THE COMPLEAT BODY OF THE ART MILITARY: Exactly compiled, and gradually composed for the Foot, in the best refined manner, according to the practise of the Modern Times. Divided into Three BOOKS. The First, containing the Postures of the Pike and Musket, with their Conformities, and the Dignities of Ranks and Files: Their manner of joyning to the compleating of a Body: their severall Distances, Facings, Doublings, Counter­marches, Wheelings, and Firings. With diverse Experiments upon single Files. The Second, comprehending twelve Exercises. Viz.

  • Three with 24 Men.
  • Three with 32 Men.
  • Three with 64 Men.
  • Three with 144 Men.

The Third, setting forth the drawing up and exercising of Regiments after the manner of Private Companies, with the forming Brigades, and Armies, the placing of Cannon and Artillery, according to the practise of severall Nations, Armies, and Commanders in Chief. Together with the duties of all private Souldiers and Officers in a Regiment, from a Sentinell to a Collonel. As also the duties of the Military Watches. Lastly, directions for ordering Regiments or Private Companies to Funerall Occasions. Illustrated with Varietie of Figures of Battail, very profitable and delightfull for all Noble and Heroick Spirits, in a fuller manner then hath been heretofore published. By RICHARD ELTON, Serjeant Major.

Cant. 3. 8. They all handled the Sword, and are expert in War.

LONDON: Printed by ROBERT LEYBOURN, in Monkswell Street neer Creeplegate, MDCL.

VERAET ACCVRATA EFFIGIES RICHARDI ELTONI GENEROSL BRISTOL NEC NON ARTIS MILITARIS MAGISTIRI ANO 1644
If Rome vnto Her conquering Ceasrs raise
Rich obelisks, to crowne thier deatfiles Praise,
What Monument to Thee must Albion reare,
To shew Thy Motion in a brighter Sphere?
This Art's too dull to doe't tis only done
Best by Thy Selfe, so hights' the World the Sunne
Wee may admire thy Face, the Sculptor's Art;
But Wee are extasi'd at th' inward Part

TO THE MIRROUR of CHIVALRY, And HONOUR of all MARTIALL DISCIPLINE, The most Victorious Thomas Lord Fairfax HIS EXCELLENCIE, CAPTAIN GENERALL of all MILITARY FORCES for the PARLIAMENT OF ENGLAND. All Health and Happinesse, here and hereafter.

Most Eminent and Illustrious SIR. May it please Your Excellencie,

THe Glory of all Arts is Action, the Honour of all Action is Vertue; the Crown of all Vertues is Perfection: the Excellencie whereof, (accord­ing to the perfection of Humanity) is so essenti­all in your Excellencie, that you are become, at once, the Wonder, and the Honour of Europe: Neither can that immortall Fame of Yours be conceal'd from the rest of the habitable World, who shall from age to age record, and from An­tiquity to Infantry relate those matchlesse Vi­ctories and unimitable Atchievements which the Bounty and Blessing of Hea­ven hath enrich'd your Hand, and beautifi'd your Name withall. In all whose Honourable and succesfull Undertakings, I had an aim at no greater happi­ness, [Page] then to have been the least Part in so Noble an Employment under your Excellencie, towards the perfecting of the Welfare and Happinesse of this Kingdom and Common-wealth, had not the Military affairs of this Honou­rable Metropolis unavoydably engaged and obliged me to attend the service of their own Militia.

And therein My Lord, I have spared neither Diligence nor Study that might conduce to the great Work of Arms, then in Embrio, now in Perfection, excepting only Opposition and Envie, which the greatest Honours never yet were free from: A part of which Perfection hath always flowed from the industry of the Officers, and practice of the Students of that Warlike Academy, where­in, although I have not (as a Member thereof) with such dexterity as Cad­mus sent out well experienc'd Souldiers in a Day, yet have I not sitten so idle, as Lepidus, and wish'd to be warm'd more from the Sun than my own Labours; of which the effects are now upon the publike Test, but more formidably under your Excellencies censure: to whose Patronage and Protection I have presumed to devoted the Eldest Son and First-born of all my forepast Studies, Practise and employment in the gradation of Military affairs, for the space of a double Appren­tiship in that noble Science. All the following sheets, which relate to that He­roick Subject, such as they are, and in such a dress as now they have put on, sub­missively and primarily, present themselves with all their worth and beauty, (if any be discernable within them) unto Your Excellencie, as to their tutelar Angel, and most Orthodox Warriour, that either Pole can boast of.

In confidence therefore, of your Excellencies native Candor towards all In­genuity (and more especially That, wherein your Own transcendent, and un­paralleld Honours are more perspicuously and really delineated, than all the vain and empty Glory of the Dull and Phlegmatick Pretenders to Chivalry can Map or Landskip by the effeminate hand of Flattery) this late abortive, in full shape, due proportion, and (if Truth deceive me not) in just Maturity, hath broken from the Wombe of my fourteen years endeavours to see the Light, both of the censorious and judicious World, and in that Light it cannot but live; if your Excellencies goodness shall vouch safe to foster it, and must not die, except your displeasure please to wound it. And whether this shall live or die: I shall not further aspire at any loftier pitch of Honour, than to have Commission, to subscribe my self

Your Excellencies most humbly devoted Servant, Richard Elton.

The Right Honourable, the judicious and grave Trustees and Guardians of the Militia of the Honourable City of LONDON.
The Lord Major, Isaac Pennington, Sir Iohn Wolla­ston Knight; Thomas Atkins, John Fowke, Wil­liam Gibs, Thomas Foot, Christopher Packe, Row­land Wilson, Aldermen of the City of London; Major Generall Philip Skippon, Collonel Francis West, Lieutenant of the Tower, Col. John Venn, Col. Edmund Harvey, Francis Allen, Major Ri­chard Salway, Gregory Clement, Col. Owen Row, Col. Robert Tichborne, Col. Matthew Shephard, Col. William Ʋnderwood, William Wyberd, John Deathicke, Iohn Strange, Daniel Tayler, Col. Ri­chard Turner, Col. Nathaniel Camfield, Lieut. Col. Doyley, Master Maurice Gethin, Captain Nath: Lacy, Major Edmund Waring, Col. Robert Man­waring, Col. Iohn Heyes, Thomas Arnold, Samuell Moyer, Thomas Noell, Stephen Eastwick, Richard Shute, Mark Hildersly, Iames Russell, Tempest Mil­ner, Captain Blackwell senior, Iohn Pocock.

Right Honourable, Honourable; and ever to be honour'd Heroes:

WHose Honors joyntly, and severally are all sprung more from your just deserts, than ambitious desires; whose provident industry for this Citie and Kingdoms security, shall more eternize your Names unto Posterity, than your magnificent opulencie can make you after Death survive, and flourish in your hopefull issue. Since it al­ways seem'd good in your Eyes, (even from my first initiation into your Mili­tary Service, (more out of an in-nate humanity of yours, wherewith your Ho­nours [Page] abound, than from any merits of mine own, which I acknowledge but mean) still to number Me for one and the same, both in degree and service, in your Noble and Martiall Imployments, notwithstanding the many changes occasio­ned by the necessity of our Times, when so many erratick stars have shot from their Hemisphere, yet that you have been ever pleased, to continue and fix me in the same Constant Orbe, wherein I first moved as Serjeant Major, under my Honora­ble Col. John Belamy somtimes a deserving Member of your Honorable Society; and as if all this unusuall Bounty and Honour had been yet too litile, since you were further pleased, after a deliberate and serious perusall of this ensuing Tract, The Compleat body of Military Art, to compleat me so much more your Servant by obligation, in approving and commending both my name and labours to the Press, thereby to make me more eminent, if not more usefull to the world. If I say af­ter all these liberall variety of your Honours favours, I should pretermit them as ingratefull; or neglect them as forgetfull; I might deservedly be rendered stig­matiz'd unto Futurity, with an iudeleble brand of infamy. But I have neither so slightly studied your Honours, nor so easily read over my self, as to make so high a Breach upon Humanity or Ethicks. Accept therefore (Right Houorable and the rest) this oblation and sacrifice of my Gratitude with as much aequanimity, as it adresseth it self unto you with humility. It hath but newly kist the triumphant Hand of our victorious Caesar, the very Prince and Master of War, from whose glorious Tent, it hath taken flight, to rest within your warlike walls, where it was begotten, born, and bred, and where it shall (spight of Envy) dwell, and inherit as legitimate (if your Honours deign to harbour it) till Trophies lie forgotten, and Time shall be no more, what remains is only my daily Orizon for all your Honours happinesse, with the subscrib'd Attest of my faithfull duty in the Progresse of your Military service, to which I stand in duty and conscience obliged, and shall (God willing) perform to the utmost faculties and endevours of

Your Honours most strictly engaged Servant, Richard Elton.

To the truly valiant, and expertly accomplish'd Offi­ficers and Commanders in warlike Affairs, his fel­low Souldiers of the Honourable Exercise, and Military Meeting in that Martiall AREA adjoyning to Christ-Church LONDON. • Major John Haynes. , • Captain Henry Potter, , • Captain John Hynde, , • Captain William Johnson, , • Master Richard Hobby, , • with the rest of those wor­thy Leaders and Souldiers of that our Society, , and • Respect and Greeting. 

Honour'd SIRS, and my much endeared Friends:

IT is not my lowest happiness, nor my meanest Honor, that one and the same Climate owns our Nativities, one and the same City allow'd our Freedoms, one and the same Society honours our Employment, and I hope one and the same affection shall ever unite our Relations. When I cast up the revolution of time wherein we have exercised together, and for so many yeares contemplate your free and forward choise to honour me in the primary places of Directi­on and Discipline, but more especially that remarkable honour of your re­spect and favour, in the unanimous Election of me to be your Commander in Chief, upon one of your grand and publike Days of your drawing forth into the Champaigne, where your severall Exercises were the sole Object of that Days admiration, and the subject of future Times applause. I must of necessity conclude my self your Debtor, beyond the hope of satisfaction. Nor can the knowing world but confess, that even in your private Academy, as able and as learned Souldiers have commenc'd renowned Commanders, (excepting the two publique Gardens Artillery, and Military) as in any warlike Gymnasium, that this our Island can report off for her own; yea, and to whose valour and discretion she owes as much for her honour, and her safety. My earnest desires are, that your Resolves, and Exercises in this Art, may never be retarded, but heightned to that glorious pitch, that you may be able to send forth knowing Souldiers for all honorable and lawfull En­gagements of war, whether Forreign or Domestick. Towards which I hum­bly offer here my talent, which comes unto you as the latest Emissary from the honorable Militia, to whom it hath but now prostrated it's service; and the best Orator of my grateful acknowledgment of your many and undeser­ved favours towards me, for which I shall, in the most inviolable bonds of friendship, ever expresse my self

Your observant Servant R. E.

To the impartiall and judicious READER.

IF upon the first view of the Frontispiece or Title, thou mayst hapl [...] lay by the Book, as having already perused variety of Authors rela­ting to the same subject, and apply that of the Wise man, There is no new thing under the Sun, I must reply with the Phylosopher with reverence to the Preacher; and say, that Ars longa, vita brevis, and that all the expert and learned in this art have written before, and what succession shall dict­ate to the Ages to come, will be too little to leave nothing new to perfect it, so long as there are those Ratiocinia plurima, which the same wisest King complains off, those many strange stratagems forged in the heart, and anvill'd in the Brain of man to bring his ambitious and illicite Designes about: and so long as there are his new inventions to offend, there must be our new preventions to defend that Right He would abridge us off. The sad and heavy truth of these productions, our own times have given us testimonies large enough off, and those have part­ly occasioned the first conception of this Child of War, but the importunity of friends have now mid-wiv'd it into the world, lest if it should have come forth a Post­humall piece, after the Death of the Parent, it might not perhaps have been born with perfect symmetrie, and due proportion in all the limbs of it's Body; as it is now shap'd, it is in thy hand to breed up for thy own service: and I may modestly say, it will read thee some new Lectures, that thou wilt confess have hardly yet been heard in the School of War, nor ever taught in our Age but by

Thy well wishing and well meaning Friend Richard Elton.

To the Authour.

HAd thy Compendium seen the light when first
Our English Nation Foes began to thirst
After the heart-blood of our Liberty,
To prick it's vitall veine; our misery
Had been increast by it, so far as Art,
With Resolution joyn'd, could play it's part.
Hadst thou led forth this Warriour at that tim
Thou had'st been guilty of this very crime,
Of joyning nerves and sinew's to the Arme,
Of those who sought this Nation so great harme.
What strength's a number without discipline?
And in what volumes more then this of thine?
Happy we were in that Obscurity
Of this thy Tract; but not that from the eye
Of Englands friends 'twas hid: might there have been,
A view of it on this side of the Screen,
What aid should we have had? yet fiercer blowes
To strik this Screen a side: we may suppose
The Quarrell would have changed; who should see
Elton's Compendium, have th' immunitie,
And franchize of it's use, well we might
Fight to enjoy, this that doth teach to fight.
He that shall look on thy Conformities
Of Ranks and Files, the severall Dignities:
How these compos'd as Members do compleat,
A Marshall-Body, fashions it so neat,
As that each part is fixt in's proper place,
And not Chaost together; but a face
Of distance, order's seen; he would soon say
The like's not not extant at this very day;
And well may I found forth the very same,
Who have beheld the book, to which the name
Of Elton's set; It's for thy lasting prayse
Which will survive the ancienst of thy days;
And for the honour of this Commonweal,
That it hath bred one who by wound can heal,
That's skilfull to destroy, and thereby saves,
Our life of Freedom, keep it from the Graves,
The Enemies have digged; that it's Memory
(When therein laid) might not be seen in Story.
I Face about thy Facing to behold;
And face again, when once I do unfold
The work of others, to thy gallant Mode,
And there my thoughts do rally: for there is show'd
Such Wheelings, Doublings, Firings, that report,
So loud the worth of no man in that sort.
As these do thine: Thy File-experiments,
Are pleasurable, and breeds discontents,
In none, but those, who'd be superlative,
In Martiall Art: let them forbear to strive
Thee to excell: For who can go beyond
Perfection? thereat every man must stand
And exercise his Genius got so far.
Among the Planets let [...]e fix this Star
Of Military Art, and round about
Twelve places Exercises: Then Mars look out
With glorious Splender, and in bloud would wade,
For to maintain the rest are retrograde.
Ye men Strologicall, if ye would view,
These Signes below, ye must speak it as true
Astrology; that those above are bright,
But Mars array'd in these of greatest light;
And wonder not to see a Man of War,
Of so much beauty as to want a scar
In Discipline; Order is the shield
Keep off advantages, often win the Field
As well as Valour: who can suffer rout
That's on thy side? let him but face about
That fears to be o'recome, and well observe
Thy Stations, Motions, eye where thy Reserve
Doth stand, where Intervals are made
Where Cannons play: and he may drive a Trade
Of buying Courage; and by these Figures cast
On which side Conquest will triumph at last.
And if in Battell life is dispossest
Of it's possession, (house of Clay the best)
By entry of force, tenure arbitrary
Thou hast Mars cloth'd in Sable Military;
For to attend thy forced Funerall,
This is the sequell of thy manly fall;
Elton I'le leave thee at the very Grave,
But living: and when dead thou wilt sure have
Breath in the Body of this work, a Gaile
Unto posterity thy worth to saile.
Collonell John Backsteed.

An Ogdocostick on his much esteemed Friend the AUTHOUR.

BArriff did bravely, Barr [...]ff's dead, yet lives;
His Worth [...]ull Work [...], his Name a being gives.
[...]xcelling Elton, this of th [...]ne is such,
That after Ages shall applaud as much▪
Thy fame; this thy Renowned Theory,
Will teach a Practique, raise thy Memory
When thou art dead, and lend thy Living Name
A Room i'th Golden Kalender of Fame.
What thou hast here with Skilfull Study done,
I' [...]h Basis once by Barriff was begun,
Onely begun, he fram'd a Preparation.
I saw it when it was in Agitation▪
And surely had e're this at [...]ain'd it's Birth,
Had not he been translated from the Earth.
How new are thy Designes! How full of Worth?
How well approv'd? with what Rare Art set forth?
Th' Ingenious Reader that shall over-look,
And view, with single-sighted Eye thy Book,
Must say, that Writers all of th' Art of War,
Of thee, both Forreign, and Domestique, far
Come short. Well may that Body be compleat,
Where such a Genuine Genuis has his Seat.
This Art thou hast compiled so exact,
So gradually compos'd throughout thy Tract
That well, the compleat Body of that Art
It's styl'd, where every Member, and each part
Of all Three Books, in manner best refin'd,
On him looks lovely, That to read's inclin'd.
Far bee 't, ô far from me, the thought to fl [...]ght
Th' Offensive, or more just Defensive light.
Bequeath'd to us by Souldier's head, or hand,
Though born with us, or sprang from Forreign land;
Yea, or the knowing Skill of those that Thrive
In Mars, his Methods, and do now Survive:
I much commend them all, Praise worthy men:
Yet thee extoll must most of all my Pen.
Plenty of Postures, and many Motions,
Various Figures, and Delightfull Notions,
Of these large Volumes, I have seen; but who
Such Regimentall Forms as thine can show?
[...]achivell, [...]arkham, Hexham▪ Weymouth, Ward,
Ael [...]n, Bingham, Roberts, Cruso, Gerrard,
And divers other, honour'd Sons of War,
Their famous, learn'd Tractates extant are;
Where we may read rare Castra-metations
With deep Stratagemick Demonstrations
Of the Persians, Thebans, and Athenians,
Of Lacedemons, and [...]ae [...]nians,
With grave Grecian, and Italian Writers,
Brave Roman, and Macedonian Fighters,
Accomplisht Atchievements of Illyrians
Actings of th' Asians, and Europaeans,
[...]odels of Marching, and levying Forces,
Incamp [...]ng, Trailing, Drilling Discourses
O [...] both English-and, Low-countrey Spirits,
Whose victorious valour, Honour merits;
Bellona's Bleeding Battails, day and night
Both Ancient and Modern I might recite,
With Distances, Doublings, Wheelings, Facings,
And Front, Reer, Wings, Midst, and other placings:
Though with Minerva, mighty Mars conspire,
With their conjoyned Cunning, Craft, and Ire,
Where's thy Peer, Martiall, or Military,
Private Practiser or Artillery?
Thine Initiation, yet is fresh in Mind,
When by thy selfe, thou wer't at first Assign'd
For Christ-Church meeting, and entertained
Friendly. Which is weekly still maintained.
Thy little then, sithence so much acquired
Knowledge of Arms, is far and neer admired.
What though the Ignoramus Doltishman
Do scoffe, or Momus spit what Spite he can,
It matters not; here's no conceited froth,
Tis solid Substance, and Experience both,
True Discipline display'd no Painted Puffe,
No Empty, Imped, or Bumbasted Stuffe.
Heroicks all that love the Warlike way,
These Expert Exercises read, then say,
Doubtlesse you will, for you shall finde it true,
Elton thou doest Excell, Elton Adieu.
JOHN HAYNE. Serjeant Major.

Ad amicum charissimum Richardum Elton, Subchiliarchum, in hoc suo opere praeclaro.

MArtius hèu, nimium vere fuit Anglia Campus,
Et non una, rubet, ferrallibus All [...]a fastis,
Sic ut defleret nostros, vel Hibernia Casus.
Decolor erubuit Thamesis, vitreosque cruore
Mutavit fluctus, caruerunt arva Colonis;
Non aliter Cadmi pubes, simul edita sulcis
Emicuit, stringunt gladios & pectora ferro:
Donec quae cunas dederat, dat terra sepulchrum.
Ergò quid obductum jam recrudescere vulnus
Quid malè sopitus juvat, hèu, renovare favillas
Et licet infidum & fallax, turbare serenum.
At non ista tibi mens est, qui nempè venena
Describit, succos, & adhuc ignota novercis
Gramina, non ideo facit, ut Locusta perita
Disceret hinc stamen properatae obrumpere vitae
Palmatas alii trabeas, sellasque curules,
Electicandoris equos, & nominis arum
Jactent, at noster, quanto praestantior Author
Ipso victor ovans, ducit, de Marte triumphos
Pila Latinorum cedant, Grajaeque Sarissae,
Gesaque Gallorum, Rostrato Belga covino,
Nec fidas, nec Maure tuis pharetratè sagittis,
Exemplar petat hinc, ambit quicunque Trophaea.
Non posthac dubiis, nutet victoria pennis
Cui faveat, totus jactantior explicet alas
Certa, ille, qui te sequiente, se addicere parti.
Ovans. posuit & Composuit, Henricus Potter.

Eidem Ejusdem.

WHat make we thronging our Encomiums here
Before thy Book, racking the Readers ea [...]e
To gloss thy Work, for we can do no more,
Let him read thee, read thy Polemick store
There, he shall know thee better, then Poesie
Can render thee, or the choicest fancie
Reach too, though dropt from Homer's learned quill,
Or thee by culminate Pernassus Hill.
There, both the Scipioe's, were they here agen
Might discipline their valours, and their men
Of War, by a new method teach to spare
More, the Conquering Caesar now in War:
There the bold Macedon might learn to gain
An other World, and keep it with less pain
Let Europe rise, and learn to war by thee,
They'de make the World in time one Monarchy.
If Poets, that the Acts of Heroes sing
Be crown'd with Bays, let them the Lawrell bring
And wreath thy Temples; this thy Work will tell
The World, Thou hast done best, though many well.

To the worthy Author his honor'd friend Serjeant Major Richard Elton.

TO give thee prayse according to thy skill,
I want both Virgils verse and Homers quill.
Experimentall knowledge of thine art,
Commands my Muse to sacrifice her part
To thy Compendious Body: so compleat,
It may be term'd a Lezbian squires feat.
Such sure defence was ne're in Ajax shield,
As Mars and Pallas met in Eltons field.
Heroick art, indeed, that doth unite
In one, a number numberlesse to fight
As if one hand did guide them all; nay more:
Ne'r were such Principles in Print before.
The mighty Whale hath not so nimble motion,
As many smaller fishes in the Ocean:
But many times would brush against a rock,
And break himselfe in pieces by some knock:
Wer't not for th' little Musculus his friend,
That swims before and safely him attends.
A multitude that put on spear and shield,
If want this Musculus must loose the field:
But Musculus their friend, their eies, their guide,
Thou keep'st them safe, though rocks on every side:
That shew'st them Distances both broad and long,
Facings and Doublings in our English tongue.
Thy Counter-marches, and thy Wheelings are
Fit for the mighty King of Swedens War.
Thy experiments with single files descry;
Mars and Minerva joyned dexterously.
But when thy many Maniples I see,
Drawn from on Cohors, in thy four times three
Composed Exercises, private Companies
In regimentall forms, placing Artilleries,
Cannons both great and small; denominations,
With the prime Artists of their severall nations
Duties how private Souldiers may excell,
Though lain Perdu, or set as Sentinell.
Minors and Majors too, dō not refuse
To learn your duties; oh! that 'twere in use
Amongst all Souldiers: Lust should make no man bleed,
Would day nee'r saw so tragicall a deed.
Variety of figures when we mark,
The Romane writers surely were it'h dark.
But thou enlightenest them and all the earth,
By forming sundry Stars in this new birth.
The Heathens God of War, which heretofore
(How er'e great Greece, and Rome did him adore.)
But an apprentice was: so short of thee
The master of their trade, and now made free.
Fame blow aloud from every Marshall heart,
Here's one impales a Kingdome; by his art
Teacheth what's Modern, and of ancient dayes
Make him a garland of your greenest Bayes,
Adorn'd with richest trophies: quickly too;
For he deserves a deeper dy then blue.
Elton Telon thy name shall never dy,
Tis Anagram'd in Souldiers memory.
John Hinde, Captain.

In honorem RICHARDI ELTONIS.

SI vir sit quisquam militaris, doctus, & acer,
Hic ELTON certo carmina cerne mea.
Qui res conjungit varias, concordia libri,
Ut justo belli fulmine Turca fleat.
Respice RICHARDI Xisti certamina belli
ELTONIS; studio te colit, ornat, amat.
Munera fac igitur capias haec fronte remissa
Carmina, quin meritis inferiora tuis.
Johannes Hinde Captain.

To his Honored Friend the worthy Authour.

AN Army without rule a tumult is,
Great Powers have come to nought because of this.
But (Friend) hee'l see who doth thy labour read
Confusion methodiz'd, and ordered.
And he that studies thee, in thee shall finde
A martiall hand, rull'd by a peacefull minde.
Thy Book doth teach the use of Arms and then
Thy example how to lay them down again.
War is good Physick, but tis no good diet:
'Tis the best art to study to be quiet.
And in a safe wel-grounded peace to rest
Of all the Postures in thy Book's the best.

The good Centurion.

THere is a Fort impregnable, a Tower
Whose top's in Heaven; which neither force nor power
Can scale or undermine, within's no guilt
It's wall'd with brass, and on a Rock tis built:
Time cannot starve, nor treason make it yield:
Good conscience is a Feast, and Faith's a Shield.
Hee's the best Souldier who hath learn'd this art
To keep with diligence his life, his heart.
William Clark Captain.

For his intimate and worthy Friend the Author Major, Richard Elton.

SHould Art with Valour strive, 'twere hard to say,
Which of the twain should bear the bell away;
But both conjoyn'd succeeding consequence:
Some makes discovery of eithers Excellence
Art under-valued: by power or will
Craves valour; its assistant conforming still
To Reason, Judgment, Experience, and Skill.
Where Valour breaking forth, to its ut-most length
Unfurnished of Judgement, Skill, or Strength:
Is tearm'd Fool-hardiness, and oft recants
The lack of that which should supply its wants
Thy Book my deerest Friend (both comprehends)
Valour b'ing taught by Art, Art force extends
To Reason, Judgment; and Heroick Ends.
Lo, in one Volume, here thou dost explain
What Germany, Italy, Netherlands or Spain
Can render us; and to our doors hast brought
What many thousands have so deerly sought:
Nay, without flattery thou dost out-vye
In this thy Body of th'Art Military
The exactest method, yet produc't to th'eye,
Not underval'ing those whose love and merit
By private acts declare a publick spirit;
Whose study, charge, delight and industry
Are the supporters of arms art, deny
From whence as from the Ocean doth flow
Those Rivolets that make us perfect grow
In this rare art to encounter with the fo.
Then ere I leave thee, give me leave to say
To any he that shall thy book survay
Love, Art and Valour; center in thy brest
Love, Art-commands; and art obeys Loves Hest:
Valour attending both; who can deny
But Eltons Work may to posterity
The name of Elton keep in memory.
Ex animo tuo, Armis & Artibus bellacibus, bene­cupiens utriusque Horti Stratiotici & Militaris Officia­lium unus,
Johannes Hunnings.

For his much respected Friend, and old fellow Souldier, Major RICHARD ELTON.

ENcomiums cannot add unto the prayse,
Of those that much deserve, their Works will rayse
Themselves a Name, as this great Work of thine,
(With no small pains) the which thou makest to shine,
Renowned Elton; loe in thee I finde
Bellona's Casket opened, and the minde
That Mars himself enjoy'd, for what thou know'st
That others may obtein; therefore let all
Who do desire to learn Rules Martiall
Peruse this Compleat body, where they'l finde
That which delights the Fancy, please the Minde
In Facings, Doublings, Wheelings, with their Distance
Both Open, Close, to us, he gives assistance
He doth direct new Figures for to rayse
(Preceding times knew not, but these our days)
New Forms of Battail shown, with each their Firings
With Rules to guide in Onsets and Retirings:
Thus have we Elton's skill here brought to light
Which none can it obscure, no, not dark night
Of Envies rage, can blur what he hath done,
But he shall shine as glorious as the Sun.
Thomas Walker Captain.

To my honoured Friend, Major Richard Elton.

YOur Book needs not my Plaudit, it to sell,
It is enough if but your name it tell:
Who sees its Front, and doth it understand,
Must needs condemn himself or prayse your hand.
More could I say and would, but more to say
Were to light candles to the Sun-shine day:
For such as read and do it not advance
Of Envy do it or of Ignorance.
John Brett Captain.

To the Authour his much valued Friend, Major Richard Elton.

LEt them that undertake to prayse a book,
Not on the Title, but the matter look,
To ground their judgment on: For to commend
The Work, because th'Author is our Friend
Is an obsequious flattery, and doth yield
Some savour of the Court, none of the Field
From depth of knowledge, then, we ought to rayse
The high expressions of deserved prayse
But then, with equall knowledge if we can
Judge and declare the merits of a man,
The envious will say, when we have shown
The Authors worth, we publicate our own:
But let those Momi talk. This work of yours
(Heroick ELTON) all assaults endures,
And all convinceth of Detractions part;
And shortly will the Ignorant convert;
And make them Souldiers too: so sweet and plain
Your Demonstrations are that they will gain
Myriads of men now to bear arms, that bore
Nothing but onely shapes of men before
Of Cock-braind Militasters store there are
That do pretend skill in the book of War:
Can Military Discipline express
In words of art, and windy flourishes;
Big looks and language lowder than the Drum:
As knowing more than your Compendium,
When silly Vapours, they nere read or saw
More than the Statutes of the Martiall Law
Such, now, must cast the feathers of their pride;
And here (if docible) be edified
Here's the true art of Arms. Jehovah grant
That, as 'tis like we shall no Souldiers want
The Practise of it onely may extend
To settle Right and Peace. That's Wars true end.
Abraham Stanion Captain.

To the worthy Authour of the Art Military.

T'Was said of old, that arms do silence Laws
And learning, by their rude illiterate aws:
The Proverb lyes, for courting in one sheet,
The Souldier and the Scholler here do [...]eet;
The Sword and Pen: Mars doe's himself commense
Doctor of War; and doe's not more incense,
Then teach to fight; and by his learned Bands
An Areopagus midst of Athens stands;
And by a new found happy union
Parnassus, and the Campaigne are made one,
Whence quickly tutor'd from that sacred Rise:
The Souldier may descend and exercise.
Till now we did but butcher Victories,
And were but sloven Deaths-men; whil'st our eyes
Were wanting to our hands, we fell upon
A Miscellaneous Execution:
So that it griev'd the slain, that they must die
Without a method, and disorderly:
But now we have attain'd the handsome skill,
By order, method, and by rule to kill;
From which we owe the beauties of our death,
The features of our wounds to you, whose breath
Formed into this, your polemick word:
Makes you th' Amanuens [...]s of the Sword.
And as when Cadmus Serpents teeth did sow,
A crop of armed men from thence did grow:
So from this learned issue of your brains
We may behold to spring: well order'd Trains
Of exact Myrmidons: and as at the sound
Of Orpheus harp, all the unweildy round
Of Lyons, Bears, and Tygors, learn't to meet
Well order'd measures with obedient feet;
Such is your book, at whose most sober word
The hand, the foot, the Musket, Pike, and sword:
Those livelesse lumps of steel, do act, and use
Obediently the Motions you infuse.
We read the Persian chivalry was such,
As teaches Elephants in a slender touch;
Of brideling art, most orderly to storm
Liking their strength: like bears into a form.
So the rude multitude, whose strength would be
A ruine to themselves, through Anarchy,
Bad Masters, but good servants are made good
By you, most regularly to let blood.
Order's the soul of things: then souldiers are
The body; but your book the soul of War.
Mars thus conjoyned with Phoebus (some may fear) Hor. mil. Menc.
(Sans Thunderbolts) will transcend Jupiter.
Sam. Jervis Captain.

To my Ingenious Friend, Major RICHARD ELTON.

RIch Jems best prayse Themselves; 'tis understood
The Bush is useless where the Wine is good.
How do they erre, who with their looser Rime
Prophane thy Prose, and with the adulterate Lime
Of wit erect, some Parapet, or Port
To raise their Fancie equall to Thy Fort.
This Crime's collaterall mine; who strive to raise
And mix my Ivy with thy glorious Bays
Whose Branches in thy learned Book do spread
Themselves in Garlands to impale Thine Head.
How durst I then draw one Excentrique Line
Or thus Intrench upon this Work of Thine?
This Work of Thine; whose well composed Page
Shall strike amazement in the aemulous Age
Such as their Captive judgements shall surprize
And force their eares do Homage to their eyes.
Imperious Style! which can at once advance
Our towring thoughts; and strike them in a Trance.
How happily hast Thou Improv'd thy Parts
Who art Proficient both in Arms and Arts!
Mars and Minerva who are counted two
Divided essences both joyn in You,
Whiles Practick and the Theorick Arts appear
In You their Center, and their proper Sphear.
But stay! Thy Prayse (Dear Friend) needs heer no more
Than Gold in Peru, or a Map on shore.
They that would know thee better, let um look
Upon these Leaves, and read Thee in Thy Book.
William Short Captain.

To his ever honoured Friend, Major RICHARD ELTON.

MAny have fanci'd to themselves, that this
Is the Worlds leaden age, and think it is
Far worse with all mens wits, then with the time
That they live in, but cleerly from this crime
Thou hast redeem'd us, no man ever writ
Better of Martiall Discipline, for it
Thou rightly hast display'd, in th' Compleat Body
Of th' famous and renown'd Art Military.
Here did I finde, that which did please me better,
Then could another Indie's, every letter
To me's an Orient Pearl, and all thy words
Are silver Mines, in short thy book affords
So vast a treasure, that I dare fore-tell,
It will long flourish without parallel.
The postures of the Pike and Musket, thou
Dost teach with their conformities, and how
The dignities of Ranks and Files, must be
Stated, in giving each his due, degree
Of Martiall Honour, with their sev'rall Motions
As Facings, Doublings, Wheelings, and quaint Notions
Of Firings, who ever yet did see
Such Motions (ELTON) as are done by thee
It caus'd my admiration when I found,
How thy luxuriant wit, disdaining bound,
Did vary it's Experiments, upon
A single File, hence I went viewing on
To thy twelve Exercises, thy setting forth
The drawing up of Reg'ments, (a thing of worth
Neer to be rightly valu'd) forming Brigades,
Placing artillery, with other aides
To Martiall Discipline, but heer's too much
To out-vie all our ancients had but such
Brave rules been taught Achilles, sure less far
Then twice five yeers had end'd the Trojan War.
William Johnson Captain.

To his much honored and ever renowned Friend Richard Elton, Serjeant Major.

  • Anagram
    • RICHARDUS ELTON,
    • I HELD ARTS CROUN.
  • Distic.
    • To honour Art, and eke my Name renown,
    • Mars condiscends to say, I held Arts Croun.

Acrostichon.

Rich in thy Art, brave ELTON, lo thy Fame
Is crown'd above to eternize thy Name:
Can this thy Work be carped at? let none
Have such a Thought; (tis Momus carps alone:)
Away, away, let Silence be the word,
Read, ere thou censure; this Work doth afford
Delight and Skill even to the knowingst men,
Unto the weaker sort, lo here thy Pen
Such Rules lays down, in Battail, and Retreat,
Each one is made (as this thy work) compleat.
Leave then thy Work with us; now thou hast done:
The Fame thereof doth crown thee Mars his Son.
Of all that merit worth, o [...] Art would gain,
None holds the Crown, but Elton, by his pain.
John Walker Lievtenant.

To his much honor'd friend Serjeant Major Richard Elton.

IF Authors ancient, and of modern days,
Justly by us deserved have much prayse,
Who of the Military art have writ;
And for to honour them it was thought fit.
Then much more thon (brave Elton) who hast showne,
Such skill in these thy labours; as yet none
E're saw before: for hereby men may learn,
A skilfull Artist, rightly to discern:
Here thou hast taught us how to use alike,
The Postures of the Musket and the Pike:
How every man his place may truly know,
And how of Files a Body great doth grow.
But why do I endevour for to show,
Thy worth, my pen to do it is too slow:
I only can admire thee, and will leave it,
To some brave English Homers pens to do it.
Then Fame by them, thy glory loude shall rayse,
And trumpet out thy just deserved prayse,
That so the World, may at no time forgit,
How by thy worth thou hast advantag'd it.
Richard Hobby.

On the COMPLEAT BODY of the ART MILITARY: composed by my Good Friend Major RICHARD ELTON.

I Was no Poet born; nor ere could mount
the Muses sacred Hill; or reach their Fount,
o swoop thereof: and come a Poet thence.
Prithee, my Genius then, tell me, from whence
is it, I have this my new whiffling Gale
for Meterizing? it is hence? men faile
Seldom have Archetypes of this Nature been perused by any, but who have been impuls'd to put to their Approbationall, or Commendatory Verses. Witnesse the Books of Sir Thomas Kel­ly, Ward, Barriff, and not a few more.
seldome of such a Trade-winde, when they passe
the Point of Mars 'is, or, Bellona's place?
Or, can't one tho he would, endight so nigh
Files call'd by Grecians, [...]; by Romans, VERSUS. Possibly from an old fashion of Writeing, the Words of a Verse (not to the side of, but) under one another.
Martiall Verses, but he shall versifie?
The Influence came from that pure breath that bid
thee write; and, from the fertile blasts that did
blow from that Quarter of the World, where those
of Good Deserts, are Honour'd, not with Prose:
bur measur'd, scanned lines; and, Voices that
can tune it, and their Numbers modulate.
Where it is held a crime, to talk about
Meriting Works, and not to Rhyme-it-out.
'Tis thence, Go forward now, and Warble forth
this Book's rich Contents: and therein it's worth.
The Pike's, and Musket's Postures, with their
How much, concerning the right Handling & true Ʋse of (that famously succesfull engine for Arrows) the Bow, was laid-down in that [...], spoken of 2 Sam. 11. 18, I ken not. But, Bows and Arrows would be of speci­all Service in the hands of our meerly defensive Picquiers. For, by these Feathery weapons they might annoy those, who by fiery ones (too oft directing destructive Bullets against subjective Stands) have shamefully laid low abundance of Proper-men. And I remember, I have read (in the Book call'd Londons Artillery) of some fights, where Archers have put Gun men to flight
Use:
and necessary Motions which conduce
as Media's to attain them: Those Wayes best,
most ready, safe, short, easie, comeliest.
A Metonymie so generally approved, that the Name Picquiers (or, Pike-men) is rarely heard given to them: though those who carry Mus­quets, are commonly called Mousquettiers.
The Pikes, and Muskettiers conformity
in Posturing. Places of Dignity,
ordained so, that all the parts are deck't
with men of equall worth, and like respect.
And to en-body them; the joyning Files
flank-wise, (effecting Ranks) the Band compiles.
Due Distances, whereby just PARALLEL
Rank keeps to Rank, and File to File: as well
when they do Ope, Close, Move; as when they Stand,
and save their Even-ning, Straightning Post-command.
I speak freely. To bid the Company, after every Motion, to even Ranks, and streighten Files, speaks no lesse than the Commander extream fond: Or, them very untoward. Me thinks, they are Shameing-words.
Faceings no more, nor fewer than you see
th' in-ner, and out-ter Sides, and Angles bee.
Lengthning, or Strengthning Doubling Files, or Ranks;
Battell, Front, Reer, both; one, or both the Flanks.
We read of ( [...], Saltatio Pyrrhica) A Daunce in order of Battell, taught by Pyrrhus to his Souldiers (Plin. lib. 2. cap. 16.) Without doubt the Motions were not unlike those at the Coraean, Laconic, Macedonian Evo­lutions. Yet, I can't but think that in those days they were more nimble at them than in these; and did 'm Galiard-like, frollickly. From the Noise (which durante motione, their Armes made;) the Dance was epitheted Bellicrepa.
Daunce-like Counter-Marches. Wheelings
Wheelings are the most Nice Motions of all; and (if they may be so exprest) Solicitous Co­agitations. That Angular-man who is as the Hinge of the Motion, moving so much slower than the other (Corner) end of the same Rank (to which, he ever-and-anon casts an eye) as it hath a larger compasse to fetch, than he; The intermediat men being in like manner obse­quious; And the Followers (in Files) accurately paceing after their Leaders.
precise.
Fierings that SERVE to MASTER Enemies.
Practice on Single Files: and bodyed
four sev'rall Numbers, each is three times Led.
The Drawing-up, and Exercisings due
to Regiments. The Forming Brigades too,
and Armies: Placeing their Artillery.
Duties of all the Private Souldiery,
and Officers to Collonels. The Charge
of Military Watches: and, their large
Commission. Then, to order Companies,
and Regiments at Funerall Obsequies.
These all are but the Heads (of such things, as
our Major ELTON in his Volumne, has
Compleatly Bodied:) sent to envite
(like Writs of Chear) a Souldiers appetite,
to a large Banquet; where, thou maist suffice
thy greatest Lust after such Exercise:
Where all the Flowers of other Gardens, Fields,
and Meddows, are; and, that whereby it yeilds
a Perfect Florilegium of the Art
unto our view, He doth the Rest impart.
This he hath done. But, what shall we repay
him for it? will th' ingenuous Grandees say.
And (troth) what ere was given heretofore
to Tactick Writers, is his due. and more.
Tho I can pay but Love; And this alone,
In writeing of Wars Art, th' hast
The Emperour LEO, & King PYRRHUS. and Claudius ELIANUS ( [...]) and a great many more than many great men more, did write hereof.
KINGLY done.
And wrote of what resembles in it's guise
the various actings in mens various
The l [...]fe of man is (somewhere) call'd a Warfare upon earth. A Christians, is so. 1 Tim. 1. 18. & Epist. 2. cap. 2. ver. 4. And in his Good Fight (1 Tim. VI. 12. & Ep. 2. cap. 1111. Ʋ. 7.) he hath our JESUS ( [...]) both for his Leader, & Bringer-up (as we are en­couragingly minded of) Hebr. XII. 2. His Souldier-like Watch is hinted, Ephes. VI. 16.
Lives.
And we do finde, that (in their sev'rall Sphears)
GOD is nam'd a Man of War, Exod. XV. 3. And Numb. XXI. 14. is mentioned a Book of the Wars of the LORD, which is lost, but the Di­vine Ones we have speak much of HIS Militia.
God,
Christ we have [...]ideing in the Head of the Cavalry in Heaven, Rev. XIX. 11. &c. and ma­king War.
Christ,
Saints warring, and prevail'd against, Dan. VII. 21. but overcoming, Rev. XII. 11.
Saints,
Angels Hosts we read of Gen. XXXI 1. 2. Dan. 1. 11. 35. further, compare Revel. XII. 7. with Job. XXV. 2.
Angels,
Stars in their Roads, are said to have fought against Sisera, Judg v. 20. And they are often call'd the HOSTE of Heaven.
Stars are War­riers.
And (neerer,) Abram had his

Disciplin'd, or, Exercised (habraicè [...]) Gen. XIV. 14. So that Military Discipline, and Martiall Exercises were used Multitude of A­ges before the times of or the Romane, or the Grecian Empire. And it's like enough, Abram himselfe had been these men's [...].

But, wherefore (I pray) did he Arme these, rather than the rest? save, because Taught Souldiers prevail (by God's Blessing) over the rude. And more Victories have been got by the Warriers Skill, than by Strength of men. And (it's of ordinary observation, that) as the Discipline of any Nation fail'd: So, their height came down.

TRAINED-men
whom (after he had Arm'd) he Led-forth, when
he did persue, then Camisado those
whose takeing Lot, rendred them Abrams
As they are call'd Ʋ. 20. And it's worth Noteing, that this Fighter is forth-with met, and blest by (Melchizedec, who's also Melchisalem) the King of Righteousnesse, and King of Peace. Pax bello quaeritur, &c.
Fees.
And David had among
1 Chron. XII. 23. &c.
the heads that came
to him at Hebron, Men of Skill to Frame,
Range, Draw-forth battells, Order them in fights:
Or, (to be sure) t' expertly keep such rights.
And
11 Chron. XXVI. 11.
King Uzziah's fighting-host was Led
to War by BANDS, as they were Mustered.
And, blessed Israels Hosts, the Nations dread
(who were God's Armies: HEE, their Armies
Captain, 1 Chron. XIII. 12.
Head,
in' speciall manner: And (as HEE saw't right)
did fight their Battells: and, they
1 Sam. XXV. 28.
His did fight)
these (I say) were by GOD from Sinai told

Numb. 11. and X. (I, and their Leaguers, and Stratagems too, Josh. VI. 2. & VIII. 2. were Ordered by that Great [...], Maestro del Campo, or, Major Generall JEHOVAH) The Figure of their Camp (which is worthily commended, Numb. XXIIII. 5, 6.) was not one Oblong, or Equilaterall Square, caused by the Tertia's of Reubens TETRARCHIE (Num. XXIII. 10.) on the South Side, and of Dans, on the North's; Ranging FILE-VVISE to become so the Right, and Left Flanks: But, was made by Ruben's, and Dan's Squadron's, moving out­wards entire, to cleer of the (Reer) Angles of Judah's Standing-Camp. (For, the Tribes under these Regimentall Standards (And, every Tribe, cal'd here, an Host, or Army, had th' Ensigne of the Family, or of their Fathers House; and the Levites too had their Stondards) did pitch, not one after, but, one by another [...]. Vers. 12, 27. and each Bat­talion was to be a far off the Tabernacle, Ʋ. 2.) and Ephraim's Camp ranging in the Reer directly behinde Judah's in the Front. The Levites were circumjected thus. On the South, the Cohathites: On the North, the Merarites: On the West, the Gershonites: (And, on the East (the Face, and Entry to the Tabernacle) MOSES, with Aar [...] and his Sons) neer the Tabernacle, which was in the very midst of the Camps.

Their Marching Order, was a Deep-H [...]rse, produc'd from the former, by moving away (1) the Front (which was followed by the Tabernacle, and it's Ministers, the Gershonites, and Merarites. (2) the Right-Flank (immediately before the Sanctuary, the Cohathites bearing it) (3) the Reer. (4) their Lest-Flank (thus becoming, dureing the March, their Reer-ward, Vers. 25.) When they Log'd again, they were Reduc'd by the Van's making Alt, &c.

what Marching, and Encamping forme to hold
throughout the Wildernesse, as well as there
Before the Mount, Exod. XIX. 2. their Figure was Lunar, or, a Concave, half-moon (like that described, Apoc. 1111) See. Ʋ. 12, 23 Deut. XX. read 1 Sam. XXX. 25.
before the Mount. (w) What Orders, Laws of War,
t' Observe: And,
Numb. X. read 2 Sam. 2. 23.
on what Sounds of Trumpet make
Assemblies; Or, their Marching-journey take.
Sure, in most Holy Writ, we finde this Art's
laid-down before us, in the Whole, and Parts
thereof: It
Jer. XIII. 21. Esay. 11. 4. hence the Expressions in 1 Chron. v. 18. and Cant. 111. 8.
Taught, and Learnt, and Practiced
by God's own People. And, it may be sed,
The Postures of the Armes in those times held
Take the Texts together. I may not dilate, and perticularize the Poshires spoke of Ezech. XXXIX. 3. Jer. XlVI. 3, 9. Psal. XI. 2. Lam. 111. 12. Jer. l. 42. Esay v. 28. lXVI. 19. XXII. 6. Ezec. XXVI. 8. & XXIII. 24. 1 Chro. XII. 8, 24. VIII. 40. X. 3. 11 Chro. XIIII. 8. Zech. IX. 13. Psal. lXXVIII. 9. Amos 11. 15.
(of Bow & Arrow; Buckler, Launce; Spear, Sheild.)
Neh. VII. 7. Ezech. XXXII. 2. Jer. XXXVI 1. 13. 11 King. IX. 17.
Watches and Wards.
Deut. XXXIII. 17. Numb. XXXI. 14. 1 Sam. VIII. 12. Exod. XVIII. 21.
Armies of Myriads,
Reg'ments of Thousands, Bands of Hundereds,
Fifties; Files of tens.
11 Chron. XIII. 3. 1 King. XX. 14.
Closeing Hosts for fight,
And—what I have not roome to write.
PTRPRY.

THE COMPLEAT BODY OF THE ART MILITARY:

The First Book.

CHAP. I. A discourse of the Postures, and the handling of Arms.

HE that will be a compleat Souldier, must first begin to learn the use of his Arms, laying that down in his thoughts for his first foundation. But this hath beene the neglect of many in our times, who have strived to know high thoughts in the Art Military, before they can well performe their Postures. Therefore, my advice shall be unto all such that desire to thrive in this Art, that they will not soar too high; but first learn the A, B, C, thereof, after which they may proceed by degrees to pronounce to the Souldier with boldnesse their proficiencie therein. He therefore that with safety, ease, and delight desireth to handle his Arms, must set ti [...]es apart frequently to practise himselfe therein. And here I cannot but much blame the Officers of our Trained Bands in London, of two great neglect:: the first, in making men File-leaders either out of respect, or favour they bear unto them; or else because one man hath a better Buf-coat than another: I speake not this to encourage any man to come slovenly habited when he shall march forth with his Captain, but rather advise all Soul­diers to fit themselves with the best array they can, and could wish all the Serjeants in drawing up their Files, to pitch upon such Gentlemen to be File-leaders, as may take charge of his File, and shall be able, willing, and ready upon all convenient times, to in­struct and teach his File in all their Postures, and neat handling of their Arms, which if carefully observed, they would reap the benefit of much ease to themselves and the private Souldiers: readinesse in the performance of the Postures would much redound ro the ho­nour of the Captain that shall lead them. But for the farther satisfaction of the ingenious Souldier that shall enquire what Posture is, I shall briefly resolve them thus.

Posture, as I conceive, is a garbe or figure that a man stands in, in the handling of his What Posture is. Arms; which he useth for the better grace and becomming of them.

There are severall motions belonging to each Posture, which some call Postures, but they much deceive themselves, as shall appear clearly unto them (by the survey) as they shall be set down in order. And first, we will begin to set down the Postures of the Pike.

CHAP. II. Severall reasons why the Pike is the more honourable Arms.

FIrst I shall begin to set down the postures of the Pike, before the postures of the Mus­ket, for these reasons following, as conceiving: First, They are the more honou­rable Arms, in respect the Colours flying upon the head of them, and upon the draw­ing up of the Company there is the most properest place for the Captain to be, either upon a Stand or upon a March, provided he have ground sufficient to March them all a brest. If upon a Stand the Captain shall have occasion to engage against an Enemy, thither his Officers may repair unto him upon the head of the Pikes, there to receive directions. And if the Captain shall cause the Serjeants to draw off part or all the Muskettiers from the Body of Pikes to fire against the enemy, the Gentlemen of the Pikes in the mean time stands undauntedly to undergoe all the cruell shot of the Cannon from the contrary part for to pre­serve their Colours, who are likewise a place of Randezvous for the Muskettiers to repair unto when they shall retreat from fight. Farther, it hath been the ambition of many Gentle­men, both in Holland, France, and in these our late unhappy Wars in England, to trail Pikes with severall Commanders whom they shall thinke fit. And lastly, to conclude all, that the Pike is the more honourable Arms, it is so in respect of its antiquity, for there hath been the use of the Pike and Spear, many hundred years before there was any knowledge of the Musket, as in many Histories you shall finde. And so for present, I wil conclude this dis­course of the Pike, desiring the Muskettiers to have a favourable censure of me: for I in­tend not by it to perswade all Souldiers to the handling of the Pike, and none to be Mus­kettiers, for that cannot be, I should rather advise all Captains that have occasion to raise their Companies to have two thirds of Muskettiers, and but one of Pikes: that is to say, if they should have 18 Files, to cause twelve of them to carry Muskets, and the other six Files Pikes. And in my judgement they shall performe the better service unto any Nation where they shall be employ'd; and I shall farther desire the Souldiers (especially those that be of low stature) to handle and take delight in the use of the Musket; for it is an exceed­ing great honour to him so to handle his Musket, as that he doth it with ease and in a comely manner, and he that shall become expert therein; I have often observed this com­mendation to follow him, by the report of others; Such a one is a good Muskettier, and an able Souldier; concluding thereby, he that will take the pains to be a good Muskettier certainly cannot be idle, but hath gained somthing more to make him capable of such praise. To conclude, I shall desire the Gentlemen of the Pikes, and the Gentlemen of the Muskettiers to goe hand in hand in love like dear brothers, and neither of them to envie each other, and in so doing, God will give a blessing to all their undertakings. But now, fearing I have dwelt too long upon this discourse of the Arms, I shall next proceed to set down, first the postures of the Pike, then the postures of the Musket, with all the words of command tending to their Motions, after collect them in order in a brief way, and then set forth unto you the equality of number that the one Arms hath with the other, in the postures as followeth.

CHAP. III. The Postures of the Pike.

THE Pike lying on the ground, the first word of command will be, stand to your Arms.

  • Handle your Pike
  • Raise up your Pike
to your
  • Open Order,
  • Order,
  • Close Order.

Charge with the But end of the Pike, at the inside of the right foot, your Pike in the left hand, drawing your Sword over your left arm.

Charge to the
  • Front
  • Right Flank,
  • Left Flank,
  • Reer,
Order your Pikes, and put up your Swords.

This way of charging to the Horse, I have set down, as being practised somtimes amongst [Page 3] us in our private meetings, but I conceive it to be of little use to receive a desperate charge of the Horse, for by these charges the Souldiers are in so lame and weake a posture, that the Horse cannot choose if they come on with a full career, but beare the Pikes and Pike-men down to the ground: Therefore in my opinion the best way of opposing the Horse charge is that which we learned of our ever honoured Captain, Major Henry Tillier, in the Mi­litary Garden; which was, Files closing to the midst to their closest Order, insomuch that there was not above half a foot intervall of ground between File and File, the Pikes Por­ting, and after closing their Ranks forwards so close, that they locked themselves one within another, and then charged on. Which in my judgement is so secure a way from routing, that it is impossible for any Body of Horse to enter therein: and farther, to my best re­membrance, I never could meet with any Souldier that hath been abroad upon any service that ever saw any charging of the Pikes at the Foot, therefore I will further proceed.

From Order
  • Advance, Your Pike.
  • Shoulder, Your Pike.
  • Port, Your Pike.
  • Comport, Your Pike.
  • Cheek, Your Pike.
  • Trail, Your Pike.
Order as you were.
From your Or­der charge to the
  • Front,
  • Right,
  • Left,
  • Reere,
Order as you were.
Advance your Pike.
  • Shoulder Your Pike.
  • Port Your Pike.
  • Comport Your Pike.
  • Cheek Your Pike.
  • Trail Your Pike.
Advance as you were.
From your Advance charge to the
  • Front,
  • Right,
  • Left,
  • Reer,
Advance as you were.
Shoul­der your Pike.
  • Port Your Pike,
  • Comport Your Pike,
  • Cheek Your Pike,
  • Trail. Your Pike,
Shoulder as you were.
From the Shoulder charge to the
  • Front,
  • Right,
  • Left,
  • Reere,
Shoulder as you were.
  • Port your Pikes,
  • Comport your Pikes,
  • Cheek your Pikes
  • Trail your Pikes
Comport as you were
From the Comport Charge to the
  • Front,
  • Right,
  • Left,
  • Reer,
Comport as you were.
Cheek your Pikes.Trail your Pikes,Cheek as you were.
From the Cheek charge to the
  • Front,
  • Right,
  • Left,
  • Reer,
Cheek as you were.
Trail your Pikes, from your Trail charge to the
  • Front,
  • Right,
  • Left,
  • Reer.
Trail as you were.
  • Order your Pikes,
  • Lay down your Pikes.

Here is to be observed by this Method an endeavouring to performe all the postures of the Pike, from each particular posture, only shortning it by degrees, leaving out what was before commanded untill we come unto the Trail. Yet notwithstanding I spared not the charges, but have shewn them from every posture, in their due order. Next followeth the postures of the Musket, wherein, in answerablenesse to the Pike, I shall lay them down in full, and afterwards contract them in a shorter way.

CHAP. IV. The Postures of the Musket.

THE Musket lying on the ground, the first word of command will be, as to the Pike.

  • Stand to your Arms,
  • Take up your Bandiliers,
  • Put on your B [...]ndilieres.
  • Take up your Rest,
  • Put the string of your Rest about your left wrist.
  • Take up your Match,
  • Place your Match,
  • Take up your Musket,
  • Rest your Musket.

Here the Souldier may perform the Saluting Posture, if he shall finde any occasion so to doe, for the honouring of his friend, or any Gentleman of worth.

  • Poyse your Musket,
  • Shoulder your Musket,
  • Un-shoulder your Musket and Poyse,
  • Joyne your Rest to the outside of your Musket.
  • Open your pan.
  • Cleer your pan.
  • Prime your pan.
  • Shut your pan.
  • Cast off your loose Corns,
  • Blow off your loose corns, and bring about your Musket to the left side.
  • Trail your Rest,
  • Ballance your Musket in your left hand.
  • Finde out your Charge,
  • Open your Charge,
  • Charge with powder.
  • Draw forth your Scouring-stick,
  • Turn and shorten him to an Inch.

Charge with Bullet.

  • Put your Scouring-stick into your Musket
  • Ram home your Charge.
  • Withdraw your Scouring-stick,
  • Turn, and shorten him to a handfull,
  • Return your Scouring-stick.
  • Bring forward your Musket and Rest,
  • Poyse your Musket & recover your Rest.
  • Joyn your Rest to the outside of your Musket.
  • Draw forth your Match,
  • Blow your Cole.
  • Cock Your Match.
  • Fit Your Match.
  • Guard your Pan,
  • Blow the ashes from your Cole.
  • Open your Pan,
  • Present upon your Rest,
  • Give fire brest high.
  • Dismount your Musket, joyning the Rest to the outside of your Musket.
  • Un-cock, and return your Match.
  • Cleere your Pan,
  • Shut your Pan.
  • Poyse your Musket,
  • Rest your Musket.
  • Take your Musket off the Rest, and set the Butt end to the ground,
  • Lay down your Musket,
  • Lay down your Match.
  • Take your Rest into your right hand, cleering the string from your left wrist,
  • Lay down your Rest.
  • Take off your Bandiliers.
  • Lay down your Bandiliers.

Here endeth the Postures of the Musket, from the taking of them up from the ground, to make ready, and the proceeding in them to the laying of them down again. Now if the Souldier will take his Rest into his right hand, for to be a support and help to him in his march, he must observe the following words of command.

  • Lay your right hand upon the Butt end of your Musket,
  • Lay your left arme over your Musket.
    The Musket being shoulder­ed, you may pro­ceed in these words of com­mand, to reco­ver the Rest into the right hand.
  • Shift your match between the fingers of your right hand.
  • Take your Rest into your right hand, cleering the string from your left wrist.
  • Return your match, and take your Rest into your right hand, 'twill cause
  • you to be in a fit capacity for to march.

CHAP. V. The Postures and charges of the Pike, to be performed in a shorter way, all things acted in order, and nothing done twice.

THE Pike lying on the ground, the first word of Command will be,

  • Stand to your Arms,
  • Handle your Arms.
  • Raise up your Pikes to your open Order,
  • Raise up your Pikes to your Order,
  • Raise up your Pikes to your close Order.
From your close Order charge to the Horse.
  • Front
  • Right
  • Left
  • Reer
Recover your Pikes, and put up your Swords,
  • Advance your Pikes,
  • Port your Pikes,
Charge to the Front.
  • Shoulder your Pikes, Charge to the right.
  • Comport your Pikes, Charge to the left.
  • Cheeke your Pikes,
  • Trail your Pikes,
Charge to the Reer.

After lay the narrow end of the Pike to the ground, face about to the left to your first Front, and move forward with the Butt end of your Pike on your right side in your Fu­nerall Posture. After face about to the right, raise up your Pike, face then again to your first Front, you may lay down the Pike to the ground and march from your Arms, having ended all the Postures and Charges in their due courses. And here Fellow Souldier, who­ever thou art, thou maist perceive that there are no more then eight Postures of the Pike, and foure Charges, that is to say, to the Front, Reer, and both Flanks. There are some would fain have another Posture added to these, which they call the Lazie Posture, which somtimes I have perceived upon a stand, that then the Pike-man lets slip his Pike from the shoulder, untill the Butt end rest upon the ground, then laying his right arme over it, he stands in an il-favour'd lazit way. Such Postures as these are not fit to be ranged among the former; but rather to be condemned, in regard the Souldier will be apt enough to finde out such Postures as these of himselfe, if not prevented by the discretion of the carefull Officers; for upon a stand the Souldiers properest Posture is to Order his Pike. And thus much in briefe concerning the Postures of the Pike.

CHAP. VI. The Postures of the Musket collected in a briefe way.

