AN ESSAY TOWARDS A SCHEME or MODEL FOR ERECTING A NATIONAL East-India Joynt-Stock OR COMPANY More generally diffused and enlarged FOR THE RESTORING, ESTABLISHING, AND BETTER CARRYING on that most important TRADE: Fully discoursed in a LETTER TO A Person of Quality.

LONDON, Printed for the Author. MDCXCI.

TO THE Honourable COMMITTEE OF PARLIAMENT Appointed To Bring in a BILL for settling an East-India COMPANY. The Publisher humbly dedicates the ensuing Treatise concerning [...] East India COMPANY and TRADE.


A Committee being appointed to draw up a Bill for settling An East-India Company, no hesitation remained whom to Address the ensuing Papers to, they properly belonging to your selves; they were drawn up two years since for the satisfaction of an eminent worthy Member of the preceding Par­liament, and upon its dissolution was thrown wholly by, but is now judged conve­nient to be published, hoping it may be of some good use, seeing that the same work is on soot again and in greater forwardness; the distance of time from its drawing up may have altered circumstances, so as that some directions and proposals may have abatement of their Energy, particularly that in the [...] concerning Tunnage is now of no significancy more than to shew the kindness [...] the Author to them; but in all other things with a small allowance it may serve indifferently for the pre­sent Meridian.

Many and various are the directions and proposals that are offered, but none of them at all contrary but agreeable to the Regulations concerted by the House, but more inlarged and dilated; some there are wholly new as in p. 8.9.12. to 18. all which, as they are projected for the enlargement and security of the Trade and great Advan­tage of the Nation throughout, will no doubt be well taken notice of and be seriously pondered and weighed by you; and if approved of, inserted in the draught; Read se­riously, Judge deliberately: Two grand Objections are every where vigorously buzz'd about by the Company and their Friends, to hinder the Mutation of this present Stock and Management. One is that a Change is hugely for the Dutch Advantage, that they would give 500000 l. to have a new one established: We are sure the Dutch are great Husbands of their Mony, and part not with it but upon advantageous Terms, which how they will find in a new Company rightly established (as they have plainly done in the Old One) is not easie to apprehend. It must be conceded the Dutch as Traders to India have been always Cordial Enemies to us; and in all [Page ii]Ages given full Assurances thereof; 'tis with them as with Hannibal, sworn in his Childhood at the Altar never to have Peace with the Romans; agreeable whereto are the Instructions and Actions of their Servants at all times and in all places. Hence the Spice Trade was ravished from us, our Men slain with most barbarous unexam­pled cruelty at Amboyna, and many other Places and Trades were we deceived of formerly without any publick reparation, but in this Companies time the Dutch have made their Advances quick and thick; fresh in Memory is their robbing us of Ma­casser, sweeping away Poleroon a Spice Island, but through Corruption and Bribery never improved by the Company; so likewise Bantam, Jambee, and all Dependencies, a vast Trade mightily beneficial to the Nation; several places on the Coast of India; and then the great Prejudice they did us, and Streights they put us to on the West Coast, tho no Advantage in the least to them, being a perfect malicious Act: And indeed whatever they have set upon hath been gone thorough with great easiness, and submitted to with eminent tameness, and the reason is all along the India Concern hath been esteemed a bare Mercantile Affair, so that the Nation hath never interposed. When did the Company ever Address the Parliament upon any of these Accounts? no, they knew they were upon an illegal wrong bottom, so durst not appear before them, and of themselves they had not Stock wherewith to cope and engage with the Ad­versary, and rather than Assistance should be given they have bowed down tho to the Nations great injury, patching up Affairs as well as they could by private Cor­respondencies, which the Dutch understand as well as the French; and sometimes to colour the business making a great noise and bustle, sending a Foreigner to demand satisfaction and adjust Differences, and it may be make some Preparations, when all is but to cloud the private Intrigue carried on here; thus some treachero [...]s Go­vernours in our days (we may now forget York and Stanley) when they have made their private pact with the Enemy, will burn and ravage all out parts, drain all they can from the Inhabitants, and then with a specious Treaty make a rendition; and then the Scene is over. So that its impossible for any in their Wits to believe the Dutch Favo­rers of a New, and Enemies to the present Company, with whom they have such pri­vate Concerts, and whom they find so easie an Enemy, having often foiled them, they know their strength and can crush them as they please. Now to cure this, it need not be said delenda est Carthago, but let our Trade be settled on as firm a basis as theirs is, by making it National, and a Trade of the State, with a real substantial sufficient fund, as is proposed in this Scheme, we shall then stand upon even ground, and be able to cope with them on all occasions, having as good support as themselves, and our State to back [...] [...]heirs to back them, and nothing else will preserve us from their Encroachments. So that its rather to be judged the Dutch would on the contrary give 500000l. to have this Company continued, than a new one settled; it being so much for their Interest if to be compassed, the prospect of a New Company settled as proposed being, as all observing Persons in Holland know, like a Dagger at the heart of the Dutch Company.

The other Objection is, that the Concern of Widows and Orphans will suffer by this Mutation; it doth not appear who these Widows and Orphans are, there be­ing but few upon the last list, and fewer that were considerably concerned, it being customary for Widows to sell out as soon as the Husband dyes, having any great Stock: so that not the tithe of any Widows Estate may be computed to be therein. It's somewhat strange the Orphans and Widows should be the Object of the Compa­nies care, they have made many such deplorable Objects, but this is the first Instance of any Compassion in them, and 'tis from some by ends because not universal; for why else should not the poor St. Helenian, as well as the rich London Widows be regard­ed? But to be short if the Account delivered into the House be true, there can be no loss, and if otherwise, those that have been concerned any considerable time can have but very small loss if any, having been Partakers of large Dividends, and those [Page iii]that have come in lately (of which there may for small Summs possibly be one or two) have had fair warning to take heed year after year, and if yet they will venture, who shall take care for them? They have had time to sell and yet may; if Persons come in upon illegal Foundations and Titles they take their lot, the State is not obliged to make them good. Many a Widow and Orphan are cheated, and sometimes of all they have by deceitful Mortgages and had Titles, and so remain without remedy; Persons may fall into a condition that may be pitied, but not re­dressed as every term gives instances of. These Widows and Orphans if any there be, have been Partakers of all benefits in the Dividends made upon the Goods brought home by Andrews and that Crew obtained by Plunderings, Spoiles, Pi­racies, &c. and that without shewing any remorse; there being no instance of any Protest made against the same in the behalf of either Widow or Orphan, and is it injustice that they who without any scruple freely and pleasingly share of all Advan­tages in evil ways do also partake of the bitter fruits if any be? What care hath been taken for the Widows and Orphans that suffer by the Exchequer? and yet that is a kind of Crown debt. What hath hitherto been done in behalf of the Orphans of London after so many years Attendance, whose case differs much and more to be pitied? They had most of them their all therein, and these b [...]t [...]a pittance; their mony was forced into the Chamber by the Law of the Land, so that the State seems answerable in honour at least for their monies: Th [...]se came in freely and upon an unjust Title contrary to the Laws of the Land, and that known beforehand. But to turn the Tables there is no loss of any thing likely to come to the Widows, &c. The Chief Managers and Gainers giving security to make good their Principle; and there is no design in this Scheme to take away a Farthing of what is theirs. The New Subscribers come not in to partake of any thing of theirs, but to share of their own, the liberty of Trade; and no one can complain when nothing of theirs is taken away, but they enjoy whatever is their own be it little or much; so that all the noise and clamour about Widows and O [...]phans va­nishes like d [...]w against the Sun. Ʋpon the whole tho these People have in all points behaved themselves with great indecency, rudeness, and ingratitude, taking all op­portunities to reflect upon what the House hath done, notwithstanding all the kind­ness, favour, and superabundant mercy they have been treated with, so as no Socie­ty of People ever were, considering the woful circumstances they are under; they have had the Trade to themselves for some 34 years, and still nothing will please them but a Continuance, and all the rest of the Nation to be disseized of their Right there­to; but its hoped by the benigne i [...]fluence of the House, such a Model will by your wisdoms be agreed on and carried in as may rejoyce the hearts of all true English­men, by settling this great Trade upon its true Basis, Liberty and Property.

AN ESSAY Towards a SCHEME or MODEL FOR Erecting and Establishing A New National East-India Joynt-Stock, or Company.

Honoured SIR,

I Shall not make any Apologie in Excuse for a Non compliance with what you require of me, my Duty to my Country, and the Obligation I am under to you, not permitting me to deny what my poor weak Endeavours may be thought to contribute in so Nati­onal, and necessary a Work; humbly requesting your favourable Construction and Interpretation of what may fall from a Pen unaccustomed to any Publick Service; this Province might more peculiarly belong to some of those many who have come from those Eastern Parts much later, and taken up their Residence in the great City, whereby they have had better opportunities of making more clear practical Observations, and particular Inspections into all the late Transactions of the Affairs of India, than one sequestred from all Business and Traffique, and withdrawn to a more retired life. But seeing you have singled me out, I shall, resting upon your Candour, present you with my serious Thoughts, touching the carrying on the East-India Trade, in the most Nati­onal and Beneficial way for this Kingdom; and that abstracted from any particu­lar Picque against this present Stock, or any sinister Interest or Design of my own; For, blessed be God, I am under no such Temptation; but what shall be offered, will be the Result of the best of my Judgment, upon Experience, Advice, and Ob­servation of what hath been transacted and succeeded, and the Nature of the Affair so far as it hath come to my Cognisance. It could have been wished, that such a Work, as this you desire, had been prevented, and that the Company themselves, when invited thereto by the extreme Generosity of the Honourable Committee of Parlia­ment, would have so far complied with the Figure which their Quality seems to make in the Land, as to have presented them with such a Draught or Scheme, as might have answered their End and Proposal, by comprehending and including [Page 2]all the Subjects of England, willing to come in, their Birth-right intitling them thereto, upon such a Constitution and Settlement as might have removed all the Clamors against them as a Monopoly, and wiped off somewhat of the Odium of the Nation, contracted on themselves by many former, unjust, illegal Actions. But behold! instead of Ambassadors of Peace, they appear as Heralds of War: What means else the preposing to have themselves confirmed in that most arbitrary Power they had illegally assumed or procured? What means that unreasonable Proposal to have the same present Constitution so much complained of to be confirmed? What means it that nothing is offered material for enlarging and making the Trade more National. advantageous, and diffusive to the Subject? Why is nothing proposed for the amoving the great Grievances and notorious Injuries the Nation complains the Monopolizing this Trade has brought upon it? But the whole Burthen of their Papers and Proposals is to engross all in their few Hands, as before; and confer an Enlargement of Powers, tho they had most horribly abused what they had be­fore illegally obtained; as the numerous Complaints, that have been exhibited a­gainst them to the Honourable House of Commons the last and this Sessions; and the Votes that have passed upon Hearing some of them, sufficiently evince: whence plain­ly appears the great Inconveniency, the little Assistance, and Success that results from consulting with such Persons for remedying Miscarriages and Abuses, whose In­terest it is to have them continued; and in truth, it was no more than what was foreseen and foretold by many. And since Persons of so great a Character, there being among them of the Equestrian and Senatorian Order Conciliarii nati, and un­der such high Obligations by the luxuriant Favour of the Honourable Committee, can so hardly be perswaded in any measure to forego or release somewhat of their private Interest for a more National good; it will not be by any means adviseable to have any Recourse to such, what Pretensions soever they make, that they want no due Tenderness for the Trade and the Nations Interest, whilst the rectifying thereof by any new or suitable Model be contrary to their private Interest, and so their Inclination; which will engage them to cast Rubbs and Difficulties in the way rather than to smooth it to such a Work: Therefore it seems more conducive to the accomplishing or perfecting so good and National a Design; that rather the Complainants, and such as have been conversant and are well versed in the Affair, having no Interest, that is, in this present Stock, be called and desired to give their Assistance, who may on good grounds be supposed to be better able to give Light in­to the Occasion of all the Abuses and Mismanagements, and direct also to the true and most likely Methods for the regulating and rectifying of them, which it's hoped will be taken into due Consideration. Now to come nearer to the matter in hand, it will be necessary that some Postulata's be laid down as previous to an An­swer to the Question, they leading directly thereto, and are as followeth: (Viz.)

1. THAT Foreign Traffique and Commerce, as 'tis absolutely necessary unto, so is the Great Privilege and National Concern of this Kingdom, and among others none more National than the East-India Trade.

2. That the People of England, being a Free People, have an inherent, real, just, undoubted, Natural Right to the National Foreign Commerce of this Kingdom, and so particularly to that of East-India.

3. That the Commerce and Traffique of this Nation may (by those to whom is in­trusted the Legislative Power and Sovereign Authority) be regulated, circumscribed, and-modelled into wholesom Methods, for the more easie, secure, Orderly, National and pro­fitable carrying on the said Negotiation.

