' they ate milder, than some Chymical Acids; yet a drop or two of Oyl of Vitriol in an Aqueous Vehicle may be a milder Acid than the Juice of Oranges or Lemons taken alone. As for your boast, that in Five hundred Patients in this Distem­per of all Qualities, viz. Emperours, Kings, Dukes, Earls, Mad­men, Tinkers, Coblers, and their Consorts, &c. to whom you have sold your Lemons, and Oranges, not one died, or was dis­figured; you may as well be believed as the Quack, who said in his Bills, amongst other Brags, that he had been Counsellor to the Counsellors of Twenty Christian Kings: When there are not so many in the World. Nor have you ever had a quarter so ma­ny Patients sick of this Distemper. And you might have told us of retrieving from the Belly of Death, as well as from the Jaws thereof, since you believe People expect you should make them Immor­tal. But truly it's unlikely you shou'd do such Miracles, especially in this Disease, when you endeavour nothing but to hinder the moti­ons of Nature, or to allay the hurry, as you call it, which truly is not a method according to Natures Dictate's: Short it is indeed, and may be a short way to the Grave, and easie it is, for the Doctor to give always the same things; but often very uneasie for the Patient. But if those that go upon the fewest Principles in discovering Nature's Phaenomena, discover most of her Secrets, and can give the best Account of them, as you say, then those that have but two Principles, as Figure and Motion, Alkali and Acid, Acid and Sulphur, are like to outgo you Sir, for you creep upon Five Legs. As for your absolute necessity of Letting Blood in good quantities, where the Patient is Delirious, and the Brain di­sturbed, it's absolutely Dangerous, and were well let alone for pro­per Sedatives, for it oft proves pernicious in this Distemper: As in the Case of the best Princess England ever had: Neither Alkali, nor Acid, was so effectual towards terminating the Disease, as the Officious Lance, weakning, and disturbing the Motion of Nature. But methinks we have been long on this Disease, What shall we have next.

Ac.

I come to the Scurvey, where I expect the cry of all Mankind will be against me, what say they, is there no Acidity in the Blood, the occasion of those breakings out of Scabs, Pimples, Botches, [Page 76] and of wandring Pains? Have Patience, and I will make it appear those Symptoms come from Lixivious Alkalous Particles, and First, it appears, That the Blood of Scorbutick Persons, has more volatile Al­kali, than that of Sound Persons, besides, a quantity of lixivious fix'd Alkali, which I could never find in Sound Person's Blood. Another Argument is, that I have been told that Seamen having had the Scurvey in long East-India Voyages, Landing at Cadis, have by Eating of Lemons and Oranges, been soon perfectly Cured: But in these Cold Countries, we are forced sometimes to have re­course to more powerful Acids: Some object that more than ordi­nary saltness is found in the Blood of Scorbuticks, which they take to be an Acidity, but instead of Acidity, if they will enquire, they will find it to be a Lixivious Alkalous one. And here I shall insert a Preparation of Antimony, I have found of extrrordinary use in inveterate Scurveys. Take White Fowers of Antimony ℥viij. vol. sp. of Tartar lbij. digest 14 Days, decant it, then Distill off half the Liquor, and keep the remains for use. The Spirit of Tartar is made thus, Ren: Tartar lbxx. Distill it in an Iron-Pot with a Moor's-Head, with a large Worm fitted to a Tub of Water: Distill by degrees as long as any thing will come over, take out the Caput Mort. Calcine it to Greyness, put lbiij. of it into a Cucurbit, pour on it the Spirit freed from the Oyl, draw off half, with a moderate Fire, pour out the remains as use­less: put lbij. more of the Caput Mort. on which pour the Spirit drawn off, and with a gentle Fire draw off half, which keep for use. It is a Noble volatile Spirit, and as Noble a Menstruum, as I have met with. Of the Tincture, I give Four, Six, Eight, or Ten Drops, Morn­ing and Evening, in a strong Decoction, or infusion of Juniper. Berries half a Pint. This answers every thing said of a true Panacaea.

Al.

If the cry of all Mankind be against your Opinion of the Scurvey, it is no good sign you are in the right; for we know your capacity too well, to believe you wiser than all Men. And you have never yet made it appear, that the Blood of any Di­seased Persons abounds with Alkalies, more than that of the sound People. You have not made sufficient tryals, nor been aware of the difficulties of finding the true Quantities of the Products of Blood, nor have you demonstrated, That there is any thing Lexivious in the Blood of Scorbuticks. A Salsum more or less may be found in the Blood of both sick and healthy Persons, and probably more in the Blood of those that have the Scurvey; which possibly a Man of hasty conclusions (as Mr. Acid so oft shews himself to be) may take it for an Alkali; because it will turn Syrup of Violets green, as common Salt, and some other Salsums will do, and for a Lixivious, or fixed one; because it [Page 77] does not rise easily in the Fire. But if you knew how to work, you would find an Acid Spirit come from it in Distillation, as from some other things you take to be Alkalies. But a Lixi­vious Salt, as you have acknowledged, is the Product of Fire, and the Fire in the Blood is nothing but a hot fancy, that makes no ashes. But you must make use of another Fire, be­fore you can get any fixed Salt, or Volatile either out of the Blood. But if you could produce such a resulting body as a fixed Alkali, by burning the Blood, or other parts of a Scor­butick, or other Diseased Person▪ it would not prove, That an Acid, was not actually therein before, or that this Alkali was: For I have never found a Lixivious Salt, so strong and copi­ous in any Animal Substance, as where there was a manifest and plentiful Acid; nor will any other Substance as far as I have observed, yield so much fixed Alkali in burning, as those that otherwise, give most Acid and Oyl. As for your Scorbutick Seamen cured at Cadis (if the Story be true) it may be more rationally thought they were recoverd by eat­ing Fresh Meat, and drinking Generous Wine, than by Oranges and Lemons, unless they had been the only things they fed upon. Your preparation of Antimony, you say, you have found of such extraordinary use in inveterate Scurveys, shews your Ignorance in Chymistry, and argues against you, doing all that a true Panacaea can be said to do, if any one can be so all-believing as to credit you, when no one Acid (as you have sometime said) will do so: For what Acid will cure an acute Disease, will not Cure a Chronick; Volatile Acids being most effectual in Acute Diseases, fixed ones in Chronick, [to which I must tell you by the by, that you never saw a fixed Acid in your life] but your Pana­caea does all things, and yet if made according to your Prescrip­tion is no Acid: For tho' the Tartar by Distillation yeilds an Acid Liquor, yet the pouring it on the Caput Mortuum, and di­stilling off but half twice the fixed Alkali retains the Acid, and sends up only a Phlegmatick Liquor, which is a very poor Mensiruum; the greatest Vertue remaining behind, tho' Mr. Chymist throws it away as useless: But as your Liquor may re­tain some Particles of the Flowers of Antimony when digested together, so as it is Vomitive, it may do something on that account, but not as an Acid; the Vomitive qualitiy of Antimony depending on something else; but giving it with half a Pint of the Decoction, or infusion of Juniper-Berries, spoils the credit of the other things; the Juniper-Berries justly claiming the greatest share in the Cure, if it do one. But what shall we have next? What say you to the Gout?

Ac.
[Page 78]

It has been constantly handed down from Generation to Generation, that the Gout is a Distemper not to be cured, and in spight of the noise the last Age has made of Experimental Phi­losophy, no Man ever went out of the common Road, to try whether that were true or false: But now it do's evident­ly appear that the Gout is not such a Fury, but that it may with ease be overcome by proper and powerful Acids. Now if my Predecessors have been so notoriously Ignorant, as to the Cause and Cure of common Distempers, it is not unreasona­ble to believe they have been so in others: Nay, they have been so. And the reason why People have hitherto in vain attempted the Cure of the Gout, has been from their preju­dice against Acids, which only can do service. What would not People give to save their Lives, and be free from pain? Phy­sitians as the case stands can do neither with any certainty; but by making multitudes of Experiments upon the Foundati­on I can lay down, the case may be altered. If People were once satisfied, That the abounding of Alkalies is the cause of the Gout, it follows that Acids are the only proper things to correct it. That the Gout is caused by Alkalies, may appear from the Chalky substance generated in the extreme Parts, which is generated in the time of the Fit only, and is a Collecti­on of Homogeneal Particles, Particles of one determinate Figure, by reason the Fire won't totally destroy its texture; which were it a Body compos'd of Particles of different Sizes and Figures (which are what we Chymists call Heterogeneous ones) the Fire would destroy it. And that they are Alkalous, none I suppose will dispute, they answering all the Phaenomena that most known Alkalies will do, viz. cause an Ebullition with Acids, and when calcin'd turn Syrup of Violets green, and some­times (tho' not always) will do it without. I take notice few People are troubled with the Gout, but those who drink much Wine, or other generous Liquors, abounding with Vinous Spi­rits: These Spirits meeting with Volatile Alkalous Salts, by means of the Salt the Vinous Spirit is coagulated into what Hel­mont calls Offa Alba, which not being capable of moving through the small Vessels, causes Obstructions and Pains, and by the addi­tion of Terrestrious Particles, is turned into the Chalky Substance, I cannot agree with those Gentlemen, who assert all Pain pro­ceeds from a Solution of Continuity. I don't argue, that there is no Pain prooceeds from a Solution of Unity, but there are vi­lent Pains where the Union is entire, as in a blow with a blunt thing. But I lay it down as a positive Assertion, that all Pain is caused by a Stagnation of Juices, causing a Compression of the [Page 79] Membranes: But as the Stagnation is greater or lesser, and as the Stagnating Matter is more or less Acrimonious, so is the Pain great­er or less, but there is no Pain in any part without Stagnation. People have more reason to believe there is a Solution of Unity in the Palsie, where there is a visible Consumption, tho' there, they are altogether void of Sensation. The Medicines I use are few, and mostly well-known, but never used in the manner I have done: The general Basis of them is the same, they being all Acids; and my Medicines will put no force upon Nature, have no hazard, but strengthen all the Parts. I have given as clear hints, nay clearer than ever were given of the Cure of the Gout, which has hitherto been vainly attempted, but my method will as certainly Cure the Gout, as the Cortex, Agues, or Opium make Sleep, and I have known it fail but two or three times, and those were to be imputed rather to the Perversness of the Pa­tients.

Al.