ACcording to my former promise I shall endeavour to give the best satisfaction I can to the Muskettiers, as well as to the Pikes, that there is an answerablenesse of number in the proper Postures of the Musket to them of the Pike: and they are eight (as I conceive) and may be proceeded on in order from the taking up, to the laying down of the Musket, and nothing acted twice: the words of command for the Postures followeth,

The Musket lying on the ground, the words of command will be as afore.

  • Stand to your Arms,
  • Handle your Arms.

Now you are to take notice that in taking up the Bandiliers, putting them on, taking up the Rest, putting the string about the left wrist, the taking up of the Match, placing of it, the taking up of the Musket, these, or the like are no Postures, but motions to the first Posture. Therefore I will proceed upon them all in order as they lie, leaving out the words of command tending to the Motions.

  • 1 Order your Musket,
  • 2 Rest your Musket,
  • 3 Poyse your Musket,
  • 4 Shoulder your Musket,
  • 5 Ballance your Musket and Rest on the right with the barrell upwards,
  • 6 Trail your Rest, and ballance your Musket on the left side with the bar­rell downwards,
  • 7 Recover your Musket, and performe your Sentinell Posture.
  • 8 Frō this perform your Funerall Posture.

This being ended, a man may recover his Musket, and Rest, that knows how to per­form this last Posture, without bringing him again upon the Rest, and may lay down his Armes again, observing the former Rule, where the Pestures of the Musket are set down at large.

CHAP. VII. There is also a conformity of Posture with the Musket, to those of the Pike, and Words of Command to be given, as may in ma­ny things be received by both Arms.

THe Musket and Pike lying on the ground, these words of Command may pro­perly be imployed to both; That is to say,

  • Stand to your Arms.
  • Handle your Arms.

The But-end of the Musket standing, or resting on the ground, at the out side of the right foot, is conformable to the Pike ordered.

The Musket poysed; to the Pike advanced.

The Musket shouldered; to the Pike shouldered.

The Musket porting; to the Pike porting.

The Musket reverst; (as in the Funerall Posture) to the Pike trailing.

The Musket rested, to the Pike cheeked; which is his proper Sentinell Posture.

The Musket presented; to the Pike charged.

As for the Motions of Posture, which conduce to the lading, and priming of the Mus­ket, as to cast about, trail, recover, and the like, they are all included in that generall Word of Command, properly to the Muskettiers belonging, which is to make ready.

Now, me thinks, I hear some ingenious Souldier begin to aske me, what are the the use of these Postures so fully laid down by you? To whom I shall be so courteous, as to satis­fie them, according to my former Method, beginning with the Pike, as followeth.

CHAP. VIII. The use of the Postures of the Pike.

THe Pike being ordered is the proper Posture of a Souldier upon a stand, which he The use of Or­dering the Pike. ought ever to minde upon any such occasion, so to make use of it. And I have likewise seen in many places, in the day time, this Posture to be used by the Soul­dier standing Sentinell.

The Pike advanced, is usefull for the Souldier upon a Troop, when they are to march The use of ad­vancing the Pike. swiftly, either for the relieving of some Court of Guard, or to repair to their place of Ran­dezvous, or upon some suddain approaching to an Enemy, to make a Charge: for then he will be in a fit capacity to clap down quickly his Pike, upon the breast of the Enemy. It is likewise very usefull in the time of excercise: to the half-files, and bringers up, upon any doubling to the Front, for then they are alwayes to be advanced, in respect of a longer march in their doublings, then those that double Ranks and Files; but having doubled, they must always conforme in Posture to the part doubled.

The use of Porting was invented for the ease of the Reare half-Files, upon a Charge; for the Front half-Files are only for to charge; the Rear haf Files in the mean time are to The use of Porting. port. It is likewise very usefull at such times when the Souldiers are marching through a Gate, or Sally-Port; from whence I conceive it doth derive its name porting.

The use of shouldering the Pike, is only properest upon the March, and in some kinde ve­ry usefull upon a Stand in time of Fight; provided they are at convenient distance from The use of Shouldering. the Enemy. For it much preserveth the Pikes, and Pikemen, from the danger of the shot, the bullets then gliding off from their Arms; which if they stood at such times, either ordered, or advanced; the bullets would make such a clattering amongst the Pikes, that what with breaking of them, and the shivers flying from them, may much endanger the Souldiers which shall carry them.

The comporting of the Pike is only usefull to the Souldier marching up a hill, for if then The use of Comporting. he should be shoudered, the But-end of the Pike would always be touching of the ground, to hinder him in his March; and much endanger his fellow-souldiers that shall come after him. Neither can he march advanced; for if there should be any winde, it would be ready to blow him down. Therefore as above, that which is most commodious for the Souldiers marching up a hill, is to comport his Pike.

The trailing of the Pike is seldome used, but when the Souldier shall march straight The use of Trailing. forward through a Wood, the File-leader before he enters in, trails his Pike, and con­sequently all the rest in his File: then stooping down, they take up the But-end of their Leaders Pikes, which they may easily gripe with their own in their right hands, and after march forward through the busling leaves in a straight line, every file single by himselfe, but as neare each other as possible they can march for more securitie sake; that when they are cleare, they may finde each other, and be in a condition to rally up againe, as occasion shall require. The trailing of the Pike, may also be of excellent use in a Trench, that at such time when they shall have intelligence, where the Enemy are preparing to make a Breach, they may then move forwards unto that place undiscovered, and may de­fend the same.

The cheeking of the Pike, is the proper Sentinell posture, and then to be used. The use of Cheeking.

CHAP. IX. The use of the Postures of the Musket.

I Conceive it will not be materiall to go over every posture of the Musket, to describe the use of them, in respect the greater part of them hath conformity to the Pike. Those that shall remaine, and of the chiefest consequence, I shall not be wanting to satisfie the Souldier in.

The ballancing the Musket, and Rest, on the right side with the Barrell upward is one The use of ballancing the Musket on the right side. of the chiefest Postures belonging to the Musket; from thence he begins to make ready, as to open, cleare, and prime the pan, all being motions to this Posture.

To traile the Rest, and Ballance, the Musket on the left side, with the barrell down­ward, The use of ballancing the Musket on the left side. is a Posture likewise of as great consequence; for there are severall motions, belong­ing also to this Posture, as to finde out the charge, to open it, to charge with powder, to take bullet out of the bag and to charge with bullet, with divers other motions before you can recover your Musket and Rest againe.

How a Musketier shall performe the Sentinell Posture.

THe Sentinell Posture is to be performed after this manner; first, the Musket is to be laded with powder, and bullet, afterwards he is to cock his match, and to stand with his pan guarded, his Musket being upon the Rest, untillsuch time that he is relieved; but as con­cerning him, I shall more fully set forth his duty, treating upon the duty of the Sentinell.

CHAP. X. The manner and way to do the Funerall Posture.

NExt followeth to shew how to do the Funeral Posture; the properest and the best way to begin this Posture, is when the Musket is rested, and is to be performed after this manner. You must first slip up you your Musket upon the Rest, so high, untill the Fork of the Rest be within a handfull of the cock; after you must bring your right hand under the barrell of the Musket, close to the Fork of the Rest, and then lift him off and after cast your Rest backward, trailing him on the left side, and bring your Musket under your left arme, with the barrell downwards, bearing the But-end up­ward, with your two fore-fingers, and your thumb, holding off the pan, and that with the left hand. Now if you begin to be weary in the March, by reason of the weight of the Musket; you may to ease your selfe, bring your right hand backward, and there take hold of the Musket, keeping still your left hand in it's first place, untill you shall reduce him to the Rest again.

The reducement of the Musket from the Funerall Posture.

FIrst, raise up your Musket a litle, with your two fingers, & thumb, of the left hand, as you formerly held him, then turn the Musket untill you perceive the barrell to be upward; after lay your right hand upon the barrell, much about the lazie [...]in, and then taking him, bring him up forward on the out-side of the Rest, recover your Rest, fall back with the right legge, you may with ease bring your Musket again upon the Rest as at first. This Posture being so seldome used, makes the Souldier much to seek in performance of the same; but he that takes pleasure in handling of the Musket, and shall exercise himselfe therein, cannot chuse but finde it very easie, and much delightfull to him. And I know no Posture more becoming a Muskettier then this, if it be neat, and well performed by him. And here I shall conclude, and end discoursing of the Postures.

CHAP. XI. The Souldiers desire to know every perticuler place of Dignity, as they stand in Rank and File.

THe Souldier now having obteined some pretty knowledge, skill, and ready apt­nesse in the managing and performing the Postures, begins to look about himself, what next is needfull for to fasten upon, to make a further progresse in this Art And straight he meets with some that whispers to him, that it were a gallant thing to know the Dignity of a File, true and rightly stated; to which he answers, but where can it be found, the opinions of Souldiers are so various, and differing therein, that none knows where for to atteine it. My Captains eye (saith he) is upon me, because I do the Postures well, which causeth the Serjeants to make me a File-leader, and that I know to be the chiefest, and first place of Honour in the File, the second place to be the Bringer up, the third, the half File leader: the fourth, the Bringer up of the Front half-Files. Thus far, no Souldier of any known judgment can deny; but now a days our Files being drawn up six deep, makes me altogether ignorant of the honour of the Rest; Nei­ther know I the Dignity of a File eight, or ten deep, which still in some places they do re­teine, drawing them up so deep. If my ambition were but now fully satisfied herein, I should in time come for to know the Dignity of the Captains, as they are drawn up all in a Regi­ment; by which Rule, I am informed they walk. And in my judgment, there cannot be a truer stating the Dignity of a Rank and File, then that which shall conforme to the Dignities of the Captaines, as they are drawn up a Brest all in a Regiment. Now, for as much, as many Regiments, consist of severall Numbers of Captaines, and Companies in them; as some six Companies, others eight; some greater, as ten, and twelve Compa­nies. It is expedient therefore not only for my selfe, but for every Souldier that will be truly knowing to be resolved herein concerning those severall numbers, and as occasion shall alter to any other; they may informe themselves by these how to fit their purpose. And therefore, not to keep the apt and forward Souldier longer in suspence, but that he may proceed, I shall amongst the rest, declare my thoughts therein, and set it forth unto their view, everhoping from my fellow-souldiers a favourable censure of my good mean­ing to them, and to my Countrey, for to imploy that little talent, which lately my endea­vours hath obteined to do them service. And shall forthwith set down unto them four Tables of Dignity, both of Ranks, and Files, which shall be first of twelve a Brest, and twelve deep. Secondly, ten a Brest, and ten deep. Thirdly, eight a Brest, and eight deep. And lastly, six a Brest, and six deep; wherein every ingenious Souldier shall easily know his perticuler place of honour and dignity, both in Rank and File, wherein he stands.

The Table being thus set forth unto the Souldiers view, as is be­fore expres [...], methinks, I hear some say: Sir, we like the drawing forth and the manner of your Ta­ble very well, we see cleerly there the particular places how every man stands in his dignity both in Rank and File according to your severall Figures; but we beseech you, Sir, be so favourable as to make us understand it by a far­ther demonstration of the same, and be pleased out of your cour­teous nature to explain your selfe a little farther therein; and to af­ford us some reasons to confirm and back the same, that it may cleerly appear to our judgements the truth thereof, and that we may sit down and rest our selves with fullest satisfaction therein. To Answer, me thinks, it should be strange to make deniall here to the modest desire of any ingenions Souldier, and cleere repugnant to my wonted custome; and therefore without any more delay, I shall farther let them know.

[military diagram]

CHAP. XII. Reasons for the places of dignity both in Rank and File, for the first foure in a File eight deep.

THat which gives most life for the true explaining of the former table is, to shew the severall places of honour and dignitie of the Captains, how they are drawn up a brest all in a Regiment. Be pleased therefore to goe along with me, and you shall understand that the Collonel hath the first place of honour, as being Commander in chiefe, whose Company stands upon the right, which makes the figure (1) The second place of honour in the Regiment is the Lieutenant Collonel, whose Company is drawn up upon the left, as being the outmost there, and is described by the figure (2) The third place of honour is the Majors Company, which is drawn up upon the right of the left halfe Ranks, whose place is described by the figure (3) The fourth place of honour is the eldest Captains Company; which is drawn up upon the left of the right halfe Ranks, and is set forth by the figure (4) And now we have proceeded thus far, we will make Alt and begin to examine whether we have rightly hitherto proceeded, or no, therefore, for the more cleering and understanding herein, you must take notice it is the discretion of every knowing Commander so to aime and state his Battail, as that he makes his Front equiva­lent in worth, strength, and dignity to that of the Reer, and with equall proportion of number, and in like manner so to order his right half Ranks as that they may carry an equall ballance in worth, number and dignity with the left half Ranks. Now therefore to begin to make some triall or experiment herein by examining the first worth with the fourth, and that will make the number (5) and then put to triall the second worth and third, and you shall easily discern it to carry the same proportion of number. So that it may appear cleerly in the judgement of any discreet Souldier a true and equall proportion, the Front with the Reer, the right half Ranks sutable to the left halfe Ranks, and that both in number, honour and dignity.

Having thus far entred into the discourse, it remains to describe and shew the reasons of the other four of their places and dignity as they stand.

CHAP XIII. Reasons of the place of the second foure as they stand in Rank and File, the File being eight deep.

NOw for the further resolution herein, there is to be taken notice of, that the ge­nerall drawing up of Regiments, when they consist of so few Companies as 8, 6, or 7, is commonly in two grand Divisions, that is to say, two bodies or two stands of Pikes, which are flanked with Muskettiers. Therefore you may ob­serve the discretion of the Major who commonly is appointed to draw up the Regiments, doth so order the places of the Captains, that they may aptly fall into their due places of Honour, upon a stand and upon a march; and doth so order their Dignities as before is ex­prest, as to make both the Front, Reer, right and left half Ranks, equall in Number, Strength, and Dignity. And, therefore, he draws up the third and fourth Captain between the Collonels Company and the eldest Captain, which makes their number (13:) and in like manner he draws the second Captain, and the youngest Captain betweene the Lieutenant Collonels Company and the Majors, whose number likewise carries equall proportion to be (13.) Now if you please to examine the whole number of the right halfe Ranks, and that makes (18:) maketriall likewise of the left halfe Ranks, in casting up of his ac­compt; and you shall finde the same proportion of number as is cleerly set forth within the Table, both of Ranks and Files, for as the honour of every Souldier stands in the Rank, you will finde the same to stand so in the File.

CHAP. XIV. Other Reasons to cleere it further to the Souldier.

TO give you farther satisfaction, and Reasons for the placing of the second foure, in respect it is contrary to the Rule and Judgement of some Souldiers: therefore far­ther observe with me this; When a Regiment is drawn up in the true Order of a Regimentall way; there is as before expressed, two Bodies, or Stands of Pikes, slanked with Muskettiers; and it is the Office of every Major to give forth in writing notes of paper unto every Captain, and Leiutenant, where their place shall be upon a Stand, and where upon a March, that he may with more readinesse know where to lead, and where to fall in, or to bring up, as occasion shall require. Now, for as much, that it hath been the practise here in England, and in most Countries also besides, as I have been infor­med by very able knowing Souldiers; that the first place of Honour that is appointed out unto the Captaines, is first unto the eldest; who alwayes leads the Collonels Colours, or first grand Division of Pikes, which is the greatest Honour that can be appointed out unto the Captaines, and therefore most properest and due to him as being Eldest. If so, as that it is then generally granted, that the leading of the Collonels Colours, or the first Body, or Stand of Pikes in the Collonels Grand Division, is the first and chiefest place of Honour a­mongst the Captains; Why then, certainly, I must conclude the second Captain, which carries the Number (5) would be infinitely wronged, and injured, if he were denied, and not brought into the left halfe Ranks, for there he aptly stands to fall in, to lead the Leiu­tenant Collonels Colours, or the second Body, or Stand of Pikes, which is the second place of Honour. Now having resolved, that it is cleerly the due, and Right for the se­cond Captains place, to lead the second Body of Pikes; we must then of necessity, bring in the youngest Captain into the left halfe Ranks likewise; who carries the Number (8) and that will make up an equall proportion, as before exprest to the third and fourth Captains; carrying with them the figures (6 and 7) which are drawn up in the right halfe Rank.

CHAP. XV. Reasons given for the last Table of every perticuler Place of Honour, and Dignity, as they stand.

I Conceive, what formerly hath been exprest of the middle Table, may give full resoluti­on of the perticuler places of Honour, and Dignity, as they stand both in Rank and File. It further now remaines to speak somewhat of the rest, and therefore, I shall go down-ward, cleering still the first four places of Honour, which being rightly nu­derstood, [Page 11] the rest will naturally fall into the capacity of any ingenious Souldier. There­fore further pray observe with me this again in examining of the sutablenesse, and equall proportion of Worth, and number of the first and fourth Worth, carrying unto that of the second and third. And thus far you may rest, and satisfie your selfe therein. We have therefore now no more to place, and settle, but the fifth, and sixth Worth, and then our work in this Table will be quickly finished. Therefore of necessity, as formerly expressed, we must bring in the fifth Worth, into the left halfe Ranks, as being the second Captaine; whose proper place as I said before, is to lead the Lieutenant Collonels Colours, or the se­cond Body, or Stand of Pikes. He being there thus fixed, we have no more to place, but the sixth Worth, which is the last, or youngest Captain; and we have no other place to bring him in, but between the first and fourth Worth, or if you will have it more cleere, between the Collonel, and eldest Captain. But, here by the way, I am like to meet with some Objector, that will say, Sir, What's become of your equall proportion here? Your right halfe Ranks, with your left, as you have so formerly stated them; your right halfe Ranks carrieth, or exceedeth one more in number then your left halfe Ranks doth; and where we finde the greater number, we must conclude the lesser dignity, and if so, Why do you not rather contrive it on the left, then upon the right? To which I answer first, that in raising up of Companies into a Regiment, those that are the Field Officers by right should have the most men, and greater Companies, then the private Captains have; therefore if you will observe in the stating of this Dignity of a Rank six a Brest, you will finde in the left halfe Ranke, two Field Officers, whose Companies are the greater then any private Captains; certainly, they must needs countervaile with any number of men with the right halfe Ranks, for although the Collonels Company is, or ought ever to be the greatest, yet there is no more Field Officers, but himselfe in his Division. And again, secondly, where there cannot be an equall dividing of number, (as here you will finde it of six a Brest, or six deep) but that there will fall out some odd, either on the right halfe Ranks, or on the left, and likewise the same either in the Front half Files, or Rear-half-Files, as by example in the triall you will easily finde, by casting up the whole num­ber, as they stand a Brest, and they will fall out to be (21:) divide this number into two parts, and you cannot but must cast the odd either on the right, or on the left. Therefore, to conclude, since that there is a great possibility that there will be an equality of number of men in the left half Ranks, sutable to that of the right, where there shall fall out an odd number, that you cannot cast it into the left half Ranks, but that you must remove the fifth Worth; in this extremity I say you may not do it, but rather place it on the right. For the Major having no certain place to march in a Regiment, it is the proper place of the se­cond Captain to walke along with the Lieutenant Collonel, taking his due place of honour in his division, as the first shall do by marching with his Collonel; and thus much shall suffice to be spoken of the last Table.

CHAP. XVI. Reasons likewise to be given for the Table, 12 a Brest, and 12 deep.

FOr as much as formerly hath been spoken, that it is the discretion of every Com­mander so to order his men, as to make an equall ballance throughout the battell, that his Front carry with it an equall proportion of Worth, Number, and Dignity; with that of the Reer: and likewise so to steer, and order his right half Rank, or right Flank, sutable with that of the left. The next way then to receive further satisfa­ction herein, is by an examination thereof as it lies, and is set open to view.

[military diagram]

Compare now the Worth and Diginity of the right half Ranks, and you shall quickl [...] perceive to carry a like proportion of number and worth with the left. To make it [...] little more clear unto those that shall desire to be more satisfied herein, you may take notice, and [Page 12] observe a true qualification throughout the whole Rank. As first, begin with the Collonel, who is the best and chiefest man of honour in the Regiment, and next to him is placed the ninth or youngest Captain▪ to qualifie his dignity and make his number (13,) the Lieu [...]e­nant Collonel being the second man of honour, hath placed to him the eighth, which qua­lifies him in like manner to the Collonel, and makes his number (13.) Next come we to the Major, and next to him is placed the seventh Captain, which makes him sutable with the rest in his figure and qualification, and to bear the number (13.) After we are to speak of the eldest Captain, who hath the sixth Captain joyned unto him, and makes his num­ber (13.) And so comparing all the rest, dividing them by two's, they will stand as fol­loweth.

[military diagram]

Thus much, I conceive, may give a right understanding to any coming on Souldier, of the true and right stating of a Rank twelve abrest, being a thing very needfull for to know, in respect that there are many Regiments which doe consist of twelve Companies; and when in course; as in the sequell of this Book, when as I shall shew the manner of drawing up of twelve Companies; there will a little more light appear unto them to their farther knowledge of the same. But thus much for the present, as concerning a Rank twelve a brest; and now I shall come to speak or to touch a little of a Rank ten a brest, and a File ten deep.

CHAP. XVII. Brief reasons to be given of the Dignity of places of a Rank ten a brest, and of a File ten deep.

WHat hath been formerly declared concerning a Rank twelve a brest as before shewed by every particular place of honour, as they stand with the reasons for the same, it may give a cleer understanding by the same rule to finde the Dignity of places ten a brest. For walking by the same way and rule of exa­mination, and you will finde them to carry by dividing by two's, being added to the four first places of honour, and they will carry sutable proportions, as underneath is set forth.

[military diagram]

But for as much that in this Range of ten a brest there will fall out some odd, we must then of necessity sake, place it upon the right, and not on the left, for the reasons as formerly for a File six deep declared. I might now here conclude with other flourishing Tables which might be little profitable unto the Souldier, though holding out discourse more ful­ler in an Arithmeticall way. But I have no desire to fill this subject with plenty of unpro­fitable words and frothie flourishes, but rather driving really in a Souldierly way, to make all things both plain and easie to every courteous Reader that shallbe pleased for to peruse the same. And therefore, here for present, I shall conclude, what more might here be spoken by dignities of Ronks and Files, leaving what shall remain untill such time in course I shall again meet with them by the way in drawing up of Regiments.

CHAP. XVIII. What Distance is, and the reasons for the first beginning of the same, with all their severall uses.

HAving thus now passed over severall reasons, and with as much brevity as I could, to satisfie the longing desire of the young Souldiers request of every particular place of honour as they stand in dignity both in Rank and File: Which being passed over, the next will follow by course, before we come to joyne the Files into [Page 13] a Body to satisfie the Souldier of each particular distance with the severall reasons and uses of the same: for next to the Postures it is the first thing, or part of the Military exercise; and most necessary for the Souldier to be knowing in, and to be exercised in. Yet I must confesse no Commander is so tied up or limited in the exercising of his men at all times to begin with Distances, first, so as to shew them all throughout; but neverthelesse, in all and every one of the Motions in the exercising of a Body, care must be taken that the Souldier have his proper Distance for performance of the same. Neither can any Leader exercise his men, but first he must command them to some Distance sutable to what he will begin. As some I have seen begin their Exercises with Faceings, some other with Doublings; others with Countermarches and with Wheelings. Yet, neverthelesse, whoever they be that will so begin, as I said before, must command his Souldiers to some Distance, which may be proper for [...] the same. But for my own part, my purpose is to goe throughout all parts of the Military Exercise of Foot, and therefore will goe on in order as they lie; and first, as most properest, I shall begin with Distances, to shew them all throughout, and what the nature of them be.

Distance therefore really considered in it selfe, is no Motion, but there are severall moti­ons to the attaining of each particular Distance both in length and depth. Therefore, briefly thus: Distance is a place or intervall of ground between every particular File and File, and betwixt every Rank and Rank as they stand, and attained by the severall motions of Ranks and Files, and consisting of severall proportions of ground, as easily may be understood by their severall words of command as they follow.

CHAP. XIX. The severall sorts of Distances which are fit and proper for the Souldier to be exercised in.

  • CLosest Order,
  • Close Order,
  • Order,
  • Open Order,
  • Double Distance,
  • Twice double Distance,
Which is both in Rank and File
  • Half a foot,
  • One foot and a half,
  • Three foot,
  • Six foot,
  • Twelve foot,
  • Twenty four foot.

Having thus set down every Distance with their severall proportions of ground, I shall next proceed unto the words of command to the opening of the Ranks and Files from their closest Order, and after satisfie the Souldier with the reasons, and the uses of every particular Distance, as they go along in order.

CHAP. XX. Words of Command for the opening of Ranks and Files to all their Distances, with their closings again.

THe Commander craving silence, and that they be commanded to close Ranks and Files to their closest Order, the words of command for Distances are as followeth.

  • Files open to the right to your close Order,
  • Ranks open backward to your close Order,
  • Files open to the left to your Order,
  • Ranks open backward to your Order,
  • Files open to the right and left to your open Order,
  • Ranks open backward to your open Order,
  • Files open to the left to your double Distance,
  • Ranks open backward to your double Distance,
  • Files open from the midst to twice double Distance.
  • Ranks open backward to twice double Distance.

The Ranks and Files being thus opened unto their twice double Distance from their clo­sest order, I conceive it to be a more Souldierly like way in the opening and closing of Files, that the discretion of the Commander do vary, and alter the hand in the commanding of them then always from every Distance to tie himself to any perticuler hand; as to open to the right, and close to the right. But as concerning the opening of Ranks, the properest way in my judgement is to open them always to the Reer, in respect it is perfor­med with more facility: For every Rank from the first takes his due Distance, as he is commanded, without any further trouble, or to a halfe facing to the right, by taking it from the Reer, if from that place they shall be opened; and so likewise it were a great deal better in the closing of Ranks, to close them forwards, in respect it is for the more coveniency of their closing, then to the Reer. For then, again, they must perform a half facing, which is not only handsome, but troublesome to the Souldier. All that can be said for to maintain it, (as, I conceive, in opening Ranks, forwards) is because they have not room in the Reer, which seldome happens so in any Exercise, if discreetly ordered by him that leads them. As for closing of the Ranks backwards, I cannot conceive any solid reasons to confirme the same, and therefore will passe over it, and come to close our Ranks and Files, to such Distance, from whence they first were opened.

  • Files close to the right and left, inward to double distance.
  • Ranks close forwards, to double distance.
  • Files close to the right to your open Order.
  • Ranks close forwards to your open Order.
  • Files close into the midst to your Order.
  • Ranks close forwards to your Order.
  • Files close to the left to your close Order.
  • Ranks close forwards to your close Order.
  • Files close to the right to your closest Order.
  • Ranks close forwards to your closest Order.

Concerning the Words of Command for Distances, in the openings and closings of Ranks, and Files, what before is set down, may be sufficient for any Souldier to use in time of his exercise. But now it will be expected to give some reasons for every one of these, to shew them in their proper uses.

CHAP. XXI. The use of each perticuler Distance, and at what time to be used.

WHerefore, first note, that your Distance of closest Order, is of chiefest use unto the Pike, in these perticulers; as first, charging against the Horse, for that the Ranks then clapping in their left legs, behind their Leaders right, locking themselves so firme and stedfast, one within another, which 'twere impossible for any Body of Horse to enter in amongst them. Secondly, it is of excellent use for to maintain a breach, and to keep out an Enemy. Thirdly, it is very usefull to both arms at such time, when a Commander hath any thing of consequence to discover unto his Com­pany, which he may have many occasions so to do; as before his Exercise, to advise them to silence, to observe their words of command, and their directions; and when they are to fight against an Enemy, to perswade, and keep them off from fear, by assuring them good reasons of hopes of overcoming. These, or such like speeches, manytimes a Captain may have just occasion to expresse himselfe unto his Company, and being at so close a Distance, they may more aptly hear his words, and obey his Comands. But here now, by the way, too much preaching upon the head of a Company concerning matters of Exer­cise, is too much a dulling of the Souldier, who rather would fall into action, then so to be confounded with much talking.

Close order may be of very good use also, for most things which hath been spoken of the closest order; only here the Souldier hath a little more liberty in the handling of his [Page 15] arms, by being at a wider Distance. This Distance also is of good use, before wheelings, because many times upon their moving, they are apt to flie out to their proper Distance of order, which they always should be at in their wheelings, where note, if first they were at order, they would flie out to wider Distance.

Order is the Distance which the Souldier doth fight upon, and is to be used skirmishing against an Enemy; it is also usefull at such time, when the Drum shall beat a Troop, and that the Souldiers are marching to relieve some Court of Guard, or making some expedi­tion against an Enemy, for then they are in a fit capacity of Distance, for to fight. It is also very usefull, and to be observed upon facings, for all intire doublings, and for wheelings; Order likewise in File, and open order in Rank, is to be used at such time when the Drum, shall beat a march, and the Body upon their moving, or marching.

Open order is the Distance proper for all doublings of Ranks and Files, by the half-Files or by the Bringers up, wherein they have intervall of ground, sufficient to move in. It is also a very proper Distance for facings, and ever to be observed in time of Counter-marches

It is the properest distance for the Ranks to be in upon a March, but the Files are then, to be at order, as is before exprest.

The use of double Distance is to be observed at such times when the Souldiers shall stand, or happen to be in some eminent danger of the Cannon shot, from the Enemy; for stan­ding then so thinne, they may be much preserved from danger; it is likewise very good for Inversion, and Conversion.

You may take notice of these briefe directions, in openings of Ranks and Files, when the Files are commanded to open to the right, the left hand File stands, and all the Files take their Distance from the left, observing always in the Motions of Files, their Leaders, and to move altogether along with them. If it be an opening of Files to the left, then contra­ry wayes, the right hand File stands, and they take their Distance from the right. So likewise for closings unto what hand soever they be commanded to close, the out-most File is to stand, the rest are to move and close to that. In opening or closing of Ranks, the first Rank is always to stand, the rest are to move either opening or closing, according as is commanded, always observing in their motions their right-hand-men, and moving al­together.

CHAP. XXII. Directions of the way and manner of drawing up a private Company.

THe Postures being formerly described forth, the diginity of places in a File, and words of Command made known unto the Souldier for their severall Distances. It next followeth to shew the joyning of Files, and drawing up a Company; where first pray minde at such times when the Drums are beating about the Quarters, and in severall places makes Proclamation, (as by order from their Captain,) for all Gentlemen Souldiers that are under his Command, to repair unto his Randezvous, unto such a place, and at such an hour; then it must be the immediate care of every Offi­cer under his Command, punctually at that hour and place, thither to repair, for the more incouraging of the Souldiers as they shall come in, and not to stir themselves from thence, without some order from their Captain, for fear of giving bad examples unto others. And when they shall perceive some considerable number of men to come in, the Serjeants then may take advice with their Lieutenant and Ensigne, which of them they will appoint out to draw forth the Muskettiers, and which the Pikes, and whom they shall make the right hand File-leader of the Muskettiers, and who shall be the left; and again, who shall be the Leader of the right hand File of Pikes, and who shall be the left. For these four, being such remarkable places of Honour unto the knowing Souldier, that speciall care must be had in placing deserving men, to be there. Now it is, or ought to be the discretion of every Lieutenant, and Ensigne, (as being Commission-Officers) to resolve the Serjeants herein, that they may with more alacrity go on to draw the rest up between; and so to order unto each of them their perticuler duties, as to carry equall paines in drawing forth the Files. Therefore in respect, that for the most part in every Company, they have three Ser­jeants, two of them ought to take charge in drawing forth the Muskettiers, (being help [...] by the advice of their Lieutenant,) and the other to draw forth the Files of Pikes, being [Page 16] assisted in Counsell by their Ensigne: for at such times the Officers ought not to be idle and to stand gazing upon each other, but every one according to his particular place and relati­on, should be very active and assisting to each other. In the drawing up the Company, the properest way will be then, as you may understand, in perfecting up a Company, to draw them forth into Files, and to make them six deep; as being our custome here in England, and farther to have care in choosing able Souldiers to be File-leaders, who having spent some time and pains in their Files in shewing them their Postures, they may be called to joyne into a Body.

For farther direction herein unto the Serjeants (whose proper place it doth belong unto) to observe this order in drawing up their Files, that they may ingrosse the Pikes into one Body by themselves and the Muskettiers into another, and not to flank the Pikes untill such time they shall perceive that in both Arms they are compleat. There are likewise severall places of honour that the Serjeants ought to take notice of, and to be informed of placing of man of worth and desert in both Armes, that is to say, in the Body of Pikes, and of the Muskettiers, which underneath by figures I shall set forth for farther satisfaction therein.

[military diagram]

Here I have set down the manner how the Serjeants should draw up their Files in each armes a part by themselves, and have figured forth unto them the foure chiefe places of honour in both arms. It concerns them therefore very much to minde and have regard to these particular places, and to order such men of worth there, which may be well deserving of the same, and those Gentlemen whom they shall thinke fit after to be worthy of File-leaders places, they are to draw them up between the figure (1) and the figure (4,) and between the figure (3) and the figure (2) and that rule to observe in both armes, and to be carefull to place good Souldiers in the Reere, and such who may be able Souldiers for Halfe-file-leaders, because there may be much occasion by doublings to bring them up for to assist the Front.

Thus much, I do confesse, may be sufficient forthe present to give directions to the Ser­jeants for drawing up the Files and joyning them together. Next after I have shewn how to flank their Pikes with Muskettiers, I will set forth unto them and the Drums, where their places are upon a stand, and where to be upon a march.

Next followeth to flank the stand of Pikes with the Muskettiers; command the Gentle­men of the Pikes to face to the right, and left half-ranks of Muskettiers to Face to the left, and then to march and interchange ground, facing after to their leaders, and closing Files inward to order, they will stand as underneath is set forth.

[military diagram]

If it should happen as somtimes it doth, for a Company to be very large, as in a Collo­nels, why then they may have just cause to have foure Serjeants as I have thus placed them. But here again it will be expected of diverse Souldiers to shew some reasons for the pla­cing [Page 17] of the Serjeants being thus drawn up and upon a stand, which I shall en­deavour fully for to doe, after I have set down where their places are upon the march. Now before we shall come to treat of the Company upon their long march, the Captain perceiving for his most conveniencie of marching in the street or in a lane, that it will be convenient to divide his Muskettiers into equall divisions for their march, and therefore, according to this number here set down; they may be divided into foure divisions, that is to say, two to march in the Van and two in the Reer, and two divisions of Pikes. But before they are moving, it is the Serjeants duty to come unto the Captain, to be informed from him where their proper places are to march, and what divisions each of them shall lead, and likewise so the Drums, to know their places where to beat upon the march. To answer to them all in the first place, the Captain ought to give directions to his youngest Serjeant to lead the second division of Muskettiers in the Van; the first division of Pikes being led by the [...]nsigne, he commands the second for to be led by his second Serjeant, and after orders or appoints the eldest Serjeant to lead the first division of Muskettiers of the Reer­guard, and the third Serjeant to lead the last division of Muskettiers, the Lieutenant bringing up the Reer and Drums commanded to fall in behinde the two first Ranks of each division, and to beat between the second Rank and fourth.

Having thus stated to them all their proper places, next it will be conveni­ent for the Captain to command them to shoulder their Arms, both Pikes and Muskettiers, and the Officers and Drums taking all their places as before di­rected, they may begin to move and draw forth into a long March as follow­eth.

[military diagram]

CHAP. XXIII. Severall reasons given for the placing of the Serjeants after this manner:

WHen a Body is drawn up in manner as before expressed; the Cap­tain being Commander in chiefe, his discretion is to ballance the Officers as neer as he can with equall dignity and worth, his Front proportionally with the Reer. To which purpose he takes unto himselfe the youngest Serjeant, and places him on the right Angle in the Front, whereby he may be there ready to march down into the Body or elswhere, according unto the discretion of the Captain to fulfill his commands, as also to stand there as a Spectator of the Captains actions, and an assistant which may be much improvement to him. And in like manner he commands the third Serjeant to the left Angle in the Reer; as being the second youngest, and may be a help unto his Lieutenant there, as the fourth is to him in the Front. The eldest Serjeant, he orders to the left Angle, in the Front, as being the most honourable place for him, being there ready to lead upon a march the Van of the Reer-Guard; & the second Serjeant he is appointed to stand on the right Angle of the Reer, to make them equall in dignity unto the Front. Now if you please to examine the dignity of the Serjeants, in the first place, as the first Serjeant, and the fourth, making the number (5) and after take a view of the second place, or Reer, and there you shall observe that the second Serjeant, and third, may every way ballance themselves, to be equivalent in the worth, with the first, and fourth, carrying with them a like the same number. So that it is cleerly evident, that the Serjeants are rightly stated in number, and dig­nity, the Front proportionably with the Reer, in the judgement of any know­ing Souldier. Something more may be spoken of the second Serjeants place, which you may take notice in his March, to lead the second Division of Pikes, which is the most honourablest place of leading, that is appointed [Page 18] forth unto the Serjeants, the first only excepted, and upon a Stand, when they shall lead up their Divisions, every Serjeant is to be take him unto his place, as they were at first placed, and to continue there untill such time they shall receive further order from their Captain. Thus much, I conceive, may give satisfaction unto the discreet Souldier, in these perticulers, leaving them liberty to judge according unto their own best thoughts, while we endeavour to draw up our Divisions all a Brest again, and to make some description of a Body.

The Captain upon his March having attained some convenient place to draw up his Company, makes Alt, and commands the Serjeants to lead up their Divisions, upon the left, and causes the Muskettiers to open from the Pikes, making sufficient intervalls for the Drums, to beat two a Brest, even with the Front, the first two between the right hand File leader of Pikes, and the Muskettiers upon the right, the second two Drums do­ing the like, upon the left. And always the Captain ought to march his Company after this manner all a Brest, provide he have ground sufficient for the same. And being far more gracefull so to do, then to march them stragling upon a long March, for it doth represent in some kinde the manner of marching of a Regiment, and at such times the Serjeants are to march upon the Angles as is before described, moving to and again, sometimes upon the Flanks, and causing the Souldiers to keep their Distance of order in File, and open order in Rank, and to march all even a Brest, and after to return again unto their places.

CHAP. XXIV. Before I come to make description of a Body, I shall shew some further Reasons of the Serjeants places of lesser Companies, with the placing of the Drums.

IT happens many times, some Companies falls not out so large, as is before forth, and that they have but three Serjeants, and therefore it would be known, when that they have but one Division of Muskettiers in the Van, two Divisions of Pikes, and one Divi­sion of Muskettiers, in the Reer, which is the Reer-Guard, where then the placing of these three Serjeants, and three Drums, shall be upon their long March, and where to be marching all a Brest. To which, I answer, in the first place, the youngest Serjeant is always to attend the Captain, and having no Division to lead, he is to be upon the right Angle of the Front, there expecting his Captains pleasure and comands; and the second Serjeant is to lead the second Division of Pikes, and the eldest Serjeant to lead the last Division of Muskettiers, or the Reer Guard, here are their places upon the long March.

But when they are drawn up, and so march even a Brest, the youngest Serjeants place, as is before exprest, is to march upon the right Angle in the Front, and the eldest upon the left, the second Serjeant is to march in the right Angle in the Reer. They having their places thus stated, are to move sometimes up and down upon the Flanks, in their marching, causing the Souldiers to keep their due distance of order in File, and open order in Rank, and to march even a Brest, and after they may return unto their places again.

But here, me thinks, I meet with some Objector by the way, who saith, the eldest is much wronged herein; for that it is his proper place to be upon the right; that when Forlorns are drawn off against an Enemy, he is there ready first to lead them on, claiming it as his due, to give the first on-set, and therefore far more honour for him to be on the right, then on the left, and the youngest Serjeant, rather to be placed on the left, then on the right; as for the second Serjeants place, 'tis fit he should be in the Reer, to assist the Lieutenant there, he having none but he, to help him, if any occasion should require. To which, I answer, that it is the youngest Serjeants place to be upon the right Angle, either upon a Stand, or upon a March, and not the eldest; for these reasons following. The youngest Serjeant is not placed there for any honour that it is to him, for he hath no Di­vision at all to lead upon the March, (except the Company be very great) and if so, he is placed so neer the Captain, to be serviceable to him to carry, and convey his pleasures unto all the rest of the Officers. As for the leading of the Van-guard, upon the March, the Captain takes that place unto himselfe; and it is far more honour unto the eldest Serjeant to be a Leader of the Reer-Guard, or entirely the left-Flank, then to lead a Sub-di­vision of Pikes. And besides that, it is properest for his place to be upon the left, when [Page 19] they are all drawn up upon a Brest, for these two reasons; as first, he is there upon in a readi­nesse, to take his due place, upon the sub-dividing on the long March; and again; upon a Stand, when they are all drawn up, and ready to ingage against an Enemy, and the For­lorns to be drawn forth, equally a like from both Flanks, he is then as ready in the Front to execute his Captains Commands, the youngest Serjeant, being likewise sent to be some­thing helpfull to him, and attending after for further order from his Captain, to send him reliefe by the second Serjeant, as occasion shall require. So that in my judgement, take it either upon the long March, or others, when drawn all up even a Brest, all things are so stated, for his due honour and place, that he hath no reason to complain, nor any of the rest, having all their due, and proper places, which doth belong unto them.

As for the placing of the Drums, upon the long arch, Mevery Division ought to have his Drum to fall between such Ranks, as before exprest; excepting only the second Division of Pikes, which may be excused, when they are to beat a March, as being all drawn up, they are to fall in two, to beat even a Brest, upon the right, and one, upon the left, as is be­fore set down. If it should chance further in a Company, to be so small to have but three Divisions, that is to say, one Division of Muskettiers, in the Van, the Body of Pikes in the midst, and another Division of Muskettiers, to bring up the Reer-Guard, and having but two Serjeants, and two Drums; the youngest Serjeants place, will be as before mentioned, upon the right in the Front, and the eldest Serjeant upon the left, and to take his place to lead the last Division of Muskettiers, upon the long March; and the first Drum to beat in the first Division of Muskettiers, and the second to beat, and to march along amongst the Pikes. I have a little more enlarged my selfe in this discourse of placing of the Serjeants, then I at first intended; but meeting many times with severall Souldiers, desiring satisfa­ction in every one of these perticulers, I shall perhaps undergo here the hard censure of some, for this my tedious discourse; but to such others which desires to be knowing herein, I hope will have a more favourable opinion of my good meaning unto them. And here I shall conclude for the present, concerning the perticuler places of the Serjeants, in every private Companie; and now supposing, as by order from the Captain, the Serjeants have brought up their Divisions, standing again, as before, expecting something more to be spo­ken unto them, they silently stand to here what follows.

CHAP. XXIV. A Description of a Body of men through out, with all their severall parts, and kinds.

IT is a very necessary knowledge to every perticuler Souldier, to be acquainted through­out with all the parts of a Body of men, drawn up, with their severall extents, and bounds, and with the true understanding of the same. Where first note the Descripti­on of Files, a File is a Sequence of men, consisting of Leaders, and Followers, from the first, unto the last; the joyning of Files Flank-wise, maketh Ranks, and is the com­pleating up of a Body: for one File alone cannot be said to have any Ranks in it, but joyn­ing two, or more Files together unto one, you may account them (provided they be six deep) to have so many Ranks for number, as doth extend from their Leaders to their Bring­ers up. And further know, that a Rank is a Row of men, standing shoulder to shoulder, in an even line from the left Flank to the right; or from the out-most man upon the left, unto the out-most man upon the right; standing all in a row File wise. Neither can it be said of one Rank, to have any Files in it; for as the closing of Files to Files, makes Ranks, so the adding of Ranks to Ranks, makes Files.

As for the Depth of Files, they have in these latter Ages, much varied therein; some­times making them sixteen deep, others ten, and eight deep, and now lately, they have brought them unto six deep, as being the custome of the Swedes, and the French, and al­together now the practise here in England. In which form and way, I purpose to walk, but to proceed to my former promise to the Souldier: There is in every Body of men, drawn up, consisting of Pikes, and Muskettiers, whether of greater or smaller number, it makes no matter; a Front, a Reer, a Right-Flank, and a Left-Flank; there is also Front half-Files, and Reer half-Files; there is a Right half-Ranks, and a Left half-Ranks; and [Page 20] there is a Length, and Depth of the Battail: and of every one of these in their severall kinds, they have their perticuler extents, and bounds, according to their number of men.

Therefore, take notice in the first place, that the Front is the first Rank, or row of men, which are the File-leaders, and chief men of their Files, who properly ought to take charge of their Files, being as it were their Captains, and leads them first on in the Brunt a­gainst a furious Enemy; the extent of the Front is from the left hand File-Leader, unto the Leader of the right hand File.

The Reer is the last Row or Rank of men, being the Bringers-up of the Files, who next the Leaders are the chiefest men of honour in the File, and are as it were unto them, their Lieutenants, and in the absence of the Leaders, they are to take charge of the File, and to instruct them in their Postures: the extent of the Reer, is from the Bringer-up of the left hand File, unto the place of the Bringer-up of the right.

The right Flank is the out-most File, upon the right, where always ought, by the way, to be very able Souldiers placed, because they first give on-set, or fire against the Enemy, if on that part they shall be charged; the extent of the right Flank is from the Leader of the right hand File, unto the Bringer-up of the same.

The left Flank, likewise is the out-most File upon the left, and his extent is from the Leader of the left hand File, unto the Bringer-up.

The Front half-Files extent or bounds, reacheth no further then from the Front, unto the midst of Ranks, or to the Bringers-up of the Front half-Files, which being but six deep, is the third Rank from the Front, and the Length of the same reacheth from the out-most part of the left Flank, untill you come unto the right.

The Reer half-Files beginneth from the midst of Ranks, or from the fourth Rank from the Front, and runneth downward in his depth to the Bringer-up of the whole File, and the Length of the same is to be taken side-wise, as they stand shoulder to shoulder, from the out-most man upon the left, unto the out-most man upon the right.

The right half Ranks, in their Length, runneth no further, then from the out-most man upon the right, unto the midst of Files, or to the left hand File-leader of the right half-Ranks; the Depth of the right half-Ranks reacheth from the Front, running down unto to the Reer.

As for the left half-Ranks, as much may be said, to take his Length, from the midst of Files, or from the right hand File-leader, of the left half-Ranks unto the out-most Files upon the left; the Depth of the left half-Ranks, may be understood in form and manner, conformable to the right.

Next come we to speak of the Length and Depth of the whole Battail; the Length of the Battail is ever to be accounted of the number of men in a Rank, and not in a File; for the Files perhaps may not be above six deep, when that there may be hundreds in a Brest in the Ranks, and farther the Length of any Battail is to be taken from the out-most point of the left-Flank, or left-hand File-leader, stretching it selfe forth by an even Line a­long, untill you come to the outmost point of right Flank, or right-hand File-leader; the Depth of the Battail always is to be taken from the Front, or first Rank, and going down backward in a straight Line down to the Reer, to the last Rank, or to the Bringers-up of the Files. For as the Length of the Battail is to be taken from the left Flank, going a long in Front unto the right, so the Depth of the Battail is to be taken from the Front, going backward down to the Reer.

There is also to be understood that in every Battalia drawn up, there are other parts and Denominations, very considerable to be known; that is, in every such an one, there is a Van-Guard, a Reer-Ward, and Main-Battail. The Van-guard are the Muskettiers, upon the right, or the right Flank; or as most commonly called amongst us in these dayes, the Right-wing, or the Left-wing, which are the Muskettiers, and the Flankers of the Body of Pikes, the reason, as I conceive, the Muskettiers are accounted and called Wings, is be­cause they are first drawn off, as by flying motion in Forlorns, to ingage against an Enemy; but of this by the way, to proceed: the Reer-Ward, or Reer-Guard, are the Muskettiers, on the left Flank; and the Battail is the Body of Pikes, and here I shall conclude concer­ning the Description of a Body.

CHAP. XXVI. Directions to all such as shall desire to exercise a Foot-Company, with some admonitions to the Souldiers, as shall be exercised by them.

HE that intends to exercise a Body of men, must truly know what he shall command, and so to give his directions unto the Souldiers, as they may aptly make ready ex­ecution of the same. He must at such times▪ above all the rest, assume unto himself the confidence & presence (as near as he is able) of a compleat Souldier. He is also to stretch out his voice so, as he may conveniently be heard, & understood by the inferiour Offi­cers, and Souldiers; which will cause them more readily to obey his Commands. He ought to carry a cheerfull countenance unto them, provided they do well; but otherwise, if care­lesly dis-regarding his Commands, he may look harshly upon them. His eyes ought to be quick and nimble, observing all their Motions, whether it be to the right, or left, to the Front, or Reer; and nimbly stepping to them, to stay them, if disorderly they swerve awry from what he first intended. He must likewise order all his Words of Command so, as that they may be proper, and cleerly pronounced forth unto the Souldier, without any faltering. And in every one of these, to see the Souldier leasurely and easily perform the same in a compleat manner. He must not be two quick in his Words of Command, but carefully see what be­fore commanded, well done, and then he may proceed unto the next. In time of his Exer­cise, he must seriously mind what he is to do, and not to have his thoughts extravigantly carried away upon any other Subject, for fear he be out, but if any such thing should happen through forgetfulnesse, he ought not to be daunted, but to pull up the Spirit of a Souldier as well as he can, and endeavour to reduce them again. For it is a rare thing to be found, for a Leader to be so exquisite in his Exercising, as not to be somtimes out; and in my observation of most, at one time or another, I have found them so to be. His discre­tion also ought to be such, as to cull out, and chuse those things that be chiefest; as flowers out of a Garden, to fit and compleat up his Exercise in a Souldier-like way; which may be most properest for service and use, which will bring to him far more commendations and praise in the judgement of every knowing Souldier, then to spend his time upon unnecessary [...]oyes; but yet somtimes to please the fancie of the curious, at their private meetings, he may use some things for delight, to support and uphold their private Exercises; which have nurst up, here in London, many able Souldiers, and Commanders; who have been serviceable to our Nation. It is a very necessary thing likewise that a Leader somtimes do acquaint the Souldiers of the use of their severall Distances, Facings, Doublings, Coun-marches, and wheelings, and of all things else he shall command; but in such a manner, that he dwell not too long upon any thing, he shall declare unto them, for dulling of the, Souldiers, who rather would be pleased with more actings, then by too much talkings: which spins out the time, as somtimes ordered, to very little purpose. He must be very care­full of every Word of Command he gives, that the Souldiers be ordered in their due Di­stance, sutable to the same, of what kind soever it be; and if it shall be lost in their mo­vings, or marchings; he must endeavour to bring them to it again. He is likewise to ac­quaint the Souldiers when they are drawn up, to look about them, and to minde their seve­rall places, how they stand in the Body, whether they be in even Ranks from the Front, or odd; if even, and upon any doubling of Ranks, they are the men to double the odd; if half File-leaders, that they be commanded to double the Front; they must advance their Arms, and are Leaders of that Motion to come up to double the Front: if Bringers-up commanded to double, they are a like to do the same; if Bringers-up of the Front half-Files, and that they be commanded to double the Reer, they likewise are to advance their Arms; to face about, and are to begin to lead them down to the Reer. They should likewise take notice, how they stand in their Files, whether even from the right, or no; if even, and there be any command to double Files to the right, they all are to move, and to double the odd; if commanded to double to the left, they then stand odd, and the others are to move, and double them. They likewise are to mind their places, who are upon the Flanks; for a dou­bling either to Front, or Reer, by the half-Files, they first begin to march, and how they stand there as right, and left-hand men in even Ranks; for by any doublings of Ranks en­tire, or by Division, they likewise are the Leaders of the Motion. There ought also advice be given to the middle File-leaders, to know their places; for if there should be any dou­blings of the half-Ranks, they then are first to move, and to begin the Motion.

This caution being somtimes quickly run over in advising of the Souldiers, that they should ever minde when they are first drawn up into a body these particular places, they would not stand so carelesly and so ignorantly in a Body, as many times they doe, not knowing which way to move without a great deale of pains and directions from their Leader, for there being so many occasions of doublings of these kinds, that it is a necessary thing for every Souldiers to be acquainted with the same.

Yet it is not only sufficient that the Souldiers doe minde their places as they stand in a body, according to the direction of their Leader, as before set forth unto them, but that they be likewise, in the time of their Exercise, very silent in the body, and helpfull unto their fellow-Souldiers by pointing out unto them with signes with the hand, where they should march, to performe what was before commanded, and to be very civill, and orderly in their carriage to each other, and to minde their Exercise so as a matter of great weight, and high consideration in the well regarding of the same. And if a word of command (as somtimes may happen) slip out of order, as by the mistaking of a hand or the like, yet neverthelesse it should be their modest care, if not prevented by him, to be ready to execute what they conceive he intended, and walking along in this civill and respective way unto him that shall lead them, it will not only be a great encouragement unto him, but they will also reap much benefit unto themselves.

And thus much briefly may be spoken in way of advice unto every Leader before his be­ginning of his Exercise, and unto each particular Souldier as shall by him be exercised.

CHAP. XXVII. Of Facings, of their severall kindes, and of their use, with the words of command for performance of the same.

FAcing is the altering or turning of the Aspect to either hand upon the ground they stand, according to the words of command, whether it be to the right, lef [...], Front or Reer, or to the midst of Files or Ranks, or to any of the outward or in­ward Angles, or to the Center.

The manner of execution of the same, it is a particular turning of every Souldiers coun­tenance unto each of those hands or places as above exprest, and to be performed after this manner. The left foot is alwayes to be kept fixed like the hinge of a door, and unto what hand or part they shall be commanded to face, every particular Souldier is immediately to turn his body upon the ball or center of his left foot by wheeling, untill he hath brought his Aspest unto the place commanded,

Facings is one of the most necessary and usefullest motions amongst all the rest, for when the body shall be in such a streight that they cannot bring their faces against an enemy by a Counter march or by a Wheeling, to bring their best Souldiers there to fight, and likewise being debarred of room that they cannot double it, neverthelesse, facings are of such ex­cellent use, that they may with ease, although standing at close Order, turn every particular face to charge upon that part where they shall be assaulted by an enemy, and farther, this motion is performed with more facility then all the rest of the motions. For in the others they alter the forme of the Battail or changeth the place, but in this they preserve both, and it is ready for any attempt of an enemy if they should be charged all at once in Front, Reer, Right and Left Flanks, they may be commanded so to face as to answer them all in every one of their charges.

Facings likewise are so necessary that they can hardly be spared in any other of the moti­ons having relation in one kinde or other to them, all for to be used: There is likewise farther to be understood that there are entire facings and divisionall. Entire facings are when they turn their Aspects all one way: Divisionall facings are when they diver or turn their faces severall ways, as to the Front, Reer, and both Flanks, all at one instant of time as shall be commanded.

There are likewise facings to the front and reer Angles, that is to say, of their outward and inward Angles. Outward Angles are when they are commanded to face to the right Angle or to the left, or both facing to the inward Angles, as when they are commanded so, as to face to the inward Angles towards the midst of files. There is likewise facing to the in­ward [Page 23] Angles towards the midst of Ranks as to the Center, where note, when there is any use of these facings unto the inward Angles, it is occasioned by some former words of com­mand, that hath made some large intervalls in the midst of Ranks or Files, and there­fore they may give them such commands as these for to open or stand so, that they may march and close again as at first.

This facing to the Center, I do conceive, to be very, usefull, when the Captain or Leader hath any thing of importance to speake unto the Company; they standing at close order, he may sidewise move down into the midst of the Ranks and Files, and command them to face all to the Center; they standing all round about him so close; cannot choose but hear and know what his pleasure and command will be, and in obedience thereunto, be very ready in performance for the execution of the same.

But before I come to set down the words of command for facings, I shall desire all Leaders not to tie themselves up so as not to begin in their Exercise to command facings, untill they have brought the souldiers to stand at open order both in Rank and File, as if it were not proper for them to command them to face till then. Therefore rather, for the reasons before set forth, command them to choose upon such close Distances to face, that they may know the true use of them, and at such times when they want ground that the other motions cannot be performed.

CHAP. XXVIII. The words of command for Facings.

Face to theRIght,As you were, or, to your Leader.
Left,
To both Flanks,
Right about,
Left about,
To Front and Reer,
Midst of Files,
Midst of Ranks,
Right Angle,
Left Angle,
Outward Angles in the Front,
Inward Angles in the Front,
Right Angle in the Reer.
Left Angle in the Reer.
Outward Angles in the Reer,
Inward Angles in the Reer,
Inward Angles of the right Flank,
Inward Angles of the left Flank,
Outward Angles both of Front and Reer.
Inward Angles both of Front and Reer.
Inward Angles of both the Fanks to the Center.
Front, Reer and both Flanks from the Center,
To the outward Angles of Front and Reer from the Center.

Having concluded the words of command for performing of plain Facings, there must be notice taken when any word of command shall be given to face to any of the Reer Angles, they must be first faced to the Reer, and they will make more easier performance of the same; and likewise, if any word of command be given to face to the inward Angles upon the Flanks, they must face them there likewise first, and it will be easier fulfilled: and like­wise if any command be given to face to the foure Angles, or to Front, Reer, and Midst from the Center, care must be first had that they may be first faced to the Center.

I might have proceeded a great deal farther in this place upon this Subject of [...]acings, to have shewn severall figures of Battail that might be produced and drawn forth, afford­ing much variety of formes and number, and with much ease to be performed upon their severall marchings▪ according as they are ordered to face, which might be very u [...]efull for service, and affording much matter for any perticuler Exercise, to use severall firings upon the same. But I shall have occasion in another place to make use of divers of them, and set­ting them forth unto the view, when I shall begin to set down in any perticuler Leadings of my own, which I have performed in our private meetings at Town-Ditch in London, every Thursday morning, for the satisfaction of those loving Gentlemen, who still do exercise there, and to such which shall come after.

CHAP. XXIX. The many variety of Doublings, with their parts and uses set forth, for the practise of any Commander, to make use of accord­ing unto his own description.

SInce there is in the true account, no other dimension of a Battail, but the Length and Depth, so likewise it is to be understood, that the Length of the B [...]ttail, is doubled by the doublings of [...]anks▪ and half-files; and the Depth of the Battail is doubled by the doubling of Files▪ and of the half Ranks. Now there are severall Words of Command for the performance of each of these, as to double Ranks and Files, which do consist either of the doubling of number of men, and persons, and not of place, or else the doubling both of number, and place; as for example, command either the Ranks, the half-files, or Bringers-up to double the Front to the right; here only is the doubling of number of men, and not of place, for it adds but one man more to that hand, whereunto they were commanded, and gains but his perticuler place. Again, Double Ranks to any hand intire or double, the Front by the half-files to the right intire, it will be not only a doubling of the number of men, but a doubling of the place, and the Length of the Battail. The use of doubling the Length of the Battail may be for two reasons, the one to over-wing an Enemy, the other to avoid over-winging our selves. Yet there must be care taken, that in doubling of the Length, that we faile not, or be too weak in our Depth, for the want of both, either Length or Depth, may be very dangerous to our selves, and may give great advantage to the Enemy. For if there should want a sufficient Depth, by gaining much Length in the Front, we may perhaps be so weak there, that an Enemy may quickly break through, whereby much danger may insult upon the same, if not timely prevented by the discretion of the Commanders.

There is likewise in the doubling of Files, or the half-files, or the half-Ranks, doubling to either Flank, a doubling of number of men, and not of place, carrying much variety of Words of Command; but the doubling of Files, and of the left half-Ranks intire, the Depth of the right Flank, is not only a doubling of the number, but a doubling of the place and depth of the Battail. In this doubling of the Depth, care likewise must be had, that we make not the [...]ront too narrow, lest we give opportunity to the Enemy to incircle, and incompasse it. To conclude, therefore take notice that Doublings were invented to streng­then any part of the body that shall be weak; whether in the Front, or Reer right Flank or left, whether it be in number of men, or place; Length, or Depth, it is to be used according to the discretion of the Commander. There is likewise farther to be considered in Doublings, whether they double the number or place, Length or Dep [...]h, it is to be performed by one of these two, either intire, or divisionall Doublings; therefore I shall proceed, and go on to shew what, I conceive, to be the properest way in the progresse of them, in a right order; and therefore I will begin to set down the Words of Command, first, to double the Front, and so farther proceed to shew the Doublings of the Flanks. And first of intire Doublings, and next of the divisionall; and in the mean time. I shall crave pardon from the courteous Souldier, that I put not down severall pricks or figures to set forth the same, endevou­ring rather to give him the Words of Command for each perticuler Doubling, with dire­ctions for performance of the same, together with their severall reducements, leaving it to his ingenious study and practise, to make use of what he pleaseth, where he may c [...]ll and [Page 25] chuse out such as shall be convenient, and fit, either for service, or delight; by the way ad­vising him to retein in his memory, what he intends to practise, and not to meddle with a­ny thing▪ but what he assuredly knows will carry such weight and able reasons for their use and service, as shall admit of no controlment from the judicious Souldier.