4. That the Limitations, Circumscriptions, Regulations, Models, Standards, &c. used in the Methodizing of Trade, ought to agree with, and not be repugnant to the Funda­mental Constitutions of this Nation and Native Freedom of the Subject; therefore the Terms of Admission for Adventurers to Trade should be easie and large to the increasing of Commerce and not narrow and difficult in the Nature of illegal Monopolies, which, of what sort soever, are contrary to the Freedom of the Subject, and absolutely destructive to the Nation and Trade thereof.

5. That as some Foreign Trade may best be negotiated by being open to all that will come thereinto at pleasure; so others may best be carried on by some Regulations, and Circumscriptions, as either by separate Managements under a general Society and Go­vernó, by particular Admissions into the same by Inheritance, a [...] is Service, or by Re­demption upon Terms, easie to the Subject, as is or should be the Case of that of the Turkey Company and Merchant Adventurers and other Companies; or else Conjunctly, by a Joynt Stock and Management, and particularly the East-India Trade (for Reasons too long here to be inserted) is generally agreed by all, may best be managed in a publick Na­tional Way, by a well-founded Joynt-Stock and Management both as to the Honour and Advantage of the Nation, and Profit of the Adventurers.

6. That the present Company, or Joynt-Stock, hath a very narrow, unnational, illegal Foundation, a Small Stock vastly disproportionate to the immense Trade of the East-Indies, whereby it strongly savours of a Cursed Monopoly (or is absolutely the same) very ill Terms of Settlement, its Constitution being greatly pernicious to the Whole Nation and the said Trade of India; the multiplying Votes, according to the repeated quantity of Stock, putting it into the Power of a few over grown, rich, ill disposed, Malignant Persons, by Combination and Confederacy to ingross and Monopolize the said Trade and Management thereof wholly to themselves, (as is the Case at this day) thereby rendring that Great Affair of the India Trade from publick and National (as it ought to be) a particular private Interest and Benefit; to the irreparable Damage of the Subject in his Right and Property, and open­ing a Way to his entire Destruction, by having so vast and important Concern of the Na­tion in the Disposal of so few hands, and such as cannot be esteemed Friends to the pre­sent Settlement, Good of the Subject or Nation; its Constitution being calculated for the Advancement of Arbitrary Power.

7. That the Arbitrary Management of this Company by the Governor and Commit­tees, hath all along conduced to, and greatly advanced the introducing Popery, Slavery, and Tyranny into this Nation, during the Reigns of the two last Kings, (more especially since the Year 1681.) by too great Severities in unhappy unexampled ways exercised to­wards and upon the Free-born Subjects of England, their Persons, Goods, Estates, and Li­berties, as has been made evident at the Bar of the Honourable House of Commons. And by Hostilities and Depredations unreasonably exercised towards the Subjects of the Great Mogul and other Potentates in India and Parts adjacent, together with a continued [Page 4]Series of unhappy, indiscreet Conduct of their whole Affairs, has already deprived the Nation of Trade in Bengale, Surat, and other Places, and put the rest and whole of that invaluable Trade of East-India upon the utmost hazard of being inevitably, utterly, and irrecoverably lost to the Nation.

8. The present Condition of this Company, and Posture of its Affairs are such, as seem to declare the Managers thereof unfit, uncapable, for carrying on the Trade, or ever bringing it into any good Condition or method again, having through Charges, Losses, Dividends, &c. come to the End of their Stock, and it's fear'd, run it much in Debt; and by a continued trying new Projects and Tricks, the whole Trade is come to a doleful languishing State, insomuch,

9. That unless some speedy Course be immediately taken for removing the Manage­ment of this Trade out of the hands of these Conductors, and putting it under the Con­duct of abler Guides: it may be of unconceivable Damage to this Kingdom in having the Care of our Trade in India longer neglected, upon which its utter Ruine and Loss may ensue, and it will be a sad Adieu that must be given to it.

10. That this is an Opportune Season for the making such Alteration as may be useful for the better carrying on this so great Concern to the Nation; the People of England in general, being highly sensible of the great destructive Miscarriages it hath lain under, and the Parliament of England now sitting on Inquest for redressing Grievances: there­fore in Consideration of the Premisses, That the East-India Trade is of a vast National Impor­tance, to which the whole Nation hath an unquestionable Right; and forasmuch as the present Company or Joynt-Stock hath an illegal Foundation, and very improper Constitu­tion, whereby and through the indiscreet Conduct and Management of their Affairs, they have brought themselves under very unhappy Circumstances, insomuch that the Trade of India is in part lost, and all under utmost Hazards, themselves under an Incapability of remedying the same, and it not being safe, or for the National Interest, that they be any longer intrusted with the Management of so great a Concern, and this being the most proper Season that is like to happen, for the setling this so important a Trade upon a National Foundation and Constitution; therefore in Answer to the Question proposed, How the East-India Trade may be best managed in a National way for publick Benefit? It is humbly concluded as the best.

That this present Company or Joynt-Stock be immediately dissolved, and a New Joynt-Stock or Company be erected by New Subscriptions, and established by a Parlia­mentary Sanction.

Altho it were to be wished this had been done much sooner, seven or eight years since before it fell so greatly under those most deplorable Male-administrations, and the Commission of those many Atrocious Crimes which have since then ensued; as was in great Wis­dom proposed by a great Person among themselves, and backt with strong Reasons,Philopatris, Chap. 2. pag. 10, 11. and was also much pressed by many Merchants and others, out of a Prospect of what hath since come to pass, but was then obstructed by the then Managers, and concerned by some un­due unbecoming Applications to Court for their own private Emoluments and Designs (tho to the enslaving and destroying the Nation) Actions being then high, the Trade in great Reputation, Subscribers would have been very forward; whereas we are now in­gulphed in War at home and abroad, the Nation full of Discontents, the East-India Trade in a most hazardous Condition, a lamentable dark State of it appearing from In­dia; but however it being a Work conceived of absolute Necessity to the Nation, those that are convinced of its Importance and Advantage to this Kingdom, and value their Right. thereto, will no doubt (having the firm, legal, and incouraging Basis of an Act of Parliament to rest upon) signalize their Love and Duty to their Country, themselves and Posterity, by becoming ready Subscribers to a New National Legal Joynt-Stock, that so such an inestimable Jewel, as the Trade of India, may not sink or be lost to the Na­tion.

These things premised, in which more Prolixity hath been med than at first was in­tended, tho not then needed; A Scheme or Model for the carrying on this great important Trade for the more National Benefit of this Realm, comes now more closely to be considered, and to that purpose this Thesis must be laid down and discussed.

That the East India Trade being large and National, it's requisite, if carried on by a Joynt Stock, that it be much enlarged suitable to the sa d Trade (the pre­sent national Stock not being National enough, and much too small, for the Ma­nagement thereof) and made so extensive, that there may be [...]oom for the while Body of the Nation, recording to their Birthright, to come in and partake thereof in such Limits and Methods hereafter mentioned, or as upon [...] Consideration shall be adjudged best; and to this end two Ways are proposed: Viz.

First, By enlarging and adding to this present Stock.

Secondly, By establishing a New Joynt-Stock by new Subscriptions, and dis­solving this present Stock.

First, As to enlarging by adding to this present National Stock, this is pressed only by those who are the present Adventurers therein, and these may be rank­ed into three Parties or Orders.

First, Those who have a s [...] in the Stock, but are not at all concerned in the Ma­nagement, these are not [...] o [...] hot in the Case, being very sensible of the Mis­managements, and wh [...]her they [...]a [...]d; and are willing to ary Alie [...]ation, whether by Addition [...] D [...]sl [...]tion, only are greatly [...] us, lest upon [...]ss [...]ing the Stock, it will appear a Non entity; but they should consi [...], if they have already received their real Stock and Profits by Div [...]le [...]ls, as most surely they have, they ought to rest [...]ed, [...]c­cording to the old honely Proverb, A man cann t [...]at his Cake, and have his Cake too, the [...]e being nothing designed in this Essay to defraud them of their Right, as will after appear.

Secondly, Those and their Confidents, who formerly were in the Management and Combination, (which is added, because there were some worthy Pe [...]sons Managers, and not of the Confederacy) but by a prevailing Party were justly enough turned out; these (and is it any Wonder?) are discontented they are out of the S [...]. and long to be in again▪ and know, that upon a new Constitution they shall never [...] chosen; therefore are for continuing this Company and its Constitution in the main, only are willing to some unmomentous Alterations, hoping thereby in their little Cunning to Mount again; they are willing to acknowledge a great Mismanagement, (as i [...]eed there is) and to lay a heavy Load of Guilt upon the present Managers (as indeed they deserve) especially upon that great Person who silenced them, and is indeed for Ability super [...]r to them all, and for Integrity equal at least to any of them: and if they can be any means get him removed (of whom they stand in such [...]ead▪ and the Company and Constitution in the main continued, they hope the day is their own, and this see us the perfect Drift and Design of that Scheme you mention, which undoubtedly [...] dressed up by their own sly Cook. But should this take place, the Remedy would be like the Disease, for Ambiti [...]n, Pride, and invincible Ignorance, &c would have the Reins, and [...]o all would again fall to Confusion; therefore not to be practised.

Thirdly, Those who are the present Managers, and such whose Interest is linked with them, these are Tooth and Nail for continuing this Stock and us Constitution, that they may still rule and enrich themselves thereby. Now both these later Parties are Ene­imes enough to each other, but for their own private Ends to the publick Detriment do joyn herein, and are they alone that busie themselves, and make such a Noise about preserving this Stock and its Management, according to its present Arbitrary Constitution; or so that still the Dominion and Power may remain among them, and who can admire that Diana be cryed up by Demetrius and his Company? Seeing that by the same they get their Wealth: and smely upon apprehension of a Dissolution of this Company, it can be no Astonishment to hear these merry-hearted sigh, their Joy being darkned, and those few great Merchants and Traders that were made rich by the imprisoning this vast Trade in their own hands to be found weeping and wailing, wringing the hands, and cry­ing out, Alas! Alas! for that a M [...]ne Tekel is writing upon all their Greatness and Domimon: the Merchants, the Masters, the Mariners will come no more with Gifts of the Riches of India; the delicate, dainty, desirable, goodly, glorious things of India, will no more center in their Stately Palaces, those Rivers will be dried up. This! This! greves full sore; and will they not use all their Interest to keep up their dying Gains? Will they not struggle hard? Hence 'tis no stone [Page 6]is left unturned, hence 'tis that some disrobe themselves of their Quality, and give such Attendance, even like common Solicitors, making close impertinent Applications with the invention of many a needless false Story, to amuse the unwary; hence their rea­diness with Golden Showers to sprinkle and powre where it might Fructifie. But Bles­sed be God they have not to deal with an ungenerous corrupt Court: So that it's hoped all their Labour, Toil; and Golden Influences, will be in vain; and as in the days of their Power, they refused to hear the Cryes, the Tears, the Groans of the Op­pressed, the Fatherless, the Widow in their great Distress, and under the Effusion of that Blood which yet lies uncovered, and calls to Heaven for Vengeance; so it may be sup­posed the day is now come that just Judgment shall be executed, whether it be unto Life, Banishment, or Confiscation: and that as a Nusance they be dissolved, never to have any Entrustments of Power more, but made a Nehustan; and a new Legal one Erected. And because in your last advice, you say, the great Question is, Whether a New Com­pany, or the Old one Vamped, Enlarged, Rectified, and Grafted, according to the Model you mention; tho what is in the Premisals, was all that was designed upon that Head: Yet in regard such great Interest you say is made (and no wonder) for the latter, and that it has obtained much with some of Eminency, it's necessary to be di­lated on. But understanding the same work has been undertaken by abler Hands in two several Tracts, and give great satisfaction, being already Published, as I am told; so I refer you thereto; and shall only add a small matter on that Head, and then come to the next Point.

1. This present Company upon its Erection would not, nor did they, Graft upon the former Stock, then in a very low tho not in the same condition this now is in; nor was there through out all the Stocks that have been for this Trade (and there have been many) any such thing done as Grafting on a former; so that being a Nov [...]ly, it may be conceived the more impracticable: And seeing this Company would not admit such a thing upon their Establishment; it seems less reasonable for them to desire it to be allowed them, or for the Parliament to admit of it.

2. To Graft upon this present Company, seems absolutely against the Right of the Free-born Subject of England, no mean Infiringment of▪ Magna Charta: Which the Peo­ple of England have always claim'd, and adventured their Lives and Fortunes so oft and freely, and so lately also, in its behalf. Every of the Subjects of England hath a Native Right to the Foreign Trade of this Kingdom, and therefore ought, in all conjoined ex­clusive Stocks, to have his natural Liberty allowed him to come in upon equal terms with others his fellow Subjects; which he will be deprived of in this way of Grafting: Being that after that Proposal, a very few of the Nation will have continued to them, and in their Hands, above Three parts of Four of this so great Trade, and the whole Nation besides shall not have a quarter part of the Trade: Which will be so eminent a Violating the Right of the Subject, as it cannot be imagined that any within your Walls can either propose or plead for.