I cannot forbear to tell you Mr. Acid, there has not been a more Ignorant Calumniator of all Physicians, or Confident Prai­ser of one little Quack, than You; perpetually shewing us, that you have neither Read others, nor known your self. All the Physicians of the World, from generation to generation, have af­firm'd the Gout incurable, and tho' the last Age hath made a noise of Experimental Philosophy; yet to spight them, no Man would go out of the common Road, to try whether that were true, or false. Till Colbatch rose, who hath made it appear, that the Gout is not such a Fury, but it may be overcome by powerful Acids. Colbach's Predecessors have been notoriously Ignorant of the Cause and Cure of common Diseases; much more of the Gout, or else Colbatch has been notoriously ignorant and abusive of his Prede­cessors. For every Body acquainted with Authors, knows there's not one of any Note, but has Writ more Learnedly and Judici­ously of this, and other Diseases; and whose Observations of Cure, are abundantly more Credible than Mr. Acid's, whom we can prove a Lyar, by his own Words. For he has acknowledg'd his Master Helmont to deserve better, of the World, and to be a greater Man than himself. Yet he among the rest, his Scholar John saith, hath affirm'd the Gout incurable, and been ignorant of the Cause and Cure of common Diseases. But Helmont hath asserted the Gout Curable, and professeth himself Master of a Medicine, viz. Arcanum Coralinum of Paracelsus, which radically Cures that Gout, and many other Diseases, and it is not an Acid neither, being a fixed Medicine. And Paracelsus before him▪ whom you couple with him in your contradictory Praises and Dispraises, if we may give no credit to his own words seeing [Page 80] by you, that great Doctors will lie, hath a sufficient Testi­mony of his Abilities in Curing the Gout, as well as other difficult Diseases in his Epitaph on the Church-wall at the Hospi­tal of Saltzburg, as following: Conditur hic Philippus Theophrastus, insignis Medicinae Doctor, qui dira illa vulnera Lepram Podagram Hy­dropisim, &c. Mirisica arte sustulit, &c. And he was one as well as Helmont, that had no prejudice against either Acids or Alkalies. That nothing but Acids can do any service in the Gout, is an asser­tion contrary to the Judgment and Experience of all the Physici­ans that have Writ of this Disease, and the Practice of Mr. Acid himself, as I believe, we shall find before we have done; and so universal, that no Man wou'd have said so, but one Confident e­nough to say, he knows all Things, and foolish enough to contra­dict himself. What would not People give to save their Lives, and be free from Pain? Physicians in general, the College them­selves, if they be Physicians, can do neither for them, with any certainty, till they have made multitudes of Experiments on Chy­m [...]st Colbatch's Foundation, which may be long a doing. There­fore Sirs, if you are Wise, come to their Master himself, he can do both, if you can believe him, and be sure to pay him well for his Lilly, White Vinegar. it may be a great while e'er many of the People call'd Physitians come to be satisfied, that the abound­ing of Alkalies is the cause of the Gout; but if they were, it will not follow on your Hypothesis, that Acids are the onely proper Correctors of it. We will suppose, that in the Gout, or any o­ther Disease, there is too much Alkali in the Blood: What is to be done? Why, it ought to be carry'd off by the Emunctories, say you. By what means? By Acids say you. How can Acids do it? Why, they are contrary to Alkalies, say you, and fight them where­ever they meet, conquer them, and make them quit the Field. No say I, 'tis a mistake, they are not contraries, or Enemies, but as good Friends as any old Sweet-hearts, separated against their wills. They rejoice when they meet fall a Dancing till they are hot again, & when tired they lie down together in mutual and close embraces, and are so wedded by the Law of Nature, that they will not be di­vorc'd, unless one of them can be tempted to Adultrey; then indeed the other does not beat, but leave its Companion with disdain. Your Master Helmont tells you. There are no contraries in Nature (he means Bodily Nature) but contrariety is only in Wills: And he gives you good Reason, for what he says: But could Alkalies and Acids, any way be said to be contrary, What then? It don't follow, that one must needs thrust the other out of Doors; and if they did, one would think the Destroyer of all Things, being too much for the other, must thrust it out: What is stronger than [Page 81] Death. But experience tells us, that whereever they meet, they so combine that they are both harder to be drove out, than ei­ther of them single. You have an instance in Sal Armoniack, made of the Acid Spirit of Salt, and Volatile Alkali of Ʋrine; which Alkali alone is so Subtil and Dissipable, that it will fly with the least heat, and is hardly kept without wasting, except with well fitted Glass-stopples; but combin'd with Spirit of Salt, they are coagulated together into a Body, that will be kept open without any loss of Substance, if urg'd with heat will indeed fly but together, and that not without a considerably strong Fire. But if the Volatile Alkali be united with some Acid that is not coagulable into a Body, it will nevertheless be rendred less Vola­tile, requiring a greater Fire to raise it, than it did alone. Now if Alkalies and Acids can be thought to meet so copiously in the Blood, as to make what you call a Conflict, but I with better reason term a Dance or Playing together, and produce an ebulli­tion, and Heat; that Heat may deserve the name of a Feaver, and be a disturbance in the Vital Oeconomy equally, whether it be a Dance, or a Fight, if there be too much of the Sport; and these two Bodies combin'd, especially if the Acid be of any considerable quantity, will be less apt to be carried off by Trans­piration, than the one of them ever so abundant. But if there cannnot be so much Acid pour'd in, as to make an Effervescence and Coagulation with the Alkali, which is in Sikness, and ought to be in Health abundantly more than the Acid can be; yet the Acid may have this effect, as to thicken, and hinder the motion of, the Blood, and thereby render it more unapt to discharge the Alkali; if we suppose it ought to be discharged. And that Acids do coagulate and thicken the Blood, we have often seen upon tryal with Oyl of Sulphur, as well as Oyl of Vitriol: So far is Acid from being the thing, much less the only thing that can discharge, and drive out your fancied noxious, and to be discharged Alkali. And tho' Acid may be proper enough in some Diseases, where the Blood is too thin and moveable to thicken it; yet in such Diseases as Scur­veys, Rehumatisms and Gout, where the Blood is already too thick, and apt to Coagulate, and stick in the small Vessels; the making it thicker by Acids must needs be improper, contrary to all Indi­cations of Cure. The Chalkey substance generated in the Fits of the Gout, does not prove the Disease caused by Alkalies ra­ther than by Acids: For Alkalous Salts when in solution, are not Coagulated alone, but by meeting with Acids; except by evapo­ration of the humidity they are dissolved in, which can't be sup­posed here. Neither is the Creta a Salt, and were it as you say produced of the Volatile Salt of the Blood and Homogeneal, it [Page 82] must be all Salt. But you never saw a Salt insipid, or a Vola­tile one constant in the Fire, as you say this matter is. Nor are all Bodies consisting of Particles of different Sizes, and Figures (which is what you are so kind as to tell us you Chymists mean by Heterogeneous) totally destroy'd by the Fire, as you may see in Bricks, Bones, Glass, Metals and a Thousand things. But the Podagrick Matter, as Kerking tells us, Spicileg Obj. 28. by Di­stillation yields a Spirit of a middle nature, between Spirit of Tar­tar and Spirit of Sal Armoniak more Acid than one, and more mild than the other, and an Oyl very like Oyl of Tartar, leaving a fixed Salt in the Caput Mort. much like Salt of Tartar: Where are your Homogeneal Particles Sir? But the abounding of Alka­lies, right or wrong you will have it, is the cause of the Gout. But how I pray you Sir, after what manner? Why, few are troubled with the Gout, say you, but those that drink Vinous Liquors; and so the Blood abounding with Vinous Spirits, these Vinous Spirits meeting with Volatile Alkalous Salts, are by the Alkali Coagula­ted into what Helmont calls Offa Alba; which not being capable of moving thro' the small Vessels causes Obstructions and Pains, and by the addition of Terrestrious Particles, is turned into a Chalkey Substance. Now John I have caught you, and you can­not come off your Contradiction, but by begging Pardon on the account of your very Treacherous Memory. The Chalkey Sub­stance was but now a collection of Homogeneal Particles (that is, Particles of one determinate Figure, as you pleased to English it for us) but now it is a Compound of a Vinous Spirit, an Alkali. Salt, with an addition of an Earthy Matter. This is the result of a­bundance of Experiments no doubt; these are Grounds to build your Practice upon, whereby you are able to do more than other People, that is, than all the Physicians of all Ages. But I must tell you for all that, that you grossly mistake Offa Alba, not knowing what it is. But I tell you, it is not a Coagulation of a Vinous Spirit, but a Precipitation of the Urinous Salt out of its Phlegm, by the affusion of the Vinous Spirit; but unless the Vinous and Urinous Spirits be both strong it will not do; nor will all Urinous Spirits make the Offa Alba. The reason of this Phaenomenon where it succeeds is this, The Volatile Salt not being Soluble in strong Spirit of Wine, and having but little Phlegm of its own, more than what will dissolve it, the Vinous Spirits being apt to mix with that Phlegm, fills its Pores, and so it lets fall the Salt. But it's impossible to find a Livings Man's Blood so strongly Alkalous, as that there should be but just enough Latex to dissolve the Salt: Nor were it possible, can there be added Vinous Liqours in quantity, and strength enough to [Page 83] make such a Coagulation. We Physitians all know, Mr. Chymist, that the Blood never abounds so much with Alkalous Salt, as to make so much as a weak Spirit, nor can the Spirit of the Wines we drink, be separated from the Phlegm in our Bellies, nor can we drink Vinous Spirits strong enough to Coagulate an Alkalous Spirit. Moreover, this Offa Alba which Helmont talks of, is so very Subtil and Volatile, that it would easily find passage, and be carried off through the smallest Pores by a gentle Heat, and would be so far from Coagulating into a Chalkey Substance, as that it is a good Medicine to thin the Blood, and hinder Coagulations; as also very beneficially used externally in pains, of the Gout it self. As for Rain tho' you grant some Pain, may proceed from a Solution of Continuity; yet you can't agree with those that say, all Pains do: But there are violent Pains where the Union is entire as in a Blow with a blunt thing. Truly Mr. Acid, you are a Man of a blunt Understanding, for all you have a sharp Name, or else you would easily perceive, that in any Blow that is pain­ful, there is a violent▪ pressure made upon the small Vessels which bursts them, and forces the Blood out of them; which is the cause of the Blackness often following Blows, and there can be no Extravasation without asolution of Unity more or less. So all violent distentions, all Corroding Matters make Solutions of Unity, breaking some of the small Fibers, at which we have the Sensation of Pain. But your positive Assertion, that all Pain is caused by a Stagnation of Humours, and thence a Compression of the Membranes must be excused as a fault of a very Treacherous Memory: Some Pains come from Solution of Unity you grant, and yet presently say you, all Pains proceed from a Compression of the Membranes. Truely Doctor, I should be afraid to trust my Life and Health with a Man of such Brain; I should be a­fraid he would forget to morrow, and Prescribe contrary to to day's Prescription. But I will ask you a Question or two, because you are very sharp at a present thought. Are there no Pains but in Membranes? And does not a Stagation and Flux of Blood into a Part, cause the Swelling and Distention of one Part as much as the Compression of another? And does not Distension, as well as Corroding Acrimonious Particles break the Fibers? And are not Wounds both Inci [...]ions and Punctures in many Parts presently painful, where we can suppose no present Stagnation? If you cannot say no, and snew us better Reason than you have done yet, we shall hardly be of your opinion, That all Pain proceeds from Compression of Membranes. As for Pa­ralysis, tho' it sounds something of Solution; yet supposing you do not much insist upon the meer Greek of it, we will deny it [Page 84] to be a Solution of Continuity, and rather take it to be a Re­laxation of the proper and natural Tension of the Instruments of Motion; but we suppose Mr. Acid suffer'd a Solution of his Sen­ses, when he said Paralyticks were altogether voy'd of Sensation; for the want of Sensation is another thing, the Greeks call it [...]. As for the Medicines you use in the Gout, I be­lieve you, that they are few, and well known, and were so be­fore you knew them; but never used in the manner you use them: That's with so little Discretion. For Physicians use to consider various Indications, and so give divers kinds of Me­dicines; but you have no more Indications in your short and ea­sie method, than the Quack had, who gave a Glister for every thing; to the Old Woman for the Tooth-ach, and to the Man that lost his Cow: He was for nothing but discharging the Ex­crements of the Belly; you for nothing but Purging the Veins of Alkali, your supposed Excrement of the Blood. Whether your Medicines be all Acids, as you say, I shall know when we come to consider them particularly. The clear hints you say you have given of the Cure of the Gout, seem no clearer to me than what we had before, from your Predecessor Atkins the Tay­lor, who was famous in his time, as you are now, for Publishing the Wonders of the Gout-Balsam, which is a Medicine (if I may call it one) so far from putting no force upon Nature, that it will corrode, blister and excoriate the Parts, doing nothing but as a Caustick; and what has been done before you were born, by the burning with Moxa. We see nothing you have done which hath been attempted in vain by others, nor the certainty you brag of Acids Curing the Gout as well as the Cortex doth Agues, or Opium make sleep: Your own Observations you have given us, which doubtless are not the least of your Cures, Certifie us, that your Patients have been Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, or more Weeks under your Hand, not only in the Gout, but in meer Fea­vers even acute ones (if you don't miscall them) which is as long or longer than others keep them with Alkalies. So far have you been from shewing us the Wonderful and Astonishing Success in Curing Feavers you have bragged of. Nay, you have not given us any assurance, that you have Cured any of the Patients you mention, (tho' you say but two o [...] three have fail'd) they might have been well as soon, or sooner by a contrary method, or without any Medicines, for ought you know. But a Fit of the Gout being even with a Sowr Doctor a tedious long thing, and when over, the Disease not Cured; let us dwell upon it no long­er, but come to consider some other Distemper: What say you of Consumptions?