CHAP. XXX. The Words of Command, for all Intire Doublings to the Front, to be per­formed one time or other, in time of Exercise.

Command. RAnks to the Right double.

Direction. Every even Rank move forward with the right leg, and with three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Files to the left double; Or, Ranks as you were.

Command. Ranks to the left double.

Direction. Every even Rank, from the Front, move forwards with the left leg, and at three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Files to the right double; or, Ranks as you were.

Command. Ranks to the right and left, double outward.

Direction. Every even Rank move outward, from the midst, & at three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Files to the right and left, double inward; or, Ranks as you were.

Command. Ranks to the right and left, double inward.

Direction. Every even Rank from the Front move inward from the Flanks, and at three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Files to the right and left, double outward; or, Ranks as you were.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the right.

Direction. Half-files advance your Arms, and move forwards to the right into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the left; or, half-files as you were.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the left.

Direction. Half-files advance forwards to the left into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the right; or, half Files as you were.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the right and left, outward.

Direction. Half-files advance forwards to the right and left, from the midst, and move up into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the right and left inward; or half-files as you were.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the right and left inward.

Direction. Half-files move forwards from the Flanks inward into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the right & left outward; or, half-files as you were.

Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the right.

Direction. Bringers-up advance your Arms, and move forwards with the right leg in­to the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the left, every man falling behind his Bringer-up.

Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the left.

Direction. Bringers-up advance forwards to the left, into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the right, every man falling behind his Bringer-up.

Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the right and left outward.

Direction. Bringers-up advance forward from the midst of the Reer, to the right and left into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the right and left inward, every man falling behind his Bringer-up.

Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the right and left inward.

Direction. Bringers-up advance forwards from the Flanks, inward into the Front.

Reducement. Files double your Depth to the right and left outward, every man falling behind his Bringer-up.

Command. Double your Ranks to the right intire.

Direction. Every even Rank from the Front face to the right, march forth, & double the odd.

Reducement. Right half-ranks double your left Flank, or, ranks as you were.

Command. Double your Ranks to the left intire.

Direction. Every even rank from the Front, face to the left, march forth, & double the odd.

Reducement. Left half-ranks double your right Flank; or, Ranks as you were.

Command. Double your Ranks inward intire.

Direction. Every even rank from the Reer, move away outward untill you be cleer of the standing part, and after every even Rank from the Front, move forwards, and double the odd.

Reducement. The in-most Files double your Flanks to the right and left, outward, and after close.

Command. Double your Ranks to the right intire, every man placing himself on the out­side of his right-hand man.

Direction. Every even rank from the Front, move away to the right, and place your selves on the out-side of your right-hand men, and double the odd Ranks.

Reducement. Right-half-ranks double your left Flank, every man placing himselfe on the in-side of his left-hand man.

Command. Double your Ranks to the left intire, every man placing himself on the out­side of his left-hand man.

Direction. Every even rank from the Front, move away to the left, and double the odd Ranks, by placing your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men.

Reducement. Left-half-ranks double your right Flank, every man placing himselfe on the in-side of his right-hand man.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the right intire.

Direction. Half-files face to the right, and march cleer of the standing part, after face to your Leader, move up even a Brest, and double the Front.

Reducement. Right-half-ranks double intire, the Depth of your left Flank.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the left intire.

Direction. Half-files face to the left, and march cleer of the standing part, after face to your Leader, march up, and even the Front.

Reducement. Left-half-ranks double intire the Depth of your right Flank.

Command. Half-files double your Front inward intire.

Direction. Front-half-files face outwards, and march cleer of the standing part, facing after to their Leader, the Reer-half-files may move up, and double the Front.

Reducement. The in-most Files double intire the Depth of the out-most Files, and af­ter close.

These are as, I conceive, the properest and plainest Doublings for any Souldier to use in his Exercise, out of which he may choose as many of them, as he shall think fit, being all intire Doublings to the Front; next follows to shew some Divisionall Doublings to the same.

CHAP. XXXI. Divisionall Doublings to the Front.

Command. DOuble your Ranks to the right and left [...] by Division.

Direction. Every even Rank from the Front face outwards, march forth, and double the odd.

Reducement. The out-most Files upon each Flank that moved, face inwards march in, and strengthen the Body.

Command. Double your Ranks to the right and left by Division, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. Every even Rank from the Front, move forth to the right and left outward, and double the odd, placing your selves on the out-side of your right and left-hand men.

Reducement. The out-most Files upon each Flank, that moved, double the in-most Files to the right and left inward, every man placing himselfe on the▪ in-side of his right and left-hand man.

Command. Half-files double your Front by Division.

Direction. Half-files face outwards, and march cleer of the standing part, after face to your Leader, move up even a Brest, and double the Front.

Reducement. The out-most Files upon each Flank, that moved, double intire the Depth of the in-most Files.

CHAP. XXXII. Intire Doublings to the Front by Wheelings.

Command. WHeele off your Reer-half-files, and double your Front to the right intire.

Direction. Half-files face about, and wheel about to the left, march up, and even the Front.

Reducement. Wheel off your right half Ranks, and double your left Flank, intire to the left. Face outward, and Right half Ranks wheel about to the right, moving forward untill they range even a Brest with their left Flank, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double your Front to the left intire.

Direction▪ Half-files face to the Reer, and wheel about to the right, move forwards, and double the Front to the left intire.

Reducement. Wheel off your left half-Ranks, and double your right Flank intire to the right. Face outward left half-Ranks, wheel about to the left, and move forward untill you have doubled the right Flank, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel your Reer half-files inward into the midst, and double your Front inward intire.

Direction. Front-half-files open from the midst, untill you be clear of the standing part, then face to your Leader; half-files face about, and wheel your Reer inward into the midst, move forward, untill you have doubled the Front.

Reducement. The in-most files that doubled, wheel about to the right and left outward, The in-most Files must have distance from the out-most Files, before they can begin to wheel. and double intire the Depth of the out-most files, after face to your Leader, and close files to the midst to order.

CHAP. XXXIII. A Divisionall Doubling to the Front by Wheeling.

Command. WHeel off your Reer half-files, and double your Front by Division.

Direction. Half-files face to the Reer, and wheel about to the right and left, move forward, and double the Front.

Reducement. The out-most files upon each Flank that dou­bled, Here likewise must conveni­nient distance be given from the midst, for the out-most Files to wheel about. wheel about to the right and left inward, and double intire the Depth of the in-most files, face to your Leaders.

Here endeth the Doublings, that properly belong unto the Front according to the practise of these times, whether they be Intire, or Divisionall, and of their severall kinds; as first, take them of themselves in the plain way, after by Countermarches, as by the Bringers-up. Lastly, by Wheelings, and that first, by Intire, after Divisionall. But here by the way, no Leader is tied to do all these Doublings in his Exercise at once, but to use part of them what he shall think fit. Yet, again, if he desire to be throughly knowing in all the Doublings of Front, Reer, and both Flanks; and to shew them unto the Souldiers, he may then begin first to go over all the Words of Command for Doublings to the Front, informing his Soul­diers of their severall uses for service, at one time or another, and then proceed to shew the use of the severall Doublings to the Flanks, and next to the Reer, which in this place I hold needlesse to give Words of Command for the Doubling thereunto, in regard the for­mer Words of Command used to the Front, with small alteration, will serve to the Reer.

CHAP. XXXIV. Intire Doublings to the right Flank.

Command. FIles to the right double.

Direction. Every even file from the right by a half turning at three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Ranks to the left double; or files as you were.

Command. Files to the right and left, double outward.

Direction. Every even file from the flanks move, and by three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Ranks to the right and left double inward; or files as you were.

Command. Double your files to the right and left inward.

Direction. Every even File from the midst move inward side-wise, and double the odd.

Reducement. Ranks to the right and left double outward; or files as you were.

Command. Double your files to the right advancing.

Direction. Every even file from the right move forwards, and by three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Ranks to the right double.

Command. Double your files outward advancing.

Direction. Every even file from the Flanks, move forwards, and by three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Ranks to the right and left double outward.

Command. Double your files to the right and left inward advancing.

Direction. Every even file from the midst move forwards, and by three steps double the odd.

Reducement. Ranks to the right and left double inward.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right Flank to the right.

Direction. Face all to the right, and left half-Ranks move forwards to the right, and double your right Flank to your Leader.

Reducement. Double your Ranks to the left intire; or left half-Ranks march forth into your places.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right Flank to the left.

Direction. Face all to the right, and left half-Ranks move forwards to the left untill you have doubled the right Flank to your Leader.

Reducement. Double your Ranks to the right intire to the Reer, face to the Reer, and the even Ranks from the Reer, move forth, and double the odd to your Leader.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right Flank to the right and left outward.

Direction. Face all to the right; and left half-Ranks move to the right and left out­ward, and double your right Flank to your Leader.

Reducement. Front and Reer half-files double your Ranks intire to the left Flank; Front half-files face about, and every even Rank from the midst move forth, and double Ranks intire towards the left Flank, face to your Leader.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right Flank to the right and left inward.

Direction. Face all to the right; and left half-Ranks move forwards to the right and left inward, and double the right Flank, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front and Reer half-files double your Ranks intire to the left Flank; half-files face about, and every even Rank from the Front and Reer, move forth, and double your Ranks intire towards the left Flank, face to your Leader.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right Flank to the right by Countermarch.

Direction. Right half-ranks face to the right, left half-ranks turn off to the left, move forwards, and double your right Flank, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Double your Ranks to the left intire, every man placing himself on the out-side of his left-hand man.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right Flank to the left by Countermarch.

Direction. Right half-ranks face to the right, and left half-ranks turn off to the right, and double your right Flank to the left, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Double your ranks to the right intire to the reer, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right-hand man; face to the reer, and every even rank from the reer, move forth to the right, and double the odd, face to your Leader.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right Flank to the right and left outward by Countermarch.

Direction. Right half-ranks face to the right, and left half-ranks face to the left, and turn off to the right and left, moving forward untill you have doubled the right Flank to the right and left outward; face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front & Reer half-files double your Ranks intire to the left-Flank, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right & left-hand man; Front half-files face about, & every even rank from the midst move forth to the left-Flank, and double the odd, placing your selves on the out-side of your right-hand men, and every even rank from the Reer half- [Page 29] files, move forth, and double the odd, placing your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men: face to your Leader.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right-Flank to the right and left inward, by Countermarch.

Direction. Face all to the right and left out-ward; left half-Ranks turn off to the right and left inward, move forward untill you have doubled the right Flank, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front and Reer half-files double your Ranks intire to the left-Flank, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right and left-hand man; half-files face about, and every even Rank from the Reer, move forth to the left Flank, and double the odd, placing your selves on the out-side of your right-hand men; and every even Rank from the Front move forth, and double the odd; placing your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men, face to your Leader.

Command. Double your Files to the right intire advancing.

Direction. Every even File from the right, move straight forth untill you be cleer, and double the odd.

Reducement. Half-files double your Front to the right; or Front half-files double your Reer to the right.

Command. Files double your Depth to the right intire.

Direction. Every even File from the right face about, move down, untill you are cleer of the Reer, and double the Depth of the odd Files; face to your Leader.

Reducement. Half-files double your Front to the left; or Front half-files double your Reer to the left.

Command. Double your Files inward intire to the right.

Direction. Half-files of every even File from the left, face about; even Files from the left move forwards untill you are cleer of the standing part, after face all to the right, and then every even File from the right, move forwards into the Intervalls, and double intire the odd, face to your Leader.

Reducement. The three first, and the three last Ranks, double the six middle-most Ranks to the right; the three first Ranks face about, and move down to the midst by their own left-hands; and the three last Ranks move forwards to the midst, to their own right-hands; face to your Leader.

Command. Double your Files to the right intire, advancing, every man placing himselfe before his Leader.

Direction. Every even File from the right, advance forwards, and double the odd, eve­ry man placing himselfe before his Leader.

Reducement. Front half-files by Countermarch double your Reer, to the right; Front half-files turn off to the left, and double the Reer, face to your Leader.

Command. Files double your Depth to the right, every man falling behind his Bringer-up.

Direction. Every even File from the right, face about to the right, and double the odd, by placing your selves behind your Bringers-up.

Reducement. Bringers-up double your Front to the left.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right Flank intire advancing.

Direction. Left half-Ranks march straight forth, untill you are cleer of the standing part, after move to the right, being first faced there, and double the right Flank, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front half-files double your Reer to the right intire, face to the left, and move cleer of the standing part, after face to the Reer, move down, and even the Reer; face to your Leader.

Command. Left half-Ranks double intire the Depth of the right Flank.

Direction. Left half-Ranks face about to the right, and move down, untill you are cleer of the standing part, after face to the left, and move forward, untill you have doubled the Depth of your right Flank; face to your Leader.

Reducement. Half-files double your Front to the left intire, face to the left, and march cleer of the standing part, after face to your Leader, march up, and even the Front.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right-Flank inward intire.

Direction. Half-files of the right half-Ranks face to the Reer, right half-Ranks move [Page 30] forward untill you are cleer of the standing part, face all to the right, and left half-Ranks move forwards, and double the right Flank; face to your Leader.

Reducement. The three first, and the three last ranks double the six middle-most ranks, intire to the right Flank; the three first, and the three last ranks, face to the right, and march untill you are cleer of the standing part, after face inward, march, and close your Divisions, and face to your Leader.

CHAP. XXXV. Divisionall Doublings to the right Flank.

Command. DOuble your Files to the right by Division.

Direction. Half-files of the even Files from the right, face to the Reer; even Files march cleer of the standing part, after move to the right and left, and double the odd Files, face to your Leader.

Reducement. The three first, and the three last ranks, double the six middle-most ranks to the left; the three first ranks face about, and march down by your own right hands into the midst of ranks; and the three last ranks move forwards to the midst, to your own left hands, face to your Leader.

Command. Double your Files to the right by Division, every man placing himself before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. Half-files of the even Files from the right, face to the Reer, the even Files march, and double the odd, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and Bringer-up; face to your Leader.

Reducement. The three first, and the three last ranks, double the six middle-most ranks to the left, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his Bringer-up; the three first ranks face about to the left, and move down to the midst of ranks by your own right hands, placing your selves before your Bringers-up; and the three last ranks march for­wards unto the midst, placing your selves before your Leaders; to your Leader.

Command. Left half-Ranks double your right Flank by Division.

Direction. Half-files of the left half-Ranks face about to the right, the left half-Ranks move cleer of the standing part, after face all to the right Flank, the left half-Ranks mo­ving forward, untill they have ranged even a Brest with the right Flank; face to your Leader.

Reducement. The three first, and the three last ranks, double the six middle-most ranks intire to the left-Flank; the three first, and the three last ranks, face to the left-Flank, and move cleer of the standing part, after face inward, march and close your Divisions, face to your Leader.

CHAP. XXXVI. Intire Doublings to the right Flank by Wheeling.

Command. WHeel off your left half-Ranks, and double your right Flank intire to the right.

Direction. Face outward, and left half-Ranks wheel about to the left, and move forward untill you have doubled the right Flank intire to the right; face to your Leader.

Reducement. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double your Front to the left intire; half-files face to the Reer, and wheel about to the right, and march fowards untill you have ranged your selves even with the Front.

Command. Wheel off your left half-Ranks, and double your right Flank, intire to the left.

Direction. Face outward left half-Ranks, wheel about to the right, and move forward untill you have doubled the right Flank intire to the left, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Wheel off your Front half-files, and double your Reer to the right intire, half-files face about, and Front half-files wheel about to the left, move down, and double the Reer to the right, face to your Leader.

Command. Wheel the left half-Ranks inward into the midst, and double your right Flank inward intire.

Direction. Half-files of the right half-Ranks face about, right half-Ranks move cleer of the standing part, then face to the right, and the left half-Ranks face to the left, and wheeling inward into the midst, moving forward untill they have doubled the right Flank inward intire, to your Leader.

Reducement. Wheel off from the right Flank, the six middle-most Ranks, and double In wheeling the six middle Ranks from the right Flank, they must have ground suffici­ent for them to wheel about. your Front and Reer intire to the left Flank, the six middle Ranks face to the right, and wheel about to the right, and left, moving forward, untill they are cleer of the standing part, and after facing to the Front and Reer, they move again, and double the Front and Reer, toward the left Flank, face all to your Leader, march forwards, and close your Di­visions.

Or if they continue their aspect to the right Flank, then command the six middle-most Files to wheel off to the right and left, and to double intire the Depth of the out-most Files, then face to their Leader, and close their Divisions.

CHAP. XXXVII. A Divisionall Doubling to the right Flank by Wheeling.

Command. WHeel off your left half-Ranks, and double your right Flank by Division.

Direction. Face outward, and left half-Ranks wheele off to the right and left about, and move forward untill you have ranged even, and doubled the right Flank, to your Leader.

Reducement. Wheel off the three first, and the three last ranks, and double the six mid­dle-most ranks intire to the left Flank, the three last ranks face about, and wheel to the right, about moving up towards the midst of the left Flank, and the three first ranks at the same time wheel about to the left, and move down to the midst of the left Flank, face to your Leader.

Or if they continue their aspect to the right Flank, then command the out-most Files to that doubled to wheel about to the right and left inward, and double intire the Depth of the in-most Files to your Leader.

Here endeth all the plain Doublings to the right Flank, performed by severall Counter­marches, and Wheelings, which to any ingenious Souldier are sufficient directions to know how to double the left Flank, only altering the hand by the Words of Command.

And here Fellow-Souldier endeth all the severall kinds of Doublings, which if any shall seem hard or difficult unto thee, either in their Commands, Directions, or Reducements, thou maist (care being taken) with much ease and delight performe the same. And here the Captain is to take speciall notice, when he comes to the point of Doublings, that his properest way, and will be first to double the Front, as being the most honourable part of the Body, and next the Reer, and after either to the right or left Flank, leaving it to his discretion to use as many of them as he shall think fitting, and convenient for his Exercise. And although I have somewhat varied from the practise of former times in using more plenty of Words of Commands, the ripenesse and curiosity of wits in these our dayes, en­forced me unto it; for they having much refined the Military Discipline will not be pleased with ordinary stuffe (as to say, as you were) which, I confesse, would save the Captain a great deal of pains, and be more easie to the apprehension, and capacity of every private Souldier, for his returning back unto his place again. Yet if Command should be given to double any part of the Body, that Leader would quickly lie under a hard censure, and be judged in most mens opinions insufficient, that could not finde out some other Words of Command to reduce them again. Endevouring, therefore, to give full satisfaction to both parties, I have taken the pains to set down other Words of Command for Reducements, whereby those which shall professe themselves curious, may cull out such plenty as may best please their genious▪ advising them withall not to presume in the exercising of their private Companies, before themselves be first well verst, and truly knowing in all and every of the severall Commands, Directions, and Reducements, before-mentioned, which being obteined, they may confidently and boldly proceed, so to inure their Souldiers in the practise thereof, that their own knowledge in a short time will reduce them to their former places [Page 32] without using these thred-bare words, as you were; variety being more profitable, and delightfull unto them, (provided they understand it) then to accustome them in an ordinary and plain way of reducing.

But here some men will be ready to carp and say, that I have troubled my self to little pur­pose, in setting down more Doublings then are used abroad upon service. To whom I an­swer that there are none (if rightly understood) but are of singular use one time or another, either in our private Meetings, or in those great Nurseries of Military Discipline, the famous Academies of this out Island, the Artillery and Military Gardens, who for [...]ield-service have train'd up, and sent forth many worthy, able & gallant Souldiers into the Armies lately raised in our Nation between the King and Parliament, whom I pray God happily to recon­cile. But, suppose, many of these Doublings have not been seen by some to be used in the field: Are they not therefore useful? perhaps at such time they have had no occasion for to use them all, which if not: must they be rejected? the answer positively, that being rightly enquired into, they have in them very usefull, and serviceable things against an Enemy whether it be in the Field or in Garrison. As for example the Muskettiers being brought either all into the Front or Reer or upon one of the Flanks which often hapneth, an Enemy appearing there, then they would be of singular good use for our advantage, and very disadvantageous to the enemy. The like may be spoken of the Pikes, who are by severall of these doublings brought into those places, being there very serviceable to receive a desperate charge of horse, if upon any of these parts they should fall on. Observe, further, that in many of these doublings, as the one arms shall face or charge against an enemy, so contrariwise the other lies more se­cure in safety to be preserv'd from danger of the shot. Moreover, (according unto the num­ber of men either in length or depth) a Leader may by these words of Command or the like, at the same time double his Front, Reer, or Midst by doubling of Ranks, and may farther make use of them at one and the same time to double by files his right, left Flank and Midst all at one instant. But I shall not not need to set down words of Command for the doubling Front, Reer, Flanks and Midst, after this manner, but leave that unto the apt Souldier to make use of such words of Command formerly shewne, and to frame them sutable for any such purpose so intended. But before I shall conclude concerning the use of these doublings, as I said before, there are many of them, which by comand will bring any men in the body, to fight, unto that part which shal be most weak, or assaulted by an enemy. And, again, he may cast them, so into the body by a doubling, as shall preserve from danger, whom he shall think fit. And to say more there is no part of the body or arms but by words of Command in doublings may be brought forth as Frontiers against the enemy, and may be placed again in­to the midst of the body for more security, and others in like manner may be brought forth for their relief. Therefore it much concerns all Souldiers and Commanders to be truly know­ing in all the severall kinds of doublings, out of which he may make singular good use accord­ing to his discretion at all such times as need shal require, whether it be in Field, or otherwise in Garrison.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of Inversion and Conversion.

NOt to omit any thing which may be beneficiall for the knowledge of all them that intends to be good proficients in this Art of Military Discipline, my subject in this Chapter shall be of Ranks filing, and files, filing, and ranks, ranking, and files ranking, which are by some called Inversion, and Conversion; yet seldome mentioned by any Leader in the time of his Exercise, for this reason, as I suppose, because the souldiers for the most part are unacquainted with them; which causeth all our Leaders in our private Meetings here in London, to deliver forth unto their Souldiers such words of command as may readily and aptly be understood by them, which are ranks, file to the right or left, or files, file to any hand, which is no other then Inversion, and again ranks, rank to the right or left, either in equal or unequal parts, or intire to the front or files to rank in the like kinde may be termed Conversion: And, in my opinion, they do the better that shall thus express themselves to the capacity of every Souldier, then for to pusle them with the words Inversion and Conversion. I intend therefore without curiosity plainly to set downe their severall commands, directions, and reducements, keeping my former method, concern­ing [Page 33] doublings. For in all and every one of them, they do either double the length or depth of the Front, Reer, Midst, or Flanks; no part of the Military Exercise affording more plenty of matter then they, carrying always along with them many things of excellent use. For ex­ample, suppose a Prince, Generall, or any other person of quality were to pass thorow the Company, a discreet Commander would presently command their ranks to invert, or file to the right and left inward, which immediatly becomes (as it were a Street or Gallery, for the honouring and securing of their persons. Moreover, it is of use for the lodging of the Colours, or upon funerall occasions, or taking their leave from their Captain, where they may poure forth their volley's of shot all at one and the same time. To be short, being necessita­ted to march against a battery, it avoids the danger of the great Ordnance, and likewise se­cures the front of the Battalia, from the imminent danger of any great shower of small shot poured forth by the Enemy. As likewise it is of excellent use to march over a narrow Bridge, or thorow a Lane, Thicket, or Salliport, or such like difficult passages; or if any Commander have a desire to use ancient figures, by it he may make the Saw, Sheers, or Diamond; or be­ing in one file, they may aptly be drawn into a Ring, where hee that is an able posture man standing in the midst, may shew unto them their severall postures, and after easily reduce them again, and thus much briefly of Inversion, or ranks filing.

Next come we to shew the excellent uses and services which may be performed by Con­version, as first perceiving any man of worth to stand before the front of the battail, or to pass by either of the flanks, then ranks, ranking, or files ranking into the front, or ranks wheel­ing to either of the flanks, by these commands the souldiers aspects are thither brought to pre­sent unto him a volley of shot. It is likewise very usefull for the making of a Line against a Brest-work, or lining of hedges, carrying it self severall ways secretly to lye in Ambuscado, whereby they may fire upon the Enemy as he marcheth by. Or approching against any Fort or place of danger, they may daringly make a large front, and firing upon them, after filing to the right or left, making large intervalls, they much preserve themselves from the danger of the great shot proceeding from the Enemy. Again, ranks ranking either in equall, or un­equall parts is of singular good use upon a narrow passage, where they can march but 2, 3, 4, or 6 a Brest; the Commander, notwithstanding, they marched before 20 a Brest, may by it bring them to such small numbers, whereby hee may much preserve them in time of imminent danger and perill. To dwell no longer upon this discourse, Inversion and Conver­sion, many times requres larger distance then any other of the Motions, as sometimes double distance or twice double distance, wherefore being so many occasions for the use of them both, I hold it requisite for a Leader frequently to practise his souldiers in them, no part of the Art Military, affording more commendations to the Souldiers that shall readily and handsomly perform the same. Briefly, therefore, passing over what might be more spoken con­cerning them. I shall in the next place set them all forth in their full view, leaving every dis­creet Souldier to his own liberty, to make use of as many of them as hee shall think fit, and to use them after what manner he pleaseth.

CHAP. XXXIX. The words of Command for Ranks, Ranking and Files Ranking to the Front, they being twelve a Brest and six deep.

Command. RA [...]s, rank to the right 2, 3, 4, or 6; as occasion shall require.

Direction. If to two; the two out-most men upon the right are to move away, the next two, to fall behinde them untill the first rank hath made six Ranks, and the rest doing the like untill the first six Ranks are become thirty six.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the left; the first Rank is to stand, the rest are to move away two and two, untill they have made up 12 in one rank, and the rest are to do the like untill they are made up all again as at first: or command Ranks, rank as you were, the same rule is to be observ'd if you rank to any of the other numbers, to divide them accordingly.

Command. Ranks, rank three to the left.

Direction. The first three men upon the left are to move away, the next three are to fall in behind toward the left untill the first Rank have made foure Ranks, the rest are to do the like, untill they have made them 24 Ranks.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right, the first Rank is to stand, the rest are to move forth by three and three, untill they have made twelve in one Rank, the rest are to do the like, untill they be as they were at first, or ranks, rank as you were.

Command. Ranks, rank three to the right and left outward.

Direction. The three out-most men of the first rank upon the right, and the three out-most men upon the left move away, the next three of each hand in the same rank are to do the like, and every rank throughout to follow successively, dividing themselves three to one hand, and three to the other, untill they have made twelve ranks in each Division, and falling in the Reer successively to each hand of the first rank.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right and left inward; or ranks, rank as you were.

Command. Ranks, rank intire to the right into the front.

Direction. The first rank stand, the rest face to the right, and move away every rank, placing it selfe successively to the right, untill they stand all in one rank in the front.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the left; the first 12 men upon the left are to stand, the next 12 are to face to the left, and to move and fall in the Reer of the first, and so consequently all the rest, or else to command ranks, rank as you were.

Cmmand. Ranks, rank intire to the left into the front.

Direction. The first Rank stand, the rest face to the left, and move untill they have suc­cessively placed themselves, and made one intire rank into the front.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right, the 12 out-most men upon the right stand, the rest face to the right and move, making 12 in every rank, or ranks, rank as you were.

Command. Ranks, rank outward into the front.

Direction. The first Rank stand, the rest face outward, and place your selves successively into the Front, facing after to your Leader.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right and left inward; the 12 middle-most men stand, the rest face inward, and move, ranking 12 successively behinde the first rank, and after fa­cing to their Leader, and to even their ranks.

Command. Ranks, rank inward into the Front.

Direction. The first Rank is to move away to the right and left, the next rank moving up into his ground, doing the like, and consequently so all the rest untill the last rank be come up intire into the front.

Reducement. Ranks, rank six to the right and left outward; the first six upon the right, and the first six upon the left stand, the rest move outward, falling in the Reer of the first rank, ranking six to the right and left, and after closing their Divisions.

Command. Files, rank to the right into the front.

Direction. Files open to the left to your double Distance, and ranks close forwards to close order, and move up to the right into the front.

Reducement. Rank, file six to the left, the first six upon the left are to fall into a file, the rest doing the like, untill you have made 12 files, as at first, or command, rank file as you were.

Command. Files, rank to the left into the front.

Direction. Every man is to move forward to the left into the front, beginning from the Leader of the File, and moving up successively, making one intire rank.

Reducement. Rank file six to the right, the six out-most men upon the right, are to fall into a file, the rest in like manner are to do the same, or rank, file as you were.

Command. Files, rank outward into the front.

Direction. Right and left halfe ranks close into the midst, to close order, after move to the right and left outward, untill they be come up into the front.

Reducement. Ranks, file six to the right and left inward, the midde men are to stand, the rest are to move side-wayes to the right and left inward, and to file as before commanded, or rank, file as you were.

Command. Files, rank inward into the front.

Direction. Right and left half Ranks open from the midst to twice double Distance, and Files move up to the right and left intire into the front.

Reducement. Rank, file six to the right and left outward, the out-most men stand, the rest move to the right and left outward, filing according to command, and after to close their Divisions.

CHAP. XL. Ranks, ranking into the Front by Counter-march.

Command. RAnks, rank intire into the Front, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right-hand man.

Direction. The first Rank stand, the rest move away to the right successively into the Front, placing themselves on the out-side of their right-hand men.

Reducement. Rank, rank 12 to the left, every man placing himself on the out-side of his left-hand man; the first 12 upon the left are to stand, the rest are successively to fall in behinde the first Rank, placing themselves as before commanded, or Rank, rank as you were, placing your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men.

Command. Ranks, rank intire to the left into the Front, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his left-hand man.

Direction. The first Rank stand, the rest move away to the left successively, placing your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right-hand man, or rank, rank as you were, every man placing man, placing himself as before.

Command. Ranks, rank outward into the Front, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. The first Rank stand, the rest move forth to the right and left, and successively to fall into the Front, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right & left-hand man.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right and left inward, every man placing himself on the in-side of his right and left-hand man; the 12 middle-men are to stand, the rest are to move to the right and left inward, six to one hand, and six to the other, making 12 in Rank, and falling behinde the first.

Command. Ranks, rank inward into the Front, every man placing himself on the in-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to twice double Distance, the first Rank of each Division is to stand, the rest are to move successively to the right and left inward into the Front▪ making one intire Rank.

Reducement. Rank, rank six to the right and left outward, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his right and left-hand man; the first Rank of each Division stand, the rest move to the right and left outward, ranking as before commanded, falling successively in the Reer of the first Rank, and after to close their Divisions.

CHAP. XLI. Files ranking into the Front by Wheeling.

Command. FIles, rank to the right into the Front by wheeling.

Direction. Face to the right, and wheel to the left, untill they stand The Files are to be at double distance, and Ranks at close order. even a Brest in one intire Rank in the Front.

Reducement. Rank, file six to the left by wheeling; face all to the Reer, and the first six men then upon the right, wheel to the right, and so consequently all the rest wheeling by sixes to the right; their Leaders that were before, being the hinges of the motion, and after face to their Leader.

Command. Files, rank to the left into the Front by wheeling.

Direction. Face to the left, and wheel to the right, untill they make all one intire Rank in the Front.

Reducement. Rank, file six to the right by wheeling; face to the Reer, and the six out-most men upon the left, wheel to the left, the next six are to follow, and consequently all the rest, untill they have made 12 Files as at the first, and after face to their Leader.

Command. Files, rank outward into the Front by wheeling.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks close into the midst to order, and face outward, wheeling to the right and left, untill you are one intire Rank.

Reducement. Rank, file six to the right and left inward by wheeling, face about to the right, and the 12 middle-most men are to wheel to the right and left inward, and the rest are likewise to do the same by sixes, untill they have made themselves into 12 files, after face to their Leader.

Command. Files, rank inward into the front by wheeling.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to twice double distance, af­ter face inward, and wheel to the right and left inward, untill they are all in one rank in the front.

Reducement. Rank, file six to the right and left out-ward, face all about, and wheel by sixes to the right and left, the Leaders being the hinges of the Motion, after face to the front, and right and left half-ranks may close into the midst again to their double distance.

Here endeth ranking into the front, with all their severall kinds, the Reer challengeth the next place, but I shall spare the pains, and labour to set them down, in regard that he who hath a mind to rank his men thither, may if he pleaseth make use of all the former words of Command for the performance of the same, facing them upon every Command to the Reer. I come, therefore, in the next place only to mention the ranking into the midst by Ranks and Files, which may likewise be performed by the former words of Command, provided they have convenient distance, and be faced to the midst, and after the Command is executed, to face them to their first front. Yet there is remaining a ranking unto all these places at once, for the performance of which, observe these few words of Command follow­ing.

CHAP. XLII. Ranks ranking, or Files ranking at one and the same time into Front, Reer, and Midst.

Command. RAnks, rank outward into the Front, Reer, and Midst.

Direction. The two last ranks are to face about, the first rank, They are to stand at order in Rank and File. and the last rank, and the third rank from the front, are to stand; the other three are to move forth, six to the right, and six to the left, untill they have ranked unto all these places, after face to the front, and the last rank moving forward to open order.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right and left inward; the last rank face about, the 12 middle-most men of each rank are to stand, the six out-most men of each rank are to face inward, to move and fall into the right and left behinde the middle-most men, after the two last ranks are to face to the front.

Command. Ranks, rank inward into the Front, Reer, and Midst.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to twice double distance, the two last ranks face to the Reer, the first and last rank, and the third rank from the front stand, the rest move to the right and left inward, ranking into front, reer, and midst, after that the last rank is to face to the front, and to close forward to open order.

Reducement. Ranks, rank six to the right and left outward, the last rank face about, and the out-most six men upon each rank are to stand, and the middle-men are to divide them­selves six to the right hand, and six to the left, and to fall in the Reer of the first, last, and middle rank, after the last rank is to face to the front, and then to close ranks and files to their order.

Command. Ranks, rank outward into the front, reer, and midst, every man placing him­self on the out-side of his right and left-hand man. Ranks ranking by Counter-march.

Direction. The two last ranks face about, the first and last rank, and the third rank from the front stand, the rest move forth to the right and left ranking into front, reer, and midst, placing themselves on the out-side of their right and left-hand men, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Ranks, rank 12 to the right and left inward, placing your selves on the in-side of your right and left-hand men, the last rank face about, the 12 middle-most men in each rank are to stand, and the out-most six men in each rank are to move to the right and left inward, placing themselves in the Reer of the former ranks, and on the in-side of their right and left-hand men, facing to their Leader.

Command. Ranks, rank inward into the front, reer, and midst, every man placing him­self on the in-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to twice double distance, standing th [...]n at order in each division in rank and file; the two last ranks face about, and the first, last, and third rank from the Front stand, the rest move inward, placing them­selves on the in-side of their right and left-hand men, after the last rank may face about, and move forward to open order.

Reducement. Ranks, rank six to the right and left outward, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his right and left-hand man, the last rank face about, the six out-most men of each rank stand, and the 12 middle-most men in each rank are to divide them­selves six to the right, and six to the left, falling in the Reer of the out-most men, placing themselves on the out-side of their right and left-hand men, after face to the front, and ranks, and files close to the midst to order.

Of Files ranking into Front, Reer, and Midst.

Command. FIles, rank outward into Front, Reer, and Midst.

Direction. The two last ranks face about, the first, last, and third rank from the front stand, the rest move to the right and left, after the manner of doubling of ranks, and rank to front, reer, and midst, as before commanded, and after the last rank face to the front, closing forward to order.

Reducement. Ranks, file six to the right and left inward, the last rank face about, and the even men from the midst of [...]iles are to fall in behinde the odd, after the manner of dou­bling files to the right and left inward, and after the two last ranks are to face to the Front.

Command. Files, rank inward into front, reer, and midst.

Direction. They standing at the distance of order in rank and file, command right and left half-ranks to open from the midst some thing more then to open order, after the two last ranks are to face about, and the first, last, and third rank from the front are to stand, the rest are to move to the right and left inward, after the manner of doubling ranks to the right and left inward, after the last rank is to face to the front, and to close forwards to open order.

Reducement. Ranks, file six to the right and left outward, the last rank face about, and every man from the flanks is to move outward, after the manner of doubling files to the right and left outward, then the two last ranks are to face to the front, and the whole Body may close their ranks and files into the midst to order.

CHAP. XLIII. Of Files ranking by Wheeling.

Command. FIles rank outward into Front, Reer, and Midst, by wheeling.

Direction. The two last ranks face about, after face all outward, and The Ranks must be at close order, and the Files at open order for these three words of Command fol­lowing, and it would be bet­ter to divide them into three Divisions, that is to say, be­tween every two Ranks, to have some six foot of ground intervall, that they may more distinctly per­form the same. and wheel to the right and left, by two and two, untill they be ranked into front, reer, and midst, the last rank may after move forwards un­to the same distance, the former stands at being first faced to their Leader.

Reducement. Ranks, file six to the right and left inward by wheeling, the first two ranks face about, and then every perticuler rank to wheel by two and two, towards the midst of files, untill they have made 12 files as at first, and after to face all to the front.

Command. Files, rank inward into the front, reer, and midst, by wheeling.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst something more then open to order, the two last ranks of each Division face about, after face all inward, and wheel by two and two to the right and left, untill they have ranked into front, and reer, and midst to the right and left inward, the last rank is after to face to the front, taking his distance, conformable to the rest.

Reducement. Ranks file six to the right and left outward by wheeling, the two first ranks face about, and each perticuler rank is to wheel by two's towards the flanks, untill they have made 12 files, as at first, after facing all to the front, and closing their ranks and files, into the midst to order.

Command. Files, rank inward into the midst by wheeling.

Direction, Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to twice double distance, after [Page 38] face inward, and let them know that the Bringers-up of the Front half-fiiles and the half-file Leaders are the hinges of the motion, after face them to the Front, and they will be in two Ranks.

Reducement. Ranks, file six to the right and left outward by wheeling, the last Rank face about, and both Ranks wheel to the right and left by threes, untill they have made 12 Files as at first, after face all to the Front, and close Files into the midst to order.

Command. Files, rank outward into the Front, and Reer, by wheeling.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks close into the midst to order, after face outward, and wheel to the right and left, the Bringers-up, and the Leaders are the hinges of the motion, and when they are brought into two Ranks, one in the Front, and the other in the Reer, face them to the Front.

Reducement. Ranks, file six to the right and left inward by wheeling, the first Rank face about, and both Ranks are to wheel by threes towards the midst of Files, untill they have filed according unto command, after facing to their Leader, evening their Ranks, and straightning their Files.

And thus much of Conversion, or Ranks ranking, or Files ranking, they having more va­riety in them, then many times can be usefull, except it be to present unto the Souldiers some things that are new in the motions, which many times they love to see. I could upon this Subject have much more enlarged my selfe, but conceiving what is already set down may be sufficient for the knowledge of any intelligible Souldier. I come therefore briefly to treat of Inversion, or of Ranks filing, and Files filing.

CHAP. XLIV. Of Ranks filing, or of Files filing, or of Inversion with their severall sorts and kinds.

Command. FIles, file to the right.

Direction. The right-hand File is to move away cleer of the stand­ing part, and after the next File to fall in the Reer of the first, and consequently so all the rest untill they become one File.

Reducement. File-leaders, lead up your Files to the left, or file, file six to the left.

Command. Files, file to the right intire advancing.

Direction. The right-hand File stand, the rest move away successively, placing themselves in one direct file before the Front.

Reducement. File, file six to the right into the Reer, face all about, or File, file six to the right towards the Front.

Command. Files, file inward into the right Flank.

Direction. Half-files face about, & the out-most Files then upon the left as they are so faced, are to move away forward, and consequently all the rest, are to fall in behinde them, the like is to be performed by the Front, the out-most File at the same time is to move away, and the rest successively falling in untill they have made one intire File, after they are to face to the Front.

Reducement. Front-half-file, file three to the left, Reer half-file face about, and file three to the right, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. Files, file to the right by Division.

Direction. Half-files face about, the out-most file upon the right is to stand, the rest are to move forward, and to place themselves successively into one intire file, going forward after each other, and after face to the Front.

Reducement. Front half-file file three to the right, and Reer half-file face about, and file three to the left, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. Ranks file to the right, every man placing himself behind his right-hand man. Ranks filing by way of Coun­termarch.

Direction. This may be done marching or standing; if marching, the right-hand man of the first rank doth first move away, the rest in the same rank do fall in behinde him, and consequently all the rest, untill they make one intire file; if upon a Stand, the ranks are to open backward to such a Distance, as they may conveniently fall into one File.

Reducement. File, rank 12 to the left; or File, rank as you were.

Command. Ranks, file to the right, advancing, every man placing himself before his right hand man.

Direction. The out-most file stand, the rest are to move forward with their right leg, The Ranks are to be at twice double distance and the Files at order. placing themselves before their right-hand men.

Reducement. File, rank 12 to the right, or file, rank as you were.

Command. Ranks, file to the right, every man placing himself before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. The half-files are to face about, only the right-hand file is to stand, the rest are to move forward, filing to the right Flank, every man placing himself before his Lea­der, and his [...]ringer-up, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front half-file, rank 12 to the right, Reer half-file face about, and rank 12 to the left; face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. Ranks, file inward into the right Flank, every man placing himself before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. Half-files face about, Front and Reer half-files are to march to such covenient distance, as the ranks may fall into the midst of the right flank, after they are to face a­bout, or to face to the midst of ranks, and then they are to move forward into the right flank, every man placing himself as before commanded, and after face to their Leader.

Reducement. Front half-files rank 12 to the left, Reer half-file face about, and rank 12 to the right, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. Files, file to the right, every man placing himselfe behinde his Bringer-up. Files filing by way of Coun­termarch.

Direction. The out-most file stand, the rest face about, and move forward each perticu­ler file to the left, placing themselves behinde their right-hand file, and their Bringers-up.

Reducement. File, file six to the left, every man placing himself before his Leader.

Command. Files, file to the right, every man placing himself before his Leader.

Direction. The right-hand file stand, the rest move forwards, every file successively placing themselves before their Leaders, and their right-hand file.

Reducement. Files, file six to the right into the Reer, every man placing himselfe before his Bringer-up, face all about, the last six men stand, the rest are to move, and to file six to the right, placing themselves before their Bringers-up, and after to face to the Front.

Command. Files, file to the right flank by Division, every man placing himself before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. Half-files face about; the right-hand file is to stand, the rest are to move forward to the right flank, placing themselves before their Leaders, and their Bringers-up, making one intire file to the right, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front half-files face about, and file three to the right, every man placing himself before his Bringer-up, and Reer half-file, file three to the left, placing your selves before your Leaders, face to your Leader.

Command. Files, file inward into the right flank, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. Half-files face about, and Front and Reer half-files move forward, until there be sufficient Distance to file into the right flank, after face them about to the midst of ranks, then the files may move successively into the right flank, placing themselves before their Leaders, and their Bringers-up, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front half-file, file three to the left, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and Reer half-file face about, and file three to the right, every man placing him­selfe before his Bringer-up, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

CHAP. XLV. Ranks wheeling into the Flanks.

Command. RAnks wheele to the right, into the right Flank.

Direction. Every perticuler Rank is to wheel to their right hand They ought to be at twice double distance in rank, and at close order in file. untill they have brought their aspects unto the right Flank, after face to the Front.

Reducement. File, rank 12 to the right, the first man is to stand, the rest are to move forward to the right successively, 12 in a Rank to the right.

Command. Ranks wheel to the left to the right Flank.

Direction. Face all about, and Ranks wheel to the left, untill you have brought your a­spects unto the right Flank, face to your Leader.

Reducement. File, rank 12 to the left, the first man is to stand, the rest are to move for­wards, making up 12 a brest to the left, untill they have made six Ranks as at first.

Command. Ranks wheel outward to the right Flank.

Direction. Half-files face about, the first three Ranks wheel to the right, and the three last Ranks wheel to the left, to your Leader.

Reducement. Front half-files Rank 12 to the right, Reer half-files face about, and rank 12 to the left, face to your Leader, march up and close forwards to your due distance.

Command. Ranks wheel inward into the right Flank.

Direction. Half-files face about, Front and Reer, half-files march from the midst to twice double distance, after Front and Reer half-files face about, Front half-files wheel your Ranks to the left, Reer half-files wheel your Ranks to the right, to your Leader.

Reducement. Front half-file Rank 12 to the left, Reer half-file face about and rank 12 to the right, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

The left Flank challengeth the next place, but I shall spare that pains, in regard it is to be done by the same words of Command, only altering the hand: I come therefore in the next place to shew how Ranks and Files may file outward to both Flanks and midst at one and the same time by proper words of Command as followeth.

CHAP. XLVI. Of Files filing, or Ranks filing to both the Flanks, and the Midst at one and the same time.

Command. FIles, file to the right and left to both Flanks and the midst of files.

Direction. The out-most file upon each Flank, and the two middle files are to move away, the rest are to fal in suceessively behinde to the right and left, filing to both Flanks, and to the midst, after to stand, and even their Ranks, and streighten their files.

Reducement. Files, file six to right and left inward, moving between the Flanks and the middle files.

Command. Files, file to both Flanks, and to the midst of files advancing.

Direction. The out-most file upon each Flank stand, and so likewise the two inmost files, the rest move forth and place themselves successively filing, advancing towards both Flanks, and the midst of files.

Reducement. Files, file six to the right and left inward to the Reer, placing your selves be­tween the flanks and the middle files, the moving part is to face about, and to march down according to command as before exprest, after face to their Leader.

Command. Files, file to both flanks, and the midst by Division. They must be at order both in rank & file.

Direction. The out-most file upon each flank, and the two in-most files stand, half-files of the other files, face about, and march forth and file by threes to the right and left into both flanks, and the midst; facing to their Leader, they will stand in four files 18 deep.

Reducement. The six middle-most men in each File stand, the three first and the three last ranks, file six to the right and left inward, the three first ranks face about, then moving by threes between the out-most File of each flank, and the middle Files, after facing to their Leader.

Command. Files, file inward into both flanks, and into the midst of files.

Direction. Half-files face about, march all, and open from the midst to twice double distance, face all about to the right, the two in-most and the two out-most Files stand; the rest move successively, by threes, untill they file into both flanks, and into the midst, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, file three to the right and left inward into the Front and Reer; half-files face about, the three first, and the three last ranks stand; the 12 middle-most men move inward by threes into front and reer, between the out-most and the middle-most files: face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. Files, file to both flanks, and to the midst of files, every man placing him­selfe before his Bringer-up.

Direction. Face all about, the two out-most files, and the two middle files stand, the rest move forth to the right and left, placing themselves successively before their Bringers-up, fi­ling towards both flanks, and the midst of files face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, file six to the right and left inward, following your Bringers-up, be­tween the flanks, and the middle files, the first six ranks are to stand.

Command. Files, file to both flanks, and to the midst of files advancing, every man pla­cing himself before his Leader.

Direction. The out most file upon each flank, and the two middle files stand; the rest advance forward, placing themselves successively before their Leaders, filing to both flanks, and to the midst of files.

Reducement. Files, file six to the right and left inward into the reer, following your Leaders, between the flankers and the middle files, the six last ranks face about, and after they have filed, they are all to face to their Leader.

Command. Files, file to both flanks, and to the midst by Division, every man placing himself before his Leader, and Bringer-up.

Direction. The out-most file upon each flank, and the two in-most stand, half-files of the other files, face about, and then command them to move, filing to both flanks, and into the midst, placing themselves before their Leaders, and Bringers-up, to your Leader.

Reducement. The six middle-most men in each file stand, the three first, and the three last ranks file six to the right and left inward; every man placing himself before his Leader, and Bringer-up: the three first ranks face about, and then with the three last, they are to move forward between the out-most and the middle-most files, that is, by threes, to place themselves before their Leaders, and their Bringers-up, face to your Leader.

Command. Files, file inward into [...]ch flanks, and into the midst, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his [...]er-up.

Direction. Half-files face to the [...], march all, and open from the midst to twice dou­ble distance, face all about to the right, the two in-most, and the two out-most files upon each flank stand; the rest move successively by threes, placing themselves before their Leaders, and Bringers-up, filing into both flanks: and the midst, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files three to the right and left inward, into front and reer, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his Bringer-up; half-files face about, the three first and the three last ranks stand▪ the 12 middle-most men move forwards by threes, between the out-most and the middle files, placing themselves, as aforesaid, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Ranks wheeling, to both t [...]e Flanks.

Command. RAnks, wheel to the right and left, to both flanks advancing.

Direction. The out-most men upon the right and left in every They are to be at double di­stance in Ranks and at order in Files. rank are the hinges of the Motion, the rest are to divide their ranks by wheeling, six to the right, and six to the left, untill they have brought their aspects unto both the flanks, after face to their Leader.

Reducement. Files, rank 12 to the right and left inward into the Reer, face all to the right and left about inward, and begin the Motion from each file, to rank six to the right, and six to the left, making up 12 a Brest in the Reer, the rest following, untill they have made six ranks in a Brest, face to your Leader.

Command. Ranks, wheel to the right and left towards the reer.

Direction. Face all about, the out-side men are the hinges of this Motion, who are to wheel from the reer to the right and left, untill they have brought their aspects unto both the flanks, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, rank 12 to the right and left inward, the right-hand file is to begin to rank six to the left, the left-hand file is to rank six to the right, making up even a Brest 12 in number, the rest doing the same.

Command. Front and reer half-files wheel your ranks outward into both flanks.

Direction. Half-files face about, and front and reer half-files wheel outward into both flanks, untill you have brought your aspects unto the right and left, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Front and reer half-files rank 12 to the right and left inward, towards the midst of ranks, front half-files face about, and begin the Motion from the Bringers-up, of the front half-files, and the half-file-leaders; ranking six to the right and left from each file making 12 a Brest, face to your Leader.

Command. Front and reer half-files wheel your ranks inward into both flanks.

Direction. Half-files face about, and march all untill you be at twice double distance in the midst, then face all about to the right, and wheel to the right and left, untill you have brought your aspects unto both flanks, by wheeling inward to them, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, rank 12 to the right and left inward into front and reer, half-file, face about, and rank in front and reer, six to the right, and six to the left, making 12 a Brest after face to your Leader.

CHAP. XLVIII. Of Ranks wheeling to the midst of Files.

Command. FRont and reer half-files wheel your ranks inward to the midst of files.

Direction. Half-files face about, and front and reer half-files wheel your ranks to the right and left inward, untill they face in op­position, to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, rank six to the right and left outward unto the midst of ranks; front half-files face about, and rank six to the right and left outward, reer half-files do the same to your Leader.

Command. Front and reer half-files wheel your ranks inward into the midst of files.

Direction. Half-files face about, front and reer half-files march untill you have atteined twice double distance in the midst of ranks, face all about to the right, and wheele to the right and left inward into the midst of files, to your Leader.

Reducement. Files rank six to the right and left outward into front and reer, half-files face about, and front and reer half-files rank six to the right and left outward, as before commanded, to your Leader move forward, and close your Divisions to your double distance.

CHAP. XLIX. Of Ranks wheeling to both Flanks, and into the midst, at one and the same time.

Command. FRont and reer half-files wheel your ranks to the right and left into They ought to be at more then open order in Ranks, and at order in Files. both flanks, and the midst of files.

Direction. Half-files face about to the right, and the middle files, and the out-most files upon each flank, are the hinges of this Motion, the rest are to wheel their ranks to the right and left towards both the flanks, and to the midst of files, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, rank six to the right and left inward to the midst of ranks, and be­tween the flankers, and the middle files, front half-files face about, and rank six to the right and left inward towards the midst of ranks, and between the flankers, and the middle files, the reer half-files doing the same, face to your Leader.

Command. Front and reer half-files wheel your ranks inward into both flanks, and into the midst of files.

Direction. Half-files face about, and front and reer half-files march untill you be at double distance in the midst, after face all about to the right, and wheel your ranks [Page 43] to the right & left inward into both Flanks, and into the midst of files, face to your Leader.

Reducement. Files, rank six to the right and left inward into Front and Reer, between the flankers, and the middle files, half-files face about, and rank six to the right and left inward to the reer between the flankers, and the middle files, the front half-files doing the same to the front, after facing to their Leader, and half-files move forwards, closing their Divisions to the distance of the former ranks.

Having dwelt thus long upon this Subject of Inversion and Conversion (occasioned thereunto by their great variety and difficulty in the performance of them;) I hold it con­venient to give a breathing space unto the wearied Souldier, whilest I, in the mean time, prepare further matter for his longing desire.

Yet before I enter in any other discourse of the Art Military, I hold it requisite to give some admonitions to those that shall venture upon them. For being very difficult, they are not easily understood by every punie; my advice therefore, is to wave such things, in time of Exercise, which the Souldiers are unacquainted with, providing for them such matter, as is both plain and easie, and being frequently practised in such, he may after drill them on to harder, till by degrees he hath brought them unto such perfection & knowledge, that they shall be able to perform and execute what is commanded; not gazing upon one another, (as I have often observed) neither knowing their Leaders meaning, or if they did, they are altogether ignorant how to fullfill his commands. Frequent practise therefore makes the Souldier expert, witnesse our gallant Souldiers and Citizens of London, who are most of them so well grounded (by frequent practise) that their Lenders can scarce give a word of Command which is not easily apprehended by them, they being in their Exercises so often inured to such difficult expressions as these of Inversion and Conversion.

CHAP. L. Of Counter-marches with their severall sorts and kinds, affording much variety in time of Exercise.

THose which have a longing desire to be throughly knowing in this part or branch of Military Discipline, must take notice of these foure sorts, (viz.) Counter-marching of Files, next of Ranks, after the Front, and Reer half-files, and lastly, of right and left half-ranks: all which, are performed either by intire, or divi­sionall Counter-marches, or else by the intire changing of ground, and that by many ways the Front half-files, with the Reer, the right half-ranks with the left. So that an expert Leader may venter so far in them, as to continue his Exercise, (without reducing) almost for an hour, and not to expresse himself twice in any one word of Command; they afford­ing such plenty and variety in them, that with pleasure using but four words of Command, he may bring each Souldier into his proper place again; observing these directions fol­lowing. As first, to look down in the Body where his File-leaders are, and where his Bringers-up: and likewise making the severall places of his halfe File-leaders, and the Bringers-up of his Front half-files, together with his Flankers, and his middle Files: this speciall care being taken, he may begin, and proceed to their Reducement, after this manner.

If by some former Counter-marches, his File-leaders are in the place of his halfe File-leaders, and that his Bringers-up are in the room of the Bringers-up of the Front half-files, then he may proceed in this, or the like kind, commanding them to counter-march their Front and Reer into the midst; which being performed, they will stand in some pretty way of reducing, after facing them to the Front, where he meets with his Bringers-up, in stead of his File-leaders; which by one Counter-march will bring them up again into the Front. Yet perhaps the Flankers have inter-changed ground with the middle File-leaders, if so, then counter-march their Flanks into the midst, and face them to the Front; and if it happen that the right Flank is become the left, and the left; the right: then counter-march their Ranks to any hand, and after face them to the first Front they are reduced. And farther take this for a generall rule, that when Files, Ranks, or Counter-march to any stand, command them to counter-march to the contrary, and it will reduce them, or counter-marching your Front and Reer into the midst, counter-marching of them back again from the midst, will bring each man into his proper place again, the same rule being observed, reduceth the flank­ers, or Front and Reer half-files counter-marching of them from the midst.

Counter-marches, rightly considered, branch themselves forth into these three particulars.

  • The
    • Macedonian.
    • Lacedemonian.
    • Chorean.

The Macedonian is a Counter-march of gaining ground, for that it leaveth the ground it formerly stood upon, and in lieu thereof taketh the ground before the front, and turneth their aspects unto the reer.

The Lacedemonian is a Counter-march of losing ground, for that it leaveth the ground it first stood upon, and in room thereof taketh the ground which is behind the reer, thither likewise altering the Souldiers aspects.

The Chorean is a Counter-march maintaining ground, keeping the ground the Battalia formerly stood upon, every Souldier taking anothers place, it likewise turns the Aspect to­wards the reere.

Thus you see (for all their great varietie which latter ages have invented) they consist but of three sorts or kinds, either maintaining, gaining, or losing of ground, and may bee performed (as I said before) either by intire or divisionall Counter-marches.

It may now be expected that I declare unto the Souldier the meaning of each particu­lar Counter-march, briefly, therefore, thus. Files counter-marching is when every Soul­dier followeth his Leader, ranks counter-marching is when every Souldier followeth his side man, whether it be to the right-hand or to the left: Front and reer half-files counter-marching is, sometimes when every particular Souldier followeth his Leader or his Brin­ger up, or else when they follow their half-file leaders, or their Bringers-up of the Front half-files, or the like: Right and left half-ranks counter-marching is, when every Soul­dier in the ranke followeth the outmost men upon the right and left, or when they shall follow their inside right and left hand men, or the like: What hath hitherto been spo­ken may be sufficient both for the instruction and direction of any discreet souldier; I come in the next place to set them all before them as they lie in Order.

CHAP. LI. Intire Counter-marching of Files.

Command. FIles to the
  • Right
    • Hand Counter-march maintaining ground.
  • Left

Direction. File-leaders turn off upon the ground you stand, the rest moving up successively into the file-leaders place turning off un­till the bringers up, come up into the Front, after face to your Leader,

Command. File-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves before your Leaders.

Command. File-leaders face about, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves behind your Leaders, face to your Leader.

Command. File-leaders face to the reer, the rest passe through to the right or left follow­ing your bringers-up, and placing your selves behind your Leaders; face all to your Leader.

Command. File-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right or left; and place your selves before your Leaders following your bringers-up.

Command. Files to the right or left counter-march losing ground, placing your selves be­fore your bringers up.

Direction. Every file-leader turn off upon the ground he stands on, the rest successively doing the same untill they come to the last ranke, who need doe no more then face about; after face all to their Leader.

Command. The last rank stand, the rest passe through to the right or left, placing your selves behind your bringers-up, every man following his Leader.

Direction. File-leaders turn off to the right or left, the rest following successively untill they are all cleer of the reer, then face to their Leader.

Command. Bringers-up stand, the rest face about, passe through to the right or left, and place your selves behind your bringers up.

Command. Bringers-up face about, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves before your Bringers-up.

Direction. Face all to the Reer, and begin the Motion with the second Rank from the Reer, moving forward, every man placing himself before his Bringer-up; to your Leader.

Command. Counter-march your Front and Reer into the midst.

Direction. Half-files face about, and turn off to the left, Front half-files turn off to the right; to your Leader:

Command. Front and Reer half▪files counter-march to the right or left.

Direction. This is to be done distinctly, the Front half-files turning off to the right by themselves, the Reer half files turning off in like manner; face to your Leader.

Command. File-leaders, and half file-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves before your Leaders and half file-leaders.

Command. Counter-march your Front & Reer half-files to the right & left from the midst.

Direction. Front half files face about, and turn off to the right, Reer half-files turn off to the left to your Leader.

Command. File-leaders and half file-leaders face about, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves behinde your Leaders, and your half file-leaders; to your Leaders.

Command. File-leaders, and half file-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right or left, & place your selves before your Leaders and half file-leaders, every man following his Bringer-up, and the Bringers-up of the Front half-files.

Command. File-leaders, and halfe file-leaders face about, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves behinde your Leaders, and halfe file-leaders, following your Bringers up.

Direction. The File-leaders, and the halfe file-leaders (being first faced) are to stand, and the Bringers-up of the Front and Reer half-files are to move forwards, untill they be cleer of the standing part, after they are to face to the Reer, which being ended, they are again to face to the Front.

CHAP. LII. Divisionall Counter-marching of Files.

Command. FIle-leaders, and Bringers-up stand, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves before your Leaders, and your Bringers-up.

Direction. Half-files face about, the Counter-march being ended, command them to move forwards, and close their Divisions.

Command. File-leade [...]s face about, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves behinde your Leaders, and your Bringers-up.

Direction. The two last Ranks from the Reer face about, and then they are to begin the Motion together, which being ended, face them to the front, and the half-files are to move forward, and to close their Divisions.