3. This present Company is a superlative transcendent Monopoly, treble refined, not only a Monopoly upon the Nation, in secluding it from the Kingdom in general, and con­fining it to the City of London, but even upon the Company themselves, in impound­ing it in the hands of a very few Persons, who receive most of the Benefit thereof; and therefore not to be Grafted upon, being it will still, according to the present Constitution, remain as a great Grievance to the Nation, and the rest of the Adventurers that are not admitted into the Cabal: And how much it imports the Commons of England to rescue so great an Affair (it being or may be, its most certain, a full fifth Part of the Foreign Trade of the Nation,) out of the hands of such persons as Monopolize and make a Prey thereof; and to settle the same [...] in such a National Method, and in such Hands thereby, as that all those that have right thereto, and are willing to join therein, may partake of the Benefit thereof, will surely be well considered by their Honours: And how little a share do they deserve therein, who endeavour to rob the rest of the Nation of the whole thereof?

4. The Grafting upon this Stock, must needs be against the Inclinations of any per­sons of Sagacity and Conscience, considering the many numerous and great Troubles they are plunged into with the Subjects of England, thro many too violent, bitter, and Illegal Actions, to preserve this Monopoly to themselves, contrary to the Fundamental Laws [Page 7]of the Nation, and Rights of the Subject. This is too sad a Theme to be expatiated up­on: So I shall say no more of it.

5. The Grafting upon this Stock, may endanger the loss of the whole Trade of India: We already see to how low an ebb its come, the Trade of Bengale and Suratt, and of other places, being left or abdicated by their withdrawing from them; and the invaluable Island of Boonbay, that great Emporium of India (as some of them strangely term it) taken from them, and Possessed by the Mogul's People; and all our Trade else­where in danger, being wholly at the Mercy of the Indians. And these Gentlemen ha­ving brought Affairs to this pass; seems it in the least reasonable to continue them in the Management, but rather that it be immediately removed out of their hands? least there comes upon the Nation an entire loss of this so important a Trade, there appear­ing no other way of retrieving and conserving thereof.

6. The Grafting upon this Stock seems not at all advisable, in regard of that perfect rooted bitter Emnity that appears in the present Managers and Caballists, and many the concerned against any the Subjects of England, that claim and desire the enjoyment of that Right and Liberty the Law of the Land allows them: This is so uncontrolably evident, as the most hardened Forhead cannot gainsay. It would be too tedious to make an Enumeration of particulars in the Prosecutions that have been made against the Sub­jects of England; being upon their lawful Occasions, and acting according to the Laws; but against the companies Interest. What rigorous Usage had the Andalusians? How heavy a Charge was laid against them of Piracy, to have taken away all their Lives as well as Goods? And how well they proved it, the Honourable Committee of Parliament can well remember. What they farther did by their Orders in India and here, shall at present be passed over in silence: Only I shall note, That the Andalusians were Impeached by the Company of the very same Crime here, which they themselves were acting by then Servants and Orders in India at the self-same time: And if it were so Cri­minal in the Andalusians; why it should be so highly praise-worthy in the Company, seems difficult to conceive. Nor doth the Bitterness of their Spirits appear less noto­rious at present, insomuch that even civil Converse is not admitted by them; and all that are not justly of their Minds for the continuance of this Stock, contrary to the Laws of the Land and Right of the Subject, are stigmatized with the inviduous Names of Interlopers, and Enemies to the Company and the Crown; on purpose, as may justly be con­ceived, to make a Faction and Party. And can Two walk together if they be not agreed? No more can any good arise from the Vamping this Company by a Conjunction of Stocks, while they are at so great Emnity with those that desire a share in Trade with them; so should there be any mixture of Councils, what Agreement would there be? Nay rather, what Clashings would there not be, every Trifle occasioning a Tempest? and what must be the event, but that the Hatred in the Old Caballists against those that should Graft or Vamp, would bring great Detriment, if not Destruction on the whole? Tigers and Wolevs may be Chained, but their Natures not changed; therefore not safely to be conversed with by the harmless and innocent. Sure it is, without some Harmony in Affection, there can be no pleasant, profitable, intimate Conversation; and these Gentlemen, the present Managers, have by a many years continued Series of Conduct, given most evident De­monstration of the unfitness of their Temper, for any such Conjunction and Commu­nion; and the unrelenting Hardness of Heart that undeniably appears upon them at this day, sufficiently manifests their Disposition unaltered, and most difficultly, if at all change­able; so that the Proverb holds good: The Ethiopian changeth not his Skin, nor the Leopard his Spots.

7. This Company is of a most ignoble Extract and Original, having its first Settlement in times of great Confusion; being Incorporated by Oliver Cromwell, about the time when what he called a Parliament, declared and inaugurated him Lord Protector of these Na­tions; and seems to be one of his first Royal Donatives, or rather a specimen of his in­tended Government, it being exquisitely adapted thereto, by its plenty of Arbitrary Clauses: Which the concerned apprehending (as may be supposed) some Benefit by, might by fit means procure to be continued in the Charter obtained of King Charles the Second, upon his Restoration; which was no other in reality than a Confirmation or Establish­ment of the former, there being no new Subscriptions, nor Stock, or Persons, but the same without any Enlargement, or alteration. Now this was far from being a National Joynt-Stock in its Rise, in regard it had its beginning and was set on foot, as [Page 8]it were in hugger mugger, without any due publick notice given to all parts, and in a time when the greatest part of the Nobility, Gentry, and Merchants of the Land, could not, or durst not Subscribe, and many others but very little, having been under the Fines and Sequestrations of or Obnoxions to an Inquisition, by the Petentates of Haberdashers-Hall; one of which continued a Censor to his dying Day, or near it, in the Committee, for their Di­rection and Instruction, no doubt, in such Affairs: (and it must be owned, he lost not his la­bour, they having made great Impr [...]ments therein): So that it became rather a private Bargain, or packt Juncto of Olivers, than a Nati [...]nal Stock, or Co [...]any; insomuch that consider­ing its Birth, Founder, and Design. it w [...]l be conceived very inconvenient to Graft up­on, and may be wondred it should be pressed; but what will not Interest do? And sure­ly none of clear Spirits desirou [...] to remain, and be esteemed Free Subjects, can with­out great disdain have any Thoughts of Grafting on this present Stock, and Constitution; (it being a Vamping Nel's Old Boots) but that a new One be Erected agreeable to the Laws of the Land.

8. This Company, by reason of many late A [...]ions hath fallen into great Disrepute with the Natives and Government of India, among whom the Affairs of that Trade are negotiated, and brought a Scandal upon the whole Nation; that we who were in Repute a­bove all other Europians in former days, are now become a Reproach among those Heathens. And to continue and Graft upon this Company or Stock, will but justifie all late unbecoming, unjust Actions and Mismanagements, and bind our Reproach upon us: Therefore to take off all that Odium the Nation lies under in the sight of those Heathens, and to [...]estore our selves to that former Honour and Credit we had with them; nothing can more conduce (ac­cording to the best of my judgment) then an entire Dissolution of the present Stock or Com­pany, and Erecting a new One with a greater Fund, and better Constitutions, that it may be as it ought, A National Stock and Trade. This may be sufficient to be added concerning Grafting: And seeing this Company did not Graft upon the former, or e­ver it was done before, and that so to do, is against the Right of the Subject; and that the present Stock is a most grievous Monopoly, and involved in great Troubles with the Subjects of England, by violent and illegal Actions, its Trade brought to a very low ebb, and all endangered; and still the bitter Emnity of the present Managers towards their fellow Subjects remaining, thereby prohibiting any fair Conjunction; as also consider­ing its odd and ignoble Birth under Oliver Cromwell, and the great Reproach (by their late uncharitable Actions towards the Indians) they have cast upon the Nation; it will undoubtedly by all Patriots be judged expedient not to be Grafted on, but rather dissolved, and a new one Erected. And so I come to the next Point; which is,

Secondly, The other way proposed for enlarging the Stock for the India Trade; and that is, by Establishing a new National Joynt-Stock by new Subscriptions, and Dissolving this present Joynt Stock, which seems most proper and only pra­cticable at this time. Now in proceeding to this Work, and settling thereof; it's humbly conceived these or the like Methods be used.

First, That this New National Joynt-Stock be enlarged to Sixteen Hundred Thousand Pounds at least, by new Supscriptions; that so, being National, the whole Body of the Nation may come in and partake thereof; and that it may be a secure Fund or Bank for the Nation to employ its money on.

Secondly, That this New National Joynt-Stock or Company, be Confirmed and made a Corporation by Act of Parliament, exclusive to all others from the Cape of Good Hope to the Eastward of Japan; and that the Trade to East-India be declared a Trade of the State, or the Kingdom; as indeed it will be by the whole Nation, (willing thereto) having Interest therein, as well as Right thereunto: So that hereafter all Abuses and Injuries done them in their Trade and Rights in those parts by any other Nations, may be judged and reputed as done not only to the particular concerned, but to the Nation, and be espoused accordingly; which may be a means of preserving what we have, and regaining some­what at least of what lost; and prevent our own People from an easie parting, with any the Privileges, Ports, Trade or Rights in those Parts, and others of our Neighbour Nations from invading them: Want of which has been of irreparable Damage to the Nation in the Loss of many Places, and great Trades in those Parts, in former and later Days; as the Spice Trade, that of Macasses, Japan, Jacquatra or Batavia and Bantam, &c. And it will be a great Encouragement to all Persons Endeavours, in advancing the said Trade, and [Page 9]in all Acquisitions in those parts, it not being only for a private but national Interest; and this is that which greatly stimulates the Dutch in all their enlargements. The present Com­pany hath in their Charter a larger extent and tract of the World included then is here pro­posed for a new one, viz. from the Cape Good Hope down to the Magellanean Strait, and thence all Southward, and so all the back of America to Japan, which here is thought good to be omitted as being of no use and ill fame to them, making a great Noise of the vast­ness of their Charter; whereas they never made any benefit thereof but hindred others; therefore to be left free to all English to Advantage themselves, or on occasion to enda­mage other Nations by new discoveries or what already known.

Thirdly, That non obstante the exclusive Clause, yet liberty be granted to all Ships to Trade to Madagascar and the Coast of Mosambique, and all other places on the Coast of Africk on the other side or beyond the Cape of Good Hope while not Traded to by the Company; and that interfere not with the Companies Commerce; they giving security not to Trade but where allowed, and this to be without any Fee or Reward more than to the Clerk barely for the Writings.

Fourthly, That Diamonds, Pearls, and all pretious Stones, Ambergreece and Musk, be left free to all natural born Subjects of England to Trade in, paying one per cent. for the Money sent out, and 2 per cent. upon the Goods home, and that Gold and all Bullion im­ported thence be free.