Ac.
[Page 85]

I have seen numbers of People under this Circumstance, to whom have been given large quantities of Alkalies, and all sorts of Balsamicks and Pectorals without any advantage; tho' I have seen others who have had the manifest signs of a confirm'd Ph [...]hisis or Consumption, by the plentiful use of Acids, reduced from a state of dying, to that of perfect Health. The English Consumption is from an Ulceration of the Lungs, and I believe without Vanity I may say, I have Cured more true Consum­ptions in the space of one Year, than any Physician in England has done. My reason for the use of Acids, and disuse of Alka­lies here, are as follow. The Globules of the Blood by being mixed with a great quantity of Acrid, Alcalous, Lixivial Parti­cles, are broken and confusedly mixed with the Serum, and so admitted with it into the small Glands of the Lungs, and not being capable of being discharged cause Inflammations and Hectick Feavers. Now by Alkalies the extravasated Globules are not thrown out, but the Blood made worse, and by Balsamicks the Pustules from the extravasated Globules are brought to suppura­tion; whence come Ulceration, and he must shew himself an Artist indeed that can heal such Ulcers. Now proper Acids be­ing given in due time confirm the texture of the Blood, and re­duce the Serum into Fluidity; by which the Feaver and Inflamma­tion are taken off; the extravasated Globules by a thin Serum; and the motion of the Part carried off; and so the Pustules dis­appear. But how comes it to pass that the broken Globules are admitted along with the Serum into the Glands of several Parts, and yet cannot by the same reason be carryed off? I Answer, the broken Globules just coming out of the extremities of the Arteries are hot, and their sides lax, and so capable of being compressed, but admitted into the Glands; the motion of the Serum being slow they soon grow cool and firm, and from the different Figure of those broken Globules, from the Pores the Serum passes, they are not suffered to pass; so being without motion they corrupt, whence are the Simptoms. Now to con­firm what I have said, besides my own Observations, Riverius saith, that with Conserve of Roses acidulated wirh Oyl of Sul­phur, he has several times Cured a confirm'd Phthisis: Aud of Oyl of Sulphur Helmont tells you, that he advised a Man to take two Drops thereof every Meal, and not to exceed that Dose, who thereby lived to Old Age free from Diseases. By which instance it appears Acids are not the cause of Diseases, but Preservatives, and what ever is a Preservative from Distempers, by the same parity of Reson must be of use to repell them.

Al.
[Page 86]

That you say, you have seen, and done such, and such strange things, is very little Ground of our Faith, That it was so. I have heard a Montebank e'er now, that could neither Read nor Write, Boast as great Experience, and promise, That he wou'd Cure those, whom all Men in the World had left off, as Incurable▪ From a state of Dying, to that of perfect Health, is a great Change; especially to one who has affirm'd, That, none are in perfect Health: But I suppose, you would have as well said from a state of Death, to perfect Health, if you could have hoped for Credence. If you had said, you had Cured as many of Consumptions, viz. Ulcerati­ons of the Lungs, as any Physitian in England, such a Year; you might possibly have been believed: But to say, you Cured more, implyes, you Cured some. But you are witness for your self Sir. And that an Ulceration of the Lungs, is peculiar to England, is a fancy peculiar to Mr. Acid. And that there are not divers Con­sumptions, where there is no Ulceration, is his single Opinion▪ But as to your Reason for the use of Acids, and disuse of Alkalies, viz. That the Globules of the Blood are broken, by acrid Alkalous Lixivial Particles, and so admitted into the Glands, with the Serum, and not being capable of being carry'd off with the Serum; grow­ing Cold and hard, cause Inflammations, and being suppurated Ulcerations; is a mere incoherent Fancy: Not being in the least va­lid with me, being not confirm'd by well Attested, or any Experiments. You never saw the broken Globules you talk so of, but in your Wild Imagination, and can't assure us, into what Figures they are severed; how differing from the Pores they cannot pass with the Serum whilst broken thus into lesser pieces; but can, when once uni­ted again, and confirm'd by Acids. The Pustles you fancy in the Lungs, you never made appear, or felt the broken Globules there cold and hard, or heard the Biolychnium (that keeps them lax and soft, or if you please, in flux) hiss, quench'd in the cool extravasated Serum of the Lungs. Besides, you must suppose, That this Disease is still procured by Physitians, whenever caus'd by means of Lixivial Particles: For as we told you before, there can be no Lixivial Salt in the Blood; it being a product of real, yea, common Fire. And still one wou'd think, That if the Globules of the Blood can be broken by Alkalies, they might be broken still by more into lesser Parts, and so pass out by the Diaphoretick power of Alkalies; rather than when confirm'd again by Acids. That Balamicks Cause Suppuration, is contrary to the common Experience of all Phy­sicians, who know they hinder Corruption. When the Lungs are Ulcerated he must be an Artist indeed, that can heal such Ulcers: True, And it's such a piece of Art, I believe, an Acid Doctor ne­ver perform'd, tho' he himself may Boast such Cures: 'Tis no un­common [Page 87] thing for Quacks, to perswade their Patients, if they have but a Cough, and Spit a little, that they have a Consumption, their Lungs are corrupted, ulcerated, and wasted; with as great Con­fidence as if they could see through them: When the Patient is well again, a mighty Cure is Brag'd of: And who can then disprove it? but he that sees an impossibility in the thing. That Acids con­firm the Texture of the Blood, and make the Serum thin; is so far from Truth, that they do the contrary, as any one may see by Tryal, and find, That Mr. Acid saies any thing merely for his Hypothesis sake, without the least Reason, or Experience. As for Riverius's Curing a confirm'd Phthises with Conserve of Roses Acidulated, the matter is to be questioned, especially, whether Oyl of Sulphur were the onely thing used with benefit; if Riverius ever said so: For you could not tell us where. And the Man that Helmont advised Oyl of Sulphur to, might have Liv'd as long and healthy, without that trivial thing, as he calls it, for ought you, or Helmont either knew, who charg'd him not to exceed two Drops, being sensible of the danger of taking too much of so keen an Acid. Acids, or any thing else, being suppos'd Preservatives, does not conclude. That they must be Curatives: For Food. Air, Exercise, Content. &c. are Preservatives; but none will therefore expect to Cure all Diseases by them. But Mr. Acid is resolved upon the Fancy. That Acids do all Things, confirm the Blood, and make it thin if thick, or thick if thin. or what he pleases. But how this is done, Mr. Acid must be Wiser than Solo­mon to tell: But what say you to Rheumatisms?

Ac.

This is another Distemper said to proceed from Acids, but falsly: For here having analiz'd the Blood by the Fire, I have found it abound more with Alkalous Particles, than that of sound Persons, from which alone it may be inferr'd, That it proceeds not from Acids, but from Alkalies. But it may be objected, Whence comes the sizyness and viscosity of the Serum, if not from Acids? Every Body that knows what Hart's Horn is, knows that the reason of its making Gelly, is from its abounding with Vola­tile Alkalous-Salts: For the same reason, Calves-Feet and Ising­glass make Gellies. And if the Viscosity of the Blood can be taken off, this Distemper vanishes: But this is not to be done by Alkalies; but by proper Acids, such as the foremention'd Tincture of Antimony and Chalybeats. But People will say, I have caught my self in a Trap, when I bring Chalybeates in as Acids; when all own them to be Alkalies; inasmuch as Fileings of Iron will make as great an Effervescence with all sorts of Acids, as any of the Alkalies. From this difficulty, I shall endeavour to extricate my self, and to prove, That Iron or Steel till it be converted into [Page 88] Vitriol (and every Body will allow Vitriol to be an Acid) can't act upon the Blood and Serum to cause an alteration, nor any way enter into the Veins and Arteries: Skillful Practitioners before they give Steel-Medicines, ask their Patients, Whether they have any Acidity in their Stomachs (where I allow Acids sometimes abound exorbi­tantly) and if they are sensible of any Acidity there; then they give Iron without any Preparation, which by the Acid in the Stomach, is turn'd into Vitriol, and so made capable of being carry'd into the Blood: Whereas had it been before satiated by Prepa­ration, it had had no Effect at all: If there be no Acidity in the Stomach, it is carry'd off by Stool, and not admitted into the Blood. And most of the Preparations of Steel, I know of, good for any thing, are made by Acids, which turn it into Vitriol: But Alka­lies do so lock up the Body of Iron, as to make it unfit to be taken as a Medicine. The Preparations of Mars I generally use, are that which goes by the Name of Doctor Willis, and that which follows, R. Fileings of Mars lbiss. sal Armoniack, lbij. pulverise and mix in an Iron-Mortar, let it stand a Week in a Cellar, then put it into a Crucible and keep it almost Red Hot an Hour, when cold make it in­to fine Powder, and keep it in a Glass-Bottle. These Medicines I have known of great use in Rheumatismes, and the last has never fail'd me in the most inveterate Obs [...]ructions of the Menses: Father, in answer to the Objection, That Steel can't be an Acid, because it makes an Effervescence with Acids: I say, all Sulphurs mix'd with Acids, will cause an Effervescence and some of them take Eire: And that all Metals are full of Sulphurs is past Dispute; and from this way of arguing, Sulphur must be an Alkali. But besides the Preparations of Steel, I have oft used Cinnaber of Antimony, or common Cinnaber with good Success, mix'd with Gum Guajacum in confirm'd Rheumatismes and Sciaticaes. I did believe Cinnaber to be an Alkali, but I find by a peculiar management, a large quantity of Acid Spirit may be got from it.