Command. File-leaders, and Bringers-up stand, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves before your Leaders, and your Bringers-up, following the halfe file-leaders, and the Bringers-up of the Front half-files.

Direction. Half-files face about, this Motion is begun by the Bringers-up of each Division, which being ended, they are to face to their Leader, the half files moving forwards, closing their Divisions.

Command. File-leaders face about, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves behinde your Leaders, and your Bringers-up, following the halfe file-leaders, and the Bringers-up of the front half-files.

Direction, The two last Ranks from the Reer face about; this Motion is begun by the Bringers-up of each Division, who are to lead away the rest following untill they be cleer of the Front and Reer, and after to face about, placing themselves behinde their halfe file-leaders, and the Bringers-up of the front half-files, then facing to the front, the half-files moving forwards, closing their Divisions.

Command. Counter-march to the right and left, your Front and Reer half-files from the midst (losing ground) every man placing himse [...] before his Leader, and his Bringer-up. [Page 46] Direction. Front half-files face about, and turn off to the right, and the half-file leaders turn off to the left, and march cleer of the front and reer and after the file-leaders, the bring­ers up are but to face about, and the Counter-march will be ended, then face the half-files to the front, let them move forward and close their divisions.

Command. Front and reer half-files interchange ground to the right or left, marching cleer each from other.

Direction. Front half-files face about, and passe through to your own right hands, untill you be cleer, six foot of each other, then face to the Front, the half-files moving forwards, and closing their Divisions.

Command. Front and Reer half-files counter-march to the right, and inter-change ground.

Direction. Half-files face about, and turn off to the right, and front half-files at the same time doing the like, moving forward untill they be cleer one of another six foot, then facing to their Leader, close their Divisions.

CHAP. LIII. Intire Counter-marches of Ranks.

Command. RAnks to the right-hand counter-marching maintaining ground.

Direction. Face to the right, the right-hand file that was, turn off to the right, the rest moving up into the same ground, turning off likewise, to your Leader.

Command. The out-most file upon the right, face to the right, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves before your right-hand men.

Direction. Face to the right, and passe through as before exprest, to your Leader.

Cmmand. The right-hand file face to the left, the rest passe through to the right or left, and place your selves hehinde your right-hand men.

Direction. Face to the right, and move forwards, and place your selves behinde your right-hand men, to your Leader.

Command. Ranks to the left-hand counter-march losing ground.

Direction. The out-most is to turn off to the left about untill he hath brought his aspect unto the right flank, and so consequently all the rest, moving still forwards untill they have gained upon the out-side of the right flank so much ground as they have lost, or that they have placed themselves before their right-hand men by following their left-hand men, face to your Leader.

Command. The right-hand file face to the left, the rest passe through to the right, fol­lowing your left-hand men, and placing your selves behinde your right-hand File.

Direction. The out-most File upon the left face to the right, and march through the Intervalls towards the right flank; and when he is moved away, the rest upon the left are successively to do the same, untill they have in lieu of that ground they formerly stood, gained so much upon the out-side of the right flank, then facing about toward the left flank, after face to your Leader.

Command. Ranks to the left-hand counter-march maintaining ground.

Direction. Face to the left, and the left-hand File that was turn off to the left on the same ground he stands, the rest moving up successively doing the same, to your Leader.

Command. The left-hand File stand, the rest face to the left, passe through, and place your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men.

Direction. The left-hand File face to the left, the rest passe through to the left, and place your selves before your left-hand men; to your Leader.

Command. The left-hand File face to the right, the rest face to the left, passe through to the left, and place yourselves behinde your left-hand men.

Command. The left-hand File face to the left, the rest passe through to the left, and place your selves before your left-hand men, following your right-hand men.

Direction. Face all to the left, and the out-most Files upon the right move forward upon the left, the rest successively doing the same, untill you have all placed your selves before your left-hand men, to your Leader.

Command. The left-hand File face to the right, the rest face to the left, passe through to the left, and place your selves behind [...]ur left-hand men, following your right-hand men.

Direction. The right-hand file that was is to begin this motion, the rest are conse­quently to follow untill they have gained as much ground on the out-side of the left-flank as before they lost, after face about to the right, and after to their Leader.

Command. Ranks to the right-hand counter-march every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his left-hand man, by following his right-hand man.

Direction. The left-hand file stand, the out-most file upon the right, is to turne about to the right, untill he hath brought his aspect to the left-flanke, then moving forward un­till he he be cleer of the second file, after the rest are to doe the like forsaking the ground they stood upon, and in lieu thereof to gain so much upon the out-side of the left-flanke, placing themselves on the out-side of their left-hand men; their Aspects being to the Front. Or you may command the out-most file upon the right to face to the left, and so begin to lead untill he be cleer of the second file, the rest doing the same untill they have all placed themselves on the out-side of their left-hand men, their Aspects being to the Front; which I conceive, to be the easier way.

Command. Counter-march your Flanks into the midst.

Direction. Face to the right and left outward, right-flank turn off to the right, left-flank turn off to the left, untill they meet in the midst, to your Leader.

Command. Right and left half-ranks counter-march to the right or left.

Direction. Face all to the right, the right half-ranks are to turne off to the right by themselves, and the left half-ranks in like manner, to your Leader.

Command. The out-most File upon the right, and the right-hand file of the left half-ranke stand, the rest face to the right, passe through and place your selves on the out-side of your right-hand men, face to your Leader.

Command. The out-most file upon the right, and the right-hand file of the left half-rank face to the right and stand, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves before your right-hand men, face all to the right, and the motion being ended, face to your Leader.

Command. The out-most file upon the right, and the right-hand file of the left half-rank face to the left and stand, the rest face to the right, passe through and place your selves behind your right-hand men, to your Leader.

Direction. For these three last Counter-marches is for the moving part to begin to Coun­termarch, who are the next files of the standing part, and so to follow successively until they have performed the command, and after to face to their Leader.

Command. The right-hand file of the left half-rank, and the out-most file upon the right stand, the rest passe through to the right and place your selves on the out-side of your right hand men following your out-most files.

Direction. The out-most files are to face to the right, and to lead away untill they bee cleer of the next, who likewise are to follow successively.

Command. The out-most file upon the right, and the right-hand file of the left half-rank face to the right and stand, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves be­fore your right-hand men.

Direction. Face all to the right, and the out-most files that were, are to begin the mo­tion, placing themselves before their right-hand men, the rest following successively, to your Leader.

Command. The outmost file upon the right, and the right-hand file of the left half-rank face to the left and stand, the rest passe through to the right; and place your selves behind your right-hand men.

Direction. The out-most files are to turn about untill they have brought their aspects un­to the right-flanke, then move away untill they be cleer of the second file, and in like man­ner they are to turn off, doing the same untill they have placed themselves behind their right hand men, then facing to the left-about, and after to their Leader, to even their ranks and straighten their files.

Command. Counter-march your right and left half-ranks from the midst.

Direction. Face inward, right half-ranks turn off to the right, left half-ranks turn off to the left; to your Leader.

CHAP. LIV. Divisionall Counter-marches of the right and left half-ranks.

Command. THe outmost file upon each flanke stand, the rest passe through to the right and left, and place your selves on the out-side of your right and left-hand men.

Direction. The rest face outward, and begin the motion by the next files, the others following in order, and after to close their files into the midst to o­pen order.

Command. The out-most file upon each flanke face outward and stand, the rest passe through to the right and left, and place your selves before your out-side men.

Direction. The rest are to face outward, and the next files unto them that first faced are to begin the motion, placing themselves before their out-side men, after face to their lea­der, and close files into the midst to order.

Command. The out-most file upon each flanke face inward, the rest passe through and place your selves behind your out-side men.

Direction. The rest are to face outward, and to passe through to the right and left, pla­cing themselves behind their right and left-hand men, and after to move forward, and close their divisions and face to their Leader.

Command. The out-most file upon each flanke stand, the rest passe through to the right and left, and place your selves on the out-side of your right and left-hand men following your in-most files.

Direction. The in-most files are to begin the motion, moving away to the right and left, untill they be cleer of their second files, and then they are to move away successively untill they have all placed themselves on the out-side of their right and left-hand men, and then close files into the midst to open order.

Command. The out-most files upon each flanke face outward, the rest passe through to the right and left, placing your selves before your right and left-hand men, following your in most files.

Direction. The rest are likewise to face outward, and the inmost files are to begin the motion, the rest following in order untill they have placed themselves before their out-side men, after face to the Front, and close files into the the midst to open order.

Command. The out-most file upon each flanke face inward, the rest passe through to the right and left, and place your selves behinde your out-side men following the inmost Files.

Direction. The rest are to face outward, the in-most files begin to move forward to the right and left, the rest consequently doe the same, untill they all stand behind their out-side men, then facing to the right and left about, closing their divisions by moving for­ward, after face to the Front.

Command. Counter-march your right and left half-ranks from the midst losing ground and placing your selves before your out-side men.

Direction. Face inward, right half-ranks turn off to the right, and left half-ranks turn off to the left, and move forward untill you have placed your selves before your out-side men, after face to your Leader, and close files into the midst to open order.

Command. Right and left half-ranks interchange ground.

Direction. Face inward, and passe through to your own right-hand, untill you bee cleer six foot each of other, after face to your Leader, and close files into the midst to open order.

Command. Right and left half-ranks counter-march to the right and left, and interchange ground.

Direction. Face outward, right half-ranks turn off to the right, left half-ranks turn off to the left, and march cleer each of the other, after face to the front, and close files inward to open order.

Thus much may suffice to be spoken of all the several sorts and kinds of Counter-marches, which if any shall conceive my pains fruitlesse in culling out such plentie and varietie, there [Page 49] being so few of them practised among able and knowing Souldiers, my best apologie will be the high and venerable esteem had of Antiquity necessitated me thereunto, as also to give full satisfaction to the Leaders of our private Meetings, who of late have laboured to inure their Souldiers in the full practise thereof, made me the willinger rather to undergo the censure of some, then to incurre the displeasure of many. Yet by the way, give me leave fully to declare my selfe concerning the use of them; for, my opinion is, that of all the Motions, tending to Martiall Discipline: these may the best be spared, as being of little use, and not so much as practised abroad upon service, and therefore the fewer of them any Leader shall use in his Exercise, in my judgement, he doth the better, not spending time in needlesse speeches, telling of his Souldiers, that this is the Macedorian, this is the Lacede­monian, or Ocean Countermarch; not to lie under the censure my selfe of mispending time, I come, therefore briefly, in the next place to treat of Wheelings, being a subject more profitable for the intelligible Souldier.

CHAP. LV. Of Wheelings, with their severall uses.

HAving proceeded thus far in shewing all the severall sorts and kinds of Military Motions, it will now in the next place be expected that I speak somwhat of Wheel­ings, and as formerly, so now, to set before the Souldier their severall kinds and uses. Wherefore, take notice of two sorts, Wheelings angular, and Wheelings on the Center, (which latter is commonly called the Prince of Orange his wheeling) being acted, or performed by the Souldier two severall ways, that is to say, Intire, or Divisionall

Intire Wheelings to the Angles, are when the Souldiers turn their Aspects from the front▪ proper to either of the Flanks, or Reer, whereby they may give the winde, or Sun, or some like advantage, bringing their best Souldiers thither for to encounter an Enemy. For the better performance of this Motion, it will be convenient to close Ranks and Files into the midst to order, and to keep their due distance both in rank and file, observing in their Ranks their right and left-hand men, and following their Leaders, always conforming themselves in their Motion to the most commendable Posture, which is Pikes advanced, and Muskets poysed. Wheeling the Battail on the Center, is when they are so straightened with ground, that they have not room to wheel to the right or left, as in the former, which gaineth as much more ground before the front, as formerly they stood on; this wheeling brings their best Souldiers to either of the flanks, or Reer; I could wish that this wheeling were more oftner practised amongst us, for by it the Souldiers are better kept together in their Motion, being not so apt to flie out, as in the former

Divisionall Wheelings (provided they have sufficient number of men) are of singular good use to encounter severall Enemies at one and the same time, which the front of our Batta­lia bringing our best Souldiers for to skirmish with them. It is likewise usefull to bring either Arms into Front, Reer, or both the flanks: for suppose the Muskettiers to be upon the flanks, and fearing a desperate charge of the Horse, to fall upon them, by a Divisionall Wheeling the Pikes, are thither brought to receive their on-set, and in the mean space, the Muskettiers have time to recruit their Bandiliers again: much more might be spoken, but my intent is not to fill my Book with impertinent discourses, knowing what is already spo­ken is sufficient for the intelligible Souldier.

CHAP. LVI. Intire Wheelings.

  • Command.WHeel your Battail to the Right.
  • WHeel your Battail to the Left.
  • WHeel your Battail to the Right. about.
  • WHeel your Battail to the Left. about.

Direction. The right or the left-hand men in the front are the hinges of these Motions, the rest have a greater compasse to march, then they to bring their Aspects, unto the place commanded, following their Leaders.

  • Command.Wheel your Battail on the same ground to the Right.
  • Wheel your Battail on the same ground to the Left.
  • Wheel your Battail on the same ground to the Right. about.
  • Wheel your Battail on the same ground to the Left. about.

Direction. The left half-ranks moveth forwards wheeling to the right; and the right half-ranks contrariwise faceth to the left side-wise falling backward, moving still unto the place commanded.

CHAP. LVII. Divisionall Wheelings.

Command. WHeel the Battail off by Division from the Front.

Direction. Turn off to the right and left.

Command. Wheel the Battail off by Division from the Reer.

Direction. Face to the Reer, and turn off to the right and left.

Command. Wheel the Battail inward to the Reer.

Direction. Open from the midst to convenient distance, and turn off to the right and left.

Command. Wheel the Battail inward to the Front from the Reer.

Direction. Face to the Reer, open from the midst, and wheel inward to the front.

Command. Wheel off the Body by Division from the right flank.

Direction. Face to the right.

Command. Wheel off the Body by Division from the left flank.

Direction. Face to the left.

Command. Wheel the Body inward to the left flank from the right.

Direction. Face to the right, and open outward to convenient distance to wheel inward to the left flank.

Command. Wheel the Body inward to the right flank from the left.

Direction. Face to the left, and open outward to convenient distance, to wheel inward to the right flank.

Command. Wheel off your Front and Reer half-files by Division.

Direction. Half-files face about, and Front and Reer half-files turn off by Division.

Command. Wheel your Front and Reer half-files inward to the midst of Ranks.

Direction. Half-files face about, and Front and Reer half-files open outward to conve­nient distance to wheel inward to the midst of Ranks.

Command. Wheel off your Front and Reer half-files by Division from the midst of Rank.

Direction. Front half-files face about, and Front and Reer half-files wheel off to the right and left by Division.

Command. Wheel Front and Reer half-files inward, both to the Front and Reer from the midst of Ranks.

Direction, Front half-files face about, and Front and Reer half-files open from the midst to convenient distance, and wheel inward into Front and Reer.

Command. Wheel off your right and left half-ranks by Division.

Direction. Face outward, and wheel off to the right and left by Division.

Command. Wheel your right and left half-ranks inward to the midst of files.

Direction. Face outward, and open to the right and left to convenient distance to wheel inward to the midst of files.

Command. Wheel off your right and left half-ranks by Division from the midst of files.

Direction. Face inward, and cause them to move backward to convenient distance to wheel off by Division from the midst of files.

Command. Wheel your right and left half-ranks inward to both flanks from the midst of files.

Direction. Face inward, and open to the right and left to convenient distance to wheel inward to both the flanks.

Command. Wheel the outward Angles to the right and left about, to the Center.

Direction. Face to the outward Angles, and close ranks and files to close order, and the Angles on the right turn off to the right, the Angles on the left turn off to the left.

Command. Wheel the inward Angles to the right and left about inward from the Center.

Direction. Face to the inward Angles, or to the Center, and wheel about to the right and left inward from the Center.

These are all the intire and divisionall Wheelings, that have hitherto been practised by any, according to my best observation; there are other Wheelings which may properly be term'd Doublings, which I have placed amongst the Doublings, where they more pro­perly belong. Now if any shall demand of me a reason why I have omitted the Reduce­ments, to each perticuler Command; my answer thereunto is easie, for as in the Counter­marches, so in these, they may be reduced by three or four words of Command, except a Commander shall of set purpose keep them off from the same; to make some experiment, after any wheeling is performed, face them after to their first Front, and command them to even their ranks, and straighten their files, they will be as at first; and unto what hand soever they wheeled, command them to wheel to the contrary hand, and they will be reduced unto the first front, or what part is wheeled off by Division, wheel them inward again from that place, and it will easily reduce them. Thus you see that it is almost impossible for a Leader to be out, unlesse he be extreamly ignorant, therefore he need not fear to venter far in the progresse of them, before he shall reduce them, provided he use no Doublings: which if he shall, great care must be had that he be not put to a stand; for the prevention whereof, let him look back unto those doublings by wheelings, wherein one doth reduce another, where he may finde some remedie to help himselfe forth again.

CHAP. LVIII. Of Firings, either for delight or service.

THe chiefest thing required of the Muskettiers next their Postures, by which they are taught how to handle their Arms with delight both marching or skirmishing, is firing, which to speak the truth, is the full accomplishment of all the rest; for unlesse they be really performed, the rest are of no great advantage. For to what end is it for any man to prime, lade, or cock, if he present not answerably; therefore firings are the execution of all the former; in so much my advice shall be to all Commanders, that they be carefull and diligent to have all their Muskettiers often practised with false firings, which is, firing in the pan only, and falling off, as hereafter followeth to the end, that in time of need they may not spend their powder, and bullets, in vain. And that they may like­wise know where to fall off, that others may do the like, and where to place themselves securest from danger; yet so as they may be still aiding the one, unto the other: I shall, there­fore, for the good of my Countrey, and for the benefit of all such as are herein concern'd, collect forth some firings, which shall be every one differing from the other in one kind or other, either in the execution or reducing, whereby the ingenious Souldier may cull forth such as he best likes to make use of, what he shall think to be most fit and pertinent to his intended purpose; be it either for delight or service, briefly therefore thus. Firings really considered can be perform'd but five ways, that is to say, to the Front, Reer, right or left-Flank, Oblique, or Angular; but there is so much variety to be expressed in the performance of each of these, that it makes them seem so many severall firings, as by the following discourse shall be fully demonstrated.

CHAP. LIX. Severall Firings to be performed with any number of men.

THe Front being the head of the Body, and therefore the more honourable part challengeth the superiority, or first place, and therefore without any farther cir­cumstance, I come directly to the firings as they lie in order▪ as followeth; draw all the Muskettiers before the Pikes, before you begin you [...] firings.

  • Firings to the Front.
    1
    • Two Ranks advancing ten paces. falling in the Reer of themselves.
    • By single miles, advancing three paces. falling in the Reer of themselves.
  • 2 Fire.
  • 3 Fire and flank the Pikes.
  • 4 Fire by Files advancing 10 or 20 paces, first, single, secondly, ranking inward, 1, 2, 3, 4, or more, falling down into rheir places again.
  • 5 Fire by Ranks filing, and advancing 10 or 20 paces, and moving down, and ranking in the Reer of their own Divisions.
  • 6 Fire by Divisions drawn off 10, or 20, or 30 paces, and returning again.
  • 7 Fire even with the Front, and falling in the Reer of their own Divisions.
  • 8 Fire even with the half-files, and fall in the Reer of themselves.
  • 9 Fire by way of Introduction, thus, the first rank fires, and stands, the last rank passeth up between the files, and placing themselves before the File-leaders, or first rank, then stand, and give fire, the rest doing the like till the file-leaders come up again into their places, and fire the second time.
  • 10 Fire by Introduction after this manner, the first rank gives fire, and stands, the rest moving forward untill the next rank hath placed themselves before the first; then stands, and gives fire, the rest moving up, and doing, the like untill they have all fired twice.
  • 11 Fire even with the Front, falling in the Reer of Pikes.
  • 12 Fire by Extraduction, the first rank passing from the Reer upon the out-side of the Pikes, upon the left, untill they have placed themselves in a rank, in the Reer of the Mus­kettiers, the rest successively doing the like, untill they have fired all over, and brought themselves as at first.
  • 13 Fire by the out-most files, wheeling or ranking outward into the Front, falling off
    Here the Mus­kettiers are up­on the Flanks again.
    likewise, being led off by Bringers-up, leading up next the Pikes, this done twice reduceth.
  • 14 Fire two Ranks together. falling off, or falling down.
  • 15 Fire four Ranks together; two kneeling, and two standing upright. falling off, or falling down.
  • 16 Fire six Ranks together, two kneeling, two stooping, and two standing upright. falling off, or falling down.
  • 17 Fire some Ranks drawn forth to the
    • right or by division, and in again.
    • left or by division, and in again.

Note also if you please, you may draw forth one Rank to the right, and ano­ther to the left, at one and the same time together.

  • 18 Fire by files drawn forth oblique, then face about, and move into their places. Note also that severall figures may be made by these kinds of firings; as the V: the W: or the Fort-battail, and the like.
  • 19 Fire by ranks, ranking into the front, or files ranking into the front, and ranking, or filing as they were.
  • 20 Fire by files wheeling outward or inward into the front, and filing again as they were.

Thus much briefly of firings to the Front, the Reer challengeth the next place, where suppose all the Muskettiers to be in the Reer of the Pikes, the Body marching.

  • Firings to the Reer.
    1 Fire to the
    • right about falling in the front of their own Divisions.
    • left about falling in the front of their own Divisions.
  • 2 Fire and fall off to the right and left, and rank with the first rank of Pikes, into the front.
  • 3 Fire even with the Reer, and fall off before the Front of your own Divisions of Muskettiers.
  • [Page 53]4 Fire even with the Reer, or last rank, and fall off to the right and left with a swift Motion, placing your selves 10 20 or 30 paces before the front of Pikes, still facing to the Body, and making ready again, and opening to the right and left, untill they be cleer of the Pikes.
  • 5 Fire by Introduction to the Reer twice over untill they come down even with the Reer, and flank the Pikes.
  • 6 Fire to the right and left about to the Reer, Ranks drawn forth, and in again.
  • 7 Fire so the Reer, every rank drawn forth cleer each from other, and falling in again, and flanking the Pikes.
  • 8 Fire to the right and left about files ranking downward to the Reer, and filing as they were.
  • 9 Fire to the right and left about, ranks, ranking downward to the Reer, and ranking as they were.
  • 10 Fire losing ground, falling off to the right and left about, just before the front of Pikes.
  • 11 Now if the Enemy pursue eagerly, and that you candot make a safe retreat march­ing, face all about, and fire upon them by way of Extraduction, or by half-ranks, divi­ded as formerly hath been shewn.

And thus much likewise briefly concerning firings to the Reer; in the next place I shall Firings to the Flanks march­ing. shew some firings to the flanks: for performance whereof, it will be expedient to bring all the Muskettiers upon one of the flanks, but for order sake, I will begin with the fi­rings from the right flank.

  • 1 Fire to the right, and gather up your files, it is to be performed after this manner, the out-most file upon the right is to face to the right, and to give fire, and after to face to the front, and stand, untill the next file have fired in like manner, and then the first file gathers up unto him upon the right even a Brest, and standing untill the third file have fa­ced to the right, and fired in like manner, and after facing to the front, the other files moving up in the like way as before, and following successively this rule untill all have given fire, and then to march up, and even the front of Pikes, the Muskettiers will stand as at first, when they were brought upon the right flank.
  • 2 Fire to the right, File-leaders leading up their files next to the Pikes.
  • 3 Fire to the right, Bringers-up leading away next the Pikes, which being twice done, reduceth them.
  • 4 Fire to the right, leading up on the contrary flank, either by the File-leaders, or Bringers-up.
  • 5 Fire to the right, and leading up by Bringers-up between the Pikes, and passing tho­rough to their places again, doing the same, reduceth them.
  • 6 Fire to the right, and leading up between the Pikes by the Leaders, and passing tho­rough the Pikes again to the right, they will be as at first; the like may be done to the left, or in some kind to both flanks, at one and the same time.
  • 7 Fire to the right by ranks wheeling and ranks, to rank as they were to the right, upon their marching reduceth them.
  • 8 Fire to the right by ranks inverting, or filing, and upon the March the Souldiers ranking, reduceth them.
  • 9 Fire to the right files, filing, and gathering up their files to the left reduceth them.

These firings being performed marching, the next shall be upon a Stand, where note you must cast all your Muskettiers upon that flank, where you conceive the Enemy will fall on, whether right, left, or both, but for order sake we usually begin with the right▪ wherefore face to the right, and proceed as followeth. Firings to the right Flank up­on a Stand.

  • 1 Fire and fall in the Reer of your selves.
  • 2 Fire and flank the Pikes.
  • 3 Fire even with the Pikes, and fall in the Reer of themselves.
  • 4 Fire even with the Reer, moving forth to the right and left, by ranks falling in the Reer of themselves.
  • [Page 54]5 Fire by extraduction by half-ranks drawn forth, and falling rank after rank in the Reer of the Pikes, after to reduce them as at first, cause them to double their front by Division.

These firings may as well be performed to both the flanks, as to one, the Body being fa­ced accordingly, which would make many firings more, but these already set down, may be sufficient for any ingenious capacity to work upon for the present, observing this rule, that in every firing he shall make use in time of his Exercise, he may reduce them by another, which will be more pleasing to the Souldier, by reason of the great variety it affords unto them. And now, in the last place, I know it will be expected, that I should speak some­thing of the use of firings: wherefore briefly thus.

Firings to the front marching, or moving, when we either pursue after, or approach to an Enemy.

Firings to the front, maintaining ground when two Bodies encounter one another.

Firings to the front, losing ground, when either we are forced thereunto by necessity, or that we do it out of policy, to draw the Enemy into a train, or snare.

Firings to the Reer marching, when we are pursued by an Enemy, yet would continue our March untill we have gained some place of importance, or advantage.

Firings to the Reer upon a Stand, when we are compelled thereunto by the violent pursuit of an Enemy; or else when we have gained a place of advantage of ground, or have re­covered the winde or Sun, whereby we are the better able to encounter with them.

Firings to the flank, or flanks marching, when we are assaulted by some Ambuscado se­cretly placed to hinder our passage; or supposing two Armies are marching to one and the same place, a river being betwixt them.

Firings to flank or flanks standing when the Enemy chargeth on with a resolution to cut off or divide part of the Army from the other.

Having thus briefly set down severall firings to front, reer, and both flanks, with their uses either marching, or standing, I hold it convenient in the next place to give some short directions in time of Battail, both to the Officers, and their Souldiers.

First, that the Drummers have a vigilant eye upon their Commanders, whose voices are drown'd by the loud thundering of the Cannon, or Muskettiers, as also by the neighing of Horses, or the lamentable cries of the maim'd and wounded Souldiers, at which time the Leaders Staffe, half-Pike, or what else he carries in his hand may be sufficient for to instruct them to continue their charge, retreat, or else to charge home.

Secondly, that the Serjeants be carefull in time of Battail, that their Souldiers be at their due distance of order both in rank and file, and that upon their firings, whether they be by forlorns either of files, or ranks drawn forth, or otherwise by Divisions, they see them neatly and handsomly perform'd by cocking their matches, and presenting some­thing lower then brest-high, and after uncocking and returning them, wheeling off either to the right, left, or both, falling in the Reer of themselves, or else where as shall be ap­pointed in an orderly manner, whereby they may decently come up again to fire against the Enemy.

Thirdly, that the Souldiers present and give fire upon their Rests, not using that sloven­ly posture of popping their Matches into the Pan, their Muskets being on their left sides, which is not only hurtfull unto themselves, but much endangers their fellow-Souldiers, and by so doing, they scarce or ever do any execution against an Enemy. But here I meet with an objection framed by the Souldiers after this manner; our Rests are of little or no use unto us in time of skirmishing, fit they are, we confesse, in the Military Gardens, but in time of Battail both troublesome and cumbersome unto us, to whom I reply, what if they be a little cumbersome at the first, must they therefore be rejected, and carelesly thrown away, nay, rather they ought frequently to practise themselves in the use thereof, which if they did, they would finde the same very serviceable unto them in time of skirmishing, where­with they fire better, and in a more comely and gracefull way, far more securing both themselves, and fellow-souldiers from danger, and likewise upon their March, it is both a help and support unto them.

Fourthly, their eyes ought likewise in time of Battail to be fixed stedfastly upon their Captain, always conforming to him in Posture when he shall prepare to charge or retreat, and likewise they ought to be knowing and well verst in the severall beats of the Drum, which if well observed by all, there would not be so much confusion in time of Battail amongst them, as many times by sad experience hath been found, when disregarding their Officers commands, and the beating of the Drums, they ignorantly and rashly run on in a disorderly manner, by which means they have cut off their own Officers and fellow-souldiers, many times more then they have dangered the enemy.

Thus you see what great necessity there is of instructing and training up the Souldiers in their Postures, and how requisite it is to conforme themselves to their Officers in time of Battail, performing thereby better execution against their Enemies; and by their decent and comely array preserve themselves from imminent dangers and perils.

The Souldiers having now all the ground-worke of the exercising a body of men, laid down before them, in the next place he labours to make experiment thereof, but being no Officer he cannot attein thereunto without speciall leave from his Superiours, and there­fore (being a File-leader) he craves leave for to exercise his single File both in their Postures and Motions, contenting himselfe for present with that small number whereby he is able to run through many plain things of Distances, Facings, Doublings, Counter­marchings and Wheelings. But being not fully satisfied, he presumes upon the former favour had from his Superiours to goe on to make every man in his File a File-leader, first, by succession, and after (being not called away by the beat of the Drum, or by his Officers to lead up his File, and to joyne into a Body) according unto Dignity, and after endea­vours to reduce them again by proper words of command.

This liberty being granted at convenient times unto a File-leader, much indeers the Souldiers good affections unto their Officers, and is a means whereby many others are brought in to be true lovers of Military Exercises, as being much taken and well pleased with the sight of the former things. And therefore, I could wish, that they were not here­after prevented, as formerly I have observed by the malice of some, who have had places of command bestowed upon them, more through favour or by reason of their riches, then for any worth or desert found in them: They perhaps hold it a great disparagement unto them to be eclipsed, but a judicious and discreet Captain accounts it a great honour to lead such gallant men that are as able, and as well knowing as himself.

CHAP. LX. The way to make every man in a File six deepe according to succession a File-leader, by doublings, not The File. 1 2 3 4 5 6 using one word of command twice.

  • 2
    • Command. FIles rank two to the left
    • Files to the left double.
      • Brings the second man into the Front.
  • 3
    • Command. Halfe-files double your Front to the left,
    • Files double your depth to the left.
  • 4
    • Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the right,
    • Double your Files to the left intire advancing,
  • 5
    • Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the left,
    • Double your Files to the right intire advancing.
  • 6
    • Command. File, rank two to the right,
    • Files to the right double,
  • Reducement. File, rank to the left into the Front,
  • Rank, file six to the left.

CHAP. LXI. The way to make every man in a File six deep File-leader, according to dignity by a doubling, not using one Word of command twice. The Dignity of the File. 1 6 4 3 5 2

  • 2
    • Command. HAlf-files double your front to the left.
    • Files double to the right intire advancing, every man placing himselfe before his Leader.
  • 3
    • Command. Front half-file double the reer to the left.
    • Files double to the left intire advancing, every man placing himselfe be­fore his Leader.
  • 4
    • Command. Bringer-up double your Front to the right.
    • Files double your depth to the right, every man falling behind his bringer-up.
  • 5
    • Command. Half-files double your Front to the right.
    • Files double to the left intire advancing.
    • Files ranke two to the right.
    • Files to the right double.
  • 6
    • Command. Bringer-up, double your Front to the left.
    • Files double your depth to the left, every man falling behind his bringer-up.
  • Reducement. File, ranke two to the left.
  • Files to the left double.

CHAP. LXII. The File. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The way to make every man in a File eight deep File-leader by succession, and that by doubling, not using one Word of command twice.

  • 2
    • Command. FIle, ranke two to the left.
    • Ranks invert to the left.
  • 3
    • Command. Half-file double your front to the right.
    • Double your files to the right intire advancing, every man placing himself before his Leader.
  • 4
    • Command. Files ranke two to the right.
    • Files to the right double.
  • 5
    • Command. Front half-files double your reer to the right.
    • Double your files to the left intire advancing.
  • 6
    • Command. Files, ranke two to the right into the reer.
    • Ranks invert to the right.
  • 7
    • Command. Half-files double your Front to the left.
    • Double your files to the left intire advancing, every man placing himself before his Leader.
  • 8
    • Command. File, ranke two to the left into the Reer.
    • Face to your Leader.
    • Double your Files to the right advancing.
  • Reducement. File, ranke to the right into the Front.
  • Ranke, file right to the right.

CHAP. LXIII. The way to make every man in a File eight deep, a File-leader according The Dignity of the File. 1 6 7 4 3 8 5 2 unto dignitie, by a doubling.

  • 2
    • Command. BRinger-up double your front to the left.
    • Double your files to the right intire advancing
  • 3
    • Command. Half-files double your front to the left.
    • Double your files to the left intire advancing.
  • 4
    • Command. Bringer-up double your Front to the right.
    • Files double your depth to the right.
  • 5
    • Command. File, rank two to the right.
    • Double your files to the right intire, advancing, every man placing himself before his Leader.
  • [Page 57]6
    • Command. Front half-file double your Reer to the right, following your Leaders.
    • Double your files to the right by Division, every man placing himself be­fore his Leader, and his Bringer-up.
  • 7
    • Command. Front half-file double your Reer to the left, following your Leaders.
    • Double your files to the left by Division, every man placing himself before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.
  • 8
    • Command. The two first, and the two last men double the four middle-most men to the right, following your Leaders, and your Bringers-up.
    • Files double your Depth to the left.
  • Reducement. Half-files double the front to the right.
  • Bringers-up double your front to the right.
  • Files to the right and left double inward.
  • Double your files to the left intire advancing.

Although I have here set down words of Command to make every man a File-leader, both by Succession, and Dignity; a Commander is not thereby tied up, but may if he please, practise the same upon a whole Company, altering but a little some words of Command; As for example, we cannot say in a file, double your ranks, there being none, untill there be some other files joyned thereunto, and therefore if we intend a doubling by a single file, we command it to rank two to the right or left, which in a Company must be exprest Ranks to the right or left double. Thus you see with a little alteration every man is brought up into the Front, either by succession, or dignity, whether the files be even numbers or odd, great bodies or small. But here by the way, I must crave pardon to speak something in commendation of these Doublings, in answer to them that accounts them but toys; to whom I will be so bold as to tell them that it is not for want of ignorance, they so slightly esteem of them, for were they truly knowing in the Art of Drilling, they must of force con­fesse abundance of variety in them, affording much delight to him that shall command, and great content unto them that are commanded, perceiving themselves to be made file-leaders by the skill and worth of their Leaders. And, besides, there may be just cause (at one time or other) many times to alter the ranks, exchanging the one for the other, bringing thereby their best deserving Souldiers into the chiefest places of honour, and casting others into their rooms at the discretion of the Commander. Therefore, I could wish, all Leaders what­soever to be well skill'd and verst in these Doublings, the frequent practise whereof will make them more apt in the Exercise of more difficult things in the Art Military. To which ingenious study I leave them, and in the next place proceed to shew them severall figures of Battail to be performed by single files, consisting of severall Depths of men.

CHAP. LXIV. Concerning Figures of Battail to be performed by single Files, with some admonitions to those that shall practise themselves therein.

THe great plenty, and variety of matter, that may be performed in the exercising of a single file, makes me wonder at the ignorance of those who are famed abroad for able knowing Souldiers, who after they have passed over the Postures, are at a Stand, as if there were nothing else to be done. with the same. But did they truly understand what dishonour and disparagement it is unto them, they would not be so idle and backward, but set times apart, often inuring themselves to the practise there­of, going through all the Motions, Distances, Facings, Doublings, Counter-marches, and Wheelings, and may farther, if he please, with his single file draw forth divers figures of Battail, declaring unto his Souldiers their severall reasons and uses. The exercising his Companie after this manner, affords unto them both content and delight, and it is likewise very usefull in greater Bodies, when time of need shall require, as shall appear in the sequell of this Book.

But here, me thinks, I heare some say, of what use are your figures? seeing for the most part, in pitcht Battails, or skirmishing in the field, they commonly fire one again ano­ther in Squares, or by Forlornes, drawn forth from the Body, and being relieved, return into their places again. To whom, I answer, that in one respect it is true, there being scarce any pitcht Battail in the field fought in these latter times, but it hath been with even fronts, who ever are first ingaged, whether it be by Divisions drawn off by way of Forl [...]rnes, as have Wings, or Battail, the Fight with even Fronts, or Squadrons, as having every five or six files divided a part from each other, having six foot ground intervall, betwixt the above said number of files for the conveniency of the Ranks wheeling off after they have fired, As concerning such figures as are framed like the Wedge, Saw, Sheers, or Diamond, I must confesse, there is little or no use at all, except it be for delight, or for the practise and experience of some young Souldier, whereby he may plainly see the custome of the An­cients in setting forth such ancient figures. But to let this passe, and to come to the place where we left, I shall shew unto the Souldier how needfull it is for him to be well skilled in the framing of figures of Battail, and likewise to be throughly acquainted with their se­verall uses. Wherefore take this for a generall rule, that there was never any pitcht Bat­tail, but there were Reserves appointed out unto all the parts thereof, whereby they might bring off, and at time of need relieve each other; and if so, certainly, they must of necessity carry along with them severall forms, and figures of Battail, according to the discretion of the Major-Generall, or other Commanders in chiefe whom it shall concern. It will there­fore be expedient (since there is a necessity of figures of Battail, and for the setting a part of Divisions for the relieving of each other) for every Commander that will be truly know­ing, to have always some imprinted in his memory, that in time of need, he may not be to seek, or wanting in them. To which purpose, I have collected some few, putting them to their view, being formerly-practised by me, for the satisfaction of those loving Gen­tlemen which have private Meetings in London; but more especially for those of the Town-ditch, unto whom I am most especially bound. And therefore, without more delay, I shall lay before them certain figures of Battail upon all the Depths of files set forth in the former Table, leaving them to their own discretion to make use of what shall best comply and suit to their intended purpose.

CHAP. LXV. Military Experiment upon a File six deep, branching forth eight se­verall Figures of Battail, with their reducement.

Command. FIle rank two to the left.

[military diagram]

Command. The middle-most rank open to the right and left to open order.

[military diagram]

Command. The last rank advance forward into the next rank that is before you, and to open from the midst to open order, and the first rank move forward one pace.

[military diagram]

Command. The first rank open outward two foot beyond open order; the last rank close forward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. Division upon the left face a­bout; march all till you be cleer each of o­ther, face all to the left, and march two pa­ces; face to your Leader: the last rank o­pen outward to double distance.

[military diagram]

Command. The first rank open outward to double distance; the first man in the front face about, move down, and double the mid­dle-most man to the right rank-wise.

[military diagram]

Command. The left-hand man of the middle-most rank face about, the middle-most rank march two paces before the front [Page 77] and reer; face to your Leader, and close ranks and files to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The second rank from the front double the first to the right and left outward by Division; the last man in the Reer close forward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The out-most men of the mid­dle rank face about, and move down even with the Reer; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Reducement, The middle-most man in the Reer advance forwards to the left into the front.

Files close inwards to your order.

Files to the right double.

Half-files double your front to the left.

Files double your Depth to the right, every man falling behinde his Bringer-up.

File, rank two to the right.

Ranks, rank intire to the left into the Reer, every man placing himself on the out-side of his left hand man.

Direction. Face about; and after being faced to their Leader, they will stand after this manner, 6: 5: 4: 3: 2: 1.

Rank file to the right, they are reduced.

CHAP. LXVI. Words of Command to produce the first eight Figures of Battail, with their reducements.

Command. HAlf-file double your Front to the left.

[military diagram]

Command. The last rank face about, the two middle ranks face outward; march all some two paces, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The first rank move forwards two paces; the third rank close inwards to open order.

[military diagram]

Command. The third rank from the front face outward, march all three paces; to your Leader.

The first rank stand, the rest face out­ward, and move two paces; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The first rank face about, march all untill you be cleer one of another; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The last rank move to the right and left, and place your selves three foot behinde the Front Divisions.

[military diagram]

Command. Division on the right face a­bout, march all untill you be cleer one of a­nother; then face to the right, and march un­till you stand even a Brest of each other; face to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. Reer Division face about; the last man in each Division move forwards into the midst of the rank that is before [Page 60] you, face to your Leader, and close your Di­visions to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The last man in the Reer move forwards to the right in the rank of him that stands before you, the last rank open out­wards to order, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Reducement. Face all about: the last man in the Reer move forwards on the left into the rank that is before you; even your ranks, and streighten your files, to your Leader.

Files double inward by Division.

Double your ranks to the left intire into the Front and Reer.

Direction. Half-files face about; after face to your Leader, and the last rank close for­ward to order, and even your ranks, and straighten your files.

Wheel Front and Reer to the left flank.

Direction. The last rank face about; then face to your Leader; and counter-march the file, they are reduced.

CHAP. LXVII. Words of Command for the second eight Figures of Battail with their reducement.

Command. FIle, rank to the left, one, three, and four, the last rank face outwards, and move three paces, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The two in-most men of the last rank close inward to close order, the two out-most men of the last rank fall back two paces.

[military diagram]

Command. The middle-most man in the first rank face about, march all till you are cleer one of another; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. Files close into the midst to or­der, the last man move forward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The middle-most rank open to the right and left to double distance.

[military diagram]

Command. The out-most men upon the flanks face inward, the last man in the Reer, face about, the first & the last rank face to the four Angles, move all 3 paces; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The first man in the Front, and the last man in the Reer stand, the rest face out­ward, and march three paces; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The last men of the out-most files move forward to the right and left, untill you range even a Brest with the middle-men.

[military diagram]

Reducement. The last man in the Reer move forward, and range even a Brest with the first rank, Ranks file to the right fol­lowing your Leader; they are reduced.

CHAP. LXVIII. Words of Command for the third eight Figures of Battail, with their reducement.

Command. BRingers-up double your Front to the left.

[military diagram]

Command. The first and the last rank stand, the third rank double outward rank-wise, the middle-rank face outward, march all two paces, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The middle rank stand, the rest double to the right file-wise; face all to the Center, and march some two paces to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The middle-rank double in­ward file-wise, and move a little forward.

[military diagram]

Command, Half-file of the middle file double your Front to the left; Front-division face to the right, and move one pace; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The left-hand file in the Front, face about, and march cleer of the Reer, face to your Leader. The middle file double to the left rank-wise; files close into the midst to order: Files rank outward into the Reer, and then begin from the right to wheel them about to the left in a ring.

[military diagram]

Command. Files close into the midst to or­der, the first rank close inward to close or­der; the third rank open outward to open order: the last man in the Reer, move even a Brest with the rank that is before you.

[military diagram]

Command. Files open to the right and left untill you stand streight with your Bringers-up, the rest moving forwards untill they have ranged even a Brest with the first man.

[military diagram]

Command. Angle-men face to the four Angles; the middle-men in the out-most files face inward; the middle-man in the Front face about, march all three paces: face to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Reducement. The last man in the Reer of the middle file face about, middle file march cleer of the standing part; files close into the midst to order: the last man in the Reer fall in Reer of the right hand file, the first man in the Front move to the left, and fall in the Front of the left hand file; close your ranks and files forward to order, and make an even Front, files double your depth to the left, every man falling behind his Bringer-up reduceth them.

CHAP. LXIX. The way to make twelve severall Figures of Battail with a File ten deepe, with their Reducement.

Command. FAce to the right, & wheel your Front into the midst, Face after to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The last men in the Reer of the outmost files face about, outmost files move cleer of the standing part, face inwards, and close your Divisions, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The last man of the middle file and the last rank face about the first rank, and the last rank, and the middle file move forwards two paces, the rest open outward two paces, to your leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The last man in the front divi­sion advance forward three foot before the Front, the first man of the Reer division face a­bout, and move three foot behinde the Reer; the outmost files double ranks inward; ranks close forwards to order, and face to your Lea­der:

[military diagram]

Command. The first man in the Front face about, the last man in the Reer stand, the rest face outwards, march all untill the first and the last man meet, face all to your Leader; middle men double to the right rank-wise, and close outward to order.

[military diagram]

The two middle-men in the Body face a­bout and move cleer of the Reer three foot, face to your Leader, middle-men of the out-most files close inward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. Middle-man upon the right of the second Rank advance forward three foot before the Front, the three first men in the Front, and the middle-man of the second rank move forwards three paces, the rest closing in­ward one pace.

[military diagram]

Command. The last rank open outward to double distance, and the next rank open out­ward to open order, and the third rank from the Reer to close inward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The second man from the Front face about, move down and range even with the Reer: outmost men of the last rank ad­vance forward, and range even with the second rank from the Front: the last rank move forwards untill they have exceeded three foot [Page 63] the next rank that (stands before them) divisi­sions on the wings face outward, move two paces; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. Front-Division, face about, and march down even with the Reer, the las [...] man move forwards to order, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. Middle-Division advance for­ward cleer of the standing part; Divisions in the Reer close inwards to order; wheel your Reer into the midst; to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The last rank close inward to order, and to double to the left file-wise; the second man from the Reer move forwards into the second rank that is before you.

[military diagram]

Reducement. The first man in the Front move a little to the right, the second man from the first rank double the first man to the left rank-wise; the first rank wheel off by Division, & double the last man in the Reer to the right and left rank-wise; ranks close forwards to order, and face to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Reducement. The first and second rank face about; the first rank double the second to the right and left outward; to your Lea­der; the last rank move forward, and even your ranks, and straighten their files; wheel Front and Reer to the left-flank; the last rank face about before they wheel; then facing to their Leader, they are reduced.

CHAP. LXX. Twelve severall Figures of Battail with a File 12 deep, [...] their reducement.

Command. FRont half-file double your Reer to the left; face to your Leader. Half-files double your Front to the left.

[military diagram]

Command. the middle-most men upon each flank, face outward; the two middle-men of the last rank face about: those that are thus faced, and the two middle-men of the first rank move forward to your Leader three paces; the first, and the last rank stand, the rest move outward two paces; face to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The out-most Divisions open from the midst almost to twice double di­stance; the first rank face about, and rank even with the midst of ranks, face to your Leader; the last rank double to the right file-wise; the second man from the Reer advance forward, and place himself 3 foot before the middle-men, the last man at the same time closing forward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The outmost division upon the right move away, the rest successively fal­ling in the Reeer of them untill they stand streight after the first division.

[military diagram]

Command. The outmost man upon the left of the middle division to open to the left to double distance; the rest of that division to face to the right, and to move cleer of the standing part, face to your Leader; the last man in the Front, face about to the last Division, the first man of the Front-division, and the first man of the Reer-division to move forwards and to close to open order: after facing to the left flank, closing to the outmost man to order; face to your Leader; and after face all to the Center, and move a little forward, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The outmost man upon the right, and the outmost man upon the left close inward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The two middle-men move forth to the right and left three foot cleer of the standing part; the first man in the Front face about: the first man in the Front, and the last man in the Reer move into the second that is before you: to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The two outmost men upon each Flank close inward to open order.

[military diagram]

Command. Face all to Front, Reer, and both Flanks, and the four middle-men move for­wards into the rank that is before them, and they will stand in a Square: face to your Lea­der.

[military diagram]

Command. Files rank outward, the middle man of the first rank move forward, and place himselfe three foot before his right and left hand man, the outmost and the middle man of the last rank move backward, and place himselfe three foot behinde the Reer-division, close forwards to open order.

[military diagram]

Command. The first and the last rank move to the left one pace, and after double to [Page 65] the right filewise, the middle rank close in­ward to order.

[military diagram]

Command. The two out-most men of the middle rank face about, move down and range even a brest with the middle-man of the Reer Division, closing inward to order, and facing to the Front; even men from the left, move forwards, and rank even a brest with the middle-man of the Front-division, and close inward to order, the out-most men open outward to double distance.

[military diagram]

Command. Reer division face about and move two paces, the outmost-man upon the left face about to the right, the outmost-men move forward and rank to the right with the last man in the Reer of each division, face to your leader, and move forward two paces.

[military diagram]

Reducement. Reer division face about, middle-man of the first rank of each divi­sion move forward and rank two to the left into Front and Reer: Files close into the midst to order ranks close forwards to order: Halfe-files double the Front to the right in­tire: Ranks rank outward into the Front, e­very man placing himselfe on the outside of his right and left hand men: Ranks file to the right and left inward: Files double your depth to the left: Face to your Leader.

It might be expected that I should shew the severall Charges upon all these Figures, but in regard I may, perhaps, meet with some of them again in greater Bodies, or the like, I shall for present passe them over, and in those places endeavour to give them the best sa­tisfaction I can. In the mean time they may with ease finde out in every one of them such charges as may instruct the Souldiers how to fight, whether it be to Front, Reer, both Flanks or Angles, they may be shewn and exercised in them according to the discre­tion of him that shall command them, whether they be Muskettiers or Pike-men: and therefore, thus much shall suffice, concerning the exerci­sing of a file for matter of Figures: In the next place followeth the Exercise of greater Bodies.

The end of the first Booke.

THE COMPLEAT BODY OF THE ART MILITARY: The Second Book.

CHAP. 1. Concerning the Artillery and the Military Gardens, together with the Private Meetings; in and about the City of LONDON.

THe great delight in handling of Arms in Military Exercises, makes the City of LONDON and the Suburbs thereof famous through the whole World, by reason, as I conceive, of those two great Nur­series or Academies of MILITARY DISCIPLINE, the ARTILLERY and MILITARY GARDENS, from whom, as out of pure Fountains, all other our Private Meetings (as of Town-ditch, and Cripplegate, &c.) are derived.

The Artillery Garden deserves the first place, in respect it is the greatest Meeting, from whence, as it were out of a Nursery have been transplanted many able knowing souldiers both at home and in forreign Countries to the great honour of our Nation.

The Military Garden is famous likewise for the great improvement of diverse worthy persons of quality daily thither resorting, whose excellent skill in Military Exercises hath raised many of them to high preferment here at home, and places of honourable command abroad. The Captains in chiefe of these Academies are Major Generall Skippon, and Major Henry Tyllier, which later was the first that ever shew'd in the Military Garden (of which I am a member) the marching of the Souldiers in a Regi­ment all way, whose great pains amongst us deserves much honour and high commendati­on; shewing unto us such variety of matter in a Souldier-like way, as was never before seen, by any member thereof.

Not to ecclipse the fore-mentioned Private Meetings in London, but to give them that due which belongs unto them, they likewise are of great honour and same for their frequent ex­ercising of their Souldiers in the handling of their Arms, whether it be of the Pike, or Musket, and instructing them in the knowledge of Drilling, and drawing up of Companies, [Page 68] and Bodies of men, furnishing both Kingdoms with able knowing souldiers. My hearty wishes therefore that all and every one of them may be propt up, and supported to all ages, that when need shall require, we may draw from these fountains such skilfull and experien­ced Commanders, and Officers as may be, as it were, a Bulwark to this our Nation.

Not to dwell any longer upon this discourse, I come, therefore, briefly to set forth severall Exercises (formerly practised by me amongst those loving Gentlemen of Town-ditch) ac­cording to the usuall numbers there appearing, whether they be great or small, practised for the most part with 24 or 32 men, and somtimes (although seldome) with 64 men, unlesse it were upon generall days, when they were drawn forth into the field; at such times, per­haps, there might be an appearance of greater numbers, as 120 and upwards.

My purpose, therefore is to pitch upon, and to make use of all and every one of these numbers, making 12 Exercises, dividing them by threes, untill I have run over them all, conceiving them sufficient for the industrious to gather from thence matter enough for his intended Exercise. And for the more enabling of them, I shall indeavour (in these curious times) to walk a long in as plain a way as possibly may be, giving directions unto all Words of Command, for the better performance of the same; wishing all my loving fel­low-souldiers to conceive well of my good meaning intended to them: desiring withall to be rightly informed of what part soever they fall upon, that they proceed leasurely and or­derly in the same, which will not only be an incouragement unto the Authour from whom they gather their Exercises, but will bring much prayses and commendation to themselves; But to leave every one to their own best thoughts, whilest I proceed to practise what be­fore promised concerning the severall Exercises following.

CHAP. II. The first Exercise of four Files six deep.

EAch File-leader (as being his duty) having gone over the Postures, shewing and in­structing his file, with their uses, and neat handling of their Arms: hearing the Drums beat a Call for all to repair and stand to their Arms, begin to lead up their files, according to order, the Leader then closing their ranks and files to close order, craving their silence, may proceed to shew unto them all their severall distances and facings, according unto the former rule set down, and after he may proceed to Doublings (if he pleaseth) as followeth.

CHAP. III. A Doubling consisting of sixteen in number, every one differing from the other, and not reduced untill the last Word of Command.

Command. FIles, file to the right intire advancing.

Command. Bringers-up, double your Front to the left.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the left.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank intire advancing.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right intire.

Command. Left half-ranks double intire the Depth of your right flank.

Command Files, file to the left intire advancing.

Command. Bringer-up double your front to the right.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right and left outward, following your Leaders.

Direction. Reer half-files face about; the file-leaders are to turn off to the right and left, the rest are to follow them untill they are marched down into the Reer, and have dou­bled it to the right and left outward.

Command. Half-files double your front inward intire.

Command. The two out-most files upon each flank double intire the Depth of the in­most files.

Direction. The two out-most files face about inward, and move streight down cleer of the standing part; afterwards face inward, march, and close your Divisions, to your Leader.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer inward intire.

Direction. Reer half-files face about, and move outward cleer of the standing part; front half-files, face about, march down and even the Reer to your Leader.

Command. The two outmost files upon each Flank, double intire, advancing the four in­most files.

Direction. The two outmost files move forward cleer of the standing part, face inward, march and close your Divisions, face to your Leader.

Command. Double your files inward intire, advancing, every man placing himself before his Leader.

Direction. The two inmost files stand, the two outmost files move forwards, and double your inmost files intire advancing, placing your selves before your Leaders.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the right, they are reduced.

CHAP. IV. Eight severall Counter-marches with their Reducement.

Command. FIle-leaders stand, the rest, pass thorough to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders.

Command. The right hand file stand, the rest pass thorough to the right, and place your selves on the out side of your right hand men.

Command. File-leaders and Bringers-up stand, the rest pass thorough to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders, and your Bringers-up.

Command. The outmost file upon each flank stand, the rest pass thorough to the right and left, placing your selves before your outside men.

Direction. Face outward, and pass thorough to the right and left, placing your selves be­fore the outmost files, to your Leader, and close your Divisions to open order.

Command. Bringers-up stand, the rest pass thorough to the right, and place your selves behinde your Bringers-up.

Direction. The five first ranks are to face about, the next rank to the Reer is first to be­gin the motion, the rest are successively to follow, until the Leaders are become the Bringers-up.

Command. The left-hand file stand, the rest pass thorough to the left, and place your selves on the out-side of your left-hand men.

Command. File-leaders and Bringers-up stand, the rest pass thorough to the right, and place your selves behinde your Leaders and Bringers-up.

Direction. The first and the two next ranks from the Reer face about, the two first ranks from the Front, and the two last ranks from the Reer move forwards, placing your selves behinde your Leaders, and your Bringers-up, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. The out-most file upon each file face inward, the rest pass thorough to the right and left, placing your selves behind your right and left hand men.

CHAP. V. Ten severall Wheelings with their Reducement.

Command. WHeel the Front half-files, inward into the midst, and double your Reer inward intire.

Direction. Half-files face outward, and march cleer of the standing part, after face to the Reer; front half-files open from the midst to open order, after wheeling to the right and left inward into the Reer, to your leader.

Command. Right and left half ranks double the depth of the Battail, by wheeling into the front.

Direction. Right half ranks wheel to the left; and left half ranks wheel to the right, to your leader.

Command. Wheel off the front half-files, and double the Reer by division.

Direction. Half-files face about, and front half-files, wheel off by division, moving down even with the Reer, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your right half ranks, and double your left flank to the right intire.

Direction. Face outward, and right half ranks wheel about to the left and move away, and double the left flank to the right, to your leader.

Command. Front and Reer half-files, double the depth of the Battail by wheeling into Front and Reer.

Direction. Half-files face to the Reer, and Front and Reer half-files wheel to the right and left inward, face to your Leader, and close your divisions.

Command. Wheel off your left half-rankes and double your right flanke by division

Direction. Face outward, and left half-ranks wheel off by division, and move even with the right flank, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files and double the Front to the right intire.

Direction. Half-files face about, and wheel to the left untill you have ranged even with the front.

Command. Wheel your Battail off by division from the Front.

Direction. Right half-ranks wheel about to the right and left, half-ranks wheel about to the left, and move down to the Reer, face to your Leader, & close into the midst to order.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double your right flanke to the left intire.

Direction. Face outward, left half-rankes wheel about to the right, and move forward and double the right flank to the left intire, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Front half-files and double the Reer to the left intire.

Direction, Half-files face about, and front half-files wheel about to the right, move down and range even with the Reer, face to your Leader, reduceth them.

CHAP. VI. Six Figures of Battail with severall firings thereunto belonging.

Command. RAnks and files close to order, they will stand us underneath is set forth, from which we will draw our figures after we have fired upon this Platforme three or four times.

[military diagram]

Command. Double your files inward intire advancing.

The first firing. Let the first two ranks advance forward ten paces, give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, after wheeling off to the right and left, placing themselves before the front of Pikes; the next two Rankes, and so the rest successively doing the like untill they have fired once over which reduceth them.

The second firing. Let the first Rank advance three paces, give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves; the rest doing the like untill all have fired once over, as before.

The third firing. Let them give fire on the ground they stand, and fall off to the right and left, and flank the Pikes.

The fourth firing. Let them fire even with the front, and fall in the Reer of the Pikes; which being ended let the Pikes charge on.

Reducement. Muskettiers double your front by division.

Command. The first two Ranks stand, the rest face outward and move cleer of the stand­ing part, to your Leader; the two last Ranks move outward side-ways two paces.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let every Division give fire on the same ground they stand, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let them advance forwards untill they be cleer of the Pikes, give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, after moving down into their places.

Command. Front division advance forward three paces, the two next divisions move out­ward one pace; Pikes in each division face about, and move two paces, to your Leader: Divisions of Muskettiers in the Reer advance forwards and range even in Front and Reer with the middle divisions of Pikes, the first rank of Pikes in the Front division move three foot cleer of the standing part.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them give fire to the Front, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let them give fire to Front, Reer, and both flanks altogether.

Direction. Reer divisions face outward, the last rank of Pikes and Muskettiers of the Front division face to the Reer; the last rank of Muskettiers move down cleer of the Reer and close inward to order; then let the Pikes port, and after the Muskettiers have fired charge on, then retreating into their places again.

Command. The first and the last rank of Pikes face about and move down cleer of the Reer, and close ranks forwards to order; outmost divisions of Muskettiers face about, move down and flank your own divisions of Pikes: the first division of Pikes move forward and range even abrest with your own division of Muskettiers, the Front division of Musket­tiers closing into the midst to order.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the Front division give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, after wheeling off to the right and left move down and flank the reer division of Pikes.

The second firing. Let the Front divisions of Muskettiers fire and fall in the reer of them­selves, then face about, and move down upon the inside of the next division of Pikes, and after face to their Leader.

The third firing. Let the Muskettiers upon the flanks move up into the roome of the for­mer, and fire, falling in the reer of themselves, and after face about and move down into their places again; the Muskettiers on the inside moving up into their places again.

The fourth firing, Let the reer division face about, then let them fire to Front and Reer, and fall in the Reer of themselves; let the Pikes charge, and after ordering their armes the Reer division facing to their Leader, the Muskettiers thereof may move up into their places again.

Command. The outmost Divisions face outward, and move two paces, face to your Lea­der, move up untill you range even a brest with the second Divisions next the Front, Reer Division move streight forward two paces.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them all give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers advance forwards untill they be cleer of the front division, and then rank outward and fire altogether; after filing inward as they were, move down again into their places: the Pikes at the same time charging, and after order their arms.

Command. Front division advance forward three paces; the outmost divisions upon the Flanks move up, and range even with the Front.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Direction for the same: let them all face to the Reer, and the middle di­vision of Muskettiers move forwards, and flank the Reer Division of Pikes; after let all the Muskettiers advance forwards three foot cleer of their own Divisions of Pikes, and give fire falling in the Reer of themselves, and after facing about, move into their places again.