Fifthly, That for the more equal and general distribution of the East-India Trade in this Realm, and the greater and more National enlargement thereof, it be carried on and ma­naged at several other Ports in the Land besides London; and such as are at some consider­able distance therefrom, viz. at York (whose Sea Port may be Hull) Bristol and Exon at each of which (and at more if afterwards thought needful) Presidencies may be erected for the management of the India Trade for the remoter Counties, as to instance more particularly: To York might pertain the Counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, York, Lancaster, Dur­ham, Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland and Berwick upon Tweed: To Bristol; Glo­cester, Worcester, Stafford, Chester, Salop, Hereford, Monmouth, and all the Welsh Counties: To Exon; Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall: Which Division if not judged propor­tionable may be altered and better setled by Persons more vers'd in those Parts. Now if this or some such way be taken the Ports being at such distance and remoteness from the great City of London, will make no diminution to the Trade thereof, but be a great Ad­dition to that of those places by an enlargement of their Exportations as well as consum­ption in those Parts of some of what imported which would arise meerly from setting up such Marts; and truly the so long Monopolizing this Commerce solely to London, as it hath had many other ill effects, so the Right of the Subject hath been highly violated, in his being deprived of what by the law of the Land is his native Due and Property; and its hoped may now at length be well considered of by the Members for those parts and resto­red to them, it seeming highly unreasonable that the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants, and Inhabitants of those parts should be deprived and wholly divested of their Birthright, only for the advancement of a few London Merchants: This way of diffusing the Trade would have (in my slender Opinion) many great Advantages attending it; the Nation would then come to have a thorow insight into the immense Value of this important Trade, which it now is so very ignorant of, that even very few save some of the concerned and o­thers in and about London have any tolerable cognisance thereof; and even many great and worthy Patriots and Statesmen have not till of late been throughly convinced of its Value; and from this ignorance of its being so advantagious to this Nation, have most of those direful effects flowed in upon this Trade, Hinc illae lacrymae, as the loss of great Acquisitions, Privileges, and Commerce in former days, and the great decay and almost total loss there­of now of late: It cannot enter into any mans heart acquainted with this Trade and its Va­lue, that if it had formerly been diffused through the Nation, and so had become a ge­neral Interest by all mens participating of its Gains, that ever so great a part thereof could have been so tamely parted with as was by our Progenitors, or such hardships put upon it as have been of late by the present Managers. No sure; should any of these things have happened to the Dutch, in what a rage would the Commonalty have been! what fury would have appeared in the faces of the concerned? and what Consternation in all? as if their very banks were cutting? or the overflowing deluge of 72 were again breaking in upon them? who! that was any ways accessary could have been safe? When they lost Tywan the Go­vernor Mons. Coyet a Swedish Gentleman of good esteem tho he had in time given sufficient [Page 10]advice of what was coming, and when it came upon them, did all that man could do, and gave it not up till it could not be held any longer, and tho forced to it by all the People, (as I had it from them there present,) yet underwent many years Imprisonment in the remote Eastern Islands ten times worse than death, e're he could get any Release, tho stript and destitute of all; and yet we can part with our Trades at Japan, Spice Islands, Macasser, Jaquatra, or Batavia, &c. formerly; and with Bantam, Suratt, and Bengale lately, and seem little concerned thereat: Such a Stoical Apathy have we been under and still are in this Affair; and whence can this arise but from our ignorance of the Trade and its Value? which nothing can better cure than this distribution thereof and its management to several Presidencies and Marts, whereby the knowledge thereof will sensibly diffuse it self through the whole Realm, and quicken us for hereafter to a preventing and redressing of any Injuries that may be offered or done unto that Trade by any whomsoever, and pos­sibly to regaining of some part thereof formerly lost; and by this means of distributing the India Trade to several Ports, there will be an immense Increase thereof, and Advantage thereby to this Nation as well abroad as at home, what a lustre would it give to our repu­tation in those parts now at so low an ebb, and what benefit particularly would accrue to all Traders and Merchants as well as the Adventurers therein, may be judged by what it hath done formerly when it flourished, tho not comparable to what it may do in this Method, and more especially those Marts and Presidencies that shall be set up, and the parts therea­bouts would be much increased in their Trade and Commerce abroad and at home, and greatly populated and enriched, whereby the Coasts of those parts would be much strength­ned, together with a great Increase of Shipping and Mariners; as also a far greater Expor­tation of our Manufactures and Mines of this Kingdom, for this Trade having been only in the hands of a few Merchants in London, they never consider so much the benefit of the Nation as their own particular emolument, nor espouse the cause of our Woollen Manufa­cture and Mines as they might. But if this Method take place the West and the North being the very places for Woollen Manufactures and Mines, and the Nobility, Gentry, and Mer­chants thereof, concerned in the Trade and Management, will be able greatly to promote the Exportation of them, (and indeed India will take off a greater quantity of Cloth, Ser­ges, and Stuffs, as also Tinn, and Lead, then at present is by many apprehended,) for they seeing with their own eyes and acting with their own hands, and having always the great staple Commodities of their Country in their sight and upon their hearts will make it their business to export the same, (which those at a distance do not) and I am confident this will promote the Woollen Trade, as also our Mines of Tinn and Lead, more than any the Projects of late on foot, and much more of them be exported to India than formerly; and it will be a great conveniency to most of the Gentry and Inhabitants in those remote parts, that they may be supplied with all India Commodities, as well for necessary uses as also for Adornment of themselves, and their houses ornament; and these at easie rates in their own Counties or near home, and make their own choice without chargeable tedious Journies to London, or being obliged to submit to others Fancies. Now albeit this project of distri­buting this Trade and its management into other parts of the Land, may not at first by many be well accepted as being somewhat strange, never before proposed, and so esteemed a Novelty, yet if well considered 'tis not such a Novel, having been one of the Constitutive parts of the Dutch East-India Company; and all along by them practised and so designed in France also; yet however we of this Nation are in many things too superstitious, and so over addicted to some old mouldy Customs, as with Issachar to bow and couch under (tho with heavy groans) the greatest burthens rather than be at the pains and cost to redress them, as might be instanced in many things relating both to our Civil and Ecclesiastick State; yet in such a Case as this, wherein so great a Concern is upon its Settlement, we are not to consider so much what hath been done, but what is to be or may be done, for the Improvement, Securing and Advantaging this Trade; and accordingly the Nation thereby, not ought Customs, Tradition, or Novelty in any measure to ballance with the commodi­ousness of the Trade or Interest of the Nation. Thus much for the Fundamental Constitutive Part of this Company.

II. The Subscriptive Constitution; wherein for the better Erecting this Stock upon New Subscriptions, and making them more diffusive and National, these or the like Methods may be used.

1st. That a Book or Books be provided for that purpose, and committed to the Lord Major or Sheriffs of the City of London to lye at the Chamberlains Office in Guild-hall, or [Page 11]some other convenient publick place nearer the Exchange, for all Persons freely to repa [...] unto for making Subscriptions, and this to lye open two whole Months at least; and that Books may be sent to all Considerable Cities and Burroughs throughout England for the same purpose; and that the Members of Parliament or the Sheriffs for those parts do take care therefore; and that it be published in the Gazette what day the said Books will be opened, as also about a Fortnight or so, before the said two Months or whatever time agreed on do expire, what time they will be closed that so none may pretend ignorance.

2dly. That all Persons whatever of what Rank, Degree, Quality, Sex, or Nation, in­habiting in His Majesties Kingdoms have liberty to subscribe; it being but requisite those who are admitted into all other Concerns and Advantages of the Nation be not denyed this: The Objection hereto is answered in the second head about Management p. 12.

3dly. That none be admitted to subscribe less than One Hundred Pounds, nor any odd summs, but even hundreds or fifties, nor any transferrings be afterwards made in any other than such even summs: Nor,

That any Person be permitted to subscribe more than Five Thousand Pounds, that so there may be the more liberty for the whole Nation to come in, as is highly reasonable; nor any be allowed directly or indirectly by himself or any other to have more at any one time afterwards than Twenty or Thirty thousand pounds principal Stock which may preserve it the more diffused; yet if it should so happen (as is not likely) that upon closing of the Books there shall not be subscribed the full summ agreed on, that then the before Subscribers may underwrite again, for which a Fortnight may be allowed, or by consent those that are willing to enlarge may have it equally proportion'd among them according to their former Subscriptions.

4thly. That for the Payment of the whole Summ a considerable time be allowed, and that it be done at Four several Payments (viz.) in Four Eight Months, that so men may not be put to any straits for a sudden raising of Monies, but may have reasonable time therefore, and mens other occasions may in the mean time be complied with, and if it be found needful any the payments be made sooner or later, that in such case three months notice be given by the Gazette or in some such publick manner.

5thly. That the first payment be made within six months after the Books for Subscri­ption are first laid open, and that some incouragement be allowed to those that first pay in their money in some such method as follows, viz.

The Persons that pay their Quota of the first payment within thirty days after the Books are opened, or in the first month, to have six months interest allowed them, deducting for so many days interest as the money shall be paid in after the first Ten days of the month.

The Person that pays his Quota in the second month, to have four months interest al­lowed him in manner as before.

The Person that pays his Quota in the third month, to have no allowance of interest.

The Person that pays his Quota the fourth month, to allow or pay in two months in­terest besides his share of money; and interest for so many days as shall elapse after the tenth day e're it be paid in.

The Person that pays in the fifth month, to allow four months interest besides his Quota, as before.

The Person that pays in the sixth month, to allow six months interest over and above his Quota as before.

The like method to be observed in the second payment.

And if any Person shall not pay in his first payment within the six months allotted, his name shall be erased and have no benefit of Subscription: likewise if he pay not the second Quota within the six months allotted, tho the first payment be made, yet his name shall not be continued among the Adventurers, but shall be as a Creditor, and have his bare money repaid him upon a months demand, and to have no benefit that may happen in the mean time to Arise thereon.

That for the two last payments there be to each three months allotted to pay them in and no more, there being so much time allowed before hand.

And the person that pays in his Quota in the first month to have three months inte­rest in manner as before.

The Person that pays it in the second month to have one months interest.

The Person that pays it in the third month to allow one months interest all as before.

And they that in the aforesaid three months shall omit to pay in any these last pay­ments, shall be concerned according to their first payments and no more, and their pri­vileges to be according thereto; nor shall they have liberty afterwards to come in for any the last payments, tho they should desire it: but such money as also what mony shall not be paid in at former payments shall be supplied by other the Adventurers, paying interest for the time due, or otherwise, as shall be adjudged in a general Court.

7thly. That in regard of the virulent Declaration of many the concerned in the pre­sent Stock against their subscribing to a New One, that none of them having their Habi­tation in London, or within Fifteen Miles thereof, be permitted to subscribe by themselves or others after Ten Days of the time from the first opening of the Books, be expired.

8thly. That no Person living in London, or within Twenty Miles thereof, have Li­berty more than for the First Thirty Days or Month to come in and subscribe, the other Thirty Days or Month, being designed only for those that live at a greater distance and less knowing in the Trade.

9thly. That all Persons subscribing, or having Five hundred Pounds principal Stock, shall have one Vote in the General Court, and no one subscribing or having any greater Summ, shall have any more than one Vote. This will obviate that pernicious Constitu­tion of having Votes according to the repeated Quantity of every Five hundred Pounds, whereby this Trade hath been Monopolized by Combination into the Hands of a few Persons, and thereby has proved of most fatal Consequence to the Trade and Nation; and will be suitable to the whole Constitution of the Kingdom throughout; no Person in Country, City, or Burrough being qualified for Voting, having legally any more than his own personal Vote: and this Contrivance of having more, was only with a design of an Arbitrary Conduct and Government, a thing hateful to the thoughts of any true English Spirit.

10. That such Persons subscribing, or having Two thousand Pounds principal Stock, be capable thereby of being chosen a Committee man, or of bearing any Office in the Administration of the Affairs of the said Company or Joynt-Stock.

11. That if it should happen (as is not to be doubted) that upon closing the Books, there be found more subscribed than the Summ of Sixteen Hundred thousand Pounds, or, what-ever the Summ is that shall be agreed upon to be the Stock for this Trade, that in such Case the Surplusage of Subscriptions be taken off, not from the Stock in general, but from those particular Subscriptions only that are more than Two Thousand Pounds, or the Summ agreed on, for the intitling Persons to the highest Offices in the Administration of the Company's Affairs, and from so much only of said Subscriptions as is more than what qualifies Persons, as aforesaid; and this seems most reasonable, in regard what is more subscribed is ex abundanti, and those that have so much to spare, may better have some­what pared off than such as have less; for should it fall upon them, they would thereby lose that Right and Propriety which the Model designs them, and was an Encou­ragement to them to come in, and the others will lose no Privilege, so that this way will make it more equal and National.

III. For the general directive part concerning the well management and carrying on of this Trade, these few points may be convenient.

1. That there be a general Court of all the Adventurers qualified thereto, as be­fore, in which all By-Laws be made for the better Conduct of the said Trade, and all Committee-Men, Governors, and Deputies or Wardens be chosen for the Administration of its Affairs, and according to the Direction and Orders, of which said Court all Governors and Administrators shall act, and to whom upon any occasions resort shall be had, and therefore such Courts shall be often held, at least Four times in the Year.

2. That no Person, tho qualified thereto by Five Hundred Pounds Stock, shall have any Vote, or be a Voting Member in the said general Court, who is not a natural born English man and Protestant, nor any Feme or under age, or that is an Apprentice, or any that by the Law of the Land cannot manage his own Estate, or is incapacitated for Civil Employment.

3. That no Adventurer have liberty of giving his Vote by Proxy, but it must be his own personal Vote, nor that any have a Vote for what Stock is in their Name in Trust for others.

4. That each Voting Member or Adventurer upon chusing Committees, Wardens, Deputies, Governors, &c. before admission thereto, shall take a Corporal Oath, that the Stock he shall vote for is his own, and not in Trust, and that he will not give his Vote then, or at any other time for favour or affection, but Merit, according to the best of his Judgment without partiality; and that no other Oath be administred till they come into Office, they being unnecessary, burdensom, and of ill report.

5. That all deciding Votes in the General Court, as also in all Courts and Commit­tees, be managed by Ballet, for the prevention of any divisions, heats, or over-awings.

6. That no Person having above One Thousand Pounds Stock in the present Company, be capable of being chosen a Governor, Master, Deputy, Warden or Committee fo [...]three years, or until, all the Accounts of the said present Company be adjusted and cleared, both here and in India; lest there be any interfering or hindrance in the progress of setling and carrying on the Affairs of the new, and concluding those of the old Company.

IV. Concerning the Executive part of the Management, which may come under the following heads of directions or such like, viz.