Al.

As to your Assertion, That the Blood of Rheumaticks, in Analizeing it is found to abound more with Alkali than that of Sound Persons, I have answer'd you before. I shall only add your own Confession about Analizeing the Blood, That it wou'd be al­most inpossble for any private Man to make a sufficient number of Ex­periments requisite. And we find in the Experiments you have fa­vour'd the World with, you have Analiz'd the Blood of but one Healthy Person, when you ought to have try'd rather an Hundred Sound Person's Bloods first, and have seen the difference of their Products, and have made your Tryals in large and equal quantities, and not such little odd parcels as you have done; if you would be at any certainty. As for your Reason of the Viscosity of the Blood [Page 89] in Rheumatismes: I Answer, Every Body that knows what vola­tile Alkalies are, knows, That they have not only nothing of Vis­cosity in them themselves, but also render the Blood and Serum thin. And you make a mighty noise, how Alkalies break the Globules of the Blood; but if you had any Consideration, you wou'd not think, division into smaller Parts, is the way to thicken. But perhaps Alkali is such a bad thing as to thicken, and make thin both, according as there may be Mischief done: Being the Destroyer or Executioner of all things, has more ways of Killing than one; As Acids will thicken and make thin, when you wou'd have them. But as for Hart's-Horn, Ising-glass, Calves-Feer, if it be from Alkalies that they make Gellies: Why, don't other Ani­mal Substances abounding as much, and more with Alkali make Gellies as well as these? And why do Vegitables (that you say a­bound most with Acids) make Gellies, as well as Hart's-Horn, &c. as we see in Mallow-Roots, Comfrey, Quince-Seeds, &c. The Vis­cosity of the Blood is to be taken off by proper Acids, you say: But I have said enough already of the contrary Effects of Acids, to shew your Mistake in this Opinion, and Ignorance in relation to your Tincture of Antimony: But as for Chalybeats, People may well say you have caught your self in a Trap, by bringing in Chaly­beats as Acids; for every Physician knows, That Metals, especially Iron, blunt and Absord Acids making an Effervescence with them, and are dissolv'd by them. But let us see how you get out of this Trap? Why Iron say you (as you told us once before) can't act upon the Blood and Serum, nor enter the Veins and Arteries, till turn'd into Vitriol. How prove you this Sir, that Iron won't be admitted into the Blood till turn'd into Vitriol, and that it will then? It is only because you fancy so, for you have ne­ver shew'd us by any good Experiment, that Iron either unpre­pared, or turned into Vitriol will pass into the Blood. But if your squeemish temper would have suffer'd you to meddle with the Subject, you might have took a Td, and a like quantity of Blood from some of your Patients under a Steel-course: First of unprepared Iron, then of Iron prepared with some of your No­ble Acid Menstruums; from one of a sowr Stomach; from ano­ther without a sowr Stomach, and have got some body that knows how to reduce Mettals to assist you (your wonderous Friend Mr. Stringer, sure would not have denied his help) and when you had seen which way the Iron goes, you might have been confidently positive, or modestly silent, or have been con­vinced that Physicians do not give Iron supposing it will pass into the Blood, but to absorb Acids in the Stomach and Bowels, and to hinder them from passing into the Blood, which if they were z[Page 90] turned into Vitriol by sowr Stomachs (which I believe has not been proved) and so necessarily carried into the Blood, and could act there as Acids, would frustrate the Physicians intention, who only aimes at cutting off a supply of Acid from the Stomach the grand Officine thereof. But suppose Iron either unprepared, or turned into Vitriol, will or will not pass into the Blood, What's this towards proving Iron an Acid? Why Iron may be turned into Vitriol by an Acid? Tarbox, Iron is an Acid: Here's Logick for you Sirs: Or, the Acid in Vitriol is an Acid, therefore the Alkali in Vitriol is an Acid. You might as well say, the Volatile Salt of Urine is an Acid, because the Spirit of Salt which is em­bodied, and coagulated with it in Sal Armoniack while separate was an Acid. But say you, every Body allows Vitriol the whole Compound to be an Acid; and therefore you infer, that Iron one of the Ingredients is an Acid. I Answer, Neither is the Premiss alow'd, nor your Consequence Natural. I deny Vitriol the whole Compound to be an Acid, it being but a Neuter, and the Acid in it never acts as an Acid in this form; being absorb'd, sheath'd, and spoil'd of its Acid force (the Compound being but a Salsum) till separated again, which cannot be but by a Fire great enough to calcine an Ass-eyed Chymist's Bones. As for your Argument, That Steel may be an Acid, tho' it makes an effervescence with Acids; because all Sulphurs mixed with Acids will do the like: I say, that all but Ignorant Tyros know the contrary; that no Sul­phurs properly so call'd, viz. Brimstones will make an effervescence with Acids, or be easily touched by them. Some Oyls indeed will grow hot, and make an effervescence with some Acids even to a Flame, but not all with all, as is well known. But as for Metals. I tell you, you never saw a Brimstone, much less an Oyl extracted, or separated from them in your Life; tho' 'tis past di­spute with you, and so we need not argue Sulphur to be an Al­kali: But we cannot think it an Acid unless we deny our Senses, much less are those Oyls that will grow hot with Acids to be thought so. But I think you have caught your self in another Trap, by allowing Acids sometimes to abound exorbitantly in the Stomach, which exorbitant abundance of Acids must be supposed a Disorder or Disease (as you elsewhere confessed) as well as exorbitant Alkali, and so all Diseases are not from too much Alkali. But I believe there is never more exorbitant Acid in the Stomach or any where else, than in the Patient, who is so unhappy as to fall into the hands of Mr. Acid, who tho' he ac­knowledges The Heart-burn caused by Acids, yet absorbents are far from being useful in this case, says he, but the Heart-burn is as often cured by Acids; such as Oyl of Vitriol Dulc. &c. as by Alkalies. [Page 91] Here's that which hangs together finely▪ All Diseases are caused by Alkalies, yet some by Acids as the Heart-burn, and too much fat­ness; yet Alkalies are far from being usefull, but the Heart-burn is as often Cured by Acids, such as Oyl of Vitriol, as by Alkalies; that is not oftener than by Alkalies which Cure it sometimes, tho' they are far from being useful: So in this Disease, if you come to Mr. Acid, you must be Cured by that which does it no oft­ner than that which is far from being useful. Truely every ra­tional Man will think Acids so far from being useful to Cure a Disease from too much Acidity, that he will account it no less than Ignem oleo extinguere. Wo be to your Patients, Here Sir you will make the Biolychnium Blaze. But truely, I must tell you, These Contradictions can't be the faults of a Treacherous Memory, but ra­ther the want of Wit. Well, as to Mars, again all the prepara­tions of it you know good for any thing are made by Acids. That may be I confess, if the Pestle and Mortar are Acid Men­struums; but I tell you John I know good Preparations of Mars not made by Acids, and yet the Body of Mars open'd more than by any of your great Acid Menstruums. But if no preparations of Mars were good for any thing but those made with Acids, why do you use others, and so trap your self again? That which you give us the process of is not made by an Acid; Sal Armoniack being no such thing, but a Composition of Sea-Salt and Vo­latile Alkali of Urine; the Sea-Salt it self being no Acid while in this form, or till altered by a strong Fire. You have sometime confessed, that some Preparations of Steel and Anti­mony given as Alkalies, did you great service; but since you have well examined them, you find them most Noble Acids. Sure your Tryals have been very unhapy to lead you into Mistakes, or you have forgot your Rule, That whatsoever in Distillation yields a greater quantity of Alkali, is an Alkali, et Vice Versa; or I believe, it wou'd not do here; for you may Distill Steel, and Twenty things more, long enough before you can get either Acid or Alkali to come over: Nor could you prove by this Rule, That Cinnaber is an Acid, which you so mightily commend in this, and other Cases, and say you, can speak Ten times more than Hoffman in its Praises; tho' he Wrote a Treatise of it, which I believe you can a Hundred times more, but your Credit will be a Hundred times less. But I must tell you, That Cinnaber is so far from being an Acid, that if Analiz'd a lb will yield ℥xiij, or more of running Mercury, one of the greatest Absorbers of Acids in the World, and the rest, viz. the Sulphur, is not an Acid; but a Compound of an Acid and an Oyl; whereby it is so sheath'd and entangl'd, that it can't act as an Acid, nor be set at liberty so to do, but by a burn­ing [Page 92] Fire, You never found a larger quantity of Acid got from Cinna­ber, than what may be got from the Sulphur that goes into the Compound, which is so much less than the Mercury. And now John, considering your continuing Ignorance of the Medicines you use, I think I may say truly of you, as you say falsly of all Phy­sicians; if you Cure Diseases it is by chance, as a blind Man may catch a Hare, giving some tolerable Medicines as Acids, when in­deed they are Alkalies; seeming uncapable to judg, or make fair Tryals; since your Brain is turn'd in the Production of your sowr Hypothesis, and the Idea of Acid so strongly fix'd in your Imagi­nation (like a true Bethlehemite) whatever is good is Acid, and whatever is bad is Alkali with you: Your Tongue so strongly impregnated by all sorts of Sowrs, no Alkalies are strong enough to over-power them, and give you their genuine Tastes. And I don't question if you let me know farther of the Medicine you prescribe, and let Men in their Senses be Judges, I shall find you mistaken in other things besides Mars and Cinnaber, and shall be forced to reckon you with one of these two Quacks, he that gave every Patient the Receipt that came uppermost in his Budget, wishing him good Luck; or he that made such a horrid noise a­gainst Mercury, Cure without Mercury, great is the Danger of Mer­cury, &c. when he himself. gave even crude Mercury in his Pills, envying (as it is like) other Persons the profit of useing it. Here's Fool and Knave, Which will you be for John? Do you Ignorant­ly prescribe Acids or Alkalies, as they happen to lie uppermost in your sowr Noddle? Or, do you decry Alkalies with a Design if possible, to have the sole use of them. For really if you can perswade me out of Conceit with Alkalies, I shall never use Mars, Cinnaber, nor a great many other things you pre­scibe.