The second firing. Let them fire as they stand, and fall in the Reer of themselves; and the Pikes in the Reer may charge on, and after facing to their Leader.

Command. The out-most Divisions face inward, march three paces; and the next two Divisions face outward, and move two paces, to your Leader; Reer-Division move out­ward untill you stand streight with the Front-Divisions.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the Front-Division of Muskettiers give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves; and after moving down in the room of them in the Reer: they at the same time moving up into the front firing in like manner moving down, and exchanging places with them in the Reer.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers upon the flanks move forward even with the front give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, and after move down into their places again, and face to their Leader.

The third firing. Let them face to front-reer, and both flanks, and let the Pikes port, and the Muskettiers give fire.

The fourth firing. Let them give fire on the ground they stand, and fall in the Reer of the Pikes; the Pikes charging whilest the Muskettiers make ready again.

The fift firing. Let the Pikes charge at foot, and the Muskettiers give fire over their heads; then recovering their Arms, face to their Leader.

Reducement. Front-Divisions face about; Front and Reer-Divisions march, and inter­change ground, to your Leader; The out-most Divisions face inward, and close your Di­visions, to your Leader: even your ranks, and streighten your files, and close to order, they are reduced.

The Captain may now command the Muskettiers to poyse their Arms, and file away to the right and left, making as it were a Street or Gallery for him to troop away the Pikes, and lodge his Colours.

CHAP. VII. The second Exercise with four Files six deep.

THe Souldiers being the second time summoned to appear at their place of Randez­vous, the Serjeants having drawn forth the files, may give liberty to the Leaders thereof, to exercise them in their severall Postures, which being ended, their Cap­tain, or other Officers may command them to lead up their Files, and to joyn them into a Body; after which he may shew unto them their Distances, and Facings, with their severall kinds, following the former rule, and after proceed to these or the like Doublings following.

CHAP. VIII. Eighteen severall Doublings with their reducements.

Command. HAlf-files double your Front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right intire.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right flank to the left.

Direction. Face all to the right, and left half-ranks move forward; and double your right flank to the left, to your Leader.

Command. Double your ranks to the left intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank intire advancing.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right flank inward intire.

Direction. Half-files of the right half-ranks face about, right half-ranks move cleer of the standing part; face all to the right: left half-ranks move forwards into the right flank, to your Leader.

Command. The three first, and the three last ranks double the six middle-most, intire to the left flank.

Direction. The three first, and the three last, face to the left, march cleer of the standing part, face inward, move and close your Divisions, to your Leader.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank to the right.

Direction. Face all to the left, and right half-ranks move forwards, and double your left flank to the right, to your Leader.

Command. Double your ranks to the right intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank inward intire.

Command. The three first, and the three last ranks, double the six middle-most ranks intire to the right flank.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right flank intire advancing.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the left intire.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing, every man placing himselfe before his Leader.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right, following your Leaders.

Direction. Half-files face about, file-leaders turn off to the left, and move down upon the right of the Reer, the rest following successively; to your Leader.

Command. Files double your Depth to the left intire; they are reduced being faced to their Leader.

CHAP. LXVI. Twelve severall Counter-marches with their reducements.

Command. FIles to the right hand counter-march losing ground.

Command. Ranks to the right hand counter-march, losing ground.

Direction. Face all to the right.

Command. Front and Reer half-files inter-change ground.

Direction. Front half-files face about to the left.

Command. Right and left half-ranks inter-change ground.

Direction. Face inward.

Command. File-leaders face about; the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves behinde your Leaders, face to the Front.

Command. Counter-march your Front and Reer into the midst.

Command. Counter-march your flanks into the midst. Face out-ward.

Command. File-leaders, and half-file-leaders stand, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders, and halfe file-leaders.

Direction. The second rank from the front, and from the halfe file-leaders, are to begin the Motion, placing themselves as before commanded.

Command. The out-most file upon the right, and the second file from the left stand, the rest passe through to the right, and place your selves on the out-side of your right-hand men.

Command. Files to the left-hand counter-march, losing ground.

Command. Front and Reer half-files counter-march to the right.

Direction. Front and Reer half-files turn off distinctly by your selves, on the ground you stand; face to your Leader.

Command. Right and left half-ranks counter-march to the right.

Direction. Face to the right; and right and left half-ranks turn off distinctly to the right, face to your Leader; they are reduced.

CHAP. X. Twelve severall Wheelings with their reducements.

Command. WHeel your Reer half-files inward into the midst, and double the Front inward intire.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to double distance; Reer half-files face about, and wheel your Reer inward into the midst, moving forward, doubling the front inward intire.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks and double your left flank to the left intire.

Direction. Face outward right half-ranks, wheel about to the right, and double your left flank to the left, to your Leader.

Command. Right and left half-ranks double the Length of your Battail by wheeling outward to the front.

Direction. Face outward, and right half-ranks wheel to the left, and left half-ranks wheel to the right, and after close files into the midst to order.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks, and double your left flank by Division.

Direction. Face outward; right half-ranks wheel about to the right and left outward moving forward, and doubling the left flank to the right and left outward.

Command. Wheel your left half-ranks inward into the right flank.

Direction. Face outward, and open from the midst to double distance; the front and Reer half-files, and after the left half-ranks may wheel inward, and double the right flank inward intire.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double your front to the left intire; Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel your right half-ranks inward into the midst, and double the left flank inward intire.

Direction. Face outward, and Front and Reer half-files that were are to open from the midst to double distance, and right half-ranks wheel inward, and move forward into the left flank.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double your front to the right intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double your right flank by Division.

Command. Wheel off your Front half-files, and double your Reer to the right intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Double the Depth of the Battail by wheeling front and reer into the midst of each Division.

Direction. Front half-files move forward four paces, then the last rank of each Division face about, and wheel into the midst of Front and Reer of each Division, face to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Front half-files, and double your Reer to the left intire, Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel your Battail off by Division from the Reer.

Direction. Face all about, and right half-ranks wheel about to the right and left out­ward to the front, and closing files into the midst to order, they will be reduced as at first, and stand as underneath is set forth.

[military diagram]

CHAP. XI. Severall plain Firings upon this Exercise of 24 men, with Figures of Battail, belonging to the same.

A Commander having thus passed over the Motions, may next prepare for Firings, and calling up his Serjeants, he may give them order how the Muskettiers shall fire in front and reer, but before he begin his Firings, it will be expedient that he double his Front to the right and left inward by the Bringers-up, which being ended he may proceed as followeth.

The first firing. Let them fire by Divisions drawn forth ten paces before the front of Pikes, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let them fire again, and fall off to the right and left moving down before the front of Pikes and closing their Divisions.

The third firing. Let the first rank kneel down, the next stoop, and the last stand up­right, and give fire altogether; the Pikes in the mean time are to advance their Arms, and open to the right and left, charge on to the front, untill they be cleer of the Muskettiers, and then face inwards, and close their Divisions; then facing all about, they may give fire to the Reer marching.

The fourth firing. Let the last rank face about to the left, and give fire, and fall off to the right and left, placing themselves before their Leaders of their own Divisions of Muskettiers,

The fifth firing. Let them face about to the left again, give fire, & fall off to the right and left, and flank their Pikes; the Pikes at the same instant facing about, and charge on cleer of the Muskettiers, the Muskettiers after facing inward, and close their Divisions; the Pikes may charge to the Horse, and the Muskettiers may give fire over their heads after this manner.

The sixth firing. Let the first rank stoop, and the other two stand upright, and give fire altogether, after recovering of their Arms, they may all face to the front, commanding the Pikes to double the front inward intire, and afterwards files to double their Depth to the right and left outward, every man falling behinde his Bringer-up, closing files into the midst to order, and wheeling about into the first front, he may proceed as followeth.

Command. Front half-files advance forwards three paces; the middle-rank of each Division face outward, and move cleer of the standing part, face to your Leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the in-most Divisions of Muskettiers in the Front fire, and fall off in the Reer of themselves, after facing about, move down, and inter-change ground with them in the Reer; they at the same instant moving up firing, and in like manner inter-chang­ing ground with them in the Reer, and at the same time the out-most men are to move up, and fire to the front, and to fall off to the right and left, into the place of them in the Reer, they at the same time moving up, and firing in like manner, this firing may be con­tinued twice over.

The second firing. Let them face to both the flanks, and let the Divisions of Pikes in the midst open outward untill they be cleer of the standing part, then Porting; let the Muskettiers give fire on the same ground they stand, and the Pikes after may charge on untill the Muskettiers make ready again, and then retreating into their places again, the Muskettiers may give fire, as before is mentioned, the Pikes in like manner charging on, then retreat­ing to the paces, face all to their Leader.

Command. In-most Divisions of Pikes move to the left one pace, and double to the right file-wise, and face to Front and Reer, and march three paces; Middle-file of Front and Reer-Divisions open from the midst to double distance: face to your Leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Face to Front & Reer, & then give fire, & fall in the Reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers move forwards, and the in-most Division ran outward into Front and Reer, and then give fire altogether, and file as they were, the Pikes may charge whilest they make ready, and fall into their places again, they may continue upon this firing a second time.

The third firing. Let the Muskettiers, and the two out-most men of the Pikes, face to both flanks; and likewise the middle-divisions of Pikes are to face to both flanks after this manner; the first two of the Reer-division are to face to the right, and the two last men of the Front-division are to face to the left, then let the Muskettiers give fire to both flanks, and the Pikes may after charge to the Front, Reer, and both flanks untill the Mus­kettiers make ready again; this firing may be continued twice; to your Leader.

Command. The out-most single men of Muskettiers in the front-division face about; the two out-most men of Muskettiers, both of Front and Reer-divisions move forwards and close to order, face to your Leader, and close inward to open order.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them give fire to the front and fall in the reer of themselves, then face about and move down into the reer, the rest moving up successively giving fire and fal­ling off in like manner, this may be continued twice over, then face them to the reer and let the Muskettiers rank to the right and left outward.

The second firing. Let the first rank of each division give fire, and fall off to the right and left in manner and forme of the former firing untill they have fired twice over, then to file as they were, and face to their Leader.

Command. Front and Reer divisions of Pikes move to the right one pace; the second divi­sion of Pikes move forward and double the front to the left; the second division of Pikes from the reer face about, move down and double the Pikes in the reer to the left, to your Leader; middle divisions of Muskettiers open outward to twice double distance: face all to the center, and march two or three paces, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. The three last divisions face to the reer the two outmost men both of Pikes and Muskettiers face to the flanks, then let them all give fire and fall in the reer of the Pikes; the Pikes may charge while the Muskettiers make ready again.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers move forth and give fire as at first, and after fall in again.

The third firing. Let them give fire by Extraduction, and fall again in the reer of the Pikes.

The fourth firing. Let the Pikes charge the horse, and the Muskettiers give fire altogether over their heads, then move forth into their first places and face to their Leader.

Command. Front and Reer divisions of Muskettiers open outward to double distance; the outmost men of Pikes close inward to open order: the third rank of Pikes from the front face about, the third rank of Pikes from the front, and the third rank of Pikes from the reer move forwards to order, face to your leader; front and reer divisions stand, the rest face out­ward and move two paces to your Leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first divisions fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel­ing off to the right and left into the place of those Muskettiers in the reer, they at the same time moving forward into their places, and firing, falling off in like manner, the Mus­kettiers may give fire on the ground, they stand falling in the reer of themselves; this firing being twice performed we proceed to another.

The second firing. Let the Front divisions of Muskettiers and those upon the flanks give fire and fall in the midst of Pikes, in the mean time the last division of Pikes may open outward untill they be cleer of the standing part, then let Pikes charge all whilst the Mus­kettiers make ready again; this firing may be performed twice, after which, let them move forth into their places again and face to Front and Reer, and give fire, and fall off in the reer of themselves: the Pikes may charge, which being ended, face them to their Leader.

Command. The last rank of Pikes of the middle division face about, middle division of Pikes move forward untill you range even a brest with the midst of the Front and reer divisions of Pikes, to your leader; the last man of the outmost divisions of Muskettiers face about, outmost men move forward three paces and face to your Leader; ranks of the Front and Reer divisions open from the midst to open order; Reer divisions move forward two paces.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them fire to the Front and fall in between the Pikes, this may be done twice; after which face to front and reer and fire there in the same manner: then let Pikes and Muskettiers inter-change ground, let them give fire altogether unto Front and Reer, then facing about, interchange ground with the Pikes, who are to charge on whilst the Muskettiers make ready again, then retreating let them all face outwards, and they will stand in forme like a Saw after they have moved two paces.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers give fire altogether to both flanks, and the Pikes to charge on, and after retreating, they may order their arms, and face all to their Leader.

Reducement. The outmost Muskettiers upon the Flanks move to the right and left inward, placing themselves in the midst of their one divisions, the outmost men of Pikes to stand, the rest to double ranks to the left, and the first rank of Pikes to double to the right file-wise, and the second rank from the reer to double to the left file-wise, after let the outmost men of Pikes double their inmost files into the midst, then moving forward their divisions, evening their front closing files to the midst to order, they are reduced.

And now we will lodge our Colours, and repose our selves, untill by the next beat of the Drum we shall be summon'd to make our appearance.

CHAP. XII. The third Exercise with foure Files six deep

BEing the third time brought into the Field compleatly arm'd, where being drawn forth into files, and by the Leaders thereof exercised, as before, they are commanded tolead up their files, yet not presuming to place themselves, but leaves that to the discretion of their superiour Officers, who knows best the desert of each perticuler man. But by the way, give me leave, in this place to tell the Souldiers and Leaders of our Private Meetings that this decorum is not rightly observed; the souldier thinking himself wi­ser then his Loader presumes to chop and change by Counter-marching of his file▪ making some part of the Reer to be more honourable then the Front, which cannot be, for the youngest souldier there is off more honour then the eldest in the Reer, in regard it is the more honorable part of the Battalia, therefore it is plain, that they take more upon them then becomes them, for no file-Leader ought to meddle with his file in matter of motions with­out consent of the Superiour Officers: neither ought the Leader either through favour, or out of malice when all the files are joyn'd into one compleat Body to Counter-march the files, (and after proceeding to other Motions) depraving thereby the Leaders thereof of their due honour; for else, why (just in the time of Exercise or Marching) should one single file as the right or left be counter-marched if he bore not malice to some, thrusting them by this un-souldier-like way out of their places, and through favour or affection often times putting men of little desert into their places. To leave this discourse not pleasing to some, let the Commander draw forth one file of Pikes, and double it by the half-file, and send a Serjeant to fetch the Colours, and after closing his ranks and files to order, he may begin to make some alteration in the exercising of them in their Motions, spending his time altogether upon Inversion and Conversion.

CHAP. XIII. Thirtie severall Words of Command, of Inversion and Conversion.

Command. RAnks, rank intire to the left into the Front.

Direction. The first rank stand, the rest face to the left, and suc­cessively move into the Front.

Command. Rank, rank four to the left.

Direction. The first foure upon the left stand, the rest face to the left and by foures fall successively behind the first foure upon the left.

Command. Files rank outward into the Front.

Direction. The inmost files stand, the rest open outward to double distance, and after rank outward into the Front.

Command. Rank, file three to the right and left outward by wheeling.

Direction. The three outmost men upon the right and left wheel to the right and left outward, the rest doing the like by threes; after close into the midst to order, and face to their Leader.

Command. Files, rank inward into the reer.

Direction. Face to the reer, and move to the right and left inward into the reer, to your Leader.

Command. Rank, file six to the right and left outward advancing.

Direction. The outmost man upon the right and left stand, the rest move outward untill they be six in a file, and the next outmost men are to stand, the other doing the like, and after close files into the midst to order.

Command. Files, rank inward into the midst of ranks.

Direction. Front half-files face about, and right and left half ranks open from the midst to double distance, the rest open outward to order, and move to the right and left inward to the midst of ranks, to your Leader, and close files inward to order.

Command. Ranks, file 12 to the right and left inward, every man placing himself before the Leaders and the Bringers-up of the middle Files.

Direction. Ranks open backward to double distance the middle-file stand, the rest ad­vance forwards, and file 12 to the right and left inward, placing themselves before the Leaders, and Bringers-up of the middle-files.

Command. Files, rank six to the right and left inward.

Direction. Files open from the midst to double distance, and move three to the right, and three to the left inward untill you have made four ranks six a Brest, after close ranks forward to order.

Command. Ranks, rank outward into Front and Reer, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. Half-files face about, and rank to the right and left outward into Front and Reer as is commanded, face to your Leader, and close ranks forward to order.

Command. Ranks, file 12 to the right and left inward, every man placing himselfe behinde the Leaders, and Bringers-up of the middle-files.

Direction. Ranks open backward to double distance, the middle-files stand, the rest move side-wayes to the right and left, and place your selves behinde the Leaders, and Bringers-up of the middle-files.

Command. Files rank six to the right and left inward into Front, Reer, and Midst.

Direction. The three last ranks of the Front and Reer half-files face about, and Files open outward to double distance, and move to the right and left inward into Front, Reer, and Midst, making four ranks six a Brest, after face to your Leader, and close ranks forwards to order.

Command. Ranks, rank outward into the midst.

Direction. Front half-files face about, and move outward, and rank to the midst, and face to your Leader.

Command. Ranks wheel to the right and left outward.

Direction. Half-files face about, and wheel to the right and left outward into both the flanks, face to your Leader, and close files into the midst to order.

Command. Files, rank six to the right and left outward into Front, Reer, and Midst.

Direction. The three last ranks of the Front and Reer half-files face about, and rank outward three to the right, and three to the left into Front, Reer, and Midst, face to your Leader, and close ranks and files to their distance of order.

Command. Ranks, file to the right intire advancing.

Direction. The out-most file stand, the rest move forward, and file to the right intire advancing.

Command. File, rank three to the right.

Direction. The first three men from the Front rank three to the right, the rest succes­sively doing the same, closing ranks forward to order.

Command. Ranks wheel to the left.

Direction. Ranks open backward to open order, and wheel to the left.

Command. File, rank six to the left.

Direction. The first six men rank six to the left, the rest successively doing the same, untill they have made four ranks, six a Brest, then close ranks forwards to order.

Command. Ranks, rank outward into the midst, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. Front half-files face about, and Front and Reer half-files rank outward into the midst, placing your selves on the out-side of your right and left-handmen, face to your Leader.

Command. Ranks wheel three to the right and left outward.

Direction. The last rank face about, and wheel by threes to the right and left outward towards both flanks, face to your Leader, and close files to the right to order, they will stand four a Brest, and six deep.

Command. Files, file outward intire advancing.

Direction, The out-most file stand, the rest advance forward, and place your selves before the out-most files, after close files into the midst to order.

Command. Files, file to the right.

Direction. The right-hand file stand, the rest face about, and fall in the Reer of your right-hand file, to your Leader.

Command. File, file 12 to the right.

Direction. The first 12 stand, the other move forward, filing 12 to the right.

Command. Files, wheel inward into Front and Reer.

Direction. Files open from the midst to twice double distance, after face inward, and wheel six to the right, and six to the left, untill you have made two ranks 12 a Brest, face to your Leader, and close ranks forwards to order.

Command. Ranks wheel inward to both the flanks.

Direction. Ranks open from the midst to twice double distance, the first rank face about, the first and the last rank wheel six to the right, and six to the left inward to both the flanks, face your Leader, and close files to the midst to order.

Command. Files, file three to the right and left outward into Front and Reer.

Direction. Half-files face about; the three first, and the three last ranks are to stand, the rest are to move by threes, filing to Front and Reer to the right and left outward; and after face to the Front, and close their ranks forwards to order.

Command. Files, file to the midst by Division.

Direction. Half-files of the out-most files face about, and the out-most files move forwards, and file by Division unto the midst of files; face to your Leader.

Command. Files, rank inward into the Front.

Direction. Files open from the midst to twice double distance, and move forward to the right and left inward into the Front.

Command. Rank, file six to the right and left outward.

Direction. The out-most men are to stand, the rest are to move side-ways to the right and left, making six in a file, and then the next out-side men in like manner are to stand, the rest successively are to file as before.

CHAP. XIV. Next followeth severall Figures of Battail, with Firings, upon the same, for the performance whereof.

Command. BRingers-up to double their Front to the right and left inward, and ranks and files to open to open order, & Muskettiers to close outward to close ord [...]; the in-most files of Pikes close outward to the same distance, and they will stand in four Divisions, after let the middle-rank in each Division open outward to open order, they will produce the first Figure.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first rank give fire, and wheel off to the right and left, and place themselves in the room of them in the Reer, and they at the same time moving forwards into their places, and give fire as the first; after wheel off into their places again.

The second firing. Let the middle-ranks advance three foot before the Front, and give fire, face about, and move down into their places again.

Command. The last rank in each division move to the left one pace, and double to the right file-wise, and then advance forward untill their first men exceed two foot the Front of each division, then let the first rank open outward to open order, and the last rank close inward to the same distance.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the middle file give fire to the front and fall in the reer of themselves.

The second firing, Let the first rank give fire on the ground they stand, and after fall off to the right and left into the room of them in the reer, they at the same time moving forward into their ground and give fire in like manner, and fall off into their places again, and then the Pikes may charge on whilst the Muskettiers make ready again.

Command. Face all about; middle file move forward three foot cleer of the reer; the first rank close inward to order, the last rank open outward somthing more then to open order.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the first man in each division kneel down, and then to give fire altogether over one anothers head, the Pikes at the same time charging brest high to the horse, then face all to their first front.

Command. The last men in the reer double to the left rank-wise; files close into the midst to order; Musketties double your Pikes inward intire advancing, and move forward three paces; Files double your depth to the right and left outward of each arms, every man falling behind his Bringer-up; Front half-files double your reer intire into the midst; Files double to the right and left outward; files, file to the right intire advancing, which being done wheel them to the right about into a ring, in form as followeth.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the Pikes charge round, and the Muskettiers give fire altogether; which being ended let the Commander goe to the place where the file-Leader stands, and wheel them off again to the left untill he hath brought them into one streight file, and then proceed.

Command. Half-file double your front to the right; ranks double to the right and left inward; files double outward intire advancing; Half-files of each armes double your ranks forwards to the left; [...]ront half-files double the Reer to the left; files file to the left intire ad­vancing, and wheel about into a ring, then face all to the center, and close files of each armes to the right and left inward to close order.

[military diagram]

Command. Middle men in each division move backward and place yourselves two foot behind your right and left hand-men; face all about to the right, and close ranks inward to order.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let them fire by circumduction after this manner, let the odde men of Pikes port, and then the odde Muskettier where the first front was is to give fire and to move a­way to the left, and the next odde man of Muskettiers upon the right immediately comes stooping underneath the Pikes into the first mans place firing in like manner, moving away into the next odde mans place of the Muskettiers upon the left, the rest doing the same untill the first Muskettier come into his place again.

Command. Face all to the center, odde men move forwards and place your selves two foot before your right and left hand-men, after face all to the right about.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure you may fire likewise by way of circumduction, the Pikes porting all round, and having performed one firing in this manner, in the next place let the odde Muskettiers and Pikes move forth again, and kneel down, the odde Pike-men charging at foot, the Muskettiers may give fire altogether, then let them face to the center, & let the odd men move forwards and place themselves between their right and left-handmen, then moving forward and close their ring, let them face all about to the right; Then let the Captain goe where the Leader of the file stands, and wheel him about to the left, the rest following untill they be all brought again into one streight file.

Command. File, file three to the left into the Front, files double to the right intire advanc­ing; Front half-Files move forwards three paces, files double your depth to the right of each division; half-files double your front, intire into the midst. The two first and the two last men of Pikes upon each flank face inward, the two middle ranks face outward, the two last ranks of Muskettiers face about, march all three paces, to your leader.

[military diagram]

To passe by the firings which may be performed upon this figure I shall proceed from hence to draw another.

Command. The outmost divisions of Muskettiers close inward to order; front and reer divisions of Pikes open outward to double distance; Pikes double inward rank-wise; and they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure fire to the front in their severall divisions one after another, and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right into the reer, the rest of the divisions moving forward in their roome doing the like untill all have fired over twice.

Command. Muskettiers double your Ranks outward in each division, and they will stand as underneath.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure as in the former they may fire like-wise to the front falling down into the reer, and after every rank successively moving up into the front may fire and fall off in like manner; this firing may be done twice to the front, and being faced to the reer they may there give fire after the same manner, and after face to there first front.

Command. Muskettiers double to the right and left inward file-wise; middle-most divisi­on of Muskettiers face outward, and march untill you have placed your selves in front and reer of the out-most divisions of Pikes: The last rank of front and reer divisions of Musket­tiers double to the right file-wise and move for-ward untill your first men exceed two foot the front of each division, which occasioneth the next figure.

[military diagram]

It is now high time that we put a period to this Exercise, wherefore let the Ensigne unsurle his Colours, the souldiers shoulder their arms, and the Drum beat a march, upon which the Ensigne being in the midst may display his Coleurs so long as shall be convenient, and after the Leader may proceed to their reducement as followeth.

Reducement. Middle file of Muskettiers face about, and march cleer of your owne divi­sions and double to the left rank-wise Muskettiers close inward to order; Pikes double to the right and left outward file-wise: files close into the midst to order, ranks close to order; Pikes move forward and even your front; Pikes and Muskettiers inter-change ground, they are reduced.

Now the Leader may command the Muskettiers to troop away, and after he may lodge his Colours; thereby refreshing both himself and his souldiers until the next summons by beat of the Drum.

CHAP. XV. The fourth Exercise consisting of foure Files eight deep.

THe Souldiers upon the fourth summons comming unto the place of Exercise makes fuller appearance then before, insomuch that their files are drawn forth eight deep, the Leaders thereof having spent some time in exercising them in each perticuler posture, are called upon to joyne into a body; where their leader stands be thinking of himselfe what new matter he should delight them with, there being sufficient in any one perticuler motion for their Exercise, pitches for present to spend his chiefest time in Motions upon facings continuing longer in them, in respect of the several figures of Battail demon­strated by them.

Now for the more ready performance thereof I shall onely give the severall words of com­mands for each perticuler figure which may be drawn from these facings, referring the reader to the figures themselves where I shal have occasion to make use of them upon firings, which shall be made known unto him by Alphabetical letters, pointing from each facing to the fi­gure it produceth. To come briefly to the exercise in hand, silence being craved, and ranks and files closed to order, the Leader may proceed to these or the like perticuler facings produ­cing eighteen figures of battail alphabetically set forth, with their reducements.

Command. Half-files double your front to the left

Direction. Files open from the right to open order, half-files advance your arms, and move forward to the left and double the front.

Command. Files open from the midst to open order; Muskettiers close outward to close order; the inmost files of Pikes close outward to close order: Ranks close to Front and Reer to order, and they will stand in eight divisions.

[military diagram]

Command. Reer divisions of Pikes face about; Muskettiers face outward move all three paces, to your Leader; pointeth to the first figure marked by the Alphabeticall letter A.

Command. Muskettiers face inward, divisions of Pikes face outward, march all untill the Pikes are cleer three foot of the Muskettiers to your Leader: this formes the figure de­monstrated unto you by the alphabeticall B.

Command. Reer Division of Muskettiers upon the left face about to the right; Reer division of Muskettiers upon the right face to the right: Front division of Muskettiers upon the left face to the left; divisions of Pikes face to the center, move all untill your Musket­tiers be cleer three foot of Front, Reer, and both Flanks; then let them stand, and face the divisions of Muskettiers to the left, and the divisions of Pikes to face about to the right, and to move all two paces, then face all to the center, and close their divisions a little, after face to their Leader. C

Command. Reer divisions of Muskettiers stand, the rest face to the Reer, march all untill your reer division range even a brest with those upon the flanks, to your Leader. D

Command. Reer divisions of Pikes face outward, march all untill the reer divisions of Pikes be cleer of the outmost divisions of Muskettiers, then let the reer divisions of Pikes face to the Front, the rest face to the reer march all three paces, to your Leader. E

Command. Divisions of Muskettiers in the midst face about, march all untill the middle-division of Muskettiers range even with the Reer, to your Leader. F.

Command. Front-divisions of Pikes face to the outward Angles; Reer-division of Pikes face about, and after face to inward Angles of the Reer; out-most division of Mus­kettiers face to your inward Angles; Front-division of Muskettiers face about, as you are now faced, move all some three paces to your Leader. G.

Command. Muskettiers face to Front, Reer, and both flanks; divisions of Pikes face to the Center, march all untill you be even a Brest in Front, Reer, and both Flanks, to your Leader. H.

Command. Reer-divisions of Muskettiers face about the out-most Divisions face inward Divisions of Pikes face to the Center, march all some three paces to your Leader. I.

Command. Division of Muskettiers upon the left in the midst, and the three last Di­visions of Pikes and Musktteiers to face to the Reer, and move three paces, and stand; middle-divisions face to the left, the rest face about to the right, and move three paces, to your Leader. K.

Command. The four last Divisions face to the left; the four first divisions face to the right, move all untill you be cleer one of another, then face to the right, and march untill you range even a Brest in Front and Reer, face to your Leader. L.

Command. The two in-most divisions of Pikes stand, the rest face inward, march all untill the middle-divisions be three foot cleer of the Front, to your Leader. M.

Command. Front-divisions of Pikes face outward, the rest face inward, march all untill the Front-divisions range even with the out-most divisions of Pikes, face to your Lea­der. N.

Command. Front-divisions of Muskettiers face outward, the rest face inward, march all untill the Front-divisions of Muskettiers are cleer of the Pikes, then stand, and the six last divisions to face about, and move three paces, to your Leader. O.

Command. Reer-divisions of Muskettiers face outward, march all some six paces Reer-division of Muskettiers face to the Front, the rest face to the Reer, and move untill the Reer-divisions range even a Brest with the Front, to your Leader. P.

Command. Front-divisions of Pikes upon the left face about, march all untill that di­visions be six foot cleer of the Reer, then stand, and Front and Reer-divisions of Pikes face to the left, and move two paces to your Leader. Q.

Command. Front-division of Pikes face about, march all untill the Front-division of Pikes range even a Brest with the first division of Muskettiers, to your Leader. R.

Command. The two out-most divisions of Muskettiers face about; out-most divisions of Pikes face outward, move all untill the out-most Muskettiers stand streight with the Front-division of Muskettiers, then face to your Leader. S.

Reducement. Divisions of [...]ikes face inward, the three last divisions face about, march all some six paces; Front and Reer divisions of Pikes face to the left: Muskettiers face about, move all two paces, to your Leader; Divisions move forwards, and double your Front, close Files inward to order, and Ranks forward to order; double files to the left intire advancing, reduceth them.

Thus much, I conceive, may be sufficient at one time for a Leader to exercise his Com­pany with the Motions upon their Facings, so that he shall not need to trouble himselfe with any more then Firings, where first, as is most properest, we will begin with some plain Firings to the Front: for the performance whereof let the half-files double their Front to the left, and ranks and files close forward and inward to order.

The first firing. Let them fire by Divisions drawn forth 10 or 20 paces, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers close their Divisions before the Front of Pikes, and give fire and fall all off upon the right Flank.

The third firing. The Body moving or marching, let the out-most files face to the right and give fire, and lead away by the contrary side of their [...]ikes, by the Leaders of the file, the next file may doe the same, and consequently all the rest untill all have fired, then let them face to the right, the Pikes in the interim charging on whilst the Mus­kettiers make readie again.

The fourth firing. Let the Pikes open from the midst that the Muskettiers, may come up between them; two ranks may kneel down, and the other two stand uppright and fire alto­gether, the Pikes then charging, and after retreating they may close again into the midst con­tinuing their aspects to the right flank the Pikes may port and the Muskettiers may slieve up upon the right and left of the Pikes, the first rank giving fire and presently falling before the front of Pikes, the next rank doing the same falling still behind their owne Muskettiers, and before the front of Pikes as they are then faced; and having all fired after that manner they may fire again, and flank their Pikes, then facing to front and reer they may give fire to both places and fall off to the right and left, and flank their Pikes from Front and Reer, and after face to their leader.

Command. [...]iles open outward to open order; Muskettiers close outward to order, the in­most files of Pikes close outward to order, ranks close to front and reer to order; Reer divi­sions of Pikes face about, Muskettiers face outward, move all three paces to your Leader; And now you have the figure of battail pointed out in the first place unto you by the alpha­bet.

A

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them fire to the Front and fall in the Reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right into the place of those Muskettiers in the reer, they at the same time mo­ving up into the front firing in like manner, and moving down into their places again.

The second firing. Let the reer divisions face about, and after let them give fire both to front and reer, and falling in the reer of themselves, the Pikes may charge while the Muskettiers make ready again; they may fire a second time in the same manner.

The third firing. Face all to both flanks, then let them give fire and fall in the reer of themselves; the Pikes after charging on three paces, and the Muskettiers retreating three paces, after facing to their Leader, preduceth this figure following.

B

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the two first Divisions advance three paces before the Front, give fire and fall in the Reer of themselves, and after move down into the places of them in the Reer, they at the same time moving up into their rooms giving fire, in like manner falling downe into their places again, this may be perform'd twice over, after face them to Front and Reer.

The second furing. Let them give fire, their Divisions advancing three paces before the Front and Reer, falling in the Reer of themselves, the Pikes charging on and the Musket­tiers retreating into their places again, facing to their Leader.

Command. Reer division of Muskettiers upon the left face about, Reer division of Mus­kettiers upon the right face to the right, Front division of Muskettiers, upon the left face to the left: Muskettiers march all cleer of the Pikes then stand, after face them in their severall divisions to the left, and move two paces, to your Leader.

C

[military diagram]

If you find by the words of command given to make the former figure that your divisions stand too thin, you may face them all to the center, and move forward every division two or three paces, then face to their Leader.

The first firing. Let the Front division of Muskettiers give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, after wheel off to the right into the room or place of them in the Reer, they at the same time moving up into the Front, firing and falling off in like manner, this firing may be performed twice.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers upon the Wings advance forward three paces, give fire and fall in the Reer of themselves, after face about and move into their places.

The third firing. Let the front division of Muskettiers move to the right two paces, Reer division move up upon the left of them, then let them all both in front and reer give fire on the ground they stand, & fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes after closing forward their divi­sions may charge on, and after retreating into their places again, the division of Muskettiers upon the left in the front in the mean space facing about, and moving down into their places.

The fourth firing. Let the Muskettiers face to front, reer, and both flanks, the Pikes face to the outward angles of front, and reer, and port, then let them give fire on the ground they stand and fall in the reer of themselves; Pikes may charge on to the foure angles, then order­ing all their armes, move the reer division of Muskettiers forward even with them of the wings, then face all to their Lerder.

D

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first division fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, after face about, and move down into the middle rank of Muskettiers, they at the same time marching up into their ground, firing, and falling off in like manner.

The second firing. Let the Muskettiers upon the Wings advance forward even a brest with those in the Front, and fire altogether, the three Divisions falling in the Reer of them­selves, and after the outmost divisions facing about, and moving into their places again.

The third firing. Let the Front Division of Muskettiers face about, move down, and double the middlemost by division; after let the Muskettiers face outward, and move three paces, and give fire to both the flanks, falling off to the right and left, the middle Di­visions making good their ground, and firing in like manner falling off.

Having fired twice over to both the flanks, face them to their Leader, and draw forth the outmost files of Muskettiers of the middle Division before the front of Pikes, and close their files inward to order.

Command. Reer division, of Pikes face outward, and move two foot cleer of the stand­ing part: To your Leader.

E

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first division of Muskettiers give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, and after wheel about, and fall in the midst of the Reer, and range even a brest between the outmost divisions of Pikes, after face to their leader.

The second firing. Let the three other divisions advance forwards altogether three foot before the Front, and give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, the Pikes charging on, and the Muskettiers still preserving their ground, making ready again whilst the Pikes re­treat into their places.

The third firing. Let them give fire again in like manner, the Pikes charging on, and retreating as before, then let the last divisions of Pikes move inward in a streight line with the outmost divisions of Muskettiers in the Front, and they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them give fire to the Front, and fall in the Reer of themselves, this may be performed twice; then face to Front and Reer, the last rank of the middle division is to face about, the first rank are to continue their aspects unto the Front.

The second firing. Let the Pikes port to Front and Reer, and the Muskettiers give fire to Front and Reer, and fall in the Reer of themselves, and after the Pikes may charge on, and retreat again; they may continue this firing twice, the Pikes charging, and after face to their Leader.

Command. Reer divisions of Pikes face about, and move three paces, and face to their Leader; Front division of Muskettiers face about, and move down into the midst, as before, interchanging ground with the Reer division of Muskettiers: the two last divisions of Pikes move outward, untill they be two foot cleer of the next range of Muskettiers; middle di­vision of Muskettiers move backward even with the Reer divisions of Muskettiers, to your Leader.

F

[military diagram]

Upon this figure face the three last divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers to the right about, and let them give fire to Front and Reer, and fall in the Reer of themselves, the Pikes may afterwards charge on to Front and Reer; and retreat back again into their first places, they may perform this firing twice, the Pikes likewise charging up before, and retreating into their places again, face all to their Leader.

And now it will be expedient having almost tired the Muskettiers with these severall fi­rings to end our fourth Exercise, and lodge the Colours; but first we will reduce them.

Reducement. The outmost division of Muskettiers on the right move forward, and fall in the Reer of them in the front: Reer division of Muskettiers move forward and fall in the Reer of the left division of Muskettiers, then let them move streight forwards and joyne with them in the front, and close the Pikes into the midst to order, and their ranks forward to order; let the Pikes double the front inward intire, and after files to double to the left intire advancing, closing files inward to order; they are reduced.

CHAP. XVI. The fifth Exercise with four Files eight deep.

THe Souldiers having made timely appearance according to the Drums summoning unto such place as was appointed by their Commander, and being by the Serjeants drawn forth into Files, the Leaders thereof being permitted to instruct and teach their Files the Postures, and handsome handling of their arms, are forthwith by warning of the Drum to lead up their files, & being joyn'd in a body, according to the discre­tion of the superiour Officers, do their stand silently, expecting what will follow; The Captain, or other that shall exercise them, first commands the Bringers-up to double their Front to the left, and after appoints one of the Serjeants to fetch the Colours; to which purpose he draws off the two inmost files of Pikes, and advancing their arms, the Drum beating a troop they move away, and bring them to the Company, being led thither by the Ensigne, the Serjeant falling in the Reer of the Pike, and they falling into their places again, they may be com­manded Files to double their depth to the right, every man falling behinde his Bringer-up. Now the former days Exercise being chiefly spent in the Motions by severall facings, they may be bespar'd in this, and in lieu thereof the Leader may out of the former plain dou­blings collect one that may continue long in exercise before reduced, and in this exercise he shall not need to trouble himself with Counter-marches or Wheelings, but fall immediatly a­lone upon the Motions with this doubling or the like as followeth.

CHAP. XVII. Thirty severall Doublings with their reducement.

Command. HAlf-files doule your Front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing.

Command. Half-file double your Front to the right and left outward.

Direction. Half-files advance your arms, and move to the right and left outward, and double the Front.

Command. Double your files outward intire advancing.

Direction. Even files from the flanks move forward and double the odd, and after close files into the midst to order.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double the left flank to the right.

Direction. Face to the left, right half-ranks move forward, and double the left flank to the right, to your Leader.

Command. Double your ranks to the right intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank intire advancing.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the left intire.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right flank to the left.

Direction. Face to the right, left half ranks advance your arms and move forward to the left, and double your right flank.

Command. Double your ranks to the left intire.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right flank intire advancing.

Command. Half-files double your Front inward intire.

Direction. Front half-files face outward, and march cleer of the standing part, to your Leader, half-files move forward and double the Front inward intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double intire the depth of the left flank.

Direction. Left half-ranks stand, right half-ranks face about, and march cleer of the standing part, then face to the right and move forward even with the left Flank, to your Lea­der.

Command. Front half-files double the Reer, to the left intire.

Direction. Front half-files face to the right, march cleer of the standing part, face all to the Reer, Front half-files move down and double the Reer to the left.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left Flank to the left.

Direction. Face all to the left, right half-ranks move forward, and double the left flank to the left, to your Leader.

Command. Double your Ranks to the left intire into the Reer.

Direction. Face all to the Reer, and every even rank from the Reer move forth, and dou­ble the odd, to your Leader, and close ranks forward to order.

Command. The two out-most files upon each flank double, intire advancing the four in-most files.

Command. Front half-files double the Reer to the right intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank inward intire.

Direction. Half-files of the left half-ranks face about, left half-ranks move cleer of the standing part, face all to the left, right half-ranks move forwards, and double the left flank inward intire.

Command. The four middle-ranks double your Front and Reer inward intire.

Direction. Half-files face about, the two first, and the two last ranks open outward untill you be cleer of the standing part, then the four middle-ranks move forward two to the Front, and two to the Reer, doubling intire to both places, face to your Leader, and close your Divisions.

Command. The two out-most files upon each flank, double the four middle-most files by Division.

Direction. Half-files of the two out-most files face about, out-most files move cleer of the standing part, then close inward to order, and face to your Leader.

Command. The two first, and the two last ranks, double the four middle-most ranks inward intire.

Direction. The four middle-ranks face outward, and move cleer of the standing part, then face to your Leader, the two first ranks face about, move forward with the two last, doubling the middle-most inward intire, to your Leader.

Command. The four in-most files double intire advancing the two out-most files.

Direction. The two out-most files stand, the in-most files move forward cleer of the standing part, then face outward, and move streight with the out-most files, to your Lea­der, and close files into the midst to order.

Command. Front half-files double the Reer by Division.

Direction. The four middle-files double the two out-most files inward intire.

Direction. Half-files of the two out-most files face about, out-most files move forward cleer of the standing part, face all to the right and left outward; in-most files move for­ward, and double the out-most inward intire, to your Leader, and close files into the midst to order.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the left.

Command. Files double your Depth to the right.

Command. The two first and the two last ranks double the four middle-ranks by Division.

Direction. The two first and the two last ranks face outward, and march cleer of the standing part, then face inward, and move forward, doubling the in-most files by Divi­sion, face to your Leader.

Command. The two out-most files upon each flank double intire, the Depth of the four in-most Files, reduceth.

CHAP. XVIII. Plain Firings, and Figures of Battail.

HAving passed over these Motions of Doublings, in the next place we will proceed to Firings, command therefore Files to open from the midst to open order, and after let the Bringers-up double the Front to the left.

The first firing. Let the Muskettiers give fire, even in the Front, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The second firing. Let the first rank give fire, and fall in between the Pikes, every rank doing the same untill all have fired; then let the first rank move forth by Division, give fire to the Front, and fall in again, every rank doing the same.

The third firing. Let them face to both flanks, and give fire, and fall off to the right and left and flank their Pikes to front and reer, the Pikes may now port, and move all forward three paces, the Muskettiers may give fire again and fall in the reer of the Pikes, the Pikes charging on, and after retreating to their first ground may charge at foot, and the Muskettiers may give fire by two ranks altogether over their heads, after recovering their armes let them face to front and reer, and let the Musketiers move forth cleer of the standing part, then stand and give fire to front and reer and fall off to the right and left and flank the Pikes who after may charge on to front and reer, then retreating, face all to their Leader.

Command. Half-files of Pikes face about, Muskettiers face outward, march all three paces Pikes face to the right and left, Muskettiers face about to the right, march all three paces, then let the last rank Face about, the first and the last rank double file-wise inward advancing; Pikes face to the outward angles of front and reer, Muskettiers face to front, reer, and both flanks, and move all two paces, to your Leader.

G

[military diagram]

The first firing Let the first division of Muskettiers fire to the front, and fall in the reer of themselves, and after wheel off to the right, moving down into the place of the reer division who may at the same time move forward into their ground and fire in like manner, wheol­ing off as the former did.

The second firing. Let the two out-most divisions move forward into the front, give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after move down into their places.

The third firing. Face all to the reer, and let the Muskettiers give fire there in the same manner as they did to the front.

The fourth firing. Let the Muskettiers face to front, reer, and both flanks and the Pikes face to the outward angles of front and reer, then let Muskettiers move forth three foot cleer of the Pikes and fire to front, reer and both flanks, and fall in the reer of themselves, after fa­cing above, move into their places again.

The first firing. Let them face as before and give fire on the same ground they stand and fall in the Reer of themselves, the Pikes may after charge on, and retreat into their places again.

Command. Muskettiers move forth, and range even a brest with the Pikes into Front, Reer, and Midst, and they will stand in a square as followeth.

H

[military diagram]

The first firing. Upon this figure as they are faced to front, reer and both flanks, and the Pikes to the outward angles of front and, reer it will be best to fire on the ground they stand, and to fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes may after charge to the four angles.

The second firing Let them double their ranks outward, and give fire, after face about & move three paces into the midst of Pikes, and having made ready again, let them face about and move forward and fire as they did before, and after dismount their Muskets taking them in both hands they may, as occasion shall require, make use of the Butt end thereof a­gainst the horse, and the Pikes may stand upon their charge.

The third firing. Let the Muskettiers double inward file-wise, the Pikes keep their as­pects to the four angles, the Muskettiers, as before, may give fire to front, reer and both flanks, and fall in the reer of those Pikes next their right hand; And having their aspects unto the the same angles they may fire there if they please by way of extraduction, and move forth to the left into their places again, then let the Pikes face to the front, and Muskettiers upon the wings face about to the right, and Muskettiers move forward three paces, face to your leader formes the following figure.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first division give fire together, and wheel off into the reer, the reer the next two divisions moving forward into their ground giving fire altogether, and wheeling off to the right and left into the reer, the rest stil moving forward until the reer divi­sion is likewise come up into the front, and gives fire in like manner, and falling off to the right into his first place again, this firing may be continued twice.

The second firing. Let them give fire altogether to the front, after this manner, let the mid­dle divisions move forth to the right and left cleer of the Pikes, the reer division at the same time moving forward upon the out-side of those in the front, and give fire and move into their places again, making ready whilst the Pikes close forward and charge on five or six pa­ces they may retreat again into their places.

The third firing. Let them face all to the reer and fire after this manner, the first division kneel down, the middle divisions move forth cleer of the Pikes, the front division marching down into the reer, may give fire altogether, the out-most, division and the front division over the heads of them in the reer, and move in, and back again into their places, then face to their leader.

Command. The outmost division of Muskettiers upon the left in the midst, and the three last divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers face about, march all three paces, and stand; Middle divisions face to the left and move two paces, face all to your leader; divisions of Pikes face inward; front division of Muskettiers, and the second from the reer face about, and move little, and close your divisions, to your leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first division give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel down into the reer, the other divisions successively moving up into the front and firing in like manner; this firing may be continued twice over.

The second firing. Let the divisions of Muskettiers double their ranks to the right and left outward, and give fire in single ranks as they did before, untill all have fired twice over.

The third firing. Let them double their files to the right and left inward, and the reer divisions to face about, then let them give fire both to front and reer falling first in the reer of themselves, after to wheel off into the midst and facing to front and reer, the middle divisions may move forth into their ground firing in like manner, the Pikes may after charg whilest the Muskettiers make ready again, and after retreating into their places they may continue their firing as formerly the Pikes charging on as before.

The fourth firing. Let each division of Muskettiers double ranks outward, and fire to front and reer and to wheel off in one single rank to the right and left, and rank again in the midst and after double inward file-wise, and face to their leader.

Command. The four last divisions face to the left, the four first divisions face to the right, march all untill you be cleer one of another, then face to the right and move untill you be e­ven a brest in front and reer, to your leader.

L

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first divisions give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, after wheeling off to the right and left into the reer they at the same time moving forwards into their places firing and falling off in like manner; they may performe the same firing to the reer being thither faced.

The second firing. Let the reer, divisions move to the right and left outward cleer of the standing part, then face to the front move up even a brest with the front divisions, and let e­very division fire to the front and fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes may charge and after both they and the outmost divisions may move down into their places.

Command. The in most divisions of Pikes advance forward three foot before the front, the rest face inward and move two paces, to your Leader.

M

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the first ranks of the front division fire and fall behind the front divisions of Pikes, the next rank may fire and fall behind the first, then let the reer division move up and give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after wheel about to the right and left inward, moving down cleer of the reer, and facing again unto their Leader, then they may fire a se­cond time in the same way, the front divisions moving forth and firing first and falling be­hind the Pikes, the reer divisions comming up into their places, firing and falling off again by wheeling about inward, untill they be cleer three foot of the reer, then facing to their lead­er, they will stand as followeth, where the Ensigne may display his colours, if the Leader pleaseth to march upon it.

[military diagram]

Having now spent much time in these particular firings, it will be convenient to give the souldiers some respit to refresh their almost tired spirits that they may more cheerfully ap­pear upon the next summons of the Drum; and therefore we wil conclude this Exercise, and prepare for the lodging of the colours.

Reducement. Reer divisions of Pikes move streight forward, untill you range even a brest with the front divisions of Pikes; Reer divisions of Muskettiers move forward and range in­ward even a brest with the front divisions; files close into the midst to order; front and reer half-files open from the midst to double distance; the four in most files of front & reer half-files face inward and interchange ground, then let each two files of Pikes close outward to order, and after to double there divisions to the right filewise, and to close files to the left to order; the two outmost files of Muskettiers upon the right double ranks inward, and lead them a­way before the left half-ranks of Muskettiers; the next two files doubler ranks outward, and lead them away behind the reer by first facing them about; Pikes face to the left and move streight before the Muskettiers, and then double the reer inward intire, and after files to double their depth to the right, every man falling behind his Bringer-up, they are reduced.

CHAP. XVIII. The sixth Exercise with four Files eight deep.

THe Souldiers being met at the place appointed, and their files being drawn forth according to the usuall custome, the Leaders begin to shew each Souldiers how to handle, and use his Arms, and after leads up their files, and joyns them into a Body, where the Commander having sent for his Colours, stands at the head of them, commanding their silence, and attention unto the words of Command. Now having in his former Exercise spent most of the time upon plain Doublings, he may in this shew unto them the great variety of Doublings by Counter-marches, and although they are very diffi­cult, yet they will afford much delight and content unto the Souldiers.

CHAP. XIX. Thirty Doublings by Counter-marches with their reducement.

Command. BRingers-up double your Front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing, every man placing himselfe before his Leader.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right and left outward, following your Leaders.

Command. Double your files outward intire advancing, every man placing himselfe be­fore his Leader.

Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the right and left inward.

Command. Double your files inward intire advancing, every man placing himselfe before his Leader.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right and left inwards, following your Leaders.

Command. Files double your Depth to the right and left outward following your Bringers-up.

Command. Double your files to the right by Division, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. Half-files of the even files from the right, face about, even files advance for­ward, and double the odd according to command, to your Leader.

Command. The four first, and the four last ranks, double the eight middle-most ranks to the right and left inward following your Leaders and your Bringers-up.

Direction. The four first, and the four last ranks advance your Arms, and the file-leaders, and the bringers-up begin the Motion, the rest are to follow, after order their Arms, and face to their Leader.

Command. Double your files to the left by Division, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction. The eight middle ranks double your Front and Reer to the right and left outward, following the half-file-leaders, and the Bringers-up of the Front half-files.

Direction. The four last ranks of the Front and Reer half-files face about, the middle-ranks are to begin this Motion, and to advance their Arms, and to turn off to the right and left, every rank following them untill they have doubled the Front, and Reer, then face all to the Front, order their Arms, and close their Divisions forward to open order.

Command. Double your files inward by Division, every man placing himselfe before his Leader, and his Bringer-up.

Direction Half-files of the out-most files face about, the out-most files advance your Arms, and move forward, placing your selves before your Leaders and your Bringers-up, face to your Leader, and order your Armes.

Command. The four first, and the four last ranks double the eight middle-most ranks to the right and left outward, following your Leaders, and your Bringers-up.

Direction. The four first and the four last ranks advance your Arms, and move away to the right and left, and double the eight middle-most ranks, to your Leader.

Command. Front half-files double your Reer to the right following your Leaders.

Command. Files double your Depth to the right, every man placing himself behinde his Bringer-up.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank to the right, following your right-hand men.

Direction. Face outward, and right half-ranks turn off to the left, and double the left-flank to the right, to your Leader.

Command. Double your ranks to the right intire, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his right-hand man.

Command. Left half-ranks double your right flank to the left, following your left-hand men.

Command. Double your ranks to the left intire, every man placing himselfe on the out-side of his left-hand man.

Command. Double your ranks by Division, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right and left-hand man.

Command. The in-most files double the out-most files placing your selves on the out-side of your right and left-hand men.

Derection. The in-most files advance your Arms, face outward, and move forward, and double the out-most files, placing your selves on the out-side of your right and left-hand men, order your Arms, and close files into the midst to open order.

Command. Double your ranks by Division into the Reer.

Command. The two out-most files double the four in-most by following of your out-side men.

Direction. The in-most files face inward, the rest face outward, and turn off to the right and left towards the Reer; and double the four in-most files, to your Leader.

Command. Double your ranks by Division into Front, Reer, and Midst, every man placing himself on the out-side of his right and left-hand man.

Direction. The two last ranks of the Front and Reer half-files face about, even ranks from the Front, Reer, and Midst, advance your Arms, and face outward, and move forth, and double the Front, Reer, and Midst of ranks, placing your selves on the out-side of your right and left-hand men, face to your Leader, and close ranks forward to open order.

Command. Double your two out-most files to the right and left outward, and Midst following of the in-most files.

Direction. The two out-most files face outward, the rest face inward, and Front and Reer half-files distinctly turn off to the right and left, and double the out-most files to the right and left outward, and midst following of the in-most files to your Leader; files close into the midst to order.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing, every man placing himselfe before his Leader.

Command. Bringers-up double your Front to the right.

Command. File-leaders double your Reer to the left.

Command. Double your files to the left intire into the Reer, every man placing himselfe before his Bringer-up.

Direction. Face to the Reer, and even files from the left advance your Arms, and move forward, and double the odd, placing your selves before your Bringers-up, to your Leader.

Command. Files double your Depth to the left following your Bringers-up.

Command. Half-files double your Front to the right and left inward, every man placing himself before his Leader, they are reduced as at first.

CHAP. XX. Plain Firings, and Figures of Batail.

HAving spent so much time upon these Doublings by Counter-marches; in the next place I shall proceed to Firings, and severall Figures of Battail, where first com­mand the half-files to double the Front to the left, and then go on to your Firings.

The first firing. Let them fire even with the Front, and fall off, and rank even with the half-files, and fall in the Reer of themselves; the Pikes may after charge on, and the Muskettiers may give fire again, and fall in the Reer of the Pikes.

The second firing. Let the Pikes port, and the Muskettiers give fire by extraduction.

The third firing. Now the Muskettiers being in the reer fire them there upon the march, wheel them about to the right, and let them fire after this manner; face about to the right and left, let the last rank fire, fall off and flank the first rank of Pikes, and so consequently all the rest; after fire them to the reer and fall off to the right and left some six paces before the front of Pikes and in the reer of themselves; then face the body about and let the Pikes charge to the reer, and after port, the Musketteirs may give fire to the reer by way of extraduction

The fourth firing, Next fire to the reer by dividing the Muskettiers and bringing them even with the reer and ranking outward, and falling again as they were; face to your leader.

Command. Ranks and files open to your open order, Muskettiers close outward to order, the outmost Files of Pikes stand, the rest close outward to order; front half-files open forward three paces; ranks close to front and reer to order: Pikes move forward two paces; Pikes face outward, Muskettiers face inward, and move clear one of another; to your leader.

N

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them give fire to the front and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right and left into the reer they at the same time moving up into their ground give fire, and falling off as before, the Pikes may after charge on while, the Musketties make ready.

The second firing. Let Pikes and Musketieers rank outward and give fire and fall off in like manner as before; after let them fire and fall in the reer of the first rank of Pikes of the front divisions, then the Pikes may port, then let the first divisions give fire and fal in behind the Pikes, the reer divisions after moving up into their places may give fire and face about, march down into their places, then face to their Leader; this firing being continued twice or oftner over, you may fire them to the reer (they being thither faced) after the very same manner the Pikes there charging, after facing all to their Leader, let them double files to the right and left inward of each division.

Command. Front divisions of Pikes face inward, Front divisions of Muskettiers face out­ward, the rest face about, move all six paces, to your leader, Reer divisions move forward two paces.

O

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front divisions give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right and left into the reer; they at the same time moving forward into their places may give fire and fall off as before; this may be twice performed.

The second firing. Let the front divisions give fire and fall in the reer of the front divisions of Pikes, the reer divisions of Muskettiers moving into their ground firing and falling behind the reer divisions of Pikes, then they may move forth cleer of the Pikes and fire and fall in again, they may fire after the same manner to the reer, but I shall let that passe and goe on to the next.

Command. Reer divisions of Muskettiers face outward and march three paces cleer of the reer divisions of Pikes, then face to your Leader and move forward untill they range even a brest with the reer divisions of Pikes.

P

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first divisions of Muskettiers give fire to the front and fall in the reer of themselves, after wheel off to the right and left into the room of them in the reer, they at the same time moving up into their places firing and falling off in like manner; this firing may be continued twice over, then the Pikes may charge whilst the Muskettiers make ready again.

The second firing. Let the reer, divisions move forward even a brest, then let the Mus­kettiers give fire altogether and fall in the reer of themselves, this firing may be continued twice over and the Pikes may charge, after let those divisions that moved, march down again into their places.

Command. Front division of Pikes upon the left face about and move down four paces cleer of the reer, front and reer divisions of Pikes move to the left two paces, to your Leader.

Q

[military diagram]

Upon the former figure fire first to the front and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel down into the place of them in the reer they at the same time moving up into their places firing and falling off in like manner. This firing being twice performed, let the reer divisions of Muskettiers move up even a brest with the front divisions, and fire altogether and fall in the reer of themselves, after let the Pikes charge on, and the outmost divisions of Muskettiers face about and move down into their places.

Command. Front division of Pikes face about and march untill they range even a brest with the front division of Muskettiers; to your Leader; Reer division of Pikes move for­ward three paces.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let each division fire as they stand and fall in the reer of themselves, per­forming it twice over the Pikes, may after charge on, whilst the Muskettiers make ready again, who after may give fire by two ranks together as they in each division, the Pikes charging as before.

Command. Outmost divisions of Muskettiers face about, march untill you range even with the reer, face inward and move untill you stand streight after the front divisions of Musket­tiers, to your leader; middle divisions of Pikes face outward and move cleer of the standing part, to your leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them give fire to the front by divisions relieveing each other; after face them to both flanks and let them give fire upon the ground they stand and fall in the reer of themselves, this firing may be continued twice, and after the Pikes may charge on whilst the Muskettiers make ready again, and after retreating into their places.

The second firing Let the middle division of Pikes in the reer face about, and the middle division of Pikes face to the front, and Muskettiers to face to the outward angles of front and reer, and let them give fire to the four angles and fall in the reer of themselves, or fire altoge­ther, and the Pikes may after charge on to Front, Reer and both flanks, being all faced unto those places, and retreating again to their places, they may if they please fire a second time, and charge on in manner as before. Now if the Leader have a desire to fire to Front and Reer let him face them thither and let them fire on the ground they stand and fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes after charging on and retreating again into their places, face them all to their leader and open the Front and reer divisions from the midst to sufficient distance, and let the Ensigne display his colours.

Reducement. Reer divisions of Pikes advance forward unto the left into the Front, outmost divisions of Pikes face inward, march and close your divisions; Muskettiers in the reer move and close ranks forward to order; files double your depth to the right every man falling behind his Bringer-up, reduceth them.

Then let the Muskettiers poyse their Muskets if they be neere the place of lodging the co­lours, and to move unto that place making a guard, their Muskets being rested, after which the colours being furled up, and the Pikes advanced, the Leader being on the right hand, and the Lievetenant on the left, and the Ensigne in the midst, the Serjeants following them, and in the Reer of them the Drums beating a troop, let them march away and lodge the colours, the Muskettiers giving of a volley, they may all betake themselves unto their severall habita­tions until they shal be summon'd again by beat of the Drum unto their place of randezvous.

CHAP. XXI. The seventh Exercise consisting of sixty four men, eight Files eight deep.