1. That there be a Governor or Master, three Wardens or Deputies and Twenty Four Committees chosen by the general Court of Adventurers who shall upon entry on their Office take a Corporal Oath for the true and faithful discharge of the said Office and Trust committed to them; and refusing such Oath, another to be chosen in his stead, and this Method agrees with most of the Companies in London, and hereby the Wardens being more, the work will prove the easier, and yet more constant Attendance may be given as well at the House as upon Affairs abroad than heretofore could be done.

2. That besides the Twenty Four Committees there be yearly chosen three Honorary Committees, Hereditary Peers of the Realm by Descent, and qualified thereto by the Quantity of Stock, and according to the second Article in preceding Head; and these, being that their greater Affairs will not permit so constant attendance, are not to be ob­liged to the Rules so strictly as others, nor to take any Oath, but to act upon their Honour.

3. That the Governor or Master and three Wardens or Deputies be Quadrinnial, one of them going off every Year, as the Governor the first Year, the upper Warden suc­ceeding him, and the second Warden him, and so the third, in whose place another is chosen yearly, who may be the former Governor, or a new Man; or rather that the Governor or Master to be chosen yearly, and the Wardens to be Triennial, one going off every Year; and this last seems nearest the way that is taken of many or most of the Com­panies of London, and hereby a Person of any Ingenuity, will in the said three Years be thorowly versed in all the governing Affairs of the Company.

4. That from among the Committees six Persons, or so many as shall be convenient, be singled out, to whom, together with the Wardens, particularly be committed the Charge, Care, and Management, or Supervisorship of all the Offices of the House, as that of the Treasury, Accounts, Auditors, Marine, and House-Stewardships, Husbands, Secre­taries, Warehouse-keepers, &c. Each having his peculiar Province assigned; and to each of these may be joyned, in the ordinary Management and Execution of the said Offices, two or three more of the said Committees; and these Six, or so many as may be judged convenient with the Governor and Wardens may be as a small Senate or Court of Alder­men, who may have the Management of the lesser ordinary Affairs, and much of the executive part of the whole, and prepare all Matters for the great Council Days, when the Committee or Court meet, which may be generally twice in the Week; and may also have their Councils apart, tho any of the said Committee-men may assist at all times: and this may be called the Committee or Council of Ten, or so many as shall be the [Page 14]Number, and the other the Court, or the Assembly or Committee of Thirty one, or so many as their full Number is. Now these Six may be chosen every Year New, or go off triennially Two one year, and Two another, and to succeed in the Officers of each other, and so two new ones chosen, or the same again, out of the twenty Committee men who with the Governor, one Warden, as likewises three Honorary Committees, shall be yearly new chosen, as before, who may all be new Ones, or the same again: This way will fit and qualifie such Persons for the more full understanding of all the Affairs of the Trade, and House-Offices, and thereby capacitate them the better for being War­dens and Governors, and may prevent much of that ignorance which now seems to lodge in most of the Committee-men touching their whole Affair: more especially if they be ob­liged upon their going off to render an Account to the Council of Thirty One, or Court, of their Trust. These Six ought to give more constant attendance, and be consider [...]d accordingly, and the rest of the Committee-men ought to be at a Court before it sits, and stay the whole time, or to lose their Praemium; which will give them more insight into the business, and prevent that customary way of stepping in only to shew themselves merely to have their Reward.

5. That the Committees, Wardens, Deputies, Governors or Masters, be men of considerable Fortunes, that come not in merely to raise themselves an Estate, and have not a multitude of other business, either publick or particular, upon their hands; that so they may more calmly and constantly attend, and have this Affair more upon their Spirits, and make it their Work.

6. That the Governor, Master, Wardens, Deputies, Committees, and all Officers of the House, or to whom any Trust in the Management is committed, be all of them Protestants, and natural born English men, of the Third or Second Descent at least; which may be a means to secure the Counsels, and Orders of the Court from being be­tray'd to Foreigners, and if to that end all professedly Dutch Merchants were excluded, it might not be amiss.

7. That none of the late chief Managers, more especially that not any of those Sixteen Persons (if they should be spared by the Hands of Justice) concerned in the sign­ing and giving Instructions for the putting to death the Subjects of England at St. Helena, or any that were instrumental in procuring Orders from the late Kings for erecting a Court Martial there or in India, be ever permitted or be capable of being chosen Committee men, Wardens or Governor, or any Officer in trust for the management of the New Companies Affairs, or be a voting Member in the general Court; and if any suspected thereof shall tender himself for a voting Member, or be chosen to any Office as before; that ere he be admitted, he clear himself by his corporal Oath, (which Oath the Governor, Master and Wardens or Deputies, be empowered to administer) and refusing such Oath, or ap­pearing by Examination thereof, to have been guilty as before, never to be admitted as a voting Member, or into any Office, which will be as a small commemoratory Penalty, and may deter others from running into any such Extreams.

8. That the Governor, Master, Wardens, or Deputies and Committees, be all of them Freemen of the City of London, which will make a noble addition to the glory of that fa­mous City by having an enlargement of eminent worthy Members, whereby there will be the greater choice of Persons fitted for the great Offices thereof; which seems at this day very necessary, there being such a want of fit men, that a worthy person was necessitated to take up his Freedom upon a late Choice of an Alderman; and it is a very great Re­proach to that great City, that such as have had any hand in betraying its Rights and Pri­vileges, or are reeking with the blood of their worthy Fellow Citizens, should be admit­ted, by any want of more fit persons, to continue or be put up for Aldermen; it being also but reasonable that such as are chosen to this Work and Employ, and do manage so great an Affair and Trade in the very City, should also be of the City: This will agree with the Constitution of the Turkey Company, &c. And every one so chosen to any the said Trusts and Offices shall, before he be admitted to sit, and within Twenty days after being so chosen, if not a Freeman, take up his Freedom of the City, which shall be allowed him, paying no more than the bare Fees at the Chamberlains Office, and shall have the same Liberty in chusing his Company, as those have that come in by Redemption. But if such Person shall refuse so to do, then after the said Twenty days expiration, another quali­fied Person be chosen in his Room, nor shall he be capable of being chosen again till he [Page 15]be actually a Freeman of the said City, but that notwithstanding any Custom of th [...] City the Estates of such Persons shall upon decease go according to their Wills or the Laws of the Land in other Cases, the contrary Custom of the City seeming only to re­spect Shop-keepers and Mechanick Trades, and not Merchants.

9. That there be a Committee of Inspections chosen every year by the general Court, which may consist of seven Persons, of whom three to make a Quorum or Committee: these ought to be Persons concerned not less than Three Thousand Pounds each in the Stock, and of great Gravity, Probity, and Experience, and are to overlook all Transactions, and have such Power as may be convenient, and necessary for such an Office; and every year to render Account to the General Court how they find things, and may be of great use to keep all men to their Duty, and thereby Affairs in good Order and Method.

10. That some Persons of the Privy Council, or other Persons fit for the Service, be appointed by Parliament to have inspection into Transactions, and upon any Emergen­cy or grand Affair to have Session among them, or be applied to, and to have such Power as to the Parliament shall seem meet; the Reason whereof is, what a great Man in the present Company tells us from another, That trading Merchants, while they are in the busie and eager prosecution of their particular Trades, In­terest, and Profit, Philopatris primi. altho they may be very wise men, are not always the best Judges of Trade, as it relates to the Profit and Power of a Kingdom. Probatum est with a Witness present E. I. Company.

11. That the Ports in India belonging to the English be made free to the Subject of England, and made easie to others, that so there may be an Accession and Increase of Trade for the more flourishing, populating, and strengthening the said Ports. And that the Island of St. Helena be made a free Port for the refreshing of Ships; they requiring now of some Ships Half a Crown the Tun, and of others much more per Tun, only for leave to water, and take in some fresh Provisions. And besides, they upon the Island do want many Necessaries hence, which if not sent them by the Company's Ships, (of which it's necessary two touch there yearly outward therewith) that other Ships may have Liberty to supply them, that so they may not be destitute, and under discouragement for want of such things as heretofore they have been, to the endangering the Loss of the Island.

12. That no Dividends be made above Twenty per Cent. at one time, and not till there be at least Thirty per Cent. or sufficient in Bank more than the necessary Stock to do it with.

13. That no Money be taken up in India, or very little, and that upon most urgent Occasions, and but for some small time, as till our Gold and Silver can be coined, or such like Occasions; it being about three times as dear as here, and if occasion require it, the same may be better done at home, which will be easier to the Company, and Be­nefit to the Nation, and Kindness to particular Persons.

14. That great Care be had for the Navigating part, not only for incouragement in Trading, but also that Voyages be so proportioned out, that those Walls and Bulwarks of our Nation be not enfeebled and destroyed by unseasonable going out and overlong staying in the Country, which has been a most unhappy Circumstance of late, ruined many gallant Ships, and destroyed a World of brave Men; and from what Interest this has proceeded is easie to imagine: For the Seafaring Party are never Friends to Ar­bitrary Power, Tyranny, Slavery, or Popery.

15. That in regard all humane Acts are subject to Error, Imperfection, and Decay; therefore that at the End of Seven years, or some such set time, or as soon after as there shall be a Sessions of Parliament; that a Report be made unto them by the Governor and Committee, or the Committee of Inspections, of the State of the Trade; and if there be any Defects or Excesses in the Constitution or Settlement, that Provision may be made accordingly: and had this been done by this Company or another Society in the Nation, there had not in all likelihood been any such Cause of Complaint against them, or need of their being dissolved as at this day.

16. That there be a greater Liberty for persons going over to reside in India, of all Sexes than of later times has been allowed; in regard it will be for the Enlargement of Trade in those parts, and for the strengthening of our Interest, and may be a means of setling in some advantageous Parts, which for want of People we cannot now do.

17. That all such convenient Authorities be intrusted with them as may preserve them as a Society, in suppressing all Vice, Debauchery, Wickedness, immoral, irreligious Acts, and for the doing of Justice between man and man the preserving Order, refelling and subduing Enemies, securing of Trade, all agreeable to the Laws of this Land, and sui­table to a Corporation, and so great an one at so vast a distance, and such as may gain upon, and not alienate the Hearts of the Subjects of England.

18. That tho it be hoped there will no such thing happen, yet if there should any considerable dispute or difference fall out between the Companies Chief and Council in India, and any the Subjects of England, or others inhabiting there, as being under the Pro­tection of the English, for any supposed illegal Acts, as Seizures, Force, Oppressions, Fines, Punishments, or the like, and Complaint be made thereof here, that the same may be heard and determin'd by Persons delegated thereto by Parliament, who may more pro­perly be appointed by their Offices; as the two Lord Chief Justices, Lord Chief Baron, Ma­ster of the Rolls, and the rest of the Judges, three of them to be a Judicature, of which one of the Chief Justices, Chief Baron, or Master of the Rolls, to be one, and seven for an Appeal; whereof two of the former Four to be present, and to act in a summary way, somewhat in the Nature of the Court at Cliffords Inn after the Fire of London, which gave such general satisfaction, and prevented vast troubles and expence. This is propo­sed, in regard it seems hard for a poor man to commence a Suit against so great a Com­pany, according to the present Practice of the Courts at Westminster, as also in that India is at so great a distance, that the Proofs, tho plain enough to create a firm belief and assurance of the Fact, or the contrary, yet not such as may pass for legal, and those Cau­ses may be, and generally are so mixed, as not properly to be taken Cognisance of whol­ly in any one particular Court; and besides, this will put a quick end to all such Com­plaints, that they may not lye undetermin'd either to the Prejudice of any of the Subjects of England, or the ill Fame of the Company, as has been too much seen hitherto.

19. That the Company be answerable for whatever grand Abuses (which the afore­said Court are to judge of) shall be acted by their Chiefs in India towards the Subjects of England, if they shall refuse to send for them home upon such Complaint, which seems but reasonable; otherwise none can have Justice against them till they do come home; which will greatly obstruct Right and Justice, and this will oblige their Servants to a bet­ter deportment abroad, and the Company to take care not only for good Security, but also that their chief Servants be of a better sort of People for Principles, Prudence, Abili­ties, Conversation, Education, and Extract than hath been of latter days.

20. That upon any Action or Suit brought against them, the Company be obliged to give Bail as single persons; and omitting or refusing, the Governor may be attached in per­son; it being but reasonable, tho a Corporation, (and fo great an one) that they should be so liable, in regard that all whom they sue are obliged so to do whatever their Estate be; and if it was so with all Corporations, it would silence many Complaints, prevent some Suits, and much trouble to the Subjects of England.

21. That no Portion of Stock in the Company of any Persons whatever, or any Di­vidend thereon be at any time stopped, seized, hindred either in transferring the one, or paying the other, upon any pretence whatever, but by a due Course of Law; and that all Transfers shall create a legal Right.