Ac.

I confess, I have formerly been a stickler for Alkalies (being carry'd away by the common Vogue) and seeing the insufficiency of common ones, have been at great Expence, and vast Trouble to Volatize Salt of Tartar, till at last by Daily Observations, I was satis­fyed that Alkalies tho' ne'er so exalted, would do me very little, if any service in the Cure of Diseases.

Al.

Then I find you were always inclinable to be a Stickler for one thing or other, First for Alkalies then for Acids: And what will you stickle for next? For I believe, you will go near to meet with the condition of your promised Recantation, and you must stickle: Well, but you quickly left stickling for common Alkalies; I wish you had stay'd, and not stickl'd against all Alkalies, till you had made some Tryals with Volatile Salt of Tartar, which is so much commended by the Chymists. Your Master Helmont (to [Page 93] name no little Men to you) commends it, and all fix'd Salts Vola­tiliz'd, at a great Rate, Pag. 386. Fixa Alkalia si volatizentur Magnorum Pharmacorum potestates adaequent—Quippe vi incisi [...]is, reso­lutionis, & abstersionis delata usque ad limen quartae digestionis, te­nacitatem coagulatorum in vasibus fundamentaliter tollunt. And 'tis pity you were at so vast Trouble and great Expence to no purpose. But at last by Dayly Observations you were satisfy'd the most ex­alted Alkalies wou'd do you little, or no service in the Cure of Diseases. This is very fine, that you could make Daily Observa­vations, of the insufficiency of those things you never saw, nor knew used. The fix'd Salt of Tartar Volatilized, is not the onely Volatile Alkali you never saw, but there other No­ble Volatile Alkalies you never heard nor dream'd of, much less can imagine, what can be done by them: I will under­take to oppose one to all your Acids: For instance, The Quintes­cence of Wine, you shall use nothing but Acids, I nothing but this; and if I don't do most Cures, you shall be my Master, and I will become an Acid Disciple. But pray you Sir, let us have a little farther account of what things you take to be Acids, and what Alkalies; for you have said, an exact knowledge of the Materia Medica, is an absolutely necessary Qualification for a Physician, and that you shou'd be unwilling on any occasion, to prescribe a Medicine the man­ner of whose Opperation you are unable to give an account f [...]r, which I have a shrew'd guess you have always done.

Ac.

almost all the Products of the Vegetable and Mineral King­doms are Acids, and there are manifest Acids, and occult ones; some work by Stool, others by Urine; some Diureticks, others Diaphoreticks; some Emeticks, and others are Alteratives; having no visible sensible Operation. I may without Presumption, reckon all sorts of Balsams Pinguedinous and Oleous Substances among the num­ber of Acids; by Reason that in the most bare, and simple Distil­lation, they afford large quantities of Acid Substances; nothing that is Alkalous. Bread the staff of Life, by Distillation yields a large quantity of Acid: Sugar tho' in Taste it seems nothing less, by a Philosophical Management appears nothing else, but a Con­gestion of Acid Particles. All Mettaline Sulphurs are to be rang'd amongst the number of Acids, being nothing but a Congestion of Acid Particles.

Al.

If almost all the Products of the Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms are Acids, we need not care what we give, we can't miss giving Acids. But what will you do for your Five Principles, I doubt they will be so occult that you can never find them: But your occult Acids that have no visible sensible Operation, will be found to have no visible or sensible Effects, as Acids; and so will [Page 94] never appear to be Acids. Those divers Operations you ascribe to Acids, are not the Effects of Acidity: You never saw an Acid Vomit or Purge, but you must be beholden to some Particles of another Nature, to whom those Effects are to be attributed. To say such an Acid Purges, such another Vomits; is as profound Philosophy, as to say, such a Bottle of Sack Purges, such another Vomits, when it is the Particles of Gallap in one, of Antimony in the other, that does the Business. As for Balsams (which you discommended, speaking of Consumptions) [...]inquedinous and Ole­ous Substances, I will excuse your Presumption, for it is from Ig­norance you say they are Acids: Every Chymist knows, That they yield by Distillation some none, others, but very little Acid, but the greatest part of them is Oyl. Tho' Bread the Staff of Life Distilled, yields a great deal of Acid, which may be of use in some Operations, its more grateful to the Stomach when it comes on­ly from the Oven, than when its drawn from the Re [...]ort, which makes it a Sword of Destruction, rather than a Staff of Life, if taken inwardly: However Sugar by Distillation, or Fermentati­on, may be brought to an Acidity by such a Phylosopher as you; yet I can shew you by a more Phylosophical way than any you e­ver walk'd in, how to make either a fix'd or a volatile Alkali of it, and as strong ones as ever you saw. But you must burn your Fin­gers at common Chymistry a little if you will be a Chymist; be­fore its fit to teach you any thing Uncommon: Sulphurs I have told you, are separable into an Acid and an Oyl, and so can't be nothing but a Congestion of Acid Particles, and Oyls are far from being Acids. But whether there are any Sulphurs of Metals, or what those dogged Bodies consist of, or how they differ, I dare afirm has hitherto been occult, and out of the ken of any Ass-Ey'd Pretender in England.

Ac.

I could rang my self into the Mineral Kingdom, but the different Operations of them are so well known to every Body, I think it needless to take any particular notice of them; yet thus much I will presume to say, That after having made all the Enqui­ry into the Nature of Mettals, that Humane Industry is capable of. I am perfectly satisfy'd that they differ one from another onely in Degree of Purity, and therefore for ought I know, the business of Transmutation is not so Ridiculous a Thing as some would make it.

Al.

Mow Sir John you have said all: For if you have made all the Enquiry into the Nature of Mettals, Human Industry is ca­pable of; and tell us also that the business of Transmutation is not so Ridiculous a Thing as some make it: We can't do less than believe you have the Phylosopher's Stone, besides all other Met­talline [Page 95] Arcanums. For the greatest Adept Prince or Potentate, ne­ver made more Enquiry into these things, than Human Industry is is capable of. But I admire your Boldness, how you dare so o­penly disclose your self. But since you have said so much, I hope you will let us see Transmutation, and convince the Unbelievers. But whatever you may perswade us about the Transmutation of Metals, I doubt we shall never see Mr. Acid Transmuted into a Wise and Modest Man, that's contrary to the Nature of his Com­position. And tho' you tell us the different Operation of Metals is so well known to every Body: I tell you there are scarce Six Men in England that know so much of Mettals, as to reduce them dexterously out of their Oars, and perhaps not two (setting aside your self) that know any thing of making a true Medicine of these Bodies. But Sir, if you have such a large Knowledg, possibly you may have the Alkahest too, and when you talk of Alkalies being so universal a Destroyer, you make us fancy it may be made of that; but like a Cunning Adept, to hide from us the subject Matter: You every where diswade from medling with Alkali, but you wou'd do well to be so kind as to undeceive us poor Seekers.

Ac.

The Alkahest that universal dissolvent, is a thing has made a very great noise in the World, and tho' many People have been at vast Charge in quest of it, yet I have scarce met with any one (except one Person) in our time, who has been Master of it: but upon some late Experiments made upon the Pyrites, I am perfect­ly satisfy'd the said Noble Menstruum is with very little Trouble and Charge to be obtain'd, from this so Common, yet most Valueable Subject! I have already procur'd a Menstruum from it, that will readily dissolve all the Metals and Minerals I have met with, but the utmost Extent of it I do not know; but as soon as I do, the World shall have an Account of it. I have mention'd this for the sake of some honest Virtuosi, who will be very glad to be inform'd of the Subject from whence this Noble Menstruum is to be obtain'd. I have reserv'd but one Secret in my Book Of the Gout, and that is a Medicine obtain'd from the Pyrites; and to all those that will but give themselves the trouble of nicely enquiring into the said Stone (which to me seems one of the greatest Mysteries in Nature) the said Secret will very easily be Discover'd.

Al.

Good News for poor Chymists! But thanks to the Honest Virtuosi▪ The Alkahest is to be had with very little Trouble and Charge from the Mystical Pyrites. Mr. Acid has got a Menstruum already from it will Dissolve all the Metals and Minerals he has met with, if you will believe him: (But I dare lay a Wager a­gainst it.) And a Secret for the Gout, which we may easily Dis­cover by a little nice Enquiry. Doubtless this Noble Menstruum [Page 96] and the Alkahest also, are Acids, for all the Noble Menstruums he knows are Acids in the Three Kingdoms. But thus Acid will be the Ʋniversal Destroyer of Bodies, being the Universal Dissolvent. But pray you Sir, are there no Alkalies in the Mineral Kingdom?

Ac.

Arsenick is the highest, and most exalted Alkali, as Oyl of Vitriol is the most exalted Acid. As for the external use of Arse­nick. I know nothing experimentally, but being a thing of perni­cious consequence inwardly taken, I suppose it can have no very friendly operation externally apply'd. Internally taken, it causeth Vomitings, Convulsions of the Stomach, cold Sweats, Palpitations of the Heart, Swoonings, violent Thirst; and seems to be a direct enemy to Life; which it fails not soon to destroy: All which Ef­fects it will not fail to have, given in never so small a quantity. And those People who have been so vain, as to pretend to correct the poysonous quality of Arsenick, so as to convert it into a good, and safe Medicine; have attempted it only by the means of Acid Salts: as Sea-salt, Niter, Tartar, Vitriol, &c. wherein I cannot tell whether any man has been so happy as to succeed. To prove Arsenick to be an Alkali, and as such the cause of those dreadful Symptoms attending those that take it; I give you this Relation. A certain Young-woman taking a large quantity of Arsenick, was immediately attended with all the most violent Symptoms imagi­nable: A Doctor gave her large quantities of Salad-oyl, the usual Remedy, without the least abating the Symptoms; upon which he gave her the Juice of Lemons plentifully, which soon took off those direful Symptoms; tho the operation of the Acid might be impe­ded by the quantity of the Oyl she had taken before.

Al.