THe Souldiers appearing unto the place of Exercise, according unto the appointment of their Leader, or accustomed thereunto by beat of the Drum, are drawn forth into severall Files, as is the usuall custome. And the Souldiers being instructed of the use and handling of their Arms by the Serjeants, Corporals, or Leaders of the Files, spending such time therein as shall be convenient untill the fetching of the Colours; to which purpose they draw up their Files, and joyn into a Body, doubling the Front to the left by the half-files, and send for the Colours. Which being brought unto the head of the Company, and the Souldiers returned unto their severall places, and that the Body is closed in rank and file to close order, then silence, and the well minding of their Directions, and their obedience, is required of them, being three main properties belonging unto every Soul­dier. Now for more variety sake in matter of Motions, the Leader may spend his chiefest time in Doublings by Wheelings, giving, upon all occasions, the Souldiers their due distance unto every word of Command, and instructing them with their severall reasons and uses, and so proceed to this that follows.

CHAP. XXII. Two and twenty severall Doublings by Wheelings, with their reducement.

Command. WHeel off your Reer half-files and double your Front by Division.

Direction. Half-files face to the Reer, and wheel about to the right and left, untill you come up even with the Front.

Command. Right and left half-ranks double the Depth of the Battail, by wheeling into the Front.

Direction. Right half-ranks wheel to the left, left half-ranks wheel to the right; to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Front half-files, and double the Reer by Division.

Direction. Half-files face to the Reer, and Front half-files wheel about to the right and left, and move down even with the Reer; to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks, and double the left flank to the right intire.

Direction. Face outward, and right half-ranks wheele about to the left, and double the left flank to the right intire, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks, and double your left flank by Division.

Direction. Face outward, and right half-ranks wheel about to the right and left, and double the left-flank by Division; to your Leader.

Command. Front and Reer half-files double the Length of your Battail, by wheeling in­to the left-flank.

Direction. Face to the left, and Front half-files that were, wheel to the left, Reer half-files wheel to the right, to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double your right flank by Division.

Command. Front and Reer half-files double the Length of the Battail by wheeling into the right-flank.

Command. Wheel your left-half-ranks inward into the midst, and double the right flank inward intire.

Direction. Front and Reer half-files open from the midst to more then double distance; after face outward, and left half-ranks wheel inward into the midst, and move forward, and double the right-flank inward intire; to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Front half-files, and double the Reer to the right intire.

Direction. Half-files face to the Reer, and Front half-files wheel about to the left, and move down upon the right into the Reer, and face to your Leader.

Command. Wheel your right half-ranks inward into the midst, and double your left flank inward intire.

Command. Wheel off the Front half-files, and double the Reer to the left intire.

Command. Wheel your Reer-half-files inward into the midst, and double your Front inward intire.

Direction. Right and left half-ranks open from the midst to more then double distance, and half-files face about, and wheel inward into the midst, and move forward, and double your Front inward intire.

Command. Right and left half-ranks double the Depth of your Battail by wheeling into the Reer.

Direction. Face to the Reer, and right half-ranks wheel to the left, and left half-ranks wheel to the right untill you meet; to your Leader.

Command. Wheel your Front half-files inward into the midst, and double the Reer in­ward intire.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double your right flank to the right in­tire. Face outward.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double the Front to the left intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double your right flank to the left intire.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double your Front to the right intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks, and double your left-flank to the left intire. Face outward.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double intire the Depth of the right flank.

Direction. Left half-ranks face to the left, and wheel about to the left, untill you come down in the Reer of the right flank; to your Leader.

Command. Wheel off your Reer half-files, and double the Length of your Front to the right.

Direction. Half-files face about, and wheel round to the left, and move forward, and double the Length of the Front to the right, they are reduced.

CHAP. XXIII. Severall Firings, and Figures of Battail, with sixty four men.

HAving passed over these severall Wheelings by way of Doublings; it will be suffici­ent time to proceed unto Firings, wherefore, first, command them to open their Files from the midst to open order, and the Bringers-up thereof to double the Front to the right and left inward.

The first firing. Let them fire to the Front, by ranks, ranking outward, and after to rank as they were.

The second firing. Let them give fire to the front, by ranks ranking inward, and ranking again as they were, and closing again to the Body of Pikes.

The third firing. Let the half-files face about, and let them give fire to Front and Reer by ranks ranking outward, and ranking in again as they were.

The fourth firing. Let them advance forwards by two Ranks some ten paces before the Front and Reer, and give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves; then face about, and fall before the Front and Reer of Pikes, and then fire again falling off to the right and left, and flank the Pikes, then the Pikes may charge on, and the Muskettiers may fall in the Reer of the Pikes, and then Pikes may charge at Foot, and the Muskettiers may give fire altoge­ther over their heads.

The fift firing. Let the Pikes port, and the Muskettiers move forth to the right and left, and fire by extraduction, then the Pikes may charge again, and the Muskettiers may move forth as before, and the first Rank of each Division may give fire even with the Front and Reer, and stand, the rest may after move forth cleer of them, and give fire, falling be­hind their own Divisions of Muskettiers, then face all to their Leader, and close their Di­visions forward to order, and then proceed to Figures of Battail.

Command. Half-files face about, Muskettiers move forward untill you be cleer of the Pikes; the two in-most files of Muskettiers stand, the two out-most files of Muskettiers move forwards untill you be cleer of the in-most files; the two out-most files of Pikes face outward, and move three foot cleer of the out-most Divisions of Muskettiers, and af­ter to face to Front and Reer, and to move forward untill they range even with the Reer-divisions of Muskettiers; then let them face all to the front, and stand streight in their Di­vsions both rank-wise & file-wise, and they will stand as in the next Figure, when they have closed

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the first divisions of Muskettiers give fire and fall in the reer of them­selves, after wheel off to the right and left into the room of them in the reer, they at the same time moving up into their places firing and falling off in like manner. Then let the in­most divisions give fire in like manner as the former did, and wheel off to the right and left and be relieved by their owne reer divisions of Muskettiers, then let the Pikes charge on, and after recreating back again into their places.

Command. The two middle ranks of Pikes, face outward and move cleer of the standing part, then let the first rank of Pikes face about, and the first and last rank of Pikes to move forward to order, face all to your Leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front divisions fire and fall in the Reer of themselves; then wheel off to the right and left into the room of them in the neer, they at the same time moving for­ward into their places, firing and falling off in like manner; Next let the inmost divisions of Muskettiers doe the same, who may be relieved by the inmost divisions of Muskettiers in the reer.

The second firing. Let them all face to the reer and give fire as they did to the front.

The third firing. Let them face to front and reer and give fire and fall in the reer of them­selves first, after falling off and inter-changing divisions relieving each other, then let the Pikes charge on to front and reer and after retreating back into their places.

Command. The inmost divisions of Muskettiers to move forward untill they be two foot cleer of the standing part, then let them face all inward, and move untill the utmost divisions of Muskettiers range even a brest with the middle divisions of Pikes, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Upon the former figure fire them to both flanks, where first face them outward; let the first division give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after wheel off to the right and left into the places of the Reer divisions, and they move up at the same instant of time into their rooms, giving fire and falling in the reer of themselves, afterward into their places. Next let them fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after move inward and fall in the reer of the next division of Pikes, and then the first division of Muskettiers move forth and give fire in the ground they formerly stood on, and fall in the reer of themselves, and stand, and the next division of Muskettiers is likewise to move forth where formerly they stood and to fire and fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes may after charge on, and after retreat back again into their places, and face to their Leader.

Command. Reer divisions of Muskettiers move to the left two paces and double to the right file-wise; the two middle divisions of Pikes face outward and move two paces, to your leader; reer divisions of Muskettiers move forward untill the first divisions of Muskettiers be placed three foot before the midst of the middle divisions of Pikes, and the second division be three foot behind the same, standing streight with the front divisions of Muskettiers in the midst.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure they being faced to front and reer both Pikes and Muskettiers, let the first divisions give fire and fall in the reer of themselves and stand, let the rest move forward untill they be cleer of the front divisions of Muskettiers and fire and fall in the reer of themselves, [Page 109] and after face about and move down into their places again; then let the Pikes open a little outward and charge all to front and reer, and when they shall retreat back again into their places, the Muskettiers may fire again as they did before, and continue it as long as they please. Or they may fire upon this figure either to front or reer according to discretion as long as they please.

Now in respect much time hath beene spent in the motions by wheelings in plain firings and figures of battail, we will draw forth one figure more from the former that the colours may be displayed, and that we may conclude our seventh Exercise to refresh the souldiers for a space untill they shall again have warning from their Commander for another appea­rance.

Command. The last division of Muskettiers in the midst to face about, middle divisions of Muskettiers advance forward untill you be three foot cleer of the front and reer, to your lea­der; each division of Pikes face outward and move to convenient distance for the colours to display, to your leader.

[military diagram]

Reducement. Front and Reer division of Muskettiers face about, front division move down and double the reer division to the left rank-wise, to your leader; the two first divisi­ons of Muskettiers in the front face about, then let them, and the two last divisions of Mus­kettiers in the reer move forward untill they be even with the next divisions of Muskettiers, to your leader. The two middle divisions of Pikes close into the midst to order, and to open their ranks from the midst to somthing more then open order; the two outmost divisions of Pikes face inward and move forward into the midst of the two middle ranks in the body, to your leader. Front divisions of Pikes face about, and front and reer divisions to move for­ward and to close their divisions, to your leader. Files close to the right and left inward to order: Muskettiers in the front and reer double your Pikes by division. Files double your depth to the right and left outward, every man falling behind his bringer-up, they will be reduced as at first.

Now the Serjeants may draw off the Muskettiers filing them to the right and left outward thereby making a guard for there Captain and other Officers to march through, trooping a­way and lodging the colours which done, one of the Serjeants command the Muskettiers to face about to the right, and to present all, and no man to give fire untill they heare the beat of the Drum, no man pulling his tricker but once which will be a means that they all fire handsomly together, which being ended every man may depart home untill he shallbe cal­led forth again.

CHAP. XXIV. The eighth Exercise consisting of sixty four men, eight Files eight deep.

THe Souldiers being again brought into the Field, or place of Exercise, the Serje­ants, according to their wonted manner, drawing forth the Files, bids each File-leader to take his File into some convenient place a part, to exercise them in their severall Postures, and Charges, and after what manner they may fire, whether it be to Front, Reer, or both Flanks. Which being performed, they are called up to joyn into a B [...]dy, and commanded to close their Ranks and Files to their distance of order, and the Front doubled to the right and left inward by the half-files, distance, before hand, being prepared for their moving up. The Leader appoints one of the Serjeants to fetch the Co­lours, which being brought up to the head of the Company, the Leader for variety sake may spend the chiefest of his time in Firings, as followeth.

The first firing. Let the Muskettiers move forward untill their Bringers-up range even with the Front of Pikes; after let the two out-most Files of Muskettiers move forward untill their Bringers-up range even a Brest with the Front of the two in-most Files; Let the Front or fore-most Divisions of Muskettiers give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, then let them face about, and move down into their place where they were last, then let the two in-most Files of Muskettiers of each Division advance forwards untill their Bringers-up range even with the Front of the two out-most Files, and then let them give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves; and after face about, and march down into their places again where they were last drawn off.

The second firing. Let them give fire on the ground they stand in each Division falling off to the right and left in the Reer of themselves.

The third firing. Let the first rank in each Division fire as they stand, and after move inward in a streight line before the Front of Pikes, which gives way for the next rank to fire in each Division; & after to move inward into the Reer of the first Rank, & so consequently all the rest to fire in like manner untill they have all fired, and stand streight before the Pikes.

The fourth firing. Let their ranks rank outward into the Front, and then give fire all in­tire in one rank, and ranking again as they were.

The fifth firing. Let the half-files of Muskettiers double the Front by Divsion, and give fire by two ranks together, and after to move back again into their places.

The sixth firing. Let the two first ranks kneel down, the other two stand upright, and give fire four ranks together.

The seventh firing. Let the half-files, or Pikes to face about, and move three paces, to your leader: and then Files to double their Depth to the right and left outward of each Arms, then let them give fire eight ranks together after this manner, two kneel down, two kneeling, two stand upright, and the two last to be drawn off to the right and left, and so to fire altogether, which being ended, command the Pikes by their Files to rank outward into the Front, and then open outward to the right and left, and charge on in the Front, and File again as they were.

The eighth firing. Let the Pikes open their Files from the midst to double distance, then command the Muskettiers to face about, and move down into the midst of the Pikes, then let the half-files face abour, and let the Muskettiers be at open order in their Files, and the Pikes at order; and then let them give fire first to Front and Reer by intraduction after this manner: let the first rank in Front and Reer present, and give fire on the ground they stand, and presently make ready again; the next ranks may move forward, and place themselves three foot before them, and fire in like manner, and after stand, the other ranks still moving forward into the next rank untill the first have fired, and then immediately to clap before them, and fire in like manner, untill all have fired twice over.

The ninth firing. Let them close their Files into the midst to order, and fire on the same ground they stand, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The tenth firing. Let them fire and fall off to the right and left into the midst of Pikes again, then let the Pikes charge on to Front and Reer, and when they are cleer of the Mus­kettiers, let them close to the right and left inward to order.

The eleventh firing. Let the Pikes port, and let the Muskettiers be drawn forth one whole rank to the right, and another to the left, both to Front and Reer give fire, and fall into their places again, then let the other four be drawn forth in like manner, and fire and fall into their places again; the Pikes if occasion shall require, may again charge on.

The twelfth firing. Let the Muskettiers range to the right and left outward, and fire even a Brest with the Reer of each Division, and move in again into their places.

The thirteenth firing. Let the Muskettiers rank outward, and move even a Brest with the Front and Reer, and there present and give fire, and whilest the Pikes are charging on, they may rank again as they were, and fall in the Reer of the Pikes, and make ready again.

The fourteenth firing. The Pikes being retreated into their first ground, you may open them to the right and left, and then the Muskettiers may move forward, and fire two ranks kneeling down, & the other two standing upright, then the Pikes may continue their charge till the Muskettiers make ready again, and after they may retreat, and fall in the Reer of the Muskettiers, and close their Divisions inward to order. These firings being all upon a stand, and the Muskettiers being now in Front and Reer, they may be moved away, and may give fire upon the march to Front and Reer after this manner.

The fifteenth firing. Let the first rank in the Front, nimbly advance forward ten paces, then present and give fire, in which interim, the rest will be moved up unto them, the others having fallen off to the right and left in the Reer of their own divisions of Muskettiers, the next rank may give fire in like manner, untill all have fired thus once over; the Reer are to fire at the same time with the Front facing about the last rank, who are to fall off and to place themselves before their own divisions of Muskettiers.

The sixteenth firing. Let them fire as before, and the first rank of the Front-division to fall off, and flank the Pikes to the right, the rest of that Division falling off, and placing themselves in the Reer of them; and likewise the first rank of the Reer-division, when they have fired, let them fall off, and range even a Brest with the half-files of Pikes, and still preserving themselves in their places to be right-hand men to those which were at first, and the rest to give fire and fall in the Reer of them.

The seventeenth firing. Now the Muskettiers being all upon the right flank, let the out-most file face to the right, and fire, and lead away by Bringers-up between the Mus­kettiers, and the out-most file of Pikes, let this be continued in the same manner untill all have fired.

The eighteenth firing. The Body still marching, let them fire again, after the same man­ner, as before.

The nineteenth firing. Let them fire by ranks wheeling to the right flank, and after to rank to the right, so many a Brest as they were at first, marching a long with the Body.

The twentieth firing. Let them fire and fall off on the contrary flank.

The one and twentieth firing. Let them give fire upon the gathering firing after this manner, let the out-most file upon the left face to the left, give fire, and then face to the Front, and untill the rest be cleer, and then the next file to face to the left, and fire, and after face to the Front, and then the first file may gather up even a Brest upon the left of the second file, then the third file may face to the left, and give fire, after face to the Front, and stand, untill the other two march up on the left, and joyn even a Brest with him, and consequently so all the rest untill every file have fired, and that they be all moved up even a Brest with the Pikes.

The two and twentieeh firing. Let them wheel ranks to the left, and fire, and after rank four to the left as they were at first, and march even a Brest with the Pikes.

The three and twentieth firing. Let them fire to the left flank, ranks inverting, and after face to the Front, and to rank again as they were.

The four and twentieth firing. Let them fire by files, filing to the right, and facing after to the left, and fire to the left flank: and then facing to their first Front, and to lead up their Files to the left again as they were.

The five and twentieth firing. Let them fire by the out-most files to the left flank, and lead away by the Leader, up between, or in the middle of Pikes.

The six and twentieth firing. Let them face outward, and fire upon a stand after this manner by ranks dividing, moving forth to the right and left, and fire and fall in again

into their places, the Pikes may after charge on, and retreat again into their places.

The 27th. firing. Let them fire by ranks, ranking outward into both the Flanks, and mo­ving forward, and firing even a brest, and ranking again as they were, but not returning a­gain into the midst of Pikes from whence they were drawn forth, but fire to both flanks, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The 28th. firing. Let them fire again, and fall in the Reer or midst of Pikes.

The 29th. firing. Let the Pikes port, and let the Muskettiers fire by extraduction to both flanks, and return again into their places.

The 30th. firing. Let the Pikes open to the right, and the Muskettiers move up into the midst, and the first rank give fire, and slieve up to the right and left, and place themselves before the Pikes, the next rank moving forward into his ground, and slieving away in the Reer of them untill all have fired.

The 31th. firing. Let them close their Divisions, and fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The 32th. firing. Let them fire by files ranking outward, and filing again as they were.

The 33th. firing. Let them fire by ranks wheeling outward into both flanks towards Front and Reer, the half-files are to face about, the left half-ranks are to wheel to the right, the right half-ranks to the left, the Front half-files doing the like, may give fire, fa­cing after to the right and left inward, ranking as they were into the midst of ranks, and fa­cing again to the flanks.

The 34th. firing. Let them fire two ranks together, and slieving presently away, and flank the Pikes.

The 35th. firing. Let them face to Front and Reer, and after move outward, and facing to the outward Angles of Front and Reer, and let them fire and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The 36th. firing. Let them close files into the midst to order, and fire again, and let them fall off to the right and left, and flank the Pikes, then face all to their first Front, they are reduced.

Having spent all this time in the plain Firings, we will in the next place proceed to Firings upon such Figures of Battail as followeth.

CHAP. XXV. Severall Figures of Battail.

Command. HAlf-files double your Front to the left, Muskettiers double your Pikes intire advancing; Files open from the midst to double di­stance: the two out-most Files close outward to open order, and the two in-most Files close outward to the same distance; half-files of each Division double the Front inward intire. Ranks and Files close to order: The four out-most Files upon each Flank stand; the four in-most Files upon the left face to the Reer, then let the four in-most Files upon the left, and the four in-most Files upon the right move forward three foot before the Front and Reer, and then face to the left, and move two paces, then face all to the Front, and move streight in their Divisions, both rank-wise and file-wise, they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front division of Muskettiers move forward untill they be cleere of the standing part, then give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and then closing their files into the midst to order before the front of Pikes, the reer division of Muskettiers may move forward unto the front of the first division of Pikes, and there rank outward and give fire altogether, and file again as they were, and after face about and move down again into their places; the two out-most divisions of Muskettiers may next move forward some six paces; there stand and rank inward and fire, face about, and file again as they were, and move forward to the front of their owne divisions of Pikes and face to their leader.

The second firing. Let the front division of Muskettiers fire & fall off to the right and left & flank their Pikes, and at the same time let the reer division of Muskettiers move forward as they did before and fire even a brest with the first division of Pikes, and fall in the reer of themselves, then face about and move down into their places, and face to their leader; then let the two outmost divisions upon the flanks give fire on the ground they stand and fall off to the right and left and flank the Pikes; They may fire to the reer in the same manner being thither faced.

The third firing. Let them face to front, reer, and both flanks, and fire the first rank of each division and fall off to the right and left in the reer of the Pikes, and the last rank at the same time move forth and give fire and fall into their places again; but before they thus fire the front and reer divisions are to be wheeled to the left, then let them fire by Move forth those Musket­tiers into their former places, before they fire by Extraducti­on. extraduction, and the Pikes may after charg on, and then retreat back again into their places.

Command. Each division as they are faced to move forward three paces; half-files of each division open to the right and left untill they be cleer of the standing part, they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

Upon the former figure being faced to front, reer, and both flanks fire them according unto all those places, the formost divisions fire first, and let them wheele off to the right and left, and fall in the roomor place of them in the next divisions, firing twice in this kinde. Then let the formost divisions fire and fall in the Reer of the Pikes, then let the Pikes port, and the Muskettiers in each division may move forth again, and give fire by Extraduction, then let the Pikes charge on, and after charge at foot, and let the Muskettiers give fire over their heads, which being ended, let the formost rank of Muskettiers in Front, reer, and flanks, move forward, and interchange ground with the Pikes, and face all to the front, and after the third divisions from the front, and the third divisions from the reer face inward, and move three paces, then face to their leader, and close files outward, and ranks forward to or­der in each division, and stand streight and even in their divisions, both rank-wise and file-wise, and then proceed to the next figure.

Command. The out-most divisions upon the flanks face about, and move down two pa­ces, to your leader: halfe files of the two out-most divisions double to the right and left in­ward rank-wise, and after move that part that doubled two paces to the right and left in­ward: face all to your leader.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the first and the last rank of Muskettiers double to the right and left inward file-wise, then let the first division give fire to the front and fall in the reer of them­selves, then wheel off to the right about down into the reer, and let every division that are in the midst move up successively into the front untill all have fired and fallen off in like man­ner as the first, and every division be come again into his place, and the front and reer divi­sions have doubled ranks to the right and left outward; Then command the first and the last rank of Muskettiers from the front and reer to double to the right and left outward file-wise, and let them give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after fall off into the reer in like manner and form of the firing of the former divisions; either of these firings may be con­tinued twice over, after command the first division of Muskettiers from front and reer to double to the right and left inward rank-wise, and then proceed.

Command. The third division from the front, and the third division from the reer to face outward, and to move three paces untill they stand streight in front and reer between the middle divisions, and after face to their leader. Then let the front divisions face about, and front and reer divisions move forward untill they range even a brest with the second divisi­ons that stands before them and then face to their leader: it occasioneth the next figure.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure you may fire them to front, reer, and both flanks, therefore face the two outmost crosses to the flanks, which containes on each side four divisions of Pikes and Mus­kettiers, and let the rest face to front, and reer, and let all the Muskettiers in the reer of each division of Pikes move forth to the angles of the Pikes give fire, and fall back again into their places, and whilst the Pikes are charging on, the Muskettiers may make ready again and fire in like manner as before, and [...]all back again into their places, the Pikes charging on to front, reer and both flanks, as before, & retreating again into their places. Then face them all to the front, and let the second division from the reer face about, and then the second division from the front, and the second division from the reer move forward untill they be three foot cleer of the front, and reer, then face them to their Leader, and they will stand in a convenient fi­gure for marching wherein the Colours may display so long as a Commander shall think fit.

[military diagram]

Reducement. The two middle divisions face to the right and left outward, and march cleer of the standing part, to your Leader; then let them double to the right and left outward file-wise. After let them face to front, reer, and both flanks, and close their files into the midst to order, and ranks forward to order. Then command front, and reer divisions that formerly wheeled to the left, to wheel back again to the right, then face all to the front, and let the front division face to the right and move three paces, and then face to their Leader; then let the reer division move up upon the left of them in the front, and let the Pikes in each division double their depth to the right and left outward; and let them close files into the midst to order, and ranks forward to order, and to move up even with the front they stand­ing in their distance of order both in rank and file, let the half-files double their front inward intire and after files to double their depth intire to the right, they are reduced.

Then the Leader may appoint one of the Serjeants to draw off the Muskettiers, and file them away to the right and left outward either by ranks filing, or files, filing, and every Muskettier to poyse his Musket, then the Pikes may advance their arms, and the Drum beat a troop, and the Commander may lead them away and lodg his Colours.

CHAP. XXVI. The ninth Exercise consisting of 64 men, eight files, eight deep.

IN this Exercise a Commander may in matter of motions present unto the Souldiers f [...]r­ther varietie to delight them withall, in bringing up each man into the Front to be a File-leader, according unto succession and dignity by proper words of Command by doublings, with their Reducement. Therefore, to avoid any further circumstance, wee will pass over the Postures, and fetching of the Colours, and suppose the Souldiers standing in a condition to be exercised, begin first to make them all File-leaders by succession as fol­loweth.

Command. Ranks to the left double.

Command. Files to the left double.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing every man placing himself be­fore his leader.

Command. Ranks to the right double.

Command. Files to the right double.

Command. Front half-files double the reer to the right.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing.

Command. Double your ranks to the right into the reer; face all about.

Command. Double your files to the left advancing.

Direction. Every even file from the left move forward to the left and by three steps double the odde advancing.

Command. Half-files double your front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing, every man placing himself before his leader.

Command. Double your ranks to the left into the reer; face all about.

Command. Double your files to the right advancing.

Reducement. Files rank to the right into the front.

Rank, file eight to the right, reduceth them.

Next followeth to make every man file-leader according unto dignity, with their Reduce­ment.

Command. Bringers-up double your front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing.

Command. Half-files double your front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing, every man placing himself before his leader.

Command. Bringers-up double your front to the right.

Command. Files double your depth to the right.

Command. Ranks to the right double.

Command. Front half-files double your reer to the right following your leaders.

Command. Double your files to the right by division every man placing himself before his leader and his bringer-up.

Command. Front half-files double your reer to the left following your leaders.

Command. Double your files to the left by division, every man placing himself before his leader and his bringer-up.

Command. The two first and the two last ranks double, the four middle-most ranks to the right following your leaders and your bringers-up.

Direction. The four middle ranks stand, the file-leaders are to turn off to the right, and the next rank is to follow them untill the leaders rank even with the bringers-up of the front half-files; and at the same instant of time the bringers-up are to move forward to the right, the rest following untill the bringers-up range even a brest with the half-file-leaders; to your leader.

Command. Files double your depth to the left.

Reducement. Half-files double your front to the right.

Bringers-up double your front to the right.

Then divide every four files distinctly apart making five divisions.

Files double to the right and left inward in each division, and close files into the midst to order.

Files double to the left intire advancing; reduceth.

CHAP. XXVIII. Eight, severall Counter-marches with their Reducement.

Command. FIles to the right hand counter-march maintaining ground.

Command. Ranks to the left hand counter-march losing ground.

Command. Counter-march your front and reer half-files into the midst of ranks.

Direction. Half-files face about and turn off to the left, and front half-files turn off to the right untill they meet the front and reer into the midst, to your leader.

Command. Right and left half-ranks counter-march into the midst of files.

Direction. Face outward right half-ranks turn off to the right, left half-ranks turn off to the left, to your leader.

Command. Files to the left hand counter-march losing ground by following your leaders.

Command. Ranks to the right hand counter-march mayntaining ground.

Command. Counter-march your front and reer half-files to the right and left following the half-file-leaders, and the bringers-up of the front half-files.

Direction. Half-files face about, the bringers-up of the front half-files, and the half-file-leaders are to begin the motion, the rest are to follow untill they have gained so much ground beyond the front and reer as they formerly possest in the midst, to your leader and close your divisions.

Command. Counter-march your half ranks to the right and left by following of the in­most files.

Direction. Face outward, the inmost files are to begin the motion moving forward, the rest following, untill they have gained so much ground beyond the flanks as they formerly pos­sessed in the inmost files, to your leader, and close files into the midst to order, they are re­duced.

CHAP. XXIX. Ten severall Wheelings with their Reducement.

Command. WHeel the battail off by division from the front.

Command. Wheel the body off by division from the right flank, face to the right.

Command. Wheel the battail off by division from the reer, face about.

Command. Wheel the body off by division from the left flank.

Command. Wheel your battail inward to the reer from the front.

Direction. Open outward to convenient distance, to your leader.

Command. Wheel your battail inward to the left flank from the right.

Direction. Face to the right and open to convenient distance, to your leader.

Command. Wheel your battail inward to the front from the reer.

Direction. Face about and open to convenient distance, and wheel inward into the front. Close ranks forward to close order, and files into the midst to close order.

Command. Wheel your battail inward to the right flank from the left.

Command. Wheel the outward angles of front and reer to the right and left about into the center, face to the outward angles.

Command. Wheel the inward angles to the right and left about from the center.

CHAP. XXX. Plain firings, and figures of Battail.

IN the next place I wil proceed to some plain firings, wherefore first double your ranks for­ward to the left by half-files and fire even with the front of pikes, & fal in the reer of them­selves, then fire and fall between the Pikes, then move forth after this manner, one rank drawn forth to the right, and another to the left, fire & fal in again as before. Then com­mand the first rank to stand, and the rest to move forth both Pikes and Muskettiers to the right and left untill each rank be cleer of other then let the Pikes charge, and Muskettiers give fire altogether, and after fall behind each rank of Pikes, then let the Pikes charge at foot, and let the Muskettiers give fire over their heads. After let the Pikes port, and let the Mus­kettiers come forth again and give fire by extraduction; and after command the ranks to face to the right and left inward, and to close their divisions: then let the Muskettiers move forth again into their first places and flank their Pikes. And having passed over some half a dozen firings after this manner, then command half-files to double their depth to the right intire, and proceed to figures of battail and firings which comes in the next place to view for a leader to spend his time further in the exercising of his souldiers therein.

Command. Half-files face to the Reer and march six paces, to your Leader; half-files of Muskettiers of each division face to the Reer. Muskettiers march all untill you be cleer of the Pikes to your Leader. The two middle-most ranks of Pikes of each division face outward, & move cleer of the Muskettiers, to your Leader; the first and third rank of Pikes in the body face to the Reer, and close ranks into the midst to order, the following Figure will appear.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front divisions give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, the rest of the divisions moving up into their ground and fire wheeling off to the right and left, ha­ving all fired over once they wil be reduced.

The second firing. Let the four inmost divisions of Muskettiers face outward and move cleer of the Pikes, then face to their Leader, then let the eight last divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers face to the Reer, then let them fire to front and reer falling in the reer of them­selves, their being intervalls for the Pikes to move forward upon their charge, and being retreated back into their places will produce the following figure.

[military diagram]

After the figure is reduced unto his first aspect, command the Muskettiers or divisions upon the wings to face to the right and left inward, and to march untill they stand as in the first figure, then face to their leader; and commadd the eight first divisions of Pikes and Mus­kettiers to face outward marching untill you perceive an intervall for the eight reer divisions to move up and make an even range with the front divisions, which being done they will appear as followeth.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the front divisions of Muskettiers give fire and fall in the reer of them­selves, then wheel off to the right into the room of them in the reer, they at the same time fi­ring and wheeling off into their places again.

Then let the Commander face them all to the right, and they will stand in four crosses, with Muskettiers on the wings file-wise, upon which facing they may march, the Officers being placed according unto discretion; and after they have marched, let them face again to their first front.

Command. Front divisions of Muskettiers face, to the right and move two paces, to your leader; Reer divisions of Muskettiers move up and double the front divisions to the left rank-wise, which produceth the next figure.

[military diagram]

Upon the former figure let all the Muskettiers give fire together and fall off to the right and left in the reer of themselves, the Pikes after charging through the intervalls, and after retreating again. Then command Muskettiers that doubled to face about, and to move down into the reer, untill they be cleer of the Pikes and stand; then let the Muskettiers both in front and reer face to the left, and march untill they stand streight in their divisions, then face to their leader, and they will stand as in the former figure, then proceed.

Command. The four inmost divisions both of Pikes and Muskettiers on the left face to the reer; inmost divisions both of Pikes and Muskettiers both upon the right and left, march cleer of the standing part, then let them face to the left and move three paces, to your leader. The four outmost divisions both of Pikes and Muskettiers upon the right wheel to the right; the four outmost divisions upon the left both of Pikes and Muskettiers wheel to the left, which will set forth the next figure.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them face to front, reer and both flanks; and give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, after wheeling off to the right your divisions on the outside of the Pikes into the place of the reer divisions, which are to advance forward into the front performing the like as the other front divisions.

The second firing. Let the front divisions of Muskettiers move to the right two paces, after command divisions of Muskettiers to double to the left rank-wise, and let them give fire in front, reer, and both flanks altogether, the Pikes may after charge to all these places whilst the Muskettiers make ready again, and retreat again into their places.

The third firing. Let them give fire again and fall in the reer of themselves which being ended you may proceed to another figure.

Command. The left division of Muskettiers wheel off to the left, and place your selves in the left intervall between the Pikes, which occasioneth the next figure.

[military diagram]

Upon this Figure let the Muskettiers give fire in the front, reer, and flanks, and angles fal­ling in the reer of themselves, and the Pikes may after charge on. Many other firings might be performed upon this figure, but I shall not be tedious to relate any more, but leave them to the discretion of every leaders genious, and shall now shew the way to reduce them.

Reducement. Divisions of Muskettiers upon the Angles face to the center and move three paces, after wheel the divisions a little to the right untill they be brought in the reer of their own divisions of Muskettiers, which being done command the four divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers on the right to wheel to the left; and the four divisions of Pikes and Musket­tiers upon the left to wheel to the right. After command the four divisions of Pikes and Mus­kettiers upon the left, to face to the left and march to such a convenient distance, as that the four last divisions both Pikes & Muskettiers may move up on the left to range even with the Front▪ they on the flanks moving up also untill they stand all even a brest. After command the inmost eight divisions to face to the reer, and let them all move▪ untill they be cleer one of another, then face to their leader; and let the eight front divisions to face inward and to move untill they stand streight with the reer divisions. After let the Pikes in the body in each division open their ranks to front and reer to their open order. And then command division of [...]ikes upon the flanks to face to the right and left inward, and march in and strengthen the body of Pikes; which being done, let the front divisions of Muskettiers face to the reer, commanding them all to close their ranks forward to order, and face to their leader, they are reduced. Which being performed the leader may lodge his colours having finished his ninth Exercise.

CHAP. XXXI. The tenth Exercise consisting of 24 Files being six deep, according to the first drawing up of a private Company.

THere being a greater number appearing upon this days Exercise then in the former, it concerns a Leader more especially to give speciall charge to the inferiour officers to be carefull in the drawing forth the files, that they make no man a file-leader bringer-up, half-file-leader, or bringer-up of the front half-files, but such able soul­dier as may be deserving of the same; whose diligence and care upon all motions is princi­pally required, being as it were the hinges of the Leaders severall words of command. Wherefore supposing them to be drawnup in battalia, and the colours being brought to the head of the Company, the four Serjeants ready at hand attending their Captains commands, and the body being closed in ranks and files to their distance of order, and silence craved at the Company, he that shall exercise them may begin after distances and facings shewen, with this or the like doubling following.

CHAP. XXXII. Eight entire severall Doublings with their Reducement.

Command. FRont half-files double your reer inward intire.

Command. The twelve inmost files double intire the depth of the six out-most files. In-most files face about.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing.

Command. Half-files double your front inward intire.

Command. The six outmost files upon each flank double intire, advancing the twelve mid­dle files.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right intire.

Command. Right half-ranks double your left flank intire advancing, which being perfor­med they are reduced.

CHAP. XXXIII. Eight severall Counter-marches with their Reducement.

Command. FIle-leaders stand, the rest passe thorough to the right, and place your selves before your leaders.

Command. The right hand file stand, the rest passe thorough to the right, and place your selves on the out-side of your right hand men.

Command. Counter-march your front and reer into the midst of ranks.

Direction. Half-files face about and turn off to the left, front half-files turn off to the right, to your leader.

Command. Counter-march your flanks into the midst of files; face outward.

Command. Files to the right hand counter-march maintayning ground.

Command. Ranks to the left hand counter-march losing ground.

Command. Counter-march your front and reer half-files from the midst of ranks maintai­ning ground.

Direction. Front half-files face about, and turn off to the left, the rest turn off to the right, every man moving up into his leaders ground, to your leader.

Command. Counter-march your right and left half-ranks from the midst of files losing ground.

Direction. Face inward, and turn off every rank on the ground, they stand; face to your leader, and close files into the midst to open order, they are reduced.

CHAP. XXXIV. Eight entire Doublings by Wheelings with their Reducement.

Command. WHeel off your reer half-files and double your front to the right in­tire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your left half-ranks, and double your right flank intire to the left. Face outward.

Command. Wheel off your reer half-files and double your front to the left intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks and double your left flank to the left intire. Face outward.

Command. Wheel off your front half-files and double the reer to the right intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your right half-ranks and double the left flank to the right intire. Face outward.

Command. Wheel off your front half-files and double the reer to the left intire. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheeel off your left half-ranks and double your right flank to the right intire. Face outward.

CHAP. XXXV. Plain Firings and Figures of Battail.

The first firing. LEt the two outmost files of Muskettiers upon each flank advance ten paces before the front, give fire, and fall in the reer of them­selves, after face about, and move down into their places again, then face to their leader. Then let the next two files upon each flank move away in like manner, and fire as the former did, and move down into their pla­ces again. After let the other remaining files be led forth by the other two Serjeants, and give fire as before, and fall back again into their places.

The second firing. Let two Serjeants draw four files upon each flank, and move them away 10 or 20 paces before the front, and give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, and after face about & move down into their places. And whilest they are moving down, let the other two Serjeants draw forth the remayning four files upon each flank, and fire as the former did, and after return again into their places.

The third firing. Let all the Muskettiers move forth cleer of the Pikes, and let them open from the midst, untill they stand in four divisions, leaving sufficient intervalls for their wheel­ing into the reer of themselves; first, let them fire in each division falling in the reer of them­selves, untill they have all fired over two or three times after this kind.

The fourth firing. Let them close their files before the front of [...]ikes into the midst to order, then let the two first ranks kneel down the next two stoop, and the last two stand upright, and give fire six ranks altogether, then let the left half-ranks of Muskettiers be wheeled about to the left into the reer of the Pikes, and the right half-ranks move to the left untill they stand streight before the front of Pikes.

The fifth firing. Let the half-files face about, and let them give fire to front and reer after this manner by two ranks drawn off ten paces before the front and reer, and fall off to the right and left into the reer of themselves, then facing about let them open outward and give way for the next two ran [...]s to come forward into their places, who are to fire and fall off as the former did, the other two ranks doing the same; this firing may be continued as long as the Leader pleaseth.

The sixt firing. Let them give fre on the ground they stand, and fall off to the right and left into the reer of themselves.

The seventh firing. Let them rank outward into front and reer and give fire altogether, and rank again as they were.

The eight firing. Let them give fire on the ground they stand, and flank the Pikes, those in the front flanking the Pikes on the right, they in the reer flanking them on the left; after let the Pikes charge on, and being retreated into their places, let them face all to their leader, and in the next place proceed to figures of batt [...].

Command. Files open outward to open order, ranks open backward to your open order, then let every four files close outward to order, and ranks close to front and reer to order, they will stand in twelve divisions as followeth.

[military diagram]

Command. The two inmost divisions of Muskettiers in the reer face about, inmost divisi­ons of Muskettiers in front and reer move forward cleer of the standing part, and stand; Pikes face outward, Muskettiers upon the flanks face inward, the rest face about to the right, move all two paces, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front divisions of Muskettiers give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right and left into the room of them in the reer, they at the same time moving up into their ground, firing, and falling off in like manner as before. Then let the front divisions upon the flanks fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, and after wheel off to the right and left into the ground of those divisions that stand in the reer of them, they at the same time relieving them, firing and falling off as before, then let the Pikes charge on, and after retreat back again into their places.

The second firing. Let them face to front & reer, and let the first divisions give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheeling off to the right and left and interchange ground with the next divisions, who are at the same instant of time to move up into their places and to give fire in like manner, and to fall off and return where they were before, then let the Pikes charge on to front and reer, and after retreat into their places, and face all to their leader.

Command. The four last divisions next to the reer both of Pikes and Muskettiers face a­bout, move down, and range even a brest with the reer; reer divisions of Muskettiers that are faced to the front move forward, and place your selves three foot short of the next divisi­ons that stands before you, to your leader.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the front divisions give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right and left, and range even a brest with the next divisions, yet keeping themselves distinctly from the other divisions. Then let those divisions of Muskettiers that stood in the reer of them move forward into their ground and give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, after face about, and move down again into their first places; then let those that first fired move up again into their ground, and let the outmost divisions begin to fire after this manner, let the first divisions fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after fall off to the right and left, and place themselves in the room of the reer divisions, who are likewise to move up into their ground, and thereto fire and fall off as before, the Pikes may after charge on and retreat back again into their places. The same firings may be performed to the reer, they being thither faced, but to let that passe we will fall upon the next figure, wherefore.

Command. Divisions of Pikes move forward untill your reer divisions range even a brest with the outmost divisions of Muskettiers; reer divisions of Muskettiers face inward, and move streight in the reer of the reer divisions of Pikes, to your leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the two last divisions of Muskettiers face about, and the other divi­sions of Muskettiers to face to the right and left outward, and let them give fire on the ground, they stand; and fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes may charge on whilst the Muskettiers make ready again.

The second firing. Let them face all to the reer, and let the reer divisions move forth to the right and left outward, and give fire altogether, and fall in the reer of themselves.

The third firing. Let the four first divisions of Muskettiers, & the two first divisions of Pikes face to the front, and let them give fire to front and reer, and fall in the reer of themselves, then face all to the front, and proceed farther.

Command. The front and reer divisions to move outward two paces; reer division of Pikes upon the left face about, reer divisions of Pikes move three foot before the front & reer, to your leader; divisions that moved outward, close inward to your first ground, and they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the first divisions of Muskettiers give fire to the front and fall in the reer of themselves, then face outward, and march cleer of the standing part, then face to their Leader, then let every division of Muskettiers come successively into that ground, fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then face about and move down into their places, then let the Front divisions of Pi [...]es charge on, and after retreat back into their places.

The second firing. Let them face all to the Reer, and let every division give fire on the ground, they stand and fall in the Reer of themselves.

The third firing. Let half the Muskettiers and three divisions of Pikes face about to the right, and give fire to Front and Reer on the ground they stand and fall in the Reer of them­selves, then let the Pikes charge on, and after retreat back into their places, face all to their Leader.

Command. The out-most Divisions of Muskettiers face outward and move two paces, to your Leader; the other divisions both Pikes and Muskettiers open your files outward to o­pen order; the five first Divisions face about, the five first and the five last Divisions move streight forward and interchange ground, and after face to their Leader, and close files in­ward again to order; then lead up the two out-most Divisions of Muskettiers to stand even a brest against the middle Divisions of Pikes, face all to your Leader; then move the two out-most Divisions to the right and left inward, to stand streight in the middle of the Front and Reer Divisions of Muskettiers.

[military diagram]

Upon this Figure severall firings might be performed, to the Front, Reer, both Flanks, and four Angles, all at one and the same time, but being so easie to the view, I shall leave them unto the discretion of those which shall be pleased to make use of them, and in the next place endevour to reduce them.

Reducement. Middle divisions of Muskettiers upon the flanks face out-ward, and move cleer of the standing part, to your Leader; the five first Divisions face about, the five first, and the five last Divisions open files outward to open order, and move forward and interchange ground, and close files inward again to order; out-most divisions face about, and move down again into your first places, face all to your Leader. Here the Captain if he please may command the Ensigne to display his Colours, which being ended, he may proceed, command­ing Reer divisions of Pikes to move forward, and to place themselves in the Reer of the out-most division of Pikes upon the left in the Front; then let the Front division of Pikes move down and place themselves in the Reer of the second division of Pikes upon the right, then close Pikes into the midst to order. In-most divisions of Muskettiers move forward to order, [Page 127] and march up even with the Front; Reer divisions of Muskettiers face outward, and move untill they stand streight with the out-most divisions of Muskettiers, then face to their Lea­der, and close ranks forward to order, and march up and make an even Front, and close files into the midst to order; they are reduced.

CHAP. XXXVI. The eleventh Exercise with 24 Files six deep.

THe Souldiers being met unto the place appointed, and the Officers being vigilant and carefull in their severall places, in drawing forth the files, and joyning them into a Body; the Leader without any farther delay may crave their silence, and close their ranks and files to order, and after some distances and facings shewn unto them, drawn forth from the former rule, he may proceed to this following doubling, making every man a file-leader, according to succession, and after reduce them again.

Command. Ranks to the left double.

Command. Files to the left double.

Command. Half-files double your front to the left.

Command. Files double your depth to the left.

Command. Bringers-up double your front to the right.

Command Double your files to the left intire advancing.

Command. Bringers-up double your front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing.

Command. Ranks to the right double.

Command. Files to the right double.

Reducement. Files, rank to the left into the front.

Rank, file six to the left, they are reduced.

CHAP. XXXVII. Eight Counter-marches with their Reducement.

Command. BRingers-up stand to the rest, pass thorough to the right, and place your selves behind your Bringers-up. The rest face about.

Command. File-leaders and Bringers-up stand, the rest pass tho­rough to the right, and place your selves before your Leaders and Bring­ers-up, half-files face about.

Command. Ranks to the left hand counter-march maintaining ground; face to the left.

Command. Right and left half-ranks counter-march from the midst of files maintaining ground; face inward.

Command. File-leaders face about the rest, pass thorough to the right and place your selves behind your leader; to your leader.

Command. Counter-march your front and reer half-files from the midst of ranks losing ground; front half-files face about.

Command. Ranks to the right hand counter-march losing ground.

Command. Counter-march your right and left half-ranks every man placing himself one the outside of his right and left hand-man, they are reduced.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Eight severall Wheelings with their Reducement.

Command. WHeel your right and left half-ranks inward to the midst of files. Face outward.

Command. Wheel the battail off by division from the reer;

Command. Wheel the battail inward to the right flank, from left. Face to the left.

Command. Wheel front and reer half-files inward to the midst of ranks. Half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your right and left half-ranks by division from the midst of files. Face inward.

Command. Wheel off your front and reer half-files by division from the midst of ranks; front half-files face about.

Command. Wheel off your front by division.

Command. Wheel your battail inward to the left flank from the right; face to the right.

CHAP. XXXIX. Plain Firings and Figures of Battail.

The first firing. LEt them give fire to the front by introduction, where first com­mand them to open their files outward to open order, and then let the first rank give fire on the ground they stand; then let the next rank move forward and place themselves before the first ranke, and give fire likewise, and stand, and so successively every rank is to move forward and place themselves before the rank that fired, untill all have given fire; this being twice performed re­duc [...]th them, and is tearm'd a firing of gaining ground.

The second firing. Let them fire by files inward to order, and fire on the ground they stand, and fall off to the right and left into the reer of themselves.

The third firing. Let them close their files ranking outward into one intire rank into the front, all at one and the same time, and to file again as they were.

The fourth firing. Let the Muskettiers double ranks to the right and left outward, and give fire three ranks together, the first kneeling, the second stooping, the third standing up­right, and after to double files to the right and left inward.

The fifth firing. Let them fire again, and fall off to the right and left, and flank the Pikes, who may after charge on, and after retreat back again into their places.

The sixt firing. Let them face outward and give fire to both flanks on the ground, they stand and fall in the reer of themselves.

The seventh firing. Let the half-files of Muskettiers face outward, and move cleer of the standing part, then let every division give fire again, and fall in the reer of themselves, and then close their divisions.

The eight firing. Let them give fire eight ranks together (viz.) two kneel down, two stooping, two standing upright, & the last two to be drawn forth & so fire them altogether.

The ninth firing. Let the four first ranks upon each flank fire again, and fall off to the to the right and left and flank the Pikes, and, let those Muskettiers face to front and reer, and draw forth the last rank of Muskettiers upon the flanks to the right and left outward, and place them in the midst of those intervalls upon the angles, the Pikes being impaled, then fire them to front, reer, and both flanks and four angles, and fall in the reer of themselves. This firing may be continued as long as a leader shall think fit; then face about those files standing at the angles, and move them into the reer of those divisions of Muskettiers upon the flanks from whence they were first drawn forth; then let them face all to their leader.

The tenth firing. Let the Muskettiers in front & reer face outward, and march cleer of the standing part, then let them face to front & reer, and give fire, & fall in the reer of themselves, then let the reer divisions of Mukettiers face to the front, and the outmost divisions of Mus­kettiers in the front face to the reer, then let the outmost divisions move, and close ranks for­ward to order, and let the Pikes charge on, and being retreated back again into their places, face all to the front and proceed to figures of battail according to the next direction.

Command. Half-files of Pikes face about; half-files of the four outmost Files of Musket­tiers face to the reer; the four outmost files, and the body of Pikes, move forward cleer of the standing part, to your leader; then let them face outward, and move two paces, then face to front and reer and move the like, face all to your leader, and close ranks forward, and files inward in each division; they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the reer divisions face about, then let the first divisions give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right and left and fall in the room or place of the next divisions, and they at the same time are to move up into their ground giving fire, and falling off in like manner.

The second firing. Let them give fire on the ground they stand in each division and fall in the reer of themselves, then let the Pikes charge on whilst the Muskettiers make ready again.

The third firing. Let the reer divisions of Muskettiers move up, and range even a brest with the first divisions, then let them fire altogether and fall in the reer of themselves, then let those that formerly moved up face about and march down again into their places, then let the Pikes charge on again as before, and being retreated, let them face all to both flanks, and give fire in form and manner as they did to front and reer.

The fourth firing. Let the middle divisions of Muskettiers advance forward untill they be cleer of the standing part, then let them all fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and the middle divisions to move back again into their places, then face to their leader, and move the inmost division of Muskettiers upon the right in the reer, to the left three paces, then proceed.

Command. Inmost divisions of Musktttiers in the reer double to the right file-wise, and af­ter, that division that doubled to face about, and pass thorough the intervalls of Pikes and place themselves three foot behind the reer, and the other division that was doubled to ad­vance forward through the interval of Pikes, and place themselves three foot before the front; then face to their leader. Let the second divisions of Muskettiers from the front stand, and all the rest move forward three paces; then move the second divisions of Muskettiers to the right and left inward, untill they stand streight between the front and reer divisions of Pikes; front division of Muskettiers face about, and let them and the reer division move forward & inward three paces, and after face to their leader.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front division of Muskettiers fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right by the outmost divisions of Muskettiers and come down into the place or room of them in the reer; and they at the same time are to move streight forward up into the front, and to give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then to wheel off to the right as the front division did untill they come into their places again. Then let the first out-most divisions give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, and after wheel off to the right and left into the ground of the reer divisions, who at the same time are to move forward into their places, and give fire and fall off as the former did. The same firings may be perform'd to the reer, they being thither faced.

The second firing. Let them face to both flanks and give fire and fall in the reer of them­selves in each division, then let the Pikes charge on to both flanks, and being retreated back again into their places, let the reer division of Muskettiers move forth cleer of the standing part, then let them double ranks to the right in each division and give fire altogether, after let them double files to the left, and fire again four ranks together, two kneel down, and two stand upright, then let the Pikes charge on, and being retreated, you may farther proceed.

Command. Front divisions of Muskettiers face about and march into your first places, face all to your leader; middle divisions of Muskettiers face outward, and move cleer of the standing part, front division of Muskettiers face about, front division, and reer division of Muskettiers move forward untill you be cleer of the next divisions of Pikes that stands be­fore you, face all to your leader, and they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let them face all to the right flank, & let the front division give fire & fall in the reer of themselves, then let them wheel down into the reer, they at the same time moving up into their ground firing, and falling off, and moving down accordingly into their first pla­ces; Then let the other six divisions fire after this manner, first the Front divisions and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel off to the right and left into the reer of their own range, and the next divisions may move forwards into their ground, give fire and fall off in like manner, and so successively let every division move up into their first ground relieving each other, untill they have fired two or three times over in this manner.

The second firing. Let them face to both flanks, and let the inmost divisions of Musketti­ers move forth to the right and left untill they be cleer of the Pikes, who are to port, then the Muskettiers in each division may give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then the Pikes may charge on, whilst the Muskettiers make ready again, and being retreated into their places again you may proceed to another firing.

The third firing. Let the outmost divisions of Muskettiers face to Front and Reer, and the Pikes to the four angles, then let them give fire to Front, Reer, and both flanks, on the ground they stand, in each division, and fall in the reer of themselves; then let the Pikes charge on to the four angles, and being retreated into their places, move in the outmost di­visions of Muskettiers into their places again, and then face all to their leader.

Command. Outmost divisions of Muskettiers face to the right and left inward and march untill you range in the midst of Front and Reer divisions of Pikes, to your leader.

[military diagram]

Upon the former figure let the front divisions of Muskettiers upon the flanks move even with the front of Pikes, then let them fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel about to the right and left into the place of the reer divisions, who are to move forward into their ground & to fire and fal off accordingly. Then let the middle divisions of Muskettiers in the front move forward likewise untill they range even a brest with the front, give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, and then move cleer forth, and wheel off to the right about into ground of the reer division of Muskettiers standing behind them, and they at the same time to move up into the front, and to give fire in like manner, and to fall off accordingly, untill they have attained their first places. Then let the three last divisions of Muskettiers and the reer divisions of Pikes face about, and let the two middle divisions of Muskettiers face out­ward, and move cleer of the standing part, then let the Muskettiers in front and reer move forward cleer of the Pikes, and let them fire to front, reer, and both flanks, and fall in the reer of themselves, then the Pikes may charge on to front and reer, and being retreated back into their places, the Muskettiers in front and reer may face about and move down again into their first ground, and the Muskettiers upon the flanks are to face inward, and to move into their places where formerly they stood, then face them all to their leader, and proceed.

Command. Reer division of Muskettiers in the midst face about, middle divisions of Mus­kettiers move forward three foot before the front and reer; division of Mu [...]kettiers in the midst upon the right, face to the left angle, and move untill you stand even and streight in the next range of Muskettiers, the next division of Muskettiers in the midst upon the left face about, and then likewise face to the left angle and move down into the next range of Mus­kettiers to them and to stand streight in the reer, of the reer division, face all to your leader, produceth the next.

[military diagram]

Upon the former figure let the six last divisions face about, & let the first divisions give fire & fall in the reer of themselves, then wheel them about to the right, and interchange ground with them that stand in their reer, who just upon their wheeling about are to move up cleer of the Pikes to make them room to fall down through the middle intervall, into their places, who also are immediately to give fire and fall off accordingly. Then let the outmost divisi­ons give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, then let the Pikes charge on to front, & reer, face them after to the front at such time when the Pikes have retreated back into their places again. Now if you will fire them to the front, the Muskettiers stands in such good order, that you may fire them by divisions, by their severall turns as long as you please, they relie­ving each other. After you may fire them to front, reer, and both flanks, the Muskettiers stand­ing in fit condition for the same. But fearing to keep the souldiers to long in Exercise, debar­ring them thereby of there wonted refreshment, I will hasten to the reducement, and for pre­sent, lodge the colours and conclude the eleventh exercise.

Reducement. Out-most divisions of Muskettiers face outward and move six paces, to your leader; the two first divisions of Muskettiers in the midst face to the right, and move cleer of the Pikes, then face to the right and left inward, and move, and interchange ground, then stand, and face to your leader; The two last divisions of Muskettiers in the midst, face to to the left, and move cleer of the Pikes, face all to your leader; then let every division close forward to order, and move up even a brest with the Pikes, they are reduced.

CHAP. XL. The twelfth Exercise consisting of 24 Files, six deep.

THe place of Exercise appointed for the souldiers to meet, they upon a just summons make full appearance, being indeed the very life of any Exercise, affording much comfort to him that shall lead them. And therefore seeing their readinesse, & for­wardnesse (as in duty they are concer'nd) the leader cannot chuse but forthwith to give order unto his officers, for the compleating up of the body; who knowing his com­mands goe nimbly and cheerfully to work in drawing forth the files, and joyning them toge­ther, after fetching the colours, and bringing them to the head of the company. So that nothing being wanting, the leader craves their silence, and attention, commanding them to their di­stance of order, both in rank, and file, and after some few distances shewn unto them, he may proceed in the next place to such facings as followeth.

  • Command.
    • Face to the right, and left outward, and move four paces
    • Face to Front and Reer, and move three paces
    • Face to the outward angles in the Front
    • Face to the inward angles in the Front
    • Face to the inward angles of the right Flank
    • Face to the inward angles in the left Flank
    • Face to the outward angles in the Reer
    • Face to the inward angles in the Reer
    • Face to the outward angles both of Front and Reer
    • Face to the inward angles both of Front and Reer
    • Face to the midst of Files
    • Face to the midst of Ranks
    • Face to the Centre.
    • Face to the outward angles of Front and Reer from the centre
    • Face all about to the right
    • Face to Front, Reer, and both Flanks from the Centre.
  • As you were to to your Leader.

CHAP. XLI. Doubling to make every man a File-leader by dignity.

Command. HAlf-files double your front to the left.

Command. Double your files to the right intire advancing every man placing himselfe before his leader.

Command. Front half-files double your reer to the left.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing every man placing himselfe before his leader.

Command. Bringers-up double your front to the right.

Command. Files double your depth to the right, every man falling behind his bringer-up.

Command. Half-files double your front to the right.

Command. Double your files to the left intire advancing.

Command. Ranks to the right double.

Command. Files to the right double.

Command. Bringers-up double your front to the left.

Command. Files double your depth to the left every man falling behind his bringer-up.

Reducement. Ranks to the left double.

Files to the left double.

CHAP. XLII. Severall Wheelings with their Reducements.

Command. WHeel off your reer half-files and double your front by division.

Command. Right and left half-ranks double the depth of your battail by wheeling inward to the reer. Face to the reer.

Command. Double the length of your battail by wheeling in­ward to front and reer. Half-files face about.

Command. Front and reer half-files double the depth of your battail by wheeling outward to the right flank. Half-files face about, and wheel to the left, front half-files wheel to the right

Command. Front and reer half-files double the length of your battail by wheeling inward to the left flank; face all to the left.

Command. Front and reer half-files double the depth of both flanks by wheeling to the right and left outward. Half-files face about.

Command. Front and reer half-files double the length of the battail by wheeling inward to the midst of ranks. Face inward.

Command. Front and reer half-files double the depth of your left flank by wheeling to the right and left outward. Half-files face about.

Command. Front and Reer half-files double the length of your battail by wheeling inward to the right flank. Face to the right, and as they then stand, right half-ranks wheel to the left, and left half-ranks wheel to the right untill the right flank meet together, they are redu­ced.

CHAP. XLIII. Plain Firings and Figures of Battail.

The first firing. LEt two ranks advance forward ten paces and give fire, and fall in the reer of themselves, and after wheel off to the right and left outward, and move down in the reer of their own divisions of Muskettiers, and then the next two ranks are to move forward, and to give fire, as the former did, and so consequently all the rest untill all have fired, and reduced back again into their places.

The second firing. Let them fire even with the front and fall in the reer of themselves, and let the Pikes charge on whilst the Muskettiers make ready again.

The third firing. Let single files be drawn off and rank inward into the front, and fire, & file again, face about, and move down into their places, then let two files be drawn off cleer, and let the inmost files rank inward, the outmost files rank outward, and give fire, and file again as they were, and fall into their places.

The fourth firing. Let the four out-most files upon each flank be drawn off untill they be cleer of the front, then let them close before the front of Pikes, face then the in-most files of Muskettiers to both the flanks, and let them give fire to the front, and both flanks on the ground they stand and fall in the reer of themselves.

The fifth firing. Let them give fire altogether six ranks at once in the front, and four in the flanks, observing the former rules of firing so many ranks together, as you may find in the place of the description of firings.

The sixt firing. Let those Muskettiers upon the flanks face to the reer and move cleer of the Pikes, then close to the right and left inward to order; then let the half-files of Pikes face about, and let the Muskettiers give fire to front and reer, and fall in the reer of themselves.

The seventh firing. Let the Pikes move forth to the right and left outward untill they be cleer of the Muskettiers, then let the Muskettiers give fire in an oblique manner, thus, let every two files open to the right and left outward to something more then open order, then close the two first ranks of the foure in-most files to the front to order, and let the o­ther two ranks close likewise almost to that distance, but the two last ranks only are to face to their front, & after in the same kind close the four ranks inward to the reer of the four out-most in manner and forme there, as the other files were to the front, and so let them give fire in each division, an oblique way, two ranks kneel down, two kneeling, & two stand upright.

The eighth firing. After the former firing, close the four inmost files to the right and left out­ward to order, and to joyn with the outmost files, when their aspects being to the outward angles of front and reer, let the Pikesport, and Muskettiers give fire to the four angles and fall in the reer of themselves, then let the Pikes charge on whilst the Muskettiers make rea­dy again, and after retreat back into their places again.