22. That no Goods of any Persons whatever be at any time, without due Process at Law, stopped, or Delivery be denied by them in their Warehouses upon any Pretence or Demand that may be made thereon, sufficient Bail being offered or given, and the due Charges of Ship, Custom, Wharfadge, Warehouse, &c. paid or legally tendred; this is the more reasonable, in regard the Owners of Ships are under Obligations for all undue Actions to the Company, and then their Actions upon breach of Charter in this new Settlement will be legal, and it will prevent the many Clamors that are usually heard of the great Losses and Damages that men have often sustained for want of their Goods in due time, and sometimes kept from them merely from an Humor o [...] Pique of the [Page 17]Officer, or to pleasure some Friends, having of the same Goods, with time [...]o [...] of them e [...]e those other Goods can be delivered.

23. That all Persons qualified through [...], as before, for a Committee-man, have libe [...]ty at a [...]l seasonable times to repair unto any of the Offices of the House, and inspect Affai [...]s and Transactions for their satisfaction.

24. That all Goods of any considerable Moment be sold at publick Sale by w [...]y of Auction, and none by private Contract, (unless for Use of the Crown or such Publick Occasions) and in such proportionate Lots as may best consist with the occasions of the generality of B [...]yers, as mostly not exceeding 1000 l. or less than 5 or 600 l. tho some may.

25. That it would be convenient some Provision be made for the preventing those many unhappy Marriages and Unchristian Mixtures too frequently made by Englishmen in India, to the great dishonour of our Religion, and reproach of the Nation: Therefore that no Englishman, being a Protestant, be permitted to marry with any person of the Country being a Papist, or not a Protestant, a thing hitherto too much practised; and that if any person in their Service shall marry with any of the Country that is not born of European Parents on both sides, being Musteeches or others, tho Protestants, yet they shall never, while so married, be capable of any Office considerable, civil, or military, that they never be of the Councel in any Factories, but may be assistant to them; nor in any military Office above a Corporal; and those already married as before, not to be advanced beyond a Serjeant; nor any of the Factors so married, and while so, that have not been Chiefs already, ever to be Chiefs, but may be in any other Office in any the Factories, save of Councel in the upper chief Factories; and those that have been Chiefs, tho married, as before, may yet be so in some under-Factories, but never to rise higher, and somewhat of the same Nature to be observed as to Seafaring Employments. Great care should be also taken of the Factors and Servants they sent abroad; both as to their persons, that they be not mishapen or of ill Looks, but comely Countenance and good Demeanor, more especially such as appear at Courts; and likewise as to their Qualities, of liberal Education, docible Tempers, good Abilities, and quick Parts, sober, free from Vice, that have not spent Estates in lewd debauched ways, especially common Gamesters, or men addicted to Gaming, who of all persons are of most prenicious con­sequence among great Negotiations and Entrustments; therefore such upon no account to be permitted, but to be absolutely discouraged.

I proceed to a word or two concerning the Presidencies to be set up in sundry parts of the Realm, as before noted, pag. 9.

Which in the main must be conformable to the foregoing Constitutions, and are to act in Conformity to the grand Chamber of London, with whom there must be a constant entire Correspondence, and unto whose Direction and Orders in all grand and needful Affairs submission must be given, and in truth, there may many things in the Course of Commerce occur, which at present may not be provided against, and therefore must be left to the Guidance and Conduct of the chief Chamber upon recourse to them by the said Presidencies; but some few things at present necessary to their Erection shall be no­ted, viz.

1. That in each of these Presidencies there be a general Court once in the Year, con­sisting of all Adventurers living within the Limits of the said Presidencies, and being qua­lified thereto by 500 l. principal Stock, and as those are to be that are voting Members for London, as in pag. 12. and at this general Court there be Choice made of Presidents, Assessors, Committees, and all chief Officers for the Management of the said Presiden­cies that may then be wanting, nevertheless subject to an Approbation from London, as also for reporting or making Presentment of any Grievances or Regulations in any Matters relating to the said Presidencies and the East-India Trade; and in regard of their Subje­ction to the Chamber and Direction of London, it will not be requisite that these Courts be held more than once in the Year, save upon urgent Necessities.

2. That there be in each Presidency a President and two Assessors and Committees in Number according to the Trade that shall be managed therein, as six to be the lowest [Page 18]Number, and twelve the highest Number of such Committees, which said Committees shall be yearly new chosen by the said general Court, and may be the same again or new ones, the President and two Assessors to be Triennial, the President going off every year, and the upper Assessor succeeding in his place, and so a new Assessor, who may be the last President, or a new Man chosen in the place of the under Assessor who succeeds the upper one; and this way may be most proper, in regard at first there may not be plenty of persons fit for those Offices; these Presidents and Assessors to have 1000 l. Stock, and Committees 500 l. and to be Persons living in said Presidencies, and qualified as those of London.

3. That there be also one or two Noblemen Committees qualified as those for the City of London, and having Seats, and keeping Houses within the said Presidencies, and that all Noblemen under the same Qualifications when at said Presidencies at their pleasure be present at their Courts, and hear and debate, but not to have deciding Votes, unless of the [...]ommittee, and if it were so in London, it might have very good Effects, in that they might the better be affected with, and more ingaged into Affairs of Trade, as is seen in most other trading Nations, the great Magnificoes of Venice and Heeirn or Lords of Hol­land, all concerned in Traffick, which is of singular Use to those States.

4. That when at any time it so happen the Governor, Master, Wardens, or Depu­ties of London be at any the foresaid Presidencies, that they then do preside and have the Chair among them in all Affairs as in London, and that London Committees being there have Session and Votes with them, and that when the said Presidents, Assessors, and Committees of each the said Presidencies happen to be in London, they have Session in the Courts of Committees, and the Presidents and Assessors to have Votes amongst them, but not the Committees.

5. That there be a constant, due, entire Correspondence between the said Presidencies, and the Head-Direction at London, to which they ought monthly to transmit Accounts of all Transactions, Cash, and Negotiation, and yearly to send their Books made up, and balanced, that Affairs may be kept in due Decorum and Order, without Confusion.

6. That all Monies subscribed in the Counties, under said Presidencies for the greater ease of Subscribers be paid in the said Counties to the Persons deputed thereunto by the respective Presidencies, and that all Dividends that may be made of said Monies so sub­scribed scribed be paid likewise at the said Presidencies, or in the same Counties, if so desired; and that as the Subscriptions, so the Accounts of the Subscribers and concerned be registered and kept at said Presidencies, but transmitted, the former in Duplicates, the other con­stantly in the monthly Accounts and yearly balanced Books, to London, there to be kept also under the Heads of and Books for each Presidency.

7. That any Person having Monies in any the said Presidencies or in London, and remo­ving his Seat from one Presidency to another, or for other Reasons may at any time have his whole Stock (but not a part) transferred from one, and admitted into the other at his desire, and thereupon to have his Privilege where admitted only, and not elsewhere, for said Stock so transferr'd.

8. That the Persons that have Votes and come into Office in the said respective Presi­dencies, be of the Number of such Subscribers, or such as come in upon Transfers of the same, as afore, and none other to have Votes, or be in Administration of Affairs in said Presidency: And that the Persons, as before, having Votes in said Presidencies, shall not for the same Monies have Vote in any other Presidency, or the grand Direction at London, and so for all of them mutatis mutandis. But that Persons having Monies sub­scribed or transferred in several or all the said Presidencies and Directions, shall have Votes accordingly where-ever he is so concerned.

Many other Directions might be given, but these may suffice at present being that, as said before, these Presidencies are to be under the Direction of and Account to the Head-direction or Presidency of London, so that Rules and Instructions may be added and altered as there shall be occasion and be found expedient.

Presidencies or Marts thus set up for this purpose cannot but be greatly pleasing, and highly useful to all those parts, as is before hinted, it would be a great Enlargement to the Trade of India, also a vast Improvement of Trade in general in those parts, thereby a greater Commerce would arise with other Foreign parts, which would much increase the Navigation, and so the Mariners of such places; it would marvellously raise those Ports in People, Riches, and Strength, bring a great affluence of all Manufactures, cause greater Union, stricter Correspondence under all the said Presidencies, which to enlarge and preserve, if a Penny Post were set up in said Counties from one Market-Town to another, would greatly conduce; which it's wonder, some ingenious Persons do not project, a Scheme whereof were not over difficult to be drawn, only I wish them whoever shall set upon it better Success than the ingenious Mr. Dockwa had with his, and perhaps his Fate may detain persons there from, tho it's great pity it should, being of a most universal publick Concern and Benefit. I shall not enlarge on this Head, but for a Conclusion pas [...] on to the next and last Point, which is,

Touching Dissolving the Present Company or Joynt Stock.
That it may be most for the Ease and Interest of both the new and present Company, it's re­quisite some things be premised in Order thereunto, which as they may give some Satisfaction, so they will lead to the designed Method, viz.

I. That the present Company being a Corporation, by its Dissolution is not meant a dissolving thereof in Law in a total, absolute, simple, political, but in an active practical sense, whereby the Power of the present Managers, Management and Interest of the concern­ed ceases as to Action, Conduct and Negotiation, and is totally laid aside, and a new Constitution and Rule established, and new Persons and Stock instituted as to Concern­ment, Negotiation, and Conduct, and carrying on the said Trade in an incorporated way, design and method: So that a new one in this sense (as a Corporation) is only a Confirmation of the former or first Corporation as to its political Essence or Foundation, being still the same Corporation as was first erected by Queen Elizabeth an. 1600, as 'tis said, but with Additions and Alterations suited to the enlargement of the Trade, the pre­sent Sentiments and Applications of those concerned in, or sensible of the said Affair to those in power; whereupon the new one being erected, the former immediately, as to its Power and Acting, becomes indeed as dead in Law, having no Power or Liberty to ex­ert any its former Authorities, or to act any ways in the least as an incorporated Body in any its Conc [...]rns, but the new one comes in its place, and is in Law still the same Cor­poration as the former, and is in their stead in all points, being the legal Successor of the former, as that was of those which preceded it. Hence it follows,

1. That there is no Interregnum, Interval, Casme, in the least, between the dissolving the present and erecting a new Company, but the one continues till the other takes place, as in the goings off and coming on of Mayors, Bayliffs, and other Officers in Corpora­tions, or shifting the Committees of the present Company at the usual yearly time for such changes; which obviates any Suspicion or Thoughts Persons may have of any da­mage or prejudice that may arise to the Trade, or concerned while or during the tran­sition of one Stock to the other.

2. Nor will there be any Escheat to the Crown of any the effects of this present Com­pany or Joint-Stock by vertue of the Statute of Mort Main, or any other; the Corporation, as to its political Essence being still the same.

3. Nor yet will any the Rights, Dues or Demands, that any have or may have against this present Company upon account of any Contract, Dealings, or Injuries, &c. cease or be vacated, but a Suit, Plea, Petition, Complaint, &c. may be made, exhibited, and will lye against the new Company for any thing done or committed by the former Company or any Persons, for whose Actions they are liable and answerable; and the new Company be obliged to Satisfaction so far as the Effects of the said preceding Com­pany will reach to make good. Nor will any one whatever be discharged or released by this Change or Succession from any Dues or Demands the present Company have Right unto upon any account whatever, but the same may be demanded, sued for, reco­vered, [Page 20]and received by the new Company as well and amply to all intents and purposes as might or could have been done by the present Company, the new being esteemed in Law the same Company as the former. And thus it was in the erection of this present C [...]mpany, and in all Confirmations or new Companies made by our sundry Princes suc­cessively: so there will be no cessation of Justice, nor will any be bereft of what is their Right and Due, which obviates another Objection some persons make about dissolving this Company.

II. And further it is premised that in this design of erecting a new Comp [...], there is no intention in the least to do any wrong, injury or prejudice, to the present Company or Adventurers therein, in any their Effects, Rights, Dues or Demands; but that they be advantaged in getting them in for their account in the most secure, easie, and com­modious manner imaginable, to their entire content; to which end, and that all things may be adjusted to their satisfaction notwithstanding all their rancor and virulency, and Affairs be carried on by the new Company with the least trouble and hesitancy as to themselves, and the greatest fairness, tenderness, and candor to the former, in the dissolving this Company, making even all its Accounts, and making good its Effects and Stock to the Adventurers if any appear due; it's conceived these or the like methods following to be most proper.

1. That before the dissolution of this present Joynt-Stock there be a general Court sum­moned of all its Adventurers, who shall chuse and appoint certain persons of the Com­pany, as seven or nine, of whom three or five to be an ordinary, and five or seven an extraordinary full deciding Quorum or Committee, and shall be Trustees for the pre­sent Company, for theadvising, directing, and adjusting (after its dissolution) all Affairs needful, incident, and relating thereto, as hereafter specified; and these Trustees to continue three years, in which time it may be supposed all Accounts and Affairs relating to the present Company, may be concluded, or till the same shall be wholly finished.