What you mean by exalted Alkalies, or Acids, I don't know, unless most volatile, or most strong. But as for Arsenick, it is far from being the most volatile or strongest Alkali; neither is Oyl of Vitriol the most volatile or strongest Acid. But whatever Arsenick is, it will not produce its effects in the smallest quantity, having been given as a Medicine, a grain or two in some cases. Neither have all those People who you say have been so vain as to attempt to correct it, done it by Acid Salts. For I my self have a Medi­cine from it, wherein is not a grain of any kind of Salt, which I can give to the quantity of a scruple, or more, to good purpose, in some cases; giving Nature no such disturbance as is common in the use of many vulgar Medicines. And outwardly I have used Preparations of it, doing in some cases what I could never do with any thing else; never seeing any ill effects of it. But that Arsenick is an Alkali, and produces its evil effects as such, is but your Fan­cy, not knowing what it is. Your Argument to prove it an Alkali, is such a slight one as you usually give for other things. A Per­son [Page 97] took Arsenick, and was not presently cured by taking Oyl, but as by taking Juice of Lemons, I answer; the thing to be done [...] this case was, to get the Arsenick out of the Body as soon as pos­ [...]ble; and till that could be done, to hinder its operation upon the coat of the Stomach; to both which intents Oyl was proper: and when the Arsenick was vomited all up (if timely done) then [...] Symptoms would cease. Now the discharge of the Arsenick, [...]nd defence of the Stomach, must in all reason be attributed to [...]he Oyl, not to the Juice of Lemons, which was given upon it; [...] having no power to work upon, or alter the corrosive nature of Arsenick, which is a body that makes no effervescence with Acids, [...]or does it turn Syrup of Violets green (the ways you try Alka­lies by) but is a very sulphurous Mineral, and Sulphurs consist [...]rtly of an Acid, which may be separated from the Arsenick; and certainly that which contains an Acid, and has none of the signs of an Alkali, cannot be the strongest, or most volatile Alkali. But Alkali being fix'd upon in your Hypothesis for the Principle of Death, and Arsenick producing such mortal effects, you presently concluded it an Alkali. And were you not resolved that what­ever is good must be an Acid, and whatever is bad an Alkali; you could not be so ignorant of the nature of things, and so contradict your own Principles as you do, in almost all your Prescriptions, giving Alkalies, Absorbents, or other Mitigators of Acids. For in­stance, Steel and Cinnaber before mention'd, Lapis haematitis, which is a Mineral of Iron, from which you never got a grain of Acid, yet you highly commend it, and give it not first turn'd into Vitriol, An­timonium diaphoreticum, [that is, Antimony and Niter fix'd together, and it is well known that Niter with all sulphurous Bodies, is turn'd into a fix'd Alkali, some of which Alkali remains in the fix'd Powder of Antimony, notwithstanding the lotions.] Cochinel, an Animal, abounding with Volatile Salt. Vinous Spirits, Aromatick Oyls, and divers other things, which will much take off the edge, if not wholly blunt yuur Acids. You cry out against the nauseous Tribe of Alexipharmacks, which you say are very rarely of any other use than to send the Patient to his long-home; and yet prescribe The­riaca, Androm. Diascord. Confect. de Hyacinth. Aq. Theriacalis, Epi­dem. Lactis Alex. Cinnam. Mirab. &c. all sorts of Aromaticks. So that I profess, if you had not declar'd your self an Acid Doctor, I should hardly have smelt you out by the Prescripts you have pub­lished. And I suppose you have given us those that you think will do your Cause the most credit. Yea, I remember you have com­mended as an admirable Remedy, and the next thing to your Bal­sam, in the Gout, a L [...]xivium (as you call it) of Cows-Ʋrine and Sea-Salt; when every body knows Ʋrine is full of Volatile Alkalous Salt: and Sea-Salt it self, in its natural form, has not the effects of an Acid.

Ac.
[Page 98]

It is, I suppose, allow'd by all, that Sea-Salt is an Acid For which cause, we that eat Flesh can't live without it: For Flesh abounding with Alkalous Salts, they are in a measure lock'd up by Sea-Salt. And People who lived before the Flood, 'tis to be be­lieved, did not eat Flesh, but liv'd upon Vegetables; which, I suppose, was one great reason of their long Lives: If they ha [...] eat Flesh as we do, I can't imagine what they would have done for Salt. For supposing Dr. Burnet's Hypothesis true, which I see no reason to doubt of, I suppose their Rivers must have been void of Saltness; and for them to have eaten Meat without Salt, must have prejudic'd their Healths, and shortned their Lives. As we saw in the Irish Wars, by eating Meat without Salt, whole Regi­ments were swept away by Fevers and Fluxes. Now the Antidi­luvians eating Vegetables, had no need of Salt; there being a suf­ficient quantity of Acidity in them to confirm the texture of their Blood. Farther note the efficacy of Salt-water, to prevent the dreadful Symptoms of persons bitten with mad Dogs. On which occasion also, a Child at Worcester was cur'd of a Tympanitis by be­ing dipt with others, also bitten by a mad Dog; who not many hours after she was dipt, piss'd several Quarts, and was perfectly cured. And a Person in Herefordshire, I am told, has cured seve­ral by the same method. Common Salt, I allow, will excite Thirst not quatenus Acid; for Spirit of Salt will take it off: But I assure you, I have stumbled more at this thing of Common Salt's exciting Thirst, than any thing else besides, and therefore have spar'd no Cost to find the Reason; but at last, after much Labour and Sweat, I found there was no Salt but had more or less of a damn'd thing call'd Bittern mix'd with it. Now this Bittern is the most corroding fix'd Alkali in nature; and tho it be inconsiderable in quantity, in respect of the Acid, yet it will fix it self on the Parts after the Acid of the Salt is all dissolved, and so excite Thirst.

Alk.

It is so far from being allow'd by all, that Sea-Salt is an Acid, that I know none that can taste will allow it, except you Mr. Acid, who are either resolved to deny your Senses to serve your Hypothetick Fancy, or have so us'd your Mouth to Acids, you can taste nothing else; as Persons in some Distempers taste every thing bitter. But let the healthy Country-man taste it, and I will engage he will not say 'tis sowr. That it may be by the Fire changed into a sowr Liquor, is no better an Argument, that it is now sowr▪ than that Sugar, because it may be turn'd in­to Vinegar, is Vinegar; or into an Alkali, is an Alkali already; or that an Ass-ey'd Doctor is a wise man, because possibly he may learn Wit. It is not true, that those that eat Flesh can't live without Salt: for not only divers kinds of Animals that live wholly on Flesh eat no Salt, but abundance of People in North-America, who live [Page 99] very healthy, and strong, and mostly upon Flesh, have no Salt a tall; as Hennipen tells us in his late account of those Parts, and I don't question but we might do the same were we accustom'd to it, without hurting our selves by Alkali. Neither do we use Salt to lock up Alkali in Flesh, which it will not do; Sea-Salt no way uniting with, or retaining volatile Alkalies, except it is first turn'd into on Acid Spirit; as you may easily see, either by distilling Salt-meat, Ʋrine, or Sea-Salt, and a volatile Alkali mix'd together. But we use Salt to preserve and relish our Meat, neither of which would be done by its Acid Spirit. Nor can the Longevity of the Antediluvians be ascrib'd to their living upon Vegetables, much less from an Acid in them, when all Vegetables that are commonly ea­ten turn into an Alkalous Chyle. And if living upon Vegetables would so much conduce to long Life, why have not some in our time, who would eat nothing else, lived longer, or at least more healthy, than others? And tho you, not doubting of Burnet's Hy­pothesis, can't imagine what they would have done for Salt before the Flood, yet I and others, not doubting of Moses's Hypothesis, can very well imagine, That they might have had Salt to relish di­vers sorts of Vegetables, as well as for other uses, from the Sea, from Fountains, or from the Rock the original of that useful Bo­dy. As for the Cure of Persons bit by mad Dogs, by dipping; it cannot be well thought to depend upon the Saltness of the Wa­ter, much less on the supposed Acidity of the Salt: If it did, why would not the drinking Salt-water, or Spirit of Salt, or washing with them, rather do the Cure; which has not been found ef­fectual. But the reason of this, is more rationally thought to lie in the blotting out and destroying, or preventing the Idea of Rage, by the contrary Idea of Fear impress'd upon the Spirits of the Persons bit. Which is apparent from the manner of dipping, as I have had the Account from Persons dip'd; which is till the Person has an apprehension or fear of being drowned: Therefore they dip some twice, some thrice, more or less, as they find them fearful, or courageous. On the same account, dipping might pro­voke Urine, and so do something towards curing the Dropsy. And I believe the inducing a contrary Idea, would be a more effectual way of curing other sorts of Madness, than any of the common Methods; if Physicians would give themselves to consider of, and put in practice the several ways, and means by which it might be done. I agree with you, That Salt does not excite Thirst quatenus Acid; because that would be to do it quatenus what it is not; nei­ther does it do it quatenus Alkali. And tho it has cost you so much Money and Sweat, to resolve this stumbling Question, you must stumble, and Sweat again, or remain under a Mistake. For the Damn'd thing Bittern (to repeat your Beauish Expression) is [Page 100] not where, and what you suppose it: First it is not in all Salt; for it is that which will not shoot with the Salt into regular Grains, and if Boyl'd up, will not continue in a dry Form, but runs into a Liquour in the open Air. Therefore that Salt that is shot into its proper Chrystals and keeps dry, has no Bittern. But if this won't do, Distill your Salt into an Acid Spirit, and then you will be sa­tisfy'd there is no fix'd Alkali in it: Turn this Spirit into Salt a­gain, the same in quantity and Quality (as every Chymist knows how) and this Salt shall make you as Thirsty, as any other Com­mon Salt. Secondly Bittern it self is not the most corroding fix'd.-Alkali in Nature, for tho' it will turn Syrup of Violets Green (as Allum also doth) more readily than Common-Salt; yet it is not corroding as an Alkali, as any one may Try by Tasting it, and the mildest fix'd Alkali, and they will find a difference, much more between this and the most Corroding ones: Nor is it a fix'd Alkali, for it will rise in the Fire, and come over good Spirit of Salt, even per [...]se without any addition of Earth, leaving nothing behind but a white insipid Earth, which will not so much as make an Effer­vescence with Acids; Neither will Bittern fix it self on the Parts af­ter the Salt is dissolved, for it's dissolved much sooner than Salt it self. Thus you see Sir, by a little Skill in Chymistry your Damn'd fix'd Alkali is become a Blessed Volatile Acid. But Bittern in its Natural Form just Boyl'd up into a dry Form is but a Salsum, not fermenting with Acids much more than Common-Salt will, and may be taken in as large a quantity as Common-Salt, produ­cing no more Thirst than that does. But you are such a Slave to your Hypothesis, that every ill Effect must needs be attributed to an Alkali, even as far as to make Poysons Mortiferous merely as Alkalies; as you have Asserted in Arsenick. And I hear, also you have the same Opinion in Animal Poysons, as that of the Viper, which if it be an Alkali, and therefore a Poyson, I shou'd think, a far more exalted one than Arsenick, and Damn'd one than Bit­tern, performing its violent Effects in far less quantity. What say you is it your Opinion?