The ninth firing. Let them give fire again the first rank in each division and wheel about to the right, and move down into their first places where before they were drawn forth, and every rank consequently fall in the reer of them, then let the Pikes close into the midst to or­der, and face all to their leader.

Command. Muskettiers face to the right and left outward, and move twelve paces, then face to the reer and move likewise twelve paces, after face to their leader. Front half-files of each division move forward three paces; right and left half-ranks of each division move outward two paces; Front divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers stand, reer divisions of both arms move to the right and left outward untill you be cleer of the front divisions, then close ranks and files in each division to order, and face to their leader, they will stand in the first figure.

[military diagram]

The first firing. Let the front divisions of Muskettiers move forward and range even a brest with the front of Pikes, give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then face about and move down into their own ground again, and face to their leader, then let the outmost di­visions of Muskettiers move in like manner as the former did, and give fire, and fall off in like manner, and down again into their places. Let the Muskettiers in the next place face outward and move three paces, and after face to the front, then let the reer divisions of Mus­kettiers advance forward untill they range even a brest with the front divisions, then let them give fire altogether in each division, & fall in the reer of themselves, and after let the out-most divisions that moved up, move down again into their places, then let the Pikes charg on, and after retreat again into their places.

The second firing. Let the out-most divisions of Muskettiers in the Front move forward, before the Front of Pikes, and the in-most divisions of Muskettiers in the Front, let them likewise move at the same time before the Reer divisions of Pikes, then let the Pikes port, and Muskettiers in each division give fire on the ground they stand, and after fall in the reer of themselves, and those Muskettiers that formerly moved forth from their places, let the Serjeants wheel them off to the right and left into their first ground, and face to their Leader.

Command. In-most divisions of Muskettiers in the Front face to the Reer, divisions of Pikes upon the left in the Front face about to the right; divisions that are thus faced, move down three foot cleer of the Reer of each Arms. Front divisions both of Pikes and Mus­kettiers, and those that last moved, face to the left, and move two paces, face all to your Leader, and Muskettiers move forward untill your middle divisions range even a brest with the Reer divisions of Pikes, and they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

Upon this Figure let the Front divisions give fire, and fall in the Reer of themselves, and then wheel off to the right and left, into the ground of the Reer divisions, and they at the same time are to move up into their places, and to give fire, and fall off accordingly into their first places. Then let the middle divisions move forward untill they range even with the Front of Pikes, and let them give fire, and fall first in the Reer of themselves, and after face about, and move down into their places again, and face to their Leader, then let the Pikes charge on, and after retreat back again into their places. They may fire to the Reer after the same manner as they did to the Front, they being thither faced, and after they have all fired, face again to their Leader.

Command. Let the four divisions of Muskettiers upon the right to move away, and let the divisions of Pikes fall in the Reer of them, and the four divisions of Muskettiers on the left to fall in the Reer of the Pikes, then standing streight in their divisions both rank-wise and file-wise, and they will stand as followeth.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the reer divisions face about to the right, and let the first divisions give fire to front and reer, and fall in the reer of themselves, then let them advance forward three paces and after wheel about to the right, and interchange ground with the reer divisi­ons, and they at the same time are to move up and give fire, and fall off accordingly. Then let the other divisions move forward untill they range even a brest with front and reer, give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, after face about and move down into their places, then face all to their leader.

Command. The four first divisions stand, the rest face to the left and march cleer of the standing part; then let the Pikes face to the front, and march up even a brest with the Mus­kettiers; Reer divisions of Muskettiers face to the front, and move up likewise; Musket­tiers face inward, move all three or four paces untill they stand in form of the second figure, face all to your leader; Reer division of Pikes face about and move down three foot cleer of the reer, to your leader, which produceth the last figure.

[military diagram]

Upon this figure let the reer division of Pikes face about, and Muskettiers face outward then let Pikes port, and let the first divisions of Muskettiers give fire and fall in the reer of themselves, then face about and interchange ground with the reer divisions, and face again to front and reer, and let those that came up into their room give fire in like manner and fall off & down again into their places. Then let the next divisions give fire, & fall in the reer of them­selves, and let the Pikes charge on, and being retreated back again into their places, com­mand the two middle divisions of Muskettiers to face to the reer and move down and range even with the reer, then let every division of Muskettiers give fire on the ground they stand to both flanks and reer, and fall in the reer of themselves, the Pikes may charge on again, and those Muskettiers that moved down into the reer may face about and move back again into their places and face all to the front.

Reducement. Reer division of Pikes advance forward to the left into the front, the two in­most divisions of Muskettiers face about and march cleer of the reer, then face to the right and left outward and place themselves behind the reer divisions of Muskettiers; outmost divisions of Muskettiers face inward, and move streight in the reer of the front divisions, and let the Pikes fall in the reer of their front divisions, and face all to their Leader; Half-files of Muskettiers double your front to the right and left inward, and after move forward and even the the front, they are reduceed.

The end of the second Book.

THE COMPLEAT BODY OF THE ART MILITARY: The Third BOOK.

CHAP. I. Concerning the drawing up of Regiments, with their severall numbers, forms, manner and ways.

HE that shall be desirous to be truly knowing in this point of Military Discipline, in the drawing up of Regiments, whe­ther they be of lesser or greater Bodies, as in some 6, other 7, 8, 10, or 12 Companies, they must be drawn up into Bat­talia, either in one two or three Squadrons (or grand divi­sions) of Pikes flanked with Muskettiers, having alwayes in the Reer a sufficient number of Muskettiers for the guard of the Bagage, Cannon, or to be Convoys for to convey Am­munition and Victuall to the rest of their fellows: Who are to be drawn forth (by the discretion of the Major) from each particular Company according to their severall strengths, as in greater Companies more files then in those which be lesser, ordering them timely reliefe, whereby the severall duties amongst the Souldiers throughout the Regiment by an equall way may take their turns. Now for as much as the true stating of the dignities of every particular Officer, in the opinions of many, differ very much, and our former Mi­litary Authors have been very sparing in their pains, in setting down their due places of ho­nour; I shall, for the satisfaction of those which desire to be rightly inform'd, collect out of the many former practised abroad, and at home, one good way to perfect it.

But here, by the way, I must crave pardon from the courteous Reader by reason I foresee certain objections like rubs or blocks, lying in my way to digresse a little from my intended purpose, to give answers unto each of them, which are first, that I seem to slighten the pains of former Authors.

Secondly, that it will be a means to occasion much idlenesse in the Souldiers.

Thirdly, that it is too great a knowledge to be laid open to their view.

To the first I answer, that the reason, as I conceive, why they have been so sparing of their pains in this kind, was not for want of abilities, or knowledge amongst any of them, whose works for the most part I highly honour and esteem, but rather believe that they left it forth for the curious search of such who are called unto Field-officers places, know­ing well that before they are capable of that preferment they must be good proficients in this part of Military Exercise.

2 Although many that know but a little, may be puft up with high conceits of them­selves, conceiving what the Authour hath done, 'twere easie for any man to performe the same; yet to them of riper judgements, the more variety in this kind is presented to their view, the more painfull they are in the curious practise thereof, thinking every moment lost which is not spent in the searching after, and informing of their judgments in this point of Military Discipline.

If it had not been for the worthie paines and labours of our ancestors published to the view of the world, this our age might have been ignorant both in this, and all other Sciences, for from them we borrowed our first light, God putting it in their hearts to publish their seve­rall gifts to after generations, which though at this day much refined, yet for our first grounds and principles we are beholding unto them. Therefore, give me leave, according as God hath inabl'd me, not to conceale or keep back any thing which may concern the good and welfare of my country; for, I conceive, there is none worthie to receive benefit from those that have gone before him, if he conceales that good to such as shall come after him. And if I happen to lie under the hard censure of some for my paines, it makes no matter, so the major part receive benefit thereby, for as I gathered somwhat of others: so my desire is that others may doe the like by me.

The opinions of Souldiers in the drawing up of Regiments are very various both in their formes and figures, according to the custome of their Countries, commands of their Generals or Officers in cheife, which neverthelesse may prove very good and serviceable when need shall require, I shall therefore for the satisfaction of the ingenuous souldier set before them the best collections drawn from them all, such as may be most usefull for to fight against the enemy, according to the situation of the place, the number of men, and aptnesse of ground to contain them, which in the next place comes to be handled.

CHAP. II. The manner ef drawing up a Regiment consisting of six Companies, containing in it a Collonel, a Lieutenant Collonel, a Major, and three Captains, every one having 108 men in a Company, and the three Field Officers 144. which makes compleatly up 756 men, whereof two thirds are Muskettiers, and one third of Pikes, the Files being six deep.

THe generall place of Randezvous being appointed out unto the Major, it is his care to take a timely view thereof, that there be ground and room sufficient enough for the drawing them up. And having received orders from his Collonel, Major Gene­rall, or other superiour officers for the Regiments marching thither, he may appoint the Companies to march either of these two ways, either by succession, or dignity. If by successi­on, first the Collonels Company moves away, next, the Lieutenant Collonels in the reer of him, then the Majors and so consequently all the rest from the eldest to the youngest who brings up the reer of all. If by dignity, first the Collonels Company, and in the reer of him the youngest Captain, and after him the eldest, then the Majors, then the second Captain, the Leiutenant Collonel bringing up the reer of all. But it concernes the Major before their marching to give notice unto the Leiutenant Collonel and the eldest Captain to countermarch their ranks of their two perticuler Companies as soone as they come into the place of the generall randezvous before he shall draw them up, to preserve the honour of the right hand File-leaders and Bringers-up of both armes. He is likewise to be there before hand attending their marching in, and after the Collonels company have made Alt to draw up each perticu­ler company on the left of him, all in one even range, commanding them to close ranks for­ward to order, and files into the midst unto the same distance. He is likewise to informe him­self of the Captaines, Lieutenants and Serjeants how many files of Pikes, and Muskettiers they have in each perticuler company, and accordingly he is to enter it down in his paper book, and to make use thereof as followeth.

He is to require one single file apiece of Muskettiers to be drawn off from the three smal­ler Companies, and two files apiece from the greater, which makes 9 files, and contains 54 men, which are to be led away by an able Serjeant into the Reer, for to be a guard to the Bagage or other occasions. From thence he may proceed commanding all the Muskettiers to stand, and the Pikes to advance their Arms, and move forward 10 or 12 paces, and then to stand and close their files outward to order, three of their colours moving with their Pikes to the right hand, the other three moving away to the left. After he may command Musket­tiers to close their files outward to order, and they will stand in four divisions, two of Pikes, and in the reer of them two of Muskettiers, as underneath is set forth, the Captaines being all upon the head of the Pikes with their Ensignes, and the Lieutenants in the reer, the Serje­ants attending upon the flanks of each division.

[military diagram]

This being done command each division of Muskettiers and Pikes to face outward, and to move to such convenient distance that being faced to the front there may be room suffici­ent upon the subdividing of each division of Muskettiers for their moving up, and flanking each body of Pikes. After which the Major may assigne unto every Captain and Lieutenant his due place of honour, as they stand all abrest; And that they may also naturally fall into their proper places upon the march, which shall be set forth in the next figure standing in two grand divisions the one in the reer of the other, which may happen sometimes for want of ground, but provided they have ground enough they ought to stand in one even range as in folio. 5. The Major after they are thus drawn up in one even range will find three files of Muskettiers more in the second grand division, and two of Pikes, then is in the first, therefore he must take from thence one file of each Company, and adde them to those nine files in the reer, which makes them twelve, and then he will have ballanced the divisions equall, taking off one file of Pikes, and placing it amongst the eldest Captains Pikes

[military diagram]

CHAP. III. The Reasons follow for the placing of the Captains, their Colours, and their Lieutenants, after the manner before set down.

WHat hath formerly been declared concerning a Rank or File, six a brest, or six deep, may be satisfactory in some kind unto this point, which takes his rule from hence. For all private Companies, smaller Bodies, or single Files, must, or ought to be as neer as they can conformable to greater Bodies, as to Regiments, and consequently, they to Brigades. Therefore take notice that this rule ought ever to be obs [...]rved in the drawing up of Regiments, that the right flank as neer as may be ought to be sutable with the left, both in strength, number, and dignity; and likewise to be so when they are drawn forth upon a long March, the Front equall with the Reer. Now, suppose, th [...]se two grand Divisions stood even a brest, we will begin to examine the first worth, which is the Collonels, and the fourth worth, which is the eldest Captains, and placed upon the right and left of the first grand Division, with the second and third worth, who are the Lieutenant Collonel, and Major, drawn up upon the right and left of the second grand Division; and you shall finde they are every way equivalent in number, worth, and digni­ty, with that of the first.

In the next place, there are no more to place, but the fifth and sixth worth, who are the second and third Captains: and therefore since it is the first place of honour among the Captains in a Regiment, to lead the first Body or Stand of Pikes, it must then consequently follow, that the second place of honour must be to lead the second grand Division of Pikes; and therefore the fifth worth is brought into, and placed between the second and third, that he may aptly stand there to to lead the second Body of Pikes; wherein the Lieutenant Collonel, the Major, and his own Colours are placed: so that there remaines no more but the sixth worth, or youngest Captain to place, who is drawn up between the Collonel, and eldest Captain. Now if we shall further proceed to ballance it more cleerly, consider them by dividing them by two's, in their places, as first, we will begin with the Collonel, the first worth, who hath joyned to him the youngest Captain, which is the sixt worth, and they two make the number (7) then compare the Lieutenant-Collonel, who is the second worth, unto the second Captain joyn'd with him; which is the fifth worth, and they make a like the same number; after compare the Major, and eldest Captain, who are drawn up into the midst of the Regiment, whose places carry the third and fourth worth, and their number is sutable with the rest. And thus much may be spoken in generall, now I shall come more perticulerly to give further satisfaction both for them, and for all the rest; and therefore I will give reasons for the placing of the Officers of the first grand Division, and cleering that, the second will quickly be laid open to the view.

CHAP. IV. More perticuler reasons for the placing of the Captains, and Lieute­nants, of the first grand Division.

IN this grand Division, there is the Collonel, the eldest Captain, and the youngest drawn up into the midst, and they having each of them Lieutenants, take notice therefore of these reasons for their placing thus. That always upon such small Bodies as these, the first honour is ever placed upon the right, and the second, upon the left, and that which remaines, must of necessity be drawn up into the midst; they standing all a brest. These three Companies being ordered into a right and left Flank, and one Stand of Pikes, or Van-guard, Reer-ward, or Main-battail, as they may be term'd, the reasons follow for the thus standing of the Officers, whether marching all even a brest, or upon a stand; it is the Collonels proper place to be on the head or midst of his grand Division; which is his chiefest place of security, and where he ought to fight; for standing there, the other may more conveniently repair unto him for their orders, as occasion shall require. Now the Collonel being a Field-Officer, is not absolutely tied to any one place to fight, as the rest are, many occasions calling him from thence; the eldest Captain therefore is appoint­ed to take charge of the Body of Pikes, whether it be upon a March to lead them, or upon a Stand to fight them, he ought never to forsake them, but upon speciall command from his Collonel, or other Field-Officers. Now the reason why the first Body of Pikes is the most honourablest place to lead, is, as I conceive, because the Collonels Colours are there [Page 143] flying, and besides being the more ancienter Armes, far more honour it is to lead them; for most commonly the gallantest men of the Infantry desire rather to trail Pikes, then to carry Muskets; Moreover, it hath been a constant practise in most places, that the eldest Captain should have that place to lead on foot, although many times his Collonel being on hors-back, may be a little before him. Having spoken of these two, it remaines to speak somthing of the youngest Captain, who is appointed either upon the Marching all a brest, or upon a Stand, to take charge of the Reer-ward, or left Flank of the first grand Divisi­on to fight them, but upon the long March, it is more honourable for him to fall down in the Reer, and to bring up his own Lieutenant comming up into his place; for it is greater honour (though many times not believed) to bring up a grand Division, then to lead a Sub-division. In the next place, it may be supposed, that the Captain Lieutenants place is too honourable to lead the Van-guard, to which I answer, that the Collonel himselfe is con­signed thither; for upon the long-March he draws off the Van-guard, and leads them himselfe, being attended on hors-back by the Martiall and Quarter-master of his own Regiment. Now leading away the Muskettiers of his own perticuler Company, the Captain Lieutenant being subservient unto him, marcheth a foot upon the head of the first Division of Muskettiers, and takes charge of them, as assisting to his Collonel, and fight­ing them, if he receives no command to the contrary, when they are all drawn up again even a brest, it concerning him especially to be there resident in the absence of his Collonel, for the better regulating of them. The eldest Captains Lieutenant is always placed in the Reer of the Pikes, either upon a Stand, or upon a March, it being very honourable unto him to bring up a grand Division of Pikes. The third Captains Lieutenant is ordered to bring up the left Flank, except it be upon the long-March, and then he is to exchange places with his own Captain. There is yet one place vacant, which is to bring up the right Flank, and the Captain Lieutenants Bringer-up, many times through courtesie is called a Lieutenant, therefore a Major may be so courteous as to assigne him that place; and here I shall conclude with the reasons of the places of the Officers of the first grand Division.

CHAP. V. Reasons for the placing of the Officers of the second grand Division.

ALthough the Collonel is Commander in chiefe, yet his discretion is such, as to leave the ordering of places to his Major; and as he takes charge of the first grand Division, so he leaves the second to his Lieutenant Collonel, who stands upon the head or midst of the same, being drawn up all even a brest; and many times leads the second grand Division, as the Collonel doth the first, as was the practise in the Regiments upon their March, under the command of the Earl of Essex, Generall of the Parliaments Forces. To such as shall approve of this way (which may be very good) they shall not need to counter-march the Ranks of the Lieutenant Collonell, as is before expressed, before the drawing up of the Lieutenants Collonels Company, but draw them up on the right of that Division, and to counter-march the Ranks of the Majors, and draw his Com­pany up on the left. But I shall leave that to the liberty of those that shall best fancie this kinde, and proceed to that which is of more use.

The second grand Division standing in an even range with the first, it will be convenient for the Lieutenant Collonel to be upon the head thereof. As concerning the Major, he being an Officer at will, hath no certain place assign'd unto him, by reason of his moving, as occasion shall require, to both Divisions, whereby he may give orders unto them all, minding the good order of the Regiment, throughout every part thereof. But if he will take his place, to march in the properest place for him, if they march all a brest, will be in the Front, between the Collonel and Lieutenant Collonel, but in the long-march in the midst of both grand Divisions, whereby he may have freer accesse unto them both, whose vigilant eye in the well ordering of the Regiment is chiefly concern'd, observing all the passages, whether there be need of sub-dividing their Divisions; and if at any time they shall be divided, when there is ground sufficient enough, he must give order again for the drawing them all up even a brest, it being far more gracefull to the Regiments marching. In the next place, the second Captain may claime it as his due, to lead the second Body [Page 144] of Pikes, as the eldest Captain challengeth the first, and the reason given for his place, may suffice for both: The eldest Lieutenant in this grand Division, which is the Lieute­nants Collonels Lieutenant, is assigned unto that place, where he is set down for to be an assistant there-unto his Lieuteaant Collonell, for the well regulating of his men which march in the Reer, as the Captain Lieutenant is to the Collonels men, who march in the [...]ront, and his Lieutenant Collonel bringing up the whole Regiment is the second place of honour. Some may conceive the Majors Lieutenant hath too great a place of honour in leading the Van of the second grand Division, to which I answer, if the Lieutenant Collonel marcheth not there himselfe, but shall bring up the Regiment, certainly it must be cleer, that it is the Majors due, for to march there himselfe at times convenient, and being so, there is good reason in his absence his Lieutenant should lead his men, or in his presence to be thereas a helper unto him, for the well regulating of his men, as the other Lieutenants are to the other long Field-officers who every one of them according to their severall places may have severall occasions to call them off, their Lieutenants therefore ought to be at hand, and to march with them in their places, whereby they may receive orders from them, and know how to act in their absence concerning their own perticuler Souldiers. The second Captains Lieutenant is ordered to bring up the second Body of Pikes, which being a grand Division it falls to him as due there, as the eldest Captains Lieutenant doth in the first, it being the greatest place of honour that can be given him in the Reer next to the Leiutenant Collonel. Having spoken thus much concerning every Field-officer, the Captains, and their Lieutenants, where their places are to march, with the reasons for the same, it will be expected to supply two places which are vacant in the Reer of the second grand Division; to which I answer upon the long-march the Lieutenant Collonel himselfe moves down there, and brings up the Reer of the whole Regiment; and therefore it is left vacant for him, but then you will say there wants an Officer to bring up the Reer of that Division, wherein the Majors Lieutenant is placed; to which I answer, that there is none remaining to do it, except it be the Majors Lieutenant himselfe. For if the Major shall lead the second grand Division, then his Lieutenant may move down to bring up that perticuler Division for to supply the same, but in regard the Major (as hath been shewn before) hath many occasions to call him off, it concerns his Lieutenant to keep his place which was first assigned unto him, to avoid the trouble of moving up a­gain in his Majors absence. Some are of opinion it would be convenient to place the Lieutenant Collonels eldest Serjeant there, but in my judgement it is very unhandsome to see any Halberteer, either to lead or bring up any Division marching in a regimentall way, and rather then I should do it, I would let it go unsupplied; but if he shall be there placed to bring up, his best way of marching, is either with a Pallizado, or Half-pike, and not with his Halberd.

CHAP. VI. The ordering of a Regiment to the Long-March, with the placing of the Officers, and the leading of Carriages.

THe Major giving to every Captain his proper place to march in, and what Di­visions they are to lead, and what to bring up, in written notes under his hand, commands the Drum-Major to beat a March, and so consequently all the rest to take it from him. The Souldiers being warned thereby, begin to shoulder their Arms, and prepare to move; the Collonel on hors-back being attended on by his Mar­tiall, and Quarter-master draws off the first Division of Muskettiers, his Captain Leiutenant being some six foot behinde him, which Division is brought up by the Captain Lieutenants Bringer-up. The eldest Captain follows next, leading the first Division of Pikes, and brought up by his own Lieutenant. The next Division of Muskettiers is lead by the third Captains Lieutenant, and the Reer of the first grand Division is brought up by the third Captain. There ought to be full 18 foot of ground betwixt each Division, he that brings up a Division, ought to be six foot cleer behinde the same, and he that leads, to be six foot before, so that there will be six foot proportion of ground betwixt them both, for the better distinguishing of their Divisions, the Leaders, and Bringers-up thereof. And where there is not room sufficient for the marching so many a brest, as they are [Page 145] now ordered, they must subdivide, being carefull to preserve their Divisions, marching in greater depths, at their due distance of open order in rank, and order in file. For the Serjeants, must not presume upon any sub-dividing to make any more Divisions, whereby they may be Leaders thereof, but it must be their care upon sub-dividing to bring them down in the Reer of them that march before, and keep them intire in all their respective Divisions. And it must be their obser­vation to attend upon the Flanks, even a brest with those Leaders of Files, that were taken off, that when there is ground and roome enough, they may more rea­dier know where to finde them, and to lead them up again as they were at first. Care likewise must be had upon any sub-dividing of the Pikes, that there be none of the Colours divided who are in a regimentall way to march all three together, according to their first pla­cing. These rules and observations concern both grand Divisions, now the first being led away, as is before exprest, there ought to be sufficient ground betwixt each grand Division; for the leading of the Cariages, and in the first place, there is to be considered that to most Re­giments, there is allowed two Waggons, for the Bagage, & Ammunition, & two Field-peeces, or great Cannon besides other Cariages, which more concern the victuall for the Souldiers, as occasion shall require; now concer­ning the ordering, and securest placing of all these up­on the March, will be in the midst of the Regiment, and to have those which are ordered for their good, to be Fire-locks, or to have Snap-hances, for the avoiding of the danger which might happen by the Cole of the Match; and being placed where any attempt of the Enemy shall fall on either to Front, Reer, or either Flank, the Cannon may be easily drawn forth to fire upon them, and all the wood of the Carriages, with their Guard, to be ordered in the Reer, where ever the assault should happen, for their better security and safe­ty. The Major in the next place, if he please, may lead the second grand Division; to which purpose he draws off (with the assistance of his own Lieutenant) the first Division of Muskettiers, his Lieutenant be­ing six foot behinde him, and so much before the Mus­kettiers. The next that followes, is the second Body of Pikes, which is led by the second Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant. The last Division of Mus­kettiers is led by the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant; and the Reer of the whole Regiment is brought up by the Lieutenant Collonel. The Serjeants are to march upon the Flanks, attending their own men, that when they are to be reduced into Com­panies, they may know more readier where to finde them, and according to order they may draw them off to compleat up their Captains Companies. As for the Drums, the care thereof belongs to the Drum-Major to place, and to ease them timely by reliefs, to beat as many, or as few as he shall think fit, to which purpose, he orders them to fall in betwixt the second and third Rank of Muskettiers, and Pikes, of each Division; but when they are all even a brest, the Drums are placed according as you see them marked: the figure for the long-March in the next place followeth.

[military diagram]

CHAP. VII. The first Exercise of a Regiment in the plainest and easiest way.

THe Major finding the commodiousnesse of the ground, may draw them up all e­ven a brest again, and proceed to exercise them in a regimentall way, conferring before-hand with the Captains, Lieutenants, Ensignes, and Serjeants, what he in­tends to do. Whether he will exercise every Manniple, or Division (as is usuall in a private Company) in all their plain Motions and [...]irings, which may be very proper, and easily done, or otherwise proceed to more variety in every Division, to give them com­mands as one man, either to face, double, or otherwise according to discretion. And ha­ving fully instructed them of all his intents and purposes, he must begin to consider of the best manner for the managing of the same. To which end, he shall do well to command the first grand Division to advance forward 12 paces cleer of the second, and after face them to the left, and m [...]ch them untill they stand streight before the second grand Division, then face them to the [...]ront, and they will stand in manner as in Folio 141. After he must consider how many Files of Muskettiers there are, and whether he can branch them forth into equall Divisions sutable to the Pikes, but finding them to stand but 18 of a side, he shall do well for time of his Exercise, to draw off eight [...]iles of Muskettiers, from the Reer, which were formerly appointed to guard the Ammunition, or Baggage, and adde two to every Division of Muskettiers, which will make them 20 Files of each side of the Pikes, and then he may thus proceed.

Command. Files to the [...]r op [...]n order, and ranks to close forward to order in each grand Division; every five files of Muskettiers of each Division close to the right to order; the first six files of Pikes in each grand Division close to the right to order, the rest of the Pikes close every five files to the right, to the same distance; then there will be in each grand Division, four Divisions of Pikes and eight of Muskettiers, in manner as set forth to your view in Folio 147.

Before the Major shall begin his Exercise, he shall do well to appoint unto each Division, the Captains, and their Ensignes, (whose Colours in the mean time may be stuck in the ground, or given to any of the File-leaders of Pikes, to hold during the time of Exercise) to take charge of them, to order them according unto every word of command, and the Lieu­tenant and Serjeants to each Division of Muskettiers, that after silence is craved through­out the whole Regiment, the Major by stretching out his voice in every word of com­mand, the rest as his eccho are immediately to give it out a long the whole Front, and from thence unto the Reer, and every Officer to lead his men accordingly.

The Major having stated all things according to the former directions, may if he please, either face, double, counter-march, or wheel, to Front, Reer, or both Flanks in every perticuler Division. And may after fire them by way of Divisions drawn off ten or twenty paces before the Front, firing them 7 or 8 times over, relieving them by other supplies, marching up into their ground. And may after face the Reer divisions about, and fire them to Front and Reer on the same ground they stand, there being sufficient intervalls for their wheeling off in the Reer of themselves. And after severall firings in this kinde, the Pikes may charge on; but before they begin their firings, the Pikes must close into the midst to order, and Muskettiers to close their Pikes to open order, and every Division to preserve so much ground betwixt each other for their conveniencie, that after firing they may wheel off.

Now if you will fire, or skirmish the one with the other, then draw off the Reer, or se­cond grand Division, and move them away, and draw them up in opposition 100 foot di­stance of ground betwixt each Front, and let the Lieutenant Collonels Company be drawn up upon the right, and the Majors upon the left of that grand Division, that it may carry some answerablenesse with that of the Collonels. The Muskettiers having six foot inter­vall of ground betwixt each other before they begin to fire, they may continue their firings of this nature, as long as they please, and the Pikes may after charge o [...] to such convenient distance, as that they come not within three Pikes length one of another, for avoiding do­ing hurt the one to the other, the Muskettiers still continuing their firing, and falling in the [Page 147] Reer of themselves; and when they come within distance, not to present above knee height, for the above-named reasons. Now the Souldiers being almost tired, and all their powder spent, and retreating from each other, that side which falls out to be the strongest, (as being the Collonels grand Division or party) may be at a parley, to invite the weaker to come into mercy, offering them all fair Quarter, provided they timely and presently receive it, and that they will cheerfully and willingly go a long with them, and never any more re­volt, but ever be on their side, to fight with them upon all just occasions, as shall be requi­red. After which, the Lieutenant Collonel yeilding, they may wheel about, and march in­to the same ground from whence they were first drawn forth, and be reduced to the same order and condition as they were before they began to skirmish. And thus much shall suffice concerning the ordinary plain way of the exercising of Regiments: but those that shall desire a little more curiosity, they may observe such Exercises as in the next plac [...] shall be set forth unto them.

CHAP. VIII. A second way of exercising Regiments of the same number of men.

THe first grand Division being in the Front, and cleer of the second 12 paces, every five files being 18 foot of ground a part from each other, and at their distance of order, both in rank and file, in their own perticuler divisions, as was menti­on'd in Folio 146. comes in this place to be set forth to their view. And having past over some of the distances to bring them to this Station, in standing in 24 Maniples, or Divisions, the next thing that I shall shew for Exercise, shall be four severall Figures of Battail, branched forth from thence, by proper words of Command, with their reducement.

[military diagram]

Command. Divisions of Muskettiers face outward, Pikes and Muskettiers march all 12 paces, and stand; to your Leader. The two middle divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers in the Reer next the Flanks face about: outmost divsions of Pikes and Muskettiers in Front and Reer face outward: march all four places, and stand; Again, let the outmost divisions of Pikes and Muskettiers face about to the right, then march all three paces then stand, and face to their leader, it produceth the first figure.

[military diagram]

Each of the former divisions conteining five files a piece, excepting the outmost division of Pikes upon the right in Front and Reer, and they contein six files in each of them.

Command. Divisions of Muskettiers face outward, Pikes face about to the right, march all, untill the Pikes range even with the Reer, then face to their Leader occasioneth the next.

[military diagram]

Command. The four last divisions of each arms in the midst, face about, the six outmost divions of each arms face outward, the two middle divisions of Pikes in the front face a­bout, march all four paces and stand, then face the six outmost divisions about to the right, and the four middle divisions of Pikes about to the left, then march all four paces, and face to their Leader.

[military diagram]

Command. The two next divisions of Pikes in the midst from the Reer face about, middle divisions of Pikes move forward six foot before the Front and Reer, to your Leader.

[military diagram]

Reducement. The 12 last divisions face about then let every division march forward un­till they range even abrest with the Front and Reer, and face to their Leader; then let the Reer divisions move forward within 18 foot of the Front divisions, and they will be in two grand divisions, the one in the Reer of the other, as at first when they began their facings.

Having past over part of the distances and facings, the next which in order falls to be handled is Doublings, and having by command gained 18 foot distance betwixt every five files, if in their former motions they should chance to lose it, you may then proceed to Dou­blings by way of divisions, as shall be in the next place set down.

CHAP. IX. Doublings belonging to a Regiment.

Command. DIvisions double to the right file-wise.

Direction. Every even division from the Front face to the right, and march down cleer untill you stand streight with the next inter­vall; then face to the left, and move in, and double those Divisions on the right sile-wise to your Leader.

Command. Divisions double to the right rank-wise.

Direction. Every even Division from the Front, face to the right, and march forward six paces, then face to the Front, and move forward, and double your divisions to the right.

Command. Divisions double the Length of the Battail to the right and left outward.

Direction. The 12 last divisions face outward, and march cleer of the standing part, face to your Leader, move up all even a brest, and double according to command.

Command. The 12 in-most divisions double the six out-most to the right and left out­ward advancing.

Direction. The 12 middle divisions advance forward untill you be six foot cleer of the standing part, then face outward, and march untill you stand streight before the six out-most, face to your Leader, and after face inward, and move forward, untill they stand a­gain unto 18 foot distance from each other to your Leader.

Command. Divisions double the depth of the Battail to the right.

Direction. Every even division from the right, face about to the right, and move down 18 foot cleer of the Reer, face to the left, and move untill you stand streight with those divisions on the right, which you are to double, to your Leader.

Command. The 12 last divisions in the Reer double the Front to the right.

Direction. The 12 last divisions face to the right, and move six paces, then face to the left, march forward, and double the Front to the right, and they will be reduced.

CHAP. X. Four severall Wheelings with their Reducement.

Command. DIvisions wheel about to the right, and move down into the Reer.

Direction. Front divisions wheel about to the right, and move down into the Reer, the rest march up into the same ground, wheel­ing to the right hand, and following successively, after face to your Leader.

Command. Divisions wheel about to the right to the left flank.

Direction. Face to the right, and the out-most divisions wheel about to the right, and march away unto the place of the left Flank, the rest moving up into the same ground, wheeling about to the right, and following accordingly, to your Leader.

Command. Divisions wheel about to the right from the Reer into the Front.

Direction. Face to the Reer, and let the first divisions wheel about to the right, and move up into the Front, the rest marching forward into their ground, wheeling off, and following in like maner.

Command. Divisions wheel about to the right, to the right flank.

Direction. Face all to the left, and let the out-most divisions wheel about to the right, and move forward to the right flank, the rest marching up into their ground, following after in the same kinde, reduceth them.

CHAP. XI. Counter-marches not fit to be used in the exercising of Regiments.

IT might be expected after Doublings, that I should shew some kinds of Counter-march­es amongst the Military Motions, in the exercising of a Regiment; but being of very little use or practise amongst Commanders in these times, especially in such great Bodies, & for my own part, I fancy them not, & therefore have passed them over, & pitcht upon

[military diagram]

such wheelings, which by some are accounted counter-marches. Whose judgements my desire is better to informe by these severall reasons following, wherein, and in what kinde, they differ from them. As thus, by these wheelings, they keep their distance in rank and file unto order, and wheeling intire unto any hand down to the Reer, cannot be performed but by gaining in the Motion before the Front, and unto all places as they move so much ground as is the Length of their perticuler Divisions, and in the execution thereof they still preserve the honour of the right and left-hand Tile-leaders, and all others as are con­cerned in their perticuler Divisions unto any accidentall Front which they shal be brought un­to. Now concerning counter-marches, they are to be performed either by single files, ranks, half-files or half-ranks, and at their distance of open order, their words of command having relation to all these perticulers. Their counter-marching of Files to the Reer gaineth no ground before the Front, in the Motion, but onely the room of one perticuler File upon the right; it preserveth not the honour of the right and left-hand File-leader at one time by any one word of command unto any of their Motions to such accidentall Fronts they shall make, but ever loseth it to some, and gaineth it to others. And, therefore, it may ap­pear cleerly unto any ingenious capacity, that the former wheelings cannot be accounted, or given in their Motions in that kind to the Souldiers for counter-marches, but by such terms as in their place are set down. In the next place I shall speak something of the great bene­fit, or use that may be made of these sorts of wheelings; as first, a Commander may use them in the Motions of Doublings to Front, Reer, right Flank, or left, or double either the length or depth of the Battail, unto all needfull places, as occasion shall require, which I shall forbear to set down, but leave them to the discretion of the ingenuous Souldi­ers practise, when time and opportunity shall serve him to make use of them. In the next place they are very necessary to draw off any part, and to bring them unto such needfull pla­ces for Service as are in eminent danger; Therefore passing over for present what might be more spoken of in this kinde, I come in the next place to shew one Figure of Battail to fire upon, and then conclude my Exercise upon this Regiment, and go on unto the rest.

Command. Pikes close Files to the right to order, then let them in the Reer double their Front to the left intire; Muskettiers advance forward untill your Front-Divisions exceed six foot the Front of Pikes; the two inmost Divisions of Muskettiers in the Front, move forward 20 paces, and close inward to open order; the two in-most Divisions of Mus­kettiers in the Reer face about, and move down six paces, and close inward to open order, to your Leader; Muskettiers upon the Flanks close to the Body of Pikes to your open order: middle Divisions of Muskettiers in the Reer by each Flank face about; middle Divisions of Muskettiers by each Flank move forward six foot cleer of the standing part, face to your Leader, and it will set forth the Figure as it stands in Folio 151.

CHAP. XII. Severall Firings to be performed upon the former Figure, and how to be mannaged by the severall Officers.

THe Regiment being drawn up into the former Figure, they may proceed to Firings upon it, first let the Forlorns fire five or six times over, being commanded by the el­dest Captains Lieutenant, who is to be assisted by a couple of able Serjeants; after let him wheel them off to the right and left, and bring them down in the Reer of the Pikes. Then let the second Captains Lieutenant being assisted by two Serjeants lead up the reserves by the out-side of the Pikes, at such time when the Forlorns begin to come off, for the better securing of them from danger upon their retreat, then let them move forward to their ground, and give fire in like manner, falling in the Reer of themselves, and after wheel them off to the right and left, and bring them down in the Reer of those Muskettiers that are behinde the Pikes. Then let the Front and Reer Divisions of Mus­kettiers next the Flanks advance forward 12 paces, the Muskettiers upon the right to be led away by the Captain Lieutenant, and those upon the left by the third Captain, being assisted by four Serjeants a piece, let them fire the first Divisions some six or eight times over, falling in the Reer of themselves, then wheel them off to the right and left into the ground of those Divisions that follow them, and facing again to their Front; then let [Page 153] the Reer divisions advance forward into their places, and give fire in like manner, to the former: which being ended, let those four divisions be led down into their first places. Then let the next eight divisions by the Pikes advance forward untill they be cleer of the standing part; those four divisions upon the right, are to be led a way by the Majors Lieu­tenant, and the Captain Lieutenant Bringer-up, and those four divisions upon the left, by the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant, and the third Captains Lieutenant assisted by 12 Ser­jeants, then let them fire some halfe a score times, the Front divisions falling in the Reer of themselves, after wheeling off to the right and left into the ground of their Reer divisions, they then moving up into their places, may fire after the same manner, and having ended they may be led down all again into their first places.

Then command the first divisions of Muskettiers to face about to the right, and let them and the two last divisions move forward, and range even a brest with those that stand be­fore them, and after face all to the Front; then let the Muskettiers, face outward, and move 12 paces, and after face again to the Front; then move up those divisions that were the Forlorne hope to the right and left into the Front, unto their first places, and those that were the Reserves up even a brest with the Reer, from whence they were first taken, after let them fire in, and even Front altogether, some halfe a score times over, and fall in the Reer of themselves; then let the Collonels eldest and second Captaines move forward the Pikes, and charge on if they please, the Colours falling in the second rank being furled up, and after let all order their Armes, and reduce them into Companies again.

Reducement. Left half-ranks of Pikes face about, and move down untill you range even with the Reer divisions of Musketti [...]rs, face to your Leader; Right half-ranks of [...]ikes advance forward, and range even a brest with the Front divisions of Muskettiers; Files close to the left to order of each grand Division, then they will stand in two grand Divisi­ons as at first, the one in the Reer of the other; then draw up the second grand Division, provided there be room upon the left of the first. Then let a Serjeant of each perticuler Company draw off those 13 Files which before were taken off to ballance the Divisions into equall number, and were appointed for the guard of the Ammunition, or Baggage, and being then to joyne with their own Armes, with their Captaines Companies stands. Which being done, let every Captain draw off his own men, being assisted by his Lieute­nants and Serjeants, and compleating them up into a Body as at first; his Pikes to be flank­ed with Muskettiers, they may after march away in single Companies after such manner, unto their severall Quarters as shall be appointed to them by the Major; and here I shall conclude concerning a Regiment of six Companies.

CHAP. XIII. The manner of drawing up a Regiment, consisting of seven Companies, conteining in the four Captaines, twelve Files of Muskettiers, and six of Pikes, in each of their perticuler Companies, and in the three Field-officers, sixteen Files a piece of Mus­kettiers, and eight of Pikes, which amounts to the number of 864 men.

IT hath been my observation in the City of London, and the Suburbs thereof, there be­ing 18 Regiments, nine of the Trained Bands, and nine of the Auxiliaries, that their Regiments in some have but six Companies; others, and that for the most part, seven, and again, in some, & but a few to have eight Companies. I shall therefore for the better satisfaction of such as remain unskill'd herein, go through them all, partly to shew the practise of this our City in their severall drawings up, with the reasons to confirme the same. And having passed over as much as is convenient, to satisfie any ingenuous Souldier concer­ning the drawing up of six Companies in a regimentall way, with the confirmation and reasons of every perticuler Officer, as he there stands, it may in many things give full light to this that follows of seven Companies. Yet, neverthelesse, for more fuller satisfaction here­in, I shall shew the true manner hereof, that I may not be wanting to any Souldiers be­nefit that he shall receive thereby. Where, note for better order herein, that I have pitcht upon a perticuler number of men, although it may many times fall out so, that [Page 154] the Captaines Companies, and the Field-officers cannot be so full as I have here set down. Or again, it may chance to fall out (as in our Trained Bands of London) that they be a great deale fuller, as somtimes they are, for I have led a perticuler Company my self upon a generall day being drawn into the [...]ield consisting of above 300 men. Yet, never­thelesse, whether the Companies be great or small, observe this generall rule, make two grand Divisions, and ballance their number equal in both Arms, and make no more Subdivi­sions then what you have Captains to lead, and Lieutenants to bring up; and let the Serje­ants March by the Flanks, and not presume either to lead, or bring up any Divisions, being conceived by most to be very improper. And again, if you fight the Regiment, let your Mus­kettiers as neer as you can be equall alike in their Subdivisions as they may most convenient­ly fall out, whether four, five, or six a brest, it makes no great matter, always leaving in time of fight, between such number of Files six foot of ground intervall, for to wheel off their Ranks after they have fired.

Now suppose, the whole Regiment were marching to their generall place of Randezvous; the Major being there before hand, attending the Companies comming in, he orders to the Collonels Company the most convenient place for their drawing up, and next to him the fourth Captains Company upon the left, and next to him the third Captain, and after him, the el­dest or first Captain, which makes the first grand Division. In the next place he orders the Lieutenant Collonels Company to be on the left of the whole Regiment, standing in even Front with the Collonel, upon the right of him, the second Captain is placed, and after him the Majors own Company, which makes up the second grand Division.

Having thus far proceeded, let the Major command the Pikes, and Colours to advance forward ten paces, before the Front of Muskettiers, then let him close the Pikes of the first four Companies, to the right to order, and the Pikes of the last to the left to order, and the like of the Muskettiers in the Reer to those hands to the same distance, then they will stand in four Divisions; two of Pikes in the Front, and two of Mukettiers in the Reer. In the next place let him count how many Files of Pikes there are in each Division, and he will finde in the Collonels Division 26 Files, and in the Lieutenant Collonels but 22. To make these even, he must take off one file a piece from the youngest Captains, and bring them in­to the midst of the Lieutenant Collonels Division, and then he will make them equall, there being in each grand Division 24 files of Pikes. The Pikes being made thus equall, let him move down into the Reer, and examine the Muskettiers, where upon the right he will finde 52 files, and upon the left but 44; to make these even in number, he must take off one file a piece from the four Companies of the first grand Division, and lead them away up into the midst of the second, and then there will be in each grand Division of Muskettiers 48 files a piece. In the next place let him face them to the right and left outward, and move them to such convenient distance, as he may after divide his Muskettiers into four Divisions to move up, and flank the Pikes.

This being performed, he ought to appoint unto every Captain and Lieutenant his place where to lead, and where to bring up, and what men upon all occasions they are to fight. To which purpose, there being in the first grand Division four Captains, there must be four places to lead, and four to bring up, and therefore having their four Colours upon the long-march, that Body of Pikes may be divided into two Divisions, and to march with two Colours in the first Division of Pikes, which are to be led by the eldest Captain, and brought up by the Captains Lieutenants Bringer-up; the second Division of Pikes is to be led by the fourth Captain, and to be brought up by the eldest Captain Lieute­nant. The Reer-guard of Muskettiers in this grand division is to be led by the third Cap­tain, and to be brought up by his Lieutenant, who upon the long-march his Captain if he pleaseth, may exchange places, being more honour to him to be there to bring up, then to lead that Division, as hath been formerly exprest. As concerning the Captain Lieutenant his place is to be fixed according as in the Figure to lead the first Division of Muskettiers, and to be brought up by the fourth Captains Lieutenant, but at such time when they are drawn up all a brest, they are to take their places as at first fixed, both in their leading, and bringing-up, as shall be set forth in the following Figure, with all their severall places ap­pointed thereunto. As concerning all the rest, they are placed in manner as was shewed in my discourse of a Regiment consisting of six Companies.

But here it may be objected, that in the first grand Division I have placed the Collonel, eldest Captain, third, and fourth, and by casting up their number of dignity, we finde it to amount unto 18, and in the second grand Division, the Lieutenant Collonel, Major, and second Captain, whose number amounts but to 10: here we finde (say they) a great deal of difference, and alteration, your intentions principally tending to make them equall in dig­nity, for certainly, where the greater number is, there is the lesser dignity, and therefore a wrong unto that part where ever it so falls out.

To which, I answer, where there is no just exceptions to be made to the contrary, the former rule ought ever to be preserved in the keeping an equall ballance of the number of dignity, but herein it doth not. For the Collonel ought always to have placed in his divisi­on the eldest Captain, who is to lead his colours, and the first Body of Pikes, which is the first place of honour among the Captains, and in the second place the Majors Company is always drawn up, upon the out-most part, on the right of the Lieutenant Collonels grand Division, to carry an equall proportion of number, they being the second, and third worth, unto that of the first, or fourth, as is in the Collonels. In the next place, the second Captains turn comes to be regarded, who by the same rule, as the eldest Captain layes claim to carry the first honour, by leading the first Body of Pikes, & the Collonels colours: so the second Cap­tain cannot expect any other, but to be placed to lead the second Body of Pikes, & the Lieut. Collonels colours. Now, there being an odd Captain, he must be either placed upon the right, or left, he is therefore thought in discretion to be rather placed with the Collonel in his Division, that his colours may there flie, marching four together, being far more honour and gracefull, then that of three, as in the Lieutenant Collonels, and therefore where there is an honour in that kind which cannot be divided, it is very fit and requisite to place and fix it with him that is the Commander in chiefe. As for number of men, both Divisions are equall a like, and therefore, I conceive, what hath been spoken may take off all objections of this nature.

And now, according to my promise, I shall set forth the manner of the standing of seven Companies in a regimentall way, with all the severall places of honour appointed forth unto them, either marching, or standing all even a brest. If they be upon the long-march, they are to observe that manner set down in six Companies, onely to minde that alteration before expressed, the Figure of their drawing up, and the Officers stated in their proper places, follows in Folio 156.

From which Figure, I will draw up another, placing the Souldiers in Battalia, which may be very usefull for them to fight upon.

Command. Pikes in both Divisions face inward, in-most divisions Muskettiers face out­ward, Let them be at open order in their Ranks and Files; and the two grand Divisions stan­ding in one even Front together. march, and interchange ground each with other, face to your Leader. The four in­most files of Muskettiers next the Pikes face about, and march six foot cleer from the Pikes, and stand, then close their Files to the right and left to order in their own perticuler divi­sions, then face inward, and march all together, untill they stand six foot cleer of each o­ther, face to your Leader. The next five Files of Muskettiers in each side of Pikes, ad­vance 18 foot before the Front, then close their Files into the midst to order, and Ranks forward to order; Pikes close your Ranks forward to order, and Files into the midst to or­der; Every five Files of Muskettiers close inward to order, and Ranks forward to order, then face to the Pikes, and march forward, being betwixt every five Files of Muskettiers, six foot of ground distance each from other, and the same distance from the Body of Pikes, face all to your Leader. The 12 out-most Files of Pikes and Muskettiers advance forward six foot cleer of the standing part, then move forward the three out-most divisions of Mus­kettiers 12 paces, then face them inward, and move them untill they stand streight before the five remaining divisions, face all to your Leader. The middle division of Muskettiers of those three taken off before from each Flank move forward six foot cleer of the stand­ing part; the three middle-most divisions of the five remaining upon each Flank, move up untill you stand six foot short of the divisions which are before you; the two out-most divisions of the last three that moved, face outward, and march six foot cleer of the for­mer divisions before them: the two remaining divisions by the out-side of Pikes move in­ward, untill you stand streight in the Reer with the two Front divisions, facing all to their Leader, they will stand as is set forth unto your view in Folio 156.

Notwithstanding the former directions of drawing forth the Figure, make this alteration; wheel off the first two divisions of Muskettiers before the Pikes, and place them six foot behinde the Reer of those upon the Flanks, and before you reduce them, carry them into their first places.

In this Figure, you have Forlornes, aptly standing to the Wings, and main Body of Pikes, with Reserves to them all, so that I shall not need to trouble my selfe for to describe what firings might be here performed upon the same, they lying so apparant to the view, the divisions being cleer each of other, any ingenuous Commander may fire them according unto his own best discretion, continuing the same as long as he shall think fitting, and there­fore passing it by, and leaving it to their own liberty, I come in the next place to reduce them again into private Companies.

Reducement. Pikes of the Main Body, advance forward, and range even a brest with the Pikes before you, the two last divisions of Muskettiers in the Reer move up, and flank the Pikes; the two divisions of Muskettiers before the Front face about, and move down upon the right and left of the other two divisions of Muskettiers, to your Leader. The two last divisions of Muskettiers in the Reer of the Flanks advance forward to the right and left, and range even a brest on the out-side of those three divisions that stands before you; Single divisions of Muskettiers in the Front of each wing, face about, and move down even a brest with the Reer of the next divisions; The eight divisions of Mus­kettiers upon each wing face about, the five first divisions move down, and range even a brest with the Reer; the three last move to the right and left outward untill you be cleer of the rest, face to the Reer, and move down in like manner, and rank even with the rest, after face all to the Front, and they will all stand in one even Front. Next command the Pikes to face outward, and the five in-most divisions of Muskettiers in each flank, face inward, then march and interchange ground each with other, and face to their Leader; they will stand again in two grand Divisions all even a brest in the Front. In the next place let those six files be taken off by the Serjeants of their own Companies from the two grand Divisions, and be brought into their first pl [...]ces. After the Major may give order to every Captain, to draw off his men, and put them into Companies again, which is easily done, after the Regiment may be ordered to march home in single Companies, either by succession or dignity, which he pleaseth. And here I shall conclude concerning a Regiment of seven Companies.

[military diagram]
[military diagram]

CHAP. XIV. The manner of drawing up, and placing the Officers, of a Regiment, con­sisting of eight Companies, having in it a Collonel, a Lieuteuant Collonel, a Major, and five Captains, their number of men in each Companie, being equall with the former Regiment, they amount unto 972 men.

IT concerns a Major (provided he have room enough) to draw up every Company even a Brest, and to give unto every Captain, his due place of honour, after whith, he may proceed to order them in a regimentall way. Wherefore, briefly thus, observe the manner of the dignity of every Captain, how they ought to be placed; first the Collonels Company being drawn up in it's convenient place, next to him upon the left stands the third Captain, and next to him the fourth, and the next that follows, is the eldest, these four Captains being drawn up after this manner, makes the first grand Division; and therefore I shall endeavour to give reasons for to confirme this, before I shall proceed upon the second, as being the right half-ranks which ought to carry an equall proportion of worth, honour, and dignity, with that of the last. Where, first, take notice, that the Collonel being the most worthiest man, is placed upon the right, and is the first place of honour, and the out-most upon the left, is the eldest Captain, which is the fourth worth, there being the Collonel, Lieutenant Collonel, and Major, above him; now consider that the first and fourth worth makes the number five, betwixt these two is drawn up the third and fourth Captains, which are the sixth and seventh worth, whose number carries 13, adde them to that number a­bove, and it makes 18. In the next place, since it is the judgement of most Souldiers, that there should be an equall proportion of skill, valour, and worth, the Reer half-files an­swerable to them of the Front: so likewise the same rule is to be observed between the right and left half-ranks. That whether we consider the Front divisions, or Reer, right, or left half-ranks, they may be so ballanced in every kind of respect, with true proportion; so neer as the knowledge of the Souldiers, and number of men will give leave. To which purpose, I will proceed to draw up the second grand Division, and compare it to the first; the Lieutenant Collonels Company being drawn up, upon the left of the whole Regiment, upon his fight, is the second Captain drawn up, and next to him the fifth Captain, after the Major, upon the right of the Lieutenant Collonels division. Now, if we consider, the Lieu­tenant Collonel he is the second man of honour, and therefore ought [...]o be upon the out-most part of the Front on the left▪ when the Com [...]s are marching all even a Brest, but upon the long-march he is to fall down into the Reer; the out-most upon the right of his Division is the Majors Compan [...] placed, and he is the third man of honour. Now the third worth and second will carry [...]quall ballance of number with that of the first and fourth, and so have I set forth the four first places of honour, which, I suppose, no knowing Souldier can deny. Betwixt the second and third worth is drawn up the second Captain, and fift, the second Captain is the first worth; and the fifth Captain is the eighth, which makes the number 13; and will carry an equall weight of number with those in the midst of the first and fourth worth. Now having stated the severall worths of the second grand Division, being compared together makes a like number of 18 unto that of the first division. And to take off all objections that might be made concerning the second Captain, and sift, why they should not rather be placed in the first division, then in the second, because it hath been held by the opinion of some, it should be so, but never any substantiall reason to be given for the same. Therefore, unto this I shall say, that they ought to be there where I have placed them, in respect of what I have formerly said, that as it is the first place of honour amongst the Captains to lead the first Body of Pikes, where the Collonels colours flies: so I say, it must necessarily follow the second place of honour must be appointed to the second Captain, which is to lead in chiefe the second Bo­dy of Pikes, where the Lieutenant Collonels colours does flie, and to make them of the se­cond division equall in number with the first, the youngest Captain, which is the eighth worth, is brought in, & joyned to the second Captain, who is the fifth, and therefore a File or a Rank ought to be set forth in dignity, after this manner. in respect there is no truer stating the dignity of a single File, or Rank, then that which shall conforme to

[military diagram]

[Page 159] greater Bodies as that of Regiments. And thus much briefly shall suffice to be spoken concerning the second grand Division, for the placing the second and fift Captanins betwixt the Lieutenant Collonel, and the Majors, in respect of the second Captain stands aptly there to receive his proper place, and the youngest Captain is brought in to ballance their Dignities unto that of the first.

In the n [...]xt place, I shall shew how they ought to be drawn up in a regiment all way, be­ing all even a brest as before, command Muskettiers to face about, and to march down 12 foot cleer of the Reer, then face to the Front, after close files outward to order of each Armes, then subdivide each division of Muskettiers, and move them up to flank each Bo­dy of Pikes. And having accounted and cast up the number of files of each Armes in each grand Division, you will finde in the Collonels division to have in it 26 files of Pikes, and 52 files of Muskettiers; next the Lieutenant Collonels division, being examined, you will finde there to have in it 28 files of Pikes, and 56 files of Muskettiers; now to make these equall in number, there must be taken forth one file of Pikes, and two of Muskettiers from the second grand Division, and place one a piece in the midst of the first division, in every one of their perticuler divisions, and they will contein equall a like in each grand Division 27 files of Pikes, and 54 files of Muskettiers. In the next place, the Major may assigne unto every Captain and Lieutenant where his place shall be to lead, and where to bring up; the Collonel being upon the head of his Division, and the Lieutenant Collonel upon the head of the second grand Division, the Major in the Front betwixt them both, or where else he pleaseth, being an Officer always to act through the whole Regiment. And in the first place he appoints the Captain Lieutenant to be on the head of the first division of Muskettiers, and to be brought up by the fourth Captains Lieutenant; next he orders the eldest Captain to be on the head of the first division of Pikes, and to be brought up by the Captains Lieutenant Bringer-up, and the fourth Captain to be on the head of the second division of Pikes, and to be brought up by the eldest Captains Lieutenant; and the second division of Muskettiers he appoints unto the third Captain, and to be brought up by his own Lieutenant, and upon the long-march, let him and his Captain change places untill such time they shall draw up again. After he orders his own Lieutenant to be on the head of the third division of Muskettiers; and the third division of Pikes, he appoints to the fifth Captain, and to be brought up by his own Lieutenant; the fourth Division of Pikes, is ordered to be the second Captains place, and brought up by his own Lieutenant, the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant is appointed to the fourth and last division of Musket­tiers, the Lieutenant Collonel upon the long-march bringing up the whole Regiment. It might be supposed the Captain Lieutenant, Lieutenant Collonels and Majors Lieutenants, have too great places of honour, but to answer them all, their Captains being Field-officers and upon severall occasions moving off, their Lieutenants do officiate there in their rooms, and are but as assistants unto them, for likewise upon severall occasions they come to those places themselves to lead marching there before their Lieutenants. As concerning the placing of all the rest of the other Officers, they lie cleerly, for as much as formerly hath been spoken in their proper places, without (as I conceive) the exceptions of any.

Secondly, upon the long-march, the Collonel draws off the first division of Muskettiers, and leads them, marching some 12 foot before his Captain Lieutenant, and that divi­sion is brought up by the fourth Captains Lieutenant, the colours marching two and two upon every division, whereof the first is drawn off, and led by the first Captain, and brought up by the Captains Lieutenants and Bringer-up, the next division of Pikes falling in the Reer of the first, and led by the fourth Captain, and brought up by the first Captains Lieutenant; the second division of Muskettiers, is led by the third Captains Lieutenant, and brought up by his own Captain; the fourth or first division of Muskettiers in the se­cond grand Division is led by the Major, when he pleaseth, some 12 foot before his own Lieutenant; and the third division of Pikes, is led by the fifth Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant, the fourth and last division of Pikes is led by the second Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant, the fourth and last division of Muskettiers is by the Lieu. Col. Lieutenant, the Reer of the whole Regiment being brought up by the Lieut. Col. [Page 160] thus every Division is to march by succession, the one in the Reer of another, keeping 18 foot distance betwixt every Division, untill they shall have room to march all even a brest, and then with very little alteration with the third Captain, changing places, with his own Lieutenant, they are all to take their places again as at first.

Having now set forth the true dignity of every Captains and Lieutenants place, what men they shall take charge on to fight, where to lead, and where to bring up, I shall spare the figure in respect I shall shew (with very little alteration) the manner of drawing up and marching of divers Regiments that were under the command of the late Earl of Essex.

The first grand Division in respect of every Officer and place, is to be ordered as the for­mer; only in the second, there will be this small alteration, the Lieutenant Collonels Com­pany, and the Majors are to interchange places, the rest are to remain as they were, only with th [...]s alteration following; the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant is to lead the first Divi­sion of Muskettiers, untill such time that his Lieutenant Collonel shall come unto that place, and then he is to bring up that Division being neer at hand, that if his Lieutenant Collonel should upon some just occasions be called off, he may immediately move up, and lead there in his absence. For upon the long-march, as the Collonel leads the first grand Division, so it is conceiv'd by some, (they marching in two grand Divisions some 20 paces distance from each other in manner of two regimentall marchings) that the Lieutenant Collonel ought to lead the second. Next, let the first Division of Pikes be led by the second Captain, and to be brought up by the fifth Captains Lieutenant, and the second Division of Pikes to be led by the fifth Captain, and brought up by the second Captains Lieutenant; the last Division of Muskettiers to be led by the Majors Lieutenant, and the Reer of the second grand Divi­sion being left for the Major to bring up, at such time as with conveniency he may be spared. Therefore, to march thus, it being a very good way, and with very little alteration to be made, I was unwilling to passe it by, leaving it to the discretion of every ingenuous Souldier, to make use of which way he best pleaseth, or likes of, whilest I in the next place, shall set forth the Figure, which follows in page 161; affording more variety in the same.

CHAP. XV. How to make the Figure of a Ring, with it's use and service.