2. That in case of the Secession of any the Trustees aforesaid by death or otherwise, another fit person or persons from among those concerned in the former Stock at least One thousand pounds first principal Stock, be chosen in his or their places by the re­maining Trustees or major part of them, and that within one month, and the Parties so chosen not to be of the Committee of the new Company, or in any Office under them.

3. That immediately upon Entrance of the New Company, all Books, Accounts, Pa­pers, Bills, Bonds, Writings obligatory, Contracts with Shipping, or any Writings what­ever, also all Houses, Warehouses, Lands, Tenements, Hereditaments, Possessions, Goods, Houshold-stuff, and all Effects and Concerns whatever here in England, be by the said Trustees delivered over to the New Company, or Possession given them peaceably, to avoid all inconveniencies that else might ensue, and those that can should be given over and received by Register and Inventory.

4. That also from the day of the New Company's taking place, all Persons in Ser­vice or Office in England do remain so in the same Employs, and Charges, and at the same Salary, till fuither direction from the same Company, and be answerable to them for their Trusts for so long as the same hath been in their hands unaccounted for, and that all Rents, Wages, and such growing Charges whatever from that day do belong un­to the New Company, and be paid and discharged by them upon their own proper Ac­count.

5. That for the adjusting the Value of any dead Stock, Necessaries, &c. here in England, and any differences that may arise upon transferring one Stock to the other, or the like; in such case an equal Number of the aforesaid Trustees, and of the New Company's Committee, do concert the same, and be empowered on both sides thereto; and so in any Dispute that may happen between the New Company and the Trustees for the Old; and in all such Cases, if need shall be, the Governor, or one of the Wardens, for the time being, to be Umpire; or to avoid all occasion of reflections, such Persons to be Umpires as shall be agreed upon between the said Trustees and the New Company's Committee.

6. That for the adjusting all Accounts, Debts, Dues, Demands, &c. between the Old Company and any Persons claiming on any score of Trading, Dealings, Contracts, Sa­l [...]ry, &c. Me [...]cantile civil Accounts; if in six weeks, or some certain time after Claim or Demand made, it be not evened by the Trustees aforesaid; in such case it shall be referred unto an equal Number of the said Trustees chosen by themselves, and of the then Committee chosen by the other Party, who shall have a limited time to agree the same in; and in case of difference, the present Governor, or in his absence the Up [...]r or Lower Warden to be Umpire, or such as specified in the preceding Article, and such Determination to be binding and conclusive.

7. That upon adjusting Accounts between the Trustees for the Old Company and any Claimants; a Writing shall be signed by three at least of the said Trustees, one whereof to be the Chairman, importing a final Ccoclusion made of such Persons or So­cieties Accounts, and specifying the Summ due to them, with a desire that Payment be made thereof; which shall be the Justification or Warrant for the New Company to pay the same; and no Money to be paid by the New Company in England on account of the Old but by direction of the Trustees, or the major part of those that adjusted the Case or Account.

8. That all Goods and Merchandises now in England, or that shall hereafter arrive for Account of the present Joynt-Stock, shall be taken into Possession of, and sold by the New Company at their House by Inch of Candle, as formerly, and the procede come into their Cash, and disposed of (the necessary Charges) deducted as hereafter directed by and with the Advice of the Trustees.

9. That out of the Procede of the Old Company's Goods that are and shall arrive here in England, their Debts be paid as soon and with as much Expedition as may be, viz. First, all current Debts not at Interest, as fast as they grow due, and are adjusted; which all being paid, or sufficient left in Stock, or in prospect to perform the same; then, Secondly, all such persons that have Money at Interest, and are not Adventurers; which being effected then; Thirdly, the rest of the Money at Interest due to the Ad­venturers, of which they shall be paid equally in portions as Money comes in; and as it appears there is enough to satisfie all Demands here and abroad; and Lastly, that what shall be over be made good to the Adventurers according to their Concern so much per Cent.

10. That there be not allowed to any person or persons Society or Societies here in England more than one year or some set time to make Claim of any Debts, Dues, Rights, Accounts, Demands whatsoever of and from the present East-India Company; and all omitting to make Claim or Demand in that time shall be foreclosed, and have no relief: And that all Subjects of England beyond the Seas have two years more allowed to them, which will shorten the closing and concluding the present Company's Accounts, that they be not lengthened out to an Age.

11. That there be certain Persons appointed by Parliament to hear, judge, deter­mine, and finally conclude all Claims, Demands, Petitions, and Complaints against the present Company by any Persons or Societies for any Troubles, Jnjuries done or pretend­ed to be done unto them by Fraud, Force, Violence, Depredations, Captures, Seizures, Executions Hostilities, or other such ways by the said Company, or any under or by Commission from them, or for whose Actions they are or ought to be answerable; and that a certain time be limited for the determining such Petitions, Claims, and Com­plaints, that so it may be known when there will be an End thereof; and this may be done by Jury or otherwise in a summary way: and may be the same Persons mention­ed in pag. 16. Article 18.

12. That the aforesaid Trustees shall appoint those in Authority in India, or any where the Company is concerned beyond the Seas, to transfer all the Company's Concerns there as Books, Accounts, Papers, all Writings whatever, Buildings, Houses, Forts, Lands, Rights, Ammunition, Arms, Shipping, Goods, Merchandizes, Cash, Quick Stock, every thing whatever, into the possession of such as shall be appointed thereto by the New Company to receive the same; and this is indeed more than needs, or than was done formerly by other Companies (it falling of Course into the New Company's [Page 22]Power to possess themselves thereof); however as an Honorary mark, it may not be inconvenient to allow it; and that all be delivered over by Schedule or Inventory to be transferred hither.

13. That the Power of the present Company immediately cease, and that of the New take place in India, and at every part in India, or where the present Company have Effects or Servants beyond the Seas, as soon as any Ships, Persons, or Advices, shall ar­rive at the said Places from the New Company, or any authorized by them or their Orders.

14. That from the day of the New Company's taking Possession at any the aforesaid Places in India, and beyond the Seas, all Persons in Service and Office under the present Company do so remain in the same Station, Service, Trust, and Salary, as they were in before, and actually execute the same in behalf and under the New Company, till ordered the contrary, and be answerable for their Trusts to the New Company in all full, strict, ample manner, as they were to have done to the present Company; nor shall they be acquitted or discharged their Trust or Accounts without consent of the Trustees aforesaid, but prosecuted if required by the said Trustees, they making it appear there is cause to charge them for any Injuries, Frauds, or Abuses by their Unfaithful­ness done the present Company, and also defray the Charges of the Prosecution, and indemnifie the new Company: And further, That all Rents, Salary, Pay, and such Charges whatever, shall from that day be accounted the New Company's, and by them be discharged accordingly.

15. That the Trustees of the present Company, their Assigns in India, do with the Chief and Councel upon the several places, or such as the New Company shall appoint thereto, concert the Value of all dead Stock there; as also all Europe Goods for Sale in India and good Debts; or rather, that account of them be sent over hither, and that it be concerted here by the Trustees and Committee, and that what it shall amount to the present Company shall have credit therefore, the Rupee at 2.6. and the Pathoga at 9 s.

16. That what Goods and Merchandises for Europe, shall upon Entrance of the New Company upon Trade and Possession in India be found in the Warehouses of the old Company there, or for which Money shall be given forth, or Contracts made, provided the Effects come in within Eight months after the said day of the New Company's En­trance, or having Possession, as aforesaid, otherwise to be esteemed but as Debts, may be laden for England for Account of the present Company, but directed to the new one, on such Ships sent out formerly by them in their Service, as shall by the Trustees here be directed; and that after the New Company's having Possession in India, no Money shall be given out for Goods anew on Account the Old Company, but their Money (if any appears) be valued to them by Exchange; and this will be no hardship upon them, in regard they have not sent out any quantity of Money or quick Stock for some consi­derable time, and besides are deeply in debt there; so that it's conceived when Accounts are evened but little, (if any) Quick Stock will be left them there; but however if they shall make any clamor about it, the same may be referred to the Trustees here, and the Committee to adjust and determine, as before specified, or be invested for their Account.

17. That for the ease of the present Company in that great Tunnage of Shipping in India, which lies so heavy on their hands; as also for the publick Good of the Nation in preserving such and so many large Ships, which otherwise may be destroyed and lost; that the New Company do take off Two thousand Tuns of Shipping, in such Ships as their Servants appointed thereto shall judge fit for their Service, upon the Contract they were set out, allowing only Demorage for what time they shall be detained in the Coun­try, after the New Company's having Possession in India in the parts the said Shipping is, and the rest of the Demorage, if any be due, be paid by the Old Company.

18. That whereas through the grievous Mismanagements, horrible Designs, savage Ravagings, &c. the Trade in India is in divers places lost or abdicated, and not recovera­ble but by making compensation and satisfaction in some measure to the just demands of the unjustly abused Indians, and restoring unto them the Goods and Monies taken from them, and resting in the hands of the present Company, their Agents, and Factors, amounting to a vast Summ; the Ships brought into Boon-Bay (which is now as it were a [Page 23]Nest of Pirates) by the Bengale Merchant Mr. [...] Peirce Commander from t [...]e Coast of India, and by the Charles the Second, Mr. Jonathan Andrews Commander from M [...]cha and the Red Sea, and by the Modena, Mr. William Wilde Commander from Bussora and Persia, being valued at upward of a Million of pounds Sterling; and most of it in Gold, Silver, Pearl, and such like rich Commodities, besides several other Ships brought in there to a great Value, much of whose Goods have been brought for England, besides what hath come of the like sort of Goods from Bengale: That therefore they be obliged to make satisfa­ction, and to restore what taken from the Indians, and to procure a Peace and Trade, and that the English be at their Charge setled in as free and peaceable State in all parts of India, where the English Commerce is at present unsetled by their means, as they were put into by the preceding Company, or found the same in? when they entred upon the Trade; and to that end, that in making Peace with the Indians, it may be managed by Persons unexceptionable for Ability and suitable Qualifications thereto, and that with them be joined such Persons, now in India, as may seem fittest to the Trustees and new Committee here; and that very strict charge be given for the most frugal con­cluding the same, as may possibly stand with the Security of the Settlement and Trade designed; And further, that the whole Management and Charge, if thought fit, be given in and submitted to the Inspection and Judgment of Parliament at their next Sessi­ons after the said Account comes home, or unto the King and Privy Council; and if de­sired by the Trustees, that at their Charge and Suit the Persons who managed the same do come home to answer what done by them in that Affair; only if they prove blame­less, that the Trustees aforesaid do allow them such a satisfaction in reparation of their Credit and Employment, as shall be adjuged by four of the Committee for the time be­ing, chosen equally by the Trustees and the said Persons, and the Governor if need be, to be Umpire.

19. That in regard of the many unhansom, unkind, rigorous, dealings of the present Company, their Agents and Servants in India, there is cause to apprehend many De­mands may be made hereafter in those parts on sundry accounts; therefore for the saving harmless and indemnifying the new intended Company therefrom, that a considerable Summ of Money or Fund of the present Company do remain and lye in the hands or possession of the New Company for the term of four years, and at the end thereof the same shall be adjusted by the Trustees and the Committee in manner, as before noted, how much thereof may be repaid the present Company, or what more may be wanted for the said use; or rather that then a certain Summ be agreed on between them and on the New Company's receiving thereof, or being made good to them, the present Company be discharged of any further demands from any the Natives in India, and all ta­ken upon the New Company; it was a considerable Stock this Company kept in its pos­session of the former for that purpose, which is supposed to this day remaining with them.

20. That in regard divers of those Persons whose Goods and Estates were seized, taken away, or pillaged, to a very considerable Value, aboard the Ships taken by the Comman­ders afore-named, were Subjects of the Grand Signior, being Arabian and Armenian Mer­chants, who if not satisfied, may at some time make their application to the Turkish Court for Redress against the English, and obtain Relief there from the English Company; that therefore some suitable and sufficient provision be made upon dissolution of this East-India Company for the Security of the Turkey Company in such Case, which is left to them to propose.

21. That for the adjusting and evening all Accounts, Claims, and Demands that may be made in India, by reason of any Debts pretended, or matter of Trade; that the Chief and Councel of the Head-Factory in those parts have power and do concert the same, to whom may be joyned such as the Trustees of the present Company here shall ap­point; and this to have relation as well to Europeans of all sorts as Indians, that so all Debts of this Company and Demands on them may be cleared in those parts; and fur­ther, that if there be any Europeans inhahiting there, who cannot address themselves con­veniently here, that have been abused, and their Estates taken away, seized, stopped, or the like, by the Company's Orders, or by their Servants in Authority under them, and for whom they are answerable, that the same be inquired into by the Chief and Councel of the Head-Factory for those parts, and such as may be appointed thereto by the Trustees, as aforesaid, and decided, determined, and made good, and so the like on behalf of the present Company in any Claims they have on any in these parts.