Ac.

Yes, And for a farther Confirmation of my Doctrine of Acids, you have the Cure of one Mr. Phillipson, that shew'd a Col­lection of Rarities, who was Bitten by a Viper, and Cured in a few Days by Acids: Which Cure, considering the Symptoms (which were as severe as possible) I may without vanity say, There has not been a more Extraordinary Cure wrought in so short a time. Now if the Poyson of the Viper did consist in a volatile Acid, as some wou'd make us believe, How is it possible the Symptoms could be taken off by giving Acids, and that in such large quantities? Nay, had it been Acid, it's reasonable to think the Symptoms would have been Aggravated. So in a Relation Dr. Stubbs gives a Person [Page 101] Bitten by an Adder, was Cured by the Mixtura siimplex a Noble Acid. And Lemery in his Course of Chymistry, confesses, That the Viper does more abound with Volatile (Alkalous) Salts, than most other Creatures; by reason of the closeness of the Cutaneous Pores hindering Prespiration, and that their Poyson consists in an Emission of a very great quantity of Volatile-Salts at the time of their being enrag'd. But then to square with the Vulgar Opini­on, he tells us, Those Volatile Alkalous Salts are instantaneously at the time of their Emission, during the time of the Viper's short Rage, turn'd into Acids of the most Volatile Nature; which is such Jargon, the Transmutation of Metals to those that are its greatest Enemies, is a Jest to it. Charas also gives us an Account of a Ger­man Bitten at his House, who after all the pother that he makes about his Volatile Salt of Vipers, was Cured not without great Hazard and Trouble, by the intermixture of many other Medicines and those even Acids, as Treacle-Water, Citrons; but those Acids could not be so effectual, by reason of the Alkalies given him.

Al.

The Recovery of Mr. Phillipson was not so speedy, nor what you did towards it so apparently Effectual, as to give you just occasion to Brag of so great a Cure: Nay, you cannot cer­tainly prove to your self, or others, That what you did, did the Cure, and that other things did nothing towards it; yea, or that he would not have been well as soon, or sooner without any of your Acids. The Patient himself said, He could not tell whether he had any benefit by what you gave him. But I am sure, had he had some more proper Things, or even the Viper-Man for his Doctor, he might have been well sooner than he was. But let us suppose the best we can of what you did, and take what you borrow from Dr. Stubbs, and Charas together; you do not make an Argument out of all sufficient to make a Considerate Man be­lieve, that the Poyson of Vipers consists in an Alkali. Suppose you did do the Man some little good, and Dr. Stubb's Mixtura simplex were an Acid (which if it were that of Paracelsus, I deny, being but a Salsum) and Charas's Alkalies, were not so soon Effectual on the German; but wanting Patience and larger Doses, they gave some Acids, I say suppose that the Acids did some good, it will not follow, That the Venom of Vipers is an Alkali. For if an Acid has done some things towards the Cure of the Bite, in one or two Cases, you can't deny but that Alkalies have done it in ma­ny. For tho' in some Cases Acids were used, they were not used alone, and so could not certainly demand the Credit of the Cure. But you have many Cases, where the Volatile Salt used without Acids Cured. Can it be suppos'd Volatile Alkali Salts did the Cure, if the Poyson were nothing but a Volatile Alkali? Or, did you ever see any Volatile Alkali in so little (yea or in a large) quan­tity, [Page 102] put into a Wound, and produce such dire Effects? No, the Infusion of Volatile Alkali in an Hundred times the quantity into the Veins will not do it, or so much as cause a Disorder. Can the Poyson of Vipers consist in a Volatile Alkali, and their whole Bo­dy abound therewith, and yet their Flesh be wholsome Food? No surely. Can the Poyson of Vipers consist in an Alkali, and yet be Cured by an Alkali? And that even by an outward Applica­tion: As I my self have seen in the following Experiments I some Years ago was Assistant in the making of, at the Honourable Mr. Boyle's, which were made upon Pullets and Pigeons, thus▪ We pluck'd the Feathers off the Breast of one of them, and ta­king a Viper when he was enrag'd, we caused him to Bite; letting the Fowl go, he Dy'd in three or four Hours. Then we took ano­her and caus'd him to be Bitten in like manner, by an en­raged Viper, and apply'd the Viper-Stone to the Wound, which not only prevented Death, but all the dire Sypmtoms the other Fowl Dy'd with; which Stone being taken off after some time, the Wound was Healed by ordinary means. Now this Stone is an Arid-Body, making an Effervescence with Acids, which could not have such great Effects in the Biting of Vipers, if the Poyson were an Alkali, and to be destroy'd by an Acid. But tho' the Poy­son of the Viper can't Rationally be thought to be an Alkali; yet neither do I think this Poyson consists in an Acid. Those Persons that have ventured to Taste the Liquor in the Viper's Gums, tell us nothing of any Acidity, or Alkalous Taste, nor give us any Ex­periments to confirm their Opinion of its being an Acid. Nor do we see such Mortal Effects of so small quantities of either Acid, or Alkali in Wounds. But this Poyson doubtless does consist in some­thing more subtil [...] than any of these manifest Qualities. The Ingenious Lemery, I confess, is of the Opinion that the Poyson, of the Viper is an Acid; but he (nor no Mortal I believe) has any such Jargon as you falsly accuse him of, who is a Man capable of Teaching you Pharmacy this Seven Years yet. To shew how grosly you have a­bused him, I will recite his Words in this matter: I conceive, says he, what they call the Venom of Vipers, consists only in the abun­dance of Acid Volatile Salts, which the Animal throws out when it Bites, and these Salts passing into the Veins and Arteries, coagu­late the Blood and hinder its Circulation, and the course of the Animal Spirits, even as it happens when an Acid Liquor is Syring'd into a Vein, which may be sufficient to explicate all the Accidents which happen upon the Biteing. And afterwards saies he, The difference between the Effects of an Acid Liquor syring'd into the Veins, and those of the Venom of Vipers is this, an Acid Liquor being immediaiely infus'd into a large Vessel fixes all the Blood of a sudden, and causes strong Convulsions, which are follow'd shortly [Page 103] with Death: Whereas the Acid Salts that flow from the Viper when he Bites, do not Work so quickly; their Acidity being pro­bably not so strong as that of an Acid Liquor, and have long pa­ssage into the Mass of Blood: And there's one Circumstance, adds he, which makes my Application still more probable, That the best Remedics used for such as are Wounded by Vipers, are those that destroy Acids, and dissolve the Coagulation of the Blood, as Volatile Alkali-Salts drawn from Animals. But to understand this more fully, continues he, it's fit to consider several things, First, Vipers are more fill'd with Volatile Salts than other Animals, and so not think it strange that they throw out much of it in their wrath. Secondly, Tho' these Salts turn Alkalies by Distillation, they are Acids in their own Nature, before the Fire works upon them, as I have said when I spoke of the Principles. Thirdly, Vi­pers are covered with a close compact Skin; so that the Salts they contain do Circulate and Subtilize much better, and do Evaporate less than other Animals. Fourthly, The shape of the Viper being long, straight, and round, like a small Gun, the Salts they throw out in the Biting are driven with much more violence, than if they came from a more open place. Fifthly, The two long Teeth of the Viper being straight and sharp, make deep Wounds, but which shut up so quickly, the Acid-Salts which enter, have no passage to come out. But it may be Objected farther, saies he, If the Venom of Vipers proceed from their Volatile Salts, then the Salt of Vi­pers shou'd increase, rather than Cure the Malady. Answer, Vo­latile Salts which flow from Living Vipers, and enter the Flesh by the Bite, are very different from those drawn by the Fire from Dead ones, which are taken at the Mouth, the first are Naturally pointed, Acid, and Coaglating; the others have been blunted by the Fire, and rendred Poreous, are Alkalies, very Rarifying, or Dissolving, so are qualifyed to break and destroy the first. Second­ly, The Volatile Salt of Vipers taken at the Mouth, has another determination then that which enters the Flesh, and so produces different Effect; not being forc'd in its Motion, spreads every where, and dissolves the Coagulum the other had made in the Blood. Thus much I have Transcribed, not for the sake of Lemery's Opinion, seeing no ground to believe the Viper abounds with Acid Salts, but out of love to Justice, that it may be seen how the Abuser of all his Betters, has abused this Author in particular. But I have one thing more comes into my Mind to tell you of, Mr. Acid, since we are Talking of Wounding, which is that I have heard, you have formerly Boasted great Things in Chirurgery, and have Wrot a Book call'd Novum Lumen Chirurgieum. What is there in it pray you Sir?

Ac.