THe way to make this Figure in the most readiest manner, is to be performed after this kind; both the grand Divisions, standing all a brest in even Front; first move forward all the Muskettiers some ten foot cleer of the Pikes, after let them close Files both of Muskettiers and Pikes, into the midst to order, then they will stand in two Divisions, one of Muskettiers, and in the Reer of them, one of Pikes; then open the files outward to open order of each Armes, and after let them double the Front to the left of both Armes by Bringers-up, and they will be but three deep of each Armes, having in the Fronts the best Souldiers; then command them to face all to the right, then wheel them a­bout still to the right of both Armes; the Pikes wheeling all in the in-side of the Mus­kettiers, untill you have brought them into two Rings, provided thus that you close your Rings unto that place which was your first Front, then face them all to the Center, and after face them about to the right, and they will then be faced round and stand sutable to the fol­lowing Figure (page 163.) and to have in it two Rings, the one of Muskettiers, the other of Pikes, some ten foot short on the in-side of them. And by reason it cannot be well otherwise, in respect there are as many Muskettiers again as there are Pikes, and the Officers follow­ing the Souldiers in their places formerly fixed in this Motion will also naturally stand in manner and forme as is set down in the Figure.

But, me thinks, I hear some say, of what use or service upon any occasion may this Ring be unto the Souldier. To whom I answer, that it is one of the most serviceablest Figures that can be made, to secure the Souldier from danger against the furious charge of horse in Campania, the accomplishing or making of it up, being easily and suddainly performed, the Muskettiers having Pallizadoes may advance forward three or four paces, and stick them down in such manner, as that they may keep the horse from breaking in among them. And after if they should be charged round, they may give fire over them, against their Enemies, and fall in the Reer of themselves; yet neverthelesse, if the horse should be undaunted, and [Page]

Place this Figure of the Rining between Folio 160 and 161.

[Page 161] attempt to come on again, they may resist them with a more desperate charge after this manner, bringing all hands to fight, and to poure out their shot, or to fire altogether after this kind. Command first the Pik [...]s to move forward, untill they be three foot behinde the Muskettiers, then let every file rank to the right, which will make them to stand but one a brest in one single ring behinde the Muskettiers, now that all hands may be brought to fight together, command the first rank of Muskettiers to kneel down, the second stoop, and the third stand upright, then let all close forward to close order, and let the Pikes as occasion shall require charge betwixt the Muskettiers, who may fire altogether, and the Pikes may charge on whilest the Muskettiers make ready again. The Pallizadoes formerly stuck, keeping off the horse from breaking in upon them, they may fire after this manner, as often as they please; and so much may suffice to be spoken concerning the service and use that may be made of it in time of fight, and now in the next place I come to reduce them into Companies again as at first.

Let the Pikes that ranked to the right, file three to the left as they were, and let the Bringers-up that doubled face about to the right, and march forth into their places. Then let the Major come to that place where he closed the Ring, and break it off, wheeling them all a long about to the left untill he hath brought them to stand in one even Front as at first, the same in like manner to be performed of the Pikes, and to stand in the Reer of the Mus­kettiers. Next, let the Mukettiers and Pikes face outward, and move to such convenient distance, that after the Muskettiers may be subdivided again, and the Pikes move up, and double their Front inward intire in each grand Division. Which being brought into that forme, each Captain may draw off his men, being so commanded by the Major, and com­pleat up his Company again, and be after disposed of to farther duty, or to march home to their Quarters according to command; and here I shall conclude this Regiment of eight Companies.

[military diagram]

CHAP. XVIII. The manner of drawing up a Regiment, consisting of ten Companies, having in it seven Captains, and three Field-Officers, being in each perticuler Company, the former numbers, which in all amounts unto 1198 men.

THe Major having ground sufficient for the drawing up the Regiment, after the Collo­nels Company hath made Alt, next to him upon the left he draws up the young­est Captain, which is the tenth, and the next to him the third Captain, which is the sixt, after that the fourth Captain, which is the seventh, then the first Captain which is the fourth. Then the Majors which is the the third, next to him the fifth Captain which is the eighth, and after that the second Captain, which is the fifth, then the sixt Captain, which is the ninth, all these being drawn up upon the left of the Collonels Com­pany, the closier of all upon the left, is the Lieutenant Collonels Company, whose figure carries the number 2. Place now all these numbers of dignity according to the former fi­gures, and they will stand as followeth in a rank.

[military diagram]

In the next place compare the dignity of the right half-ranks, with the left, and they are ballanced as neer as can be possible to be equall, there being one odd, which of necessity must be cast upon the right half-ranks for the reasons formerly exprest, in placing the se­cond Captain into the Lieutenant Collonels division. Then according to the former rule draw forth the Pikes, and ingrosse them into two Bodies, and the like of the Muskettiers, after sub-divide the Muskettiers, and make them four divisions, and move them up to flank the Pikes, and then they will be in two compleat grand Divisions. In the next place, let the Major order forth unto the Captains and Lieutenants, their severall places to lead, and to bring up, after this manner. There being two grand Divisions, having in them five Cap­tains, and five Lieutenants, it will be necessary to appoint out five severall Charges in the first grand Division to lead, and five to bring up, after this manner. As first, divide the Van-guard into two divisions, the first to be led by the Captain Lieutenant, and brought up by his Bringer-up; the second division of Muskettiers in the Van to be led by the third Captains Lieutenant, and to be brought up by the fourth Captains Lieutenant. The first division of Pikes is to have the three first colours to fly upon the head of them, and to be led by the el­dest Captain, and brought up by the seventh Captains Lieutenant, the next division of Pikes to be led by the fourth Captain, having his own, and the eldest Captains colours flying upon the head of them, and to be brought up by the seventh, or youngest Captain in the Regi­ment; the Reer-guard of Muskettiers of the first grand Division to be led by the third Captain, and brought up by the eldest Captains Lieutenant, who upon the long-march these two are to inter-change places if the third Captain desire it, and having such permission from the Major, being more honour to bring up, then to lead, as was said before in the former Regiments.

Next followes the placing of the Officers in the second grand Division; let the Van-guard of Muskettiers there be led by the Majors Lieutenant, or by himselfe when he pleaseth, and be brought up by the fifth Captains Lieutenant; next let the first division of Pikes there be led by the fifth Captain, having two colours flying on the head of them, the Majors, and his own, and to be brought up by the sixt Captains Lieutenant; let the next division of Pikes be led by the second Captain, having three colours flying on the head of them, the Lieutenant Collonels, his own, and the sixt Captains, and let that be brought up by the second Captains Lieutenant, let the last division of Muskettiers, be led by the sixt Captain, and brought up by the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant; the Lieutenant Collonel upon the long-march bringing up the Reer of the Regiment, some 12 foot behinde his own Lieutenant.

I shall in the next place shew the reasons for the thus placing of the Officers, where first I shall endevour to cleer the first grand Division, which will occasion the second to be more easily resolved. Where briefly thus, as concerning the Collonel, eldest Captain, third Cap­tain, & Cap. Lieutenant, I shall passe them over, having formerly spoken sufficient to satisfie any Souldier therein. It follows therefore to speak of the fourth Captains place, which is the next man of honour after the former, and therefore is placed to lead the second division of Pikes, which is more honour to him to lead there, then to lead a sub-division of Musket­tiers. In the Van-guard next to him in honour in this division, is the seventh Captain, who is appointed to bring up the first grand Body of Pikes, which likewise is more honour unto him, then to lead or bring up any sub-division of Muskettiers, as before expressed. Having thus resolved of all the Captains, and Captains Lieutenants place, next follows the reasons of the Lieutenants places, where first take notice that the eldest Captains Lieutenant is ap­pointed to bring up the Reer-guard, which next the Pikes is the greatest place of honour in the Reer, and a very honourable place unto him; or if he alters places with the third Captain upon the long-march, yet neverthelesse he hath the chiefest place of honour after the Captain Lieutenant amongst all the Lieutenants unto those places he is ordered unto. The third Captains Lieutenant is assigned to the next place, who leads the second division of Muskettiers in the Van-guard, which is more honour to him then to bring up any such di­vision; after follows him the fourth Captains Lieutenant, who brings up the Reer of the Van-guard, which is more honour to him, of the places remaining to be there, then to bring up either the first division of Muskettiers, or the first division of Pikes. Lastly, the seventh Captains Lieutenant is placed to bring up the first division of Pikes, which being the more honourable Arms, it adds more honour to him to be there to bring up, then the first division of Muskettiers, which being the last place of honour, it is given to the Cap­tain Lieutenants Bringer-up to be there; and thus much shall suffice for the reasons of the places of the first grand Division.

Now for placing of the Officers of the second grand Division, I shall not need to speak any thing concerning the Lieutenant Collonels Major, Second Captain, and the Majors Lieutenants place, in regard in the former Regiments I have endevoured to give the Souldi­er satisfaction therein. Therefore next to those in this grand Division follows to be spoken is the fifth Captain, who is the next man of honour, and therefore hath his due place ap­pointed out to him to lead the first division of Pikes, where the Majors and his own colou [...] flye, which is more honour to him to lead there the Van of the Pikes, then the Reer-guard of Muskettiers. Next to him is the sixt Captain, which next the Pikes hath his due place of honour, remaining to him to lead the Reer-guard. Having thus resolved the Captains places, I shall in the next endevour to shew the Lieutenants, where first it falls to the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant to be placed first, who is ordered to bring up the Reer, to be an assistant unto his Lieutenant Collonel, who is a Field Officer, and may have many occasi­ons to fall off, and therefore he requires his Lieutenant to be present with his men there, as the Collonels doth his in the Front. And as much may be said of the Majors Lieutenant, but passing him by, I come next to the second Captains Lieutenant, who is appointed to bring up the Reer of the second Body of Pikes, which is the greatest place of honour that is in the Reer next to the Lieutenant Collonels Lieutenant. After him follows the fifth Cap­tains Lieutenant, who is placed to bring up the Reer of the Van-guard of this division, which is more honour then to bring up the Van of the Pikes, whose turn being the last place of honour falls to him that is the youngest Lieutenant, which is the sixt Captains Lieutenant.

And thus as briefly as I could I have run over all the reasons for the placing of the Officers in the Regiment drawn up after this manner, that I might not be wanting unto the desire of any such who are willing to be informed herein, being always ready to imploy my selfe in as plain a way as I can for the benefit of all true loving Souldiers, who are concerned herein. And therefore, for their better satisfaction, let them cast their eye upon the Figure as it is demonstrated between Folio 161 and 162, where they shall see every man placed according to my former discourse.

CHAP. XVII. The manner both of the drawing up, and the order of the Long-march of Collonel Rainsborough his Regiment, bringing up the Reer of the foot of the Army, under the Command of the Lord Generall Fairfax, at their first marching through the City of London, on the seventh of August, 1647.

THe first order of drawing up the Regiment at their first place of Randezvous, before they marched or joyn'd with the Army was thus; The Collonels Company being upon the out-most part of the right of the Regiment, next to his left by successi­on was drawn up the second, sixt, fift, and first Captains, which make up his division, or the right half-ranks in their first drawing up to be compleat, and may in their figure of dignity standing in a rank be demonstrated as followeth, 4: 8: 9: 5: 1. This number of worth being cast up amounteth to 27, and thus much for the Collonels Division.

Now for the left half-ranks, or Lieutenant Collonels Division, (as many times it is so or­dered and appointed) his own Company being drawn up upon the out-most part on the left of the Regiment, and next to his right after each other is drawn up the third, seventh, fourth, and Majors Company, whose figure of dignity standing rank-wise, may be thus described, 2: 6: 10: 7: 3. and their number of dignity in all amounteth to 28. Where you may perceive a rule that the discretion of the Major walketh by, in the drawing up of the Regiment, to ballance with as neer proportion as he can the number, worth, and dig­nity of his right half-ranks, or right flank, sutable with that of the left. For it would be unreasonable that all the best men should be on the right, and that the left of the Regi­ment who are to oppose the Enemies right should have the weakest or meanest men of worth; therefore without all question that Body of men that shall be drawn up so as to make all parts of equall worth, and strength, as the right flank with the left, the Front with the Reer, so that where ever the Enemy shall fall on to charge any one of these parts, being all made equall in strength, and worth, it must needs prevent all murmuring com­plaints, and carry best approbation to all knowing Commanders; And thus much briefly may be spoken in the commendation of the ordering of his Regiment thus far.

The Captains now standing by their own colours, on the head of the Pikes, and their Companies being drawn up all, and standing in an even Front, the Major next commands the Muskettiers to stand, the Pikes and Colours to troop forth some ten or twelve paces cleer of the Muskettiers, and then they likewise to stand, and after to close their files to the midst to order.

Next he commands the Muskettiers in their files to close outward to order, command­ing them afterward to move up, and flank the Pikes, after which he orders the Body into thirteen remarkable divisions, four divisions of Muskettiers upon each side of the Pikes, and the Pikes into five divisions, having their colours flye by two and two, and to be led by those Ensign-bearers that do belong to each of them, excepting the first and middle divi­sions, for they have Leaders in chief, as the first and fift Captain, and the third Captain, to bring up the Reer of the whole Body of Pikes. For more fuller illustration of the leading and bringing up of each division, in the Regiment upon their Long-march, observe these following directions.

1 The Regiment being upon their March, the first division upon the right, is led by the Collonel, his Captain Lieutenant marching in the Reer of him severall paces, and that perticuler division is brought up by the Captains Lieutenant Bringer-up.

2 The second division of Muskettiers is led by the second Captain Lieutenant, and brought up by the first, or eldest Cap. Lieutenant.

[military diagram]

3 The third division of Muskettiers is led by the sixt Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant.

4 The fourth division of Muskettiers is led by the fift Captains Lieutenaut, and brought up by the fourth Captain.

5 The first division of Pikes is led by the eldest Captain, having the Collonels, and second Captains colours flying on the head of them.

6 The second division of Pikes is led by the fift and sixt Captains Ensignes, having their own colours flying upon the head of the same.

7 The third division of Pikes, is led by the fift Captain, having the Majors and eldest Captains colours flying upon the head of the same.

8 The fourth division of Pikes is led by the fourth and seventh Captains Ensignes, having their own colours flying upon the head of the same.

9 The fift and last division of Pikes is led by the Lieutenant Collonels, and third Captains Ensignes, having likewise their own colours flying upon the head of the same, and the Reer of the Pikes is brought up by the third Captain.

10 The first division of Muskettiers on the left flank is led by the second Captain, and brought up by the fourth Captains Lieutenant.

11 The second upon the left is led by the third Captains Lieutenant, and brought up by the Majors Lieutenant.

12 The third division is led by the seventh Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant.

13 The fourth or last division of Muskettiers is led by the Lieutenant Collonels Lieute­nant, and the Reer of the Regiment is brought up by the Lieutenant Collonel.

Notwithstanding, I have thus laid down the manner of the Divisions, with the placing of the Officers, there are also from all these divisions both of the Pikes and Muskettiers, sub­divisions drawn off upon the long-march betwixt every fift or sixt file as they can equally divide them, with even proportions to march. And for the leading of such divisions there are Serjeants cast in that properly belong unto them which do lead▪ and bring them up, so that upon this accompt they make in their long-regimentall-march some thirty divisi­ons, by reason, as I conceive, upon any Alt, or convenient place of drawing them all up even a brest, the Serjeants as well as the rest of the superiour Officers may be helpfull to bring up the file-leaders again as at first into their properplaces. And thus far I have en­devoured for the satisfaction of all ingenuous Souldiers to set forth the manner of Collonell Rainsborough's Regiment of their drawing up, disposing of colours, and placing of Officers, as was the Observation of my ever honour'd Friend, and most exquisite knowing Souldier Thomas Walker, one of the Captains of the same Regiment, and a true lover of the Mi­litary Art, who friendly communicated to me the practise of their Regiment. Which although it differs from the drawing up of all others in our Army (as I am inform'd, they varying in one kind or other by their severall ways) I question not, but this may be as good as any of the rest, which I leave to the judgement of the curious searchers into this Art; whilest I proceed to shew the Figures following.

CHAP. XVIII. A third way of drawing up a Regiment of ten Companies, after the manner used amongst the Swedes.

THe Companies meeting altogether, whether it be in the Alarum place, otherwise at their generall Randezvous, where they have ground and room sufficient enough for their drawing up; The Major appointing forth unto the Lieutenant C [...]llonels Company a place most convenient to stand, he draws all the rest of the Compa­nies upon the left of him after this manner. The seventh and the second Captain, then the Collonel, after him the sixth, fourth, and first Captain, then the Major, after him the fift, and third Captain, who closes up the left of the whole Regiment, the figures of their dig­nity, standing after this manner.

[military diagram]

Here you may perceive they follow a rule to ballance their number of dignity as neer as they can, carrying their odd number on the left half-rank, and not upon the right, for these reasons, as, I conceive, following. Their Regiments being so full of men, they draw them up for the most part into three Squadrons, or grand Divisions, giving unto the Lieutenant Collonel the right wing, the Major the left, and the Collonel, the Main-battail. The Collo­nels grand Division consists of the four middle Companies, where you are to take notice, be­ing drawn off some ten paces cleer from the rest, they stand after this manner by way of figure 4: 7: 9: 1. The Leiutenant Collonels Division after this manner, 5: 10: 2. and the Majors after this kind, 6: 8: 3. Wherein I do observe in each grand Division this rule, that by succession and degrees they put the best Souldiers upon the right, and the second according to course upon the left, and the rest between them. As first, the Collonel being the chiefest man of honour is placed upon the right of his Squadron, next to his left is the sixt and fourth Captain, and the closing up of his grand Division, is placed the first or eldest Captain. The Leiutenant Collonel being the second man of honour is likewise pla­ced upon the right of his Squadron, and next to his left the seventh Captain, his grand Division being closed up by the second Captain. In the next place, the Major, he being the third man of honour, is placed upon the right of his Squadron, and upon his left, the fift Captain, and his grand Division is closed up upon the left by the third Captain. So that you may observe in the closing up of every Division, that as every Field-Officer is upon the right of their Squadrons, so they take by degrees upon the out-most of their left to close their Divisions, the Captains according to their degrees by succession. As first, and more cleerly, the Collonel takes the eldest Captain to him on his left, who will aptly fall in to lead his Body of pikes, and colours; the Lieutenant Collonel takes the second Captain, for to lead his Stand of pikes and colours; the third Captain being placed upon the left of the out-most part of the Majors Squadron, to lead likewise his colours, and Body of pikes. And further if you observe the number of worth, and dignity, that the right wing hath with the left, you will finde them to be equally ballanced, and to be 17 a like in number. Now in respect there cannot be an equall Division of the colours by threes, there is very good reason that the odd should be placed in the Collonels Squadron, who is Commander in chiefe, and to whom it properly belongs unto.

In the next place, I shall shew you how to draw them forth in a regimentall way; the four middle Companies being advanced forward ten paces cleer from the three out-most Companies, may stand, then draw forth the Pikes of each Squadron, untill they be ten foot cleer of their Muskettiers, then close Pikes into the midst to order in their files in each Division, and they will be in three Bodies, after close the Musketteiers into the midst to order, then sub-divide them in as equall a way as you can, and let them move up upon the right, and left, and flank each Body of Pikes. Then let the Major examine the files in the Collonels Division, how many they exceed in number the other two, and he will finde twelve files of Muskettiers, and six files of Pikes, more then in the rest. Now to make [Page 167]

[military diagram]

[Page 168] them equall a like in each Squadron, let him take off from each perticuler Company of the Collonels Squadron, one file of Pi [...]es, and place two of those four in the midst of the Lieutenant Collonels Squadron, and the remaining two in the midst of his own Squadron, which being done each Body of Pikes will have in it 22 files. After let him take off from each Company two files of Muskettiers, which will be eight files, and let him place two files in the midst of each flank of Muskettiers, both in the Divisions of the Lieutenant Collonels, and his own, and then there will be in each perticuler division of Muskettiers 21 files. This being likewise a very good way to draw up a Regiment of so great a num­ber of men, I was unwilling to passe it by, but to present it unto the view of all loving Souldiers, which will more fuller appear in the figure following (Folio 167) in which fi­gure I shall shew the severall places of the Captains, and their Lieutenants, where they are to lead, and where to bring up.

But before the former figure be drawn up, it will be convenient for the Major to take off from every Company four files of Muskettiers, (excepting the Collonels) and move them down by 12 files a piece some ten foot cleer of the Reer of Pikes of each division, and then close them in their files inward to order, and face them after to the Front, and they will stand there ready upon all occasions to be Reserves unto the Wings, or any other part of the Body, or to be Convoys to fetch in Victuall, Ammunition, or any thing else that shall be wanting unto the Regiment. I shall not need to draw any other Figure of Battail from this, they standing in a very good form to fire upon, opening every five files cleer from each other six foot that the Muskettiers may have room enough, to fall off, and to move down in the Reer of themselves, after such time their ranks have fired. Neither shall I need to give any further reasons for the placing of the Officers, in respect it lyes cleer and easie to the view of every ingenuous Souldier to apprehend. As for matter of marching, if they have ground sufficient, it will be very gracefull to them for to preserve this figure; but if they have not room, but must be constrain'd to draw off, and march in perticuler divisions it will be convenient to keep this decorum, if the Collonel thinks fit to change places every day, after this manner. He that leads the Van-guard one day, falls off the next, and bring up the Reer-ward; and he that before led the Main-battail, comes to lead the Van, and he that led the Reer-ward, comes to be in the place of the Main-battail. And thus they change, and take their turns by course, to lead the Van, the Battail, and the Reer-ward. They ought likewise in their March to have thirty foot of ground distance betwixt each grand Divisi­on, and when they have ground sufficient, they may draw up again into their first figure. Now in respect I purpose to go on upon the next drawing up of a Regiment of 12 Compa­nies, I shall break off to discourse any more of this. For the reducing of them again into Companies, it will be easie, let the Serjeants of each perticuler Company fetch off those men of theirs which were drawn off for Reserves, and to make the Squadrons even in number, bring them to joyn with their own men; then let every Captain take off his Pikes and Muskettiers, and compleat them up into one Body, they will be ready to receive Or­ders, and to be in a condition for marching away, either to their Quarters, or other duties, which they shall be appointed unto by their Major.

CHAP. IX. The way of drawing up a Regiment consisting of 12 Companies, the nine Cap­tains, having 18 Files in each Company, and the three Field-officers everyone them 24 Files, whereof, there are two thirds of Muskettiers, and one of Pikes, in each perticuler Company, amounting in all to 1404 men.

THe Major having convenient place, be first orders where the Collonels Company is to stand, and after draws all the rest of the Companies upon the left of him, af­ter this manner. The ninth, the fourth, the third, the sixth, and the first, Captains; then the Major next the seventh, the fifth, the second, and the eighth Captains and the out-most of all upon the left, the Lieutenant Collonels Company, in manner of the dignity of a Rank, as they thus stand.

[military diagram]

The dignity of places cannot be better stated, then in this of 12 Companies, as first, the right half-ranks is equall with the left in number of dignity. Again, divide them into three parts, and their number of dignity fals out to carry a long with it an equall number of 26 all even a like. Consider likewise, the stating of every Captain in the Regiment, and they are qualified equall throughout, the best, and the youngest Souldiers joyned together, as by examining them how they stand by two's, their number of worth and dignity throughout carries 13 all equall a like. In the next place, draw forth all the Pikes, and ingrosse them into two Bodies, then divide the Muskettiers into four parts, and move them up, and flank those Stands of Pikes, and they will be in two grand Divisions; then place the Officers after this manner; beginning first with the Collonels division, make two divisions of Mus­kettiers in his Van, let the first be led by the Captain Lieutenant, and be brought up by his Bringer-up, let the next division of Muskettiers be led by the fourth Captains Lieutenant, and brought up by the third Captains Lieutenant; let the Pikes be divided into three divi­sions, the Colours flying two and two upon the head of them, let the first division be led by the eldest Captain, and brought up by the ninth Captains Lieutenant, let the next divi­sion be led by the sixt Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant, let the last division be led by the fourth Captain, and the whole Body of Pikes be brought up by the ninth Captain. Then let the Reer-guard of the Collonels division be led by such observations as is set forth in other Regiments by the third Captain, and brought up by the first Capt. Lieut.

Having placed the Officers in the first grand Division, he may proceed unto the next, let the first division of Muskettiers be led by the Majors Lieutenant, and brought up by the fifth Captains Liutenant. Let the Pikes be divided into three parts, the Colours likewise flying, two and two upon the head of them; then let the first division be led by the fifth Captain, and brought up by the eighth Captains Lieutenant, next let the second division be led by the eighth Captain, and brought up by the seventh Captains Lieutenant; Lastly, let the third division be led by the second Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant, let the last division of Muskettiers be led by the seventh Captain, and brought up by the Lieu­tenant Collonels Lieutenant; The Collonel is to be on the head of his division, and the Lieu­tenant Collonel upon the head of his, and the Major between them both in the Front. The Officers before they are thus placed, are to have their grand divisions of both Armes equally ballanced for number of worth, observing still the former rules in the execution of the same It might be here expected I should shew reasons for the thus placing of the Officers, after this manner; but to satisfie such, if they please but to observe and take notice of the rea­sons given in the former Regiments, which will give satisfaction unto this, carrying with it the same order and way. And likewise it might be expected, that I should here set forth a figure for the thus drawing them up as before exprest, and placing of the severall Offi­cers. But since this Regiment falls out to be so full in number, I shall set it forth after the manner of drawing up a Brigade, according to the Swedish practise.

CHAP. XX. The manner of drawing up a Regiment, according to the Swedish Brigade.

AFter that the Major hath plac'd the Lieutenant Collonels Company in such a con­venient place, that he may draw all the rest up on the left of him, he thus proceeds in bringing up the Companies; he first places to him the eighth Captain, then the fift, after that the second, then the Collonels Company, next to him the ninth Captain, then the sixth Captain, and first Captain, after the Majors, then the seventh Captain after the fourth Captain, then upon the out-most part of the left, is placed the third Captain, in manner and form, as they thus stand.

[military diagram]

Having thus far proceeded, he may command the four out-most Companies upon each Flank, to advance forward some ten paces cleer from the four middle Companies, then let them stand, and after let him draw forward the Pikes cleer from the Muskettiers, and close their files outward to order, then let the Muskettiers be divided into four parts, their files being closed to order, let them move forward, and flank those two Bodies of Pikes. After in the same manner move forward the Pikes in the four middle Companies untill they be cleer of the Muskettiers, and close their files into the midst to order, and divide their Mus­kettiers, into two parts, and let them move forward, and flank that Body of [...]ikes, and then they will stand in three Squadrons, or grand Divisions, their dignities standing after this manner in the Collonels division, thus, 4: 9: 12: 1. In the Lieutenant Collonels di­vision, thus, 5: 8: 11: 2. and in the Majors, thus, 6: 7: 10: 3. So that you may perceive this to be a very good way amongst the rest, each perticuler Squadron bearing the number of 26, and having unto every one of them their dignities and worths equally divided, and stated a like. In the next place, the Major ought to inquire of the number of men they carry in each division of both Armes, where as first, he shall finde in the Collonels Squadron, to have in it 26 files of Pikes, and 52 files of Muskettiers, and examining all the rest, they will fall out to the same proportion of number. So that in each division there conteines, whether they be Pikes, or Muskettiers, to have in every perticuler there­of 78 files. In the next place he shall do well to appoint forth unto them their severall places to lead, and bring up; and first, of the Collonels grand Division, he being on the head thereof, the Captain Lieutenant leading the first division of Muskettiers in his Squadron, being brought up by his Bringer-up; the first two Colours, and his halfe Body of Pikes to to be led by the eldest Captain, and brought up by the ninth Captains Lieutenant, the next two Colours, and halfe Body of Pikes to be led by the ninth Captain, and brought up by the eldest Captains Lieutenant, the last division of Muskettiers in his Squadron to be led by the sixt Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant. The first division of Muskettiers in the Lieutenant Collonels Squadron, is led by his own Lieutenant, and brought up by the eighth Captains Lieutenant, his first two Colours, and halfe Body of Pikes is led by the se­cond Captain, and the next two Colours, and halfe Body of Pikes, is led by the eighth Cap­tain, and brought up by the second Captains Lieutenant, his last division of Muskettiers is led by the fifth Captain, and brought up by his own Lieutenant; himselfe standing as the Collonel doth, upon the head of his Squadron. The first division of Muskettiers in the Majors Squadron (himselfe being upon the head) is led by his own Lieutenant, and brought up by the seventh Captains Lieutenant, his first two Colours, and halfe Body of Pikes is led by the third Captain, and the next two Colours, and halfe Body of Pikes, is led by the seventh Captain, and brought up by the third Captains Lieutenant, his last division of Muskettiers is led by the fourth Captain, and brought up by his Lieutenant, as in the next place, in the Figure set forth in Folio. 170, more fully appeareth.

[military diagram]

They standing according to the former directions in three Bodies of Pikes flanked with Mus [...]ettiers, before they come to the Figure set forth, you must command in each grand Division, the six in-most files of Muskettiers next the Pikes, to face about, and to march six paces cleer of the Reer, and then close them inward to order. Afterward open every four files outward to open order, of those 12 files, and let the middle division there face about, and move down six foot cleer of the Reer, and after face to their Leader. Then there will remain 20 files of Muskettiers upon the flanks of each Body of Pikes; after move forward the eight middle files of perticuler division of Muskettiers, some ten foot before the Front. Then comm [...]d the left half-ranks, or the four files of Muskettiers upon the left of those divisions drawn forth to face about, and to move down ten foot cleer of the Reer, and after face to the Front. Then let the 12 remaining files of Muskettiers close to the Pikes to open order, and let every four files of those remaining 12 upon the flanks open outward six foot of ground betwixt each four files, and move the [...]ront and Reer divisions of Muskettiers just against the midst of those three divisions of Muskettiers that are the [...]lankers to the Pikes, and they will stand in the figure as it is placed in Folio 170.

They standing now in a perfect order of a Brigade, the number of men in this Regiment allowing it in a full manner according to the small Brigades of the Swedes, I shall not need to point out of what service this figure, or drawing up may be; in repect there is no inge­nuous Souldier but may cleerly perceive they stand in a very good order to fight against an enemy: their Commanders being appointed forth to manage it accordingly. Therefore I shall leave it to the practise of such who in time of need shall have occasion to make use of it, and in the next place shew the manner of reducing them againe into Companies.

First move forward those 12 files of Muskettiers in the reer of each body of Pikes, six to the right, and six to the left, next to the out-side of their own body of Pikes; After command the reer divisions of Muskettiers to advance forward upon the left of those divisions of Mus­kettiers in the front, then face them about, and move them down into the midst of those Muskettiers that were the Flankers. After let every Captain draw off his Pikes and Mus­kettiers, and ingross them into perticuler Companies, and they will then be ready to march away to their severall quarters; and here I shall conclude concerning a Regiment of twelve Companies.

CHAP. XXI. The manner of drawing up a Brigade or Tertia, being a third part of an Army, according to the practise of the Netherlands, under the command of the Prince of Orange.

BEfore I shall begin to draw up this Tertia, Army, or Brigade; I shall set down the observation of Coll. Hen. Hexam, in his Book treating of the Office of the three Serjeant Majors of the Tertia, otherwise called the three Field Corporals. His words are these:

The States Army by order of his Highnesse is divided upon a March into three Brigades, or Tertia's, and a Serjeant Major of a Tertia, being one of the great Corporalls of the Field, receives his Order immediate from the Lord Generall, or the Lord Mar­tiall, but most commonly of the Serjeant Major Generall of the Army, how he shall f [...]rm and order his Brigade or Tertia, and how many Regiments of Horse and Foot, are to march under it, and with what Ordnance and Baggage. He assignes and shews him the place where they are to draw out into Battalia, and receives orders from the Serjeant Maior Generall, whe­ther they are to march in the Van-guard, the Battail, or the Reer. So that in marching in eve­ry one of these he shall attend upon his Brigade and severall Divisions, and in the absence of the Serjeant Major Generall, see that the order of marching and embattailing be duly kept and observed. And every one of these three Serjeants, Majors of Brigades, are to be at the command of the Collonell Generall, or he that leads or commands that Brigade or Tertia, and is to be sent to the Lord Generall, Lord Martiall, or Serjeant Major Generall upon any occasion belonging to the service.

These three Majors of the Tertia's are to be lodged as neer the Serjeant Major General as con­veniently may be, and those three which attend upon the Van-guard, the Battail or Reer, which [Page 172] the Serjeant Major shall ma [...]e choice of ground for the placing of Guards, and [...]ssigne them to the Serjeant Majors of every Regiment. They are to go the R [...]und, and to visite the Guard commonly every night, and at such an houre as the Serjeant Major shall appoint them [...]i [...]er by day or night.

If any [...]f these three Serjeant Majore of the Field shall finde any want of powder, Am­munition, or victualls, either in the Van-guard, Battail, or Reer, as well upon the March, as when the Troops are qu [...]r [...]red, or during fight, he is presently to advertise the Serjeant Major Generall of the [...]ield with the sai [...] wan [...]s. And then by his direction shall go with an Officer of every Regiment of that Tertia, to the Generall, or Lieutenant of the Ord­nance, or to the Commi [...]ary Generall of the Ammunition, or Victualls.

A Serjeant Major of a Tertia, to conclude, having received his Orders from the Lord Generall, the Martiall, or Serjeant Major Generall, gives them to the Serjeant Majors of every p [...]rticuler Regiment. But because the Word and Orders are to be sent to Quarters far distant one from another, the Serjeant Major of every Regiment cannot come conve­tend every morning, and evening, upon the Serjeant Major Generall, to receive their Orders, and to carry the word to the severall Quarters, whether the Serjeant Majors of Regiments comes to him, and from him receives the Word, and Orders.

The drawing up of Brigades in the next place comes to be handled after the way of the Holl [...]nders; therefore, first, take notice, that Brigades are not tied to a set [...]u [...]ber of Com­panies, or Regiments, but are ordered according to the severall strengths of an Army. As sometimes they consist of 12 Companies, some of two Regiments, others of three, or four, ha­ving in them not a like number of Companies or men, which ought accordingly unto the se­verall divisions of a Brigade to be ballanced a like, both in number of men, dignity, and worth, as is in perticuler Regiments fully set forth. And in respect that severall divisions make a Brigade, and that according to the disposition of an Army, all the Officers and Soul­diers are divided into three parts, called Brigades, or Tertia's, each of them having a seve­rall name, to wit, the Van-guard, Battail, and Reer-guard. Now that Tertia which is to march first, is called the Van-guard, that which marcheth next in the middle, the Battail, and that which comes up last, the Reer. Every one of these upon march as was formerly expressed in the Swedish Brigade, take their turns interchangeably; for the second day of the March, the Battail becomes the Van-guard, and the Reer the second day the Battail, and the third day, the Tertia, that had first the Reer, is become the Van-guard. So like­wise, there ought to be in every perticuler Brigade, or Tertia, a Van-guard, Battail▪ and Reer-guard, to each of them, which with more conveniency may be orderly brought to fight by him that shall be Commander in chiefe for the relieving each other, according as occasion shall require.

In the next place, for a Brigade, I shall point forth four Regiments, having in them eight Companies a piece, after the manner of a Regiment of eight formerly set down, which a­mounts to 3888 men, which number may serve for a third part of an Army of foot, and make up a very compleat and sufficient Brigade. And I shall order in this Brigade to have in it four divisions, that is to say, a Van-guard, Battail, and Reer-guard, represented in the three first Regiments, but the fourth shall be a reserve, standing in the Reer of the Main-battail, or Brigade, whereby upon all occasions of the other retreating, or being driven backward that Regiment may move up to relieve each part thereof that shall be distressed. But upon the long-march of this Brigade, the two middle Regiments accord­ing to their order of dignity, are to make the Battail, which in the Figure were made the Van-guard, and Reer-guard, and that which formerly was the Van-guard, is become the Battail, and the Reer-guard the Reserve; but where they have ground sufficient it wil be better to march in that forme of Battalia set down according to the figure, Folio 176.

This Brigade consisting of four Regiments, must be drawn up according to the dignity of their Captains, but with this alteration of Armes, for the former Regiments consisting of two divisions, this hath but one, after this manner.

First when the Captains Companies are all drawn up into an even brest in their true dig­nity, then let the Pikes be all drawn forth, and ingrossed into one Body, after let the Mus­kettiers be closed in their files into the midst into another Body, after let those Muskettiers [Page] [Page]

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[Page] [Page 173] as neer as i [...] possible be divided into two par [...]s, (if there should be an odd file, let it be carried to the right) and let them move up, a [...]d flank the Pikes which will make up one compleat Battalia, or grand Division. Now let the Officers be placed according to the manner in the next place, as in every Regiment shall be set forth, which may be a satisfa­ction unto the Souldiers, to know a third way of drawing up, and placing the Officers of a Regiment consisting of eight Companies. [...]our Regiments thus drawn up makes a com­pleat Brigade, to be ordered according to dignity in their Regiments after this manner. The chiefest Commanders Regiment, or eldest Collonels, is to be on the right of the Brigade, the next man of honour to be on the left, the third to be on the right of the second, and the fourth on the left of the first, after the manner of these figures, 2. 3. 4. 1. wherein it cleerly appears that their number of worth is equally divided. In the next place, as concern­ing Command, and ordering of such great Bodies into Brigades, the shortest and soonest way is the best, wherefore, command the out-most Regiment upon the right, or the Van-guard to advance f [...]rward 18 foot before the [...]ront▪ then face to the left, and move until they stand streight against the midst of the two middle divisions, or Main-battail that was, then face to the Front, then let the out-most Regiment upon the left face about, and move down 24 foot cleer of the Reer, then face to the left, and move untill they stand streight in the Reer of the two middle Regiments, or Van-guard, then face to the Front; next let the two middle Regiments move forth to [...]he right and left, untill they stand cleer for the Reer-guard or Reserve to come up, and rel [...]eve each part, as occasion shall require, they being all faced to the Front will stand in a compleat Brigade, as formerly was expressed. The former Brigade being imbattelled into so many divisions, and joyn'd so neer on the other, can best second & relieve each other, better then y [...]u [...] great Battalia's which unwildy bodies being once broken, and routed, can hardly be rallied again, neither can they bring so many men to fight in that good order, as the lesser bodies will doe. As for example, three of these [...]rigades, or Tertia's, make a compleat Army of foot, the Battail, one of the Tertia's of the Army, being placed in the midst, that of the Van-guard may be drawn up on the right, and the Reer on the left flank of the Battail. The first divisions that are to fight are those that stand in an even line of the first range, and are so ordered, that if they should be over-charged, and forced to give ground, then the second range may move up, and relieve the first, and may give the second Charge against an Enemy, whilest the first move down into the midst, and rally again; or may move, and interchange ground with those that are the Reserves. The second range having fired, may be relieved by the third, who may move up into the ground of the first divisions, and their may take their turnes to give a third Charge, whilest the second divisions rally up again. And thus they may maintaine their fighting in this order, so long as there shall be just occasion: provided the Muskettiers make six foot ground intervall betwixt every five or six files, for their ran [...]s to wheel off either to the right or left, and to rally themselves in good order in the Reer of their own divisions. There is likewise another way to make a Brigade, by ingrossing all the Pikes of every Regiment into one Body, flanking them with Muskettiers; or by making them into two or three Stands of Pikes, and flanking each Body of Pikes with Muskettiers. But, I conceive, the former way to be one of the best, and chiefest amongst them all; and therefore I shall spare the pains to make any other figure, having placed every Officer where he is to lead and where to bring up. And upon the long-march this rule must be observed in every Regiment, where they cannot march all a Brest, they must make in every Regiment seven divisions, three of Pikes, the first three Colours to flye upon the head of the first di­vision, the next two Colours to fly upon the head of the second, and the three last upon the head of the third division; and they must likewise make two divisions of Muskettiers in the Van of their Regiments, and two divisions in the Reer, the Officers are accordingly placed down upon these sub-divisions, where to take their places both to lead, and to bring up. The Regiments are to march after this manner; first, his Regiment in the Van, who is Commander in chiefe, next to him the fourth man of honour, after him the third, these two making the Battail, and let the Reer by brought up be the second Collonel, or second man of honour, his Regiment likewise marching there; and here I shall conclude concern­ing a Brigade.

CHAP. XXII. How to draw up an Army of twelve Regiments of Foot, and three of Horse, the Foot amounting unto 11664 Men, and the Horse unto 3000; in all 14664 Men.

THe drawing up of an Army most properly belongs to the Serjeant Major Gene­rall, whose place and charge is of an high degree, his commands being full of a­ction, and therefore ought to be a wise, grave, and able person, and an able an ex­perienced Souldier. In respect he hath the ordering and disposing of the Divisions and Battalions, according to that forme which the Generall shall command him. And upon all occasions he must be active, and stirring up and down, to spie out all advanta­ges, which might offend an Enemy; and wisely to fore-see all disadvantages that may bring the Troops into any disorder or confusion. He hath absolute command over the three Serjeant Majors of the Brigades, otherwise called the three Grand Corporals of the Field, who are to be his assistants, and his mouth, as he is the mouth of the Lord Generall, or Martiall of the Field; and therefore must have a vigilant eye over all things, seeing that the Generals Command delivered to him be strictly kept, and observed, and withall, ac­quainting, and informing the three Serjeant Majors of the Brigades of the Generals plea­sure, that they may forthwith put the same into execution.

Now the Method (that I shall observe,) shall be according to the forme of the former Brigade; wherefore, in the first place, the Serjeant Major shall do well to appoint out unto the eldest Serjeant Major of the Brigades, how to draw up that Brigade which shall be the Battail, wherein the Lord Generals Regiment, and the Collonels, is to be upon the right, and left of that Brigade, and betwixt them the youngest Collonel, and ninth Collonel, according unto this rule of dignity in the figure set forth, 4: 9: 12: 1. In the next place, let the next Serjeant Major of the Brigades in seniority draw up that which shall be the Van-guard, and place the second Collonels Regiment upon the right, and the fifth upon the left, and between them the eleventh and eighth Collonels, after this manner, of this figure, 5: 8 11: 2. Let the last Serjeant Major draw up that Brigade, which shall be the Reer, and let him draw them up after this manner, the third Collonels Regi­ment upon the right, and upon the left, the sixth Collonels, and between them the tenth, and seventh Collonels Regiment, after this manner, 6: 7: 10: 3. This charge being gi­ven by the Serjeant Major Generall, unto the three Serjeant Majors of the three Tertia's, or Brigades, how each perticuler Regiment shall be drawn up, being every one single, and compared a like each to other, being rightly stated according to the rule of dignity avoid­ing thereby confusion and disorder. In the next place, for the better expedition in drawing up the Army, every Serjeant Major of each Brigade draws the former Regiments assign'd unto them, unto such place as shall be appointed forth unto them by the Serjeant Major Generall, being helped, and assisted by the Field-officers of the same Regiments, the Serjeant Major Generall likewise being an assistant unto them all, seeing thereby all the Commands of the Generall rightly observed and fulfilled.

Having drawn up the 12 Regiments according to the former directions, let the Serjeant Majors of the Brigades order them to stand all even a brest according to the forme and fi­gure of that single Brigade formerly set down. Wherein to every Brigade there will be a Van-guard, Battail, and Reer-guard, and Reserves to them all three. Next inquiry must be made of the severall strengths of the Brigades, some of them perhaps having many more files then the other, for remedy whereof, there must be files drawn forth (provided there be conveniency of time) from each perticuler Company, and Brigade, and added unto those which shall be weaker, to make their strengths equall a like. Next it lies in the brest of the Lord Generall, to appoint unto every one of these Brigades Commanders in chiefe, there being in every one of them Officers above the three Field-Corporals, or Serjeant Majors of Brigades. Wherefore, it is conceived, that he will appoint the most honourablest men to be Commanders thereof; as first, himselfe of that Brigade, which is the Battail in time of fight, the Van-guard to the Martiall Generall, and the Reer-guard either to the Major Ge­nerall or Commissary Generall. But whosoever the Lord Generall, shall appoint to be Com­manders [Page]

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[Page] [Page 175] in chiefe, to them the Serieant Maiors of every perticuler Brigade, are to be sub­servants, assisting them in all their Commands. These severall orders and directions, being thus equally divided amongst the Commanders of every Brigade, an Army may quickly be brought into any for me of Battail to fight against an enemy, according to the ground and scituation of the place, which may afford the best advantages for the same.

After this the Generall of the Ordance his duty and care must be in the day of battail, to see that the Ordnance be well placed; for at such time his wisdome is most discern'd, keeping (with the assistance of his Lieutenant) the Tram of Artillery together in good order. He must have a vigilant eye upon all accidents that may fall out, and make choise of such ground for their planting, as the Generall of the Army, and he shall think most fit and convenient. He must be carefull that all things be in a readinesse, putting the Master Gunners, Gentlemen of the Ordnance, and Commanders in minde of their duty, that they do their best endeavours, and acquit themselves like men. It is likewise partly his charge, to see that the whole Army be well provided with Ammunition, because the Ammunition march­eth under his Train. He must also be neer the Gen. of the Army upon all occasious, to receive his directions and commands, and to know from him after what manner he will make his battail, that he may plant his Ordnance accordingly, finding out hills and heights to play over his own men. And when the Enemy shall present himselfe, and come up to charge, he must draw, and plant his Ordnance, as neer their horse as possible may be, to hinder them from breaking in upon the divisions of foot, taking a long with him Saylours, and Pioneers, to help to draw up the Ordnance, and sufficient Guards to defend them.

As concerning the planting of the Ordnance, when the Battalia is drawn up, they may be disposed off severall ways; as somtimes they are placed upon the head of the Battalia, others again, between them, by two and two, and others, by threes, upon the flanks and wings of the Muskettiers. Some are of opinion, that they ought to be planted upon the flanks, and in the Reer of the Battalia, by leaving a free place for Armes which may give no offence to their own men. But as concerning this last way, it might be answered, it can no way be expedient; for if an Enemy should perceive that the Front is left bare without Ordnance, it will give them cause to come up with more courage to fall on upon the Charge. Therefore, the best way amongst the ancient experienc'd Souldiers, is, that the Artillery be divided, some here, some there, both before the Front, between the Battalions, and upon the Flanks, and to be placed some 50 or an 100 paces one from another, and then there will be no danger when the Enemy shall come up to shock to encounter you, or to offend our own men. Especially, when they are fastened to them by drawing ropes, and iron rings, that upon an instant they may be removed, and turn'd for the advantage of our own Troops, giving fire, as fast as they can charge and discharge against the Enemies Troops, it being a matter of great moment for the obteining of a victory, and gaining the day from the Enemy.

But that many times the Ordnance cannot be planted in such convenient places as could be wished for, in respect an Army may be driven into such places, as the Ordnance must be planted according to the best ground it will afford, by reason of woods, hills, or mar­rish grounds, and such like disadvantageous places, may be oftentimes met withall, for which no certain rule may be given, but that the Generall by his wisdom and discretion may make choice of the best advantages which might annoy an Enemy most, and give the least of­fence to his own men, either by dazling them by the Sun, or by raising of the dust, obser­ving the winde which drives the smoak both of the Ordnance and small-shot full upon them. To conclude, it is conceived, the best way for every Captain of the Ordnance, and Master Gunner to use some light Field peeces and small Drakes, which upon any occasion may be removed from one place to another, being with ease planted upon such places of ad­vantage as may most annoy the Enemy.

In the next place, 3000 horse may be a good proportion for 10000 or 12000 foot, which ought to be equally divided in their Troops, and placed upon the flanks of the foot in such good order, as the Troops may come with conveniency to fight, for the relieving of each other. But in case you shall perceive the Enemies horse, as somtimes through ne­cessity of ground, or by other politicall ends, may be inter-laced and placed between [Page 176] the intervalls and divisions of their foot, it will be needfull then that we should observe the same form, and likewise have horse to come forth, and encounter with their horse, least they should [...]reak in upon our divisions of foot, which by this means, and good order▪ may be timely prevented; next follows the Figure of the Army, as before described, and ordered to be drawn up, [...]olio 176.

CHAP. XXIII. The severall duties belonging to the Foot in a Regiment as followth by degrees from a private Souldier unto a Collonel of the same: and first of a private Souldier.

A Private Souldier ought to be very active, not slothfull and idle, informing himself of his duty learning from his Corporall, or other Officers the true use, and well handling of his armes, always keeping them neat, clean, and well fixed. Upon the beat of the Drum he is to repair to his Colours, Squa [...]ron, or Company, upon the march he must observe his, Leader, and his right, and left hand men, that he may march streight in file, and even in rank; in time of Exercise he must be silent in the body, well minding the words of command and directions which are given forth by the leader. He ought likewise to be well verst in all the ordinary words of command, and to mind the place wherein he stands, that he may the more readier move, and not be to seeke at such time when he shall be commanded, wehther it be to face, double, counter-march, or wheel. He m [...]st informe himselfe of all the severall beats of the drum, as first of a Call, second a Troop, third a March, fourth a Preparative, fifth a Battle or Charge, sixth a Retreat, and also of the Revall [...]y and the Tattoo.

By the first, he is summoned to hear present proclamation, or else commanded to repair to his colours, upon the beat of the second he is to advance his armes, and to close in rank, and file, to the distance of order, and to troop along unto such places, and services, as he shall be comanded unto, upon the hearing of the third he is presently to shoulder his arms, and to take his distance of six foot in rank, and three foot in file; upon the fourth he is to close both in rank and file, unto the fighting distance which is called order, and to prepare himself for skirmish; upon the beat of the next, he is undauntedly to move forward, boldly steping in good order into the place of his fellow souldier that shall happen to fall down dead before him. Upon the beat of the last he must orderly fall back either for releife, or advantage of ground, or other polliticall ends whereby he may draw the enemy into a suare. The first of the remaining two gives warning in the morning for some of the Sentinels to fall off, or to be taken in; the latter is used in the night to give notice unto the souldiers or others for their repairing to their severall guards, watches, and lodgings. To conclude, a private souldier ought to avoyd all quarrelling, mutinies, swearing, cursing, or lying, and to be content with his w [...]ges, and likewise to be a good husband in the well managing of his means, keeping himselfe neat and handsome in his apparell, avoyding drunkenness, and all manner of ga­ming, truly to serve and feare God, and to be obedient unto all the commands of his superi­ours, cheerfully going on upon all duties, and to be loving, kind, and courteous, unto all his fel­low souldiers.

The duty of a Sentinel.

A Sentinel must be very vigilant, carefully casting his eyes about him, and harkning whether he heare the noyse or approach of any drawing neer him; which if he per­ceive, he is presently to command them to stand, presenting his Musket or Pike to their brest, and after calling his Corporal for to take the word, unlesse he should be commanded to come in silently. He is not to come off until he be relieved by the Corporall or Lanspassadoe.

His proper posture being a Muskettier is to have his Musketrested, and loaded with pow­der and bullet, his match cockt, and his pan guarded, being a pike-man, if he stand Senti­nell in the night, he must have his pike check'd, if in the day, his pike ordered. Or it may be a very proper posture for a pikeman to stand sentinell with his pike in his left hand, holding it a little below the cheeks thereof, and with his sword drawn, being held in his right hand, which I leave to judge, or to be made use of according to discretion, and as occasion shall require.

Of a Gentleman of a Company.

A Gentleman of a company ought to have such worth in him as may make him capa­ble to be a file-leader, or Captain of his file, and he more especially above the rest ought to be well skill'd in all the postures of such armes he weares, and at convenient times instructing and teaching his file in the neat and gracefull handling of their armes. He ought to be of an undaunted courage and gallant resolution, for the better example and imitation of the rest, whose worth and valour many times indears them so much into the sa­vour of their Comanders that they raise them up to greater places of preferment. In the Low Countries a Gentleman of a Company hath his full pay, having nothing kept back for after reckonings, as common private souldiers have. At his first entrance he somtimes stands Sentinell to informe himselfe of the duties thereof; but most commonly he is placed to be a Sentinell per-due intime of iminent danger, either in the field or upon approches. He is to lie perdue with his sword and pistoll, not removing from his place till he be relieved, nor is he to retreat for one man, but in case of more, then he is to fall back to the second; and dis­covering an enemy he is to come off betimes, and silently to give the alarum, whereby the Corps du Guard, or company may be provided for their own defence. A Gentleman of a Company doth many times goe the round with the Captain of the watch, or his fellow Gentlemen who are likewise rounders, either in the field, or in garrison, and doe give the Corporals of the Guards the word, charging the Sentinells to looke well about them. To conclude, he ought truly to love, respect, and obey his Captain, and to stick close unto him, vindicating him upon all just occasions, when he shall be wronged, and injured by any mu­ [...]es of the common souldiers, or others.

Of a Barber Chyrurgion.

IN every Company there ought to be a Barber Chyrurgion for the trimming of the souldi­ers, who ought likewise to have some skill in Chyrurgery, that when the souldiers are upon the watches, and guards, where iminent danger may be, he may be then at hand, to be ready in the absence of the Chyrurgion of the Regiment to bind up, and dresse the hurt and wounded men. He is free from duties belonging to the Company, and in some places is allowed to be an Officer in the list of their armies, which, I conceive, it ought so to be, in respect they allow but of one Chyrurgion to a Regiment, and if it should happen many to be wounded, as oftentimes in field fights there are, one man is not able scarce in three dayes to bind up the wounds, and dress the sores, of them that are maimed. And therefore it concerns every Captain to be provided, and to have in the absence of the Chyrurgion, a Barber Chy­ru [...]gion attending on his Company.

Of a Clerk of a Company.

HI [...] carriage ought to be very just and honest, his cheifest duty is to keep the muster Roll [...]nd to have it ready upon all occasions for the entering of his men upon the muster Roll, and pay bill. He is many times intrusted to receive the service money of the Com­pany and payes such moneyes unto the souldiers as shall be ordered him from his Captain to pay. He must inquire out in their quarters where they lie, and duly for to pay them, and every pay day to deliver up a true bill, giving an account unto his Captain of all such mo­neys he hath-either received, or paid forth.

Of a Drum Major.

THere ought to be in every Regiment a Drum Major, being skilfull in his profession, in­structing the others in the true beating of a march, with all other points of war. A Drum-Major must likewise be well skill'd in severall languages, and tongues, and to be wise and courteous when he shall be imploy'd or sent to an enemy; He is in a discreet manner upon the marching of a Regiment to order part of the Drums where they shall beat, [Page 178] seeing them ti [...]ely and duly relieved by the others for the better performance of their service. For upon the march if all the Captains Drums should beat together, it would quickly tire them out, therefore for their ease, it is his place and duty to order them according to discre­tion to take their turnes to beat, and to be relieved by each other. He is moreover to take in­to his charge such Drums as shall be brought in from the enemies by their Drummers, when they come to ransome their prisoners, and upon their returne to deliver them again unto them. He ought to be lodged neer the Serjeant Major in respect he is to give instructions to the rest of the Drummers, and may upon fail of their duties give them correction.

Of the Drummers to a private Company.

EVery Captain ought to have two good Drummers that knows how to beat all the se­ver [...]ll points of war before mentioned. It is likewise expedient that he should be a good linguisht, in respect somtimes he may be sent unto an enemy for the ransoming of prisoners. His duty is coming to the camp, or garrison of an enemy, having his Generals Pass in his hat to beat a call, till he is fetcht in; and because he shall not discover the weakness of guards, works, or trenches, he is is led blind-fold, and so carried to the Commander, and place where his prisoners are; With whom (after he hath ransomed them) he is to returne to his own quarter [...], giving an account of such things he hath seen or heard, which may prove advan­tageou [...] to his own party, or of any other thing he had opportunity by their neglect to take notice of.

Of a Gentleman of Arms.

HIs duty is to see that the souldiers keep their armes neat and clean, and that they be well fixed, and if any thing be amiss or broken, he is to have them carried to the Ar­mourers to be repaired. And if any souldier shall be sick, dead, or have leave to returne to his own country, he is to bring his armes to his own lodging, there preserving, and keep­ing them clean, untill he shall have occasion to deliver them to some other newly entertain­ed. He is likewise to mark and figure the armes of the Company, and to preserve and keep a list what number of figure each souldier shall bear upon his armes. He is likewise to keep the powder, bullet, and match, and to deliver it forth upon occasions to the Corporalls, or Lanspassadoe.

Of a Lanspassadoe.

HIs duty is concerned in the absence of his corporall to officiate in all things belonging unto his place, and is at all times to be an assistant unto him, for his ease & help-mate upon all occasions, for the better managing of his place, and many times they areroun­ders and Sentinell perdues in time of great necessity.

The duty of a Corporall.

THe Corporals of a Company are not tyed to a set number, but to be ordered according to the severall strengths and divisions of the same, for each to take his charge and care of every Squadron thereof. And unto each of them there is a Lanspassadoe for an assist­ant, for their rule of dignity, I conceive, it makes not much more matter then to make them the right hand file-leader in every perticular division; but if any will be so curious to order them according to that, let them apply themselves unto the former rules for directions to the sa [...]e. The Corporalls duty in his Squadron is to teach and instruct them in the use of the Pike, and Musket, and to have a Roll and list of his men in his division or squadron. And when a souldiers name is crossed out he is to give notice unto his Serjeant, and when a new one shall supply his place his care must be to instruct and enable him in the postures of such armes as he shall bear. Being with his Squadron upon his guard he is to provide them with wood, coale, candle, and light. Having an out-guard his care must be to strengthen ti, his little Corps due guard and sentinels must be set forth according to the avenews or commings on of the enemy, whereby he prevents their cuttings off, or surprisall, the negligence where­of proves both dangerous to themselves, and the whole army. Wherefore it behoves hi [...] [Page 179] to be very carefull, and vigilant to visit them, after giving them an especiall charge to be both faithfull and carefull in the great trust reposed in them. He must likewise preserve and keep the word constant in his memory, when the Captain of the Watch goes the first Round, he shall with his Sword drawn against his brest give it him, and receive such or­ders from him as he shall command him; but afterwards when the Round shall come a­gain, he shall cause the Rounders, or Gentlemen (with his Sword drawn) to give the word to him before they passe. He ought never to go alone, being called forth by the Senti­nell, but to have a Guard of three or four Muskettiers a long with him, selected out of his Corps due Guard. He must advise his Sentinels how to demean themselves upon the discovery of an Enemy, eitherto give an Alarum, or else to give notice without making an noise. And if upon his Guard he shall either observe, or be advertized by his Sentinels of the approach of the Enemy, then he is to have his men in readinesse with bullets in their Muskets, and their matches lighted, himselfe secretly comming in, giving intelligence unto his Captain, or other superiour Officer, whereby they may all be in a readinesse before the Alarum be given. He is likewise to distribute the victual, powder, bullet, and match, unto his Squadron, and to take notice of the best experienced men, and accordingly to imploy them upon action upon the Watches. He must cause respect to be given to the Corps due Guard, and silence to be kept, whether it be about the Walls or Gates, that so the noise may not hinder the hearing of the advertisement from the Sentinels. He is like­wise to have an eye to their lives and manners, and to take care of the baggage and money of such as are hurt, or sick, and to be in his own carriage sober, wise, and discreet, for the avoiding ill example unto others.

Of the Martiall of a Regiment.

HE ought to take into his custody all persons committed unto his charge by the chief Officers of the Regiment, and if they be called to justice, he is to bring them to the Martiall Generall, who are to be carried from thence to the Councell of War. It is also the care to see that all women, boyes, servants, bread, and Aquavita-sellers, belonging to the Regiment do march in the Reer, and not before, or upon the Flanks. He is likewise to set such prizes upon beare, and victuals, as the Lord Martiall, or Serjeant Major Generall shall appoint, which order he shall receive from the Provost Martiall of the Army, and to see it duly executed within the Circuit of the Regiment; And that the Sutlers do not sell their beare and victuals above the set rate, lest they grate upon the Souldiers. After the Captain of the Watch hath gone the first Round, he is to see that the Sutlers keep no tipling or disorder in the night, but make them put out their candle light, and fires; du­ring the time of Divine Service, he is to go the round, for fear any disorders should be committed in the Quarters.

Of a Quarrermaster.

IF the Regiment be marching with the Army, (and not alone) he is then every evening to attend upon the Quartermaster Generall, to receive his directions, and to take the place, ground, and houses, appointed by him, for the Quarter and Lodging of the Regiment, who presently is to acquaint, and advertise his Collonel of the same, and after to follow his charge. First, he appointeth or prepareth the Collonels lodging, and other Officers of the Field in the Center or midst of all the Quarters, and neer them himself, and all the other Officers of the Staffe. After, according to the seniority of the Captains, and their march­ings to distribute forth their Quarters as may be designed. Having thus far a