Lastly, That things be carried on in all points and in all causes with that candor and [...] ­stice, so as the present Company may have no cause to complain in the least, but to be we [...] pleased therewith, and this will be both the Duty and Interest of the New Company; for [...] they indulge any their Servants to abuse others, it will not be long before they turn the same upon their Masters; and it cannot be expected that the new Company will do otherwise, in regard the best of men are most likely by the constitution to come into the direction, and from such nothing can be supposed to proceed, or be acted, or ordered, but what is honorable, just and good; the Servants they send out (in the choice of whom such cau­tion and regard will be had that the Trustees of the old Company will even be well sa­tisfied in and approve of them) will no doubt take great care of their behaviour and car­riage in this matter, it being their interest so to do least an information comes against them to their ruin or great disgrace and loss in being recalled.

Thus as succinctly and clearly as time and ability would permit, I have performed what you required of me; wherein from several undeniable Propositions previously laid down, I have in general given you the result of my judgment unbyassed and impartial, upon your Questi­on, viz. That the East-India Trade may best be managed in a National way for the publick benefit, by dissolving of the present Company and erecting a new National Joynt-Stock more enlarged, diffu­sed, on better Constitutions, and under a Parliamentary Sanction. And in prosecution hereof it was proposed, That the India Trade being National, if managed by a Joynt-Stock it ought to be enlarged agreeable to the Trade; this is allowed on all hands, even the present Company not dissenting to it; then the ways proposed for enlarging were examined, that of add­ing to the present Stock under its Constitution pressed by its Adventurers was rejected, the other way of erecting a new one considered, and approved, its fundamental Con­stitution delineated, and many Precepts laid down as necessary thereto: And a further progress was made, wherein many things were offered as wholsome methods for the due and prudent carrying on the Trade in a National beneficial way: And lastly, I came to the dissolution of this Company, wherein such Proposals are tendred as makes it appear very feasible and facile without any prejudice to them as to the Trade by any Interval or Casme or any loss the Company can sustain in its Effects, and all those difficult things of valuing dead Stock, making good all demands and dues from them, and to them and their neat Effects is rendred not only practicable but exceeding easie and safe; nor hath any thing (as I apprehend) been proposed under this last head that in the least doth grate or bear hard upon them, but what they themselves (if themselves) must heartily and readi­ly close with) it being my study so to compose these methods, that they might have their right end in giving content to all Parties by a dividing to all their due Portions, and that in a perspicuous, quick, plain, cheap, equal way, which if effected is what I desired, and have most cordially aimed at; if not, it is what I could atrain unto: And such is your candor as to accept of my unfeigned endeavours, and over-look and pardon my weakness. Now of these particulars that I have gone thro as necessary to be considered both on the erection of a new Company and dissolving the present or old one, it will be needful that some of them be in the body of the Charter or Act it self, others in the Preamble, and some only made by Laws, all which and others that may be necessary, will present them­selves upon perusal of their Charters and Customs, and consideration of the nature of the Affair. And as hinted at the beginning, it will be of great use that when the Bill be drawn up some Merchants and persons vers'd in the Affairs of India, men of clear Spi­rits, good Understanding, and of fair and even Tempers (not having been of the Ca­bals) be summoned to attend the Committee, and by some selected Members thereof be consulted with, which may much conduce to the well modelling this grand Affair. If upon perusal hereof your self, or imparting thereof to others, Objections do arise against any thing herein laid down, you know my insufficiency so well not to impute it; but as to any else, I have to desire of them that they would not find fault with words barely, of which I freely confess my self no great Master, so that it may not be apparel'd in a modern garb; and its hoped the Age is past wherein Men were to be Criminals for a word; but as to the matter and substance, let them search thereinto, and object what they can, not doubting it will stand the test, and be found agreeable to the Laws of God and Man, particularly our own Laws and Constitutions. to Reason, Justice, Equity, Con­science, Prudence, humane and divine, natural, moral, and spiritual, distributing to each one their real Right and Liberty, and divesting none of their just Privilege and Property. But if any have other Apprehensions, I would request they would not so much acquarrel at, and oppugn these my private (it may be) Sentiments, but that as they manifest its inconveniences, so also they would propose and shew us some more ex­cellent [Page 25]way and method for the better and more National carrying on this so g and, im­portant Affair; that so less time may be lost, and then from the diversity of Methods and Plots that may be offered, a most wholsome, useful, advantageous, extensive, Natio­nal, secure, pr [...]dent, thriving, and lasting Model may be extracted, for the retrieving, improving, and establishing this so necessary and beneficial Commerce to our Nation and Posterity, maug [...]e all opposition whatever, from treacherous Friends or open Enemies; of both which we have no want, the greater is our Misery. I add not more, but await what may be the issue; and [...]uly whether you know or will believe it or no, mens eyes begin to fail, and their hearts to sink on this account; this is the second Sessions that this A [...]ir hath been before you, and nothing yet done after all the pains therein, save a Vote or so, which tho a Reviv [...]l, yet passing no further, causes sadness again; to you 'tis the Subjects of England have applied themselves for Justice and Succour against this great Society, and tho their Plaints are taken notice of, yet Judgment hath not been exe­cuted, and because hereof they seem jocund, concluding they shall escape; hence also from the same delay do the Enemies of our Liberties, the Locusts of the late Reigns, come swarming forth of those lurking holes, a just fear of deserved punishment had lately driven them into wiping their mouths, saying, They have done no wickedness, and ready no doubt to react the same Villanies again, Omission or Neglect of Justice may cause great trouble, if not ruine, notwithstanding all our blooming hopes and fair indi­cations: Saul a most hopeful [...], and Ahab a great King, are dreadful instances, who for sparing such as were appointed to destruction, came to sad Ends, falling by the hands of the uncircumcised and thousands with them: There is a time when the hand is not to spare, nor the eye to pity; it's a Maxim Moral and Divine, That Publick Justice is a sure [...]ng Fou [...]ation for the Publick Wealth, Prosperity and Success of a Realm; a due Execu­tion of Justice on notorious Delinquents procu [...]es Peace and Quiet, and prevents much Mischief, is the Atonement in times of great Distress and Wrath, procures lasting Bles­sings upon the Actors, as in the Case of Phineas and his Posterity. You have this day g [...]atly comf [...]ted the hearts of the People of the Land in thrusting forth that Person as unworthy of Session among you, which brings to mind a Story I have read ('tis in the Roman History) of one Septimius Arabinus an execrable Wretch notoriously infamous for his many Oppressions, cruel, bloody Prosecutions of his Country-men the Free Romans their Liberties, Properties, and Lives, for which I think he was proscribed, but to Heliogabalus, the Monster of Men he becoming a great Privado, was acquitted and re­admitted into the Senate; but upon the grand Revolution and choice of Alexander Severus to be Dictator or Emperor the Senate (Romes Parliament) for that always remained, and sit­ting even during the time of the Imperial Crowns, attending him with a Congratulatory Address, Arabinus (like Satan) impudently appeared among them, whose hated head the Dictator no sooner espyed, but lifting up his hands and eyes to Heaven, cryed but, O Numina! Arabinus non solum vivit, sed in Senatum venit: Oh ye Divine Powers! what is it mine eyes behold? What Age and Times are we fallen into? Arabinus is not only per­mitted to live, but admitted to sit in the Senate: What! he that broke and dispensed with all Laws, instructed or incouraged men so to do, shall he become one of our Legislators? And shall a R [...]man and Heathen be in such an Extasie upon sight of a Tool of the foregoing Reigns for the betraying the free Romans Rights and Privileges? And shall not Englishmen and Christians upon the like view be under some more than ordinary Emotion of Spirit? Go on and prosper, ye Heads of our Tribes; you have taken a right Course to purge first [...]our own House, and then to cleanse the rest of the Land, whether there be an Arabi­nus [...]n Court or Camp, sure I am there are many in the great City, Counties, and Cor­porations, and not a few in this I am discoursing of, may they all feel the Power of your Justice according to their Demerits, as what you have done is the first beginnings, so may it be an Earnest of further Proceedings in this kind, but whether do I swerve? Particularly there have been laid before your selves in this and the former Sessions, and fully proved in the House and Committees many Violences, Outrages, Seizures, Op­pressions, Deaths (the like scarce perpetrated since the days of Brember and Tresilian) committed by this Company, their Orders and Procurement towards and upon the Free Subjects in their Goods, Liberties, Bodies, Estates, Lives, and as an Accumulation the Commission of these heinous Crimes are not wholly new and late, and so merely from the Perswasions, Agreeableness of, or Sympathy with the late Reigns, but what hath ra­dically and naturally flowed from them, and appeared in them at their first Foundation by Oliver Cromwell, for even then breathing Threatnings and Slaughters they sent forth their first Ships with Commissions and Instructions (as upon the proof hath appeared) for seizing and spoiling the Subjects of England then in India; and they effected it fully [Page 26]in many places, as is uncontroulably evident in Mr. Skinners Case (and Instances [...]ight be given in many others) which was committed about thirty years since, and it's conceived by some (tho with my dissent) one Reason why the Company took in but half what sub­scribed, designing to make up the other with the Spoils they should get in India from the Subjects of England; so that their very Foundation hath been laid in Oppression, swadled with the Spoils of the People, nursed up by Arbitrary Government, sucking in as Mothers milk Despotick Power and Sovereign Authority. Quo semel est imbuta rec [...]ns servabit [...]dorem, and having received in their Youth still continue the same tincture; and wha [...] horrible Superstructures they have made our own Eyes behold, and many in their Bodies, Relations, and Estates are bitterly sensible of; you have upon fair deliberate Hearings a­greed to the Proofs, and that satisfaction should be made, and in a full House almost n [...]mine contradicente in the Case of the poor St. Helenians voted it Murther; whence it unde­niably follows, there were Murtherers, and some owned themselves guilty at your Bar of giving Instructions for the same. Now what is the sequel why the word is, If it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, and inquired diligently, and behold it be true, and the thing certain, as 'tis in this Case— then shalt thou bring forth the Man, &c. as great care is to be taken not to be rash, but well assured before Judgment; so when Judgment is given, Execu­tion ought most surely to follow. Now if in these Cases no Reddress comes from you, whither shall Application be made? As the able and learned Serjeant Tremayne said in the Close of his Plea at your Bar upon the same Case, Justice could not be had elsewhere against them they had in the late Reigns made such Interest in Westminster and Whitehall, That if no Relief came from you, all their unjust, illegal Actions must pass for Law. Let never such things be said of the Commons of England; but from them let Judgment run down as Waters, and Righteousness follow as a mighty Stream.

Now what may succeed I cannot presage, but heartily wish, whether the old Company, a new one, or none be setled by you; yet they may be obliged to render full satisfaction for all wrongs, injuries, damages done the Subject; but if that should not be, and that all the distresses, seizures, flights, imprisonments, deaths, hitherto must go for nothing; yet that some provision might be made for the Subject by way of Exempt from their power, and liberty be granted to stand upon their own defence for the future, if reprisals may not be granted for what's past, it being without controversie as just, righteous, and legal for the Subject to make defence and on seizures to reprise himself on their goods in England or India, as for the Company to seize their effects in either places: Abasuerus the great Persian Monarch upon hearing and considering the Complaint of the Jews under great distresses, spoils, and fears; when he found they were abused; not only gave them an exempt from the power of their Enemies, but also liberty to stand upon their guard, and to slay them that had designed their ruine; and for all their wrongs and cruel usages to recompence them­selves by the spoils of such their Enemies, Informers, and Persecutors, tho his Natural Sub­jects: Notwithstanding his Decrees and Proclamations issued out before for the prosecu­ting and ruining the poor Jews, who could not submit to the impositions of those Hea­thens; and this is recorded to all ages for the reputation, honor, glory, and renown of that mighty Prince.

I have yet one more wish that the great burthen laid on this and other Plantation Trades in the duties importing were well considered of and abated (the groans of the Plantations be­ing very great) there is nothing can advance this Nation more, or like to Trade, nor any thing that more than freedom, easie and low duties, of which the whole World gives ample testimony; but this may sooner be wished for than expected, I know neither this or any thing else appearing for the Nations Interest will lye at your door, you have always eviden­ced your self a true Patriot both in Council and in Camp, you have not from your youth up at any time shunned any enterprise on the Nations account tho never so hazardous, you have jeoparded your life frequently in behalf of our Laws, Liberties, and Religion; never counting any thing dear to you that you might serve your Nation; your Time, your Strength, your Estate, your Blood you have freely and valiantly bestowed in the Nations service; and are an Instance (I would hope not the only single one) that have served your genera­tion with your Estate, and not for an Estate: No! those things never moved you, but a higher Principle, and your reward is with you from the Lord (for I think you never [...] any from Men) A hoary head in the way of righteousness which is a Crown of glory; I ha [...] [...] ready abused your patience, so shall not detain you any longer than to Subscribe my [...]

Honoured Sir,
Your Really Devoted Servant.

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