There's nothing but Truth contain'd in my Novum Lumen [Page 104] Chirurgicum, and it's Built upon a pair of Medicines, the one Inter­nal, the other External, which I did not think fit to make pub­lick. But here lies my Misfortune common to all those who make new Discoveries; a great many believe the Truth of what I said, that my Medicines will perform what I promised; but amongst those who believe matter of Fact, many say, This Man was not the Author, others, that they have the same Medicines. I very well know it's the Nature of most Men not to allow any Person the Honour of his own Discoveries. But my Medicines are entirely New, and will stand the severest Test, and I am certain my Me­dicines will Cure any Wounds, whether in the Flesh, or in the Cavity of the Body: Where as dangerous Wounds were ever Cured by former Applications, and that with much greater speed and safety to the Patient; since they prevent Feavers, and Mortificati­ons: My Medicines if timely used, Cure all sorts of Wounds without Suppuration, but where Suppura [...]ion is begun, are the best Digestives now known. But all Probes and Tents, all Dige­stive and Suppurating Medicines, all Cauteries and straight Liga­tures are Injurious and Procrastinate the Cure. To shew wherein lies the unreasonableness of commo [...] Methods of Chirurgeons in the Cure of Wounds, wherein they hinder and oppress Nature in her regular Operations, let a Wound be made where it will, and how, whether by Cutting, or Contusion, it matters not, the Nutritious juice is brought immediately to the extremities of the wounded Vessels. Now all the Medicines made use of in the common Me­thods of Chirurgery relax the divide Fibers, that they can't retain the Nutritious Matter, but let it pass into the Wound, where by the same Medicines it's turned into the Substance commoly call'd Matter, and this Corruption can't be without a sort of Fermenta­tion, and the Fermenting Particles fret the Fibers, cause Inflmma­tions, and by ent'ring the Blood, and dividing its Texture cause Feavers. Now it's evident, whatever will cause Pain such as will create a Feaver, must be of a Heterogeneous Nature, and an Ene­my to the Body (for I positively believe it's from the Medicines ap­ply'd, only are occasion'd all those ill Symptoms that attend Wounds) to which it's apply'd, or into which it's receiv'd. The truth of which, the nature of a Feaver is sufficient to confirm, which is in the Terms of many great Men nothing but a Nixus Na­turae to throw off its Enemy. And a Late Learned Author in a Trea­tise of Intermitting Feavers, the only Rational Piece in my Opinion that ever was Writ upon that subject, plainly makes it appear, That the Seat of Agues is in the Cortex of the Brain, from whence at certain Periods of time, the Matter is thrown off by the Nerves to all the Parts of the Body, which causes the coldness; this Matter afterwards received into the Blood by the Capillary Veins being [...]e­rogeneous [Page 105] to it, puts it into a violent motion, which ceases not till the matter is thrown off by the Pores. Now after the Chi­rurgeons have generated Matter (tho' many times instead thereof they cause Mortifications) they then use mundifying Medicines, and when Nature is oppressed, leave her to do her own work. This is their practice in External Wounds, but what is to be expected where the Lungs, Liver, Guts, &c. are wounded? Here they own their Medicines insufficient, and if any so wounded chance to re­cover they count it almost miraculous. But I leave it to every Man's judgment which method is best to be confided in, either that where scarce one in ten miscarieth as in mine, or where not one in ten recovers as in the Common Method of Chirur­geons: Besides there remains another thing, that is when any large Blood-Vessel is wounded how to stop the Flux of the Blood which they can't do without actual, or potential Cauteries, whose inconveniences every body knows; and strict bandage often causing Mortifications. But the methods I use are short and easie, thus; I make a solution of my Powder in Water, or for want of it in Urine, and squeese or inject with a Syring into the Wound if it be deep, then close the Wound, and if large, stich it up and lay a Pledget upon it. If any large Artery be cut, I hold the Pledget close with my Hand till the Flux of Blood ceases which will be in a small time; then bind it on with an easie ligature, and give my Tincture in Wine. Now to prove my Medicines agreeable to the nature of Humane Bodies, and of that Juice by which I conjecture the Body is nourished, and more efficacious than the Medicines used by Chirurgeons, the following Arguments will evince. 1. They never cause Pain unless just at the Application, and that very little more than would be caused by-Spring Water. 2. No Pain after­terwards. 3. If there has been Pain before, it has been taken off in a short time. 4. There has never been any Feavers be the Wound external or internal. 5. All incised Wounds are cured if timely used in a few days time, without Suppuration: Gun-shot Wounds in fleshy parts are cured after the same manner, only require longer time. And by my Medicines most wounds within the Cavity of the Body may be cured with all the ease imaginable. For In­stance Experiment. 1. John Mahulton.

Al.

Hold Mr. Acid, let your Experiments alone now, you may tell them to the Physicians and Chirurgeons that were in Flanders with you, and saw them made. Seeing is believing, they say: But I who have not seen shall hardly believe you did any Miracles, or that all contain'd in your Novum Lumen Chirurgi­cum is true. Because I know your pair of Medicines, not capable to perfom such Wonders: The very appearance of which Arca­nums, is enough to Extinguish your Novum Lumen, Your Tin­cture [Page 106] of the Sulphur of Venus, as you falsly and foolishly call your Internal Medicine, and your Powder, are not your Invention▪ but Originally Rebel's, I might say, every Bodies: The one being nothing but Spirit of Roman or Dantzick Vitriol Twelve Parts mix'd with Spirit of Wine Eight Parts: And the other nothing but Roman Vitriol Calcin'd to Whiteness, which you Colour'd with a little Dragon's Blood: And we know how you come by these Secrets: These are the great Medicines you would so fain steal the Honour of being thought the Inventer oft▪ These are your fire-new Medicines! The Birth of the Moun­tains! And least you shou'd deny this (being given to the fa­culty) any one that understands any thing of Chymistry, may know your Tincture (as you call it) if not by Sight and Taste, by bare Distillation. And as for your Powder, let them Dissolve it in Water, the Dragon's-Blood (if you still Colour it) will not Dissolve, but may be separated, and put upon a hot Plate, is known by the Smell: Let them put some Urinous Spirit to the Powder, it will presently discover the Copper by its Blew Colour, and every Body knows by the Taste, that it's a Vitriol. And now let People judg, whether a little Roman Vitriol be so strange a Discovery beyond all hitherto known in Chirurgery? Or whether all Chirurgeons have been ignorant thereof? Whether Vitriol will Cure all Curable Wounds inwardly, and outwardly, with more speed and safety than any thing else? If it would, there are better Vitriols to be had than this you falsly call, your Inven­tion. Whether Copper Corroded by an Acid, with its fretting Astringency be likely to Cure all sorts of Wounds without Sup­puration, and yet is the best Digestive in the World. This is like Acids making Thick, Thin, Purging, Vomiting, Binding, Loosening, and every thing; because it is Acid, and you are in love with it. Roman Vitriol Digests, yet hinders Digestion; but only while a Secret in Mr. Acid's Hand, if you can believe him. All Probes and Tents, all Digestive and Suppurating Medicines. all Cauteries and straight Ligatures, are Injurious and Procra­stinate the Cure: Yet Mr. Acid's Digestive does not. But I Answer, Your Digestion-hindering Digestive as well as others, and the rest of the Things you cry out against, may be Injuri­ous and Procrastinate Cure, where Fools or Knaves act instead of Chirurgions: But in the Hands of Experienced Artists, all these are necessary sometimes; but when, and where, you are not a capable Judg. Let a Wound be made where, and how it matters not, say you. Here you shew your Ig­norance, for Chirurgeons to Laugh at: They well know the place and manner of the Wound, much alters the Indications of Cure. That all the Medicines made use of in the common Me­thods [Page 107] of Chirurgery, relax the Fibers, and turn the Nutri­ [...]ious Juice into Corruption, is a false Assertion, by a Person ignorant of the Materia Medica. All the Chirurgeons that I [...]ver was acquainted with, were not ignorant of more kindly [...] [...]stringents, and better Balsamicks than Roman Vitriol. And before ever Mr. Acid was heard of, I my self have healed Wounds, and that in the Joynts, without Pain, Soreness or Corruption, by Medicines that might be taken inwardly in considerable Doses. But Roman Vitriol, or any sort of Corrosion of Copper with common Acids will cause Pain, and Inflammati­on in the Wounds, and thence Feavers. Let any body try it on himself, and he will be satisfied. Now what will cause Pains and Feavers, must needs be of a Heterogeneous Nature, and I positively believe, that it was from your Medicine, that your Patients in Flanders had so many ill Symptoms. Nature stri­ving tho' in vain to cast out the extraneous body of Corroded Copper, far more mischievous than Lead or Iron, with which Soldiers more mercifully wound one another. That a Feaver is Nixus Naturae to throw off its enemy might perhaps be believed as a great fancy of Great Men, if they could tell us who Na­ture is. The Late Learned Author of the Treatise of Intermit­ting Feavers, if what you say be true, seems to be a Man of great Brain, and the Seat of Agues by him discover'd, a Witty Invention: I wish you had named him, that I might have seen also what he makes the matter of these Feavers. I fancy they must be Maggots, who every time they discharge their Bellies after repast, drop down their Excrements through the Nerves, which being of an Alkalous Nature disolved in the aqucous Vehicle of the Succus Nervosus causes cold, but being received into the Blood, and Heterogeneous to its Acid, causes a Fermentation and Heat, till the Excrementitious Alkali is cast out by the Pores. But as for the Chirurgeons when they have generated Matter; then, for want of Roman Vitriol they mundifie, and so leave Na­ture oppressed. Roman Vitriol prevents all, and helps all, but I believe Mr. Acid's direction, I would say his Word is the chief thing in the business. Another Man using it will do or tell of no Mi [...]acles. But what is to be expected in the Wounds of the Lungs, Liver, Guts? Why here a recovery is counted a Miracle by the Ignorant Chirurgeons, who know nothing of the new dis­cover'd Roman Vitriol. But let any Man judg which method is best, that which depends upon Roman Vitriol alone, used alike in all differences of Wonds, or that which relies on all sorts of Medicines in the Hands of Artists: Mr. Acid says in the first me­thod not one in ten miscaries, in the last not one in ten reco­vers. I must tell you Sir, you have not proved by Evident and [Page 108] well attested Experiments, you ever cured any one Wounded in those Parts; so far are you from curing Nine in Ten. If you could have done what you pretended, I can never believe you would have left your famous Practice. As for stopping of Blood, you know well where your Vitriol has failed, but let any one that has a mind to be satisfied of its Vertue try it. But you abuse others to say, they can't stop Blood without actual or potential Cauteries Actual Cauteries are seldom used, or any potential greater than calcined Roman Vitriol. But we know better things, Medicines that may be taken inwardly, they are so mild and wholsom, that will stop Blood with much more ease, speed safety, and heal far better when that is done, than your calcin'd Vitriol; tho' we never thought fit to Quack with them. Besides every Chirurgeon who deserves the Name, can stop Blood in many cases without any Medicines at all. That your Medicines are as agreeing to the Nature of Human Bodies, and the juice by which they are nourished as Copper is to Flesh, and Oyl of Vitriol to Blood; I readily grant, but that they are indeed friendly, your Practice has not proved, we have only your bare Assertions, ask the Marquess of Carmarthen else. That your Vitriol never causes much more Pain than Spring-Water in the Application, nor any afterwards, takes off former Pain in a little time, suf­fers no Feaver, Cures all incised Wounds in a few days without Suppuration, Gun-shot Wounds in a little lo [...]er time, most Wounds in the cavity of the Body with all the ease immaginable. I Answer: First, Your Method is short, and your Se [...]s are known, let whoever will try how sweet. Secondly, Why durst you not go into Flanders again? And why did you quit your pretensions to Chirurgery, and take another method of Quacking; leaving your first new Light, to go out like an Ignis Fatui, and rub your Cat for another, You began to see at the Seige of Namur, that your Chirurgical sham would not take, and therefore had some reason for another Essay. You found the Practice of Chirurgery too plain, and sensible a work to deceive Mankind in. The In­ternal part of Medicine is more abstruse, and you may tell Peo­ple they have a Fire in their Hearts, which is fed by Acids, long e­nough e'er they will have them search'd to disprove you. A Dis­coverer you would fain be thought, and a Light to the World; but I don't Question, but by that time what has been said, is well consider'd, you will see your self but a falling Star, which appears but in a very little part of his Passage to the Earth. And now Mr. Acid you may go home and think: And if possibly you can be perswaded to become Considerate and Modest, and what you have Foolishly said, and done can yet be retriev'd, you will acknowledg me, as I am, no Enemy, but a Friend; tho' I have blunted the Sharpness of your Acids.

FINIS.

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